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Sample records for volume saline enemas

  1. Effects of high volume saline enemas vs no enema during labour – The N-Ma Randomised Controlled Trial [ISRCTN43153145

    PubMed Central

    Cuervo, Luis Gabriel; Bernal, María del Pilar; Mendoza, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    Background Enemas are used during labour in obstetric settings with the belief that they reduce puerperal and neonatal infections, shorten labour duration, and make delivery cleaner for attending personnel. However, a systematic review of the literature found insufficient evidence to support the use of enemas. The objective of this RCT was to address an identified knowledge gap by determining the effect of routine enemas used during the first stage of labour on puerperal and neonatal infection rates. Methods Design: RCT (randomised controlled trial; randomized clinical trial). Outcomes: Clinical diagnosis of maternal or neonatal infections, labour duration, delivery types, episiotomy rates, and prescription of antibiotics Setting: Tertiary care referral hospital at the Javeriana University (Bogotá, Colombia) that attended 3170 births during study period with a caesarean section rate of 26%. Participants: 443 women admitted for delivery to the obstetrics service (February 1997 to February 1998) and followed for a month after delivery. Inclusion criteria were women with: low risk pregnancy and expected to remain in Bogotá during follow up; gestational age ≥ 36 weeks; no pelvic or systemic bacterial infection; intact membranes; cervix dilatation ≤7 cm. Intervention: 1 litre saline enema, versus no enema, allocated following a block random allocation sequence and using sealed opaque envelopes. Results Allocation provided balanced groups and 86% of the participants were followed up for one month. The overall infection rate for newborns was 21%, and 18% for women. We found no significant differences in puerperal or neonatal infection rates (Puerperal infection: 41/190 [22%] with enema v 26/182 [14%] without enema; RR 0.66 CI 95%: 0.43 to 1.03; neonatal infection 38/191 [20%] with enema v 40/179 [22%] without enema; RR 1.12, 95% CI 95% 0.76 to 1.66), and median labour time was similar between groups (515 min. with enema v 585 min. without enema; P = 0.24). Enemas didn't significantly change episiorraphy dehiscence rates (21/182 [12%] with enema v 32/190 [17%] without enema; P = 0.30). Conclusion This RCT found no evidence to support routine use of enemas during labour. Although these results cannot rule out a small clinical effect, it seems unlikely that enemas will improve maternal and neonatal outcomes and provide an overall benefit. PMID:16545140

  2. More Is Not Always Better: A Randomized Trial Of Low Volume Oral Laxative, Enemas, And Combination Of Both Demonstrate That Enemas Alone Are Most Efficacious For Preparation For Flexible Sigmoidoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hookey, Lawrence; Haimanot, Samson; Marchut, Katherine; Vanner, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Colon cleansing for flexible sigmoidoscopy using a standard fleet enema does not provide adequate cleansing in a significant number of patients. We tested whether the addition of a low-volume oral cleansing agent could mitigate this challenge without significantly compromising patient tolerance. Hypothesis: Oral picosulfate with magnesium citrate (P/MC) would enhance the colon cleansing of patients undergoing sigmoidoscopy, as assessed by the modified Ottawa Bowel Preparation Score. Methods: A randomized single blinded trial comparing (1) a single dose (i.e., one sachet) of oral sodium picosulfate plus magnesium citrate (P/MC) administered the night before, (2) a single dose oral P/MC the night before plus sodium phosphate enema 1 h before leaving home, and (3) sodium phosphate enema alone 1 h before leaving home for flexible sigmoidoscopy was conducted on outpatients referred for sigmoidoscopy for symptom assessment. Results: A total 120 patients were randomized to the study groups. The main indication for sigmoidoscopy was investigation of rectal bleeding (n=80). There was no significant difference in bowel cleansing quality, measured by the endoscopist blinded to preparation, between P/MC, P/MC plus enema, and enema alone as measured by the modified Ottawa Bowel Preparation Scale (P=0.34) or the Aronchick Scale (P=0.13). Both oral P/MC regimens were associated with higher incidence of nausea, abdominal pain, bloating, and interrupted sleep than enema alone (P<0.05). Conclusions: A single dose of oral P/MC administered the night before did not result in better colon cleansing for sigmoidoscopy when used alone or with an enema and was associated with more side effects (NCT 01554111). PMID:26986656

  3. Relationship between the pH of enema solutions and intestinal damage in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Li, Xia; Xu, Xujuan; Cai, Duanying; Zhang, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical enemas can lead to intestinal mucosal injuries and bowel barrier damage, presenting as electrolyte disturbances and functional intestinal disorders. Most researchers believe that the mechanism of injury is related to osmolality, volume and temperature of the solution, infusion pressure, and the composition of the enema tube. We hypothesized that the pH of the enema solution may also contribute to intestinal damage. We administered enema solutions--normal saline, soapsuds, or vinegar (neutral, alkaline, or acidic solutions, respectively)--to three groups of rabbits (n = 20 per group). The solutions were standardized for volume and temperature and the soapsuds and vinegar solutions were adjusted to be isotonic with normal saline or deionized water. We also included a control group (n = 20) in which the enema tubes were inserted but no solution was administered. We biopsied 3 sites (rectum and distal and proximal colon). Damage to intestinal mucosa was observed by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In order to explore the detection of damage using noninvasive methods, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 gene expression was measured in the exfoliated cells gathered from postenema defecation. Epithelial loss, inflammatory reaction, and cellular microstructure damage was increased in the vinegar and soapsuds groups. Also, exfoliated cells in these groups had higher COX-2 expression than the normal saline group. The acidic and alkaline enema solutions thus caused more severe damage to the intestinal mucosa compared to the neutral liquid, supporting our hypothesis. Further, the detection of COX-2 expression shows promise as a noninvasive method for estimating enema-induced damage. PMID:25504953

  4. Barium enema (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A barium enema is performed to examine the walls of the colon. During the procedure, a well lubricated enema tube is inserted gently into the rectum. The barium, a radiopaque (shows up on X-ray) contrast ...

  5. Retrograde spread of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with active ulcerative colitis

    SciTech Connect

    Campieri, M.; Lanfranchi, G.A.; Brignola, C.; Bazzocchi, G.; Gionchetti, P.; Minguzzi, M.R.; Cappello, I.P.; Corbelli, C.; Boschi, S.

    1986-02-01

    In an attempt to know the exact retrograde spread of high-dosage 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas, we have studied eight patients with active left-sided colitis, by adding a small amount of barium sulfate to the enemas and by checking the spread radiologically after 15 minutes, 1 hour, and 6 hours. Four grams of 5-aminosalicylic acid in 100-ml enemas and 4 gm in 200-ml enemas were used. The same experiment was repeated in a subsequent attack, with enemas labeled with technetium-99m and checked by scintiscans in five of these patients. We always have observed a volume-dependent spread of enemas but, interestingly, in the patients studied with technetium-99m there was always a wider spread than that which was detected with barium enemas. In all five patients, 100-ml enemas reached the splenic flexure. In two patients with total colitis, a progression of 100-ml technetium-99m enemas was performed in the transverse colon, but the maximum opacity remained in the left side. We can conclude that 4 gm of 5-aminosalicylic acid in 100-ml enemas can be suitable for treating patients with left-sided colitis, and will represent a valid addition for patients with more extensive colitis.

  6. Effects of a Glutamine Enema on Anastomotic Healing in an Animal Colon Anastomosis Model

    PubMed Central

    Oner, Osman Zekai; Oruc, Mehmet Tahir; Bulbuller, Nurullah; Ozdem, Sebahat; Ozdemir, Sukru; Alikanooglu, Arsenal Sezgin; Karakoyun, Rojbin; Dogan, Ugur; Ongen, Ayper; Koc, Umit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Anastomotic leakage in colorectal surgery is a very important issue. Although many studies have shown the positive effects of enteral glutamine (Gln) on anastomotic healing, none has assessed the effects of administering Gln via an enema for anastomotic healing. To fill this study gap, this study investigated the intraluminal effect of administration of Gln enema on the healing of colonic anastomosis in a rat model. Methods Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups containing 10 rats each and were subjected to distal left colon transection and anastomosis. Postoperatively, group I (the control group) was administered no treatment, group II was administered daily placebo enemas containing physiological saline, and group III was administered daily 2% L-Gln enemas. After sacrifice on postoperative day 5, anastomotic healing, burst pressure, tissue hydroxyproline levels, and histological parameters were measured, and group values were compared via statistical analysis. Results Group III was found to have the highest mean bursting pressure and tissue hydroxyproline levels and the lowest mean ischemia score. While the values of these parameters were not found to differ significantly among the groups, the lack of significance may have been due to the limited number of subjects examined. Conclusion Administration of a Gln enema may have a positive effect on anastomosis in terms of bursting pressure and histopathological parameters. Future research should examine administration of a preoperative Gln enema as a means of decreasing the traumatic effects of the enema and identifying its applicability in surgical practice. PMID:26817016

  7. Do Acartia tonsa (Dana) eggs regulate their volume and osmolality as salinity changes?

    PubMed

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Drillet, Guillaume; Pedersen, Morten F; Sjøgreen, Kristian P; Vismann, Bent

    2012-07-01

    Subitaneous eggs from an euryhaline calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa were challenged by changes in salinity within the range from full strength salinity, down to zero and up to >70 psu. Egg volume changed immediately, increasing from 2.8 × 10(5) μm(3) at full strength salinity (35 psu) to 3.8 × 10(5) μm(3) at 0 psu and back to its initial volume when gradually being returned to full strength salinity. Egg osmolality followed the molality of the surrounding water when challenged within a salinity range from 2 to 50 psu. Egg respiration was not affected when eggs kept at 35 psu was exposed to low salinity (2 psu). These results suggest that eggs are unable to regulate their volume or osmolality when challenged with changes in salinity. Gradual changes in salinity from 35 to 2 psu and back did not harm the eggs (embryos), since the hatching success remained unaffected by such changes in salinity. In contrast, extreme hyper-saline conditions (76 psu) made the eggs implode and killed the embryo. We propose that the embryo is protected from salinity stress by its plasma membrane and that water exchange driven by osmosis is restricted to the perivitelline space of the egg, which acts as a perfect osmometer in the salinity range of 5-35 psu. We hypothesize further that the embryo is able to keep its volume and osmolality constant due to the impermeability of the inner plasma membrane of the egg or by a combination of osmoregulation and reduced permeability of the inner plasma membrane. PMID:22270551

  8. Saline resuscitation after fixed-volume hemorrhage. Role of resuscitation volume and rate of infusion.

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, M P; Gala, G J; Carlson, D E; Sutherland, B E; Gann, D S

    1992-01-01

    The authors have reported previously that small-volume resuscitation (1.8 x bled volume) with 0.9% NaCl restores blood volume and attenuates hormonal responses after large hemorrhage without correction of arterial hypotension. The authors studied the role of rate of infusion in this observation in chronically prepared dogs (aortic flow probe, right atrial pressure and volume, and arterial catheters) after 30% hemorrhage (24.1 +/- 0.4 mL/kg). After 30 minutes, subjects were observed either without treatment (no resuscitation) or with infusion of 43 mL/kg 0.9% NaCl over 3 hours by one of three protocols: (1) impulse infusion over 10 minutes, (2) variable rate infusion, bolus with tapering infusion, or (3) constant rate infusion. Significant improvement in cardiac output and in blood volume and significant decreases of vasopressin and arterial catecholamines were observed in all fluid-treated groups. This benefit was relatively independent of rate of infusion, although impulse infusion produced greater early improvement, which dissipated with time, and constant rate infusion produced better late results. In none of the fluid-treated groups were these improvements reflected in improved mean arterial pressure compared with the no resuscitation group. The authors conclude that small-volume, slow-rate saline infusion produces physiologic benefits that cannot be assessed by easily measured clinical parameters. Thus, early resuscitation after trauma could aid patients even if arterial pressure is unchanged. This benefit might be even greater in patients with uncontrolled bleeding because arterial pressure, and hence bleeding, may not be increased by resuscitation of this type. A reassessment of the value of prehospital fluid resuscitation in the injured patient is warranted. PMID:1503518

  9. Malone Antegrade Continence Enema in Patients with Perineal Colostomy After Rectal Resection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Hai; Xu, Jia-He; Ye, Feng; Xu, Xiang-Ming; Lin, Jian-Jiang; Chen, Wen-Bin

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the value of antegrade continence enema (Malone operation) in abdominoperineal resection (Miles' operation). Between January 2008 and May 2009, five cancer patients (two men and three women) underwent abdominoperineal resection and digestive reconstruction by perineal colostomy and Malone antegrade continence enema in our institution. Their functional results and quality of life were recorded. None of the patients died, but two had wound infections and one experienced urinary retention. Patients performed antegrade enema every 24 h with 2,000 mL of normal saline by themselves. The duration of the enema lasted for an average of approximately 35 min, and fecal contamination was not detected at 24 h. Patient satisfaction was determined to be 88 %. Malone antegrade continence enema associated with abdominoperineal resection and perineal colostomy provided acceptable continence. It preserved the body image of the patients and resulted in a satisfactory quality of life. It is a potential alternative for patients who are not willing to have a permanent colostomy. PMID:26730081

  10. Comparison of water immersion and saline infusion as a means of inducing volume expansion in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, M.; Pins, D. S.; Arrington, R.; Denunzio, A. G.; Engstrom, R.

    1975-01-01

    The study compares the natriuresis induced by head-out water immersion to that of a standard saline infusion and assesses the relative effectiveness of these two techniques as volume determinants of renal sodium and water handling in humans in a seated posture. The data obtained show that the volume stimulus of immersion is identical to that of standard saline-induced extracellular fluid volume expansion (ECVE) in normal seated subjects. The ability of head-out water immersion to induce a natriuresis without a concomitant increase in total blood volume and with a decrease in body weight suggests that water immersion may be preferred as an investigative tool for assessing the effects of ECVE in man.

  11. Effect of fluid loading with normal saline and 6% hydroxyethyl starch on stroke volume variability and left ventricular volume

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Hirotsugu; Hirasaki, Yuji; Iida, Takafumi; Kanao, Megumi; Toyama, Yuki; Kunisawa, Takayuki; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate changes in stroke volume variability (SVV) and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) after a fluid bolus of crystalloid or colloid using real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D-TEE) and the Vigileo-FloTrac™ system. Materials and methods After obtaining Institutional Review Board approval, and informed consent from the research participants, 22 patients undergoing scheduled peripheral vascular bypass surgery were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to receive 500 mL of hydroxyethyl starch (HES; HES group, n=11) or normal saline (Saline group, n=11) for fluid replacement therapy. SVV was measured using the Vigileo-FloTrac system. LVEDV, stroke volume, and cardiac output were measured by 3D-TEE. The measurements were performed over 30 minutes before and after the fluid bolus in both groups. Results SVV significantly decreased after fluid bolus in both groups (HES group, 14.7%±2.6% to 6.9%±2.7%, P<0.001; Saline group, 14.3%±3.9% to 8.8%±3.1%, P<0.001). LVEDV significantly increased after fluid loading in the HES group (87.1±24.0 mL to 99.9±27.2 mL, P<0.001), whereas no significant change was detected in the Saline group (88.8±17.3 mL to 91.4±17.6 mL, P>0.05). Stroke volume significantly increased after infusion in the HES group (50.6±12.5 mL to 61.6±19.1 mL, P<0.01) but not in the Saline group (51.6±13.4 mL to 54.1±12.8 mL, P>0.05). Cardiac output measured by 3D-TEE significantly increased in the HES group (3.5±1.1 L/min to 3.9±1.3 L/min, P<0.05), whereas no significant change was seen in the Saline group (3.4±1.1 L/min to 3.3±1.0 L/min, P>0.05). Conclusion Administration of colloid and crystalloid induced similar responses in SVV. A higher plasma-expanding effect of HES compared to normal saline was demonstrated by the significant increase in LVEDV. PMID:26491368

  12. Quantitative distribution of radiolabeled 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis

    SciTech Connect

    Vitti, R.A.; Meyers, F.; Knight, L.C.; Siegel, J.A.; Malmud, L.S.; Fisher, R.S. )

    1989-11-01

    Rectally administered suspensions of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) are topically effective in treating left-sided ulcerative colitis. The extent to which the contents of these enemas are distributed to inflamed mucosal linings has not previously been determined. This study was undertaken to validate a technique for labeling 5-ASA with 99mTc and to quantitate the distribution of (99mTc)5-ASA in eight patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis. Eight patients underwent three colonic scintigraphic exams within five days, receiving a 60-ml radiolabeled 5-ASA enema into the unprepared rectum for each study, with sequential anterior abdominal images obtained for 4 hr. Activity within the rectum, sigmoid, descending, transverse, and ascending colon was quantitated. Over 50% of the labeled enema had advanced beyond the rectum in five of eight patients and in six of eight patients by 30 min and 60 min, respectively. The distribution of (99mTc)5-ASA was quantitatively reproducible when repeated in the same patient on different days, despite apparent visual differences. By 2 hr, the amount of the enema present within the rectum decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) compared to the initial distribution. The amount of enema present within the descending colon was increased significantly at 0.5 hr (P less than 0.05) and at 2 hr (P less than 0.01). There were no significant changes in the distribution from initial values for the sigmoid, transverse, or ascending colon at any time. In each of these cases the spread of the enema to or beyond the extent of disease was documented. In patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis, small volume (99mTc)5-ASA enemas reliably reach the area of inflammation.

  13. Rubbing salt into wounds: hypertonic saline to assist with volume removal in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Liszkowski, Mark; Nohria, Anju

    2010-09-01

    Traditionally accepted management strategies for patients with heart failure include sodium and fluid restriction, neurohormonal blockade, and the use of loop diuretics to achieve and maintain euvolemia. Despite continued advances in medical and device therapy, fluid management remains a significant problem in patients with the cardiorenal syndrome (manifested as diuretic resistance and worsening renal function with more aggressive attempts at volume removal). This article examines the counterintuitive use of hypertonic saline as a potential therapy to facilitate diuresis in patients with decompensated heart failure and diuretic resistance. Low-volume hypertonic saline administration offsets counterproductive neurohormonal upregulation, transiently improves hemodynamics, and promotes renal sodium excretion with accompanied net water loss and preservation of renal function. This "new" therapeutic tool should be explored further as an adjunct to current medical therapies in the management of patients with refractory volume overload. PMID:20607462

  14. Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Thomas; Rentmeester, Landen; Judge, Bryan S.; Cohle, Stephen D.; Jones, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema. PMID:25436159

  15. Effect of prolonged LBNP and saline ingestion on plasma volume and orthostatic responses during bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Dussack, Larry; Rehbein, Tracy; Wood, Margie; Steinmann, Laura

    1991-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance remains a significant problem following space flight despite frequent use of the saline fluid-loading countermeasure and volitional use of an anti-gravity suite during reentry and landing. The purpose of this project is to examine the plasma volume (PV), endocrine, and orthostatic responses of bedrested subjects following 2-hr and 4-hr treatments of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and saline ingestion. Ten healthy men were randomly assigned into 2 groups. Group A underwent a 4-hr LBNP/saline treatment on best rest day 5 and the 2-hr treatment on day 11. Group B underwent the 2-hr treatment on day 6 and the 4-hr treatment on day 10. Blood volume was determined before and after bed rest using radiolabelling. Changes in PV between measurements were calculated from changes in hematocrit and estimated red cell volume. Urinary excretion of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone (ALD) were measured each day during the study. Orthostatic responses were measured using a ramp LBNP protocol before bed rest, before each treatment, and 24 hours after each treatment. Both 2-hr and 4-hr treatments resulted in a restoration of PV to pre-bed rest levels which persisted at least 24 hours. This increase in PV was associated with significant increases in urinary excretion of ADH and ALD. Twenty-four hours after the 4-hr treatment, the heart rate and pulse pressure response to LBNP were significantly lower and stroke volumes during LBNP were increased. Twenty-four hours after the 2-hr treatment, there was no evidence of improvement in orthostatic responses. These results suggest that a countermeasure which simply restores PV during space flight may not be sufficient for restoring orthostatic responses.

  16. Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas - Volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofi, Johanna

    2014-05-01

    The Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas - Volume 2 is a publication project in the framework of the study of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. It follows the publication of a first volume in 2011 (see Editors' websites: http://ccgm.free.fr & http://sgfr.free.fr) and aims to illustrate the seismic characteristics of the MSC markers over news study areas. The Messinian Salinity Crisis is a huge outstanding succession of events that deeply modified the Mediterranean area within a short time span at the geological scale. In 2011, a seismic atlas of the Messinian markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas has been published [1]. This collective work summarizes, in one publication with a common format, the most relevant seismic features related to this exceptional event in the offshore domain. It also proposes a new global and consistent terminology for the MSC markers in the entire offshore Mediterranean area in order to avoid nomenclatural problems. Throughout 13 study areas, the seismic facies, geometry and extend of the Messinian markers (bounding surfaces and depositional units) are described. The Atlas however does not provide a complete description of all what that is known about the MSC and about the geology of each study area. Accordingly, illustrations in the Atlas should be used for a global description of the offshore imprints of the MSC at a broad scale, or for local information or site-specific general interpretations. Interpreted seismic data were carefully selected according to their quality, position and significance. Raw and interpreted seismic profiles are available on CD-Rom. Volume 2 is currently under preparation with the objectives : (1) to image the Messinian seismic marker from margins and basins that have not been illustrated in the first volume and (2) to complete the extension map of the MSC markers in the offshore and onshore domains at the Mediterranean scale. As the first volume, Volume 2 will also aim to share the geological interpretation of seismic reflection data imaging Messinian markers, to make this information accessible to the non geophysician community and to be a reference work that can be used by teachers and future researchers working on the Messinian event. This publication project is still open to anybody from industry and academia willing to contribute. At the present time, 16 new sites have been identified. Publication of the Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas - Volume 2 is planned for Fall 2014. For more details, contact presenting author J. Lofi (atlas coordinator). This contribution has been funded by the Actions Marges French research program. [1] : Lofi J., Deverchère J., Gaullier V., Gillet H., Gorini C., Guennoc P., Loncke L., Maillard A., Sage F. and Thinon I., 2011. Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) / Mémoires de la Société Géologique de France, n.s., 179, 72 pp., 1 CD. Atlas contributors (first authors): A. Camerlenghi, A. Del Ben, D. Do Couto, F. Estrada, F. Gallais, M. Garcia, V. Gaullier, A. Maillard, A. Micallef, M. Rossi, F. Sage, U. Schattner, A. Tassy, R. Urgeles

  17. Estimating Plume Volume for Geologic Storage of CO2 in Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Christine

    2008-07-11

    Typically, when a new subsurface flow and transport problem is first being considered, very simple models with a minimal number of parameters are used to get a rough idea of how the system will evolve. For a hydrogeologist considering the spreading of a contaminant plume in an aquifer, the aquifer thickness, porosity, and permeability might be enough to get started. If the plume is buoyant, aquifer dip comes into play. If regional groundwater flow is significant or there are nearby wells pumping, these features need to be included. Generally, the required parameters tend to be known from pre-existing studies, are parameters that people working in the field are familiar with, and represent features that are easy to explain to potential funding agencies, regulators, stakeholders, and the public. The situation for geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in saline aquifers is quite different. It is certainly desirable to do preliminary modeling in advance of any field work since geologic storage of CO{sub 2} is a novel concept that few people have much experience with or intuition about. But the parameters that control CO{sub 2} plume behavior are a little more daunting to assemble and explain than those for a groundwater flow problem. Even the most basic question of how much volume a given mass of injected CO{sub 2} will occupy in the subsurface is non-trivial. However, with a number of simplifying assumptions, some preliminary estimates can be made, as described below. To make efficient use of the subsurface storage volume available, CO{sub 2} density should be large, which means choosing a storage formation at depths below about 800 m, where pressure and temperature conditions are above the critical point of CO{sub 2} (P = 73.8 bars, T = 31 C). Then CO{sub 2} will exist primarily as a free-phase supercritical fluid, while some CO{sub 2} will dissolve into the aqueous phase.

  18. Enema ion compositions for enhancing colorectal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Maisel, Katharina; Chattopadhyay, Sumon; Moench, Thomas; Hendrix, Craig; Cone, Richard; Ensign, Laura M; Hanes, Justin

    2015-07-10

    Delivering drugs to the colorectum by enema has advantages for treating or preventing both local and systemic diseases. However, the properties of the enema itself are not typically exploited for improving drug delivery. Sodium ions are actively pumped out of the lumen of the colon, which is followed by osmotically-driven water absorption, so we hypothesized that this natural mechanism could be exploited to drive nanoparticles and drugs to the colorectal tissue surface. Here, we report that sodium-based, absorption-inducing (hypotonic) enemas rapidly transport hydrophilic drugs and non-mucoadhesive, mucus penetrating nanoparticles (MPP), deep into the colorectal folds to reach virtually the entire colorectal epithelial surface. In contrast, isotonic and secretion-inducing (hypertonic) vehicles led to non-uniform, poor surface coverage. Sodium-based enemas induced rapid fluid absorption even when moderately hyper-osmolal (~350 mOsm) compared to blood (~300 mOsm), which suggests that active sodium absorption plays a key role in osmosis-driven fluid uptake. We then used tenofovir, an antiretroviral drug in clinical trials for preventing HIV, to test the effects of enema composition on local and systemic drug delivery. We found that strongly hypotonic and hypertonic enemas caused rapid systemic drug uptake, whereas moderately hypotonic enemas with ion compositions similar to feces resulted in high local tissue levels with minimal systemic drug exposure. Similarly, moderately hypotonic enemas provided improved local drug retention in colorectal tissue, whereas hypertonic and isotonic enemas provided markedly reduced drug retention in colorectal tissue. Lastly, we found that moderately hypotonic enema formulations caused little to no detectable epithelial damage, while hypertonic solutions caused significant damage, including epithelial sloughing; the epithelial damage caused increased systemic drug absorption and penetration of MPP into colorectal tissue, a potential advantage in certain drug delivery applications. In summary, we illustrate that enema composition can be adjusted to maximize local versus systemic drug delivery, and that mildly hypotonic, sodium-based vehicles can provide uniform drug and MPP delivery in the colon that maximizes local drug concentrations. PMID:25937321

  19. Influence of plasma volume expansion with saline on the plasma levels of an ouabain-like factor

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, A.L.; Morris, M.; Buckalew, V.M. Jr.

    1986-03-05

    Plasma volume expansion with saline activates the cardiopulmonary baroreflex and causes the release of natriuretic factors(s). One putative natriuretic factor has ouabain-like activity (OLA). To examine the relationship between this factor and plasma volume expansion, the OLA of plasma was examined in rats that were volume expanded with 0.9% saline at a rate of 150..mu..l/min/100 g of rat for 15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes. Plasma OLA was quantitated with a radioreceptor assay utilizing /sup 3/H-ouabain and erythrocytes ghosts. The OLA and hematocrit of control rats were 18.2 +/- 2.93 pmoles of OLA/ml of plasma and 43.7 +/- 0.65. After plasma volume expansion for 15 and 30 minutes, plasma OLA was not significantly altered (27.1 +/- 6.64 and 15.3 +/- 2.80, respectively). However, the hematocrit was reduced 13.9% (37.6 +/- 1.34, p < 0.05) and 33.6% (29.0 +/- 1.92, p < 0.01) for 15 and 30 minutes of volume expansion, respectively. After 60 minutes of volume expansion the hematocrit began to recover (33.7 +/- 2.16) although it was still significantly depressed (p < 0.01). At this time point the OLA was increased 248% to 63.4 +/- 22.7 pmoles of OLA/ml of plasma (p < 0.01). At 120 minutes of volume expansion the hematocrit was 38.3 +/- 1.24 and the OLA returned to control values (13.4 +/- 5.17). This data indicates that volume expansion causes an increase in plasma OLA and this increase in activity may contribute to the recovery of hematocrit that is seen with continued volume expansion.

  20. Isoosmolar Enemas Demonstrate Preferential Gastrointestinal Distribution, Safety, and Acceptability Compared with Hyperosmolar and Hypoosmolar Enemas as a Potential Delivery Vehicle for Rectal Microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Leyva, Francisco J.; Bakshi, Rahul P.; Fuchs, Edward J.; Li, Liye; Caffo, Brian S.; Goldsmith, Arthur J.; Ventuneac, Ana; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Du, Yong; Leal, Jeffrey P.; Lee, Linda A.; Torbenson, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Rectally applied antiretroviral microbicides for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV infection are currently in development. Since enemas (rectal douches) are commonly used by men who have sex with men prior to receptive anal intercourse, a microbicide enema could enhance PrEP adherence by fitting seamlessly within the usual sexual practices. We assessed the distribution, safety, and acceptability of three enema types—hyperosmolar (Fleet), hypoosmolar (distilled water), and isoosmolar (Normosol-R)—in a crossover design. Nine men received each enema type in random order. Enemas were radiolabeled [99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)] to assess enema distribution in the colon using single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. Plasma 99mTc-DTPA indicated mucosal permeability. Sigmoidoscopic colon tissue biopsies were taken to assess injury as well as tissue penetration of the 99mTc-DTPA. Acceptability was assessed after each product use and at the end of the study. SPECT/CT imaging showed that the isoosmolar enema had greater proximal colonic distribution (up to the splenic flexure) and greater luminal and colon tissue concentrations of 99mTc-DTPA when compared to the other enemas (p<0.01). Colon biopsies also showed that only the hyperosmolar enema caused sloughing of the colonic epithelium (p<0.05). In permeability testing, the hypoosmolar enema had higher plasma 99mTc-DTPA 24-h area under the concentration-time curve and peak concentration compared to the hyperosmolar and isoosmolar enemas, respectively. Acceptability was generally good with no clear preferences among the three enema types. The isoosmolar enema was superior or similar to the other enemas in all categories and is a good candidate for further development as a rectal microbicide vehicle. PMID:23885722

  1. Butyrate enemas upregulate Muc genes expression but decrease adherent mucus thickness in mice colon.

    PubMed

    Gaudier, E; Rival, M; Buisine, M-P; Robineau, I; Hoebler, C

    2009-01-01

    Colonic mucosal protection is provided by the mucus gel, mainly composed of mucins. Several factors can modulate the formation and the secretion of mucins, and among them butyrate, an end-product of carbohydrate fermentation. However, the specific effect of butyrate on the various colonic mucins, and the consequences in terms of the mucus layer thickness are not known. Our aim was to determine whether butyrate modulates colonic MUC genes expression in vivo and whether this results in changes in mucus synthesis and mucus layer thickness. Mice received daily for 7 days rectal enemas of butyrate (100 mM) versus saline. We demonstrated that butyrate stimulated the gene expression of both secreted (Muc2) and membrane-linked (Muc1, Muc3, Muc4) mucins. Butyrate especially induced a 6-fold increase in Muc2 gene expression in proximal colon. However, butyrate enemas did not modify the number of epithelial cells containing the protein Muc2, and caused a 2-fold decrease in the thickness of adherent mucus layer. Further studies should help understanding whether this last phenomenon, i.e. the decrease in adherent mucus gel thickness, results in a diminished protective function or not. PMID:18198997

  2. Fault damage zone volume and initial salinity distribution determine intensity of shallow aquifer salinisation in subsurface storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillner, Elena; Langer, Maria; Kempka, Thomas; Kühn, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Injection of fluids into deep saline aquifers causes a pore pressure increase in the storage formation, and thus displacement of resident brine. Via hydraulically conductive faults, brine may migrate upwards into shallower aquifers and lead to unwanted salinisation of potable groundwater resources. In the present study, we investigated different scenarios for a potential storage site in the Northeast German Basin using a three-dimensional (3-D) regional-scale model that includes four major fault zones. The focus was on assessing the impact of fault length and the effect of a secondary reservoir above the storage formation, as well as model boundary conditions and initial salinity distribution on the potential salinisation of shallow groundwater resources. We employed numerical simulations of brine injection as a representative fluid. Our simulation results demonstrate that the lateral model boundary settings and the effective fault damage zone volume have the greatest influence on pressure build-up and development within the reservoir, and thus intensity and duration of fluid flow through the faults. Higher vertical pressure gradients for short fault segments or a small effective fault damage zone volume result in the highest salinisation potential due to a larger vertical fault height affected by fluid displacement. Consequently, it has a strong impact on the degree of shallow aquifer salinisation, whether a gradient in salinity exists or the saltwater-freshwater interface lies below the fluid displacement depth in the faults. A small effective fault damage zone volume or low fault permeability further extend the duration of fluid flow, which can persist for several tens to hundreds of years, if the reservoir is laterally confined. Laterally open reservoir boundaries, large effective fault damage zone volumes and intermediate reservoirs significantly reduce vertical brine migration and the potential of freshwater salinisation because the origin depth of displaced brine is located only a few decametres below the shallow aquifer in maximum. The present study demonstrates that the existence of hydraulically conductive faults is not necessarily an exclusion criterion for potential injection sites, because salinisation of shallower aquifers strongly depends on initial salinity distribution, location of hydraulically conductive faults and their effective damage zone volumes as well as geological boundary conditions.

  3. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished...

  4. Transrectal-ultrasound prostatic biopsy preparation: rectal enema vs. mechanical bowel preparation

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Riccardo; Presicce, Fabrizio; Bellangino, Mariangela; Agro, Enrico Finazzi; Gambrosier, Matteo Bonetto; Trucchi, Alberto; Petta, Stefano; Tubaro, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Transrectal prostate biopsy (TRUSbx) is the standard for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Different bowel preparations are used for patients undergoing TRUSbx. The aim of our study was to compare two different bowel preparations for TRUSbx. Material and methods From May 2012 and onwards, a selected group of men undergoing TRUS 12-core prostate biopsy were enrolled into a prospective database. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive a rectal enema (Group A) the night before the procedure or polyethylene glycol 34.8 grams/4 liters of water the day before the procedure (Group B). A VAS scale to evaluate the patients’ discomfort according to the two preparations was collected. The same antibiotic prophylaxis was performed in both groups. All complications were prospectively recorded and graded according to the Clavien Classification System (CCS). Results A total of 198 patients were consecutively enrolled. Mean age was 67.5 ±7.9 years, mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.1 ±4.2 Kg/m2, mean PSA value was 9.3 ±12.6 ng/ml and the mean prostatic volume was 60.6 ±29 ml. 97 patients were enrolled in Group A and 101 in Group B. Overall post-biopsy morbidity rate was 60%. No significant differences for low-grade and high-grade complications was observed between the two groups. Patients receiving the rectal enema presented with a significantly lower VAS score (3.1 ±1.1 vs. 5.9 ±1.7; p = 0.02). Conclusions Our study confirmed that a rectal enema should be considered as the standard bowel preparation in patients undergoing a TRUS biopsy; it is as effective as PEG and associated with less discomfort. PMID:26251750

  5. Effect of tidal volume on the output and particle size distribution of hypertonic saline from an ultrasonic nebulizer.

    PubMed

    Riedler, J; Robertson, C F

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to measure the output and particle size distribution of hypertonic saline from an ultrasonic nebulizer over the range of tidal volumes (VT) used in an epidemiological survey of asthma in children. A Starling pump was used to generate different VTs from 250 to 500 ml, at different respiratory rates of 12 and 20 breaths.min-1, to cover the normal range of respiratory pattern of children aged 7-14 yrs. The Starling pump was connected to a Timeter Compuneb Ultrasonic Nebulizer Model MP 500 with 24 cm of corrugated aerosol tubing, ID 2.2 cm, and a two-way non-rebreathing valve. Nebulizer output was measured by weighing the nebulizer chamber plus tubing and valve before and after each nebulization. To measure particle size distribution, a Malvern Particle Sizer M 3.0 (laser diffraction) was used, with a special adapter attached between valve and Starling pump. Nebulizer output increased linearly from 1.6 to 2.5 ml.min-1 for VT 250 to 500 ml, with little influence by the respiratory frequency. Furthermore, we found that in the range of VT = 300-500 ml the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) was 2.61 microns, with 100% of the particles less than 5 microns, whereas at VT = 150-250 ml the MMAD was 8.89 microns, with 90% larger than 5 microns. As output from this ultrasonic nebulizer correlates linearly with tidal volumes, size correction may not be necessary in hypertonic saline challenge tests in children. Above a VT of 300 ml, the MMAD is in the respirable range, with 100% of particles less than 5 microns.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8050559

  6. Effective damage zone volume of fault zones and initial salinity distribution determine intensity of shallow aquifer salinization in geological underground utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, M.; Tillner, E.; Kempka, T.; Kühn, M.

    2015-06-01

    Injection of fluids into deep saline aquifers causes a pore pressure increase in the storage formation, and thus displacement of resident brines. Via hydraulically conductive faults, brine may migrate upwards into shallower aquifers, and lead to unwanted salinization of potable groundwater resources. In the present study, we investigated different scenarios for a prospective storage site close to the city of Beeskow in the Northeast German Basin by using a 3-D regional scale model (100 km × 100 km × 1.34 km) that includes four ambient fault zones. The focus was on assessing the impact of fault length and the effect of an overlying secondary reservoir as well as model boundary conditions on the potential salinization of shallow groundwater resources. We employed numerical simulations of brine injection as a representative fluid using the simulator TOUGH2-MP. Our simulation results demonstrate that pressure build-up within the reservoir determines the intensity and duration of fluid flow through the faults, and hence salinization of shallower aquifers. Application of different boundary conditions proved that these have a crucial impact on reservoir fluid displacement. If reservoir boundaries are closed, the fluid migrated upwards into the shallow aquifer, corresponds to the overall injected fluid mass. In that case, a short hydraulically conductive fault length and the presence of an overlying secondary reservoir leads only to retardation in brine displacement up to a factor of five and three, respectively. If the reservoir boundaries are open, salinization is considerably reduced: in the presence of a secondary reservoir, 33% of equivalent brine mass migrates into the shallow aquifer, if all four faults are hydraulically open over their entire length, whereas the displaced equivalent brine mass is only 12% for a single fault of two kilometres length. Taking into account the considered geological boundary conditions, the brine originates in maximum from the upper 4 to 298 m of the investigated faults. Hence, the initial salt-freshwater interface present in the fault is of high relevance for the resulting shallow aquifer salinization. The present study demonstrates that the existence of hydraulically conductive faults is not necessarily an exclusion criterion for potential injection sites, because salinization of shallower aquifers strongly depends on initial salinity distribution, location of hydraulically conductive faults and their length as well as geological boundary conditions. These constraints are location specific, and need to be explored thoroughly in advance of any field activity. They provide the basis for scenario analyses and a reliable risk assessment.

  7. Relationship among latest Miocene oxygen isotopic enrichment, antarctic ice volume, and the Messinian salinity crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Hodell, D.A.; Elmstrom, K.M.; Kennett, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    An interval of high variable, enriched benthic /sup 18/O values was found to bracket the Miocene/Pliocene boundary, between 5.6 and 5.1 Ma, in five sites from the Southwest Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The duration of this enrichment event was less than 500,000 years, and is shown by paleomagnetic correlation to be equivalent in time with the deposition of Messinian evaporites. The /sup 18/O enrichment occurred in two main stages separated by a brief interval of relatively depleted /sup 18/O values. Between 5.5 and 5.3 Ma, glacioeustatic lowering of sea level due to increased Antarctic ice volume isolated the Mediterranean basin, and resulted in the deposition of the lower evaporite unit (Main Salt unit). A temporary decrease in ice volume occurred between 5.3 and 5.2 Ma, and corresponded to the intra-Messinian transgression where evaporite deposition ceased temporarily. Between 5.2 and 5.1 Ma, a second Antarctic glacial advance lowered sea level again and resulted in the deposition of the upper evaporite unit. A rapid decreased in delta/sup 18/O values occurred in all sites during the early Pliocene at 5.0 Ma. This depletion marks a glacial retreat and marine transgression, which refilled the Mediterranean Basin and permanently terminated evaporite deposition.

  8. Coffee Enema for Preparation for Small Bowel Video Capsule Endoscopy: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang

    2014-01-01

    Coffee enemas are believed to cause dilatation of bile ducts and excretion of bile through the colon wall. Proponents of coffee enemas claim that the cafestol palmitate in coffee enhances the activity of glutathione S-transferase, an enzyme that stimulates bile excretion. During video capsule endoscopy (VCE), excreted bile is one of the causes of poor preparation of the small bowel. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effect of coffee enema for preparation of the small bowel during VCE. In this pilot study, 17 of 34 patients were assigned to the coffee enema plus polyethylene glycol (PEG) 2 L ingestion group, whereas the 17 remaining control patients received 2 L of PEG only. The quality of bowel preparation was evaluated in the two patient groups. Bowel preparations in the proximal segments of small bowel were not differ between two groups. In the mid and distal segments of the small intestine, bowel preparations tend to be better in patients who received coffee enemas plus PEG than in patients who received PEG only. The coffee enema group did not experience any complications or side effects. Coffee enemas may be a feasible option, and there were no clinically significant adverse events related to coffee enemas. More prospective randomized studies are warranted to improve small bowel preparation for VCE. PMID:25136541

  9. Rectal perforations and fistulae secondary to a glycerin enema: Closure by over-the-scope-clip

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi; Masaki, Tsutomu; Izuishi, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Rectal perforations due to glycerin enemas (GE) typically occur when the patient is in a seated or lordotic standing position. Once the perforation occurs and peritonitis results, death is usually inevitable. We describe two cases of rectal perforation and fistula caused by a GE. An 88-year-old woman presented with a large rectal perforation and a fistula just after receiving a GE. Her case was further complicated by an abscess in the right rectal wall. The second patient was a 78-year-old woman who suffered from a rectovesical fistula after a GE. In both cases, we performed direct endoscopic abscess lavage with a saline solution and closed the fistula using an over-the-scope-clip (OTSC) procedure. These procedures resulted in dramatic improvement in both patients. Direct endoscopic lavage and OTSC closure are very useful for pararectal abscess lavage and fistula closure, respectively, in elderly patients who are in poor general condition. Our two cases are the first reports of the successful endoscopic closure of fistulae using double OTSCs after endoscopic lavage of the debris and an abscess of the rectum secondary to a GE. PMID:22791955

  10. Salinization and Saline Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g L-1), although the chloride comprises only a fraction of the total dissolved salts in water. The Cl/TDS ratio varies from 0.1 in nonmarine saline waters to ˜0.5 in marine-associated saline waters. Water salinity is also defined by electrical conductivity (EC). In soil studies, the electrical conductivity and the ratio of Na/√(Ca+Mg) (SAR) are often used as an indirect measure of soil salinity. In addition to chloride, high levels of other dissolved constituents may limit the use of water for domestic, agriculture, and industrial applications. In some parts of Africa, China, and India, for example, high fluoride content is associated with saline groundwater and causes severe dental and skeletal fluorosis (Shiklomanov, 1997). Hence, the "salinity" problem is only the "tip of the iceberg," as high levels of salinity are associated with high concentrations of other inorganic pollutants (e.g., sodium, sulfate, boron, fluoride), and bioaccumulated elements (e.g., selenium, and arsenic) (see Chapter 9.03).The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the chloride concentration of the water supply for human consumption should not exceed 250 mg L-1. Agriculture applications also depend upon the salinity level of the supplied water. Many crops, such as citrus, avocado, and mango, are sensitive to chloride concentration in irrigation water (an upper limit of 250 mg L-1). In addition, long-term irrigation with water enriched with sodium results in a significant reduction in the hydraulic conductivity and hence the fertility of the irrigated soil. Similarly, the industrial sector demands water of high quality. For example, the high-tech industry requires a large amount of water with low levels of dissolved salts. Hence, the salinity level of groundwater is one of the limiting factors that determine the suitability of water for a variety of applications.The salinity problem is a global phenomenon but it is more severe in water-scarce areas, such as arid and semi-arid zones. The increasing demand for water has created tremendous pressures on water resources that have resulted in lowering water level and increasing salinization. For example, in the Middle East salinity is the main factor that limits water utilization, and future prospects for water use in Israel, Palestinian Authority, and Jordan are overshadowed by the increasing salinization (Vengosh and Rosenthal, 1994; Salameh, 1996). The salinity problem has numerous grave economic, social, and political consequences, particularly in cross-boundary basins that are shared by different communities (e.g., Salinas Valley California; Vengosh et al., 2002a), friendly states (e.g., salinization of the Colorado River along Mexico-US border; Stanton et al., 2001), and hostile states (e.g., the Jordan River, Vengosh et al., 2001; Aral Basin, Weinthal, 2002; Euphrates River, Beaumont, 1996; and the Nile River, Ohlsson, 1995).Salinization of water resources also affects agricultural management. The type of irrigation water and its quality determine the salinity and fertility of the soil and eventually the quality of the underlying water resource. The use of treated wastewater or other marginal water (e.g., brackish water) depends on the salinity and the chemical composition of the water. Treated wastewater with high contents of chloride, sodium, and boron is suitable only for salt-tolerant crops and requires special treatment of the soil. Finally, high boron in irrigation water and consequently in soil water is also an important limiting factor for crops, as boron is an essential micronutrient for plants but becomes toxic at high levels (typically >0.75 mg L-1 in irrigation water).This chapter investigates the different mechanisms and geochemistry of salinization in different parts of the world. The role of the unsaturated zone in shaping the chemical composition of dryland salinization is discussed. Special emphasis is on the anthropogenic effects and to man-made fluids and reused water, such as treated wastewater and agricultural drainage water. Two anthropogenic salinization cycles are introduced - the agricultural and the domestic cycles. Some useful geochemical fingerprinting tracers are also included for defining the sources of salinity. Finally, the chemical composition of future water resources is predicted, based on the chemical and isotopic fractionation associated with remediation and desalination.

  11. Prospective comparison of double contrast barium enema plus flexible sigmoidoscopy v colonoscopy in rectal bleeding: barium enema v colonoscopy in rectal bleeding.

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, E J; O'Connor, J; Frost, R A; Shorvon, P; Somers, S; Stevenson, G W; Hunt, R H

    1988-01-01

    Rectal bleeding often heralds serious colonic disease. The literature suggests that colonoscopy is superior to barium enema plus sigmoidoscopy, although no good comparative studies exist. Seventy one patients with overt rectal bleeding had prospectively flexible sigmoidoscopy, double contrast barium enema and colonoscopy completed independently. Against the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of colonoscopy were 0.69 and 0.78 respectively for a spectrum of colonic lesions, while for combined flexible sigmoidoscopy and double contrast barium enema these values were 0.80 and 0.56, respectively. When assessing adenoma or carcinoma, colonoscopy was more sensitive at 0.82 v 0.73, while flexible sigmoidoscopy plus double contrast barium enema was superior for detecting diverticular disease. The positive predictive value for colonoscopy was 0.87 against 0.81 for flexible sigmoidoscopy and double contrast barium enema. This study confirms that colonoscopy should be a first line investigation in subjects likely to require biopsy or therapeutic intervention. PMID:3273756

  12. The value of the preoperative barium-enema examination in the assessment of pelvic masses

    SciTech Connect

    Gedgaudas, R.K.; Kelvin, F.M.; Thompson, W.M.; Rice, R.P.

    1983-03-01

    The value of the barium-enema examination in the assessment of pelvic masses was studied in 44 patients. Findings from those barium-enema examinations and from pathological specimens from 37 patients who had malignant tumors and seven patients who had endometriosis were retrospectively analyzed to determine if the barium-enema examination is useful in differentiating extrinsic lesions with and without invasion of the colon. None of the 12 patients who had extrinsic lesions had any of the criteria that indicated bowel-wall invasion. These criteria included fixation and serrations of the bowel wall in all patients with invasion, and ulceration and fistulizaton in those patients who had complete transmural invasion. In patients with pelvic masses, the preoperative barium-enema examination may be useful to the surgeon in planning surgery and in preparing the patient for the possibility of partial colectomy or colostomy.

  13. Beclomethasone dipropionate enemas for treating inflammatory bowel disease without producing Cushing's syndrome or hypothalamic pituitary adrenal suppression.

    PubMed

    Kumana, C R; Seaton, T; Meghji, M; Castelli, M; Benson, R; Sivakumaran, T

    1982-03-13

    Since beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) is a very potent glucocorticoid and since small oral doses (1 mg) seem to be metabolised (possibly in the gut wall or liver) before they reach the systemic circulation, a study was conducted to find out whether patients with inflammatory bowel disease could be treated with enemas containing small doses of BDP without their acquiring Cushing's syndrome or hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) suppression. The BDP in the 100 ml enemas used was stable and present in a concentration likely to be therapeutic (0.5 mg/dl). Single overnight BDP enemas, unlike conventional betamethasone (5 mg) enemas, did not interfere with the HPA axis in 6 healthy volunteers. In the double-blind randomised part of the study 2-week courses of BDP or betamethasone enemas were assessed in 9 patients having exacerbations of distal inflammatory bowel disease. The clinical and sigmoidoscopic responses as well as adrenocortical function (judged by the 'Cosyntropin' test) were evaluated on the morning after the last day of a course of enemas. Both types of enemas had similar beneficial effects, but only BDP enemas did not interfere with HPA function. Over a prolonged period, a patient with distal ulcerative colitis had been completely dependent on regular treatment with betamethasone enemas to control his symptoms. Substitution with BDP enemas successfully controlled his bowel symptoms, whilst his cushingoid features and HPA suppression regressed. PMID:6121181

  14. Pre-hospital cooling of patients following cardiac arrest is effective using even low volumes of cold saline

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Pre-hospital induction of therapeutic mild hypothermia (TH) may reduce post-cardiac arrest brain injury in patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Most often, it is induced by a rapid intravenous administration of as much as 30 ml/kg of cold crystalloids. We decided to assess the pre-hospital cooling effectivity of this approach by using a target dose of 15-20 ml/kg of 4°C cold normal saline in the setting of the physician-staffed Emergency Medical Service. The safety and impact on the clinical outcome have also been analyzed. Methods We performed a prospective observational study with a retrospective control group. A total of 40 patients were cooled by an intravenous administration of 15-20 ml/kg of 4°C cold normal saline during transport to the hospital (TH group). The pre-hospital decrease of tympanic temperature (TT) was analyzed as the primary endpoint. Patients in the control group did not undergo any pre-hospital cooling. Results In the TH group, administration of 12.6 ± 6.4 ml/kg of 4°C cold normal saline was followed by a pre-hospital decrease of TT of 1.4 ± 0.8°C in 42.8 ± 19.6 min (p < 0.001). The most effective cooling was associated with a transport time duration of 38-60 min and with an infusion of 17 ml/kg of cold saline. In the TH group, a trend toward a reduced need for catecholamines during transport was detected (35.0 vs. 52.5%, p = 0.115). There were no differences in demographic variables, comorbidities, parameters of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation and in other post-resuscitation characteristics. The coupling of pre-hospital cooling with subsequent in-hospital TH predicted a favorable neurological outcome at hospital discharge (OR 4.1, CI95% 1.1-18.2, p = 0.046). Conclusions Pre-hospital induction of TH by the rapid intravenous administration of cold normal saline has been shown to be efficient even with a lower dose of coolant than reported in previous studies. This dose can be associated with a favorable impact on circulatory stability early after the return of spontaneous circulation and, when coupled with in-hospital continuation of cooling, can potentially improve the prognosis of patients. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials (NCT): NCT00915421 PMID:21176218

  15. The antegrade continence enema procedure and total anorectal reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zbar, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Patients may present with anal incontinence (AI) following repair of a congenital anorectal anomaly years previously, or require total anorectal reconstruction (TAR) following radical rectal extirpation, most commonly for rectal cancer. Others may require removal of their colostomy following sphincter excision for Fournier's gangrene, or in cases of severe perineal trauma. Most of the data pertaining to antegrade continence enema (the ACE or Malone procedure) comes from the pediatric literature in the management of children with AI, but also with supervening chronic constipation, where the quality of life and compliance with this technique appears superior to retrograde colonic washouts. Total anorectal reconstruction requires an anatomical or physical supplement to the performance of a perineal colostomy, which may include an extrinsic muscle interposition (which may or may not be ‘dynamized'), construction of a neorectal reservoir, implantation of an incremental artificial bowel sphincter or creation of a terminal, smooth-muscle neosphincter. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and their outcome are presented here. PMID:24759342

  16. Dose optimisation of double-contrast barium enema examinations.

    PubMed

    Berner, K; Båth, M; Jonasson, P; Cappelen-Smith, J; Fogelstam, P; Söderberg, J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to optimise the filtration and dose setting for double-contrast barium enema examinations using a Philips MultiDiagnost Eleva FD system. A phantom study was performed prior to a patient study. A CDRAD phantom was used in a study where copper and aluminium filtration, different detector doses and tube potentials were examined. The image quality was evaluated using the software CDRAD Analyser and the phantom dose was determined using the Monte Carlo-based software PCXMC. The original setting [100 % detector dose (660 nGy air kerma) and a total filtration of 3.5 mm Al, at 81 kVp] and two other settings identified by the phantom study (100 % detector dose and additional filtration of 1 mm Al and 0.2 mm Cu as well as 80 % detector dose and added filtration of 1 mm Al and 0.2 mm Cu) were included in the patient study. The patient study included 60 patients and up to 8 images from each patient. Six radiologists performed a visual grading characteristics study to evaluate the image quality. A four-step scale was used to judge the fulfillment of three image quality criteria. No overall statistical significant difference in image quality was found between the three settings (P > 0.05). The decrease in the effective dose for the settings in the patient study was 15 % when filtration was added and 34 % when both filtrations was added and detector dose was reduced. The study indicates that additional filtration of 1 mm Al and 0.2 mm Cu and a decrease in detector dose by 20 % from the original setting can be used in colon examinations with Philips MultiDiagnost Eleva FD to reduce the patient dose by 30 % without significantly affecting the image quality. For 20 exposures, this corresponds to a decrease in the effective dose from 1.6 to 1.1 mSv. PMID:20231164

  17. Lipid volume fraction in atherosclerotic plaque phantoms classified under saline conditions by multispectral angioscopy at near-infrared wavelengths around 1200 nm.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Daichi; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2016-05-01

    To identify high-risk atherosclerotic lesions, we require detailed information on the stability of atherosclerotic plaques. In this study, we quantitatively classified the lipid volume fractions in atherosclerotic plaque phantoms by a novel angioscope combined with near-infrared multispectral imaging. The multispectral angioscope was operated at peak absorption wavelengths of lipid in vulnerable plaques (1150, 1200, and 1300 nm) and at lower absorption wavelengths of water. The potential of the multispectral angioscope was demonstrated in atherosclerotic plaque phantoms containing 10-60 vol.% lipid and immersed in saline solution. The acquired multispectral data were processed by a spectral angle mapper algorithm, which enhanced the simulated plaque areas. Consequently, we classified the lipid volume fractions into five categories (0-5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-50, and 50-60 vol.%). Multispectral angioscopy at wavelengths around 1200 nm is a powerful tool for quantitatively evaluating the stability of atherosclerotic plaques based on the lipid volume fractions. PMID:26861978

  18. Predictions of long-term behavior of a large-volume pilot test for CO2 geological storage in a saline formation in the Central Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Christine; Myer, Larry R.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2008-11-01

    The long-term behavior of a CO{sub 2} plume injected into a deep saline formation is investigated, focusing on mechanisms that lead to plume stabilization. Key measures are plume migration distance and the time evolution of CO{sub 2} phase-partitioning, which are examined by developing a numerical model of the subsurface at a proposed power plant with CO{sub 2} capture in the San Joaquin Valley, California, where a large-volume pilot test of CO{sub 2} injection will be conducted. The numerical model simulates a four-year CO{sub 2} injection period and the subsequent evolution of the CO{sub 2} plume until it stabilizes. Sensitivity studies are carried out to investigate the effect of poorly constrained model parameters permeability, permeability anisotropy, and residual gas saturation.

  19. DETECTION OF SMALL LESIONS OF THE LARGE BOWELBarium Enema Versus Double Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, J. Maurice

    1954-01-01

    Roentgen study with the so-called opaque barium enema with some modifications is superior to double contrast study as the primary means of demonstrating polyps in the colon as well as other lesions. The method described combines fluoroscopy, high kilovoltage radiography, fluoroscopically aimed spot films taken with compression, suction and evacuation studies. In this way unsuspected as well as suspected polyps can be demonstrated, particularly if attention is directed to the region where polyps are most likely to be foundnamely, the distal third of the large bowel. Double contrast study is quite valuable as a supplement to the modified single contrast barium enema, but it has not been sufficiently perfected to replace the modified opaque barium enema as a primary procedure. In many instances a combination of methods will, of course, be required. PMID:13209360

  20. Rhubarb Enema Attenuates Renal Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis in 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats by Alleviating Indoxyl Sulfate Overload

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fuhua; Liu, Xusheng; Zou, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effects of rhubarb enema treatment using a 5/6 nephrectomized rat model and study its mechanisms. Methods Twenty-eight Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham operation group (n = 8), 5/6 nephrectomized (5/6Nx) (n = 10), and 5/6Nx with rhubarb enema treatment (n = 10). The rhubarb enema was continuous for 1.0 month. Serum creatinine, serum indoxyl sulfate (IS) level, renal pathology, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and renal oxidative stress were assessed. Results 5/6Nx rats showed increasing levels of serum creatinine and severe pathological lesions. Their serum creatinine levels obviously decreased after rhubarb enema treatment (P < 0.05 vs 5/6Nx group). The administration of rhubarb enema attenuated the histopathological changes in 5/6Nx rats. In addition, 5/6Nx rats showed an enhanced extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis compared with sham rats, and administration of rhubarb enema to 5/6Nx rats ameliorated tubulointerstitial fibrosis. 5/6Nx rats showed increased serum levels of IS, renal oxidative stress, and NF-κB compared with sham rats, whereas administration of rhubarb enema to 5/6Nx rats decreased serum levels of IS, renal oxidative stress, and NF-κB levels. Conclusion Rhubarb enema treatment ameliorates tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the kidneys of 5/6Nx rats, most likely by alleviating IS overload and reducing kidney oxidative stress and inflammatory injury. PMID:26671452

  1. A randomised, controlled, double blind, escalating dose study of alicaforsen enema in active ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    van Deventer, S J H; Tami, J A; Wedel, M K

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of an enema formulation of alicaforsen, an antisense inhibitor of intercellular adhesion molecule, after 1, 3, and 6 months. Methods: This was a randomised, placebo controlled, double blind, escalating dose multicentre study in 40 patients with mild to moderately active distal ulcerative colitis (disease activity index (DAI) 4–10). Patients were assigned to four dosing cohorts of 10 patients each (eight active, two placebo). Each patient received 60 ml of alicaforsen enema (0.1, 0.5, 2, or 4 mg/ml or placebo) once daily for 28 consecutive days. Safety and efficacy (DAI and clinical activity index) scores were evaluated up to six months after initiation of dosing. Results: At day 29, alicaforsen enema resulted in dose dependent improvement in DAI (overall p = 0.003). Alicaforsen 4 mg/ml improved DAI by 70% compared with the placebo response of 28% (p = 0.004). Alicaforsen 2 and 4 mg/ml improved DAI status by 72% and 68% compared with a placebo response of 11.5% at month 3 (p = 0.016 and 0.021, respectively). Specifically, DAI improved from 5.6 to 1.6 and from 6.3 to 2.5 in the 2 and 4 mg/ml groups compared with placebo (7.5 to 6.1). None of the patients in the 4 mg/ml group compared with 4/8 placebo patients required additional medical or surgical intervention over baseline during the six month period after starting the enema treatment. The safety profile was favourable. Conclusions: Alicaforsen enema showed promising acute and long term benefit in patients with mild to moderate descending ulcerative colitis. Alicaforsen enemas had a favourable safety profile. These findings require verification in larger randomised controlled clinical trials. PMID:15479686

  2. Development of In Situ Gelling and Bio Adhesive 5-Fluorouracil Enema

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu-Lu; Zheng, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Shao-Hua; Fang, Xia-Qin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a novel 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) enema with good bio adhesion and temperature sensitivity was developed using in situ gelling technology. The preparation was formulated as a free-flowing liquid before use, while a layer of gel film was quickly formed when administered in the rectum, with a large contact surface area. It also demonstrated good biocompatibility, appropriate gel strength and bio adhesive force with excellent adhesion to rectal mucosa and prolonged action time, allowing more effective drug absorption and diffusion to surrounding tissues. Poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188 were applied to adjust the gelling temperature. With the addition of carbopol and polycarbophil (bio adhesive substances), the solubility of 5-FU and gel strength increased, the temperature of gelation and the surface area of drug contact on mucous epithelium decreased. Decreased adhesive force between the preparation and the mucous membrane of the rectum was demonstrated with improving carbopol and polycarbophil’s concentration. In vitro release demonstrated that 5-FU in situ gelling enema with different bases had a rapid and almost complete drug release. We used an optimized formulation of P407/P188/polycarbophil/5-FU (17/2.5/0.2/1.0) for animal experiments. The result showed that the drug evenly covered the surface of the rectum and there was no leakage in 6 hours. The in situ gelling enema showed significantly higher rectal tissue levels of 5-FU compared with suppository and intravenous administration, indicating that 5-FU could be well absorbed due to the enlarged releasing area, longer retention time and larger amount of dissolved active ingredients. Systemically, 5-FU levels in the enema group were similar to those in the suppository group and significantly lower than the intravenous group. The enema was not associated with morphological damage to rectal tissue. These results suggest that the bio adhesive and in situ gelling enema could be a more effective rectal delivery system of 5-FU. PMID:23976976

  3. Comparison of bismuth citrate and 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in distal ulcerative colitis: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pullan, R D; Ganesh, S; Mani, V; Morris, J; Evans, B K; Williams, G T; Rhodes, J

    1993-05-01

    An enema that contained a complex of bismuth citrate and polyacrylate was compared with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) enemas for treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. The multicentre trial involving 63 patients was randomised and double blind with enemas given over four weeks; clinical, sigmoidoscopic, and histological assessments were made. Improvements were seen in both treatment groups. Clinical remission was seen in 18 of 32 patients treated with 5-ASA and 12 of 31 patients treated with bismuth citrate-carbomer (chi 2 1.94; p = 0.16). Sigmoidoscopic remission occurred in 20 of 32 patients in the 5-ASA group and 15 of 31 patients given bismuth (chi 2 1.27; p = 0.26). Improvement of rectal biopsy histology by at least one grade was seen in 16 of 32 patients in the 5-ASA group and 14 of 31 patients with bismuth (chi 2 0.15; p = 0.70). Analysis of covariance gave no significant difference between groups, although there was a trend favouring 5-ASA. There was no evidence of bismuth accumulation during the trial. Bismuth enemas may offer a new therapeutic option in distal ulcerative colitis. PMID:8504970

  4. Compensation filtration for decubitus radiography during double-contrast barium enema examinations

    SciTech Connect

    Feczko, P.J.; Haggar, A.M.; Rauch, P.L.; Halpert, R.D.; Simms, S.M.

    1983-12-01

    Lateral decubitus images obtained during double-contrast barium enema examinations may be difficult to interpret because of the large difference in density between the various parts of the radiographs. Several types of filters are described which can be used to rectify this problem, thus improving the quality of the decubitus radiographs and achieving a slight reduction in radiation exposure.

  5. Improved accuracy of computed tomography in local staging of rectal cancer using water enema.

    PubMed

    Lupo, L; Angelelli, G; Pannarale, O; Altomare, D; Macarini, L; Memeo, V

    1996-01-01

    A new technique in the preoperative staging computed tomography of rectal cancer using a water enema to promote full distension of the rectum was compared with standard CT in a non-randomised blind study. One hundred and twenty-one patients were enrolled. There were 57 in the water enema CT group and 64 in the standard group. The stage of the disease was assessed following strict criteria and tested against the pathological examination of the resected specimen. Water enema CT was significantly more accurate than standard CT with an accuracy of 84.2% vs. 62.5% (Kappa: 0.56 vs. 0.33: Kappa Weighted: 0.93 vs. 0.84). The diagnostic gain was mainly evident in the identification of rectal wall invasion within or beyond the muscle layer (94.7 vs. 61). The increased accuracy was 33.7% (CL95: 17-49; P < 0.001). The results indicate that water enema CT should replace CT for staging rectal cancer and may offer an alternative to endorectal ultrasound. PMID:8739828

  6. Failure of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas to improve chronic radiation proctitis

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, C.A.; Biddle, W.L.; Miner, P.B. Jr.

    1989-05-01

    Radiation proctitis is a well-known complication of abdominal and pelvic radiation. Conventional medical and surgical treatment often is disappointing. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is the active component in sulfasalazine and is effective in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. Four patients with radiation proctitis were treated with 4 g 5-ASA by enema nightly for two to six months. Patients were seen monthly, interviewed, and a sigmoidoscopic exam performed. No change was seen in the degree of mucosal inflammation on follow-up sigmoidoscopic exams. Three patients noted no change in their symptoms of bleeding, pain, or tenesmus. One patient noted initial improvement, but this was not sustained. 5-ASA enemas do not appear to be effective in the treatment of radiation proctitis.

  7. Complications of Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Prostate Biopsy: Impact of Prebiopsy Enema

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Sung Chul; Choi, See Min; Yoon, Sol; Choi, Jae Hui; Lee, Seong Hyun; Hwa, Jeong Seok; Chung, Ky Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy of the prostate is usually safe. However, some patients are hospitalized owing to complications from TRUS biopsy. We identified the risk factors for complications and effective preventive measures for treating complications after TRUS biopsy. Materials and Methods Medical records and radiological images of 1,083 patients who underwent TRUS biopsy of the prostate over 10 years in Gyeongsang National University Hospital were examined retrospectively to investigate the correlation between complications after TRUS biopsy and preventive antibiotics, prebiopsy enema, number of biopsy cores, and pathological findings. Results Complications occurred in 69 patients (6.4%). The complication rates of the 1,008 patients who received antibiotics and the 75 patients who did not were 6.3% and 8.0%, respectively (p=0.469). Complication rates of the pre-biopsy enema group (n=658) and the group without prebiopsy enema (n=425) were 4.7% and 8.9%, respectively (p=0.007). Complication rates of the 6-core biopsy group (n=41) and the 12-core biopsy group (n=955) were 7.3% and 6.3%, respectively (p=0.891). Complication rates of the prostate cancer group (n=306) and the no prostate cancer group (n=713) were 6.2% and 6.6%, respectively (p=0.740). Conclusions A prebiopsy enema was associated with a reduced risk of complications after TRUS biopsy. Preventive antibiotics, number of biopsy cores, and pathological findings did not significantly influence the complication rate. PMID:25405015

  8. Novel and Effective Almagate Enema for Hemorrhagic Chronic Radiation Proctitis and Risk Factors for Fistula Development.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zi-Xu; Ma, Teng-Hui; Zhong, Qing-Hua; Wang, Huai-Ming; Yu, Xi-Hu; Qin, Qi-Yuan; Chu, Li-Li; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Radiation proctitis is a common complication after radiotherapy for pelvic malignant tumors. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy of novel almagate enemas in hemorrhagic chronic radiation proctitis (CRP) and evaluate risk factors related to rectal deep ulcer or fistula secondary to CRP. All patients underwent a colonoscopy to confirm the diagnosis of CRP and symptoms were graded. Typical endoscopic and pathological images, risk factors, and quality of life were also recorded. A total of 59 patients were enrolled. Gynecological cancers composed 93.1% of the primary malignancies. Complete or obvious reduction of bleeding was observed in 90% (53/59) patients after almagate enema. The mean score of bleeding improved from 2.17 to 0.83 (P<0.001) after the enemas. The mean response time was 12 days. No adverse effects were found. Moreover, long-term successful rate in controlling bleeding was 69% and the quality of life was dramatically improved (P=0.001). The efficacy was equivalent to rectal sucralfate, but the almagate with its antacid properties acted more rapidly than sucralfate. Furthermore, we firstly found that moderate to severe anemia was the risk factor of CRP patients who developed rectal deep ulcer or fistulas (P= 0.015). We also found abnormal hyaline-like thick wall vessels, which revealed endarteritis obliterans and the fibrosis underlying this disease. These findings indicate that almagate enema is a novel effective, rapid and well-tolerated method for hemorrhagic CRP. Moderate to severe anemia is a risk factor for deep ulceration or fistula. PMID:26925655

  9. Perforated appendix presenting with severe diarrhea: findings on barium-enema examination

    SciTech Connect

    Picus, D.; Shackelford, G.D.

    1983-10-01

    Severe diarrhea and marked lower abdominal cramps are unusual manifestations of appendicitis. The authors performed a barium-enema examination (BE) on 9 pediatric patients who were utlimately shown to have a perforated appendix and pelvic abscesses. In 8 cases, the atypical symptoms initially led to an incorrect clinical diagnosis. In all 9, the BE demonstrated extensive inflammatory changes of the rectosigmoid colon, caused by the surrounding pelvic infection. Recognizing this clinical and radiographic association could lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Salinity Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Walter R.

