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Sample records for volume saline enemas

  1. Barium enema

    MedlinePlus

    ... series; Colorectal cancer - lower GI series; Colorectal cancer - barium enema; Crohn disease - lower GI series; Crohn disease - barium enema; Intestinal blockage - lower GI series; Intestinal blockage - ...

  2. More Is Not Always Better: A Randomized Trial Of Low Volume Oral Laxative, Enemas, And Combination Of Both Demonstrate That Enemas Alone Are Most Efficacious For Preparation For Flexible Sigmoidoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hookey, Lawrence; Haimanot, Samson; Marchut, Katherine; Vanner, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Colon cleansing for flexible sigmoidoscopy using a standard fleet enema does not provide adequate cleansing in a significant number of patients. We tested whether the addition of a low-volume oral cleansing agent could mitigate this challenge without significantly compromising patient tolerance. Hypothesis: Oral picosulfate with magnesium citrate (P/MC) would enhance the colon cleansing of patients undergoing sigmoidoscopy, as assessed by the modified Ottawa Bowel Preparation Score. Methods: A randomized single blinded trial comparing (1) a single dose (i.e., one sachet) of oral sodium picosulfate plus magnesium citrate (P/MC) administered the night before, (2) a single dose oral P/MC the night before plus sodium phosphate enema 1 h before leaving home, and (3) sodium phosphate enema alone 1 h before leaving home for flexible sigmoidoscopy was conducted on outpatients referred for sigmoidoscopy for symptom assessment. Results: A total 120 patients were randomized to the study groups. The main indication for sigmoidoscopy was investigation of rectal bleeding (n=80). There was no significant difference in bowel cleansing quality, measured by the endoscopist blinded to preparation, between P/MC, P/MC plus enema, and enema alone as measured by the modified Ottawa Bowel Preparation Scale (P=0.34) or the Aronchick Scale (P=0.13). Both oral P/MC regimens were associated with higher incidence of nausea, abdominal pain, bloating, and interrupted sleep than enema alone (P<0.05). Conclusions: A single dose of oral P/MC administered the night before did not result in better colon cleansing for sigmoidoscopy when used alone or with an enema and was associated with more side effects (NCT 01554111). PMID:26986656

  3. Barium enema (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A barium enema is performed to examine the walls of the colon. During the procedure, a well lubricated enema tube is inserted gently into the rectum. The barium, a radiopaque (shows up on X-ray) contrast ...

  4. Butyrate enema therapy stimulates mucosal repair in experimental colitis in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Butzner, J D; Parmar, R; Bell, C J; Dalal, V

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate provides energy for colonocytes, stimulates colonic fluid and electrolyte absorption and is recognised as an effective treatment for multiple types of colitis. AIM--To examine the impact of butyrate enema therapy on the clinical course, severity of inflammation, and SCFA stimulated Na+ absorption in a chronic experimental colitis. METHODS--Distal colitis was induced in rats with a trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) enema. Five days after induction, rats were divided into groups to receive: no treatment, saline enemas, or 100 mM Na-butyrate enemas daily. On day 24, colonic damage score and tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were evaluated. Colon was mounted in Ussing chambers and Na+ transport and electrical activities were measured during a basal period and after stimulation with 25 mM butyrate. RESULTS--In the untreated and the saline enema treated TNBS groups, diarrhoea and extensive colonic damage were seen, associated with increased tissue MPO activities and absent butyrate stimulated Na+ absorption. In contrast, in the butyrate enema treated TNBS group, diarrhoea ceased, colonic damage score improved, and tissue MPO activity as well as butyrate stimulated Na+ absorption recovered to control values. CONCLUSION--Butyrate enema therapy stimulated colonic repair, as evidenced by clinical recovery, decreased inflammation, and restoration of SCFA stimulated electrolyte absorption. PMID:8707089

  5. 21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enema kit. 876.5210 Section 876.5210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is...

  6. Effects of a Glutamine Enema on Anastomotic Healing in an Animal Colon Anastomosis Model

    PubMed Central

    Oner, Osman Zekai; Oruc, Mehmet Tahir; Bulbuller, Nurullah; Ozdem, Sebahat; Ozdemir, Sukru; Alikanooglu, Arsenal Sezgin; Karakoyun, Rojbin; Dogan, Ugur; Ongen, Ayper; Koc, Umit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Anastomotic leakage in colorectal surgery is a very important issue. Although many studies have shown the positive effects of enteral glutamine (Gln) on anastomotic healing, none has assessed the effects of administering Gln via an enema for anastomotic healing. To fill this study gap, this study investigated the intraluminal effect of administration of Gln enema on the healing of colonic anastomosis in a rat model. Methods Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups containing 10 rats each and were subjected to distal left colon transection and anastomosis. Postoperatively, group I (the control group) was administered no treatment, group II was administered daily placebo enemas containing physiological saline, and group III was administered daily 2% L-Gln enemas. After sacrifice on postoperative day 5, anastomotic healing, burst pressure, tissue hydroxyproline levels, and histological parameters were measured, and group values were compared via statistical analysis. Results Group III was found to have the highest mean bursting pressure and tissue hydroxyproline levels and the lowest mean ischemia score. While the values of these parameters were not found to differ significantly among the groups, the lack of significance may have been due to the limited number of subjects examined. Conclusion Administration of a Gln enema may have a positive effect on anastomosis in terms of bursting pressure and histopathological parameters. Future research should examine administration of a preoperative Gln enema as a means of decreasing the traumatic effects of the enema and identifying its applicability in surgical practice. PMID:26817016

  7. How to administer an enema.

    PubMed

    Peate, Ian

    2015-12-01

    Rationale and key points This article aims to help nurses to undertake the administration of enemas in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner, ensuring privacy and dignity. The administration of an enema is a common healthcare procedure, which can be used to deliver medication or aid bowel evacuation. ▶ The administration of an enema should be undertaken by a competent nurse. ▶ An enema is a liquid preparation inserted into the rectum. ▶ The nurse must explain the procedure to the patient and should assist the individual before, during and after the procedure. ▶ The nurse should document all care given. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How you felt performing this intimate procedure. 2. The positive elements of care delivery and those that could be enhanced. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26639291

  8. Malone Antegrade Continence Enema in Patients with Perineal Colostomy After Rectal Resection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Hai; Xu, Jia-He; Ye, Feng; Xu, Xiang-Ming; Lin, Jian-Jiang; Chen, Wen-Bin

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the value of antegrade continence enema (Malone operation) in abdominoperineal resection (Miles' operation). Between January 2008 and May 2009, five cancer patients (two men and three women) underwent abdominoperineal resection and digestive reconstruction by perineal colostomy and Malone antegrade continence enema in our institution. Their functional results and quality of life were recorded. None of the patients died, but two had wound infections and one experienced urinary retention. Patients performed antegrade enema every 24 h with 2,000 mL of normal saline by themselves. The duration of the enema lasted for an average of approximately 35 min, and fecal contamination was not detected at 24 h. Patient satisfaction was determined to be 88 %. Malone antegrade continence enema associated with abdominoperineal resection and perineal colostomy provided acceptable continence. It preserved the body image of the patients and resulted in a satisfactory quality of life. It is a potential alternative for patients who are not willing to have a permanent colostomy. PMID:26730081

  9. Comparison of water immersion and saline infusion as a means of inducing volume expansion in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, M.; Pins, D. S.; Arrington, R.; Denunzio, A. G.; Engstrom, R.

    1975-01-01

    The study compares the natriuresis induced by head-out water immersion to that of a standard saline infusion and assesses the relative effectiveness of these two techniques as volume determinants of renal sodium and water handling in humans in a seated posture. The data obtained show that the volume stimulus of immersion is identical to that of standard saline-induced extracellular fluid volume expansion (ECVE) in normal seated subjects. The ability of head-out water immersion to induce a natriuresis without a concomitant increase in total blood volume and with a decrease in body weight suggests that water immersion may be preferred as an investigative tool for assessing the effects of ECVE in man.

  10. Effect of prolonged LBNP and saline ingestion on plasma volume and orthostatic responses during bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Dussack, Larry; Rehbein, Tracy; Wood, Margie; Steinmann, Laura

    1991-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance remains a significant problem following space flight despite frequent use of the saline fluid-loading countermeasure and volitional use of an anti-gravity suite during reentry and landing. The purpose of this project is to examine the plasma volume (PV), endocrine, and orthostatic responses of bedrested subjects following 2-hr and 4-hr treatments of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and saline ingestion. Ten healthy men were randomly assigned into 2 groups. Group A underwent a 4-hr LBNP/saline treatment on best rest day 5 and the 2-hr treatment on day 11. Group B underwent the 2-hr treatment on day 6 and the 4-hr treatment on day 10. Blood volume was determined before and after bed rest using radiolabelling. Changes in PV between measurements were calculated from changes in hematocrit and estimated red cell volume. Urinary excretion of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone (ALD) were measured each day during the study. Orthostatic responses were measured using a ramp LBNP protocol before bed rest, before each treatment, and 24 hours after each treatment. Both 2-hr and 4-hr treatments resulted in a restoration of PV to pre-bed rest levels which persisted at least 24 hours. This increase in PV was associated with significant increases in urinary excretion of ADH and ALD. Twenty-four hours after the 4-hr treatment, the heart rate and pulse pressure response to LBNP were significantly lower and stroke volumes during LBNP were increased. Twenty-four hours after the 2-hr treatment, there was no evidence of improvement in orthostatic responses. These results suggest that a countermeasure which simply restores PV during space flight may not be sufficient for restoring orthostatic responses.

  11. Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas - Volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofi, Johanna

    2014-05-01

    The Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas - Volume 2 is a publication project in the framework of the study of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. It follows the publication of a first volume in 2011 (see Editors' websites: http://ccgm.free.fr & http://sgfr.free.fr) and aims to illustrate the seismic characteristics of the MSC markers over news study areas. The Messinian Salinity Crisis is a huge outstanding succession of events that deeply modified the Mediterranean area within a short time span at the geological scale. In 2011, a seismic atlas of the Messinian markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas has been published [1]. This collective work summarizes, in one publication with a common format, the most relevant seismic features related to this exceptional event in the offshore domain. It also proposes a new global and consistent terminology for the MSC markers in the entire offshore Mediterranean area in order to avoid nomenclatural problems. Throughout 13 study areas, the seismic facies, geometry and extend of the Messinian markers (bounding surfaces and depositional units) are described. The Atlas however does not provide a complete description of all what that is known about the MSC and about the geology of each study area. Accordingly, illustrations in the Atlas should be used for a global description of the offshore imprints of the MSC at a broad scale, or for local information or site-specific general interpretations. Interpreted seismic data were carefully selected according to their quality, position and significance. Raw and interpreted seismic profiles are available on CD-Rom. Volume 2 is currently under preparation with the objectives : (1) to image the Messinian seismic marker from margins and basins that have not been illustrated in the first volume and (2) to complete the extension map of the MSC markers in the offshore and onshore domains at the Mediterranean scale. As the first volume, Volume

  12. Effect of glucagon on the diagnostic accuracy of double-contrast barium enema examinations.

    PubMed

    Thoeni, R F; Vandeman, F; Wall, S D

    1984-01-01

    The effect of glucagon-induced hypotonicity on the diagnostic accuracy of double-contrast barium enema examinations was determined in 133 consecutive patients in a double-blind crossover study. All patients underwent colonoscopy and served as their own controls by undergoing a double-contrast study after intravenous injection of 1 mg of glucagon and another after intravenous injection of 1 ml of saline placebo, in randomized order. The frequencies of good/excellent hypotonicity and quality of examinations after first doses of glucagon (55.3% and 80.8%) were not significantly different from the frequencies of good/excellent results after first doses of saline (51.3% and 86.5%). The sensitivity was 72.6% after glucagon and 64.5% after placebo; the specificity was 88.7% after glucagon and 77.9% after placebo; and the respective accuracies were 81.2% and 71.9%. These percentages should be used only to compare results with and without glucagon and, by study design, do not represent results of a complete double-contrast study. The variation among these percentages was not statistically significant, but diverticulitis was more accurately diagnosed after glucagon. It was concluded that glucagon does not significantly improve the sensitivity and specificity of the double-contrast barium enema examination and should be used only in selected instances. PMID:6606942

  13. Influence of plasma volume expansion with saline on the plasma levels of an ouabain-like factor

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, A.L.; Morris, M.; Buckalew, V.M. Jr.

    1986-03-05

    Plasma volume expansion with saline activates the cardiopulmonary baroreflex and causes the release of natriuretic factors(s). One putative natriuretic factor has ouabain-like activity (OLA). To examine the relationship between this factor and plasma volume expansion, the OLA of plasma was examined in rats that were volume expanded with 0.9% saline at a rate of 150..mu..l/min/100 g of rat for 15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes. Plasma OLA was quantitated with a radioreceptor assay utilizing /sup 3/H-ouabain and erythrocytes ghosts. The OLA and hematocrit of control rats were 18.2 +/- 2.93 pmoles of OLA/ml of plasma and 43.7 +/- 0.65. After plasma volume expansion for 15 and 30 minutes, plasma OLA was not significantly altered (27.1 +/- 6.64 and 15.3 +/- 2.80, respectively). However, the hematocrit was reduced 13.9% (37.6 +/- 1.34, p < 0.05) and 33.6% (29.0 +/- 1.92, p < 0.01) for 15 and 30 minutes of volume expansion, respectively. After 60 minutes of volume expansion the hematocrit began to recover (33.7 +/- 2.16) although it was still significantly depressed (p < 0.01). At this time point the OLA was increased 248% to 63.4 +/- 22.7 pmoles of OLA/ml of plasma (p < 0.01). At 120 minutes of volume expansion the hematocrit was 38.3 +/- 1.24 and the OLA returned to control values (13.4 +/- 5.17). This data indicates that volume expansion causes an increase in plasma OLA and this increase in activity may contribute to the recovery of hematocrit that is seen with continued volume expansion.

  14. Interfraction Prostate Movement in Bone Alignment After Rectal Enema for Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young Eun; Kim, Tae Hyo; Lee, Ki Soo; Cho, Won Yeol; Lee, Hyung-Sik; Hur, Won-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effect of a rectal enema on interfraction prostate movement in bone alignment (BA) for prostate radiotherapy (RT), we analyzed the spatial difference in prostates in a bone-matched setup. Materials and Methods We performed BA retrospectively with data from prostate cancer patients who underwent image-guided RT (IGRT). The prostate was identified with implanted fiducial markers. The setup for the IGRT was conducted with the matching of three fiducial markers on RT planning computed tomography images and those on two oblique kV x-ray images. Offline BA was performed at the same position. The coordinates of a virtual prostate in BA and a real prostate were obtained by use of the ExaxTrac/NovalisBody system, and the distance between them was calculated as the spatial difference. Interfraction prostate displacement was drawn from the comparison of the spatial differences. Results A total of 15 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with curative hypofractionated IGRT were enrolled. A total of 420 fractions were analyzed. The mean of the interfraction prostate displacements after BA was 3.12±2.00 mm (range, 0.20-10.53 mm). The directional difference was profound in the anterior-posterior and supero-inferior directions (2.14±1.73 mm and 1.97±1.44 mm, respectively) compared with the right-left direction (0.26±0.22 mm, p<0.05). The required margin around the clinical target volume was 4.97 mm with the formula of van Herk et al. Conclusions The interfraction prostate displacement was less frequent when a rectal enema was performed before the procedure. A rectal enema can be used to reduce interfraction prostate displacement and resulting clinical target volume-to-planning target volume margin. PMID:24466393

  15. Fault damage zone volume and initial salinity distribution determine intensity of shallow aquifer salinisation in subsurface storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillner, Elena; Langer, Maria; Kempka, Thomas; Kühn, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Injection of fluids into deep saline aquifers causes a pore pressure increase in the storage formation, and thus displacement of resident brine. Via hydraulically conductive faults, brine may migrate upwards into shallower aquifers and lead to unwanted salinisation of potable groundwater resources. In the present study, we investigated different scenarios for a potential storage site in the Northeast German Basin using a three-dimensional (3-D) regional-scale model that includes four major fault zones. The focus was on assessing the impact of fault length and the effect of a secondary reservoir above the storage formation, as well as model boundary conditions and initial salinity distribution on the potential salinisation of shallow groundwater resources. We employed numerical simulations of brine injection as a representative fluid. Our simulation results demonstrate that the lateral model boundary settings and the effective fault damage zone volume have the greatest influence on pressure build-up and development within the reservoir, and thus intensity and duration of fluid flow through the faults. Higher vertical pressure gradients for short fault segments or a small effective fault damage zone volume result in the highest salinisation potential due to a larger vertical fault height affected by fluid displacement. Consequently, it has a strong impact on the degree of shallow aquifer salinisation, whether a gradient in salinity exists or the saltwater-freshwater interface lies below the fluid displacement depth in the faults. A small effective fault damage zone volume or low fault permeability further extend the duration of fluid flow, which can persist for several tens to hundreds of years, if the reservoir is laterally confined. Laterally open reservoir boundaries, large effective fault damage zone volumes and intermediate reservoirs significantly reduce vertical brine migration and the potential of freshwater salinisation because the origin depth of displaced

  16. Isoosmolar Enemas Demonstrate Preferential Gastrointestinal Distribution, Safety, and Acceptability Compared with Hyperosmolar and Hypoosmolar Enemas as a Potential Delivery Vehicle for Rectal Microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Leyva, Francisco J.; Bakshi, Rahul P.; Fuchs, Edward J.; Li, Liye; Caffo, Brian S.; Goldsmith, Arthur J.; Ventuneac, Ana; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Du, Yong; Leal, Jeffrey P.; Lee, Linda A.; Torbenson, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Rectally applied antiretroviral microbicides for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV infection are currently in development. Since enemas (rectal douches) are commonly used by men who have sex with men prior to receptive anal intercourse, a microbicide enema could enhance PrEP adherence by fitting seamlessly within the usual sexual practices. We assessed the distribution, safety, and acceptability of three enema types—hyperosmolar (Fleet), hypoosmolar (distilled water), and isoosmolar (Normosol-R)—in a crossover design. Nine men received each enema type in random order. Enemas were radiolabeled [99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)] to assess enema distribution in the colon using single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. Plasma 99mTc-DTPA indicated mucosal permeability. Sigmoidoscopic colon tissue biopsies were taken to assess injury as well as tissue penetration of the 99mTc-DTPA. Acceptability was assessed after each product use and at the end of the study. SPECT/CT imaging showed that the isoosmolar enema had greater proximal colonic distribution (up to the splenic flexure) and greater luminal and colon tissue concentrations of 99mTc-DTPA when compared to the other enemas (p<0.01). Colon biopsies also showed that only the hyperosmolar enema caused sloughing of the colonic epithelium (p<0.05). In permeability testing, the hypoosmolar enema had higher plasma 99mTc-DTPA 24-h area under the concentration-time curve and peak concentration compared to the hyperosmolar and isoosmolar enemas, respectively. Acceptability was generally good with no clear preferences among the three enema types. The isoosmolar enema was superior or similar to the other enemas in all categories and is a good candidate for further development as a rectal microbicide vehicle. PMID:23885722

  17. Butyrate enemas upregulate Muc genes expression but decrease adherent mucus thickness in mice colon.

    PubMed

    Gaudier, E; Rival, M; Buisine, M-P; Robineau, I; Hoebler, C

    2009-01-01

    Colonic mucosal protection is provided by the mucus gel, mainly composed of mucins. Several factors can modulate the formation and the secretion of mucins, and among them butyrate, an end-product of carbohydrate fermentation. However, the specific effect of butyrate on the various colonic mucins, and the consequences in terms of the mucus layer thickness are not known. Our aim was to determine whether butyrate modulates colonic MUC genes expression in vivo and whether this results in changes in mucus synthesis and mucus layer thickness. Mice received daily for 7 days rectal enemas of butyrate (100 mM) versus saline. We demonstrated that butyrate stimulated the gene expression of both secreted (Muc2) and membrane-linked (Muc1, Muc3, Muc4) mucins. Butyrate especially induced a 6-fold increase in Muc2 gene expression in proximal colon. However, butyrate enemas did not modify the number of epithelial cells containing the protein Muc2, and caused a 2-fold decrease in the thickness of adherent mucus layer. Further studies should help understanding whether this last phenomenon, i.e. the decrease in adherent mucus gel thickness, results in a diminished protective function or not. PMID:18198997

  18. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished...

  19. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished...

  20. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished...

  1. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished...

  2. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished...

  3. Psychrometric Pressure-Volume Analysis of Osmoregulation in Roots, Shoots, and Whole Sporophytes of Salinized Ceratopteris1

    PubMed Central

    Augé, Robert M.; Hickok, Leslie G.; Stodola, Ann J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Osmotic and turgor adjustment in roots, shoots, and whole sporophytes of a NaCl-tolerant mutant and a NaCl-sensitive wild-type strain of the fern Ceratopteris richardii Brongn. were characterized following exposure to 60 millimolar NaCl, using a psychrometric approach to pressure-volume analysis. Water potential components of whole plants and shoots at full or ambient hydration were similar between strains. Roots of the mutant, however, had osmotic potentials at full turgor and water potentials at zero turgor which were lower (0.32 and 0.46 megapascal, respectively) than those in roots of the wild type after salinization. Although compromised in the absence of NaCl, sporophytes of the mutant strain were larger and much less necrotic in 60 millimolar NaCl after 17 days, compared to the wild type. Root growth in the mutant strain was unaffected by salinization and far exceeded root growth in the wild type. Correlation coefficients of the linear regression and the general consistency and precision of the pressure-volume data demonstrated the feasibility of using PV curves for estimating water potential components of roots. The technique should also provide a means of studying osmoregulation in a variety of other rapidly equilibrating plant tissues. PMID:16667019

  4. Effective damage zone volume of fault zones and initial salinity distribution determine intensity of shallow aquifer salinization in geological underground utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, M.; Tillner, E.; Kempka, T.; Kühn, M.

    2015-06-01

    Injection of fluids into deep saline aquifers causes a pore pressure increase in the storage formation, and thus displacement of resident brines. Via hydraulically conductive faults, brine may migrate upwards into shallower aquifers, and lead to unwanted salinization of potable groundwater resources. In the present study, we investigated different scenarios for a prospective storage site close to the city of Beeskow in the Northeast German Basin by using a 3-D regional scale model (100 km × 100 km × 1.34 km) that includes four ambient fault zones. The focus was on assessing the impact of fault length and the effect of an overlying secondary reservoir as well as model boundary conditions on the potential salinization of shallow groundwater resources. We employed numerical simulations of brine injection as a representative fluid using the simulator TOUGH2-MP. Our simulation results demonstrate that pressure build-up within the reservoir determines the intensity and duration of fluid flow through the faults, and hence salinization of shallower aquifers. Application of different boundary conditions proved that these have a crucial impact on reservoir fluid displacement. If reservoir boundaries are closed, the fluid migrated upwards into the shallow aquifer, corresponds to the overall injected fluid mass. In that case, a short hydraulically conductive fault length and the presence of an overlying secondary reservoir leads only to retardation in brine displacement up to a factor of five and three, respectively. If the reservoir boundaries are open, salinization is considerably reduced: in the presence of a secondary reservoir, 33% of equivalent brine mass migrates into the shallow aquifer, if all four faults are hydraulically open over their entire length, whereas the displaced equivalent brine mass is only 12% for a single fault of two kilometres length. Taking into account the considered geological boundary conditions, the brine originates in maximum from the upper 4

  5. Solar eclipse sign of intussusception on barium enema.

    PubMed

    Raveenthiran, V

    2002-01-01

    The colographic appearance of intussusception is variously described as a claw sign, pincer defect, shouldering effect, and coiled-spring pattern. This report adds a new radiographic sign to the list. An end-on view of an intussusception on barium enema shows a ring of contrast resembling a solar eclipse. Familiarity with this bizarre appearance is desirable, lest it may be mistaken for spillage of barium due to a colonic perforation. PMID:11793074

  6. Coffee Enema for Preparation for Small Bowel Video Capsule Endoscopy: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang

    2014-01-01

    Coffee enemas are believed to cause dilatation of bile ducts and excretion of bile through the colon wall. Proponents of coffee enemas claim that the cafestol palmitate in coffee enhances the activity of glutathione S-transferase, an enzyme that stimulates bile excretion. During video capsule endoscopy (VCE), excreted bile is one of the causes of poor preparation of the small bowel. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effect of coffee enema for preparation of the small bowel during VCE. In this pilot study, 17 of 34 patients were assigned to the coffee enema plus polyethylene glycol (PEG) 2 L ingestion group, whereas the 17 remaining control patients received 2 L of PEG only. The quality of bowel preparation was evaluated in the two patient groups. Bowel preparations in the proximal segments of small bowel were not differ between two groups. In the mid and distal segments of the small intestine, bowel preparations tend to be better in patients who received coffee enemas plus PEG than in patients who received PEG only. The coffee enema group did not experience any complications or side effects. Coffee enemas may be a feasible option, and there were no clinically significant adverse events related to coffee enemas. More prospective randomized studies are warranted to improve small bowel preparation for VCE. PMID:25136541

  7. Daily Enema Regimen Is Superior to Traditional Therapies for Nonneurogenic Pediatric Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Steve J.; Colaco, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of daily enemas for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) in children. This study was a prospective, controlled trial of 60 children with nonneurogenic OAB. The control patients (40) were treated with standard therapies, including timed voiding, constipation treatment with osmotic laxatives, anticholinergics, and biofeedback physical therapy, whereas the treatment patients (20) received only daily enemas and osmotic laxatives. On assessment of improvement of OAB symptoms, only 30% of the traditionally treated patients’ parents reported resolution of symptoms at 3 months, whereas 85% of enema patients did. At the onset of the study, the average pediatric voiding dysfunction score of all patients was 14, whereas on follow-up, the average scores for traditionally treated patients and enema-treated patients were 12 and 4, respectively. This study demonstrated that daily enema therapy is superior to traditional methods for the treatment of OAB. PMID:27336003

  8. Rectal perforations and fistulae secondary to a glycerin enema: Closure by over-the-scope-clip

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi; Masaki, Tsutomu; Izuishi, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Rectal perforations due to glycerin enemas (GE) typically occur when the patient is in a seated or lordotic standing position. Once the perforation occurs and peritonitis results, death is usually inevitable. We describe two cases of rectal perforation and fistula caused by a GE. An 88-year-old woman presented with a large rectal perforation and a fistula just after receiving a GE. Her case was further complicated by an abscess in the right rectal wall. The second patient was a 78-year-old woman who suffered from a rectovesical fistula after a GE. In both cases, we performed direct endoscopic abscess lavage with a saline solution and closed the fistula using an over-the-scope-clip (OTSC) procedure. These procedures resulted in dramatic improvement in both patients. Direct endoscopic lavage and OTSC closure are very useful for pararectal abscess lavage and fistula closure, respectively, in elderly patients who are in poor general condition. Our two cases are the first reports of the successful endoscopic closure of fistulae using double OTSCs after endoscopic lavage of the debris and an abscess of the rectum secondary to a GE. PMID:22791955

  9. Salinization and Saline Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g

  10. Small-bowel enema in the diagnosis of adhesive obstructions.

    PubMed

    Caroline, D F; Herlinger, H; Laufer, I; Kressel, H Y; Levine, M S

    1984-06-01

    The small-bowel enema was evaluated in 60 patients in whom a final diagnosis of adhesive obstruction was made by surgery or on the basis of clinical findings. Distinctive radiographic and clinical features were found with single versus multiple bands. While 72% of 32 single-band obstructions were graded as severe, this grading was given to only 34% of 18 obstructions by multiple bands. Extensive adhesions were demonstrated in 10 patients and presented varied radiographic features. The radiographic diagnosis of adhesive obstruction was found to be correct in 36 (87.8%) of 41 patients in whom a surgical diagnosis could subsequently be made. However, an incorrect radiologic diagnosis of obstruction by metastases was made in five patients. They form the basis for a discussion of the differential diagnosis. PMID:6609596

  11. Salinization and Saline Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g

  12. The value of the preoperative barium-enema examination in the assessment of pelvic masses

    SciTech Connect

    Gedgaudas, R.K.; Kelvin, F.M.; Thompson, W.M.; Rice, R.P.

    1983-03-01

    The value of the barium-enema examination in the assessment of pelvic masses was studied in 44 patients. Findings from those barium-enema examinations and from pathological specimens from 37 patients who had malignant tumors and seven patients who had endometriosis were retrospectively analyzed to determine if the barium-enema examination is useful in differentiating extrinsic lesions with and without invasion of the colon. None of the 12 patients who had extrinsic lesions had any of the criteria that indicated bowel-wall invasion. These criteria included fixation and serrations of the bowel wall in all patients with invasion, and ulceration and fistulizaton in those patients who had complete transmural invasion. In patients with pelvic masses, the preoperative barium-enema examination may be useful to the surgeon in planning surgery and in preparing the patient for the possibility of partial colectomy or colostomy.

  13. Pre-hospital cooling of patients following cardiac arrest is effective using even low volumes of cold saline

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Pre-hospital induction of therapeutic mild hypothermia (TH) may reduce post-cardiac arrest brain injury in patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Most often, it is induced by a rapid intravenous administration of as much as 30 ml/kg of cold crystalloids. We decided to assess the pre-hospital cooling effectivity of this approach by using a target dose of 15-20 ml/kg of 4°C cold normal saline in the setting of the physician-staffed Emergency Medical Service. The safety and impact on the clinical outcome have also been analyzed. Methods We performed a prospective observational study with a retrospective control group. A total of 40 patients were cooled by an intravenous administration of 15-20 ml/kg of 4°C cold normal saline during transport to the hospital (TH group). The pre-hospital decrease of tympanic temperature (TT) was analyzed as the primary endpoint. Patients in the control group did not undergo any pre-hospital cooling. Results In the TH group, administration of 12.6 ± 6.4 ml/kg of 4°C cold normal saline was followed by a pre-hospital decrease of TT of 1.4 ± 0.8°C in 42.8 ± 19.6 min (p < 0.001). The most effective cooling was associated with a transport time duration of 38-60 min and with an infusion of 17 ml/kg of cold saline. In the TH group, a trend toward a reduced need for catecholamines during transport was detected (35.0 vs. 52.5%, p = 0.115). There were no differences in demographic variables, comorbidities, parameters of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation and in other post-resuscitation characteristics. The coupling of pre-hospital cooling with subsequent in-hospital TH predicted a favorable neurological outcome at hospital discharge (OR 4.1, CI95% 1.1-18.2, p = 0.046). Conclusions Pre-hospital induction of TH by the rapid intravenous administration of cold normal saline has been shown to be efficient even with a lower dose of coolant than reported in previous studies. This dose can be associated with a

  14. Long-term Follow-up of Patients After Antegrade Continence Enema Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Anees A.; Fishman, Steven J.; Bauer, Stuart B.; Nurko, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Background Antegrade continence enema (ACE) has become an important therapeutic modality in the treatment of intractable constipation and fecal incontinence. There are little data available on the long-term performance of the ACE procedure in children. Methods A retrospective review of patients who underwent the ACE procedure was conducted. Irrigation characteristics and complications were noted. Outcome was assessed for individual encounters based on frequency of bowel movements, incontinence, pain, and predictability. Results One hundred seventeen patients underwent an ACE. One hundred five patients had at least 6 months of follow-up, and were included in the analysis. Diagnoses included myelodysplasia (39%), functional intractable constipation (26%), anorectal malformations (21%), nonrelaxing internal anal sphincter (7%), cerebral palsy (3%), and other diagnoses (4%). The average follow-up was 68 months (range 7–178 months). At the last follow-up, 69% of patients had successful bowel management. Of the 31% of patients who did not have successful bowel management, 20% were using the ACE despite suboptimal results, 10% required surgical removal, and 2% were not using the ACE because of behavioral opposition to it. Patients were started on normal saline, but were switched to GoLYTELY (PEG-3350 and electrolyte solution) if there was an inadequate response (61% at final encounter). Additives were needed in 34% of patients. The average irrigation dose was 23 ± 0.7mL/kg. The average toilet sitting time was 51.7 ± 3.5minutes, with infusions running for 12.1 ± 1.2minutes. Stomal complications occurred in 63% (infection, leakage, and stenosis) of patients, 33% required surgical revision and 6% eventually required diverting ostomies. Conclusions Long-term use of the ACE gives successful results in 69% of patients, whereas 63% had a stoma-related complication and 33% required surgical revision of the stoma. PMID:21502828

  15. The antegrade continence enema procedure and total anorectal reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zbar, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Patients may present with anal incontinence (AI) following repair of a congenital anorectal anomaly years previously, or require total anorectal reconstruction (TAR) following radical rectal extirpation, most commonly for rectal cancer. Others may require removal of their colostomy following sphincter excision for Fournier's gangrene, or in cases of severe perineal trauma. Most of the data pertaining to antegrade continence enema (the ACE or Malone procedure) comes from the pediatric literature in the management of children with AI, but also with supervening chronic constipation, where the quality of life and compliance with this technique appears superior to retrograde colonic washouts. Total anorectal reconstruction requires an anatomical or physical supplement to the performance of a perineal colostomy, which may include an extrinsic muscle interposition (which may or may not be ‘dynamized'), construction of a neorectal reservoir, implantation of an incremental artificial bowel sphincter or creation of a terminal, smooth-muscle neosphincter. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and their outcome are presented here. PMID:24759342

  16. Lipid volume fraction in atherosclerotic plaque phantoms classified under saline conditions by multispectral angioscopy at near-infrared wavelengths around 1200 nm.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Daichi; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2016-05-01

    To identify high-risk atherosclerotic lesions, we require detailed information on the stability of atherosclerotic plaques. In this study, we quantitatively classified the lipid volume fractions in atherosclerotic plaque phantoms by a novel angioscope combined with near-infrared multispectral imaging. The multispectral angioscope was operated at peak absorption wavelengths of lipid in vulnerable plaques (1150, 1200, and 1300 nm) and at lower absorption wavelengths of water. The potential of the multispectral angioscope was demonstrated in atherosclerotic plaque phantoms containing 10-60 vol.% lipid and immersed in saline solution. The acquired multispectral data were processed by a spectral angle mapper algorithm, which enhanced the simulated plaque areas. Consequently, we classified the lipid volume fractions into five categories (0-5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-50, and 50-60 vol.%). Multispectral angioscopy at wavelengths around 1200 nm is a powerful tool for quantitatively evaluating the stability of atherosclerotic plaques based on the lipid volume fractions. PMID:26861978

  17. Predictions of long-term behavior of a large-volume pilot test for CO2 geological storage in a saline formation in the Central Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Christine; Myer, Larry R.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2008-11-01

    The long-term behavior of a CO{sub 2} plume injected into a deep saline formation is investigated, focusing on mechanisms that lead to plume stabilization. Key measures are plume migration distance and the time evolution of CO{sub 2} phase-partitioning, which are examined by developing a numerical model of the subsurface at a proposed power plant with CO{sub 2} capture in the San Joaquin Valley, California, where a large-volume pilot test of CO{sub 2} injection will be conducted. The numerical model simulates a four-year CO{sub 2} injection period and the subsequent evolution of the CO{sub 2} plume until it stabilizes. Sensitivity studies are carried out to investigate the effect of poorly constrained model parameters permeability, permeability anisotropy, and residual gas saturation.

  18. Efficacy of Combined Mesalazine Plus Corticosteroid Enemas for Diversion Colitis after Subtotal Colectomy for Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Satohiro; Mashima, Hirosato

    2016-01-01

    Diversion colitis is a benign inflammatory process that occurs in any part of the large bowel excluded from the fecal stream by a diverting colostomy. While most of the patients with diversion colitis usually are asymptomatic, a minority has abdominal pain and rectal discharge of blood or mucus. A 65-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed as having diversion colitis with ulcerative colitis at 4 months after subtotal colectomy. Corticosteroid and mesalazine enemas were started nonsynchronously. A proctoscopy after 2 months showed no response. Prednisolone injections were started at 1.0 mg/kg daily, but the mucosal inflammation still failed to improve. A combined mesalazine 1 g plus prednisolone sodium phosphate 20 mg enema was started once daily. The rectal bleeding and endoscopic findings improved. Finally proctectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis were successfully performed. A combined mesalazine plus corticosteroid enema may be effective in patients with diversion colitis associated with ulcerative colitis.

  19. Rhubarb Enema Attenuates Renal Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis in 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats by Alleviating Indoxyl Sulfate Overload

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fuhua; Liu, Xusheng; Zou, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effects of rhubarb enema treatment using a 5/6 nephrectomized rat model and study its mechanisms. Methods Twenty-eight Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham operation group (n = 8), 5/6 nephrectomized (5/6Nx) (n = 10), and 5/6Nx with rhubarb enema treatment (n = 10). The rhubarb enema was continuous for 1.0 month. Serum creatinine, serum indoxyl sulfate (IS) level, renal pathology, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and renal oxidative stress were assessed. Results 5/6Nx rats showed increasing levels of serum creatinine and severe pathological lesions. Their serum creatinine levels obviously decreased after rhubarb enema treatment (P < 0.05 vs 5/6Nx group). The administration of rhubarb enema attenuated the histopathological changes in 5/6Nx rats. In addition, 5/6Nx rats showed an enhanced extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis compared with sham rats, and administration of rhubarb enema to 5/6Nx rats ameliorated tubulointerstitial fibrosis. 5/6Nx rats showed increased serum levels of IS, renal oxidative stress, and NF-κB compared with sham rats, whereas administration of rhubarb enema to 5/6Nx rats decreased serum levels of IS, renal oxidative stress, and NF-κB levels. Conclusion Rhubarb enema treatment ameliorates tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the kidneys of 5/6Nx rats, most likely by alleviating IS overload and reducing kidney oxidative stress and inflammatory injury. PMID:26671452

  20. Development of in situ gelling and bio adhesive 5-Fluorouracil enema.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu-Lu; Zheng, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Shao-Hua; Fang, Xia-Qin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a novel 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) enema with good bio adhesion and temperature sensitivity was developed using in situ gelling technology. The preparation was formulated as a free-flowing liquid before use, while a layer of gel film was quickly formed when administered in the rectum, with a large contact surface area. It also demonstrated good biocompatibility, appropriate gel strength and bio adhesive force with excellent adhesion to rectal mucosa and prolonged action time, allowing more effective drug absorption and diffusion to surrounding tissues. Poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188 were applied to adjust the gelling temperature. With the addition of carbopol and polycarbophil (bio adhesive substances), the solubility of 5-FU and gel strength increased, the temperature of gelation and the surface area of drug contact on mucous epithelium decreased. Decreased adhesive force between the preparation and the mucous membrane of the rectum was demonstrated with improving carbopol and polycarbophil's concentration. In vitro release demonstrated that 5-FU in situ gelling enema with different bases had a rapid and almost complete drug release. We used an optimized formulation of P407/P188/polycarbophil/5-FU (17/2.5/0.2/1.0) for animal experiments. The result showed that the drug evenly covered the surface of the rectum and there was no leakage in 6 hours. The in situ gelling enema showed significantly higher rectal tissue levels of 5-FU compared with suppository and intravenous administration, indicating that 5-FU could be well absorbed due to the enlarged releasing area, longer retention time and larger amount of dissolved active ingredients. Systemically, 5-FU levels in the enema group were similar to those in the suppository group and significantly lower than the intravenous group. The enema was not associated with morphological damage to rectal tissue. These results suggest that the bio adhesive and in situ gelling enema could be a more effective rectal

  1. Fatal hypermagnesemia caused by an Epsom salt enema: a case illustration.

    PubMed

    Tofil, Nancy M; Benner, Kim W; Winkler, Margaret K

    2005-02-01

    The authors describe a case of fatal hypermagnesemia caused by an Epsom salt enema. A 7-year-old male presented with cardiac arrest and was found to have a serum magnesium level of 41.2 mg/dL (33.9 mEq/L) after having received an Epsom salt enema earlier that day. The medical history of Epsom salt, the common causes and symptoms of hypermagnesemia, and the treatment of hypermagnesemia are reviewed. The easy availability of magnesium, the subtle initial symptoms of hypermagnesemia, and the need for education about the toxicity of magnesium should be of interest to physicians. PMID:15759964

  2. Hypertonic saline.

    PubMed

    Constable, P D

    1999-11-01

    A key feature in the successful resuscitation of dehydrated or endotoxemic ruminants is the total amount of sodium administered. Administration of small volumes of HS and HSD offer major advantages over large volumes of isotonic saline because HS and HSD do not require intravenous catheterization or periodic monitoring, and are therefore suitable for use in the field. Hypertonic saline and HSD exert their beneficial effect by rapidly increasing preload and transiently decreasing afterload. Contrary to early reports, HS and HSD decrease cardiac contractility and do not activate a pulmonary reflex. The osmolality of HS and HSD should be 2400 mOsm/L (7.2% NaCl solution, 8 times normal plasma osmolality). Use of HS and HSD solutions of different osmolality to 2400 mOsm/L should be avoided at all costs, as too low a tonicity removes the main advantages of HS (low cost, decreased infusion time), whereas too high a tonicity may cause rapid vasodilation and decreased cardiac contractility, resulting in death. Rapid administration (> 1 mL/kg-1/min-1) of HS (2400 mOsm/L) should be avoided, as the induced hypotension may be fatal when coupled with a transient decrease in cardiac contractility. For treating dehydrated adult ruminants, HS (2400 mOsm/L, 4-5 mL/kg i.v. over 4-5 minutes) should be administered through the jugular vein and the cow allowed to drink water. This means that 2 L of HS should be administered to adult cattle. HSD should be administered in conjunction with isotonic oral electrolyte solutions to all calves 8% or more dehydrated (eyes recessed > or = 4 mm into the orbit, cervical skin tent duration > 6 seconds) or calves with reduced cardiac output (fetlock temperature < 29 degrees C when housed at 10-24 degrees C). For treating dehydrated calves, HSD (2400 mOsm/L NaCl in 6% dextran-70, 4-5 mL/kg i.v. over 4-5 minutes) should be administered through the jugular vein and the calf allowed to suckle an isotonic oral electrolyte solution. This means that 120

  3. [Mesenteric panniculitis of the colon: barium enema, US, CT, and MRI findings (case report)].

    PubMed

    Kebapçi, Mahmut; Adapinar, Baki; Kaya, Tamer; Kebapçi, Nur

    2004-12-01

    Mesenteric panniculitis as an uncommon disease of unknown etiology characterised by nonspecific inflammation of the fat tissue of the mesentery. In this report, we are presenting a case of mesenteric panniculitis of the rectosigmoid colon in which characteristic findings of barium enema, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging were noted. We emphasized the diagnostic significance of these methods. PMID:15611917

  4. Improved accuracy of computed tomography in local staging of rectal cancer using water enema.

    PubMed

    Lupo, L; Angelelli, G; Pannarale, O; Altomare, D; Macarini, L; Memeo, V

    1996-01-01

    A new technique in the preoperative staging computed tomography of rectal cancer using a water enema to promote full distension of the rectum was compared with standard CT in a non-randomised blind study. One hundred and twenty-one patients were enrolled. There were 57 in the water enema CT group and 64 in the standard group. The stage of the disease was assessed following strict criteria and tested against the pathological examination of the resected specimen. Water enema CT was significantly more accurate than standard CT with an accuracy of 84.2% vs. 62.5% (Kappa: 0.56 vs. 0.33: Kappa Weighted: 0.93 vs. 0.84). The diagnostic gain was mainly evident in the identification of rectal wall invasion within or beyond the muscle layer (94.7 vs. 61). The increased accuracy was 33.7% (CL95: 17-49; P < 0.001). The results indicate that water enema CT should replace CT for staging rectal cancer and may offer an alternative to endorectal ultrasound. PMID:8739828

  5. [Prolonged Disturbance of Consciousness following Preoperative Glycerin Enema in an Elderly Patient].

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki

    2016-03-01

    A 94-year-old female patient with femoral neck fracture received 60 ml glycerin enema prior to surgery, according to the preoperative preparation protocol. She was found unconscious and unresponsive 60 minutes after the treatment. Vital signs were checked and ECG monitoring was started. The results were unremarkable and similar to those recorded at the time of admission. A neurologist was consulted, and a thorough evaluation was performed. None of physical and neurological examination, laboratory testing and urgent intracranial imaging revealed significant abnormalities or lesion responsible for the depressed consciousness. Vasovagal reflex triggered by enema and the consequent hypotension was thought to be the most likely cause of transient cerebral hypoperfusion resulting in loss of consciousness. The patient remained unresponsive for the next 2 hours, and came to open her eyes with tapping stimuli. She took another hour to fully regain consciousness without any residual neurologic deficit. Her surgery was cancelled. Vasovagal reflex is known to be one of the potential complications associated with enema. Our experience suggests that the necessity of glycerin enema for preoperative bowel preparation in elderly patients should be cautiously determined and it should be given, if necessary, under adequate vigilance. PMID:27097512

  6. Adding a custom made pressure release valve during air enema for intussusception: A new technique

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Hosni Morsi; Ahmed, Osama; Ahmed, Refaat Khodary

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-surgical reduction remains the first line treatment of choice for intussusception. The major complication of air enema reduction is bowel perforation. The authors developed a custom made pressure release valve to be added to portable insufflation devices, delivering air at pressures accepted as safe for effective reduction of intussusception in children under fluoroscopic guidance. The aim of this study was to develop a custom made pressure release valve that is suitable for the insufflation devices used for air enema reduction of intussusception and to put this valve into regular clinical practice. Materials and Methods: An adjustable, custom made pressure release valve was assembled by the authors using readily available components. The valve was coupled to a simple air enema insufflation device. The device was used for the trial of reduction of intussusception in a prospective study that included 132 patients. Results: The success rate for air enema reduction with the new device was 88.2%. The mean pressure required to achieve complete reduction was 100 mmHg. The insufflation pressure never exceeded the preset value (120 mmHg). Of the successful cases, 58.3% were reduced from the first attempt while 36.1% required a second insufflation. Only 5.55% required a third insufflation to complete the reduction. In cases with unsuccessful pneumatic reduction attempt (18.1%), surgical treatment was required. Surgery ranged from simple reduction to resection with a primary end to end anastomosis. No complications from air enema were recorded. Conclusions: The authors recommend adding pressure release valves to ensure safety by avoiding pressure overshoot during the procedure. PMID:26712286

  7. Enema Use among Men who have Sex with Men: A behavioral epidemiologic study with implications for HIV/STI prevention

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Syed W; Rosser, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Enema use or douching is a risk factor for HIV/STI in men who have sex with men (MSM). However, few studies have explored enema use practices. We examined the frequency of enema use, type of products used, and reasons to use and not to use before and after receptive anal sex in a large sample of MSM (N=4992) recruited from sixteen US cities. Through online surveys, we examined personal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with enema use. Most (52%) participants reported having douched at least once and 35% reported douching within the last three months. While most (88%) reported enema use before receptive anal sex, 28% douched after receptive anal sex. Most participants (65%) used water to douche, 24% added salt, soap, and/or antibacterial products to water, and 30% reported using commercially-available products. Being a man of color (p<0.05); HIV-positive (p<0.001); diagnosed with an STI (p<0.01); identifying as “versatile” in sex (p<0.001); and having more than two unprotected sex partners (p<0.001) were significantly associated with recent enema use. Douching behavior appears closely associated with HIV/STI risk. Douching with water may be a concern since it may increase HIV/STI infection by damaging the epithelium. Development and promotion of a non-damaging, non-water based enema specifically for use in anal sex is recommended. In addition, the seemingly contradictory recommendations that water-based lubricant is recommended for anal sex but water-based enemas are dangerous need to be reconciled into a single consistent message. PMID:24346864

  8. Enema use among men who have sex with men: a behavioral epidemiologic study with implications for HIV/STI prevention.

    PubMed

    Noor, Syed W; Rosser, B R Simon

    2014-05-01

    Enema use or douching is a risk factor for HIV/STI in men who have sex with men (MSM). However, few studies have explored enema use practices. We examined the frequency of enema use, type of products used, and reasons to use and not to use before and after receptive anal sex in a large sample of MSM (N = 4,992) recruited from 16 U.S. cities. Through online surveys, we examined personal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with enema use. Most (52 %) participants reported having douched at least once and 35 % reported douching within the last 3 months. While most (88 %) reported enema use before receptive anal sex, 28 % douched after receptive anal sex. Most participants (65 %) used water to douche, 24 % added salt, soap, and/or antibacterial products to water, and 30 % reported using commercially available products. Being a man of color, HIV-positive, diagnosed with an STI, identifying as "versatile" in sex, and having more than two unprotected sex partners were significantly associated with recent enema use. Douching behavior appears closely associated with HIV/STI risk. Douching with water may be a concern since it may increase HIV/STI infection by damaging the epithelium. Development and promotion of a non-damaging, non-water based enema specifically for use in anal sex are recommended. In addition, the seemingly contradictory recommendations that water-based lubricant is recommended for anal sex but water-based enemas are dangerous need to be reconciled into a single consistent message. PMID:24346864

  9. Salinity Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Walter R.

    1987-01-01

    Discussed are the costs of deriving energy from the earth's natural reserves of salt. Argues that, as fossil fuel supplies become more depleted in the future, the environmental advantages of salinity power may prove to warrant its exploitation. (TW)

  10. Perforated appendix presenting with severe diarrhea: findings on barium-enema examination

    SciTech Connect

    Picus, D.; Shackelford, G.D.

    1983-10-01

    Severe diarrhea and marked lower abdominal cramps are unusual manifestations of appendicitis. The authors performed a barium-enema examination (BE) on 9 pediatric patients who were utlimately shown to have a perforated appendix and pelvic abscesses. In 8 cases, the atypical symptoms initially led to an incorrect clinical diagnosis. In all 9, the BE demonstrated extensive inflammatory changes of the rectosigmoid colon, caused by the surrounding pelvic infection. Recognizing this clinical and radiographic association could lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Novel and Effective Almagate Enema for Hemorrhagic Chronic Radiation Proctitis and Risk Factors for Fistula Development.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zi-Xu; Ma, Teng-Hui; Zhong, Qing-Hua; Wang, Huai-Ming; Yu, Xi-Hu; Qin, Qi-Yuan; Chu, Li-Li; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Radiation proctitis is a common complication after radiotherapy for pelvic malignant tumors. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy of novel almagate enemas in hemorrhagic chronic radiation proctitis (CRP) and evaluate risk factors related to rectal deep ulcer or fistula secondary to CRP. All patients underwent a colonoscopy to confirm the diagnosis of CRP and symptoms were graded. Typical endoscopic and pathological images, risk factors, and quality of life were also recorded. A total of 59 patients were enrolled. Gynecological cancers composed 93.1% of the primary malignancies. Complete or obvious reduction of bleeding was observed in 90% (53/59) patients after almagate enema. The mean score of bleeding improved from 2.17 to 0.83 (P<0.001) after the enemas. The mean response time was 12 days. No adverse effects were found. Moreover, long-term successful rate in controlling bleeding was 69% and the quality of life was dramatically improved (P=0.001). The efficacy was equivalent to rectal sucralfate, but the almagate with its antacid properties acted more rapidly than sucralfate. Furthermore, we firstly found that moderate to severe anemia was the risk factor of CRP patients who developed rectal deep ulcer or fistulas (P= 0.015). We also found abnormal hyaline-like thick wall vessels, which revealed endarteritis obliterans and the fibrosis underlying this disease. These findings indicate that almagate enema is a novel effective, rapid and well-tolerated method for hemorrhagic CRP. Moderate to severe anemia is a risk factor for deep ulceration or fistula. PMID:26925655

  12. Accidental embryo irradiation during barium enema examinations: An estimation of absorbed dose

    SciTech Connect

    Damilakis, J.; Perisinakis, K.; Grammatikakis, J.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to investigate the possibility of an embryo to receive a dose of more than 10 cGy, the threshold of malformation induction in embryos reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, during barium enema examinations. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were place in a phantom to calculate the depth-to-skin conversion coefficient needed for dose estimation at the average embryo depth in patients. Barium enema examinations were performed in 20 women of childbearing age with diagnostic problems demanding longer fluoroscopy times. Doses at 6 cm, the average embryo depth, were determined by measurements at the patients` skin followed by dose calculation at the site of interest. The range of doses estimated at embryo depth for patients was 1.9 to 8.2 cGy. The dose always exceeded 5 cGy when fluoroscopy time was longer than 7 minutes. The dose at the embryo depth never exceeded 10 cGy. This study indicates that fluoroscopy time should not exceed 7 minutes in childbearing-age female patients undergoing barium enema examinations. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. A case of cap polyposis remission by betamethasone enema after antibiotics therapy including Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideo; Sato, Masashi; Akutsu, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Hiroaki; Sato, Taiki; Mizokami, Yuji

    2014-06-01

    We report the case of a 58-year-old woman who was referred to our hospital due to frequent bloody mucus diarrhea. She was diagnosed with cap polyposis based on typical endoscopic and histological findings. Colonoscopy revealed multiple, reddish, mucus-capped polypoid lesions from the rectum to the sigmoid colon. A pathological examination revealed that the polyps were covered by erosive and inflamed granulation tissue with decreased crypt cells. Laboratory data indicated positive values for Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G antibody and hypoproteinemia. Metronidazole, H. pylori eradication, and levofloxacin therapies were not effective; however, the subsequent administration of betamethasone enema dramatically improved the clinical symptoms and endoscopic findings. The hypoproteinemia was normalized after the therapy. The dose of the betamethasone enema was tapered gradually, and no recurrence was observed 6 months after discontinuation of the treatment. This case suggests that betamethasone enema may be considered as the second treatment choice for cap polyposis patients after H. pylori eradication, metronidazole or levofloxacin therapy. PMID:24949613

  14. Small bowel double-contrast enema in stage III ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Wittich, G; Salomonowitz, E; Szepesi, T; Czembirek, H; Fruehwald, F

    1984-02-01

    The efficiency of small bowel double-contrast enema in the detection and localization of tumor- or therapy-induced lesions of the intestine was studied retrospectively in 43 patients with stage III ovarian carcinoma. The radiographic findings in 62 examinations were verified by operative and autopsy findings and by the clinical course. Postoperative changes in the small bowel were noted in 69% of the patients (63% moderate, 6% severe). Signs of acute radiation enteritis were found in 36% (all moderate). Signs of chronic radiation enteropathy were detected in 71% (53% moderate, 18% severe). Small bowel obstruction due to recurrent tumor was correctly identified in 9%. Nonobstructing peritoneal implants were detected in 27% of the patients. The small bowel double-contrast enema is accurate in localizing lesions resulting from adhesions, acute and chronic radiation enteritis, or obstructing tumor; it is less efficient in detecting nonobstructive peritoneal metastases. The major clinical value of this examination is its ability to differentiate "dysfunctional intestine," which is managed conservatively, from focal obstruction requiring surgery. The radiographic features of chronic radiation enteritis on double-contrast enema examination are discussed in detail. PMID:6607594

  15. [Extensive rectosigmoid stenosis caused by caustic enema. Apropos of a case in an African woman].

    PubMed

    Ribault, L; Carli, P; Gabet, J; Martet, G; Gournier, J P

    1988-11-01

    The rectal administration of irritant substances can induce lesions which do not regress after removal of the cause. More or less severe and more or less extensive stenoses have been reported in the literature. The authors report a case of very extensive and very tight rectosigmoid stenosis developing after potassium enema administered to a chronically constipated 26 year old African woman with limited rectal stenosis of unknown origin. Rectosigmoid and left colonic resection with trans-anal recto-colonic anastomosis gave this patient normal intestinal transit and good faecal comfort. PMID:3225277

  16. Complications of barium enema examinations: a survey of UK Consultant Radiologists 1992 to 1994.

    PubMed

    Blakeborough, A; Sheridan, M B; Chapman, A H

    1997-02-01

    Questionnaires were sent to all Consultant Radiologists in the UK regarding complications from barium enema examinations. The 756 respondents performed a total of 738,216 examinations over the three year period 1992 to 1994. Seventy-seven Consultants (10.2%) reported a total of 82 complications including 13 deaths: an overall mortality rate of 1 in 56,786. Only three of 30 (10%) cases of bowel perforation died, as compared with nine out of 16 (56%) cases of cardiac arrhythmia. The only remaining death was a consequence of vaginal intubation. Details of all the reported complications are recorded. This was an entirely retrospective study. PMID:9043049

  17. The role of the Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) in the management of myelodeysplatic patients.

    PubMed

    Zamilpa, Ismael; Koyle, Martin A

    2009-01-01

    Myelodysplasia is a congenital neural tube defect commonly affecting bladder and bowel function. Management of fecal incontinence is paramount to achieve patient independence and self-confidence. When conservative measures fail alternative invasive methods can be successfully applied. The Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) was introduced in the late 1980's to treat spina bifida patients with fecal incontinence refractory to conservative management. Since its introduction, multiple successful variations have been described and its role has expanded. Indeed, the MACE has revolutionized the care of myelodysplastic patients, their bowel function, and ultimately their self image. PMID:21791795

  18. Optimal diagnosis of anastomotic colorectal leak by combination of conventional colonic enema and CT.

    PubMed

    Danse, E; Goncette, L; Kartheuser, A

    2007-01-01

    Post-operative complications of colorectal surgery occur not uncommonly. They have to be detected as early as possible, in order to reduce their morbidity and mortality rates. The most frequent early complications are abscesses, mechanical obstruction, and anastomotic leak. Imaging studies are required in order to assess such complications. We present a case for which radiological procedures were contributive for an optimal diagnosis of anastomotic leak following colo-rectal anastomosis. We emphasize the role of conventional radiology (contrast enema) combined with CT in the post-operative detection of an anastomotic intestinal leak. PMID:18376770

  19. Saline Sinus Rinse Recipe

    MedlinePlus

    ... Saline Sinus Rinse Recipe Share | Saline Sinus Rinse Recipe Saline sinus rinses can bring relief to patients ... at a fraction of the cost. Saline Rinse Recipe Ingredients 1. Pickling or canning salt-containing no ...

  20. [A case of the latex-induced anaphylaxis by contact with barium enema catheter].

    PubMed

    Fujie, Sayuri; Yagami, Akiko; Suzuki, Kayoko; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2004-01-01

    The subject was a 34-year-old female with asthma and atopic dermatitis who had previously undergone a Cesarean section. In December 1995, the patient had an acute abdominal pain, so she underwent a barium enema examination. During the procedure, severe anaphylactic shock developed, and the examination was stopped. The patient responded well to appropriate emergency therapy, and her symptoms were resolved. However, the woman visited our outpatient clinic because the symptoms of her atopic dermatitis got worse. She indicated that she felt itchy when using rubber gloves. Also, at the age of thirty, she had urticaria and dyspnea after drinking a glass of fruit juice. Subsequently radioallergosorbent testing demonstrated the presence of specific IgEs against latex, banana, kiwi, grapefruit, and avocado. Skin prick tests were positive for banana, grapefruit, avocado, and latex extract at a dilution of 1:1000. A scratch test was positive to an extract of a balloon catheter which included 0.3 microg/g latex proteins by the LEAP method. In conclusion, the patient was diagnosed with an anaphylaxis to the latex contained in a balloon catheter used for the barium enema. PMID:14762330

  1. Barium enema

    MedlinePlus

    ... clean. Your doctor will give you instructions for cleansing your colon. During the test: You lie flat ... large intestine. You will be given instructions for cleansing your bowel. This is also called bowel preparation. ...