    1987-01-01

    Discussed are the costs of deriving energy from the earth's natural reserves of salt. Argues that, as fossil fuel supplies become more depleted in the future, the environmental advantages of salinity power may prove to warrant its exploitation. (TW)

  11. Accidental embryo irradiation during barium enema examinations: An estimation of absorbed dose

    SciTech Connect

    Damilakis, J.; Perisinakis, K.; Grammatikakis, J.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to investigate the possibility of an embryo to receive a dose of more than 10 cGy, the threshold of malformation induction in embryos reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, during barium enema examinations. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were place in a phantom to calculate the depth-to-skin conversion coefficient needed for dose estimation at the average embryo depth in patients. Barium enema examinations were performed in 20 women of childbearing age with diagnostic problems demanding longer fluoroscopy times. Doses at 6 cm, the average embryo depth, were determined by measurements at the patients` skin followed by dose calculation at the site of interest. The range of doses estimated at embryo depth for patients was 1.9 to 8.2 cGy. The dose always exceeded 5 cGy when fluoroscopy time was longer than 7 minutes. The dose at the embryo depth never exceeded 10 cGy. This study indicates that fluoroscopy time should not exceed 7 minutes in childbearing-age female patients undergoing barium enema examinations. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine following a Single Administration of Coffee Enema versus Oral Coffee Consumption in Healthy Male Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tosri, Nisanuch; Rojanasthien, Noppamas; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Sangdee, Chaichan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of caffeine after single administration of a coffee enema versus coffee consumed orally in healthy male subjects. The study design was an open-label, randomized two-phase crossover study. Eleven healthy subjects were randomly assigned either to receive 500 mL of coffee enema for 10 minutes or to consume 180 mL of ready-to-drink coffee beverage. After a washout period of at least 10 days, all the subjects were switched to receive the alternate coffee procedure. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at specific time points until 12 hours after coffee administration in each phase. The mean caffeine content in both the coffee solution prepared for the coffee enema and the ready-to-drink coffee beverage was not statistically different. The Cmax and AUC of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema were about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally, despite having slightly but statistically faster Tmax. The t1/2 of caffeine obtained following both coffee procedures did not statistically differ. In summary, the relative bioavailability of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema was about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally. PMID:23533801

  13. A review of factors affecting patient doses for barium enemas and meals.

    PubMed

    Martin, C J

    2004-10-01

    A study of patient doses for barium enema and meal examinations has been carried out for hospitals in the West of Scotland to assess the impact of dose reduction facilities on new X-ray equipment. Dose-area product (DAP) information has been collected on examinations for groups of patients at 20 hospitals and results reviewed together with data on equipment performance measurements. Median DAPs for barium enemas and meals were 15.7 Gy cm(2) and 4.8 Gy cm(2), respectively, and effective doses estimated from the results are 3.5+/-0.7 mSv and 1.5+/-0.5 mSv, respectively. These doses are lower than those reported in earlier studies and in previous surveys in the West of Scotland. The reduction in dose is linked primarily to the low dose facilities available on newer X-ray equipment, such as low dose pulsed fluoroscopy, digital imaging facilities and use of copper filtration. Use of the image intensifier for decubitus images on C-arm units employed for barium enemas also gives a significantly lower dose. Equipment with copper filtration had the lowest doses. The reduction in effective dose will be significantly less than the reduction in DAP for units in which a copper filter is included and the adoption of lower diagnostic reference levels is proposed for units with this facility. It is important that the operators are aware of the low dose imaging options on their equipment in order that techniques can be fully optimized. PMID:15482999

  14. Patient experiences of colonoscopy, barium enema and CT colonography: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Von Wagner, C; Knight, K; Halligan, S; Atkin, W; Lilford, R; Morton, D; Wardle, J

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of patient experience with bowel screening tests, in particular CT colonography (CTC), have superimposed global rating scales and not explored individual experience in detail. To redress this, we performed qualitative interviews in order to characterize patient expectations and experiences in depth. Following ethical permission, 16 patients undergoing CTC, 18 undergoing colonoscopy and 15 undergoing barium enema agreed to a semi-structured interview by a health psychologist. Interviews were recorded, responses transcribed and themes extracted with the aim of assimilating individual experiences to facilitate subsequent development and interpretation of quantitative surveys of overall satisfaction with each diagnostic test. Transcript analysis identified three principal themes: physical sensations, social interactions and information provision. Physical sensations differed for each test but were surprisingly well tolerated overall. Social interactions with staff were perceived as very important in colouring the whole experience, particularly in controlling the feelings of embarrassment, which was critical for all procedures. Information provision was also an important determinant of experience. Verbal feedback was most common during colonoscopy and invariably reassuring. However, patients undergoing CTC received little visual or verbal feedback and were often confused regarding the test outcome. Barium enema had no specific advantage over other tests. Qualitative interviews provided important perspectives on patient experience. Our data demonstrated that models describing the quality of medical encounters are applicable to single diagnostic episodes. Staff interactions and information provision were particularly important. We found advantages specific to both CTC and colonoscopy but none for barium enema. CTC could benefit greatly from improved information provision following examination. PMID:18824501

  15. [Extensive rectosigmoid stenosis caused by caustic enema. Apropos of a case in an African woman].

    PubMed

    Ribault, L; Carli, P; Gabet, J; Martet, G; Gournier, J P

    1988-11-01

    The rectal administration of irritant substances can induce lesions which do not regress after removal of the cause. More or less severe and more or less extensive stenoses have been reported in the literature. The authors report a case of very extensive and very tight rectosigmoid stenosis developing after potassium enema administered to a chronically constipated 26 year old African woman with limited rectal stenosis of unknown origin. Rectosigmoid and left colonic resection with trans-anal recto-colonic anastomosis gave this patient normal intestinal transit and good faecal comfort. PMID:3225277

  16. Barium enema

    MedlinePlus

    ... clean. Your doctor will give you instructions for cleansing your colon. During the test: You lie flat ... large intestine. You will be given instructions for cleansing your bowel. This is also called bowel preparation. ...

  17. Saline Systems highlights for 2005

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    On the 4th of July, 2005, the Saline Systems editorial group launched the new online open access journal, Saline Systems, with BioMed Central as the publisher. The scope of the journal includes both basic and applied research on halophilic organisms and saline environments, from gene systems to ecosystems. The stated goal of the journal is to meet publication needs for researchers working in coastal and inland saline environments and provide an interdisciplinary and readily accessible forum for scientists worldwide. The inaugural volume of the journal contains a significant number of high quality original research papers and reviews on a wide range of relevant topics. At the end of the launch period, from January 1, 2006 onwards, the journal will be introducing article-processing charges to cover the cost of publication. Charges will be partly or completely waived for authors from BioMed Central institutional subscribers and in cases of financial hardship. PMID:16417635

  18. Barium enema: use of increased copper filtration to optimize dose and image quality.

    PubMed

    Morrell, R E; Rogers, A T; Jobling, J C; Shakespeare, K E

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and validate the optimum copper filtration for adult double contrast barium enema examinations. Entrance surface dose rates to polymethyl methacrylate slabs and corresponding image intensifier input kermas, were measured for various added copper filters. Image contrast was assessed using a Leeds TO.10 test object. Copper filter thickness of 0.3 mm was chosen, as this reduced entrance surface dose rate by 56%, without substantially degrading image contrast due to kV and mA saturation. 20 sets of clinical films taken with each of 0.3 mm copper, 0.1 mm copper and no copper were reviewed following randomization, by a specialist gastrointestinal radiologist. Each set of digital spot and conventional films was allocated a score for each of three regions of the bowel, on a scale of 0-3 for perceived barium coating. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed no significant difference in perceived coating between the three groups (Digital spot: sigmoid colon p=0.207, splenic flexure p=0.103, hepatic flexure p=0.894. Screen-film: left colon p=0.803, right colon p=0.487, transverse colon p=0.905). All examinations but one were classified as diagnostic. The remaining one was classified indeterminate, due to poor distension of the colon. On adding 0.3 mm copper filtration, the mean dose-area product per examination was reduced by 57%, from 17.7 Gy cm(2) to 7.6 Gy cm(2). The estimated reduction in effective dose was 11%, from 3.0 mSv to 2.7 mSv. X-ray tube loading increased by 30%, but this caused no overheating with our local examination protocol and schedule. Additional filtration of 0.3 mm copper for adult double contrast barium enemas has now been implemented in routine clinical use at our hospital. PMID:15010383

  19. MR colonography without bowel cleansing or water enema: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sambrook, A; Mcateer, D; Yule, S; Phull, P

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The value of screening for colorectal cancer has been well demonstrated, and national programmes are being implemented. At present the primary imaging modality is colonoscopy, which has an associated morbidity and mortality. CT colonography (CTC) has been proposed as an alternative, but this is associated with radiation exposure and generally requires bowel preparation. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of MR colonography (MRC) without bowel preparation or water enema for the detection of colorectal neoplasia. Methods Patients scheduled for colonoscopy were invited to participate in the study; informed consent was obtained. MRC (with oral barium faecal tagging and colonic air distension) was performed 1–2 weeks before the colonoscopy. Axial T2 weighted single-shot fast spin-echo (prone and supine) and axial T1 weighted fast spoiled gradient-recalled (pre- and post-iv gadolinium) supine MRI sequences were performed. The examinations were reported by two gastrointestinal radiologists by consensus. Colonoscopy following standard bowel preparation was performed by a single endoscopist blinded to the MRC results. Significant lesions were defined as polyps or masses >10 mm in diameter. Results 29 patients were studied. Colonoscopy revealed 25 mass lesions in 13 patients. MRC correctly identified four of the nine lesions >10 mm in diameter (sensitivity 44%; specificity 100%). Although specificity remained high for smaller lesions, sensitivity was poor. Conclusion This pilot study has demonstrated the feasibility of performing MRC without bowel preparation or water enema. This would seem to be a promising modality for colorectal cancer screening. Larger studies are required to determine the accuracy of this modality for the detection of colorectal neoplasia. PMID:22167505

  20. Practically Saline.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Jonathan; O'Neal, Catherine; Jagneaux, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In December 2014, the Food and Drug Administration issued a recall of all Wallcur simulation products due to reports of their use in clinical practice. We present a case of septic shock and multiorgan failure after the accidental intravenous infusion of a nonsterile Wallcur simulation product. Case. The patient presented with symptoms of rigors and dyspnea occurring immediately after infusion of Wallcur Practi-0.9% saline. Initial laboratory evidence was consistent with severe septic shock and multiorgan dysfunction. His initial lactic acid level was 9 mmol/L (reference range = 0.5-2.2), and he had evidence of acute kidney injury and markers of disseminated intravascular coagulation. All 4 blood culture bottles isolated multidrug-resistant Empedobacter brevis. The patient recovered from his illness and was discharged with ciprofloxacin therapy per susceptibilities. Discussion. This patient represents the first described case of severe septic shock associated with the infusion of a Wallcur simulation product. Intravenous inoculation of a nonsterile fluid is rare and exposes the patient to unusual environmental organisms, toxins, or unsafe fluid characteristics such as tonicity. During course of treatment, we identified the possible culprit to be a multidrug-resistant isolate of Empedobacter brevis. We also discuss the systemic failures that led to this outbreak. PMID:26668812

  1. Practically Saline

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Jonathan; O’Neal, Catherine; Jagneaux, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In December 2014, the Food and Drug Administration issued a recall of all Wallcur simulation products due to reports of their use in clinical practice. We present a case of septic shock and multiorgan failure after the accidental intravenous infusion of a nonsterile Wallcur simulation product. Case. The patient presented with symptoms of rigors and dyspnea occurring immediately after infusion of Wallcur Practi-0.9% saline. Initial laboratory evidence was consistent with severe septic shock and multiorgan dysfunction. His initial lactic acid level was 9 mmol/L (reference range = 0.5-2.2), and he had evidence of acute kidney injury and markers of disseminated intravascular coagulation. All 4 blood culture bottles isolated multidrug-resistant Empedobacter brevis. The patient recovered from his illness and was discharged with ciprofloxacin therapy per susceptibilities. Discussion. This patient represents the first described case of severe septic shock associated with the infusion of a Wallcur simulation product. Intravenous inoculation of a nonsterile fluid is rare and exposes the patient to unusual environmental organisms, toxins, or unsafe fluid characteristics such as tonicity. During course of treatment, we identified the possible culprit to be a multidrug-resistant isolate of Empedobacter brevis. We also discuss the systemic failures that led to this outbreak. PMID:26668812

  2. Saline Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Figure 2

    These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000 and cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the complementary nature of surface compositional information available as a function of wavelength. This image displays visible and near infrared bands 3, 2, and 1 in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. Figure 1 displays short wavelength infrared bands 4, 6, and 8 as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have diagnostic absorption features, resulting in distinct colors on the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich. Figure 2 displays thermal infrared bands 13, 12 and 10 as RGB. In this wavelength region, variations in quartz content appear as more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple. The image is located at 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. Medical device; exemption from premarket notification; class II devices; barium enema retention catheters and tips with or without a bag. Food and Drug Administration, HHS. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2000-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing an order granting a petition requesting exemption from the premarket notification requirements for barium enema retention catheters and tips with or without a bag with certain limitations. This rule will exempt from premarket notification barium enema retention catheters and tips with or without a bag. FDA is publishing this order in accordance with procedures established by the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA). PMID:11503724

  4. Reducing Antibiotic Use for Young Children with Intussusception following Successful Air Enema Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yinghui; Ye, Weimin; Chen, Xingdong; Liu, Qian; Liu, Huandi; Si, Chunfeng; Jia, Hongying

    2015-01-01

    China introduced a new policy regarding the management of antibiotic use. We evaluated the reasonableness of antibiotic use among children suffering from intussusception before and after policy. A retrospective study was conducted involving 234 young children with intussusception who were treated between January 1, 2011 and December 30, 2013. Demographics and detailed antibiotics regimens were collected. χ2 test was used to evaluate differences between the phase I (preintervention, n = 68) and phase II (postintervention, n = 166). We determined that the overall antibiotic use rate following successful air enema reduction was 41% (97/234), which decreased from 99% (67/68) in phase I to 18% (30/166) in phase II. In phase I, prophylactic antibiotic usage reached up to 84% (56/67). The quantity of aztreonam for injection accounted for 63% (45/71), and cefamandole nafate for injection accounted for 25% (18/71). In phases II, prophylactic antibiotic usage were reduced to 13% (4/30). The quantity of aztreonam for injection was decreased to 12% (4/33) and cefamandole nafate for injection was 3% (1/33). Antibiotics' options were more diverse. In conclusion, policy intervention was effective in addressing some aspects of antibacterial drug usage among young children with intussusception. However, excessive drug use remains a public health problem. The guidelines for the antibiotic management of intussusception for children must be established in China. PMID:26569111

  5. An experimental study to evaluate the pharmacokinetic aspect of Lekhana Basti (Emaciating/ Desiccating Medicated Enema)

    PubMed Central

    Auti, Swapnil S; Ashok, B.K.; Thakar, Anup B.; Shukla, V. J.; Ravishankar, B.

    2011-01-01

    Basti therapy is used widely for treatment of various diseases in the field of Ayurveda with several proven clinical applications, however; the exact mechanism through which the benefits are obtained are yet to be ascertained in the light of the contemporary developments in clinical science. It is also not clear that when administered Basti the active principles in the formulation gain entry in to the systemic circulation or not. The present study was planned to acquire some preliminary data with regards to the absorption of phytochemical constituents of the formulations when administered in the form of Basti. Gallic acid was used as marker compound and it's absorption in systemic circulation was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography. Gallic acid present in Lekhana Basti (Emaciating/ Desiccating Medicated Enema) was found to get absorbed in to systemic circulation. Maximum concentration in serum was seen in the animal which received Lekhana Basti with Prakshepa Dravya ( Catalytic Adjuvant) in comparison to animal which received Lekhana Basti without Prakshepa Dravya. Area under curve in chromatogram was also more in animal which received Lekhana Basti with Prakshepa Dravya. From primary evidence created by HPLC study it can be said that, phytochemicals of the Basti formulation do get absorbed in systemic circulation. PMID:23284203

  6. Effect of Basti (oil enema) therapy for the management of cough in pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Gujarathi, Rahul H.; Gokhale, Vivek M.; Tongaonkar, Jayashree N.

    2013-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis continues to circulate even in countries with good childhood vaccination coverage. Sporadic cases are still observed either due to no vaccination, incomplete vaccination or as a result of failure of vaccination. Though acute in nature it has a longer disease span with multiple life-threatening complications despite adequate management. This study was undertaken to study the effect of Sneha Basti (oil enema) in pertussis in relation to reduction in intensity of cough and complications of the disease when administered along with the conventional pharmacological therapy. Patients with the clinical picture mimicking pertussis were screened, investigated for pertussis and appropriate conventional pharmacological therapy of Erythromycin a preferred antimicrobial agent was started. Concurrently, Sneha Basti was administered to these two children. Both patients showed favourable results in terms of reduction of Kasa (cough) and the disease period with a faster recovery when compared to conventional therapy alone as has been observed routinely. No complications incurred during the complete disease span. It was concluded that if the pharmacological therapy is augmented with the complimentary systems of medicines, it can reduce the prolonged span and intensity of the disease and prevent other complications. PMID:24696577

  7. Hypertonic saline solution reduces the inflammatory response in endotoxemic rats

    PubMed Central

    Theobaldo, Mariana Cardillo; Barbeiro, Hermes Vieira; Barbeiro, Denise Frediani; Petroni, Ricardo; Soriano, Francisco Garcia

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Volume replacement in septic patients improves hemodynamic stability. This effect can reduce the inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 7.5% hypertonic saline solution versus 0.9% normal saline solution for volume replacement during an inflammatory response in endotoxemic rats. METHODS: We measured cytokines (serum and gut), nitrite, and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) as indicators of oxidative stress in the gut. Rats were divided into four groups: control group (C) that did not receive lipopolysaccharide; lipopolysaccharide injection without treatment (LPS); lipopolysaccharide injection with saline treatment (LPS +S); and lipopolysaccharide injection with hypertonic saline treatment (LPS +H). Serum and intestine were collected. Measurements were taken at 1.5, 8, and 24 h after lipopolysaccharide administration. RESULTS: Of the four groups, the LPS +H group had the highest survival rate. Hypertonic saline solution treatment led to lower levels of IL-6, IL-10, nitric oxide, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances compared to 0.9% normal saline. In addition, hypertonic saline treatment resulted in a lower mortality compared to 0.9% normal saline treatment in endotoxemic rats. Volume replacement reduced levels of inflammatory mediators in the plasma and gut. CONCLUSION: Hypertonic saline treatment reduced mortality and lowered levels of inflammatory mediators in endotoxemic rats. Hypertonic saline also has the advantage of requiring less volume replacement. PMID:23295602

  8. Measuring Salinity by Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapworth, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    Outlines procedures for constructing an instrument which uses an electrode and calibration methods to measure the salinity of waters in environments close to and affected by a saline estuary. (Author/DC)

  9. Enema reduction of intussusception: the success rate of hydrostatic and pneumatic reduction

    PubMed Central

    Khorana, Jiraporn; Singhavejsakul, Jesda; Ukarapol, Nuthapong; Laohapensang, Mongkol; Wakhanrittee, Junsujee; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Intussusception is a common surgical emergency in infants and children. The incidence of intussusception is from one to four per 2,000 infants and children. If there is no peritonitis, perforation sign on abdominal radiographic studies, and nonresponsive shock, nonoperative reduction by pneumatic or hydrostatic enema can be performed. The purpose of this study was to compare the success rates of both the methods. Methods Two institutional retrospective cohort studies were performed. All intussusception patients (ICD-10 code K56.1) who had visited Chiang Mai University Hospital and Siriraj Hospital from January 2006 to December 2012 were included in the study. The data were obtained by chart reviews and electronic databases, which included demographic data, symptoms, signs, and investigations. The patients were grouped according to the method of reduction followed into pneumatic reduction and hydrostatic reduction groups with the outcome being the success of the reduction technique. Results One hundred and seventy episodes of intussusception occurring in the patients of Chiang Mai University Hospital and Siriraj Hospital were included in this study. The success rate of pneumatic reduction was 61% and that of hydrostatic reduction was 44% (P=0.036). Multivariable analysis and adjusting of the factors by propensity scores were performed; the success rate of pneumatic reduction was 1.48 times more than that of hydrostatic reduction (P=0.036, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.03–2.13). Conclusion Both pneumatic and hydrostatic reduction can be performed safely according to the experience of the radiologist or pediatric surgeon and hospital setting. This study showed that pneumatic reduction had a higher success rate than hydrostatic reduction. PMID:26719697

  10. Contrast Enema for Hirschsprung Disease Investigation: Diagnostic Accuracy and Validity for Subsequent Diagnostic and Surgical Planning.

    PubMed

    Frongia, Giovanni; Günther, Patrick; Schenk, Jens-Peter; Strube, Kai; Kessler, Markus; Mehrabi, Arianeb; Romero, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    Introduction A targeted Hirschsprung disease (HD) diagnostic is necessary, as it determines a specific approach primarily based on surgical resection of the affected aganglionic colonic segment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a contrast enema (CE) for HD diagnosis and to determine whether it should be performed before or after rectal biopsies (RBs). Methods A retrospective observational study of children undergoing RB for HD investigation was performed. In the performed CE, the occurrence and the level of a colonic caliber change (CCC) were recorded and its concordance with the histologically assessed level of aganglionosis by RB and the odds ratio were calculated. Results A total of 107 cases were included. Sensitivity and specificity for a CCC in CE were 74.1% and 94.6%. A CCC present in CE was associated with a 50-fold increased probability for a histologically proven HD. The overall concordance between a CCC and the histologically assessed level of aganglionosis was high (kappa 0.642, p = 0.003), being correct in 94.4% of cases when the CCC was located in the rectosigmoid, but only in 50% of cases when it was located in more proximal segments. By performing a CE only after HD diagnosis confirmation by RB would avoid 67.5% of CE with no loss of diagnostic accuracy. Conclusion We confirm that CE is a valuable tool for HD diagnosis; however, it should only be performed for subsequent diagnostic and surgical planning following histological confirmation of HD by RB. On the basis of this, an algorithm for an optimized investigation and management of HD is presented. PMID:25803244

  11. Phased surgical treatment of barium enema-induced rectal injury and retention of barium in the pelvic floor space

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuefei; Xia, Ligang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Iatrogenic injuries caused by barium enema are rarely reported. Following a phased surgical protocol for up to one year, we have successfully treated a patient with rectal injury and severe infection of the pelvic floor space complicated with retention of large amounts of barium and vaginal fistula. In this article, the phased surgery planning for the treatment of rectal injury complicated with vaginal fistula is discussed in terms of the pros and cons, and the observed effect and evolution of barium retained in the pelvic floor space are described. PMID:25405155

  12. 0.9% saline is neither normal nor physiological

    PubMed Central

    Li, Heng; Sun, Shi-ren; Yap, John Q.; Chen, Jiang-hua; Qian, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to objectively evaluate the biochemical and pathophysiological properties of 0.9% saline (henceforth: saline) and to discuss the impact of saline infusion, specifically on systemic acid-base balance and renal hemodynamics. Studies have shown that electrolyte balance, including effects of saline infusion on serum electrolytes, is often poorly understood among practicing physicians and inappropriate saline prescribing can cause increased morbidity and mortality. Large-volume (>2 L) saline infusion in healthy adults induces hyperchloremia which is associated with metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia, and negative protein balance. Saline overload (80 ml/kg) in rodents can cause intestinal edema and contractile dysfunction associated with activation of sodium-proton exchanger (NHE) and decrease in myosin light chain phosphorylation. Saline infusion can also adversely affect renal hemodynamics. Microperfusion experiments and real-time imaging studies have demonstrated a reduction in renal perfusion and an expansion in kidney volume, compromising O2 delivery to the renal parenchyma following saline infusion. Clinically, saline infusion for patients post abdominal and cardiovascular surgery is associated with a greater number of adverse effects including more frequent blood product transfusion and bicarbonate therapy, reduced gastric blood flow, delayed recovery of gut function, impaired cardiac contractility in response to inotropes, prolonged hospital stay, and possibly increased mortality. In critically ill patients, saline infusion, compared to balanced fluid infusions, increases the occurrence of acute kidney injury. In summary, saline is a highly acidic fluid. With the exception of saline infusion for patients with hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis and volume depletion due to vomiting or upper gastrointestinal suction, indiscriminate use, especially for acutely ill patients, may cause unnecessary complications and should be avoided. More education regarding saline-related effects and adequate electrolyte management is needed. PMID:26984838

  13. 0.9% saline is neither normal nor physiological.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng; Sun, Shi-Ren; Yap, John Q; Chen, Jiang-Hua; Qian, Qi

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to objectively evaluate the biochemical and pathophysiological properties of 0.9% saline (henceforth: saline) and to discuss the impact of saline infusion, specifically on systemic acid-base balance and renal hemodynamics. Studies have shown that electrolyte balance, including effects of saline infusion on serum electrolytes, is often poorly understood among practicing physicians and inappropriate saline prescribing can cause increased morbidity and mortality. Large-volume (>2 L) saline infusion in healthy adults induces hyperchloremia which is associated with metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia, and negative protein balance. Saline overload (80 ml/kg) in rodents can cause intestinal edema and contractile dysfunction associated with activation of sodium-proton exchanger (NHE) and decrease in myosin light chain phosphorylation. Saline infusion can also adversely affect renal hemodynamics. Microperfusion experiments and real-time imaging studies have demonstrated a reduction in renal perfusion and an expansion in kidney volume, compromising O2 delivery to the renal parenchyma following saline infusion. Clinically, saline infusion for patients post abdominal and cardiovascular surgery is associated with a greater number of adverse effects including more frequent blood product transfusion and bicarbonate therapy, reduced gastric blood flow, delayed recovery of gut function, impaired cardiac contractility in response to inotropes, prolonged hospital stay, and possibly increased mortality. In critically ill patients, saline infusion, compared to balanced fluid infusions, increases the occurrence of acute kidney injury. In summary, saline is a highly acidic fluid. With the exception of saline infusion for patients with hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis and volume depletion due to vomiting or upper gastrointestinal suction, indiscriminate use, especially for acutely ill patients, may cause unnecessary complications and should be avoided. More education regarding saline-related effects and adequate electrolyte management is needed. PMID:26984838

  14. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  15. Pattern and distribution of colonic diverticulosis: Analysis of 2877 barium enemas in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Lohsiriwat, Varut; Suthikeeree, Wanwarang

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the pattern and distribution of colonic diverticulosis in Thai adults. METHODS: A review of the computerized radiology database for double contrast barium enema (DCBE) in Thai adults was performed at the Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. Incomplete studies and DCBE examinations performed in non-Thai individuals were excluded. The pattern and distribution of colonic diverticulosis detected during DCBE studies from June 2009 to October 2011 were determined. The occurrence of solitary cecal diverticulum, rectal diverticulum and giant diverticulum were reported. Factors influencing the presence of colonic diverticulosis were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 2877 suitable DCBE examinations were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age of patients was 59.8 ± 14.7 years. Of these patients, 1778 (61.8%) were female and 700 (24.3%) were asymptomatic. Colonic diverticulosis was identified in 820 patients (28.5%). Right-sided diverticulosis (641 cases; 22.3%) was more frequently reported than left-sided diverticulosis (383 cases; 13.3%). Pancolonic diverticulosis was found in 98 cases (3.4%). The occurrence of solitary cecal diverticulum, rectal diverticulum and giant diverticulum were 1.5% (42 cases), 0.4% (12 cases), and 0.03% (1 case), respectively. There was no significant difference in the overall occurrence of colonic diverticulosis between male and female patients (28.3% vs 28.6%, P = 0.85). DCBE examinations performed in patients with some gastrointestinal symptoms revealed the frequent occurrence of colonic diverticulosis compared with those performed in asymptomatic individuals (29.5% vs 25.3%, P = 0.03). Change in bowel habit was strongly associated with the presence of diverticulosis (a relative risk of 1.39; P = 0.005). The presence of diverticulosis was not correlated with age in symptomatic patients or asymptomatic individuals (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Colonic diverticulosis was identified in 28.5% of DCBE examinations in Thai adults. There was no association between the presence of diverticulosis and gender or age. PMID:24379590

  16. Dietary Geraniol by Oral or Enema Administration Strongly Reduces Dysbiosis and Systemic Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    De Fazio, Luigia; Spisni, Enzo; Cavazza, Elena; Strillacci, Antonio; Candela, Marco; Centanni, Manuela; Ricci, Chiara; Rizzello, Fernando; Campieri, Massimo; Valerii, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    (Trans)-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol, commonly called geraniol (Ge-OH), is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol with well-known anti-inflammatory, antitumoral, and antimicrobial properties. It is widely used as a preservative in the food industry and as an antimicrobial agent in animal farming. The present study investigated the role of Ge-OH as an anti-inflammatory and anti-dysbiotic agent in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. Ge-OH was orally administered to C57BL/6 mice at daily doses of 30 and 120 mg kg(−1) body weight, starting 6 days before DSS treatment and ending the day after DSS removal. Furthermore, Ge-OH 120 mg kg(−1) dose body weight was administered via enema during the acute phase of colitis to facilitate its on-site action. The results show that orally or enema-administered Ge-OH is a powerful antimicrobial agent able to prevent colitis-associated dysbiosis and decrease the inflammatory systemic profile of colitic mice. As a whole, Ge-OH strongly improved the clinical signs of colitis and significantly reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in colonocytes and in the gut wall. Ge-OH could be a powerful drug for the treatment of intestinal inflammation and dysbiosis. PMID:26973525

  17. Salinity Management in Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Existing guidelines and standards for reclamation of saline soils and management to control salinity exist but have not been updated for over 25 years. In the past few years a looming water scarcity has resulted in questioning of the long term future of irrigation projects in arid and semi arid regi...

  18. Saline infusion sonohysterography.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    Saline infusion sonohysterography consists of ultrasonographic imaging of the uterus and uterocervical cavity, using real-time ultrasonography during injection of sterile saline into the uterus. When properly performed, saline infusion sonohysterography can provide information about the uterus and endometrium. The most common indication for sonohysterography is abnormal uterine bleeding. sonohysterography should not be performed in a woman who is pregnant or could be pregnant or in a woman with a pelvic infection or unexplained pelvic tenderness. Physicians who perform or supervise diagnostic saline infusion sonohysterograpy should have training, experience, and demonstrated competence in gynecologic ultrasonography and saline infusion sonohysterography. Portions of this document were developed jointly with the American College of Radiology and the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. PMID:14968760

  19. Hydrogeologic processes in saline systems: playas, sabkhas, and saline lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yechieli, Yoseph; Wood, Warren W.

    2002-10-01

    Pans, playas, sabkhas, salinas, saline lakes, and salt flats are hydrologically similar, varying only in their boundary conditions. Thus, in evaluating geochemical processes in these systems, a generic water and solute mass-balance approach can be utilized. A conceptual model of a coastal sabkha near the Arabian Gulf is used as an example to illustrate the various water and solute fluxes. Analysis of this model suggests that upward flux of ground water from underlying formations could be a major source of solutes in the sabkha, but contribute only a small volume of the water. Local rainfall is the main source of water in the modeled sabkha system with a surprisingly large recharge-to-rainfall ratio of more than 50%. The contribution of seawater to the solute budget depends on the ratio of the width of the supratidal zone to the total width and is generally confined to a narrow zone near the shoreline of a typical coastal sabkha. Because of a short residence time of water, steady-state flow is expected within a short time (<100 years), while steady state for solutes may take much longer (>50,000 years). The solute composition of the brine in a closed saline system depends largely on the original composition of the input water. The high total ion content in the brine limits the efficiency of water-rock interaction and absorption. Because most natural systems are hydrologically open, the chemistry of the brines and the associated evaporite deposits may be significantly different than that predicted for hydrologically closed systems. Seasonal changes in temperature of the unsaturated zone cause precipitation of minerals in saline systems undergoing evaporation. Thus, during the hot dry season months, minerals exhibit retrograde solubility so that gypsum, anhydrite and calcite precipitate. Evaporation near the surface is also a major process that causes mineral precipitation in the upper portion of the unsaturated zone (e.g. halite and carnallite), provided that the relative humidity of the atmosphere is less than the activity of water. The slope of the fresh/brine-water interface in saline lake systems is shallower than in fresh/seawater interface because of the greater density difference between the fresh/brine-water bodies. The interface between sabkha brines and seawater slopes seaward, unlike normal marine-fresh water systems that slope landward. Moreover, the brine/seawater interface does not achieve steady state because it is pushed toward the sea by the sabkha's brine.

  20. Radiochromium distribution during saline diuresis

    SciTech Connect

    Wallach, S.; Verch, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Free water diuresis in vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats does not influence body conservation of chromium (Cr/sup +3/), suggesting a proximal tubular site for renal Cr reabsorption. Other data suggest that Cr conservation is accomplished primarily by lack of glomerular filtration or by tissue binding to a specific Cr-binding substance. To provide further data, radiochromium (/sup 51/Cr) retention and tissue distribution were studied in SHR and WKY rats undergoing saline diuresis. Despite high urine flows, body retention and urinary excretion of /sup 51/Cr were unchanged. Tissue content of /sup 51/Cr was minimally and not consistently influenced by saline diuresis in either rat strain. Compared to WKY rats, the SHR rats had a trend to lower serum and tissue /sup 51/Cr content but higher tissue/serum /sup 51/Cr ratios. These data fail to incriminate collecting duct reabsorption in Cr conservation but are compatible with proximal Cr reabsorption or either of the two hypotheses mentioned above. The decreased serum /sup 51/Cr content of SHR rats may be due to the mechanical effect of increased plasma and extracellular volumes. One possible explanation for the increased tissue/serum /sup 51/Cr ratios may be the presence of a factor in SHR rats promoting cellular Cr transport. However, there is no present evidence to suggest that any of the hormones believed capable of increasing Cr transport (insulin, growth hormone, thyroxine, ADH) are increased in the SHR rat.

  1. Genotypic Responses to Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Rush, Dale W.; Epstein, Emanuel

    1976-01-01

    Four ecotypes of the species Lycopersicon cheesmanii ssp. minor (Hook.) C.H. Mull. from the Galapagos Islands were compared with L. esculentum Mill cv. VF 36 with respect to salt tolerance. The L. cheesmanii ecotype that proved most salt-tolerant was selected for detailed comparison with the L. esculentum cultivar. Plants were grown in modified Hoagland solution salinized with synthetic seawater salt mix. Growth rates under saline conditions were examined and amino acid, sugar, total amino nitrogen, free acidity, and Na and K levels in the tissues of the most and least tolerant plants were measured under salt stress and nonstress conditions. Results indicate that all Galapagos ecotypes were far more salt-tolerant than was the esculentum cultivar. They could survive in full strength seawater nutrient solution while the esculentum cultivar could not in most cases withstand levels higher than 50% seawater. Growth rates were reduced in both species under saline conditions but the esculentum cultivar was more severely affected. High levels of total amino nitrogen, specific amino acids, and free acidity along with low sodium content were found in the salt stressed VF 36 cultivar. The opposite responses were noted in the salt stressed treatments of the Galapagos ecotype. Tissue sugar levels did not appear to be similarly correlated with salt stress in either species. Potassium content fell sharply during salinization in the Galapagos ecotype while in the esculentum cultivar it declined relatively little even at high levels of salinity. PMID:16659442

  2. Hypertonic Saline in Treatment of Pulmonary Disease in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Emer P.; Molloy, Kevin; Pohl, Kerstin; McElvaney, Noel G.

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration. PMID:22645424

  3. Saline Systems highlights for 2006

    PubMed Central

    DasSarma, Shiladitya

    2007-01-01

    Saline Systems is a journal devoted to both basic and applied studies of saline and hypersaline environments and their biodiversity. Here, I review the reports and commentaries published in the journal in 2006, including some exploring the geochemistry of saline estuaries, lakes, and ponds, others on the ecology and molecular biology of the indigenous halophilic organisms, and still others addressing the environmental challenges facing saline environments. Several studies are relevant to applications in biotechnology and aquaculture. PMID:17244355

  4. Enema versus polyethylene glycol for the management of rectal faecal impaction in children with constipation – a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyniak, Katarzyna; Horvath, Andrea; Szajewska, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rectal faecal impaction (RFI) from functional constipation is a common problem in children. Maintenance therapy should start after successful disimpaction. However, there is uncertainty with regard to the optimal disimpaction regimen. Aim We systematically evaluated the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) compared to enema for treating RFI. Material and methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, with no language restrictions, were searched up to July 2014 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of PEG compared with enema for disimpaction in children with functional constipation. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results Two RCTs, involving 170 children aged 1 to 17 years, met the inclusion criteria. The studies were generally low in methodological quality. Compared with the enema group, the PEG 3350 group had significantly reduced chance for treatment success, but the difference was of a borderline statistical significance (RR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.7–0.99). The use of PEG was also more likely to increase defecation frequency, but increased the risk of watery stools and increased faecal incontinence. Other outcomes, in general, were similar in both groups. Conclusions Current evidence does not allow us to conclude which intervention is more effective for treating RFI in children with functional constipation. These results should be interpreted with caution due to the limited number of trials and the low quality of reporting in these trials, high or unknown risk of bias, and sparse data. Further high-quality, adequately powered RCTs are needed to determine the optimal management. PMID:26759631

  5. Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, D.H.

    1984-08-30

    The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water that is cold, nutrient rich and relatively fresh in comparison to the surface water which is relatively warm, relatively nutrient deficient and relatively saline. A plurality of elongated flow segregating tubes are disposed in the main duct and extend from the upper cover plate beyond the lower cover plate into a lower manifold plate. The lower manifold plate is spaced from the lower cover plate to define a deep water fluid flow path to the interior space of the main duct. Spacer tubes extend from the upper cover plate and communicate with the interior space of the main duct. The spacer tubes are received in an upper manifold plate spaced from the upper cover plate to define a surface water fluid flow path into the flow segregating tubes. A surface water-deep water counterflow is thus established with deep water flowing upwardly through the main duct interior for discharge beyond the upper manifold plate while surface water flows downwardly through the flow segregating tubes for discharge below the lower manifold plate. During such counterflow heat is transferred from the downflowing warm water to the upflowing cold water. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep water and the surface water due to their differences in salinity. The upwelling of nutrient rich deep water is used for marifarming by fertilizing the nutrient deficient surface water. 1 fig.

  6. Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, David H.

    1986-01-01

    The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water that is cold, nutrient rich and relatively fresh in comparison to the surface water which is relatively warm, relatively nutrient deficient and relatively saline. A plurality of elongated flow segregating tubes are disposed in the main duct and extend from the upper cover plate beyond the lower cover plate into a lower manifold plate. The lower manifold plate is spaced from the lower cover plate to define a deep water fluid flow path to the interior space of the main duct. Spacer tubes extend from the upper cover plate and communicate with the interior space of the main duct. The spacer tubes are received in an upper manifold plate spaced from the upper cover plate to define a surface water fluid flow path into the flow segregating tubes. A surface water-deep water counterflow is thus established with deep water flowing upwardly through the main duct interior for discharge beyond the upper manifold plate while surface water flows downwardly through the flow segregating tubes for discharge below the lower manifold plate. During such counterflow heat is transferred from the downflowing warm water to the upflowing cold water. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep water and the surface water due to their differences in salinity. The upwelling of nutrient rich deep water is used for marifarming by fertilizing the nutrient deficient surface water.

  7. Overview of SMOS Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, R.

    2014-12-01

    While it is well known that the ocean is one of the most important components of the climate system, with a heat capacity 1100 times greater than the atmosphere, the ocean is also the primary reservoir for freshwater transport to the atmosphere and largest component of the global water cycle. Two new satellite sensors, the ESA Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and the NASA Aquarius SAC-D missions are now providing the first space borne measurements of the sea surface salinity (SSS). In this talk, we will present examples demonstrating how SMOS-derived SSS data are being used to better characterize key land-ocean and atmosphere-ocean interaction processes that occur within the marine hydrological cycle. In particular, we shall illustrate how SMOS and its ocean mapping capability provides observations across the world's largest tropical ocean fresh pool regions and we will discuss intra-seasonal to interannual precipitation impacts as well as large-scale river runoff from the Amazon-Orinoco and Congo rivers and its offshore advection. Synergistic multi-satellite analyses of these new surface salinity data sets combined with sea surface temperature, dynamical height and currents from altimetry, surface wind, ocean color, rainfall estimates, and in situ observations will be shown to yield new freshwater budget and ocean circulation insight. Examples of SMOS capabilities of monitoring salt exchanges across the Gulf Stream through meso-scale eddies will be provided. SSS observations from the SMOS and Aquarius/SAC-D sensors are combined to examine the response of the upper ocean to tropical cyclone passage including the potential role that a freshwater-induced upper ocean barrier layer may play in modulating surface cooling and enthalpy flux in tropical cyclone track regions.

  8. Salinization processes of continental aquifers during marine transgression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armandine Les Landes, Antoine; Davy, Philippe; Aquilina, Luc

    2014-05-01

    Saline fluids with moderate concentrations have been sampled in basement aquifers at the regional scale in the Armorican shield (northwestern France). The horizontal and vertical distributions of high chloride concentrations (60-1400mg/L) are in good agreement with altitudinal and spatial limits of three major marine transgressions between the Mio-Pliocene and Pleistocene ages. The current distribution of fresh and "saline" groundwater at depth is the result mostly of processes occurring at geological timescales - seawater intrusion processes followed by fresh groundwater flushing -, and slightly of recent anthropogenic activities. In this abstract, we focus on seawater intrusion mechanisms in continental aquifers to investigate how saline fluids are irreversibly introduced into aquifers after a full transgression cycle. We first show that most of salt water that remains after the end of a marine transgression comes from a destabilization of the salt water wedge. This mainly occurs by gravity instabilities, which develop from salinized rivers or estuaries that penetrate inland on top of fresh groundwater. This downward diapirism is an efficient mechanism to feed deep aquifers with highly saline water at relatively high rates. Series of numerical model (time-dependent, variable-density flow and transport) of free convection have been performed with a permeability model typical of the continental crust (i.e. exponentially decreasing with depth). Salinization has been quantified according to the width of the stream, the properties of the initial perturbation (amplitude and wavelength), the stream salinity and the regional groundwater flow. Simulations allow us to identify the conditions necessary to develop gravity instabilities, and if it does, the rates at which basement aquifers are salinized. We then identify the continental zones, where these conditions are fulfilled and make an estimate of the total volume of salt that can remain in aquifers after a transgression. Eventually we discuss how saline fluids are flushed out by fresh groundwater flows.

  9. CAN BROCCOLI TOLERATE HIGHER CONCENTRATIONS OF BORON UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reuse of saline drainage water is a management option that is necessary for reducing the volume of drainage water produced on the west side of California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV). A potential limitation in implementing a drainage water reuse system is determining the extent by which boron, a natur...

  10. Simulating root water uptake from a shallow saline groundwater resource

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of saline drainage water is a significant problem for irrigated agriculture. One proposal to deal with this problem is sequential biological concentration (SBC), which is the process of recycling drainage water on increasingly more salt tolerant crops until the volume of drainage water has ...

  11. Management of dryland saline seeps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discussed is the identification, diagnosis, control, and reclamation of dryland saline seep problems as found in the North American Great Plains. Saline seeps develop because of geologic stratifications within the soil profile and insufficient use of precipitation by crops used in dryland farming s...

  12. The Mediterranean salinity crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, K.J.

    1988-08-01

    That the Mediterranean Sea underwent a salinity crisis during the Miocene (Messinian) is proven by the 1970 JOIDES deep sea drilling expedition. Subsequent work by ocean drilling and by studies on land have recorded the history of this crisis. Based upon the deep desiccated-basin model, the use of event-stratigraphy, calibrated by strontium-isotope dating and magnetostratigraphy, has enabled them to decipher the following events between 6.0 and 5.1 Ma: (1) deposition of marine diatom-rich sediments in a partially restricted basin, (2) first desiccation of the Mediterranean when Calcare di base was deposited at a time of isolation from the Atlantic because of a glacial eustatic drop of sea level, (3) influx of marine waters through southern Spanish basins to furnish brines for the deposition of the main salt, (4) Intra-Messinian desiccation, as evidenced by the erosional unconformity above the lower evaporite, (5) Intra-Messinian denudation, when reefs grew on Cyprus and marine sediments were deposited in basins, (6) frequency isolations due to oscillating sea level, when the upper evaporite was deposited, (7) Lago mare, formation of freshwater and brackish lakes due to influx of Paratethys water, (8) opening of the Gibraltar and Pliocene inundation of the Mediterranean.

  13. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... estuary. The downstream migration of the salinity gradient can occur, displacing the maximum sedimentation... migration of the salinity gradient displacing the maximim sedimentation zone. This migration may...

  14. Alfalfa production using saline drainage water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three year study investigated the use of saline (< 6 dS/m) drainage water for irrigation of salt tolerant alfalfa in the presence of shallow saline groundwater. The irrigation treatments included; irrigating twice between cuttings with non-saline water, 2) irrigating with moderately saline water...

  15. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230... Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity... fresh or salt water may change existing salinity gradients. For example, partial blocking of...

  16. Comparison of Normal Saline, Hypertonic Saline Albumin and Terlipressin plus Hypertonic Saline Albumin in an Infant Animal Model of Hypovolemic Shock

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In series of cases and animal models suffering hemorrhagic shock, the use of vasopressors has shown potential benefits regarding hemodynamics and tissue perfusion. Terlipressin is an analogue of vasopressin with a longer half-life that can be administered by bolus injection. We have previously observed that hypertonic albumin improves resuscitation following controlled hemorrhage in piglets. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether the treatment with the combination of terlipressin and hypertonic albumin can produce better hemodynamic and tissular perfusion parameters than normal saline or hypertonic albumin alone at early stages of hemorrhagic shock in an infant animal model. Methods Experimental, randomized animal study including 39 2-to-3-month-old piglets. Thirty minutes after controlled 30 ml/kg bleed, pigs were randomized to receive either normal saline (NS) 30 ml/kg (n = 13), 5% albumin plus 3% hypertonic saline (AHS) 15 ml/kg (n = 13) or single bolus of terlipressin 15 μg/kg i.v. plus 5% albumin plus 3% hypertonic saline 15 ml/kg (TAHS) (n = 13) over 30 minutes. Global hemodynamic and tissular perfusion parameters were compared. Results After controlled bleed a significant decrease of blood pressure, cardiac index, central venous saturation, carotid and peripheral blood flow, brain saturation and an increase of heart rate, gastric PCO2 and lactate was observed. After treatment no significant differences in most hemodynamic (cardiac index, mean arterial pressure) and perfusion parameters (lactate, gastric PCO2, brain saturation, cutaneous blood flow) were observed between the three therapeutic groups. AHS and TAHS produced higher increase in stroke volume index and carotid blood flow than NS. Conclusions In this pediatric animal model of hypovolemic shock, albumin plus hypertonic saline with or without terlipressin achieved similar hemodynamics and perfusion parameters than twice the volume of NS. Addition of terlipressin did not produce better results than AHS. PMID:25794276

  17. Hypoaigic influences on groundwater flux to a seasonally saline river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trefry, M. G.; Svensson, T. J. A.; Davis, G. B.

    2007-03-01

    SummaryHypoaigic zones are aquifer volumes close to and beneath the shores of saline surface water bodies, and are characterized by the presence of time-dependent natural convection and chemical stratification. When transient and cyclic processes are involved there is significant potential for complex flow and reaction in the near-shore aquifer, presenting a unique challenge to pollutant risk assessment methodologies. This work considers the nature of some hypoaigic processes generated by the seasonally saline Canning River of Western Australia near a site contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. A dissolved hydrocarbon plume migrates within the shallow superficial aquifer to the nearby bank of the Canning River. Beneath the river bank a zone of complex fluid mixing is established by seasonal and tidal influences. Understanding this complexity and the subsequent ramifications for local biogeochemical conditions is critical to inferring the potential for degradation of advecting contaminants. A range of modelling approaches throws light on the overall topographic controls of discharge to the river, on the saline convection processes operating under the river bank, on the potential for fluid mixing, and on the various important time scales in the system. Saline distributions simulated within the aquifer hypoaigic zone are in at least qualitative agreement with previous field measurements at the site and are strongly affected by seasonal influences. Groundwater seepage velocities at the shoreline are found to be positively correlated with river salinity. Calculations of fluid age distributions throughout the system show sensitivity to dispersivity values; however, maximum fluid ages under the river appear to be diffusion limited to a few decades. The saline convection cell in the aquifer defines a zone of strong dispersive dilution of aged (many decades) deep aquifer fluids with relatively young (several months) riverine fluids. Seasonal recharge and river salinity cycles induce regular perturbations to the convection cell, yielding intra-annual variations of 50% in seepage velocity and almost 30% in wedge penetration distance at the plume location.

  18. Analysis of Geometric Shifts and Proper Setup-Margin in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Pelvic Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Using Endorectal Ballooning and Daily Enema for Prostate Immobilization.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Songmi; Lee, Jong Hoon; Chung, Mi Joo; Lee, Sea Won; Lee, Jeong Won; Kang, Dae Gyu; Kim, Sung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate geometric shifts of daily setup for evaluating the appropriateness of treatment and determining proper margins for the planning target volume (PTV) in prostate cancer patients.We analyzed 1200 sets of pretreatment megavoltage-CT scans that were acquired from 40 patients with intermediate to high-risk prostate cancer. They received whole pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). They underwent daily endorectal ballooning and enema to limit intrapelvic organ movement. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of daily translational shifts in right-to-left (X), anterior-to-posterior (Y), and superior-to-inferior (Z) were evaluated for systemic and random error.The mean ± SD of systemic error (Σ) in X, Y, Z, and roll was 2.21 ± 3.42 mm, -0.67 ± 2.27 mm, 1.05 ± 2.87 mm, and -0.43 ± 0.89°, respectively. The mean ± SD of random error (δ) was 1.95 ± 1.60 mm in X, 1.02 ± 0.50 mm in Y, 1.01 ± 0.48 mm in Z, and 0.37 ± 0.15° in roll. The calculated proper PTV margins that cover >95% of the target on average were 8.20 (X), 5.25 (Y), and 6.45 (Z) mm. Mean systemic geometrical shifts of IMRT were not statistically different in all transitional and three-dimensional shifts from early to late weeks. There was no grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal or genitourianry toxicity.The whole pelvic IMRT technique is a feasible and effective modality that limits intrapelvic organ motion and reduces setup uncertainties. Proper margins for the PTV can be determined by using geometric shifts data. PMID:26765418

  19. Analysis of Geometric Shifts and Proper Setup-Margin in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Pelvic Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Using Endorectal Ballooning and Daily Enema for Prostate Immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Songmi; Lee, Jong Hoon; Chung, Mi Joo; Lee, Sea Won; Lee, Jeong Won; Kang, Dae Gyu; Kim, Sung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We evaluate geometric shifts of daily setup for evaluating the appropriateness of treatment and determining proper margins for the planning target volume (PTV) in prostate cancer patients. We analyzed 1200 sets of pretreatment megavoltage-CT scans that were acquired from 40 patients with intermediate to high-risk prostate cancer. They received whole pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). They underwent daily endorectal ballooning and enema to limit intrapelvic organ movement. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of daily translational shifts in right-to-left (X), anterior-to-posterior (Y), and superior-to-inferior (Z) were evaluated for systemic and random error. The mean ± SD of systemic error (Σ) in X, Y, Z, and roll was 2.21 ± 3.42 mm, −0.67 ± 2.27 mm, 1.05 ± 2.87 mm, and −0.43 ± 0.89°, respectively. The mean ± SD of random error (δ) was 1.95 ± 1.60 mm in X, 1.02 ± 0.50 mm in Y, 1.01 ± 0.48 mm in Z, and 0.37 ± 0.15° in roll. The calculated proper PTV margins that cover >95% of the target on average were 8.20 (X), 5.25 (Y), and 6.45 (Z) mm. Mean systemic geometrical shifts of IMRT were not statistically different in all transitional and three-dimensional shifts from early to late weeks. There was no grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal or genitourianry toxicity. The whole pelvic IMRT technique is a feasible and effective modality that limits intrapelvic organ motion and reduces setup uncertainties. Proper margins for the PTV can be determined by using geometric shifts data. PMID:26765418

  20. Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

    2005-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

  1. Recent desiccation of Western Great Basin Saline Lakes: Lessons from Lake Abert, Oregon, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Moore, Johnnie N

    2016-06-01

    Although extremely important to migrating waterfowl and shorebirds, and highly threatened globally, most saline lakes are poorly monitored. Lake Abert in the western Great Basin, USA, is an example of this neglect. Designated a critical habitat under the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, the lake is at near record historic low levels and ultra-high salinities that have resulted in ecosystem collapse. Determination of the direct human effects and broader climate controls on Lake Abert illustrates the broader problem of saline lake desiccation and suggests future solutions for restoration of key habitat values. A 65-year time series of lake area was constructed from Landsat images and transformed to lake volume and salinity. "Natural" (without upstream withdrawals) conditions were calculated from climate and stream flow data, and compared to measured volume and salinity. Under natural conditions the lake would have higher volume and lower salinities because annual water withdrawals account for one-third of mean lake volume. Without withdrawals, the lake would have maintained annual mean salinities mostly within the optimal range of brine shrimp and alkali fly growth. Even during the last two years of major drought, the lake would have maintained salinities well below measured values. Change in climate alone would not produce the recent low lake volumes and high salinities that have destroyed the brine shrimp and alkali fly populations and depleted shorebird use at Lake Abert. Large scale withdrawal of water for direct human use has drastically increased the imbalance between natural runoff and evaporation during periods of drought in saline lakes worldwide but could be offset by establishing an "environmental water budget" to lay a foundation for the conservation of saline lake habitats under continued threats from development and climate change. PMID:26950628

  2. Breast implants: saline or silicone?

    PubMed

    Spear, Scott L; Jespersen, M Renee

    2010-01-01

    The United States has seen significant shifts in the breast implant market over the past five decades. From the moratorium on silicone gel breast implants in 1992 to their approval in 2006, there have been many developments in their manufacturing and usage. Meanwhile, saline breast implants have remained somewhat unchanged, still offering a few distinct advantages but none of the technological innovation of the silicone gel models. In this article, the authors review the current state of silicone gel and saline implants, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each. Much of the current data on complications of gel and saline implants are examined, as well as some practical implications associated with the use of each implant type. PMID:20829254

  3. Determining Salinity by Simple Means.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper describes the construction and use of a simple salinometer. The salinometer is composed, mainly, of a milliammeter and a battery and uses the measurement of current flow to determine the salinity of water. A complete list of materials is given, as are details of construction and operation of the equipment. The use of the salinometer in…

  4. Mycelial bacteria of saline soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Zenova, G. M.; Oborotov, G. V.

    2008-10-01

    The actinomycetal complexes of saline soils comprise the representatives of the Streptomyces and Micromonospora genera, the number of which are hundreds and thousands of CFU/g soil. Complexes of mycelial bacteria in saline soils are poorer in terms of number (by 1-3 orders of magnitude) and taxonomic composition than the complexes of the zonal soil types. A specific feature of the actinomycetal complexes of saline soils is the predominance of halophilic, alkaliphilic, and haloalkaliphilic streptomycetes that well grow at pH 8-9 and concentrations of NaCl close to 5%. Actinomycetes in saline soils grow actively, and the length of their mycelium reaches 140 m in 1 gram of soil. The haloalkaliphilic streptomycetes grow fast and inhibit the formation of spores at pH 9 and high concentrations of salts (Na2SO4 and MgCl2, 5%) as compared to their behavior on a neutral medium with a salt concentration of 0.02%. They are characterized by the maximal radial growth rate of colonies on an alkaline medium with 5% NaCl.

  5. Determining Salinity by Simple Means.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper describes the construction and use of a simple salinometer. The salinometer is composed, mainly, of a milliammeter and a battery and uses the measurement of current flow to determine the salinity of water. A complete list of materials is given, as are details of construction and operation of the equipment. The use of the salinometer in

  6. INTEGRATING DESALINATION AND AGRICULTURAL SALINITY CONTROL ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cost-effectiveness relationships for various agricultural and desalination alternatives for controlling salinity in irrigation return flows are developed. Selection of optimal salinity management strategies on a river basin scale is described as a problem of integrating optim...

  7. Storm-damaged saline-contaminated boreholes as a means of aquifer contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, D.A.; Van Biersel, T. P.; Milner, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Saline water from a storm surge can flow down storm-damaged submerged water supply wells and contaminate boreholes and surrounding aquifers. Using data from conventional purging techniques, aquifer test response analysis, chemical analysis, and regression analysis of chloride/silica (Cl/Si) ratio, equations were derived to estimate the volume of saline water intrusion into a well and a porous media aquifer, the volume of water needed to purge a well shortly following an intrusion event, and the volume of water needed after delay of several or more months, when the saline plume has expanded. Purging time required is a function of volume of water and pumping rate. The study site well is located within a shoreline community of Lake Pontchartrain, St. Tammany Parish, in southeastern Louisiana, United States, which was impacted by two hurricane storm surges and had neither been rehabilitated nor chlorinated prior to our study. Chemical analysis of water samples in fall 2005 and purging of well and aquifer in June 6, 2006, indicated saline water had intruded the well in 2005 and the well and aquifer in 2006. The volume of water needed to purge the study well was approximately 200 casing volumes, which is significantly greater than conventionally used during collection of water samples for water quality analyses. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  8. The Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank; Hilburn, Kyle; Lagerloef, Gary; Le Vine, David

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this presentation gives an overview over the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The instrument calibration [2] converts Aquarius radiometer counts into antenna temperatures (TA). The salinity retrieval algorithm converts those TA into brightness temperatures (TB) at a flat ocean surface. As a first step, contributions arising from the intrusion of solar, lunar and galactic radiation are subtracted. The antenna pattern correction (APC) removes the effects of cross-polarization contamination and spillover. The Aquarius radiometer measures the 3rd Stokes parameter in addition to vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations, which allows for an easy removal of ionospheric Faraday rotation. The atmospheric absorption at L-band is almost entirely due to molecular oxygen, which can be calculated based on auxiliary input fields from numerical weather prediction models and then successively removed from the TB. The final step in the TA to TB conversion is the correction for the roughness of the sea surface due to wind, which is addressed in more detail in section 3. The TB of the flat ocean surface can now be matched to a salinity value using a surface emission model that is based on a model for the dielectric constant of sea water [3], [4] and an auxiliary field for the sea surface temperature. In the current processing only v-pol TB are used for this last step.

  9. Comparison of hypertonic saline versus normal saline on cytokine profile during CABG

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Blood contact with artificial surfaces of the extracorporeal circuit and ischemia-reperfusion injury in CABG with CPB, may lead to a systemic inflammatory response. Hypertonic saline have been recently investigated as a fluid in order to decrease inflammatory response and cytokines generation in patients undergo cardiac operations. Our purpose is to study the prophylactic effect of HS 5% infusion versus NS on serum IL-6 as an inflammatory & IL-10 as an anti-inflammatory biomarker in CABG patients. Methods The present study is a randomized double-blinded clinical trial. 40 patients undergoing CABG were randomized to receive HS 5% or NS before operation. Blood samples were obtained after receiving HS or NS, just before operation, 24 and 48 hours post-operatively. Plasma levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were measured by ELISA. Results and major conclusion Patients received HS had lower levels of IL-6 and higher level of IL-10 compared with NS group, however these differences were not statistically significant. Results of this study suggest that pre-treatment with small volume hypertonic saline 5% may have beneficial effects on inflammatory response following CABG operation. PMID:23351427

  10. Effects of liquid paraffin in the diet or infused via colonic enema on fecal elimination of /sup 14/C-hexachlorobenzene from body burdens in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Robles-Porras, H.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-one male rats were dosed once intraperitoneally with 32.2 mg /sup 14/C-hexachlorobenzene in corn oil (/sup 14/C-HCB activity 11.67 ..mu..Ci/rat). After 4 d, six rats were randomly selected, bled and hemi-castrated with sampling of epididymal adipose tissue to establish /sup 14/C-HCB body burdens. Thereafter, all rats were allocated randomly into three groups, each with five intact and two hemi-castrated rats. One group (controls) received only a basal diet; another received the basal diet amended with 5% light mineral oil (MO); and the third received the basal diet and 1 ml of MO once daily via enema in the upper colon. Treatments were continued throughout 27 d. Excretion of /sup 14/C-HCB and(or) metabolites into feces and urine was measured daily for each rat for 31 d after /sup 14/C-HCB dosage. Fecal excretion of /sup 14/C-HCB and(or) metabolites was increased 2.5-fold by dietary MO and 1.7-fold by MO in the colon. When adjusted to equal dosage, MO by colon was 93% as effective as MO by diet. Urinary /sup 14/C-HCB excretion was not affected by MO, except indirectly through lowered body burden. Addition of hexadecane (25 ..mu..l per 100 mg adipose tissue) into the incubation mixture enhanced (P < 0.05) distribution of /sup 14/C-HCB into the liquid fraction for rats not previously fed hexadecane, but had no effect on incubation mixtures from rats fed hexadecane. Results confirm that liquid paraffins enhance elimination of /sup 14/C-HCB from body burdens into feces and suggest that distribution into blood cells and plasma may partially explain the effect.

  11. Saline Infusion Markedly Reduces Impedance and Improves Efficacy of Pulmonary Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Gananadha, Sivakumar Morris, David Lawson

    2004-08-15

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a relatively new technique that has been investigated for the treatment of lung tumors. We evaluated for the first time the in vivo use of saline infusion during radiofrequency ablation of sheep lung. We performed RFA on 5 sheep using open and closed chest RFA and the RITA starburst XL and Xli probes using saline infusion with the Xli probe. The impedance and volume of ablation were compared. A total of 16 ablations were produced, 5 percutaneously and 11 open. The impedance during percutaneous and open RFA without saline infusion was 110 {+-} 16.2 and 183.3 {+-} 105.8 O, respectively. With the saline infusion the impedance was 71.3 {+-} 22O and 103.6 {+-} 37.5O. The effect of this was a significantly larger volume of ablation using the saline infusion during percutaneous RFA (90.6 {+-} 23 cm{sup 3} vs 10.47 {+-} 2.9 cm{sup 3}, p = 0.01) and open RFA (107.8 {+-} 25.8 cm{sup 3} vs 24.9 {+-} 19.3 cm{sup 3}, p = 0.0002). Saline infusion during RFA is associated with lower impedance, higher power delivery and larger lesion size.

  12. Effects of thermochemical sulfate reduction upon formation water salinity and oxygen isotopes in carbonate gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Worden, R.H.; Smalley, P.C.; Oxtoby, N.H.

    1996-10-01

    Themochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) is a well known process that can lead to sour (H{sub 2}S-rich) petroleum accumulations. Most studies of TSR have concentrated upon gas chemistry. In this study we have investigated palaeoformation water characteristics in a deep, anhydrite-bearing dolomite, sour-gas reservoir of Permian age in Abu Dhabi using fluid inclusion. stable isotope, petrographic, and gas chemical data. The data show that low salinity, isotopically-distinct water was generated within the reservoir by reaction between anhydrite and methane. The amount of water added to the reservoir from TSR, indicated by reduced fluid inclusion salinity and water {delta}{sup 18}O values, varied systematically with the extent of anhydrite reaction with methane. Water salinity and isotope data show that the original formation water was diluted by between four and five times by water from TSR. Thus, we have shown that large volumes of very low salinity water were generated within the gas reservoirs during diagenesis following gas emplacement. The salinity of formation water in evaporite lithologies is, therefore, not necessarily high. Modelling. based upon a typical Khuff gas reservoir rock volume, suggests that initial formation water volumes can only be increased by about three times as a result of TSR. The extreme local dilution shown by the water salinity and {delta}{sup 18}O data must, therefore, reflect transiently imperfect mixing between TSR water and original formation water. The creation of large volumes of water has important implications for the mechanism and rate of thermochemical sulphate reduction and the interpretation of gas volumes using petrophysical logging tools. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Runoff quality impacts of dust suppression using saline water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loch, Rob J.; Squires, Helen

    2010-05-01

    In mining and gas operations, dust generation from unsealed roads is a major problem. Commonly, road watering is used to suppress dust, with the lowest water quality available generally being selected for that purpose. Whilst minimising water usage for the site, that practice does create concerns with respect to potential environmental impacts if runoff from the treated roads has significantly elevated salinity. For coal seam gas operations, the water extracted concurrently with the gas contains predominantly sodium bicarbonate. Therefore, where coal seam gas water is sprayed onto roads, there is potential for elevated sodium in runoff to impact on soil adjoining the roads, but there is no information on the rates of dissolution and mobilisation of soluble salt from the surface of roads that have been sprayed with low quality water to reduce dust. Therefore a rainfall simulator study was carried out to investigate rates of mobilisation of sodium bicarbonate from compacted soil surfaces simulating an unsealed road. The study considered effects of the amount of precipitated sodium bicarbonate on the soil surface and variations in rainfall intensity. Because the soil surfaces were compacted, runoff commenced almost immediately following application of rain. For all treatments with applied surface salt, runoff quality data showed a peak in salt concentration in the first flush of runoff, and relatively rapid reduction through time in those initial concentrations. The magnitude and duration of peak concentrations depended on both rainfall rate and the quantity of salt present on the soil surface. The flush of salts in run-off from the roads occurred very early in the run-off event, when none of the surrounding area would have commenced to run off. Consequently, the relatively small volume of run-off produced directly by the road could be expected to predominantly infiltrate in the table drain adjoining the road. The initial flush of saline water would then be leached to depth or diluted by the less saline runoff generated from the road in the latter part of the run-off event, or by non- saline runoff from the surrounding catchment. Particularly for mine sites, the data indicate that the use of saline water in dust suppression on unsealed roads is unlikely to impact significantly on the wider surrounding environment. It is recognised that watering for dust suppression on mine sites typically salinises the road area, and that eventual rehabilitation has to deal with those saline areas. Therefore, additional salinity in the soil adjoining the road is not considered to be of concern.

  14. Comparative study of the effects of air or saline to identify the extradural space.

    PubMed

    Valentine, S J; Jarvis, A P; Shutt, L E

    1991-02-01

    Fifty women in labour were allocated randomly to receive either air or saline to assist in the identification of the extradural space by the loss of resistance technique. A study volume of 4 ml of air or saline was used before 0.5% bupivacaine 8 ml and the spread of analgesia was followed for 30 min. The first segment blocked, time of onset, number of blocked segments and height of block were comparable in the two groups. At 30 min, there were eight patients with an unblocked segment in the air group, compared with two in the saline group (P less than 0.01). All unblocked segments were blocked subsequently by further doses of bupivacaine. We conclude that air is more likely than saline to produce unblocked segments in the initiation of extradural analgesia in labour. PMID:1817625

  15. Salinity gradient power: utilizing vapor pressure differences.

    PubMed

    Olsson, M; Wick, G L; Isaacs, J D

    1979-10-26

    By utilizing the vapor pressure difference between high-salinity and lowsalinity wvater, one can obtain power from the gradients of salinity. This scheme eliminates the major problems associated with conversion methods in which membranes are used. The method we tested gave higher conversion efficiencies than membrane methods. Furthermore, hardware and techniques being developed for ocean thermal energy conversion may be applied to this approach to salinity gradient energy conversion. PMID:17809370

  16. Relating river discharges to salinity changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, X.; Liu, W. T.

    2014-12-01

    New river discharge data are brought together with spacebased sea surface salinity measurements by Aquarius and SMOS to demonstrate the role of river discharge in salinity changes near three river mouths: the Mississippi, the Ganges, and the Amazon. The characteristics of the seasonal cycle and the year-to-year changes of the river runoff are described. Various versions of the satellite salinity data are compared. The relative roles of river discharge, surface water flux, and horizontal advection in changing surface salinity in regions near the river mouths are examined. Satellite measurements of SSS clearly track movements of the fresh water from river discharges. Besides the river discharge, E-P plays an important role in the seasonal salinity variation near the Ganges and Irrawaddy River mouths. For the Mississippi and Amazon river mouths, central and eastern ITCZ, E-P contributes very little to the salinity seasonal change. In the central and eastern ITCZ, contribution of advection to the salinity tendency is clearly identified. Both salinity and salinity tendency are dominated by semi-annual cycle in the Atlantic ITCZ between 5ºN to 9ºN, whereas annual cycle dominates at other latitudes.

  17. Soil salinity detection from satellite image analysis: an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data.

    PubMed

    Morshed, Md Manjur; Islam, Md Tazmul; Jamil, Raihan

    2016-02-01

    This paper attempts to detect soil salinity from satellite image analysis using remote sensing and geographic information system. Salinity intrusion is a common problem for the coastal regions of the world. Traditional salinity detection techniques by field survey and sampling are time-consuming and expensive. Remote sensing and geographic information system offer economic and efficient salinity detection, monitoring, and mapping. To predict soil salinity, an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data was used to develop a multiple regression equation. The correlations between different indices and field data of soil salinity were calculated to find out the highly correlated indices. The best regression model was selected considering the high R (2) value, low P value, and low Akaike's Information Criterion. About 20 % variation was observed between the field data and predicted EC from the satellite image analysis. The precision of this salinity detection technique depends on the accuracy and uniform distribution of field data. PMID:26815557

  18. Effects of Methane-Rich Saline on the Capability of One-Time Exhaustive Exercise in Male SD Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Lei; Sun, Xuejun; Lou, Shujie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore the effects of methane-rich saline (CH4 saline) on the capability of one-time exhaustive exercise in male SD rats. Methods Thirty rats were equally divided into to three groups at random: control group (C), placebo group (P) and methane saline group (M). Rats in M group underwent intraperitoneal injection of CH4 saline, and the other two groups simultaneously underwent intraperitoneal injection of normal saline. Then, the exercise capability of rats was tested through one-time exhaustive treadmill exercise except C group. Exercise time and body weight were recorded before and after one-time exhaustive exercise. After exhaustive exercise, the blood and gastrocnemius samples were collected from all rats to detect biochemical parameters in different methods. Results It was found that the treadmill running time was significantly longer in rats treated with CH4 saline. At the same time, CH4 saline reduced the elevation of LD and UN in blood caused by one-time exhaustive exercise. The low level of blood glucose induced by exhaustive exercise was also normalized by CH4 saline. Also CH4 saline lowered the level of CK in plasma. Furthermore, this research indicated that CH4 saline markedly increased the volume of T-AOC in plasma and alleviated the peak of TNF-α in both plasma and gastrocnemius. From H&E staining, CH4 saline effectively improved exercise-induced structural damage in gastrocnemius. Conclusions CH4 saline could enhance exercise capacity in male SD rats through increase of glucose aerobic oxidation, improvement of metabolic clearance and decrease of exhaustive exercise-induced gastrocnemius injury. PMID:26942576

  19. Aquarius Instrument and Salinity Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Aquarius has been designed to map the surface salinity field of the global ocean from space a parameter important for understanding ocean circulation and its relationship to climate and the global water cycle. Salinity is measured remotely from space by measuring the thermal emission from the ocean surface. This is done at the low frequency end of the microwave spectrum (e.g. 1.4 GHz) where the emission is sufficiently sensitive to changes in salinity to be detected with sophisticated radiometers. The goal is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean by providing maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. These are challenging requirements that have led to some unique features of the instrument. These include: a) The addition of a co-located scatterometer to help provide a correction for roughness; b) The addition of a polarimetric channel (third Stokes parameter) to the radiometer to help correct for Faraday rotation; c) Asun-synchronous orbit with a 6 pm ascending equatorial crossing to minimize Faraday rotation and with the antennas looking away from the sun toward the nighttime side to minimize contamination by radiation from the sun; and d) An antenna designed to limit side lobes in the direction of rays from the sun. In addition, achieving the accuracy goal of 0.2 psu requires averaging over one month and to do this requires a highly stable radiometer. Aquarius has three separate radiometers that image in pushbroom fashion with the three antenna beams looking across track. The antenna is a 2.5-m diameter, offset parabolic reflector with three feed horns and the three beams are arranged to image with the boresight aligned to look across track, roughly perpendicular to the spacecraft heading and pointing away from the Sun. The three beams point at angles of theta = 25.8 deg., 33.8 deg. and 40.3 deg. with respect to the spacecraft nadir which correspond to local incidence angles at the surface of 28.7 deg., 37.8 deg. and 45.6 deg., respectively. The resolution of the three radiometer beams (axes of the 3dB ellipse) is: 76 x 94 km for the inner beam, 84 x 120 km for the middle beam to 96 x 156 km for the outer beam. Together they cover a swath of about 390 km. Aquarius will map the global ice-free ocean every 7-days from which monthly average composites will be derived. This will provide a snapshot of the mean field, as well as resolving the seasonal to interannual variations over the three-year baseline of the mission.

  20. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a science activity in which the student investigates methods of calibration of a simple conductivity meter via a hands-on inquiry technique. Conductivity is mathematically compared to salinity using a point slope formula and graphical techniques. Sample solutions of unknown salinity are provided so that the students can sharpen their…

  1. Salinity change impairs pipefish immune defence.

    PubMed

    Birrer, Simone C; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Roth, Olivia

    2012-12-01

    Global change is associated with fast and severe alterations of environmental conditions. Superimposed onto existing salinity variations in a semi-enclosed brackish water body such as the Baltic Sea, a decrease in salinity is predicted due to increased precipitation and freshwater inflow. Moreover, we predict that heavy precipitation events will accentuate salinity fluctuations near shore. Here, we investigated how the immune function of the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle), an ecologically important teleost with sex-role reversal, is influenced by experimentally altered salinities (control: 18 PSU, lowered: 6 PSU, increased: 30 PSU) upon infection with bacteria of the genus Vibrio. Salinity changes resulted in increased activity and proliferation of immune cells. However, upon Vibrio infection, individuals at low salinity were unable to mount specific immune response components, both in terms of monocyte and lymphocyte cell proliferation and immune gene expression compared to pipefish kept at ambient salinities. We interpret this as resource allocation trade-off, implying that resources needed for osmoregulation under salinity stress are lacking for subsequent activation of the immune defence upon infection. Our data suggest that composition of small coastal fish communities may change due to elevated environmental stress levels and the incorporated consequences thereof. PMID:22982326

  2. Managing Irrigation And Drainage In Saline Environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of saline drainage water is one of the most vexing problems facing irrigated agriculture. The sustainability of irrigation will require that cost effective and environmentally acceptable methods be found for disposal of saline drainage water. Oftentimes, drainage water contains fertilizers...

  3. Weight Loss, Saline Loading, and the Natriuretic Peptide System

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Pankaj; Reingold, Jason; Baggish, Aaron; Guanaga, Derek P.; Wu, Connie; Ghorbani, Anahita; Song, Yanna; Chen‐Tournaux, Annabel; Khan, Abigail May; Tainsh, Laurel T.; Buys, Emmanuel S.; Williams, Jonathan S.; Heublein, Denise M.; Burnett, John C.; Semigran, Marc J.; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Scherrer‐Crosbie, Marielle; Newton‐Cheh, Christopher; Kaplan, Lee M.; Wang, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Background In epidemiologic studies, obesity has been associated with reduced natriuretic peptide (NP) concentrations. Reduced NP production could impair the ability of obese individuals to respond to salt loads, increasing the risk of hypertension and other disorders. We hypothesized that weight loss enhances NP production before and after salt loading. Methods and Results We enrolled 15 obese individuals (mean BMI 45±5.4 kg/m2) undergoing gastric bypass surgery. Before and 6 months after surgery, subjects were admitted to the clinical research center and administered a large‐volume intravenous saline challenge. Echocardiography and serial blood sampling were performed. From the pre‐operative visit to 6 months after surgery, subjects had a mean BMI decrease of 27%. At the 6‐month visit, N‐terminal pro‐atrial NP (Nt‐proANP) levels were 40% higher before, during, and after the saline infusion, compared with levels measured at the same time points during the pre‐operative visit (P<0.001). The rise in Nt‐pro‐ANP induced by the saline infusion (≈50%) was similar both before and after surgery (saline, P<0.001; interaction, P=0.2). Similar results were obtained for BNP and Nt‐proBNP; resting concentrations increased by 50% and 31%, respectively, after gastric bypass surgery. The increase in NP concentrations after surgery was accompanied by significant decreases in mean arterial pressure (P=0.004) and heart rate (P<0.001), and an increase in mitral annular diastolic velocity (P=0.02). Conclusion In obese individuals, weight loss is associated with a substantial increase in the “setpoint” of circulating NP concentrations. Higher NP concentrations could contribute to an enhanced ability to handle salt loads after weight loss. PMID:25595796

  4. Response of Stream Biodiversity to Increasing Salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, C. P.; Vander Laan, J. J.; Olson, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We used a large data set of macroinvertebrate samples collected from streams in both reference-quality (n = 68) and degraded (n = 401) watersheds in the state of Nevada, USA to assess relationships between stream biodiversity and salinity. We used specific electrical conductance (EC)(μS/cm) as a measure of salinity, and applied a previously developed EC model to estimate natural, baseflow salinity at each stream. We used the difference between observed and predicted salinity (EC-Diff) as a measure of salinization associated with watershed degradation. Observed levels of EC varied between 22 and 994 μS/cm across reference sites and 22 to 3,256 uS/cm across non-reference sites. EC-Diff was as high as 2,743 μS/cm. We used a measure of local biodiversity completeness (ratio of observed to expected number of taxa) to assess ecological response to salinity. This O/E index decreased nearly linearly up to about 25% biodiversity loss, which occurred at EC-Diff of about 300 μS/cm. Too few sites had EC-Diff greater than 300 μS/cm to draw reliable inferences regarding biodiversity response to greater levels of salinization. EC-Diff increased with % agricultural land use, mine density, and % urban land use in the watersheds implying that human activities have been largely responsible for increased salinization in Nevada streams and rivers. Comparison of biological responses to EC and other stressors indicates that increased salinization may be the primary stressor causing biodiversity loss in these streams and that more stringent salinity water quality standards may be needed to protect aquatic life.

  5. Reconstructing Past Ocean Salinity ((delta)18Owater)

    SciTech Connect

    Guilderson, T P; Pak, D K

    2005-11-23

    Temperature and salinity are two of the key properties of ocean water masses. The distribution of these two independent but related characteristics reflects the interplay of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the uneven distribution of heat loss and gain by the ocean, with that of precipitation, evaporation, and the freezing and melting of ice. Temperature and salinity to a large extent, determine the density of a parcel of water. Small differences in temperature and salinity can increase or decrease the density of a water parcel, which can lead to convection. Once removed from the surface of the ocean where 'local' changes in temperature and salinity can occur, the water parcel retains its distinct relationship between (potential) temperature and salinity. We can take advantage of this 'conservative' behavior where changes only occur as a result of mixing processes, to track the movement of water in the deep ocean (Figure 1). The distribution of density in the ocean is directly related to horizontal pressure gradients and thus (geostrophic) ocean currents. During the Quaternary when we have had systematic growth and decay of large land based ice sheets, salinity has had to change. A quick scaling argument following that of Broecker and Peng [1982] is: the modern ocean has a mean salinity of 34.7 psu and is on average 3500m deep. During glacial maxima sea level was on the order of {approx}120m lower than present. Simply scaling the loss of freshwater (3-4%) requires an average increase in salinity a similar percentage or to {approx}35.9psu. Because much of the deep ocean is of similar temperature, small changes in salinity have a large impact on density, yielding a potentially different distribution of water masses and control of the density driven (thermohaline) ocean circulation. It is partly for this reason that reconstructions of past salinity are of interest to paleoceanographers.

  6. Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Eric V; Murphy, Dan; Stefan, Heinz G

    2008-11-15

    Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds. PMID:18762321

  7. Sources of salinity in ground water from Jericho area, Jordan Valley.

    PubMed

    Marie, A; Vengosh, A

    2001-01-01

    One of the major problems in the lower Jordan Valley is the increasing salinization (i.e., chloride content) of local ground water. The high levels of salinity limit the utilization of ground water for both domestic and agriculture applications. This joint collaborative study evaluates the sources and mechanisms for salinization in the Jericho area. We employ diagnostic geochemical fingerprinting methods to trace the potential sources of the salinity in (1) the deep confined subaquifer system (K2) of Lower Cenomanian age; (2) the upper subaquifer system (K1) of Upper Cenomanian and Turonian ages; and (3) the shallow aquifer system (Q) of Plio-Pleistocene ages. The chemical composition of the saline ground water from the two Cenomanian subaquifers (K1 and K2) point to a single saline source with Na/Cl approximately 0.5 and Br/Cl approximately 7 x 10(-3). This composition is similar to that of thermal hypersaline spring that are found along the western shore of the Dead Sea (e.g., En Gedi thermal spring). We suggest that the increasing salinity in both K1 and K2 subaquifers is derived from mixing with deep-seated brines that flow through the Rift fault system. The salinization rate depends on the discharge volume of the fresh meteoric water in the Cenomanian Aquifer. In contrast, the chemical composition of ground water from the Plio-Pleistocene Aquifer shows a wide range of Cl- (100-2000 mg/L), Na/Cl (0.4-1.0), Br/Cl (2-6 x 10(-3)), and SO4/Cl (0.01-0.4) ratios. These variations, together with the high SO4(2-), K+, and NO3- concentrations, suggest that the salinity in the shallow aquifer is derived from the combination of (1) upconing of deep brines as reflected by low Na/Cl and high Br/Cl ratios; (2) leaching of salts from the Lisan Formation within the Plio-Pleistocene Aquifer, as suggested by the high SO4(2-) concentrations; and (3) anthropogenic contamination of agriculture return flow and sewage effluents with distinctive high K+ (80 mg/L) and NO3- (80 mg/l) contents and low Br/Cl ratios (2 x 10(-3)). Our data demonstrates that the chemical composition of salinized ground water can be used to delineate the sources of salinity and hence to establish the conceptual model for explaining salinization processes. PMID:11286071

  8. Aggregation dynamics along a salinity gradient in the Bach Dang estuary, North Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Xavier; Torréton, Jean-Pascal; Bich-Thuy Trinh, Claire; Bouvier, Thierry; Van Thuoc, Chu; Lefebvre, Jean-Pierre; Ouillon, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Variations of the sticking properties of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) were investigated by studying the interactions between latex beads and TEP precursors collected along a salinity gradient in the Bach Dang estuary, North Vietnam. For each sampling station, a suspension of TEP and beads was prepared and the formation of mixed aggregates was monitored in the laboratory under controlled turbulence intensity. The number of beads attached to TEP per volume of TEP increased from 0.22 × 10 -3 ± 0.15 × 10 -3 μm -3 to 5.33 × 10 -3 ± 1.61 × 10 -3 μm -3, from low (<1) to high (>28) salinities, respectively. The sudden increase in TEP sticking properties from salinity 10 to 15 suggests the occurrence of an "aggregation web" resulting from the stimulation of aggregation processes. For a given turbulence level, the formation of large aggregates should be enhanced seaward. The presence of a higher fraction of large aggregates seaward is supported by the increase of the slope of the particle size spectra measured in situ. The observed increase in TEP sticking properties toward high salinities may affect the vertical export pump in estuaries. This study suggests that the transition from a low to a high physico-chemical reactivity of TEP along estuaries may result in a succession from recycling for salinity <10 to enhanced aggregation/sedimentation processes and export dominated systems for salinity >10.

  9. Salinity and groundwater flow below beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, T. B.; Wilson, A. M.; Moore, W. S.

    2013-12-01

    High rates of exchange between seawater and fresh groundwater in beach sediments drive significant chemical reactions, but the groundwater flow that controls this is poorly understood. Current conceptual models for groundwater flow in beaches highlight an upper saline plume, which is separated from the traditional freshwater-saltwater interface by a zone of brackish to fresh groundwater discharge. The lack of an upper saline plume at our study site led us to ask whether the plume exists in all beaches and what hydrogeological features control its formation. We used variable-density, saturated-unsaturated, transient groundwater flow models to investigate the geometry of the freshwater-saltwater interface in beaches with slopes varying from 0.1 to 0.01. We also varied hydraulic conductivity, dispersivity, tidal amplitude, inflow of fresh groundwater and precipitation. All models showed that a salinity gradient developed between the fresh groundwater and seawater in the intertidal zone, but the magnitude of the gradient was variable. The hydraulic conductivity was an important control on the development of an upper saline plume. A hydraulic conductivity of 100 m/d allowed the formation of an upper saline plume in every beach slope. No upper saline plumes formed in any beach with hydraulic conductivities less than 10 m/d. The slope of the beach was also a significant control. In models using a representative hydraulic conductivity of 10 m/d, the upper saline plume only formed in beaches with a slope of 0.5 or greater. The salinity of brackish groundwater that discharges seaward of the upper saline plume was inversely proportional to the input of fresh groundwater. Prior studies of groundwater flow and salinity in beaches have used very small dispersivities, but we found that the upper saline plume becomes much less distinct when larger dispersivities are used. Real beaches are highly mixed environments and the appropriate magnitude of dispersivity remains unclear. Our results suggest that upper saline plumes may not form in beaches of the U.S. Southeast, which are characterized by fine-grained sediment and moderate slopes. The concentration gradient between the upper saline plume and adjacent groundwater discharge zone increased with decreasing longitudinal dispersivity.

  10. [Ecophysiological adaptability of tropical water organisms to salinity changes].

    PubMed

    Chung, K S

    2001-03-01

    Physiological response of tropical organisms to salinity changes was studied for some marine, estuarine and freshwater fishes (Astyanax bimaculatus, Petenia karussii, Cyprinodon dearborni, and Oreochromis mossambicus), marine and freshwater crustaceans (Penaeus brasiliensis, Penaeus schmitti and Macrobrachium carcinus), and marine bivalves (Perna perna, Crassostrea rhizophorae, and Arca zebra) collected from Northeast Venezuela. They were acclimated for four weeks at various salinities, and (1) placed at high salinities to determine mean lethal salinity, (2) tested by increasing salinity 5@1000 per day to define upper lethal salinity tolerance limit, or (3) observed in a saline gradient tank to determine salinity preference. Acclimation level was the most significant factor. This phenomenon is important for tropical aquatic organisms in shallow waters, where they can adapt to high salinity during the dry season and cannot lose their acclimation level at low salinity during abrupt rain. For saline adaptation of tropical organisms, this behavior will contribute to their proliferation and distribution in fluctuating salinity environments. PMID:11795174

  11. Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ray images and possibly x-ray video, called fluoroscopy. The radiologist and technician will view the large intestine from different angles. When the imaging is complete, the radiologist or technician will deflate ...

  12. Salinity Effects on Superhydrophobic Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochanda, F. O.; Samaha, M. A.; Vahedi Tafreshi, H.; Tepper, G. C.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2011-11-01

    Experiments are carried out to investigate the effect of NaCl concentrations on degree of hydrophobicity and longevity of polystyrene fibrous coating. A rheological study using salt water as a test fluid is performed to observe the generated drag reduction from the coating with increasing salt concentration compared to deionized water. Contact-angle measurements of droplets of solutions on the surface are used to validate the results from the rheometer. In situ noninvasive optical spectroscopy system is used to measure the time-dependent loss of entrapped air within the submerged fibrous coating. water for comparison. The superhydrophobic coating used is made of polystyrene fibers that are deposited using DC-biased AC-electrospinning. Such fabrication methods are far less expensive than ordered-microstructured fabrications, bringing the technology closer to large-scale submerged bodies such as submarines and ships. The present study sheds some light on how properties of a superhydrophobic coating could be influenced by water salinity. Financial support from DARPA, contract number W91CRB-10-1-0003, is acknowledged.

  13. World salinization with emphasis on Australia.

    PubMed

    Rengasamy, Pichu

    2006-01-01

    Salinization is the accumulation of water-soluble salts in the soil solum or regolith to a level that impacts on agricultural production, environmental health, and economic welfare. Salt-affected soils occur in more than 100 countries of the world with a variety of extents, nature, and properties. No climatic zone in the world is free from salinization, although the general perception is focused on arid and semi-arid regions. Salinization is a complex process involving the movement of salts and water in soils during seasonal cycles and interactions with groundwater. While rainfall, aeolian deposits, mineral weathering, and stored salts are the sources of salts, surface and groundwaters can redistribute the accumulated salts and may also provide additional sources. Sodium salts dominate in many saline soils of the world, but salts of other cations such as calcium, magnesium, and iron are also found in specific locations. Different types of salinization with a prevalence of sodium salts affect about 30% of the land area in Australia. While more attention is given to groundwater-associated salinity and irrigation salinity, which affects about 16% of the agricultural area, recent investigations suggest that 67% of the agricultural area has a potential for "transient salinity", a type of non-groundwater-associated salinity. Agricultural soils in Australia, being predominantly sodic, accumulate salts under seasonal fluctuations and have multiple subsoil constraints such as alkalinity, acidity, sodicity, and toxic ions. This paper examines soil processes that dictate the exact edaphic environment upon which root functions depend and can help in research on plant improvement. PMID:16510516

  14. Water salination: a source of energy.

    PubMed

    Norman, R S

    1974-10-25

    The thermodynamically reversible mixing of freshwater and seawater at constant temperature releases free energy. Salination power as a resource is comparable with hydroelectric power in magnitude; U.S. freshwater runoff could yield over 10(10) watts. The energy flux available for natural salination is equivalent to each river in the world ending at its mouth in a waterfall 225 meters high. An osmotic salination converter could possibly operate at 25 percent efficiency. This energy source is renewable and nonpolluting. Although its full utilization would destroy estuarine environments, it might be practical for specialized purposes. PMID:17839865

  15. Harmonic analysis of climatological sea surface salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Tim P.; Levitus, Sydney

    2002-12-01

    A Fourier decomposition of the World Ocean Atlas 1998 (WOA98) fields of climatological monthly mean salinity is used to describe the annual cycle of sea surface salinity (SSS). Global data sets of river runoff and evaporation minus precipitation (E-P) are used to put the annual cycle of SSS in the context of the global climate system. Most of the world ocean is shown to have an annual cycle of less than 0.3 on the practical salinity scale (PSS). Areas with an annual cycle larger than 0.3 include the northern Indian Ocean, the tropical Pacific and Atlantic, and the northern North Atlantic.

  16. Characterization of saline dust emission resulted from Urmia Lake drying.

    PubMed

    Gholampour, Akbar; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Taghipour, Hasan; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Compared with common dust storms, saline dust storms transport high concentrations of fine-grain saline and alkaline material. The saline dust storm differs from common dust storm, especially considering the sources of the suspended particulate matter (PM), chemical composition, grain size, and circulation processes. Atmospheric particulate matters (TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) and their water-soluble ions were concurrently measured at two sites located at north and southeast part of Urmia lake from January 2013 to September 2013. Particulate matters (PMs) were measured using high volume sampler and HAZ-DUST EPAM-5000 particulate air monitors. In both of the sampling sites, the highest concentration of PM was observed during the summer season (521.6, 329.1, 42.6, and 36.5 for TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1, respectively). A total of 11 inorganic water-soluble ions in the TSP and PM10 were identified by ion chromatography (IC). No statistically significant difference was found between PM's ions concentrations of two sampling sites. The average of the total measured water-soluble ions in the sampling sites was 28.75 ± 12.9 μg/m(3) (11.9 ± 4.8% of total TSP mass) for TSP and 14.65 ± 7.1μg/m(3) (8.7 ± 4.4 of total PM10 mass) for PM10. Among all detected ions, sulfate was the dominant constituent followed by nitrate and sodium. This study showed that the water soluble salts compose 3-20% of the total mass of TSP and PM10. The PCA analysis showed that saline particulates formed from Urmia lake bed were the dominant source (57.6 %) of TSP. In addition, saline particulates together with crustal materials resulted from resuspension were the main source (59.9%) of PM10. PMID:26617986

  17. Sea Surface Salinity - Duration: 61 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The heat of the sun also forces evaporation at the ocean's surface, which puts water vapor into the atmosphere but leaves minerals and salts behind, keeping the ocean salty. The salinity of the oce...

  18. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  19. Sea Surface Salinity : Research Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David; Lagerloef, Gary; Font, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) can be important in regulating sea surface temperature (SST). Two technological breakthrough satellite SSS missions, Aquarius and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), are currently producing high-quality SSS data. This paper provides an overview of the importance of SSS for weather and climate applications and describes the Aquarius and SMOS missions. The newness of adequately sampled SSS data prompted a first-time at-sea field campaign devoted to improved understanding of SSS variations.

  20. Acute volume loading and exercise capacity in postural tachycardia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Rocío A.; Arnold, Amy C.; Nwazue, Victor C.; Okamoto, Luis E.; Paranjape, Sachin Y.; Black, Bonnie K.; Diedrich, Andre; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo; Raj, Satish R.

    2014-01-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is associated with exercise intolerance, hypovolemia, and cardiac atrophy, which may contribute to reduced stroke volume and compensatory exaggerated heart rate (HR) increases. Acute volume loading with intravenous (iv) saline reduces HR and improves orthostatic tolerance and symptoms in POTS, but its effect on exercise capacity is unknown. In this study, we determined the effect of iv saline infusion on peak exercise capacity (V̇o2peak) in POTS. Nineteen patients with POTS participated in a sequential study. V̇o2peak was measured on two separate study days, following administration of placebo or 1 liter of iv saline (NaCl 0.9%). Patients exercised on a semirecumbent bicycle with resistance increased by 25 W every 2 min until maximal effort was achieved. Patients exhibited blood volume deficits (−13.4 ± 1.4% ideal volume), consistent with mild to moderate hypovolemia. At baseline, saline significantly increased stroke volume (saline 80 ± 8 ml vs. placebo 64 ± 4 ml; P = 0.010), increased cardiac output (saline 6.9 ± 0.5 liter/min vs. placebo 5.7 ± 0.2 liter/min; P = 0.021), and reduced systemic vascular resistance (saline 992.6 ± 70.0 dyn-s/cm5 vs. placebo 1,184.0 ± 50.8 dyn-s/cm5; P = 0.011), with no effect on HR or blood pressure. During exercise, saline did not produce differences in V̇o2peak (saline 26.3 ± 1.2 mg·kg−1·min−1 vs. placebo 27.7 ± 1.8 mg·kg−1·min−1; P = 0.615), peak HR [saline 174 ± 4 beats per minute (bpm) vs. placebo 175 ± 3 bpm; P = 0.672] or other cardiovascular parameters. These findings suggest that acute volume loading with saline does not improve V̇o2peak or cardiovascular responses to exercise in POTS, despite improvements in resting hemodynamic function. PMID:25059240

  1. High salinity anomalies south of Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, K.; Carter, G. S.

    2013-12-01

    Patches of higher salinity water were observed, using Seaglider data, in the upper 50m of the water-column between Oahu and Penguin Bank. These anomalies occur approximately once a month, and are visible in the glider data for an average of 3 days. Anomalies have abrupt transitions occurring over mere hours. Salinity within the patches can reach values in excess of 35.2 psu, 0.3 higher than the average profile for the region. The salinity signature associated with the anomalies corresponds to Subtropical surface water, found north of the Hawaiian island chain. The high salinity water is trapped by the thermocline in the mixed layer. Seasonal variations of the anomaly depth are directly related to the seasonal variations of mixed layer depth. These patches of high salinity coincide with the presence of eddies. Using sea surface height as an indicator, we found that eddy-eddy interaction and eddy-island interaction dictate the advection of upwelled waters into the region. Infrequently, we observe corresponding temperature anomalies. The larger the distance between the center of the eddy and the glider, the less visible the temperature anomaly. Positive (negative) values indicate salinity above (below) the mean profile.

  2. [Investigation and canonical correspondence analysis of salinity contents in secondary salinization greenhouse soils in Shanghai suburb].

    PubMed

    Tang, Dong; Mao, Liang; Zhi, Yue-e; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Zhou, Pei; Chai, Xiao-Tong

    2014-12-01

    The salinity characteristics of greenhouse soils with cropping obstacles in Shanghai suburb were investigated and analyzed. The salinity contents of the salinization greenhouse soils showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing with the increasing cropping duration. The salinized soils mainly included slightly salted, mildly salted and salted soils, which accounted for 17.39%, 56.52% and 13.04%, respectively. Among them, the degree of salinity in greenhouse soil planted with asparagus in Chongming County was the highest. Among the salt ions in greenhouse soils, the cations were mainly Ca2+ and Na+, while the anions were mainly NO3- and SO4(2-). The degree of salinity was mainly influenced by fertilization mode, cropping duration, crop type and management level, which led to the great variation in the salinity contents and salt ions. Canonical correspondence analysis found that the contents of Ca2+, Mg2+ and NO3- in greenhouse soils were greatly affected by cropping duration, and the degree of salinity would be enhanced and attenuated with long-term application of single fertilizer and mixed application of chemical fertilizer and organic manure, respectively. The greenhouse soils in Shanghai suburb could be classified as four patterns influenced by the relationship between salinity ions and samples, and the most soils were influenced by Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3- and Cl-, which required to be primarily controlled. PMID:25826944

  3. Salinity Measurements During the Gulf Stream Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Howden, S.; Goodberlet, M.

    2000-01-01

    The salinity of the open ocean is important for understanding ocean circulation, for understanding energy exchange with the atmosphere and for improving models to predict weather and climate. Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (1 psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approx. 0.1 psu) required to be scientifically viable. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of a compliment of airborne microwave instruments (radiometers and scatterometer) and ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the compliment of instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer. A GPS backscatter experiment was also part of the package. These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Surface salinity measurements were provided by the RN Cape Henlopen and MN Oleander (thermosalinographs) plus salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the RN Cape Henopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made with the airborne sensors on August 28 and 29 and on September 2 flights were made over the surface drifters to look for effects due to a change in surface roughness resulting from the passage of Hurricane Dennis. Preliminary results show a good agreement between the microwave measurements and ship measurements of salinity. The features of the brightness temperature maps correspond well with the features of the salinity field measured by the ship and drifters and a preliminary retrieval of salinity compares well with the ship data.

  4. Caribbean Salinity Variation During the Last Glacial Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. W.; Spero, H. J.; Lea, D. W.

    2003-12-01

    Evaporation exceeds precipitation in the tropical Atlantic, resulting in a net freshwater removal across the Central American Isthmus. Because most of the north Atlantic's subtropical gyre water circulates through the Caribbean before flowing north to sub-polar regions via the Gulf Stream, changes in tropical atmospheric circulation have the potential to affect the salinity and density structure of the entire north Atlantic, thereby influencing glacial-interglacial oscillations in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation. Here, we combine Mg/Ca measurements (a proxy for the temperature of calcification) and δ 18O analyses of shells from the surface-dwelling foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber s.s. (white var.) from the western Caribbean Colombian Basin at ODP Site 999A (2827m; 4cm/ka sed. rate) and VM28-122 (3623m; 4-10cm/ka sed. rate) to produce the first continuous record of western tropical Atlantic δ 18OSEAWATER (δ 18OSW) during the last 130ka. In order to generate a record for sea surface salinity (SSS) due to regional hydrological change, we removed the δ 18OSW signal due to glacial ice volume variation and normalized the residual to the modern δ 18OSW value for the Colombian Basin (0.8‰ ). The resulting ice volume-free (Δ δ 18OIVF-SW) record shows that Caribbean Δ δ 18OIVF-SW increased by ˜0.5‰ during the Last Glacial Maximum and Marine Isotope Stage 4. Using a modern western Caribbean δ 18OSW:SSS relationship, these enriched δ 18OSW values suggest glacial Caribbean salinities were 2.3 - 2.8‰ higher than modern after removing the influence of ice-volume. Our data supports the hypothesis that the tropics might have been in a state more similar to the modern El Nino mode, characterized by a more southerly position of the ITCZ, during cold phases of the last glacial cycle. Within the resolution of our Δ δ 18OIVF-SW record from VM28-122, elevated glacial Caribbean salinity decreased to modern levels at the onset of the Bolling-Allerod (B/A) interstadial event (14.6 cal ka) as NADW formation reinitiated and the ITCZ migrated northward. We hypothesize that the transport of salty tropical waters into the North Atlantic during the early deglaciation, in combination with a reorganization of ocean circulation, may have served to increase subpolar surface water density and amplify the overturning circulation that produced the warm B/A. The B/A salinity reduction occurs simultaneously with previous evidence for wetter conditions in the Cariaco Basin, suggesting a northward shift in the ITCZ to a wetter, more La Nina-like state in the tropics.

  5. Estimates of natural salinity and hydrology in a subtropical estuarine ecosystem: implications for Greater Everglades restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, Frank E.; Wingard, Georgiana L.; Pitts, Patrick A.

    2014-01-01

    Disruption of the natural patterns of freshwater flow into estuarine ecosystems occurred in many locations around the world beginning in the twentieth century. To effectively restore these systems, establishing a pre-alteration perspective allows managers to develop science-based restoration targets for salinity and hydrology. This paper describes a process to develop targets based on natural hydrologic functions by coupling paleoecology and regression models using the subtropical Greater Everglades Ecosystem as an example. Paleoecological investigations characterize the circa 1900 CE (pre-alteration) salinity regime in Florida Bay based on molluscan remains in sediment cores. These paleosalinity estimates are converted into time series estimates of paleo-based salinity, stage, and flow using numeric and statistical models. Model outputs are weighted using the mean square error statistic and then combined. Results indicate that, in the absence of water management, salinity in Florida Bay would be about 3 to 9 salinity units lower than current conditions. To achieve this target, upstream freshwater levels must be about 0.25 m higher than indicated by recent observed data, with increased flow inputs to Florida Bay between 2.1 and 3.7 times existing flows. This flow deficit is comparable to the average volume of water currently being diverted from the Everglades ecosystem by water management. The products (paleo-based Florida Bay salinity and upstream hydrology) provide estimates of pre-alteration hydrology and salinity that represent target restoration conditions. This method can be applied to any estuarine ecosystem with available paleoecologic data and empirical and/or model-based hydrologic data.

  6. Convective shutdown of CO2 in saline aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, J. A.; Hewitt, D. R.; Lister, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Convective flow in a porous medium, driven by a buoyancy source along one boundary, is common in active geothermal aquifers and in the presence of evaporation in saline aquifers. More recently, convection driven by the dissolution of injected CO2 in saline aquifers has been shown to reduce the volume of mobile CO2 in carbon sequestration sites and analogues, thus reducing any concomitant risks of leakage. For carbon sequestration the rates of dissolution can depend strongly on the background CO2 concentration, and hence might be expected to wane in time. Here we present a simple analytic box model of the shutdown of convection in a closed aquifer, and compare these reduced model results against high-resolution numerical and analogue experiments. We find that the box model accurately captures the dynamics of the convective fluxes, and provides time scale over which free-phase CO2 may be completely removed. Furthermore, the model may provide insight into the geochemical record of dissolution in the deep carbon cycle.

  7. Using discriminant analysis to determine sources of salinity in shallow groundwater prior to hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Lautz, Laura K; Hoke, Gregory D; Lu, Zunli; Siegel, Donald I; Christian, Kayla; Kessler, John Daniel; Teale, Natalie G

    2014-08-19

    High-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) gas-drilling operations in the Marcellus Play have raised environmental concerns, including the risk of groundwater contamination. Fingerprinting water impacted by gas-drilling operations is not trivial given other potential sources of contamination. We present a multivariate statistical modeling framework for developing a quantitative, geochemical fingerprinting tool to distinguish sources of high salinity in shallow groundwater. The model was developed using new geochemical data for 204 wells in New York State (NYS), which has a HVHF moratorium and published data for additional wells in NYS and several salinity sources (Appalachian Basin brines, road salt, septic effluent, and animal waste). The model incorporates a stochastic simulation to predict the geochemistry of high salinity (>20 mg/L Cl) groundwater impacted by different salinity sources and then employs linear discriminant analysis to classify samples from different populations. Model results indicate Appalachian Basin brines are the primary source of salinity in 35% of sampled NYS groundwater wells with >20 mg/L Cl. The model provides an effective means for differentiating groundwater impacted by basin brines versus other contaminants. Using this framework, similar discriminatory tools can be derived for other regions from background water quality data. PMID:25062431

  8. Salinity Effects on Water Potential Components and Bulk Elastic Modulus of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. 1

    PubMed Central

    Bolaños, Jorge A.; Longstreth, David J.

    1984-01-01

    Pressure volume curves for Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. (alligator weed) grown in 0 to 400 millimolar NaCl were used to determine water potential (Ψ), osmotic potential (ψs), turgor potential (ψp) and the bulk elastic modulus (ε) of shoots at different tissue water contents. Values of ψs decreased with increasing salinity and tissue Ψ was always lower than rhizosphere Ψ. The relationship between ψp and tissue water content changed because ε increased with salinity. As a result, salt-stressed plants had larger ranges of positive turgor but smaller ranges of tissue water content over which ψp was positive. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a salinity effect on ε in higher plants. These increases in ε with salinity provided a mechanism by which a large difference between plant Ψ and rhizosphere Ψ, the driving force for water uptake, could be produced with relatively little water loss by the plant. A time-course study of response after salinization to 400 millimolar NaCl showed Ψ was constant within 1 day, ψs and ψp continued to change for 2 to 4 days, and ε continued to change for 4 to 12 days. Changes in ε modified the capacity of alligator weed to maintain a positive water balance and consideration of such changes in other species of higher plants should improve our understanding of salt stress. PMID:16663611

  9. Salinity Gradients at the Ocean Surface: Consequences for Satellite-Derived Salinity Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, B.; Reverdin, G.; Lilly, J. M.; Schmitt, R. W.

    2009-04-01

    In order to validate the spaceborne measurement of sea surface salinity, in-situ data from drifters, moorings, and floats will be used. However, these in-situ measurements are usually made at several meters below the surface, whereas the SMOS satellite will measure the salinity in the upper centimeter. Our objective is to investigate the magnitude of the salinity gradients in the upper 10 m of the ocean, and under which conditions they are most likely to occur. We are proposing to conduct this research using the Air-Sea Interaction Profiler (ASIP). ASIP is an autonomous, upwardly-rising instrument with a suite of high-resolution sensors. The most important sensor on ASIP is the diamond-coated conductivity/temperature microsensor, which is currently being developed using semiconductor fabrication techniques. With this new sensor on ASIP, we will be able to resolve the salinity gradient with a resolution of 1 mm. Data from the proposed measurements will be invaluable in order to understand the relationship between SSS (i.e. the salinity at 1 cm), and a 'bulk' salinity measurement. These data will also highlight the conditions where salinity gradients are expected to exist: evaporation, precipitation, and during low wind speeds where a salty layer may be stabilized when there is significant shortwave warming at the ocean surface. These studies will lead to an overall improvement in the accuracy of the satellite-derived salinity measurements, thereby increasing our ability to monitor the ocean's influence on climate.

  10. Biomarker-based salinity reconstruction immediately prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (Sorbas Basin, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayser, Jan Peter; Martins, Cesar; Flecker, Rachel; Pancost, Rich D.

    2014-05-01

    The salinity crisis which occurred in the Mediterranean at the end of the Miocene (5.97 to 5.33 Ma) was a time of large-scale environmental change and thick evaporite deposits formed both in the deep basins and on the surrounding margins. Late Miocene successions in the Sorbas Basin, south east Spain preserve sediments that were deposited immediately prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and during the initial phase of gypsum precipitation (Sierro et al., 2001). Salinity changes are indicated by evaporite formation and fluctuations in faunal assemblages, but these provide threshold measurements only e.g. gypsum forms at a salinity of 130 psu. By analysing the lipid biomarker composition by GC and HPLC-MS after Soxhlet extraction of pre-MSC sediments we aim to reconstruct granular changes in salinity leading up to initial gypsum precipitation. The pre-MSC sediments comprise regular alternations of marine marls and terrigenous clays with interspersed diatomites. This lithological cyclicity is climatically forced by orbitally-driven changes in insolation (Krijgsman et al., 1999) such that specific lithologies are thought to accumulate during precession minima (homogeneous marls) and maxima (laminated marls). By targeting these lithologies for salinity reconstruction we can evaluate the orbital control on quantified environmental change. The reconstruction of the salinity is predominantly based on the ACE proxy introduced by Turich and Freeman (2011). The GDGT-based proxy can show differences over a wide range of salinity, because Archaea can survive over a much larger salinity range than haptophyte algae or other plankton and can therefore also record the salinity signal over a wider range. This makes it suitable for the broad salinity ranges leading up to the MSC e.g. ~35 to 130 psu. Turich et al. (2011) already have published 10 low resolution salinity values for pre-MSC sediments from Torrente Vaccarizzo and Serra Pirciata on Sicily. Our high resolution preliminary data already suggests differences in salinity between insolation maxima's and minima's, which is not expressed in this low resolution signal. In addition we are backing up the ACE proxy data by deuterium values as an independent comparison. Krijgsman, W., Hilgen, F.J., Raffi, I., Sierro, F.J., Wilson, D.S., 1999. Chronology, causes and progression of the Messinian salinity crisis. Nature 400, 652-655. Sierro, F.J., Hilgen, F.J., Krijgsman, W., Flores, J.A., 2001. The Abad composite (SE Spain): a Messinian reference section for the Mediterranean and the APTS. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 168, 141-169. Turich, C., Freeman, K.H., 2011. Archaeal lipids record paleosalinity in hypersaline systems. Organic Geochemistry 42, 1147-1157.

  11. RF tumor ablation with internally cooled electrodes and saline infusion: what is the optimal location of the saline infusion?

    PubMed Central

    Burdío, Fernando; Berjano, Enrique J; Navarro, Ana; Burdío, José M; Güemes, Antonio; Grande, Luis; Sousa, Ramón; Subiró, Jorge; Gonzalez, Ana; Cruz, Ignacio; Castiella, Tomás; Tejero, Eloy; Lozano, Ricardo; de Gregorio, Miguel A

    2007-01-01

    Background Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of tumors by means of internally cooled electrodes (ICE) combined with interstitial infusion of saline may improve clinical results. To date, infusion has been conducted through outlets placed on the surface of the cooled electrode. However, the effect of infusion at a distance from the electrode surface is unknown. Our aim was to assess the effect of perfusion distance (PD) on the coagulation geometry and deposited power during RFA using ICE. Methods Experiments were performed on excised bovine livers. Perfusion distance (PD) was defined as the shortest distance between the infusion outlet and the surface of the ICE. We considered three values of PD: 0, 2 and 4 mm. Two sets of experiments were considered: 1) 15 ablations of 10 minutes (n ≥ 4 for each PD), in order to evaluate the effect of PD on volume and diameters of coagulation; and 2) 20 additional ablations of 20 minutes. The effect of PD on deposited power and relative frequency of uncontrolled impedance rises (roll-off) was evaluated using the results from the two sets of experiments (n ≥ 7 for each PD). Comparisons between PD were performed by analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis test. Additionally, non-linear regression models were performed to elucidate the best PD in terms of coagulation volume and diameter, and the occurrence of uncontrolled impedance rises. Results The best-fit least square functions were always obtained with quadratic curves where volume and diameters of coagulation were maximum for a PD of 2 mm. A thirty per cent increase in volume coagulation was observed for this PD value compared to other values (P < 0.05). Likewise, the short coagulation diameter was nearly twenty five per cent larger for a 2 mm PD than for 0 mm. Regarding deposited power, the best-fit least square function was obtained by a quadratic curve with a 2 mm PD peak. This matched well with the higher relative frequency of uncontrolled impedance rises for PD of 0 and 4 mm. Conclusion Saline perfusion at around 2 mm from the electrode surface while using an ICE in RFA improves deposition of energy and enlarges coagulation volume. PMID:17634117

  12. "SPURS" in the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Raymond

    2014-05-01

    The North Atlantic Salinity Maximum is the world's saltiest open ocean salinity maximum and was the focus of the recent Salinity Processes Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS) program. SPURS was a joint venture between US, French, Irish, and Spanish investigators. Three US and two EU cruises were involved from August, 1012 - October, 2013 as well as surface moorings, glider, drifter and float deployments. Shipboard operations included underway meteorological and oceanic data, hydrographic surveys and turbulence profiling. The goal is to improve our understanding of how the salinity maximum is maintained and how it may be changing. It is formed by an excess of evaporation over precipitation and the wind-driven convergence of the subtropical gyre. Such salty areas are getting saltier with global warming (a record high SSS was observed in SPURS) and it is imperative to determine the relative roles of surface water fluxes and oceanic processes in such trends. The combination of accurate surface flux estimates with new assessments of vertical and horizontal mixing in the ocean will help elucidate the utility of ocean salinity in quantifying the changing global water cycle.

  13. Computed tomographic colonography compared with colonoscopy or barium enema for diagnosis of colorectal cancer in older symptomatic patients: two multicentre randomised trials with economic evaluation (the SIGGAR trials).

    PubMed Central

    Halligan, Steve; Dadswell, Edward; Wooldrage, Kate; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian; Lilford, Richard; Yao, Guiqing L; Zhu, Shihua; Atkin, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a relatively new diagnostic test that may be superior to existing alternatives to investigate the large bowel. OBJECTIVES To compare the diagnostic efficacy, acceptability, safety and cost-effectiveness of CTC with barium enema (BE) or colonoscopy. DESIGN Parallel randomised trials: BE compared with CTC and colonoscopy compared with CTC (randomisation 2 : 1, respectively). SETTING A total of 21 NHS hospitals. PARTICIPANTS Patients aged ≥ 55 years with symptoms suggestive of colorectal cancer (CRC). INTERVENTIONS CTC, BE and colonoscopy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES For the trial of CTC compared with BE, the primary outcome was the detection rate of CRC and large polyps (≥ 10 mm), with the proportion of patients referred for additional colonic investigation as a secondary outcome. For the trial of CTC compared with colonoscopy, the primary outcome was the proportion of patients referred for additional colonic investigation, with the detection rate of CRC and large polyps as a secondary outcome. Secondary outcomes for both trials were miss rates for cancer (via registry data), all-cause mortality, serious adverse events, patient acceptability, extracolonic pathology and cost-effectiveness. RESULTS A total of 8484 patients were registered and 5384 were randomised and analysed (BE trial: 2527 BE, 1277 CTC; colonoscopy trial: 1047 colonoscopy, 533 CTC). Detection rates in the BE trial were 7.3% (93/1277) for CTC, compared with 5.6% (141/2527) for BE (p = 0.0390). The difference was due to better detection of large polyps by CTC (3.6% vs. 2.2%; p = 0.0098), with no significant difference for cancer (3.7% vs. 3.4%; p = 0.66). Significantly more patients having CTC underwent additional investigation (23.5% vs. 18.3%; p = 0.0003). At the 3-year follow-up, the miss rate for CRC was 6.7% for CTC (three missed cancers) and 14.1% for BE (12 missed cancers). Significantly more patients randomised to CTC than to colonoscopy underwent additional investigation (30% vs. 8.2%; p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in detection rates for cancer or large polyps (10.7% for CTC vs. 11.4% for colonoscopy; p = 0.69), with no difference when cancers (p = 0.94) and large polyps (p = 0.53) were analysed separately. At the 3-year follow-up, the miss rate for cancer was nil for colonoscopy and 3.4% for CTC (one missed cancer). Adverse events were uncommon for all procedures. In 1042 of 1748 (59.6%) CTC examinations, at least one extracolonic finding was reported, and this proportion increased with age (p < 0.0001). A total of 149 patients (8.5%) were subsequently investigated, and extracolonic neoplasia was diagnosed in 79 patients (4.5%) and malignancy in 29 (1.7%). In the short term, CTC was significantly more acceptable to patients than BE or colonoscopy. Total costs for CTC and colonoscopy were finely balanced, but CTC was associated with higher health-care costs than BE. The cost per large polyp or cancer detected was £4235 (95% confidence interval £395 to £9656). CONCLUSIONS CTC is superior to BE for detection of cancers and large polyps in symptomatic patients. CTC and colonoscopy detect a similar proportion of large polyps and cancers and their costs are also similar. CTC precipitates significantly more additional investigations than either BE or colonoscopy, and evidence-based referral criteria are needed. Further work is recommended to clarify the extent to which patients initially referred for colonoscopy or BE undergo subsequent abdominopelvic imaging, for example by computed tomography, which will have a significant impact on health economic estimates. TRIAL REGISTRATION Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN95152621. PMID:26198205

  14. Reversal of bedrest-induced orthostatic intolerance by lower body negative pressure and saline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, K. H.; West, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Six healthy male volunteers underwent two 1-week periods of bedrest, each preceded and followed by 2-week control and recovery periods. The daily metabolic diet contained 150 mEq of sodium. Following one 7-day bedrest period, each man was subjected to LBNP at a level of -30 mm Hg for 4 hr while consuming 1000 ml of beef bouillon containing 154 mEq of sodium. After the other bedrest period, each man simply consumed the bouillon without LBNP treatment during 4 hr of continued bedrest. Measurements of plasma volume and orthostatic tolerance were made before and after each treatment period. After combined LBNP and saline therapy, plasma volume and response to LBNP testing showed a return to pre-bedrest levels. Saline consumption alone had a lesser effect. With continuation of bedrest in three subjects, the beneficial effects of these measures appeared to be largely gone after 18 hr.

  15. Irrigation management and investment under saline, limited drainage conditions: 1. Model formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Keith C.

    1992-12-01

    A dynamic optimization model for irrigation management and investment of an individual field is formulated. The model is applicable to situations where soil salinity is a current or potential problem and where drainage flows incur costs. The crop rotation is prespecified and several alternate irrigation systems are available for investment. These differ in application uniformity and cost. The field is assumed to be spatially variable in soil salinity and infiltrated water. The joint distribution of these two variables evolves over time in response to annual volumes of irrigation water and type of irrigation system. Social net benefits are defined as crop revenue net of irrigation costs, production costs, and environmental/disposal costs associated with percolation of water below the root zone. The optimization problem is to choose annual applied water volumes and investment in irrigation systems to maximize the present value of social net benefits.

  16. Hypertonic saline for bronchiolitis in infants

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Simran; Goldman, Ran D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Question Recently, a 1-year-old patient returned from admission in the hospital for bronchiolitis, and the report I received indicated that he was treated with inhaled hypertonic saline, among other treatments. Is this therapy recommended for children in the acute care setting? Answer Bronchiolitis, caused mostly by respiratory syncytial virus, is very common in the winter. It is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in infancy. Several good studies have been conducted in the past decade on the use of nebulized hypertonic saline for bronchiolitis management; however, they offer conflicting results. While there might be a role for the use of nebulized hypertonic saline in children who are hospitalized with bronchiolitis for more than 3 days, treatment in other settings does not confer enough benefit to recommend its use. PMID:26071156

  17. Advantages and disadvantages of fludrocortisone or saline load in preventing post-spaceflight orthostatic hypotension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernikos, Joan; Convertino, Victor A.

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of saline load to fludrocortisone (florinef) as countermeasures for reduced plasma volume and orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight. Eleven males (ages 30-50 yr) underwent a 3-day ambulatory baseline period followed by 7 days of 6° head-down bedrest, during which cardiopulmonary and arterial baroreflex sensitivity and plasma volume (PV) were determined. During pre-bedrest and 2.5 h after treatment on day 8, PV was also measured and subjects underwent a 15-min unsupported stand test. Treatments consisted of 8 salt tablets (1 g NaCl per tablet) and 960 ml of water in 5 subjects and 0.6 mg (0.2 mg × 3) over 24 h in the other 6 subjects. PV decreased by 12% on day 7 of bedrest. This was restored on day 8 by florinef but not by saline load. The effect of florinef on PV was paralleled by decreases in urine volume and the urinary sodium/potassium ratio. Reduced PV was associated with greater vascular resistance for the same drop in central venous pressure, suggesting less vasoconstriction reserve after bedrest. Carotid baroreflex control of heart rate was attenuated after 7 days of bedrest. Both baroreflex functions were restored by florinef but not saline load. Only 1 of 6 subjects showed syncopal symptoms in the florinef-treated group, whereas 4 of 5 subjects did so in the saline-load group. Acute florinef treatment appears to have distinct advantages as a protective measure for post-bedrest orthostatic intolerance, not only through its salt retaining, volume-expanding mineralcorticoid effect, but possibly through its actions on baroreflex and sympathetic functions.

  18. Modeling salinity distributions in the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Weiqing; McCreary, Julian P.

    2001-01-01

    A 4½-layer model with active thermodynamics and mixed-layer physics is used to isolate effects on salinity distributions in the Indian Ocean that result from various forcing mechanisms. These forcings include evaporation (ɛ) and precipitation (P) through the ocean surface and inflows across basin boundaries by river runoff in the Bay of Bengal, the Indonesian Throughflow, the Persian Gulf, and the Red Sea. A suite of solutions is obtained in which each forcing is added sequentially. In the solution forced only by P-ɛ, salinity patterns in the upper three layers agree qualitatively with the observations, but values tend to be higher throughout most of the basin. When river inflow into the Bay of Bengal is included, salinity values are significantly improved in the upper three layers, especially in the northern Bay and along the east and west coasts of India. In addition, solutions suggest that during the Northeast Monsoon part of the river water flows out of the Bay in the shallow channel between Sri Lanka and India: Only when this channel is opened in the upper layer do solutions develop a strong, across-shelf salinity gradient along the west Indian coast, consistent with the observations. When the Indonesian Throughflow is added, salinities are lowered in all four layers, especially in the southern tropical ocean. Most of the Throughflow eventually flows out of the Indian Ocean along the western boundary and near Madagascar, but some is advected across the equator by the East African Coastal Current, where it is carried eastward and northward into the central Arabian Sea. Saltier Persian Gulf Water is introduced into the model in layer 3. Some of it subsequently entrains into the surface mixed layer, increasing sea surface salinity by 0.1-0.2 practical salinity units (psu) in a broad region of the Arabian Sea. Saltier Red Sea Water enters the basin in layer 4. It increases layer 4 salinity values throughout much of the Indian Ocean, particularly in the Somali Basin, the interior Arabian Sea, and the central and western equatorial ocean.

  19. Evaporation over fresh and saline water surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelrady, Ahmed; Timmermans, Joris; Vekerdy, Zoltan

    2013-04-01

    Evaporation over large water bodies has a crucial role in the global hydrological cycle. Evaporation occurs whenever there is a vapor pressure deficit between a water surface and the atmosphere, and the available energy is sufficient. Salinity affects the density and latent heat of vaporization of the water body, which reflects on the evaporation rate. Different models have been developed to estimate the evaporation process over water surfaces using earth observation data. Most of these models are concerned with the atmospheric parameters. However these models do not take into account the influence of salinity on the evaporation rate; they do not consider the difference in the energy needed for vaporization. For this purpose an energy balance model is required. Several energy balance models that calculate daily evapotranspiration exist, such as the surface energy balance system (SEBS). They estimate the heat fluxes by integration of satellite data and hydro-meteorological field data. SEBS has the advantage that it can be applied over a large scale because it incorporates the physical state of the surface and the aerodynamic resistances in the daily evapotranspiration estimation. Nevertheless this model has not used over water surfaces. The goal of this research is to adapt SEBS to estimate the daily evaporation over fresh and saline water bodies. In particular, 1) water heat flux and roughness of momentum and heat transfer estimation need to be updated, 2) upscaling to daily evaporation needs to be investigated and finally 3) integration of the salinity factor to estimate the evaporation over saline water needs to be performed. Eddy covariance measurements over the Ijsselmeer Lake (The Netherlands) were used to estimate the roughness of momentum and heat transfer at respectively 0.0002 and 0.0001 m. Application of these values over Tana Lake (freshwater), in Ethiopia showed latent heat to be in a good agreement with the measurements, with RMSE of 35.5 Wm-2and rRMSE of 4.7 %. Afterwards the validity of salinity adapted model was tested over different study areas using ECMWF data. It was found that for the original SEBS model and salinity-adapted model over Great Salt Lake, the RMSE were 0.62 and 0.24 mm respectively and the rRMSE 19% and 24%. The evaporation reduction of the Great Salt Lake and the oceans are 27% and 1 %, respectively. In conclusion, SEBS model is adapted to calculate the daily evaporation over fresh water and salt water by integration the salinity factor in the model.

  20. Probability analysis of the relation of salinity to freshwater discharge in the St. Sebastian River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wicklein, S.M.; Gain, W.S.

    1999-01-01

    The St. Sebastian River lies in the southern part of the Indian River basin on the east coast of Florida. Increases in freshwater discharge due to urbanization and changes in land use have reduced salinity in the St. Sebastian River and, consequently, salinity in the Indian River, affecting the commercial fishing industry. Wind, water temperature, tidal flux, freshwater discharge, and downstream salinity all affect salinity in the St. Sebastian River estuary, but freshwater discharge is the only one of these hydrologic factors which might be affected by water-management practices. A probability analysis of salinity conditions in the St. Sebastian River estuary, taking into account the effects of freshwater discharge over a period from May 1992 to March 1996, was used to determine the likelihood (probability) that salinities, as represented by daily mean specific- conductance values, will fall below a given threshold. The effects of freshwater discharge on salinities were evaluated with a simple volumetric model fitted to time series of measured specific conductance, by using nonlinear optimization techniques. Specific-conductance values for two depths at monitored sites represent stratified flow which results from differences in salt concentration between freshwater and saltwater. Layering of freshwater and saltwater is assumed, and the model is applied independently to each layer with the assumption that the water within the layer is well mixed. The model of specific conductance as a function of discharge (a salinity response model) was combined with a model of residual variation to produce a total probability model. Flow distributions and model residuals were integrated to produce a salinity distribution and determine differences in salinity probabilities as a result of changes in water-management practices. Two possible management alternatives were analyzed: stormwater detention (reducing the peak rate of discharge but not reducing the overall flow volume) and stormwater retention (reducing peak discharges without later release). Detention of freshwater discharges increased the probability of specific- conductance values falling below a given limit (20,000 microsiemens per centimeter) for all sites but one. The retention of freshwater input to the system decreased the likelihood of falling below a selected limit of specific conductance at all sites. For limits of specific conductance (1,000 microsiemens per centimeter or 20,000 microsiemens per centimeter, depending on the site), the predicted days of occurrence below a limit decreased ranging from 17 to 68 percent of the predicted days of occurrence for unregulated flow. The primary finding to be drawn from the discharge-salinity analysis is that an empirical-response model alone does not provide adequate information to assess the response of the system to changes in flow regime. Whether a given level of discharge can produce a given response on a given day is not as important as the probability of that response on a given day and over a period of many days. A deterministic model of the St. Sebastian River estuary based only on discharge would predict that retention of discharge peaks should increase the average salinity conditions in the St. Sebastian River estuary. The probabilistic model produces a very different response indicating that salinity can decrease by a power of three as discharges increase, and that random factors can predominate and control salinity until discharges increase sufficiently to flush the entire system of saltwater.

  1. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts...

  2. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts...

  3. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts...

  4. Evaluation of soil salinity leaching requirement guidelines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water for irrigation is a major limitation to agricultural production in many parts of the world. Use of waters with elevated levels of salinity is one likely option to meet the supply of increased demands. The sources of these waters include drainage water generated by irrigated agriculture, munici...

  5. Saline Soils in the Red River Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Red River Valley of the North stretches over 315 miles from northeastern South Dakota through northwestern Minnesota and eastern North Dakota into southern Manitoba. Nearly all this area is in dryland farms and is highly productive. Salinity has been recognized as a major factor affecting crop p...

  6. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a unit designed for curriculum infusion and which relies on the hands-on discovery method as an instructive device. The student is introduced to the theory of a functioning salt water conductivity meter. The student explores the resistance of salt water as salinity increases and he treats the data which he has gathered,…

  7. Salinity Tolerance Turfgrass: History and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Kamal; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor

    2013-01-01

    Land and water resources are becoming scarce and are insufficient to sustain the burgeoning population. Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses affecting agricultural productions across the world. Cultivation of salt-tolerant turfgrass species may be promising option under such conditions where poor quality water can also be used for these crops. Coastal lands in developing countries can be used to grow such crops, and seawater can be used for irrigation of purposes. These plants can be grown using land and water unsuitable for conventional crops and can provide food, fuel, fodder, fibber, resin, essential oils, and pharmaceutical products and can be used for landscape reintegration. There are a number of potential turfgrass species that may be appropriate at various salinity levels of seawater. The goal of this review is to create greater awareness of salt-tolerant turfgrasses, their current and potential uses, and their potential use in developing countries. The future for irrigating turf may rely on the use of moderate- to high-salinity water and, in order to ensure that the turf system is sustainable, will rely on the use of salt-tolerant grasses and an improved knowledge of the effects of salinity on turfgrasses. PMID:24222734

  8. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a unit designed for curriculum infusion and which relies on the hands-on discovery method as an instructive device. The student is introduced to the theory of a functioning salt water conductivity meter. The student explores the resistance of salt water as salinity increases and he treats the data which he has gathered,

  9. Hydraulic and salinity characteristics of the tidal reach of the Peace River, southwestern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoker, Y.E.; Henderson, S.E.; McPherson, B.F.

    1989-01-01

    The tidal reach of the Peace River in southwestern Florida extends about 26 miles upstream from Charlotte Harbor and is characterized by flow-direction reversals, low velocities, and salinity gradients that vary with freshwater inflow, tides, and wind. Flow reversals generally occur on each tide throughout most of the tidal reach, their upstream limit determined primarily by freshwater inflow and tide. Flow reversals occur at river mile 18.9 whenever freshwater inflows are less than about 1,000 cu ft/sec. Velocities were less than 0.3 ft/sec more than half the time at river mile 18.9. The volume of the flood and ebb tidal flows in the midreach of the tidal river (mile 11.5) on July 12-13, 1984, was about five times the volume of flood and ebb tidal flow near the upstream end of the tidal reach July 10-11, 1984 (mile 18.9). Salinity varied along the 26-mile river reach, across channel and with depth, depending upon complex patterns of flow, freshwater runoff, wind, tide, and salinity in Charlotte Harbor. Daily variations in salinity increased downstream and variations were larger near the surface than near the bottom. Regression analysis indicated that the location of the 0.5 ppt salinity will move upstream more than 2 river miles if low flows are reduced by 50%. Freshwater flushing of the lower 20-mile tidal reach, approximated from freshwater replacement time, varied from about 2 days during heavy freshwater runoff to 40 days during extreme low flows. (USGS)

  10. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Lung Ablation Combined with Transbronchial Saline Injection: An Experimental Study in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, T. Kaminou, T. Sugiura, K.; Hashimoto, M.; Ohuchi, Y.; Adachi, A.; Fujioka, S.; Ito, H.; Nakamura, K.; Ihaya, T.; Ogawa, T.

    2010-02-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of radiofrequency lung ablation with transbronchial saline injection. The bilateral lungs of eight living swine were used. A 13-gauge bone biopsy needle was inserted percutaneously into the lung, and 1 ml of muscle paste was injected to create a tumor mimic. In total, 21 nodules were ablated. In the saline injection group (group A), radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was performed for 11 nodules after transbronchial saline injection under balloon occlusion with a 2-cm active single internally cooled electrode. In the control group (group B), conventional RFA was performed for 10 nodules as a control. The infused saline liquid showed a wedge-shaped and homogeneous distribution surrounding a tumor mimic. All 21 RFAs were successfully completed. The total ablation time was significantly longer (13.4 {+-} 2.8 min vs. 8.9 {+-} 3.5 min; P = 0.0061) and the tissue impedance was significantly lower in group A compared with group B (73.1 {+-} 8.8 {Omega} vs. 100.6 {+-} 16.6 {Omega}; P = 0.0002). The temperature of the ablated area was not significantly different (69.4 {+-} 9.1{sup o}C vs. 66.0 {+-} 7.9{sup o}C; P = 0.4038). There was no significant difference of tumor mimic volume (769 {+-} 343 mm{sup 3} vs. 625 {+-} 191 mm{sup 3}; P = 0.2783). The volume of the coagulated area was significantly larger in group A than in group B (3886 {+-} 1247 mm{sup 3} vs. 2375 {+-} 1395 mm{sup 3}; P = 0.0221). Percutaneous radiofrequency lung ablation combined with transbronchial saline injection can create an extended area of ablation.

  11. Salinity Trends in the Upper Colorado River Basin Upstream From the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, Colorado, 1986-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leib, Kenneth J.; Bauch, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    In 1974, the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act was passed into law. This law was enacted to address concerns regarding the salinity content of the Colorado River. The law authorized various construction projects in selected areas or 'units' of the Colorado River Basin intended to reduce the salinity load in the Colorado River. One such area was the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit in western Colorado. The U. S. Geological Survey has done extensive studies and research in the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit that provide information to aid the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the Natural Resources Conservation Service in determining where salinity-control work may provide the best results, and to what extent salinity-control work was effective in reducing salinity concentrations and loads in the Colorado River. Previous studies have indicated that salinity concentrations and loads have been decreasing downstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, and that the decreases are likely the result of salinity control work in these areas. Several of these reports; however, also document decreasing salinity loads upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. This finding was important because only a small amount of salinity-control work was being done in areas upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit at the time the findings were reported (late 1990?s). As a result of those previous findings, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate salinity trends in selected areas bracketing the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit and regions upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. The results of the study indicate that salinity loads were decreasing upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit from 1986 through 2003, but the rates of decrease have slowed during the last 10 years. The average rate of decrease in salinity load upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit was 10,700 tons/year. This accounts for approximately 27 percent of the decrease observed downstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. Salinity loads were decreasing at the fastest rate (6,950 tons/year) in Region 4, which drains an area between the Colorado River at Cameo, Colorado (station CAMEO) and Colorado River above Glenwood Springs, Colorado (station GLEN) streamflow-gaging stations. Trends in salinity concentration and streamflow were tested at station CAMEO to determine if salinity concentration, streamflow, or both are controlling salinity loads upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. Trend tests of individual ion concentrations were included as potential indicators of what sources (based on mineral composition) may be controlling trends in the upper Colorado. No significant trend was detected for streamflow from 1986 to 2003 at station CAMEO; however, a significant downward trend was detected for salinity concentration. The trend slope indicates that salinity concentration is decreasing at a median rate of about 3.54 milligrams per liter per year. Five major ions (calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulfate, and chloride) were tested for trends. The results indicate that processes within source areas with rock and soil types (or other unidentified sources) bearing calcium, sodium, and sulfate had the largest effect on the downward trend in salinity load upstream from station CAMEO. Downward trends in salinity load resulting from ground-water sources and/or land-use change were thought to be possible reasons for the observed decreases in salinity loads; however, the cause or causes of the decreasing salinity loads are not fully understood. A reduction in the amount of ground-water percolation from Region 4 (resulting from work done through Federal irrigation system improvement programs as well as privately funded irrigation system improvements) has helped reduce annual salinity load from Region 4 by approxima

  12. Impacts of climate variability on wetland salinization in the North American Prairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachshon, U.; Ireson, A.; van der Kamp, G.; Davies, S. R.; Wheater, H. S.

    2013-11-01

    The glaciated plains of the North American continent, also known as the "prairies", are a complex hydrological system characterized by hummocky terrain, where wetlands, containing seasonal or semi-permanent ponds, occupy the numerous topographic depressions. The prairie subsoil and many of its water bodies contain high salt concentrations, in particular sulfate salts, which are continuously cycled within the closed drainage basins. The period between 2000 and 2012 was characterized by an unusual degree of climatic variability, including severe floods and droughts, and this had a marked effect on the spatial distribution, water levels and chemical composition of wetland ponds. Understanding the geochemical and hydrological processes under changing environmental conditions is needed in order to better understand the risk and mitigate the impacts of future soil and water salinization. Here we explore salt dynamics in the prairies using field observations from St. Denis, Saskatchewan, taken over the last 40 yr. Measurements include meteorological data, soil salinity, groundwater levels and pond water volume, salinity, and chemical composition. The record includes periods of exceptional snow (1997, 2007) and periods of exception rainfall (2010, 2012), both of which resulted in unusually high pond water levels. However, severe salinization only occurred in response to extreme summer rainfall. We hypothesize that since rainfall and snowmelt activate different hydrological pathways, they have markedly different impacts on salinization. We propose that a wet condition associated with high snowmelt conditions does not pose a strong threat to salinization, which has important implications for agricultural planning. Whilst this hypothesis is consistent with our conceptual understanding of the system, it needs to be tested further at a range of field sites in the prairies.

  13. Laser scanning cytometry and tissue microarray analysis of salinity effects on killifish chloride cells.

    PubMed

    Lima, Raquel N; Kültz, Dietmar

    2004-04-01

    The effects of salinity on chloride cells (CC) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase content in gill epithelium of euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus were analyzed using laser scanning cytometry (LSC) and tissue microarrays (TMAs). Salinity acclimations consisted of acute transfer from freshwater (FW) to 1x seawater (SW) and gradual transfer from FW to 2.4x SW. Suspensions of dissociated gill epithelial cells were stained with DASPMI and evaluated using LSC. CC number and volume are proportional to external salinity, being lower in FW (0.5+/-0.2 x 10(5) and 405+/-32 micro m(3), respectively) and higher after 5 weeks in 2.4x SW (3.7+/-0.9 x 10(5) and 2697+/-146 micro m(3), respectively). TMAs were constructed from fixed gill tissues and developed using antibody for Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase to visualize CCs in situ and compare their characteristics with isolated CCs. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase content per CC increases transiently (from 2.2+/-0.5 x 10(6) to 4.8+/-1.1 x 10(6) relative fluorescence units, RFU) after 1 week of acute acclimation to 1x SW but returns to baseline values (2.4+/-0.5 x 10(6) RFU) within 5 weeks. In contrast, gradual acclimation to 2.4x SW permanently increases Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase content per CC (from 2.0+/-0.8 x 10(6) to 6.7+/-2.7 x 10(6) RFU after 5 weeks). CC size in situ did not correlate well to salinity because of basolateral membrane infoldings. Taken together, these data suggest that euryhaline fishes are capable of sensing environmental salinity to utilize transient short-term and permanent long-term adaptations for coping with salinity changes. These results also demonstrate the power of LSC and TMA for comparative biology. PMID:15073205

  14. Morphological and Physiological Responses of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Plants to Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Ma, Huijuan; Chen, Tingting; Pen, Jun; Yu, Shuxun; Zhao, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    Salinization usually plays a primary role in soil degradation, which consequently reduces agricultural productivity. In this study, the effects of salinity on growth parameters, ion, chlorophyll, and proline content, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation of two cotton cultivars, [CCRI-79 (salt tolerant) and Simian 3 (salt sensitive)], were evaluated. Salinity was investigated at 0 mM, 80 mM, 160 mM, and 240 mM NaCl for 7 days. Salinity induced morphological and physiological changes, including a reduction in the dry weight of leaves and roots, root length, root volume, average root diameter, chlorophyll and proline contents, net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. In addition, salinity caused ion imbalance in plants as shown by higher Na+ and Cl− contents and lower K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ concentrations. Ion imbalance was more pronounced in CCRI-79 than in Simian3. In the leaves and roots of the salt-tolerant cultivar CCRI-79, increasing levels of salinity increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR), but reduced catalase (CAT) activity. The activities of SOD, CAT, APX, and GR in the leaves and roots of CCRI-79 were higher than those in Simian 3. CAT and APX showed the greatest H2O2 scavenging activity in both leaves and roots. Moreover, CAT and APX activities in conjunction with SOD seem to play an essential protective role in the scavenging process. These results indicate that CCRI-79 has a more effective protection mechanism and mitigated oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation by maintaining higher antioxidant activities than those in Simian 3. Overall, the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and Chl (a+b) contents, net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, SOD, CAT, APX, and GR activities showed the most significant variation between the two cotton cultivars. PMID:25391141

  15. Biodiversity patterns of soil ciliates along salinity gradients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated ciliate diversity in saline soils with a salinity range from 6.5 to 65psu by the morphological method of the Ludox-quantitative protargol stain (QPS) and the molecular techniques of ciliate-specific clone library and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. No active ciliates could be detected with the Ludox-QPS method, while high molecular diversity of ciliates was found. The highest ciliate molecular diversity was obtained from the soil at salinity of 8.9psu, moderate diversity was found at salinity of 6.5psu, and the diversity sharply decreased at salinity of 50.5psu. By contrast, the number of ciliate classes clearly decreased with increasing soil salinity: six, five, four and two classes from sites with salinity of 6.5psu, 8.9psu, 29.5psu and 50.5psu, respectively. Ciliate diversity pattern is different from that of bacteria, whose diversity is also high in extremely saline environments. Meanwhile, the composition of ciliate community was significantly different along salinity gradient. Colpodea and Oligohymenophorea were diverse in soils at salinity less than 29.5psu, while absent in soils with salinity above 50.5psu. BIOENV analysis indicated soil salinity and water content were the main factors regulating the distribution of ciliates in saline soils. PMID:26773903

  16. Coastal salinity measurement using a Doppler Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Benjamin S.; Tatnall, Adrian R. L.; Lewis, Hugh G.