  2. Comparison of Golytely lavage with standard diet/cathartic preparation for double-contrast barium enema.

    PubMed

    Girard, C M; Rugh, K S; DiPalma, J A; Brady, C E; Pierson, W P

    1984-06-01

    In a two-part study, two groups of 100 outpatients each were randomly assigned a colon preparation. In part 1, a standard 1-day diet/cathartic combination was compared with Golytely. In part 2, diet/cathartics was compared with Golytely plus Dulcolax (bisacodyl). The standard preparation provided good or excellent feces removal in 81 (80%) of 101 subjects. Golytely alone was successful in only 21 (53%) of 40 patients, but Golytely followed by Dulcolax achieved good or excellent feces removal in 31 (82%) of 38. Degraded mucosal coating with Golytely alone, due to excessive fluid retention, was also corrected by the addition of Dulcolax. Golytely alone is not an adequate method of colon cleansing for double-contrast barium enema, but Golytely plus Dulcolax is as effective as the standard preparation. PMID:6609598

  3. Practically Saline.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Jonathan; O'Neal, Catherine; Jagneaux, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In December 2014, the Food and Drug Administration issued a recall of all Wallcur simulation products due to reports of their use in clinical practice. We present a case of septic shock and multiorgan failure after the accidental intravenous infusion of a nonsterile Wallcur simulation product. Case. The patient presented with symptoms of rigors and dyspnea occurring immediately after infusion of Wallcur Practi-0.9% saline. Initial laboratory evidence was consistent with severe septic shock and multiorgan dysfunction. His initial lactic acid level was 9 mmol/L (reference range = 0.5-2.2), and he had evidence of acute kidney injury and markers of disseminated intravascular coagulation. All 4 blood culture bottles isolated multidrug-resistant Empedobacter brevis. The patient recovered from his illness and was discharged with ciprofloxacin therapy per susceptibilities. Discussion. This patient represents the first described case of severe septic shock associated with the infusion of a Wallcur simulation product. Intravenous inoculation of a nonsterile fluid is rare and exposes the patient to unusual environmental organisms, toxins, or unsafe fluid characteristics such as tonicity. During course of treatment, we identified the possible culprit to be a multidrug-resistant isolate of Empedobacter brevis. We also discuss the systemic failures that led to this outbreak. PMID:26668812

  4. Saline Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Figure 2

    These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000 and cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the complementary nature of surface compositional information available as a function of wavelength. This image displays visible and near infrared bands 3, 2, and 1 in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. Figure 1 displays short wavelength infrared bands 4, 6, and 8 as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have diagnostic absorption features, resulting in distinct colors on the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich. Figure 2 displays thermal infrared bands 13, 12 and 10 as RGB. In this wavelength region, variations in quartz content appear as more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple. The image is located at 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. Practically Saline

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Jonathan; O’Neal, Catherine; Jagneaux, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In December 2014, the Food and Drug Administration issued a recall of all Wallcur simulation products due to reports of their use in clinical practice. We present a case of septic shock and multiorgan failure after the accidental intravenous infusion of a nonsterile Wallcur simulation product. Case. The patient presented with symptoms of rigors and dyspnea occurring immediately after infusion of Wallcur Practi-0.9% saline. Initial laboratory evidence was consistent with severe septic shock and multiorgan dysfunction. His initial lactic acid level was 9 mmol/L (reference range = 0.5-2.2), and he had evidence of acute kidney injury and markers of disseminated intravascular coagulation. All 4 blood culture bottles isolated multidrug-resistant Empedobacter brevis. The patient recovered from his illness and was discharged with ciprofloxacin therapy per susceptibilities. Discussion. This patient represents the first described case of severe septic shock associated with the infusion of a Wallcur simulation product. Intravenous inoculation of a nonsterile fluid is rare and exposes the patient to unusual environmental organisms, toxins, or unsafe fluid characteristics such as tonicity. During course of treatment, we identified the possible culprit to be a multidrug-resistant isolate of Empedobacter brevis. We also discuss the systemic failures that led to this outbreak. PMID:26668812

  6. Clinical trial: free fatty acid suppositories compared with enema as bowel preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ormarsson, Orri Thor; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Stefansson, Einar; Kristinsson, Jon Orvar; Lund, Sigrun Helga; Bjornsson, Einar Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of recently developed suppositories containing free fatty acids as a bowel-cleansing agent prior to flexible sigmoidoscopy and compare them with Klyx (docusate sodium/sorbitol). Design A controlled, non-inferiority, single-blind, randomised study on outpatients undergoing flexible sigmoidoscopy. Setting Department of Gastroenterology, Landspitali-University Hospital and endoscopic clinic. Patients 53 outpatients undergoing flexible sigmoidoscopy. Intervention Participants were randomised to receive either free fatty acid suppositories (28) or a standard bowel preparation with Klyx enema (25). In the study group, two suppositories were administered the evening before as well as 2 h prior to the sigmoidoscopy. In the control group, Klyx enema (120 mL) was administered the evening before and repeated 2 h prior to the procedure. Main outcome measurements Quality of the bowel cleansing, height of scope insertion and safety. Results The mean height of scope insertion and bowel cleansing was 43 cm (SD=13.4) in the study group and 48 cm (SD=10.4) in the control group (NS). The investigating physicians were less satisfied with the bowel preparation in the study group compared with the control group with a difference of 20% (p<0.016). The amount of faeces noted in the rectum was similar in both groups with no significant difference (p<0.56). No serious side effects, toxic reaction or irritation were observed. Conclusions The suppositories are well tolerated with no significant side effects. The suppositories had distinct bowel emptying effect and as effective as Klyx in rectal cleansing. Although physician's satisfaction was slightly lower, the height of scope insertion was similar. Trial registration number EudraCT nr.: 2010-018761-35. PMID:26500756

  7. A clinical study comparing BIVAP saline vaporization of the prostate with bipolar TURP in patients with prostate volume 30 to 80 mL: Early complications, physiological changes and postoperative follow-up outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Aydogdu, Ozgu; Karakose, Ayhan; Atesci, Yusuf Ziya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We compare BIVAP saline vaporization of the prostate with bipolar transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Methods: In total, we included 86 patients treated with BIVAP (n = 44) and bipolar TURP (n = 42). The inclusion criteria were maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) ≤10 mL/s, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) ≥16, and prostate volume measured with transrectal ultrasound scan between 30 and 80 mL. Serum electrolyte, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels were determined preoperatively and postoperatively. All patients were evaluated at the postoperative first and third months and the IPSS score, post-void residual urinary volume (PVR), Qmax, and average urinary flow rate (Qave) were compared. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 16.0 program and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Preoperative demographic characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. The mean operation time was significantly higher (p = 0.02) and hospitalization time was significantly lower (p = 0.04) in the BIVAP group when compared to the bipolar TURP group. There was no significant difference between 2 groups in terms of preoperative and postoperative serum electrolyte, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Postoperative complication rates were similar in the 2 groups. The only exception was the rate of severe dysuria, which was significantly higher in the BIVAP group. No statistical difference was noted between the groups in terms of postoperative follow-up results. Conclusion: Bipolar TURP is a safe and highly effective technique which can be used in the surgical treatment of benign prostatic obstruction with minimal side effects. BIVAP saline vaporization of the prostate seems to be a potential alternative to bipolar TURP with shorter hospitalization time. PMID:25132894

  8. Medical device; exemption from premarket notification; class II devices; barium enema retention catheters and tips with or without a bag. Food and Drug Administration, HHS. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2000-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing an order granting a petition requesting exemption from the premarket notification requirements for barium enema retention catheters and tips with or without a bag with certain limitations. This rule will exempt from premarket notification barium enema retention catheters and tips with or without a bag. FDA is publishing this order in accordance with procedures established by the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA). PMID:11503724

  9. [Colonic radiography by double-contrast enema in the elderly patient with the use of trimebutine maleate].

    PubMed

    Natoli, A; Branca, S; Granata, A; Lavagnini, L

    1992-04-01

    About 15% of hospitalizations of patients over 65 are due to disorders of the colon which means that accurate analysis of history and clinical and instrumental investigation are mandatory. Our attention has been focused on x-ray examination using a double-contrast enema which, together with endoscopy, permits to diagnose colonic disorders with significant reliability. Our aim was to adapt the method to the special needs of the patient over 65 by employing the active substance trimebutine maleate (M.T.) as a "contact" pressure-lowering agent. Thirty-five subjects aged 65-75 with pathologies implying a risk for the use of parasympatholytic agents were examined. None of these patients showed side effects. It can therefore be said that the use of M.T. as a hypotonic agent in double-contrast enemas is an indisputable diagnostic aid. PMID:1587122

  10. Reducing Antibiotic Use for Young Children with Intussusception following Successful Air Enema Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yinghui; Ye, Weimin; Chen, Xingdong; Liu, Qian; Liu, Huandi; Si, Chunfeng; Jia, Hongying

    2015-01-01

    China introduced a new policy regarding the management of antibiotic use. We evaluated the reasonableness of antibiotic use among children suffering from intussusception before and after policy. A retrospective study was conducted involving 234 young children with intussusception who were treated between January 1, 2011 and December 30, 2013. Demographics and detailed antibiotics regimens were collected. χ2 test was used to evaluate differences between the phase I (preintervention, n = 68) and phase II (postintervention, n = 166). We determined that the overall antibiotic use rate following successful air enema reduction was 41% (97/234), which decreased from 99% (67/68) in phase I to 18% (30/166) in phase II. In phase I, prophylactic antibiotic usage reached up to 84% (56/67). The quantity of aztreonam for injection accounted for 63% (45/71), and cefamandole nafate for injection accounted for 25% (18/71). In phases II, prophylactic antibiotic usage were reduced to 13% (4/30). The quantity of aztreonam for injection was decreased to 12% (4/33) and cefamandole nafate for injection was 3% (1/33). Antibiotics' options were more diverse. In conclusion, policy intervention was effective in addressing some aspects of antibacterial drug usage among young children with intussusception. However, excessive drug use remains a public health problem. The guidelines for the antibiotic management of intussusception for children must be established in China. PMID:26569111

  11. Effect of Basti (oil enema) therapy for the management of cough in pertussis.

    PubMed

    Gujarathi, Rahul H; Gokhale, Vivek M; Tongaonkar, Jayashree N

    2013-10-01

    Bordetella pertussis continues to circulate even in countries with good childhood vaccination coverage. Sporadic cases are still observed either due to no vaccination, incomplete vaccination or as a result of failure of vaccination. Though acute in nature it has a longer disease span with multiple life-threatening complications despite adequate management. This study was undertaken to study the effect of Sneha Basti (oil enema) in pertussis in relation to reduction in intensity of cough and complications of the disease when administered along with the conventional pharmacological therapy. Patients with the clinical picture mimicking pertussis were screened, investigated for pertussis and appropriate conventional pharmacological therapy of Erythromycin a preferred antimicrobial agent was started. Concurrently, Sneha Basti was administered to these two children. Both patients showed favourable results in terms of reduction of Kasa (cough) and the disease period with a faster recovery when compared to conventional therapy alone as has been observed routinely. No complications incurred during the complete disease span. It was concluded that if the pharmacological therapy is augmented with the complimentary systems of medicines, it can reduce the prolonged span and intensity of the disease and prevent other complications. PMID:24696577

  12. On observing acoustic backscattering from salinity turbulence.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Louis; Sastre-Cordova, Marcos M

    2011-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that at sufficiently high levels of oceanic salinity turbulence it should be possible to observe acoustic backscattering. However, there have been limited in situ measurements to confirm this hypothesis. Using an autonomous underwater vehicle equipped with upward and downward looking 1.2 MHz acoustic Doppler current profilers and with turbulence and fine scale sensors, measurements were performed in a region of intense turbulence and a strong salinity gradient. The approach taken was to correlate variations in the backscattered acoustic intensity, I, with a theoretical acoustic backscattering cross section per volume for salinity turbulence, σ(s), to obtain an estimated scattering cross section per volume, σ(e). Results indicated that of order 50% of the observed region was characterized by salinity turbulence induced backscattering. PMID:21877785

  13. Measuring Salinity by Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapworth, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    Outlines procedures for constructing an instrument which uses an electrode and calibration methods to measure the salinity of waters in environments close to and affected by a saline estuary. (Author/DC)

  14. Contrast Enema for Hirschsprung Disease Investigation: Diagnostic Accuracy and Validity for Subsequent Diagnostic and Surgical Planning.

    PubMed

    Frongia, Giovanni; Günther, Patrick; Schenk, Jens-Peter; Strube, Kai; Kessler, Markus; Mehrabi, Arianeb; Romero, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    Introduction A targeted Hirschsprung disease (HD) diagnostic is necessary, as it determines a specific approach primarily based on surgical resection of the affected aganglionic colonic segment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a contrast enema (CE) for HD diagnosis and to determine whether it should be performed before or after rectal biopsies (RBs). Methods A retrospective observational study of children undergoing RB for HD investigation was performed. In the performed CE, the occurrence and the level of a colonic caliber change (CCC) were recorded and its concordance with the histologically assessed level of aganglionosis by RB and the odds ratio were calculated. Results A total of 107 cases were included. Sensitivity and specificity for a CCC in CE were 74.1% and 94.6%. A CCC present in CE was associated with a 50-fold increased probability for a histologically proven HD. The overall concordance between a CCC and the histologically assessed level of aganglionosis was high (kappa 0.642, p = 0.003), being correct in 94.4% of cases when the CCC was located in the rectosigmoid, but only in 50% of cases when it was located in more proximal segments. By performing a CE only after HD diagnosis confirmation by RB would avoid 67.5% of CE with no loss of diagnostic accuracy. Conclusion We confirm that CE is a valuable tool for HD diagnosis; however, it should only be performed for subsequent diagnostic and surgical planning following histological confirmation of HD by RB. On the basis of this, an algorithm for an optimized investigation and management of HD is presented. PMID:25803244

  15. Phased surgical treatment of barium enema-induced rectal injury and retention of barium in the pelvic floor space

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuefei; Xia, Ligang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Iatrogenic injuries caused by barium enema are rarely reported. Following a phased surgical protocol for up to one year, we have successfully treated a patient with rectal injury and severe infection of the pelvic floor space complicated with retention of large amounts of barium and vaginal fistula. In this article, the phased surgery planning for the treatment of rectal injury complicated with vaginal fistula is discussed in terms of the pros and cons, and the observed effect and evolution of barium retained in the pelvic floor space are described. PMID:25405155

  16. Effect of Majja Basti (therapeutic enema) and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) in the management of Osteoporosis (Asthi-Majjakshaya)

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ajay K.; Shah, Nehal; Thakar, A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder that affects entire skeleton, which is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of the skeleton, leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk. In Ayurveda, it can be correlated with Asthi-Majjakshaya. Basti (therapeutic enema) is the prime therapy for Asthi related diseases and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) is the drug which is being used for strengthening of bone by traditional Vaidya since long. It has been selected for oral administration. In clinical trial, 12 patients treated with Majja Basti along with Asthi Shrinkhala pulp capsules and results are very encouraging. PMID:23049194

  17. 0.9% saline is neither normal nor physiological

    PubMed Central

    Li, Heng; Sun, Shi-ren; Yap, John Q.; Chen, Jiang-hua; Qian, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to objectively evaluate the biochemical and pathophysiological properties of 0.9% saline (henceforth: saline) and to discuss the impact of saline infusion, specifically on systemic acid-base balance and renal hemodynamics. Studies have shown that electrolyte balance, including effects of saline infusion on serum electrolytes, is often poorly understood among practicing physicians and inappropriate saline prescribing can cause increased morbidity and mortality. Large-volume (>2 L) saline infusion in healthy adults induces hyperchloremia which is associated with metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia, and negative protein balance. Saline overload (80 ml/kg) in rodents can cause intestinal edema and contractile dysfunction associated with activation of sodium-proton exchanger (NHE) and decrease in myosin light chain phosphorylation. Saline infusion can also adversely affect renal hemodynamics. Microperfusion experiments and real-time imaging studies have demonstrated a reduction in renal perfusion and an expansion in kidney volume, compromising O2 delivery to the renal parenchyma following saline infusion. Clinically, saline infusion for patients post abdominal and cardiovascular surgery is associated with a greater number of adverse effects including more frequent blood product transfusion and bicarbonate therapy, reduced gastric blood flow, delayed recovery of gut function, impaired cardiac contractility in response to inotropes, prolonged hospital stay, and possibly increased mortality. In critically ill patients, saline infusion, compared to balanced fluid infusions, increases the occurrence of acute kidney injury. In summary, saline is a highly acidic fluid. With the exception of saline infusion for patients with hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis and volume depletion due to vomiting or upper gastrointestinal suction, indiscriminate use, especially for acutely ill patients, may cause unnecessary complications and should be avoided. More

  18. 0.9% saline is neither normal nor physiological.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng; Sun, Shi-Ren; Yap, John Q; Chen, Jiang-Hua; Qian, Qi

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to objectively evaluate the biochemical and pathophysiological properties of 0.9% saline (henceforth: saline) and to discuss the impact of saline infusion, specifically on systemic acid-base balance and renal hemodynamics. Studies have shown that electrolyte balance, including effects of saline infusion on serum electrolytes, is often poorly understood among practicing physicians and inappropriate saline prescribing can cause increased morbidity and mortality. Large-volume (>2 L) saline infusion in healthy adults induces hyperchloremia which is associated with metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia, and negative protein balance. Saline overload (80 ml/kg) in rodents can cause intestinal edema and contractile dysfunction associated with activation of sodium-proton exchanger (NHE) and decrease in myosin light chain phosphorylation. Saline infusion can also adversely affect renal hemodynamics. Microperfusion experiments and real-time imaging studies have demonstrated a reduction in renal perfusion and an expansion in kidney volume, compromising O2 delivery to the renal parenchyma following saline infusion. Clinically, saline infusion for patients post abdominal and cardiovascular surgery is associated with a greater number of adverse effects including more frequent blood product transfusion and bicarbonate therapy, reduced gastric blood flow, delayed recovery of gut function, impaired cardiac contractility in response to inotropes, prolonged hospital stay, and possibly increased mortality. In critically ill patients, saline infusion, compared to balanced fluid infusions, increases the occurrence of acute kidney injury. In summary, saline is a highly acidic fluid. With the exception of saline infusion for patients with hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis and volume depletion due to vomiting or upper gastrointestinal suction, indiscriminate use, especially for acutely ill patients, may cause unnecessary complications and should be avoided. More

  19. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  20. Dietary Geraniol by Oral or Enema Administration Strongly Reduces Dysbiosis and Systemic Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Treated Mice.

    PubMed

    De Fazio, Luigia; Spisni, Enzo; Cavazza, Elena; Strillacci, Antonio; Candela, Marco; Centanni, Manuela; Ricci, Chiara; Rizzello, Fernando; Campieri, Massimo; Valerii, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    (Trans)-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol, commonly called geraniol (Ge-OH), is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol with well-known anti-inflammatory, antitumoral, and antimicrobial properties. It is widely used as a preservative in the food industry and as an antimicrobial agent in animal farming. The present study investigated the role of Ge-OH as an anti-inflammatory and anti-dysbiotic agent in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. Ge-OH was orally administered to C57BL/6 mice at daily doses of 30 and 120 mg kg((-1)) body weight, starting 6 days before DSS treatment and ending the day after DSS removal. Furthermore, Ge-OH 120 mg kg((-1)) dose body weight was administered via enema during the acute phase of colitis to facilitate its on-site action. The results show that orally or enema-administered Ge-OH is a powerful antimicrobial agent able to prevent colitis-associated dysbiosis and decrease the inflammatory systemic profile of colitic mice. As a whole, Ge-OH strongly improved the clinical signs of colitis and significantly reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in colonocytes and in the gut wall. Ge-OH could be a powerful drug for the treatment of intestinal inflammation and dysbiosis. PMID:26973525

  1. Dietary Geraniol by Oral or Enema Administration Strongly Reduces Dysbiosis and Systemic Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    De Fazio, Luigia; Spisni, Enzo; Cavazza, Elena; Strillacci, Antonio; Candela, Marco; Centanni, Manuela; Ricci, Chiara; Rizzello, Fernando; Campieri, Massimo; Valerii, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    (Trans)-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol, commonly called geraniol (Ge-OH), is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol with well-known anti-inflammatory, antitumoral, and antimicrobial properties. It is widely used as a preservative in the food industry and as an antimicrobial agent in animal farming. The present study investigated the role of Ge-OH as an anti-inflammatory and anti-dysbiotic agent in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. Ge-OH was orally administered to C57BL/6 mice at daily doses of 30 and 120 mg kg(−1) body weight, starting 6 days before DSS treatment and ending the day after DSS removal. Furthermore, Ge-OH 120 mg kg(−1) dose body weight was administered via enema during the acute phase of colitis to facilitate its on-site action. The results show that orally or enema-administered Ge-OH is a powerful antimicrobial agent able to prevent colitis-associated dysbiosis and decrease the inflammatory systemic profile of colitic mice. As a whole, Ge-OH strongly improved the clinical signs of colitis and significantly reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in colonocytes and in the gut wall. Ge-OH could be a powerful drug for the treatment of intestinal inflammation and dysbiosis. PMID:26973525

  2. Salinity Management in Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Existing guidelines and standards for reclamation of saline soils and management to control salinity exist but have not been updated for over 25 years. In the past few years a looming water scarcity has resulted in questioning of the long term future of irrigation projects in arid and semi arid regi...

  3. Oral 5-Aminosalicylate, Mesalamine Suppository, and Mesalamine Enema as Initial Therapy for Ulcerative Proctitis in Clinical Practice with Quality of Care Implications

    PubMed Central

    Richter, James M.; Arshi, Nabeela K.; Oster, Gerry

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ulcerative proctitis (UP) is typically treated initially with oral 5-aminosalicylate (“5-ASA”), mesalamine suppository, or mesalamine enema (“UP Rx”). Little is known about their effectiveness in practice. Methods. Using a US health insurance database, we identified new-onset UP patients between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2007, based on the following: (1) initiation of UP Rx; (2) endoscopy in prior 30 days resulting in diagnosis of UP; and (3) no prior encounters for ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. We examined the incidence of therapy escalation and total costs in relation to initial UP Rx. Results. We identified 548 patients: 327 received mesalamine suppository, 138 received oral 5-ASA, and 83 received mesalamine enema, as initial UP Rx. One-third receiving oral 5-ASA experienced therapy escalation over 12 months, 21% for both mesalamine suppository and enema. Mean cumulative total cost of UP Rx over 12 months was $1552, $996, and $986 for patients beginning therapy with oral 5-ASA, mesalamine enema, and mesalamine suppository, respectively. Contrary to expert recommendations the treatments were often not continued prophylactically. Conclusions. Treatment escalation was common, and total costs of therapy were higher, in patients who initiated treatment with oral 5-ASA. Further study is necessary to assess the significance of these observations. PMID:27446860

  4. Flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy and double-contrast barium-enema examination in the identification of adenomas and carcinoma of the colon.

    PubMed

    Farrands, P A; Vellacott, K D; Amar, S S; Balfour, T W; Hardcastle, J D

    1983-11-01

    To assess the accuracy of the flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscope, 227 consecutive patients (mean age 61.8 +/- 13 years) requiring investigation of colonic symptoms were evaluated using rigid and flexible sigmoidoscopy (PAF and KDV) and double-contrast barium enema (SSA). Patients with equivocal findings or adenomatous polyps underwent colonoscopy (TWB). Thirty-four patients had carcinoma and 50 patients had one or more adenomatous polyps (greater than 5mm). The neoplastic yield from rigid sigmoidoscopy was 12 per cent, flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy 90 per cent, and double-contrast barium enema only 76 per cent. Barium enema failed to identify eight carcinomas and 13 adenomatous polyps; seven of the eight carcinomas were polypoid Dukes' Stage A lesions, and associated diverticular disease was present in 62.5 per cent of cases. Flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy failed to identify seven carcinomas and one adenomatous polyp. Five of the carcinomas were beyond range of the instrument; in one patient, a stricture was seen that was caused by the carcinoma; and in the seventh patient, the examination was terminated because of angulation spasm. Double-contrast barium enema is inaccurate in detecting lesions in the sigmoid colon, with flexible sigmoidoscopy being superior. PMID:6628146

  5. Measuring soil salinity.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Marcus; Doyle, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Soil salinity is a form of land degradation in which salts accumulate in the soil profile to an extent that plant growth or infrastructure are negatively affected. A range of both field and laboratory procedures exist for measuring soil salinity. In the field, soil salinity is usually inferred from apparent electrical conductivity (EC(a)) using a range of devices, depending on the required depth of analysis, or size of the survey area. Field measurements of EC(a) require calibration to the actual salt content by laboratory analysis. In the laboratory, soil salinity is usually assessed by determining either the total soluble salts by evaporation of a soil water extract (TSS), or by determining the electrical conductivity (EC) of either a 1:5 distilled water:soil dilution, or a saturated paste extract. Although procedures for measuring soil salinity appear relatively straightforward, differences in methodology have considerable influence on measured values and interpretation of results. PMID:22895776

  6. Remote sensing of salinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomann, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    The complex dielectric constant of sea water is a function of salinity at 21 cm wavelength, and sea water salinity can be determined by a measurement of emissivity at 21 cm along with a measurement of thermodynamic temperature. Three aircraft and one helicopter experiments using two different 21 cm radiometers were conducted under different salinity and temperature conditions. Single or multiple ground truth measurements were used to calibrate the data in each experiment. It is inferred from these experiments that accuracies of 1 to 2%/OO are possible with a single surface calibration point necessary only every two hours if the following conditions are met--water temperatures above 20 C, salinities above 10%/OO, and level plane flight. More frequent calibration, constraint of the aircraft's orientation to the same as it was during calibration, and two point calibration (at a high and low salinity level) rather than single point calibration may give even better accuracies in some instances.

  7. Saline infusion sonohysterography.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    Saline infusion sonohysterography consists of ultrasonographic imaging of the uterus and uterocervical cavity, using real-time ultrasonography during injection of sterile saline into the uterus. When properly performed, saline infusion sonohysterography can provide information about the uterus and endometrium. The most common indication for sonohysterography is abnormal uterine bleeding. sonohysterography should not be performed in a woman who is pregnant or could be pregnant or in a woman with a pelvic infection or unexplained pelvic tenderness. Physicians who perform or supervise diagnostic saline infusion sonohysterograpy should have training, experience, and demonstrated competence in gynecologic ultrasonography and saline infusion sonohysterography. Portions of this document were developed jointly with the American College of Radiology and the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. PMID:14968760

  8. The use of carbon dioxide as an insufflation agent in barium enema--does it have a role?

    PubMed

    Robson, N K; Lloyd, M; Regan, F

    1993-03-01

    A double blind prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit of using carbon dioxide in double contrast barium enema (DCBE). 142 consecutive patients referred for DCBE were randomly allocated to receive either air or carbon dioxide (CO2) as the insufflation agent. The use of CO2 reduced the incidence of immediate and delayed severe pain from 31% to 12.5% and from 12.9% to 4.2% respectively. There was a statistically significant higher incidence of delayed severe pain in the younger age group as found in previous studies. Post-evacuation films showed that there was less residual gas after CO2. The quality of the DCBE was unchanged. We urge the more widespread use of CO2 as insufflation agent in DCBE. PMID:8472110

  9. Sea Surface Salinity

    NASA Video Gallery

    The heat of the sun also forces evaporation at the ocean's surface, which puts water vapor into the atmosphere but leaves minerals and salts behind, keeping the ocean salty. The salinity of the oce...

  10. Modelling Wind Effects on Subtidal Salinity in Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.; Jones, W. K.; Wu, T. S.

    2002-07-01

    Salinity is an important factor for oyster and estuarine productivity in Apalachicola Bay. Observations of salinity at oyster reefs have indicated a high correlation between subtidal salinity variations and the surface winds along the bay axis in an approximately east-west direction. In this paper, we applied a calibrated hydrodynamic model to examine the surface wind effects on the volume fluxes in the tidal inlets and the subtidal salinity variations in the bay. Model simulations show that, due to the large size of inlets located at the east and west ends of this long estuary, surface winds have significant effects on the volume fluxes in the estuary inlets for the water exchanges between the estuary and ocean. In general, eastward winds cause the inflow from the inlets at the western end and the outflow from inlets at the eastern end of the bay. Winds at 15 mph speed in the east-west direction can induce a 2000 m3 s-1 inflow of saline seawater into the bay from the inlets, a rate which is about 2·6 times that of the annual average freshwater inflow from the river. Due to the varied wind-induced volume fluxes in the inlets and the circulation in the bay, the time series of subtidal salinity at oyster reefs considerably increases during strong east-west wind conditions in comparison to salinity during windless conditions. In order to have a better understanding of the characteristics of the wind-induced subtidal circulation and salinity variations, the researchers also connected model simulations under constant east-west wind conditions. Results show that the volume fluxes are linearly proportional to the east-west wind stresses. Spatial distributions of daily average salinity and currents clearly show the significant effects of winds on the bay.

  11. Saline Systems highlights for 2006

    PubMed Central

    DasSarma, Shiladitya

    2007-01-01

    Saline Systems is a journal devoted to both basic and applied studies of saline and hypersaline environments and their biodiversity. Here, I review the reports and commentaries published in the journal in 2006, including some exploring the geochemistry of saline estuaries, lakes, and ponds, others on the ecology and molecular biology of the indigenous halophilic organisms, and still others addressing the environmental challenges facing saline environments. Several studies are relevant to applications in biotechnology and aquaculture. PMID:17244355

  12. Effects of salinity on leaf breakdown: Dryland salinity versus salinity from a coalmine.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Felix G; Bundschuh, Mirco; Zubrod, Jochen P; Schäfer, Ralf B; Thompson, Kristie; Kefford, Ben J

    2016-08-01

    Salinization of freshwater ecosystems as a result of human activities represents a global threat for ecosystems' integrity. Whether different sources of salinity with their differing ionic compositions lead to variable effects in ecosystem functioning is unknown. Therefore, the present study assessed the impact of dryland- (50μS/cm to 11,000μS/cm) and coalmine-induced (100μS/cm to 2400μS/cm) salinization on the leaf litter breakdown, with focus on microorganisms as main decomposer, in two catchments in New South Wales, Australia. The breakdown of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves decreased with increasing salinity by up to a factor of three. Coalmine salinity, which is characterised by a higher share of bicarbonates, had a slightly but consistently higher breakdown rate at a given salinity relative to dryland salinity, which is characterised by ionic proportions similar to sea water. Complementary laboratory experiments supported the stimulatory impact of sodium bicarbonates on leaf breakdown when compared to sodium chloride or artificial sea salt. Furthermore, microbial inoculum from a high salinity site (11,000μS/cm) yielded lower leaf breakdown at lower salinity relative to inoculum from a low salinity site (50μS/cm). Conversely, inoculum from the high salinity site was less sensitive towards increasing salinity levels relative to inoculum from the low salinity site. The effects of the different inoculum were the same regardless of salt source (sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride and artificial sea salt). Finally, the microorganism-mediated leaf litter breakdown was most efficient at intermediate salinity levels (≈500μS/cm). The present study thus points to severe implications of increasing salinity intensities on the ecosystem function of leaf litter breakdown, while the underlying processes need further scrutiny. PMID:27393920

  13. Value of 24-hour Delayed Film of Barium Enema for Evaluation of Colon Transit Function in Young Children with Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ha Yeong; Son, Jae Sung; Park, Hye Won; Kwak, Byung Ok; Kim, Hyeong Su; Bae, Sun Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims A colon transit time test using radio-opaque markers (CTTRM) is considered the gold standard for evaluating colon transit function. A 24-hour delayed film of barium enema (BE) has been used as a supplementary method in structural evaluations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a 24-hour delayed BE film for assessing colon transit function in young children with constipation. Methods In total, 93 children with constipation who performed both single-contrast BE and CTTRM were enrolled in this study. Of these, the data from 70 children were analyzed (males 33, females 37; mean age [range], 5.63 ± 2.94 [2–14] years). The basic principle of the study is “velocity = distance/time”. Time values were identified in both studies, and the colon length and distance of barium movement were measured on the 24-hour delayed BE film. Thus, colon transit velocity values could be calculated using both methods. The correlation between colon transit velocity using a 24-hour delayed BE film versus CTTRM was analyzed statistically. Results Median value (interquartile range) of colon transit velocity using CTTRM was 1.57 (1.07–2.89) cm/hr, and that using BE of that was 1.58 (0.94–2.07) cm/hr. The Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.438 (P < 0.001) for the overall group. The correlation was strongest in children younger than 4 years (r = 0.537, P = 0.032). Conclusions Although the correlation between BE and CTTRM was not very strong, the 24-hour delayed BE film could provide broad information about colon transit function in young children, especially those under 4 years who usually cannot undergo CTTRM. PMID:26979249

  14. Overview of SMOS Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, R.

    2014-12-01

    While it is well known that the ocean is one of the most important components of the climate system, with a heat capacity 1100 times greater than the atmosphere, the ocean is also the primary reservoir for freshwater transport to the atmosphere and largest component of the global water cycle. Two new satellite sensors, the ESA Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and the NASA Aquarius SAC-D missions are now providing the first space borne measurements of the sea surface salinity (SSS). In this talk, we will present examples demonstrating how SMOS-derived SSS data are being used to better characterize key land-ocean and atmosphere-ocean interaction processes that occur within the marine hydrological cycle. In particular, we shall illustrate how SMOS and its ocean mapping capability provides observations across the world's largest tropical ocean fresh pool regions and we will discuss intra-seasonal to interannual precipitation impacts as well as large-scale river runoff from the Amazon-Orinoco and Congo rivers and its offshore advection. Synergistic multi-satellite analyses of these new surface salinity data sets combined with sea surface temperature, dynamical height and currents from altimetry, surface wind, ocean color, rainfall estimates, and in situ observations will be shown to yield new freshwater budget and ocean circulation insight. Examples of SMOS capabilities of monitoring salt exchanges across the Gulf Stream through meso-scale eddies will be provided. SSS observations from the SMOS and Aquarius/SAC-D sensors are combined to examine the response of the upper ocean to tropical cyclone passage including the potential role that a freshwater-induced upper ocean barrier layer may play in modulating surface cooling and enthalpy flux in tropical cyclone track regions.

  15. Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, David H.

    1986-01-01

    The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water that is cold, nutrient rich and relatively fresh in comparison to the surface water which is relatively warm, relatively nutrient deficient and relatively saline. A plurality of elongated flow segregating tubes are disposed in the main duct and extend from the upper cover plate beyond the lower cover plate into a lower manifold plate. The lower manifold plate is spaced from the lower cover plate to define a deep water fluid flow path to the interior space of the main duct. Spacer tubes extend from the upper cover plate and communicate with the interior space of the main duct. The spacer tubes are received in an upper manifold plate spaced from the upper cover plate to define a surface water fluid flow path into the flow segregating tubes. A surface water-deep water counterflow is thus established with deep water flowing upwardly through the main duct interior for discharge beyond the upper manifold plate while surface water flows downwardly through the flow segregating tubes for discharge below the lower manifold plate. During such counterflow heat is transferred from the downflowing warm water to the upflowing cold water. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep water and the surface water due to their differences in salinity. The upwelling of nutrient rich deep water is used for marifarming by fertilizing the nutrient deficient surface water.

  16. Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, D.H.

    1984-08-30

    The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water that is cold, nutrient rich and relatively fresh in comparison to the surface water which is relatively warm, relatively nutrient deficient and relatively saline. A plurality of elongated flow segregating tubes are disposed in the main duct and extend from the upper cover plate beyond the lower cover plate into a lower manifold plate. The lower manifold plate is spaced from the lower cover plate to define a deep water fluid flow path to the interior space of the main duct. Spacer tubes extend from the upper cover plate and communicate with the interior space of the main duct. The spacer tubes are received in an upper manifold plate spaced from the upper cover plate to define a surface water fluid flow path into the flow segregating tubes. A surface water-deep water counterflow is thus established with deep water flowing upwardly through the main duct interior for discharge beyond the upper manifold plate while surface water flows downwardly through the flow segregating tubes for discharge below the lower manifold plate. During such counterflow heat is transferred from the downflowing warm water to the upflowing cold water. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep water and the surface water due to their differences in salinity. The upwelling of nutrient rich deep water is used for marifarming by fertilizing the nutrient deficient surface water. 1 fig.

  17. Enema versus polyethylene glycol for the management of rectal faecal impaction in children with constipation – a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyniak, Katarzyna; Horvath, Andrea; Szajewska, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rectal faecal impaction (RFI) from functional constipation is a common problem in children. Maintenance therapy should start after successful disimpaction. However, there is uncertainty with regard to the optimal disimpaction regimen. Aim We systematically evaluated the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) compared to enema for treating RFI. Material and methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, with no language restrictions, were searched up to July 2014 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of PEG compared with enema for disimpaction in children with functional constipation. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results Two RCTs, involving 170 children aged 1 to 17 years, met the inclusion criteria. The studies were generally low in methodological quality. Compared with the enema group, the PEG 3350 group had significantly reduced chance for treatment success, but the difference was of a borderline statistical significance (RR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.7–0.99). The use of PEG was also more likely to increase defecation frequency, but increased the risk of watery stools and increased faecal incontinence. Other outcomes, in general, were similar in both groups. Conclusions Current evidence does not allow us to conclude which intervention is more effective for treating RFI in children with functional constipation. These results should be interpreted with caution due to the limited number of trials and the low quality of reporting in these trials, high or unknown risk of bias, and sparse data. Further high-quality, adequately powered RCTs are needed to determine the optimal management. PMID:26759631

  18. Dryland salinity in Western Australia: managing a changing water cycle.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R J; Hoxley, G

    2003-01-01

    Clearing of agricultural land has resulted in significant changes to the surface and groundwater hydrology. Currently about 10% of agricultural land in Western Australia is affected by dryland salinity and between a quarter and a third of the area is predicted to be lost to salinity before a new hydrological equilibrium is reached. This paper develops a general statement describing the changes to the surface and groundwater hydrology of the wheatbelt of Western Australia between preclearing, the year 2000 and into the future. For typical catchments in the wheatbelt it is estimated that average groundwater recharge and surface runoff have increased about tenfold when comparing the current hydrology to that preclearing. Saline groundwater discharge and flood volumes have also increased significantly. Saline groundwater discharge and associated salt load will probably double in the future in line with the predicted increase in the area of dryland salinity. In addition, future increases in the area of dryland salinity/permanent waterlogging will probably double the volumes in flood events and further increase surface runoff in average years. The outcomes of surface and groundwater management trials have been briefly described to estimate how the hydrology would be modified if the trials were implemented at a catchment scale. These results have been used to formulate possible integrated revegetation and drainage management strategies. The future hydrology and impacts with and without integrated management strategies have been compared. PMID:12793681

  19. A review of anaerobic treatment of saline wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yeyuan; Roberts, Deborah J

    2010-01-01

    Large volumes of saline (> 2% w/v NaCl) wastewaters are discharged from many industries; e.g. seafood processing, textile dyeing, oil and gas production, tanneries and drinking water treatment processes. Although anaerobic treatment would be the most cost-effective and sustainable technology for the treatment of many of these saline wastewaters, the salinity is considered to be inhibitory to anaerobic biological treatment processes. The recent applications of salt-tolerant cultures for the treatment of wastewaters from seafood processing and ion-exchange processes suggest that biological systems can be used to treat salty wastewaters. Additionally, organisms capable of anaerobic degradation of contaminants in saline solutions have been observed in marine sediments and have been characterized during the last two decades. This manuscript provides a review of the recent research on anaerobic treatment of saline wastewater and bacterial consortia capable of the anaerobic degradation of pollutants in saline solutions, documenting that the biological treatment of saline wastewaters is promising. PMID:20662390

  20. The myth of 0.9% saline: neither normal nor physiological.

    PubMed

    Chen, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Normal saline is the crystalloid of choice for fluid resuscitation with its utility born out of the cholera epidemic of 1832. However, its ubiquitous usage is being challenged because of a growing body of evidence suggesting that a large volume infusion of normal saline does in fact have deleterious effects on multiple body systems. Careful considerations should be given to the physiological effects of using large amounts of normal saline as one would with another pharmacological agents. PMID:26335217

  1. Radiofrequency ablation during continuous saline infusion can extend ablation margins

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Toru; Kubota, Tomoyuki; Horigome, Ryoko; Kimura, Naruhiro; Honda, Hiroki; Iwanaga, Akito; Seki, Keiichi; Honma, Terasu; Yoshida, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether fluid injection during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) can increase the coagulation area. METHODS: Bovine liver (1-2 kg) was placed on an aluminum tray with a return electrode affixed to the base, and the liver was punctured by an expandable electrode. During RFA, 5% glucose; 50% glucose; or saline fluid was infused continuously at a rate of 1.0 mL/min through the infusion line connected to the infusion port. The area and volume of the thermocoagulated region of bovine liver were determined after RFA. The Joule heat generated was determined from the temporal change in output during the RFA experiment. RESULTS: No liquid infusion was 17.3 ± 1.6 mL, similar to the volume of a 3-cm diameter sphere (14.1 mL). Mean thermocoagulated volume was significantly larger with continuous infusion of saline (29.3 ± 3.3 mL) than with 5% glucose (21.4 ± 2.2 mL), 50% glucose (16.5 ± 0.9 mL) or no liquid infusion (17.3 ± 1.6 mL). The ablated volume for RFA with saline was approximately 1.7-times greater than for RFA with no liquid infusion, representing a significant difference between these two conditions. Total Joule heat generated during RFA was highest with saline, and lowest with 50% glucose. CONCLUSION: RFA with continuous saline infusion achieves a large ablation zone, and may help inhibit local recurrence by obtaining sufficient ablation margins. RFA during continuous saline infusion can extend ablation margins, and may be prevent local recurrence. PMID:23483097

  2. Salinization processes of continental aquifers during marine transgression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armandine Les Landes, Antoine; Davy, Philippe; Aquilina, Luc

    2014-05-01

    Saline fluids with moderate concentrations have been sampled in basement aquifers at the regional scale in the Armorican shield (northwestern France). The horizontal and vertical distributions of high chloride concentrations (60-1400mg/L) are in good agreement with altitudinal and spatial limits of three major marine transgressions between the Mio-Pliocene and Pleistocene ages. The current distribution of fresh and "saline" groundwater at depth is the result mostly of processes occurring at geological timescales - seawater intrusion processes followed by fresh groundwater flushing -, and slightly of recent anthropogenic activities. In this abstract, we focus on seawater intrusion mechanisms in continental aquifers to investigate how saline fluids are irreversibly introduced into aquifers after a full transgression cycle. We first show that most of salt water that remains after the end of a marine transgression comes from a destabilization of the salt water wedge. This mainly occurs by gravity instabilities, which develop from salinized rivers or estuaries that penetrate inland on top of fresh groundwater. This downward diapirism is an efficient mechanism to feed deep aquifers with highly saline water at relatively high rates. Series of numerical model (time-dependent, variable-density flow and transport) of free convection have been performed with a permeability model typical of the continental crust (i.e. exponentially decreasing with depth). Salinization has been quantified according to the width of the stream, the properties of the initial perturbation (amplitude and wavelength), the stream salinity and the regional groundwater flow. Simulations allow us to identify the conditions necessary to develop gravity instabilities, and if it does, the rates at which basement aquifers are salinized. We then identify the continental zones, where these conditions are fulfilled and make an estimate of the total volume of salt that can remain in aquifers after a

  3. Simulating root water uptake from a shallow saline groundwater resource

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of saline drainage water is a significant problem for irrigated agriculture. One proposal to deal with this problem is sequential biological concentration (SBC), which is the process of recycling drainage water on increasingly more salt tolerant crops until the volume of drainage water has ...

  4. CAN BROCCOLI TOLERATE HIGHER CONCENTRATIONS OF BORON UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reuse of saline drainage water is a management option that is necessary for reducing the volume of drainage water produced on the west side of California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV). A potential limitation in implementing a drainage water reuse system is determining the extent by which boron, a natur...

  5. Rat supraoptic neurones: the effects of locally applied hypertonic saline.

    PubMed

    Leng, G

    1980-07-01

    1. Extracellular action potentials were recorded from supraoptic neurones in lactating, urethane-anaesthetized rats. A microtap was used to apply a very small volume (about 10(-7) ml.) of hypertonic saline (1-4 M-NaCl) to the immediate neighbourhood of these units over about 1 min.2. Twenty-five of twenty-seven supraoptic neurones were excited by this local osmotic stimulus. The response of individual units was reversible and repeatable. Microtap applications of isotonic saline to supraoptic neurones were without observed effect.3. Continuously firing supraoptic neurones responded to hypertonic saline with a smooth acceleration in firing rate. Phasic neurones showed an increase in the over-all level of activity, and in particular, a prolongation of the active phases. Slow, irregularly firing cells responded either with a smooth acceleration in firing rate, or with phasic behaviour.4. The response to local hypertonic saline appears to be reasonably specific to the supraoptic nucleus. Of thirty-five neurones recorded close to the supraoptic nucleus but which were not antidromically activated from stimulation of the neural stalk, only nine responded to the local application of hypertonic saline.5. Similarities between the manner of response of supraoptic neurones to local application of hypertonic saline and the manner of their response to systemic increases in the osmotic pressure of blood plasma support the hypothesis that supraoptic neurones are osmosensitive. PMID:7441542

  6. Salinity trends in the Ebro River (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo-Gonzalez, M.° Angeles; Isidoro, Daniel; Quilez, Dolores

    2016-04-01

    flows and salinity in 1973-2012 and can only be extrapolated into the future if the drivers of this evolution (climate and land use changes) remain unchanged in the following years, what is uncertain. A more comprehensive methodology to estimate the effects of irrigation on water salinity has been developed based on a mass balance approach. Using actual data on volumes and concentrations of return flows observed in the basin (dependent on the actual salinity of soils and waters and the irrigation systems, among other factors), the return flows of the irrigated areas are aggregated to match the actual flows and loads observed in the Ebro River. Once this balance is satisfied, the effect of new irrigated areas, drainage water reuse, irrigation modernization, or climate change would be incorporated to the balance yielding salinity forecasts based on planned irrigation developments and modernization or climate change predictions. A priori, irrigation modernization would produce lower, more concentrated volumes of return flows with lower salt loads that would result in lower TDS concentrations in the Ebro River.

  7. Alfalfa production using saline drainage water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three year study investigated the use of saline (< 6 dS/m) drainage water for irrigation of salt tolerant alfalfa in the presence of shallow saline groundwater. The irrigation treatments included; irrigating twice between cuttings with non-saline water, 2) irrigating with moderately saline water...

  8. Comparison of Normal Saline, Hypertonic Saline Albumin and Terlipressin plus Hypertonic Saline Albumin in an Infant Animal Model of Hypovolemic Shock

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In series of cases and animal models suffering hemorrhagic shock, the use of vasopressors has shown potential benefits regarding hemodynamics and tissue perfusion. Terlipressin is an analogue of vasopressin with a longer half-life that can be administered by bolus injection. We have previously observed that hypertonic albumin improves resuscitation following controlled hemorrhage in piglets. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether the treatment with the combination of terlipressin and hypertonic albumin can produce better hemodynamic and tissular perfusion parameters than normal saline or hypertonic albumin alone at early stages of hemorrhagic shock in an infant animal model. Methods Experimental, randomized animal study including 39 2-to-3-month-old piglets. Thirty minutes after controlled 30 ml/kg bleed, pigs were randomized to receive either normal saline (NS) 30 ml/kg (n = 13), 5% albumin plus 3% hypertonic saline (AHS) 15 ml/kg (n = 13) or single bolus of terlipressin 15 μg/kg i.v. plus 5% albumin plus 3% hypertonic saline 15 ml/kg (TAHS) (n = 13) over 30 minutes. Global hemodynamic and tissular perfusion parameters were compared. Results After controlled bleed a significant decrease of blood pressure, cardiac index, central venous saturation, carotid and peripheral blood flow, brain saturation and an increase of heart rate, gastric PCO2 and lactate was observed. After treatment no significant differences in most hemodynamic (cardiac index, mean arterial pressure) and perfusion parameters (lactate, gastric PCO2, brain saturation, cutaneous blood flow) were observed between the three therapeutic groups. AHS and TAHS produced higher increase in stroke volume index and carotid blood flow than NS. Conclusions In this pediatric animal model of hypovolemic shock, albumin plus hypertonic saline with or without terlipressin achieved similar hemodynamics and perfusion parameters than twice the volume of NS. Addition of terlipressin did not

  9. Therapeutic effects of compound hypertonic saline on rats with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fang; Chen, Wei; Xu, Liang; Wang, Huabing; Lu, Huizhi

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is one of the major causes of death and is the biggest obstacle preventing improvement of the success rate in curing critical illnesses. Currently, isotonic solutions are used in fluid resuscitation technique. Several studies have shown that hypertonic saline applied in hemorrhagic shock can rapidly increase the plasma osmotic pressure, facilitate the rapid return of interstitial fluid into the blood vessels, and restore the effective circulating blood volume. Here, we established a rat model of sepsis by using the cecal ligation and puncture approach. We found that intravenous injection of hypertonic saline dextran (7.5% NaCl/6% dextran) after cecal ligation and puncture can improve circulatory failure at the onset of sepsis. We found that the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 levels in the lung tissue of cecal ligation and puncture rats treated with hypertonic saline dextran were significantly lower than the corresponding levels in the control group. We inferred that hypertonic saline dextran has a positive immunoregulatory effect and inhibits the overexpression of the inflammatory response in the treatment of sepsis. The percentage of neutrophils, lung myeloperoxidase activity, wet to dry weight ratio of lung tissues, histopathological changes in lung tissues, and indicators of arterial blood gas analysis was significantly better in the hypertonic saline dextran-treated group than in the other groups in this study. Hypertonic saline dextran-treated rats had significantly improved survival rates at 9 and 18 h compared to the control group. Our results suggest that hypertonic saline dextran plays a protective role in acute lung injury caused after cecal ligation and puncture. In conclusion, hypertonic/hyperoncotic solutions have beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of an animal model of sepsis. PMID:24983672

  10. In situ determination of salinity by PGNAA.

    PubMed

    Borsaru, M; Smith, C; Merritt, J; Aizawa, T; Rojc, A

    2006-05-01

    Salinity is a very important environmental issue all around the world. In many cases salinity was produced from human activities like farming and mining. Different soluble salts contribute to salinity, however, NaCl is the most common salt producing salinity. This work deals with the application of the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique for in situ determination of salinity. The technique is based on the measurement of chlorine, a component of the common salt, by PGNAA. PMID:16448819

  11. Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

    2005-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

  12. Analysis of Geometric Shifts and Proper Setup-Margin in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Pelvic Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Using Endorectal Ballooning and Daily Enema for Prostate Immobilization.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Songmi; Lee, Jong Hoon; Chung, Mi Joo; Lee, Sea Won; Lee, Jeong Won; Kang, Dae Gyu; Kim, Sung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate geometric shifts of daily setup for evaluating the appropriateness of treatment and determining proper margins for the planning target volume (PTV) in prostate cancer patients.We analyzed 1200 sets of pretreatment megavoltage-CT scans that were acquired from 40 patients with intermediate to high-risk prostate cancer. They received whole pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). They underwent daily endorectal ballooning and enema to limit intrapelvic organ movement. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of daily translational shifts in right-to-left (X), anterior-to-posterior (Y), and superior-to-inferior (Z) were evaluated for systemic and random error.The mean ± SD of systemic error (Σ) in X, Y, Z, and roll was 2.21 ± 3.42 mm, -0.67 ± 2.27 mm, 1.05 ± 2.87 mm, and -0.43 ± 0.89°, respectively. The mean ± SD of random error (δ) was 1.95 ± 1.60 mm in X, 1.02 ± 0.50 mm in Y, 1.01 ± 0.48 mm in Z, and 0.37 ± 0.15° in roll. The calculated proper PTV margins that cover >95% of the target on average were 8.20 (X), 5.25 (Y), and 6.45 (Z) mm. Mean systemic geometrical shifts of IMRT were not statistically different in all transitional and three-dimensional shifts from early to late weeks. There was no grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal or genitourianry toxicity.The whole pelvic IMRT technique is a feasible and effective modality that limits intrapelvic organ motion and reduces setup uncertainties. Proper margins for the PTV can be determined by using geometric shifts data. PMID:26765418

  13. Analysis of Geometric Shifts and Proper Setup-Margin in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Pelvic Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Using Endorectal Ballooning and Daily Enema for Prostate Immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Songmi; Lee, Jong Hoon; Chung, Mi Joo; Lee, Sea Won; Lee, Jeong Won; Kang, Dae Gyu; Kim, Sung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We evaluate geometric shifts of daily setup for evaluating the appropriateness of treatment and determining proper margins for the planning target volume (PTV) in prostate cancer patients. We analyzed 1200 sets of pretreatment megavoltage-CT scans that were acquired from 40 patients with intermediate to high-risk prostate cancer. They received whole pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). They underwent daily endorectal ballooning and enema to limit intrapelvic organ movement. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of daily translational shifts in right-to-left (X), anterior-to-posterior (Y), and superior-to-inferior (Z) were evaluated for systemic and random error. The mean ± SD of systemic error (Σ) in X, Y, Z, and roll was 2.21 ± 3.42 mm, −0.67 ± 2.27 mm, 1.05 ± 2.87 mm, and −0.43 ± 0.89°, respectively. The mean ± SD of random error (δ) was 1.95 ± 1.60 mm in X, 1.02 ± 0.50 mm in Y, 1.01 ± 0.48 mm in Z, and 0.37 ± 0.15° in roll. The calculated proper PTV margins that cover >95% of the target on average were 8.20 (X), 5.25 (Y), and 6.45 (Z) mm. Mean systemic geometrical shifts of IMRT were not statistically different in all transitional and three-dimensional shifts from early to late weeks. There was no grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal or genitourianry toxicity. The whole pelvic IMRT technique is a feasible and effective modality that limits intrapelvic organ motion and reduces setup uncertainties. Proper margins for the PTV can be determined by using geometric shifts data. PMID:26765418

  14. Recent desiccation of Western Great Basin Saline Lakes: Lessons from Lake Abert, Oregon, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Moore, Johnnie N

    2016-06-01

    Although extremely important to migrating waterfowl and shorebirds, and highly threatened globally, most saline lakes are poorly monitored. Lake Abert in the western Great Basin, USA, is an example of this neglect. Designated a critical habitat under the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, the lake is at near record historic low levels and ultra-high salinities that have resulted in ecosystem collapse. Determination of the direct human effects and broader climate controls on Lake Abert illustrates the broader problem of saline lake desiccation and suggests future solutions for restoration of key habitat values. A 65-year time series of lake area was constructed from Landsat images and transformed to lake volume and salinity. "Natural" (without upstream withdrawals) conditions were calculated from climate and stream flow data, and compared to measured volume and salinity. Under natural conditions the lake would have higher volume and lower salinities because annual water withdrawals account for one-third of mean lake volume. Without withdrawals, the lake would have maintained annual mean salinities mostly within the optimal range of brine shrimp and alkali fly growth. Even during the last two years of major drought, the lake would have maintained salinities well below measured values. Change in climate alone would not produce the recent low lake volumes and high salinities that have destroyed the brine shrimp and alkali fly populations and depleted shorebird use at Lake Abert. Large scale withdrawal of water for direct human use has drastically increased the imbalance between natural runoff and evaporation during periods of drought in saline lakes worldwide but could be offset by establishing an "environmental water budget" to lay a foundation for the conservation of saline lake habitats under continued threats from development and climate change. PMID:26950628

  15. Diagenetic saline formation waters: Their role in crustal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Land, L.S. . Dept. Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Formation waters typical of most sedimentary basins are Bi-rich, Na-Ca-Cl brines. High Cl content is due to halite dissolution and high Ca content to albitization of metastable detrital plagioclase deposited in both sands and shales. High Br content is due to halite recrystallization, especially during deformation, and to the conversion of carnallite to sylvite. Minor elements and isotopes are all controlled by mineral/water reactions. Saline formation waters are thus a normal diagenetic product formed during burial. Diagenetic formation waters constitute a previously unrecognized loop in crustal cycling. Transfer of Li, B, S, Cl, Ca, and Br from sediments to brines, and then discharge of brines back to the ocean, explains why these six elements are depleted in the average igneous crust relative to the average sedimentary crust. Diagenetic saline formation waters are limited in volume only by the availability of sedimentary halite and detrital plagioclase. Thus, the volume of fluids available for MVT-type mineralization and late stage sediment diagenesis is much larger than would be true if formation waters were modified surficial brines. Discharge of saline formation waters from sedimentary basins accounts for efficient chloride cycling (225 Ma residence time in the ocean), and for most of the chloride content of the world's rivers not due to aerosols. Expulsion of large volumes of diagenetic formation waters during tectonism can account for rapid excursions in oceanic chemistry, as in the case of [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr.

  16. Determining Salinity by Simple Means.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper describes the construction and use of a simple salinometer. The salinometer is composed, mainly, of a milliammeter and a battery and uses the measurement of current flow to determine the salinity of water. A complete list of materials is given, as are details of construction and operation of the equipment. The use of the salinometer in…

  17. Mycelial bacteria of saline soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Zenova, G. M.; Oborotov, G. V.

    2008-10-01

    The actinomycetal complexes of saline soils comprise the representatives of the Streptomyces and Micromonospora genera, the number of which are hundreds and thousands of CFU/g soil. Complexes of mycelial bacteria in saline soils are poorer in terms of number (by 1-3 orders of magnitude) and taxonomic composition than the complexes of the zonal soil types. A specific feature of the actinomycetal complexes of saline soils is the predominance of halophilic, alkaliphilic, and haloalkaliphilic streptomycetes that well grow at pH 8-9 and concentrations of NaCl close to 5%. Actinomycetes in saline soils grow actively, and the length of their mycelium reaches 140 m in 1 gram of soil. The haloalkaliphilic streptomycetes grow fast and inhibit the formation of spores at pH 9 and high concentrations of salts (Na2SO4 and MgCl2, 5%) as compared to their behavior on a neutral medium with a salt concentration of 0.02%. They are characterized by the maximal radial growth rate of colonies on an alkaline medium with 5% NaCl.

  18. INTEGRATING DESALINATION AND AGRICULTURAL SALINITY CONTROL ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cost-effectiveness relationships for various agricultural and desalination alternatives for controlling salinity in irrigation return flows are developed. Selection of optimal salinity management strategies on a river basin scale is described as a problem of integrating optim...

  19. The value of colonoscopy and double-contrast barium-enema examinations in the evaluation of patients with subacute and chronic lower intestinal bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Thoeni, R.F.; Venbrux, A.C.

    1983-03-01

    One hundred thirty six consecutive patients were examined with histories of guaiac positive stool examinations, bright red blood per rectum, or hematochezia to determine the value of the double-contrast barium-enema (DC-BE) examination and colonoscopy/proctoscopy in establishing bleeding sites. If examination findings were analyzed in conjunction with findings of visual examination of the anal area, the difference in the respective sensitivities of the two examinations was not statistically significant. If findings at the visual inspection were excluded, the DC-BE examination missed 45 of 155 proved bleeding sites (sensitivity, 71%) and 13 of 35 nonbleeding lesions (sensitivity for all lesions 70%), while colonoscopy missed 13 of 155 bleeding sites (sensitivity, 92%) and seven of 35 nonbleeding lesions (sensitivity for all lesions, 90%). The sensitivity of both methods was similar if all rectal and anal lesions were excluded. We conclude that colonoscopy is superior to the DC-BE examination in the detection of bleeding sites but similar in results to the DC-BE examination if lesions in the anal canal and rectum are excluded. The routine use of the DC-BE examination in patients with superficial lesions in the anal canal should be discouraged unless the patient has persistent bleeding or is 50 years old or older.

  20. The Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank; Hilburn, Kyle; Lagerloef, Gary; Le Vine, David

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this presentation gives an overview over the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The instrument calibration [2] converts Aquarius radiometer counts into antenna temperatures (TA). The salinity retrieval algorithm converts those TA into brightness temperatures (TB) at a flat ocean surface. As a first step, contributions arising from the intrusion of solar, lunar and galactic radiation are subtracted. The antenna pattern correction (APC) removes the effects of cross-polarization contamination and spillover. The Aquarius radiometer measures the 3rd Stokes parameter in addition to vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations, which allows for an easy removal of ionospheric Faraday rotation. The atmospheric absorption at L-band is almost entirely due to molecular oxygen, which can be calculated based on auxiliary input fields from numerical weather prediction models and then successively removed from the TB. The final step in the TA to TB conversion is the correction for the roughness of the sea surface due to wind, which is addressed in more detail in section 3. The TB of the flat ocean surface can now be matched to a salinity value using a surface emission model that is based on a model for the dielectric constant of sea water [3], [4] and an auxiliary field for the sea surface temperature. In the current processing only v-pol TB are used for this last step.