    2012-10-01

    Coastal salinity is characterised by large and variable salinity contrasts on relatively small scales. Measurements of salinity at a resolution compatible with these coastal regions on a regular basis would provide a rich source of information that could be used for a number of applications that have a fundamental bearing on the world's lifestyle. Doppler radiometry offers an approach to capture such measurements, as it reduces the number of required antennas needed to form an image, compared with an Interferometer type instrument. In this work, a Doppler Radiometer type instrument on free-flying satellites is introduced. This approach removes the need for a physical connection between all the antennas, affords the system a degree of reconfigurability, yet is still able to provide data of sufficient resolution. A Y-shaped central hub (similar to the SMOS configuration) is employed with additional antennas mounted on free flying platforms surrounding the central hub. The additional baselines formed between the antennas of the free flying satellites and central hub as well as between the free flying satellites extend the u-v coverage beyond that of just the central hub. The spatial resolution of a Doppler Radiometer system with a Y-shaped hub with a SMOS configuration of antennas, with each arm extended by five 6 m spaced free flying antennas would be of the order of 5 km, when imaging from 800 km. This paper will present some initial results from a study into an instrument concept that could provide coastal salinity measurements at microwave wavelengths. The study focuses on antenna array design and on quantifying the improvement in spatial resolution available by using this method, and includes an investigation into the effects of the relative motion between the hub and the free flying satellites on the imaging. Further, whilst this paper focuses on the application of the Doppler Radiometer to salinity measurement, the techniques described are applicable to other applications of a passive microwave instruments.

  17. Coastal salinity measurement using a Doppler Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Benjamin; Tatnall, Adrian; Lewis, Hugh G.

    Coastal salinity is characterized by large and variable salinity contrasts on relatively small scales. Measurements of salinity at a resolution compatible with these coastal regions on a regular basis would provide a rich source of information that could be used for a number of applications that have a fundamental bearing on the world's lifestyle. Doppler radiometry offers an approach to capture such measurements, as it reduces the number of required antennas needed to form an image, compared with an Interferometer type instrument. In this work, we introduce a Doppler Radiometer type instrument on free-flying satellites. This approach removes the need for a physical connection between all the antennas, affords the system a degree of reconfigurability, yet is still able to provide data of sufficient resolution. A Y-shaped central hub (similar to the SMOS configuration) is employed with additional antennas mounted on free flying platforms surrounding the central hub. The additional baselines formed between the antennas of the free flying satellites and central hub as well as between the free flying satellites extend the u-v coverage beyond that of just the central hub. The spatial resolution of a Doppler Radiometer system with a Y-shaped hub with a SMOS configuration of antennas, with each arm extended by five 6m spaced free flying antennas would be of the order of 5km, when imaging from 800km. This paper will present some initial results from a study into an instrument concept that could provide coastal salinity measurements at microwave wavelengths. The study focuses on quantifying the improvement in spatial resolution available by using this method, and includes an investigation into the effects of the relative motion between the hub and the free flying satellites on the imaging. Further, whilst this paper focuses on the application of the Doppler Radiometer to salinity measurement, the principles are equally applicable to any passive microwave instrument.

  18. Global Surface Salinity Variability: Modal Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretxabaleta, A. L.; Gourrion, J.; Ballabrera, J.; Mourre, B.; Font, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission of the European Space Agency will provide global surface salinity (SSS) observations starting in 2009. The development and validation of satellite SSS products requires an adequate understanding of the salinity variability at global scales. In this study, a preliminary characterization of the surface salinity variability for the global ocean using both observed and model data is accomplished. A comparison with surface temperature (SST) characteristics is also conducted. Recent ARGO profiles (2004-2008) are used as observational data while the model data is obtained from hindcast simulations (2003-2008) from available prediction systems. Single-variate Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) are estimated for both model and observed temperature and salinity. To achieve a more complete observational temporal and spatial distribution, gap filling is conducted using EOFs through an iterative process to project the available ARGO information. The avoid the overwhelming effect of the Arctic SSS variability on the EOF analysis, that region is separated from the model-observation comparison. The modes of variability from model data presents both spatial and temporal similarities with observational data, especially for surface temperature. The main mode of variability in both SSS and SST is likely associated with the ENSO cycle. Additionally, Single- and Multivariate EOFs can be used to propagate information (gap filling) from data rich variables (SST) or areas to regions where SSS data is sparse. This work is part of the SMOS Barcelona Expert Center (http://www.smos-bec.icm.es) effort to contribute to the ground segment of the SMOS mission.

  19. Quantum volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, V. A.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum systems in a mechanical embedding, the breathing mode of a small particles, optomechanical system, etc. are far not the full list of examples in which the volume exhibits quantum behavior. Traditional consideration suggests strain in small systems as a result of a collective movement of particles, rather than the dynamics of the volume as an independent variable. The aim of this work is to show that some problem here might be essentially simplified by introducing periodic boundary conditions. At this case, the volume is considered as the independent dynamical variable driven by the internal pressure. For this purpose, the concept of quantum volume based on Schrödinger’s equation in 𝕋3 manifold is proposed. It is used to explore several 1D model systems: An ensemble of free particles under external pressure, quantum manometer and a quantum breathing mode. In particular, the influence of the pressure of free particle on quantum oscillator is determined. It is shown also that correction to the spectrum of the breathing mode due to internal degrees of freedom is determined by the off-diagonal matrix elements of the quantum stress. The new treatment not using the “force” theorem is proposed for the quantum stress tensor. In the general case of flexible quantum 3D dynamics, quantum deformations of different type might be introduced similarly to monopole mode.

  20. Climate change and soil salinity: The case of coastal Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David

    2015-12-01

    This paper estimates location-specific soil salinity in coastal Bangladesh for 2050. The analysis was conducted in two stages: First, changes in soil salinity for the period 2001-2009 were assessed using information recorded at 41 soil monitoring stations by the Soil Research Development Institute. Using these data, a spatial econometric model was estimated linking soil salinity with the salinity of nearby rivers, land elevation, temperature, and rainfall. Second, future soil salinity for 69 coastal sub-districts was projected from climate-induced changes in river salinity and projections of rainfall and temperature based on time trends for 20 Bangladesh Meteorological Department weather stations in the coastal region. The findings indicate that climate change poses a major soil salinization risk in coastal Bangladesh. Across 41 monitoring stations, the annual median projected change in soil salinity is 39 % by 2050. Above the median, 25 % of all stations have projected changes of 51 % or higher. PMID:26152508

  1. A comparison of osmoregulatory responses in plasma and tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following acute salinity challenges.

    PubMed

    Al-Jandal, Noura J; Wilson, Rod W

    2011-06-01

    Euryhaline teleosts regulate their internal osmotic and ionic status across a wide range of external salinities. Studies often rely on measurements on plasma when osmoregulatory status is perturbed, whereas tissue measurements are used for small fish with limited blood volume. However, a direct comparison is lacking for plasma and various tissues. In the present study the relationships between plasma, white muscle and carcass were examined for a range of osmoregulatory variables in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following challenge with an acute (24 h) transfer from freshwater to a hyper-osmotic salinity of either 25 or 35. Significant increases in plasma osmolality, [Na+], [Cl⁻], [Ca²+], and [Mg²+] were observed when salinity was increased, but plasma [K+] was unaffected. The water content of both tissues showed reciprocal changes to plasma osmolality. The carcass content of all ions measured showed a significant increase at the highest ambient salinity. In white muscle, Na+, K+ and Mg²+ showed significant increases with external salinity, but Cl⁻ and Ca²+ were unaffected. Measurements from both tissues can provide reliable surrogates for most of the plasma osmoregulatory variables except Cl⁻ and Ca²+ when using white muscle tissue. In the case of internal regulation of K+ both tissues provide sensitive and quantitatively similar indicators of environmental salinity disturbance, whereas plasma does not. PMID:21354472

  2. DOES SALINITY REDUCE BORON’S TOXIC EFFECT IN BROCCOLI?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High salinity and boron often occur together in irrigation water in arid climates, but very little research has been done to study the interaction of the two. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the U.S. Salinity Laboratory in sand tanks to evaluate the interactions between B and saline draina...

  3. 75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  4. 75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control ] Act of 1974...

  5. 77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  6. 77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  7. 75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  8. 78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  9. 78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974...

  10. 76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  11. Sea Surface Salinity: The Next Remote Sensing Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagerloef, Gary S. E.; Swift, Calvin T.; LeVine, David M.

    1995-01-01

    A brief history of salinity remote sensing is presented. The role of sea surface salinity (SSS) in the far north Atlantic and the influence of salinity variations on upper ocean dynamics in the tropics are described. An assessment of the present state of the technology of the SSS satellite remote sensing is given.

  12. Salinity-buffered methane hydrate formation and dissociation in gas-rich systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Kehua; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Flemings, Peter B.; Polito, Peter; Bryant, Steven L.

    2015-02-01

    Methane hydrate formation and dissociation are buffered by salinity in a closed system. During hydrate formation, salt excluded from hydrate increases salinity, drives the system to three-phase (gas, water, and hydrate phases) equilibrium, and limits further hydrate formation and dissociation. We developed a zero-dimensional local thermodynamic equilibrium-based model to explain this concept. We demonstrated this concept by forming and melting methane hydrate from a partially brine-saturated sand sample in a controlled laboratory experiment by holding pressure constant (6.94 MPa) and changing temperature stepwise. The modeled methane gas consumptions and hydrate saturations agreed well with the experimental measurements after hydrate nucleation. Hydrate dissociation occurred synchronously with temperature increase. The exception to this behavior is that substantial subcooling (6.4°C in this study) was observed for hydrate nucleation. X-ray computed tomography scanning images showed that core-scale hydrate distribution was heterogeneous. This implied core-scale water and salt transport induced by hydrate formation. Bulk resistivity increased sharply with initial hydrate formation and then decreased as the hydrate ripened. This study reproduced the salinity-buffered hydrate behavior interpreted for natural gas-rich hydrate systems by allowing methane gas to freely enter/leave the sample in response to volume changes associated with hydrate formation and dissociation. It provides insights into observations made at the core scale and log scale of salinity elevation to three-phase equilibrium in natural hydrate systems.

  13. River salinity on a mega-delta, an unstructured grid model approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bricheno, Lucy; Saiful Islam, Akm; Wolf, Judith

    2014-05-01

    With an average freshwater discharge of around 40,000 m3/s the BGM (Brahmaputra Ganges and Meghna) river system has the third largest discharge worldwide. The BGM river delta is a low-lying fertile area covering over 100,000 km2 mainly in India and Bangladesh. Approximately two-thirds of the Bangladesh people work in agriculture and these local livelihoods depend on freshwater sources directly linked to river salinity. The finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) has been applied to the BGM delta in order to simulate river salinity under present and future climate conditions. Forced by a combination of regional climate model predictions, and a basin-wide river catchment model, the 3D baroclinic delta model can determine river salinity under the current climate, and make predictions for future wet and dry years. The river salinity demonstrates a strong seasonal and tidal cycle, making it important for the model to be able to capture a wide range of timescales. The unstructured mesh approach used in FVCOM is required to properly represent the delta's structure; a complex network of interconnected river channels. The model extends 250 km inland in order to capture the full extent of the tidal influence and grid resolutions of 10s of metres are required to represent narrow inland river channels. The use of FVCOM to simulate flows so far inland is a novel challenge, which also requires knowledge of the shape and cross-section of the river channels.

  14. Physiological and biochemical responses of the forage legume Trifolium alexandrinum to different saline conditions and nitrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Zouhaier, Barhoumi; Mariem, Maatallah; Mokded, Rabhi; Rouached, Aida; Alsane, Khaldoun; Chedly, Abdelly; Abderrazek, Smaoui; Abdallah, Atia

    2016-05-01

    Salinity stress reduces plant productivity, but low levels of salinity often increase plant growth rates in some species. We herein describe the effects of salinity on plant growth while focusing on nitrogen use. We treated Trifolium alexandrinum with two nitrogen concentrations and salinity levels and determined growth rates, mineral concentrations, nitrogen use efficiency, photosynthesis rates, and nitrate reductase (NR, E.C. 1.6.6.1) and glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2) activities. The T. alexandrinum growth rate increased following treatment with 100 mM NaCl in low nitrogen (LN) and high nitrogen (HN) conditions. Salt treatment also increased root volume, intrinsic water use efficiency, and nitrogen use efficiency in LN and HN conditions. These changes likely contributed to higher biomass production. Salinity also increased accumulations of sodium, chloride, and phosphate, but decreased potassium and calcium levels and total nitrogen concentrations in all plant organs independently of the available nitrogen level. However, the effect of salt treatment on magnesium and nitrate concentrations in photosynthetic organs depended on nitrogen levels. Salt treatment reduced photosynthesis rates in LN and HN conditions because of inhibited stomatal conductance. The effects of salinity on leaf NR and GS activities depended on nitrogen levels, with activities increasing in LN conditions. In saline conditions, LN availability resulted in optimal growth because of low chloride accumulation and increases in total nitrogen concentrations, nitrogen use efficiency, and NR and GS activities in photosynthetic organs. Therefore, T. alexandrinum is a legume forage crop that can be cultivated in low-saline soils where nitrogen availability is limited. PMID:26818949

  15. Mechanisms controlling evaporation of a saline film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragila, M. I.; Gitelman, E. M.; Weisbrod, N.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding salt precipitation dynamics during evaporation of saline and sodic soils is necessary for the improvement of agricultural conditions of those soils. In a series of highly controlled laboratory experiments, we found that evaporation of saline solution (copper sulfate) from both homogenous and heterogeneous porous media produces an initial crust followed by subsequent banding patterns. The salt precipitation site represents a rough approximation of the evaporation front. The spacing of the subfluoresecnt deposition sites indicate that the evaporation front is receding in a non-smooth fashion. During the experiments, mass, matric-potential, and photo data were collected. The data indicates that salt precipitates in from the film region of capillary fringe, and thus many contributing mechanisms control this banding phenomena, particularly surface tension and its' variation with concentration.

  16. Effect of salinity on methylation of mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, J.E.; Bartha, R.

    1980-09-01

    Monomethyl and dimethylmercury are potent neurotoxins subject to biomagnification in food webs. This fact was tragically demonstrated by the Minamata and Niigata poisoning incidents in Japan in which 168 persons who ate seafood from mercury polluted waters were poisoned, 52 fatally. Shortly after these two incidents, work conducted in freshwater environments demonstrated the microbial conversion of inorganic and phenylmercury compounds to mono- and di-methylmercury. Consideration of some fragmentary evidence from the literature, however, indicates that the rate and the significance of microbial methylation of mercury in freshwater and saltwater environments may not be the same. A demonstrated relationship between mercury methylation rates and water salinity would greatly influence our thinking about mercury pollution effects in marine versus freshwater environments. Since we were unable to locate published reports on this subject, we are investigating the influence of salinity on the rate of mercury methylation in an estuarine sediment.

  17. Evaporites and the Salinity of the Ocean During the Phanerozoic: Implications for Climate, Ocean Circulation and Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floegel, S.; Hay, W. W.; Migdisov, A.; Balukhovsky, A. N.; Wold, C. N.; Soeding, E.

    2005-12-01

    A compilation of data on volumes and masses of evaporite deposits is used as the basis for reconstruction of the salinity of the ocean in the past. Chloride is tracked as the only ion essentially restricted to the ocean, and past salinities are calculated from reconstructed chlorine content of the ocean. Models for ocean salinity through the Phanerozoic are developed using maximal and minimal estimates of the volumes of existing evaporite deposits, and constant and declining volumes of ocean water through the Phanerozoic. We conclude that there have been significant changes in the mean salinity of the ocean accompanying a general decline throughout the Phanerozoic. The greatest changes are related to major extractions of salt into the ocean basins which developed during the Mesozoic as Pangaea broke apart. Unfortunately, the sizes of these salt deposits are also the least well known. The last major extractions of salt from the ocean occurred during the Miocene, shortly after the large scale extraction of water from the ocean to form the ice cap of Antarctica. However, these two modifications of the masses of H2O and salt in the ocean followed in sequence and did not cancel each other out. Accordingly, salinities during the Early Miocene were reconstructed to be between 37‰ and 39‰. The Mesozoic was a time of generally declining salinity associated with the deep sea salt extractions of the North Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico (Middle to Late Jurassic) and South Atlantic (Early Cretaceous). The earliest of the major extractions of the Phanerozoic occurred during the Permian. There were few large extractions of salt during the earlier Paleozoic. The models suggest that this was a time of relatively stable but slowly increasing salinities ranging through the upper 40‰'s into the lower 50‰'s. Higher salinities for the world ocean had profound consequences for the thermohaline circulation of the ocean in the past. In the modern ocean, with an average salinity of about 34.7‰, the density of water is only slightly affected by cooling as it approaches the freezing point. Consequently, salinization through sea-ice formation or evaporation is usually required to make water dense enough to sink into the ocean interior. At salinities above about 40‰ water continues to become more dense as it approaches the freezing point, and salinization is not required. The energy-consuming phase changes involved in sea-ice formation and evaporation would not be required for vertical circulation in the ocean. The hypothesized major declines in salinity correspond closely to the evolution of both planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannoplankton. Both groups were restricted to shelf regions in the Jurassic and early Cretaceous, but spread into the open ocean in the mid Cretaceous. The modeling also suggests that there was a major salinity decline in from the late Precambrian to the Cambrian, and it is tempting to speculate that this may have been a factor in the Cambrian explosion of life.

  18. Comparison of prophylactic and therapeutic use of short‐chain fatty acid enemas in diversion colitis: a study in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Ariano José Freitas; Júnior, Francisco Edilson Leite Pinto; Formiga, Maria Célia Carvalho; da Costa Melo, Syomara Pereira; Brandão‐Neto, José; de Oliveira Ramos, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of short‐chain fatty‐acids on atrophy and inflammation of excluded colonic segments before and after the development of diversion colitis. INTRODUCTION: Diversion colitis is a chronic inflammatory process affecting the dysfunctional colon, possibly evolving with mucous and blood discharge. The most favored hypotheses to explain its development is short‐chain fatty‐acid deficiency in the colon lumen. METHODS: Wistar rats were submitted to colostomy with distal colon exclusion. Two control groups (A1 and B1) received rectally administered physiological saline, whereas two experimental groups (A2 and B2) received rectally administered short‐chain fatty‐acids. The A groups were prophylactically treated (5th to 40th days postoperatively), whereas the B groups were therapeutically treated (after post‐operative day 40). The mucosal thickness of the excluded colon was measured histologically. The inflammatory reaction of the mucosal lamina propria and the lymphoid tissue response were quantified through established scores. RESULTS: There was a significant thickness recovery of the colonic mucosa in group B2 animals (p  =  0.0001), which also exhibited a significant reduction in the number of eosinophilic polymorphonuclear cells in the lamina propria (p  =  0.0126) and in the intestinal lumen (p  =  0.0256). Group A2 showed no mucosal thickness recovery and significant increases in the numbers of lymphocytes (p  =  0.0006) and eosinophilic polymorphonuclear cells in the lamina propria of the mucosa (p  =  0.0022). CONCLUSION: Therapeutic use of short‐chain fatty‐acids significantly reduced eosinophilic polymorphonuclear cell numbers in the intestinal wall and in the colonic lumen; it also reversed the atrophy of the colonic mucosa. Prophylactic use did not impede the development of mucosal atrophy. PMID:21340226

  19. Incorporation of salinity in Water Availability Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Lee, Chihun

    2011-10-01

    SummaryNatural salt pollution from geologic formations in the upper watersheds of several large river basins in the Southwestern United States severely constrains the use of otherwise available major water supply sources. The Water Rights Analysis Package modeling system has been routinely applied in Texas since the late 1990s in regional and statewide planning studies and administration of the state's water rights permit system, but without consideration of water quality. The modeling system was recently expanded to incorporate salinity considerations in assessments of river/reservoir system capabilities for supplying water for environmental, municipal, agricultural, and industrial needs. Salinity loads and concentrations are tracked through systems of river reaches and reservoirs to develop concentration frequency statistics that augment flow frequency and water supply reliability metrics at pertinent locations for alternative water management strategies. Flexible generalized capabilities are developed for using limited observed salinity data to model highly variable concentrations imposed upon complex river regulation infrastructure and institutional water allocation/management practices.

  20. Effects of salinity on baldcypress seedlings: Physiological responses and their relation to salinity tolerance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Chambers, J.L.; Pezeshki, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    Growth and physiological responses of 15 open-pollinated families of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum var. distichum) subjected to flooding with saline water were evaluated in this study. Ten of the families were from coastal sites in Louisiana and Alabama, USA that have elevated levels of soil-water salinity. The other five families were from inland, freshwater sites in Louisiana. Seedlings from all families tolerated flooding with water of low (2 g l-1) salinity. Differences in biomass among families became most apparent at the highest salinity levels (6 and 8 g l-1). Overall, increasing salinity reduced leaf biomass more than root biomass, which in turn was reduced more than stem biomass. A subset of seedlings from the main greenhouse experiment was periodically placed indoors under artificial light, and measurements were made of gas exchange and leaf water potential. Also, tissue concentrations of Cl-, Na+, K+, and Ca2+ were determined at the end of the greenhouse experiment. Significant intraspecific variation was found for nearly all the physiological parameters evaluated, but only leaf concentrations of Na+ and Cl- were correlated with an index of family-level differences in salt tolerance.

  1. Review of factors affecting recovery of freshwater stored in saline aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    A simulation analysis reported previously, and summarized herein, identified the effects of various geohydrologic and operational factors on recoverability of the injected water. Buoyancy stratification, downgradient advection, and hydrodynamic dispersion are the principal natural processes that reduce the amount of injected water that can be recovered. Buoyancy stratification is shown to depend on injection-zone permeability and the density contrast between injected and saline native water. Downgradient advection occurs as a result of natural or induced hydraulic gradients in the aquifer. Hydrodynamic dispersion reduces recovery efficiency by mixing some of the injected water with native saline aquifer water. In computer simulations, the relation of recovery efficiency to volume injected and its improvement during successive injection-recovery cycles was shown to depend on changes in the degree of hydrodynamic dispersion that occurs. Additional aspects of the subject are discussed.

  2. Impacts of climate variability on wetland salinization in the North American prairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachshon, U.; Ireson, A.; van der Kamp, G.; Davies, S. R.; Wheater, H. S.

    2014-04-01

    The glaciated plains of the North American continent, also known as the "prairies", are a complex hydrological system characterized by hummocky terrain, where wetlands, containing seasonal or semi-permanent ponds, occupy the numerous topographic depressions. The prairie subsoil and many of its water bodies contain high salt concentrations, in particular sulfate salts, which are continuously cycled within the closed drainage basins. The period between 2000 and 2012 was characterized by an unusual degree of climatic variability, including severe floods and droughts, and this had a marked effect on the spatial distribution, water levels and chemical composition of wetland ponds. Understanding the geochemical and hydrological processes under changing environmental conditions is needed in order to better understand the risk and mitigate the impacts of future soil and water salinization. Here we explore salt dynamics in the prairies using field observations from St. Denis, Saskatchewan, taken mostly over the last 20 years. Measurements include meteorological data, soil moisture, soil salinity, groundwater levels and pond water volume, salinity, and chemical composition. The record includes periods of exceptional snow (1997, 2007) and periods of exception rainfall (2010, 2012), both of which resulted in unusually high pond water levels. Measurements indicated that severe pond salinization only occurred in response to extreme summer rainfall. It is hypothesized that since rainfall water infiltrates through the soil towards the depressions, while snowmelt water flows mainly as surface water over frozen soils, they have markedly different impacts on salt transport and pond salinization. Whilst this hypothesis is consistent with our conceptual understanding of the system, it needs to be tested further at a range of field sites in the prairies.

  3. Durum wheat seedlings in saline conditions: Salt spray versus root-zone salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanò, Carmelina; Bottega, Stefania

    2016-02-01

    Salinity is an increasingly serious problem with a strong negative impact on plant productivity. Though many studies have been made on salt stress induced by high NaCl concentrations in the root-zone, few data concern the response of plants to saline aerosol, one of the main constraints in coastal areas. In order to study more in depth wheat salinity tolerance and to evaluate damage and antioxidant response induced by various modes of salt application, seedlings of Triticum turgidum ssp. durum, cv. Cappelli were treated for 2 and 7 days with salt in the root-zone (0, 50 and 200 mM NaCl) or with salt spray (400 mM NaCl + 0 or 200 mM NaCl in the root-zone). Seedlings accumulated Na+ in their leaves and therefore part of their ability to tolerate high salinity seems to be due to Na+ leaf tissue tolerance. Durum wheat, confirmed as a partially tolerant plant, shows a higher damage under airborne salinity, when both an increase in TBA-reactive material (indicative of lipid peroxidation) and a decrease in root growth were recorded. A different antioxidant response was activated, depending on the type of salt supply. Salt treatment induced a depletion of the reducing power of both ascorbate and glutathione while the highest contents of proline were detected under salt spray conditions. In the short term catalase and ascorbate peroxidase co-operated with glutathione peroxidase in the scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, in particular in salt spray-treated plants. From our data, the durum wheat cultivar Cappelli seems to be sensitive to airborne salinity.

  4. Diatom Cell Size, Coloniality and Motility: Trade-Offs between Temperature, Salinity and Nutrient Supply with Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Filip; Norberg, Jon; Snoeijs, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Reduction in body size has been proposed as a universal response of organisms, both to warming and to decreased salinity. However, it is still controversial if size reduction is caused by temperature or salinity on their own, or if other factors interfere as well. We used natural benthic diatom communities to explore how “body size” (cells and colonies) and motility change along temperature (2–26°C) and salinity (0.5–7.8) gradients in the brackish Baltic Sea. Fourth-corner analysis confirmed that small cell and colony sizes were associated with high temperature in summer. Average community cell volume decreased linearly with 2.2% per °C. However, cells were larger with artificial warming when nutrient concentrations were high in the cold season. Average community cell volume increased by 5.2% per °C of artificial warming from 0 to 8.5°C and simultaneously there was a selection for motility, which probably helped to optimize growth rates by trade-offs between nutrient supply and irradiation. Along the Baltic Sea salinity gradient cell size decreased with decreasing salinity, apparently mediated by nutrient stoichiometry. Altogether, our results suggest that climate change in this century may polarize seasonality by creating two new niches, with elevated temperature at high nutrient concentrations in the cold season (increasing cell size) and elevated temperature at low nutrient concentrations in the warm season (decreasing cell size). Higher temperature in summer and lower salinity by increased land-runoff are expected to decrease the average cell size of primary producers, which is likely to affect the transfer of energy to higher trophic levels. PMID:25279720

  5. The Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm: Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank J.; Lagerloef, Gary; LeVine, David

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius L-band radiometer/scatterometer system is designed to provide monthly salinity maps at 150 km spatial scale to a 0.2 psu accuracy. The sensor was launched on June 10, 2011, aboard the Argentine CONAE SAC-D spacecraft. The L-band radiometers and the scatterometer have been taking science data observations since August 25, 2011. The first part of this presentation gives an overview over the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The instrument calibration converts Aquarius radiometer counts into antenna temperatures (TA). The salinity retrieval algorithm converts those TA into brightness temperatures (TB) at a flat ocean surface. As a first step, contributions arising from the intrusion of solar, lunar and galactic radiation are subtracted. The antenna pattern correction (APC) removes the effects of cross-polarization contamination and spillover. The Aquarius radiometer measures the 3rd Stokes parameter in addition to vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations, which allows for an easy removal of ionospheric Faraday rotation. The atmospheric absorption at L-band is almost entirely due to O2, which can be calculated based on auxiliary input fields from numerical weather prediction models and then successively removed from the TB. The final step in the TA to TB conversion is the correction for the roughness of the sea surface due to wind. This is based on the radar backscatter measurements by the scatterometer. The TB of the flat ocean surface can now be matched to a salinity value using a surface emission model that is based on a model for the dielectric constant of sea water and an auxiliary field for the sea surface temperature. In the current processing (as of writing this abstract) only v-pol TB are used for this last process and NCEP winds are used for the roughness correction. Before the salinity algorithm can be operationally implemented and its accuracy assessed by comparing versus in situ measurements, an extensive calibration and validation (cal/val) activity needs to be completed. This is necessary in order to tune the inputs to the algorithm and remove biases that arise due to the instrument calibration, foremost the values of the noise diode injection temperatures and the losses that occur in the feedhorns. This is the subject of the second part of our presentation. The basic tool is to analyze the observed difference between the Aquarius measured TA and an expected TA that is computed from a reference salinity field. It is also necessary to derive a relation between the scatterometer backscatter measurements and the radiometer emissivity that is induced by surface winds. In order to do this we collocate Aquarius radiometer and scatterometer measurements with wind speed retrievals from the WindSat and SSMIS F17 microwave radiometers. Both of these satellites fly in orbits that have the same equatorial ascending crossing time (6 pm) as the Aquarius/SAC-D observatory. Rain retrievals from WindSat and SSMIS F 17 can be used to remove Aquarius observations that are rain contaminated. A byproduct of this analysis is a prediction for the wind-induced sea surface emissivity at L-band.

  6. Effects of Salinity and Nutrient Addition on Mangrove Excoecaria agallocha

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yaping; Ye, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Effects of salinity on seed germination and growth of young (1 month old) and old (2-year old) seedlings of Excoecaria agallocha were investigated. Combined effects of salinity and nutrient level were also examined on old seedlings. Seed germination was best at 0 and 5 psu salinity. 15 psu salinity significantly delayed root initiation and decreased final establishment rate. All seeds failed to establish at 25 psu salinity. Young seedlings performed best at 0 and 5 psu, but growth was stunned at 15 psu, and all seedlings died within 90 days at 25 psu. Old seedlings grew best at salinities below 5 psu and they survived the whole cultivation at 25 psu. This indicated that E. agallocha increased salt tolerance over time. Gas exchange was significantly compromised by salinities above 15 psu but evidently promoted by high nutrient. Proline accumulated considerably at high nutrient, and its contents increased from 0 to 15 psu but decreased at 25 psu salinity. Lipid peroxidation was aggravated by increasing salinity beyond 15 psu but markedly alleviated by nutrient addition. These responses indicated that E. agallocha was intolerant to high salinity but it can be greatly enhanced by nutrient addition. PMID:24691495

  7. Salinity fronts in the tropical Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Hsun-Ying; Lagerloef, Gary S E

    2015-01-01

    This study delineates the salinity fronts (SF) across the tropical Pacific, and describes their variability and regional dynamical significance using Aquarius satellite observations. From the monthly maps of the SF, we find that the SF in the tropical Pacific are (1) usually observed around the boundaries of the fresh pool under the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), (2) stronger in boreal autumn than in other seasons, and (3) usually stronger in the eastern Pacific than in the western Pacific. The relationship between the SF and the precipitation and the surface velocity are also discussed. We further present detailed analysis of the SF in three key tropical Pacific regions. Extending zonally around the ITCZ, where the temperature is nearly homogeneous, we find the strong SF of 1.2 psu from 7° to 11°N to be the main contributor of the horizontal density difference of 0.8 kg/m3. In the eastern Pacific, we observe a southward extension of the SF in the boreal spring that could be driven by both precipitation and horizontal advection. In the western Pacific, the importance of these newly resolved SF associated with the western Pacific warm/fresh pool and El Niño southern oscillations are also discussed in the context of prior literature. The main conclusions of this study are that (a) Aquarius satellite salinity measurements reveal the heretofore unknown proliferation, structure, and variability of surface salinity fronts, and that (b) the fine-scale structures of the SF in the tropical Pacific yield important new information on the regional air-sea interaction and the upper ocean dynamics. PMID:26213676

  8. Vesicular trafficking and salinity responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Baral, Anirban; Shruthi, K S; Mathew, M K

    2015-09-01

    Research spanning three decades has demonstrated that vesicles pinch off from the plasma membrane and traffic through the cytoplasm of plant cells, much as previously reported in animal cells. Although the well-conserved clathrin-mediated mechanism of endocytosis has been well characterized, relatively little is known about clathrin-independent pathways in plants. Modulation of endocytosis by both physical stimuli and chemical ligands has been reported in plants. Here, we review the effect of salinity-one of the most deleterious environmental assaults-on endocytosis and intracellular trafficking. PMID:26314939

  9. Electrically induced displacement transport of immiscible oil in saline sediments.

    PubMed

    Pamukcu, Sibel; Shrestha, Reena A; Ribeiro, Alexandra B; Mateus, Eduardo P

    2016-08-01

    Electrically assisted mitigation of coastal sediment oil pollution was simulated in floor-scale laboratory experiments using light crude oil and saline water at approximately 1/10 oil/water (O/W) mass ratio in pore fluid. The mass transport of the immiscible liquid phases was induced under constant direct current density of 2A/m(2), without water flooding. The transient pore water pressures (PWP) and the voltage differences (V) at and in between consecutive ports lined along the test specimen cell were measured over 90days. The oil phase transport occurred towards the anode half of the test specimen where the O/W volume ratio increased by 50% over its initial value within that half-length of the specimen. In contrast, the O/W ratio decreased within the cathode side half of the specimen. During this time, the PWP decreased systematically at the anode side with oil bank accumulation. PWP increased at the cathode side of the specimen, signaling increased concentration of water there as it replaced oil in the pore space. Electrically induced transport of the non-polar, non-conductive oil was accomplished in the opposing direction of flow by displacement in absence of viscous coupling of oil-water phases. PMID:27064863

  10. Spontaneous unilateral autoinflation of a saline-filled mammary implant.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, D; Backovic, A; Kaindl, R; Hussl, H; Wick, G

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a woman with a massive volume increase in her right breast 12 years after breast augmentation with saline-filled silicone mammary implants (SMI). Tenderness of and pressure pain in the enlarged right breast were noted on physical examination. Intraoperatively, the right implant was seen to be markedly enlarged, altered in colour and filled with a brownish fluid as compared to the other side. No macroscopic damage, including to the valve of the enlarged SMI, was noticed. The liquid in the inflated SMI was subjected to biochemical analysis. Although neither cells nor nucleic acids were detected, 4 mg/ml protein was found in the liquid of the autoinflated SMI. On SDS-PAGE separation, these proteins resolved in a pattern similar to that of serum proteins. This observation was corroborated by Western blots for several serum proteins. Surprisingly, proteins in the SMI liquid were significantly more glycosylated and oxidised than were serum proteins; this finding indicates a process of protein ageing. We hypothesise that the reason for this in vivo expansion was a defective valve and not colloid osmotic swelling, as previously suggested. PMID:17890168

  11. Salinity dominance on the Indian Ocean Eastern Gyral current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Viviane V.; Phillips, Helen E.; Schiller, Andreas; Domingues, Catia M.; Bindoff, Nathaniel L.

    2013-11-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of salinity gradients to the formation of the Eastern Gyral Current (EGC) in the South Indian Ocean. The EGC flows eastward near 15∘S, opposite to the direction predicted by classical theories of wind-driven circulation and is a source of water for the Leeuwin Current. In the upper ocean, a strong salinity front exists between fresh water from the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) in the South Equatorial Current (SEC) and salty subtropical waters. In that region, salinity overwhelms the temperature contribution to density gradients, generating eastward geostrophic shear and establishing the EGC. Without the salinity front the EGC cannot be maintained: If the salinity contribution is neglected in the calculation of geostrophic currents, the EGC vanishes. Our observational analysis associated with the fact that both Sverdrup and Ekman theories produce westward flows in the region strongly supports the idea that the EGC is a salinity-driven current.

  12. SPOT5 imagery for soil salinity assessment in Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teggi, S.; Costanzini, S.; Despini, F.; Chiodi, P.; Immordino, F.

    2012-10-01

    Soil salinization is a form of topsoil degradation due to the formation of soluble salts at deleterious levels. This phenomenon can seriously compromise vegetation health and agricultural productivity, and represents a worldwide environmental problem. Remote sensing is a very useful tool for soil salinization monitoring and assessment. In this work we show some results of a study aimed to define a methodology for soil salinity assessment in Iraq based on SPOT 5 imagery. This methodology allows the identification of salinized soils primarily on bare soils. Subsequently some soil salinity assessment can be done on vegetated soils. On bare soil the identification of salt is based on spectral analysis, using the Minimum Noise Fraction transformation and several indexes found in literature. In case of densely vegetated soils the methodology for the discrimination of salinized soils has been integrated with the results obtained from the classification of vegetation coverage.

  13. Quaternary soil salinity events and Australian vegetation history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, G. M.

    A late Quaternary history of Australian soil salinization is produced by comparing Chenopodiaceae and Casuarina pollen curves. Although salinity development varied between sites, its occurrence was generally associated with arid phases and when high rainfall or high sea level caused regionally high groundwater tables. Soil salinization contributed to the shift from Casuarina- to Eucalyptus-dominance of interglacial sclerophyll vegetation. The deposition of saline sediments deflated from the Murray Basin seems more likely than Aboriginal burning to have caused the decline of Casuarina at Lake George. Soil salinization probably resulted in other vegetation changes and must be taken into account in environmental reconstructions. The renewed increase in soil salinity caused by European land-use practices and an associated decline in Casuarina are evident in the pollen records of many sites.

  14. Amoebae and Legionella pneumophila in saline environments

    PubMed Central

    Gast, Rebecca J.; Moran, Dawn M.; Dennett, Mark R.; Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.; Amaral- Zettler, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Amoeboid protists that harbor bacterial pathogens are of significant interest as potential reservoirs of disease-causing organisms in the environment, but little is known about them in marine and other saline environments. We enriched amoeba cultures from sediments from four sites in the New England estuarine system of Mt. Hope Bay, Massachusetts and from sediments from six sites in the Great Salt Lake, Utah. Cultures of amoebae were enriched using both minimal- and non-nutrient agar plates, made with fresh water, brackish water or saltwater. Recovered amoeba cultures were assayed for the presence of Legionella species using nested polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and primers specific for the genus. Positive samples were then screened with nested amplification using primers specific for the macrophage infectivity potentiator surface protein (mip) gene from L. pneumophila. Forty-eight percent (185 out of 388) of isolated amoeba cultures were positive for the presence of Legionella species. Legionella pneumophila was detected by PCR in 4% of the amoeba cultures (17 out of 388), and most of these amoebae were growing on marine media. Our results show that amoebae capable of growing in saline environments may harbor not only a diverse collection of Legionella species, but also species potentially pathogenic to humans. PMID:21301113

  15. Physiological mechanisms used by fish to cope with salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Kültz, Dietmar

    2015-06-01

    Salinity represents a critical environmental factor for all aquatic organisms, including fishes. Environments of stable salinity are inhabited by stenohaline fishes having narrow salinity tolerance ranges. Environments of variable salinity are inhabited by euryhaline fishes having wide salinity tolerance ranges. Euryhaline fishes harbor mechanisms that control dynamic changes in osmoregulatory strategy from active salt absorption to salt secretion and from water excretion to water retention. These mechanisms of dynamic control of osmoregulatory strategy include the ability to perceive changes in environmental salinity that perturb body water and salt homeostasis (osmosensing), signaling networks that encode information about the direction and magnitude of salinity change, and epithelial transport and permeability effectors. These mechanisms of euryhalinity likely arose by mosaic evolution involving ancestral and derived protein functions. Most proteins necessary for euryhalinity are also critical for other biological functions and are preserved even in stenohaline fish. Only a few proteins have evolved functions specific to euryhaline fish and they may vary in different fish taxa because of multiple independent phylogenetic origins of euryhalinity in fish. Moreover, proteins involved in combinatorial osmosensing are likely interchangeable. Most euryhaline fishes have an upper salinity tolerance limit of approximately 2× seawater (60 g kg(-1)). However, some species tolerate up to 130 g kg(-1) salinity and they may be able to do so by switching their adaptive strategy when the salinity exceeds 60 g kg(-1). The superior salinity stress tolerance of euryhaline fishes represents an evolutionary advantage favoring their expansion and adaptive radiation in a climate of rapidly changing and pulsatory fluctuating salinity. Because such a climate scenario has been predicted, it is intriguing to mechanistically understand euryhalinity and how this complex physiological phenotype evolves under high selection pressure. PMID:26085667

  16. Mannitol versus hypertonic saline: Safety and efficacy of mannitol and hypertonic saline in sputum induction and bronchial hyperreactivity assessment.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Puebla, M J; Olaguibel, J M; Almudevar, E; Echegoyen, A A; Vela, C; de Esteban, B

    2015-08-01

    Eosinophilic asthma phenotype predicts good response to corticosteroids and associates to asthmatic exacerbations. Sputum induction by hypertonic saline (HS) inhalation is technically demanding. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to osmotic agents indirectly mirrors active airway inflammation. We compared the safety and ability of HS and mannitol to induce sputum and measure BHR. We evaluated the stability of inflammatory phenotypes. We studied 35 non-smoking asthmatics randomized to undergo HS and mannitol challenges on 2 days 1 week apart. Sputum was sampled for cell analysis and phenotyped as eosinophilic (≥3% eosinophils) and non-eosinophilic (<3%) asthma. Nineteen subjects had BHR to mannitol and nine of them also had BHR to HS. Drops in forced expiratory volume in 1 s were higher from HS challenge than from mannitol challenge. Adequate sputum samples were obtained from 80% subjects (68% mannitol and 71% HS). Eosinophils and macrophages from both challenges correlated. Neutrophils were higher in sputum from HS. Ninety percent samples were equally phenotyped with HS and mannitol. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils and BHR correlated in both challenges. HS and mannitol showed similar capacity to produce valuable sputum samples. BHR to both osmotic stimuli partially resembled airway eosinophilic inflammation but mannitol was more sensitive than HS to assess BHR. Eosinophilic phenotype remained stable in most patients with both stimuli. PMID:25761367

  17. Salinity tolerance and genetic diversity of the dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Yun; Chen, Jiaxin

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the relationship between salinity tolerance and genetic diversity of plankton, we collected a wild species of plankton from Taipingjiao, Qingdao. The fragment of ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 was extracted and sequenced. The results showed that the plankton belongs to Oxyrrhis marina. The salinity tolerance of O. marina ranges from 4 to 60. Seven selected groups were built up to evaluate salinity tolerance and to assess genetic diversity by RAPD. The salinity tolerance comparison revealed considerable differences among groups: the strains of O. marina in group 4 could survive under salinity from 4 to 32, while the strains selected for salinity 60 died under the salinity lower than 16. Analysis of genetic diversity of the seven groups showed that the mean genetic diversity index value was 0.28, but it was only 0.16 in selected group of 4 and was 0.24 for group 60. The result of AMOVA suggested a significantly positive relationship between the salinity tolerance and genetic diversity of O. marina ( P<0.01). This study indicates that consideration of intraspecific genetic divergence in O. marina might be indispensable when using it as a model in the study of salinity tolerance of wild plankton.

  18. Integrated geophysical and chemical study of saline water intrusion.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Kalpan; Saha, D K

    2004-01-01

    Surface geophysical surveys provide an effective way to image the subsurface and the ground water zone without a large number of observation wells. DC resistivity sounding generally identifies the subsurface formations-the aquifer zone as well as the formations saturated with saline/brackish water. However, the method has serious ambiguities in distinguishing the geological formations of similar resistivities such as saline sand and saline clay, or water quality such as fresh or saline, in a low resistivity formation. In order to minimize the ambiguity and ascertain the efficacy of data integration techniques in ground water and saline contamination studies, a combined geophysical survey and periodic chemical analysis of ground water were carried out employing DC resistivity profiling, resistivity sounding, and shallow seismic refraction methods. By constraining resistivity interpretation with inputs from seismic refraction and chemical analysis, the data integration study proved to be a powerful method for identification of the subsurface formations, ground water zones, the subsurface saline/brackish water zones, and the probable mode and cause of saline water intrusion in an inland aquifer. A case study presented here illustrates these principles. Resistivity sounding alone had earlier failed to identify the different formations in the saline environment. Data integration and resistivity interpretation constrained by water quality analysis led to a new concept of minimum resistivity for ground water-bearing zones, which is the optimum value of resistivity of a subsurface formation in an area below which ground water contained in it is saline/brackish and unsuitable for drinking. PMID:15457790

  19. Acute toxicity of saline produced waters to marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pillard, D.A.; Evans, J.M.; DuFresne, D.L.

    1996-11-01

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of to osmotic specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow, (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silvemide (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant.

  20. Effect of salinity on oxygen consumption in fishes: a review.

    PubMed

    Ern, R; Huong, D T T; Cong, N V; Bayley, M; Wang, T

    2014-04-01

    The effect of salinity on resting oxygen uptake was measured in the perch Perca fluviatilis and available information on oxygen uptake in teleost species at a variety of salinities was reviewed. Trans-epithelial ion transport against a concentration gradient requires energy and exposure to salinities osmotically different from the body fluids therefore imposes an energetic demand that is expected to be lowest in brackish water compared to fresh and sea water. Across species, there is no clear trend between oxygen uptake and salinity, and estimates of cost of osmotic and ionic regulation vary from a few per cent to >30% of standard metabolism. PMID:24665828

  1. Parasites and salinity: costly tradeoffs in a threatened species.

    PubMed

    Rogowski, David L; Stockwell, Craig A

    2006-01-01

    Parasites and environmental conditions can have direct and indirect effects on individuals. We explore the relationship between salinity and parasites in an endemic New Mexico State threatened fish, the White Sands pupfish (Cyprinodon tularosa). Spatial variation in salinity limits the distribution of the endemic springsnail (Juturnia tularosae) within Salt Creek, a small desert stream. The springsnail is the presumed intermediate host for trematodes that infect the White Sands pupfish, and trematode prevalence and intensity in pupfish are positively associated with the springsnail. Salinity and parasites both have negative impacts on pupfish, but in areas of high salinity, pupfish can effectively escape parasites. Pupfish trematodes were absent from sites lacking snails. At the upstream site, the absence of parasites and lower variance in salinity were correlated with larger pupfish that were in better condition than pupfish at either the middle or lower sites. Springsnails were present in the middle section, an area with moderate salinity, and all pupfish had trematodes (median abundance 847 trematodes/fish). Lipid levels and condition were lowest in fish from the middle site. Additionally, fewer older fish indicated an increased mortality rate. At the lower site, springsnails were absent due to high salinity; pupfish trematode abundance was much lower (six trematodes/fish), and fish condition was intermediate. An additional experiment revealed that snail activity and survival were significantly reduced at high salinities commonly present at the lower site. Although both high salinity and parasites significantly affect pupfish, parasites might be more detrimental. PMID:16133195

  2. Space Radar Image of Saline Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Saline Valley, about 30 km (19 miles) east of the town of Independence, California created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this one are helpful to scientists because they clarify the relationships of the different types of surfaces detected by the radar and the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. The view is looking southwest across Saline Valley. The high peaks in the background are the Inyo Mountains, which rise more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above the valley floor. The dark blue patch near the center of the image is an area of sand dunes. The brighter patches to the left of the dunes are the dry, salty lake beds of Saline Valley. The brown and orange areas are deposits of boulders, gravel and sand known as alluvial fans. The image was constructed by overlaying a color composite radar image on top of a digital elevation map. The radar image was taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-bandSynthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttleEndeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was producedusing radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The elevation data were derived from a 1,500-km-long (930-mile) digital topographic map processed at JPL. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vetically received; and blue is the ratio of C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received to L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This image is centered near 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  3. Freshwater phytoplankton in the low salinity region of the River Tamar estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Roselyn H.; Williams, P. J. le B.; Joint, I. R.

    1987-09-01

    An investigation was made into the fate of freshwater algae in the Tamar estuary, south-west England, to examine the hypothesis that oxygen minima, observed at the freshwater-brackish water interface, were a consequence of mass mortality of freshwater algae and the subsequent oxidative degradation of the lysed cells by bacteria. The quantity and species composition of algae in the river and estuary were determined by measurements of chlorophyll and cell numbers. Phytoplankton numbers were transformed into biomass by measuring the volume of the cells and calculating the carbon content. Salinity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, pH and temperature were also recorded. The size of the upper estuarine community was inversely related to freshwater input. During the summer months, very large populations of freshwater algae (up to 8 mg carbon l -1) were observed between 0 and 8‰ salinity, after long periods of low freshwater input. This population was completely dominated by the diatom Cyclotella atomus and was very stable with respect to changing tides, remaining in the estuary until river flow increased. Death of these algae only occurred at salinities greater than 8‰ and oxygen minima were not observed. The oxygen minima were more closely associated with the turbidity maxima than with algal mortality. There is some evidence that the oxygen depletion may be due to decreased photosynthesis as a result of the reduced light availability at the turbidity maxima.

  4. Temperature effect on acetate and propionate consumption by sulfate-reducing bacteria in saline wastewater.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, T P H; Roest, K; Brdjanovic, D; Chen, G H; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2014-05-01

    Seawater toilet flushing, seawater intrusion in the sewerage, and discharge of sulfate-rich industrial effluents elevates sulfate content in wastewater. The application of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in wastewater treatment is very beneficial; as for example, it improves the pathogen removal and reduces the volume of waste sludge, energy requirement and costs. This paper evaluates the potential to apply biological sulfate reduction using acetate and propionate to saline sewage treatment in moderate climates. Long-term biological sulfate reduction experiments at 10 and 20 °C were conducted in a sequencing batch reactor with synthetic saline domestic wastewater. Subsequently, acetate and propionate (soluble organic carbon) conversion rate were determined in both reactors, in the presence of either or both fatty acids. Both acetate and propionate consumption rates by SRB were 1.9 times lower at 10 °C than at 20 °C. At 10 °C, propionate was incompletely oxidized to acetate. At 10 °C, complete removal of soluble organic carbon requires a significantly increased hydraulic retention time as compared to 20 °C. The results of the study showed that biological sulfate reduction can be a feasible and promising process for saline wastewater treatment in moderate climate. PMID:24463759

  5. Reclamation of highly calcareous saline-sodic soil using low quality water and phosphogypsum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharaibeh, M. A.; Rusan, M. J.; Eltaif, N. I.; Shunnar, O. F.

    2014-09-01

    The efficiency of two amendments in reclaiming saline sodic soil using moderately saline (EC) and moderate sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) canal water was investigated. Phosphogypsum (PG) and reagent grade calcium chloride were applied to packed sandy loam soil columns and leached with canal water (SAR = 4, and EC = 2.16 dS m-1). Phosphogypsum was mixed with top soil prior to leaching at application rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 35, 40 Mg ha-1, whereas calcium chloride was dissolved directly in water at equivalent rates of 4.25, 8.5, 12.75, 17.0, 21.25, 29.75, and 34 Mg ha-1, respectively. Both amendments efficiently reduced soil salinity and sodicity. Calcium chloride removed 90 % of the total Na and soluble salts whereas PG removed 79 and 60 %, respectively. Exchangeable sodium percentage was reduced by 90 % in both amendments. Results indicated that during cation exchange reactions most of the sodium was removed when effluent SAR was at maximum. Phosphogypsum has lower total costs than calcium chloride and as an efficient amendment an application of 30 Mg ha-1 and leaching with 4 pore volume (PV) of canal water could be recommended to reclaim the studied soil.

  6. Does salinity change determine zooplankton variability in the saline Qarun Lake (Egypt)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shabrawy, Gamal M.; Anufriieva, Elena V.; Germoush, Mousa O.; Goher, Mohamed E.; Shadrin, Nickolai V.

    2015-11-01

    Zooplankton and 14 abiotic variables were studied during August 2011 at 10 stations in Lake Qarun, Egypt. Stations with the lowest salinity and highest nutrient concentrations and turbidity were close to the discharge of waters from the El-Bats and El-Wadi drainage systems. A total of 15 holozooplankton species were identified. The salinity in Lake Qarun increased and fluctuated since 1901: 12 g/L in 1901; 8.5 g/L in 1905; 12.0 g/L in 1922; 30.0 g/L in 1985; 38.7 g/L in 1994; 35.3 g/L in 2006, and 33.4 g/L in 2011. The mean concentration of nutrients (nitrate, nitrite and orthophosphate) gradually increased from 35, 0.16 and 0.38 µg/L, respectively, in 1953-1955 to 113, 16.4, and 30.26 µg/L in 2011. From 1999-2003 some decrease of species diversity occurred. Average total zooplankton density was 30 000 ind./m3 in 1974-1977; 356 125 ind./m3 in 1989; 534 000 ind./m3 in 1994-1995; from 965 000 to 1 452 000 ind./m3 in 2006, and 595 000 ind./m3 in 2011. A range of long-term summer salinity variability during the last decades was very similar to a range of salinity spatial variability in summer 2011. There is no significant correlation between zooplankton abundance and salinity in spatial and long-term changes. We conclude that salinity fluctuations since at least 1955 did not directly drive the changes of composition and abundance of zooplankton in the lake. A marine community had formed in the lake, and it continues to change. One of the main drivers of this change is a regular introduction and a pressure of alien species on the existent community. Eutrophication also plays an important role. The introduction of Mnemiopsis leidyi, first reported in 2014, may lead to a start of a new stage of the biotic changes in Lake Qarun, when eutrophication and the population dynamics of this ctenophore will be main drivers of the ecosystem change.

  7. Ion uptake of marigold under saline growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Koksal, Nezihe; Alkan-Torun, Ayfer; Kulahlioglu, Ilknur; Ertargin, Ebru; Karalar, Eylul

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is one of most significant environmental stresses. Marigold is moderately tolerant to salinity stress. Therefore, in this study, the fresh weights of roots and shoots, rootFW/shootFW ratio, moisture content of shoots, micronutrient and macronutrient concentrations and ratios of K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) in the roots and shoots of marigold were determined under salinity stress. Five salinity treatments (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mM NaCl) were maintained. In the current study, salinity affected the biomass of marigold. An increase of more than 100 mM in salt concentrations significantly reduced the shoot fresh weight. Increasing salinity stress increased the ratios of rootFW/shootFW, which were more significant under high salt levels (150 and 200 mM NaCl). Wet basis moisture contents of the shoots were reduced when salinity stress increased above 100 mM. In this study, salinity stress affected micronutrient and macronutrient uptake. Increases in the salt concentration and decreases in the concentration of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) in the roots and Mn(2+) and Fe(2+) in the shoots were significant. Based on an increase in salinity stress, while the Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+) concentrations increased, the K(+) concentration decreased in the roots and shoots. Moreover, the K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratios of the roots and shoots were significantly lower than those of the control in all of the salinity treatments. As a result, under increasing salinity stress, the Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), and Na(+) uptakes in marigold were significant, revealing the effects of stress. PMID:26933637

  8. Salinity and spectral reflectance of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szilagyi, A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    The basic spectral response related to the salt content of soils in the visible and reflective IR wavelengths is analyzed in order to explore remote sensing applications for monitoring processes of the earth system. The bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) was determined at 10 nm of increments over the 520-2320-nm spectral range. The effect of salts on reflectance was analyzed on the basis of 162 spectral measurements. MSS and TM bands were simulated within the measured spectral region. A strong relationship was found in variations of reflectance and soil characteristics pertaining to salinization and desalinization. Although the individual MSS bands had high R-squared values and 75-79 percent of soil/treatment combinations were separable, there was a large number of soil/treatment combinations not distinguished by any of the four highly correlated MSS bands under consideration.

  9. A dynamical study on sodium accumulation and soil reclamation in secondary salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mau, Y.; Porporato, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigation with saline water, together with poor leaching of the salts in the root zone, are the major causes of human-caused soil salinization, or secondary salinization. About 20% of irrigated land are salt-affected, and nearly four million acres of farmland are estimated to be lost to excessive salt every year. The development of a high percentage of sodium in the soil exchangeable complex is especially problematic, changing the soil structure and greatly reducing its hydraulic conductivity. This condition, called sodicity, mainly affects arid and semi-arid areas, where precipitation is not adequate to leach salts. We investigate the coupled water and salt balance equations in the root zone irrigated with saline water. By describing the fractions of sodium (Na) and calcium (Ca) cations in the irrigation water, soil water, and exchangeable complex, we determine the dynamics of the total salt concentration in the soil water (C) and of the Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP). We found that the dynamics of the ESP can be one order of magnitude slower than that of C: while the typical time scale of convergence of C to its steady-state value is of the order of 1 year, the ESP evolves in a typical time scale of 1 decade and more. These results provide useful indications for the reclamation of sodic soils, which can be accelerated through the replacement of Na cations by Ca ions in the exchangeable complex, often by means of the application of gypsum to the irrigation water. We show that a two-phase managing scheme can shorten the time scale of reclamation, when compared to irrigation with same volumes of water of better quality (low C levels): first irrigation water with high salt concentration and low fraction of Na brings the ESP to low levels in relatively short time scales; then good quality irrigation water (low C) can be applied, decreasing total salinity levels. We also explored the effects of high sodicity on the soil hydraulic conductivity by adding a feedback between ESP and infiltration rate. Finally, the extension to stochastic inputs of water of different quality yields a probabilistic description of C and ESP, with special attention given to the influence of a changing climate to secondary salinization process.

  10. Analysis of Production-Water-Salinity of Index Crops in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifan, H.; Ghahreman, B.

    2009-04-01

    One method to investigate the advantages of irrigation in cultivation is to evaluate the amount of increase in productions as a result of irrigation. Such relations which usually characterized by mathematics formulas or curves are called production to water function. In the agricultural analysis like pattern optimization and culture accumulation, we need some function like agricultural crops production, water and salinity. The amount of water used and salinity has influence on crops function, so that by increase in both components in various stages of plant growth, crop function decreases. Many researches have been performed on production-water and production-salinity function, therefore less researches on production-water-salinity components. The equation provided by Letey and Dinar (1986) is a sample of these researches. Their model is a quadratics equation from independent variables of water salinity in irrigation (ECi) and dimensionless proportion of the amount of water used to evaporation in class A (AW/EP) in plant growth stage. Therefore, by using this model and parameters like evaporation, rainfall and also quantity and quality water potential in Golestan farmlands, we obtained production-water-salinity components for each product in three different areas across Golestan province (moisture to dry areas). These products include sunflower, cotton, wheat, barely, potato, tomato, corn, sorgom, water melon, soybean and rice. Finally, these equations were compared by results of previous experiments, some results correspond and others were different. Key Word: production-water, production-salinity and production-water-salinity function, Letey and Dinar, Golestan.

  11. PROPERTIES OF MEDIUM-DENSITY PARTICLEBOARD FROM SALINE ATHEL WOOD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Athel tree, Tamarix aphylla (L), can potentially be used as a biomass crop to help manage saline subsurface drainage water in arid land-irrigated agriculture. In this study, Athel wood was used to manufacture medium-density particleboard with an aim of developing new applications for the saline...

  12. Expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) during salinity stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a salt-tolerant crop species with considerable economic importance in salinity-affected arid and semiarid regions of the world. In this work, barley cultivar Morex was used for transcriptional profiling during salinity stress using a microarray containing ~22,750 prob...

  13. Pore fluids and the LGM ocean salinity-Reconsidered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunsch, Carl

    2016-03-01

    Pore fluid chlorinity/salinity data from deep-sea cores related to the salinity maximum of the last glacial maximum (LGM) are analyzed using estimation methods deriving from linear control theory. With conventional diffusion coefficient values and no vertical advection, results show a very strong dependence upon initial conditions at -100 ky. Earlier inferences that the abyssal Southern Ocean was strongly salt-stratified in the LGM with a relatively fresh North Atlantic Ocean are found to be consistent within uncertainties of the salinity determination, which remain of order ±1 g/kg. However, an LGM Southern Ocean abyss with an important relative excess of salt is an assumption, one not required by existing core data. None of the present results show statistically significant abyssal salinity values above the global average, and results remain consistent, apart from a general increase owing to diminished sea level, with a more conventional salinity distribution having deep values lower than the global mean. The Southern Ocean core does show a higher salinity than the North Atlantic one on the Bermuda Rise at different water depths. Although much more sophisticated models of the pore-fluid salinity can be used, they will only increase the resulting uncertainties, unless considerably more data can be obtained. Results are consistent with complex regional variations in abyssal salinity during deglaciation, but none are statistically significant.

  14. Coumarin pretreatment alleviates salinity stress in wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Ahmed Mahmoud; Madany, M M Y

    2015-03-01

    The potentiality of COU to improve plant tolerance to salinity was investigated. Wheat grains were primed with COU (50 ppm) and then grown under different levels of NaCl (50, 100, 150 mM) for two weeks. COU pretreatment improved the growth of wheat seedling under salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings, due to the accumulation of osmolytes such as soluble sugars and proline. Moreover, COU treatment significantly improved K(+)/Na(+) ratio in the shoots of both salt stressed and un-stressed seedlings. However, in the roots, this ratio increased only under non-salinity. In consistent with phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), phenolics and flavonoids were accumulated in COU-pretreated seedlings under the higher doses of salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings. COU primed seedlings showed higher content of the coumarin derivative, scopoletin, and salicylic, chlorogenic, syringic, vanillic, gallic and ferulic acids, under both salinity and non-salinity conditions. Salinity stress significantly improved the activity of peroxidase (POD) in COU-pretreated seedlings. However, the effect of COU on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was only obtained at the highest dose of NaCl (150 mM). The present results suggest that COU pretreatment could alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on the growth of wheat seedlings through enhancing, at least partly, the osmoregulation process and antioxidant defense system. PMID:25634803

  15. GROWTH OF THREE FORAGE SPECIES IN SALINE CONDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential forage crops were evaluated under simulated saline conditions found in southeast Colorado. Due to elevated salinity levels in both the soils and in the irrigation waters of this region identifying salt tolerant crops for sustained productivity is important. The objective of the greenhous...

  16. 76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Bureau of Reclamation announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...) 524-3826; e-mail at: kjacobson@usbr.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin...

  17. ACID AND ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF SALINE BIOMASS FOR SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saline crops were evaluated for their potential to be used as feedstock for fermentable sugar production via dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The saline crops included two woods, Athel (Tamarix aphylla L) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), and two grasses, Jose Tall Wheatgr...

  18. Physical Properties of Medium density Particleboard Made from Saline Eucalyptus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eucalyptus tree, Eucalyptus cinerea, has the potential to be used as a biomass crop to help manage saline subsurface drainage water in arid land where irrigated agriculture is practiced. In this research, saline eucalyptus was used to manufacture medium-density particleboard in an attempt to develo...

  19. Hurricane-induced failure of low salinity wetlands.

    PubMed

    Howes, Nick C; FitzGerald, Duncan M; Hughes, Zoe J; Georgiou, Ioannis Y; Kulp, Mark A; Miner, Michael D; Smith, Jane M; Barras, John A

    2010-08-10

    During the 2005 hurricane season, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527 km(2) of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained robust and largely unchanged. Here we highlight geotechnical differences between the soil profiles of high and low salinity regimes, which are controlled by vegetation and result in differential erosion. In low salinity wetlands, a weak zone (shear strength 500-1450 Pa) was observed approximately 30 cm below the marsh surface, coinciding with the base of rooting. High salinity wetlands had no such zone (shear strengths > 4500 Pa) and contained deeper rooting. Storm waves during Hurricane Katrina produced shear stresses between 425-3600 Pa, sufficient to cause widespread erosion of the low salinity wetlands. Vegetation in low salinity marshes is subject to shallower rooting and is susceptible to erosion during large magnitude storms; these conditions may be exacerbated by low inorganic sediment content and high nutrient inputs. The dramatic difference in resiliency of fresh versus more saline marshes suggests that the introduction of freshwater to marshes as part of restoration efforts may therefore weaken existing wetlands rendering them vulnerable to hurricanes. PMID:20660777

  20. Hurricane-induced failure of low salinity wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Nick C.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Hughes, Zoe J.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kulp, Mark A.; Miner, Michael D.; Smith, Jane M.; Barras, John A.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2005 hurricane season, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527 km2 of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained robust and largely unchanged. Here we highlight geotechnical differences between the soil profiles of high and low salinity regimes, which are controlled by vegetation and result in differential erosion. In low salinity wetlands, a weak zone (shear strength 500–1450 Pa) was observed ∼30 cm below the marsh surface, coinciding with the base of rooting. High salinity wetlands had no such zone (shear strengths > 4500 Pa) and contained deeper rooting. Storm waves during Hurricane Katrina produced shear stresses between 425–3600 Pa, sufficient to cause widespread erosion of the low salinity wetlands. Vegetation in low salinity marshes is subject to shallower rooting and is susceptible to erosion during large magnitude storms; these conditions may be exacerbated by low inorganic sediment content and high nutrient inputs. The dramatic difference in resiliency of fresh versus more saline marshes suggests that the introduction of freshwater to marshes as part of restoration efforts may therefore weaken existing wetlands rendering them vulnerable to hurricanes. PMID:20660777

  1. Mapping, Monitoring, and Assessment of Soil Salinity at Field Scales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past, spatial and temporal variability has made it difficult to measure, map, and monitor soil salinity at field scales. Large numbers of soil samples were needed both across the landscape and within the soil profile to map field-scale salinity, making the task too labor and cost intensive t...

  2. NEW USE OF SALINE BIOMASS AS RAW MATERIAL FOR PARTICLEBOARDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saline biomass crops have been planted in California for helping manage saline subsurface water in arid land-irrigated agriculture. There is a need to develop value-added uses of such crops. Three such crops; Athel, Tamarix aphylla (L), Eucalyptus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and Jose Tall Wheatgras...

  3. QUALITY OF MEDIUM-DENSITY PARTICLEBOARD FROM SALINE EUCALYPTUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Eucalyptus, Eucalyptus cinerea, has the potential to be used as a salt-tolerant crop utilizing saline subsurface drainage water in arid land-irrigated agriculture. In this research, saline eucalyptus was used to manufacture medium-density particleboard in order to develop a value-added applicat...

  4. Salinity on survival and early development of biofuel feedstock crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant survival, growth and development can be influenced by irrigation water salinity level. Affects of salinity on early development of biofuel feedstock crops need to be clarified. The biofuel feedstock crops canola (Brassica napus L.), sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], and sunflower (Helia...

  5. Inverse relationship between D/H fractionation in cyanobacterial lipids and salinity in Christmas Island saline ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachse, Dirk; Sachs, Julian P.

    2008-02-01

    Sediments from 28 saline and hypersaline (salinity 13.6-149.2) ponds on Christmas Island (Kiritimati), in the Central tropical Pacific Ocean, were investigated for the effect of salinity on the D/H ratios of lipid biomarkers. Hydrogen isotope ratios (expressed as δD values) of total lipid extracts, and individual hydrocarbons heptadecane, heptadecene, octadecane, octadecene, diploptene, and phytene from cyanobacteria, became increasingly enriched in deuterium as salinity increased, spanning a range of 100‰, while lake water δD values spanned a range of just 12‰. Net D/H fractionation between lipids and source water thus decreased as salinity increased. Isotope fractionation factors ( αlipid-water) were strongly correlated with salinity, and increased in all compound classes studied by up to 0.0967 over a salinity range of 136. Differences in the hydrogen isotopic composition of lipids derived from three biosynthetic pathways (acetogenic, mevalonate, and non-mevalonate) remained similar irrespective of the salinity. This suggests that the mechanism responsible for the observed αlipid-water-salinity relationship originates prior to the last common biosynthetic branching point, the Calvin Cycle. We propose that a decrease in the exchange of intra- and extra-cellular (ambient) water resulting from down-regulation or closure of water channels (aquaporins) within cyanobacterial cell membranes, and subsequent isotopic enrichment of the intracellular water, likely resulting from metabolic reactions. These findings imply that caution must be exercised when attempting to reconstruct source water δD values using lipid δD values from environments that may have experienced salinity variations. On the other, hand our results can be used to establish a paleo-salinity proxy based on lipid δD, if additional constraints on source water δD values can be made.

  6. Investigation of Lake Water Salinity by Using Four-Band Salinity Algorithm on WorldView-2 Satellite Image for a Saline Industrial Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budakoǧlu, Murat; Karaman, Muhittin; Damla Uça Avcı, Z.; Kumral, Mustafa; Geredeli (Yılmaz), Serpil

    2014-05-01

    Salinity of a lake is an important characteristic since, these are potentially industrial lakes and the degree of salinity can significantly be used for determination of mineral resources and for the production management. In the literature, there are many studies of using satellite data for salinity related lake studies such as determination of salinity distribution and detection of potential freshwater sources in less salt concentrated regions. As the study area Lake Acigol, located in Denizli (Turkey) was selected. With it's saline environment, it's the major sodium sulphate production resource of Turkey. In this study, remote sensing data and data from a field study was used and correlated. Remote sensing is an efficient tool to monitor and analyze lake properties by using it complementary to field data. Worldview-2 satellite data was used in this study which consists of 8 bands. At the same time with the satellite data acquisition, a field study was conducted to collect the salinity values in 17 points of the laker with using YSI 556 Multiparametre for measurements. The values were measured as salinity amount in grams per kilogram solution and obtained as ppt unit. It was observed that the values vary from 34 ppt - 40.1 ppt and the average is 38.056 ppt. In Thalassic serie, the lake was in mixoeuhaline state in the time of issue. As a first step, ATCOR correction was performed on satellite image for atmospheric correction. There were some clouds on the lake field, hence it was decided to continue the study by using the 12 sampling points which were clear on the image. Then, for each sampling point, a spectral value was obtained by calculating the average at a 11*11 neighborhood. The relation between the spectral reflectance values and the salinity was investigated. The 4-band algorithm, which was used for determination of chlorophyll-a distribution in highly turbid coastal environment by Wei (2012) was applied. Salinity α (Λi-1 / Λj-1) * (Λk-1 / Λm-1) (i,j,k,m=1..8) (i≠ j≠ k≠ m) By using each band of WV-2 and possible combinationsfor 4-band algorithm, 1680 band combinations were used to get the correlation with the in-situ measured salinity values. As a result the highest correlation (R=0.926) was found. The correlation coefficient of the 4-band algorithm indices (ΛCoastal-1 / ΛNIR2-1) * (ΛRed-1 / ΛGreen-1) and the salinity values was R2=0.86.

  7. Heat transfer model of hyporthermic intracarotid infusion of cold saline for stroke therapy.

    PubMed

    Neimark, Matthew A; Konstas, Angelos-Aristeidis; Laine, Andrew F; Pile-Spellman, John

    2006-01-01

    A 3-dimensional hemispheric computational brain model is developed to simulate infusion of cold saline in the carotid arteries in terms of brain cooling for stroke therapy. The model is based on the Pennes bioheat equation, with four tissue layers: white matter, gray matter, skull, and scalp. The stroke lesion is simulated by reducing blood flow to a selected volume of the brain by a factor of one-third, and brain metabolism by 50%. A stroke penumbra was also generated surrounding the core lesion (blood volume reduction 25%, metabolism reduction 20%). The finite difference method was employed to solve the system of partial differential equations. This model demonstrated a reduction in brain temperature, at the stroke lesion, to 32 degrees C in less than 10 minutes. PMID:17946821

  8. Salinity tolerance of crops - what is the cost?

    PubMed

    Munns, Rana; Gilliham, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Soil salinity reduces crop yield. The extent and severity of salt-affected agricultural land is predicted to worsen as a result of inadequate drainage of irrigated land, rising water tables and global warming. The growth and yield of most plant species are adversely affected by soil salinity, but varied adaptations can allow some crop cultivars to continue to grow and produce a harvestable yield under moderate soil salinity. Significant costs are associated with saline soils: the economic costs to the farming community and the energy costs of plant adaptations. We briefly consider mechanisms of adaptation and highlight recent research examples through a lens of their applicability to improving the energy efficiency of crops under saline field conditions. PMID:26108441

  9. An empirical model for salinity intrusion in alluvial estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsa, Javad; Etemad-Shahidi, Amir

    2011-10-01

    The main parameters that affect the salinity intrusion in estuaries are their geometric, hydrologic and hydrodynamic characteristics. The recognition of effective parameters and understanding their roles in the salinity intrusion are required for estuarine water management. In this study, the governing equations of the salinity intrusion processes were scaled to derive the effective dimensionless parameters. Then, a previously verified model, CE-QUAL-W2, was utilized as a virtual laboratory to investigate the effects of different governing parameters on the salinity intrusion. Analysis of the results showed that logarithmic functions can be used to describe the effect of dimensionless parameters obtained by scaling of governing equations. Finally, a formula was suggested to predict the salinity intrusion length based on geometrical and hydrodynamic characteristics of alluvial estuaries.

  10. Salinity effects on the microwave emission of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Oneill, Peggy E.

    1987-01-01

    Controlled plot experiments were conducted to collect L and C band passive microwave data concurrent with ground observations of salinity and soil moisture. Two dielectric mixing models were used with an emission model to predict the emissivity from a bare smooth uniform profile. The models produce nearly identical results when near zero salinity is involved and reproduce the observed data at L band extremely well. Discrepancies at C band are attributed to sampling depth problems. Comparisons of predicted emissivities at various salinities with observed values indicate that the dynamic range of the emissivities can be explained using either of the dielectric mixing models. Evaluation of the entire data set, which included four salinity levels, indicates that for general application the effects of soil salinity can be ignored in interpreting microwave data for estimating soil moisture under most agricultural conditions.

  11. Effects of salinity on the microwave emission of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Oneill, P. E.

    1986-01-01

    Controlled plot experiments were conducted to collect L and C band passive microwave data concurrent with ground observations of salinity and soil moisture. Two dielectric mixing models were used with an emission model to predict the emissivity from a bare smooth uniform profile. The models produce nearly identical results when near zero salinity is involved and reproduce the observed data at L band extremely well. Discrepancies at C band are attributed to sampling depth problems. Comparisons of predicted emissivities at various salinities with observed values indicate that the dynamic range of the emissivities can be explained using either of the dielectric mixing models. Evaluation of the entire data set, which included four salinity levels, indicates that for general application the effects of soil salinity can be ignored in interpreting microwave data for estimating soil moisture under most agricultural conditions.

  12. Effect of salinity on root-nodule conductance to the oxygen diffusion in the Medicago truncatula-Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Aydi, Samir; Drevon, Jean-Jacques; Abdelly, Chedly

    2004-12-01

    In order to determine the effect of salinity on the nodule conductance, oxygen uptake by the nodulated roots was measured by registering the concentration of O(2) as a function of time in a tight incubator of known volume containing the nodulated roots of Medicago truncatula. Four lines, namely TN8.20 and TN6.18, originated from local populations, F83005.5 originated from Var (France) and Jemalong 6, a cultivar from Australia, were hydroponically grown in 250 ml glass bottles under semi-controlled conditions in a glasshouse, after germination and inoculation with the strain Sinorhizobium meliloti 2011. The saline treatment was applied gradually to reach 75 mM after 2 weeks. Results show that oxygen uptake increased significantly with salinity in TN6.18 and F83005.5, but not in Jemalong nor in TN8.20. Without salt, Jemalong showed a significantly higher O(2) uptake of 240 micromol O(2) per h per plant than the mean of 130 micromol O(2) per h per plant for other lines. Salinity increased significantly the nodule conductance in all genotypes. This salt effect was significantly higher for TN6.18 than for TN8.20, and for Jemalong than for F83005.5. Without salt there was less genotypic variation in nodule conductance in the range of 5-8 microm s(-1) for F83005.5 and TN8.20, respectively. Thus the sensitivity to salinity appears to be associated with an increase in nodule conductance that supports the increased respiration of N(2)-fixing nodules under salinity. PMID:15596103

  13. A sensitivity analysis of low salinity habitats simulated by a hydrodynamic model in the Manatee River estuary in Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, XinJian

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a sensitivity study of simulated availability of low salinity habitats by a hydrodynamic model for the Manatee River estuary located in the southwest portion of the Florida peninsula. The purpose of the modeling study was to establish a regulatory minimum freshwater flow rate required to prevent the estuarine ecosystem from significant harm. The model used in the study was a multi-block model that dynamically couples a three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic model with a laterally averaged (2DV) hydrodynamic model. The model was calibrated and verified against measured real-time data of surface elevation and salinity at five stations during March 2005-July 2006. The calibrated model was then used to conduct a series of scenario runs to investigate effects of the flow reduction on salinity distributions in the Manatee River estuary. Based on simulated salinity distribution in the estuary, water volumes, bottom areas and shoreline lengths for salinity less than certain predefined values were calculated and analyzed to help establish the minimum freshwater flow rate for the estuarine system. The sensitivity analysis conducted during the modeling study for the Manatee River estuary examined effects of the bottom roughness, ambient vertical eddy viscosity/diffusivity, horizontal eddy viscosity/diffusivity, and ungauged flow on the model results and identified the relative importance of these model parameters (input data) to the outcome of the availability of low salinity habitats. It is found that the ambient vertical eddy viscosity/diffusivity is the most influential factor controlling the model outcome, while the horizontal eddy viscosity/diffusivity is the least influential one.

  14. Genetic variation and plasticity of Plantago coronopus under saline conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smekens, Marret J.; van Tienderen, Peter H.

    2001-08-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may allow organisms to cope with variation in the environmental conditions they encounter in their natural habitats. Salt adaptation appears to be an excellent example of such a plastic response. Many plant species accumulate organic solutes in response to saline conditions. Comparative and molecular studies suggest that this is an adaptation to osmotic stress. However, evidence relating the physiological responses to fitness parameters is rare and requires assessing the potential costs and benefits of plasticity. We studied the response of thirty families derived from plants collected in three populations of Plantago coronopus in a greenhouse experiment under saline and non-saline conditions. We indeed found a positive selection gradient for the sorbitol percentage under saline conditions: plant families with a higher proportion of sorbitol produced more spikes. No effects of sorbitol on fitness parameters were found under non-saline conditions. Populations also differed genetically in leaf number, spike number, sorbitol concentration and percentages of different soluble sugars. Salt treatment led to a reduction of vegetative biomass and spike production but increased leaf dry matter percentage and leaf thickness. Both under saline and non-saline conditions there was a negative trade-off between vegetative growth and reproduction. Families with a high plasticity in leaf thickness had a lower total spike length under non-saline conditions. This would imply that natural selection under predominantly non-saline conditions would lead to a decrease in the ability to change leaf morphology in response to exposure to salt. All other tests revealed no indication for any costs of plasticity to saline conditions.

  15. The Role of Ethylene in Plants Under Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jian-Jun; Chen, Hao-Wei; Ma, Biao; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    Although the roles of ethylene in plant response to salinity and other stresses have been extensively studied, there are still some obscure points left to be clarified. Generally, in Arabidopsis and many other terrestrial plants, ethylene signaling is indispensable for plant rapid response and tolerance to salinity stress. However, a few studies showed that functional knock-out of some ACSs increased plant salinity-tolerance, while overexpression of them caused more sensitivity. This seems to be contradictory to the known opinion that ethylene plays positive roles in salinity response. Differently, ethylene in rice may play negative roles in regulating seedling tolerance to salinity. The main positive ethylene signaling components MHZ7/OsEIN2, MHZ6/OsEIL1, and OsEIL2 all negatively regulate the salinity-tolerance of rice seedlings. Recently, several different research groups all proposed a negative feedback mechanism of coordinating plant growth and ethylene response, in which several ethylene-inducible proteins (including NtTCTP, NEIP2 in tobacco, AtSAUR76/77/78, and AtARGOS) act as inhibitors of ethylene response but activators of plant growth. Therefore, in addition to a summary of the general roles of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in salinity response, this review mainly focused on discussing (i) the discrepancies between ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in salinity response, (ii) the divergence between rice and Arabidopsis in regulation of salinity response by ethylene, and (iii) the possible negative feedback mechanism of coordinating plant growth and salinity response by ethylene. PMID:26640476

  16. Geochemical tracers to evaluate hydrogeologic controls on river salinization.

    PubMed

    Moore, Stephanie J; Bassett, R L; Liu, Beiling; Wolf, Christopher P; Doremus, Dale

    2008-01-01

    The salinization of rivers, as indicated by salinity increases in the downstream direction, is characteristic of arid and semiarid regions throughout the world. Historically, salinity increases have been attributed to various mechanisms, including (1) evaporation and concentration during reservoir storage, irrigation, and subsequent reuse; (2) displacement of shallow saline ground water during irrigation; (3) erosion and dissolution of natural deposits; and/or (4) inflow of deep saline and/or geothermal ground water (ground water with elevated water temperature). In this study, investigation of salinity issues focused on identification of relative salinity contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources in the Lower Rio Grande in the New Mexico-Texas border region. Based on the conceptual model of the system, the various sources of water and, therefore, salinity to the Lower Rio Grande were identified, and a sampling plan was designed to characterize these sources. Analysis results for boron (delta(11)B), sulfur (delta(34)S), oxygen (delta(18)O), hydrogen (delta(2)H), and strontium ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) isotopes, as well as basic chemical data, confirmed the hypothesis that the dominant salinity contributions are from deep ground water inflow to the Rio Grande. The stable isotopic ratios identified the deep ground water inflow as distinctive, with characteristic isotopic signatures. These analyses indicate that it is not possible to reproduce the observed salinization by evapotranspiration and agricultural processes alone. This investigation further confirms that proper application of multiple isotopic and geochemical tracers can be used to identify and constrain multiple sources of solutes in complex river systems. PMID:18266732

  17. Is bacteriostatic saline superior to normal saline as an echocardiographic contrast agent?

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Shaun; Gunasekaran, Prasad; Patel, Hena; McGorisk, Timothy; Toosi, Mehrdad; Faraz, Haroon; Zalawadiya, Sandip; Alesh, Issa; Kottam, Anupama; Afonso, Luis

    2014-12-01

    Objective data on the performance characteristics and physical properties of commercially available saline formulations [normal saline (NS) vs. bacteriostatic normal saline (bNS)] are sparse. This study sought to compare the in vitro physical properties and in vivo characteristics of two commonly employed echocardiographic saline contrast agents in an attempt to assess superiority. Nineteen patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiograms were each administered agitated regular NS and bNS injections in random order and in a blinded manner according to a standardized protocol. Video time-intensity (TI) curves were constructed from a representative region of interest, placed paraseptally within the right atrium, in the bicaval view. TI curves were analyzed for maximal plateau acoustic intensity (Vmax, dB) and dwell time (DT, s), defined as time duration between onset of Vmax and decay of video intensity below clinically useful levels, reflecting the duration of homogenous opacification of the right atrium. To further characterize the physical properties of the bubbles in vitro, fixed aliquots of similarly agitated saline were injected into a glass well slide-cover slip assembly and examined using an optical microscope to determine bubble diameter in microns (µm) and concentration [bubble count/high power field (hpf)]. A higher acoustic intensity (a less negative dB level), higher bubble concentration and longer DT were considered properties of a superior contrast agent. For statistical analysis, a paired t test was conducted to evaluate the differences in means of Vmax and DT. Compared to NS, bNS administration was associated with superior opacification (video intensity -8.69 ± 4.7 vs. -10.46 ± 4.1 dB, P = 0.002), longer DT (17.3 ± 6.1 vs. 10.2 ± 3.7 s) in vivo and smaller mean bubble size (43.4 vs. 58.6 μm) and higher bubble concentration (1,002 vs. 298 bubble/hpf) in vitro. bNS provides higher intensity and more sustained opacification of the right atrium compared to NS. Higher bubble concentration and stability appear to be additional desirable rheological characteristics favoring bNS as a contrast agent. PMID:25017710

  18. FIELD CROP PRODUCTION IN AREAS WITH SALINE SOILS AND SHALLOW SALINE GROUND WATER IN THE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY OF CALIFORNIA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salinity in soil and water is irrevocably associated with irrigated agriculture throughout the world and as a result requires that salt management becomes an integral part of the production system. With careful water management it is possible to sustain irrigated agriculture in areas with saline so...

  19. A geochemical transport model for thermo-hydro-chemical (THC) coupled processes with saline water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Mingliang; Kolditz, Olaf; Moog, Helge C.

    2011-02-01

    Anhydrous MgSO4 is considered as a potential sealing material for the isolation of high-level-waste repositories in salt rock. When an aqueous solution, usually a brine type, penetrates the sealing, different MgSO4 hydrates along with other mineral phases form, removing free water from the solution. The uptake of water leads to an overall increase of solid phase volume. If deformation is constrained, the pore volume decreases and permeability is reduced. In order to simulate such processes, especially for conditions without free water, a coupling between OpenGeoSys and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were implemented on the basis of the commercially available thermodynamic simulator ChemApp and the object-oriented programming finite-element method simulator OpenGeoSys. ChemApp uses the Gibbs energy minimization approach for the geochemical reaction simulation. Based on this method, the thermodynamic equilibrium of geochemical reactions can be calculated by giving the amount of each system component and the molar Gibbs energy of formation for all the possible phases and phase constituents. Activity coefficients in high-saline solutions were calculated using the Pitzer formalism. This model has the potential to handle 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D saturated and nonsaturated thermo-hydro-chemical coupled processes even with highly saline solutions under complex conditions. The model was verified by numerical comparison with other simulators and applied for the modeling of SVV experimental data.

  20. Daily Sodium Butyrate Enema for the Prevention of Radiation Proctitis in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Radical Radiation Therapy: Results of a Multicenter Randomized Placebo-Controlled Dose-Finding Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Maggio, Angelo; Magli, Alessandro; Rancati, Tiziana; Fiorino, Claudio; Valvo, Francesca; Fellin, Giovanni; Ricardi, Umberto; Munoz, Fernando; Cosentino, Dorian; Cazzaniga, Luigi Franco; Valdagni, Riccardo; Vavassori, Vittorio

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of sodium butyrate enemas (NABUREN) in prostate cancer radiation therapy (RT) in reducing the incidence, severity, and duration of acute RT-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: 166 patients, randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups (rectal sodium butyrate 1 g, 2 g, or 4 g daily or placebo), were treated with NABUREN during and 2 weeks after RT. The grade of proctitis was registered in a daily diary. The correlation between NABUREN and proctitis was investigated through χ{sup 2} statistics. The toxicity endpoints considered were as follows: total number of days with grade ≥1 proctitis (≥G1); total number of days with grade ≥2 proctitis (≥G2); ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis lasting at least 3 and 5 consecutive days starting from week 4 (≥G1+3d, ≥G2+3d); damaging effects of RT on rectal mucosa as measured by endoscopy. The relationship between endpoints and pretreatment morbidities, hormonal therapy, presence of diabetes or hypertension, abdominal surgery, or hemorrhoids was investigated by univariate analysis. Results: The patients were randomly allocated to the 4 arms. No difference in the distribution of comorbidities among the arms was observed (P>.09). The mean ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis were 7.8 and 4.9 for placebo and 8.9 and 4.7 for the NABUREN group, respectively. No favorable trend in reduction of incidence, severity, and duration of ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis was observed with NABUREN use. In univariate analysis, ≥G1+3d toxicity was found to be related to hemorrhoids (P=.008), and a slight correlation was found between ≥G2 proctitis and hormonal therapy (P=.06). The RT effects on rectal mucosa as based on endoscopic assessment were mainly related to diabetes (P<.01). Endoscopy data at 6 week showed no significant difference between the placebo and butyrate arms. The other investigated endpoints were not correlated with any of the clinical risk factors analyzed. Conclusion: There was no evidence of efficacy of NABUREN in reducing the incidence, severity, and duration of acute radiation proctitis. There was a correlation between some endpoints and clinical risk factors.

  1. Messinian Salinity Crisis and basin fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni, Claudia; Cartwight, Joe

    2014-05-01

    Syn- and post-depositional movement of fluids through sediments is one of the least understood aspects in the evolution of a basin. The conventional hydrostratigraphic view on marine sedimentary basins assumes that compactional and meteoric groundwater fluid circulation drives fluid movement and defines its timing. However, in the past few years, several examples of instantaneous and catastrophic release of fluids have been observed even through low-permeability sediments. A particularly complex case-study involves the presence of giant salt bodies in the depocentres of marine basins. Evaporites dramatically change the hydrostratigraphy and fluid-dynamics of the basin, and influence the P/T regimes, e.g. through changes in the geothermal gradient and in the compaction of underlying sediments. Our paper reviews the impact of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and evaporites on fluid flow in the Mediterranean sub-basins. The analysis of geological and geophysical sub-surface data provides examples from this basin, and the comparison with analogues in other well-known evaporitic provinces. During the MSC, massive sea-level changes occurred in a relatively limited time interval, and affected the balance of fluid dynamics, e.g. with sudden release or unusual trapping of fluids. Fluid expulsion events are here analysed and classified in relation to the long and short-term effects of the MSC. Our main aim is to build a framework for the correct identification of the fluid flow-related events, and their genetic mechanisms. On basin margins, where evaporites are thin or absent, the sea-level changes associated with the MSC force a rapid basinward shift of the mixing zone of meteoric/gravity flow and saline/compactional flow, 100s-km away from its pre-MSC position. This phenomenon changes the geometry of converging flows, creates hydraulic traps for fluids, and triggers specific diagenetic reactions in pre-MSC deep marine sediments. In basin-centre settings, unloading and re-loading of water associated to the sea-level changes leads to the sudden release of focused fluids, enhancing pockmark formation, evaporite dissolution, gas-hydrate dissociation and methane venting. After the MSC, and in the long-term basin evolution, the aquitard effect of the thick evaporites also created favourable condition for the development of overpressures in the pre-MSC sediments. However, the traditional view of saline giants as impermeable barriers to fluid flow has been challenged in recent years, by the documented evidence of fluid migration pathways through thick evaporites. Ultimately, these events can lead not only to fluid, but also to sediment remobilisation. The review here presented has applications as a tool for identifying, quantifying and understanding controls and timing of fluid dynamics in marine basins hosting extensive evaporitic series.

  2. Saline sonohysterosalpingographic findings in infertile Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Onah, H E; Ezike, H A; Mgbor, S O

    2006-11-01

    This paper describes the findings in the first 100 women who underwent saline sonohysterosalpingography (SHG) at two privately owned health facilities in Enugu, South East Nigeria. This was a prospective study of the first 100 consecutive women presenting with infertility to the authors at Mbanefo Hospital and Hansa Clinics, both in Enugu, South-East geopolitical zone of Nigeria from 1 May 2005 to 20 January 2006. Saline sonohysterosalpingography was carried out in the standard way in these women. The findings were analysed using simple percentages and means +/- SD. The procedure was completed in 98 women, while in two others it was not possible to cannulate the uterine cavity. A total of 61 of the women had normal uterine musculature, 37 had interstitial fibroids and two had sonographic features of adenomyosis. Regarding the endometrial cavity, 93 women had a normal endometrium, four had a submucosal fibroid, one had intrauterine adhesions, while the endometrial cavity could not be assessed in two women who could not be cannulated. No case of submucosal polyp or uterine septa or other congenital uterine anomalies was seen. As assessed sonologically, 77 of the study subjects had bilateral patent tubes, while five had unilateral tubal patency. In one woman, there was uncertainty about tubal patency or blockage; in two women, the tubes could not be assessed because of non-cannulation of the uterine cavity and in 15 women, both tubes were blocked. A total of 74 women had normal ovaries; 15 had polycystic ovaries; five had atrophic ovaries consistent with ovarian failure and six women had ovarian cysts. In 18 women, the findings at sonosalpingography (SSG) were confirmed at laparoscopy in 11 women or laparotomy (two women) or by the fact that the patients became pregnant (five women). In 15 (83.3%) of these 18 women, the findings at SSG and laparotomy/laparoscopy or of the woman becoming pregnant were compatible. SSG is a useful screening test for assessing endometrial, tubal and ovarian factors in infertile Nigerian women, thereby obviating the need for laparoscopy and hysteroscopy in the majority of cases. PMID:17130032

  3. Salinization Patterns in Sloping Aquifers - The Israeli Coastal Aquifer Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavit, U.; Solomon, S.

    2005-12-01

    The explanation of the salinization mechanisms of the Israeli Coastal Aquifer is under a severe dispute. Where some researchers claim that the salinity source lies under the bottom of the aquifer, others show that the salinity penetrates by seawater intrusion, through the Eocene formations along the eastern boundary of the aquifer, or due to infiltration through the vadose zone. The hypothesis of our research is that salinization patterns are highly related to the steep slope of the Saqiye group, which defines the aquifer bottom. We will show that the development of saline regions along the eastern boundaries can be explained by a simple solution of the flow and transport equations given that the slope of the aquifer bottom is steep enough and assuming that the saline water infiltrates through the vadose zone alone. By solving the one-dimensional and two-dimensional (vertical) flow and transport equations we have examined the influence of different parameters such as aquifer bottom slope, aquifer thickness, flux and concentration of the penetrating water through the vadose zone, flux and concentration of the penetrating water through the eastern boundary, hydrological parameters, and dynamic effects. We have found that non steady state solutions are needed to study the salinization phenomena. The initial increases in the salinity along the eastern boundary, as observed in the south part of the Israeli Coastal Aquifer, can be explained by salt penetration through the vadose zone alone. The implications of this conclusion are significant. Instead of addressing a salinization source that was thought to be located along the east boundary, the discussion should be focused on the interaction between the agricultural activities and the aquifer management strategies. It is reasonable to assume, however, that the salinity found in some regions along the aquifer is higher than the salinity of the vadose zone water. Therefore, the conclusion of the study is that a combination of vadose zone contribution and local brines penetration is the key to understanding the salinization process. The success of future solutions to the aquifer salinity problem will depend on the correct ratio between the contributions of these two sources.

  4. The influence of salinity on D/H fractionation in dinosterol and brassicasterol from globally distributed saline and hypersaline lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Daniel B.; Sachs, Julian P.

    2014-05-01

    Salinity, growth rate, growth stage, nutrient limitation and temperature have all been shown to influence the magnitude of D/H fractionation in algal lipids through laboratory and field studies. Of these factors, salinity has been studied most extensively in the field, but to date all such investigations have focused on transect studies within specific and isolated environments. Here we test the relationship between salinity and the magnitude of D/H fractionation in algal lipids through paired analyses of sedimentary and particulate lipid and water hydrogen isotope values at a wide range of continental and coastal lake sites spanning salinities from 0 to 117 ppt. Our results demonstrate broad consistency between D/H fractionations in dinosterol and brassicasterol with those obtained from previous work, with salinity changes of 1 ppt resulting in lipid δD changes of 0.7-1‰. Although our results also show variability in D/H fractionation between sites that is not related to salinity, the fact that any relationship emerges above the influences of other factors suggests that the salinity effect is dominant for some lipids in the majority of saline to hypersaline environments. This improved understanding of D/H fractionation in dinosterol and brassicasterol synthesis supports the use of these compounds as paleohydrologic indicators. When combined with D/H measurements from a second lipid or oxygen isotope measurements from carbonate, quantitative reconstructions of salinity and lake water isotope changes are possible. Extending the number of algal lipids within which a consistent relationship between D/H fractionation and salinity has been identified also supports the notion that the relationship is widespread among unicellular photoautotrophs.

  5. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... volumes of urine), such as is seen in diabetes insipidus . ... the conditions that cause increased urine volume include: Diabetes insipidus - renal Diabetes insipidus - central Diabetes High fluid intake ...

  6. Tracking evolution of urban biogeochemical cycles: salinization of fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, S.; McDowell, W. H.; Wollheim, W. M.; Duan, S.; Gorman, J. K.; Haq, S.; Hohman, S.; Smith, R. M.; Mayer, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The built environment often changes quickly in response to human activities, thus contributing to an evolution of stream chemistry over time. Depending upon development and management strategies, these changes can result in pulses and/or long-term trends. Here, we explore patterns of evolving salinization of fresh water over time, and we evaluate the potential water quality implications of fresh water salinization. We show that there has been global salinization of freshwater across urbanizing landscapes over a century. We also show that human-accelerated weathering in watersheds and river alkalinization can further influence regional rates of salinization (in addition to anthropogenic sources such as road salts, sewage leaks, etc.). Finally, we investigate how salinization of fresh water can impact stream sediment fluxes of carbon, nutrients, and sulfate in watersheds across a land use gradient at the Baltimore Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. The impacts of salinization on mobilization and uptake of carbon, nutrients, and sulfate in streams warrant further consideration in water quality management strategies. Overall, we propose that salinization can be a "universal tracer" of watershed urbanization globally with major regional consequences for drinking water and evolution of biogeochemical cycles in freshwater ecosystems.

  7. Salinity anomaly as a trigger for ENSO events

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jieshun; Huang, Bohua; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Balmaseda, Magdalena A.; Marx, Lawrence; Kinter III, James L.

    2014-01-01

    According to the classical theories of ENSO, subsurface anomalies in ocean thermal structure are precursors for ENSO events and their initial specification is essential for skillful ENSO forecast. Although ocean salinity in the tropical Pacific (particularly in the western Pacific warm pool) can vary in response to El Nio events, its effect on ENSO evolution and forecasts of ENSO has been less explored. Here we present evidence that, in addition to the passive response, salinity variability may also play an active role in ENSO evolution, and thus important in forecasting El Nio events. By comparing two forecast experiments in which the interannually variability of salinity in the ocean initial states is either included or excluded, the salinity variability is shown to be essential to correctly forecast the 2007/08 La Nia starting from April 2007. With realistic salinity initial states, the tendency to decay of the subsurface cold condition during the spring and early summer 2007 was interrupted by positive salinity anomalies in the upper central Pacific, which working together with the Bjerknes positive feedback, contributed to the development of the La Nia event. Our study suggests that ENSO forecasts will benefit from more accurate salinity observations with large-scale spatial coverage. PMID:25352285

  8. Salinity anomaly as a trigger for ENSO events.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jieshun; Huang, Bohua; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Balmaseda, Magdalena A; Marx, Lawrence; Kinter, James L

    2014-01-01

    According to the classical theories of ENSO, subsurface anomalies in ocean thermal structure are precursors for ENSO events and their initial specification is essential for skillful ENSO forecast. Although ocean salinity in the tropical Pacific (particularly in the western Pacific warm pool) can vary in response to El Niño events, its effect on ENSO evolution and forecasts of ENSO has been less explored. Here we present evidence that, in addition to the passive response, salinity variability may also play an active role in ENSO evolution, and thus important in forecasting El Niño events. By comparing two forecast experiments in which the interannually variability of salinity in the ocean initial states is either included or excluded, the salinity variability is shown to be essential to correctly forecast the 2007/08 La Niña starting from April 2007. With realistic salinity initial states, the tendency to decay of the subsurface cold condition during the spring and early summer 2007 was interrupted by positive salinity anomalies in the upper central Pacific, which working together with the Bjerknes positive feedback, contributed to the development of the La Niña event. Our study suggests that ENSO forecasts will benefit from more accurate salinity observations with large-scale spatial coverage. PMID:25352285

  9. Photochemical Chlorine Activation From Artificial Saline Snowpacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wren, S. N.; Abbatt, J.; Donaldson, J.

    2012-12-01

    Halogen activation on snow and ice substrates has a profound influence on the oxidative capacity of the polar boundary layer. The release of reactive chlorine species is of particular interest since chlorine atoms can participate in both ozone depletion and organic oxidation. However, the mechanisms by which halides in sea ice substrates are converted into reactive halogen species are not well understood. In this study we investigated the photochemical activation of chlorine from artificial saline snow. Gas phase Cl2, BrCl and Br2 were detected using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. We observe the dark release of Br2 in the presence of ozone; BrCl and Cl2 are only observed in the presence of both ozone and light. Interestingly, the release of reactive chlorine species persists when a 320 nm or a 380 nm long-pass filter is placed in the light path. Results suggest that smaller snow grains, which present a larger total snow surface area, enhance chlorine production to a greater extent than BrCl or Br2 production. Here we also present the effect of temperature (above and below the NaCl euctectic), acidity, chloride concentration, and ozone concentration on the production of Br2, BrCl and Cl2. Overall the results indicate that a mechanism involving UV-A light and ozone leads to chlorine activation, which may be particularly important in bromide-depleted snow.

  10. Florida Current Salinity and Transport Variation across the Last Glacial Termination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. W.; Henry, L. E.; Lynch-Stieglitz, J.

    2006-12-01

    By correlating increased glacial salinities in the Caribbean and the North Atlantic gyre to periods of reduced North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC), Schmidt et al. (2004) and Schmidt et al., (in press) showed that the tropical hydrologic cycle may play an important role in regulating rapid climate change through its influence on the Atlantic salinity budget. However, an important question remains as to whether the calculated glacial/stadial salinity increases are simply the result of reduced deep-water export from the North Atlantic during glacial episodes or if they result from a tropical hydrologic cycle feedback mechanism leading to decreased freshwater input into the glacial north Atlantic. In order to generate a surface-water temperature and salinity record for the last 23 kyr, we combined Mg/Ca measurements (a proxy for the temperature of calcification) with δ18O analyses of shells from the surface-dwelling foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber in the Southern Florida Straits core KNR166-2-JPC29 (24°17'N, 83°16'W; 648 m; 9-19 cm/kyr sed. rate) to produce a record of δ18OSEAWATER (δ18OSW) across the last glacial termination. After removing the δ18OSW signal due to glacial ice volume variation (Fairbanks, 1989) and normalization to the modern local δ18OSW value (1.0‰), the resulting ice volume-free (Δδ18OIVF-SW) record (a proxy for sea surface salinity (SSS) variability due to regional hydrological change) shows that Florida Straits Δδ18OIVF-SW increased by more than 0.6‰ during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), Heinrich Event 1, and the Younger Dryas (YD) and returned to modern values (~0.0‰) during the Bolling Allerod and the Holocene. Based on the modern tropical Atlantic δ18OSW:SSS relationship, δ18OSW = 0.26*SSS- 8.44, these enriched δ18OSW values suggest salinity increases of 2.3 to 3.5‰ during cold events in the North Atlantic. Because the Florida Current is in geostrophic balance as it passes through the Florida Straits, the seawater density contrast across the Straits can be used to calculate transport rates. Based on δ18O profiles in benthic foraminifera from across the Straits, Lynch-Stieglitz et al. (1999) showed that the LGM density contrast was significantly relaxed, reflecting reduced conveyor-belt transport. New records of benthic δ18O profiles across the Straits over the last 13 kyr also suggest significantly reduced Gulf Stream transport during the YD. The interval of reduced flow coincides with anomalously high SSS in the JPC29 record. In order to determine the relative timing between surface water δ18OSW enrichment and reduced conveyor-belt transport, we are currently constructing a high-resolution (~70 yr/sample) YD record of paired surface-water δ18OSW and benthic δ18O change from core KNR166-2-JPC26 (24°20'N, 83°15'W; 546 m, 120 cm/kyr sed. rate through the YD). If the primarily driver of surface salinity change in the tropical Atlantic is the hydrologic cycle, then paired surface and deep water proxies will show synchronous change. However, if ocean circulation changes are the primary driver, then we predict a more gradual increase in surface δ18OSW in response to reduced Gulf Stream flow. Therefore it will be possible to determine the relative importance of each feedback mechanism on elevating SSS in the Tropical Atlantic.

  11. Salinity and Temperature Tolerance Experiments on Selected Florida Bay Mollusks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, James B.; Wingard, G. Lynn

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) is to restore and preserve the unique ecosystems of South Florida, including the estuaries. Understanding the effect of salinity and temperature changes, beyond typical oscillations, on the biota of South Florida's estuaries is a necessary component of achieving the goal of restoring the estuaries. The U.S. Geological Survey has been actively involved in researching the history of the South Florida Ecosystem, to provide targets, performance measures, and baseline data for restoration managers. These experiments addressed two aspects of ecosystem history research: 1) determining the utility of using molluscan shells as recorders of change in water chemistry parameters, primarily salinity, and 2) enhancing our in situ observations on modern assemblages by exceeding typically observed aquatic conditions. This set of experiments expanded our understanding of the effects of salinity, temperature and other water chemistry parameters on the reproduction, growth and overall survivability of key species of mollusks used in interpreting sediment core data. Observations on mollusks, plants and microbes made as part of these experiments have further refined our knowledge and understanding of the effects of ecosystem feedback and the role salinity and temperature play in ecosystem stability. The results have demonstrated the viability of several molluscan species as indicators of atypical salinity, and possibly temperature, modulations. For example Cerithium muscarum and Bulla striata demonstrated an ability to withstand a broad salinity and temperature range, with reproduction occurring in atypically high salinities and temperatures. These experiments also provided calibration data for the shell biogeochemistry of Chione cancellata and the possible use of this species as a water chemistry recorder. Observations made in the mesocosms, on a scale not normally observable in the field, have led to new questions about the influence of salinity on the localized ecosystem. The next phase of these experiments; to calibrate growth rate and reproductive viability in atypical salinities is currently underway.

  12. Influence of net freshwater supply on salinity in Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nuttle, W.K.; Fourqurean, J.W.; Cosby, B.J.; Zieman, J.C.; Robblee, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    An annual water budget for Florida Bay, the large, seasonally hypersaline estuary in the Everglades National Park, was constructed using physically based models and long-term (31 years) data on salinity, hydrology, and climate. Effects of seasonal and interannual variations of the net freshwater supply (runoff plus rainfall minus evaporation) on salinity variation within the bay were also examined. Particular attention was paid to the effects of runoff, which are the focus of ambitious plans to restore and conserve the Florida Bay ecosystem. From 1965 to 1995 the annual runoff from the Everglades into the bay was less than one tenth of the annual direct rainfall onto the bay, while estimated annual evaporation slightly exceeded annual rainfall. The average net freshwater supply to the bay over a year was thus approximately zero, and interannual variations in salinity appeared to be affected primarily by interannual fluctuations in rainfall. At the annual scale, runoff apparently had little effect on the bay as a whole during this period. On a seasonal basis, variations in rainfall, evaporation, and runoff were not in phase, and the net freshwater supply to the bay varied between positive and negative values, contributing to a strong seasonal pattern in salinity, especially in regions of the bay relatively isolated from exchanges with the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. Changes in runoff could have a greater effect on salinity in the bay if the seasonal patterns of rainfall and evaporation and the timing of the runoff are considered. One model was also used to simulate spatial and temporal patterns of salinity responses expected to result from changes in net freshwater supply. Simulations in which runoff was increased by a factor of 2 (but with no change in spatial pattern) indicated that increased runoff will lower salinity values in eastern Florida Bay, increase the variability of salinity in the South Region, but have little effect on salinity in the Central and West Regions.

  13. The influence of previous salt ingestion on the renal function of sheep subjected to intravenous hypertonic saline

    PubMed Central

    Potter, B. J.

    1968-01-01

    1. Sheep, which had access to a solution containing 13% sodium chloride as their sole source of drinking water for 6 months or more, were infused with a hypertonic solution (10%) of sodium chloride, and their ability to tolerate this salt load was compared with that of a similar group of sheep which drank only rain water. 2. The sheep which drank the rain water were often affected by the infusion and exhibited signs resembling potassium deficit. No such signs were apparent in the animals which consumed saline water. 3. Glomerular filtration rates were increased in all sheep by the hypertonic saline infusion, the increases being greater in the sheep which were maintained on the saline water. Effective renal plasma flow rates, though extremely variable, behaved in a similar manner. 4. Plasma values for sodium and chloride were increased in all sheep, but remained at a higher level for a longer period in the sheep which consumed rain water. The diuresis produced by hypertonic saline appeared to persist for a longer period in the sheep which drank rain water, while the excretion of sodium and chloride tended to be greater in the sheep maintained on saline water. 5. Plasma potassium was reduced in all sheep and urinary excretion of potassium increased. The latter response was more pronounced in the sheep which drank the rain water. 6. Filtered loads of sodium, chloride and potassium were greater in the sheep which were accustomed to drinking saline water. However, the amounts of potassium excreted were greater than those filtered in the rain water sheep and less than those filtered in the sheep which drank saline water. It therefore seems that secretion of potassium into the kidney tubules predominated in the former group and reabsorption prevailed in the latter. 7. Reabsorption of free water in excess of solute was greater in the kidney tubules of the sheep which drank saline water. 8. Increased blood volume and greater dilution of plasma proteins occurred in the sheep which drank rain water. PMID:5639360

  14. Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm: Final Pre-Launch Version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, Frank J.; Le Vine, David M.

    2011-01-01

    This document provides the theoretical basis for the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The inputs to the algorithm are the Aquarius antenna temperature (T(sub A)) measurements along with a number of NCEP operational products and pre-computed tables of space radiation coming from the galaxy and sun. The output is sea-surface salinity and many intermediate variables required for the salinity calculation. This revision of the Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) is intended to be the final pre-launch version.

  15. Remote Sensing of Salinity: The Dielectric Constant of Sea Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M.; Lang, R.; Utku, C.; Tarkocin, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Global monitoring of sea surface salinity from space requires an accurate model for the dielectric constant of sea water as a function of salinity and temperature to characterize the emissivity of the surface. Measurements are being made at 1.413 GHz, the center frequency of the Aquarius radiometers, using a resonant cavity and the perturbation method. The cavity is operated in a transmission mode and immersed in a liquid bath to control temperature. Multiple measurements are made at each temperature and salinity. Error budgets indicate a relative accuracy for both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of about 1%.

  16. Aquarius and Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Torrusio, S.

    2012-01-01

    Aquarius is an L-band radiometer and scatterometer instrument combination designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The instrument is designed to provide global salinity maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. The science objective is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This data will promote understanding of ocean circulation and its role in the global water cycle and climate.

  17. Salinity and temperature measurements in San Francisco Bay waters, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dedini, L.A.; Schemel, L.E.; Tembreull, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of salinity and temperature in waters of the San Francisco Bay estuarine system are presented. Sampling was conducted at selected locations (stations) and depths over the period between January-December 1980 at approximately two week intervals. Stations were located in deep channels and adjacent shallow water areas from Calaveras Point in South San Francisco Bay to the town of Rio Vista on the Sacramento River and to the Three-Mile Slough on the San Joaquin River. Numerical values of salinity, temperature, and station locations are tabulated. Contour maps of deep-channel salinity and temperature are presented and the analytical methods are briefly described.

  18. Zooplankton Seasonal Abundance of South AmericanSaline Shallow Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echaniz, Santiago Andrés; Vignatti, Alicia María; José de Paggi, Susana; Paggi, Juan César; Pilati, Alberto

    2006-02-01

    The central provinces of Argentina are characterized by the presence of a high number of shallow lakes, located in endorheic basins, many of which have elevated salinities as well as eutrophic or hypereutrophic condition. The zooplankton of four saline shallow lakes of the province of La Pampa was studied on a monthly basis during a 2-year period to determine its temporal and spatial variation.The surface of these shallow lakes (<2.5 m depth) varied between 56.8 and 215.9 ha, and some have from 8.4 to 20.8 g . l-1. The more saline lakes have clear water and the less saline lakes turbid water. Fishes, Jenynsia multidentata , were present in only two lakes during the last two months of the studied period.The zooplankton was composed of 17 taxa of Rotifera, 5 taxa of Cladocera and 4 taxa of Copepoda. The low diversity and the faunistic composition are characteristic of saline environments. Although the studied lakes share 38% of the species, the faunistic similarity was higher between the two least saline lakes. The lowest diversity was found in the two most saline lakes.All four shallow lakes were characterized by their very high zooplankton density, especially in the least saline lakes (<80000 ind . l-1). The abundance is significantly correlated with the water transparency but not with salinity.The zooplankton temporal variation was characterized by the alternation of macro- and microzooplankton, probably regulated by competition and intrazooplanktonic predation. In each lake, the spatial abundance distribution of the macro- and microzooplankton was homogeneous. It was related to the shallow depht of the lakes and their polymictic condition.The Scheffer model on alternative states in shallow lakes acknowledges that it cannot be applied to saline lakes because Daphnia , the main responsible for the clear water state, is not tolerant to high salinity. Our study shows that the most saline lakes, where the halophylic Daphnia menucoensis is abundant, have also the most clear waters. Another difference that we found with regards to the mentioned model is that, in turbid lakes, it could not have had a top-down control on macrozooplankton exerted by fishes because in these lakes fishes were practically absent.

  19. Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) salinity data validation over Malaysia coastal water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reba, M. N. M.; Rosli, A. Z.; Rahim, N. A.

    2014-02-01

    The study of sea surface salinity (SSS) plays an important role in the marine ecosystem, estimation of global ocean circulation and observation of fisheries, aquaculture, coral reef and sea grass habitats. The new challenge of SSS estimation is to exploit the ocean surface brightness temperature (Tb) observed by the Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) onboard the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite that is specifically designed to provide the best retrieval of ocean salinity and soil moisture using the L band of 1.4 GHz radiometer. Tb observed by radiometer is basically a function of the dielectric constant, sea surface temperature (SST), wind speed (U), incidence angle, polarization and SSS. Though, the SSS estimation is an ill-posed inversion problem as the relationship between the Tb and SSS is non-linear function. Objective of this study is to validate the SMOS SSS estimates with the ground-truth over the Malaysia coastal water. The LM iteratively determines the SSS of SMOS by the reduction of the sum of squared errors between Tb SMOS and Tb simulation (using in-situ) based on the updated geophysical triplet in the direction of the minimum of the cost function. The minimum cost function is compared to the desired threshold at each iteration and this recursive least square process updates the SST, U and SSS until the cost function converged. The designed LM's non-linear inversion algorithm simultaneously estimates SST, U and SSS and thus, map of SSS over Malaysia coastal water is produced from the regression model and accuracy assessment between the SMOS and in-situ retrieved SSS. This study found a good agreement in the validation with R square of 0.9 and the RMSE of 0.4. It is concluded that the non-linear inversion method is effective and practical to extract SMOS SSS, U and SST simultaneously.

  20. Understanding salinity responses and adopting ‘omics-based’ approaches to generate salinity tolerant cultivars of rice

    PubMed Central

    Das, Priyanka; Nutan, Kamlesh K.; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L.; Pareek, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    Soil salinity is one of the main constraints affecting production of rice worldwide, by reducing growth, pollen viability as well as yield of the plant. Therefore, detailed understanding of the response of rice towards soil salinity at the physiological and molecular level is a prerequisite for its effective management. Various approaches have been adopted by molecular biologists or breeders to understand the mechanism for salinity tolerance in plants and to develop salt tolerant rice cultivars. Genome wide analysis using ‘omics-based’ tools followed by identification and functional validation of individual genes is becoming one of the popular approaches to tackle this task. On the other hand, mutation breeding and insertional mutagenesis has also been exploited to obtain salinity tolerant crop plants. This review looks into various responses at cellular and whole plant level generated in rice plants toward salinity stress thus, evaluating the suitability of intervention of functional genomics to raise stress tolerant plants. We have tried to highlight the usefulness of the contemporary ‘omics-based’ approaches such as genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and phenomics towards dissecting out the salinity tolerance trait in rice. In addition, we have highlighted the importance of integration of various ‘omics’ approaches to develop an understanding of the machinery involved in salinity response in rice and to move forward to develop salt tolerant cultivars of rice. PMID:26442026

  1. Controls on the relationship between salinity and the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater: Implications for past estimates of salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, P.; Rosenheim, B.; Spero, H.

    2005-12-01

    Past estimates of salinity are normally made by removing the temperature effect from the oxygen isotope signal in calcareous organisms through the use of a proxy such as the Sr/Ca or Mg/Ca ratio in the skeleton. The residual oxygen isotopic composition is then directly related to salinity. However the slope of such a relationship varies appreciably, dependent upon whether salinity variations result from mixing of riverine water with ocean water or whether changes result from evaporation. Relationships between ?18O and salinity arising from mixing of large rivers such as the Amazon and the Mississippi with typical isotopic composition of between -8 and -6 %produce slopes between salinity and ?18O of 0.17 to 0.22. With the addition of local precipitation in the sub-tropics which has an isotopic composition of 0 to -3% typically salinity vs. ?18O relationship in the Caribbean and equatorial regions are approximately 0.12 to 0.14. In large regions of the oceans salinity vs. ?18O relationships are >> 0.14 not as a result of dilution by freshwater, but as a result of evaporation. Typically evaporation of seawater in the range 35 -37 produces slopes of 0.4 -0.6 with higher values occurring under conditions of higher relative humidity (> 90 %). A change in the temperature of evaporation has little influence upon the relationship. Failure to recognize the changing role of evaporation on the salinity vs. ?18O relationship can lead to the calculation of unrealistic changes in paleo-salinity from proxy data obtained from organisms such as corals, sclerosponges and foraminifera.

  2. Sea surface salinity variability in response to the Congo river discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Yi; Farrara, John D.; Schumann, Guy; Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Moller, Delwyn

    2015-05-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) variability associated with the Congo River discharge is examined using Aquarius satellite-retrieved SSS data and vertical profiles of salinity measured by the Argo floats. The Congo River and its adjacent coastal ocean region are selected for study because of their global importance in ocean-freshwater dynamics undermined by the lack of observational data and coordinated efforts to make in situ measurements in this region. With a weekly repeat orbit, Aquarius provides a unique opportunity to routinely map the SSS in this relatively remote and understudied region. The Congo River plume can be clearly identified in the Aquarius SSS data with a northwestward extension of 500-1000 km off the coast of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The peak amplitude of the SSS variability associated with the Congo River discharge exceeds 3.0 psu, significantly greater than the designed Aquarius SSS retrieval accuracy of 0.2 psu. Using the first two years of Aquarius data from September 2011 to August 2013, a well-defined seasonal cycle is described: maximum freshwater anomalies are found in the boreal winter and spring seasons. The anomalies during the 2012-2013 winter and spring seasons are significantly fresher than the 2011-2012 winter and spring seasons, suggesting a strong year-to-year variability. A strong correlation is found between month-to-month variations in upper ocean salinity (as revealed by Aquarius satellite and Argo observations) and month-to-month variations in the freshwater discharge from the Congo River over a region off the coast of West Africa that is large enough to be easily observed by the Aquarius satellite. Vertical profiles of salinity derived from Argo floats reveal that these freshwater anomalies can be traced to 30 m below the sea surface. Combining the spatial area characterized by strong negative correlations between Aquarius SSS data and Congo discharge with the Argo vertical profiles of salinity, the volume of the freshwater anomalies is inferred and used to estimate the Congo River discharge. Reasonably good agreement is found between the Congo River discharge as observed by a stream gauge at Brazzaville and that estimated from the combined Aquarius and Argo data, especially during the freshening portion of the seasonal cycle (during this phase the correlation is 0.84, implying ~70% of the variance can be explained). The precipitation minus evaporation portion of the freshwater flux is found to play a secondary role in this region.

  3. Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Main Campus Dining Lodging Parking Shopping Transportation Construction Alerts Download a list of current alerts Institutes & Services Explore Institutes/Departments Anesthesiology & Pain Management ...

  4. Iron Catalyzed Halogenation Processes in Saline Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubbesing, C.; Lippe, S.; Kullik, V.; Hauck, L.; Krause, T.; Keppler, F.; Schoeler, H. F.

    2014-12-01

    Within upcoming years the extent of salt deserts and salt lakes will probably increase due to climate change. It is known that volatile organic halogens (VOX) are released from saline soils and thus higher emissions from these environments are likely expected in the future. The origin of some organohalogens is not reasonably constrained by established natural halogenation processes. Therefore detailed biogeochemical investigations of these environments are necessary to identify the specific halogenation pathways. Redox-sensitive metals like iron are already known as triggers of chemical reactions via so called Fenton and Fenton-like reactions requiring H2O2 which is photochemically produced in water. In this study we collected soil samples from several salt lakes in Western Australia with pH values ranging from 2 to 8. The high pH variability was considered useful to study the impact of iron mobility and availability on halogenation processes. Iron was found to mainly occur as oxides and sulfides within the alkaline soils and acidic soils, respectively. All soil samples were lyophilised and finely ground prior to incubation at 40 °C for 24 h in aqueous solutions. Formation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and VOX from these soils was observed using GC-FID and GC-MS. When H2O2 was added to the samples much higher concentrations of VOC and VOX were observed. Furthermore, when the pH of the soils was changed towards lower values higher emissions of VOC were also observed. Based on C-H activation processes we delineate a halide containing iron complex as a provider of anions reacting with previously generated hydrocarbon radicals. We suggest iron sulfate derivatives as those complexes which are generated if the above-mentioned natural H2O2 addition to iron sulfates and sulfides occurs. The origin of these complexes is able to explain the halogenation of chemically unreactive alkanes.

  5. Photochemical chlorine activation from artificial saline snowpacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wren, Sumi; Donaldson, James; Abbatt, Jon

    2013-04-01

    Halogen activation on snow and ice substrates has a profound influence on the oxidative capacity of the polar boundary layer. The release of reactive chlorine species is of particular interest since chlorine atoms can participate in both ozone depletion and hydrocarbon oxidation. However, the mechanisms by which halides in sea ice substrates are converted into reactive halogen species are not well understood. In this study we investigated the activation of halogens from artificial saline snow in the presence of light and ozone. Gas phase Cl2, BrCl and Br2 were detected using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. We observe the dark release of Br2 in the presence of ozone; BrCl and Cl2 are only observed in the presence of both ozone and light. Interestingly, photo-induced release of halogens is still seen when a 320 nm or a 380 nm long-pass filter is placed in the light path. The observed halogen release is consistent with the chemistry occurring in a concentrated brine located at the surface of the snow grains. Results suggest that smaller snow grains, which present a larger total snow surface area, enhance chlorine production to a greater extent than BrCl or Br2 production. Chlorine production is shown to be strongly pH dependent, with higher chlorine yields under acidic conditions. Overall the results indicate that a mechanism involving UV-A light and ozone leads to accelerated halogen activation, which may be particularly important for releasing chlorine from bromide-depleted snow.

  6. Highlights of the First 15 Months of Aquarius Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagerloef, Gary S. E.; Kao, Hsun-Ying; Wentz, Frank; LeVine, David M.; Yueh, Simon H.; Feldman, Gene C.

    2012-01-01

    Aquarius satellite salinity measurements are resolving the major global and regional spatial patterns, and temporal variations, since the start of routine data collection on 25 August 2011. This description includes the principal seasonal variations over the first annual cycle as observed by the mission. In particular, we identify the evolution of low salinity anomalies associated with the Atlantic and Pacific intertropical convergence zones (ITCZ), major river outflows such as the Amazon, a seasonal low salinity anomaly in the Panama bight, and other features. We also explore the links that the salinity variations have with precipitation and surface currents. We then will describe the variations related to the presently evolving 2012 El Nino, now evident, as it progresses through the summer and fall 2012. We conclude with a brief summary of the Aquarius data products and validation

  7. Processing of high salinity brines for subsurface injection

    SciTech Connect

    Raber, E.; Thompson, R.E.

    1980-11-10

    The methodology employed to evaluate the injectability of a fluid is presented. Test objectives, procedures, and results from field tests evaluating different chemical pretreatments and filtration methods for improving the injectability of high salinity brines are described. (MHR)

  8. Aquarius Observations of Sea Surface Salinity - Duration: 31 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows changes in global sea surface salinity, as measured by NASA’s Aquarius instrument aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft, from December 2011 through December 2012. Red repr...

  9. Protein Contribution to Plant Salinity Response and Tolerance Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Kosová, Klára; Prášil, Ilja T.; Vítámvás, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The review is focused on plant proteome response to salinity with respect to physiological aspects of plant salt stress response. The attention is paid to both osmotic and ionic effects of salinity stress on plants with respect to several protein functional groups. Therefore, the role of individual proteins involved in signalling, changes in gene expression, protein biosynthesis and degradation and the resulting changes in protein relative abundance in proteins involved in energy metabolism, redox metabolism, stressand defence-related proteins, osmolyte metabolism, phytohormone, lipid and secondary metabolism, mechanical stress-related proteins as well as protein posttranslational modifications are discussed. Differences between salt-sensitive (glycophytes) and salt-tolerant (halophytes) plants are analysed with respect to differential salinity tolerance. In conclusion, contribution of proteomic studies to understanding plant salinity tolerance is summarised and discussed. PMID:23531537

  10. Protocols for Mapping Soil Salinity at Field Scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characterizing the spatial variability of soil salinity is an important spatial property that provides crucial information for crop and irrigation management strategies, particularly for site-specific management purposes. Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) is a quick, reliable measurement ...

  11. A new operational paradigm for small-scale ASR in saline aquifers.

    PubMed

    van Ginkel, Marloes; Olsthoorn, Theo N; Bakker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    A new operational paradigm is presented for small-scale aquifer storage and recovery systems (ASR) in saline aquifers. Regular ASR is often not feasible for small-scale storage in saline aquifers because fresh water floats to the top of the aquifer where it is unrecoverable. In the new paradigm, fresh water storage is combined with salt water extraction from below the fresh water cone. The salt water extraction counteracts the buoyancy due to the density difference between fresh water and salt water, thus preventing the fresh water from floating up. The proposed approach is applied to assess the feasibility of ASR for the seasonal storage of fresh water produced by desalination plants in tourist resorts along the Egyptian Red Sea coast. In these situations, the continuous extraction of salt water can be used for desalination purposes. An analytical Dupuit solution is presented for the steady flow of salt water toward a well with a volume of fresh water floating on top of the cone of depression. The required salt water discharge for the storage of a given volume of fresh water can be computed with the analytical solution. Numerical modeling is applied to determine how the stored fresh water can be recovered. Three recovery approaches are examined. Fresh water recovery rates on the order of 70% are achievable when salt water is extracted in high volumes, subsurface impermeable barriers are constructed at a distance from the well, or several fresh water recovery drains are used. The effect of ambient flow and interruptions of salt water pumping on the recovery efficiency are reported. PMID:24102236

  12. Treatment of high salinity brines by direct contact membrane distillation: Effect of membrane characteristics and salinity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Guan, Yunshan; Cheng, Fangqin; Liu, Yu

    2015-12-01

    Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) is one of the attractive technologies for high salinity brine treatment. In this study, four polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes were examined in treating highly concentrated salt solutions. Results showed that non-supported membranes generally have a higher overall mass transfer coefficient but porosity seems to be the most important parameter controlling membrane flux and thermal efficiency. Supported membranes with large thickness had relatively higher thermal efficiency than small thickness. This can be attributed to their reduced heat loss through heat condition. In addition, KCl, NaCl and MgCl2 solutions showed distinct trends over flux decline at high salt concentrations (⩾2.0M). The difference in flux was largely due to the discrepancy in water activities of these solutions (KCl>NaCl>MgCl2). However, the effect of viscosity on permeate flux could not be neglected for MgCl2 at high salt concentrations as the suddenly increased viscosity could lead to serious temperature polarization. This study indicates that membrane distillation is a promising technology for high salinity brine treatment. PMID:25563165

  13. Desertification, salinization, and biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Miyazono, Seiji; Patiño, Reynaldo; Taylor, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    This study determined long-term changes in fish assemblages, river discharge, salinity, and local precipitation, and examined hydrological drivers of biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem, the Trans-Pecos region of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (USA/Mexico). Historical (1977-1989) and current (2010-2011) fish assemblages were analyzed by rarefaction analysis (species richness), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (composition/variability), multiresponse permutation procedures (composition), and paired t-test (variability). Trends in hydrological conditions (1970s-2010s) were examined by Kendall tau and quantile regression, and associations between streamflow and specific conductance (salinity) by generalized linear models. Since the 1970s, species richness and variability of fish assemblages decreased in the Rio Grande below the confluence with the Rio Conchos (Mexico), a major tributary, but not above it. There was increased representation of lower-flow/higher-salinity tolerant species, thus making fish communities below the confluence taxonomically and functionally more homogeneous to those above it. Unlike findings elsewhere, this biotic homogenization was due primarily to changes in the relative abundances of native species. While Rio Conchos discharge was>2-fold higher than Rio Grande discharge above their confluence, Rio Conchos discharge decreased during the study period causing Rio Grande discharge below the confluence to also decrease. Rio Conchos salinity is lower than Rio Grande salinity above their confluence and, as Rio Conchos discharge decreased, it caused Rio Grande salinity below the confluence to increase (reduced dilution). Trends in discharge did not correspond to trends in precipitation except at extreme-high (90th quantile) levels. In conclusion, decreasing discharge from the Rio Conchos has led to decreasing flow and increasing salinity in the Rio Grande below the confluence. This spatially uneven desertification and salinization of the Rio Grande has in turn led to a region-wide homogenization of hydrological conditions and of taxonomic and functional attributes of fish assemblages. PMID:25569580

  14. The effect of the salinity level on conductivity sensor calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bihan, Caroline; Salvetat, Florence; Lamandé, Nolwenn; Compère, Chantal

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a study on the calibration of conductivity sensors. The puropse is to demonstrate the effect of the salinity concentration on the response of conductivity sensor. Several experiments are performed on three sensors of different technologies: a Seabird Sbe37-SIP MicroCAT, a Falmouth Scientific Inc. IMCTDMBP-D and a NKE Instrumentation Smatch. The analysis of the results shows an overall impact of the salinity level on the sensor response. This effect is discussed regarding the oceanographic requirements.

  15. Distinguishing saline from nonsaline rangelands with Skylab imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everitt, J. H.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Cuellar, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    A flight line in Starr County, Texas, was used to test the feasibility of distinguishing saline from nonsaline rangelands using very small scale (1:3,000,000), Skylab satellite imagery. Film optical density readings were made on six different films (four black-and-white, one conventional, and one infrared color) using various film/filter combinations. Differentiating between saline and nonsaline rangelands was possible by using microdensitometry on black-and-white Skylab imagery.

  16. Remote Sensing of Salinity and Overview of Results from Aquarius

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Dinnat, E. P.; Meissner, T.; Wentz, F.; Yueh, S. H.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.

    2015-01-01

    Aquarius is a combined active/passive microwave (L-band) instrument designed to map the salinity of global oceans from space. The specific goal of Aquarius is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the sea surface salinity (SSS) field of the open ocean (i.e. away from land). The instrumentation has been designed to provide monthly maps with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu

  17. Evaluation of Soil Salinity Amelioration Technologies in Timpaki, Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagea, Ioanna; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Tsanis, Ioannis; Schwilch, Gudrun

    2015-04-01

    Salinization is a soil threat that adversely affects ecosystem services and diminishes soil functions in many arid and semi-arid regions. Soil salinity management depends on a range of factors, and can be complex expensive and time demanding. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. The WOCAT Technologies Questionnaire is a standardized methodology for monitoring, evaluating and documenting sustainable land management practices through interaction with the stakeholders. Here we use WOCAT for the systematic analysis and evaluation of soil salinization amelioration measures, for the RECARE project Case Study in Greece, the Timpaki basin, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinization due to irrigation with brackish water. Amelioration technologies that have already been applied in the case study by the stakeholders are examined and classified depending on the function they promote and/or improve. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost and input requirements. Preliminary results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity such as composting, mulching, rain water harvesting and seed biopriming are preferred by the stakeholders. Further work will include result validation using qualitative approaches. Keywords: soil salinity; salinization; evaluation of soil salinization amelioration techniques; WOCAT; RECARE FP7 project; Timpaki Crete

  18. Desertification, salinization, and biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miyazono, S.; Patino, Reynaldo; Taylor, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined long-term changes in fish assemblages, river discharge, salinity, and local precipitation, and examined hydrological drivers of biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem, the Trans-Pecos region of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (USA/Mexico). Historical (1977-1989) and current (2010-2011) fish assemblages were analyzed by rarefaction analysis (species richness), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (composition/variability), multiresponse permutation procedures (composition), and paired t-test (variability). Trends in hydrological conditions (1970s-2010s) were examined by Kendall tau and quantile regression, and associations between streamfiow and specific conductance (salinity) by generalized linear models. Since the 1970s, species richness and variability of fish assemblages decreased in the Rio Grande below the confluence with the Rio Conchos (Mexico), a major tributary, but not above it. There was increased representation of lower-flow/higher-salinity tolerant species, thus making fish communities below the confluence taxonomically and functionally more homogeneous to those above it. Unlike findings elsewhere, this biotic homogenization was due primarily to changes in the relative abundances of native species. While Rio Conchos discharge was > 2-fold higher than Rio Grande discharge above their confluence, Rio Conchos discharge decreased during the study period causing Rio Grande discharge below the confluence to also decrease. Rio Conchos salinity is lower than Rio Grande salinity above their confluence and, as Rio Conchos discharge decreased, it caused Rio Grande salinity below the confluence to increase (reduced dilution). Trends in discharge did not correspond to trends in precipitation except at extreme-high (90th quantile) levels. In conclusion, decreasing discharge from the Rio Conchos has led to decreasing flow and increasing salinity in the Rio Grande below the confluence. This spatially uneven desertification and salinization of the Rio Grande has in turn led to a region-wide homogenization of hydrological conditions and of taxonomic and functional attributes of fish assemblages.

  19. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Calcite Reactions with Saline Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Piers; *Morse, John W.

    2010-11-15

    1. Objective The general objective of this research was to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of calcite reactions with saline waters over a wide range of saline water composition, carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2), and modest ranges of T and P. This would be done by studying both reaction rates and solubility from changes in solution chemistry. Also, nanoscale observations of calcite surface morphology and composition would be made to provide an understanding of rate controlling mechanisms.

  20. Interaction of flooding and salinity stress on baldcypress (Taxodium distichum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Pezeshki, S.R.; Chambers, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Coastal wetlands of the Southeastern United States are threatened by increases in flooding and salinity as a result of both natural processes and man-induced hydrolic alterations. Furthermore, global climate change scenarios suggest that, as a consequence of rising sea levels, much larger areas of coastal wetlands may be affected by flooding and salinity in the next 50 to 100 years. In this paper, we review studies designed to improve our ability to predict and ameliorate the impacts of increased flooding and salinity stress on baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.), which is a dominant species of of many coastal forested wetlands. Specifically, we review studies on species-level responses to flooding and salinity stress, alone and in combination, we summarize two studies on intraspecific variation in response to flooding and salinity stress, we analyze the physiological mechanisms thought to be responsible for the interaction between flooding and salinity stress, and we discuss the implications for coastal wetland loss and the prospects for developing salt-tolerant lines of baldcypress.

  1. Soil salinity detection. [Starr and Cameron Counties, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Richardson, A. J.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Everitt, J. H.; Cuellar, J. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Growth forms and herbage biomass production varied considerably among saline and nonsaline soil range sites in Starr County. Grasses on saline soil sites were shallow-rooted and short whereas on nonsaline sites there was an intermixture of short and midgrass species. Differentiation between primarily undisturbed saline and nonsaline rangelands, in Starr County, is partially possible using film optical density readings from Skylab imagery. Differentiation among eight saline and nonsaline soil sites in Cameron County, using black and white and color film was not possible according to statistical results from both DMRT and correlation analysis. Linear analysis showed that Bendix 24-band MSS data (aircraft) collected at 1700 m and 4800 m, as well as Skylab and LANDSAT-1 MSS data, were significantly correlated to electrical conductivity readings. In Starr County, the best spectral band for detection of saline soil levels, using black and white SO-022 film, was in the 0.6 to 0.7 micron spectral region. In Cameron County, the best spectral bands for detection of saline soil levels were the 2.3 to 2.43 micron, 0.72 to 0.76 micron, 0.69 to 1.75 micron, and 0.7 to 1.1 micron spectral regions.

  2. Annual growth patterns of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) along salinity gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Brenda L.; Doyle, Thomas W.; Krauss, Ken W.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of salinity on Taxodium distichum seedlings have been well documented, but few studies have examined mature trees in situ. We investigated the environmental drivers of T. distichum growth along a salinity gradient on the Waccamaw (South Carolina) and Savannah (Georgia) Rivers. On each river, T. distichum increment cores were collected from a healthy upstream site (Upper), a moderately degraded mid-reach site (Middle), and a highly degraded downstream site (Lower). Chronologies were successfully developed for Waccamaw Upper and Middle, and Savannah Middle. Correlations between standardized chronologies and environmental variables showed significant relationships between T. distichum growth and early growing season precipitation, temperature, and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Savannah Middle chronology correlated most strongly with August river salinity levels. Both lower sites experienced suppression/release events likely in response to local anthropogenic impacts rather than regional environmental variables. The factors that affect T. distichum growth, including salinity, are strongly synergistic. As sea-level rise pushes the freshwater/saltwater interface inland, salinity becomes more limiting to T. distichum growth in tidal freshwater swamps; however, salinity impacts are exacerbated by locally imposed environmental modifications.

  3. Interaction of flooding and salinity stress on baldcypress (Taxodium distichum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Pezeshki, S.R.; Chambers, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Coastal wetlands of the southeastern United States are threatened by increases in flooding and salinity as a result of both natural processes and man-induced hydrologic alterations. Furthermore, global climate change scenarios suggest that, as a consequence of rising sea levels, much larger areas of coastal wetlands may be affected by flooding and salinity in the next 50 to 100 years. In this paper, we review studies designed to improve our ability to predict and ameliorate the impacts of increased flooding and salinity stress on baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.), which is a dominant species of many coastal forested wetlands. Specifically, we review studies on species-level responses to flooding and salinity stress, alone and in combination, we summarize two studies on intraspecific variation in response to flooding and salinity stress, we analyze the physiological mechanisms thought to be responsible for the interaction between flooding and salinity stress, and we discuss the implications for coastal wetland loss and the prospects for developing salt-tolerant lines of baldcypress.