  1. Storm-damaged saline-contaminated boreholes as a means of aquifer contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, D.A.; Van Biersel, T. P.; Milner, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Saline water from a storm surge can flow down storm-damaged submerged water supply wells and contaminate boreholes and surrounding aquifers. Using data from conventional purging techniques, aquifer test response analysis, chemical analysis, and regression analysis of chloride/silica (Cl/Si) ratio, equations were derived to estimate the volume of saline water intrusion into a well and a porous media aquifer, the volume of water needed to purge a well shortly following an intrusion event, and the volume of water needed after delay of several or more months, when the saline plume has expanded. Purging time required is a function of volume of water and pumping rate. The study site well is located within a shoreline community of Lake Pontchartrain, St. Tammany Parish, in southeastern Louisiana, United States, which was impacted by two hurricane storm surges and had neither been rehabilitated nor chlorinated prior to our study. Chemical analysis of water samples in fall 2005 and purging of well and aquifer in June 6, 2006, indicated saline water had intruded the well in 2005 and the well and aquifer in 2006. The volume of water needed to purge the study well was approximately 200 casing volumes, which is significantly greater than conventionally used during collection of water samples for water quality analyses. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  2. Saline Infusion Markedly Reduces Impedance and Improves Efficacy of Pulmonary Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Gananadha, Sivakumar Morris, David Lawson

    2004-08-15

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a relatively new technique that has been investigated for the treatment of lung tumors. We evaluated for the first time the in vivo use of saline infusion during radiofrequency ablation of sheep lung. We performed RFA on 5 sheep using open and closed chest RFA and the RITA starburst XL and Xli probes using saline infusion with the Xli probe. The impedance and volume of ablation were compared. A total of 16 ablations were produced, 5 percutaneously and 11 open. The impedance during percutaneous and open RFA without saline infusion was 110 {+-} 16.2 and 183.3 {+-} 105.8 O, respectively. With the saline infusion the impedance was 71.3 {+-} 22O and 103.6 {+-} 37.5O. The effect of this was a significantly larger volume of ablation using the saline infusion during percutaneous RFA (90.6 {+-} 23 cm{sup 3} vs 10.47 {+-} 2.9 cm{sup 3}, p = 0.01) and open RFA (107.8 {+-} 25.8 cm{sup 3} vs 24.9 {+-} 19.3 cm{sup 3}, p = 0.0002). Saline infusion during RFA is associated with lower impedance, higher power delivery and larger lesion size.

  3. Runoff quality impacts of dust suppression using saline water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loch, Rob J.; Squires, Helen

    2010-05-01

    In mining and gas operations, dust generation from unsealed roads is a major problem. Commonly, road watering is used to suppress dust, with the lowest water quality available generally being selected for that purpose. Whilst minimising water usage for the site, that practice does create concerns with respect to potential environmental impacts if runoff from the treated roads has significantly elevated salinity. For coal seam gas operations, the water extracted concurrently with the gas contains predominantly sodium bicarbonate. Therefore, where coal seam gas water is sprayed onto roads, there is potential for elevated sodium in runoff to impact on soil adjoining the roads, but there is no information on the rates of dissolution and mobilisation of soluble salt from the surface of roads that have been sprayed with low quality water to reduce dust. Therefore a rainfall simulator study was carried out to investigate rates of mobilisation of sodium bicarbonate from compacted soil surfaces simulating an unsealed road. The study considered effects of the amount of precipitated sodium bicarbonate on the soil surface and variations in rainfall intensity. Because the soil surfaces were compacted, runoff commenced almost immediately following application of rain. For all treatments with applied surface salt, runoff quality data showed a peak in salt concentration in the first flush of runoff, and relatively rapid reduction through time in those initial concentrations. The magnitude and duration of peak concentrations depended on both rainfall rate and the quantity of salt present on the soil surface. The flush of salts in run-off from the roads occurred very early in the run-off event, when none of the surrounding area would have commenced to run off. Consequently, the relatively small volume of run-off produced directly by the road could be expected to predominantly infiltrate in the table drain adjoining the road. The initial flush of saline water would then be leached to

  4. Effects of liquid paraffin in the diet or infused via colonic enema on fecal elimination of /sup 14/C-hexachlorobenzene from body burdens in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Robles-Porras, H.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-one male rats were dosed once intraperitoneally with 32.2 mg /sup 14/C-hexachlorobenzene in corn oil (/sup 14/C-HCB activity 11.67 ..mu..Ci/rat). After 4 d, six rats were randomly selected, bled and hemi-castrated with sampling of epididymal adipose tissue to establish /sup 14/C-HCB body burdens. Thereafter, all rats were allocated randomly into three groups, each with five intact and two hemi-castrated rats. One group (controls) received only a basal diet; another received the basal diet amended with 5% light mineral oil (MO); and the third received the basal diet and 1 ml of MO once daily via enema in the upper colon. Treatments were continued throughout 27 d. Excretion of /sup 14/C-HCB and(or) metabolites into feces and urine was measured daily for each rat for 31 d after /sup 14/C-HCB dosage. Fecal excretion of /sup 14/C-HCB and(or) metabolites was increased 2.5-fold by dietary MO and 1.7-fold by MO in the colon. When adjusted to equal dosage, MO by colon was 93% as effective as MO by diet. Urinary /sup 14/C-HCB excretion was not affected by MO, except indirectly through lowered body burden. Addition of hexadecane (25 ..mu..l per 100 mg adipose tissue) into the incubation mixture enhanced (P < 0.05) distribution of /sup 14/C-HCB into the liquid fraction for rats not previously fed hexadecane, but had no effect on incubation mixtures from rats fed hexadecane. Results confirm that liquid paraffins enhance elimination of /sup 14/C-HCB from body burdens into feces and suggest that distribution into blood cells and plasma may partially explain the effect.

  5. Comparative study of the effects of air or saline to identify the extradural space.

    PubMed

    Valentine, S J; Jarvis, A P; Shutt, L E

    1991-02-01

    Fifty women in labour were allocated randomly to receive either air or saline to assist in the identification of the extradural space by the loss of resistance technique. A study volume of 4 ml of air or saline was used before 0.5% bupivacaine 8 ml and the spread of analgesia was followed for 30 min. The first segment blocked, time of onset, number of blocked segments and height of block were comparable in the two groups. At 30 min, there were eight patients with an unblocked segment in the air group, compared with two in the saline group (P less than 0.01). All unblocked segments were blocked subsequently by further doses of bupivacaine. We conclude that air is more likely than saline to produce unblocked segments in the initiation of extradural analgesia in labour. PMID:1817625

  6. Estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and circulation on the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay are discussed. The sources of fresh water, the variations in salinity, and the circulation patterns created by temperature and salinity changes are analyzed. The application of remote sensors for long term observation of water temperatures is described. The sources of sediment and the biological effects resulting from increased sediments and siltation are identified.

  7. Salinity gradient power: utilizing vapor pressure differences.

    PubMed

    Olsson, M; Wick, G L; Isaacs, J D

    1979-10-26

    By utilizing the vapor pressure difference between high-salinity and lowsalinity wvater, one can obtain power from the gradients of salinity. This scheme eliminates the major problems associated with conversion methods in which membranes are used. The method we tested gave higher conversion efficiencies than membrane methods. Furthermore, hardware and techniques being developed for ocean thermal energy conversion may be applied to this approach to salinity gradient energy conversion. PMID:17809370

  8. Soil Salinity Mapping Using Multitemporal Landsat Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azabdaftari, A.; Sunar, F.

    2016-06-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most important problems affecting many areas of the world. Saline soils present in agricultural areas reduce the annual yields of most crops. This research deals with the soil salinity mapping of Seyhan plate of Adana district in Turkey from the years 2009 to 2010, using remote sensing technology. In the analysis, multitemporal data acquired from LANDSAT 7-ETM+ satellite in four different dates (19 April 2009, 12 October 2009, 21 March 2010, 31 October 2010) are used. As a first step, preprocessing of Landsat images is applied. Several salinity indices such as NDSI (Normalized Difference Salinity Index), BI (Brightness Index) and SI (Salinity Index) are used besides some vegetation indices such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), RVI (Ratio Vegetation Index), SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index) and EVI (Enhamced Vegetation Index) for the soil salinity mapping of the study area. The field's electrical conductivity (EC) measurements done in 2009 and 2010, are used as a ground truth data for the correlation analysis with the original band values and different index image bands values. In the correlation analysis, two regression models, the simple linear regression (SLR) and multiple linear regression (MLR) are considered. According to the highest correlation obtained, the 21st March, 2010 dataset is chosen for production of the soil salinity map in the area. Finally, the efficiency of the remote sensing technology in the soil salinity mapping is outlined.

  9. Relating river discharges to salinity changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, X.; Liu, W. T.

    2014-12-01

    New river discharge data are brought together with spacebased sea surface salinity measurements by Aquarius and SMOS to demonstrate the role of river discharge in salinity changes near three river mouths: the Mississippi, the Ganges, and the Amazon. The characteristics of the seasonal cycle and the year-to-year changes of the river runoff are described. Various versions of the satellite salinity data are compared. The relative roles of river discharge, surface water flux, and horizontal advection in changing surface salinity in regions near the river mouths are examined. Satellite measurements of SSS clearly track movements of the fresh water from river discharges. Besides the river discharge, E-P plays an important role in the seasonal salinity variation near the Ganges and Irrawaddy River mouths. For the Mississippi and Amazon river mouths, central and eastern ITCZ, E-P contributes very little to the salinity seasonal change. In the central and eastern ITCZ, contribution of advection to the salinity tendency is clearly identified. Both salinity and salinity tendency are dominated by semi-annual cycle in the Atlantic ITCZ between 5ºN to 9ºN, whereas annual cycle dominates at other latitudes.

  10. Soil salinity detection from satellite image analysis: an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data.

    PubMed

    Morshed, Md Manjur; Islam, Md Tazmul; Jamil, Raihan

    2016-02-01

    This paper attempts to detect soil salinity from satellite image analysis using remote sensing and geographic information system. Salinity intrusion is a common problem for the coastal regions of the world. Traditional salinity detection techniques by field survey and sampling are time-consuming and expensive. Remote sensing and geographic information system offer economic and efficient salinity detection, monitoring, and mapping. To predict soil salinity, an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data was used to develop a multiple regression equation. The correlations between different indices and field data of soil salinity were calculated to find out the highly correlated indices. The best regression model was selected considering the high R (2) value, low P value, and low Akaike's Information Criterion. About 20% variation was observed between the field data and predicted EC from the satellite image analysis. The precision of this salinity detection technique depends on the accuracy and uniform distribution of field data. PMID:26815557

  11. Combined effects of cadmium and salinity on juvenile Takifugu obscurus: cadmium moderates salinity tolerance; salinity decreases the toxicity of cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Zhu, Xuexia; Huang, Xin; Gu, Lei; Chen, Yafen; Yang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Obscure puffer Takifugu obscurus, a species of anadromous fish, experiences several salinity changes in its lifetime. Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that can potentially induce oxidative stress in fish. The present study aimed to detect the combined effects of Cd (0, 5, 10, 20 and 50 mg L−1) and salinity (0, 15 and 30 ppt) on juvenile T. obscurus. Results showed the juveniles could survive well under different salinities; however, with Cd exposure, the survival rates significantly decreased at 0 and 30 ppt. At 15 ppt, tolerance to Cd increased. Cd exposure clearly induced oxidative stress, and the responses among different tissues were qualitatively similar. Salinity acted as a protective factor which could reduce the reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde levels. In addition, salinity could enhance the antioxidant defense system, including superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione. Na+/K+–ATPase activity significantly decreased under Cd exposure in gill, kidney and intestine. These findings indicated that Cd could moderate the adaptability of juvenile T. obscurus to high salinity and low salinity played a protective role upon Cd exposure. Thus, the role of salinity should be considered when evaluating the effect of heavy metals on anadromous and estuarine fishes. PMID:27487764

  12. Combined effects of cadmium and salinity on juvenile Takifugu obscurus: cadmium moderates salinity tolerance; salinity decreases the toxicity of cadmium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Zhu, Xuexia; Huang, Xin; Gu, Lei; Chen, Yafen; Yang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Obscure puffer Takifugu obscurus, a species of anadromous fish, experiences several salinity changes in its lifetime. Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that can potentially induce oxidative stress in fish. The present study aimed to detect the combined effects of Cd (0, 5, 10, 20 and 50 mg L(-1)) and salinity (0, 15 and 30 ppt) on juvenile T. obscurus. Results showed the juveniles could survive well under different salinities; however, with Cd exposure, the survival rates significantly decreased at 0 and 30 ppt. At 15 ppt, tolerance to Cd increased. Cd exposure clearly induced oxidative stress, and the responses among different tissues were qualitatively similar. Salinity acted as a protective factor which could reduce the reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde levels. In addition, salinity could enhance the antioxidant defense system, including superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity significantly decreased under Cd exposure in gill, kidney and intestine. These findings indicated that Cd could moderate the adaptability of juvenile T. obscurus to high salinity and low salinity played a protective role upon Cd exposure. Thus, the role of salinity should be considered when evaluating the effect of heavy metals on anadromous and estuarine fishes. PMID:27487764

  13. Aquarius Instrument and Salinity Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Aquarius has been designed to map the surface salinity field of the global ocean from space a parameter important for understanding ocean circulation and its relationship to climate and the global water cycle. Salinity is measured remotely from space by measuring the thermal emission from the ocean surface. This is done at the low frequency end of the microwave spectrum (e.g. 1.4 GHz) where the emission is sufficiently sensitive to changes in salinity to be detected with sophisticated radiometers. The goal is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean by providing maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. These are challenging requirements that have led to some unique features of the instrument. These include: a) The addition of a co-located scatterometer to help provide a correction for roughness; b) The addition of a polarimetric channel (third Stokes parameter) to the radiometer to help correct for Faraday rotation; c) Asun-synchronous orbit with a 6 pm ascending equatorial crossing to minimize Faraday rotation and with the antennas looking away from the sun toward the nighttime side to minimize contamination by radiation from the sun; and d) An antenna designed to limit side lobes in the direction of rays from the sun. In addition, achieving the accuracy goal of 0.2 psu requires averaging over one month and to do this requires a highly stable radiometer. Aquarius has three separate radiometers that image in pushbroom fashion with the three antenna beams looking across track. The antenna is a 2.5-m diameter, offset parabolic reflector with three feed horns and the three beams are arranged to image with the boresight aligned to look across track, roughly perpendicular to the spacecraft heading and pointing away from the Sun. The three beams point at angles of theta = 25.8 deg., 33.8 deg. and 40.3 deg. with respect to the spacecraft

  14. Effects of Methane-Rich Saline on the Capability of One-Time Exhaustive Exercise in Male SD Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Lei; Sun, Xuejun; Lou, Shujie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore the effects of methane-rich saline (CH4 saline) on the capability of one-time exhaustive exercise in male SD rats. Methods Thirty rats were equally divided into to three groups at random: control group (C), placebo group (P) and methane saline group (M). Rats in M group underwent intraperitoneal injection of CH4 saline, and the other two groups simultaneously underwent intraperitoneal injection of normal saline. Then, the exercise capability of rats was tested through one-time exhaustive treadmill exercise except C group. Exercise time and body weight were recorded before and after one-time exhaustive exercise. After exhaustive exercise, the blood and gastrocnemius samples were collected from all rats to detect biochemical parameters in different methods. Results It was found that the treadmill running time was significantly longer in rats treated with CH4 saline. At the same time, CH4 saline reduced the elevation of LD and UN in blood caused by one-time exhaustive exercise. The low level of blood glucose induced by exhaustive exercise was also normalized by CH4 saline. Also CH4 saline lowered the level of CK in plasma. Furthermore, this research indicated that CH4 saline markedly increased the volume of T-AOC in plasma and alleviated the peak of TNF-α in both plasma and gastrocnemius. From H&E staining, CH4 saline effectively improved exercise-induced structural damage in gastrocnemius. Conclusions CH4 saline could enhance exercise capacity in male SD rats through increase of glucose aerobic oxidation, improvement of metabolic clearance and decrease of exhaustive exercise-induced gastrocnemius injury. PMID:26942576

  15. Low salinity intrusions in the western English Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly-Gerreyn, B. A.; Hydes, D. J.; Jégou, A. M.; Lazure, P.; Fernand, L. J.; Puillat, I.; Garcia-Soto, C.

    2006-08-01

    Low salinity (<35) surface waters (LSSW) at the southern entrance to the western English Channel (48.5°N, 5.1°W, near Ushant) were observed in late winter (March-April) in three successive years (2002-04) during near continuous ship of opportunity operations. The source of the LSSW is the northward spreading plumes from the Loire (47.5°N, 2.5°W) and Gironde (45.6°N, 1.2°W) along the French Atlantic coast. Fastest plume travel times were associated with northeasterly winds, consistent with Ekman theory. Differences between years in the mean winter (January-March) combined river discharges ( D) was consistent with the minimum salinities ( Smin) of the LSSW (2004: D=4211 m 3 s -1, Smin=33.68; 2003: D=3630 m 3 s -1, Smin=33.90; 2002: D=1579 m 3 s -1, Smin=34.53). Winter mean (1905-74) salinity is otherwise 35.33 near Ushant. The LSSW intruded into the western English Channel in each year, suggesting a common phenomenon. The low salinity intrusion was freshest (mean=35.11±0.21) and most penetrative (reaching 50.7°N, 1.0°W by the end of the year) in 2003 on account of (1) entering on a spring tide giving greater tidal excursion into the western English Channel and (2) intrusion favourable winds (southwesterly/southeasterly) acting on the longer term residual flow. Less penetration occurred in 2004 when the arrival of the LSSW coincided with a neap tide followed by intrusion-resistant northwesterly winds, resulting in a less saline (mean=35.20±0.23) intrusion. In 2004, transport tended to be offshore to at least 100 km from the French Atlantic coast (47°N, 4.8°W-48°N, 4.7°W). In 2002, the lower volume of plume water relative to the other years produced a more saline intrusion (mean=35.25±0.12). Prevailing westerly winds may have pushed this intrusion northwards beyond the route of the ferry, making it difficult to assess the true extent of the intrusion in 2002. A link of the LSSW to phases of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index from a literature

  16. Developing Pedotransfer Functions for Saline and Saline-Alkali Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramezani, Meysam; Ghanbarian-Alavijeh, Behzad; Liaghat, Abdolmajid

    2010-05-01

    Soil moisture curve is one of the soil hydraulic properities which its direct measurement is time consuming and expensive. Therefore, indirect methods such as developing pedotransfer functions have been used to predict this characteristic from soil readily available or easily measurable data. In this study, multiple linear regression method was used to develop point pedotransfer functions (PTFs) for saline and saline-alkali soils of Iran. For this purpose, 68 soil samples which their EC values were greater than 4 ds/m, and more than half of them had ESP values greater than 15% were selected. Using Jackknife method, the random splitting of data into the development and validation subsets was repeated 10 times. A ratio of 3:1 was used to split data into development and validation sets in each replication. In the SPSS software, parameters such as geometric standard deviation (δg), geometric mean diameter (dg), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), electrical conductivity (EC), carbonate calcium (CaCO3), bulk density (BD), organic matter (OM), and clay and silt content were applied as the independent variables, and volumetric water content was determined at matric potentials of -10, -33, -100 , -300, -500, -1000, -1500 kPa. The derived PTFs were compared with the H3 model of Rosetta software for 10 splits of validation data set. Comparison of the mean RMSE and R2 values showed that the developed PTFs resulted in more accurate estimation than the Rosetta software at matric potentials of -100 , -300, -500, -1000, -1500 kPa. Whereas, Rosetta model resulted in slightly better estimation than derived PTFs at matric potentials of -10, -33 kPa. For the PTFs developed in this study, the RMSE and R2 values ranged from 0.12 to 0.35 (cm3.cm-3) and 0.64 to 0.83, respectively. While for the Rosetta model, RMSE and R2 values ranged from 0.22 to 0.33 (cm3.cm-3) and 0.37 to 0.74, respectively.

  17. Salinity change impairs pipefish immune defence.

    PubMed

    Birrer, Simone C; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Roth, Olivia

    2012-12-01

    Global change is associated with fast and severe alterations of environmental conditions. Superimposed onto existing salinity variations in a semi-enclosed brackish water body such as the Baltic Sea, a decrease in salinity is predicted due to increased precipitation and freshwater inflow. Moreover, we predict that heavy precipitation events will accentuate salinity fluctuations near shore. Here, we investigated how the immune function of the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle), an ecologically important teleost with sex-role reversal, is influenced by experimentally altered salinities (control: 18 PSU, lowered: 6 PSU, increased: 30 PSU) upon infection with bacteria of the genus Vibrio. Salinity changes resulted in increased activity and proliferation of immune cells. However, upon Vibrio infection, individuals at low salinity were unable to mount specific immune response components, both in terms of monocyte and lymphocyte cell proliferation and immune gene expression compared to pipefish kept at ambient salinities. We interpret this as resource allocation trade-off, implying that resources needed for osmoregulation under salinity stress are lacking for subsequent activation of the immune defence upon infection. Our data suggest that composition of small coastal fish communities may change due to elevated environmental stress levels and the incorporated consequences thereof. PMID:22982326

  18. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a science activity in which the student investigates methods of calibration of a simple conductivity meter via a hands-on inquiry technique. Conductivity is mathematically compared to salinity using a point slope formula and graphical techniques. Sample solutions of unknown salinity are provided so that the students can sharpen their…

  19. Reconstructing Past Ocean Salinity ((delta)18Owater)

    SciTech Connect

    Guilderson, T P; Pak, D K

    2005-11-23

    Temperature and salinity are two of the key properties of ocean water masses. The distribution of these two independent but related characteristics reflects the interplay of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the uneven distribution of heat loss and gain by the ocean, with that of precipitation, evaporation, and the freezing and melting of ice. Temperature and salinity to a large extent, determine the density of a parcel of water. Small differences in temperature and salinity can increase or decrease the density of a water parcel, which can lead to convection. Once removed from the surface of the ocean where 'local' changes in temperature and salinity can occur, the water parcel retains its distinct relationship between (potential) temperature and salinity. We can take advantage of this 'conservative' behavior where changes only occur as a result of mixing processes, to track the movement of water in the deep ocean (Figure 1). The distribution of density in the ocean is directly related to horizontal pressure gradients and thus (geostrophic) ocean currents. During the Quaternary when we have had systematic growth and decay of large land based ice sheets, salinity has had to change. A quick scaling argument following that of Broecker and Peng [1982] is: the modern ocean has a mean salinity of 34.7 psu and is on average 3500m deep. During glacial maxima sea level was on the order of {approx}120m lower than present. Simply scaling the loss of freshwater (3-4%) requires an average increase in salinity a similar percentage or to {approx}35.9psu. Because much of the deep ocean is of similar temperature, small changes in salinity have a large impact on density, yielding a potentially different distribution of water masses and control of the density driven (thermohaline) ocean circulation. It is partly for this reason that reconstructions of past salinity are of interest to paleoceanographers.

  20. Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Eric V; Murphy, Dan; Stefan, Heinz G

    2008-11-15

    Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds. PMID:18762321

  1. Sources of salinity in ground water from Jericho area, Jordan Valley.

    PubMed

    Marie, A; Vengosh, A

    2001-01-01

    One of the major problems in the lower Jordan Valley is the increasing salinization (i.e., chloride content) of local ground water. The high levels of salinity limit the utilization of ground water for both domestic and agriculture applications. This joint collaborative study evaluates the sources and mechanisms for salinization in the Jericho area. We employ diagnostic geochemical fingerprinting methods to trace the potential sources of the salinity in (1) the deep confined subaquifer system (K2) of Lower Cenomanian age; (2) the upper subaquifer system (K1) of Upper Cenomanian and Turonian ages; and (3) the shallow aquifer system (Q) of Plio-Pleistocene ages. The chemical composition of the saline ground water from the two Cenomanian subaquifers (K1 and K2) point to a single saline source with Na/Cl approximately 0.5 and Br/Cl approximately 7 x 10(-3). This composition is similar to that of thermal hypersaline spring that are found along the western shore of the Dead Sea (e.g., En Gedi thermal spring). We suggest that the increasing salinity in both K1 and K2 subaquifers is derived from mixing with deep-seated brines that flow through the Rift fault system. The salinization rate depends on the discharge volume of the fresh meteoric water in the Cenomanian Aquifer. In contrast, the chemical composition of ground water from the Plio-Pleistocene Aquifer shows a wide range of Cl- (100-2000 mg/L), Na/Cl (0.4-1.0), Br/Cl (2-6 x 10(-3)), and SO4/Cl (0.01-0.4) ratios. These variations, together with the high SO4(2-), K+, and NO3- concentrations, suggest that the salinity in the shallow aquifer is derived from the combination of (1) upconing of deep brines as reflected by low Na/Cl and high Br/Cl ratios; (2) leaching of salts from the Lisan Formation within the Plio-Pleistocene Aquifer, as suggested by the high SO4(2-) concentrations; and (3) anthropogenic contamination of agriculture return flow and sewage effluents with distinctive high K+ (80 mg/L) and NO3- (80 mg

  2. Hypertonic saline dextran resuscitation of thermal injury.

    PubMed Central

    Horton, J W; White, D J; Baxter, C R

    1990-01-01

    Burn treatment requires large volumes of crystalloid, which may exacerbate burn-induced cardiopulmonary dysfunction. Small-volume hypertonic saline dextran (HSD) resuscitation has been used for effective treatment of several types of shock. In this study isolated coronary perfused guinea pig hearts were used to determine if HSD improved left ventricular contractile response to burn injuries. Parameters measured included left ventricular pressure (LVP) and maximal rate of LVP rise (+dP/dt max) and fall (-dP/dt max) at a constant preload. Third-degree scald burns comprising 45% of total body surface area (burn groups, N = 75), or 0% for controls (group 1, N = 25) were produced using a template device. In group 2, 25 burned guinea pigs were not fluid resuscitated and served as untreated burns; 20 burns were resuscitated with 4 mL lactated Ringer's (LR) solution/kg/% burn for 24 hours (group 3); additional burn groups were treated with an initial bolus of HSD (4 mL/kg, 2400 mOsm, sodium chloride, 6% dextran 70) followed by either 1, 2, or 4 mL LR/kg/% burn over 24 hours (groups 4, 5, and 6, respectively). Untreated burn injury significantly impaired cardiac function, as indicated by a fall in LVP (from 88 +/- 3 to 68 +/- 4 mmHg; p = 0.01) and +/- dP/dt max (from 1352 +/- 50 to 1261 +/- 90 and from 1150 +/- 35 to 993 +/- 59; p = 0.01, respectively) and a downward shift of LV function curves from those obtained from control hearts. Compared to untreated burns, hearts from burned animals treated with LR alone showed no significant improvement in cardiac function. However hearts from burned animals treated with HSD + 1 mL LR/kg/% burn had significantly higher LVP (79 +/- 4 vs. 68 +/- 4 mmHg, p = 0.01) and +/- dP/dt max (+dP/dt: 1387 +/- 60 vs. 1261 +/- 90 mmHg/sc, p = 0.01; -dP/dt: 1079 +/- 50 vs. 993 +/- 59 mmHg/sc, p = 0.01) than hearts from untreated burned animals and generated left ventricular function curves comparable to those calculated for hearts from control

  3. [Ecophysiological adaptability of tropical water organisms to salinity changes].

    PubMed

    Chung, K S

    2001-03-01

    Physiological response of tropical organisms to salinity changes was studied for some marine, estuarine and freshwater fishes (Astyanax bimaculatus, Petenia karussii, Cyprinodon dearborni, and Oreochromis mossambicus), marine and freshwater crustaceans (Penaeus brasiliensis, Penaeus schmitti and Macrobrachium carcinus), and marine bivalves (Perna perna, Crassostrea rhizophorae, and Arca zebra) collected from Northeast Venezuela. They were acclimated for four weeks at various salinities, and (1) placed at high salinities to determine mean lethal salinity, (2) tested by increasing salinity 5@1000 per day to define upper lethal salinity tolerance limit, or (3) observed in a saline gradient tank to determine salinity preference. Acclimation level was the most significant factor. This phenomenon is important for tropical aquatic organisms in shallow waters, where they can adapt to high salinity during the dry season and cannot lose their acclimation level at low salinity during abrupt rain. For saline adaptation of tropical organisms, this behavior will contribute to their proliferation and distribution in fluctuating salinity environments. PMID:11795174

  4. Resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock. Alterations of the intracranial pressure after normal saline, 3% saline and dextran-40.

    PubMed Central

    Gunnar, W P; Merlotti, G J; Barrett, J; Jonasson, O

    1986-01-01

    Resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock by infusion of isotonic (normal) saline (NS) is accompanied by a transient elevation in intracranial pressure (ICP), although cerebral edema, as measured by brain weights at 24 hours, is prevented by adequate volume resuscitation. The transient increase in ICP is not observed during hypertonic saline (HS) resuscitation. The effect of colloid resuscitation on ICP is unknown. Beagles were anesthetized, intubated, and ventilated, maintaining pCO2 between 30-45 torr. Femoral artery, pulmonary artery, and urethral catheters were positioned. ICP was measured with a subarachnoid bolt. Forty per cent of the dog's blood volume was shed and the shock state maintained for 1 hour. Resuscitation was done with shed blood and a volume of either NS (n = 5), 3% HS (n = 5), or 10% dextran-40 (D-40, n = 5) equal to the amount of shed blood. Intravascular volume was then maintained with NS. ICP fell from baseline values (4.7 +/- 3.13 mmHg) during the shock state and increased greatly during initial fluid resuscitation in NS and D-40 groups, to 16.0 +/- 5.83 mmHg and 16.2 +/- 2.68 mmHg, respectively. ICP returned to baseline values of 3.0 +/- 1.73 mmHg in the HS group with initial resuscitation and remained at baseline values throughout resuscitation. NS and D-40 ICP were greater than HS ICP at 1 hour (p less than .001) and 2 hours (p less than .05) after resuscitation. These results demonstrate that NS or colloid resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock elevates ICP and that HS prevents elevated ICP. PMID:2431664

  5. Do laboratory salinity tolerances of freshwater animals correspond with their field salinity?

    PubMed

    Kefford, Ben J; Papas, Phil J; Metzeling, Leon; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2004-06-01

    The degree to which laboratory derived measures of salinity tolerance reflect the field distributions of freshwater biota is uncertain. In this paper we compare laboratory-derived acute salinity tolerance (LC(50) values) of freshwater macroinvertebrates (range 5.5-76 mS/cm) and fish (range 2.7-82 mS/cm) from southeastern Australia with the salinity from which they have been collected in the field. Only 4% of the macroinvertebrates were collected at salinity levels substantially higher than their 72-h LC(50) obtained from directly transferring animals from low salinity water to the water they were tested (direct transfer LC(50)). This LC(50) value was correlated with the maximum salinity at which a species had been collected. For common macroinvertebrates, the maximum field salinity was approximated by the direct transfer 72-h LC(50). For adult freshwater fish, 21% of species were collected at salinities substantially greater than their acute direct transfer LC(50) and there was a weak relationship between these two variables. Although there was a weak correlation between the direct transfer LC(50) of early life stages of freshwater fish and the maximum field salinity, 58% of the field distribution were in higher than their LC(50) values. In contrast, LC(50) determined from experiments that acclimated adult fish to higher salinity (slow acclimation) provided a better indication of the field distribution: with only one fish species (7%) being in conflict with their maximum field salinity and a strong positive relationship between these variables. This study shows that laboratory measures of acute salinity tolerance can reflect the maximum salinity that macroinvertebrate and fish species inhabit and are consistent with some anecdotal observations from other studies. PMID:15016457

  6. Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)

    MedlinePlus

    ... GI series can help diagnose the cause of abdominal pain bleeding from the anus changes in bowel habits ... GI series should seek immediate medical attention: severe abdominal pain bloody bowel movements or bleeding from the anus ...

  7. Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)

    MedlinePlus

    ... bouillon or broth gelatin in flavors such as lemon, lime, or orange plain coffee or tea, without ... or milk sports drinks in flavors such as lemon, lime, or orange strained fruit juice, such as ...

  8. Characterization of saline dust emission resulted from Urmia Lake drying.

    PubMed

    Gholampour, Akbar; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Taghipour, Hasan; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Compared with common dust storms, saline dust storms transport high concentrations of fine-grain saline and alkaline material. The saline dust storm differs from common dust storm, especially considering the sources of the suspended particulate matter (PM), chemical composition, grain size, and circulation processes. Atmospheric particulate matters (TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) and their water-soluble ions were concurrently measured at two sites located at north and southeast part of Urmia lake from January 2013 to September 2013. Particulate matters (PMs) were measured using high volume sampler and HAZ-DUST EPAM-5000 particulate air monitors. In both of the sampling sites, the highest concentration of PM was observed during the summer season (521.6, 329.1, 42.6, and 36.5 for TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1, respectively). A total of 11 inorganic water-soluble ions in the TSP and PM10 were identified by ion chromatography (IC). No statistically significant difference was found between PM's ions concentrations of two sampling sites. The average of the total measured water-soluble ions in the sampling sites was 28.75 ± 12.9 μg/m(3) (11.9 ± 4.8% of total TSP mass) for TSP and 14.65 ± 7.1μg/m(3) (8.7 ± 4.4 of total PM10 mass) for PM10. Among all detected ions, sulfate was the dominant constituent followed by nitrate and sodium. This study showed that the water soluble salts compose 3-20% of the total mass of TSP and PM10. The PCA analysis showed that saline particulates formed from Urmia lake bed were the dominant source (57.6 %) of TSP. In addition, saline particulates together with crustal materials resulted from resuspension were the main source (59.9%) of PM10. PMID:26617986

  9. Aquarius Observations of Sea Surface Salinity

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows changes in global sea surface salinity, as measured by NASA’s Aquarius instrument aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft, from December 2011 through December 2012. Red repr...

  10. Cold saline is more effective than room temperature saline in inducing paresthesia during axillary block.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, J; Carceller, J; Bárcena, M; Pedraza, I; Calvo, B; Alvarez, J

    1995-08-01

    Confirmation of the perivascular position of the needle by the injection of cold saline may be helpful to the perivascular technique, since the elicitation of a paresthesia indicates the correct positioning of the needle. In this prospective, randomized study of 48 patients, we found a 100% incidence of successful block with saline at 8-11 degrees C compared to 75% in a control group with saline at room temperature. The paresthesia induced by cold saline appears to be due to thermic stimulation and not to mechanical nerve compression by the saline entering the axillary space. A more frequent rate of correct positioning of the needle was found in the group with cold saline. PMID:7618724

  11. Sea Surface Salinity : Research Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David; Lagerloef, Gary; Font, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) can be important in regulating sea surface temperature (SST). Two technological breakthrough satellite SSS missions, Aquarius and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), are currently producing high-quality SSS data. This paper provides an overview of the importance of SSS for weather and climate applications and describes the Aquarius and SMOS missions. The newness of adequately sampled SSS data prompted a first-time at-sea field campaign devoted to improved understanding of SSS variations.

  12. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  13. Effect of seawater salinity on pore-size distribution on a poly(styrene)-based HP20 resin and its adsorption of diarrhetic shellfish toxins.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lin; Sun, Geng; Qiu, Jiangbing; Ma, Qimin; Hess, Philipp; Li, Aifeng

    2014-12-19

    In the present study, okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) were spiked into artificial seawater at low, medium and high estuarine salinities (9‰, 13.5‰ and 27‰). Passive samplers (HP20 resin) used for solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) technology were exposed in these seawaters for 12-h periods. Adsorption curves well fitted a pseudo-secondary kinetics model. The highest initial sorption rates of both toxins occurred in the seawater of medium salinity, followed by seawater of low and high estuarine salinity. Pore volumes of micropores (<2 nm) and small mesopores (2 nmsalinity but not in seawater at medium salinity, which demonstrated that the toxin molecules entered into micropores and mesopores (below 10nm in size) in seawaters of high and low salinity. More toxin or other matrix agglomerates were displayed on the surface of resin deployed in the seawater of medium salinity. Taking into consideration the pore-size distribution and surface images, it appears that intra-particle diffusion governs toxin adsorption in seawater at high salinity while film diffusion mainly controls the adsorption process in seawater at medium salinity. This is the first study to confirm that molecules of OA and DTX1 are able to enter into micropores (<2nm) and small mesopores (2-10nm) of HP20 resin in estuarine seawater with high salinity (∼27‰). PMID:25464996

  14. [Investigation and canonical correspondence analysis of salinity contents in secondary salinization greenhouse soils in Shanghai suburb].

    PubMed

    Tang, Dong; Mao, Liang; Zhi, Yue-e; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Zhou, Pei; Chai, Xiao-Tong

    2014-12-01

    The salinity characteristics of greenhouse soils with cropping obstacles in Shanghai suburb were investigated and analyzed. The salinity contents of the salinization greenhouse soils showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing with the increasing cropping duration. The salinized soils mainly included slightly salted, mildly salted and salted soils, which accounted for 17.39%, 56.52% and 13.04%, respectively. Among them, the degree of salinity in greenhouse soil planted with asparagus in Chongming County was the highest. Among the salt ions in greenhouse soils, the cations were mainly Ca2+ and Na+, while the anions were mainly NO3- and SO4(2-). The degree of salinity was mainly influenced by fertilization mode, cropping duration, crop type and management level, which led to the great variation in the salinity contents and salt ions. Canonical correspondence analysis found that the contents of Ca2+, Mg2+ and NO3- in greenhouse soils were greatly affected by cropping duration, and the degree of salinity would be enhanced and attenuated with long-term application of single fertilizer and mixed application of chemical fertilizer and organic manure, respectively. The greenhouse soils in Shanghai suburb could be classified as four patterns influenced by the relationship between salinity ions and samples, and the most soils were influenced by Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3- and Cl-, which required to be primarily controlled. PMID:25826944

  15. Acute volume loading and exercise capacity in postural tachycardia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Rocío A.; Arnold, Amy C.; Nwazue, Victor C.; Okamoto, Luis E.; Paranjape, Sachin Y.; Black, Bonnie K.; Diedrich, Andre; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo; Raj, Satish R.

    2014-01-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is associated with exercise intolerance, hypovolemia, and cardiac atrophy, which may contribute to reduced stroke volume and compensatory exaggerated heart rate (HR) increases. Acute volume loading with intravenous (iv) saline reduces HR and improves orthostatic tolerance and symptoms in POTS, but its effect on exercise capacity is unknown. In this study, we determined the effect of iv saline infusion on peak exercise capacity (V̇o2peak) in POTS. Nineteen patients with POTS participated in a sequential study. V̇o2peak was measured on two separate study days, following administration of placebo or 1 liter of iv saline (NaCl 0.9%). Patients exercised on a semirecumbent bicycle with resistance increased by 25 W every 2 min until maximal effort was achieved. Patients exhibited blood volume deficits (−13.4 ± 1.4% ideal volume), consistent with mild to moderate hypovolemia. At baseline, saline significantly increased stroke volume (saline 80 ± 8 ml vs. placebo 64 ± 4 ml; P = 0.010), increased cardiac output (saline 6.9 ± 0.5 liter/min vs. placebo 5.7 ± 0.2 liter/min; P = 0.021), and reduced systemic vascular resistance (saline 992.6 ± 70.0 dyn-s/cm5 vs. placebo 1,184.0 ± 50.8 dyn-s/cm5; P = 0.011), with no effect on HR or blood pressure. During exercise, saline did not produce differences in V̇o2peak (saline 26.3 ± 1.2 mg·kg−1·min−1 vs. placebo 27.7 ± 1.8 mg·kg−1·min−1; P = 0.615), peak HR [saline 174 ± 4 beats per minute (bpm) vs. placebo 175 ± 3 bpm; P = 0.672] or other cardiovascular parameters. These findings suggest that acute volume loading with saline does not improve V̇o2peak or cardiovascular responses to exercise in POTS, despite improvements in resting hemodynamic function. PMID:25059240

  16. Salinity Measurements During the Gulf Stream Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Howden, S.; Goodberlet, M.

    2000-01-01

    The salinity of the open ocean is important for understanding ocean circulation, for understanding energy exchange with the atmosphere and for improving models to predict weather and climate. Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (1 psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approx. 0.1 psu) required to be scientifically viable. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of a compliment of airborne microwave instruments (radiometers and scatterometer) and ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the compliment of instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer. A GPS backscatter experiment was also part of the package. These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Surface salinity measurements were provided by the RN Cape Henlopen and MN Oleander (thermosalinographs) plus salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the RN Cape Henopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made

  17. Polymer tensiometers in a saline environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ploeg, Martine; Gooren, H. P. A.; Bakker, G.; Russell, W.; Hoogendam, C. W.; Huiskes, C.; Shouse, P.; de Rooij, G. H.

    2010-05-01

    It is estimated that 20% of all cultivated land and nearly half of the irrigated land is salt-affected, which pose major economic and environmental problems. Salinity may be the result of two processes; dryland and irrigation salinity. Dryland salinity is caused by a rise in the groundwater table, which occurs as a result of the replacement of deep-rooted, perennial native vegetation by shallow-rooted annual species meant for production. Irrigation salinity may occur as a result of poor water quality, poor drainage, or inefficient use of water. Consequently, new strategies to enhance crop yield stability on saline soils represent a major research priority (Botella et al. 2005). At the same time, native vegetation is capable of thriving under saline and/or dry conditions. The plant physiology of such vegetation has been investigated thoroughly, but the relation with in situ soil properties (soil moisture and salinity) may be more difficult to unravel as soil moisture sensors are less sensitive in dry soil, and the signal of most soil moisture content sensors is strongly attenuated by soil salinity. Recently, polymer tensiometer were developed that are able to measure matric potentials (closely related to a soil's moisture status) in dry soils. Polymer tensiometers consist of a solid ceramic, a stainless steel cup and a pressure transducer. The ceramic consist of a support layer and a membrane with 2 nm pore-size to prevent polymer leakage. Between the ceramic membrane and the pressure transducer a tiny chamber is located, which contains the polymer solution. The polymer's osmotic potential strongly reduces the total water potential inside the polymer tensiometer, which causes build-up of osmotic pressure. Polymer tensiometers would thus be an ideal instrument to measure in dry soil, if the polymer inside the tensiometer is not affected by the salts in the soil solution. We will address some key issues regarding the use of POTs in saline environments by showing

  18. Caribbean Salinity Variation During the Last Glacial Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. W.; Spero, H. J.; Lea, D. W.

    2003-12-01

    Evaporation exceeds precipitation in the tropical Atlantic, resulting in a net freshwater removal across the Central American Isthmus. Because most of the north Atlantic's subtropical gyre water circulates through the Caribbean before flowing north to sub-polar regions via the Gulf Stream, changes in tropical atmospheric circulation have the potential to affect the salinity and density structure of the entire north Atlantic, thereby influencing glacial-interglacial oscillations in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation. Here, we combine Mg/Ca measurements (a proxy for the temperature of calcification) and δ 18O analyses of shells from the surface-dwelling foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber s.s. (white var.) from the western Caribbean Colombian Basin at ODP Site 999A (2827m; 4cm/ka sed. rate) and VM28-122 (3623m; 4-10cm/ka sed. rate) to produce the first continuous record of western tropical Atlantic δ 18OSEAWATER (δ 18OSW) during the last 130ka. In order to generate a record for sea surface salinity (SSS) due to regional hydrological change, we removed the δ 18OSW signal due to glacial ice volume variation and normalized the residual to the modern δ 18OSW value for the Colombian Basin (0.8‰ ). The resulting ice volume-free (Δ δ 18OIVF-SW) record shows that Caribbean Δ δ 18OIVF-SW increased by ˜0.5‰ during the Last Glacial Maximum and Marine Isotope Stage 4. Using a modern western Caribbean δ 18OSW:SSS relationship, these enriched δ 18OSW values suggest glacial Caribbean salinities were 2.3 - 2.8‰ higher than modern after removing the influence of ice-volume. Our data supports the hypothesis that the tropics might have been in a state more similar to the modern El Nino mode, characterized by a more southerly position of the ITCZ, during cold phases of the last glacial cycle. Within the resolution of our Δ δ 18OIVF-SW record from VM28-122, elevated glacial Caribbean salinity decreased to modern levels at the onset of the Bolling-Allerod (B

  19. Estimates of natural salinity and hydrology in a subtropical estuarine ecosystem: implications for Greater Everglades restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, Frank E.; Wingard, Georgiana L.; Pitts, Patrick A.

    2014-01-01

    Disruption of the natural patterns of freshwater flow into estuarine ecosystems occurred in many locations around the world beginning in the twentieth century. To effectively restore these systems, establishing a pre-alteration perspective allows managers to develop science-based restoration targets for salinity and hydrology. This paper describes a process to develop targets based on natural hydrologic functions by coupling paleoecology and regression models using the subtropical Greater Everglades Ecosystem as an example. Paleoecological investigations characterize the circa 1900 CE (pre-alteration) salinity regime in Florida Bay based on molluscan remains in sediment cores. These paleosalinity estimates are converted into time series estimates of paleo-based salinity, stage, and flow using numeric and statistical models. Model outputs are weighted using the mean square error statistic and then combined. Results indicate that, in the absence of water management, salinity in Florida Bay would be about 3 to 9 salinity units lower than current conditions. To achieve this target, upstream freshwater levels must be about 0.25 m higher than indicated by recent observed data, with increased flow inputs to Florida Bay between 2.1 and 3.7 times existing flows. This flow deficit is comparable to the average volume of water currently being diverted from the Everglades ecosystem by water management. The products (paleo-based Florida Bay salinity and upstream hydrology) provide estimates of pre-alteration hydrology and salinity that represent target restoration conditions. This method can be applied to any estuarine ecosystem with available paleoecologic data and empirical and/or model-based hydrologic data.

  20. Convective shutdown of CO2 in saline aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, J. A.; Hewitt, D. R.; Lister, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Convective flow in a porous medium, driven by a buoyancy source along one boundary, is common in active geothermal aquifers and in the presence of evaporation in saline aquifers. More recently, convection driven by the dissolution of injected CO2 in saline aquifers has been shown to reduce the volume of mobile CO2 in carbon sequestration sites and analogues, thus reducing any concomitant risks of leakage. For carbon sequestration the rates of dissolution can depend strongly on the background CO2 concentration, and hence might be expected to wane in time. Here we present a simple analytic box model of the shutdown of convection in a closed aquifer, and compare these reduced model results against high-resolution numerical and analogue experiments. We find that the box model accurately captures the dynamics of the convective fluxes, and provides time scale over which free-phase CO2 may be completely removed. Furthermore, the model may provide insight into the geochemical record of dissolution in the deep carbon cycle.

  1. Using discriminant analysis to determine sources of salinity in shallow groundwater prior to hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Lautz, Laura K; Hoke, Gregory D; Lu, Zunli; Siegel, Donald I; Christian, Kayla; Kessler, John Daniel; Teale, Natalie G

    2014-08-19

    High-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) gas-drilling operations in the Marcellus Play have raised environmental concerns, including the risk of groundwater contamination. Fingerprinting water impacted by gas-drilling operations is not trivial given other potential sources of contamination. We present a multivariate statistical modeling framework for developing a quantitative, geochemical fingerprinting tool to distinguish sources of high salinity in shallow groundwater. The model was developed using new geochemical data for 204 wells in New York State (NYS), which has a HVHF moratorium and published data for additional wells in NYS and several salinity sources (Appalachian Basin brines, road salt, septic effluent, and animal waste). The model incorporates a stochastic simulation to predict the geochemistry of high salinity (>20 mg/L Cl) groundwater impacted by different salinity sources and then employs linear discriminant analysis to classify samples from different populations. Model results indicate Appalachian Basin brines are the primary source of salinity in 35% of sampled NYS groundwater wells with >20 mg/L Cl. The model provides an effective means for differentiating groundwater impacted by basin brines versus other contaminants. Using this framework, similar discriminatory tools can be derived for other regions from background water quality data. PMID:25062431

  2. Salinity Effects on Water Potential Components and Bulk Elastic Modulus of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. 1

    PubMed Central

    Bolaños, Jorge A.; Longstreth, David J.

    1984-01-01

    Pressure volume curves for Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. (alligator weed) grown in 0 to 400 millimolar NaCl were used to determine water potential (Ψ), osmotic potential (ψs), turgor potential (ψp) and the bulk elastic modulus (ε) of shoots at different tissue water contents. Values of ψs decreased with increasing salinity and tissue Ψ was always lower than rhizosphere Ψ. The relationship between ψp and tissue water content changed because ε increased with salinity. As a result, salt-stressed plants had larger ranges of positive turgor but smaller ranges of tissue water content over which ψp was positive. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a salinity effect on ε in higher plants. These increases in ε with salinity provided a mechanism by which a large difference between plant Ψ and rhizosphere Ψ, the driving force for water uptake, could be produced with relatively little water loss by the plant. A time-course study of response after salinization to 400 millimolar NaCl showed Ψ was constant within 1 day, ψs and ψp continued to change for 2 to 4 days, and ε continued to change for 4 to 12 days. Changes in ε modified the capacity of alligator weed to maintain a positive water balance and consideration of such changes in other species of higher plants should improve our understanding of salt stress. PMID:16663611

  3. Uranium Distribution along the Salinity Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, C.; Yoon, H.; Seo, J.; Lee, J.; Chung, K.

    2006-12-01

    Uranium distribution has been examined in the estuarine waters of the Keum River, Korea. Water samples were collected along a salinity gradient, range from 0.2 to 31.5 psu. Dissolved uranium in the samples has been extracted by C-18 SPE cartridge after pre-treatment. Extraction of uranium by C-18 cartridge after complexation with APDC/DDDC shows about 90 % recovery. After concentration of sample onto C-18 cartridge, uranium complex has been sequentially extracted by 50 % and 100 % acetonitrile, respectively. Result shows good recovery efficiency at low pH (2.5 _ 3.0) during the pre-treatment of sample which was presumably related with destabilization of uranium-carbonate complex. In the estuary, uranium shows typical conservative behavior along the salinity gradient. The current result substantiates earlier reports that uranium is conservatively transported from the river to the ocean. Most of dissolved trace metals, except cadmium, decreased with increasing salinity in the estuary. Dissolved organic carbon also decreased along the salinity gradient. Copper was rapidly removed during the mixing with seawaters as a result of organic matter flocculation. Dissolved molybdenum, vanadium and uranium distribution in the estuary showed similarities that those concentration increase along the salinity gradient.

  4. "SPURS" in the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Raymond

    2014-05-01

    The North Atlantic Salinity Maximum is the world's saltiest open ocean salinity maximum and was the focus of the recent Salinity Processes Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS) program. SPURS was a joint venture between US, French, Irish, and Spanish investigators. Three US and two EU cruises were involved from August, 1012 - October, 2013 as well as surface moorings, glider, drifter and float deployments. Shipboard operations included underway meteorological and oceanic data, hydrographic surveys and turbulence profiling. The goal is to improve our understanding of how the salinity maximum is maintained and how it may be changing. It is formed by an excess of evaporation over precipitation and the wind-driven convergence of the subtropical gyre. Such salty areas are getting saltier with global warming (a record high SSS was observed in SPURS) and it is imperative to determine the relative roles of surface water fluxes and oceanic processes in such trends. The combination of accurate surface flux estimates with new assessments of vertical and horizontal mixing in the ocean will help elucidate the utility of ocean salinity in quantifying the changing global water cycle.

  5. Biomarker-based salinity reconstruction immediately prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (Sorbas Basin, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayser, Jan Peter; Martins, Cesar; Flecker, Rachel; Pancost, Rich D.

    2014-05-01

    The salinity crisis which occurred in the Mediterranean at the end of the Miocene (5.97 to 5.33 Ma) was a time of large-scale environmental change and thick evaporite deposits formed both in the deep basins and on the surrounding margins. Late Miocene successions in the Sorbas Basin, south east Spain preserve sediments that were deposited immediately prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and during the initial phase of gypsum precipitation (Sierro et al., 2001). Salinity changes are indicated by evaporite formation and fluctuations in faunal assemblages, but these provide threshold measurements only e.g. gypsum forms at a salinity of 130 psu. By analysing the lipid biomarker composition by GC and HPLC-MS after Soxhlet extraction of pre-MSC sediments we aim to reconstruct granular changes in salinity leading up to initial gypsum precipitation. The pre-MSC sediments comprise regular alternations of marine marls and terrigenous clays with interspersed diatomites. This lithological cyclicity is climatically forced by orbitally-driven changes in insolation (Krijgsman et al., 1999) such that specific lithologies are thought to accumulate during precession minima (homogeneous marls) and maxima (laminated marls). By targeting these lithologies for salinity reconstruction we can evaluate the orbital control on quantified environmental change. The reconstruction of the salinity is predominantly based on the ACE proxy introduced by Turich and Freeman (2011). The GDGT-based proxy can show differences over a wide range of salinity, because Archaea can survive over a much larger salinity range than haptophyte algae or other plankton and can therefore also record the salinity signal over a wider range. This makes it suitable for the broad salinity ranges leading up to the MSC e.g. ~35 to 130 psu. Turich et al. (2011) already have published 10 low resolution salinity values for pre-MSC sediments from Torrente Vaccarizzo and Serra Pirciata on Sicily. Our high resolution

  6. RF tumor ablation with internally cooled electrodes and saline infusion: what is the optimal location of the saline infusion?

    PubMed Central

    Burdío, Fernando; Berjano, Enrique J; Navarro, Ana; Burdío, José M; Güemes, Antonio; Grande, Luis; Sousa, Ramón; Subiró, Jorge; Gonzalez, Ana; Cruz, Ignacio; Castiella, Tomás; Tejero, Eloy; Lozano, Ricardo; de Gregorio, Miguel A

    2007-01-01

    Background Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of tumors by means of internally cooled electrodes (ICE) combined with interstitial infusion of saline may improve clinical results. To date, infusion has been conducted through outlets placed on the surface of the cooled electrode. However, the effect of infusion at a distance from the electrode surface is unknown. Our aim was to assess the effect of perfusion distance (PD) on the coagulation geometry and deposited power during RFA using ICE. Methods Experiments were performed on excised bovine livers. Perfusion distance (PD) was defined as the shortest distance between the infusion outlet and the surface of the ICE. We considered three values of PD: 0, 2 and 4 mm. Two sets of experiments were considered: 1) 15 ablations of 10 minutes (n ≥ 4 for each PD), in order to evaluate the effect of PD on volume and diameters of coagulation; and 2) 20 additional ablations of 20 minutes. The effect of PD on deposited power and relative frequency of uncontrolled impedance rises (roll-off) was evaluated using the results from the two sets of experiments (n ≥ 7 for each PD). Comparisons between PD were performed by analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis test. Additionally, non-linear regression models were performed to elucidate the best PD in terms of coagulation volume and diameter, and the occurrence of uncontrolled impedance rises. Results The best-fit least square functions were always obtained with quadratic curves where volume and diameters of coagulation were maximum for a PD of 2 mm. A thirty per cent increase in volume coagulation was observed for this PD value compared to other values (P < 0.05). Likewise, the short coagulation diameter was nearly twenty five per cent larger for a 2 mm PD than for 0 mm. Regarding deposited power, the best-fit least square function was obtained by a quadratic curve with a 2 mm PD peak. This matched well with the higher relative frequency of uncontrolled impedance rises for PD of 0 and 4 mm

  7. Fluid shifts following 7% hypertonic saline (2400 mosmol/L) infusion.

    PubMed

    Onarheim, H

    1995-05-01

    Small volumes of hyperosmolar saline solutions may rapidly improve MAP and CO in hemorrhagic shock. In the present study, the effects of infusion of 7% NaCl on interstitial fluid volume and intracellular fluid volume were determined. In anesthetized, normovolemic rats either 7% NaCl (1.1 mL/100 g, intravenously), acetated Ringer's solution (10 mL/100 g), or no fluid (controls) were infused and extracellular volume (ECV) and plasma volume were determined in samples from skin, skeletal muscle, small intestine, liver, and lung. Intracellular volume was determined as local tissue water content minus ECV. Extracellular fluid volumes were 21.1 +/- .6 mL/ 100 g(mean +/- SEM; n = 6) (control animals), 26.1 +/- .4 mL/100 g (following 7% NaCl) (p < .05), and 32.8 +/- .5 mL/100 g (following Ringer's) (p < .05). Following 7% NaCl ECV increased by four to five times the infused volume. With 7% NaCl ECV in skin, muscle and intestine increased significantly, whereas cell volume was reduced by 10% in muscle and liver. Skeletal muscle, constituting > 40% of body mass with a large cell volume, was the main source for fluid mobilized by administration of 7% NaCl. PMID:7648336

  8. Reversal of bedrest-induced orthostatic intolerance by lower body negative pressure and saline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, K. H.; West, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Six healthy male volunteers underwent two 1-week periods of bedrest, each preceded and followed by 2-week control and recovery periods. The daily metabolic diet contained 150 mEq of sodium. Following one 7-day bedrest period, each man was subjected to LBNP at a level of -30 mm Hg for 4 hr while consuming 1000 ml of beef bouillon containing 154 mEq of sodium. After the other bedrest period, each man simply consumed the bouillon without LBNP treatment during 4 hr of continued bedrest. Measurements of plasma volume and orthostatic tolerance were made before and after each treatment period. After combined LBNP and saline therapy, plasma volume and response to LBNP testing showed a return to pre-bedrest levels. Saline consumption alone had a lesser effect. With continuation of bedrest in three subjects, the beneficial effects of these measures appeared to be largely gone after 18 hr.

  9. Rain Impact Model V2.0 for Sea Surface Salinity: A Flag for Salinity Stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Garcia, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Central Florida Remote Sensing Laboratory has analyzed Aquarius (AQ) sea surface salinity (SSS) and ESA's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) retrievals in the presence of rain and has developed a Rain Impact Model (RIM V2.0) that predicts transient near-surface salinity stratification based upon the corresponding rain accumulation over the previous 24 hours and the effect of the wind speed. For both of the satellite SSS measurements, a common reference for comparison is the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) for ocean salinity, but there is a significant mismatch between the remote sensing sampling depth of approximately 0.01 m and the typical range of 5 m to 10 m of in situ instruments. Under normal ocean conditions the upper layer of the ocean is well mixed and there is an approximately uniform salinity for the first 10 m depth; therefore satellite measurements are good estimates of the bulk salinity. Conversely, under rainy conditions, there is a dilution of the near-surface salinity that mixed downward by diffusion and mechanical mixing of gravity waves, where the wind speed information play a significant role in the model. This transient phenomena, known as salinity stratification, significantly modifies the salinity gradient in the upper 1 m of the ocean; and therefore invalidates the usual assumption of well-mixed salinity. Generally, these salinity stratifications dissipate in less than a couple of hours and the upper layer becomes well mixed at a slightly fresher salinity. The Rain Impact Model V2.0 is based on the RIM V1.0, previously published, which includes the rain accumulation effect but ignores the variations on wind speed using a constant vertical diffusivity value. This research addresses the effects of rainfall on the AQ and SMOS SSS retrieval using a macro-scale Rain Impact Model (RIM) in regions of high convective rain. This model, based on the superposition of a one-dimension eddy diffusion (turbulent diffusion) model, relates sea

  10. Salinity surveys using an airborne microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, J. F.; Droppleman, J. D.; Evans, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    The Barnes PRT-5 infrared radiometer and L-band channel of the multifrequency microwave radiometer are used to survey the distribution of surface water temperature and salinity. These remote sensors were flown repetitively in November 1971 over the outflow of the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico. Data reduction parameters were determined through the use of flight data obtained over a known water area. With these parameters, the measured infrared and microwave radiances were analyzed in terms of the surface temperature and salinity.

  11. Advantages and disadvantages of fludrocortisone or saline load in preventing post-spaceflight orthostatic hypotension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernikos, Joan; Convertino, Victor A.