  4. Physiological and molecular changes in barley and wheat under salinity.

    PubMed

    Temel, Aslihan; Gozukirmizi, Nermin

    2015-03-01

    In this study, it was aimed to compare salinity-induced changes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Bornova-92) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Gerek-79). Seeds were germinated under saline conditions (0, 50, 100, 250, and 500 mM NaCl) for 2 days and recovered under non-saline conditions for 2 days. At the end of the salt treatment, germination, water content (WC), total soluble protein content, and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity were affected in both species, while superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity was affected in barley. Salinity affected WC, protein content, and CAT activity in both species, while it affected germination in barley and affected fresh weight and SOD activity in wheat after recovery. Physiological responses of both species were correlated. Expression of α-tubulin, Atls1, and Lls1 genes was down-regulated in barley after 250 mM NaCl treatment. HVA1 gene was highly (more than 50-fold) stimulated by salinity in barley. However, α-tubulin and Atls1 genes were down-regulated, and Lls1 gene was up-regulated in wheat after recovery from 250-mM NaCl treatment. Increase in HVA1 expression was not significant in wheat. The expression profiles of barley and wheat under salinity are different, and barley tended to regulate gene expression faster than wheat. PMID:25578157

  5. Saline Groundwater from Coastal Aquifers As a Source for Desalination.

    PubMed

    Stein, Shaked; Russak, Amos; Sivan, Orit; Yechieli, Yoseph; Rahav, Eyal; Oren, Yoram; Kasher, Roni

    2016-02-16

    Reverse osmosis (RO) seawater desalination is currently a widespread means of closing the gap between supply and demand for potable water in arid regions. Currently, one of the main setbacks of RO operation is fouling, which hinders membrane performance and induces pressure loss, thereby reducing system efficiency. An alternative water source is saline groundwater with salinity close to seawater, pumped from beach wells in coastal aquifers which penetrate beneath the freshwater-seawater interface. In this research, we studied the potential use of saline groundwater of the coastal aquifer as feedwater for desalination in comparison to seawater using fieldwork and laboratory approaches. The chemistry, microbiology and physical properties of saline groundwater were characterized and compared with seawater. Additionally, reverse osmosis desalination experiments in a cross-flow system were performed, evaluating the permeate flux, salt rejection and fouling propensities of the different water types. Our results indicated that saline groundwater was significantly favored over seawater as a feed source in terms of chemical composition, microorganism content, silt density, and fouling potential, and exhibited better desalination performance with less flux decline. Saline groundwater may be a better water source for desalination by RO due to lower fouling potential, and reduced pretreatment costs. PMID:26810309

  6. Effects of oceanic salinity on body condition in sea snakes.

    PubMed

    Brischoux, François; Rolland, Virginie; Bonnet, Xavier; Caillaud, Matthieu; Shine, Richard

    2012-08-01

    Since the transition from terrestrial to marine environments poses strong osmoregulatory and energetic challenges, temporal and spatial fluctuations in oceanic salinity might influence salt and water balance (and hence, body condition) in marine tetrapods. We assessed the effects of salinity on three species of sea snakes studied by mark-recapture in coral-reef habitats in the Neo-Caledonian Lagoon. These three species include one fully aquatic hydrophiine (Emydocephalus annulatus), one primarily aquatic laticaudine (Laticauda laticaudata), and one frequently terrestrial laticaudine (Laticauda saintgironsi). We explored how oceanic salinity affected the snakes' body condition across various temporal and spatial scales relevant to each species' ecology, using linear mixed models and multimodel inference. Mean annual salinity exerted a consistent and negative effect on the body condition of all three snake species. The most terrestrial taxon (L. saintgironsi) was sensitive to salinity over a short temporal scale, corresponding to the duration of a typical marine foraging trip for this species. In contrast, links between oceanic salinity and body condition in the fully aquatic E. annulatus and the highly aquatic L. laticaudata were strongest at a long-term (annual) scale. The sophisticated salt-excreting systems of sea snakes allow them to exploit marine environments, but do not completely overcome the osmoregulatory challenges posed by oceanic conditions. Future studies could usefully explore such effects in other secondarily marine taxa such as seabirds, turtles, and marine mammals. PMID:22710931

  7. Evidence for 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene melanin in three halophilic black yeasts grown under saline and non-saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Kogej, Tina; Wheeler, Michael H; Lanisnik Rizner, Tea; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2004-03-19

    The ascomycetous black yeasts Hortaea werneckii, Phaeotheca triangularis, and Trimmatostroma salinum are halophilic fungi that inhabit hypersaline water of solar salterns. They are characterized by slow, meristematic growth and very thick, darkly pigmented cell walls. The dark pigment, generally thought to be melanin, is consistently present in their cell walls when they grow under saline and non-saline conditions. We used the inhibitor tricyclazole to test the fungi in this study for the presence of 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin biosynthesis, since fungal melanins reportedly are derived either from DHN, tyrosine via 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, gamma-glutaminyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzene, or catechol. Tricyclazole-treated cultures of the fungi were reddish-brown in color and contained typical intermediates of the DHN-melanin pathway, as demonstrated by high-performance liquid chromatography. This investigation showed that the three fungi synthesized DHN-melanin under saline and non-saline growth conditions. PMID:15033240

  8. The importance of pH and sand substrate in the revegetation of saline non-waterlogged peat fields.

    PubMed

    Montemayor, Marilou B; Price, Jonathan; Rochefort, Line

    2015-11-01

    A partially peat-extracted coastal bog contaminated by seawater was barren and required revegetation as a wetland. Peat fields were rectangular in shape, cambered in cross-section profile, and separated by drainage ditches. Common to all peat fields were symmetrical patterns in micro-topography with slopes between differences in elevation. Saline non-waterlogged slopes of ∼5% occurred as a symmetrical pair on each side of the crest of the cambered profile, at one end of each peat field. Three rows were laid across this slope (Top, Middle, and Bottom rows) and transplanted with naturally-growing plant species with their sand substrate, in three experiments, and grown for a year. In the Spartina pectinata experiment, bare root stem sections were also planted. Another experiment was conducted to determine changes in the characteristics of a volume of sand when incubated in saline peat fields. We found the salinity of peat increased with moisture downslope, and pH decreased with increase in salinity. S. pectinata grew best when planted with its sand substrate compared with bare root stem section, and when planted in Bottom rows. Juncus balticus had excellent growth in all rows. Unexpectedly, Festuca rubra that was inconspicuous beneath the J. balticus canopy in the natural donor site grew densely within the J. balticus sods. Agrostis stolonifera grew well but seemed to show intolerance to the surrounding acidic peat by curling up its stolons. The pH of the incubated sand volume was much higher than the surrounding peat. These studies suggest that recognition of plant niches and pH manipulation are important in the revegetation of disturbed Sphagnum peatlands that are found abundantly in the northern hemisphere. Results are also relevant to the reclamation of other disturbed lands. PMID:26301685

  9. Adaptation of teleosts to very high salinity.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Gary; Skadhauge, Erik

    2012-09-01

    A number of species of euryhaline teleosts have the remarkable ability to adapt and survive in environments of extreme salinity, up to two or even three times the osmolality of seawater. This review looks at some of the literature describing the adaptive changes that occur, primarily with intestinal water absorption and with the properties of the gill epithelium. While there is much that is still not completely understood, recent work has begun to look at these adaptations at the cellular and molecular level. As with seawater osmoregulation, fish adapting to hypersaline conditions generally increase drinking rates and water absorption across the intestine by solute-linked transport. This process requires increased activity, expression levels and possibly changes in subunit isoforms of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pumps, along with increases in other components of the NaCl absorptive pathway. Additionally, recent studies have demonstrated the importance of luminal anion exchange activity and of luminal alkalinization, which can support absorption against increasing osmotic gradients by promoting divalent ion precipitation (CaCO(3)) and by conversion of HCO(3)(-) ions to CO(2). The steepness of the lumen to blood osmotic gradient vis-a-vis the NaCl absorptive capacity, along with the accumulation of non-absorbed Mg(++) and SO(4)(--), likely become the limiting factors for survival in hypersaline conditions. Of interest is the observation of predicted hyperosmotic fluid absorption by the intestine in several species. Adaptive changes in the gill epithelium are also critical in this process, allowing for secretion of absorbed NaCl from the extracellular fluids. Most notably there are important changes in the numbers and size of mitochondrion-rich (MR) cells, the sites of active secretion of Cl(-), which ultimately drives the overall process of NaCl secretion. Balance studies of intake and output clearly indicate that a decrease in the osmotic permeability of the gill epithelium must also occur. The molecular correlates of this effect are not known, although decreased expression of one or more aquaporins seems to be a likely possibility. Finally, the regulatory changes seen with hypersaline adaptation may provide important new insights into epithelial function, including the role of organized transport assemblies ("metabolons") and changes in the expression of tight junction proteins such as claudins or occludins, which may modulate electrolyte permeabilities. PMID:22640831

  10. Salinity Tolerance of Picochlorum atomus and the Use of Salinity for Contamination Control by the Freshwater Cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena limnetica

    PubMed Central

    von Alvensleben, Nicolas; Stookey, Katherine; Magnusson, Marie; Heimann, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae are ideal candidates for waste-gas and –water remediation. However, salinity often varies between different sites. A cosmopolitan microalga with large salinity tolerance and consistent biochemical profiles would be ideal for standardised cultivation across various remediation sites. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of salinity on Picochlorum atomus growth, biomass productivity, nutrient uptake and biochemical profiles. To determine if target end-products could be manipulated, the effects of 4-day nutrient limitation were also determined. Culture salinity had no effect on growth, biomass productivity, phosphate, nitrate and total nitrogen uptake at 2, 8, 18, 28 and 36 ppt. 11 ppt, however, initiated a significantly higher total nitrogen uptake. While salinity had only minor effects on biochemical composition, nutrient depletion was a major driver for changes in biomass quality, leading to significant increases in total lipid, fatty acid and carbohydrate quantities. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by nutrient depletion, with an increased proportion of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. Having established that P. atomus is a euryhaline microalga, the effects of culture salinity on the development of the freshwater cyanobacterial contaminant Pseudanabaena limnetica were determined. Salinity at 28 and 36 ppt significantly inhibited establishment of P. limnetica in P. atomus cultures. In conclusion, P. atomus can be deployed for bioremediation at sites with highly variable salinities without effects on end-product potential. Nutrient status critically affected biochemical profiles – an important consideration for end-product development by microalgal industries. 28 and 36 ppt slow the establishment of the freshwater cyanobacterium P. limnetica, allowing for harvest of low contaminant containing biomass. PMID:23667639

  11. Growth responses of the mangrove Avicennia marina to salinity: development and function of shoot hydraulic systems require saline conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hoa T.; Stanton, Daniel E.; Schmitz, Nele; Farquhar, Graham D.; Ball, Marilyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Halophytic eudicots are characterized by enhanced growth under saline conditions. This study combines physiological and anatomical analyses to identify processes underlying growth responses of the mangrove Avicennia marina to salinities ranging from fresh- to seawater conditions. Methods Following pre-exhaustion of cotyledonary reserves under optimal conditions (i.e. 50 % seawater), seedlings of A. marina were grown hydroponically in dilutions of seawater amended with nutrients. Whole-plant growth characteristics were analysed in relation to dry mass accumulation and its allocation to different plant parts. Gas exchange characteristics and stable carbon isotopic composition of leaves were measured to evaluate water use in relation to carbon gain. Stem and leaf hydraulic anatomy were measured in relation to plant water use and growth. Key Results Avicennia marina seedlings failed to grow in 0–5 % seawater, whereas maximal growth occurred in 50–75 % seawater. Relative growth rates were affected by changes in leaf area ratio (LAR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) along the salinity gradient, with NAR generally being more important. Gas exchange characteristics followed the same trends as plant growth, with assimilation rates and stomatal conductance being greatest in leaves grown in 50–75 % seawater. However, water use efficiency was maintained nearly constant across all salinities, consistent with carbon isotopic signatures. Anatomical studies revealed variation in rates of development and composition of hydraulic tissues that were consistent with salinity-dependent patterns in water use and growth, including a structural explanation for low stomatal conductance and growth under low salinity. Conclusions The results identified stem and leaf transport systems as central to understanding the integrated growth responses to variation in salinity from fresh- to seawater conditions. Avicennia marina was revealed as an obligate halophyte, requiring saline conditions for development of the transport systems needed to sustain water use and carbon gain. PMID:25600273

  12. Larval tolerance to salinity in three species of Australian anuran: an indication of saline specialisation in Litoria aurea.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Brian D; Byrne, Phillip G; Reina, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Recent anthropogenic influences on freshwater habitats are forcing anuran populations to rapidly adapt to high magnitude changes in environmental conditions or face local extinction. We examined the effects of ecologically relevant elevated salinity levels on larval growth, metamorphosis and survival of three species of Australian anuran; the spotted marsh frog (Limnodynastes tasmaniensis), the painted burrowing frog (Neobatrachus sudelli) and the green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea), in order to better understand the responses of these animals to environmental change. Elevated salinity (16% seawater) negatively impacted on the survival of L. tasmaniensis (35% survival) and N sudelli (0% survival), while reduced salinity had a negative impact on L. aurea. (16% seawater: 85% survival; 0.4% seawater: 35% survival). L. aurea tadpoles survived in salinities much higher than previously reported for this species, indicating the potential for inter-populations differences in salinity tolerance. In L. tasmaniensis and L. aurea, development to metamorphosis was fastest in low and high salinity treatments suggesting it is advantageous for tadpoles to invest energy in development in both highly favourable and developmentally challenging environments. We propose that this response might either maximise potential lifetime fecundity when tadpoles experience favourable environments, or, facilitate a more rapid escape from pond environments where there is a reduced probability of survival. PMID:22916260

  13. Larval Tolerance to Salinity in Three Species of Australian Anuran: An Indication of Saline Specialisation in Litoria aurea

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, Brian D.; Byrne, Phillip G.; Reina, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent anthropogenic influences on freshwater habitats are forcing anuran populations to rapidly adapt to high magnitude changes in environmental conditions or face local extinction. We examined the effects of ecologically relevant elevated salinity levels on larval growth, metamorphosis and survival of three species of Australian anuran; the spotted marsh frog (Limnodynastes tasmaniensis), the painted burrowing frog (Neobatrachus sudelli) and the green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea), in order to better understand the responses of these animals to environmental change. Elevated salinity (16% seawater) negatively impacted on the survival of L. tasmaniensis (35% survival) and N sudelli (0% survival), while reduced salinity had a negative impact on L. aurea. (16% seawater: 85% survival; 0.4% seawater: 35% survival). L. aurea tadpoles survived in salinities much higher than previously reported for this species, indicating the potential for inter-populations differences in salinity tolerance. In L. tasmaniensis and L. aurea, development to metamorphosis was fastest in low and high salinity treatments suggesting it is advantageous for tadpoles to invest energy in development in both highly favourable and developmentally challenging environments. We propose that this response might either maximise potential lifetime fecundity when tadpoles experience favourable environments, or, facilitate a more rapid escape from pond environments where there is a reduced probability of survival. PMID:22916260

  14. Continuous salinity and temperature data from san francisco estuary, 19822002: Trends and the salinity-freshwater inflow relationship

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shellenbarger, G.G.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and other federal and state agencies have been collecting continuous temperature and salinity data, two critical estuarine habitat variables, throughout San Francisco estuary for over two decades. Although this dynamic, highly variable system has been well studied, many questions remain relating to the effects of freshwater inflow and other physical and biological linkages. This study examines up to 20 years of publically available, continuous temperature and salinity data from 10 different San Francisco Bay stations to identify trends in temperature and salinity and quantify the salinityfreshwater inflow relationship. Several trends in the salinity and temperature records were identified, although the high degree of daily and interannual variability confounds the analysis. In addition, freshwater inflow to the estuary has a range of effects on salinity from -0.0020 to -0.0096 (m3 s-1) -1 discharge, depending on location in the estuary and the timescale of analyzed data. Finally, we documented that changes in freshwater inflow to the estuary that are within the range of typical management actions can affect bay-wide salinities by 0.61.4. This study reinforces the idea that multidecadal records are needed to identify trends from decadal changes in water management and climate and, therefore, are extremely valuable. ?? 2011 Coastal Education & Research Foundation.

  15. Branchial carbonic anhydrase activity and ninhydrin positive substances in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, acclimated to low and high salinities.

    PubMed

    Roy, Luke A; Davis, D Allen; Saoud, I Patrick; Henry, Raymond P

    2007-06-01

    The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, acclimated to 30 ppt salinity, was transferred to either low (15 and 5 ppt), or high (45 ppt) salinity for 7 days. Hemolymph osmolality, branchial carbonic anhydrase activity, and total ninhydrin-positive substances (TNPS) in abdominal muscle were then measured for each condition. Hemolymph osmotic concentration was regulated slightly below ambient water osmolality in shrimp acclimated to 30 ppt. At 15 and 5 ppt, shrimp were strong hyper-osmotic regulators, maintaining hemolymph osmolality between 200 and 400 mOsm above ambient. Shrimp acclimated to 30 ppt and transferred to 45 ppt salinity were strong hypo-osmotic and hypo-ionic regulators, maintaining hemolymph osmolality over 400 mOsm below ambient. Branchial carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity was low (approximately 100 micromol CO(2) mg protein(-1) min(-1)) and uniform across all 8 gills in shrimp acclimated to 30 ppt, but CA activity increased in all gills after exposure to both low and high salinities. Anterior gills had the largest increases in CA activity, and levels of increase were approximately the same for low and high salinity exposure. Branchial CA induction appears to be functionally important in both hyper- and hypo-osmotic regulations of hemolymph osmotic concentrations. Abdominal muscle TNPS made up between 19 and 38% of the total intracellular osmotic concentration in shrimp acclimated to 5, 15, and 30 ppt. TNPS levels did not change across this salinity range, over which hemolymph osmotic concentrations were tightly regulated. At 45 ppt, hemolymph osmolality increased, and muscle TNPS also increased, presumably to counteract intracellular water loss and restore cell volume. L. vannamei appears to employ mechanisms of both extracellular osmoregulation and intracellular volume regulation as the basis of its euryhalinity. PMID:17350299

  16. 40 CFR 436.120 - Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... salines from brine lakes subcategory. 436.120 Section 436.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Salines From Brine Lakes Subcategory § 436.120 Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing of salines...

  17. Research Needs and Opportunities in Management of Saline Soils and Waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current research programs on irrigation with saline waters and management of saline soils at the U.S. Salinity Laboratory are reviewed. The research program includes: 1) Remote sensing of electrical conductivity (EC) for rapid assessment of salinity at the field scale; 2) EC-directed soil sampling f...

  18. 40 CFR 436.120 - Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... salines from brine lakes subcategory. 436.120 Section 436.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Salines From Brine Lakes Subcategory § 436.120 Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing of salines...

  19. Assessing the impact of soil salinity on manganese distribution in sierozem soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant availability of heavy metals from soil depends on factors such as soil type, organic matter, base saturation, texture, and salinity. Plant availability of mobile manganese (Mn) was accessed from various horizons of non-saline, medium saline, and highly saline sieriozem soils and a pasture. Man...

  20. Cumulative soil chemistry changes from land application of saline-sodic waters.

    PubMed

    Ganjegunte, Girisha K; King, Lyle A; Vance, George F

    2008-01-01

    Management of large volumes (60,000 ha-m) of co-production water associated with coal bed natural gas (CBNG) water extraction is a potential concern in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana due to elevated water salinity and sodicity levels. Land application of saline-sodic CBNG water is a common water management method being practiced in the PRB, which can result in deterioration in soil quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects from 1 to 4 yr of land application with CBNG water on soil chemical properties at six study sites (fine to loamy, mixed to smectitic, mesic, Ustic Ardisols and Entisols) in the Wyoming PRB region. Changes in chemistry of soils collected from six depths irrigated with CBNG water were compared with representative nonirrigated soils. Applications of CBNG water significantly increased soil EC, SAR, and ESP values (up to 21, 74, and 24 times, respectively) compared with nonirrigated soils. Differences in soil chemical properties between an irrigated and nonirrigated coarse-textured soil were less than that of fine-textured soils, emphasizing texture as an important factor for salinity buildup. Pretreatment of CBNG water using a sulfur burner and application of gypsum and elemental S soil amendments reduced soil pH but did not prevent the build-up of salts and sodium. Study results suggest that current CBNG water management strategies are not as effective as projected. Additional research is needed to develop management strategies appropriate for mitigating adverse effects of CBNG water irrigation. PMID:18765759

  1. Cumulative soil chemistry changes from land application of saline-sodic waters

    SciTech Connect

    Ganjegunte, G.K.; King, L.A.; Vance, G.F.

    2008-09-15

    Management of large volumes (60,000 ha-m) of co-production water associated with coal bed natural gas (CBNG) water extraction is a potential concern in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana due to elevated water salinity and sodicity levels. Land application of saline-sodic CBNG water is a common water management method being practiced in the PRB, which can result in deterioration in soil quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects from 1 to 4 yr of land application with CBNG water on soil chemical properties at six study sites (fine to loamy, mixed to smectitic, mesic, Ustic Ardisols and Entisols) in the Wyoming PRB region. Changes in chemistry of soils collected from six depths irrigated with CBNG water were compared with representative non-irrigated soils. Applications of CBNG water significantly increased soil EC, SAR, and ESP values (up to 21, 74, and 24 times, respectively) compared with non-irrigated soils. Differences in soil chemical properties between an irrigated and non-irrigated coarse-textured soil were less than that of fine-textured soils, emphasizing texture as an important factor for salinity buildup. Pretreatment of CBNG water using a sulfur burner and application of gypsum and elemental S soil amendments reduced soil pH but did not prevent the build-up of salts and sodium. Study results suggest that current CBNG water management strategies are not as effective as projected. Additional research is needed to develop management strategies appropriate for mitigating adverse effects of CBNG water irrigation.

  2. Reproduction cycle and tolerance to temperature and salinity of Amyloodinium ocellatum (Brown, 1931) (Dinoflagellida).

    PubMed

    Paperna, I

    1984-01-01

    Reproduction cycle and tolerance to temperature and salinity of Amyloodinium ocellatum (Brown, 1931) ( Dinoflagellida ) was investigated in the laboratory using postlarval Sparus aurata (L.) as fish host and by in vitro study of the parasite is reproductive stage. Trophont growth was linear by length and exponential by volume, continuous to detachment stage at the size of 50-90 microns in length. At 19-24 degrees C detachment occurred gradually during the 3-5th days after settlement. At 16 degrees C growth, as well as detachment, was delayed. However, by the 6-7th day trophonts still attached exceeded 100 microns in length. When detached, trophonts of any age and size were transformed into dividing tomonts . 24-hour old, less than 25 microns length trophonts , however, immediately sporulated with no division. The number of divisions to sporulation was related to the size at detachment. For reproduction, 18-30 degrees C was the optimal temperature range, although the minimal division time was at 23-27 degrees C. Divisions were delayed and sporulation was interrupted at 15 degrees C. Complete interruption of division and gradual mortality occurred at 8 degrees C. At 35 degrees C the reproduction process of the tomonts was severely damaged. Tolerance to salinity was dependent on ambient temperature and was the widest at 24-25 degrees C. Divisions occurred between 1-78 ppt, but uninterrupted division, full yield sporulation and effective infection of fish occurred only between 10 to 60 ppt. No division occurred above 80 ppt, however, short term incubation up to 4 days in salinities up to 180 ppt did not affect division potency. Wide variation in tolerance was, however, evident between tested population as well as individual tomont in each population. PMID:6539091

  3. Climatic causes and consequences of the Mediterranean Messinian Salinity Crisis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flecker, R.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean gateways play a critical role in modulating ocean circulation and global climate. When the gateway links to a mid-latitude, semi-enclosed basin, an inflated response to climate is recorded in the basin and this can lead to a high amplitude feedback to the ocean via gateway exchange. In the Mediterranean the restricted gateway results in environmental variability on orbital timescales and this in turn impacts the volume and density of Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) reaching the Atlantic. Even today, there is a lithological response to this variability in the Mediterranean, but in the Late Miocene when the gateway was much more restricted, salinity fluctuations evolved to such extreme levels that a salt giant formed and ~5% of the global ocean's salt was precipitated on the Mediterranean sea floor. This event is known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange during the Late Miocene to early Pliocene is the focus of a new EU-funded project, MEDGATE. The project draws together a multidisciplinary team of geochemists, structural geologists, sedimentologists, palaeontologists and numerical modellers to work on sediments preserved in and around two fossil corridors that linked the Mediterranean with the Atlantic ~8 million years ago, one in southern Spain, the other in northern Morocco. These exceptional successions, which record the Mediterranean's sensitivity to subtle changes in climate, have been astronomically tuned to precession allowing correlation of individual beds throughout the corridors and into the Mediterranean itself. Consequently, we now have an unprecedented opportunity to reconstruct Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange during the Late Miocene-Pliocene and evaluate the impact of the Messinian Salinity Crisis on North Atlantic circulation and global climate.

  4. Hypertonic Saline Dextran Ameliorates Organ Damage in Beagle Hemorrhagic Shock

    PubMed Central

    You, Guo-xing; Wang, Ying; Chen, Gan; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Xi-gang; Zhao, Lian; Zhou, Hong; He, Yue-zhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of hypertonic saline with 6% Dextran-70 (HSD) resuscitation on organ damage and the resuscitation efficiency of the combination of HSD and lactated ringers (LR) in a model of hemorrhage shock in dogs. Methods Beagles were bled to hold their mean arterial pressure (MAP) at 50±5 mmHg for 1 h. After hemorrhage, beagles were divided into three groups (n = 7) to receive pre-hospital resuscitation for 1 h (R1): HSD (4 ml/kg), LR (40 ml/kg), and HSD+LR (a combination of 4 ml/kg HSD and 40 ml/kg LR). Next, LR was transfused into all groups as in-hospital resuscitation (R2). After two hours of observation (R3), autologous blood was transfused. Hemodynamic responses and systemic oxygenation were measured at predetermined phases. Three days after resuscitation, the animals were sacrificed and tissues including kidney, lung, liver and intestinal were obtained for pathological analysis. Results Although the initial resuscitation with HSD was shown to be faster than LR with regard to an ascending MAP, the HSD group showed a similar hemodynamic performance compared to the LR group throughout the experiment. Compared with the LR group, the systemic oxygenation performance in the HSD group was similar but showed a lower venous-to-arterial CO2 gradient (Pv-aCO2) at R3 (p < 0.05). Additionally, the histology score of the kidneys, lungs and liver were significantly lower in the HSD group than in the LR group (p < 0.05). The HSD+LR group showed a superior hemodynamic response but higher extravascular lung water (EVLW) and lower arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) than the other groups (p < 0.05). The HSD+LR group showed a marginally improved systemic oxygenation performance and lower histology score than other groups. Conclusions Resuscitation after hemorrhagic shock with a bolus of HSD showed a similar hemodynamic response compared with LR at ten times the volume of HSD, but HSD showed superior efficacy in organ protection. Our findings suggest that resuscitation with the combination of HSD and LR in the pre-hospital setting is an effective treatment. PMID:26317867

  5. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed. PMID:26812088

  6. Proteomics, metabolomics, and ionomics perspectives of salinity tolerance in halophytes

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Asha; Das, Paromita; Parida, Asish Kumar; Agarwal, Pradeep K.

    2015-01-01

    Halophytes are plants which naturally survive in saline environment. They account for ∼1% of the total flora of the world. They include both dicots and monocots and are distributed mainly in arid, semi-arid inlands and saline wet lands along the tropical and sub-tropical coasts. Salinity tolerance in halophytes depends on a set of ecological and physiological characteristics that allow them to grow and flourish in high saline conditions. The ability of halophytes to tolerate high salt is determined by the effective coordination between various physiological processes, metabolic pathways and protein or gene networks responsible for delivering salinity tolerance. The salinity responsive proteins belong to diverse functional classes such as photosynthesis, redox homeostasis; stress/defense, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction and membrane transport. The important metabolites which are involved in salt tolerance of halophytes are proline and proline analog (4-hydroxy-N-methyl proline), glycine betaine, pinitol, myo-inositol, mannitol, sorbitol, O-methylmucoinositol, and polyamines. In halophytes, the synthesis of specific proteins and osmotically active metabolites control ion and water flux and support scavenging of oxygen radicals under salt stress condition. The present review summarizes the salt tolerance mechanisms of halophytes by elucidating the recent studies that have focused on proteomic, metabolomic, and ionomic aspects of various halophytes in response to salinity. By integrating the information from halophytes and its comparison with glycophytes could give an overview of salt tolerance mechanisms in halophytes, thus laying down the pavement for development of salt tolerant crop plants through genetic modification and effective breeding strategies. PMID:26284080

  7. Proteomics, metabolomics, and ionomics perspectives of salinity tolerance in halophytes.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Asha; Das, Paromita; Parida, Asish Kumar; Agarwal, Pradeep K

    2015-01-01

    Halophytes are plants which naturally survive in saline environment. They account for ∼1% of the total flora of the world. They include both dicots and monocots and are distributed mainly in arid, semi-arid inlands and saline wet lands along the tropical and sub-tropical coasts. Salinity tolerance in halophytes depends on a set of ecological and physiological characteristics that allow them to grow and flourish in high saline conditions. The ability of halophytes to tolerate high salt is determined by the effective coordination between various physiological processes, metabolic pathways and protein or gene networks responsible for delivering salinity tolerance. The salinity responsive proteins belong to diverse functional classes such as photosynthesis, redox homeostasis; stress/defense, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction and membrane transport. The important metabolites which are involved in salt tolerance of halophytes are proline and proline analog (4-hydroxy-N-methyl proline), glycine betaine, pinitol, myo-inositol, mannitol, sorbitol, O-methylmucoinositol, and polyamines. In halophytes, the synthesis of specific proteins and osmotically active metabolites control ion and water flux and support scavenging of oxygen radicals under salt stress condition. The present review summarizes the salt tolerance mechanisms of halophytes by elucidating the recent studies that have focused on proteomic, metabolomic, and ionomic aspects of various halophytes in response to salinity. By integrating the information from halophytes and its comparison with glycophytes could give an overview of salt tolerance mechanisms in halophytes, thus laying down the pavement for development of salt tolerant crop plants through genetic modification and effective breeding strategies. PMID:26284080

  8. The salinity signature of the cross-shelf exchanges in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: Numerical simulations

    PubMed Central

    Matano, Ricardo P; Combes, Vincent; Piola, Alberto R; Guerrero, Raul; Palma, Elbio D; Ted Strub, P; James, Corinne; Fenco, Harold; Chao, Yi; Saraceno, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A high-resolution model is used to characterize the dominant patterns of sea surface salinity (SSS) variability generated by the freshwater discharges of the Rio de la Plata (RdlP) and the Patos/Mirim Lagoon in the southwestern Atlantic region. We identify three dominant modes of SSS variability. The first two, which have been discussed in previous studies, represent the seasonal and the interannual variations of the freshwater plumes over the continental shelf. The third mode of SSS variability, which has not been discussed hitherto, represents the salinity exchanges between the shelf and the deep ocean. A diagnostic study using floats and passive tracers identifies the pathways taken by the freshwater plumes. During the austral winter (JJA), the plumes leave the shelf region north of the BMC. During the austral summer (DJF), the plumes are entrained more directly into the BMC. A sensitivity study indicates that the high-frequency component of the wind stress forcing controls the vertical structure of the plumes while the low-frequency component of the wind stress forcing and the interannual variations of the RdlP discharge controls the horizontal structure of the plumes. Dynamical analysis reveals that the cross-shelf flow has a dominant barotropic structure and, therefore, the SSS anomalies detected by Aquarius represent net mass exchanges between the shelf and the deep ocean. The net cross-shelf volume flux is 1.21 Sv. This outflow is largely compensated by an inflow from the Patagonian shelf. PMID:26213673

  9. Microstrip Antenna for Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture and Sea Surface Salinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramhat-Samii, Yahya; Kona, Keerti; Manteghi, Majid; Dinardo, Steven; Hunter, Don; Njoku, Eni; Wilson, Wiliam; Yueh, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This compact, lightweight, dual-frequency antenna feed developed for future soil moisture and sea surface salinity (SSS) missions can benefit future soil and ocean studies by lowering mass, volume, and cost of the antenna system. It also allows for airborne soil moisture and salinity remote sensors operating on small aircraft. While microstrip antenna technology has been developed for radio communications, it has yet to be applied to combined radar and radiometer for Earth remote sensing. The antenna feed provides a key instrument element enabling high-resolution radiometric observations with large, deployable antennas. The design is based on the microstrip stacked-patch array (MSPA) used to feed a large, lightweight, deployable, rotating mesh antenna for spaceborne L-band (approximately equal to 1 GHz) passive and active sensing systems. The array consists of stacked patches to provide dual-frequency capability and suitable radiation patterns. The stacked-patch microstrip element was designed to cover the required L-band center frequencies at 1.26 GHz (lower patch) and 1.413 GHz (upper patch), with dual-linear polarization capabilities. The dimension of patches produces the required frequencies. To achieve excellent polarization isolation and control of antenna sidelobes for the MSPA, the orientation of each stacked-patch element within the array is optimized to reduce the cross-polarization. A specialized feed-distribution network was designed to achieve the required excitation amplitude and phase for each stacked-patch element.

  10. Fresh oxygen for the Baltic Sea — An exceptional saline inflow after a decade of stagnation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrholz, V.; Naumann, M.; Nausch, G.; Krüger, S.; Gräwe, U.

    2015-08-01

    The ecological state of the Baltic Sea depends crucially on sufficiently frequent, strong deep water renewal on the periodic deep water renewal events by inflow of oxygen rich saline water from the North Sea. Due to the strong density stratification these inflows are the only source for deep water ventilation. Since the early eighties of the last century the frequency of inflow events has dropped drastically from 5 to 7 major inflows per decade to only one inflow per decade. Wide spread anoxic conditions became the usual state in the central Baltic. The rare major Baltic inflow (MBI) events in 1993 and 2003 could interrupt the anoxic bottom conditions only temporarily. After more than 10 years without a major Baltic inflow events, in December 2014 a strong MBI brought large amounts of saline and well oxygenated water into the Baltic Sea. Based on observations and numerical modeling, the inflow was classified as one of the rare very strong events. The inflow volume and the amount of salt transported into the Baltic were estimated to be with 198 km3 and 4 Gt, respectively. The strength of the MBI exceeded considerably the previous 2003 event. In the list of the MBIs since 1880, the 2014 inflow is the third strongest event together with the MBI in 1913. This inflow event will most probably turn the entire Baltic deep water from anoxic to oxic conditions, with substantial spread consequences for marine life and biogeochemical cycles.

  11. Physical and economic potential of geological CO2 storage in saline aquifers.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Jordan K; Pratson, Lincoln; Newell, Richard G; Jackson, Robert B

    2009-03-15

    Carbon sequestration in sandstone saline reservoirs holds great potential for mitigating climate change, but its storage potential and cost per ton of avoided CO2 emissions are uncertain. We develop a general model to determine the maximum theoretical constraints on both storage potential and injection rate and use it to characterize the economic viability of geosequestration in sandstone saline aquifers. When applied to a representative set of aquifer characteristics, the model yields results that compare favorably with pilot projects currently underway. Over a range of reservoir properties, maximum effective storage peaks at an optimal depth of 1600 m, at which point 0.18-0.31 metric tons can be stored per cubic meter of bulk volume of reservoir. Maximum modeled injection rates predict minima for storage costs in a typical basin in the range of $2-7/ ton CO2 (2005 U.S.$) depending on depth and basin characteristics in our base-case scenario. Because the properties of natural reservoirs in the United States vary substantially, storage costs could in some cases be lower or higher by orders of magnitude. We conclude that available geosequestration capacity exhibits a wide range of technological and economic attractiveness. Like traditional projects in the extractive industries, geosequestration capacity should be exploited starting with the low-cost storage options first then moving gradually up the supply curve. PMID:19368199

  12. Formation of soluble microbial products (SMP) by activated sludge at various salinities.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Li, Ai-Min; Xu, Juan; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-02-01

    Soluble microbial products (SMP) present a significant component of effluent organic matter from biological wastewater treatment reactors, and can affect the membrane fouling and formation of disinfection by-products. Thus, SMP have attracted increasing concerns in wastewater treatment and reclamation. In this work, the formation of SMP by activated sludge at various NaCl concentrations is investigated by using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and fluorescence regional integration (FRI). The results show that a high level of salinity decreases substrate removal efficiency and leads to an accumulation of SMP, especially proteins. Three components of SMP, one protein-like and two humic-acid-like components, are identified by PARAFAC, which exhibit different trends with the variation of NaCl concentration. FRI analysis reveals that the majority of protein fluorescence is attributed to tryptophan and tryptophan-like proteins, rather than tyrosine and tyrosine-like proteins. With an increase in NaCl concentration, the normalized volume percentages of tyrosine and tryptophan region increase, while those of humic- and fulvic-acid-like region decrease significantly. This work demonstrates that salinity affects the formation of SMP, and that EEM with PARAFAC in combination with FRI analysis is a useful tool to get insight into the formation of SMP by activated sludge. PMID:22622691

  13. Predicting the surface tension of aqueous 1:1 electrolyte solutions at high salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Philippe; Lassin, Arnault; Azaroual, Mohamed; André, Laurent

    2010-10-01

    The surface tension of the air/water interface is a phenomenon of particular interest in the water-unsaturated zone of porous media because it influences the contact angle and consequently the capillary water volume. A mechanistic model based on the modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation and the Pitzer theory is described and used to predict, under isothermal and isobaric conditions, the surface tension of 1:1 electrolytes at high salinity. These theories enable the determination of the electrical potential at the air/water interface and the activity coefficient of the ionic species in the bulk pore water, respectively. Hydration free energies of the structure-making and structure-breaking ions that influence the surface tension at high salinity are taken into account. Structure-making ions flee the air/water surface because they can better organize the water dipoles in bulk water than at the interface. Structure-breaking ions are positively adsorbed at the air/water interface because the bulk water can better organize their hydrogen-bonding network without these ions. The resulting surface tension increases and decreases, respectively, compared to the surface tension of pure water. The predictions are in good agreement with the surface tension data of 1:1 electrolytes (NaCl, KCl, HCl, NaNO 3, KNO 3, HNO 3 aqueous solutions) and the optimized parameters depend on the effective electrostatic diameters of cations and on the hydration free energies of the ions at the interface.

  14. Evaluation of granular sludge for secondary treatment of saline municipal sewage.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Ben; Reid, Katherine; Middlemiss, Kyra; Krampe, Joerg

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the impact of chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on the stability and performance of granular sludge treating high saline municipal sewage. Under high DO concentrations of 4.0-7.0 mg/L, and COD loading rates of 0.98 and 1.55 kg/m(3)/d, rapid settling granules were established within four weeks of start-up. Under the highest COD load, a reduction in DO lead to the rapid deterioration of the sludge volume index (SVI) and washout of granules due to prolific growth of the filament Thiothrix Type 021N. Conversely, when operated under a lower COD load, a reduction in DO concentration had no adverse impact on the stability of SVI and granules. A decrease in DO also improved nitrogen removal performance, where simultaneous removal of ammonium (98%), total nitrogen (86%) and BOD5 (98%) were achieved when median DO concentrations were between 1.0 and 1.5 mg/L. Phosphate removal was lower than expected, however the level of biological phosphate removal activity observed appeared sufficient to maintain granule stability, even under low DO concentrations. Nitrous oxide emissions were also characterised, which ranged between 2.3 and 6.8% of the total nitrogen load. Our results confirmed that granular sludge is a viable option for the treatment of saline sewage. PMID:25897508

  15. Effect of the vapor phase on the salinity of halite-bearing aqueous fluid inclusions estimated from the halite dissolution temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2013-08-01

    Salinities of aqueous fluid inclusions are commonly determined by measuring the temperatures of dissolution of solid phases (daughter minerals) during heating. The vapor bubble is, in most cases, considered to have no mass and to have no effect on the bulk salinity, owing to the low density of the vapor. In the present study we test the assumption that the vapor bubble can be ignored when estimating salinity based on the halite dissolution temperature. The errors in bulk salinity that result from neglecting the vapor bubble are generally less than ˜1.5 wt.% NaCl, and errors of this magnitude occur only when there is a large difference between the halite dissolution temperature and the vapor disappearance temperature (e.g., halite dissolution at ˜450 °C and vapor bubble disappearance at 800 °C) or, stated differently, when the vapor bubble occupies a significant volume fraction of the inclusion at the temperature of halite disappearance. In most cases errors are less than 0.5 wt.% NaCl. Salinity estimated based on Tm,H can be adjusted to account for the contribution of H2O from the vapor phase, using an empirical relationship describing the proportion of liquid in the inclusion at Tm,H as a function of the difference between Th,LV and Tm,H.

  16. Assessment of salinity intrusion in the James and Chickahominy Rivers as a result of simulated sea-level rise in Chesapeake Bay, East Coast, USA.

    PubMed

    Rice, Karen C; Hong, Bo; Shen, Jian

    2012-11-30

    Global sea level is rising, and the relative rate in the Chesapeake Bay region of the East Coast of the United States is greater than the worldwide rate. Sea-level rise can cause saline water to migrate upstream in estuaries and rivers, threatening freshwater habitat and drinking-water supplies. The effects of future sea-level rise on two tributaries of Chesapeake Bay, the James and Chickahominy (CHK) Rivers, were evaluated in order to quantify the salinity change with respect to the magnitude of sea-level rise. Such changes are critical to: 1) local floral and faunal habitats that have limited tolerance ranges to salinity; and 2) a drinking-water supply for the City of Newport News, Virginia. By using the three-dimensional Hydrodynamic-Eutrophication Model (HEM-3D), sea-level rise scenarios of 30, 50, and 100 cm, based on the U.S. Climate Change Science Program for the mid-Atlantic region for the 21st century, were evaluated. The model results indicate that salinity increases in the entire river as sea level rises and that the salinity increase in a dry year is greater than that in a typical year. In the James River, the salinity increase in the middle-to-upper river (from 25 to 50 km upstream of the mouth) is larger than that in the lower and upper parts of the river. The maximum mean salinity increase would be 2 and 4 ppt for a sea-level rise of 50 and 100 cm, respectively. The upstream movement of the 10 ppt isohaline is much larger than the 5 and 20 ppt isohalines. The volume of water with salinity between 10 and 20 ppt would increase greatly if sea level rises 100 cm. In the CHK River, with a sea-level rise of 100 cm, the mean salinity at the drinking-water intake 34 km upstream of the mouth would be about 3 ppt in a typical year and greater than 5 ppt in a dry year, both far in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's secondary standard for total dissolved solids for drinking water. At the drinking-water intake, the number of days of salinity greater than 0.1 ppt increases with increasing sea-level rise; during a dry year, 0.1 ppt would be exceeded for more than 100 days with as small a rise as 30 cm. PMID:22820747

  17. Remote sensing of drought and salinity stressed turfgrass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikemura, Yoshiaki

    The ability to detect early signs of stress in turfgrass stands using a rapid, inexpensive, and nondestructive method would be a valuable management tool. Studies were conducted to determine if digital image analysis and spectroradiometric readings obtained from drought- and salinity-stressed turfgrasses accurately reflected the varying degrees of stress and correlated strongly with visual ratings, relative water content (RWC) and leaf osmolality, standard methods for measuring stress in plants. Greenhouse drought and salinity experiments were conducted on hybrid bluegrass [Poa arachnifera (Torn.) x pratensis (L.)] cv. Reveille and bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.)] cv. Princess 77. Increasing drought and salinity stress led to decreased RWC, increased leaf osmolality, and decreased visual ratings for both species. Percent green cover and hue values obtained from digital image analysis, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), calculated from spectroradiometric readings, were moderately to highly correlated with visual ratings, RWC, and leaf osmolality. Similarly, in a field validation study conducted on hybrid bluegrass, spectral reflectance ratios were moderately to highly correlated with visual ratings. In addition, percent green cover obtained from digital image analysis was strongly correlated with most of the spectral ratios, particularly the ratio of fluorescence peaks (r = -0.88 to -0.99), modified triangular vegetation index (MTVI) (r = 0.82 to 0.98), and NDVI (r = 0.84 to 0.99), suggesting that spectral reflectance and digital image analysis are equally effective at detecting changes in color brought on by stress. The two methods differed in their ability to distinguish between drought salinity stress. Hue values obtained from digital image analysis responded differently to increasing drought stress than to increasing salinity stress. Whereas the onset of drought stress was reflected by increased hue values followed by a decrease in values as drought stress increased, there was no increase in hue values at the onset of salinity stress. Thus, changes in hue could be a key to distinguish drought and salinity stress. Both digital image analysis and spectroradiometry effectively detected drought and salinity stress and may have applications in turfgrass management as rapid and quantitative methods to determine drought and salinity stress in turf.

  18. Passive Microwave Measurements of Salinity: The Gulf Stream Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Haken, M.; Howden, S.; Bingham, F.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (I psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approximately 0.2 psu) required of global maps to be scientifically viable. The development of a satellite microwave instrument to make global measurements of SSS (Sea Surface Salinity) is the focus of a joint JPL/GSFC/NASA ocean research program called Aquarius. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of airborne microwave instruments together with ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer (for surface temperature). These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Sea surface measurements consisted of thermosalinograph data provided by the R/V Cape Henlopen and the MN Oleander, and data from salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the R/V Cape Henlopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made with the airborne sensors on August 28 and 29 and on September 2 flights were made over the surface drifters to look for effects due to a change in surface roughness resulting from the passage of Hurricane Dennis. Results show a good agreement between the microwave measurements and ship measurements of salinity. The features of the brightness temperature maps correspond well with the features of the salinity field measured by the ship and drifters and a preliminary retrieval of salinity compares well with the ship data.

  19. Renal Response to Volume Expansion: Learning the Experimental Approach in the Context of Integrative Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Robert L.; Dukacz, Stephen A. W.; Stavraky, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experience for upper-level science students that provides a hands-on approach to understanding the basics of experimental physiology. Students design an experiment to determine the relative importance of dilution of plasma proteins in the overall renal excretory response following volume expansion with intravenous saline.

  20. Renal Response to Volume Expansion: Learning the Experimental Approach in the Context of Integrative Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Robert L.; Dukacz, Stephen A. W.; Stavraky, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experience for upper-level science students that provides a hands-on approach to understanding the basics of experimental physiology. Students design an experiment to determine the relative importance of dilution of plasma proteins in the overall renal excretory response following volume expansion with intravenous saline.…

  1. Genetic studies on saline and sodic tolerances in soybean.

    PubMed

    Xu, Donghe; Tuyen, Do Duc

    2012-01-01

    Salt-affected soils are generally classified into two main categories: saline and sodic (alkaline). Developing and using soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) cultivars with high salt tolerance is an effective way of maintaining sustainable production in areas where soybean growth is threatened by salt stress. Early classical genetics studies revealed that saline tolerance was conditioned by a single dominant gene. Recently, a series of studies consistently revealed a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for saline tolerance located on linkage group N (chromosome 3) around the SSR markers Satt255 and Sat_091; other minor QTLs were also reported. In the case of sodic tolerance, most studies focused on iron deficiency caused by a high soil pH, and several QTLs associated with iron deficiency were identified. A wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) accession with high sodic tolerance was recently identified, and a significant QTL for sodic tolerance was detected on linkage group D2 (chromosome 17). These studies demonstrated that saline and sodic tolerances were controlled by different genes in soybean. DNA markers closely associated with these QTLs can be used for marker-assisted selection to pyramid tolerance genes in soybean for both saline and sodic stresses. PMID:23136495

  2. A dynamical system approach to soil salinity and sodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mau, Yair; Porporato, Amilcare

    2015-09-01

    Soil salinity and sodicity impose severe constrains to agriculture, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, where good-quality water for irrigation is scarce. While detailed models have been proposed in the past to describe the dynamics of salt and sodium in the soil, they typically require cumbersome calculations and are not amenable to theoretical analysis. Here we present an analytical model for the dynamics of salinity and sodicity in the root zone. We determine the dependence of steady-state salinity and sodicity levels on irrigation water quality and derive the trajectories in the phase space. The only stationary solution the equations admit is a stable node. Through numerical integration and analysis of the eigenvalues of the derived two-dimensional system of equations, the slower time scale associated with sodification is quantified with respect to the faster time scale associated to salinization. The role of different cation exchange equations (Gapon and Vanselow conventions) are shown to be practically the same with regard to the phase-space dynamics and the time scales. The results can be applied in controlling for low levels of salinity and sodicity, and in planning remediation strategies that are timely and economical.

  3. [Soils salinity content of greenhouse in Shanghai suburb].

    PubMed

    Yao, Chun-Xia; Chen, Zhen-Lou; Xu, Shi-Yuan

    2007-06-01

    Salinity content and characteristic of farmland soil in Shanghai suburb was studied. Result indicates that soils in greenhouse in Shanghai suburb are partially salted. Soils of suburb where melons or vegetables grow in Shanghai city, 88.52% soil is non-salted while 10.37% mildly salted, 0.74% obviously salted and 0.37% badly salted. Anions component of salt salinity in soil are mainly SO4(2-), Cl-, NO3(-) and cations component are mainly Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, K+. These ions are mostly from fertilizer auxiliary component or fertilizer transformation component besides some original deposition in soil. The formation of soil secondary salted in greenhouse cultivation in suburbs of Shanghai has a close relationship with improper fertilization or employing too much fertilizer. Soil salinity is different with different cultivation mode and utilization time. From high to low, sequence of soil salinity content in 0 - 20 cm cultivation layer of different crop mode is greenhouse vegetable soil, melon soil, vegetable melon rotation soil and hypaethral vegetable soil respectively. In the same region, salinity in greenhouse soil continually increases and accumulates from underlayer to surface along with more utilization years. PMID:17674752

  4. Impacts of Salinity on Soil Hydraulic Properties and Evaporation Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierro, V.; Cristi Matte, F.; Suarez, F. I.; Munoz, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Saline soils are common in arid zones, where evaporation from shallow groundwater is generally the main component of the water balance. Thus, to correctly manage water resources in these zones, it is important to quantify the evaporation fluxes. Evaporation from saline soils is a complex process that couples the movement of salts, heat, liquid water and water vapor, and strongly depends on the soil water content. Precipitation/dissolution reactions can change the soil structure and alter flow paths, modifying evaporation fluxes. We utilized the HYDRUS-1D model to investigate the effects of salinity on soil hydraulic properties and evaporation fluxes. HYDRUS-1D simulates the transport of liquid water, water vapor, and heat, and can incorporate precipitation/dissolution reactions of the major ions. To run the model, we determined the water retention curve for a soil with different salinities; and we used meteorological forcing from an experimental site from the Atacama Desert. It was found that higher sodium adsorption ratios in the soil increase the soil water retention capacity. Also, it was found that evaporation fluxes increase salts concentration near the soil surface, changing the soil's water retention capacity in that zone. Finally, movement of salts causes differences in evaporation fluxes. It is thus necessary to incorporate salt precipitation/dissolution reactions and its effects on the water retention curve to correctly simulate evaporation in saline soils

  5. Interannual variability of the Indonesian Throughflow: The salinity effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shijian; Sprintall, Janet

    2016-04-01

    The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) region possesses strong mixing and experiences significant freshwater input, but the role of salinity variability in the Indonesian Seas remains unclear. The goal of this study is to understand how salinity variability influences the ITF transport on interannual time scales. The ITF transport is calculated using observations and assimilation data sets and verified using direct ITF transport estimates. We find that the halosteric component of the ITF transport contributes (36 ± 7)% of the total ITF variability, in contrast to (63 ± 6)% by the thermosteric component. Thus, while not dominant, this result nonetheless implies that the salinity variability in the Indonesian Seas is of remarkable importance in determining the interannual variability of ITF transport. Correlation analysis indicates that the interannual variability of the total ITF transport is mainly influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) rather than the Indian Ocean Dipole. Under the ENSO cycle, the Walker Circulation shifts longitudinally resulting in fluctuations in precipitation over the Indonesian Seas that modulates salinity and subsequently influences the interannual variability of ITF transport. This result signals the importance of precipitation and the subsequent salinity effect in determining the interannual variability of the ITF transport. The role of wind forcing and oceanic planetary waves is also revisited using this newly calculated ITF transport series. ENSO-related wind forcing is found to modulate the ITF transport via Rossby waves through the wave guide in the Indonesian Seas, which is in agreement with previous studies.

  6. Effects of saline drinking water on early gosling development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolley, D.S.; Bissonette, J.A.; Kadlec, J.A.; Coster, D.

    1999-01-01

    Relatively high levels of saline drinking water may adversely affect the growth, development, and survival of young waterfowl. Saline drinking water was suspect in the low survival rate of Canada goose (Branta canadensis) goslings at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (FSNWR) in western Utah. Hence, we investigated the effects of saline drinking water on the survival and growth of captive, wild-strain goslings from day 1-28 following hatch. We compared survival and growth (as measured by body mass, wing length, and culmen length) between a control group on tap water with a mean specific conductivity of 650 ??S/cm, and 2 saline water treatments: (1) intermediate level (12,000 ??S/cm), and (2) high level (18,000 ??S/cm). Gosling mortality occurred only in the 18,000 ??S/cm treatment group (33%; n = 9). Slopes of regressions of mean body mass, wing length, and culmen length on age were different from each other (P < 0.05), except for culmen length for the intermediate and high treatment levels. We predict that free-ranging wild goslings will experience mortality at even lower salinity levels than captive goslings because of the combined effects of depressed growth and environmental stresses, including hot desert temperatures and variable food quality over summer.

  7. Genetic studies on saline and sodic tolerances in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Donghe; Tuyen, Do Duc

    2012-01-01

    Salt-affected soils are generally classified into two main categories: saline and sodic (alkaline). Developing and using soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) cultivars with high salt tolerance is an effective way of maintaining sustainable production in areas where soybean growth is threatened by salt stress. Early classical genetics studies revealed that saline tolerance was conditioned by a single dominant gene. Recently, a series of studies consistently revealed a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for saline tolerance located on linkage group N (chromosome 3) around the SSR markers Satt255 and Sat_091; other minor QTLs were also reported. In the case of sodic tolerance, most studies focused on iron deficiency caused by a high soil pH, and several QTLs associated with iron deficiency were identified. A wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) accession with high sodic tolerance was recently identified, and a significant QTL for sodic tolerance was detected on linkage group D2 (chromosome 17). These studies demonstrated that saline and sodic tolerances were controlled by different genes in soybean. DNA markers closely associated with these QTLs can be used for marker-assisted selection to pyramid tolerance genes in soybean for both saline and sodic stresses. PMID:23136495

  8. Effect of salinity on zinc uptake by Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Novo, Luís A B; Covelo, Emma F; González, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is a major worldwide problem that affects agricultural soils and limits the reclamation of contaminated sites. Despite the large number of research papers published about salt tolerance in Brassica juncea L., there are very few accounts concerning the influence of salinity on the uptake of trace metals. In this study, B. juncea plants divided through soil sets comprising 0, 900 and 1800 mg Zn kg(-1), were treated with solutions containing 0, 60 and 120 mmol L(-1) of NaCl, with the purpose of observing the effect of salt on Zn uptake, and some physiological responses throughout the 90 days experiment. Increasing concentrations of NaCl and Zn produced a decline in the ecophysiological and biochemical properties of the plants, with observable synergistic effects on parameters like shoot dry weight, leaf area, or photochemical efficiency. Nevertheless, plants treated with 60 mmol L(-1) of NaCl accumulated striking harvestable amounts of Zn per plant that largely exceed those reported for Thlaspi caerulescens. It was concluded that salinity could play an important role on the uptake of Zn by B. juncea. The potential mechanisms behind these results are discussed, as well as the implications for phytoremediation of Zn on saline and non-saline soils. PMID:24933880

  9. Potential use of halophytes to remediate saline soils.

    PubMed

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Alam, Md Mahabub; Bhowmik, Prasanta C; Hossain, Md Amzad; Rahman, Motior M; Prasad, Majeti Narasimha Vara; Ozturk, Munir; Fujita, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the rising problems causing tremendous yield losses in many regions of the world especially in arid and semiarid regions. To maximize crop productivity, these areas should be brought under utilization where there are options for removing salinity or using the salt-tolerant crops. Use of salt-tolerant crops does not remove the salt and hence halophytes that have capacity to accumulate and exclude the salt can be an effective way. Methods for salt removal include agronomic practices or phytoremediation. The first is cost- and labor-intensive and needs some developmental strategies for implication; on the contrary, the phytoremediation by halophyte is more suitable as it can be executed very easily without those problems. Several halophyte species including grasses, shrubs, and trees can remove the salt from different kinds of salt-affected problematic soils through salt excluding, excreting, or accumulating by their morphological, anatomical, physiological adaptation in their organelle level and cellular level. Exploiting halophytes for reducing salinity can be good sources for meeting the basic needs of people in salt-affected areas as well. This review focuses on the special adaptive features of halophytic plants under saline condition and the possible ways to utilize these plants to remediate salinity. PMID:25110683

  10. Normal saline may promote formation of peritoneal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Cwalinski, Jarosław; Staniszewski, Ryszard; Baum, Ewa; Jasinski, Tomasz; Mackowiak, Beata; Bręborowicz, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Background: Normal saline is commonly used for rinsing the abdominal cavity and many surgeons claim that it is not harmful to peritoneum. We found in patients treated with laparoscopic surgery, that mean 25% of the instilled fluid is not drained and dwells in the abdominal cavity. Therefore we evaluated changes of the saline biocompatibility during its dwell in the rats abdominal cavity. Methods: In 10 anesthetized rats normal saline were instilled into the abdominal cavity and samples of the dwelling solution were collected every 30 minutes, for 4 hours. Inflammatory parameters and effect of the collected samples on in vitro cultured rats mesothelial cells were studied. Results: Low pH of the saline was normalized, but number of cells and % of macrophages and eosinophils, as well as elastase activity and MCP-1 and TGF-β concentration increased, proportionally to the dwell time. Fluid samples tested ex-vivo suppressed proliferation of the mesothelial cells and induced biphasic (stimulation/inhibition) effect on synthesis of MCP-1 in these cells. Similar pattern of release was observed for TF, whereas synthesis of t-PA in the mesothelial cells was strongly suppressed. Conclusions: Mesothelial cells exposed in vivo to normal saline dwelling in the abdominal cavity acquire properties which may accelerate formation of the peritoneal adhesions. PMID:26309535

  11. Potential Use of Halophytes to Remediate Saline Soils

    PubMed Central

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Bhowmik, Prasanta C.; Hossain, Md. Amzad; Rahman, Motior M.; Prasad, Majeti Narasimha Vara; Ozturk, Munir; Fujita, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the rising problems causing tremendous yield losses in many regions of the world especially in arid and semiarid regions. To maximize crop productivity, these areas should be brought under utilization where there are options for removing salinity or using the salt-tolerant crops. Use of salt-tolerant crops does not remove the salt and hence halophytes that have capacity to accumulate and exclude the salt can be an effective way. Methods for salt removal include agronomic practices or phytoremediation. The first is cost- and labor-intensive and needs some developmental strategies for implication; on the contrary, the phytoremediation by halophyte is more suitable as it can be executed very easily without those problems. Several halophyte species including grasses, shrubs, and trees can remove the salt from different kinds of salt-affected problematic soils through salt excluding, excreting, or accumulating by their morphological, anatomical, physiological adaptation in their organelle level and cellular level. Exploiting halophytes for reducing salinity can be good sources for meeting the basic needs of people in salt-affected areas as well. This review focuses on the special adaptive features of halophytic plants under saline condition and the possible ways to utilize these plants to remediate salinity. PMID:25110683

  12. Variable volume maser techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, V. S.

    1977-01-01

    The frequency stability of hydrogen masers in variable volume storage bulbs is discussed in terms of wall shift. Variable volume devices discussed include: Brenner flexible bulb, Debely device, and the concertina hydrogen maser. A flexible cone variable volume element outside the cavity is described.

  13. New equations for density, entropy, heat capacity, and potential temperature of a saline thermal fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongbing; Feistel, Rainer; Koch, Manfred; Markoe, Andrew

    2008-10-01

    A set of fitted polynomial equations for calculating the physical variables density, entropy, heat capacity and potential temperature of a thermal saline fluid for a temperature range of 0-374 °C, pressure range of 0.1-100 MPa and absolute salinity range of 0-40 g/kg is established. The freshwater components of the equations are extracted from the recently released tabulated data of freshwater properties of Wagner and Pruß [2002. The IAPWS formulation 1995 for the thermodynamic properties of ordinary water substance for general and scientific use. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 31, 387-535]. The salt water component of the equation is based on the near-linear relationship between density, salinity and specific heat capacity and is extracted from the data sets of Feistel [2003. A new extended Gibbs thermodynamic potential of seawater. Progress in Oceanography 58, 43-114], Bromley et al. [1970. Heat capacities and enthalpies of sea salt solutions to 200 °C. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data 15, 246-253] and Grunberg [1970. Properties of sea water concentrates. In: Third International Symposium on Fresh Water from the Sea, vol. 1, pp. 31-39] in a temperature range 0-200 °C, practical salinity range 0-40, and varying pressure and is also calibrated by the data set of Millero et al. [1981. Summary of data treatment for the international high pressure equation of state for seawater. UNESCO Technical Papers in Marine Science 38, 99-192]. The freshwater and salt water components are combined to establish a workable multi-polynomial equation, whose coefficients were computed through standard linear regression analysis. The results obtained in this way for density, entropy and potential temperature are comparable with those of existing models, except that our new equations cover a wider temperature—(0-374 °C) than the traditional (0-40 °C) temperature range. One can apply these newly established equations to the calculation of in-situ or onboard density, specific volume (therefore, the porosity), and potential temperature change that are usually measured on shipboard by the Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) and other hydrothermal-fluid studies.

  14. Impact of water quality and irrigation management on soil salinization in the Drâa valley of Morocco.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beff, L.; Descamps, C.; Dufey, J.; Bielders, C.

    2009-04-01

    Under the arid climatic conditions of the Drâa valley in southern Morocco, irrigation is essential for crop production. Two sources of water are available to farmers: (1) moderate salinity water from the Oued Drâa (classified as C3-S1 in the USDA irrigation water classification diagram) which is available only a few times per year following discrete releases from the Mansour Eddahbi dam, and (2) high salinity water from wells (C4-S2). Soil salinization is frequently observed, principally on plots irrigated with well water. As Oued water is available in insufficient amounts, strategies must be devised to use well and Oued water judiciously, without inducing severe salinization. The salinization risk under wheat production was evaluated using the HP1 program (Jacques and Šimůnek, 2005) for different combinations of the two main water sources, different irrigation frequencies and irrigation volumes. The soil was a sandy clay loam (topsoil) to sandy loam (40 cm depth). Soil hydrodynamic properties were derived from in situ measurements and lab measurements on undisturbed soil samples. The HP1 model was parameterized for wheat growth and 12 scenarios were run for 10 year periods using local climatic data. Water quality was measured or estimated on the basis of water samples in wells and various Oueds, and the soil chemical properties were determined. Depending on the scenario, soil salinity in the mean root zone increased from less than 1 meq/100g of soil to more than 5 meq/100g of soil over a ten year period. Salt accumulation was more pronounced at 45 cm soil depth, which is half of the maximum rooting depth, and when well water was preferentially used. Maximum crop yield (water transpired / potential water transpired) was achieved for five scenarios but this implied the use of well water to satisfy the crop water requirements. The usual Drâa Valley irrigation scenario, with five, 84 mm dam water applications per year, lead to a 25% yield loss. Adding the amount of well water needed to satisfy the crop water requirements as well as the leaching requirement had the lowest impact on soil salinization but resulted in a very low water use efficiency of 0.2 (water transpired / water added). This demonstrates the importance of using larger amounts of water than plant water requirements in this region in order to leach out salt of the root zone. However, in arid region, water is often limited and thus farmers can not afford to waste it. In that case, it is necessary to find a compromise between salinization, sodification and saving water. References: Jacques D., Šimůnek J. (2005). User Manual of the Multicomponent Variably-Saturated Flow and Transport Model HP1. Waste and Disposal Department, Mol, Belgium. USDA, United States Department of Agriculture (1969). Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils. United States Salinity Laboratory Staff, Agriculture Handbook No. 60, 160p.

  15. XPS analysis of 316 LVM corroded in serum and saline.

    PubMed

    Merritt, K; Wortman, R S; Millard, M; Brown, S A

    1983-01-01

    Surface chemical analysis by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was undertaken on 316 LVM stainless steel in the attempt to better understand corrosion occurring in vivo. Samples were dipped in saline or in blood serum, corroded in serum or saline by the application of a 5 volt anodic potential, or corroded by fretting. The products produced by fretting corrosion were also examined. XPS analysis revealed rapid protein coating of the stainless steel surfaces exposed to serum, changes in the oxidation state of the surfaces, and changes in the chlorine on the surface. In addition it was demonstrated that the corrosion products generated by fretting in saline had an oxidation state similar to that of chronic chloride whereas the corrosion products generated in serum had an oxidation state similar to that of potassium dichromate. These findings may have important implications since the chromium in dichromate is more biologically active than that in chronic chloride. PMID:6615991

  16. Relative contribution of temperature and salinity to ocean acoustic reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallarès, V.; Biescas, B.; Buffett, G.; Carbonell, R.; Dañobeitia, J. J.; Pelegrí, J. L.

    2009-10-01

    Marine seismic data display laterally coherent reflectivity from the water column that is attributed to fine-scale oceanic layering. The amplitude of the different reflections is the expression of acoustic impedance contrasts between neighbouring water masses, and therefore water reflectivity maps the ocean's vertical sound speed and density (i.e., temperature and salinity) variations. Here we determine the relative contribution of each parameter by computing the temperature and salinity partial derivatives of sound speed and density, and using them to estimate reflection coefficients from a real oceanographic dataset. The results show that the mean contribution of density variations is 5-10%, while 90-95% is due to sound speed variations. On average, 80% of reflectivity comes from temperature contrasts. Salinity contribution averages 20%, but it is highly variable and reaches up to 40% in regions prone to diffusive convection such as the top of the Mediterranean Undercurrent in the Gulf of Cadiz.

  17. Effects of Hypotonic Saline Loading in Hydrated Dog: Evidence for a Saline-induced Limit on Distal Tubular Sodium Transport*

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Richard M.; Abramson, Ruth G.; Kahn, Thomas; Levitt, Marvin F.

    1967-01-01

    We performed studies on dogs under hydrated conditions, utilizing the rate of free water formation (CH2O) as an index of the rate of distal tubular sodium transport. Since CH2O could be progressively increased with no evidence of a maximal rate during loading with hypotonic (2.5%) mannitol, it was concluded that there is no limit on distal tubular sodium transport during mannitol loading. In contrast, during hypotonic (0.45%) saline loading CH2O rose initially, but as urine flow (V) exceeded 25% of the filtered load CH2O attained maximal levels (up to 20% of the filtered load) and remained stable as V increased to 50% of the filtered load. It was concluded that saline loading progressively inhibits proximal sodium reabsorption. Initially, the distal tubule absorbes a large fraction of the proximal rejectate and sodium excretion rises slightly. Eventually, an alteration in distal sodium transport appears which culminates in a maximal rate or transport limit. This distal transport limit provoked by saline loading could not be characterized by a classical Tm as seen with glucose and does not seem to be consequent to high rates of flow through the distal tubule. Regardless of the precise nature of this limit, the major increment in sodium excretion develops during saline loading only after saline alters the capacity of the distal tubule to transport sodium. PMID:6027084

  18. Dose and developmental responses of Anopheles merus larvae to salinity

    PubMed Central

    White, Bradley J.; Kundert, Peter N.; Turissini, David A.; Van Ekeris, Leslie; Linser, Paul J.; Besansky, Nora J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Saltwater tolerance is a trait that carries both ecological and epidemiological significance for Anopheles mosquitoes that transmit human malaria, as it plays a key role in determining their habitat use and ecological distribution, and thus their local contribution to malaria transmission. Here, we lay the groundwork for genetic dissection of this trait by quantifying saltwater tolerance in three closely related cryptic species and malaria vectors from the Afrotropical Anopheles gambiae complex that are known to differ starkly in their tolerance to salinity: the obligate freshwater species A. gambiae and A. coluzzii, and the saltwater-tolerant species A. merus. We performed detailed comparisons of survivorship under varying salinities, using multiple strains of A. gambiae, A. coluzzii and A. merus, as well as F1 progeny from reciprocal crosses of A. merus and A. coluzzii. Additionally, using immunohistochemistry, we compared the location of three ion regulatory proteins (Na+/K+-ATPase, carbonic anhydrase and Na+/H+-antiporter) in the recta of A. coluzzii and A. merus reared in freshwater or saline water. As expected, we found that A. merus survives exposure to high salinities better than A. gambiae and A. coluzzii. Further, we found that exposure to a salinity level of 15.85 g NaCl l−1 is a discriminating dose that kills all A. gambiae, A. coluzzii and A. coluzzii–A. merus F1 larvae, but does not negatively impact the survival of A. merus. Importantly, phenotypic expression of saltwater tolerance by A. merus is highly dependent upon the developmental time of exposure, and based on immunohistochemistry, salt tolerance appears to involve a major shift in Na+/K+-ATPase localization in the rectum, as observed previously for the distantly related saline-tolerant species A. albimanus. PMID:23966587

  19. Groundwater salinity in a floodplain forest impacted by saltwater intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, David A.; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2014-11-01

    Coastal wetlands occupy a delicate position at the intersection of fresh and saline waters. Changing climate and watershed hydrology can lead to saltwater intrusion into historically freshwater systems, causing plant mortality and loss of freshwater habitat. Understanding the hydrological functioning of tidally influenced floodplain forests is essential for advancing ecosystem protection and restoration goals, however finding direct relationships between hydrological inputs and floodplain hydrology is complicated by interactions between surface water, groundwater, and atmospheric fluxes in variably saturated soils with heterogeneous vegetation and topography. Thus, an alternative method for identifying common trends and causal factors is required. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a time series dimension reduction technique, models temporal variation in observed data as linear combinations of common trends, which represent unexplained common variability, and explanatory variables. DFA was applied to model shallow groundwater salinity in the forested floodplain wetlands of the Loxahatchee River (Florida, USA), where altered watershed hydrology has led to changing hydroperiod and salinity regimes and undesired vegetative changes. Long-term, high-resolution groundwater salinity datasets revealed dynamics over seasonal and yearly time periods as well as over tidal cycles and storm events. DFA identified shared trends among salinity time series and a full dynamic factor model simulated observed series well (overall coefficient of efficiency, Ceff = 0.85; 0.52 ≤ Ceff ≤ 0.99). A reduced multilinear model based solely on explanatory variables identified in the DFA had fair to good results (Ceff = 0.58; 0.38 ≤ Ceff ≤ 0.75) and may be used to assess the effects of restoration and management scenarios on shallow groundwater salinity in the Loxahatchee River floodplain.

  20. Groundwater salinity in a floodplain forest impacted by saltwater intrusion.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, David A; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2014-11-15

    Coastal wetlands occupy a delicate position at the intersection of fresh and saline waters. Changing climate and watershed hydrology can lead to saltwater intrusion into historically freshwater systems, causing plant mortality and loss of freshwater habitat. Understanding the hydrological functioning of tidally influenced floodplain forests is essential for advancing ecosystem protection and restoration goals, however finding direct relationships between hydrological inputs and floodplain hydrology is complicated by interactions between surface water, groundwater, and atmospheric fluxes in variably saturated soils with heterogeneous vegetation and topography. Thus, an alternative method for identifying common trends and causal factors is required. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a time series dimension reduction technique, models temporal variation in observed data as linear combinations of common trends, which represent unexplained common variability, and explanatory variables. DFA was applied to model shallow groundwater salinity in the forested floodplain wetlands of the Loxahatchee River (Florida, USA), where altered watershed hydrology has led to changing hydroperiod and salinity regimes and undesired vegetative changes. Long-term, high-resolution groundwater salinity datasets revealed dynamics over seasonal and yearly time periods as well as over tidal cycles and storm events. DFA identified shared trends among salinity time series and a full dynamic factor model simulated observed series well (overall coefficient of efficiency, Ceff=0.85; 0.52≤Ceff≤0.99). A reduced multilinear model based solely on explanatory variables identified in the DFA had fair to good results (Ceff=0.58; 0.38≤Ceff≤0.75) and may be used to assess the effects of restoration and management scenarios on shallow groundwater salinity in the Loxahatchee River floodplain. PMID:24855904

  1. Interannual Caribbean salinity in satellite data and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodsky, Semyon A.; Johnson, Benjamin K.; Carton, James A.; Bryan, Frank O.

    2015-02-01

    Aquarius sea surface salinity (SSS) reveals the presence of interannual variations in the Caribbean with about 0.5 psu change between salty and fresh events, which propagate westward across that basin at an average speed of 11 cm/s and are preceded by corresponding SSS anomalies east of the Lesser Antilles. These upstream SSS anomalies are produced by interannual changes in the Amazon plume. Their presence is verified using in situ measurements from the northwest tropical Atlantic station. In contrast to SSS, which displays westward propagation, SST changes almost immediately across the Caribbean, suggesting large-scale atmospheric processes have a primary role in regulating interannual SST in contrast to SSS. A global 1/10° mesoscale ocean model is used to quantify possible origination mechanisms of the Caribbean salinity anomalies and their fate. Simulations confirm that they are produced by anomalous horizontal salt advection, which conveys these salinity anomalies from an area east of the Lesser Antilles across the Caribbean. Anomalous horizontal advection is dominated by mean currents acting on anomalous salinity. The model suggests that interannual Caribbean salinity anomalies eventually enter the Florida Current and reach the Gulf Stream 6-12 months after crossing the central Caribbean. Previous studies link the origin of salinity anomalies in the Amazon plume to variations in the annual freshwater discharge from the continent. In this model interannual discharge variations are absent while simulated SSS variability is in line with observations. This suggests that interannually forced ocean dynamics plays a key role in river plume variability and its spatial dispersion.

  2. Physiological effects of salinity on Delta Smelt, Hypomesus transpacificus.

    PubMed

    Kammerer, Brittany D; Hung, Tien-Chieh; Baxter, Randall D; Teh, Swee J

    2016-02-01

    Abiotic factors like salinity are relevant to survival of pelagic fishes of the San Francisco Bay Estuary. We tested the effects of 4 parts per thousand (ppt) salinity increases on Delta Smelt (DS) in a laboratory experiment simulating salinity increases that might occur around the low-salinity zone (LSZ) (<6 ppt). Adult DS, fed 2 % body mass per day, starting at 0.5 ppt [freshwater (FW)], were exposed to weekly step-increases of 4 ppt to a maximum of 10 ppt saltwater (SW) over 19 days, and compared to FW controls. DS (n = 12/treatment per sampling) were sampled at 24, 72, and 96 h (1, 3, and 4 days) post-salinity increase for analyses of hematocrit, plasma osmolality, muscle water content, gill chloride cell (CC) Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and apoptosis after being weighed and measured (n = 3 tanks per treatment). No apparent increase in length or weight occurred nor did a difference in survival. Following step-increases in SW, hematocrit increased over time. Other fish responses generally showed a pattern; specifically plasma osmolality became elevated at 1 day and diminished over 4 days in SW. Percent muscle water content (%) did not show significant changes. CCs showed increased NKA, cell size and apoptosis over time in SW, indicating that CCs turnover in DS. The cell renewal process takes days, at least over 19 days. In summary, DS are affected by salinities of the LSZ and ≤10 ppt, though they employ physiological strategies to acclimate. PMID:26407957

  3. Effects of low-flow diversions from the South Wichita River on downstream salinity of the South Wichita River, Lake Kemp, and the Wichita River, North Texas, October 1982-September 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley; Bush, Peter W.; Kidwell, Charles C.

    1996-01-01

    In parts of the upper reaches of the Red River Basin in Texas, streamflow is characterized by levels of salinity that limit its usefulness for most purposes. Large dissolved solids and dissolved chloride concentrations are caused primarily by flow from natural salt springs in tributaries to the Red River. To reduce downstream salinity in the Wichita River, a dam in the South Wichita River downstream of an area of salt springs (designated salinity source area VIII) diverts low flows (which are the most saline) to a manmade brine lake for evaporation. Statistical tests on salinity data for the South Wichita River, Lake Kemp, and the Wichita River for the period October 1982-September 1992 were done to determine the effects on downstream salinity of low-flow diversions from the South Wichita River that began in May 1987. Salinity in the South Wichita River downstream of the low-flow diversion structure was (statistically) significantly less during the 65-month period of record after diversion than during the 55-month period of record before diversion. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests yielded strong evidence that discharge-weighted dissolved solids and discharge-weighted dissolved chloride concentrations, as well as discharge-weighted specific conductance, were significantly less after diversion. Whether salinity in Lake Kemp had a significant downward trend during the period of record August 1989--August 1992 could not be determined conclusively from observed salinity data. Mann-Kendall trend tests yielded weak evidence that volume-weighted dissolved solids and dissolved chloride concentrations in Lake Kemp tended to decrease with time. However, serial correlation in the time series of salinity data could have adversely affected the test results. The significant effects of low-flow diversions on salinity in the South Wichita River are not discernible in the Wichita River downstream from Lake Kemp. Although salinity was significantly less downstream from Lake Kemp after diversion, the decrease probably is mostly a result of dilution of Lake Kemp by large inflows of (assumed) low-salinity water that occurred in the spring of 1989 rather than an effect of diversion.

  4. Effective permittivity of saline ice under thermal variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.; Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T.; Gow, A. J.; Arcone, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    A model for calculating the effective permittivity of saline ice under thermal variation is presented. The model includes multiphase inhomogeneities with multiple species characterized by orientation, size and shape distributions. The model is used to derive the effective permittivity as a function of temperature under the strong fluctuation theory which is extended to account for the complexity. The results calculated from the model are compared with experimental data at 4.8 GHz for saline ice grown at the US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL). The comparison between measured and calculated complex permittivities is good for the imaginary part, and the difference is within 10 percent for the real part.

  5. Passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in coastal zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Calvin T.; Blume, Hans-Juergen C.; Kendall, Bruce M.

    1987-01-01

    The theory of measuring coastal-zone salinity from airborne microwave radiometers is developed. The theory, as presented, shows that precision measurements of salinity favor the lower microwave frequencies. To this end, L- and S-Band systems were built, and the flight results have shown that accuracies of at least one part per thousand were achieved.The aircraft results focus on flights conducted over the Chesapeake Bay and the mouth of the Savanna River off the Georgia Coast. This paper presents no new work, but rather summarizes the capabilities of the remote sensing technique.

  6. Barbados Corals as Recorders of Amazon River Salinity Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, L.; Telfeyan, K.; Arienzo, M. M.; Rosenberg, A. D.; Waite, A. J.; Swart, P. K.

    2010-12-01

    Low salinity plumes of Amazon and Orinoco sourced water have previously been detected around the island of Barbados. Barbados corals may therefore have the potential to record salinity anomalies governed by natural, climate-related, and anthropogenic changes in the Amazon and Orinoco Basin watersheds beyond the recent historic record. In order to determine whether Barbados corals record salinity variations associated with local or Amazon/Orinoco sourced signals, multiple specimens of Montastraea sp. and Siderastrea sp. coral skeletons were analyzed for stable C and O isotope and Sr/Ca variations. Corals were collected from the northwest, central-west, and southwest regions of the island to determine degree of salinity signal heterogeneity over a 5-6 year period at approximately monthly resolution. Four separate published paleotemperature equations were used to assess the importance of temperature on stable oxygen isotope composition. In situ temperature measurements obtained from NOAA show an annual sea surface temperature (SST) cycle of approximately 4 degrees Celsius off Barbados. If governed solely by SST, stable isotope data from all 8 corals in this study indicate a significantly greater annual temperature range of approximately 6 degrees Celsius. This suggests that salinity related fluctuations in oxygen isotopic composition of water are an important influence on the geochemistry of Barbados corals. Some regional differences in geochemical composition of corals were apparent. Corals from the southwest of Barbados showed the clearest sub-annual isotope signal, better correlations with mean annual SST measurements, and lowest mean salinity of the regions. Corals from the central-west and northwest showed distinctly higher mean, but more variable, salinity than corals from the south. Stable carbon isotope data from southwest corals also best potentially reflect the Suess Effect. Montastraea sp. corals generally show a higher paleotemperature offset from in situ values, suggesting that the ability to extract salinity data from Barbados corals may be species-specific. These results may have implications for understanding local eddy patterns as Amazon-sourced water encounters Barbados. It is possible that the central and northern lee coasts may be less impacted by Amazon water and more subject to local restriction from open marine conditions and/or increased evaporative effects.

  7. Colon Necrosis Due to Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate with and without Sorbitol: An Experimental Study in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Isabelle; Oh, Man S.; Gupta, Raavi; McFarlane, Michael; Babinska, Anna; Salifu, Moro O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Based on a single rat study by Lillemoe et al, the consensus has been formed to implicate sorbitol rather than sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) as the culprit for colon necrosis in humans treated with SPS and sorbitol. We tested the hypothesis that colon necrosis by sorbitol in the experiment was due to the high osmolality and volume of sorbitol rather than its chemical nature. Methods 26 rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy. They were divided into 6 groups and given enema solutions under anesthesia (normal saline, 33% sorbitol, 33% mannitol, SPS in 33% sorbitol, SPS in normal saline, and SPS in distilled water). They were sacrificed after 48 hours of enema administration or earlier if they were very sick. The gross appearance of the colon was visually inspected, and then sliced colon tissues were examined under light microscopy. Results 1 rat from the sorbitol and 1 from the mannitol group had foci of ischemic colonic changes. The rats receiving SPS enema, in sorbitol, normal saline, distilled water, had crystal deposition with colonic necrosis and mucosal erosion. All the rats not given SPS survived until sacrificed at 48 h whereas 11 of 13 rats that received SPS in sorbitol, normal saline or distilled water died or were clearly dying and sacrificed sooner. There was no difference between sorbitol and mannitol when given without SPS. Conclusions In a surgical uremic rat model, SPS enema given alone or with sorbitol or mannitol seemed to cause colon necrosis and high mortality rate, whereas 33% sorbitol without SPS did not. PMID:26413782

  8. Effect of salinity induced pH/alkalinity changes on benthic foraminifera: A laboratory culture experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswat, Rajeev; Kouthanker, Mamata; Kurtarkar, Sujata R.; Nigam, Rajiv; Naqvi, S. W. A.; Linshy, V. N.

    2015-02-01

    The salinity of coastal waters in the vicinity of seasonally fresh water fed estuaries changes tremendously and reportedly affects the living calcite secreting organisms like foraminifera, as well as their dead remains. The precise mechanism of adverse effect of such seasonal salinity changes on calcite secreting organisms is, however not clear. The seasonal fresh water influx from the estuaries also affects the pH and alkalinity of the coastal seawater. Therefore, to understand the effect of salinity induced pH/alkalinity variations on benthic foraminifera, living specimens of Rosalina globularis were subjected to different salinity. Additionally, water samples were collected from an estuary during both monsoon and post monsoon season to understand the relationship between salinity, pH and total alkalinity (TA). The pH decreased with decreasing salinity during both the seasons. A similar decrease in TA with decreasing salinity was also observed but only till 20 psu salinity, below which the TA increased with decreasing salinity. Even though the maximum growth was reported in specimens kept at 35 psu salinity, growth of specimens maintained at >25 psu salinity, was same. Specimens kept at 10 psu and 15 psu salinity, however were much smaller and turned opaque within two days of lowering the salinity and later on their tests dissolved within 24 and 43 days, respectively. No specimen reproduced at 10 psu and 15 psu salinity, while only a few specimens (3%) reproduced at 20 psu salinity. As compared to 10-20 psu salinity, ∼60% reproduction was observed in specimens subjected to 25-40 salinity. The specimens maintained at 20 psu salinity took twice the time to reach maturity than those subjected to 25-40 psu salinity. Since a big drop in pH was observed at 10-15 psu salinity (pH 7.2 and 7.5, respectively), while the alkalinity was still higher, we suggest that fresh water influx induced drop in pH adversely affects calcification and reproduction in benthic foraminifera. The response is, however not linear as beyond a certain limit, a further increase in pH does not affect benthic foraminifera; rather they respond to salinity as per their salinity tolerance range. It is further inferred that the time required to reach reproductive maturity increases at the extreme salinity tolerance limits. Dissolution of calcareous foraminifera below 20 psu salinity, suggests that salinity induced changes control the carbonate inventory in the coastal regions subjected to seasonal fresh water influx.

  9. Salinized rivers: degraded systems or new habitats for salt-tolerant faunas?

    PubMed

    Kefford, Ben J; Buchwalter, David; Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Davis, Jenny; Duncan, Richard P; Hoffmann, Ary; Thompson, Ross

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic salinization of rivers is an emerging issue of global concern, with significant adverse effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Impacts of freshwater salinization on biota are strongly mediated by evolutionary history, as this is a major factor determining species physiological salinity tolerance. Freshwater insects dominate most flowing waters, and the common lotic insect orders Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies) and Trichoptera (caddisflies) are particularly salt-sensitive. Tolerances of existing taxa, rapid adaption, colonization by novel taxa (from naturally saline environments) and interactions between species will be key drivers of assemblages in saline lotic systems. Here we outline a conceptual framework predicting how communities may change in salinizing rivers. We envision that a relatively small number of taxa will be saline-tolerant and able to colonize salinized rivers (e.g. most naturally saline habitats are lentic; thus potential colonizers would need to adapt to lotic environments), leading to depauperate communities in these environments. PMID:26932680

  10. CO2 storage potential of deep saline aquifers: the case of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donda, Federica; Volpi, Valentina; Persoglia, Sergio; Vellico, Michela; Parushev, Dobromir; Civile, Dario

    2010-05-01

    Together with the improvement of energy efficiency and a wider use of renewable sources, the CO2 Capture and Storage techniques (CCS) represent a key instrument for the reduction of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere. Deep saline aquifers offer the largest storage potential of all the geological CO2 storage options and are widely distributed throughout the Earth. In order to verify the location of geological formations having the characteristics suitable for CCS in the Italian subsurface, a comprehensive analysis of about 55000 km of 2-D multichannel seismic profiles and about 1650 well data has been performed. This dataset has been acquired since 1957 by several oil companies for hydrocarbon exploration and has been made available by the Ministry of the Economic Development in the framework of the project "Visibility of Petroleum Exploration Data in Italy (VI.D.E.P.I.; www.videpi.com)". Most of the selected sites lie in the major Italian sedimentary basins, i.e the Apennine foredeep and the Adriatic foreland, characterized by thick accumulations of sediments. The potential reservoirs are mostly represented by permeable, terrigenous deep saline formations, whose capacity ranges from 30 to more than 1300 Mt. In the evaluation of the CO2 storage potential in the Italian deep saline aquifers, we have adopted the method used in the EU GeoCapacity project (Vangkilde et al., 2008). The same procedure has been also utilized for estimating the CO2 storage potential of saline formations in the United States and Canada (U.S. Department of Energy, 2008). This method provides a regional estimate based on bulk volume of the aquifers referred to as the "effective storage capacity" (i.e. the reservoir capacity evaluated considering technical cutoff limits and technically viable estimate) (Bachu et al., 2007). CO2 emissions from the major stationary point sources (i.e. power plants) amount to about 220 Mt, placing Italy in the fifth position among the major emitting European countries (www.geocapacity.eu). The 14 saline reservoirs we have identified could potentially store Italy's annual CO2 emissions for the next 50 years. This value represents a very conservative estimate of the Italian potential for the CO2 geological storage in deep saline aquifers because other potential promising reservoirs could lie in areas where data are not available at present. Moreover, carbonate formations have not been included in the overall estimate. In our capacity estimation some uncertainties arise from the unavailability of specific data, such as the occurrence of local heterogeneities, that can affect CO2 distribution and migration within the reservoir, although, at this stage, no evidence of relevant leakage features are detected. However, additional, site-specific investigations accompanied by further data are needed to a more detailed evaluation of the potential CO2 storage sites. Despite these uncertainties, this study highlights that CO2 geological storage is a viable option in Italy and provides the first systematic evaluation of the storage capacity of the potential reservoirs identified in the country. Acknowledgments This work has been funded by the EU GeoCapacity project within FP6 - the 6th Framework Programme of the European Community for Research, Technological Development.

  11. Proteomic analysis on the alteration of protein expression in gills of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) associated with salinity change.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin J; Chen, Jiong; Huang, Zuo A; Shi, Yu H; Wang, Fang

    2010-09-01

    Gill is the primary osmoregulatory organ for euryhaline fish to acclimate salinity change. The effect of salinity on gill proteome in ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis, was investigated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS/MS). Eight of eighteen altered proteins were successfully identified. They are involved in osmoregulation, cytoskeleton, energy metabolism, and stress response. Our results showed that vinculin, echinoderm microtubule-associated protein like protein 1, pyruvate kinase, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), transaldolase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) were down-regulated, whereas cofilin was up-regulated when ayu transferred from fresh water (FW) to brackish water (BW). Partial cDNA sequences of BHMT, HSP70, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (NKA) alpha-subunit and 18S rRNA genes were subsequently determined and used for 2-DE data verification by real-time PCR. Gill BHMT and HSP70 mRNAs decreased significantly in BW-transferred ayu, while NKA alpha-subunit mRNA had no significant change. It was suggested that cell volume-regulatory response, especially the protection by the BHMT/betaine system might play an important role in ayu acclimation to salinity change. PMID:20471925

  12. Salinity- and population-dependent genome regulatory response during osmotic acclimation in the killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) gill.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Andrew; Roach, Jennifer L; Zhang, Shujun; Galvez, Fernando

    2012-04-15

    The killifish Fundulus heteroclitus is abundant in osmotically dynamic estuaries and it can quickly adjust to extremes in environmental salinity. We performed a comparative osmotic challenge experiment to track the transcriptomic and physiological responses to two salinities throughout a time course of acclimation, and to explore the genome regulatory mechanisms that enable extreme osmotic acclimation. One southern and one northern coastal population, known to differ in their tolerance to hypo-osmotic exposure, were used as our comparative model. Both populations could maintain osmotic homeostasis when transferred from 32 to 0.4 p.p.t., but diverged in their compensatory abilities when challenged down to 0.1 p.p.t., in parallel with divergent transformation of gill morphology. Genes involved in cell volume regulation, nucleosome maintenance, ion transport, energetics, mitochondrion function, transcriptional regulation and apoptosis showed population- and salinity-dependent patterns of expression during acclimation. Network analysis confirmed the role of cytokine and kinase signaling pathways in coordinating the genome regulatory response to osmotic challenge, and also posited the importance of signaling coordinated through the transcription factor HNF-4α. These genome responses support hypotheses of which regulatory mechanisms are particularly relevant for enabling extreme physiological flexibility. PMID:22442367

  13. Field and Laboratory Investigations on Seismic Properties of Unconsolidated Saline Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Shan

    Saline permafrost is mechanically weak and very sensitive to temperature disturbances, which makes its degradation particularly worrisome in a warming climate. For the purposes of hazard mitigation and prevention, it is crucial to gain knowledge about the properties and distributions of saline permafrost. However, one major challenge is that saline permafrost is hard to access, as it often is covered with a surficial layer of non-saline permafrost. Seismic methods are cost-effective methods for detecting and delineating saline permafrost, but research on seismic properties of unconsolidated saline permafrost is lacking. The body of work comprising this dissertation is the first systematic study to investigate seismic properties of unconsolidated saline permafrost. Encompassing field and laboratory components, the study reveals pervasive presence of saline permafrost across the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO) in Alaska, and illustrates saline permafrost's striking vulnerability to temperature disturbances. Besides these findings regarding the distributions and properties of saline permafrost, other key deliverables of this dissertation include 1) rich seismic datasets for field and laboratory investigations of unconsolidated saline permafrost, 2) full-wavefield-based workflow for delineating irregularly dispersive media, and 3) improved microstructural realization regarding pore-scale distributions of ice in saturated frozen sediments. Through this work we hope to call attention to the possibly ubiquitous presence of saline permafrost along the polar coasts. Considering the potentially large impact of saline permafrost degradation in a warming climate, we advocate future research needs in regional-scale mapping of saline permafrost and assessing its influences in climate modeling.

  14. Fluid volumes changes induced by spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P C

    1979-10-01

    The blood volume (BV), plasma volume (PV), and extracellular fluid volume changes produced in crewmembers during spaceflights of 11-84 days were compared to changes after 14 or 28 days of bedrest. Spaceflight and bedrest produce approximately equal BV changes but the recorded PV change after spaceflight was less. However, the diurnal change in PV may explain the smaller decreases recorded after spaceflight. The cardiovascular deconditioning caused by spaceflight and bedrest was compared using the mean heart rate response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) testing at -50 mmHg pressure. These tests show approximately equal LBNP produced heart rate changes after bedrest and spaceflight. A countermeasure which includes 4 hr of LBNP treatment at -30 mmHg and the ingestion of one l. of saline was studied and found capable of returning the heart rate response and the PV of bedrested subjects to control (prebedrest) levels suggesting that it would be useful to the crewmembers after a spaceflight. PMID:11902176

  15. Global monitoring of Sea Surface Salinity with Aquarius

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagerloef, G. S. E.; LeVine, D. M.; Chao, Yi; Colomb, R.; Nollmann, I.

    2005-01-01

    Aquarius is a microwave remote sensing system designed to obtain global maps of the surface salinity field of the oceans from space. It will be flown on the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA (NASA) and Argentina (CONAE) with launch scheduled for late in 2008. The objective of Aquarius is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This will provide data to address scientific questions associated with ocean circulation and its impact on climate. For example, salinity is needed to understand the large scale thermohaline circulation, driven by buoyancy, which moves large masses of water and heat around the globe. Of the two variables that determine buoyancy (salinity and temperature), temperature is already being monitored. Salinity is the missing variable needed to understand this circulation. Salinity also has an important role in energy exchange between the ocean and atmosphere, for example in the development of fresh water lenses (buoyant water that forms stable layers and insulates water below from the atmosphere) which alter the air-sea coupling. Aquarius is a combination radiometer and scatterometer (radar) operating at L-band (1.413 GHz for the radiometer and 1.26 GHz for the scatterometer). The primary instrument,for measuring salinity is the radiometer which is able to detect salinity because of the modulation salinity produces on the thermal emission from sea water. This change is detectable at the long wavelength end of the microwave spectrum. The scatterometer will provide a correction for surface roughness (waves) which is one of the greatest unknowns in the retrieval. The sensor will be in a sun-synchronous orbit at about 650 km with equatorial crossings of 6am/6pm. The antenna for these two instruments is a 3 meter offset fed reflector with three feeds arranged in pushbroom fashion looking away from the sun toward the shadow side of the orbit to minimize sunglint. The mission goal is to produce maps of the salinity field globally once each month with an accuracy of 0.2 psu and a spatial resolution of 100 km. This will be adequate to address l&ge scale features of the salinity field of the open ocean. The temporal resolution is sufficient to address seasonal changes and a three year mission is planned to-collect sufficient data to look for interannual variation. Aquarius is being developed by NASA as part of the Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. The SAC-D mission is being developed by CONAE and will include the space craft and several additional instruments, including visible and infrared cameras and a microwave radiometer to monitor rain and wind velocity over the oceans, and sea ice.

  16. Differential induction of branchial carbonic anhydrase and NA(+)/K(+) ATPase activity in the euryhaline crab, Carcinus maenas, in response to low salinity exposure.

    PubMed

    Henry, Raymond P; Garrelts, Elizabeth E; McCarty, Melissa M; Towle, David W

    2002-06-01

    The time course of induction of activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA) and Na/K ATPase, two enzymes that are central to osmotic and ionic regulation in the eyryhaline green crab, Carcinus maenas, was measured in response to a transfer from 32 to 10 ppt salinity. CA activity was low in all gills in crabs acclimated to high salinity. Activity was induced in the posterior three gills (G6-G9) starting at 96 hr following transfer to low salinity, with activity peaking at seven post-transfer. Na/K ATPase activity in posterior gills was already high in crabs acclimated to 32 ppt salinity, and it did not increase as a result of transfer to 10 ppt. Acclimation of crabs to hypersaline (40 ppt) conditions resulted in uniformly low levels of Na/K ATPase activity, and transfer from 40 ppt to 10 ppt stimulated a four-fold induction of activity in the posterior gills that was evident by seven days of low salinity exposure. Low salinity stimulates the activity of both enzymes, but a different degree of salinity change appears to be necessary to cause the induction of each enzyme. The Na/K ATPase activity is already high at a salinity (32 ppt) at which the crab is still an osmotic and ionic conformer. CA activity, however, even when expressed in low levels, is still present in excess of what is needed to supply counterions at a rate adequate to match the rate of active ion transport. It is possible that two strategies exist for the regulation of these two enzymes that coincide with the crab's intertidal and estuarine lifestyle: short-term modulation of activity of highly expressed enzyme (Na/K ATPase) and long-term modulation of enzyme concentration by changes in gene expression (CA). For all ranges of low salinity exposure, crabs undergo hemodilution, cell swelling, and subsequent cell volume readjustment as evidenced by the increase in concentration of TNPS in the hemolymph. This response takes place before the induction of enzyme activity, and it could serve as the initial signal in the induction pathway. PMID:12115925

  17. Hypertonic saline/dextran treatment for severe pressure-driven hemorrhage in dehydrated conscious swine.

    PubMed

    Alemayehu, A; McKirnan, M D; Mozingo, R D; Gray, C G

    1996-10-01

    Although dehydration impairs the response to a fixed volume hemorrhage, both 7.5% hypertonic saline/6% dextran 70 (HSD: 4 mL/kg) and standard Ringer's lactate (33 mL/kg) are effective resuscitation fluids. However, the efficacy of resuscitation during continuing hemorrhage remains in question. Using a conscious swine model of continuous pressure-driven hemorrhage, we evaluated the effects of dehydration and HSD resuscitation on survival time, hemorrhage volume, regional blood flows, and central hemodynamics. Three groups of pigs were compared: euhydrated control (EC), dehydrated control (48 h water deprived) (DC); and dehydrated and resuscitated with HSD (D + HSD). All pigs were subjected to an initial 37% blood volume hemorrhage for 60 min followed by a continuous hemorrhage proportional to the instantaneous mean arterial pressure. The D + HSD pigs were resuscitated at the end of the 37% blood volume hemorrhage. Dehydration reduced body weight (-6.5 +/- .3%) and increased hematocrit (8.9 +/- 1.8%), serum osmolality (11.6 +/- .9%), serum sodium (11.9 +/- .9%), and serum total protein (9.4 +/- 1.8%). Compared with the EC group, DC had a greater increase in heart rate and arterial base deficit in response to the pressure-driven hemorrhage and a reduced pH and survival time (159 vs. 107 min). In contrast to the DC group, D + HSD had increased mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, oxygen delivery, and regional blood flows to the gut (superior mesenteric artery), kidneys, liver (hepatic artery), and adrenals at 5 min after HSD resuscitation. The HSD did not increase blood loss but tended to prolong survival (+26 min; p = .1079). thus, dehydration compromises survival time (-33%) and the hemodynamic and metabolic responses to pressure-driven hemorrhage, while treatment with HSD improves the hemodynamic responses. PMID:8902949

  18. Industry use of saline water not expected in tar sand triangle

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    An environmental assessment of the Dirty Devil River Salinity Control Unit resulted in a finding of no significant impact. The purpose of the unit is to reduce salinity in the Colorado River by collecting flows below two saline springs and disposing of them by deep-well injection into the Coconino Sandstone. During formulation of the salinity control plan, the potential use of saline water in the development of tar sand resources was considered, but it was concluded that saline water would not be needed for this purpose in the foreseeable future, because of the currently depressed world oil market and the development status of tar sand extraction technologies.

  19. Volume quantification by contrast-enhanced ultrasound: an in-vitro comparison with true volumes and thermodilution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has recently been proposed as a minimally- invasive, alternative method for blood volume measurement. This study aims at comparing the accuracy of CEUS and the classical thermodilution techniques for volume assessment in an in-vitro set-up. Methods The in-vitro set-up consisted of a variable network between an inflow and outflow tube and a roller pump. The inflow and outflow tubes were insonified with an ultrasound array transducer and a thermistor was placed in each tube. Indicator dilution curves were made by injecting indicator which consisted of an ultrasound-contrast-agent diluted in ice-cold saline. Both acoustic intensity- and thermo-dilution curves were used to calculate the indicator mean transit time between the inflow and outflow tube. The volumes were derived by multiplying the estimated mean transit time by the flow rate. We compared the volumes measured by CEUS with the true volumes of the variable network and those measured by thermodilution by Bland-Altman and intraclass-correlation analysis. Results The measurements by CEUS and thermodilution showed a very strong correlation (rs = 0.94) with a modest volume underestimation by CEUS of −40 ± 28 mL and an overestimation of 84 ± 62 mL by thermodilution compared with the true volumes. Both CEUS and thermodilution showed a high statistically significant correlation with the true volume (rs = 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95 - 0.98; P<0.0001) and rs = 0.96 (95% CI, 0.94 - 0.98; P<0.0001, respectively). Conclusions CEUS volume estimation provides a strong correlation with both the true volumes in-vitro and volume estimation by thermodilution. It may therefore represent an interesting alternative to the standard, invasive thermodilution technique. PMID:24134671

  20. Regime changes in global sea surface salinity trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretxabaleta, A. L.; Smith, K. W.; Ballabrera-Poy, J.

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies have shown significant sea surface salinity (SSS) changes at scales ranging from regional to global. In this study, we estimate global salinity means and trends using historical (1950-2014) SSS data from the UK Met. Office Hadley Centre objectively analyzed monthly fields and recent data from the SMOS satellite (2010-2014). We separate the different components (regimes) of the global surface salinity by fitting a Gaussian Mixture Model to the data and using Expectation-Maximization to distinguish the means and trends of the data. The procedure uses a non-subjective method (Bayesian Information Criterion) to extract the optimal number of means and trends. The results show the presence of three separate regimes: Regime A (1950-1990) is characterized by small trend magnitudes; Regime B (1990-2009) exhibited enhanced trends; and Regime C (2009-2014) with significantly larger trend magnitudes. The salinity differences between regime means were around 0.01. The trend acceleration could be related to an enhanced global hydrological cycle or to a change in the sampling methodology.

  1. Laser measure of sea salinity, temperature and turbidity in depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschberg, J. G.; Wouters, A. W.; Byrne, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A method is described in which a pulsed laser is used to probe the sea. Backscattered light is analyzed in time, intensity and wavelength. Tyndall, Raman and Brillouin scattering are used to obtain the backscatter turbidity, sound velocity, salinity, and the temperature as a function of depth.

  2. ACID AND ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF SALINE BIOMASS FOR SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass can be a good renewable source for sugar production. Saline crops, including two woods, Athel tree (Tamarix aphylla L) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), and two grasses, Jose Tall Wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum) (JTW) and Creeping Wild Rye (Leymus triticoides) (CWR), were produced...

  3. Accumulation of oxytetracycline and norfloxacin from saline soil by soybeans.

    PubMed

    Boonsaner, M; Hawker, D W

    2010-03-01

    Soil of former shrimp aquaculture facilities in Thailand may be contaminated by antibiotics (e.g. oxytetracycline and norfloxacin) and have elevated salinity. Therefore, reuse of this land can be problematic. The utility of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) for phytoremediation was investigated. The rate of germination and seedling emergence in prepared contaminated soil (conductivity 17.7 dS m(-1) from adding 70 mg sodium chloride g(-1) dry weight, 105 mg kg(-1) dry weight oxytetracycline and 55 mg kg(-1) dry weight norfloxacin) in sunlight was approximately 80% that of uncontaminated soil. This reduction was largely due to the high salinity. The antibiotics of interest degraded relatively rapidly in soil (half-life <10h for both) but loss was slower in deionised water. Accumulation of the antibiotics from deionised water by soybean resulted in little effect on growth rate and maximum levels in plants were observed after two days exposure, followed by declining concentrations. For soybean plants grown in saline soil, 90% removal of NaCl from soil adjacent to plant roots was observed, most within two days. Wilting and defoliation occurred, but plants recovered after 10 days and maximum salt levels in plants exceeded 20,000 mg g(-1) dry weight with translocation from root to shoot tissue noted. Soybean plants also accumulated the antibiotics from prepared contaminated saline soil, but translocation from the roots was not observed. The results showed that soybean can be valuable for phytoremediation in these situations. PMID:20061003

  4. Managing cytotoxic chemotherapy extravasation: use of saline washout.

    PubMed

    Harrold, Karen

    Florence Nightingale Foundation scholar Karen Harrold received funding to support her PhD exploring the patient experience of saline washout as a management strategy for chemotherapy extravasation. She discusses the focus of her thesis, the completion of phase one and looks ahead to phase two. PMID:25904536

  5. Survival of Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio salmonicida at different salinities.

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, K A

    1989-01-01

    The fish pathogenic bacteria Vibrio anguillarum and V. salmonicida showed the capacity to survive for more than 50 and 14 months, respectively, in seawater microcosms. A salinity of 5% proved lethal to V. anguillarum harvested in the late-exponential growth phase, whereas a salinity of 9% was lethal to the bacterium after it had been starved at a salinity of 30% for 67 days. The lethal salinity for V. salmonicida harvested in the late-exponential growth phase was probably in the vicinity of 10%. V. anguillarum and V. salmonicida were very sensitive to nalidixic acid. Direct determination of viable cells after incubation with nalidixic acid was not possible, since the cells did not elongate. Samples of V. salmonicida were double stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled antibodies and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. After 3 or 4 days of starvation, there was a discrepancy between the total numbers of cells as determined by immunofluorescence versus by staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. The immunofluorescence counts remained high, which indicated the presence of intact cell envelopes but leakage of DNA and other cytoplasm components. After 2 weeks of starvation, for some of the cells, the region stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (i.e., DNA) was markedly smaller than the cell envelope. I attributed this to a shrinkage of the cytoplasm or a confined nucleoid or both. V. anguillarum lost its exoproteolytic activity before 11 days of starvation. PMID:2475069

  6. Keeping the lights on for global ocean salinity observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durack, Paul J.; Lee, Tong; Vinogradova, Nadya T.; Stammer, Detlef

    2016-03-01

    Insights about climate are being uncovered thanks to improved capacities to observe ocean salinity, an essential climate variable. However, cracks are beginning to appear in the ocean observing system that require prompt attention if we are to maintain the existing, hard-won capacity into the near future.

  7. Food Production in Arid Regions as Related to Salinity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arid and semi arid regions of the world are generally associated with high population density and lower than average per capita incomes and living standards. These regions are vulnerable to food shortages due to current, unsustainable use of fresh water for irrigation and soil salinization. This pa...

  8. Home Brew Salinity Measuring Devices: Their Construction and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper discusses several inexpensive methods of evaluating the salinity of seawater. One method is presented in some detail. This method has several attractive features. First, it can be used to provide instruction, not only in marine chemistry, but also in studying the mathematics of the point slope formula, and as an aid in teaching students…

  9. Desiccation-crack-induced salinization in deep clay sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baram, S.; Ronen, Z.; Kurtzman, D.; Küells, C.; Dahan, O.

    2012-11-01

    A study on water infiltration and solute transport in a clayey vadose zone underlying a dairy farm waste source was conducted to assess the impact of desiccation cracks on subsurface evaporation and salinization. The study is based on five years of continuous measurements of the temporal variation in the vadose zone water-content and on the chemical and isotopic composition of the sediment and pore-water in it. The isotopic composition of water stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H) in water and sediment samples, from the area where desiccation crack networks prevail, indicated subsurface evaporation down to ∼3.5 m below land surface, and vertical and lateral preferential transport of water, following erratic preferential infiltration events. Chloride (Cl-) concentrations in the vadose zone pore water substantially increased with depth, evidence of deep subsurface evaporation and down flushing of concentrated solutions from the evaporation zones during preferential infiltration events. These observations led to development of a Desiccation-Crack-Induced Salinization (DCIS) conceptual model. DCIS suggests that thermally driven convective air flow in the desiccation cracks induces evaporation and salinization in relatively deep sections of the subsurface. This conceptual model supports previous conceptual models on vadose zone and groundwater salinization in fractured rock in arid environments and extends its validity to clayey soils in semi-arid environments.

  10. Desiccation-crack-induced salinization in deep clay sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baram, S.; Ronen, Z.; Kurtzman, D.; Külls, C.; Dahan, O.

    2013-04-01

    A study on water infiltration and solute transport in a clayey vadose zone underlying a dairy farm waste source was conducted to assess the impact of desiccation cracks on subsurface evaporation and salinization. The study is based on five years of continuous measurements of the temporal variation in the vadose zone water content and on the chemical and isotopic composition of the sediment and pore water in it. The isotopic composition of water stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H) in water and sediment samples, from the area where desiccation crack networks prevail, indicated subsurface evaporation down to ~ 3.5 m below land surface, and vertical and lateral preferential transport of water, following erratic preferential infiltration events. Chloride (Cl-) concentrations in the vadose zone pore water substantially increased with depth, evidence of deep subsurface evaporation and down flushing of concentrated solutions from the evaporation zones during preferential infiltration events. These observations led to development of a desiccation-crack-induced salinization (DCIS) conceptual model. DCIS suggests that thermally driven convective air flow in the desiccation cracks induces evaporation and salinization in relatively deep sections of the subsurface. This conceptual model supports previous conceptual models on vadose zone and groundwater salinization in fractured rock in arid environments and extends its validity to clayey soils in semi-arid environments.

  11. Salinity effects on Atlantic sturgeon growth and osmoregulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus Mitchill, 1815) is an anadromous sturgeon species, yet little is known with regard to its osmoregulatory ability and habitat use at early life stages. In order to examine whether salinity poses a physiological challenge to juvenile Atlantic stur...

  12. Effects of drainage salinity evolution on irrigation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Iddo

    2003-12-01

    A soil physics theory of solute movement through a drained saturated zone underlying agricultural land is introduced into a long-term economic analysis of farm-level irrigation management; this is an alternative to the immediate, homogeneous blending assumption employed in previous studies as a base for calculating changes in drainage salinity over time. Using data from California, the effect of drainage salinity evolution is analyzed through a year-by-year profit optimization under the requirement of on-farm drainage disposal. Paths of optimal land allocation among crop production with fresh surface water, saline drainage reuse and evaporation ponds appear to depend on the relative profitability of the first two; that of reuse is affected by the trend of drainage salinity. Tile spacing and environmental regulations associated with evaporation ponds affect the timing of evaporation pond construction. The system converges into a solution involving both drainage-disposal activities; this solution includes an outlet for salts and is therefore sustainable. Following this strategy, the system is asymptotically approaching a steady state that possesses both hydrological and salt balances. Economic implications associated with land retirement programs in California are discussed.

  13. Artificial upwelling driven by salinity differences in the ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.H.; Decicco, J.

    1983-12-01

    A concept for an artificial upwelling driven by salinity differences in the ocean to supply nutrients to a mariculture farm is described and analyzed. A long shell-and-tube counterflow heat exchanger built of inexpensive plastic and concrete is suspended vertically in the ocean. Cold, nutrient rich, but relatively fresh water from deep in the ocean flows up the shell side of the heat exchanger, and warm but relatively saline water from the surface flows down the tube side. The two flows exchange heat across the thin plastic walls of the tubes, maintaining a constant temperature difference along the heat exchanger. The plastic tubes are protected by the concrete outer shell of the heat exchanger. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep and surface water due to their difference in salinity. This phenomenon was first recognized by the oceanographer Stommel, who termed it The Perpetual Salt Fountain. The heat transfer and flow rate as a function of tube number and diameter is analyzed and the size of the heat exchanger optimized for cost is determined for a given flow of nutrients for various locations. Reasonable sizes (outer diameter on the order of 5 m) are obtained. The incremental capital cost of the salinity-driven artificial upwelling is compared to the incremental capital cost and present value of the operating cost of an artificial upwell fueled by liquid hydrocarbons.

  14. Assessment of salt tolerant plants to remediate saline soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil salinity has intensified in the James River valley in east central South Dakota in the past 20 years. Surface evaporation on poorly drained and subirrigated soils leaves salts on the soil surface. Replacing evaporation from the soil surface with transpiration through deep-rooted salt-tolerant...

  15. Potential of Unicellular Cyanobacteria from Saline Environments as Exopolysaccharide Producers

    PubMed Central

    De Philippis, Roberto; Margheri, Maria Cristina; Materassi, Riccardo; Vincenzini, Massimo

    1998-01-01

    Fifteen Cyanothece strains isolated from saline environments have been characterized with regard to exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. The polymers contained six to eight monosaccharides, with one or two acidic sugars. In some EPS samples, the additional presence of acetyl, pyruvyl, and/or sulfate groups was also detected. PMID:16349518

  16. Irrigation and Soil Salinization in Mediterranean agro-ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Angelo; Viola, Francesco; Valerio Noto, Leonardo; Mau, Yair; Porporato, Amilcare

    2015-04-01

    During the warm and dry growing season of Mediterranean climates, the availability of good quality water for primary production in agriculture tends to be limited. This aspect makes the use of saline and brackish water appealing, given the potential of natural flushing of the soils by deep percolation during the wet and colder dormant season. Thus the cyclic alternation between the two different phases in the cold and warm season gives rise to a delicate equilibrium that can lead to long term secondary salinization if the mean salt input from irrigation overpasses the average annual natural leakage amount. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the long term salt mass balance in the presence of irrigation and possible changes in seasonality. An elevated concentration of salt in the soil may in turn lead to both a decrease of its fertility and to osmotic stress reducing plant productivity. To this purpose, a stochastic soil and water balance salinity model is developed to quantify the balance between salt accumulation phases during the growing season and leaching phases during the wet season. We provide the numerical and the analytical representation of secondary long-term salinization process, highlighting the role of soil depth, plant and climate together with the impact of shifts in the seasonal vs. interannual rainfall fluctuations. An application to a test case in the Southern part of Sicily (ITALY) is also presented, highlighting the strong relationship between salt dynamics, water management and climatic conditions.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING MANUAL FOR SALINITY MANAGEMENT IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Environmental Planning Manual for Salinity Management in Irrigated Agriculture has been prepared. The primary focus of this manual is a delineation of the combinations of technological and institutional solutions, the various levels of planning effort, use of existing data and...

  18. Aerobic biodegradation of amines in industrial saline wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Campo, Pablo; Platten, William; Suidan, Makram T; Chai, Yunzhou; Davis, John W

    2011-11-01

    The treatment of hypersaline wastewaters represents a challenge since high salt concentrations disrupt bacteria present in normal biological treatments. This study was conducted to determine the fate of amines in two hypersaline wastewaters obtained from an industrial treatment plant processing influents with 3% and 7% of NaCl. The compounds were aniline (ANL), 4,4'-methylenedianiline (4,4'-MDA), cyclohexylamine (CHA), N-(2-aminoethyl)ethanolamine (AEA), N,N-diethylethanolamine (DEA), N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methylamine (MDEA), and tris(2-hydroxyethyl)amine (TEA). Mixtures of these chemicals with a mixed liquor suspended solids concentration of 1000 mg L(-1) were prepared at two salinities (3% and 7% NaCl). Ethanolamines were readily biodegraded at both salinities, following first-order kinetics with half-lives ranging between 10 and 58 h. Hydroxyl groups present in the ethanolamines had a positive impact on the biodegradation. Salinity did not affect the biodegradation rate of TEA and MDEA, whereas AEA and DEA degraded faster in 3% NaCl. After 48h, CHA was metabolized within a 24-h period in 3% NaCl, while no degradation was observed in 7% NaCl. ANL exhibited lag phases in both salinities and, in the following 24-h period, ANL concentrations dropped 40% and disappeared after 48 h. 4,4'-MDA degraded in 3% NaCl (half-life of 123 h) and remained unaltered after 120 h in 7% NaCl. PMID:21925703

  19. Soil salinity effects on germination of native and introduced grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing salinity of formerly productive soil in the James River valley in east central South Dakota is an increasing concern for crop producers. This problem arises when water evaporates from poorly drained and subirrigated soils and leaves salts on the soil surface. Replacing evaporation from ...

  20. Oral hypertonic saline causes transient fall of vasopressin in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Seckl, J.R.; Williams, D.M.; Lightman, S.L.

    1986-08-01

    After dehydration, oral rehydration causes a fall in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) that precedes changes in plasma osmolality. To investigate further the stimulus for this effect, its specificity, and association with thirst, six volunteers were deprived of water for 24 h and given a salt load on two separate occasions. On each study day they then drank rapidly 10 ml/kg of either tap water or hypertonic saline (360 mosmol/kg). There was a significant fall in plasma AVP from 2.0 +/- 0.3 to 1.2 +/- 0.4 pmol/l 5 min after drinking water and from 1.8 +/- 0.3 to 0.9 +/- 0.2 pmol/l after hypertonic saline. Plasma osmolality fell 30-60 min after water and was unchanged after saline. Plasma renin activity, oxytocin, and total protein all remained unchanged. All subjects reported diminished thirst after hypertonic saline. Gargling with water reduced thirst but did not affect plasma AVP. There appears to be a drinking-mediated neuroendocrine reflex that decreases plasma AVP irrespective of the osmolality of the liquid consumed. The sensation of thirst did not correlate with plasma osmolality and was not always related to plasma AVP concentration. AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay.

  1. ON-FARM DISPOSAL OF SALINE DRAINAGE WATER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of saline drainage water from irrigated agriculture is a significant world-wide problem. Researchers in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California developed an integrated on farm drainage water management system (IFDM) that can be used to solve this problem in an environmentally sound metho...

  2. RICE IS MORE SENSITIVE TO SALINITY THAN PREVIOUSLY THOUGHT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies conducted in the field by the University of California and controlled greenhouse conditions by the USDA-ARS indicate that rice is more sensitive to salinity than current guidelines suggest. This information is particularly important to a number of rice growers in Colusa and Glenn counties wh...

  3. Home Brew Salinity Measuring Devices: Their Construction and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper discusses several inexpensive methods of evaluating the salinity of seawater. One method is presented in some detail. This method has several attractive features. First, it can be used to provide instruction, not only in marine chemistry, but also in studying the mathematics of the point slope formula, and as an aid in teaching students

  4. Indian Ocean Rossby waves detected in HYCOM sea surface salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffner, David M.; Subrahmanyam, Bulusu; Shriver, Jay F.

    2008-02-01

    Rossby waves have been well identified in satellite derived sea surface height (SSH), sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean color observations. Studies of Rossby waves have yet to include sea surface salinity (SSS) as a parameter, largely because presently available in situ measurements of salinity lack sufficient spatial and temporal coverage, and as of now no methods are available for measuring salinity from a satellite. In this paper, we demonstrate that Rossby waves can be observed in SSS in the Indian Ocean by using simulations of the 1/12° global Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). HYCOM results compared favorably to SSS data provided by Argo floats and the World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) in selected grid boxes in the Indian Ocean. Hovmöller diagrams of HYCOM SSS anomalies and gradient show the distinct westward propagating signature of Rossby waves, with a steeper slope in longitude/time plots further from the equator. The propagation speeds, calculated from a 2D Radon Transform are comparable with new theoretical speeds for Rossby waves. Annual westward propagating signals in the SSS simulations at most of the latitudes in the Indian Ocean coincide with previous studies. We hope that future studies of Rossby waves in SSS using model results and eventually satellite measurements of salinity data will allow a better understanding of Rossby wave dynamics.

  5. Multi-Method Monitoring of Shallow Gas Injection in Saline Coastal Reservoir at Maguelone (Languedoc coastline, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denchik, N.; Pezard, P. A.; Lofi, J.; Luquot, L.; Neyens, D.; Jaafar, O.; Perroud, H.; Abdelghafour, H.; Henry, G.; Levannier, A.

    2014-12-01

    Geological storage of CO2 is still a recent technology and many questions remain open, particularly for saline formations. Geological storage in accessible saline formations is, in fact, expected to become over time more important than that in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs. The Maguelone shallow experimental site, located near Montpellier (Languedoc, France) has been used over the past few years to perform CO2 injection experiments. The geology, petrophysics and hydrology of this site are well known from previous studies. The presence of small saline coastal reservoirs bounded above and below by clay-rich layers provides an opportunity to study a saline formation for geological storage at field laboratory scale with a set of hydrogeophysical (seismic, electrical, sonic, pressure) and geochemical (pH, minor and major ion concentrations) methods, either downhole or at surface. Series of experiments can be run at moderate costs from the shallow depth of one of these reservoirs (13-16 m), offering flexibility for testing different monitoring configurations, performing repeated injection releases with variable injection parameters and type of gas (e.g., N2, CO2), and cross-calibrating the monitoring methods. Moreover, additional methods/boreholes can be easily implemented at this experimental site. Three N2 injections were thus undertaken at Maguelone in 2012 to measure the site response to neutral gas injection. An experiment involving the release of CO2 was successively conducted in January 2013. A volume of 111 m3 of CO2 was injected during 3.5 hours. Both the N2 and CO2 gas plumes were detected by all monitoring techniques, and the response to gas propagation was instantaneous. Integrating the lesson learned from past injection experiments, the next stage of the project will allow to establish the best guidelines for CO2 injection and post-injection monitoring and, in perspective, not only to detect the CO2 plume but to quantify CO2 migration in the subsurface.

  6. The Aquarius Mission: Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koblinsky, Chester; Chao, Y.; deCharon, A.; Edelstein, W.; Hildebrand, P.; Lagerloef, G.; LeVine, D.; Pellerano, F.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.; Ruf, C.

    2001-01-01

    Aquarius is a new satellite mission concept to study the impact of the global water cycle on the ocean, including the response of the ocean to buoyancy forcing and the subsequent feedback of the ocean on the climate. The measurement objective of Aquarius is sea surface salinity, which reflects the concentration of freshwater at the ocean surface. Salinity affects the dielectric constant of sea water and, consequently, the radiometric emission of the sea surface to space. Rudimentary space observations with an L-band radiometer were first made from Skylab in the mid-70s and numerous aircraft missions of increasing quality and improved technology have been conducted since then. Technology is now available to carry out a global mission, which includes both an accurate L band (1.413 Ghz) radiometer and radar system in space and a global array of in situ observations for calibration and validation, in order to address key NASA Earth Science Enterprise questions about the global cycling of water and the response of the ocean circulation to climate change. The key scientific objectives of Aquarius examine the cycling of water at the ocean's surface, the response of the ocean circulation to buoyancy forcing, and the impact of buoyancy forcing on the ocean's thermal feedback to the climate. Global surface salinity will also improve our ability to model the surface solubility chemistry needed to estimate the air-sea exchange of CO2. In order to meet these science objectives, the NASA Salinity Sea Ice Working Group over the past three years has concluded that the mission measurement goals should be better than 0.2 practical salinity units (psu) accuracy, 100 km resolution, and weekly to revisits. The Aquarius mission proposes to meet these measurement requirements through a real aperture dual-polarized L band radiometer and radar system. This system can achieve the less than 0.1 K radiometric temperature measurement accuracy that is required. A 3 m antenna at approx. 600km altitude in a sun-synchronous orbit and 300 km swath can provide the desired 100 km resolution global coverage every week. Within this decade, it may be possible to combine satellite sea surface salinity measurements with ongoing satellite observations of temperature, surface height, air-sea fluxes; vertical profiles of temperature and salinity from the Argo program; and modern ocean/atmosphere modeling and data assimilation tools, in order to finally address the complex influence of buoyancy on the ocean circulation and climate.

  7. Practical salinity management for leachate irrigation to poplar trees.

    PubMed

    Smesrud, Jason K; Duvendack, George D; Obereiner, James M; Jordahl, James L; Madison, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    Landfill leachate can be beneficially reused for irrigation of fiber crops with appropriate attention to nutrient and salinity management. The Riverbend Landfill in Western Oregon has been effectively practicing irrigation of landfill leachate to poplar trees since 1993. Over that time, the site has been adaptively managed to control salinity impacts to the tree crop while beneficially utilizing the applied water and nutrients during each growing season. Representative leachate irrigation water has ranged in concentration of total dissolved solids from 777 to 6,940 mg/L, chloride from 180 to 1,760 mg/L and boron from 3.2 to 7.3 mg/L. Annual leachate irrigation applications have also ranged between 102 and 812 mm/yr. Important conclusions from this site have included: 1) Appropriate tree clone selection and tree stand spacing, thinning, and harvest rotations are critical to maintaining a productive tree stand that is resilient and resistant to salt stress. The most effective combinations have included clones DN-34, OP-367, 184-411, 49-177, and 15-29 planted at spacing of 3.7-m x 1.8-m to 3.7-m x 3.7-m; 2) Leaf tissue boron levels are closely correlated to soil boron levels and can be managed with leaching. When leaf tissue boron levels exceed 200 to 250 mg/kg, signs of salt stress may emerge and should be monitored closely; 3) Salinity from leachate irrigation can be managed to sustain a healthy tree crop by controlling mass loading rates and providing appropriate irrigation blending if necessary. Providing freshwater irrigation following each leachate irrigation and targeting freshwater irrigation as 30 percent of total irrigation water applied has successfully controlled salt impacts to vegetation; and 4) Drip irrigation generally requires more careful attention to long-term soil salinity management than spray irrigation. Moving drip irrigation tubes periodically to prevent the formation of highly saline zones within the soil profile is important. In this paper, a fifteen year record of monitoring and operational data are presented that can be used by others in managing irrigation of saline water to poplar trees. When salinity is carefully managed, tree systems can help to provide sustainable leachate management solutions for landfills. PMID:22574379

  8. Three Years of Aquarius Salinity Measurements: Algorithm, Validation and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, T.; Wentz, F. J.; Le Vine, D. M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Aquarius is an L-band radiometer/scatterometer (i.e. active/passive) system designed to provide monthly salinity maps at 150 km spatial scale to an accuracy of 0.2 psu. The sensor was launched on June 10, 2011 as part of the Aquarius/SAC-D mission and has been collecting data since August 25, 2011. Version 3 of the data product was released in June 2014 and provides a major milestone towards reaching the mission requirement of 0.2 psu. This presentation reports the status of the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm highlighting the advances that have been made for and since the Version 3 release. The most important ones are: 1) An improved surface roughness correction that is based on Aquarius scatterometer observations; 2) A reduction in ascending/descending differences due to galactic background radiation reflected from the ocean surface; 3) A refinement of the quality control flags and masks that indicate degradation under certain environmental conditions. The Aquarius salinity algorithm also retrieves wind speed as part of the roughness correction with an accuracy comparable to the products from other satellites such as WindSat, SSMIS, ASCAT, and QuikSCAT. Validation of the salinity retrievals is accomplished using measurements from ARGO drifters measuring at 5 m depth and in the tropics also from moored buoys measuring at 1 m depth which are co-located with the nearest Aquarius footprint. In the most recent work an effort has also been made to identify areas with frequent rain to isolate potential issues with rain freshening in the upper ocean layer. Results in rain-free regions indicate that on monthly basis and 150 km grid, the V3 Aquarius salinity maps have an accuracy of about 0.13 psu in the tropics and 0.22 psu globally. Comparing Aquarius with ARGO and moored buoy salinity measurements during and after rain events permits a quantitative assessment of the effect of salinity stratification within the first 5 m of the upper ocean layer.

  9. Environmental chemistry: Volume B

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume B include equilibria processes, chemical processes, biochemical processes, and physicochemical processes.

  10. Salinity Adaptation and the Contribution of Parental Environmental Effects in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Moriuchi, Ken S; Friesen, Maren L; Cordeiro, Matilde A; Badri, Mounawer; Vu, Wendy T; Main, Bradley J; Aouani, Mohamed Elarbi; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; Strauss, Sharon Y; von Wettberg, Eric J B

    2016-01-01

    High soil salinity negatively influences plant growth and yield. Some taxa have evolved mechanisms for avoiding or tolerating elevated soil salinity, which can be modulated by the environment experienced by parents or offspring. We tested the contribution of the parental and offspring environments on salinity adaptation and their potential underlying mechanisms. In a two-generation greenhouse experiment, we factorially manipulated salinity concentrations for genotypes of Medicago truncatula that were originally collected from natural populations that differed in soil salinity. To compare population level adaptation to soil salinity and to test the potential mechanisms involved we measured two aspects of plant performance, reproduction and vegetative biomass, and phenological and physiological traits associated with salinity avoidance and tolerance. Saline-origin populations had greater biomass and reproduction under saline conditions than non-saline populations, consistent with local adaptation to saline soils. Additionally, parental environmental exposure to salt increased this difference in performance. In terms of environmental effects on mechanisms of salinity adaptation, parental exposure to salt spurred phenological differences that facilitated salt avoidance, while offspring exposure to salt resulted in traits associated with greater salt tolerance. Non-saline origin populations expressed traits associated with greater growth in the absence of salt while, for saline adapted populations, the ability to maintain greater performance in saline environments was also associated with lower growth potential in the absence of salt. Plastic responses induced by parental and offspring environments in phenology, leaf traits, and gas exchange contribute to salinity adaptation in M. truncatula. The ability of plants to tolerate environmental stress, such as high soil salinity, is likely modulated by a combination of parental effects and within-generation phenotypic plasticity, which are likely to vary in populations from contrasting environments. PMID:26943813

  11. Salinity Adaptation and the Contribution of Parental Environmental Effects in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Moriuchi, Ken S.; Friesen, Maren L.; Cordeiro, Matilde A.; Badri, Mounawer; Vu, Wendy T.; Main, Bradley J.; Aouani, Mohamed Elarbi; Nuzhdin, Sergey V.; Strauss, Sharon Y.; von Wettberg, Eric J. B.

    2016-01-01

    High soil salinity negatively influences plant growth and yield. Some taxa have evolved mechanisms for avoiding or tolerating elevated soil salinity, which can be modulated by the environment experienced by parents or offspring. We tested the contribution of the parental and offspring environments on salinity adaptation and their potential underlying mechanisms. In a two-generation greenhouse experiment, we factorially manipulated salinity concentrations for genotypes of Medicago truncatula that were originally collected from natural populations that differed in soil salinity. To compare population level adaptation to soil salinity and to test the potential mechanisms involved we measured two aspects of plant performance, reproduction and vegetative biomass, and phenological and physiological traits associated with salinity avoidance and tolerance. Saline-origin populations had greater biomass and reproduction under saline conditions than non-saline populations, consistent with local adaptation to saline soils. Additionally, parental environmental exposure to salt increased this difference in performance. In terms of environmental effects on mechanisms of salinity adaptation, parental exposure to salt spurred phenological differences that facilitated salt avoidance, while offspring exposure to salt resulted in traits associated with greater salt tolerance. Non-saline origin populations expressed traits associated with greater growth in the absence of salt while, for saline adapted populations, the ability to maintain greater performance in saline environments was also associated with lower growth potential in the absence of salt. Plastic responses induced by parental and offspring environments in phenology, leaf traits, and gas exchange contribute to salinity adaptation in M. truncatula. The ability of plants to tolerate environmental stress, such as high soil salinity, is likely modulated by a combination of parental effects and within-generation phenotypic plasticity, which are likely to vary in populations from contrasting environments. PMID:26943813

  12. Effects of salinity on embryonic development, survival, and growth of Crassostrea hongkongensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Zhongming; Wang, Zhaoping; Liang, Jian; Zhang, Yuehuan; Shen, Jianping; Yao, Tuo; Su, Jiaqi; Yu, Ruihai

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the effects of salinity on embryonic development, survival, and growth of the Hong Kong oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis. The embryos, larvae, and juveniles of C. hongkongensis were held in artificial seawater at three different salinities (low, 15; medium, 23; and high, 30) to determine the optimum hatchery and nursery conditions for mass production of the seeds. Results showed that the percentage production of straight-hinged larvae from fertilized eggs was significantly lower at the high salinity than at the low- and medium-salinities ( P < 0.05). The survival rates of larvae and juveniles differed significantly among the three salinity trials, with the highest survival rate observed at the low salinity ( P < 0.05). The shell height of larvae was significantly larger at the low salinity than at the high and medium salinities from days 9 to 15 ( P < 0.05), whereas that of juveniles was significantly larger at the low salinity than at the high and medium salinities on day 70 ( P < 0.05). These results indicate that the larvae and juveniles of C. hongkongensis are tolerant to a wide range of salinities (15 to 30), but show better growth and survival at relatively low salinities. Thus, it is recommended to use relatively low salinities in hatchery and nursery systems for improved yields of C. hongkongensis.

  13. Spectral Characteristics of Salinized Soils during Microbial Remediation Processes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chuang; Shen, Guang-rong; Zhi, Yue-e; Wang, Zi-jun; Zhu, Yun; Li, Xian-hua

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the spectral reflectance of saline soils, the associated soil salt content (SSC) and the concentrations of salt ions were measured and analysed by tracing the container microbial remediation experiments for saline soil (main salt is sodium chloride) of Dongying City, Shandong Province. The sensitive spectral reflectance bands of saline soils to SSC, Cl- and Na+ in the process of microbial remediation were analysed. The average-dimension reduction of these bands was conducted by using a combination of correlation coefficient and decision coefficient, and by gradually narrowing the sampling interval method. Results showed that the tendency and magnitude of the average spectral reflectance in all bands of saline soils during the total remediation processes were nearly consistent with SSC and with Cl- coocentration, respectively. The degree of salinity of the soil, including SSC and salt ion concentrations, had a significant positive correlation with the spectral reflectance of all bands, particularly in the near-infrared band. The optimal spectral bands of SSC were 1370 to 1445 nm and 1447 to 1608 nm, whereas the optimal spectral bands of Cl- and Na+ were 1336 to 1461 nm and 1471 to 1561 nm, respectively. The relationship model among SSC, soil salt ion concentrations (Cl- and Na+) and soil spectral reflectance of the corresponding optimal spectral band was established. The largest R2 of relationship model between SSC and the average reflectance of associated optimal band reached to 0.95, and RMSEC and RMSEP were 1.076 and 0.591, respectively. Significant statistical analysis of salt factors and soil reflectance for different microbial remediation processes indicated that the spectral response characteristics and sensitivity of SSC to soil reflectance, which implied the feasibility of high spectrum test on soil microbial remediation monitoring, also provided the basis for quick nondestructive monitoring soil bioremediation process by soil spectral reflectance. PMID:26669175

  14. Management scenarios for the Jordan River salinity crisis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, A.; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Holtzman, R.; Segal, M.; Shavit, U.

    2005-01-01

    Recent geochemical and hydrological findings show that the water quality of the base flow of the Lower Jordan River, between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is dependent upon the ratio between surface water flow and groundwater discharge. Using water quality data, mass-balance calculations, and actual flow-rate measurements, possible management scenarios for the Lower Jordan River and their potential affects on its salinity are investigated. The predicted scenarios reveal that implementation of some elements of the Israel-Jordan peace treaty will have negative effects on the Jordan River water salinity. It is predicted that removal of sewage effluents dumped into the river (???13 MCM/a) will significantly reduce the river water's flow and increase the relative proportion of the saline groundwater flux into the river. Under this scenario, the Cl content of the river at its southern point (Abdalla Bridge) will rise to almost 7000 mg/L during the summer. In contrast, removal of all the saline water (16.5 MCM/a) that is artificially discharged into the Lower Jordan River will significantly reduce its Cl concentration, to levels of 650-2600 and 3000-3500 mg/L in the northern and southern areas of the Lower Jordan River, respectively. However, because the removal of either the sewage effluents or the saline water will decrease the river's discharge to a level that could potentially cause river desiccation during the summer months, other water sources must be allocated to preserve in-stream flow needs and hence the river's ecosystem. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Geologic effects on groundwater salinity and discharge into an estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russoniello, Christopher J.; Fernandez, Cristina; Bratton, John F.; Banaszak, Joel F.; Krantz, David E.; Andres, A. Scott; Konikow, Leonard F.; Michael, Holly A.

    2013-08-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) can be an important pathway for transport of nutrients and contaminants to estuaries. A better understanding of the geologic and hydrologic controls on these fluxes is critical for their estimation and management. We examined geologic features, porewater salinity, and SGD rates and patterns at an estuarine study site. Seismic data showed the existence of paleovalleys infilled with estuarine mud and peat that extend hundreds of meters offshore. A low-salinity groundwater plume beneath this low-permeability fill was mapped with continuous resistivity profiling. Extensive direct SGD measurements with seepage meters (n = 551) showed fresh groundwater discharge patterns that correlated well with shallow porewater salinity and the hydrogeophysical framework. Small-scale variability in fresh and saline discharge indicates influence of meter-scale geologic heterogeneity, while site-scale discharge patterns are evidence of the influence of the paleovalley feature. Beneath the paleovalley fill, fresh groundwater flows offshore and mixes with saltwater before discharging along paleovalley flanks. On the adjacent drowned interfluve where low-permeability fill is absent, fresh groundwater discharge is focused at the shoreline. Shallow saltwater exchange was greatest across sandy sediments and where fresh SGD was low. The geologic control of groundwater flowpaths and discharge salinity demonstrated in this work are likely to affect geochemical reactions and the chemical loads delivered by SGD to coastal surface waters. Because similar processes are likely to exist in other estuaries where drowned paleovalleys commonly cross modern shorelines, the existence and implications of complex hydrogeology are important considerations for studies of groundwater fluxes and related management decisions.

  16. Relating GPR Signal Response to Fracture Fluid Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoflias, G. P.; Becker, M. W.; Bourque, S. R.

    2007-12-01

    Predicting flow and transport in fractured bedrock remains a challenging problem. The spatial heterogeneity of flow (channeling) is commonly observed at seepage faces, but in-situ behavior is poorly understood. Time-lapse GPR amplitude differencing has been used to detect saline tracers in fractures and to identify groundwater flowpaths qualitatively. However, GPR observations of saline tracers in fractures have not been correlated quantitatively to meaningful hydrologic parameters, such as fracture aperture and fluid electrical conductivity. We investigate the relationships between GPR signal amplitude, phase, and frequency with fracture aperture and fluid salinity. Our research shows characteristic and quantifiable GPR responses that can be correlated to fracture properties. We use analytical modeling, numerical simulations, and field observations at a fractured sandstone aquifer in order to examine these relationships. We monitor the response of multifrequency GPR reflected signals from a water-saturated horizontal fracture at 7 m depth that we inject with saline tracers of increasing electrical conductivity. GPR response is simulated analytically and numerically. Although the fracture is a thin layer with millimeter scale aperture, increasing fluid conductivity results in greater EM signal wavenumber magnitude, which in turn decreases the signal wavelength and improves its thin layer resolution capabilities. These GPR signal responses from a thin layer are more pronounced in lower frequency signals. As shown by modeling, field data exhibit increasing signal amplitude and increasing phase lag as a function of increasing fluid electrical conductivity. The GPR amplitude and phase responses are detectable in the field and predictable by EM theory and modeling, therefore, they can be related to fracture aperture and fluid salinity for hydrologic investigations of fractured rock flow and transport properties.

  17. Hydrogen saline prevents selenite-induced cataract in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun-xiao; Ding, Tian-bing

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antioxidative effect and mechanism for the protective effects of hydrogen saline on selenite-induced cataract in rats. Methods Sprague-Dawley rat pups were divided into the following groups: control (Group A), selenite induced (Group B), and selenite plus hydrogen saline treated (Group C). Rat pups in Groups B and C received a single subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (25 μmol/kg bodyweight) on postnatal day 12. Group C also received an intraperitoneal injection of H2 saline (5 ml/kg bodyweight) daily from postnatal day 8 to postnatal day 17. The development of cataract was assessed weekly by slit-lamp examination for 2 weeks. After sacrifice, extricated lenses were analyzed for activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, levels of malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione (GSH), and total sulfhydryl contents. Results The magnitude of lens opacification in Group B was significantly higher than in Group A (p<0.05), while Group C had less opacification than Group B (p<0.05). Compared with Group B, the mean activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, levels of GSH, and total sulfhydryl contents were higher, whereas the level of malondialdehyde was lower following treatment with hydrogen saline(p<0.05). Conclusions This is an initial report showing that hydrogen saline can prevent selenite-induced cataract in rats. It acts via maintaining antioxidant enzymes and GSH, protecting the sulfhydryl group, and inhibiting lipid peroxidation. PMID:23922487

  18. Geologic effects on groundwater salinity and discharge into an estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russonielloa, Christopher J.; Fernandeza, Cristina; Brattonb, John F.; Banaszakc, Joel F.; Krantzc, David E.; Andresd, Scott; Konikowe, Leonard F.; Michaela, Holly A.

    2013-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) can be an important pathway for transport of nutrients and contaminants to estuaries. A better understanding of the geologic and hydrologic controls on these fluxes is critical for their estimation and management. We examined geologic features, porewater salinity, and SGD rates and patterns at an estuarine study site. Seismic data showed the existence of paleovalleys infilled with estuarine mud and peat that extend hundreds of meters offshore. A low-salinity groundwater plume beneath this low-permeability fill was mapped with continuous resistivity profiling. Extensive direct SGD measurements with seepage meters (n = 551) showed fresh groundwater discharge patterns that correlated well with shallow porewater salinity and the hydrogeophysical framework. Small-scale variability in fresh and saline discharge indicates influence of meter-scale geologic heterogeneity, while site-scale discharge patterns are evidence of the influence of the paleovalley feature. Beneath the paleovalley fill, fresh groundwater flows offshore and mixes with saltwater before discharging along paleovalley flanks. On the adjacent drowned interfluve where low-permeability fill is absent, fresh groundwater discharge is focused at the shoreline. Shallow saltwater exchange was greatest across sandy sediments and where fresh SGD was low. The geologic control of groundwater flowpaths and discharge salinity demonstrated in this work are likely to affect geochemical reactions and the chemical loads delivered by SGD to coastal surface waters. Because similar processes are likely to exist in other estuaries where drowned paleovalleys commonly cross modern shorelines, the existence and implications of complex hydrogeology are important considerations for studies of groundwater fluxes and related management decisions.

  19. Spatial and temporal variability in microbial activities of coastal acid saline soils of Goa, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, G. R.; Manjunath, B. L.; Latare, A. M.; D'Souza, R.; Vishwakarma, S.; Singh, N. P.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the spatio-temporal variability of the microbial activities in coastal saline soils (locally called Khazan) of Goa, India (west coast region). The coastal soil salinity is a major constraint for reduced crop yields and abandonment of farming in these areas. Three replicated global positioning based soil samples (0-0.20 m depth) from each of four salinity groups i.e. non-saline (EC=0.08±0.06 dS m-1), weakly saline (EC=2.04±0.06 dS m-1), moderately saline (EC=3.50±0.57 dS m-1) and strongly saline (EC=5.49±0.49 dS m-1) during three seasons-monsoon, post-monsoon and pre-monsoon were collected. Soil microbial activity in terms of soil microbial carbon (MBC), MBC as a fraction of soil organic carbon (SOC) (MBC/SOC), basal soil respiration (BSR), metabolic quotient (qCO2) and soil enzyme activities-dehydrogenase, phosphatase and urease was tested. In all the seasons, the soil cationic composition depended significantly (p<0.01) on salinity levels and the exchangeable sodium (Na) was the second most dominant among the tested cations. The MBC, MBC/SOC and BSR reduced significantly with increasing salinity, whereas qCO2 increased with increased salinity levels. In general, MBC, MBC/SOC and BSR and soil enzyme activities were observed as: salinity levels-strongly saline < moderately saline < weakly saline < non-saline and season-post-monsoon > monsoon > during pre-monsoon season. The mean MBC and MBC/SOC of non-saline soils were 1.61 and 2.28 times higher than that of strongly saline soils, whereas qCO2 of strongly saline soils was 2.4 times higher than that of non-saline soils. This indirectly indicates the salinity stress on the soil microorganisms. Irrespective of season, the soil enzyme activities decreased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing salinity levels. Suitable countermeasures needs to be taken up to alleviate the depressive salinity effect on the microbial and activity for the sustainable crop production in the coastal saline soils of Goa, India.