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of saline load to fludrocortisone (florinef) as countermeasures for reduced plasma volume and orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight. Eleven males (ages 30-50 yr) underwent a 3-day ambulatory baseline period followed by 7 days of 6° head-down bedrest, during which cardiopulmonary and arterial baroreflex sensitivity and plasma volume (PV) were determined. During pre-bedrest and 2.5 h after treatment on day 8, PV was also measured and subjects underwent a 15-min unsupported stand test. Treatments consisted of 8 salt tablets (1 g NaCl per tablet) and 960 ml of water in 5 subjects and 0.6 mg (0.2 mg × 3) over 24 h in the other 6 subjects. PV decreased by 12% on day 7 of bedrest. This was restored on day 8 by florinef but not by saline load. The effect of florinef on PV was paralleled by decreases in urine volume and the urinary sodium/potassium ratio. Reduced PV was associated with greater vascular resistance for the same drop in central venous pressure, suggesting less vasoconstriction reserve after bedrest. Carotid baroreflex control of heart rate was attenuated after 7 days of bedrest. Both baroreflex functions were restored by florinef but not saline load. Only 1 of 6 subjects showed syncopal symptoms in the florinef-treated group, whereas 4 of 5 subjects did so in the saline-load group. Acute florinef treatment appears to have distinct advantages as a protective measure for post-bedrest orthostatic intolerance, not only through its salt retaining, volume-expanding mineralcorticoid effect, but possibly through its actions on baroreflex and sympathetic functions.

  12. Computed tomographic colonography compared with colonoscopy or barium enema for diagnosis of colorectal cancer in older symptomatic patients: two multicentre randomised trials with economic evaluation (the SIGGAR trials).

    PubMed Central

    Halligan, Steve; Dadswell, Edward; Wooldrage, Kate; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian; Lilford, Richard; Yao, Guiqing L; Zhu, Shihua; Atkin, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a relatively new diagnostic test that may be superior to existing alternatives to investigate the large bowel. OBJECTIVES To compare the diagnostic efficacy, acceptability, safety and cost-effectiveness of CTC with barium enema (BE) or colonoscopy. DESIGN Parallel randomised trials: BE compared with CTC and colonoscopy compared with CTC (randomisation 2 : 1, respectively). SETTING A total of 21 NHS hospitals. PARTICIPANTS Patients aged ≥ 55 years with symptoms suggestive of colorectal cancer (CRC). INTERVENTIONS CTC, BE and colonoscopy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES For the trial of CTC compared with BE, the primary outcome was the detection rate of CRC and large polyps (≥ 10 mm), with the proportion of patients referred for additional colonic investigation as a secondary outcome. For the trial of CTC compared with colonoscopy, the primary outcome was the proportion of patients referred for additional colonic investigation, with the detection rate of CRC and large polyps as a secondary outcome. Secondary outcomes for both trials were miss rates for cancer (via registry data), all-cause mortality, serious adverse events, patient acceptability, extracolonic pathology and cost-effectiveness. RESULTS A total of 8484 patients were registered and 5384 were randomised and analysed (BE trial: 2527 BE, 1277 CTC; colonoscopy trial: 1047 colonoscopy, 533 CTC). Detection rates in the BE trial were 7.3% (93/1277) for CTC, compared with 5.6% (141/2527) for BE (p = 0.0390). The difference was due to better detection of large polyps by CTC (3.6% vs. 2.2%; p = 0.0098), with no significant difference for cancer (3.7% vs. 3.4%; p = 0.66). Significantly more patients having CTC underwent additional investigation (23.5% vs. 18.3%; p = 0.0003). At the 3-year follow-up, the miss rate for CRC was 6.7% for CTC (three missed cancers) and 14.1% for BE (12 missed cancers). Significantly more patients randomised to CTC

  13. INHALED HYPERTONIC SALINE IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN LESS THAN SIX YEARS OF AGE WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS: THE ISIS RANDOMIZED TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Margaret; Ratjen, Felix; Brumback, Lyndia; Daniel, Stephen; Rowbotham, Ron; McNamara, Sharon; Johnson, Robin; Kronmal, Richard; Davis, Stephanie D

    2013-01-01

    expiratory volume in 0.5 seconds which was 38 ml greater (95% CI 1, 76) in the hypertonic saline group. Adherence by returned study drug ampoules was at least 75% in each group. Adverse event profiles were also similar, with the most common adverse event of moderate or severe severity in each group being cough (39% of hypertonic saline group, 38% of isotonic saline group). Conclusions Among infants and children with cystic fibrosis less than 6 years old, the use of inhaled hypertonic saline compared with isotonic saline did not reduce the rate of pulmonary exacerbations over 48 weeks of treatment. Trial Registration www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00709280 PMID:22610452

  14. Understanding salinity responses and adopting 'omics-based' approaches to generate salinity tolerant cultivars of rice.

    PubMed

    Das, Priyanka; Nutan, Kamlesh K; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L; Pareek, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    Soil salinity is one of the main constraints affecting production of rice worldwide, by reducing growth, pollen viability as well as yield of the plant. Therefore, detailed understanding of the response of rice towards soil salinity at the physiological and molecular level is a prerequisite for its effective management. Various approaches have been adopted by molecular biologists or breeders to understand the mechanism for salinity tolerance in plants and to develop salt tolerant rice cultivars. Genome wide analysis using 'omics-based' tools followed by identification and functional validation of individual genes is becoming one of the popular approaches to tackle this task. On the other hand, mutation breeding and insertional mutagenesis has also been exploited to obtain salinity tolerant crop plants. This review looks into various responses at cellular and whole plant level generated in rice plants toward salinity stress thus, evaluating the suitability of intervention of functional genomics to raise stress tolerant plants. We have tried to highlight the usefulness of the contemporary 'omics-based' approaches such as genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and phenomics towards dissecting out the salinity tolerance trait in rice. In addition, we have highlighted the importance of integration of various 'omics' approaches to develop an understanding of the machinery involved in salinity response in rice and to move forward to develop salt tolerant cultivars of rice. PMID:26442026

  15. Pre-Exercise Ingestion of Pickle Juice, Hypertonic Saline, or Water and Aerobic Performance and Thermoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Peikert, Jarett; Miller, Kevin C.; Albrecht, Jay; Tucker, Jared; Deal, James

    2014-01-01

    Context: Ingesting high-sodium drinks pre-exercise can improve thermoregulation and performance. Athletic trainers (19%) give athletes pickle juice (PJ) prophylactically for cramping. No data exist on whether this practice affects aerobic performance or thermoregulation. Objective: To determine if drinking 2 mL/kg body mass of PJ, hypertonic saline, or deionized water (DIW) pre-exercise affects aerobic performance or thermoregulation. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Controlled laboratory study. Patients or Other Participants: Nine euhydrated men (age = 22 ± 3 years, height = 184.0 ± 8.2 cm, mass = 82.6 ± 16.0 kg) completed testing. Intervention(s): Participants rested for 65 minutes. During this period, they ingested 2 mL/kg of PJ, hypertonic saline, or DIW. Next, they drank 5 mL/kg of DIW. Blood was collected before and after ingestion of all fluids. Participants were weighed and ran in the heat (temperature = 38.3°C ± 1°C, relative humidity = 21.1% ± 4.7%) at increasing increments of maximal heart rate (50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%) until exhaustion or until rectal temperature exceeded 39.5°C. Participants were weighed postexercise so we could calculate sweat volume. Main Outcome Measure(s): Time to exhaustion, rectal temperature, changes in plasma volume, and sweat volume. Results: Time to exhaustion did not differ among drinks (PJ = 77.4 ± 5.9 minutes, hypertonic saline = 77.4 ± 4.0 minutes, DIW = 75.7 ± 3.2 minutes; F2,16 = 1.1, P = .40). Core temperature of participants was similar among drinks (PJ = 38.7°C ± 0.3°C, hypertonic saline = 38.7°C ± 0.4°C, DIW = 38.8°C ± 0.4°C; P = .74) but increased from pre-exercise (36.7°C ± 0.2°C) to postexercise (38.7°C ± 0.4°C) (P < .05). No differences were observed for changes in plasma volume or sweat volume among drinks (P > .05). Conclusions: Ingesting small amounts of PJ or hypertonic saline with water did not affect performance or select thermoregulatory measures. Drinking larger volumes of

  16. Probability analysis of the relation of salinity to freshwater discharge in the St. Sebastian River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wicklein, S.M.; Gain, W.S.

    1999-01-01

    The St. Sebastian River lies in the southern part of the Indian River basin on the east coast of Florida. Increases in freshwater discharge due to urbanization and changes in land use have reduced salinity in the St. Sebastian River and, consequently, salinity in the Indian River, affecting the commercial fishing industry. Wind, water temperature, tidal flux, freshwater discharge, and downstream salinity all affect salinity in the St. Sebastian River estuary, but freshwater discharge is the only one of these hydrologic factors which might be affected by water-management practices. A probability analysis of salinity conditions in the St. Sebastian River estuary, taking into account the effects of freshwater discharge over a period from May 1992 to March 1996, was used to determine the likelihood (probability) that salinities, as represented by daily mean specific- conductance values, will fall below a given threshold. The effects of freshwater discharge on salinities were evaluated with a simple volumetric model fitted to time series of measured specific conductance, by using nonlinear optimization techniques. Specific-conductance values for two depths at monitored sites represent stratified flow which results from differences in salt concentration between freshwater and saltwater. Layering of freshwater and saltwater is assumed, and the model is applied independently to each layer with the assumption that the water within the layer is well mixed. The model of specific conductance as a function of discharge (a salinity response model) was combined with a model of residual variation to produce a total probability model. Flow distributions and model residuals were integrated to produce a salinity distribution and determine differences in salinity probabilities as a result of changes in water-management practices. Two possible management alternatives were analyzed: stormwater detention (reducing the peak rate of discharge but not reducing the overall flow volume) and

  17. Salinity tolerance turfgrass: history and prospects.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Kamal; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor

    2013-01-01

    Land and water resources are becoming scarce and are insufficient to sustain the burgeoning population. Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses affecting agricultural productions across the world. Cultivation of salt-tolerant turfgrass species may be promising option under such conditions where poor quality water can also be used for these crops. Coastal lands in developing countries can be used to grow such crops, and seawater can be used for irrigation of purposes. These plants can be grown using land and water unsuitable for conventional crops and can provide food, fuel, fodder, fibber, resin, essential oils, and pharmaceutical products and can be used for landscape reintegration. There are a number of potential turfgrass species that may be appropriate at various salinity levels of seawater. The goal of this review is to create greater awareness of salt-tolerant turfgrasses, their current and potential uses, and their potential use in developing countries. The future for irrigating turf may rely on the use of moderate- to high-salinity water and, in order to ensure that the turf system is sustainable, will rely on the use of salt-tolerant grasses and an improved knowledge of the effects of salinity on turfgrasses. PMID:24222734

  18. Metagenomes from the saline desert of kutch.

    PubMed

    Pandit, A S; Joshi, M N; Bhargava, P; Ayachit, G N; Shaikh, I M; Saiyed, Z M; Saxena, A K; Bagatharia, S B

    2014-01-01

    We provide the first report on the metagenomic approach for unveiling the microbial diversity in the saline desert of Kutch. High-throughput metagenomic sequencing of environmental DNA isolated from soil collected from seven locations in Kutch was performed on an Ion Torrent platform. PMID:24831151

  19. Metagenomes from the Saline Desert of Kutch

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, A. S.; Joshi, M. N.; Bhargava, P.; Ayachit, G. N.; Shaikh, I. M.; Saiyed, Z. M.; Saxena, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    We provide the first report on the metagenomic approach for unveiling the microbial diversity in the saline desert of Kutch. High-throughput metagenomic sequencing of environmental DNA isolated from soil collected from seven locations in Kutch was performed on an Ion Torrent platform. PMID:24831151

  20. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a unit designed for curriculum infusion and which relies on the hands-on discovery method as an instructive device. The student is introduced to the theory of a functioning salt water conductivity meter. The student explores the resistance of salt water as salinity increases and he treats the data which he has gathered,…

  1. Evaluation of lettuce genotypes for salinity tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lettuce is one of the most commonly used salad vegetables and considered to be a relatively salt sensitive crop. Salinity is a major constraint to crop production in all important lettuce districts of the U.S., and the water quality problem is exacerbated by the climate change. In order to identify ...

  2. Evaluation of soil salinity leaching requirement guidelines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water for irrigation is a major limitation to agricultural production in many parts of the world. Use of waters with elevated levels of salinity is one likely option to meet the supply of increased demands. The sources of these waters include drainage water generated by irrigated agriculture, munici...

  3. Salinity Tolerance Turfgrass: History and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Kamal; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor

    2013-01-01

    Land and water resources are becoming scarce and are insufficient to sustain the burgeoning population. Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses affecting agricultural productions across the world. Cultivation of salt-tolerant turfgrass species may be promising option under such conditions where poor quality water can also be used for these crops. Coastal lands in developing countries can be used to grow such crops, and seawater can be used for irrigation of purposes. These plants can be grown using land and water unsuitable for conventional crops and can provide food, fuel, fodder, fibber, resin, essential oils, and pharmaceutical products and can be used for landscape reintegration. There are a number of potential turfgrass species that may be appropriate at various salinity levels of seawater. The goal of this review is to create greater awareness of salt-tolerant turfgrasses, their current and potential uses, and their potential use in developing countries. The future for irrigating turf may rely on the use of moderate- to high-salinity water and, in order to ensure that the turf system is sustainable, will rely on the use of salt-tolerant grasses and an improved knowledge of the effects of salinity on turfgrasses. PMID:24222734

  4. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Lung Ablation Combined with Transbronchial Saline Injection: An Experimental Study in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, T. Kaminou, T. Sugiura, K.; Hashimoto, M.; Ohuchi, Y.; Adachi, A.; Fujioka, S.; Ito, H.; Nakamura, K.; Ihaya, T.; Ogawa, T.

    2010-02-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of radiofrequency lung ablation with transbronchial saline injection. The bilateral lungs of eight living swine were used. A 13-gauge bone biopsy needle was inserted percutaneously into the lung, and 1 ml of muscle paste was injected to create a tumor mimic. In total, 21 nodules were ablated. In the saline injection group (group A), radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was performed for 11 nodules after transbronchial saline injection under balloon occlusion with a 2-cm active single internally cooled electrode. In the control group (group B), conventional RFA was performed for 10 nodules as a control. The infused saline liquid showed a wedge-shaped and homogeneous distribution surrounding a tumor mimic. All 21 RFAs were successfully completed. The total ablation time was significantly longer (13.4 {+-} 2.8 min vs. 8.9 {+-} 3.5 min; P = 0.0061) and the tissue impedance was significantly lower in group A compared with group B (73.1 {+-} 8.8 {Omega} vs. 100.6 {+-} 16.6 {Omega}; P = 0.0002). The temperature of the ablated area was not significantly different (69.4 {+-} 9.1{sup o}C vs. 66.0 {+-} 7.9{sup o}C; P = 0.4038). There was no significant difference of tumor mimic volume (769 {+-} 343 mm{sup 3} vs. 625 {+-} 191 mm{sup 3}; P = 0.2783). The volume of the coagulated area was significantly larger in group A than in group B (3886 {+-} 1247 mm{sup 3} vs. 2375 {+-} 1395 mm{sup 3}; P = 0.0221). Percutaneous radiofrequency lung ablation combined with transbronchial saline injection can create an extended area of ablation.

  5. Hydraulic and salinity characteristics of the tidal reach of the Peace River, southwestern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoker, Y.E.; Henderson, S.E.; McPherson, B.F.

    1989-01-01

    The tidal reach of the Peace River in southwestern Florida extends about 26 miles upstream from Charlotte Harbor and is characterized by flow-direction reversals, low velocities, and salinity gradients that vary with freshwater inflow, tides, and wind. Flow reversals generally occur on each tide throughout most of the tidal reach, their upstream limit determined primarily by freshwater inflow and tide. Flow reversals occur at river mile 18.9 whenever freshwater inflows are less than about 1,000 cu ft/sec. Velocities were less than 0.3 ft/sec more than half the time at river mile 18.9. The volume of the flood and ebb tidal flows in the midreach of the tidal river (mile 11.5) on July 12-13, 1984, was about five times the volume of flood and ebb tidal flow near the upstream end of the tidal reach July 10-11, 1984 (mile 18.9). Salinity varied along the 26-mile river reach, across channel and with depth, depending upon complex patterns of flow, freshwater runoff, wind, tide, and salinity in Charlotte Harbor. Daily variations in salinity increased downstream and variations were larger near the surface than near the bottom. Regression analysis indicated that the location of the 0.5 ppt salinity will move upstream more than 2 river miles if low flows are reduced by 50%. Freshwater flushing of the lower 20-mile tidal reach, approximated from freshwater replacement time, varied from about 2 days during heavy freshwater runoff to 40 days during extreme low flows. (USGS)

  6. Water table salinization due to seawater intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badaruddin, Sugiarto; Werner, Adrian D.; Morgan, Leanne K.

    2015-10-01

    Seawater intrusion (SWI) is a significant threat to freshwater resources in coastal aquifers around the world. Previous studies have focused on SWI impacts involving salinization of the lower domain of coastal aquifers. However, under certain conditions, SWI may cause salinization of the entire saturated zone of the aquifer, leading to water table salinization (WTS) in unconfined aquifers by replacing freshwater within the upper region of the saturated zone with seawater, thereby posing a salinity threat to the overlying soil zone. There is presently limited guidance on the extent to which WTS may occur as a secondary impact of SWI. In this study, physical experiments and numerical modeling were used to explore WTS associated with SWI in various nontidal, unconfined coastal aquifer settings. Laboratory experiments and corresponding numerical simulations show that significant WTS can occur under active SWI (i.e., the freshwater hydraulic gradient slopes toward the land) because the cessation of freshwater discharge to the sea and the subsequent landward flow across the entire sea boundary eventually lead to water table salinities approaching seawater concentration. WTS during active SWI is larger under conditions of high hydraulic conductivity, rapid SWI, high dispersivity and for deeper aquifers. Numerical modeling of four published field cases demonstrates that rates of WTS of up to 60 m/yr are plausible. Under passive SWI (i.e., the hydraulic gradient slopes toward the sea), minor WTS may arise as a result of dispersive processes under certain conditions (i.e., high dispersivity and hydraulic conductivity, and low freshwater discharge). Our results show that WTS is probably widespread in coastal aquifers experiencing considerable groundwater decline sustained over several years, although further evidence is needed to identify WTS under field settings.

  7. Coastal salinity measurement using a Doppler Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Benjamin S.; Tatnall, Adrian R. L.; Lewis, Hugh G.

    2012-10-01

    Coastal salinity is characterised by large and variable salinity contrasts on relatively small scales. Measurements of salinity at a resolution compatible with these coastal regions on a regular basis would provide a rich source of information that could be used for a number of applications that have a fundamental bearing on the world's lifestyle. Doppler radiometry offers an approach to capture such measurements, as it reduces the number of required antennas needed to form an image, compared with an Interferometer type instrument. In this work, a Doppler Radiometer type instrument on free-flying satellites is introduced. This approach removes the need for a physical connection between all the antennas, affords the system a degree of reconfigurability, yet is still able to provide data of sufficient resolution. A Y-shaped central hub (similar to the SMOS configuration) is employed with additional antennas mounted on free flying platforms surrounding the central hub. The additional baselines formed between the antennas of the free flying satellites and central hub as well as between the free flying satellites extend the u-v coverage beyond that of just the central hub. The spatial resolution of a Doppler Radiometer system with a Y-shaped hub with a SMOS configuration of antennas, with each arm extended by five 6 m spaced free flying antennas would be of the order of 5 km, when imaging from 800 km. This paper will present some initial results from a study into an instrument concept that could provide coastal salinity measurements at microwave wavelengths. The study focuses on antenna array design and on quantifying the improvement in spatial resolution available by using this method, and includes an investigation into the effects of the relative motion between the hub and the free flying satellites on the imaging. Further, whilst this paper focuses on the application of the Doppler Radiometer to salinity measurement, the techniques described are applicable to other

  8. Salinity Trends in the Upper Colorado River Basin Upstream From the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, Colorado, 1986-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leib, Kenneth J.; Bauch, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    In 1974, the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act was passed into law. This law was enacted to address concerns regarding the salinity content of the Colorado River. The law authorized various construction projects in selected areas or 'units' of the Colorado River Basin intended to reduce the salinity load in the Colorado River. One such area was the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit in western Colorado. The U. S. Geological Survey has done extensive studies and research in the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit that provide information to aid the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the Natural Resources Conservation Service in determining where salinity-control work may provide the best results, and to what extent salinity-control work was effective in reducing salinity concentrations and loads in the Colorado River. Previous studies have indicated that salinity concentrations and loads have been decreasing downstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, and that the decreases are likely the result of salinity control work in these areas. Several of these reports; however, also document decreasing salinity loads upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. This finding was important because only a small amount of salinity-control work was being done in areas upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit at the time the findings were reported (late 1990?s). As a result of those previous findings, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate salinity trends in selected areas bracketing the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit and regions upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. The results of the study indicate that salinity loads were decreasing upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit from 1986 through 2003, but the rates of decrease have slowed during the last 10 years. The average rate of decrease in salinity load upstream from the Grand Valley

  9. Biodiversity patterns of soil ciliates along salinity gradients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated ciliate diversity in saline soils with a salinity range from 6.5 to 65 psu by the morphological method of the Ludox-quantitative protargol stain (QPS) and the molecular techniques of ciliate-specific clone library and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. No active ciliates could be detected with the Ludox-QPS method, while high molecular diversity of ciliates was found. The highest ciliate molecular diversity was obtained from the soil at salinity of 8.9 psu, moderate diversity was found at salinity of 6.5 psu, and the diversity sharply decreased at salinity of 50.5 psu. By contrast, the number of ciliate classes clearly decreased with increasing soil salinity: six, five, four and two classes from sites with salinity of 6.5 psu, 8.9 psu, 29.5 psu and 50.5 psu, respectively. Ciliate diversity pattern is different from that of bacteria, whose diversity is also high in extremely saline environments. Meanwhile, the composition of ciliate community was significantly different along salinity gradient. Colpodea and Oligohymenophorea were diverse in soils at salinity less than 29.5 psu, while absent in soils with salinity above 50.5 psu. BIOENV analysis indicated soil salinity and water content were the main factors regulating the distribution of ciliates in saline soils. PMID:26773903

  10. Morphological and physiological responses of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants to salinity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Ma, Huijuan; Chen, Tingting; Pen, Jun; Yu, Shuxun; Zhao, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    Salinization usually plays a primary role in soil degradation, which consequently reduces agricultural productivity. In this study, the effects of salinity on growth parameters, ion, chlorophyll, and proline content, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation of two cotton cultivars, [CCRI-79 (salt tolerant) and Simian 3 (salt sensitive)], were evaluated. Salinity was investigated at 0 mM, 80 mM, 160 mM, and 240 mM NaCl for 7 days. Salinity induced morphological and physiological changes, including a reduction in the dry weight of leaves and roots, root length, root volume, average root diameter, chlorophyll and proline contents, net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. In addition, salinity caused ion imbalance in plants as shown by higher Na+ and Cl- contents and lower K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ concentrations. Ion imbalance was more pronounced in CCRI-79 than in Simian3. In the leaves and roots of the salt-tolerant cultivar CCRI-79, increasing levels of salinity increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR), but reduced catalase (CAT) activity. The activities of SOD, CAT, APX, and GR in the leaves and roots of CCRI-79 were higher than those in Simian 3. CAT and APX showed the greatest H2O2 scavenging activity in both leaves and roots. Moreover, CAT and APX activities in conjunction with SOD seem to play an essential protective role in the scavenging process. These results indicate that CCRI-79 has a more effective protection mechanism and mitigated oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation by maintaining higher antioxidant activities than those in Simian 3. Overall, the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and Chl (a+b) contents, net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, SOD, CAT, APX, and GR activities showed the most significant variation between the two cotton cultivars. PMID:25391141

  11. Impacts of climate variability on wetland salinization in the North American Prairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachshon, U.; Ireson, A.; van der Kamp, G.; Davies, S. R.; Wheater, H. S.

    2013-11-01

    The glaciated plains of the North American continent, also known as the "prairies", are a complex hydrological system characterized by hummocky terrain, where wetlands, containing seasonal or semi-permanent ponds, occupy the numerous topographic depressions. The prairie subsoil and many of its water bodies contain high salt concentrations, in particular sulfate salts, which are continuously cycled within the closed drainage basins. The period between 2000 and 2012 was characterized by an unusual degree of climatic variability, including severe floods and droughts, and this had a marked effect on the spatial distribution, water levels and chemical composition of wetland ponds. Understanding the geochemical and hydrological processes under changing environmental conditions is needed in order to better understand the risk and mitigate the impacts of future soil and water salinization. Here we explore salt dynamics in the prairies using field observations from St. Denis, Saskatchewan, taken over the last 40 yr. Measurements include meteorological data, soil salinity, groundwater levels and pond water volume, salinity, and chemical composition. The record includes periods of exceptional snow (1997, 2007) and periods of exception rainfall (2010, 2012), both of which resulted in unusually high pond water levels. However, severe salinization only occurred in response to extreme summer rainfall. We hypothesize that since rainfall and snowmelt activate different hydrological pathways, they have markedly different impacts on salinization. We propose that a wet condition associated with high snowmelt conditions does not pose a strong threat to salinization, which has important implications for agricultural planning. Whilst this hypothesis is consistent with our conceptual understanding of the system, it needs to be tested further at a range of field sites in the prairies.

  12. Morphological and Physiological Responses of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Plants to Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Ma, Huijuan; Chen, Tingting; Pen, Jun; Yu, Shuxun; Zhao, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    Salinization usually plays a primary role in soil degradation, which consequently reduces agricultural productivity. In this study, the effects of salinity on growth parameters, ion, chlorophyll, and proline content, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation of two cotton cultivars, [CCRI-79 (salt tolerant) and Simian 3 (salt sensitive)], were evaluated. Salinity was investigated at 0 mM, 80 mM, 160 mM, and 240 mM NaCl for 7 days. Salinity induced morphological and physiological changes, including a reduction in the dry weight of leaves and roots, root length, root volume, average root diameter, chlorophyll and proline contents, net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. In addition, salinity caused ion imbalance in plants as shown by higher Na+ and Cl− contents and lower K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ concentrations. Ion imbalance was more pronounced in CCRI-79 than in Simian3. In the leaves and roots of the salt-tolerant cultivar CCRI-79, increasing levels of salinity increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR), but reduced catalase (CAT) activity. The activities of SOD, CAT, APX, and GR in the leaves and roots of CCRI-79 were higher than those in Simian 3. CAT and APX showed the greatest H2O2 scavenging activity in both leaves and roots. Moreover, CAT and APX activities in conjunction with SOD seem to play an essential protective role in the scavenging process. These results indicate that CCRI-79 has a more effective protection mechanism and mitigated oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation by maintaining higher antioxidant activities than those in Simian 3. Overall, the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and Chl (a+b) contents, net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, SOD, CAT, APX, and GR activities showed the most significant variation between the two cotton cultivars. PMID:25391141

  13. Laser scanning cytometry and tissue microarray analysis of salinity effects on killifish chloride cells.

    PubMed

    Lima, Raquel N; Kültz, Dietmar

    2004-04-01

    The effects of salinity on chloride cells (CC) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase content in gill epithelium of euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus were analyzed using laser scanning cytometry (LSC) and tissue microarrays (TMAs). Salinity acclimations consisted of acute transfer from freshwater (FW) to 1x seawater (SW) and gradual transfer from FW to 2.4x SW. Suspensions of dissociated gill epithelial cells were stained with DASPMI and evaluated using LSC. CC number and volume are proportional to external salinity, being lower in FW (0.5+/-0.2 x 10(5) and 405+/-32 micro m(3), respectively) and higher after 5 weeks in 2.4x SW (3.7+/-0.9 x 10(5) and 2697+/-146 micro m(3), respectively). TMAs were constructed from fixed gill tissues and developed using antibody for Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase to visualize CCs in situ and compare their characteristics with isolated CCs. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase content per CC increases transiently (from 2.2+/-0.5 x 10(6) to 4.8+/-1.1 x 10(6) relative fluorescence units, RFU) after 1 week of acute acclimation to 1x SW but returns to baseline values (2.4+/-0.5 x 10(6) RFU) within 5 weeks. In contrast, gradual acclimation to 2.4x SW permanently increases Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase content per CC (from 2.0+/-0.8 x 10(6) to 6.7+/-2.7 x 10(6) RFU after 5 weeks). CC size in situ did not correlate well to salinity because of basolateral membrane infoldings. Taken together, these data suggest that euryhaline fishes are capable of sensing environmental salinity to utilize transient short-term and permanent long-term adaptations for coping with salinity changes. These results also demonstrate the power of LSC and TMA for comparative biology. PMID:15073205

  14. Volumetrics of CO2 storage in deep saline formations.

    PubMed

    Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Capobianco, Ryan M; Dilmore, Robert; Goodman, Angela; Guthrie, George; Rimstidt, J Donald; Bodnar, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Concern about the role of greenhouse gases in global climate change has generated interest in sequestering CO(2) from fossil-fuel combustion in deep saline formations. Pore space in these formations is initially filled with brine, and space to accommodate injected CO(2) must be generated by displacing brine, and to a lesser extent by compression of brine and rock. The formation volume required to store a given mass of CO(2) depends on the storage mechanism. We compare the equilibrium volumetric requirements of three end-member processes: CO(2) stored as a supercritical fluid (structural or stratigraphic trapping); CO(2) dissolved in pre-existing brine (solubility trapping); and CO(2) solubility enhanced by dissolution of calcite. For typical storage conditions, storing CO(2) by solubility trapping reduces the volume required to store the same amount of CO(2) by structural or stratigraphic trapping by about 50%. Accessibility of CO(2) to brine determines which storage mechanism (structural/stratigraphic versus solubility) dominates at a given time, which is a critical factor in evaluating CO(2) volumetric requirements and long-term storage security. PMID:22916959

  15. Climate change and soil salinity: The case of coastal Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David

    2015-12-01

    This paper estimates location-specific soil salinity in coastal Bangladesh for 2050. The analysis was conducted in two stages: First, changes in soil salinity for the period 2001-2009 were assessed using information recorded at 41 soil monitoring stations by the Soil Research Development Institute. Using these data, a spatial econometric model was estimated linking soil salinity with the salinity of nearby rivers, land elevation, temperature, and rainfall. Second, future soil salinity for 69 coastal sub-districts was projected from climate-induced changes in river salinity and projections of rainfall and temperature based on time trends for 20 Bangladesh Meteorological Department weather stations in the coastal region. The findings indicate that climate change poses a major soil salinization risk in coastal Bangladesh. Across 41 monitoring stations, the annual median projected change in soil salinity is 39 % by 2050. Above the median, 25 % of all stations have projected changes of 51 % or higher. PMID:26152508

  16. Quantum volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, V. A.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum systems in a mechanical embedding, the breathing mode of a small particles, optomechanical system, etc. are far not the full list of examples in which the volume exhibits quantum behavior. Traditional consideration suggests strain in small systems as a result of a collective movement of particles, rather than the dynamics of the volume as an independent variable. The aim of this work is to show that some problem here might be essentially simplified by introducing periodic boundary conditions. At this case, the volume is considered as the independent dynamical variable driven by the internal pressure. For this purpose, the concept of quantum volume based on Schrödinger’s equation in 𝕋3 manifold is proposed. It is used to explore several 1D model systems: An ensemble of free particles under external pressure, quantum manometer and a quantum breathing mode. In particular, the influence of the pressure of free particle on quantum oscillator is determined. It is shown also that correction to the spectrum of the breathing mode due to internal degrees of freedom is determined by the off-diagonal matrix elements of the quantum stress. The new treatment not using the “force” theorem is proposed for the quantum stress tensor. In the general case of flexible quantum 3D dynamics, quantum deformations of different type might be introduced similarly to monopole mode.

  17. Effect of salinity on extracellular polymeric substances of activated sludge from an anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zichao; Gao, Mengchun; Wang, Zhe; She, Zonglian; Chang, Qingbo; Sun, Changqing; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Yun; Yang, Ning

    2013-11-01

    The effect of salinity on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of activated sludge was investigated in an anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The contents of loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) were positively correlated with the salinity. The polysaccharide (PS) and protein (PN) contents in both LB-EPS and TB-EPS increased with the increase of salinity. With the increase of salinity from 0.5% to 6%, the PN/PS ratios in LB-EPS and TB-EPS decreased from 4.8 to 0.9 and from 2.9 to 1.4, respectively. The four fluorescence peaks in both LB-EPS and TB-EPS identified by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy are attributed to PN-like substances and humic acid-like substances. The Fourier transform infrared spectra of the LB-EPS and TB-EPS appeared to be very similar, but the differences across the spectra were apparent in terms of the relative intensity of some bands with the increase of salinity. The sludge volume index showed a linear correlation with LB-EPS (R(2)=0.9479) and TB-EPS (R(2)=0.9355) at different salinities, respectively. PMID:24134890

  18. The physiology of salinity tolerance in larvae of two species of Culex mosquitoes: the role of compatible solutes.

    PubMed

    Patrick, M L; Bradley, T J

    2000-02-01

    We investigated the physiological basis for differences in salinity tolerance ranges in mosquito larvae of the genus Culex. We examined the response of larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, a freshwater obligate, and C. tarsalis, a euryhaline osmoconformer, following transfer from fresh water to 34% sea water. Hemolymph Na(+) and Cl(-) levels increased similarly in both species, indicating that ion regulation does not differ under these conditions. C. quinquefasciatus responded to increased environmental salinity with increased hemolymph levels of serine, but suffered a significant reduction in levels of trehalose. C. tarsalis responded to increased environmental salinity with increased hemolymph levels of both proline and trehalose. When C. tarsalis larvae were held in 64% sea water, which C. quinquefasciatus larvae cannot tolerate, hemolymph proline and trehalose were accumulated approximately 50-fold and twofold, respectively, relative to freshwater values. We found that proline serves as both an intra- and extracellular compatible solute in C. tarsalis, the first such circumstance documented in an animal in response to increased environmental salinity. Analyses of the acute responses of the two species to an increase in salinity (from 30% to 50% sea water) indicate that larvae of C. tarsalis are able to volume-regulate via drinking and to attenuate increases in hemolymph NaCl concentration using unknown mechanisms during large, rapid increases in salinity. PMID:10648224

  19. Transport of anomalous low-salinity waters from the Mississippi River flood of 1993 to the Straits of Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Paula S.; Lee, Thomas N.; Podesta, Guillermo P.

    1996-07-01

    Recent field studies in the southern Straits of Florida revealed the existence of Mississippi River outflow embedded in the Florida Current and adjacent coastal waters. Surface thermosalinograph measurements for the period of 10-13 September 1993 indicated a band of low-salinity water measuring approximately 40 km wide and 30 m in depth extending from south of Key West to Miami, a distance of 260 km. Surface salinity values as low as 31 psu were found. The estimated volume of the band is approximately 33.3 × 10 10 m 3 for the Key West to Miami region, thereby requiring roughly 1.2 × 10 10 m 3 of fresh water to mix with oceanic waters to produce this low-salinity band. The only nearby, dynamically viable, source for such a large volume of fresh water is the Mississippi River during its flood stage in 1993. The proposed transport mechanism for the transport of flood waters from the shelf in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico to the Straits of Florida is via the Loop Current through entrainment. Salinity records from offshore C-MAN towers indicate that the low-salinity band persisted off the lower Florida Keys for approximately 3 months. The variability in the flow field in the southern Straits occurs in a 30-70 day band due to the meandering of the Florida Current and the subsequent formation, and propagation, of cyclonic gyres off the Dry Tortugas. This variability in the flow field had a clear affect on the evolution of the low-salinity band, as observed by the salinity records from the C-MAN towers. Because the band traveled as a lens in the upper 30 m of the water column and because its evolution was highly dependent on the variability within the Gulf Stream System, it was a good indicator of the mixing and exchange of offshore waters with shallow waters of the Florida reef tract and Florida Bay.

  20. Sea Surface Salinity: The Next Remote Sensing Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagerloef, Gary S. E.; Swift, Calvin T.; LeVine, David M.

    1995-01-01

    A brief history of salinity remote sensing is presented. The role of sea surface salinity (SSS) in the far north Atlantic and the influence of salinity variations on upper ocean dynamics in the tropics are described. An assessment of the present state of the technology of the SSS satellite remote sensing is given.

  1. 76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  2. 75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control ] Act of 1974...

  3. 75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  4. 77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  5. 75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  6. 78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974...

  7. DOES SALINITY REDUCE BORON’S TOXIC EFFECT IN BROCCOLI?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High salinity and boron often occur together in irrigation water in arid climates, but very little research has been done to study the interaction of the two. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the U.S. Salinity Laboratory in sand tanks to evaluate the interactions between B and saline draina...

  8. IMPLEMENTATION OF AGRICULTURAL SALINITY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY IN GRAND VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A summary of the results of applied research on salinity control of irrigation return flows in the Grand Valley of Colorado is presented for the period of 1969 to 1976. Salinity and economic impacts are described for the Grand Valley Salinity Control Demonstration Project which c...

  9. 78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  10. 77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  11. Salinity-buffered methane hydrate formation and dissociation in gas-rich systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Kehua; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Flemings, Peter B.; Polito, Peter; Bryant, Steven L.

    2015-02-01

    Methane hydrate formation and dissociation are buffered by salinity in a closed system. During hydrate formation, salt excluded from hydrate increases salinity, drives the system to three-phase (gas, water, and hydrate phases) equilibrium, and limits further hydrate formation and dissociation. We developed a zero-dimensional local thermodynamic equilibrium-based model to explain this concept. We demonstrated this concept by forming and melting methane hydrate from a partially brine-saturated sand sample in a controlled laboratory experiment by holding pressure constant (6.94 MPa) and changing temperature stepwise. The modeled methane gas consumptions and hydrate saturations agreed well with the experimental measurements after hydrate nucleation. Hydrate dissociation occurred synchronously with temperature increase. The exception to this behavior is that substantial subcooling (6.4°C in this study) was observed for hydrate nucleation. X-ray computed tomography scanning images showed that core-scale hydrate distribution was heterogeneous. This implied core-scale water and salt transport induced by hydrate formation. Bulk resistivity increased sharply with initial hydrate formation and then decreased as the hydrate ripened. This study reproduced the salinity-buffered hydrate behavior interpreted for natural gas-rich hydrate systems by allowing methane gas to freely enter/leave the sample in response to volume changes associated with hydrate formation and dissociation. It provides insights into observations made at the core scale and log scale of salinity elevation to three-phase equilibrium in natural hydrate systems.

  12. River salinity on a mega-delta, an unstructured grid model approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bricheno, Lucy; Saiful Islam, Akm; Wolf, Judith

    2014-05-01

    With an average freshwater discharge of around 40,000 m3/s the BGM (Brahmaputra Ganges and Meghna) river system has the third largest discharge worldwide. The BGM river delta is a low-lying fertile area covering over 100,000 km2 mainly in India and Bangladesh. Approximately two-thirds of the Bangladesh people work in agriculture and these local livelihoods depend on freshwater sources directly linked to river salinity. The finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) has been applied to the BGM delta in order to simulate river salinity under present and future climate conditions. Forced by a combination of regional climate model predictions, and a basin-wide river catchment model, the 3D baroclinic delta model can determine river salinity under the current climate, and make predictions for future wet and dry years. The river salinity demonstrates a strong seasonal and tidal cycle, making it important for the model to be able to capture a wide range of timescales. The unstructured mesh approach used in FVCOM is required to properly represent the delta's structure; a complex network of interconnected river channels. The model extends 250 km inland in order to capture the full extent of the tidal influence and grid resolutions of 10s of metres are required to represent narrow inland river channels. The use of FVCOM to simulate flows so far inland is a novel challenge, which also requires knowledge of the shape and cross-section of the river channels.

  13. Saline Nasal Irrigation for Upper Respiratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Acute and chronic upper respiratory conditions are common and expensive disorders with enormous impact on patient quality of life and society at large. Saline nasal irrigation (SNI), a therapy with roots in Ayurvedic medicine that bathes the nasal mucosa with in spray or liquid saline, has been used as adjunctive care for upper respiratory conditions. In liquid form, SNI has been found to be effective adjunctive care by the Cochrane Collaboration for symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive clinical trial evidence supports its use in spray and liquid forms as adjunctive treatment for mild-to-moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory infections. Consensus or expert opinion recommendations exist for SNI as a treatment for a variety of other conditions including rhinitis of pregnancy. SNI appears safe; side effects are minimal and transient. It can be recommended by clinicians to interested patients with a range of upper respiratory conditions in the context of patient education and printed instructional handouts. PMID:19904896

  14. Physiological and biochemical responses of the forage legume Trifolium alexandrinum to different saline conditions and nitrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Zouhaier, Barhoumi; Mariem, Maatallah; Mokded, Rabhi; Rouached, Aida; Alsane, Khaldoun; Chedly, Abdelly; Abderrazek, Smaoui; Abdallah, Atia

    2016-05-01

    Salinity stress reduces plant productivity, but low levels of salinity often increase plant growth rates in some species. We herein describe the effects of salinity on plant growth while focusing on nitrogen use. We treated Trifolium alexandrinum with two nitrogen concentrations and salinity levels and determined growth rates, mineral concentrations, nitrogen use efficiency, photosynthesis rates, and nitrate reductase (NR, E.C. 1.6.6.1) and glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2) activities. The T. alexandrinum growth rate increased following treatment with 100 mM NaCl in low nitrogen (LN) and high nitrogen (HN) conditions. Salt treatment also increased root volume, intrinsic water use efficiency, and nitrogen use efficiency in LN and HN conditions. These changes likely contributed to higher biomass production. Salinity also increased accumulations of sodium, chloride, and phosphate, but decreased potassium and calcium levels and total nitrogen concentrations in all plant organs independently of the available nitrogen level. However, the effect of salt treatment on magnesium and nitrate concentrations in photosynthetic organs depended on nitrogen levels. Salt treatment reduced photosynthesis rates in LN and HN conditions because of inhibited stomatal conductance. The effects of salinity on leaf NR and GS activities depended on nitrogen levels, with activities increasing in LN conditions. In saline conditions, LN availability resulted in optimal growth because of low chloride accumulation and increases in total nitrogen concentrations, nitrogen use efficiency, and NR and GS activities in photosynthetic organs. Therefore, T. alexandrinum is a legume forage crop that can be cultivated in low-saline soils where nitrogen availability is limited. PMID:26818949

  15. The hydrography of the Mozambique Channel from six years of continuous temperature, salinity, and velocity observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullgren, J. E.; van Aken, H. M.; Ridderinkhof, H.; de Ruijter, W. P. M.

    2012-11-01

    Temperature, salinity and velocity data are presented, along with the estimated volume transport, from seven full-length deep sea moorings placed across the narrowest part of the Mozambique Channel, southwest Indian Ocean, during the period November 2003 to December 2009. The dominant water mass in the upper layer is Sub-Tropical Surface Water (STSW) which overlies South Indian Central Water (SICW), and is normally capped by fresher Tropical Surface Water (TSW). Upper ocean salinity increased through 2005 as a result of saline STSW taking up a relatively larger part of the upper layer, at the expense of TSW. Upper waters are on average warmer and lighter in the central Channel than on the sides. Throughout the upper 1.5 km of the water column there is large hydrographic variability, short-term as well as interannual, and in particular at frequencies (four to seven cycles per year) associated with the southward passage of anticyclonic Mozambique Channel eddies. The eddies have a strong T-S signal, in the upper and central waters as well as on the intermediate level, as the eddies usually carry saline Red Sea Water (RSW) in their core. While the interannual frequency band displays an east-west gradient with higher temperature variance on the western side, the eddy frequency band shows highest variance in the centre of the Channel, where the eddy band contains about 40% of the total isopycnal hydrographic variability. Throughout the >6 years of measurements, the frequency and characteristics of eddies vary between periods, both in terms of strength and vertical structure of eddy T-S signals. These changes contribute to the interannual variability of water mass properties: an increase in central water salinity to a maximum in late 2007 coincided with a period of unusually frequent eddies with strong salinity signals. The warmest and most saline deep water is found within the northward flowing Mozambique Undercurrent, on the western side of the Channel. The Undercurrent

  16. Deep roots of the Messinian salinity crisis.

    PubMed

    Duggen, Svend; Hoernle, Kaj; van den Bogaard, Paul; Rüpke, Lars; Morgan, Jason Phipps

    2003-04-10

    The Messinian salinity crisis--the desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea between 5.96 and 5.33 million years (Myr) ago--was one of the most dramatic events on Earth during the Cenozoic era. It resulted from the closure of marine gateways between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, the causes of which remain enigmatic. Here we use the age and composition of volcanic rocks to reconstruct the geodynamic evolution of the westernmost Mediterranean from the Middle Miocene epoch to the Pleistocene epoch (about 12.1-0.65 Myr ago). Our data show that a marked shift in the geochemistry of mantle-derived volcanic rocks, reflecting a change from subduction-related to intraplate-type volcanism, occurred between 6.3 and 4.8 Myr ago, largely synchronous with the Messinian salinity crisis. Using a thermomechanical model, we show that westward roll back of subducted Tethys oceanic lithosphere and associated asthenospheric upwelling provides a plausible mechanism for producing the shift in magma chemistry and the necessary uplift (approximately 1 km) along the African and Iberian continental margins to close the Miocene marine gateways, thereby causing the Messinian salinity crisis. PMID:12686997

  17. Incorporation of salinity in Water Availability Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Lee, Chihun

    2011-10-01

    SummaryNatural salt pollution from geologic formations in the upper watersheds of several large river basins in the Southwestern United States severely constrains the use of otherwise available major water supply sources. The Water Rights Analysis Package modeling system has been routinely applied in Texas since the late 1990s in regional and statewide planning studies and administration of the state's water rights permit system, but without consideration of water quality. The modeling system was recently expanded to incorporate salinity considerations in assessments of river/reservoir system capabilities for supplying water for environmental, municipal, agricultural, and industrial needs. Salinity loads and concentrations are tracked through systems of river reaches and reservoirs to develop concentration frequency statistics that augment flow frequency and water supply reliability metrics at pertinent locations for alternative water management strategies. Flexible generalized capabilities are developed for using limited observed salinity data to model highly variable concentrations imposed upon complex river regulation infrastructure and institutional water allocation/management practices.

  18. Evaporites and the Salinity of the Ocean During the Phanerozoic: Implications for Climate, Ocean Circulation and Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floegel, S.; Hay, W. W.; Migdisov, A.; Balukhovsky, A. N.; Wold, C. N.; Soeding, E.

    2005-12-01

    A compilation of data on volumes and masses of evaporite deposits is used as the basis for reconstruction of the salinity of the ocean in the past. Chloride is tracked as the only ion essentially restricted to the ocean, and past salinities are calculated from reconstructed chlorine content of the ocean. Models for ocean salinity through the Phanerozoic are developed using maximal and minimal estimates of the volumes of existing evaporite deposits, and constant and declining volumes of ocean water through the Phanerozoic. We conclude that there have been significant changes in the mean salinity of the ocean accompanying a general decline throughout the Phanerozoic. The greatest changes are related to major extractions of salt into the ocean basins which developed during the Mesozoic as Pangaea broke apart. Unfortunately, the sizes of these salt deposits are also the least well known. The last major extractions of salt from the ocean occurred during the Miocene, shortly after the large scale extraction of water from the ocean to form the ice cap of Antarctica. However, these two modifications of the masses of H2O and salt in the ocean followed in sequence and did not cancel each other out. Accordingly, salinities during the Early Miocene were reconstructed to be between 37‰ and 39‰. The Mesozoic was a time of generally declining salinity associated with the deep sea salt extractions of the North Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico (Middle to Late Jurassic) and South Atlantic (Early Cretaceous). The earliest of the major extractions of the Phanerozoic occurred during the Permian. There were few large extractions of salt during the earlier Paleozoic. The models suggest that this was a time of relatively stable but slowly increasing salinities ranging through the upper 40‰'s into the lower 50‰'s. Higher salinities for the world ocean had profound consequences for the thermohaline circulation of the ocean in the past. In the modern ocean, with an average salinity of

  19. [Characteristics of soil salinity profiles and their electromagnetic response under various vegetation types in coastal saline area].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing-Song; Yao, Rong-Jiang; Zou, Ping; Liu, Guang-Ming

    2008-10-01

    Aiming at the intrinsic relationships between vegetation type and soil salinity in coastal saline area, and by using electromagnetic induction EM38 and field sampling method, the characteristics of soil salinity profiles under various vegetation types in typical coastal saline region of the Yellow River Delta were analyzed, and the electromagnetic response characters of the salinity profiles were compared. The results showed that across the study area, soil salinity exhibited the characteristics of top enrichment and strong spatial variation. The horizontal electromagnetic conductivity EM(h) responded well to soil salinity at upper layers, and the response of vertical electromagnetic conductivity EM(v) to soil salinity at deeper layers was superior to that of EM(h). Soil salinity profiles were classified into inverted, normal, and uniform types. The vegetation types of inverted salinity profiles were mainly bare land and Suaeda salsa, while those of normal and uniform salinity profiles were cotton and weed, respectively. The sequence of top enrichment intensity was bare land > S. salsa land > weed land > cotton land. With the change of vegetation type of cotton-weed-S. salsa-bare land, the EM(v)/EM(h) value of salinity profiles decreased gradually. Nonparametric test results showed that there was a significant correlation between vegetation type and electromagnetic response characters, and the distribution characters of EM(v)/EM(h) under various vegetation types varied significantly. PMID:19123343

  20. Bolus intravenous 0.9% saline, but not 4% albumin or 5% glucose, causes interstitial pulmonary edema in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Bihari, Shailesh; Wiersema, Ubbo F; Schembri, David; De Pasquale, Carmine G; Dixon, Dani-Louise; Prakash, Shivesh; Lawrence, Mark D; Bowden, Jeffrey J; Bersten, Andrew D

    2015-10-01

    Rapid intravenous (iv) infusion of 0.9% saline alters respiratory mechanics in healthy subjects. However, the relative cardiovascular and respiratory effects of bolus iv crystalloid vs. colloid are unknown. Six healthy male volunteers were given 30 ml/kg iv 0.9% saline, 4% albumin, and 5% glucose at a rate of 100 ml/min on 3 separate days in a double-blinded, randomized crossover study. Impulse oscillometry, spirometry, lung volumes, diffusing capacity (DLCO), and blood samples were measured before and after fluid administration. Lung ultrasound B-line score (indicating interstitial pulmonary edema) and Doppler echocardiography indices of cardiac preload were measured before, midway, immediately after, and 1 h after fluid administration. Infusion of 0.9% saline increased small airway resistance at 5 Hz (P = 0.04) and lung ultrasound B-line score (P = 0.01) without changes in Doppler echocardiography measures of preload. In contrast, 4% albumin increased DLCO, decreased lung volumes, and increased the Doppler echocardiography mitral E velocity (P = 0.001) and E-to-lateral/septal e' ratio, estimated blood volume, and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (P = 0.01) but not lung ultrasound B-line score, consistent with increased pulmonary blood volume without interstitial pulmonary edema. There were no significant changes with 5% glucose. Plasma angiopoietin-2 concentration increased only after 0.9% saline (P = 0.001), suggesting an inflammatory mechanism associated with edema formation. In healthy subjects, 0.9% saline and 4% albumin have differential pulmonary effects not attributable to passive fluid filtration. This may reflect either different effects of these fluids on active signaling in the pulmonary circulation or a protective effect of albumin. PMID:26228998

  1. The complementary role of SMOS sea surface salinity observations for estimating global ocean salinity state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zeting; Cheng, Lijing; Zhu, Jiang; Lin, Renping

    2016-06-01

    Salinity is a key ocean state property, changes in which reveal the variation of the water cycle and the ocean thermohaline circulation. However, prior to this century, in situ salinity observations were extremely sparse, which decreased the reliability of simulations of ocean general circulation by ocean and climate models. In 2009, sea surface salinity (SSS) observations covered the global ocean via the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, and several versions of global SSS products were subsequently released. How can these data benefit model performance? Previous studies found contradictory results. In this work, we assimilated SMOS-SSS data into the LASG/IAP Climate system Ocean Model (LICOM) using the Ensemble Optimum Interpolation (EnOI) assimilation scheme. To assess and quantify the contribution of SMOS-SSS data to model performance, several tests were conducted. The results indicate that the CECOS/CATDS 2010.V02 SMOS-SSS product can significantly improve model simulations of sea surface/subsurface salinity fields. This study provides the basis for the future assimilation of SMOS-SSS data for short-range climate forecasting.

  2. Effects of salinity on baldcypress seedlings: Physiological responses and their relation to salinity tolerance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Chambers, J.L.; Pezeshki, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    Growth and physiological responses of 15 open-pollinated families of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum var. distichum) subjected to flooding with saline water were evaluated in this study. Ten of the families were from coastal sites in Louisiana and Alabama, USA that have elevated levels of soil-water salinity. The other five families were from inland, freshwater sites in Louisiana. Seedlings from all families tolerated flooding with water of low (2 g l-1) salinity. Differences in biomass among families became most apparent at the highest salinity levels (6 and 8 g l-1). Overall, increasing salinity reduced leaf biomass more than root biomass, which in turn was reduced more than stem biomass. A subset of seedlings from the main greenhouse experiment was periodically placed indoors under artificial light, and measurements were made of gas exchange and leaf water potential. Also, tissue concentrations of Cl-, Na+, K+, and Ca2+ were determined at the end of the greenhouse experiment. Significant intraspecific variation was found for nearly all the physiological parameters evaluated, but only leaf concentrations of Na+ and Cl- were correlated with an index of family-level differences in salt tolerance.

  3. Comparison of prophylactic and therapeutic use of short‐chain fatty acid enemas in diversion colitis: a study in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Ariano José Freitas; Júnior, Francisco Edilson Leite Pinto; Formiga, Maria Célia Carvalho; da Costa Melo, Syomara Pereira; Brandão‐Neto, José; de Oliveira Ramos, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of short‐chain fatty‐acids on atrophy and inflammation of excluded colonic segments before and after the development of diversion colitis. INTRODUCTION: Diversion colitis is a chronic inflammatory process affecting the dysfunctional colon, possibly evolving with mucous and blood discharge. The most favored hypotheses to explain its development is short‐chain fatty‐acid deficiency in the colon lumen. METHODS: Wistar rats were submitted to colostomy with distal colon exclusion. Two control groups (A1 and B1) received rectally administered physiological saline, whereas two experimental groups (A2 and B2) received rectally administered short‐chain fatty‐acids. The A groups were prophylactically treated (5th to 40th days postoperatively), whereas the B groups were therapeutically treated (after post‐operative day 40). The mucosal thickness of the excluded colon was measured histologically. The inflammatory reaction of the mucosal lamina propria and the lymphoid tissue response were quantified through established scores. RESULTS: There was a significant thickness recovery of the colonic mucosa in group B2 animals (p  =  0.0001), which also exhibited a significant reduction in the number of eosinophilic polymorphonuclear cells in the lamina propria (p  =  0.0126) and in the intestinal lumen (p  =  0.0256). Group A2 showed no mucosal thickness recovery and significant increases in the numbers of lymphocytes (p  =  0.0006) and eosinophilic polymorphonuclear cells in the lamina propria of the mucosa (p  =  0.0022). CONCLUSION: Therapeutic use of short‐chain fatty‐acids significantly reduced eosinophilic polymorphonuclear cell numbers in the intestinal wall and in the colonic lumen; it also reversed the atrophy of the colonic mucosa. Prophylactic use did not impede the development of mucosal atrophy. PMID:21340226

  4. The quantitative influence of salinity on the apparent resistivity on a physical model upon salination

    SciTech Connect

    Khair, K.; Skokan, C.

    1996-11-01

    The excessive exploitation of groundwater aquifers leads to water table drawdown, and subsequently to the contamination of these aquifers by the intrusion of sea water or other hazardous sources. This worldwide environmental problem is becoming increasingly critical in coastal agricultural areas, where the fine grained materials develop a thick fringe zone. By evapo-transpiration the moisture of this zone pumps up the salt in the dry season, which cannot be efficiently washed away in the wet season. The current study investigates the possibility of an early detection of salination, through systematic observation of electrical resistivity in selected positions with fixed electrode arrays. A direct current electrical profiling system of Wenner configuration was tested in the laboratory using a physical model. The model was constructed of wood and plastic tilled with saturated sand and having a constant water flow of 1.6 l/mn. The model size is 148 by 85 cm for lateral dimensions and 25 cm of sand thickness, with a total porosity of 360%. Upon salination the salt was increasingly added to the system to reach a concentration of 32 g/l. Upon desalination salt water was replaced by fresh water to dilute the water in the system to a concentration of 0.25 g/l. The results show that the relationship between salinity and electrical resistivity is inversely proportional and characterized by linear logarithmic function; the velocity of water flow calculated by abrupt resistivity changes is lower than the hydraulic velocity; the resistivity values for low salinity upon desalination are much different (smaller) than those upon salination of equivalent salt concentrations: the relative change of resistivity upon salination and desalination involves almost equally all features of the tank that have distinctive resistivity values.

  5. Durum wheat seedlings in saline conditions: Salt spray versus root-zone salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanò, Carmelina; Bottega, Stefania

    2016-02-01

    Salinity is an increasingly serious problem with a strong negative impact on plant productivity. Though many studies have been made on salt stress induced by high NaCl concentrations in the root-zone, few data concern the response of plants to saline aerosol, one of the main constraints in coastal areas. In order to study more in depth wheat salinity tolerance and to evaluate damage and antioxidant response induced by various modes of salt application, seedlings of Triticum turgidum ssp. durum, cv. Cappelli were treated for 2 and 7 days with salt in the root-zone (0, 50 and 200 mM NaCl) or with salt spray (400 mM NaCl + 0 or 200 mM NaCl in the root-zone). Seedlings accumulated Na+ in their leaves and therefore part of their ability to tolerate high salinity seems to be due to Na+ leaf tissue tolerance. Durum wheat, confirmed as a partially tolerant plant, shows a higher damage under airborne salinity, when both an increase in TBA-reactive material (indicative of lipid peroxidation) and a decrease in root growth were recorded. A different antioxidant response was activated, depending on the type of salt supply. Salt treatment induced a depletion of the reducing power of both ascorbate and glutathione while the highest contents of proline were detected under salt spray conditions. In the short term catalase and ascorbate peroxidase co-operated with glutathione peroxidase in the scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, in particular in salt spray-treated plants. From our data, the durum wheat cultivar Cappelli seems to be sensitive to airborne salinity.

  6. Towards a paleo-salinity proxy: Decreasing D/H fractionation in algal and bacterial lipids with increasing salinity in Christmas Island saline ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachse, D.; Sachs, J. P.

    2007-12-01

    We investigated the effect of a wide range of salinities (13 -149 PSU) on the D/H ratio of lipids in microbial mat sediments from hypersaline ponds on Christmas Island. The hydrogen isotope ratios (expressed as δD values) of total lipid extracts, and the individual hydrocarbons heptadecane, heptadecene, octadecane, octadecene, diploptene and phytene from algae and bacteria, became increasingly enriched in deuterium as salinity increased, spanning a range of 100‰ while lake water δD values spanned a range of just 12‰. D/H fractionation between lipids and source water thus decreased as salinity increased. Isotope fractionation factors (αlipid-water) were strongly correlated with salinity and increased in all compound classes studied. The apparent isotope fractionation (ɛlipid-water) decreased by 0.8 to 1.1‰ per PSU increase in salinity. Differences in the hydrogen isotopic composition of lipids derived from three biosynthetic pathways (acetogenic, MVA and DOXP/MEP) remained similar irrespective of the salinity, suggesting that the mechanism responsible for the observed αlipid-water - salinity relationship originates prior to the last common biosynthetic branching point, the Calvin Cycle. These findings imply that caution must be exercised when attempting to reconstruct source water δD values using lipid δD values from aquatic environments that may have experienced salinity variations of ~3 PSU or more (based on a 1‰ per PSU response of D/H fractionation to salinity changes, and a lipid δD measurement precision of 3‰). On the other hand our results can be used to establish a paleo-salinity proxy based on algal and bacterial lipid δD values if salinity variations exceeded ~3 PSU and/or if additional constraints on source water δD values can be made.

  7. Salinity effects on water potential components and bulk elastic modulus of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. ) Griseb

    SciTech Connect

    Bolanos, J.A.; Longstreth, D.J.

    1984-06-01

    Pressure volume curves for Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Grixeb. (alligator weed) grown in 0 to 400 millimolar NaCl were used to determine water potential (PSI), osmotic potential (psi/sub s/), turgor potential (psi/sub p/) and the bulk elastic modulus (element of) of shoots at different tissue water contents. Values of psi decreased with increasing salinity and tissue PSI was always lower than rhizosphere PSI. The relationship between psi/sub p/ and tissue water content changed because element of increased with salinity. As a results, salt-stressed plants had larger ranges of positive turgor but smaller ranges of tissue water content over which psi/sub p/ was positive. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a salinity effect on element of in higher plants. These increases in element of with salinity provided a mechanism by which a large difference between plant PSI and rhizosphere PSI, the driving force for water uptake, could be produced with relatively little water loss by the plant. A time-course study of response after salinization to 400 millimolar NaCl showed PSI was constant with 1 day, psi/sub s/ and psi/sub p/ continued to change for 2 to 4 days, and element of continued to change for 4 to 12 days. Changes in element of modified the capacity of alligator weed to maintain a positive water balance and consideration of such changes in other species of higher plants should improve our understanding of salt stress. 24 references, 6 figures.

  8. Low-salinity plume detachment under non-uniform summer wind off the Changjiang Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jianzhong; Ding, Pingxing; Chen, Changsheng

    2015-04-01

    In the past, two physical mechanisms, baroclinic instability (BI) and strong asymmetric tidal mixing (SATM) during the spring tidal period, were proposed for the offshore detachment of the low-salinity plume over the inner shelf of the East China Sea (ECS). These two mechanisms were re-examined using both observations and a fully three-dimensional (3-D), high-resolution, unstructured-grid, free-surface, primitive-equation, Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). The observed currents and salinities showed that the plume was characterized by a two-layer system, in which the upper layer is mainly driven by the river discharge-induced buoyancy flow and the lower layer is predominantly controlled by tidal mixing and rectification. The SATM mechanism was based on the model run without calibration against observed currents and salinity around the plume region, so that it should be applied with caution to a realistic condition observed on the inner shelf of the ECS. The BI mechanism was derived under a condition without consideration of tidal mixing. Although BI could still occur along the frontal zone when tides were included, it was unable to produce a single, large, detached low-salinity lens observed on the inner shelf of the ECS. The process-oriented model experiment results suggest that for a given river discharge and realistic tidal flow, the spatially non-uniform southwesterly surface wind during the southeast monsoon-dominant summer could increase frontal spatial variability and thus produce a significant offshore detachment of low-salinity water on the inner shelf of East China Sea.

  9. Assessing the Impact of Topography on Groundwater Salinization Due to Storm Surge Inundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Yang, J.; Graf, T.; Koneshloo, M.; O'Neal, M. A.; Michael, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    The sea-level rise and increase in the frequency and intensity of coastal storms due to climate change are likely to exacerbate adverse effects of storm surges on low-lying coastal areas. The landward flow of water during storm surges introduces salt to surficial coastal aquifers and threatens groundwater resources. Coastal topography (e.g. ponds, dunes, canals) likely has a strong impact on overwash and salinization processes, but is generally highly simplified in modeling studies. To understand the topographic impacts on groundwater salinization, we modeled overwash and variable-density groundwater flow and salt transport in 3D using the fully coupled surface and subsurface numerical simulator, HydroGeoSphere. The model simulates the coastal aquifer as an integrated system considering processes such as overland flow, coupled surface and subsurface exchange, variably saturated flow, and variable-density flow. To represent various coastal landscape types, we started with realistic coastal topography from Delaware, USA, and then generated synthetic fields with differing shore-perpendicular connectivity and surface depressions. The groundwater salinization analysis suggested that the topographic connectivity promoting overland flow controls the volume of aquifer that is salinized. In contrast, depression storage of surface water mainly controls the time for infiltrated salt to flush from the aquifer. The results indicate that for a range of synthetic conditions, topography increases the flushing time of salt by 20-300% relative to an equivalent "simple slope" in which topographic variation is absent. Our study suggests that topography have a significant impact on overwash salinization, with important implications for land management at local scales and groundwater vulnerability assessment at regional to global scales.

  10. The Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm: Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank J.; Lagerloef, Gary; LeVine, David

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius L-band radiometer/scatterometer system is designed to provide monthly salinity maps at 150 km spatial scale to a 0.2 psu accuracy. The sensor was launched on June 10, 2011, aboard the Argentine CONAE SAC-D spacecraft. The L-band radiometers and the scatterometer have been taking science data observations since August 25, 2011. The first part of this presentation gives an overview over the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The instrument calibration converts Aquarius radiometer counts into antenna temperatures (TA). The salinity retrieval algorithm converts those TA into brightness temperatures (TB) at a flat ocean surface. As a first step, contributions arising from the intrusion of solar, lunar and galactic radiation are subtracted. The antenna pattern correction (APC) removes the effects of cross-polarization contamination and spillover. The Aquarius radiometer measures the 3rd Stokes parameter in addition to vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations, which allows for an easy removal of ionospheric Faraday rotation. The atmospheric absorption at L-band is almost entirely due to O2, which can be calculated based on auxiliary input fields from numerical weather prediction models and then successively removed from the TB. The final step in the TA to TB conversion is the correction for the roughness of the sea surface due to wind. This is based on the radar backscatter measurements by the scatterometer. The TB of the flat ocean surface can now be matched to a salinity value using a surface emission model that is based on a model for the dielectric constant of sea water and an auxiliary field for the sea surface temperature. In the current processing (as of writing this abstract) only v-pol TB are used for this last process and NCEP winds are used for the roughness correction. Before the salinity algorithm can be operationally implemented and its accuracy assessed by comparing versus in situ measurements, an extensive calibration and validation

  11. Salinity fronts in the tropical Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Hsun-Ying; Lagerloef, Gary S E

    2015-01-01

    This study delineates the salinity fronts (SF) across the tropical Pacific, and describes their variability and regional dynamical significance using Aquarius satellite observations. From the monthly maps of the SF, we find that the SF in the tropical Pacific are (1) usually observed around the boundaries of the fresh pool under the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), (2) stronger in boreal autumn than in other seasons, and (3) usually stronger in the eastern Pacific than in the western Pacific. The relationship between the SF and the precipitation and the surface velocity are also discussed. We further present detailed analysis of the SF in three key tropical Pacific regions. Extending zonally around the ITCZ, where the temperature is nearly homogeneous, we find the strong SF of 1.2 psu from 7° to 11°N to be the main contributor of the horizontal density difference of 0.8 kg/m3. In the eastern Pacific, we observe a southward extension of the SF in the boreal spring that could be driven by both precipitation and horizontal advection. In the western Pacific, the importance of these newly resolved SF associated with the western Pacific warm/fresh pool and El Niño southern oscillations are also discussed in the context of prior literature. The main conclusions of this study are that (a) Aquarius satellite salinity measurements reveal the heretofore unknown proliferation, structure, and variability of surface salinity fronts, and that (b) the fine-scale structures of the SF in the tropical Pacific yield important new information on the regional air-sea interaction and the upper ocean dynamics. PMID:26213676

  12. Effects of Salinity and Nutrient Addition on Mangrove Excoecaria agallocha

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yaping; Ye, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Effects of salinity on seed germination and growth of young (1 month old) and old (2-year old) seedlings of Excoecaria agallocha were investigated. Combined effects of salinity and nutrient level were also examined on old seedlings. Seed germination was best at 0 and 5 psu salinity. 15 psu salinity significantly delayed root initiation and decreased final establishment rate. All seeds failed to establish at 25 psu salinity. Young seedlings performed best at 0 and 5 psu, but growth was stunned at 15 psu, and all seedlings died within 90 days at 25 psu. Old seedlings grew best at salinities below 5 psu and they survived the whole cultivation at 25 psu. This indicated that E. agallocha increased salt tolerance over time. Gas exchange was significantly compromised by salinities above 15 psu but evidently promoted by high nutrient. Proline accumulated considerably at high nutrient, and its contents increased from 0 to 15 psu but decreased at 25 psu salinity. Lipid peroxidation was aggravated by increasing salinity beyond 15 psu but markedly alleviated by nutrient addition. These responses indicated that E. agallocha was intolerant to high salinity but it can be greatly enhanced by nutrient addition. PMID:24691495

  13. Diatom Cell Size, Coloniality and Motility: Trade-Offs between Temperature, Salinity and Nutrient Supply with Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Filip; Norberg, Jon; Snoeijs, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Reduction in body size has been proposed as a universal response of organisms, both to warming and to decreased salinity. However, it is still controversial if size reduction is caused by temperature or salinity on their own, or if other factors interfere as well. We used natural benthic diatom communities to explore how “body size” (cells and colonies) and motility change along temperature (2–26°C) and salinity (0.5–7.8) gradients in the brackish Baltic Sea. Fourth-corner analysis confirmed that small cell and colony sizes were associated with high temperature in summer. Average community cell volume decreased linearly with 2.2% per °C. However, cells were larger with artificial warming when nutrient concentrations were high in the cold season. Average community cell volume increased by 5.2% per °C of artificial warming from 0 to 8.5°C and simultaneously there was a selection for motility, which probably helped to optimize growth rates by trade-offs between nutrient supply and irradiation. Along the Baltic Sea salinity gradient cell size decreased with decreasing salinity, apparently mediated by nutrient stoichiometry. Altogether, our results suggest that climate change in this century may polarize seasonality by creating two new niches, with elevated temperature at high nutrient concentrations in the cold season (increasing cell size) and elevated temperature at low nutrient concentrations in the warm season (decreasing cell size). Higher temperature in summer and lower salinity by increased land-runoff are expected to decrease the average cell size of primary producers, which is likely to affect the transfer of energy to higher trophic levels. PMID:25279720

  14. Early warning of freshwater salinization due to upward brine displacement by species transport simulations combined with a hydrochemical genesis model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Maria; Kühn, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Shallow groundwater resources could be possibly affected by intruding brines, which are displaced along hydraulically conductive faults as result of subsurface activities like CO2 injection. To avoid salinization of potable freshwater aquifers an early detection of intruding saline water is necessary, especially in regions where an initial geogenic salinization already exists. Our study is based on work of Tillner et al. [1] and Langer et al. [2] who investigated the influence of permeable fault systems on brine displacement for the prospective storage site Beeskow-Birkholz in the Northeast German Basin. With a 3D regional scale model considering the deep groundwater system, they demonstrated that the existence of hydraulically conductive faults is not necessarily an exclusion criterion for potential injection sites, because salinization of shallower aquifers strongly depends on the effective damage zone volume, the initial salinity distribution and overlying reservoirs [2], while permeability of fault zones does not influence salinization of shallower aquifers significantly [1]. Here we extracted a 2D cross section regarding the upper 220 m of the study area mainly represented by shallow freshwater aquifers, but also considering an initial geogenic salinization [3]. We took flow rates of the intruding brines from the previous studies [2] and implemented species transport simulations with the program code SHEMAT [4]. Results are investigated and interpreted with the hydrochemical genesis model GEBAH [5] which has been already applied as early warning of saltwater intrusions into freshwater aquifers and surface water [6]. GEBAH allows a categorization of groundwater by the ion ratios of the dissolved components and offers a first indicative determination for an existence and the intensity of saline water intrusion in shallow groundwater aquifer, independent of the concentration of the solution. With our model we investigated the migration of saline water through a

  15. Effects of Soil Salinity on Sucrose Metabolism in Cotton Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingran; Luo, Junyu; Zhao, Xinhua; Dong, Helin; Ma, Yan; Sui, Ning; Zhou, Zhiguo; Meng, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Cotton (Gosspium hirsutum L.) is classified as a salt tolerant crop. However, its yield and fiber quality are negatively affected by soil salinity. Studies on the enzymatic differences in sucrose metabolism under different soil salinity levels are lacking. Therefore, field experiments, using two cotton cultivars, CCRI-79 (salt-tolerant) and Simian 3 (salt-sensitive), were conducted in 2013 and 2014 at three different salinity levels (1.15 dS m-1 [low soil salinity], 6.00 dS m-1 [medium soil salinity], and 11.46 dS m-1 [high soil salinity]). The objective was to elucidate the effects of soil salinity on sucrose content and the activity of key enzymes that are related to sucrose metabolism in cotton fiber. Results showed that as the soil salinity increased, cellulose content, sucrose content, and sucrose transformation rate declined; the decreases in cellulose content and sucrose transformation rate caused by the increase in soil salinity were more in Simian 3 than those in CCRI-79. With increase in soil salinity, activities of sucrose metabolism enzymes sucrose phophate synthase (SPS), acidic invertase, and alkaline invertase were decreased, whereas sucrose synthase (SuSy) activity increased. However, the changes displayed in the SuSy and SPS activities in response to increase in soil salinity were different and the differences were large between the two cotton cultivars. These results illustrated that suppressed cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism under high soil salinity were mainly due to the change in SPS, SuSy, and invertase activities, and the difference in cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in fiber for the two cotton cultivars in response to soil salinity was determined mainly by both SuSy and SPS activities. PMID:27227773

  16. Effects of Soil Salinity on Sucrose Metabolism in Cotton Fiber.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Jingran; Luo, Junyu; Zhao, Xinhua; Dong, Helin; Ma, Yan; Sui, Ning; Zhou, Zhiguo; Meng, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Cotton (Gosspium hirsutum L.) is classified as a salt tolerant crop. However, its yield and fiber quality are negatively affected by soil salinity. Studies on the enzymatic differences in sucrose metabolism under different soil salinity levels are lacking. Therefore, field experiments, using two cotton cultivars, CCRI-79 (salt-tolerant) and Simian 3 (salt-sensitive), were conducted in 2013 and 2014 at three different salinity levels (1.15 dS m-1 [low soil salinity], 6.00 dS m-1 [medium soil salinity], and 11.46 dS m-1 [high soil salinity]). The objective was to elucidate the effects of soil salinity on sucrose content and the activity of key enzymes that are related to sucrose metabolism in cotton fiber. Results showed that as the soil salinity increased, cellulose content, sucrose content, and sucrose transformation rate declined; the decreases in cellulose content and sucrose transformation rate caused by the increase in soil salinity were more in Simian 3 than those in CCRI-79. With increase in soil salinity, activities of sucrose metabolism enzymes sucrose phophate synthase (SPS), acidic invertase, and alkaline invertase were decreased, whereas sucrose synthase (SuSy) activity increased. However, the changes displayed in the SuSy and SPS activities in response to increase in soil salinity were different and the differences were large between the two cotton cultivars. These results illustrated that suppressed cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism under high soil salinity were mainly due to the change in SPS, SuSy, and invertase activities, and the difference in cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in fiber for the two cotton cultivars in response to soil salinity was determined mainly by both SuSy and SPS activities. PMID:27227773

  17. Tolerance of Venerupis philippinarum to salinity: osmotic and metabolic aspects.

    PubMed

    Carregosa, Vanessa; Figueira, Etelvina; Gil, Ana M; Pereira, Sara; Pinto, Joana; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Freitas, Rosa

    2014-05-01

    In the last few decades, attention has been focused on the impacts of contamination in marine benthic populations, while the responses of aquatic organisms to natural alterations, namely changes in salinity, have received little attention. In fact, salinity is one of the dominant environmental factors affecting marine bivalves. The ebb and flood of the tide, combined with fresh water inputs from rivers or heavy rainy events, and with extremely dry and hot seasons, can dramatically alter water salinity. Therefore, the salinity of a certain environment can restrict the spatial distribution of a given population, which is especially important when assessing the spread of an invasive species into a new environment. In the present study, the main objective was to understand how clam Venerupis philippinarum copes with salinity changes and, hence biochemical and metabolomic alterations, taking place in individuals submitted to a wide range of salinities were investigated. The results showed that V. philippinarum presented high mortality at lower salinities (0 and 7 g/L) but tolerated high salinities (35 and 42 g/L). The quantification of ionic content revealed that, clams had the capacity to maintain ionic homeostasis along the salinity gradient, mainly changing the concentration of Na, but also with the influence of Mg and Ca. The results showed a decrease in protein content at lower salinities (0 to 21 g/L). Glycogen and glucose increased with increasing salinity gradient. (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra of clam aqueous extracts revealed different metabolite profiles at 7, 28 and 42 g/L salinities, thus enabling metabolite changes to be measured in relation to salinity. PMID:24556070

  18. Influence of saline infusion on blood-tissue albumin transport.

    PubMed

    Renkin, E M; Rew, K; Wong, M; O'Loughlin, D; Sibley, L

    1989-08-01

    Anesthetized rats were infused with lactated Ringer solution (LR) at constant rate for 30 or 60 min; delivered volume loads ranged from 0.03 to 0.08 ml/g body wt. Controls were given only a sustaining infusion of saline at 0.002 ml.g-1.h-1. Only 7-14% of the LR remained in the plasma at the end of the infusion; 76-88% entered the interstitial compartment, and 7-17% was excreted. The amount of plasma protein lost from the circulation with the extravasated fluid was studied simultaneously by two methods: 1) material balance in the whole animal and 2) changes in 131I-labeled albumin uptake (VA) and water content (VW) in individual tissues. The extravasation of 0.03-0.06 ml fluid/g body wt (75-160% initial plasma volume) did not significantly increase plasma protein extravasation in the whole rat. Nearly all of the sampled tissues of LR-infused rats had higher VW than controls. Tissue VA tended to increase with VW, but the regression slopes (delta VA/delta VW), a measure of the tracer albumin concentration of capillary filtrate relative to plasma, were low; skin, 0.006; paw, 0.018; skeletal muscles, 0.007; heart, 0.057; jejunum, 0.095; ileum, 0.045; cecum, 0.026; and colon, 0.027. These ratios are consistent with the very small loss of total plasma protein observed and attest to high solvent-drag reflection coefficients (sigma approximately equal to 1 - delta VA/delta VW): greater than 0.98 in capillaries of skeletal muscles, skin, and paw and 0.91-0.97 in heart and intestine. PMID:2764135

  19. Electrically induced displacement transport of immiscible oil in saline sediments.

    PubMed

    Pamukcu, Sibel; Shrestha, Reena A; Ribeiro, Alexandra B; Mateus, Eduardo P

    2016-08-01

    Electrically assisted mitigation of coastal sediment oil pollution was simulated in floor-scale laboratory experiments using light crude oil and saline water at approximately 1/10 oil/water (O/W) mass ratio in pore fluid. The mass transport of the immiscible liquid phases was induced under constant direct current density of 2A/m(2), without water flooding. The transient pore water pressures (PWP) and the voltage differences (V) at and in between consecutive ports lined along the test specimen cell were measured over 90days. The oil phase transport occurred towards the anode half of the test specimen where the O/W volume ratio increased by 50% over its initial value within that half-length of the specimen. In contrast, the O/W ratio decreased within the cathode side half of the specimen. During this time, the PWP decreased systematically at the anode side with oil bank accumulation. PWP increased at the cathode side of the specimen, signaling increased concentration of water there as it replaced oil in the pore space. Electrically induced transport of the non-polar, non-conductive oil was accomplished in the opposing direction of flow by displacement in absence of viscous coupling of oil-water phases. PMID:27064863

  20. Onset of Natural Convection in Saline Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, A.

    2013-05-01

    Sequestration of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers has emerged as the preferred method of permanently storing CO2 in the subsurface. In order to be successful over geologic time scales, sequestration in saline aquifers relies upon enhanced dissolution of CO2 in brine by natural convection. In this talk we review the progress made thus far towards the modeling and prediction of the onset time for natural convection that occurs due to an unstable stratification of aqueous CO2. We show how the onset of natural convection is connected to a preceding event of the onset of instability with respect to small amplitude perturbations that originate within the aqueous boundary layer. Our analysis indicates that the onset time for instability is uncertain within an initial transient period where perturbation growth depends on the specific form of the initial condition. A constrained adjoint based optimization is employed to determine the upper bound and the mean of perturbation growth. With the help of a weakly nonlinear analysis, we show that the time at which convection initiates is associated with fixed perturbation amplitude. The influence of permeability heterogeneity is studied with this approach. For certain permeability structures, the marginal stability curve bifurcates to form multiple stable and unstable zones in the space of the perturbation wavenumber and time. The transition toward bifurcation governs the behavior of the most dangerous mode in the linear regime and determines the route to the onset of natural convection.

  1. Amoebae and Legionella pneumophila in saline environments

    PubMed Central

    Gast, Rebecca J.; Moran, Dawn M.; Dennett, Mark R.; Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.; Amaral- Zettler, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Amoeboid protists that harbor bacterial pathogens are of significant interest as potential reservoirs of disease-causing organisms in the environment, but little is known about them in marine and other saline environments. We enriched amoeba cultures from sediments from four sites in the New England estuarine system of Mt. Hope Bay, Massachusetts and from sediments from six sites in the Great Salt Lake, Utah. Cultures of amoebae were enriched using both minimal- and non-nutrient agar plates, made with fresh water, brackish water or saltwater. Recovered amoeba cultures were assayed for the presence of Legionella species using nested polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and primers specific for the genus. Positive samples were then screened with nested amplification using primers specific for the macrophage infectivity potentiator surface protein (mip) gene from L. pneumophila. Forty-eight percent (185 out of 388) of isolated amoeba cultures were positive for the presence of Legionella species. Legionella pneumophila was detected by PCR in 4% of the amoeba cultures (17 out of 388), and most of these amoebae were growing on marine media. Our results show that amoebae capable of growing in saline environments may harbor not only a diverse collection of Legionella species, but also species potentially pathogenic to humans. PMID:21301113

  2. Analysis of environmental factors influencing salinity patterns, oyster growth, and mortality in lower Breton Sound Estuary, Louisiana using 20 years of data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Geaghan, James; Decossas, Gary A.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater inflow characteristics define estuarine functioning by delivering nutrients, sediments, and freshwater, which affect biological resources and ultimately system production. Using 20 years of water quality, weather, and oyster growth and mortality data from Breton Sound Estuary (BSE), Louisiana, we examined the relationship of riverine, weather, and tidal influence on estuarine salinity, and the relationship of salinity to oyster growth and mortality. Mississippi River discharge was found to be the most important factor determining salinity patterns over oyster grounds within lower portions of BSE, with increased river flow associated with lowered salinities, while easterly winds associated with increased salinity were less influential. These patterns were consistent throughout the year. Salinity and temperature (season) were found to critically control oyster growth and mortality, suggesting that seasonal changes to river discharge affecting water quality over the oyster grounds have profound impacts on oyster populations. The management of oyster reefs in estuaries (such as BSE) requires an understanding of how estuarine hydrodynamics and salinity are influenced by forcing factors such as winds, river flow, and by the volume, timing, and location of controlled releases of riverine water.

  3. Effects of saline loading during head down tilt on ANP and cyclic GMP levels and on urinary fluid excretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummer, C.; Lang, R. E.; Baisch, F.; Blomqvist, G.; Heer, M.; Gerzer, R.

    In the present study the renal and humoral effects of acute saline infusions were investigated in six healthy male volunteers before, during and after a ten day period of -6° head-down-tilt (HDT). During the whole 23-day study period the subjects received a standardized diet including 40 ml water and 125 mg NaCl per kg body weight per day. After the infusion of 0.9% saline (22 ml/kg within 20 minutes) plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels were only slightly increased (not significant) at the end of the infusion, while plasma cyclic GMP levels were significantly increased by about 40% (p<0.05) one hour later. No difference was observed in the plasma ANP and cyclic GMP changes between the pre-HDT, the HDT and the post-HDT infusion experiment. Urine flow, sodium excretion and urinary cyclic GMP excretion were significantly increased (p<0.05 and below) by 100 to 300% during the second and third hour after each saline infusion. However, during these short-term periods only 20% of the infused water and less than 20% of the infused sodium were excreted. Furthermore, a significantly increased volume, sodium and cyclic GMP excretion was observed for over 48 hours after each fluid load experiment. These data suggest that HDT does not induce major alterations in the regulation of an acute saline infusion and plasma ANP does not play a major role in the diuretic/natriuretic effects of volume loading.

  4. Salinity dominance on the Indian Ocean Eastern Gyral current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Viviane V.; Phillips, Helen E.; Schiller, Andreas; Domingues, Catia M.; Bindoff, Nathaniel L.

    2013-11-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of salinity gradients to the formation of the Eastern Gyral Current (EGC) in the South Indian Ocean. The EGC flows eastward near 15∘S, opposite to the direction predicted by classical theories of wind-driven circulation and is a source of water for the Leeuwin Current. In the upper ocean, a strong salinity front exists between fresh water from the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) in the South Equatorial Current (SEC) and salty subtropical waters. In that region, salinity overwhelms the temperature contribution to density gradients, generating eastward geostrophic shear and establishing the EGC. Without the salinity front the EGC cannot be maintained: If the salinity contribution is neglected in the calculation of geostrophic currents, the EGC vanishes. Our observational analysis associated with the fact that both Sverdrup and Ekman theories produce westward flows in the region strongly supports the idea that the EGC is a salinity-driven current.

  5. [Physiological and molecular principles of plant salinity stress].

    PubMed

    Isaienkov, S V

    2012-01-01

    Due to the rising problem of salinity in modern agriculture, climate changes and global food crisis, the study of salinity stress is gaining the primary importance. The mechanism of plant response to salinity includes various processes that have to be coordinated. The high salinity leads to large accumulation of toxic ions (Na+, Cl-) in plant tissues, ion disequilibrium and hyperosmolarity. Salinity stress has a negative impact on plant nutrition and mineral homeostasis, particularly for Ca2+ and K+. The recent progress in trascriptomics, genomics and molecular biology has facilitated discoveries of new salt stress-related gene families. In this review the major fundamental principles of plant salt tolerance are described. Detailed analysis of main ion transport systems and their potential role in salinity stress is presented. The future perspective gene determinants, biotechnological and genetic strategies for enhancing salt tolerance in plants are discussed. PMID:23342649

  6. SPOT5 imagery for soil salinity assessment in Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teggi, S.; Costanzini, S.; Despini, F.; Chiodi, P.; Immordino, F.

    2012-10-01

    Soil salinization is a form of topsoil degradation due to the formation of soluble salts at deleterious levels. This phenomenon can seriously compromise vegetation health and agricultural productivity, and represents a worldwide environmental problem. Remote sensing is a very useful tool for soil salinization monitoring and assessment. In this work we show some results of a study aimed to define a methodology for soil salinity assessment in Iraq based on SPOT 5 imagery. This methodology allows the identification of salinized soils primarily on bare soils. Subsequently some soil salinity assessment can be done on vegetated soils. On bare soil the identification of salt is based on spectral analysis, using the Minimum Noise Fraction transformation and several indexes found in literature. In case of densely vegetated soils the methodology for the discrimination of salinized soils has been integrated with the results obtained from the classification of vegetation coverage.

  7. More on Renal Salt Wasting Without Cerebral Disease: Response to Saline Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Bitew, Solomon; Imbriano, Louis; Miyawaki, Nobuyuki; Fishbane, Steven; Maesaka, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: The existence and prevalence of cerebral salt wasting (CSW) or the preferred term, renal salt wasting (RSW), and its differentiation from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) have been controversial. This controversy stems from overlapping clinical and laboratory findings and an inability to assess the volume status of these patients. The authors report another case of RSW without clinical cerebral disease and contrast it to SIADH. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Three patients with hyponatremia, hypouricemia, increased fractional excretion (FE) of urate, urine sodium >20 mmol/L, and concentrated urines were infused with isotonic saline after collection of baseline data. Results: One patient with RSW had pneumonia without cerebral disease and showed increased plasma aldosterone and FEphosphate, and two patients with SIADH had increased blood volume, low plasma renin and aldosterone, and normal FEphosphate. The patient with RSW responded to isotonic saline by excretion of dilute urines, prompt correction of hyponatremia, and normal water loading test after volume repletion. Hypouricemia and increased FEurate persisted after correction of hyponatremia. Two patients with SIADH failed to dilute their urines and remained hyponatremic during 48 and 110 h of saline infusion. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate appropriate stimulation of ADH in RSW. Differences in plasma renin and aldosterone levels and FEphosphate can differentiate RSW from SIADH, as will persistent hypouricemia and increased FEurate after correction of hyponatremia in RSW. FEphosphate was the only contrasting variable at baseline. The authors suggest an approach to treat the hyponatremic patient meeting criteria for SIADH and RSW and changing CSW to the more appropriate term, RSW. PMID:19201917

  8. Development of saline seeps in Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Kenneth S.

    1994-01-01

    Saline seeps are an increasingly serious problem in semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States. They result when excessive recharge of the shallow ground water in soils raises the water table locally to within one meter of the land surface, and the salinity of the shallow water is increased through evaporation. In this connection, a comprehensive study is being undertaken in Oklahoma and Texas to determine the geologic setting, hydrology, soils, land use, and history of saline-seep development.

  9. Salinity influences the biochemical response of Crassostrea angulata to Arsenic.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Anthony; Figueira, Etelvina; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Freitas, Rosa

    2016-07-01

    The increasing rate of occurrence and persistence of climatic events causing salinity shifts, in combination with contamination, may further challenge organisms response to environmental stress. Hence, we studied the effects of different salinity levels (10, 20, 30 and 40) on the response of the oyster Crassostrea angulata to Arsenic (As) exposure (4 mg L(-1)). Total As, Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in oyster tissues were determined. Biochemical analysis were performed to assess osmotic regulation (CA), metabolism (ETS), enzymatic (SOD, CAT and GSTs) and non-enzymatic (GSH/GSSG and LPO) markers of oxidative stress. Results obtained showed significantly higher metabolic activities in oysters maintained in low salinity (10) exposure, coupled with higher As accumulation, as well as higher SOD and CAT activities, compared to higher salinities (30 and 40). GSTs activity and LPO levels were higher in oysters exposed to As at salinities 20, 30 and 40, compared to the same conditions without As. From our findings we concluded that the response of C. angulata to As is influenced by salinity. At the lowest salinity (10) oysters accumulated higher As concentrations, here attributed to higher metabolic rate involved in physiological osmoregulation, also stimulating antioxidant related enzymes activity (SOD and CAT) and thus preventing increased LPO (higher ETS activity also observed without As). On the contrary, at salinities 30 and 40 with As, antioxidant SOD and CAT were inhibited, enabling for LPO generation. Given our results, the effects of As on the oysters antioxidant capacity appears to be more deleterious under higher salinities (20, 30 and 40), comparing to salinity 10. The differentiated responses demonstrated in the present study in C. angulata oysters exposed to As under different salinities, bring new insights on the mechanisms of environmental adaptability of this species, namely to salinity shifts, and the interactions between such alterations and As

  10. Mannitol versus hypertonic saline: Safety and efficacy of mannitol and hypertonic saline in sputum induction and bronchial hyperreactivity assessment.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Puebla, M J; Olaguibel, J M; Almudevar, E; Echegoyen, A A; Vela, C; de Esteban, B

    2015-08-01

    Eosinophilic asthma phenotype predicts good response to corticosteroids and associates to asthmatic exacerbations. Sputum induction by hypertonic saline (HS) inhalation is technically demanding. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to osmotic agents indirectly mirrors active airway inflammation. We compared the safety and ability of HS and mannitol to induce sputum and measure BHR. We evaluated the stability of inflammatory phenotypes. We studied 35 non-smoking asthmatics randomized to undergo HS and mannitol challenges on 2 days 1 week apart. Sputum was sampled for cell analysis and phenotyped as eosinophilic (≥3% eosinophils) and non-eosinophilic (<3%) asthma. Nineteen subjects had BHR to mannitol and nine of them also had BHR to HS. Drops in forced expiratory volume in 1 s were higher from HS challenge than from mannitol challenge. Adequate sputum samples were obtained from 80% subjects (68% mannitol and 71% HS). Eosinophils and macrophages from both challenges correlated. Neutrophils were higher in sputum from HS. Ninety percent samples were equally phenotyped with HS and mannitol. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils and BHR correlated in both challenges. HS and mannitol showed similar capacity to produce valuable sputum samples. BHR to both osmotic stimuli partially resembled airway eosinophilic inflammation but mannitol was more sensitive than HS to assess BHR. Eosinophilic phenotype remained stable in most patients with both stimuli. PMID:25761367

  11. Effect of hypersaline cooling canals on aquifer salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Joseph D.; Langevin, Christian D.; Brakefield-Goswami, Linzy

    2010-02-01

    The combined effect of salinity and temperature on density-driven convection was evaluated in this study for a large (28 km2) cooling canal system (CCS) at a thermoelectric power plant in south Florida, USA. A two-dimensional cross-section model was used to evaluate the effects of hydraulic heterogeneities, cooling canal salinity, heat transport, and cooling canal geometry on aquifer salinization and movement of the freshwater/saltwater interface. Four different hydraulic conductivity configurations, with values ranging over several orders of magnitude, were evaluated with the model. For all of the conditions evaluated, aquifer salinization was initiated by the formation of dense, hypersaline fingers that descended downward to the bottom of the 30-m thick aquifer. Saline fingers reached the aquifer bottom in times ranging from a few days to approximately 5 years for the lowest hydraulic conductivity case. Aquifer salinization continued after saline fingers reached the aquifer bottom and coalesced by lateral movement away from the site. Model results showed that aquifer salinization was most sensitive to aquifer heterogeneity, but was also sensitive to CCS salinity, temperature, and configuration.

  12. Soil salinity decreases global soil organic carbon stocks.

    PubMed

    Setia, Raj; Gottschalk, Pia; Smith, Pete; Marschner, Petra; Baldock, Jeff; Setia, Deepika; Smith, Jo

    2013-11-01

    Saline soils cover 3.1% (397 million hectare) of the total land area of the world. The stock of soil organic carbon (SOC) reflects the balance between carbon (C) inputs from plants, and losses through decomposition, leaching and erosion. Soil salinity decreases plant productivity and hence C inputs to the soil, but also microbial activity and therefore SOC decomposition rates. Using a modified Rothamsted Carbon model (RothC) with a newly introduced salinity decomposition rate modifier and a plant input modifier we estimate that, historically, world soils that are currently saline have lost an average of 3.47 tSOC ha(-1) since they became saline. With the extent of saline soils predicted to increase in the future, our modelling suggests that world soils may lose 6.8 Pg SOC due to salinity by the year 2100. Our findings suggest that current models overestimate future global SOC stocks and underestimate net CO2 emissions from the soil-plant system by not taking salinity effects into account. From the perspective of enhancing soil C stocks, however, given the lower SOC decomposition rate in saline soils, salt tolerant plants could be used to sequester C in salt-affected areas. PMID:22959898

  13. Integrated geophysical and chemical study of saline water intrusion.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Kalpan; Saha, D K

    2004-01-01

    Surface geophysical surveys provide an effective way to image the subsurface and the ground water zone without a large number of observation wells. DC resistivity sounding generally identifies the subsurface formations-the aquifer zone as well as the formations saturated with saline/brackish water. However, the method has serious ambiguities in distinguishing the geological formations of similar resistivities such as saline sand and saline clay, or water quality such as fresh or saline, in a low resistivity formation. In order to minimize the ambiguity and ascertain the efficacy of data integration techniques in ground water and saline contamination studies, a combined geophysical survey and periodic chemical analysis of ground water were carried out employing DC resistivity profiling, resistivity sounding, and shallow seismic refraction methods. By constraining resistivity interpretation with inputs from seismic refraction and chemical analysis, the data integration study proved to be a powerful method for identification of the subsurface formations, ground water zones, the subsurface saline/brackish water zones, and the probable mode and cause of saline water intrusion in an inland aquifer. A case study presented here illustrates these principles. Resistivity sounding alone had earlier failed to identify the different formations in the saline environment. Data integration and resistivity interpretation constrained by water quality analysis led to a new concept of minimum resistivity for ground water-bearing zones, which is the optimum value of resistivity of a subsurface formation in an area below which ground water contained in it is saline/brackish and unsuitable for drinking. PMID:15457790

  14. Acute toxicity of saline produced waters to marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pillard, D.A.; Evans, J.M.; DuFresne, D.L.

    1996-11-01

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of to osmotic specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow, (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silvemide (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant.

  15. Direct Volume Rendering of Curvilinear Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaziri, Arsi; Wilhelms, J.; Challinger, J.; Alper, N.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Direct volume rendering can visualize sampled 3D scalar data as a continuous medium, or extract features. However, it is generally slow. Furthermore, most algorithms for direct volume rendering have assumed rectilinear gridded data. This paper discusses methods for using direct volume rendering when the original volume is curvilinear, i.e. is divided into six-sided cells which are not necessarily equilateral hexahedra. One approach is to ray-cast such volumes directly. An alternative approach is to interpolate the sample volumes to a rectilinear grid, and use this regular volume for rendering. Advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches in terms of speed and image quality are explored.

  16. Space Radar Image of Saline Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Saline Valley, about 30 km (19 miles) east of the town of Independence, California created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this one are helpful to scientists because they clarify the relationships of the different types of surfaces detected by the radar and the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. The view is looking southwest across Saline Valley. The high peaks in the background are the Inyo Mountains, which rise more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above the valley floor. The dark blue patch near the center of the image is an area of sand dunes. The brighter patches to the left of the dunes are the dry, salty lake beds of Saline Valley. The brown and orange areas are deposits of boulders, gravel and sand known as alluvial fans. The image was constructed by overlaying a color composite radar image on top of a digital elevation map. The radar image was taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-bandSynthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttleEndeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was producedusing radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The elevation data were derived from a 1,500-km-long (930-mile) digital topographic map processed at JPL. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vetically received; and blue is the ratio of C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received to L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This image is centered near 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint

  17. Does salinity change determine zooplankton variability in the saline Qarun Lake (Egypt)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shabrawy, Gamal M.; Anufriieva, Elena V.; Germoush, Mousa O.; Goher, Mohamed E.; Shadrin, Nickolai V.

    2015-11-01

    Zooplankton and 14 abiotic variables were studied during August 2011 at 10 stations in Lake Qarun, Egypt. Stations with the lowest salinity and highest nutrient concentrations and turbidity were close to the discharge of waters from the El-Bats and El-Wadi drainage systems. A total of 15 holozooplankton species were identified. The salinity in Lake Qarun increased and fluctuated since 1901: 12 g/L in 1901; 8.5 g/L in 1905; 12.0 g/L in 1922; 30.0 g/L in 1985; 38.7 g/L in 1994; 35.3 g/L in 2006, and 33.4 g/L in 2011. The mean concentration of nutrients (nitrate, nitrite and orthophosphate) gradually increased from 35, 0.16 and 0.38 µg/L, respectively, in 1953-1955 to 113, 16.4, and 30.26 µg/L in 2011. From 1999-2003 some decrease of species diversity occurred. Average total zooplankton density was 30 000 ind./m3 in 1974-1977; 356 125 ind./m3 in 1989; 534 000 ind./m3 in 1994-1995; from 965 000 to 1 452 000 ind./m3 in 2006, and 595 000 ind./m3 in 2011. A range of long-term summer salinity variability during the last decades was very similar to a range of salinity spatial variability in summer 2011. There is no significant correlation between zooplankton abundance and salinity in spatial and long-term changes. We conclude that salinity fluctuations since at least 1955 did not directly drive the changes of composition and abundance of zooplankton in the lake. A marine community had formed in the lake, and it continues to change. One of the main drivers of this change is a regular introduction and a pressure of alien species on the existent community. Eutrophication also plays an important role. The introduction of Mnemiopsis leidyi, first reported in 2014, may lead to a start of a new stage of the biotic changes in Lake Qarun, when eutrophication and the population dynamics of this ctenophore will be main drivers of the ecosystem change.

  18. Salinity and spectral reflectance of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szilagyi, A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    The basic spectral response related to the salt content of soils in the visible and reflective IR wavelengths is analyzed in order to explore remote sensing applications for monitoring processes of the earth system. The bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) was determined at 10 nm of increments over the 520-2320-nm spectral range. The effect of salts on reflectance was analyzed on the basis of 162 spectral measurements. MSS and TM bands were simulated within the measured spectral region. A strong relationship was found in variations of reflectance and soil characteristics pertaining to salinization and desalinization. Although the individual MSS bands had high R-squared values and 75-79 percent of soil/treatment combinations were separable, there was a large number of soil/treatment combinations not distinguished by any of the four highly correlated MSS bands under consideration.

  19. Reclamation of highly calcareous saline-sodic soil using low quality water and phosphogypsum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharaibeh, M. A.; Rusan, M. J.; Eltaif, N. I.; Shunnar, O. F.

    2014-09-01

    The efficiency of two amendments in reclaiming saline sodic soil using moderately saline (EC) and moderate sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) canal water was investigated. Phosphogypsum (PG) and reagent grade calcium chloride were applied to packed sandy loam soil columns and leached with canal water (SAR = 4, and EC = 2.16 dS m-1). Phosphogypsum was mixed with top soil prior to leaching at application rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 35, 40 Mg ha-1, whereas calcium chloride was dissolved directly in water at equivalent rates of 4.25, 8.5, 12.75, 17.0, 21.25, 29.75, and 34 Mg ha-1, respectively. Both amendments efficiently reduced soil salinity and sodicity. Calcium chloride removed 90 % of the total Na and soluble salts whereas PG removed 79 and 60 %, respectively. Exchangeable sodium percentage was reduced by 90 % in both amendments. Results indicated that during cation exchange reactions most of the sodium was removed when effluent SAR was at maximum. Phosphogypsum has lower total costs than calcium chloride and as an efficient amendment an application of 30 Mg ha-1 and leaching with 4 pore volume (PV) of canal water could be recommended to reclaim the studied soil.

  20. Temperature effect on acetate and propionate consumption by sulfate-reducing bacteria in saline wastewater.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, T P H; Roest, K; Brdjanovic, D; Chen, G H; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2014-05-01

    Seawater toilet flushing, seawater intrusion in the sewerage, and discharge of sulfate-rich industrial effluents elevates sulfate content in wastewater. The application of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in wastewater treatment is very beneficial; as for example, it improves the pathogen removal and reduces the volume of waste sludge, energy requirement and costs. This paper evaluates the potential to apply biological sulfate reduction using acetate and propionate to saline sewage treatment in moderate climates. Long-term biological sulfate reduction experiments at 10 and 20 °C were conducted in a sequencing batch reactor with synthetic saline domestic wastewater. Subsequently, acetate and propionate (soluble organic carbon) conversion rate were determined in both reactors, in the presence of either or both fatty acids. Both acetate and propionate consumption rates by SRB were 1.9 times lower at 10 °C than at 20 °C. At 10 °C, propionate was incompletely oxidized to acetate. At 10 °C, complete removal of soluble organic carbon requires a significantly increased hydraulic retention time as compared to 20 °C. The results of the study showed that biological sulfate reduction can be a feasible and promising process for saline wastewater treatment in moderate climate. PMID:24463759

  1. Neurohypophyseal response to fluid resuscitation with hypertonic saline during septic shock in rats.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Michael Brian; Vieira, Alexandre Antonio; Elias, Lucila L K; Rodrigues, José Antunes; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2013-02-01

    Septic shock is a serious condition with a consequent drop in blood pressure and inadequate tissue perfusion. Small-volume resuscitation with hypertonic saline (HS) has been proposed to restore physiological haemodynamics during haemorrhagic and endotoxic shock. In the present study, we sought to determine the effects produced by an HS infusion in rats subjected to caecal ligation and perforation (CLP). Male Wistar rats were randomly grouped and submitted to either CLP or sham surgery. Either HS (7.5% NaCl, 4 ml kg(-1) i.v.) or isotonic saline (IS; 0.9% NaCl, 4 ml kg(-1) i.v.) was administered 6 h after CLP. Recordings of mean arterial pressure and heart rate were made during this protocol. Moreover, measurements of electrolyte, vasopressin and oxytocin secretion were analysed after either the HS or the IS treatment. Six hours after CLP, we observed a characteristic decrease in mean arterial pressure that occurs after CLP. The HS infusion in these rats produced a transient elevation of the plasma sodium concentration and osmolality and increased plasma vasopressin and oxytocin levels. Moreover, the HS infusion could restore the mean arterial pressure after CLP, which was completely blunted by the previous injection of the vasopressin but not the oxytocin antagonist. The present study demonstrated that rats subjected to CLP and an infusion of hypertonic saline respond with secretion of neurohypophyseal hormones and a transient increase in blood pressure mediated by the V(1) receptor. PMID:22903979

  2. Ion uptake of marigold under saline growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Koksal, Nezihe; Alkan-Torun, Ayfer; Kulahlioglu, Ilknur; Ertargin, Ebru; Karalar, Eylul

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is one of most significant environmental stresses. Marigold is moderately tolerant to salinity stress. Therefore, in this study, the fresh weights of roots and shoots, rootFW/shootFW ratio, moisture content of shoots, micronutrient and macronutrient concentrations and ratios of K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) in the roots and shoots of marigold were determined under salinity stress. Five salinity treatments (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mM NaCl) were maintained. In the current study, salinity affected the biomass of marigold. An increase of more than 100 mM in salt concentrations significantly reduced the shoot fresh weight. Increasing salinity stress increased the ratios of rootFW/shootFW, which were more significant under high salt levels (150 and 200 mM NaCl). Wet basis moisture contents of the shoots were reduced when salinity stress increased above 100 mM. In this study, salinity stress affected micronutrient and macronutrient uptake. Increases in the salt concentration and decreases in the concentration of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) in the roots and Mn(2+) and Fe(2+) in the shoots were significant. Based on an increase in salinity stress, while the Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+) concentrations increased, the K(+) concentration decreased in the roots and shoots. Moreover, the K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratios of the roots and shoots were significantly lower than those of the control in all of the salinity treatments. As a result, under increasing salinity stress, the Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), and Na(+) uptakes in marigold were significant, revealing the effects of stress. PMID:26933637

  3. Paratethys forcing of the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krijgsman, Wout; Van Baak, Christiaan; Flecker, Rachel; Grothe, Arjen; Marzocchi, Alice; Stoica, Marius; Vasiliev, Iuliana

    2016-04-01

    During the Messinian Salinity Crisis (5.97-5.33 Ma), there is increasing evidence for the presence of fresh water input, not only during the final Lago-mare stage but even during times of evaporite formation. Here we present new strontium isotopic data from two well-dated Messinian sections in the Black and Caspian seas, which show remarkably similar Sr-values as the ones recorded in the Mediterranean during the final phase of the salinity crisis. This strongly suggests that a major fresh water pulse in the Mediterranean originated from the Paratethys. It highlights the importance of a Mediterranean-Black Sea connection during the entire MSC, adding an enormous drainage basin to the Mediterranean water balance. The presence of Paratethyan fauna in the Mediterranean Lago-Mare deposits has fuelled long-lasting controversies over the connectivity between the Mediterranean and Paratethys and contemporary sea level drops in both basins. We furthermore use results of sub-precessional climate simulations to calculate the freshwater budget of the Mediterranean and Paratethys in the Messinian. Using these numerical constraints, we propose a Mediterranean outflow pump as an alternative scenario for the most dramatic hydrological changes in the MSC. This "pump" mechanism significantly enhanced Paratethyan inflow to the Mediterranean, creating 1) suitable conditions for gypsum to form and 2) Lago-mare fauna to migrate and thrive. When the Mediterranean sea level finally reached the height of the Gibraltar sill, Mediterranean outflow restarted there and enhanced exchange with the Atlantic. During this reorganisation of the circulation, brackish and hypersaline waters were pumped out of the Mediterranean, and open marine conditions were re-established without major flooding at the Mio-Pliocene boundary.

  4. Saline-Linked Surface Radiofrequency Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Topp, Stefan A.; McClurken, Michael; Lipson, David; Upadhya, Gundumi A.; Ritter, Jon H.; Linehan, David; Strasberg, Steven M.

    2004-01-01

    Summary Background Data: Saline-linked surface radiofrequency (RF) ablation is a new technique for applying RF energy to surfaces. The surface is cooled, which prevents charring and results in deeper coagulation. However, subsurface heating may lead to steam formation and a form of tissue disruption called steam popping. We determined parameters that predict steam popping and depth of tissue destruction under nonpopping conditions. A commercially available saline-linked surface RF cautery device (Floating Ball 3.0, TissueLink, Inc.) was used. Methods: One hundred eighty circular lesions were created varying in lesion diameter, duration, power, and inflow occlusion. Variables affecting popping were determined. Then factors influencing lesion depth were studied at fixed nonpopping diameter/power combinations (1 cm/10W, 2 cm/15W, 4 cm/60W). Tissue viability was determined in selected samples by staining of tissue NADH. Results: The probability of steam popping was directly related to power level and inflow occlusion, and indirectly related to lesion diameter. Depth of injury under safe nonpopping conditions was directly related to power, lesion size, and inflow occlusion. Maximum depth in excess of 20 mm was achieved using a 4 cm diameter at 60W with inflow occlusion. Microscopy of NADH-stained tissues showed a complete cell killing in the macroscopically visible coagulated area. Conclusions: Steam popping can be avoided by selecting power level/lesion diameter combinations. Tissue destruction to 20 mm can be safely achieved with short periods of inflow occlusion. The device has promise as a treatment of superficial tumors and close resection margins. PMID:15024313

  5. Salinity changes in the Agulhas leakage area recorded by stable hydrogen isotopes of C37 alkenones during Termination I and II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, S.; van der Meer, M. T. J.; Mets, A.; Zahn, R.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Schouten, S.

    2014-02-01

    At the southern tip of Africa, the Agulhas Current reflects back into the Indian Ocean causing so-called "Agulhas rings" to spin off and release relatively warm and saline water into the South Atlantic Ocean. Previous reconstructions of the dynamics of the Agulhas Current, based on paleo-sea surface temperature and sea surface salinity proxies, inferred that Agulhas leakage from the Indian Ocean to the South Atlantic was reduced during glacial stages as a consequence of shifted wind fields and a northwards migration of the subtropical front. Subsequently, this might have led to a buildup of warm saline water in the southern Indian Ocean. To investigate this latter hypothesis, we reconstructed sea surface salinity changes using alkenone δD, and paleo-sea surface temperature using TEXH86 and UK'37, from two sediment cores (MD02-2594, MD96-2080) located in the Agulhas leakage area during Termination I and II. Both UK'37 and TEXH86 temperature reconstructions indicate an abrupt warming during the glacial terminations, while a shift to more negative δDalkenone values of approximately 14‰ during glacial Termination I and II is also observed. Approximately half of the isotopic shift can be attributed to the change in global ice volume, while the residual isotopic shift is attributed to changes in salinity, suggesting relatively high salinities at the core sites during glacials, with subsequent freshening during glacial terminations. Approximate estimations suggest that δDalkenone represents a salinity change of ca. 1.7-1.9 during Termination I and Termination II. These estimations are in good agreement with the proposed changes in salinity derived from previously reported combined planktonic Foraminifera δ18O values and Mg/Ca-based temperature reconstructions. Our results confirm that the δD of alkenones is a potentially suitable tool to reconstruct salinity changes independent of planktonic Foraminifera δ18O.

  6. Factors affecting the hydrogen isotopic composition of dissolved organic matter along a salinity gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debond, A. A.; Ziegler, S. E.; Fogel, M. L.; Morrill, P. L.; Bowden, R.

    2010-12-01

    becomes important when UF is used in environments requiring a range of diafiltration volumes, such as along a salinity transect in an estuary. As ~70% of marine DOM is LMW, UF-processed estuarine samples likely show a bias toward the terrestrial DOM component which will likely impact its isotopic composition. We examine the effects of DOM recovery following ultrafiltration and diafiltration on its bulk stable isotopic signatures along a salinity transect at the Salmonier Arm. Freshwater, high and intermediate salinity samples are diafiltered using a range of volumes, resulting in differences in recovery. DOM recovery, and isotopic signatures are compared across each treatment and along the transect. Results from these experimental and field samples are expected to provide key insight into the utility of hydrogen isotopes for understanding the transport and fate of terrestrial DOM in the marine environment.

  7. A dynamical study on sodium accumulation and soil reclamation in secondary salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mau, Y.; Porporato, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigation with saline water, together with poor leaching of the salts in the root zone, are the major causes of human-caused soil salinization, or secondary salinization. About 20% of irrigated land are salt-affected, and nearly four million acres of farmland are estimated to be lost to excessive salt every year. The development of a high percentage of sodium in the soil exchangeable complex is especially problematic, changing the soil structure and greatly reducing its hydraulic conductivity. This condition, called sodicity, mainly affects arid and semi-arid areas, where precipitation is not adequate to leach salts. We investigate the coupled water and salt balance equations in the root zone irrigated with saline water. By describing the fractions of sodium (Na) and calcium (Ca) cations in the irrigation water, soil water, and exchangeable complex, we determine the dynamics of the total salt concentration in the soil water (C) and of the Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP). We found that the dynamics of the ESP can be one order of magnitude slower than that of C: while the typical time scale of convergence of C to its steady-state value is of the order of 1 year, the ESP evolves in a typical time scale of 1 decade and more. These results provide useful indications for the reclamation of sodic soils, which can be accelerated through the replacement of Na cations by Ca ions in the exchangeable complex, often by means of the application of gypsum to the irrigation water. We show that a two-phase managing scheme can shorten the time scale of reclamation, when compared to irrigation with same volumes of water of better quality (low C levels): first irrigation water with high salt concentration and low fraction of Na brings the ESP to low levels in relatively short time scales; then good quality irrigation water (low C) can be applied, decreasing total salinity levels. We also explored the effects of high sodicity on the soil hydraulic conductivity by adding a

  8. PROPERTIES OF MEDIUM-DENSITY PARTICLEBOARD FROM SALINE ATHEL WOOD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Athel tree, Tamarix aphylla (L), can potentially be used as a biomass crop to help manage saline subsurface drainage water in arid land-irrigated agriculture. In this study, Athel wood was used to manufacture medium-density particleboard with an aim of developing new applications for the saline...

  9. Pore fluids and the LGM ocean salinity-Reconsidered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunsch, Carl

    2016-03-01

    Pore fluid chlorinity/salinity data from deep-sea cores related to the salinity maximum of the last glacial maximum (LGM) are analyzed using estimation methods deriving from linear control theory. With conventional diffusion coefficient values and no vertical advection, results show a very strong dependence upon initial conditions at -100 ky. Earlier inferences that the abyssal Southern Ocean was strongly salt-stratified in the LGM with a relatively fresh North Atlantic Ocean are found to be consistent within uncertainties of the salinity determination, which remain of order ±1 g/kg. However, an LGM Southern Ocean abyss with an important relative excess of salt is an assumption, one not required by existing core data. None of the present results show statistically significant abyssal salinity values above the global average, and results remain consistent, apart from a general increase owing to diminished sea level, with a more conventional salinity distribution having deep values lower than the global mean. The Southern Ocean core does show a higher salinity than the North Atlantic one on the Bermuda Rise at different water depths. Although much more sophisticated models of the pore-fluid salinity can be used, they will only increase the resulting uncertainties, unless considerably more data can be obtained. Results are consistent with complex regional variations in abyssal salinity during deglaciation, but none are statistically significant.

  10. Mapping, Monitoring, and Assessment of Soil Salinity at Field Scales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past, spatial and temporal variability has made it difficult to measure, map, and monitor soil salinity at field scales. Large numbers of soil samples were needed both across the landscape and within the soil profile to map field-scale salinity, making the task too labor and cost intensive t...

  11. Improvement of processes for treating saline wastewater in petroleum refineries

    SciTech Connect

    Sorochenko, V.F.

    1994-11-01

    The saline waste water produced in desalting crude oil in electric desalting units is usually dumped into the sewer system of the refinery. This work was aimed at developing methods of treatment with reagents to prevent and remove salt deposits in the process of freshening saline wastes, by means of aluminium chloride waste materials that have been recovered for utilization.

  12. 76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Bureau of Reclamation announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...) 524-3826; e-mail at: kjacobson@usbr.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin...

  13. EVALUATION OF IRRIGATION METHODS FOR SALINITY CONTROL IN GRAND VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Irrigation return flows in the Upper Colorado River Basin carry large salt loads as a result of contact with the saline soils and the marine derived geologic substratum. The Grand Valley of western Colorado is a major contributor to the salinity problems of the basin and is, ther...

  14. Hurricane-induced failure of low salinity wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Nick C.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Hughes, Zoe J.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kulp, Mark A.; Miner, Michael D.; Smith, Jane M.; Barras, John A.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2005 hurricane season, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527 km2 of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained robust and largely unchanged. Here we highlight geotechnical differences between the soil profiles of high and low salinity regimes, which are controlled by vegetation and result in differential erosion. In low salinity wetlands, a weak zone (shear strength 500–1450 Pa) was observed ∼30 cm below the marsh surface, coinciding with the base of rooting. High salinity wetlands had no such zone (shear strengths > 4500 Pa) and contained deeper rooting. Storm waves during Hurricane Katrina produced shear stresses between 425–3600 Pa, sufficient to cause widespread erosion of the low salinity wetlands. Vegetation in low salinity marshes is subject to shallower rooting and is susceptible to erosion during large magnitude storms; these conditions may be exacerbated by low inorganic sediment content and high nutrient inputs. The dramatic difference in resiliency of fresh versus more saline marshes suggests that the introduction of freshwater to marshes as part of restoration efforts may therefore weaken existing wetlands rendering them vulnerable to hurricanes. PMID:20660777

  15. Salinity on survival and early development of biofuel feedstock crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant survival, growth and development can be influenced by irrigation water salinity level. Affects of salinity on early development of biofuel feedstock crops need to be clarified. The biofuel feedstock crops canola (Brassica napus L.), sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], and sunflower (Helia...

  16. Expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) during salinity stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a salt-tolerant crop species with considerable economic importance in salinity-affected arid and semiarid regions of the world. In this work, barley cultivar Morex was used for transcriptional profiling during salinity stress using a microarray containing ~22,750 prob...

  17. Analysis of Production-Water-Salinity of Index Crops in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifan, H.; Ghahreman, B.

    2009-04-01

    One method to investigate the advantages of irrigation in cultivation is to evaluate the amount of increase in productions as a result of irrigation. Such relations which usually characterized by mathematics formulas or curves are called production to water function. In the agricultural analysis like pattern optimization and culture accumulation, we need some function like agricultural crops production, water and salinity. The amount of water used and salinity has influence on crops function, so that by increase in both components in various stages of plant growth, crop function decreases. Many researches have been performed on production-water and production-salinity function, therefore less researches on production-water-salinity components. The equation provided by Letey and Dinar (1986) is a sample of these researches. Their model is a quadratics equation from independent variables of water salinity in irrigation (ECi) and dimensionless proportion of the amount of water used to evaporation in class A (AW/EP) in plant growth stage. Therefore, by using this model and parameters like evaporation, rainfall and also quantity and quality water potential in Golestan farmlands, we obtained production-water-salinity components for each product in three different areas across Golestan province (moisture to dry areas). These products include sunflower, cotton, wheat, barely, potato, tomato, corn, sorgom, water melon, soybean and rice. Finally, these equations were compared by results of previous experiments, some results correspond and others were different. Key Word: production-water, production-salinity and production-water-salinity function, Letey and Dinar, Golestan.

  18. Inverse relationship between D/H fractionation in cyanobacterial lipids and salinity in Christmas Island saline ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachse, Dirk; Sachs, Julian P.