  20. Influence of a multiyear event of low salinity on the zooplankton from Mexican eco-regions of the California Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaniegos, Bertha E.

    2009-12-01

    Data are presented from the southern part of the California Current System (CCS) for the period 1997-2007, derived from the IMECOCAL monitoring program. Apart from El Niño 1997 to 1998, and La Niña 1998-1999 the strongest perturbation occurred in 2002 due to an intrusion of subarctic water affecting all the CCS. The response of zooplankton biomass to the strong cooling and freshening of the upper layer was an immediate drop followed by a progressive recovery between 2003 and 2007. Though the low salinity influence ended in 2006, the increased zooplankton trend continued, reinforced by increased upwelling activity beginning 2005 off north Baja California region (30-32°N) and beginning 2006 off central Baja California (24-30°N). Multiple regression analysis was done between regional variables and Upwelling Index (UI) and two basin-scale proxies: the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The significant influence of the NPGO on surface salinity, salinity stratification, zooplankton volume and secondary consumers (zooplankton carnivores) suggests a basin scale control on these variables more than local mechanisms. The signature of the NPGO was also evident in the base of the trophic web, but more related to the group of crustacean herbivores in the north eco-region, and the tunicates in central Baja California. In this last region, the effect from NPGO on the zooplankton volume and tunicates was antagonist with UI indicative of similar importance of basin and local processes. However, when the time interval is limited to the post-subarctic intrusion (2003-2007) the significance of multiple regression models and physical variables was lost. Therefore, though data and bio-physical coupling analysis off Baja California suggest a better relation with NPGO compared to PDO, it is still not sufficient to explain the magnitude of the perturbation observed in 2002.

  1. Salinity and Bacterial Diversity: To What Extent Does the Concentration of Salt Affect the Bacterial Community in a Saline Soil?

    PubMed Central

    Canfora, Loredana; Bacci, Giovanni; Pinzari, Flavia; Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Dazzi, Carmelo; Benedetti, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the evaluation of soil characteristics was coupled with a pyrosequencing analysis of the V2-V3 16S rRNA gene region in order to investigate the bacterial community structure and diversity in the A horizon of a natural saline soil located in Sicily (Italy). The main aim of the research was to assess the organisation and diversity of microbial taxa using a spatial scale that revealed physical and chemical heterogeneity of the habitat under investigation. The results provided information on the type of distribution of different bacterial groups as a function of spatial gradients of soil salinity and pH. The analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA showed differences in bacterial composition and diversity due to a variable salt concentration in the soil. The bacterial community showed a statistically significant spatial variability. Some bacterial phyla appeared spread in the whole area, whatever the salinity gradient. It emerged therefore that a patchy saline soil can not contain just a single microbial community selected to withstand extreme osmotic phenomena, but many communities that can be variously correlated to one or more environmental parameters. Sequences have been deposited to the SRA database and can be accessed on ID Project PRJNA241061. PMID:25188357

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi native from a Mediterranean saline area enhance maize tolerance to salinity through improved ion homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Beatriz; Aroca, Ricardo; Maathuis, Frans J M; Barea, José Miguel; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2013-10-01

    Soil salinity restricts plant growth and productivity. Na(+) represents the major ion causing toxicity because it competes with K(+) for binding sites at the plasma membrane. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can alleviate salt stress in the host plant through several mechanisms. These may include ion selection during the fungal uptake of nutrients from the soil or during transfer to the host plant. AM benefits could be enhanced when native AMF isolates are used. Thus, we investigated whether native AMF isolated from an area with problems of salinity and desertification can help maize plants to overcome the negative effects of salinity stress better than non-AM plants or plants inoculated with non-native AMF. Results showed that plants inoculated with two out the three native AMF had the highest shoot dry biomass at all salinity levels. Plants inoculated with the three native AMF showed significant increase of K(+) and reduced Na(+) accumulation as compared to non-mycorrhizal plants, concomitantly with higher K(+) /Na(+) ratios in their tissues. For the first time, these effects have been correlated with regulation of ZmAKT2, ZmSOS1 and ZmSKOR genes expression in the roots of maize, contributing to K(+) and Na(+) homeostasis in plants colonized by native AMF. PMID:23421735

  3. The effects of acute salinity challenges on osmoregulation in Mozambique tilapia reared in a tidally changing salinity.

    PubMed

    Moorman, Benjamin P; Lerner, Darren T; Grau, E Gordon; Seale, Andre P

    2015-03-01

    This study characterizes the differences in osmoregulatory capacity among Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, reared in freshwater (FW), in seawater (SW) or under tidally driven changes in salinity. This was addressed through the use of an abrupt exposure to a change in salinity. We measured changes in: (1) plasma osmolality and prolactin (PRL) levels; (2) pituitary expression of prolactin (PRL) and its receptors, PRLR1 and PRLR2; (3) branchial expression of PRLR1, PRLR2, Na(+)/Cl(-) co-transporter (NCC), Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) co-transporter (NKCC), α1a and α1b isoforms of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), aquaporin 3 (AQP3) and Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3). Mozambique tilapia reared in a tidal environment successfully adapted to SW while fish reared in FW did not survive a transfer to SW beyond the 6 h sampling. With the exception of CFTR, the change in the expression of ion pumps, transporters and channels was more gradual in fish transferred from tidally changing salinities to SW than in fish transferred from FW to SW. Upon transfer to SW, the increase in CFTR expression was more robust in tidal fish than in FW fish. Tidal and SW fish successfully adapted when transferred to FW. These results suggest that Mozambique tilapia reared in a tidally changing salinity, a condition that more closely represents their natural history, gain an adaptive advantage compared with fish reared in FW when facing a hyperosmotic challenge. PMID:25617466

  4. In Vivo Evaluation of the Ameliorating Effects of Small-Volume Resuscitation with Four Different Fluids on Endotoxemia-Induced Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-ling; Chen, Jing-hui; Zhu, Qiong-fang; Yu, Gao-feng; Luo, Chen-fang; Luo, Gang-jian; Li, Shang-rong; Hei, Zi-qing

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury associated with renal hypoperfusion is a frequent and severe complication during sepsis. Fluid resuscitation is the main therapy. However, heart failure is usually lethal for those patients receiving large volumes of fluids. We compared the effects of small-volume resuscitation using four different treatment regimens, involving saline, hypertonic saline (HTS), hydroxyethyl starch (HES), or hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch (HSH), on the kidneys of rats treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce endotoxemia. LPS injection caused reduced and progressively deteriorated systemic (arterial blood pressure) and renal hemodynamics (renal blood flow and renal vascular resistance index) over time. This deterioration was accompanied by marked renal functional and pathological injury, as well as an oxidative and inflammatory response, manifesting as increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde and decreased activity of superoxide dismutase. Small-volume perfusion with saline failed to improve renal and systemic circulation. However, small-volume perfusion with HES and HSH greatly improved the above parameters, while HTS only transiently improved systemic and renal hemodynamics with obvious renal injury. Therefore, single small-volume resuscitation with HES and HSH could be valid therapeutic approaches to ameliorate kidney injury induced by endotoxemia, while HTS transiently delays injury and saline shows no protective effects. PMID:26273142

  5. Volumetrics of CO{sub 2} Storage in Deep Saline Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Capobianco, Ryan M.; Dilmore, Robert; Goodman, Angela; Guthrie, George; Rimstidt, J. Donald; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Concern about the role of greenhouse gases in global climate change has generated interest in sequestering CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion in deep saline formations. Pore space in these formations is initially filled with brine, and space to accommodate injected CO{sub 2} must be generated by displacing brine, and to a lesser extent by compression of brine and rock. The formation volume required to store a given mass of CO{sub 2} depends on the storage mechanism. We compare the equilibrium volumetric requirements of three end-member processes: CO{sub 2} stored as a supercritical fluid (structural or stratigraphic trapping); CO{sub 2} dissolved in pre-existing brine (solubility trapping); and CO{sub 2} solubility enhanced by dissolution of calcite. For typical storage conditions, storing CO{sub 2} by solubility trapping reduces the volume required to store the same amount of CO{sub 2} by structural or stratigraphic trapping by about 50%. Accessibility of CO{sub 2} to brine determines which storage mechanism (structural/stratigraphic versus solubility) dominates at a given time, which is a critical factor in evaluating CO{sub 2} volumetric requirements and long-term storage security.

  6. Symptomatic Abdominal Simple Cysts: Is Percutaneous Sclerotherapy with Hypertonic Saline and Bleomycin a Treatment Option?

    PubMed Central

    Souftas, V. D.; Kosmidou, M.; Karanikas, M.; Souftas, D.; Menexes, G.; Prassopoulos, P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the feasibility of percutaneous sclerotherapy of symptomatic simple abdominal cysts, using hypertonic saline and bleomycin, as an alternative to surgery. Materials and Methods. This study involved fourteen consecutive patients (ten women, four men, mean age: 59.2 y) with nineteen symptomatic simple cysts (liver n = 14, kidney n = 3, and adrenal n = 2) treated percutaneously using a modified method. Initially CT-guided drainage was performed; the next day the integrity of the cyst/exclusion of extravasation or communications was evaluated under fluoroscopy, followed by two injections/reabsorptions of the same quantity of hypertonic NaCl 15% solution and three-time repetition of the same procedure with the addition of bleomycin. The catheter was then removed; the patients were hospitalized for 12 hours and underwent follow-ups on 1st, 3rd, 6th, and 12th months. Cyst's volumes and the reduction rate (%) were calculated in each evaluation. Results. No pain or complications were noted. A significant cyst's volume reduction was documented over time (P < 0.001). On the 12th month 17 cysts disappeared and two displayed a 98.7% and 68.9% reduction, respectively. Conclusion. This percutaneous approach constitutes a very promising nonsurgical alternative for patients with symptomatic simple cyst, without complications under proper precautions, leading to eliminating the majority of cysts. PMID:25878660

  7. The Role of Groundwater and Reservoir Interaction in Salinity Distribution in a Saline Area in the Northeastern Part of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeboonruang, U.

    2012-12-01

    Salinity is a process by which the concentration of soluble salt in soil and water increases. Human activities can, however, disrupt this natural equilibrium by changing the distribution of salt in the environment. Reservoirs have played a number of crucial roles in the development of human civilization. The main purposes of reservoirs are to prevent floods, to supply water for domestic consumption, to generate electricity, and to irrigate farmlands. Despite various benefits, reservoirs could bring about adverse environmental and social impacts. Infiltration or leakage from man-made reservoirs or dams could cause the change of the groundwater level, thus forcing the deposited salt onto the soil surface and/or waterways. Until now, it is nevertheless unclear as to how the operation and maintenance of reservoirs could impact in a saline soil area physically, environmentally, and/or socially. The purpose of this research is therefore to assess the impacts of reservoirs on groundwater and salinity levels in a saline soil area in the northeastern part of Thailand. Saline soil can be found in many regions of Thailand, particularly in the northeast of Thailand where the Maha Sarakham Foundation, which is composed of imbedded salt rock layers, is the main source of salinity in the region. The salinity accumulation on the surface soil is influenced by the brackish groundwater upward flow and evaporation processes. The study area is located in Nakhon Panom Province in the northeastern part of Thailand along the Great Mekong River and has a total area of approximately 1,300 km2. The yearly evaporation rate in this region is as high as the annual evaporation rate. A reservoir was constructed in the low-lying floodplain area of the Nam Kam basin and started operation since a few years ago. The reservoir is located right in the middle of the floodplain where flood always occurs every rainy season. Groundwater levels are measured and groundwater samples are collected for pH, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC), and total dissolved solids (TDS) measurement from twenty-two groundwater-sampling sites. The measurements have been performed since December 1, 2010 until now and twice a month. Daily rainfall and water levels in the reservoir and downgradient of the reservoir are also recorded. The groundwater data is interpolated using the piecewise polynomials interpolation through the least square errors method. The rainfall data is regenerated using the moving average method to smooth out the fluctuations in the raw data. Correlation analysis is performed between the moving average rainfall, interpolated groundwater level, upgradient and downgradient surface water levels in the reservoir. The rate of change of EC per change of groundwater level is computed and normalized by the groundwater EC. It is found that the groundwater level is well correlated to the level of the water in the reservoir. As the water in the reservoir rises and so the groundwater level measured from twenty-two observation wells. The rise of groundwater is however associated with non-saline groundwater with the exception of some locations. These locations therefore should be monitored over a long period since it implies the salinity risk as the result of the reservoir operation.

  8. Modeling as a tool for management of saline soils and irrigation waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal management of saline soils and irrigation waters requires consideration of many interrelated factors including, climate, water applications and timing, water flow, plant water uptake, soil chemical reactions, plant response to salinity and solution composition, soil hydraulic properties and ...

  9. Simulated Effects of Soil Temperature and Salinity on Capacitance Sensor Measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric measurement techniques are advancing estimation of water content in environmental media. However, factors such as temperature and salinity affecting the readings require further quantitative investigation and explanation. Theoretical sensitivities of capacitance sensors to liquid salinity...

  10. Mineral resources and mineral resource potential of the Saline Valley and Lower Saline Wilderness Study Areas, Inyo County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wrucke, C.T.; Marsh, S.P.; Raines, G.L.; Werschky, R.S.; Blakely, R.J.; Hoover, D.B.; McHugh, E.L.; Rumsey, C.M.; Gaps, R.S.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area and the Lower Saline Wilderness Study Area, California Desert Conservation Area, Inyo County, California. The Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area and the Lower Saline Wilderness Study Area were studied in 1981-83 using geologic, geochemical, remote sensing, and geophysical surveys and the examination of mines and prospects to evaluate mineral resources and the potential for mineral resources. The Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area has a high potential for the occurrence of gold resources in two areas. One area, largely outside the study area, is in the vicinity of the Crater mine in the Last Chance Range, and it has potential for the occurrence of gold in a disseminated deposit in an epithermal environment. The other area is in Marble Canyon in the western part of the study area, and it has high potential for the occurrence of gold placer deposits. Marble Canyon also has a moderate potential for gold in placer deposits downstream from the area of high potential. Seven areas, scattered from the Inyo Mountains to the Last Chance Range, have a low potential for the occurrence of gold in disseminated deposits, and one area that lies astride the border of Death Valley National Monument has a low potential for the occurrence of gold in vein deposits. The southern end of Eureka Valley has a low potential for the occurrence of lithium and uranium resources in buried sedimentary deposits for the occurrence of lithium and uranium resources in buried sedimentary deposits beneath the valley floor. Demonstrated resources of native sulfur exist at the Crater mine but no resource potential was identified nearby in adtacent parts of the study area. 3 figs. (ACR)

  11. Intermittent saline flushes or continuous saline infusion: what works better when heparin-free dialysis is recommended?

    PubMed Central

    Zimbudzi, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Coagulation-free dialysis, also commonly known as “heparin-free” dialysis, can be a challenging procedure as it increases the risk of clotting the dialysis circuit. Utilizing a better saline flushing technique can lead to improved patient outcomes as well as huge financial benefits to the health institution. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of continuous saline infusion (CSI) and intermittent saline flushing (ISF) in preventing clotting of the dialysis extracorporeal circuit (ECC). Methods Fifty heparin-free treatments were randomized into two treatment arms, namely CSI and ISF. Predialysis full blood count and coagulation studies were performed for all patients. During ISF, 100 mL saline was infused via the arterial line every 30 minutes while occluding the blood inlet line. Normal saline was infused into the ECC at a rate of 200 mL/hour throughout the duration of dialysis under CSI. The ECC was inspected for clotting and graded accordingly post-dialysis. Results Seventy-six percent of the CSI treatments were completed without losing the ECC while 52% of the ISF treatments were also successful. Patients who were treated with CSI were less likely to have clotted ECCs (odds ratio 3.4, 95% CI, 1.04 to 11.2; P = 0.04). No significant differences existed between the two groups’ hematological factors that could influence clotting, such as hemoglobin and platelets. Conclusion This study demonstrates that, when heparin-free dialysis is indicated, CSI might be a better method of preventing the ECC from clotting. There is a greater chance of realizing long-term benefits to patients and the health service with the CSI method since there is a likelihood of a reduction in the use of erythropoietin-stimulating agents and blood transfusions with the CSI method. PMID:23637548

  12. Interactive effect of salinity decrease, salinity adaptation, and chlorpyrifos exposure on an estuarine harpacticoid copepod, Mesochra parva, in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bollmohr, S; Schulz, R; Hahn, T

    2009-03-01

    This study tested the hypothesis: "does adaptation to fluctuating salinities lead to enhanced survival of the harpacticoid copepod M. parva when exposed to a combination of particle associated chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposure and hypoosmotic stress during a 96h sediment toxicity test?" The CPF exposure concentrations of 5.89-5.38mug/kg and the salinity decrease from 15 to 3ppt were based on conditions observed in the temporarily open Lourens River estuary, South Africa, in order to simulate changes during a runoff event. Results of the three-factorial ANOVA showed that pre-adaptation to varying salinities (p=0.02; p=0.001), salinity decrease (p=0.035; p<0.001), and CPF exposure (p<0.001; p<0.001), all had a significant negative impact on the survival rate of female and male M. parva, with a higher sensitivity of males specimens. The significant two-way interaction of salinityxadaptation for females and males (p=0.021; p<0.001), indicate that adaptation to fluctuating salinities was beneficial for male and female copepods, but the hypothesis of a three-way interaction was not supported. However, a trend indicated a lower survival rate of non-adapted females and males exposed to CPF and hypoosomotic stress (38+/-17%; 0+/-0%), compared to pre-adapted organisms (59+/-6.6%; 8.9+/-10%), which requires further elucidation. This study has important implications for the management of temporarily open estuaries in South Africa regarding regulation of freshwater abstraction from rivers. PMID:19081627

  13. Golden alga presence and abundance are inversely related to salinity in a high-salinity river ecosystem, Pecos River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Israël, Natascha M.D.; VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Denny, Shawn; Ingle, John; Patino, Reynaldo

    2014-01-01

    Prymnesium parvum (golden alga, GA) is a toxigenic harmful alga native to marine ecosystems that has also affected brackish inland waters. The first toxic bloom of GA in the western hemisphere occurred in the Pecos River, one of the saltiest rivers in North America. Environmental factors (water quality) associated with GA occurrence in this basin, however, have not been examined. Water quality and GA presence and abundance were determined at eight sites in the Pecos River basin with or without prior history of toxic blooms. Sampling was conducted monthly from January 2012 to July 2013. Specific conductance (salinity) varied spatiotemporally between 4408 and 73,786 mS/cm. Results of graphical, principal component (PCA), and zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression analyses indicated that the incidence and abundance of GA are reduced as salinity increases spatiotemporally. LOWESS regression and correlation analyses of archived data for specific conductance and GA abundance at one of the study sites retrospectively confirmed the negative association between these variables. Results of PCA also suggested that at <15,000 mS/cm, GA was present at a relatively wide range of nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) concentrations whereas at higher salinity, GA was observed only at mid-to-high nutrient levels. Generally consistent with earlier studies, results of ZIP regression indicated that GA presence is positively associated with organic phosphorus and in samples where GA is present, GA abundance is positively associated with organic nitrogen and negatively associated with inorganic nitrogen. This is the first report of an inverse relation between salinity and GA presence and abundance in riverine waters and of interaction effects of salinity and nutrients in the field. These observations contribute to a more complete understanding of environmental conditions that influence GA distribution in inland waters.

  14. Fuzzy Volume Rendering.

    PubMed

    Fout, N; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2012-12-01

    In order to assess the reliability of volume rendering, it is necessary to consider the uncertainty associated with the volume data and how it is propagated through the volume rendering algorithm, as well as the contribution to uncertainty from the rendering algorithm itself. In this work, we show how to apply concepts from the field of reliable computing in order to build a framework for management of uncertainty in volume rendering, with the result being a self-validating computational model to compute a posteriori uncertainty bounds. We begin by adopting a coherent, unifying possibility-based representation of uncertainty that is able to capture the various forms of uncertainty that appear in visualization, including variability, imprecision, and fuzziness. Next, we extend the concept of the fuzzy transform in order to derive rules for accumulation and propagation of uncertainty. This representation and propagation of uncertainty together constitute an automated framework for management of uncertainty in visualization, which we then apply to volume rendering. The result, which we call fuzzy volume rendering, is an uncertainty-aware rendering algorithm able to produce more complete depictions of the volume data, thereby allowing more reliable conclusions and informed decisions. Finally, we compare approaches for self-validated computation in volume rendering, demonstrating that our chosen method has the ability to handle complex uncertainty while maintaining efficiency. PMID:26357141

  15. BEGINNING INDONESIAN, VOLUME 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    VOLUME 3 OF A 4 VOLUME WORK ON BEGINNING INDONESIAN CONTAINS LESSONS 13-18 OF A TOTAL OF 24. THESE SIX LESSONS PROVIDE DRILLS IN BASIC INDONESIAN SENTENCE PATTERNS INVOLVING THE USE OF THE PASSIVE VOICE, PRONUNCIATION TECHNIQUES, ORTHOGRAPHY, FINAL VOWELS, AND FINAL SYLLABLES. LANGUAGE DRILLS ARE ALSO PROVIDED CONCERNING THE MONTHS OF THE YEAR AND…

  16. Microhydropower handbook. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, J.D.; Warnick, C.C.; Bradley, B.; Dodds, J.; McLaughlin, T.B.; Miller, C.L.; Rinehart, G.N.; Sommers, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    This volume includes appendices which present technical and economic information in support of the main volume of the Micropower Handbook. Examples are given of the use of this information in designing, constructing and operating, a micro-scale hydro power plant. (LCL)

  17. Volume-checking tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erbe, C. J.; Poulos, L. J.

    1970-01-01

    Tool, consisting of a graduated storage vessel and a control panel, can determine the amount of gas entrained by fluid in a closed system, the amount of fluid remaining in a dried system of known volume, or the volume of a container of unknown size.

  18. Offshore pore fluid salinity estimation from downhole logging and petrophysical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofi, J.; Inwood, J.; Basile, C.; Bjerrum, C. J.; Otsuka, H.; Valppu, H.; Hayashi, T.; Mottl, M. J.; Stadler, S.; Proust, J.; Mountain, G.; Scienceparty, E.

    2010-12-01

    The mission-specific IODP Expedition 313 successfully cored and logged three sites on the New Jersey shallow shelf in order to characterize Miocene sea-level changes and their relationship to sequence stratigraphy (EXPEDITION 313 SCIENTISTS, 2010). Another unexpected success of this expedition is related to the discovery of relatively fresh pore water 50 km offshore and more than 400 m below the sea floor (Mottl et al., 2009). Numerous questions have arisen concerning the age and origin of such fresh water, and more broadly, the amount of fresh water stored now on passive margins. To answer these questions and understand onshore/offshore fresh water transfers, it is critical to refine the spatial organization of the fresh/salt water intervals and the precise relationship between fluid salinity distribution, depositional environments, sediment compositions and stratal geometries. Because geochemical analyses are carried out at discrete horizons at the scale of a borehole, vertical changes cannot be determined in highly resolved spatial precision. In this context, the objectives are to refine the vertical variability of the salinity thanks to downhole geophysical logs and core petrophysics measurements and in particular, by analysing the conductivity signals. Indeed, in holes M0027A and M0028A, the conductivity log trends correlate closely with changes in salinity measured on cores. Here, we use the Archie equation, which relates the measured formation resistivity to its porosity, fluid resistivity and formation factor, in order to estimate the in-situ salinity. Because this law postulates that the rock matrix is non-conductive (clean shale-free formation), this assumption is in general no longer true for clay rich intervals due to the clay's structure. We use Cation Exchange Capacities measured from several core samples to correct for this effect. Despite the shale effect however, in holes M0027A and M0028A, the formation conductivity appears at the first order driven by water salinity and porosity. In the lower part of hole M0029A, the conductivity shows high variability which does not follow the trend of the chlorinity, remaining relatively high and constant. The shape of the conductivity log correlates with the porosity and sonic logs, thus suggesting that in this hole the signal is particularly sensitive to changes in pore water volumes. EXPEDITION 313 SCIENTISTS, 2010. New Jersey Shallow Shelf: shallow-water drilling of the New Jersey continental shelf: global sea level and architecture of passive margin sediments. IODP Prel. Rept., 313. doi:10.2204/iodp.pr.313.2010; Mottl M. J., Hayashi T. & EXP313 SCIENCE PARTY. Fresh and Salty: Chemistry of Sediment Pore Water from the New Jersey Shallow Shelf: IODP Exp313. AGU, Fall Meeting 2009, abstr. #PP31A-1293;

  19. Modelling Regional Hotspots of Water Pollution Induced by Salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malsy, M.; Floerke, M.

    2014-12-01

    Insufficient water quality is one of the main global topics causing risk to human health, biodiversity, and food security. At this, salinization of water and land resources is widely spread especially in arid to semi-arid climates, where salinization, often induced by irrigation agriculture, is a fundamental aspect of land degradation. High salinity is crucial to water use for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes, and therefore poses a risk to human health and ecosystem status. However, salinization is also an economic problem, in particular in those regions where agriculture makes a significant contribution to the economy and/or where agriculture is mainly based on irrigation. Agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water resulting in lower yields. Hence, not only the quantity of irrigation water is of importance for growing cops but also its quality, which may further reduce the available resources. Thereby a major concern for food production and security persists, as irrigated agriculture accounts for over 30% of the total agricultural production. In this study, the large scale water quality model WorldQual was applied to simulate recent total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to food security. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries, as these are most threatened by water pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use were examined, indicating limitations to crop production. For this purpose, model simulations were conducted for the year 2010 to show the recent status of surface water quality and to identify hotspots and main causes of pollution. Our results show that salinity hotspots mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is by far the dominant sector contributing to water abstractions as well as TDS loadings. Additionally, large urban areas are initially loading hotspots and pollution prevention becomes important as point sources are dependent on sewer connection rates. River discharge plays a crucial role due to the dilution potential, especially in semi-arid to arid regions and in terms of seasonal variability.

  20. A preliminary study of the distribution of saline water in the bedrock aquifers of eastern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryling, Roy W.

    1961-01-01

    The occurrence of saline water in the bedrock aquifers of eastern Wisconsin has been known for many years. Because of the ready availability of fresh water from other sources, little has been known of the extent of the saline-water area. Saline ground water is a potential source of contamination to wells if it moves into fresh-water zones.

  1. Salinity effects on viability, metabolic activity and proliferation of three Perkinsus species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La, Peyre M.; Casas, S.; La, Peyre J.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known regarding the range of conditions in which many Perkinsus species may proliferate, making it difficult to predict conditions favorable for their expansion, to identify conditions inducing mortality, or to identify instances of potential cross-infectivity among sympatric host species. In this study, the effects of salinity on viability, metabolic activity and proliferation of P. marinus, P. olseni and P. chesapeaki were determined. Specifically, this research examined the effects of 5 salinities (7, 11, 15, 25, 35???), (1) without acclimation, on the viability and metabolic activity of 2 isolates of each Perkinsus species, and (2) with acclimation, on the viability, metabolic activity, size and number of 1 isolate of each species. P. chesapeaki showed the widest range of salinity tolerance of the 3 species, with high viability and cell proliferation at all salinities tested. Although P. chesapeaki originated from low salinity areas (i.e. <15???), several measures (i.e. cell number and metabolic activity) indicated that higher salinities (15, 25???) were more favorable for its growth. P. olseni, originating from high salinity areas, had better viability and proliferation at the higher salinities (15, 25, 35???). Distinct differences in acute salinity response of the 2 P. olseni isolates at lower salinities (7, 11???), however, suggest the need for a more expansive comparison of isolates to better define the lower salinity tolerance. Lastly, P. marinus was more tolerant of the lower salinities (7 and 11???) than P. olseni, but exhibited reduced viability at 7???, even after acclimation. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  2. FORAGE YIELD, QUALITY AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION USING SALINE DRAINAGE WATER IN THE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the western San Joaquin Valley of California, many soils are saline and the presence of shallow, saline water tables in low lying areas threatens crop production. Regulations forbid the disposal of saline drainage water in the San Joaquin River and its tributaries. Without a means to dispose o...

  3. Remote sensing soil salinity map for the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil salinization is a major natural hazard to worldwide agriculture. We present a remote imagery approach that maps salinity within a range (i.e., salinities less than 20 dS m-1, when measured as the electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract), accuracy, and resolution most relevant to ...

  4. SALINITY EFFECTS ON COTTON N UPTAKE AND ASSIMILATION OF UREA APPLIED WITH NBPT AND DCD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salinity is an abiotic stress factor that can cause significant crop yield losses. It is usually common in irrigated areas with arid climates. Cotton is classified as a moderately salt-tolerant species with a salinity threshold level of 7.7 dS m-1. However cultivation of cotton in high salinity soil...

  5. EFFECT OF SALINITY ON COTTON N UPTAKE AND ASSIMILATION OF UREA APPLIED WITH NBPT AND DCD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salinity is an abiotic stress factor that can cause significant crop yield losses. It is usually common in irrigated areas with arid climates. Cotton is classified as a moderately salt-tolerant species with a salinity threshold level of 7.7 dS m-1. However cultivation of cotton in high salinity soil...

  6. How Do Deep Saline Aquifer Microbial Communities Respond to Supercritical CO2 Injection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, A.; Billman-Jacobe, H.; Boreham, C.; Schacht, U.; Moreau, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is currently seen as a viable strategy for mitigating anthropogenic carbon dioxide pollution. The Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies (CO2CRC) is currently conducting a field experiment in the Otway Basin (Australia) studying residual gas saturation in the water-saturated reservoir of the Paaratte Formation. As part of this study, a suite of pre-CO2 injection water samples were collected from approximately 1400 meters depth (60°C, 13.8 MPa) via an in situ sampling system. The in situ sampling system isolates aquifer water from sources of contamination while maintaining the formation pressure. Whole community DNA was extracted from these samples to investigate the prokaryotic biodiversity of the saline Paaratte aquifer (EC = 1509.6 uS/cm). Bioinformatic analysis of preliminary 16S ribosomal gene data revealed Thermincola, Acinetobacter, Sphingobium, and Dechloromonas amongst the closest related genera to environmental clone sequences obtained from a subset of pre-CO2 injection groundwater samples. Epifluorescent microscopy with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) highlighted an abundance of filamentous cells ranging from 5 to 45 μM. Efforts are currently directed towards utilising a high throughput sequencing approach to capture an exhaustive profile of the microbial diversity of the Paaratte aquifer CO2 injection site, and to understand better the response of in situ microbial populations to the injection of large volumes (e.g. many kilotonnes) of supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2). Sequencing results will be used to direct cultivation efforts towards enrichment of a CO2-tolerant microorganism. Understanding the microbial response to sc-CO2 is an integral aspect of carbon dioxide storage, for which very little information exists in the literature. This study aims to elucidate molecular mechanisms, through genomic and cultivation-based methods, for CO2 tolerance with the prospect of engineering biofilms to enhance trapping of CO2 in saline aquifers.

  7. Feasibility of Geophysical Monitoring of Carbon-Sequestrated Deep Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Mallick, Subhashis; Alvarado, Vladimir

    2013-09-30

    As carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is sequestered from the bottom of a brine reservoir and allowed to migrate upward, the effects of the relative permeability hysteresis due to capillary trapping and buoyancy driven migration tend to make the reservoir patchy saturated with different fluid phases over time. Seismically, such a patchy saturated reservoir induces an effective anisotropic behavior whose properties are primarily dictated by the nature of the saturation of different fluid phases in the pores and the elastic properties of the rock matrix. By combining reservoir flow simulation and modeling with seismic modeling, it is possible to derive these effective anisotropic properties, which, in turn, could be related to the saturation of CO{sub 2} within the reservoir volume any time during the post-injection scenario. Therefore, if time-lapse seismic data are available and could be inverted for the effective anisotropic properties of the reservoir, they, in combination with reservoir simulation could potentially predict the CO{sub 2} saturation directly from the time-lapse seismic data. It is therefore concluded that the time-lapse seismic data could be used to monitor the carbon sequestrated saline reservoirs. But for its successful implementation, seismic modeling and inversion methods must be integrated with the reservoir simulations. In addition, because CO{sub 2} sequestration induces an effective anisotropy in the sequestered reservoir and anisotropy is best detected using multicomponent seismic data compared to single component (P-wave) data, acquisition, processing, and analysis is multicomponent seismic data is recommended for these time-lapse studies. Finally, a successful implementation of using time-lapse seismic data for monitoring the carbon sequestrated saline reservoirs will require development of a robust methodology for inverting multicomponent seismic data for subsurface anisotropic properties.

  8. Salinity structure of a tidal freshwater ecosystem under multiple tidal conditions, Mission River, TX, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A.; Befus, K. M.; Cardenas, M.; McClelland, J. W.; Moffett, K. B.

    2013-12-01

    The ecological health and integrity of coastal estuaries critically depends on the balance between the quantity, quality, and timing of freshwater inflow. This balance may be upset by subtle changes in numerous hydrologic conditions, including precipitation rates and frequencies, runoff conditions, and tides. Certain hydrologic conditions will create an abnormally long freshwater residence time in a lower river reach--on the order of months between episodic storms--which will drastically alter the quantity, quality, and timing of estuarine freshwater inflow. We term this fresh, tidal, lentic river reach the 'tidal freshwater ecosystem' (TFE) and find that it remains largely overlooked by hydrologic and estuarine sciences. We hypothesize that TFEs occur in coastal rivers with small bed slope and riverine discharge, enabling denser saltwater intruding inland via tidal motion to impede freshwater discharge to the estuary. However, the balance of forces governing the relative rates and volumes of freshwater discharge, saltwater intrusion, and freshwater-saltwater mixing are not well understood in TFEs, especially with regard to the influence of vertical salinity structure (whether stratified, well-mixed, or a combination) on the retardation of freshwater discharge. In this study we sought to empirically characterize the salinity structure of a river known to contain a tidal freshwater reach, the Mission River of southern Texas. During high and low spring and neap tides, we surveyed a ~ 22 km-long tidal section of the river by towing two instruments: a multi-parameter probe measuring temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), and dissolved oxygen (DO) at mid-channel depth; and, at the water surface, an electrical resistivity geophysical cable measuring water and channel bed sediment electrical resistivity. We also profiled the water column every 0.25 km using a second multi-parameter probe. The data successfully resolved longitudinal and vertical salinity variations within the tidal river channel, enabling objective identification of the tidal freshwater reach and quantitative interpretation of the role of mixing in the TFE. For example, under neap tidal conditions we observed a linear decrease in EC with distance from the estuary at both the surface and mid-water column depth, consistent with a well-mixed longitudinal profile. However, DO concentrations did not follow the EC trend, despite relatively constant temperature and pH. The contrasting pattern in DO may suggest biogeochemical influences on TFE water chemistry in addition to influences from the river's density structure. The data encourage further field study and numerical modeling to more completely characterize the physical and biogeochemical function of TFEs, especially whether they may support a unique freshwater ecology while acting as a detaining reservoir for nutrients and freshwater vital to estuary health.

  9. Two-phase convective mixing under a buoyant plume of CO2 in deep saline aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami-Meybodi, Hamid; Hassanzadeh, Hassan

    2015-02-01

    The storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in deep saline aquifers has been suggested as a promising method for stabilizing the atmospheric concentration of CO2. An accurate evaluation of the CO2 trapping mechanisms, such as convective mixing, is crucial for estimates of storage capacity and security. We recently investigated the gravitational stability of the diffusive boundary layer underneath a capillary transition zone by performing a linear stability analysis, which provides a quantitative description of the onset of convection for the two-phase, buoyancy-driven flow in the presence of the capillary transition zone (Emami-Meybodi and Hassanzadeh, 2013). In this paper, we further examine the effect of the capillary transition zone on the onset of convection and subsequent convective mixing using direct numerical simulations. We describe key features of the two-phase convective mixing for systems with low Rayleigh numbers (Ra ≤ 1000) and the measurement of several global quantities, such as the total CO2 dissolution, Sherwood number, swelling factor, and interface velocity. We show that the commonly used assumption of a sharp CO2-brine interface with constant CO2 concentration at the top of an aquifer (i.e. single-phase system) may lead to erroneous estimates of not only the onset of convection, but also of the rate and magnitude of CO2 dissolution. The significant effect of the capillary transition zone on the dissolution of CO2 under a buoyant plume in saline aquifers is explained; and, the link between the capillary transition zone and the volume change, due to CO2 dissolution and the interface velocity over the mixing process, is demonstrated. Compared to the single-phase system, a crossflow through the interface of the diffusive boundary layer with the capillary transition zone, as well as the upward advance of the interface motion, may enhance the convective mixing early in the period of natural convection. The decrease in the onset time and stronger mass flux may be more profound in the two-phase system than in the previously reported single-phase models. Furthermore, we report several scaling relationships that characterize the mixing process in the presence of the capillary transition zone. Our findings provide further insight into the understanding of the two-phase mixing features and the long-term fate of the injected CO2 in deep saline aquifers.

  10. Salinization in semi-arid irrigated agricultural regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ale, S.

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale introduction of canal irrigation systems across the semi-arid regions of the World has disturbed hydrologic equilibrium of many groundwater basins. This has resulted in rise of groundwater levels followed by degradation of soils through water logging and secondary saltbuild-up in many canal commands, and caused millions of hectares of irrigated agricultural land to go out of production. On the other hand, extensive pumping of groundwater for irrigation in some freshwater aquifers has lowered hydraulic heads and induced cross-formational flow from underlying highly mineralized older formations, which led to groundwater mixing between the formations and rise insalinity levels in the overlying fresh water aquifers over time. Some examples related to irrigation induced soil and groundwater salinization from India and the United States will be presented. Potential causes of salinization and possible solutions will be discussed.

  11. Aquarius: An Instrument to Monitor Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Lagerloef, G. S .E.; Colomb, R.; Yueh, S.; Pellerano, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aquarius is a combined passive/active L-band microwave instrument that is being developed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The data will support studies of the coupling between ocean circulation, global water cycle, and climate. Aquarius is part of the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, which is a partnership between the U.S. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and Argentina (CONAE). The primary science objective of this mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large-scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean with a spatial resolution of 150 km and a retrieval accuracy of 0.2 psu globally on a monthly basis.

  12. Salinity modeling by remote sensing in central and southern Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W.; Mhaimeed, A. S.; Platonov, A.; Al-Shafie, W. M.; Abbas, A. M.; Al-Musawi, H. H.; Khalaf, A.; Salim, K. A.; Chrsiten, E.; De Pauw, E.; Ziadat, F.

    2012-12-01

    Salinization, leading to a significant loss of cultivated land and crop production, is one of the most active land degradation phenomena in the Mesopotamian region in Iraq. The objectives of this study (under the auspices of ACIAR and Italian Government) are to investigate the possibility to use remote sensing technology to establish salinity-sensitive models which can be further applied to local and regional salinity mapping and assessment. Case studies were conducted in three pilot sites namely Musaib, Dujaila and West Garraf in the central and southern Iraq. Fourteen spring (February - April), seven June and four summer Landsat ETM+ images in the period 2009-2012, RapidEye data (April 2012), and 95 field EM38 measurements undertaken in this spring and summer, 16 relevant soil laboratory analysis result (Dujaila) were employed in this study. The procedure we followed includes: (1) Atmospheric correction using FLAASH model; (2) Multispectral transformation of a set of vegetation and non-vegetation indices such as GDVI (Generalized Difference Vegetation Index), NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index), SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index), SARVI (Soil Adjusted and Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index), NDII (Normalized Difference Infrared Index), Principal Components and surface temperature (T); (3) Derivation of the spring maximum (Musaib) and annual maximum (Dujaila and West Garraf) value in each pixel of each index of the observed period to avoid problems related to crop rotation (e.g. fallow) and the SLC-Off gaps in ETM+ images; (4) Extraction of the values of each vegetation and non-vegetation index corresponding to the field sampling locations (about 3 to 5 controversial samples very close to the roads or located in fallow were excluded); and (5) Coupling remote sensing indices with the available EM38 and soil electrical conductivity (EC) data using multiple linear least-square regression model at the confidence level of 95% in a stepwise (forward) manner. The results reveal that soil salinity and EM38 readings are negatively correlated with the different vegetation indices, especially, GDVI and NDVI, and positively correlated with T. The models obtained for the pilot sites are presented in Table 1. Although we are still waiting for more laboratory analytical result and satellite imagery for more comprehensive analysis, it is clearly possible to build up salinity models by remote sensing, on which further salinity mapping and assessment can be based. It is also noted that among all the vegetation indices, GDVI is the best salinity indicator followed by NDVI and T. RapidEye image shows lower correlation with EM38 measurements and EC because fallow and crop rotation issue cannot be sorted out by one acquisition image.Table 1: Salinity models obtained from the pilot sitesNote: EMV- Vertical reading of EM38, EC - Electrical conductivity in dS/m

  13. TEP on the tide in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus): effects of progressively changing salinity and prior acclimation to intermediate or cycling salinity.

    PubMed

    Wood, Chris M; Grosell, Martin

    2009-05-01

    Transepithelial potentials (TEP) were measured in killifish, acclimated to freshwater (FW), seawater (SW), 33% S: W or cycling salinities relevant to tidal cycles in an estuary, and subsequently subjected to salinity changes in progressive or random order. Random compared to progressive salinity changes in an upward or downward direction in FW- and SW-acclimated fish, respectively, did not greatly influence responses to salinity change. Fish acclimated to SW or 33% SW as well as those acclimated to cycling salinities behaved similarly (TEP more positive than +15 mV in 100% SW, decreasing to approximately 0 mV at 20-40% SW, and more negative than -30 mV in FW). In contrast, FW-acclimated fish displayed a less pronounced TEP response to salinity (0 mV in FW through 20% SW, increasing thereafter to values more positive than +10 mV at 100% SW). We conclude that when evaluated under estuarine tidal conditions, the killifish gill exhibits adaptive electrical characteristics, opposing Na(+) loss at low salinity and favouring Na(+) extrusion at high salinity, changes explained at least in part by the Cl(-) to Na(+) permeability ratio. Thus animals living in the estuaries can move to lower and higher salinities for short periods with little physiological disturbance, but this ability is lost after acclimation to FW. PMID:19115061

  14. Critical salinity, sensitivity, and commitment of salinity-mediated carbonic anhydrase induction in the gills of two euryhaline species of decapod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Henry, Raymond P

    2005-01-01

    Two euryhaline species of decapod crustaceans, Carcinus maenas and Callinectes sapidus, were subjected to a series of acute low-salinity challenges, and changes in carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity in the gills were monitored in order to characterize the nature of salinity-sensitive CA induction. CA activity is uniformly low in all gills of both species at high salinity, but at a critical salinity of 27 ppt, CA induction occurs in the posterior, ion-transporting gills, with CA activity approximately doubling. This salinity occurs right at, or slightly above, the point at which these species make the transition from osmoconformity to osmoregulation. The regulatory mechanism that controls the levels of CA expression after the initial induction has occurred is also very sensitive. Changes in CA activity occur in response to changes in salinity as small as 20 milliosmoles. CA induction only occurs after a critical minimum amount of time of exposure to low salinity (48-72 hr in C. maenas and 12 hr in C. sapidus), but once induction is begun, it continues regardless of subsequent salinity changes. The timing is most likely due to the time it takes for changes in gene expression and resultant increases in CA mRNA to occur in response to low-salinity exposure, and the delay in CA induction could be an adaptation to avoid making metabolically expensive responses to potentially short-term environmental changes. PMID:15612006

  15. Investigation of rain effects on Aquarius Sea Surface Salinity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Garcia, Andrea; Jacob, María. Marta; Jones, W. Linwood; Asher, William E.; Hejazin, Yazan; Ebrahimi, Hamideh; Rabolli, Monica

    2014-11-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D mission has been providing Sea Surface Salinity (SSS), globally over the ocean, for almost 3 years. As a member of the AQ/SAC-D Cal/Val team, the Central Florida Remote Sensing Laboratory has analyzed these salinity retrievals in the presence of rain and has noted the strong correlation between the spatial patterns of reduced SSS and the spatial distribution of rainfall. It was determined that this is the result of a cause and effect relationship, as opposed to SSS measurement errors. Hence, it is important to understand these SSS changes due to seawater dilution by rain and the associated near-surface salinity stratification. This paper addresses the effects of rainfall on the Aquarius (AQ) SSS retrieval using a macro-scale Rain Impact Model (RIM) in the region of high convective rain over the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone. This model, based on the superposition of a one-dimension eddy diffusion (turbulent diffusion) model, relates sea surface salinity to depth, rain accumulation and time since rainfall. For aiding in the identification of instantaneous and prior rainfall accumulations, an AQ Rain Accumulation product was developed. This product, based on the NOAA CMORPH rain data set, provides the rainfall history for 24 h prior to the observation time, which is integrated over each AQ SSS measurement cell. In this paper results of the RIM validation are presented by comparing AQ measured and RIM simulated SSS for several months of 2012. Results show the high cross correlation for these comparisons and also with the corresponding SSS anomalies relative to HYCOM.

  16. Projections of on-farm salinity in coastal Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Clarke, D; Williams, S; Jahiruddin, M; Parks, K; Salehin, M

    2015-06-01

    This paper quantifies the expected impacts of climate change, climate variability and salinity accumulation on food production in coastal Bangladesh during the dry season. This forms part of a concerted series of actions on agriculture and salinity in Bangladesh under the UK funded Ecosystems for Poverty Alleviation programme and the British Council INSPIRE scheme. The work was undertaken by developing simulation models for soil water balances, dry season irrigation requirements and the effectiveness of the monsoon season rainfall at leaching accumulated salts. Simulations were run from 1981 to 2098 using historical climate data and a daily climate data set based on the Met Office Hadley Centre HadRM3P regional climate model. Results show that inter-seasonal and inter-annual variability are key factors that affect the viability of dry season vegetable crop growing. By the end of the 21(st) century the dry season is expected to be 2-3 weeks longer than now (2014). Monsoon rainfall amounts will remain the same or possibly slightly increase but it will occur over a slightly shorter wet season. Expectations of sea level rise and additional saline intrusion into groundwater aquifers mean that dry season irrigation water is likely to become more saline by the end of the 21(st) century. A study carried out at Barisal indicates that irrigating with water at up to 4 ppt can be sustainable. Once the dry season irrigation water quality goes above 5 ppt, the monsoon rainfall is no longer able to leach the dry season salt deposits so salt accumulation becomes significant and farm productivity will reduce by as a much as 50%, threatening the livelihoods of farmers in this region. PMID:25790459

  17. Identifying the Cause of Toxicity of a Saline Mine Water

    PubMed Central

    van Dam, Rick A.; Harford, Andrew J.; Lunn, Simon A.; Gagnon, Marthe M.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated major ions (or salinity) are recognised as being a key contributor to the toxicity of many mine waste waters but the complex interactions between the major ions and large inter-species variability in response to salinity, make it difficult to relate toxicity to causal factors. This study aimed to determine if the toxicity of a typical saline seepage water was solely due to its major ion constituents; and determine which major ions were the leading contributors to the toxicity. Standardised toxicity tests using two tropical freshwater species Chlorella sp. (alga) and Moinodaphnia macleayi (cladoceran) were used to compare the toxicity of 1) mine and synthetic seepage water; 2) key major ions (e.g. Na, Cl, SO4 and HCO3); 3) synthetic seepage water that were modified by excluding key major ions. For Chlorella sp., the toxicity of the seepage water was not solely due to its major ion concentrations because there were differences in effects caused by the mine seepage and synthetic seepage. However, for M. macleayi this hypothesis was supported because similar effects caused by mine seepage and synthetic seepage. Sulfate was identified as a major ion that could predict the toxicity of the synthetic waters, which might be expected as it was the dominant major ion in the seepage water. However, sulfate was not the primary cause of toxicity in the seepage water and electrical conductivity was a better predictor of effects. Ultimately, the results show that specific major ions do not clearly drive the toxicity of saline seepage waters and the effects are probably due to the electrical conductivity of the mine waste waters. PMID:25180579

  18. Plasticity in sunflower leaf and cell growth under high salinity.

    PubMed

    Céccoli, G; Bustos, D; Ortega, L I; Senn, M E; Vegetti, A; Taleisnik, E

    2015-01-01

    A group of sunflower lines that exhibit a range of leaf Na(+) concentrations under high salinity was used to explore whether the responses to the osmotic and ionic components of salinity can be distinguished in leaf expansion kinetics analysis. It was expected that at the initial stages of the salt treatment, leaf expansion kinetics changes would be dominated by responses to the osmotic component of salinity, and that later on, ion inclusion would impose further kinetics changes. It was also expected that differential leaf Na(+) accumulation would be reflected in specific changes in cell division and expansion rates. Plants of four sunflower lines were gradually treated with a relatively high (130 mm NaCl) salt treatment. Leaf expansion kinetics curves were compared in leaves that were formed before, during and after the initiation of the salt treatment. Leaf areas were smaller in salt-treated plants, but the analysis of growth curves did not reveal differences that could be attributed to differential Na(+) accumulation, since similar changes in leaf expansion kinetics were observed in lines with different magnitudes of salt accumulation. Nevertheless, in a high leaf Na(+) -including line, cell divisions were affected earlier, resulting in leaves with proportionally fewer cells than in a Na(+) -excluding line. A distinct change in leaf epidermal pavement shape caused by salinity is reported for the first time. Mature pavement cells in leaves of control plants exhibited typical lobed, jigsaw-puzzle shape, whereas in treated plants, they tended to retain closer-to-circular shapes and a lower number of lobes. PMID:24942979

  19. Extending electromagnetic methods to map coastal pore water salinities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, Wm. J.; Kruse, S.; Swarzenski, P.

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping pore water salinity based on surface electromagnetic (EM) methods over land and shallow marine water is examined in a coastal wetland on Tampa Bay, Florida. Forward models predict that useful information on seabed conductivity can be obtained through <1.5 m of saline water, using floating EM-31 and EM-34 instruments from Geonics Ltd. The EM-31 functioned as predicted when compared against resistivity soundings and pore water samples and proved valuable for profiling in otherwise inaccessible terrain due to its relatively small size. Experiments with the EM-34 in marine water, however, did not reproduce the theoretical instrument response. The most effective technique for predicting pore water conductivities based on EM data entailed (1) computing formation factors from resistivity surveys and pore water samples at representative sites and (2) combining these formation factors with onshore and offshore EM-31 readings for broader spatial coverage. This method proved successful for imaging zones of elevated pore water conductivities/ salinities associated with mangrove forests, presumably caused by salt water exclusion by mangrove roots. These zones extend 5 to 10 m seaward from mangrove trunks fringing Tampa Bay. Modeling indicates that EM-31 measurements lack the resolution necessary to image the subtle pore water conductivity variations expected in association with diffuse submarine ground water discharge of fresher water in the marine water of Tampa Bay. The technique has potential for locating high-contrast zones and other pore water salinity anomalies in areas not accessible to conventional marine- or land-based resistivity arrays and hence may be useful for studies of coastal-wetland ecosystems. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  20. Nitrification at different salinities: Biofilm community composition and physiological plasticity.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Silva, Blanca M; Jonassen, Kjell Rune; Bakke, Ingrid; Østgaard, Kjetill; Vadstein, Olav

    2016-05-15

    This paper describes an experimental study of microbial communities of three moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) inoculated with nitrifying cultures originated from environments with different salinity; freshwater, brackish (20‰) and seawater. All reactors were run until they operated at a conversion efficiency of >96%. The microbial communities were profiled using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Statistical analysis was used to investigate the differences in microbial community structure and distribution of the nitrifying populations with different salinity environments. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis (NMDS) and the PERMANOVA test based on Bray-Curtis similarities revealed significantly different community structure in the three reactors. The brackish reactor showed lower diversity index than fresh and seawater reactors. Venn diagram showed that 60 and 78% of the total operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) guild, respectively, were unique OTUs for a given reactor. Similarity Percentages (SIMPER) analysis showed that two-thirds of the total difference in community structure between the reactors was explained by 10 OTUs, indicating that only a small number of OTUs play a numerically dominant role in the nitrification process. Acute toxicity of salt stress on ammonium and nitrite oxidizing activities showed distinctly different patterns, reaching 97% inhibition of the freshwater reactor for ammonium oxidation rate. In the brackish culture, inhibition was only observed at maximal level of salinity, 32‰. In the fully adapted seawater culture, higher activities were observed at 32‰ than at any of the lower salinities. PMID:26986496

  1. Salinity Effects on Cracking Morphology and Dynamics in Desiccating Clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarlo, K.; Shokri, N.

    2013-12-01

    Saline conditions induce not only chemical but physical changes in swelling clays, and have a significant influence on the crack dynamics in desiccating clays. In this study, we used X-ray computerized tomography (CT) to experimentally investigate the effects of sodium chloride on the morphology and dynamics of desiccation cracks in three-dimensional mixtures of sand-bentonite slurry under varying rheological conditions. Rectangular glass containers (40.5x40.5x56 mm^3) were packed with sand-bentonite slurries of different salt concentrations, with the top boundary exposed to air for evaporation. The growth and propagation of the cracking network that subsequently formed was visualized in 3D at multiple intervals. 3D characterization of cracking dynamics shows a high extent of localized superficial crack networks at low salinity, with a transition to less extensive but deeper, more centralized crack networks with increased salinity. The observed behavior was described in the context of rheological and colloidal properties of the clay, which suggest the transition from a voluminous and poorly-sorted stacked clay structure to a more compact and highly cohesive entangled clay structure as salt concentration increases in the evaporating samples. This is further corroborated by vertical profiles of sample water distribution, which shows localized uniform drying at the higher salt concentrations. Our results provide new insights regarding the formation, patterns, dynamics and characteristics of desiccation cracks formed during evaporation from 3D saline clay structures, which will be useful in various hydrological applications including water management, land surface evaporation, and subsurface contaminant transport.

  2. The Baltic Sea natural long-term variability of salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimanke, Semjon; Markus Meier, H. E.

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish sea areas of the world. The sensitive state of the Baltic Sea is sustained by a fresh-water surplus by river discharge and precipitation on one hand as well as inflows of highly saline and oxygen-rich water masses from the North Sea on the other. Major inflows which are crucial for the renewal of the deep water occur very intermittent with a mean frequency of approximately one per year. Stagnation periods (periods without major inflows) lead for instance to a reduction of oxygen concentration in the deep Baltic Sea spreading hypoxic conditions. Depending on the amount of salt water inflow and fresh-water supply the deep water salinity of the Baltic Sea varies between 11 to 14 PSU on the decadal scale. The goal of this study is to understand the contribution of different driving factors for the decadal to multi-decadal variability of salinity in the Baltic Sea. Continuous measurement series of salinity exist from the 1950 but are not sufficiently long for the investigation of long-term fluctuations. Therefore, a climate simulation of more than 800 years has been carried out with the Rossby Center Ocean model (RCO). RCO is a biogeochemical regional climate model which covers the entire Baltic Sea. It is driven with atmospheric data dynamical downscaled from a GCM mimicking natural climate variability. The analysis focus on the role of variations in river discharge and precipitation, changes in wind speed and direction, fluctuations in temperature and shifts in large scale pressure patterns (e.g. NAO). Hereby, the length of the simulation will allow to identify mechanisms working on decadal to multi-decadal time scales. Moreover, it will be discussed how likely long stagnation periods are under natural climate variability and if the observed exceptional long stagnation period between 1983-1993 might be related to beginning climate change.

  3. Electroacupuncture Reduces Hyperalgesia after Injections of Acidic Saline in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, Leonardo Yung dos Santos; da Cruz, Kamilla Mayara Lucas; de Araujo, Ariane Martins; Silva, Zak Moreira de Andrade; Badauê-Passos, Daniel; Santana-Filho, Valter Joviniano; DeSantana, Josimari Melo

    2014-01-01

    Background. Injections of acidic saline into the gastrocnemius muscle in rats produce a bilateral long-lasting hyperalgesia similar to fibromyalgia in humans. No previous study investigated the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on this acidic saline model. This study aimed to identify the effects of EA in the hyperalgesia produced by repeated intramuscular injections of acidic saline. Methods. Rats were divided into four groups (n = 6, each group): control, acupuncture, EA 15 Hz, and 100 Hz. Left gastrocnemius muscle was injected with 100 μL of pH 4.0 sterile saline twice five days apart. EA, acupuncture, or control therapy was daily administered (20 min) for 5 consecutive days under anesthesia. Needles were placed in the St36 and Sp6 acupoints. The assessment of secondary mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia, and motor performance was performed before injections and before and after the treatment performed on each day. The paw withdrawal threshold was tested using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test and differences within the group Wilcoxon Matched Pairs. The latency and motor performance were tested for ANOVA parametric test for independent measures, and for differences in the group, we used t-test for paired samples. Post hoc Tukey test was used for multiple corrections. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. Indicate that there was a significant reduction of mechanical withdrawal threshold and paw withdrawal latency 24 hours following the second injection. Moreover, mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia were significantly reversed by EA 15, 100 Hz, and acupuncture. Conclusions. The results suggest that EA high and low frequency as well as acupuncture are effective in reducing hyperalgesia in chronic muscle pain model. PMID:24772181

  4. Salinity and turbidity distributions in the Brisbane River estuary, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yingying; Zhang, Hong; Lemckert, Charles

    2014-11-01

    The Brisbane River estuary (BRE) in Australia not only plays a vital role in ecosystem health, but is also of importance for people who live nearby. Comprehensive investigations, both in the short- and long-term, into the salinity and turbidity distributions in the BRE were conducted. Firstly, the analysis of numerical results revealed that the longitudinal salinity varied at approximately 0.45 and 0.61 psu/h during neap and spring tides, respectively. The turbidity stayed at a higher level and was less impacted by tide in the upper estuary, however, the water cleared up while the tide changed from flood to ebb in the mid and lower estuary. The second investigation into the seasonal variations of salinity and turbidity in the BRE was conducted, using ten-year field measurement data. A fourth-order polynomial equation was proposed, describing the longitudinal variation in salinity dilution changes as the upstream distance in the BRE during the wet and dry seasons. From the observation, the mid and upper estuaries were vertically well-mixed during both seasons, but the lower BRE was stratified, particularly during the wet season. The estuary turbidity maximum (ETM) zone was about 10 km longer during the wet season than the dry season. Particular emphasis was given to the third investigation into the use of satellite remote sensing techniques for estimation of the turbidity level in the BRE. A linear relationship between satellite observed water reflectance and surface turbidity level in the BRE was validated with an R2 of 0.75. The application of satellite-observed water reflectance therefore provided a practical solution for estimating surface turbidity levels of estuarine rivers not only under normal weather conditions, but also during flood events. The results acquired from this study are valuable for further hydrological research in the BRE and particularly prominent for immediate assessment of flood impacts.

  5. Cold Saline Springs in Permafrost on Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldann, Jennifer; Toon, Owen B.

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the research results which have emanated from work conducted on Cold Saline Springs in Permafrost on Earth and Mars. Three separate avenues of research including 1) terrestrial field work, 2) analysis of spacecraft data, and 3) numerical modeling were explored to provide a comprehensive investigation of water in the polar desert environments of both Earth and Mars. These investigations and their results are summarized.

  6. Microalgae from desert saline waters as potential biomass producers

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, W.H.; Alden, M.; Eldridge, P.; Gaines, S.; Meori, A.; Seibert, D.L.R.

    1983-06-01

    Compared with higher plants, microalgae are attractive for biomass production because of their higher yields and photosynthetic efficiencies. For outdoor pond culture, a large supply of uncontaminated water is required. Massive freshwater supplies are generally scarce in areas receiving maximum sunlight, since most freshwater resources are already being used to capacity for agriculture and domestic requirements. Saline waters in the Southwest might be utilized since sunlight is abundant there, and such waters are too salty for conventional uses.

  7. Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Ramsis B.; Otto, Claus J.; Fitzpatrick, Robert W.

    Salinization is the process whereby the concentration of dissolved salts in water and soil is increased due to natural or human-induced processes. Water is lost through one or any combination of four main mechanisms: evaporation, evapotranspiration, hydrolysis, and leakage between aquifers. Salinity increases from catchment divides to the valley floors and in the direction of groundwater flow. Salinization is explained by two main chemical models developed by the authors: weathering and deposition. These models are in agreement with the weathering and depositional geological processes that have formed soils and overburden in the catchments. Five soil-change processes in arid and semi-arid climates are associated with waterlogging and water. In all represented cases, groundwater is the main geological agent for transmitting, accumulating, and discharging salt. At a small catchment scale in South and Western Australia, water is lost through evapotranspiration and hydrolysis. Saline groundwater flows along the beds of the streams and is accumulated in paleochannels, which act as a salt repository, and finally discharges in lakes, where most of the saline groundwater is concentrated. In the hummocky terrains of the Northern Great Plains Region, Canada and USA, the localized recharge and discharge scenarios cause salinization to occur mainly in depressions, in conjunction with the formation of saline soils and seepages. On a regional scale within closed basins, this process can create playas or saline lakes. In the continental aquifers of the rift basins of Sudan, salinity increases along the groundwater flow path and forms a saline zone at the distal end. The saline zone in each rift forms a closed ridge, which coincides with the closed trough of the groundwater-level map. The saline body or bodies were formed by evaporation coupled with alkaline-earth carbonate precipitation and dissolution of capillary salts. Résumé La salinisation est le processus par lequel la concentration des sels dissous dans l'eau et les sols s'accroît sous l'effet de processus naturels ou anthropiques. L'eau est perdue par l'une ou l'autre combinaison de quatre principaux mécanismes : l'évaporation, l'évapotranspiration, l'hydrolyse et la drainance entre aquifères. La salinité augmente depuis les limites des bassins jusqu'au fond des vallées et le long des axes d'écoulement souterrain. La salinisation est expliquée au moyen de deux principaux modèles chimiques développés par les auteurs : l'altération et le dépôt. Ces modèles sont en accord avec les processus géologiques d'altération et de dépôt qui ont formé les sols et qui recouvrent les bassins versants. Cinq processus d'évolution de sols sous climats aride et semi-aride sont associés à l'eau et à des formations aquifères. Dans tous les cas présentés, l'eau souterraine est le principal agent géologique qui transporte, accumule et dépose les sels. A l'échelle de petits bassins versants dans le sud et dans l'ouest de l'Australie, l'eau est consommée par évapotranspiration et par hydrolyse. L'eau souterraine salée coule le long des berges de rivières et s'accumule dans des paléochenaux, qui fonctionnent comme des zones de stockage de sels, et finalement s'écoule dans des lacs, où la plupart des eaux salées se concentrent. Dans les formations bosselées des grandes plaines du nord du Canada et des États-Unis, des scénarios d'alimentation et de décharge localisées conduisent la salinisation à se produire surtout dans les dépressions, en association avec la formation de sols et d'infiltrations salins. A l'échelle régionale dans les bassins fermés, ce processus peut être à l'origine de playas ou de lacs salés. Dans les aquifères continentaux des bassins de rift du Soudan, la salinité augmente le long des axes d'écoulement souterrain et forme ainsi une zone saline à leur extrémité. La zone saline de chaque rift constitue une crête, qui coïncide avec le creux piézométrique. Le ou les ensembles salins se sont formés par évaporation couplée à la précipitation d'un carbonate alcalino-terreux et à la dissolution de sels par capillarité. Resumen La salinización es el proceso por el cual la concentración de sales disueltas en el agua o el suelo aumenta por causas naturales o antrópicas. El contenido de agua se reduce por uno o una combinación de los siguientes mecanismos: evaporación, evapotranspiración, hidrólisis y goteo entre acuíferos. La salinidad aumenta en la dirección del flujo subterráneo, desde los puntos de recarga hacia los de descarga. La salinización se puede explicar por dos modelos químicos que se pueden definir como erosión y deposición y que están de acuerdo con los clásicos procesos geológicos que tienen los mismos nombres. Se conocen cinco procesos de salinización de suelos ligados al agua o a la extracción de la misma en climas áridos o semiáridos. En todos los casos que se presentan el agua subterránea es el principal agente geológico de transmisión, acumulación y descarga de sales. A escala de pequeña cuenca, en Australia Occidental y del Sur, el agua se pierde mediante evapotranspiración e hidrólisis. El agua subterránea salina fluye a lo largo de los cauces de los arroyos y se acumula en los paleocanales, que actúan como depósitos, hasta que finalmente descarga en los lagos, donde se acumula la mayor parte de la salinidad. En los hummocks de la Zona Norte de los Grandes Llanos de Canadá y EEUU, la recarga localizada y el tipo de descarga provocan que la salinización tenga lugar fundamentalmente en las depresiones. A escala regional y en cuencas cerradas este mismo mecanismo provoca playas o lagos salinos. En los acuíferos continentales de los rift del Sudán, la salinidad se incrementa a lo largo de las líneas de flujo subterráneo y se concentra en el límite distal. La zona salina en cada rift forma una cresta cerrada que se manifiesta en los mapas piezométricos. El cuerpo o cuerpos salinos se formaron por evaporación, acoplada con la precipitación de carbonatos y la disolución de sales capilares.

  8. Phytoremediation potential of some halophytic species for soil salinity.

    PubMed

    Devi, S; Nandwal, A S; Angrish, R; Arya, S S; Kumar, N; Sharma, S K

    2016-07-01

    Phytoremediation potential of six halophytic species i.e. Suaeda nudiflora, Suaeda fruticosa, Portulaca oleracea, Atriplex lentiformis, Parkinsonia aculeata and Xanthium strumarium was assessed under screen house conditions. Plants were raised at 8.0, 12.0, 16.0, and 20.0 dSm(-1) of chloride-dominated salinity. The control plants were irrigated with canal water. Sampling was done at vegetative stage (60-75 DAS). About 95 percent seed germination occurred up to 12 dSm(-1) and thereafter declined slightly. Mean plant height and dry weight plant(-1) were significantly decreased from 48.71 to 32.44 cm and from 1.73 to 0.61g plant(-1) respectively upon salinization. Na(+)/K(+) ratio (0.87 to 2.72), Na(+)/ Ca(2+) + Mg(2+) (0.48 to 1.54) and Cl(-)/SO4(2-) (0.94 to 5.04) ratio showed increasing trend. Salinity susceptibility index was found minimum in Suaeda fruticosa (0.72) and maximum in Parkinsonia aculeata (1.17). Total ionic content also declined and magnitude of decline varied from 8.51 to 18.91% at 8 dSm(-1) and 1.85 to 7.12% at 20 dSm(-1) of salinity. On the basis of phytoremediation potential Suaeda fruticosa (1170.02 mg plant(-1)), Atriplex lentiformis (777.87 mg plant(-1)) were the best salt hyperaccumulator plants whereas Xanthium strumarium (349.61 mg plant(-1)) and Parkinsonia aculeata (310.59 mg plant(-1)) were the least hyperaccumulator plants. PMID:26684673

  9. Towards the amplituhedron volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, Livia; Lukowski, Tomasz; Orta, Andrea; Parisi, Matteo

    2016-03-01

    It has been recently conjectured that scattering amplitudes in planar {N}=4 super Yang-Mills are given by the volume of the (dual) amplituhedron. In this paper we show some interesting connections between the tree-level amplituhedron and a special class of differential equations. In particular we demonstrate how the amplituhedron volume for NMHV amplitudes is determined by these differential equations. The new formulation allows for a straightforward geometric description, without any reference to triangulations. Finally we discuss possible implications for volumes related to generic N k MHV amplitudes.

  10. Intraluminal volume homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Aaron M

    2011-01-01

    Volume homeostasis is a common physiological phenomenon for fluid secreting organs, such as exocrine and endocrine glands. It is a manifestation of a finite intraluminal space and an ever changing demand for secretory fluids. Volume homeostasis addresses issues of fluid secretion, storage and clearance for efficient functioning. Here we discuss the evidence gathered over the past 23 decades on serotonin's role as a feedback inhibitor of secretion in the mammary gland, salivary gland, liver, pancreas, lung, thyroid gland and prostate gland. We propose that serotonin action is a common mechanism of regulating intraductal volume homeostasis. PMID:22046455

  11. Monitoring Coastal Marshes for Persistent Flooding and Salinity Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalcic, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Our objective is to provide NASA remote sensing products that provide inundation and salinity information on an ecosystem level to support habitat switching models. Project born out of need by the Coastal Restoration Monitoring System (CRMS), joint effort by Louisiana Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey, for information on persistence of flooding by storm surge and other flood waters. The results of the this work support the habitat-switching modules in the Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) model, which provides scientific evaluation for restoration management. CLEAR is a collaborative effort between the Louisiana Board of Regents, the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources (LDNR), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). Anticipated results will use: a) Resolution enhanced time series data combining spatial resolution of Landsat with temporal resolution of MODIS for inundation estimates. b) Potential salinity products from radar and multispectral modeling. c) Combined inundation and salinity inputs to habitat switching module to produce habitat switching maps (shown at left)

  12. Importance of ocean salinity for climate and habitability.

    PubMed

    Cullum, Jodie; Stevens, David P; Joshi, Manoj M

    2016-04-19

    Modeling studies of terrestrial extrasolar planetary climates are now including the effects of ocean circulation due to a recognition of the importance of oceans for cli