    2008-02-01

    Sediments from 28 saline and hypersaline (salinity 13.6-149.2) ponds on Christmas Island (Kiritimati), in the Central tropical Pacific Ocean, were investigated for the effect of salinity on the D/H ratios of lipid biomarkers. Hydrogen isotope ratios (expressed as δD values) of total lipid extracts, and individual hydrocarbons heptadecane, heptadecene, octadecane, octadecene, diploptene, and phytene from cyanobacteria, became increasingly enriched in deuterium as salinity increased, spanning a range of 100‰, while lake water δD values spanned a range of just 12‰. Net D/H fractionation between lipids and source water thus decreased as salinity increased. Isotope fractionation factors ( αlipid-water) were strongly correlated with salinity, and increased in all compound classes studied by up to 0.0967 over a salinity range of 136. Differences in the hydrogen isotopic composition of lipids derived from three biosynthetic pathways (acetogenic, mevalonate, and non-mevalonate) remained similar irrespective of the salinity. This suggests that the mechanism responsible for the observed αlipid-water-salinity relationship originates prior to the last common biosynthetic branching point, the Calvin Cycle. We propose that a decrease in the exchange of intra- and extra-cellular (ambient) water resulting from down-regulation or closure of water channels (aquaporins) within cyanobacterial cell membranes, and subsequent isotopic enrichment of the intracellular water, likely resulting from metabolic reactions. These findings imply that caution must be exercised when attempting to reconstruct source water δD values using lipid δD values from environments that may have experienced salinity variations. On the other, hand our results can be used to establish a paleo-salinity proxy based on lipid δD, if additional constraints on source water δD values can be made.

  19. Sea Surface Salinity Variability in Response to the Congo River Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moller, D.; Chao, Y.; Farrara, J. D.; Schumann, G.; Andreadis, K.

    2014-12-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) variability associated with the Congo River discharge is examined using Aquarius satellite-retrieved SSS data and vertical profiles of salinity measured by the Argo floats. The Congo River plume can be clearly identified in the Aquarius SSS data with a westward extension of 500 to 1000 km off the coast of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The peak amplitude of the SSS variability associated with the Congo River discharge exceeds 2.0 psu. Using the first two years of Aquarius data, a well-defined seasonal cycle is described: maximum fresh-water anomalies are found in the boreal winter and spring seasons. The fresh-water anomalies during the 2012-2013 winter and spring seasons are significantly fresher than the 2011-2012 winter and spring seasons. Vertical profiles of salinity derived from the Argo floats reveal that these fresh-water anomalies can be traced to 40 meters below the sea surface. Combining the Aquarius SSS data with the Argo vertical profiles of salinity, the 3D volume of these fresh-water anomalies can be inferred and used to estimate the Congo River discharge. Reasonably good agreement is found between the Congo River discharge as observed by a stream gauge at Kinshasa and that estimated from the combined Aquarius and Argo data, indicating that Aquarius data can be used to close the fresh-water budget between the coastal ocean and the Congo River. The precipitation minus evaporation portion of the freshwater flux is found to play a secondary role in this region.

  20. Genomics Approaches For Improving Salinity Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants.

    PubMed

    Nongpiur, Ramsong Chantre; Singla-Pareek, Sneh Lata; Pareek, Ashwani

    2016-08-01

    Salinity is one of the major factors which reduces crop production worldwide. Plant responses to salinity are highly complex and involve a plethora of genes. Due to its multigenicity, it has been difficult to attain a complete understanding of how plants respond to salinity. Genomics has progressed tremendously over the past decade and has played a crucial role towards providing necessary knowledge for crop improvement. Through genomics, we have been able to identify and characterize the genes involved in salinity stress response, map out signaling pathways and ultimately utilize this information for improving the salinity tolerance of existing crops. The use of new tools, such as gene pyramiding, in genetic engineering and marker assisted breeding has tremendously enhanced our ability to generate stress tolerant crops. Genome editing technologies such as Zinc finger nucleases, TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 also provide newer and faster avenues for plant biologists to generate precisely engineered crops. PMID:27499683

  1. Salinity tolerance of crops - what is the cost?

    PubMed

    Munns, Rana; Gilliham, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Soil salinity reduces crop yield. The extent and severity of salt-affected agricultural land is predicted to worsen as a result of inadequate drainage of irrigated land, rising water tables and global warming. The growth and yield of most plant species are adversely affected by soil salinity, but varied adaptations can allow some crop cultivars to continue to grow and produce a harvestable yield under moderate soil salinity. Significant costs are associated with saline soils: the economic costs to the farming community and the energy costs of plant adaptations. We briefly consider mechanisms of adaptation and highlight recent research examples through a lens of their applicability to improving the energy efficiency of crops under saline field conditions. PMID:26108441

  2. Salinity effects on the microwave emission of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Oneill, Peggy E.

    1987-01-01

    Controlled plot experiments were conducted to collect L and C band passive microwave data concurrent with ground observations of salinity and soil moisture. Two dielectric mixing models were used with an emission model to predict the emissivity from a bare smooth uniform profile. The models produce nearly identical results when near zero salinity is involved and reproduce the observed data at L band extremely well. Discrepancies at C band are attributed to sampling depth problems. Comparisons of predicted emissivities at various salinities with observed values indicate that the dynamic range of the emissivities can be explained using either of the dielectric mixing models. Evaluation of the entire data set, which included four salinity levels, indicates that for general application the effects of soil salinity can be ignored in interpreting microwave data for estimating soil moisture under most agricultural conditions.

  3. Effects of salinity on the microwave emission of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Oneill, P. E.

    1986-01-01

    Controlled plot experiments were conducted to collect L and C band passive microwave data concurrent with ground observations of salinity and soil moisture. Two dielectric mixing models were used with an emission model to predict the emissivity from a bare smooth uniform profile. The models produce nearly identical results when near zero salinity is involved and reproduce the observed data at L band extremely well. Discrepancies at C band are attributed to sampling depth problems. Comparisons of predicted emissivities at various salinities with observed values indicate that the dynamic range of the emissivities can be explained using either of the dielectric mixing models. Evaluation of the entire data set, which included four salinity levels, indicates that for general application the effects of soil salinity can be ignored in interpreting microwave data for estimating soil moisture under most agricultural conditions.

  4. Salinity tolerance of Anopheles farauti Laveran sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Bell, D; Bryan, J; Cameron, A; Foley, D; Pholsyna, K

    1999-01-01

    To assess the salt tolerance of the malaria vector Anopheles farauti sensu stricto, larvae were collected from a freshwater environment on the outskirts of Honiara, Solomon Islands and placed in trays containing water with salinity varying from freshwater to seawater. Dead larvae and pupae and emerged adults were recorded and preserved. Most adults and nearly half of the larvae and pupae were then subjected to DNA analysis for species identification. No adult An. farauti emerged after prolonged immersion of larvae in undiluted seawater (3.5% salinity), although temporary immersion before pupation was compatible with survival. Salinities of up to 2.2% to 2.5% were compatible with good survival and adult emergence, at least from fourth instars. The results suggest that higher salinities may slow larval development and show that mortality at a given salinity is not uniform. PMID:11061001

  5. Sonographic pleural fluid volume estimation in cats.

    PubMed

    Shimali, Jerry; Cripps, Peter J; Newitt, Anna L M

    2010-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate whether a recently published study used to objectively monitor pleural fluid volumes in dogs could be successfully employed in cats and secondly to assess its accuracy. Eleven feline cadavers were selected. Using the trans-sternal view employed in dogs, linear measurements from the pleural surface of the midline of the sternebra at the centre of the heart to the furthest ventro-lateral point of both right and left lung edges were recorded. Isotonic saline was injected using ultrasound guidance into both right and left pleural spaces and the measurements were repeated using standard increments until 400 ml total volume was reached. The mean measurement increased in a linear relationship with the cube root of fluid volume for all cats individually. An equation was produced to predict the volume of fluid from the mean linear measurement for all cats combined: Volume=[-3.75+2.41(mean)](3)(P<0.001) but variability in the slope of the curve for individual cats limited the accuracy of the combined equation. Equations were derived to predict the constant and slope of the curve for individual cats using the thoracic measurements made, but the residual diagnostic graphs demonstrated considerable variability. As in dogs, good correlation was found between the ultrasonographic measurement and fluid volume within individual cats. An accurate equation to predict absolute pleural fluid volume was not identified. Further analysis with reference to thoracic measurements did not increase accuracy. In conclusion, this study does provide a method of estimating absolute pleural fluid volume in cats, which may be clinical useful for pleural fluid volume monitoring but this is yet to be validated in live cats. PMID:19744872

  6. The Role of Ethylene in Plants Under Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jian-Jun; Chen, Hao-Wei; Ma, Biao; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    Although the roles of ethylene in plant response to salinity and other stresses have been extensively studied, there are still some obscure points left to be clarified. Generally, in Arabidopsis and many other terrestrial plants, ethylene signaling is indispensable for plant rapid response and tolerance to salinity stress. However, a few studies showed that functional knock-out of some ACSs increased plant salinity-tolerance, while overexpression of them caused more sensitivity. This seems to be contradictory to the known opinion that ethylene plays positive roles in salinity response. Differently, ethylene in rice may play negative roles in regulating seedling tolerance to salinity. The main positive ethylene signaling components MHZ7/OsEIN2, MHZ6/OsEIL1, and OsEIL2 all negatively regulate the salinity-tolerance of rice seedlings. Recently, several different research groups all proposed a negative feedback mechanism of coordinating plant growth and ethylene response, in which several ethylene-inducible proteins (including NtTCTP, NEIP2 in tobacco, AtSAUR76/77/78, and AtARGOS) act as inhibitors of ethylene response but activators of plant growth. Therefore, in addition to a summary of the general roles of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in salinity response, this review mainly focused on discussing (i) the discrepancies between ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in salinity response, (ii) the divergence between rice and Arabidopsis in regulation of salinity response by ethylene, and (iii) the possible negative feedback mechanism of coordinating plant growth and salinity response by ethylene. PMID:26640476

  7. The Influence of Geologic Heterogeneity on Groundwater Salinity and Aquifer-Ocean Exchange on the Scale of the Continental Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, H. A.; Scott, K. C.; Koneshloo, M.; Khan, M. R.; Katie, L.

    2015-12-01

    Exchange of water between aquifers and the ocean critically affects the quality of coastal groundwater resources and modifies ocean chemistry on both short and long timescales. Fresh groundwater has been shown to exist far offshore, and this is a potential future resource. However, controls on the origin of offshore freshened groundwater and the timescale over which it responds to hydrologic change are not well known. Further, high rates of saline groundwater discharge have been observed directly nearshore and with tracers across continental shelves, but the physical explanation for these large fluxes is not well established. Steady-state variable-density groundwater flow and solute transport simulations incorporating geostatistically-generated distributions of aquifer lithology were performed to explore the role of geologic heterogeneity in large-scale coastal groundwater flow and solute transport processes. Results indicate that heterogeneity critically affects both salinity distributions and aquifer-ocean exchange. The position, size, and variability of the mixing zone are influenced by the shore-perpendicular connectivity of the geologic structure. Submarine groundwater discharge extends further offshore and is more highly variable in heterogeneous relative to equivalent homogeneous simulations, and this effect increases with connectivity. The circulation of saline groundwater is consistently higher in heterogeneous simulations relative to homogeneous regardless of aquifer connectivity, increasing up to several orders of magnitude. These simulations suggest that heterogeneous aquifers with high geologic connectivity can result in significant volumes of freshened groundwater accompanied by fresh and saline discharge tens to hundreds of kilometers offshore along the continental shelf, even under present-day equilibrium conditions. The complicated flow fields and salinity distributions resulting from geologic heterogeneity contribute to high rates of saline

  8. Salinity of deep groundwater in California: Water quantity, quality, and protection.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mary; Jackson, Robert B

    2016-07-12

    Deep groundwater aquifers are poorly characterized but could yield important sources of water in California and elsewhere. Deep aquifers have been developed for oil and gas extraction, and this activity has created both valuable data and risks to groundwater quality. Assessing groundwater quantity and quality requires baseline data and a monitoring framework for evaluating impacts. We analyze 938 chemical, geological, and depth data points from 360 oil/gas fields across eight counties in California and depth data from 34,392 oil and gas wells. By expanding previous groundwater volume estimates from depths of 305 m to 3,000 m in California's Central Valley, an important agricultural region with growing groundwater demands, fresh [<3,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS)] groundwater volume is almost tripled to 2,700 km(3), most of it found shallower than 1,000 m. The 3,000-m depth zone also provides 3,900 km(3) of fresh and saline water, not previously estimated, that can be categorized as underground sources of drinking water (USDWs; <10,000 ppm TDS). Up to 19% and 35% of oil/gas activities have occurred directly in freshwater zones and USDWs, respectively, in the eight counties. Deeper activities, such as wastewater injection, may also pose a potential threat to groundwater, especially USDWs. Our findings indicate that California's Central Valley alone has close to three times the volume of fresh groundwater and four times the volume of USDWs than previous estimates suggest. Therefore, efforts to monitor and protect deeper, saline groundwater resources are needed in California and beyond. PMID:27354527

  9. Salinity of deep groundwater in California: Water quantity, quality, and protection

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mary; Jackson, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Deep groundwater aquifers are poorly characterized but could yield important sources of water in California and elsewhere. Deep aquifers have been developed for oil and gas extraction, and this activity has created both valuable data and risks to groundwater quality. Assessing groundwater quantity and quality requires baseline data and a monitoring framework for evaluating impacts. We analyze 938 chemical, geological, and depth data points from 360 oil/gas fields across eight counties in California and depth data from 34,392 oil and gas wells. By expanding previous groundwater volume estimates from depths of 305 m to 3,000 m in California’s Central Valley, an important agricultural region with growing groundwater demands, fresh [<3,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS)] groundwater volume is almost tripled to 2,700 km3, most of it found shallower than 1,000 m. The 3,000-m depth zone also provides 3,900 km3 of fresh and saline water, not previously estimated, that can be categorized as underground sources of drinking water (USDWs; <10,000 ppm TDS). Up to 19% and 35% of oil/gas activities have occurred directly in freshwater zones and USDWs, respectively, in the eight counties. Deeper activities, such as wastewater injection, may also pose a potential threat to groundwater, especially USDWs. Our findings indicate that California’s Central Valley alone has close to three times the volume of fresh groundwater and four times the volume of USDWs than previous estimates suggest. Therefore, efforts to monitor and protect deeper, saline groundwater resources are needed in California and beyond. PMID:27354527

  10. Messinian Salinity Crisis and basin fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni, Claudia; Cartwight, Joe

    2014-05-01

    Syn- and post-depositional movement of fluids through sediments is one of the least understood aspects in the evolution of a basin. The conventional hydrostratigraphic view on marine sedimentary basins assumes that compactional and meteoric groundwater fluid circulation drives fluid movement and defines its timing. However, in the past few years, several examples of instantaneous and catastrophic release of fluids have been observed even through low-permeability sediments. A particularly complex case-study involves the presence of giant salt bodies in the depocentres of marine basins. Evaporites dramatically change the hydrostratigraphy and fluid-dynamics of the basin, and influence the P/T regimes, e.g. through changes in the geothermal gradient and in the compaction of underlying sediments. Our paper reviews the impact of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and evaporites on fluid flow in the Mediterranean sub-basins. The analysis of geological and geophysical sub-surface data provides examples from this basin, and the comparison with analogues in other well-known evaporitic provinces. During the MSC, massive sea-level changes occurred in a relatively limited time interval, and affected the balance of fluid dynamics, e.g. with sudden release or unusual trapping of fluids. Fluid expulsion events are here analysed and classified in relation to the long and short-term effects of the MSC. Our main aim is to build a framework for the correct identification of the fluid flow-related events, and their genetic mechanisms. On basin margins, where evaporites are thin or absent, the sea-level changes associated with the MSC force a rapid basinward shift of the mixing zone of meteoric/gravity flow and saline/compactional flow, 100s-km away from its pre-MSC position. This phenomenon changes the geometry of converging flows, creates hydraulic traps for fluids, and triggers specific diagenetic reactions in pre-MSC deep marine sediments. In basin-centre settings, unloading and

  11. FIELD CROP PRODUCTION IN AREAS WITH SALINE SOILS AND SHALLOW SALINE GROUND WATER IN THE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY OF CALIFORNIA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salinity in soil and water is irrevocably associated with irrigated agriculture throughout the world and as a result requires that salt management becomes an integral part of the production system. With careful water management it is possible to sustain irrigated agriculture in areas with saline so...

  12. New Low Volume Resuscitation Solutions Containing PEG-20k

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, Dan; Plant, Valerie; Lindell, Susanne L.; Limkemann, Ashley; Reichstetter, Heather; Aboutanos, Michel; Mangino, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypovolemic shock reduces oxygen delivery and compromises energy dependent cell volume control. Consequent cell swelling compromises microcirculatory flow, which reducing oxygen exchange further. The importance of this mechanism is highlighted by the effectiveness of cell impermeants in low volume resuscitation (LVR) solutions in acute studies. The objective of this study was to assess impermeants in survival models and compare them to commonly used crystalloid solutions. Methods Adult rats were hemorrhaged to a pressure of 30–35 mm Hg, held there until the plasma lactate reached 10 mM, and given an LVR solution (5–10% blood volume) with saline alone (control), saline with various concentrations of Polyethylene glycol-20k (PEG-20k), hextend or albumin. When lactate again reached 10 mM following LVR, full resuscitation was started with crystalloid and red cells. Rats were either euthanized (acute) or allowed to recover (survival). The LVR time, which is the time from the start of the LVR solution until the start of full resuscitation was measured as was survival and diagnostic labs. In some studies, the capillary oncotic reflection coefficient was determined for PEG-20k to determine its relative impermeant and oncotic effects. Results PEG-20k (10%) significantly increased LVR times relative to saline (8 fold), hextend, and albumin. Lower amounts of PEG-20k (5%) were also effective but less so than 10% doses. PEG-20k maintained normal arterial pressure during the low volume state. Survival of a 180 minute LVR time challenge was 0% in saline controls and 100% in rats given PEG-20k as the LVR solution. Surviving rats had normal labs 24 hours later. PEG-20k had an oncotic reflection coefficient of 0.65, which indicates that the molecule is a hybrid cell impermeant with significant oncotic properties. Conclusions PEG-20k based LVR solutions are highly effective for inducing tolerance to the low volume state and for improving survival. PMID:26091310

  13. The influence of salinity on D/H fractionation in dinosterol and brassicasterol from globally distributed saline and hypersaline lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Daniel B.; Sachs, Julian P.

    2014-05-01

    Salinity, growth rate, growth stage, nutrient limitation and temperature have all been shown to influence the magnitude of D/H fractionation in algal lipids through laboratory and field studies. Of these factors, salinity has been studied most extensively in the field, but to date all such investigations have focused on transect studies within specific and isolated environments. Here we test the relationship between salinity and the magnitude of D/H fractionation in algal lipids through paired analyses of sedimentary and particulate lipid and water hydrogen isotope values at a wide range of continental and coastal lake sites spanning salinities from 0 to 117 ppt. Our results demonstrate broad consistency between D/H fractionations in dinosterol and brassicasterol with those obtained from previous work, with salinity changes of 1 ppt resulting in lipid δD changes of 0.7-1‰. Although our results also show variability in D/H fractionation between sites that is not related to salinity, the fact that any relationship emerges above the influences of other factors suggests that the salinity effect is dominant for some lipids in the majority of saline to hypersaline environments. This improved understanding of D/H fractionation in dinosterol and brassicasterol synthesis supports the use of these compounds as paleohydrologic indicators. When combined with D/H measurements from a second lipid or oxygen isotope measurements from carbonate, quantitative reconstructions of salinity and lake water isotope changes are possible. Extending the number of algal lipids within which a consistent relationship between D/H fractionation and salinity has been identified also supports the notion that the relationship is widespread among unicellular photoautotrophs.

  14. Slope destabilization during the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargani, Julien; Bache, François; Jouannic, Gwenael; Gorini, Christian

    2014-05-01

    During the Messinian Salinity Crisis, ~ 6 Myr ago, deep canyons were incised when a huge sea-level drawdown of ~ 1.5 km affected the Mediterranean Sea. Nearly contemporaneously, more than 2 km of evaporites accumulated in the basin. This event was the consequence of a complex interaction of tectonic movements and global sea-level variation associated with climatic evolution. This unusual event ended with the reflooding of the Mediterranean area. In this paper, using seismic line interpretation, we show that several landslides occurred in various parts of the Mediterranean Basin during this crisis. Three of these landslides are well preserved, and their dynamics were analyzed. Modeling of the slope stability demonstrates that these landslides may have been due to (i) the relief created by the deep erosion, and/or (ii) the reflooding, which triggered a pore pressure increase. The relatively small run-out distances of the three landslides suggest propagation in a submarine environment and triggering by sea-level rise.

  15. Chemistry of saline-water chlorination

    SciTech Connect

    Haag, W.R.

    1981-06-01

    Vast quantities of natural waters are used by power plants for cooling purposes. This water is chlorinated to prevent slime build-up inside the cooling pipes, is circulated through the cooling system, and eventually discharged back into the water body. In order to assess the environmental impact of water chlorination, it is necessary to know what chemical compounds are produced and discharged into the receiving waters. To attack this problem, a review of the present state of knowledge of natural water chlorination chemistry was performed, and some experimental work explained the results of previous workers by showing that chlorine losses at very high doses in seawater are simply the result of chlorate and bromate formation which, however, is negligible at normal doses. The most important chlorine-produced oxidants, along with the relevant chemical reactions, were chosen as a basis for a kinetic model of saline water chlorination chemistry. Kinetic data were compiled in a computer program which simultaneously solves 24 differential equations, one for each species modelled. Estimates were made for the unknown rate constants. A purely predictive model was not possible due to the great variability in the organic demand; however, the model is applicable under a broad variety of conditions (except sunlight), and it provides a reasonably good description of a halamine chemistry under environmental conditions.

  16. Capacitive Deionization of High-Salinity Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Ketki; Gabitto, Jorge; Mayes, Richard T.; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Walker, Lakeisha M.H.; Dai, Sheng; Tsouris, Costas

    2014-12-22

    Desalination of high salinity solutions has been studied using a novel experimental technique and a theoretical model. Neutron imaging has been employed to visualize lithium ions in mesoporous carbon materials, which are used as electrodes in capacitive deionization for water desalination. Experiments were conducted with a flow-through capacitive deionization cell designed for neutron imaging and with lithium chloride (6LiCl) as the electrolyte. Sequences of neutron images have been obtained at a relatively high concentration of lithium chloride (6LiCl) solution to provide information on the transport of ions within the electrodes. A new model that computes the individual ionic concentration profiles inside mesoporous carbon electrodes has been used to simulate the capacitive deionization process. Modifications have also been introduced into the simulation model to calculate results at high electrolyte concentrations. Experimental data and simulation results provide insight into why capacitive deionization is not effective for desalination of high ionic-strength solutions. The combination of experimental information, obtained through neutron imaging, with the theoretical model will help in the design of capacitive deionization devices, which can improve the process for high ionic-strength solutions.

  17. Capacitive Deionization of High-Salinity Solutions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sharma, Ketki; Gabitto, Jorge; Mayes, Richard T.; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Walker, Lakeisha M.H.; Dai, Sheng; Tsouris, Costas

    2014-12-22

    Desalination of high salinity solutions has been studied using a novel experimental technique and a theoretical model. Neutron imaging has been employed to visualize lithium ions in mesoporous carbon materials, which are used as electrodes in capacitive deionization for water desalination. Experiments were conducted with a flow-through capacitive deionization cell designed for neutron imaging and with lithium chloride (6LiCl) as the electrolyte. Sequences of neutron images have been obtained at a relatively high concentration of lithium chloride (6LiCl) solution to provide information on the transport of ions within the electrodes. A new model that computes the individual ionic concentration profilesmore » inside mesoporous carbon electrodes has been used to simulate the capacitive deionization process. Modifications have also been introduced into the simulation model to calculate results at high electrolyte concentrations. Experimental data and simulation results provide insight into why capacitive deionization is not effective for desalination of high ionic-strength solutions. The combination of experimental information, obtained through neutron imaging, with the theoretical model will help in the design of capacitive deionization devices, which can improve the process for high ionic-strength solutions.« less

  18. Salinity changes impact of hazardous chemicals in Enchytraeus albidus.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana L Patrício; Amorim, Mónica J B; Holmstrup, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Supralittoral ecosystems are among the most challenging environments for soil organisms, particularly when salinity fluctuations are involved, frequently combined with the presence of contaminants as a result of intense anthropogenic activities. Knowledge of how salinity influences the effect of contaminants in supralittoral species is crucial for determining the safety factors required when extrapolating results from optimal laboratory conditions to these natural ecosystems. The present study therefore evaluated the effects of 2 metals (copper and cadmium) and 2 organic compounds (carbendazim and 4-nonylphenol) in the absence or presence of 15‰ NaCl in the potworm Enchytraeus albidus, a model organism for ecotoxicology studies commonly found in supralittoral ecosystems, The potworms had a higher reproduction in saline soil than in control soil. Moreover, the effects of copper and carbendazim on reproduction were smaller than when they were tested in nonsaline soil. Potworms exposed to nonsaline soils also had significantly higher tissue concentrations of metals, which partly explains the effects on reproduction. The influence of salinity on effects of 4-nonylphenol was, however, less clear; effects on survival decreased in saline soil, but effects on reproduction were highest in saline soil. The latter slightly correlated with tissue concentrations of the chemical. The present study provides the first evidence that soil salinity has a significant influence on the impact of contaminants evaluated with the enchytraeid reproduction test. PMID:25943329

  19. Salinity anomaly as a trigger for ENSO events.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jieshun; Huang, Bohua; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Balmaseda, Magdalena A; Marx, Lawrence; Kinter, James L

    2014-01-01

    According to the classical theories of ENSO, subsurface anomalies in ocean thermal structure are precursors for ENSO events and their initial specification is essential for skillful ENSO forecast. Although ocean salinity in the tropical Pacific (particularly in the western Pacific warm pool) can vary in response to El Niño events, its effect on ENSO evolution and forecasts of ENSO has been less explored. Here we present evidence that, in addition to the passive response, salinity variability may also play an active role in ENSO evolution, and thus important in forecasting El Niño events. By comparing two forecast experiments in which the interannually variability of salinity in the ocean initial states is either included or excluded, the salinity variability is shown to be essential to correctly forecast the 2007/08 La Niña starting from April 2007. With realistic salinity initial states, the tendency to decay of the subsurface cold condition during the spring and early summer 2007 was interrupted by positive salinity anomalies in the upper central Pacific, which working together with the Bjerknes positive feedback, contributed to the development of the La Niña event. Our study suggests that ENSO forecasts will benefit from more accurate salinity observations with large-scale spatial coverage. PMID:25352285

  20. Influence of suspended particulate matter on salinity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, Philipp; Kegler, Philip; Schrottke, Kerstin

    2014-08-01

    Salinity is a very important parameter in marine science, which is normally measured via the electrical conductivity of sea water. Suspended Particular Matter (SPM) can influence salinity measurements but so far there had been no experimental studies to test this. In this paper a new laboratory study about the influence of SPM on conductivity based salinity measurements is presented. Different sensor types were deployed to investigate the influence of the conductivity sensor design on the observed salinity deviations. The role of clay minerals was additionally analysed. Two natural mud samples of different origins were used to set up various SPM concentrations. The results have shown that high suspended sediment concentrations (up to 300 g l-1) can distort salinity measurements up to 30%. On average only 22% of the observed salinity deviation could be explained by the adsorption of ions by clay minerals. The CTD cell geometry had no verifiable effect, in the resolution limits of the instruments. The observed salinity deviations were caused by a “blinding effect” of the sensor due to the dissolved particles.

  1. Tracking evolution of urban biogeochemical cycles: salinization of fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, S.; McDowell, W. H.; Wollheim, W. M.; Duan, S.; Gorman, J. K.; Haq, S.; Hohman, S.; Smith, R. M.; Mayer, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The built environment often changes quickly in response to human activities, thus contributing to an evolution of stream chemistry over time. Depending upon development and management strategies, these changes can result in pulses and/or long-term trends. Here, we explore patterns of evolving salinization of fresh water over time, and we evaluate the potential water quality implications of fresh water salinization. We show that there has been global salinization of freshwater across urbanizing landscapes over a century. We also show that human-accelerated weathering in watersheds and river alkalinization can further influence regional rates of salinization (in addition to anthropogenic sources such as road salts, sewage leaks, etc.). Finally, we investigate how salinization of fresh water can impact stream sediment fluxes of carbon, nutrients, and sulfate in watersheds across a land use gradient at the Baltimore Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. The impacts of salinization on mobilization and uptake of carbon, nutrients, and sulfate in streams warrant further consideration in water quality management strategies. Overall, we propose that salinization can be a "universal tracer" of watershed urbanization globally with major regional consequences for drinking water and evolution of biogeochemical cycles in freshwater ecosystems.

  2. Reduced salinity tolerance in the Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) is associated with rapid development of a gill interlamellar cell mass: implications of high-saline spills on native freshwater salmonids

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Salvatore D.; Matheson, Derrick; He, Yuhe; Goss, Greg G.

    2016-01-01

    Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) are salmonids that have a strict freshwater existence in post-glacial North America. Oil and gas development is associated with production of high volumes of hypersaline water. With planned industrial expansion into northern areas of Canada and the USA that directly overlap grayling habitat, the threat of accidental saline water release poses a significant risk. Despite this, we understand little about the responses of grayling to hypersaline waters. We compared the physiological responses and survivability of Arctic grayling and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to tolerate an acute transfer to higher saline waters. Arctic grayling and rainbow trout were placed directly into 17 ppt salinity and sampled at 24 and 96 h along with control animals in freshwater at 24 h. Serum sodium, chloride and osmolality levels increased significantly in grayling at both 24 and 96 h time points, whereas trout were able to compensate for the osmoregulatory disturbance by 96 h. Sodium–potassium ATPase mRNA expression responses to salinity were also compared, demonstrating the inability of the grayling to up-regulate the seawater isoform nkaα1b. Our results demonstrated a substantially lower salinity tolerance in grayling. We also found a significant salinity-induced morphological gill remodelling by Arctic grayling, as demonstrated by the rapid growth of an interlamellar cell mass by 24 h that persisted at 96 h. We visualized and quantified the appearance of the interlamellar cell mass as a response to high salinity, although the functional significance remains to be understood fully. Compared with rainbow trout, which are used as an environmental regulatory species, Arctic grayling are unable to compensate for the osmotic stressors that would result from a highly saline produced water spill. Given these new data, collaboration between fisheries and the oil and gas industry will be vital in the long-term conservation strategies

  3. Reduced salinity tolerance in the Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) is associated with rapid development of a gill interlamellar cell mass: implications of high-saline spills on native freshwater salmonids.

    PubMed

    Blair, Salvatore D; Matheson, Derrick; He, Yuhe; Goss, Greg G

    2016-01-01

    Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) are salmonids that have a strict freshwater existence in post-glacial North America. Oil and gas development is associated with production of high volumes of hypersaline water. With planned industrial expansion into northern areas of Canada and the USA that directly overlap grayling habitat, the threat of accidental saline water release poses a significant risk. Despite this, we understand little about the responses of grayling to hypersaline waters. We compared the physiological responses and survivability of Arctic grayling and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to tolerate an acute transfer to higher saline waters. Arctic grayling and rainbow trout were placed directly into 17 ppt salinity and sampled at 24 and 96 h along with control animals in freshwater at 24 h. Serum sodium, chloride and osmolality levels increased significantly in grayling at both 24 and 96 h time points, whereas trout were able to compensate for the osmoregulatory disturbance by 96 h. Sodium-potassium ATPase mRNA expression responses to salinity were also compared, demonstrating the inability of the grayling to up-regulate the seawater isoform nkaα1b. Our results demonstrated a substantially lower salinity tolerance in grayling. We also found a significant salinity-induced morphological gill remodelling by Arctic grayling, as demonstrated by the rapid growth of an interlamellar cell mass by 24 h that persisted at 96 h. We visualized and quantified the appearance of the interlamellar cell mass as a response to high salinity, although the functional significance remains to be understood fully. Compared with rainbow trout, which are used as an environmental regulatory species, Arctic grayling are unable to compensate for the osmotic stressors that would result from a highly saline produced water spill. Given these new data, collaboration between fisheries and the oil and gas industry will be vital in the long-term conservation strategies

  4. Daily Sodium Butyrate Enema for the Prevention of Radiation Proctitis in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Radical Radiation Therapy: Results of a Multicenter Randomized Placebo-Controlled Dose-Finding Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Maggio, Angelo; Magli, Alessandro; Rancati, Tiziana; Fiorino, Claudio; Valvo, Francesca; Fellin, Giovanni; Ricardi, Umberto; Munoz, Fernando; Cosentino, Dorian; Cazzaniga, Luigi Franco; Valdagni, Riccardo; Vavassori, Vittorio

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of sodium butyrate enemas (NABUREN) in prostate cancer radiation therapy (RT) in reducing the incidence, severity, and duration of acute RT-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: 166 patients, randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups (rectal sodium butyrate 1 g, 2 g, or 4 g daily or placebo), were treated with NABUREN during and 2 weeks after RT. The grade of proctitis was registered in a daily diary. The correlation between NABUREN and proctitis was investigated through χ{sup 2} statistics. The toxicity endpoints considered were as follows: total number of days with grade ≥1 proctitis (≥G1); total number of days with grade ≥2 proctitis (≥G2); ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis lasting at least 3 and 5 consecutive days starting from week 4 (≥G1+3d, ≥G2+3d); damaging effects of RT on rectal mucosa as measured by endoscopy. The relationship between endpoints and pretreatment morbidities, hormonal therapy, presence of diabetes or hypertension, abdominal surgery, or hemorrhoids was investigated by univariate analysis. Results: The patients were randomly allocated to the 4 arms. No difference in the distribution of comorbidities among the arms was observed (P>.09). The mean ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis were 7.8 and 4.9 for placebo and 8.9 and 4.7 for the NABUREN group, respectively. No favorable trend in reduction of incidence, severity, and duration of ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis was observed with NABUREN use. In univariate analysis, ≥G1+3d toxicity was found to be related to hemorrhoids (P=.008), and a slight correlation was found between ≥G2 proctitis and hormonal therapy (P=.06). The RT effects on rectal mucosa as based on endoscopic assessment were mainly related to diabetes (P<.01). Endoscopy data at 6 week showed no significant difference between the placebo and butyrate arms. The other investigated endpoints were not correlated with any of the clinical risk factors analyzed. Conclusion: There was no evidence of efficacy

  5. Influence of net freshwater supply on salinity in Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nuttle, W.K.; Fourqurean, J.W.; Cosby, B.J.; Zieman, J.C.; Robblee, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    An annual water budget for Florida Bay, the large, seasonally hypersaline estuary in the Everglades National Park, was constructed using physically based models and long-term (31 years) data on salinity, hydrology, and climate. Effects of seasonal and interannual variations of the net freshwater supply (runoff plus rainfall minus evaporation) on salinity variation within the bay were also examined. Particular attention was paid to the effects of runoff, which are the focus of ambitious plans to restore and conserve the Florida Bay ecosystem. From 1965 to 1995 the annual runoff from the Everglades into the bay was less than one tenth of the annual direct rainfall onto the bay, while estimated annual evaporation slightly exceeded annual rainfall. The average net freshwater supply to the bay over a year was thus approximately zero, and interannual variations in salinity appeared to be affected primarily by interannual fluctuations in rainfall. At the annual scale, runoff apparently had little effect on the bay as a whole during this period. On a seasonal basis, variations in rainfall, evaporation, and runoff were not in phase, and the net freshwater supply to the bay varied between positive and negative values, contributing to a strong seasonal pattern in salinity, especially in regions of the bay relatively isolated from exchanges with the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. Changes in runoff could have a greater effect on salinity in the bay if the seasonal patterns of rainfall and evaporation and the timing of the runoff are considered. One model was also used to simulate spatial and temporal patterns of salinity responses expected to result from changes in net freshwater supply. Simulations in which runoff was increased by a factor of 2 (but with no change in spatial pattern) indicated that increased runoff will lower salinity values in eastern Florida Bay, increase the variability of salinity in the South Region, but have little effect on salinity in the Central

  6. Salinity and Temperature Tolerance Experiments on Selected Florida Bay Mollusks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, James B.; Wingard, G. Lynn

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) is to restore and preserve the unique ecosystems of South Florida, including the estuaries. Understanding the effect of salinity and temperature changes, beyond typical oscillations, on the biota of South Florida's estuaries is a necessary component of achieving the goal of restoring the estuaries. The U.S. Geological Survey has been actively involved in researching the history of the South Florida Ecosystem, to provide targets, performance measures, and baseline data for restoration managers. These experiments addressed two aspects of ecosystem history research: 1) determining the utility of using molluscan shells as recorders of change in water chemistry parameters, primarily salinity, and 2) enhancing our in situ observations on modern assemblages by exceeding typically observed aquatic conditions. This set of experiments expanded our understanding of the effects of salinity, temperature and other water chemistry parameters on the reproduction, growth and overall survivability of key species of mollusks used in interpreting sediment core data. Observations on mollusks, plants and microbes made as part of these experiments have further refined our knowledge and understanding of the effects of ecosystem feedback and the role salinity and temperature play in ecosystem stability. The results have demonstrated the viability of several molluscan species as indicators of atypical salinity, and possibly temperature, modulations. For example Cerithium muscarum and Bulla striata demonstrated an ability to withstand a broad salinity and temperature range, with reproduction occurring in atypically high salinities and temperatures. These experiments also provided calibration data for the shell biogeochemistry of Chione cancellata and the possible use of this species as a water chemistry recorder. Observations made in the mesocosms, on a scale not normally observable in the field, have led to new

  7. Differences in salinity tolerance of genetically distinct Phragmites australis clones

    PubMed Central

    Achenbach, Luciana; Eller, Franziska; Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Brix, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Different clones of the wetland grass Phragmites australis differ in their morphology and physiology, and hence in their ability to cope with environmental stress. We analysed the responses of 15 P. australis clones with distinct ploidy levels (PLs) (4n, 6n, 8n, 10n, 12n) and geographic origins (Romania, Russia, Japan, Czech Republic, Australia) to step-wise increased salinity (8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 56 and 72 ppt). Shoot elongation rate, photosynthesis and plant part-specific ion accumulation were studied in order to assess if traits associated with salinity tolerance can be related to the genetic background and the geographic origin of the clones. Salt stress affected all clones, but at different rates. The maximum height was reduced from 1860 mm in control plants to 660 mm at 40 ppt salinity. The shoot elongation rate of salt-exposed plants varied significantly between clones until 40 ppt salinity. The light-saturated photosynthesis rate (Pmax) was stimulated by a salinity of 8 ppt, but decreased significantly at higher salinities. The stomatal conductance (gs) and the transpiration rate (E) decreased with increasing salinity. Only three clones survived at 72 ppt salinity, although their rates of photosynthesis were strongly inhibited. The roots and basal leaves of the salt-exposed plants accumulated high concentrations of water-extractable Na+ (1646 and 1004 µmol g−1 dry mass (DM), respectively) and Cl− (1876 and 1400 µmol g−1 DM, respectively). The concentrations of water-extractable Mg2+ and Ca2+ were reduced in salt-exposed plants compared with controls. The variation of all the measured parameters was higher among clones than among PLs. We conclude that the salinity tolerance of distinct P. australis clones varies widely and can be partially attributed to their longitudinal geographic origin, but not to PL. Further investigation will help in improving the understanding of this species' salt tolerance mechanisms and their connection to genetic factors.

  8. The individual response of saline lakes to a severe drought.

    PubMed

    Tweed, Sarah; Grace, Mike; Leblanc, Marc; Cartwright, Ian; Smithyman, Donna

    2011-09-01

    A severe protracted drought between 1997 and 2009 has altered the physical and chemical hydrology of a series of lakes in the Corangamite Basin of southeast Australia. Leading up to the drying out of most lakes (many for the first time on record), we document the changes in lakes' water quantity (water levels and inundation), salinity (Cl concentrations), salinity processes (Cl/Br ratios), nutrient concentrations and ratios (ammonia, phosphate and NOx (nitrate and nitrite)) and algae (as chlorophyll-a) for six lakes. All lakes show record declines in inundated areas and increases in salinity from pre-drought (<1997) to drought conditions. However, the magnitude of change in salinity varies for different lakes, and there is no systematic change in the controls on lake salinity processes. Four lakes show no change in salinity processes, one lake shows the beginnings of change; where halite dissolution reactions increased closer to the time of the lake drying up, and another lake shows a marked shift from predominantly evaporation to the cyclic dissolution and precipitation of halite. Changes in filterable reactive phosphorus (FRP) values and lake N and P limitation predictions also showed little systematic correlation with changes in lake salinity, and nutrient values varied between lakes and over time. The decline in NO(x) concentrations in lakes where electrical conductivity (EC) values were above 100 mS/cm indicates some correlation with changes in salinity. Largely, these lakes exhibit individual changes in water quality parameters and salinity processes in response to the drought, indicating that while the stress of drought is regional, the hydrochemical response is local. In future changing climates, these results suggest that the catchment adaption strategies will require comprehensive plans for individual lake systems. PMID:21752428

  9. A dynamic model of soil salinity and drainage generation in irrigated agriculture: A framework for policy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinar, Ariel; Aillery, Marcel P.; Moore, Michael R.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model of irrigated agriculture that accounts for drainage generation and salinity accumulation. Critical model relationships involving crop production, soil salinity, and irrigation drainage are based on newly estimated functions derived from lysimeter field tests. The model allocates land and water inputs over time based on an intertemporal profit maximization objective function and soil salinity accumulation process. The model is applied to conditions in the San Joaquin Valley of California, where environmental degradation from irrigation drainage has become a policy issue. Findings indicate that in the absence of regulation, drainage volumes increase over time before reaching a steady state as increased quantities of water are allocated to leaching soil salts. The model is used to evaluate alternative drainage abatement scenarios involving drainage quotas and taxes, water supply quotas and taxes, and irrigation technology subsidies. In our example, direct drainage policies are more cost-effective in reducing drainage than policies operating indirectly through surface water use, although differences in cost efficiency are relatively small. In some cases, efforts to control drainage may result in increased soil salinity accumulation, with implications for long-term cropland productivity. While policy adjustments may alter the direction and duration of convergence to a steady state, findings suggest that a dynamic model specification may not be necessary due to rapid convergence to a comon steady state under selected scenarios.

  10. Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) salinity data validation over Malaysia coastal water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reba, M. N. M.; Rosli, A. Z.; Rahim, N. A.

    2014-02-01

    The study of sea surface salinity (SSS) plays an important role in the marine ecosystem, estimation of global ocean circulation and observation of fisheries, aquaculture, coral reef and sea grass habitats. The new challenge of SSS estimation is to exploit the ocean surface brightness temperature (Tb) observed by the Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) onboard the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite that is specifically designed to provide the best retrieval of ocean salinity and soil moisture using the L band of 1.4 GHz radiometer. Tb observed by radiometer is basically a function of the dielectric constant, sea surface temperature (SST), wind speed (U), incidence angle, polarization and SSS. Though, the SSS estimation is an ill-posed inversion problem as the relationship between the Tb and SSS is non-linear function. Objective of this study is to validate the SMOS SSS estimates with the ground-truth over the Malaysia coastal water. The LM iteratively determines the SSS of SMOS by the reduction of the sum of squared errors between Tb SMOS and Tb simulation (using in-situ) based on the updated geophysical triplet in the direction of the minimum of the cost function. The minimum cost function is compared to the desired threshold at each iteration and this recursive least square process updates the SST, U and SSS until the cost function converged. The designed LM's non-linear inversion algorithm simultaneously estimates SST, U and SSS and thus, map of SSS over Malaysia coastal water is produced from the regression model and accuracy assessment between the SMOS and in-situ retrieved SSS. This study found a good agreement in the validation with R square of 0.9 and the RMSE of 0.4. It is concluded that the non-linear inversion method is effective and practical to extract SMOS SSS, U and SST simultaneously.

  11. Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm: Final Pre-Launch Version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, Frank J.; Le Vine, David M.

    2011-01-01

    This document provides the theoretical basis for the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The inputs to the algorithm are the Aquarius antenna temperature (T(sub A)) measurements along with a number of NCEP operational products and pre-computed tables of space radiation coming from the galaxy and sun. The output is sea-surface salinity and many intermediate variables required for the salinity calculation. This revision of the Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) is intended to be the final pre-launch version.

  12. Remote Sensing of Salinity: The Dielectric Constant of Sea Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M.; Lang, R.; Utku, C.; Tarkocin, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Global monitoring of sea surface salinity from space requires an accurate model for the dielectric constant of sea water as a function of salinity and temperature to characterize the emissivity of the surface. Measurements are being made at 1.413 GHz, the center frequency of the Aquarius radiometers, using a resonant cavity and the perturbation method. The cavity is operated in a transmission mode and immersed in a liquid bath to control temperature. Multiple measurements are made at each temperature and salinity. Error budgets indicate a relative accuracy for both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of about 1%.

  13. Aquarius and Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Torrusio, S.

    2012-01-01

    Aquarius is an L-band radiometer and scatterometer instrument combination designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The instrument is designed to provide global salinity maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. The science objective is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This data will promote understanding of ocean circulation and its role in the global water cycle and climate.

  14. Isolation of the combined water content and salinity effects on ERT measurement to locate the preferential flow pathways in water repellent soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindt, Naaran; Rahav, Matan; Furman, Alex; Wallach, Rony

    2016-04-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has been used for measuring the dynamics of water flow in soils without disturbing the soil, and recently for identifying the preferential flow pathways that are reported to develop in water repellent soils. Since electrical resistivity is affected mainly by soil saturation and salinity, and given that in many cases salinity in the root zone reaches high values, the isolation of spatial and temporal distribution of water content or salinity in the root zone from ERT scans is a challenge. A model for transient variation of soil water content and salinity within a well-mixed soil unit was developed in the frame of this challenge. The model aims to isolate the temporal changes in water content from subsequent ERT scans. The model assumes that four stages of water dynamics occur in the root zone during an irrigation cycle: 1) Soil water content decreases by evapotranspiration - no irrigation, 2) Irrigation with saline water begins, water content increases but remains below field capacity - negligible drainage, 3) Irrigation continues and drainage starts as the water content becomes higher than field capacity, and 4) Irrigation stops, water content is higher than field capacity, and water content decreases by drainage and evapotranspiration. These four stages restart when drainage stops and water content decreases solely by evapotranspiration. The model was solved analytically and successfully applied to a series of sequential ERT scans accomplished during and between subsequent irrigation events for a soil that was rendered hydrophobic by olive trees irrigated with saline water, and a soil in a citrus orchard that was rendered hydrophobic by prolonged effluent irrigation. The suggested model helps in distinguishing between the temporal changes in water content and salinity within a given soil volume, locating the preferential plow pathways, and tracking the spatial and temporal salinity variation within the root zone during and

  15. Understanding salinity responses and adopting ‘omics-based’ approaches to generate salinity tolerant cultivars of rice

    PubMed Central

    Das, Priyanka; Nutan, Kamlesh K.; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L.; Pareek, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    Soil salinity is one of the main constraints affecting production of rice worldwide, by reducing growth, pollen viability as well as yield of the plant. Therefore, detailed understanding of the response of rice towards soil salinity at the physiological and molecular level is a prerequisite for its effective management. Various approaches have been adopted by molecular biologists or breeders to understand the mechanism for salinity tolerance in plants and to develop salt tolerant rice cultivars. Genome wide analysis using ‘omics-based’ tools followed by identification and functional validation of individual genes is becoming one of the popular approaches to tackle this task. On the other hand, mutation breeding and insertional mutagenesis has also been exploited to obtain salinity tolerant crop plants. This review looks into various responses at cellular and whole plant level generated in rice plants toward salinity stress thus, evaluating the suitability of intervention of functional genomics to raise stress tolerant plants. We have tried to highlight the usefulness of the contemporary ‘omics-based’ approaches such as genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and phenomics towards dissecting out the salinity tolerance trait in rice. In addition, we have highlighted the importance of integration of various ‘omics’ approaches to develop an understanding of the machinery involved in salinity response in rice and to move forward to develop salt tolerant cultivars of rice. PMID:26442026

  16. How much does inferior capsular shift reduce shoulder volume?

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, J; Bartolozzi, A; Rubinstein, D; Ciccotti, M; Schweitzer, M; Nazarian, L; Lombardi, J; Dellose, S; Landsdorf, A; Miller, L

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitate the effect of inferior capsular shift on shoulder volume. Four fresh frozen cadaveric shoulders were analyzed. Volume before and after shift was determined using 3 techniques: (1) Magnetic resonance imaging sequences were digitized to computer and analyzed for volume via a 35-mm camera using Cue 2 software. The capsule was delineated by contrast between light and dark regions. Volume was calculated by summing the total area of respective slices. (2) Ultrasound images, obtained after surgical exposure of the capsule, were digitized. Volume was calculated using the formula for a prolate ellipsoid. (3) An 18-gauge needle was used to inject and evacuate saline via an anterior approach. Quantity of aspirated fluid provided a direct measure of volume. Inferior capsular shift was performed. After the operation, measurements were repeated. Inferior capsular shift reduced volume in all shoulders with each technique. On average, inferior capsular shift reduced joint volume by 57 %). A measurable reduction in shoulder joint volume is an effect of capsular shift. This measurement may have clinical application if volume is an indicator of instability or laxity. PMID:8653983

  17. Iron Catalyzed Halogenation Processes in Saline Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubbesing, C.; Lippe, S.; Kullik, V.; Hauck, L.; Krause, T.; Keppler, F.; Schoeler, H. F.

    2014-12-01

    Within upcoming years the extent of salt deserts and salt lakes will probably increase due to climate change. It is known that volatile organic halogens (VOX) are released from saline soils and thus higher emissions from these environments are likely expected in the future. The origin of some organohalogens is not reasonably constrained by established natural halogenation processes. Therefore detailed biogeochemical investigations of these environments are necessary to identify the specific halogenation pathways. Redox-sensitive metals like iron are already known as triggers of chemical reactions via so called Fenton and Fenton-like reactions requiring H2O2 which is photochemically produced in water. In this study we collected soil samples from several salt lakes in Western Australia with pH values ranging from 2 to 8. The high pH variability was considered useful to study the impact of iron mobility and availability on halogenation processes. Iron was found to mainly occur as oxides and sulfides within the alkaline soils and acidic soils, respectively. All soil samples were lyophilised and finely ground prior to incubation at 40 °C for 24 h in aqueous solutions. Formation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and VOX from these soils was observed using GC-FID and GC-MS. When H2O2 was added to the samples much higher concentrations of VOC and VOX were observed. Furthermore, when the pH of the soils was changed towards lower values higher emissions of VOC were also observed. Based on C-H activation processes we delineate a halide containing iron complex as a provider of anions reacting with previously generated hydrocarbon radicals. We suggest iron sulfate derivatives as those complexes which are generated if the above-mentioned natural H2O2 addition to iron sulfates and sulfides occurs. The origin of these complexes is able to explain the halogenation of chemically unreactive alkanes.

  18. Influence of seasonal variability of lower Mississippi River discharge, temperature, suspended sediments, and salinity on oil-mineral aggregate formation.

    PubMed

    Danchuk, Samantha; Willson, Clinton S

    2011-07-01

    Under certain conditions, oil droplets that have separated from the main oil slick may become coated by suspended sediments forming oil-mineral aggregates (OMAs). The formation of these aggregates depends on suspended particulate characteristics, temperature, salinity, mixing energy, droplet size and number, and oil properties. The OMAs do not re-coalesce with the slick and tend not to adhere to surfaces, potentially evading surface cleanup measures, enhancing opportunity for biodegradation and reducing shoreline oiling. Potential OMA formation was quantified during four distinct states of the Lower Mississippi River during a typical year using empirical relationships from laboratory and field studies for three common oils and different combinations of discharge, temperature, suspended sediments, and salinity. The largest potential OMA formation for the two lighter oils, up to 36% of the total release volume, was in the winter and spring, when high sediment availability promotes formation. For the denser, high-viscosity oil, the peak potential OMA formation, 9% of the release volume, occurred in the summer, when the salinity was higher. These results provide some evidence that, depending on environmental and spill characteristics, the formation of OMAs could be an important, but unaccounted for, process in the fate and transport of oils released in the Lower Mississippi River and should be included in oil spill dispersion models and post-spill site assessment and remediation actions. PMID:21790075

  19. Response to recharge variation of thin rainwater lenses and their mixing zone with underlying saline groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eeman, S.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Leijnse, A.; de Louw, P. G. B.; Maas, C.

    2012-10-01

    In coastal zones with saline groundwater, fresh groundwater lenses may form due to infiltration of rain water. The thickness of both the lens and the mixing zone, determines fresh water availability for plant growth. Due to recharge variation, the thickness of the lens and the mixing zone are not constant, which may adversely affect agricultural and natural vegetation if saline water reaches the root zone during the growing season. In this paper, we study the response of thin lenses and their mixing zone to variation of recharge. The recharge is varied using sinusoids with a range of amplitudes and frequencies. We vary lens characteristics by varying the Rayleigh number and Mass flux ratio of saline and fresh water, as these dominantly influence the thickness of thin lenses and their mixing zone. Numerical results show a linear relation between the normalised lens volume and the main lens and recharge characteristics, enabling an empirical approximation of the variation of lens thickness. Increase of the recharge amplitude causes increase and the increase of recharge frequency causes a decrease in the variation of lens thickness. The average lens thickness is not significantly influenced by these variations in recharge, contrary to the mixing zone thickness. The mixing zone thickness is compared to that of a Fickian mixing regime. A simple relation between the travelled distance of the centre of the mixing zone position due to variations in recharge and the mixing zone thickness is shown to be valid for both a sinusoidal recharge variation and actual records of daily recharge data. Starting from a step response function, convolution can be used to determine the effect of variable recharge in time. For a sinusoidal curve, we can determine delay of lens movement compared to the recharge curve as well as the lens amplitude, derived from the convolution integral. Together the proposed equations provide us with a first order approximation of lens characteristics using

  20. Response to recharge variation of thin lenses and their mixing zone with underlying saline groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eeman, S.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Leijnse, A.; de Louw, P. G. B.; Maas, C.

    2012-01-01

    In coastal zones with saline groundwater, fresh groundwater lenses may form due to infiltration of rain water. The thickness of both the lens and the mixing zone, determines fresh water availability for plant growth. Due to recharge variation, the thickness of the lens and the mixing zone are not constant, which may adversely affect agricultural and natural vegetation if saline water reaches the root zone during the growing season. In this paper, we study the response of thin lenses and their mixing zone to variation of recharge. The recharge is varied using sinusoids with a range of amplitudes and frequencies. We vary lens characteristics by varying the Rayleigh number and Mass flux ratio of saline and fresh water, as these dominantly influence the thickness of thin lenses and their mixing zone. Numerical results show a linear relation between the normalized lens volume and the main lens and recharge characteristics, enabling an analytical approximation of the variation of lens thickness. Increase of the recharge amplitude causes increase, and increase of recharge frequency causes decrease in the variation of lens thickness. The average lens thickness is not significantly influenced by these variations in recharge, contrary to the mixing zone thickness. The mixing zone thickness is compared to that of a Fickian mixing regime. A simple relation between the travelled distance of the center of the mixing zone position due to variations in recharge and the mixing zone thickness is shown to be valid for both a sinusoidal recharge variation and actual records of daily recharge data. Starting from a step response function, convolution can be used to determine the effect of variable recharge in time. For a sinusoidal curve, we can determine delay of lens movement compared to the recharge curve as well as the lens amplitude, derived from the convolution integral. Together the proposed equations provide us with a first order approximation of lens characteristics using basic

  1. Sea surface salinity variability in response to the Congo river discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Yi; Farrara, John D.; Schumann, Guy; Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Moller, Delwyn

    2015-05-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) variability associated with the Congo River discharge is examined using Aquarius satellite-retrieved SSS data and vertical profiles of salinity measured by the Argo floats. The Congo River and its adjacent coastal ocean region are selected for study because of their global importance in ocean-freshwater dynamics undermined by the lack of observational data and coordinated efforts to make in situ measurements in this region. With a weekly repeat orbit, Aquarius provides a unique opportunity to routinely map the SSS in this relatively remote and understudied region. The Congo River plume can be clearly identified in the Aquarius SSS data with a northwestward extension of 500-1000 km off the coast of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The peak amplitude of the SSS variability associated with the Congo River discharge exceeds 3.0 psu, significantly greater than the designed Aquarius SSS retrieval accuracy of 0.2 psu. Using the first two years of Aquarius data from September 2011 to August 2013, a well-defined seasonal cycle is described: maximum freshwater anomalies are found in the boreal winter and spring seasons. The anomalies during the 2012-2013 winter and spring seasons are significantly fresher than the 2011-2012 winter and spring seasons, suggesting a strong year-to-year variability. A strong correlation is found between month-to-month variations in upper ocean salinity (as revealed by Aquarius satellite and Argo observations) and month-to-month variations in the freshwater discharge from the Congo River over a region off the coast of West Africa that is large enough to be easily observed by the Aquarius satellite. Vertical profiles of salinity derived from Argo floats reveal that these freshwater anomalies can be traced to 30 m below the sea surface. Combining the spatial area characterized by strong negative correlations between Aquarius SSS data and Congo discharge with the Argo vertical profiles of salinity, the volume of the

  2. Saline water irrigation effects on soil salinity distribution and some physiological responses of field grown Chemlali olive.

    PubMed

    Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Magdich, Salwa; Ben Rouina, Bechir; Boukhris, Makki; Ben Abdullah, Ferjani

    2012-12-30

    The shortage of water resources of good quality is becoming an issue in arid and semi arid regions. Per consequent, the use of water resources of marginal quality is becoming an important consideration, particularly in arid regions in Tunisia, where large quantities of saline water are used for irrigation. Nevertheless, the use of these waters in irrigated lands requires the control of soil salinity and a comprehensive analysis even beyond the area where water is applied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of saline water irrigation on soil salinity distribution and some physiological traits of field-grown adult olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) under contrasting environmental conditions of the arid region in the south of Tunisia. The plants were subjected, over two growing seasons, to two drip irrigated treatments: fresh water (ECe=1.2 dS m(-1), FW) and saline water (ECe=7.5 dS m(-1), SW). Saline water irrigation (SW) has led to a significant increase in soil salinity. Furthermore, these results showed that soil salinity and soil moisture variations are not only dependent on water salinity level but are also controlled by a multitude of factors particularly the soil texture, the distance from the irrigation source and climatic conditions (rainfall pattern, temperature average, …). On the other hand, salt treatment reduced leaf midday water potential (LMWP), relative water content and photosynthetic activity and increased the leaf proline content, and this increase was season-dependent. Indeed, LMWP in SW plants decreased to -3.71 MPa. Furthermore, the highest level of proline in SW plants was registered during summer period (2.19 μmol/mg Fw). The proline accumulation recorded in stressed plants has allowed them to preserve appropriate leaf water status and photosynthetic activity. More to the point, this olive cultivar seems to be more sensible to soil salinity during the intense growth phase. Such tendencies would help to better

  3. Treatment of high salinity brines by direct contact membrane distillation: Effect of membrane characteristics and salinity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Guan, Yunshan; Cheng, Fangqin; Liu, Yu

    2015-12-01

    Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) is one of the attractive technologies for high salinity brine treatment. In this study, four polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes were examined in treating highly concentrated salt solutions. Results showed that non-supported membranes generally have a higher overall mass transfer coefficient but porosity seems to be the most important parameter controlling membrane flux and thermal efficiency. Supported membranes with large thickness had relatively higher thermal efficiency than small thickness. This can be attributed to their reduced heat loss through heat condition. In addition, KCl, NaCl and MgCl2 solutions showed distinct trends over flux decline at high salt concentrations (⩾2.0M). The difference in flux was largely due to the discrepancy in water activities of these solutions (KCl>NaCl>MgCl2). However, the effect of viscosity on permeate flux could not be neglected for MgCl2 at high salt concentrations as the suddenly increased viscosity could lead to serious temperature polarization. This study indicates that membrane distillation is a promising technology for high salinity brine treatment. PMID:25563165

  4. Salinity's Role in Tropical Atlantic Instability Waves: new knowledge from salinity remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    (Tony) Lee, Tong; Lagerloef, Gary; Kao, Hsun-Ying; McPhaden, Michael; Willis, Joshua; Gierach, Michelle

    2014-05-01

    Tropical Atlantic instability waves (TIWs) play important roles in the dynamics of the tropical Atlantic Ocean and related climate variability. Previous studies based on satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data and mooring observations suggest that these waves are the most energetic in the eastern equatorial Atlantic and during late (boreal) spring and early summer. Satellite remote sensing of sea surface salinity (SSS) from SMOS and Aquarius provides a unique vantage point to identify new features of these waves in terms of zonal and seasonal variability. Aquarius SSS data reveal that the TIWs remain energetic in the western equatorial Atlantic despite a much weaker SST signature. Surface perturbation potential energy (PPE), the source of the downward potential energy propagation associated with the TIWs, has a larger contribution by SST (than by SSS) in the east but is primarily due to SSS in the west. The co-variability between SSS and SST also has significant contribution to surface PPE across the basin. While surface PPE is large in late spring and early summer in the east, it is also large during late summer and early fall in the west. The latter is associated with the retroflection of the North Brazil Current into the North Equatorial Countercurrent in the west during these times, carrying with it the fresh water from the Amazon River outflow to set up a large meridional salinity (and thus density) gradient.

  5. Highlights of the First 15 Months of Aquarius Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagerloef, Gary S. E.; Kao, Hsun-Ying; Wentz, Frank; LeVine, David M.; Yueh, Simon H.; Feldman, Gene C.

    2012-01-01

    Aquarius satellite salinity measurements are resolving the major global and regional spatial patterns, and temporal variations, since the start of routine data collection on 25 August 2011. This description includes the principal seasonal variations over the first annual cycle as observed by the mission. In particular, we identify the evolution of low salinity anomalies associated with the Atlantic and Pacific intertropical convergence zones (ITCZ), major river outflows such as the Amazon, a seasonal low salinity anomaly in the Panama bight, and other features. We also explore the links that the salinity variations have with precipitation and surface currents. We then will describe the variations related to the presently evolving 2012 El Nino, now evident, as it progresses through the summer and fall 2012. We conclude with a brief summary of the Aquarius data products and validation

  6. Protocols for Mapping Soil Salinity at Field Scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characterizing the spatial variability of soil salinity is an important spatial property that provides crucial information for crop and irrigation management strategies, particularly for site-specific management purposes. Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) is a quick, reliable measurement ...

  7. Airborne Salinity Mapper Makes Debut in Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jerry L.; Goodberlet, Mark A.; Zaitzeff, James B.

    New technology has been developed through a joint public-private partnership that could greatly improve the ocean sciences community's ability to study coastal oceanography in the same way that satellitebased infrared imaging revolutionized basinscale oceanography. Recent advances in passive microwave technologies and novel means of integrating those advances haveled to the development of the Scanning Low-Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SLFMR) for remote sensing of sea-surface salinity.Designed and built for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the SLFMR—also known as the salinity mapper—was recently used by a team of scientists from government and industry to generate the first remotely sensed image of sea-surface salinity (Figure 1). This image of salinity was obtained near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, during the Naval Research Laboratory's (NRL) Chesapeake Outflow Plume Experiment (COPE), elements of which were conducted in collaboration with NOAA.

  8. Protein Contribution to Plant Salinity Response and Tolerance Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Kosová, Klára; Prášil, Ilja T.; Vítámvás, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The review is focused on plant proteome response to salinity with respect to physiological aspects of plant salt stress response. The attention is paid to both osmotic and ionic effects of salinity stress on plants with respect to several protein functional groups. Therefore, the role of individual proteins involved in signalling, changes in gene expression, protein biosynthesis and degradation and the resulting changes in protein relative abundance in proteins involved in energy metabolism, redox metabolism, stressand defence-related proteins, osmolyte metabolism, phytohormone, lipid and secondary metabolism, mechanical stress-related proteins as well as protein posttranslational modifications are discussed. Differences between salt-sensitive (glycophytes) and salt-tolerant (halophytes) plants are analysed with respect to differential salinity tolerance. In conclusion, contribution of proteomic studies to understanding plant salinity tolerance is summarised and discussed. PMID:23531537

  9. Salinity affects the photoacclimation of Chlamydomonas raudensis Ettl UWO241.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Shinichiro; Hüner, Norman P A; Minagawa, Jun

    2009-03-01

    Chlamydomonas raudensis Ettl UWO241, a natural variant of C. raudensis, is deficient in state transitions. Its habitat, the deepest layer of Lake Bonney in Antarctica, features low irradiance, low temperature, and high salinity. Although psychrophily and low-light acclimation of this green alga has been described, very little information is available on the effect of salinity. Here, we demonstrate that this psychrophile is halotolerant, not halophilic, and it shows energy redistribution between photosystem I and II based on energy spillover under low-salt conditions. Furthermore, we revealed that C. raudensis exhibits higher non-photochemical quenching in comparison with the mesophile Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, when grown with low-salt, which is due to the lower proton conductivity across the thylakoid membrane. Significance of the C. raudensis UWO241 traits found in the low salinity culture are implicated with their natural habitats, including the high salinity and extremely stable light environments. PMID:19137412

  10. Hydrodynamic and Salinity Intrusion Model in Selangor River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haron, N. F.; Tahir, W.

    2016-07-01

    A multi-dimensional hydrodynamic and transport model has been used to develop the hydrodynamic and salinity intrusion model for Selangor River Estuary. Delft3D-FLOW was applied to the study area using a curvilinear, boundary fitted grid. External boundary forces included ocean water level, salinity, and stream flow. The hydrodynamic and salinity transport used for the simulation was calibrated and confirmed using data on November 2005 and from May to June 2014. A 13-day period for November 2005 data and a 6-day period of May to June 2014 data were chosen as the calibration and confirmation period because of the availability of data from the field-monitoring program conducted. From the calibration results, it shows that the model was well suited to predict the hydrodynamic and salinity intrusion characteristics of the study area.

  11. A new operational paradigm for small-scale ASR in saline aquifers.

    PubMed

    van Ginkel, Marloes; Olsthoorn, Theo N; Bakker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    A new operational paradigm is presented for small-scale aquifer storage and recovery systems (ASR) in saline aquifers. Regular ASR is often not feasible for small-scale storage in saline aquifers because fresh water floats to the top of the aquifer where it is unrecoverable. In the new paradigm, fresh water storage is combined with salt water extraction from below the fresh water cone. The salt water extraction counteracts the buoyancy due to the density difference between fresh water and salt water, thus preventing the fresh water from floating up. The proposed approach is applied to assess the feasibility of ASR for the seasonal storage of fresh water produced by desalination plants in tourist resorts along the Egyptian Red Sea coast. In these situations, the continuous extraction of salt water can be used for desalination purposes. An analytical Dupuit solution is presented for the steady flow of salt water toward a well with a volume of fresh water floating on top of the cone of depression. The required salt water discharge for the storage of a given volume of fresh water can be computed with the analytical solution. Numerical modeling is applied to determine how the stored fresh water can be recovered. Three recovery approaches are examined. Fresh water recovery rates on the order of 70% are achievable when salt water is extracted in high volumes, subsurface impermeable barriers are constructed at a distance from the well, or several fresh water recovery drains are used. The effect of ambient flow and interruptions of salt water pumping on the recovery efficiency are reported. PMID:24102236

  12. Desertification, salinization, and biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miyazono, S.; Patino, Reynaldo; Taylor, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined long-term changes in fish assemblages, river discharge, salinity, and local precipitation, and examined hydrological drivers of biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem, the Trans-Pecos region of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (USA/Mexico). Historical (1977-1989) and current (2010-2011) fish assemblages were analyzed by rarefaction analysis (species richness), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (composition/variability), multiresponse permutation procedures (composition), and paired t-test (variability). Trends in hydrological conditions (1970s-2010s) were examined by Kendall tau and quantile regression, and associations between streamfiow and specific conductance (salinity) by generalized linear models. Since the 1970s, species richness and variability of fish assemblages decreased in the Rio Grande below the confluence with the Rio Conchos (Mexico), a major tributary, but not above it. There was increased representation of lower-flow/higher-salinity tolerant species, thus making fish communities below the confluence taxonomically and functionally more homogeneous to those above it. Unlike findings elsewhere, this biotic homogenization was due primarily to changes in the relative abundances of native species. While Rio Conchos discharge was > 2-fold higher than Rio Grande discharge above their confluence, Rio Conchos discharge decreased during the study period causing Rio Grande discharge below the confluence to also decrease. Rio Conchos salinity is lower than Rio Grande salinity above their confluence and, as Rio Conchos discharge decreased, it caused Rio Grande salinity below the confluence to increase (reduced dilution). Trends in discharge did not correspond to trends in precipitation except at extreme-high (90th quantile) levels. In conclusion, decreasing discharge from the Rio Conchos has led to decreasing flow and increasing salinity in the Rio Grande below the confluence. This spatially uneven desertification and

  13. Desertification, salinization, and biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Miyazono, Seiji; Patiño, Reynaldo; Taylor, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    This study determined long-term changes in fish assemblages, river discharge, salinity, and local precipitation, and examined hydrological drivers of biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem, the Trans-Pecos region of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (USA/Mexico). Historical (1977-1989) and current (2010-2011) fish assemblages were analyzed by rarefaction analysis (species richness), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (composition/variability), multiresponse permutation procedures (composition), and paired t-test (variability). Trends in hydrological conditions (1970s-2010s) were examined by Kendall tau and quantile regression, and associations between streamflow and specific conductance (salinity) by generalized linear models. Since the 1970s, species richness and variability of fish assemblages decreased in the Rio Grande below the confluence with the Rio Conchos (Mexico), a major tributary, but not above it. There was increased representation of lower-flow/higher-salinity tolerant species, thus making fish communities below the confluence taxonomically and functionally more homogeneous to those above it. Unlike findings elsewhere, this biotic homogenization was due primarily to changes in the relative abundances of native species. While Rio Conchos discharge was>2-fold higher than Rio Grande discharge above their confluence, Rio Conchos discharge decreased during the study period causing Rio Grande discharge below the confluence to also decrease. Rio Conchos salinity is lower than Rio Grande salinity above their confluence and, as Rio Conchos discharge decreased, it caused Rio Grande salinity below the confluence to increase (reduced dilution). Trends in discharge did not correspond to trends in precipitation except at extreme-high (90th quantile) levels. In conclusion, decreasing discharge from the Rio Conchos has led to decreasing flow and increasing salinity in the Rio Grande below the confluence. This spatially uneven desertification and

  14. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Calcite Reactions with Saline Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Piers; *Morse, John W.

    2010-11-15

    1. Objective The general objective of this research was to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of calcite reactions with saline waters over a wide range of saline water composition, carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2), and modest ranges of T and P. This would be done by studying both reaction rates and solubility from changes in solution chemistry. Also, nanoscale observations of calcite surface morphology and composition would be made to provide an understanding of rate controlling mechanisms.

  15. Remote Sensing of Salinity and Overview of Results from Aquarius

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Dinnat, E. P.; Meissner, T.; Wentz, F.; Yueh, S. H.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.

    2015-01-01

    Aquarius is a combined active/passive microwave (L-band) instrument designed to map the salinity of global oceans from space. The specific goal of Aquarius is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the sea surface salinity (SSS) field of the open ocean (i.e. away from land). The instrumentation has been designed to provide monthly maps with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu

  16. Evaluation of Soil Salinity Amelioration Technologies in Timpaki, Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagea, Ioanna; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Tsanis, Ioannis; Schwilch, Gudrun

    2015-04-01

    Salinization is a soil threat that adversely affects ecosystem services and diminishes soil functions in many arid and semi-arid regions. Soil salinity management depends on a range of factors, and can be complex expensive and time demanding. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. The WOCAT Technologies Questionnaire is a standardized methodology for monitoring, evaluating and documenting sustainable land management practices through interaction with the stakeholders. Here we use WOCAT for the systematic analysis and evaluation of soil salinization amelioration measures, for the RECARE project Case Study in Greece, the Timpaki basin, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinization due to irrigation with brackish water. Amelioration technologies that have already been applied in the case study by the stakeholders are examined and classified depending on the function they promote and/or improve. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost and input requirements. Preliminary results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity such as composting, mulching, rain water harvesting and seed biopriming are preferred by the stakeholders. Further work will include result validation using qualitative approaches. Keywords: soil salinity; salinization; evaluation of soil salinization amelioration techniques; WOCAT; RECARE FP7 project; Timpaki Crete

  17. Saline Groundwater from Coastal Aquifers As a Source for Desalination.

    PubMed

    Stein, Shaked; Russak, Amos; Sivan, Orit; Yechieli, Yoseph; Rahav, Eyal; Oren, Yoram; Kasher, Roni

    2016-02-16

    Reverse osmosis (RO) seawater desalination is currently a widespread means of closing the gap between supply and demand for potable water in arid regions. Currently, one of the main setbacks of RO operation is fouling, which hinders membrane performance and induces pressure loss, thereby reducing system efficiency. An alternative water source is saline groundwater with salinity close to seawater, pumped from beach wells in coastal aquifers which penetrate beneath the freshwater-seawater interface. In this research, we studied the potential use of saline groundwater of the coastal aquifer as feedwater for desalination in comparison to seawater using fieldwork and laboratory approaches. The chemistry, microbiology and physical properties of saline groundwater were characterized and compared with seawater. Additionally, reverse osmosis desalination experiments in a cross-flow system were performed, evaluating the permeate flux, salt rejection and fouling propensities of the different water types. Our results indicated that saline groundwater was significantly favored over seawater as a feed source in terms of chemical composition, microorganism content, silt density, and fouling potential, and exhibited better desalination performance with less flux decline. Saline groundwater may be a better water source for desalination by RO due to lower fouling potential, and reduced pretreatment costs. PMID:26810309

  18. Interaction of flooding and salinity stress on baldcypress (Taxodium distichum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Pezeshki, S.R.; Chambers, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Coastal wetlands of the southeastern United States are threatened by increases in flooding and salinity as a result of both natural processes and man-induced hydrologic alterations. Furthermore, global climate change scenarios suggest that, as a consequence of rising sea levels, much larger areas of coastal wetlands may be affected by flooding and salinity in the next 50 to 100 years. In this paper, we review studies designed to improve our ability to predict and ameliorate the impacts of increased flooding and salinity stress on baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.), which is a dominant species of many coastal forested wetlands. Specifically, we review studies on species-level responses to flooding and salinity stress, alone and in combination, we summarize two studies on intraspecific variation in response to flooding and salinity stress, we analyze the physiological mechanisms thought to be responsible for the interaction between flooding and salinity stress, and we discuss the implications for coastal wetland loss and the prospects for developing salt-tolerant lines of baldcypress.

  19. Physiological effects of salinity on Delta Smelt, Hypomesus transpacificus.

    PubMed

    Kammerer, Brittany D; Hung, Tien-Chieh; Baxter, Randall D; Teh, Swee J

    2016-02-01

    Abiotic factors like salinity are relevant to survival of pelagic fishes of the San Francisco Bay Estuary. We tested the effects of 4 parts per thousand (ppt) salinity increases on Delta Smelt (DS) in a laboratory experiment simulating salinity increases that might occur around the low-salinity zone (LSZ) (<6 ppt). Adult DS, fed 2% body mass per day, starting at 0.5 ppt [freshwater (FW)], were exposed to weekly step-increases of 4 ppt to a maximum of 10 ppt saltwater (SW) over 19 days, and compared to FW controls. DS (n = 12/treatment per sampling) were sampled at 24, 72, and 96 h (1, 3, and 4 days) post-salinity increase for analyses of hematocrit, plasma osmolality, muscle water content, gill chloride cell (CC) Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and apoptosis after being weighed and measured (n = 3 tanks per treatment). No apparent increase in length or weight occurred nor did a difference in survival. Following step-increases in SW, hematocrit increased over time. Other fish responses generally showed a pattern; specifically plasma osmolality became elevated at 1 day and diminished over 4 days in SW. Percent muscle water content (%) did not show significant changes. CCs showed increased NKA, cell size and apoptosis over time in SW, indicating that CCs turnover in DS. The cell renewal process takes days, at least over 19 days. In summary, DS are affected by salinities of the LSZ and ≤10 ppt, though they employ physiological strategies to acclimate. PMID:26407957

  20. Annual growth patterns of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) along salinity gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Brenda L.; Doyle, Thomas W.; Krauss, Ken W.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of salinity on Taxodium distichum seedlings have been well documented, but few studies have examined mature trees in situ. We investigated the environmental drivers of T. distichum growth along a salinity gradient on the Waccamaw (South Carolina) and Savannah (Georgia) Rivers. On each river, T. distichum increment cores were collected from a healthy upstream site (Upper), a moderately degraded mid-reach site (Middle), and a highly degraded downstream site (Lower). Chronologies were successfully developed for Waccamaw Upper and Middle, and Savannah Middle. Correlations between standardized chronologies and environmental variables showed significant relationships between T. distichum growth and early growing season precipitation, temperature, and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Savannah Middle chronology correlated most strongly with August river salinity levels. Both lower sites experienced suppression/release events likely in response to local anthropogenic impacts rather than regional environmental variables. The factors that affect T. distichum growth, including salinity, are strongly synergistic. As sea-level rise pushes the freshwater/saltwater interface inland, salinity becomes more limiting to T. distichum growth in tidal freshwater swamps; however, salinity impacts are exacerbated by locally imposed environmental modifications.

  1. [Treatment characteristics of saline domestic wastewater by constructed wetland].

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Li, Chen; Jin, Wei-Hong; Deng, Yi-Bing

    2012-11-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using constructed wetland (CW) to remove pollutants from saline domestic sewage. The experimental results indicated that the effects of salinity on the contaminant removal were insignificant when the influent salinities of the CWs were less than or equal to 1.5%. For the influent salinity of 0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%, the average removal rates of the CWs were found to be above 68.3% for COD and above 66.1% for NH4(+) -N. When the influent salinity was increased to 2.0%, the individual numbers of microorganisms in the CW reduced obviously. It was similar to the change of the soil enzyme activity in the CW. Then the removal efficiency of the CW also dropped significantly. The average removal rate of COD and NH4(+) -N dropped to 52.9% and 50.3%, respectively. The effects of HRT on the treatment performance of CW under the saline condition of 1.5% were also investigated in this study. And the results showed that nitrogen removal was more greatly affected by HRT than organic matter removal. The NH4(+) -N removal efficiency in CW decreased from 65.1% -78.2% to 47.1% when the HRT of the CW varied from 3-5 d to 2 d. PMID:23323411

  2. Physiological and molecular changes in barley and wheat under salinity.

    PubMed

    Temel, Aslihan; Gozukirmizi, Nermin

    2015-03-01

    In this study, it was aimed to compare salinity-induced changes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Bornova-92) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Gerek-79). Seeds were germinated under saline conditions (0, 50, 100, 250, and 500 mM NaCl) for 2 days and recovered under non-saline conditions for 2 days. At the end of the salt treatment, germination, water content (WC), total soluble protein content, and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity were affected in both species, while superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity was affected in barley. Salinity affected WC, protein content, and CAT activity in both species, while it affected germination in barley and affected fresh weight and SOD activity in wheat after recovery. Physiological responses of both species were correlated. Expression of α-tubulin, Atls1, and Lls1 genes was down-regulated in barley after 250 mM NaCl treatment. HVA1 gene was highly (more than 50-fold) stimulated by salinity in barley. However, α-tubulin and Atls1 genes were down-regulated, and Lls1 gene was up-regulated in wheat after recovery from 250-mM NaCl treatment. Increase in HVA1 expression was not significant in wheat. The expression profiles of barley and wheat under salinity are different, and barley tended to regulate gene expression faster than wheat. PMID:25578157

  3. Effects of oceanic salinity on body condition in sea snakes.

    PubMed

    Brischoux, François; Rolland, Virginie; Bonnet, Xavier; Caillaud, Matthieu; Shine, Richard

    2012-08-01

    Since the transition from terrestrial to marine environments poses strong osmoregulatory and energetic challenges, temporal and spatial fluctuations in oceanic salinity might influence salt and water balance (and hence, body condition) in marine tetrapods. We assessed the effects of salinity on three species of sea snakes studied by mark-recapture in coral-reef habitats in the Neo-Caledonian Lagoon. These three species include one fully aquatic hydrophiine (Emydocephalus annulatus), one primarily aquatic laticaudine (Laticauda laticaudata), and one frequently terrestrial laticaudine (Laticauda saintgironsi). We explored how oceanic salinity affected the snakes' body condition across various temporal and spatial scales relevant to each species' ecology, using linear mixed models and multimodel inference. Mean annual salinity exerted a consistent and negative effect on the body condition of all three snake species. The most terrestrial taxon (L. saintgironsi) was sensitive to salinity over a short temporal scale, corresponding to the duration of a typical marine foraging trip for this species. In contrast, links between oceanic salinity and body condition in the fully aquatic E. annulatus and the highly aquatic L. laticaudata were strongest at a long-term (annual) scale. The sophisticated salt-excreting systems of sea snakes allow them to exploit marine environments, but do not completely overcome the osmoregulatory challenges posed by oceanic conditions. Future studies could usefully explore such effects in other secondarily marine taxa such as seabirds, turtles, and marine mammals. PMID:22710931

  4. Soil salinity detection. [Starr and Cameron Counties, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Richardson, A. J.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Everitt, J. H.; Cuellar, J. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Growth forms and herbage biomass production varied considerably among saline and nonsaline soil range sites in Starr County. Grasses on saline soil sites were shallow-rooted and short whereas on nonsaline sites there was an intermixture of short and midgrass species. Differentiation between primarily undisturbed saline and nonsaline rangelands, in Starr County, is partially possible using film optical density readings from Skylab imagery. Differentiation among eight saline and nonsaline soil sites in Cameron County, using black and white and color film was not possible according to statistical results from both DMRT and correlation analysis. Linear analysis showed that Bendix 24-band MSS data (aircraft) collected at 1700 m and 4800 m, as well as Skylab and LANDSAT-1 MSS data, were significantly correlated to electrical conductivity readings. In Starr County, the best spectral band for detection of saline soil levels, using black and white SO-022 film, was in the 0.6 to 0.7 micron spectral region. In Cameron County, the best spectral bands for detection of saline soil levels were the 2.3 to 2.43 micron, 0.72 to 0.76 micron, 0.69 to 1.75 micron, and 0.7 to 1.1 micron spectral regions.

  5. Neural network modeling of salinity variation in Apalachicola River.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenrui; Foo, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Salinity is an important indicator for water quality and aquatic ecosystem in tidal rivers. The increase of salinity intrusion in a river may have an adverse effect on the aquatic environment system. This study presents an application of the artificial neural network (ANN) to assess salinity variation responding to the multiple forcing functions of freshwater input, tide, and wind in Apalachicola River, Florida. Parameters in the neural network model were trained until the model predictions of salinity matched well with the observations. Then, the trained model was validated by applying the model to another independent data set. The results indicate that the ANN model is capable of correlating the non-linear time series of salinity to the multiple forcing signals of wind, tides. and freshwater input in the Apalachicola River. This study suggests that the ANN model is an easy-to-use modeling tool for engineers and water resource managers to obtain a quick preliminary assessment of salinity variation in response to the engineering modifications to the river system. PMID:11766814

  6. ROC trials update on prehospital hypertonic saline resuscitation in the aftermath of the US-Canadian trials

    PubMed Central

    Dubick, Michael A; Shek, Pang; Wade, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this review are to assess the current state of hypertonic saline as a prehospital resuscitation fluid in hypotensive trauma patients, particularly after the 3 major Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium trauma trials in the US and Canada were halted due to futility. Hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury are the leading causes of death in both military and civilian populations. Prehospital fluid resuscitation remains controversial in civilian trauma, but small-volume resuscitation with hypertonic fluids is of utility in military scenarios with prolonged or delayed evacuation times. A large body of pre-clinical and clinical literature has accumulated over the past 30 years on the hemodynamic and, most recently, the anti-inflammatory properties of hypertonic saline, alone or with dextran-70. This review assesses the current state of hypertonic fluid resuscitation in the aftermath of the failed Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium trials. PMID:23778489

  7. Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Podcasts Tools & Quizzes Health Learning Modules Research & Innovations Online Learning Center Health Information Events Calendar RSS ... Programs & Services Patient Experience Measurement Patient Experience: Empathy & Innovation Summit Patient Stories Contact Office of Patient Experience ...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... irrigation system (§ 876.5220). (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the... exempt from the current good manufacturing practice requirements of the quality system regulation in...

  9. Salinity Tolerance of Picochlorum atomus and the Use of Salinity for Contamination Control by the Freshwater Cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena limnetica

    PubMed Central

    von Alvensleben, Nicolas; Stookey, Katherine; Magnusson, Marie; Heimann, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae are ideal candidates for waste-gas and –water remediation. However, salinity often varies between different sites. A cosmopolitan microalga with large salinity tolerance and consistent biochemical profiles would be ideal for standardised cultivation across various remediation sites. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of salinity on Picochlorum atomus growth, biomass productivity, nutrient uptake and biochemical profiles. To determine if target end-products could be manipulated, the effects of 4-day nutrient limitation were also determined. Culture salinity had no effect on growth, biomass productivity, phosphate, nitrate and total nitrogen uptake at 2, 8, 18, 28 and 36 ppt. 11 ppt, however, initiated a significantly higher total nitrogen uptake. While salinity had only minor effects on biochemical composition, nutrient depletion was a major driver for changes in biomass quality, leading to significant increases in total lipid, fatty acid and carbohydrate quantities. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by nutrient depletion, with an increased proportion of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. Having established that P. atomus is a euryhaline microalga, the effects of culture salinity on the development of the freshwater cyanobacterial contaminant Pseudanabaena limnetica were determined. Salinity at 28 and 36 ppt significantly inhibited establishment of P. limnetica in P. atomus cultures. In conclusion, P. atomus can be deployed for bioremediation at sites with highly variable salinities without effects on end-product potential. Nutrient status critically affected biochemical profiles – an important consideration for end-product development by microalgal industries. 28 and 36 ppt slow the establishment of the freshwater cyanobacterium P. limnetica, allowing for harvest of low contaminant containing biomass. PMID:23667639

  10. Growth responses of the mangrove Avicennia marina to salinity: development and function of shoot hydraulic systems require saline conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hoa T.; Stanton, Daniel E.; Schmitz, Nele; Farquhar, Graham D.; Ball, Marilyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Halophytic eudicots are characterized by enhanced growth under saline conditions. This study combines physiological and anatomical analyses to identify processes underlying growth responses of the mangrove Avicennia marina to salinities ranging from fresh- to seawater conditions. Methods Following pre-exhaustion of cotyledonary reserves under optimal conditions (i.e. 50 % seawater), seedlings of A. marina were grown hydroponically in dilutions of seawater amended with nutrients. Whole-plant growth characteristics were analysed in relation to dry mass accumulation and its allocation to different plant parts. Gas exchange characteristics and stable carbon isotopic composition of leaves were measured to evaluate water use in relation to carbon gain. Stem and leaf hydraulic anatomy were measured in relation to plant water use and growth. Key Results Avicennia marina seedlings failed to grow in 0–5 % seawater, whereas maximal growth occurred in 50–75 % seawater. Relative growth rates were affected by changes in leaf area ratio (LAR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) along the salinity gradient, with NAR generally being more important. Gas exchange characteristics followed the same trends as plant growth, with assimilation rates and stomatal conductance being greatest in leaves grown in 50–75 % seawater. However, water use efficiency was maintained nearly constant across all salinities, consistent with carbon isotopic signatures. Anatomical studies revealed variation in rates of development and composition of hydraulic tissues that were consistent with salinity-dependent patterns in water use and growth, including a structural explanation for low stomatal conductance and growth under low salinity. Conclusions The results identified stem and leaf transport systems as central to understanding the integrated growth responses to variation in salinity from fresh- to seawater conditions. Avicennia marina was revealed as an obligate halophyte

  11. Minimal groundwater leakage restricts salinity in a hydrologically terminal basin of northwest Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Dogramaci, Shawan; Rouillard, Alexandra; Grierson, Pauline

    2016-04-01

    The Fortescue Marsh (FM) is one of the largest wetlands of arid northwest Australia (~1200 km2) and is thought to act as a terminal basin for the Upper Fortescue River catchment. Unlike the playa lake systems that predominate in most arid regions, where salinity is driven by inflow and evaporation of groundwater, the hydrological regime of the FM is driven by inundation from irregular cyclonic events [1]. Surface water of the FM is fresh to brackish and the salinity of the deepest groundwater (80 m b.g.l.) does not exceed 160 g/L; salt efflorescences are rarely present on the surface [2]. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that persistent but low rates of groundwater outflow have restricted the accumulation of salt in the FM over time. Using hydrological, hydrochemical data and dimensionless time evaporation modelling along with the water and salt budget, we calculated the time and the annual groundwater discharge volume that would be required to achieve and maintain the range of salinity levels observed in the Marsh. Groundwater outflow from alluvial and colluvial aquifers to the Lower Fortescue catchment is limited by an extremely low hydraulic gradient of 0.001 and is restricted to a relatively small 'alluvial window' of 0.35 km2 because of the elevation of the basement bedrock at the Marsh outflow. We show that if the Marsh was 100% "leakage free" i.e., a true terminal basin for the Upper Fortescue Catchment, the basin water would have achieved salt saturation after ~45 ka. This is not the case and only a very small outflow of saline groundwater of <2 GL/yr (<0.03% of the FM water volume) is needed to maintain the current salinity conditions. The minimum time required to develop the current hydrochemical composition of the water in the Marsh and the steady-state conditions for salt concentration is between 58 and 164 ka. This is a minimum age of the Marsh but it can be much older as nearly steady-state conditions could be maintained infinitely. Our

  12. The importance of pH and sand substrate in the revegetation of saline non-waterlogged peat fields.

    PubMed

    Montemayor, Marilou B; Price, Jonathan; Rochefort, Line

    2015-11-01

    A partially peat-extracted coastal bog contaminated by seawater was barren and required revegetation as a wetland. Peat fields were rectangular in shape, cambered in cross-section profile, and separated by drainage ditches. Common to all peat fields were symmetrical patterns in micro-topography with slopes between differences in elevation. Saline non-waterlogged slopes of ∼5% occurred as a symmetrical pair on each side of the crest of the cambered profile, at one end of each peat field. Three rows were laid across this slope (Top, Middle, and Bottom rows) and transplanted with naturally-growing plant species with their sand substrate, in three experiments, and grown for a year. In the Spartina pectinata experiment, bare root stem sections were also planted. Another experiment was conducted to determine changes in the characteristics of a volume of sand when incubated in saline peat fields. We found the salinity of peat increased with moisture downslope, and pH decreased with increase in salinity. S. pectinata grew best when planted with its sand substrate compared with bare root stem section, and when planted in Bottom rows. Juncus balticus had excellent growth in all rows. Unexpectedly, Festuca rubra that was inconspicuous beneath the J. balticus canopy in the natural donor site grew densely within the J. balticus sods. Agrostis stolonifera grew well but seemed to show intolerance to the surrounding acidic peat by curling up its stolons. The pH of the incubated sand volume was much higher than the surrounding peat. These studies suggest that recognition of plant niches and pH manipulation are important in the revegetation of disturbed Sphagnum peatlands that are found abundantly in the northern hemisphere. Results are also relevant to the reclamation of other disturbed lands. PMID:26301685

  13. Larval Tolerance to Salinity in Three Species of Australian Anuran: An Indication of Saline Specialisation in Litoria aurea

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, Brian D.; Byrne, Phillip G.; Reina, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent anthropogenic influences on freshwater habitats are forcing anuran populations to rapidly adapt to high magnitude changes in environmental conditions or face local extinction. We examined the effects of ecologically relevant elevated salinity levels on larval growth, metamorphosis and survival of three species of Australian anuran; the spotted marsh frog (Limnodynastes tasmaniensis), the painted burrowing frog (Neobatrachus sudelli) and the green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea), in order to better understand the responses of these animals to environmental change. Elevated salinity (16% seawater) negatively impacted on the survival of L. tasmaniensis (35% survival) and N sudelli (0% survival), while reduced salinity had a negative impact on L. aurea. (16% seawater: 85% survival; 0.4% seawater: 35% survival). L. aurea tadpoles survived in salinities much higher than previously reported for this species, indicating the potential for inter-populations differences in salinity tolerance. In L. tasmaniensis and L. aurea, development to metamorphosis was fastest in low and high salinity treatments suggesting it is advantageous for tadpoles to invest energy in development in both highly favourable and developmentally challenging environments. We propose that this response might either maximise potential lifetime fecundity when tadpoles experience favourable environments, or, facilitate a more rapid escape from pond environments where there is a reduced probability of survival. PMID:22916260

  14. Continuous salinity and temperature data from san francisco estuary, 19822002: Trends and the salinity-freshwater inflow relationship

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shellenbarger, G.G.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and other federal and state agencies have been collecting continuous temperature and salinity data, two critical estuarine habitat variables, throughout San Francisco estuary for over two decades. Although this dynamic, highly variable system has been well studied, many questions remain relating to the effects of freshwater inflow and other physical and biological linkages. This study examines up to 20 years of publically available, continuous temperature and salinity data from 10 different San Francisco Bay stations to identify trends in temperature and salinity and quantify the salinityfreshwater inflow relationship. Several trends in the salinity and temperature records were identified, although the high degree of daily and interannual variability confounds the analysis. In addition, freshwater inflow to the estuary has a range of effects on salinity from -0.0020 to -0.0096 (m3 s-1) -1 discharge, depending on location in the estuary and the timescale of analyzed data. Finally, we documented that changes in freshwater inflow to the estuary that are within the range of typical management actions can affect bay-wide salinities by 0.61.4. This study reinforces the idea that multidecadal records are needed to identify trends from decadal changes in water management and climate and, therefore, are extremely valuable. ?? 2011 Coastal Education & Research Foundation.

  15. Research Needs and Opportunities in Management of Saline Soils and Waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current research programs on irrigation with saline waters and management of saline soils at the U.S. Salinity Laboratory are reviewed. The research program includes: 1) Remote sensing of electrical conductivity (EC) for rapid assessment of salinity at the field scale; 2) EC-directed soil sampling f...

  16. 40 CFR 436.120 - Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... salines from brine lakes subcategory. 436.120 Section 436.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Salines From Brine Lakes Subcategory § 436.120 Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing of salines...

  17. Assessing the impact of soil salinity on manganese distribution in sierozem soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant availability of heavy metals from soil depends on factors such as soil type, organic matter, base saturation, texture, and salinity. Plant availability of mobile manganese (Mn) was accessed from various horizons of non-saline, medium saline, and highly saline sieriozem soils and a pasture. Man...

  18. Climatic causes and consequences of the Mediterranean Messinian Salinity Crisis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flecker, R.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean gateways play a critical role in modulating ocean circulation and global climate. When the gateway links to a mid-latitude, semi-enclosed basin, an inflated response to climate is recorded in the basin and this can lead to a high amplitude feedback to the ocean via gateway exchange. In the Mediterranean the restricted gateway results in environmental variability on orbital timescales and this in turn impacts the volume and density of Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) reaching the Atlantic. Even today, there is a lithological response to this variability in the Mediterranean, but in the Late Miocene when the gateway was much more restricted, salinity fluctuations evolved to such extreme levels that a salt giant formed and ~5% of the global ocean's salt was precipitated on the Mediterranean sea floor. This event is known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange during the Late Miocene to early Pliocene is the focus of a new EU-funded project, MEDGATE. The project draws together a multidisciplinary team of geochemists, structural geologists, sedimentologists, palaeontologists and numerical modellers to work on sediments preserved in and around two fossil corridors that linked the Mediterranean with the Atlantic ~8 million years ago, one in southern Spain, the other in northern Morocco. These exceptional successions, which record the Mediterranean's sensitivity to subtle changes in climate, have been astronomically tuned to precession allowing correlation of individual beds throughout the corridors and into the Mediterranean itself. Consequently, we now have an unprecedented opportunity to reconstruct Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange during the Late Miocene-Pliocene and evaluate the impact of the Messinian Salinity Crisis on North Atlantic circulation and global climate.

  19. Dispersive Behavior of the Mixing Zone between a Shallow Freshwater Lens and Upward Seeping Saline Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eeman, S.; Leijnse, A.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Salt water intrusion and upward seepage of salt groundwater is a widespread problem in low-lying areas of coastal zones that are important for agriculture or ecology, such as in the North and West regions of the Netherlands, Southwest Florida, and many other deltaic areas, for example Camargue in France and the Nile delta in Egypt. Where the soil surface is situated below sea level, saline groundwater moves upward into superficial water networks. On the other hand, infiltrating rainwater forms small-scale fresh water lenses. The system is also comparable to the situation that develops when "skimming wells" are used, for example for irrigation in Northern India. The lenses we are studying have a thickness ranging from less then one up to several meters, their width depending on drainage density (generally 20-500 m). Field data show that the transition zone can be as thick as the fresh water lens itself. Therefore a sharp interface model cannot be assumed suitable to analyze such lenses (Sakr, 1999). When comparing numerical and analytical models for steady situations, when flow lines are parallel to the transition zone, we found that the analytical model represents the centre of the transition zone quite accurately. The width can be estimated only roughly. Climate change and human influence, through water level control and/or pumping, cause these lenses to grow or shrink. During this volume change, flow lines have a component perpendicular to the transition zone between fresh and saline water. This increases longitudinal dispersion, and thereby widens the transition zone further. Research This work is a combination of numerical modeling, dimension analysis and fieldwork; we use SUTRA (Voss and Provost, 2003), which is capable of including both density dependence and unsaturated zones. To characterize the shape of the lens and the transition zone we use spatial moments. For 2 sites in the Southwest of the Netherlands we are continuously monitoring

  20. Hypertonic Saline Dextran Ameliorates Organ Damage in Beagle Hemorrhagic Shock

    PubMed Central

    You, Guo-xing; Wang, Ying; Chen, Gan; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Xi-gang; Zhao, Lian; Zhou, Hong; He, Yue-zhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of hypertonic saline with 6% Dextran-70 (HSD) resuscitation on organ damage and the resuscitation efficiency of the combination of HSD and lactated ringers (LR) in a model of hemorrhage shock in dogs. Methods Beagles were bled to hold their mean arterial pressure (MAP) at 50±5 mmHg for 1 h. After hemorrhage, beagles were divided into three groups (n = 7) to receive pre-hospital resuscitation for 1 h (R1): HSD (4 ml/kg), LR (40 ml/kg), and HSD+LR (a combination of 4 ml/kg HSD and 40 ml/kg LR). Next, LR was transfused into all groups as in-hospital resuscitation (R2). After two hours of observation (R3), autologous blood was transfused. Hemodynamic responses and systemic oxygenation were measured at predetermined phases. Three days after resuscitation, the animals were sacrificed and tissues including kidney, lung, liver and intestinal were obtained for pathological analysis. Results Although the initial resuscitation with HSD was shown to be faster than LR with regard to an ascending MAP, the HSD group showed a similar hemodynamic performance compared to the LR group throughout the experiment. Compared with the LR group, the systemic oxygenation performance in the HSD group was similar but showed a lower venous-to-arterial CO2 gradient (Pv-aCO2) at R3 (p < 0.05). Additionally, the histology score of the kidneys, lungs and liver were significantly lower in the HSD group than in the LR group (p < 0.05). The HSD+LR group showed a superior hemodynamic response but higher extravascular lung water (EVLW) and lower arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) than the other groups (p < 0.05). The HSD+LR group showed a marginally improved systemic oxygenation performance and lower histology score than other groups. Conclusions Resuscitation after hemorrhagic shock with a bolus of HSD showed a similar hemodynamic response compared with LR at ten times the volume of HSD, but HSD showed superior efficacy in organ protection

  1. Geomorphic Characterization of the Middle Fork Saline River: Garland, Perry, and Saline Counties, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pugh, Aaron L.; Garday, Thomas J.; Redman, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    This report was prepared to help address concerns raised by local residents, State, and Federal agencies about the current geomorphic conditions of the Middle Fork Saline River. Over the past 30 years the Middle Fork Saline River Basin has experienced a marked increase in urbanization. The report summarizes the Middle Fork?s current (2003) channel characteristics at nine stream reaches in the upper 91 square miles of the basin. Assessments at each study reach included comparing measured stream geometry dimensions (cross-sectional area, top width, and mean depth) at bankfull stage to regional hydraulic geometry curves for the Ouachita Mountains Physiographic Province of Arkansas and Oklahoma, evaluations of streambed materials and sinuosity, and classification of individual stream reach types. When compared to the Ouachita Mountains? regional hydraulic geometry curves for natural, stable, stream reaches, five of the nine study reaches had slightly smaller crosssectional areas, longer top widths, and shallower depths. Streambed material analysis indicates that the Middle Fork is a bedrock influenced, gravel dominated stream with lesser amounts of sand and cobbles. Slight increases in sinuosity from 1992 to 2002 at seven of the nine study reaches indicate a slight decrease in stream channel slope. Analyses of the Middle Fork?s hydraulic geometry and sinuosity indicate that the Middle Fork is currently overly wide and shallow, but is slowly adjusting towards a deeper, narrower hydraulic geometry. Using the Rosgen system of channel classification, the two upstream study reaches classified as B4c/1 stream types; which were moderately entrenched, riffle dominated channels, with infrequently spaced pools. The downstream seven study reaches classified as C4/1 stream types; which were slightly entrenched, meandering, gravel-dominated, riffle/ pool channels with well developed flood plains. Analyses of stream reach types suggest that the downstream reaches of the Middle Fork

  2. Hydrologic factors controlling groundwater salinity in northwestern coastal zone, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morad, Nahla A.; Masoud, M. H.; Moghith, S. M. Abdel

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the main factors influencing salinity of groundwater in the coastal area between El Dabaa and Sidi Barani, Egypt. The types and ages of the main aquifers in this area are the fractured limestone of Middle Miocene, the calcareous sandstone of Pliocene and the Oolitic Limestone of Pleistocene age. The aquifers in the area are recharged by seasonal rainfall of the order of 150 mm/year. The relationship of groundwater salinity against the absolute water level, the well drilling depth, and the ability of aquifer to recharge has been discussed in the present work. The ability of aquifer to locally recharge by direct rainfall is a measure of the vertical permeability due to lithological and structural factors that control groundwater salinity in the investigated aquifers. On the other hand, the fracturing system as well as the attitude of the surface water divide has a prime role in changing both the mode of occurrence and the salinity of groundwater in the area. Directly to the west of Matrouh, where the coastal plain is the narrowest, and east of Barrani, where the coastal plain is the widest, are good examples of this concept, where the water salinity attains its maximum and minimum limits respectively. Accordingly, well drilling in the Miocene aquifer, in the area between El Negila and Barrani to get groundwater of salinities less than 5000 mg/l is recommended in this area, at flow rate less than 10 m3/hr/well. In other words, one can expect that the brackish water is probably found where the surface water divide is far from the shore line, where the Wadi fill deposits dominate (Quaternary aquifer), acting as a possible water salinity by direct rainfall and runoff.

  3. Proteomics, metabolomics, and ionomics perspectives of salinity tolerance in halophytes.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Asha; Das, Paromita; Parida, Asish Kumar; Agarwal, Pradeep K

    2015-01-01

    Halophytes are plants which naturally survive in saline environment. They account for ∼1% of the total flora of the world. They include both dicots and monocots and are distributed mainly in arid, semi-arid inlands and saline wet lands along the tropical and sub-tropical coasts. Salinity tolerance in halophytes depends on a set of ecological and physiological characteristics that allow them to grow and flourish in high saline conditions. The ability of halophytes to tolerate high salt is determined by the effective coordination between various physiological processes, metabolic pathways and protein or gene networks responsible for delivering salinity tolerance. The salinity responsive proteins belong to diverse functional classes such as photosynthesis, redox homeostasis; stress/defense, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction and membrane transport. The important metabolites which are involved in salt tolerance of halophytes are proline and proline analog (4-hydroxy-N-methyl proline), glycine betaine, pinitol, myo-inositol, mannitol, sorbitol, O-methylmucoinositol, and polyamines. In halophytes, the synthesis of specific proteins and osmotically active metabolites control ion and water flux and support scavenging of oxygen radicals under salt stress condition. The present review summarizes the salt tolerance mechanisms of halophytes by elucidating the recent studies that have focused on proteomic, metabolomic, and ionomic aspects of various halophytes in response to salinity. By integrating the information from halophytes and its comparison with glycophytes could give an overview of salt tolerance mechanisms in halophytes, thus laying down the pavement for development of salt tolerant crop plants through genetic modification and effective breeding strategies. PMID:26284080

  4. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed. PMID:26812088

  5. Proteomics, metabolomics, and ionomics perspectives of salinity tolerance in halophytes

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Asha; Das, Paromita; Parida, Asish Kumar; Agarwal, Pradeep K.

    2015-01-01

    Halophytes are plants which naturally survive in saline environment. They account for ∼1% of the total flora of the world. They include both dicots and monocots and are distributed mainly in arid, semi-arid inlands and saline wet lands along the tropical and sub-tropical coasts. Salinity tolerance in halophytes depends on a set of ecological and physiological characteristics that allow them to grow and flourish in high saline conditions. The ability of halophytes to tolerate high salt is determined by the effective coordination between various physiological processes, metabolic pathways and protein or gene networks responsible for delivering salinity tolerance. The salinity responsive proteins belong to diverse functional classes such as photosynthesis, redox homeostasis; stress/defense, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction and membrane transport. The important metabolites which are involved in salt tolerance of halophytes are proline and proline analog (4-hydroxy-N-methyl proline), glycine betaine, pinitol, myo-inositol, mannitol, sorbitol, O-methylmucoinositol, and polyamines. In halophytes, the synthesis of specific proteins and osmotically active metabolites control ion and water flux and support scavenging of oxygen radicals under salt stress condition. The present review summarizes the salt tolerance mechanisms of halophytes by elucidating the recent studies that have focused on proteomic, metabolomic, and ionomic aspects of various halophytes in response to salinity. By integrating the information from halophytes and its comparison with glycophytes could give an overview of salt tolerance mechanisms in halophytes, thus laying down the pavement for development of salt tolerant crop plants through genetic modification and effective breeding strategies. PMID:26284080

  6. Multivariate volume rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Crawfis, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a new technique for representing multivalued data sets defined on an integer lattice. It extends the state-of-the-art in volume rendering to include nonhomogeneous volume representations. That is, volume rendering of materials with very fine detail (e.g. translucent granite) within a voxel. Multivariate volume rendering is achieved by introducing controlled amounts of noise within the volume representation. Varying the local amount of noise within the volume is used to represent a separate scalar variable. The technique can also be used in image synthesis to create more realistic clouds and fog.

  7. Physical and economic potential of geological CO2 storage in saline aquifers.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Jordan K; Pratson, Lincoln; Newell, Richard G; Jackson, Robert B

    2009-03-15

    Carbon sequestration in sandstone saline reservoirs holds great potential for mitigating climate change, but its storage potential and cost per ton of avoided CO2 emissions are uncertain. We develop a general model to determine the maximum theoretical constraints on both storage potential and injection rate and use it to characterize the economic viability of geosequestration in sandstone saline aquifers. When applied to a representative set of aquifer characteristics, the model yields results that compare favorably with pilot projects currently underway. Over a range of reservoir properties, maximum effective storage peaks at an optimal depth of 1600 m, at which point 0.18-0.31 metric tons can be stored per cubic meter of bulk volume of reservoir. Maximum modeled injection rates predict minima for storage costs in a typical basin in the range of $2-7/ ton CO2 (2005 U.S.$) depending on depth and basin characteristics in our base-case scenario. Because the properties of natural reservoirs in the United States vary substantially, storage costs could in some cases be lower or higher by orders of magnitude. We conclude that available geosequestration capacity exhibits a wide range of technological and economic attractiveness. Like traditional projects in the extractive industries, geosequestration capacity should be exploited starting with the low-cost storage options first then moving gradually up the supply curve. PMID:19368199

  8. Formation of soluble microbial products (SMP) by activated sludge at various salinities.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Li, Ai-Min; Xu, Juan; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-02-01

    Soluble microbial products (SMP) present a significant component of effluent organic matter from biological wastewater treatment reactors, and can affect the membrane fouling and formation of disinfection by-products. Thus, SMP have attracted increasing concerns in wastewater treatment and reclamation. In this work, the formation of SMP by activated sludge at various NaCl concentrations is investigated by using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and fluorescence regional integration (FRI). The results show that a high level of salinity decreases substrate removal efficiency and leads to an accumulation of SMP, especially proteins. Three components of SMP, one protein-like and two humic-acid-like components, are identified by PARAFAC, which exhibit different trends with the variation of NaCl concentration. FRI analysis reveals that the majority of protein fluorescence is attributed to tryptophan and tryptophan-like proteins, rather than tyrosine and tyrosine-like proteins. With an increase in NaCl concentration, the normalized volume percentages of tyrosine and tryptophan region increase, while those of humic- and fulvic-acid-like region decrease significantly. This work demonstrates that salinity affects the formation of SMP, and that EEM with PARAFAC in combination with FRI analysis is a useful tool to get insight into the formation of SMP by activated sludge. PMID:22622691

  9. Responsive Stabilization of Nanoparticles for Extreme Salinity and High-Temperature Reservoir Applications.

    PubMed

    Ranka, Mikhil; Brown, Paul; Hatton, T Alan

    2015-09-01

    Colloidal stabilization of nanoparticles under extreme salinity and high temperature conditions is a key challenge in the development of next generation technologies for subsurface reservoir characterization and oil recovery. Polyelectrolytes have been investigated as nanoparticle stabilizers, but typically fail at high ionic strengths and elevated temperatures due to excessive charge screening and dehydration. We report an approach to nanoparticle stabilization that overcomes these limitations, and exploits the antipolyelectrolyte phenomenon, in which screening of intrachain electrostatic interactions causes a polyzwitterion chain to undergo a structural transition from a collapsed globule to a more open coil-like regime with increases in ionic strength and temperature. Small-angle neutron scattering on a model zwitterionic polymer in solution indicated an increase in both radius of gyration and excluded volume parameter of the polymer with increases in ionic strength and temperature. The model zwitterion was subsequently incorporated within a polymeric stabilizer for nanoparticles under harsh reservoir conditions, and used to functionalize hydrophilic (silica) as well as hydrophobic (polystyrene) nanoparticles. Long-term colloidal stability was achieved at salt concentrations up to 120,000 mg/dm3 at 90 °C, approximately twice the stability limit previously reported in the literature. The approach can be broadly generalized to a large class of synthetic polyzwitterions, and can be adapted to a wide variety of other colloidal systems in which demands placed by extreme salinity and temperature conditions must be met. PMID:26278070

  10. Influence of temperature and salinity fluctuations on propagation behaviour of partially coherent beams in oceanic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei; Liu, Liren; Sun, Jianfeng

    2006-12-01

    A theoretical study of the behaviour of partially coherent beams propagating through oceanic turbulence has been performed. Based on the previously developed knowledge of beam spreading of a partially coherent beam in the atmosphere and the spatial power spectrum of the refractive index of ocean water, we study the normalized root-mean-square width of a partially coherent beam on propagation through oceanic turbulence and its turbulence distance which may be a measure of turbulence resistance. Our analysis indicates that the behaviour of partially coherent beams on propagation may be described by the rate of dissipation of the mean-squared temperature χT and that of salinity χS. In terms of a quantity w that defines the contributions of the temperature and salinity distributions to the distribution of the refractive index, χS could be written as a function of χT and w. Therefore, the behaviour of partially coherent beams on propagation can be characterized only by χT for a given w. The results are shown for curved surfaces, from which one can see that partially coherent beams exhibit robust turbulence resistance when the water volume has a smaller χT.

  11. The salinity signature of the cross-shelf exchanges in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: Numerical simulations

    PubMed Central

    Matano, Ricardo P; Combes, Vincent; Piola, Alberto R; Guerrero, Raul; Palma, Elbio D; Ted Strub, P; James, Corinne; Fenco, Harold; Chao, Yi; Saraceno, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A high-resolution model is used to characterize the dominant patterns of sea surface salinity (SSS) variability generated by the freshwater discharges of the Rio de la Plata (RdlP) and the Patos/Mirim Lagoon in the southwestern Atlantic region. We identify three dominant modes of SSS variability. The first two, which have been discussed in previous studies, represent the seasonal and the interannual variations of the freshwater plumes over the continental shelf. The third mode of SSS variability, which has not been discussed hitherto, represents the salinity exchanges between the shelf and the deep ocean. A diagnostic study using floats and passive tracers identifies the pathways taken by the freshwater plumes. During the austral winter (JJA), the plumes leave the shelf region north of the BMC. During the austral summer (DJF), the plumes are entrained more directly into the BMC. A sensitivity study indicates that the high-frequency component of the wind stress forcing controls the vertical structure of the plumes while the low-frequency component of the wind stress forcing and the interannual variations of the RdlP discharge controls the horizontal structure of the plumes. Dynamical analysis reveals that the cross-shelf flow has a dominant barotropic structure and, therefore, the SSS anomalies detected by Aquarius represent net mass exchanges between the shelf and the deep ocean. The net cross-shelf volume flux is 1.21 Sv. This outflow is largely compensated by an inflow from the Patagonian shelf. PMID:26213673

  12. Nitrogen sources and sinks in a wastewater impacted saline aquifer beneath the Florida Keys, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Kevin S.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Smith, Leslie K.

    2007-06-01

    Groundwater wells surrounding a high volume advance treatment wastewater (ATW) disposal well in the Florida Keys were monitored for nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium concentrations over a 14 month period. Nutrient concentrations in the shallow subsurface (9 m) show a bimodal distribution between the low salinity wastewater plume and the ambient brackish to saline groundwaters. High NO 3- concentrations are found within the ATW plume while the highest NH 4+ concentrations are found in shallow wells outside of the plume. Evidence suggests that the overlying mud layer unique to this study site contributes the bulk of the NH 4+ observed in these wells. NO 3- concentrations at 9 m wells varied by a factor of four in response to concurrent variations in ATW NO 3- loads over the coarse of the study. Estimated NO 3- uptake rates varied from 32 ± 29 to 98 ± 69 and did not directly correlate with ATW NO 3- loading as we hypothesized. We estimate that 70 ± 34% of the NO 3- from the treatment plant is removed from solution in the subsurface of the study site. Considerable decreases in NO 3- concentration and enrichment of 15NO 3- was observed in many wells, indicating significant denitrification or anaerobic ammonium oxidation is occurring in the subsurface. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations, distributions, and 15N compositions indicate that denitrification is likely the dominant mechanism for N removal in the ATW plume at Key Colony Beach, Florida.

  13. Microstrip Antenna for Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture and Sea Surface Salinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramhat-Samii, Yahya; Kona, Keerti; Manteghi, Majid; Dinardo, Steven; Hunter, Don; Njoku, Eni; Wilson, Wiliam; Yueh, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This compact, lightweight, dual-frequency antenna feed developed for future soil moisture and sea surface salinity (SSS) missions can benefit future soil and ocean studies by lowering mass, volume, and cost of the antenna system. It also allows for airborne soil moisture and salinity remote sensors operating on small aircraft. While microstrip antenna technology has been developed for radio communications, it has yet to be applied to combined radar and radiometer for Earth remote sensing. The antenna feed provides a key instrument element enabling high-resolution radiometric observations with large, deployable antennas. The design is based on the microstrip stacked-patch array (MSPA) used to feed a large, lightweight, deployable, rotating mesh antenna for spaceborne L-band (approximately equal to 1 GHz) passive and active sensing systems. The array consists of stacked patches to provide dual-frequency capability and suitable radiation patterns. The stacked-patch microstrip element was designed to cover the required L-band center frequencies at 1.26 GHz (lower patch) and 1.413 GHz (upper patch), with dual-linear polarization capabilities. The dimension of patches produces the required frequencies. To achieve excellent polarization isolation and control of antenna sidelobes for the MSPA, the orientation of each stacked-patch element within the array is optimized to reduce the cross-polarization. A specialized feed-distribution network was designed to achieve the required excitation amplitude and phase for each stacked-patch element.

  14. Fresh oxygen for the Baltic Sea — An exceptional saline inflow after a decade of stagnation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrholz, V.; Naumann, M.; Nausch, G.; Krüger, S.; Gräwe, U.

    2015-08-01

    The ecological state of the Baltic Sea depends crucially on sufficiently frequent, strong deep water renewal on the periodic deep water renewal events by inflow of oxygen rich saline water from the North Sea. Due to the strong density stratification these inflows are the only source for deep water ventilation. Since the early eighties of the last century the frequency of inflow events has dropped drastically from 5 to 7 major inflows per decade to only one inflow per decade. Wide spread anoxic conditions became the usual state in the central Baltic. The rare major Baltic inflow (MBI) events in 1993 and 2003 could interrupt the anoxic bottom conditions only temporarily. After more than 10 years without a major Baltic inflow events, in December 2014 a strong MBI brought large amounts of saline and well oxygenated water into the Baltic Sea. Based on observations and numerical modeling, the inflow was classified as one of the rare very strong events. The inflow volume and the amount of salt transported into the Baltic were estimated to be with 198 km3 and 4 Gt, respectively. The strength of the MBI exceeded considerably the previous 2003 event. In the list of the MBIs since 1880, the 2014 inflow is the third strongest event together with the MBI in 1913. This inflow event will most probably turn the entire Baltic deep water from anoxic to oxic conditions, with substantial spread consequences for marine life and biogeochemical cycles.

  15. Evaluation of granular sludge for secondary treatment of saline municipal sewage.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Ben; Reid, Katherine; Middlemiss, Kyra; Krampe, Joerg

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the impact of chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on the stability and performance of granular sludge treating high saline municipal sewage. Under high DO concentrations of 4.0-7.0 mg/L, and COD loading rates of 0.98 and 1.55 kg/m(3)/d, rapid settling granules were established within four weeks of start-up. Under the highest COD load, a reduction in DO lead to the rapid deterioration of the sludge volume index (SVI) and washout of granules due to prolific growth of the filament Thiothrix Type 021N. Conversely, when operated under a lower COD load, a reduction in DO concentration had no adverse impact on the stability of SVI and granules. A decrease in DO also improved nitrogen removal performance, where simultaneous removal of ammonium (98%), total nitrogen (86%) and BOD5 (98%) were achieved when median DO concentrations were between 1.0 and 1.5 mg/L. Phosphate removal was lower than expected, however the level of biological phosphate removal activity observed appeared sufficient to maintain granule stability, even under low DO concentrations. Nitrous oxide emissions were also characterised, which ranged between 2.3 and 6.8% of the total nitrogen load. Our results confirmed that granular sludge is a viable option for the treatment of saline sewage. PMID:25897508

  16. Effect of the vapor phase on the salinity of halite-bearing aqueous fluid inclusions estimated from the halite dissolution temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2013-08-01

    Salinities of aqueous fluid inclusions are commonly determined by measuring the temperatures of dissolution of solid phases (daughter minerals) during heating. The vapor bubble is, in most cases, considered to have no mass and to have no effect on the bulk salinity, owing to the low density of the vapor. In the present study we test the assumption that the vapor bubble can be ignored when estimating salinity based on the halite dissolution temperature. The errors in bulk salinity that result from neglecting the vapor bubble are generally less than ˜1.5 wt.% NaCl, and errors of this magnitude occur only when there is a large difference between the halite dissolution temperature and the vapor disappearance temperature (e.g., halite dissolution at ˜450 °C and vapor bubble disappearance at 800 °C) or, stated differently, when the vapor bubble occupies a significant volume fraction of the inclusion at the temperature of halite disappearance. In most cases errors are less than 0.5 wt.% NaCl. Salinity estimated based on Tm,H can be adjusted to account for the contribution of H2O from the vapor phase, using an empirical relationship describing the proportion of liquid in the inclusion at Tm,H as a function of the difference between Th,LV and Tm,H.

  17. Implications of salinity pollution hotspots on agricultural production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floerke, Martina; Fink, Julia; Malsy, Marcus; Voelker, Jeanette; Alcamo, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Salinity pollution can have many negative impacts on water resources used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Elevated concentrations of salinity in irrigation water can lead to decreased crop production or crop death and, thus, causing an economic problem. Overall, salinity pollution is a global problem but tends to be more severe in arid and semi-arid regions where the dilution capacity of rivers and lakes is lower and the use of irrigation higher. Particularly in these regions agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water as insufficient water quality further reduces the available freshwater resources. According to the FAO, irrigated agriculture contributes about 40 percent of the total food production globally, and therefore, high salinity pollution poses a major concern for food production and food security. We use the WaterGAP3 modeling framework to simulate hydrological, water use, and water quality conditions on a global scale for the time period 1990 to 2010. The modeling framework is applied to simulate total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from different point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to agricultural food production. The model was tested and calibrated against observed data from GEMStat and literature sources. Although global in scope, the focus of this study is on developing countries, i.e., in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, as these are most threatened by salinity pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use are examined, indicating limitations to crop production. Our results show that elevated salinity concentrations in surface waters mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is not only the most relevant water use sector contributing to water abstractions, but also the dominant source of salinity pollution. Additionally

  18. Passive Microwave Measurements of Salinity: The Gulf Stream Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Haken, M.; Howden, S.; Bingham, F.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (I psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approximately 0.2 psu) required of global maps to be scientifically viable. The development of a satellite microwave instrument to make global measurements of SSS (Sea Surface Salinity) is the focus of a joint JPL/GSFC/NASA ocean research program called Aquarius. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of airborne microwave instruments together with ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer (for surface temperature). These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Sea surface measurements consisted of thermosalinograph data provided by the R/V Cape Henlopen and the MN Oleander, and data from salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the R/V Cape Henlopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made with the airborne sensors on August 28 and 29 and

  19. Drivers of long-term ocean salinity changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durack, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Previous work has highlighted near-surface salinity pattern amplification (PA) and depth-integrated halosteric (salinity-driven) sea-level changes in long-term change estimates from observations and climate model simulations. These suggest that fresh ocean regions are becoming fresher, and salty regions saltier in part to a response to evaporation minus precipitation (E-P; water cycle) changes driven by a warming Earth. While near-surface salinity changes relate to the climatological mean (fresh becoming fresher, salty becoming saltier), subsurface salinity changes have also been recorded. Similar to the near-surface, these changes represent a complex three-dimensional structure that is different in each ocean basin. Like near-surface changes, subsurface salinity changes also share a strong correspondence with the subsurface climatological mean. When integrated through the depth of observed data coverage (0-2000 m), these show a clear basin halosteric contrast - a freshening Pacific and an enhancing Atlantic salinity a fingerprint of change that has been successfully attributed to anthropogenic climate change in previous studies. As long-term observational insights are limited, model simulations provide a novel method to assess and validate observed change estimates, and attribute the drivers of long-term change. Using the CMIP (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 & 5) 20C3M/historical (20th century), SRES/RCP (future 21st century) and pre-industrial (piControl; unforced) simulations, these basin salinity change contrasts are investigated and their relationship to simulated E-P (water cycle) changes is diagnosed. The intrinsic variability of both modelled salinity and E-P change fields is investigated to ascertain an envelope of unforced (piControl) climate variability, an estimate currently unavailable for long-term observational estimates due to poor measurement coverage. These unforced distributions are compared to those of weakly- (20C3M

  20. Optical measurements in the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition zone. II. Water mass classification along the Jutland west coast from salinity and spectral irradiance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarup, T.; Holt, N.; Højerslev, N. K.

    1996-08-01

    Spectral irradiance measurements were gathered along three fixed sections outside Thyborøn, Hanstholm and Hirtshals on the north west coast of Denmark during seven cruises with R. V. Svanic in the years 1990-1992. It is argued that the irradiance attenuation coefficient Kd (410) can be taken as a good indicator of yellow substance in the study region. Salinity - Kd (410) scatter plots show that three water types can be identified in the area: Atlantic/Central North Sea water, German Bight water and Baltic water. Estimates of the mean width of the part of the Jutland Coastal Current that primarily is influenced by the freshwater inflow to the German Bight are given for each of the three sections. A salinity- Kd(410) water mass analysis was carried out based on long-term mean characteristic values of salinity and Kd(410) for the three core water types and the measurements from this study. The average contents of Atlantic/Central North Sea water, German Bight water and Baltic water was estimated for the surface layer at each of the three sections. Based on the volume flow estimates (provided as a function of salinity) from the three sections as listed in Rydberg (Report No. 53, Department of Oceanography, University of Gothenburg, Sweden, 1993) an estimate of the mean volume flow of water with German Bight origin entering the Skagerrak is given.

  1. A dynamical system approach to soil salinity and sodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mau, Yair; Porporato, Amilcare

    2015-09-01

    Soil salinity and sodicity impose severe constrains to agriculture, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, where good-quality water for irrigation is scarce. While detailed models have been proposed in the past to describe the dynamics of salt and sodium in the soil, they typically require cumbersome calculations and are not amenable to theoretical analysis. Here we present an analytical model for the dynamics of salinity and sodicity in the root zone. We determine the dependence of steady-state salinity and sodicity levels on irrigation water quality and derive the trajectories in the phase space. The only stationary solution the equations admit is a stable node. Through numerical integration and analysis of the eigenvalues of the derived two-dimensional system of equations, the slower time scale associated with sodification is quantified with respect to the faster time scale associated to salinization. The role of different cation exchange equations (Gapon and Vanselow conventions) are shown to be practically the same with regard to the phase-space dynamics and the time scales. The results can be applied in controlling for low levels of salinity and sodicity, and in planning remediation strategies that are timely and economical.

  2. SMOS Sea Surface Salinity Validation in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yongzheng; Li, Xiaoming; Dong, Qing

    2013-01-01

    In November 2009, the European Space Agency (ESA) launched the first soil moisture and ocean salinity (SMOS) satellite, which represented the first use of spaceborne remote sensing tools to probe global sea surface salinity (SSS). The SMOS satellite carries a microwave imaging radiometer with aperture synthesis (MIRAS) for detection in the microwave L-band as the only payload. The MIRAS instrument is expected to provide a global SSS distribution with a spatial resolution of approximately 100 km and an accuracy of 0.1-0.2 practical salinity units (psu). The South China Sea is semi-enclosed, and the sea conditions are relatively complex. The suitability of ESA SMOS salinity products for the South China Sea has not been validated. Therefore, using SSS data measured during an expedition in the South China Sea, which was sponsored by China Natural Science Foundation and conducted in the fall of 2011, this paper validated the SSS products released by ESA, which were retrieved using three sea surface roughness models. To analyze the effect of the spatial resolution on the weekly average SMOS SSS distribution, the weekly average salinity data were averaged to reduce the spatial resolution to 0.25 ° x 0.25°. These average data were then compared to the measured data, followed by an analysis of the error variation. In addition, the effects of the orbital track (ascending or descending) on the SSS retrieval were analyzed.

  3. Interannual variability of the Indonesian Throughflow: The salinity effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shijian; Sprintall, Janet

    2016-04-01

    The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) region possesses strong mixing and experiences significant freshwater input, but the role of salinity variability in the Indonesian Seas remains unclear. The goal of this study is to understand how salinity variability influences the ITF transport on interannual time scales. The ITF transport is calculated using observations and assimilation data sets and verified using direct ITF transport estimates. We find that the halosteric component of the ITF transport contributes (36 ± 7)% of the total ITF variability, in contrast to (63 ± 6)% by the thermosteric component. Thus, while not dominant, this result nonetheless implies that the salinity variability in the Indonesian Seas is of remarkable importance in determining the interannual variability of ITF transport. Correlation analysis indicates that the interannual variability of the total ITF transport is mainly influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) rather than the Indian Ocean Dipole. Under the ENSO cycle, the Walker Circulation shifts longitudinally resulting in fluctuations in precipitation over the Indonesian Seas that modulates salinity and subsequently influences the interannual variability of ITF transport. This result signals the importance of precipitation and the subsequent salinity effect in determining the interannual variability of the ITF transport. The role of wind forcing and oceanic planetary waves is also revisited using this newly calculated ITF transport series. ENSO-related wind forcing is found to modulate the ITF transport via Rossby waves through the wave guide in the Indonesian Seas, which is in agreement with previous studies.

  4. [Soils salinity content of greenhouse in Shanghai suburb].

    PubMed

    Yao, Chun-Xia; Chen, Zhen-Lou; Xu, Shi-Yuan

    2007-06-01

    Salinity content and characteristic of farmland soil in Shanghai suburb was studied. Result indicates that soils in greenhouse in Shanghai suburb are partially salted. Soils of suburb where melons or vegetables grow in Shanghai city, 88.52% soil is non-salted while 10.37% mildly salted, 0.74% obviously salted and 0.37% badly salted. Anions component of salt salinity in soil are mainly SO4(2-), Cl-, NO3(-) and cations component are mainly Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, K+. These ions are mostly from fertilizer auxiliary component or fertilizer transformation component besides some original deposition in soil. The formation of soil secondary salted in greenhouse cultivation in suburbs of Shanghai has a close relationship with improper fertilization or employing too much fertilizer. Soil salinity is different with different cultivation mode and utilization time. From high to low, sequence of soil salinity content in 0 - 20 cm cultivation layer of different crop mode is greenhouse vegetable soil, melon soil, vegetable melon rotation soil and hypaethral vegetable soil respectively. In the same region, salinity in greenhouse soil continually increases and accumulates from underlayer to surface along with more utilization years. PMID:17674752

  5. Potential Use of Halophytes to Remediate Saline Soils

    PubMed Central

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Bhowmik, Prasanta C.; Hossain, Md. Amzad; Rahman, Motior M.; Prasad, Majeti Narasimha Vara; Ozturk, Munir; Fujita, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the rising problems causing tremendous yield losses in many regions of the world especially in arid and semiarid regions. To maximize crop productivity, these areas should be brought under utilization where there are options for removing salinity or using the salt-tolerant crops. Use of salt-tolerant crops does not remove the salt and hence halophytes that have capacity to accumulate and exclude the salt can be an effective way. Methods for salt removal include agronomic practices or phytoremediation. The first is cost- and labor-intensive and needs some developmental strategies for implication; on the contrary, the phytoremediation by halophyte is more suitable as it can be executed very easily without those problems. Several halophyte species including grasses, shrubs, and trees can remove the salt from different kinds of salt-affected problematic soils through salt excluding, excreting, or accumulating by their morphological, anatomical, physiological adaptation in their organelle level and cellular level. Exploiting halophytes for reducing salinity can be good sources for meeting the basic needs of people in salt-affected areas as well. This review focuses on the special adaptive features of halophytic plants under saline condition and the possible ways to utilize these plants to remediate salinity. PMID:25110683

  6. Effects of saline drinking water on early gosling development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolley, D.S.; Bissonette, J.A.; Kadlec, J.A.; Coster, D.

    1999-01-01

    Relatively high levels of saline drinking water may adversely affect the growth, development, and survival of young waterfowl. Saline drinking water was suspect in the low survival rate of Canada goose (Branta canadensis) goslings at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (FSNWR) in western Utah. Hence, we investigated the effects of saline drinking water on the survival and growth of captive, wild-strain goslings from day 1-28 following hatch. We compared survival and growth (as measured by body mass, wing length, and culmen length) between a control group on tap water with a mean specific conductivity of 650 ??S/cm, and 2 saline water treatments: (1) intermediate level (12,000 ??S/cm), and (2) high level (18,000 ??S/cm). Gosling mortality occurred only in the 18,000 ??S/cm treatment group (33%; n = 9). Slopes of regressions of mean body mass, wing length, and culmen length on age were different from each other (P < 0.05), except for culmen length for the intermediate and high treatment levels. We predict that free-ranging wild goslings will experience mortality at even lower salinity levels than captive goslings because of the combined effects of depressed growth and environmental stresses, including hot desert temperatures and variable food quality over summer.

  7. Effects of Soil Salinity on Sucrose Metabolism in Cotton Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Luo, Junyu; Dong, Helin; Ma, Yan; Zhao, Xinhua; Chen, Binglin; Sui, Ning; Zhou, Zhiguo; Meng, Yali

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated sucrose metabolism of the youngest fully expanded main-stem leaf (MSL) and the subtending leaf of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll (LSCB) of salt-tolerant (CCRI-79) and salt-sensitive (Simian 3) cultivars and its relationship to boll weight under low, medium and high soil salinity stress in Dafeng, China, in 2013 and 2014. The results showed that with increased soil salinity, 1) both the chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased, while the internal CO2 concentration firstly declined, and then increased in the MSL and LSCB; 2) carbohydrate contents in the MSL reduced significantly, while sucrose and starch contents in the LSCB increased, as did the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) in both the MSL and LSCB; 3) but invertase activity in both the MSL and LSCB did not change significantly. Our study also showed that the LSCB was more sensitive to soil salinity than was the MSL. Of the measured physiological indices, higher SPS activity, mainly controlled by sps3, may contribute to adaption of the LSCB to soil salinity stress because SPS is beneficial for efficiently sucrose synthesis, reduction of cellular osmotic potential and combined actions of Pn, and sucrose transformation rate and SPS may contribute to the reduction in boll weight under soil salinity stress. PMID:27228029

  8. Salinity pathways between Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Kailasam, Muni

    2016-07-01

    Surface as well as subsurface salinity are highly heterogeneous in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Due to the strong seasonal reversal of currents in the two seas tremendous salt exchange occurred. The present study focuses on the exchange of salt between the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal by using remote sensing observations like SMOS and Aquarius. Inflow of high salinity water from the central Arabians Sea into the south Bay of Bengal is significant and occurs during August-September. Freshwater transport out of the Bay of Bengal is southward throughout the year along the along the east coast of the Indian sub-continent. Only a small fraction of low salinity water is advected into the eastern Arabian Sea from the Bay of Bengal. The pathways of salinity between the two seas are also examined using SODA data. It shows that relatively low salinity Bay of Bengal water is transported southward across the equator throughout the year. A considerable southward cross-equatorial exchange of Arabian Sea water occurs during the southwest monsoon season.

  9. Impacts of Salinity on Soil Hydraulic Properties and Evaporation Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierro, V.; Cristi Matte, F.; Suarez, F. I.; Munoz, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Saline soils are common in arid zones, where evaporation from shallow groundwater is generally the main component of the water balance. Thus, to correctly manage water resources in these zones, it is important to quantify the evaporation fluxes. Evaporation from saline soils is a complex process that couples the movement of salts, heat, liquid water and water vapor, and strongly depends on the soil water content. Precipitation/dissolution reactions can change the soil structure and alter flow paths, modifying evaporation fluxes. We utilized the HYDRUS-1D model to investigate the effects of salinity on soil hydraulic properties and evaporation fluxes. HYDRUS-1D simulates the transport of liquid water, water vapor, and heat, and can incorporate precipitation/dissolution reactions of the major ions. To run the model, we determined the water retention curve for a soil with different salinities; and we used meteorological forcing from an experimental site from the Atacama Desert. It was found that higher sodium adsorption ratios in the soil increase the soil water retention capacity. Also, it was found that evaporation fluxes increase salts concentration near the soil surface, changing the soil's water retention capacity in that zone. Finally, movement of salts causes differences in evaporation fluxes. It is thus necessary to incorporate salt precipitation/dissolution reactions and its effects on the water retention curve to correctly simulate evaporation in saline soils

  10. Potential use of halophytes to remediate saline soils.

    PubMed

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Alam, Md Mahabub; Bhowmik, Prasanta C; Hossain, Md Amzad; Rahman, Motior M; Prasad, Majeti Narasimha Vara; Ozturk, Munir; Fujita, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the rising problems causing tremendous yield losses in many regions of the world especially in arid and semiarid regions. To maximize crop productivity, these areas should be brought under utilization where there are options for removing salinity or using the salt-tolerant crops. Use of salt-tolerant crops does not remove the salt and hence halophytes that have capacity to accumulate and exclude the salt can be an effective way. Methods for salt removal include agronomic practices or phytoremediation. The first is cost- and labor-intensive and needs some developmental strategies for implication; on the contrary, the phytoremediation by halophyte is more suitable as it can be executed very easily without those problems. Several halophyte species including grasses, shrubs, and trees can remove the salt from different kinds of salt-affected problematic soils through salt excluding, excreting, or accumulating by their morphological, anatomical, physiological adaptation in their organelle level and cellular level. Exploiting halophytes for reducing salinity can be good sources for meeting the basic needs of people in salt-affected areas as well. This review focuses on the special adaptive features of halophytic plants under saline condition and the possible ways to utilize these plants to remediate salinity. PMID:25110683

  11. Effects of Soil Salinity on Sucrose Metabolism in Cotton Leaves.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jun; Liu, Jingran; Zhang, Lei; Luo, Junyu; Dong, Helin; Ma, Yan; Zhao, Xinhua; Chen, Binglin; Sui, Ning; Zhou, Zhiguo; Meng, Yali

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated sucrose metabolism of the youngest fully expanded main-stem leaf (MSL) and the subtending leaf of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll (LSCB) of salt-tolerant (CCRI-79) and salt-sensitive (Simian 3) cultivars and its relationship to boll weight under low, medium and high soil salinity stress in Dafeng, China, in 2013 and 2014. The results showed that with increased soil salinity, 1) both the chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased, while the internal CO2 concentration firstly declined, and then increased in the MSL and LSCB; 2) carbohydrate contents in the MSL reduced significantly, while sucrose and starch contents in the LSCB increased, as did the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) in both the MSL and LSCB; 3) but invertase activity in both the MSL and LSCB did not change significantly. Our study also showed that the LSCB was more sensitive to soil salinity than was the MSL. Of the measured physiological indices, higher SPS activity, mainly controlled by sps3, may contribute to adaption of the LSCB to soil salinity stress because SPS is beneficial for efficiently sucrose synthesis, reduction of cellular osmotic potential and combined actions of Pn, and sucrose transformation rate and SPS may contribute to the reduction in boll weight under soil salinity stress. PMID:27228029

  12. Real-time bladder volume monitoring by the application of a new implantable bladder volume sensor for a small animal model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Sup; Kim, Su Jin; Sohn, Dong Wan; Choi, Bumkyoo; Lee, Moon Kyu; Lee, Seung Joon; Kim, Sae Woong

    2011-04-01

    Although real-time monitoring of bladder volume together with intravesical pressure can provide more information for understanding the functional changes of the urinary bladder, it still entails difficulties in the accurate prediction of real-time bladder volume in urodynamic studies with small animal models. We studied a new implantable bladder volume monitoring device with eight rats. During cystometry, microelectrodes prepared by the microelectromechanical systems process were placed symmetrically on both lateral walls of the bladder, and the expanded bladder volume was calculated. Immunohistological study was done after 1 week and after 4 weeks to evaluate the biocompatibility of the microelectrode. From the point that infused saline volume into the bladder was higher than 0.6 mL, estimated bladder volume was statistically correlated with the volume of saline injected (p<0.01). Additionally, the microelectromechanical system microelectrodes used in this study showed reliable biocompatibility. Therefore, the device can be used to evaluate changes in bladder volume in studies with small animals, and it may help to provide more information about functional changes in the bladder in laboratory studies. Furthermore, owing to its biocompatibility, the device could be chronically implanted in conscious ambulating animals, thus allowing a novel longitudinal study to be performed for a specific purpose. PMID:21463835

  13. Renal Response to Volume Expansion: Learning the Experimental Approach in the Context of Integrative Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Robert L.; Dukacz, Stephen A. W.; Stavraky, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experience for upper-level science students that provides a hands-on approach to understanding the basics of experimental physiology. Students design an experiment to determine the relative importance of dilution of plasma proteins in the overall renal excretory response following volume expansion with intravenous saline.…

  14. Sonographic estimation of pleural fluid volume in dogs.

    PubMed

    Newitt, Anna L M; Cripps, Peter J; Shimali, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find an ultrasonographic method to estimate pleural fluid volume in dogs. Nine canine cadavers of mixed breed were studied. Using a transsternal view, linear measurements from the pleural surface of the midline of the sternebra at the center of the heart to the furthest ventrolateral point of both right and left lung edges were recorded. Isotonic saline was injected using ultrasound guidance into both right and left pleural spaces and the measurements were repeated using standard increments until 1000 ml total volume was reached. No relationship was identified between mean distance and injected volume up to 100 ml. Thereafter, the mean distance increased in an approximately linear relationship with the cube root of fluid volume. There was a high correlation (r > or = 0.899) between the ultrasonographic measurement and fluid volume within individual dogs, but it was not possible to produce a useful equation to calculate absolute pleural fluid volume for new subjects. Nevertheless, ultrasonography may be used to semiquantitatively monitor pleural fluid volume, so that a decrease in the mean linear measurement obtained reflects a decrease in the total fluid volume. PMID:19241761

  15. New equations for density, entropy, heat capacity, and potential temperature of a saline thermal fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongbing; Feistel, Rainer; Koch, Manfred; Markoe, Andrew

    2008-10-01

    A set of fitted polynomial equations for calculating the physical variables density, entropy, heat capacity and potential temperature of a thermal saline fluid for a temperature range of 0-374 °C, pressure range of 0.1-100 MPa and absolute salinity range of 0-40 g/kg is established. The freshwater components of the equations are extracted from the recently released tabulated data of freshwater properties of Wagner and Pruß [2002. The IAPWS formulation 1995 for the thermodynamic properties of ordinary water substance for general and scientific use. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 31, 387-535]. The salt water component of the equation is based on the near-linear relationship between density, salinity and specific heat capacity and is extracted from the data sets of Feistel [2003. A new extended Gibbs thermodynamic potential of seawater. Progress in Oceanography 58, 43-114], Bromley et al. [1970. Heat capacities and enthalpies of sea salt solutions to 200 °C. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data 15, 246-253] and Grunberg [1970. Properties of sea water concentrates. In: Third International Symposium on Fresh Water from the Sea, vol. 1, pp. 31-39] in a temperature range 0-200 °C, practical salinity range 0-40, and varying pressure and is also calibrated by the data set of Millero et al. [1981. Summary of data treatment for the international high pressure equation of state for seawater. UNESCO Technical Papers in Marine Science 38, 99-192]. The freshwater and salt water components are combined to establish a workable multi-polynomial equation, whose coefficients were computed through standard linear regression analysis. The results obtained in this way for density, entropy and potential temperature are comparable with those of existing models, except that our new equations cover a wider temperature—(0-374 °C) than the traditional (0-40 °C) temperature range. One can apply these newly established equations to the calculation of in-situ or

  16. Treatment with spermidine protects chrysanthemum seedlings against salinity stress damage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Naiyuan; Shi, Xiaomeng; Guan, Zhiyong; Zhao, Shuang; Zhang, Fei; Chen, Sumei; Fang, Weiming; Chen, Fadi

    2016-08-01

    Salinity-stressed plants of salinity sensitive ('Qx096') and tolerant ('Qx097') chrysanthemum cultivar were treated with a range of concentrations of spermidine (Spd). Plant performance, as indicated by various parameters associated with growth, was improved by the treatment, as was the tissue content of soluble protein and proline. The extent of both Na(+) accumulation and K(+) loss was reduced. Activity levels of the stress-related enzymes SOD, POD, APX and CAT were significantly increased and the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased. The suggestion was that treatment with 1.5 mM Spd would be an effective means alleviating salinity-stress induced injury through its positive effect on photosynthetic efficiency, reactive oxygen species scavenging ability and the control of ionic balance and osmotic potential. Its protective capacity was more apparent in 'Qx096' than in 'Qx097'. PMID:27173095

  17. Comparative study of midtrimester termination of pregnancy using hypertonic saline, ethacridine lactate, prostaglandin analogue and iodine-saline.

    PubMed

    Allahbadia, G

    1992-09-01

    The study consisted of terminations of 200 cases of second trimester pregnancies ranging from 14 weeks to 20 weeks. Out of these 200 cases, in 50 cases intra-amniotic instillation of 20% hypertonic saline (200 ml) was done after withdrawing 35-200 ml of amniotic fluid. Ethacridine lactate was instilled in 50 cases extra-amniotically. Prostaglandin F2 alpha was injected intramuscularly at regular intervals in 50 cases. Fifty cases of pregnancies were terminated with extra-amniotic instillation of 5% povidone-iodine solution mixed with normal saline. Comparison was made among all the methods regarding instillation-abortion interval, completeness of abortion, failure of the procedure and postoperative complications. Solution of 5% povidone-iodine in normal saline was found to be comparable in all aspects to other methods and above all a much cheaper alternative for poor patients. Success rate was highest with iodine-saline solution (100%) followed by ethacridine lactate (98%), hypertonic saline (96%) and lowest with prostaglandin F2 alpha (90%). PMID:1460314

  18. Impact of water quality and irrigation management on soil salinization in the Drâa valley of Morocco.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beff, L.; Descamps, C.; Dufey, J.; Bielders, C.

    2009-04-01

    Under the arid climatic conditions of the Drâa valley in southern Morocco, irrigation is essential for crop production. Two sources of water are available to farmers: (1) moderate salinity water from the Oued Drâa (classified as C3-S1 in the USDA irrigation water classification diagram) which is available only a few times per year following discrete releases from the Mansour Eddahbi dam, and (2) high salinity water from wells (C4-S2). Soil salinization is frequently observed, principally on plots irrigated with well water. As Oued water is available in insufficient amounts, strategies must be devised to use well and Oued water judiciously, without inducing severe salinization. The salinization risk under wheat production was evaluated using the HP1 program (Jacques and Šimůnek, 2005) for different combinations of the two main water sources, different irrigation frequencies and irrigation volumes. The soil was a sandy clay loam (topsoil) to sandy loam (40 cm depth). Soil hydrodynamic properties were derived from in situ measurements and lab measurements on undisturbed soil samples. The HP1 model was parameterized for wheat growth and 12 scenarios were run for 10 year periods using local climatic data. Water quality was measured or estimated on the basis of water samples in wells and various Oueds, and the soil chemical properties were determined. Depending on the scenario, soil salinity in the mean root zone increased from less than 1 meq/100g of soil to more than 5 meq/100g of soil over a ten year period. Salt accumulation was more pronounced at 45 cm soil depth, which is half of the maximum rooting depth, and when well water was preferentially used. Maximum crop yield (water transpired / potential water transpired) was achieved for five scenarios but this implied the use of well water to satisfy the crop water requirements. The usual Drâa Valley irrigation scenario, with five, 84 mm dam water applications per year, lead to a 25% yield loss. Adding the amount

  19. Dose and developmental responses of Anopheles merus larvae to salinity

    PubMed Central

    White, Bradley J.; Kundert, Peter N.; Turissini, David A.; Van Ekeris, Leslie; Linser, Paul J.; Besansky, Nora J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Saltwater tolerance is a trait that carries both ecological and epidemiological significance for Anopheles mosquitoes that transmit human malaria, as it plays a key role in determining their habitat use and ecological distribution, and thus their local contribution to malaria transmission. Here, we lay the groundwork for genetic dissection of this trait by quantifying saltwater tolerance in three closely related cryptic species and malaria vectors from the Afrotropical Anopheles gambiae complex that are known to differ starkly in their tolerance to salinity: the obligate freshwater species A. gambiae and A. coluzzii, and the saltwater-tolerant species A. merus. We performed detailed comparisons of survivorship under varying salinities, using multiple strains of A. gambiae, A. coluzzii and A. merus, as well as F1 progeny from reciprocal crosses of A. merus and A. coluzzii. Additionally, using immunohistochemistry, we compared the location of three ion regulatory proteins (Na+/K+-ATPase, carbonic anhydrase and Na+/H+-antiporter) in the recta of A. coluzzii and A. merus reared in freshwater or saline water. As expected, we found that A. merus survives exposure to high salinities better than A. gambiae and A. coluzzii. Further, we found that exposure to a salinity level of 15.85 g NaCl l−1 is a discriminating dose that kills all A. gambiae, A. coluzzii and A. coluzzii–A. merus F1 larvae, but does not negatively impact the survival of A. merus. Importantly, phenotypic expression of saltwater tolerance by A. merus is highly dependent upon the developmental time of exposure, and based on immunohistochemistry, salt tolerance appears to involve a major shift in Na+/K+-ATPase localization in the rectum, as observed previously for the distantly related saline-tolerant species A. albimanus. PMID:23966587

  20. Interannual Caribbean salinity in satellite data and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodsky, Semyon A.; Johnson, Benjamin K.; Carton, James A.; Bryan, Frank O.

    2015-02-01

    Aquarius sea surface salinity (SSS) reveals the presence of interannual variations in the Caribbean with about 0.5 psu change between salty and fresh events, which propagate westward across that basin at an average speed of 11 cm/s and are preceded by corresponding SSS anomalies east of the Lesser Antilles. These upstream SSS anomalies are produced by interannual changes in the Amazon plume. Their presence is verified using in situ measurements from the northwest tropical Atlantic station. In contrast to SSS, which displays westward propagation, SST changes almost immediately across the Caribbean, suggesting large-scale atmospheric processes have a primary role in regulating interannual SST in contrast to SSS. A global 1/10° mesoscale ocean model is used to quantify possible origination mechanisms of the Caribbean salinity anomalies and their fate. Simulations confirm that they are produced by anomalous horizontal salt advection, which conveys these salinity anomalies from an area east of the Lesser Antilles across the Caribbean. Anomalous horizontal advection is dominated by mean currents acting on anomalous salinity. The model suggests that interannual Caribbean salinity anomalies eventually enter the Florida Current and reach the Gulf Stream 6-12 months after crossing the central Caribbean. Previous studies link the origin of salinity anomalies in the Amazon plume to variations in the annual freshwater discharge from the continent. In this model interannual discharge variations are absent while simulated SSS variability is in line with observations. This suggests that interannually forced ocean dynamics plays a key role in river plume variability and its spatial dispersion.

  1. Groundwater salinity in a floodplain forest impacted by saltwater intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, David A.; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2014-11-01

    Coastal wetlands occupy a delicate position at the intersection of fresh and saline waters. Changing climate and watershed hydrology can lead to saltwater intrusion into historically freshwater systems, causing plant mortality and loss of freshwater habitat. Understanding the hydrological functioning of tidally influenced floodplain forests is essential for advancing ecosystem protection and restoration goals, however finding direct relationships between hydrological inputs and floodplain hydrology is complicated by interactions between surface water, groundwater, and atmospheric fluxes in variably saturated soils with heterogeneous vegetation and topography. Thus, an alternative method for identifying common trends and causal factors is required. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a time series dimension reduction technique, models temporal variation in observed data as linear combinations of common trends, which represent unexplained common variability, and explanatory variables. DFA was applied to model shallow groundwater salinity in the forested floodplain wetlands of the Loxahatchee River (Florida, USA), where altered watershed hydrology has led to changing hydroperiod and salinity regimes and undesired vegetative changes. Long-term, high-resolution groundwater salinity datasets revealed dynamics over seasonal and yearly time periods as well as over tidal cycles and storm events. DFA identified shared trends among salinity time series and a full dynamic factor model simulated observed series well (overall coefficient of efficiency, Ceff = 0.85; 0.52 ≤ Ceff ≤ 0.99). A reduced multilinear model based solely on explanatory variables identified in the DFA had fair to good results (Ceff = 0.58; 0.38 ≤ Ceff ≤ 0.75) and may be used to assess the effects of restoration and management scenarios on shallow groundwater salinity in the Loxahatchee River floodplain.

  2. Dose and developmental responses of Anopheles merus larvae to salinity.

    PubMed

    White, Bradley J; Kundert, Peter N; Turissini, David A; Van Ekeris, Leslie; Linser, Paul J; Besansky, Nora J

    2013-09-15

    Saltwater tolerance is a trait that carries both ecological and epidemiological significance for Anopheles mosquitoes that transmit human malaria, as it plays a key role in determining their habitat use and ecological distribution, and thus their local contribution to malaria transmission. Here, we lay the groundwork for genetic dissection of this trait by quantifying saltwater tolerance in three closely related cryptic species and malaria vectors from the Afrotropical Anopheles gambiae complex that are known to differ starkly in their tolerance to salinity: the obligate freshwater species A. gambiae and A. coluzzii, and the saltwater-tolerant species A. merus. We performed detailed comparisons of survivorship under varying salinities, using multiple strains of A. gambiae, A. coluzzii and A. merus, as well as F1 progeny from reciprocal crosses of A. merus and A. coluzzii. Additionally, using immunohistochemistry, we compared the location of three ion regulatory proteins (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, carbonic anhydrase and Na(+)/H(+)-antiporter) in the recta of A. coluzzii and A. merus reared in freshwater or saline water. As expected, we found that A. merus survives exposure to high salinities better than A. gambiae and A. coluzzii. Further, we found that exposure to a salinity level of 15.85 g NaCl l(-1) is a discriminating dose that kills all A. gambiae, A. coluzzii and A. coluzzii-A. merus F1 larvae, but does not negatively impact the survival of A. merus. Importantly, phenotypic expression of saltwater tolerance by A. merus is highly dependent upon the developmental time of exposure, and based on immunohistochemistry, salt tolerance appears to involve a major shift in Na(+)/K+-ATPase localization in the rectum, as observed previously for the distantly related saline-tolerant species A. albimanus. PMID:23966587

  3. SOLPOND: a simulation program for salinity gradient solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, J.; Leboeuf, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer simulation design tool was developed to simulate dynamic thermal performance for salinity gradient solar ponds. Dynamic programming techniques allow the user significant flexibility in analyzing pond performance under realistic load and weather conditions. Finite element techniques describe conduction heat transfer through the pond, earth, and edges. Results illustrate typical thermal performance of salinity gradient ponds. Sensitivity studies of salty pond thermal performance with respect to geometry, load, and optical transmission are included. Experimental validation of the program with an operating pond is also presented.

  4. Passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in coastal zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Calvin T.; Blume, Hans-Juergen C.; Kendall, Bruce M.

    1987-01-01

    The theory of measuring coastal-zone salinity from airborne microwave radiometers is developed. The theory, as presented, shows that precision measurements of salinity favor the lower microwave frequencies. To this end, L- and S-Band systems were built, and the flight results have shown that accuracies of at least one part per thousand were achieved.The aircraft results focus on flights conducted over the Chesapeake Bay and the mouth of the Savanna River off the Georgia Coast. This paper presents no new work, but rather summarizes the capabilities of the remote sensing technique.

  5. Ground motion predictions for the Grand Saline experiment. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rimer, N.; Cherry, J.T.

    1982-07-01

    Finite difference calculations are used to predict the ground motion and RVP spectra from a tamped 200 pound charge of Pelletol explosive detonated in the Grand Saline Salt Dome. Computational constitutive models and material properties for the dome salt are first normalized using ground motion data from a number of nuclear and high explosive events in salt including SALMON, GNOME, and COWBOY. The ground motion predictions for Phase III of the Grand Saline experiment are then made using our best guesses for site material properties.

  6. Reflux Brines and Saline Groundwater, Murray Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, I.; Weaver, T. R.; Swane, I.

    2001-12-01

    Groundwater in the Murray Basin typically becomes more saline along its flowpaths; however, geochemical data, particularly Br/Cl ratios, indicate limited dissolution of salt from the aquifer is occurring. In the southern Murray Basin, recharge of groundwater to the deeper aquifers (Renmark Formation) is generally considered to occur at the highlands at the south basin margin while recharge to the shallow unconfined Parilla Sands aquifer occurs across much of the region. Regionally, discharge of groundwater occurs within the centre of the basin in zones of salt lakes. Groundwater in the regional recharge area of the southern Murray Basin shows dramatic variations in salinity (TDS contents ranging from 650 to >100,000 mg/L) over distances of a few kilometres in both shallow and deep aquifers. While the variation in topography is low (<70 m over 15,000 km2), local recharge and discharge processes control groundwater composition. Fresher groundwater underlies sand ridges that contain freshwater lakes located above the water table. The high salinity areas underlie a major palaeochannel, the Douglas Depression, which forms a topographic low. This depression contains abundant salt lakes and playas that represent local discharge sites for shallow groundwater. Stable isotope data show that the water in the high salinity zones underwent evaporation. Major element data (particularly Mg/Ca/SO4 ratios) indicate that the saline groundwaters have precipitated gypsum. Together the data indicate that brines produced in these saline lakes reflux into the underlying aquifers to depths of up to 180 m. In the semi-arid environment of SE Australia, reflux brines in both local and regional discharge areas are important in controlling the distribution of salinity in the Murray Basin as a whole. The observation that both shallow and deep aquifers show similar chemical trends implies that there is significant vertical interconnection throughout the basin. The confining layers are thin

  7. Barbados Corals as Recorders of Amazon River Salinity Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, L.; Telfeyan, K.; Arienzo, M. M.; Rosenberg, A. D.; Waite, A. J.; Swart, P. K.

    2010-12-01

    Low salinity plumes of Amazon and Orinoco sourced water have previously been detected around the island of Barbados. Barbados corals may therefore have the potential to record salinity anomalies governed by natural, climate-related, and anthropogenic changes in the Amazon and Orinoco Basin watersheds beyond the recent historic record. In order to determine whether Barbados corals record salinity variations associated with local or Amazon/Orinoco sourced signals, multiple specimens of Montastraea sp. and Siderastrea sp. coral skeletons were analyzed for stable C and O isotope and Sr/Ca variations. Corals were collected from the northwest, central-west, and southwest regions of the island to determine degree of salinity signal heterogeneity over a 5-6 year period at approximately monthly resolution. Four separate published paleotemperature equations were used to assess the importance of temperature on stable oxygen isotope composition. In situ temperature measurements obtained from NOAA show an annual sea surface temperature (SST) cycle of approximately 4 degrees Celsius off Barbados. If governed solely by SST, stable isotope data from all 8 corals in this study indicate a significantly greater annual temperature range of approximately 6 degrees Celsius. This suggests that salinity related fluctuations in oxygen isotopic composition of water are an important influence on the geochemistry of Barbados corals. Some regional differences in geochemical composition of corals were apparent. Corals from the southwest of Barbados showed the clearest sub-annual isotope signal, better correlations with mean annual SST measurements, and lowest mean salinity of the regions. Corals from the central-west and northwest showed distinctly higher mean, but more variable, salinity than corals from the south. Stable carbon isotope data from southwest corals also best potentially reflect the Suess Effect. Montastraea sp. corals generally show a higher paleotemperature offset from in situ

  8. Salinity-gradient vapor-pressure power conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, M. S.

    1982-03-01

    The interface between water bodies of different salinities represents a large unexploited source of energy. An energy conversion approach that does not require the use of membranes but uses the differences in vapor pressure between solutions is examined. The resource potential, source solutions, system components, and operating characteristics are evaluated and, where similar, compared to research and development on open-cycle OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion). It is shown that salinity-gradient, vapor-pressure power generation is within reach of current technology.

  9. Evolution of Planetary Ice-Ocean Systems: Effects of Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allu Peddinti, D.; McNamara, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary oceanography is enjoying renewed attention thanks to not only the detection of several exoplanetary ocean worlds but also due to the expanding family of ocean worlds within our own star system. Our solar system is now believed to host about nine ocean worlds including Earth, some dwarf planets and few moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Amongst them, Europa, like Earth is thought to have an ice Ih-liquid water system. However, the thickness of the Europan ice-ocean system is much larger than that of the Earth. The evolution of this system would determine the individual thicknesses of the ice shell and the ocean. In turn, these thicknesses can alter the course of evolution of the system. In a pure H2O system, the thickness of the ice shell would govern if heat loss occurs entirely by conduction or if the shell begins to convect as it attains a threshold thickness. This switch between conduction-convection regimes could determine the longevity of the subsurface ocean and hence define the astrobiological potential of the planetary body at any given time. In reality, however, the system is not pure water ice. The detected induced magnetic field infers a saline ocean layer. Salts are expected to act as an anti-freeze allowing a subsurface ocean to persist over long periods but the amount of salts would determine the extent of that effect. In our current study, we use geodynamic models to examine the effect of salinity on the evolution of ice-ocean system. An initial ocean with different salinities is allowed to evolve. The effect of salinity on thickness of the two layers at any time is examined. We also track how salinity controls the switch between conductive-convective modes. The study shows that for a given time period, larger salinities can maintain a thick vigorously convecting ocean while the smaller salinities behave similar to a pure H2O system leading to a thick convecting ice-shell. A range of salinities identified can potentially predict the current state

  10. Superiority of blood over saline resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock: a 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    PubMed Central

    Mann, D V; Robinson, M K; Rounds, J D; DeRosa, E; Niles, D A; Ingwall, J S; Wilmore, D W; Jacobs, D O

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the relation between blood and saline administration, postresuscitation hematocrit (Hct) level, and metabolic recovery after hemorrhagic shock. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: It is generally believed that crystalloid can be substituted, in whole or in part, for blood during resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock. This is based on the belief that Hct can be safely reduced but should not fall below a critical level. METHODS: Male rats weighing 200 g were subjected to an isobaric hemorrhagic shock at a mean arterial pressure of 30 mmHg for 14 minutes, after which they were randomized to one of three resuscitation regimens. Control group (n = 36) were resuscitated by return of all shed blood. Mid-Hct (n = 39) and low-Hct (n = 60) groups were depleted of one third and one half of their circulating blood volumes, respectively, and were resuscitated with three times that volume of normal saline. Skeletal muscle intracellular energetics and pH were measured serially using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy at baseline, during shock, and after resuscitation. Arterial blood was sampled at the same time points. The number of surviving animals in each group at 24 hours was recorded. RESULTS: After resuscitation, surviving rats in the low-Hct group demonstrated a greater consumption of high-energy phosphocreatine stores than did the other groups (control = 0.479 +/- 0.003, mid-Hct = 0.465 +/- 0.004, low-Hct = 0.457 +/- 0.007, mean +/- standard error of the mean; p < 0.01 low-Hct vs. other groups by analysis of variance). The rats that received saline resuscitation developed a relative intracellular acidosis (control = 7.29 +/- 0.02, mid-Hct = 7.25 +/- 0.02, low-Hct = 7.23 +/- 0.02; p < 0.05 controls vs. other groups by analysis of variance). At 24 hours, the death rates were significantly different among the groups: control = 1 of 36 rats (2.8%), mid-Hct = 6 of 39 (15.4%), and low-Hct = 14 of 60 (23.3%) (p < 0.05 by chi square analysis). CONCLUSION: The oxygen

  11. Colon Necrosis Due to Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate with and without Sorbitol: An Experimental Study in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Isabelle; Oh, Man S.; Gupta, Raavi; McFarlane, Michael; Babinska, Anna; Salifu, Moro O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Based on a single rat study by Lillemoe et al, the consensus has been formed to implicate sorbitol rather than sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) as the culprit for colon necrosis in humans treated with SPS and sorbitol. We tested the hypothesis that colon necrosis by sorbitol in the experiment was due to the high osmolality and volume of sorbitol rather than its chemical nature. Methods 26 rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy. They were divided into 6 groups and given enema solutions under anesthesia (normal saline, 33% sorbitol, 33% mannitol, SPS in 33% sorbitol, SPS in normal saline, and SPS in distilled water). They were sacrificed after 48 hours of enema administration or earlier if they were very sick. The gross appearance of the colon was visually inspected, and then sliced colon tissues were examined under light microscopy. Results 1 rat from the sorbitol and 1 from the mannitol group had foci of ischemic colonic changes. The rats receiving SPS enema, in sorbitol, normal saline, distilled water, had crystal deposition with colonic necrosis and mucosal erosion. All the rats not given SPS survived until sacrificed at 48 h whereas 11 of 13 rats that received SPS in sorbitol, normal saline or distilled water died or were clearly dying and sacrificed sooner. There was no difference between sorbitol and mannitol when given without SPS. Conclusions In a surgical uremic rat model, SPS enema given alone or with sorbitol or mannitol seemed to cause colon necrosis and high mortality rate, whereas 33% sorbitol without SPS did not. PMID:26413782

  12. Salinized rivers: degraded systems or new habitats for salt-tolerant faunas?

    PubMed

    Kefford, Ben J; Buchwalter, David; Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Davis, Jenny; Duncan, Richard P; Hoffmann, Ary; Thompson, Ross

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic salinization of rivers is an emerging issue of global concern, with significant adverse effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Impacts of freshwater salinization on biota are strongly mediated by evolutionary history, as this is a major factor determining species physiological salinity tolerance. Freshwater insects dominate most flowing waters, and the common lotic insect orders Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies) and Trichoptera (caddisflies) are particularly salt-sensitive. Tolerances of existing taxa, rapid adaption, colonization by novel taxa (from naturally saline environments) and interactions between species will be key drivers of assemblages in saline lotic systems. Here we outline a conceptual framework predicting how communities may change in salinizing rivers. We envision that a relatively small number of taxa will be saline-tolerant and able to colonize salinized rivers (e.g. most naturally saline habitats are lentic; thus potential colonizers would need to adapt to lotic environments), leading to depauperate communities in these environments. PMID:26932680

  13. Effect of salinity induced pH/alkalinity changes on benthic foraminifera: A laboratory culture experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswat, Rajeev; Kouthanker, Mamata; Kurtarkar, Sujata R.; Nigam, Rajiv; Naqvi, S. W. A.; Linshy, V. N.

    2015-02-01

    The salinity of coastal waters in the vicinity of seasonally fresh water fed estuaries changes tremendously and reportedly affects the living calcite secreting organisms like foraminifera, as well as their dead remains. The precise mechanism of adverse effect of such seasonal salinity changes on calcite secreting organisms is, however not clear. The seasonal fresh water influx from the estuaries also affects the pH and alkalinity of the coastal seawater. Therefore, to understand the effect of salinity induced pH/alkalinity variations on benthic foraminifera, living specimens of Rosalina globularis were subjected to different salinity. Additionally, water samples were collected from an estuary during both monsoon and post monsoon season to understand the relationship between salinity, pH and total alkalinity (TA). The pH decreased with decreasing salinity during both the seasons. A similar decrease in TA with decreasing salinity was also observed but only till 20 psu salinity, below which the TA increased with decreasing salinity. Even though the maximum growth was reported in specimens kept at 35 psu salinity, growth of specimens maintained at >25 psu salinity, was same. Specimens kept at 10 psu and 15 psu salinity, however were much smaller and turned opaque within two days of lowering the salinity and later on their tests dissolved within 24 and 43 days, respectively. No specimen reproduced at 10 psu and 15 psu salinity, while only a few specimens (3%) reproduced at 20 psu salinity. As compared to 10-20 psu salinity, ∼60% reproduction was observed in specimens subjected to 25-40 salinity. The specimens maintained at 20 psu salinity took twice the time to reach maturity than those subjected to 25-40 psu salinity. Since a big drop in pH was observed at 10-15 psu salinity (pH 7.2 and 7.5, respectively), while the alkalinity was still higher, we suggest that fresh water influx induced drop in pH adversely affects calcification and reproduction in benthic

  14. Effects of low-flow diversions from the South Wichita River on downstream salinity of the South Wichita River, Lake Kemp, and the Wichita River, North Texas, October 1982-September 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley; Bush, Peter W.; Kidwell, Charles C.

    1996-01-01

    In parts of the upper reaches of the Red River Basin in Texas, streamflow is characterized by levels of salinity that limit its usefulness for most purposes. Large dissolved solids and dissolved chloride concentrations are caused primarily by flow from natural salt springs in tributaries to the Red River. To reduce downstream salinity in the Wichita River, a dam in the South Wichita River downstream of an area of salt springs (designated salinity source area VIII) diverts low flows (which are the most saline) to a manmade brine lake for evaporation. Statistical tests on salinity data for the South Wichita River, Lake Kemp, and the Wichita River for the period October 1982–September 1992 were done to determine the effects on downstream salinity of low-flow diversions from the South Wichita River that began in May 1987. Salinity in the South Wichita River downstream of the low-flow diversion structure was (statistically) significantly less during the 65-month period of record after diversion than during the 55- month period of record before diversion. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests yielded strong evidence that discharge-weighted dissolved solids and dischargeweighted dissolved chloride concentrations, as well as discharge-weighted specific conductance, were significantly less after diversion. Whether salinity in Lake Kemp had a significant downward trend during the period of record August 1989–August 1992 could not be determined conclusively from observed salinity data. Mann-Kendall trend tests yielded weak evidence that volume-weighted dissolved solids and dissolved chloride concentrations in Lake Kemp tended to decrease with time. However, serial correlation in the time series of salinity data could have adversely affected the test results. The significant effects of low-flow diversions on salinity in the South Wichita River are not discernible in the Wichita River downstream from Lake Kemp. Although salinity was significantly less downstream from Lake Kemp after

  15. [Using a modified remote sensing imagery for interpreting changes in cultivated saline-alkali land].

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Liu, Hui-tao; Liu, Hong-juan; Liu, Jin-tong

    2015-04-01

    This paper developed a new interpretation symbol system for grading and classifying saline-alkali land, using Huanghua, a cosatal city in Hebei Province as a case. The system was developed by inverting remote sensing images from 1992 to 2011 based on site investigation, plant cover characteristics and features of remote sensing images. Combining this interpretation symbol system with supervising classification method, the information on arable land was obtained for the coastal saline-alkali ecosystem of Huanghua City, and the saline-alkali land area, changes in intensity of salinity-alkalinity and spatial distribution from 1992 to 2011 were analyzed. The results showed that salinization of arable land in Huanghua City alleviated from 1992 to 2011. The severely and moderately saline-alkali land area decreased in 2011 compared with 1992, while the non/slightly saline land area increased. The moderately saline-alkali land in southeast transformed to non/slightly saline-alkaline, while the severely saline-alkali land in west of the city far from the coastal zone became moderately saline-alkaline. The center of gravity (CG) of severely and non/slightly saline-alkali land moved closer the coastline, while that of the moderately saline-alkali land moved from southwest coastal line to northwest. Factors influencing changes in arable land within the saline-alkali ecosystem of Huanghua City were climate, hydrology and human activities. PMID:26259441

  16. Global monitoring of Sea Surface Salinity with Aquarius

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagerloef, G. S. E.; LeVine, D. M.; Chao, Yi; Colomb, R.; Nollmann, I.

    2005-01-01

    Aquarius is a microwave remote sensing system designed to obtain global maps of the surface salinity field of the oceans from space. It will be flown on the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA (NASA) and Argentina (CONAE) with launch scheduled for late in 2008. The objective of Aquarius is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This will provide data to address scientific questions associated with ocean circulation and its impact on climate. For example, salinity is needed to understand the large scale thermohaline circulation, driven by buoyancy, which moves large masses of water and heat around the globe. Of the two variables that determine buoyancy (salinity and temperature), temperature is already being monitored. Salinity is the missing variable needed to understand this circulation. Salinity also has an important role in energy exchange between the ocean and atmosphere, for example in the development of fresh water lenses (buoyant water that forms stable layers and insulates water below from the atmosphere) which alter the air-sea coupling. Aquarius is a combination radiometer and scatterometer (radar) operating at L-band (1.413 GHz for the radiometer and 1.26 GHz for the scatterometer). The primary instrument,for measuring salinity is the radiometer which is able to detect salinity because of the modulation salinity produces on the thermal emission from sea water. This change is detectable at the long wavelength end of the microwave spectrum. The scatterometer will provide a correction for surface roughness (waves) which is one of the greatest unknowns in the retrieval. The sensor will be in a sun-synchronous orbit at about 650 km with equatorial crossings of 6am/6pm. The antenna for these two instruments is a 3 meter offset fed reflector with three feeds arranged in pushbroom fashion looking away from the sun toward the shadow side of the orbit to

  17. Thermal skin injury: I. Acute hemodynamic effects of fluid resuscitation with lactated Ringer's, plasma, and hypertonic saline (2,400 mosmol/l) in the rat.

    PubMed

    Onarheim, H; Lund, T; Reed, R

    1989-01-01

    Heart rate (HR), central venous pressure (CVP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cardiac index (CI) were measured in anesthetized rats subjected to a 40% body surface area full-thickness scald burn. Postburn intravenous fluid therapy with lactated Ringer's (5 ml/hr), plasma (2.5 ml/hr), or very hypertonic saline (2,400 mosmol/l) (0.75 ml/hr) was compared to unburned or burned, untreated controls. HR and CVP were not influenced significantly by thermal injury. MAP decreased steadily in the untreated group from 110 mmHg to 80 mmHg at 3 hr postburn. In the fluid-treated groups MAP did not change significantly. During the first 15 min postburn, CI was reduced to 58-71% of control values (P less than 0.01). CI increased during Ringer's and plasma infusion to 74-80% of control values (P less than 0.02 vs. unburned). Despite infusion therapy, hematocrit increased from 48 to 52%, clearly less than in the unresuscitated group (increase from 48 to 58%). Theoretically, the 2,400 mosmol/l saline would expand extracellular volume by five to six times the infused volume. Still, CI was reduced by 55% at 3 hr postburn in the hypertonic saline as well as in the burned, untreated group (P less than 0.001 vs. unburned). The low CI was mainly due to a reduced stroke volume. PMID:2917370

  18. Fluid volumes changes induced by spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P C

    1979-10-01

    The blood volume (BV), plasma volume (PV), and extracellular fluid volume changes produced in crewmembers during spaceflights of 11-84 days were compared to changes after 14 or 28 days of bedrest. Spaceflight and bedrest produce approximately equal BV changes but the recorded PV change after spaceflight was less. However, the diurnal change in PV may explain the smaller decreases recorded after spaceflight. The cardiovascular deconditioning caused by spaceflight and bedrest was compared using the mean heart rate response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) testing at -50 mmHg pressure. These tests show approximately equal LBNP produced heart rate changes after bedrest and spaceflight. A countermeasure which includes 4 hr of LBNP treatment at -30 mmHg and the ingestion of one l. of saline was studied and found capable of returning the heart rate response and the PV of bedrested subjects to control (prebedrest) levels suggesting that it would be useful to the crewmembers after a spaceflight. PMID:11902176

  19. Industry use of saline water not expected in tar sand triangle

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    An environmental assessment of the Dirty Devil River Salinity Control Unit resulted in a finding of no significant impact. The purpose of the unit is to reduce salinity in the Colorado River by collecting flows below two saline springs and disposing of them by deep-well injection into the Coconino Sandstone. During formulation of the salinity control plan, the potential use of saline water in the development of tar sand resources was considered, but it was concluded that saline water would not be needed for this purpose in the foreseeable future, because of the currently depressed world oil market and the development status of tar sand extraction technologies.

  20. Salinity changes in the Agulhas leakage area recorded by stable hydrogen isotopes of C37 alkenones during Termination I and II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, S.; van der Meer, M. T. J.; Mets, A.; Zahn, R.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Schouten, S.

    2013-06-01

    At the southern tip of the African shelf, the Agulhas Current reflects back into the Indian Ocean causing so called "Agulhas rings" to spin off and release relatively warm and saline water into the South Atlantic Ocean. Previous reconstructions of the dynamics of the Agulhas current, based on paleo sea surface temperature and sea surface salinity proxies, inferred that Agulhas leakage from the Indian Ocean to the South Atlantic is reduced as a consequence of changes in wind fields related to a northwards migration of ice masses and the subtropical front during glacial stages. Subsequently, this might have led to a build-up of warm saline water in the southern Indian Ocean. To investigate this latter hypothesis, we reconstructed sea surface salinity changes using alkenone δ D, and paleo sea surface temperature using TEXH86 and UK'37, from two sediment cores (MD02-2594, MD96-2080) located in the Agulhas leakage area during Termination I and II. Both UK'37 and TEXH86 temperature reconstructions infer an abrupt warming during the glacial terminations, which is different from the gradual warming trend previously reconstructed based on Mg/Ca ratios of Globigerina bulloides. These differences in temperature reconstructions might be related to differences in the growth season or depth habitat between organisms. A shift to more negative δ Dalkenone values of approximately 14‰ during glacial Termination I and approximately 13‰ during Termination II is also observed. Approximately half of these shifts can be attributed to the change in global ice volume, while the residual isotopic shift is attributed to changes in salinity, suggesting relatively high salinities at the core sites during glacials, with subsequent freshening during glacial terminations. Approximate estimations suggest that δ Dalkenone represents a salinity change of ca. 1.7-2 during Termination I and ca. 1.5-1.7 during Termination II. These estimations are in good agreement with the proposed changes in

  1. Keeping the lights on for global ocean salinity observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durack, Paul J.; Lee, Tong; Vinogradova, Nadya T.; Stammer, Detlef

    2016-03-01

    Insights about climate are being uncovered thanks to improved capacities to observe ocean salinity, an essential climate variable. However, cracks are beginning to appear in the ocean observing system that require prompt attention if we are to maintain the existing, hard-won capacity into the near future.

  2. Desiccation-crack-induced salinization in deep clay sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baram, S.; Ronen, Z.; Kurtzman, D.; Külls, C.; Dahan, O.

    2013-04-01

    A study on water infiltration and solute transport in a clayey vadose zone underlying a dairy farm waste source was conducted to assess the impact of desiccation cracks on subsurface evaporation and salinization. The study is based on five years of continuous measurements of the temporal variation in the vadose zone water content and on the chemical and isotopic composition of the sediment and pore water in it. The isotopic composition of water stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H) in water and sediment samples, from the area where desiccation crack networks prevail, indicated subsurface evaporation down to ~ 3.5 m below land surface, and vertical and lateral preferential transport of water, following erratic preferential infiltration events. Chloride (Cl-) concentrations in the vadose zone pore water substantially increased with depth, evidence of deep subsurface evaporation and down flushing of concentrated solutions from the evaporation zones during preferential infiltration events. These observations led to development of a desiccation-crack-induced salinization (DCIS) conceptual model. DCIS suggests that thermally driven convective air flow in the desiccation cracks induces evaporation and salinization in relatively deep sections of the subsurface. This conceptual model supports previous conceptual models on vadose zone and groundwater salinization in fractured rock in arid environments and extends its validity to clayey soils in semi-arid environments.

  3. Community assembly of a euryhaline fish microbiome during salinity acclimation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Victor T; Smith, Katherine F; Melvin, Donald W; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A

    2015-05-01

    Microbiomes play a critical role in promoting a range of host functions. Microbiome function, in turn, is dependent on its community composition. Yet, how microbiome taxa are assembled from their regional species pool remains unclear. Many possible drivers have been hypothesized, including deterministic processes of competition, stochastic processes of colonization and migration, and physiological 'host-effect' habitat filters. The contribution of each to assembly in nascent or perturbed microbiomes is important for understanding host-microbe interactions and host health. In this study, we characterized the bacterial communities in a euryhaline fish and the surrounding tank water during salinity acclimation. To assess the relative influence of stochastic versus deterministic processes in fish microbiome assembly, we manipulated the bacterial species pool around each fish by changing the salinity of aquarium water. Our results show a complete and repeatable turnover of dominant bacterial taxa in the microbiomes from individuals of the same species after acclimation to the same salinity. We show that changes in fish microbiomes are not correlated with corresponding changes to abundant taxa in tank water communities and that the dominant taxa in fish microbiomes are rare in the aquatic surroundings, and vice versa. Our results suggest that bacterial taxa best able to compete within the unique host environment at a given salinity appropriate the most niche space, independent of their relative abundance in tank water communities. In this experiment, deterministic processes appear to drive fish microbiome assembly, with little evidence for stochastic colonization. PMID:25819646

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING MANUAL FOR SALINITY MANAGEMENT IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Environmental Planning Manual for Salinity Management in Irrigated Agriculture has been prepared. The primary focus of this manual is a delineation of the combinations of technological and institutional solutions, the various levels of planning effort, use of existing data and...

  5. ON-FARM DISPOSAL OF SALINE DRAINAGE WATER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of saline drainage water from irrigated agriculture is a significant world-wide problem. Researchers in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California developed an integrated on farm drainage water management system (IFDM) that can be used to solve this problem in an environmentally sound metho...

  6. Microbial diversity of rizosphere in two saline chenopodiaceaes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saline environments can be found on all continents and in most countries. They consist in two primary types: those that arose from seawater and those which come from nonseawater sources. The latter contain different ion ratios where the dominant anion is typically carbonate. Plants native to sali...

  7. Keeping the lights on for global ocean salinity observation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Durack, Paul J.; Lee, Tong; Vinogradova, Nadya T.; Stammer, Detlef

    2016-02-24

    Here, insights about climate are being uncovered thanks to improved capacities to observe ocean salinity, an essential climate variable. However, cracks are beginning to appear in the ocean observing system that require prompt attention if we are to maintain the existing, hard-won capacity into the near future.

  8. Irrigation and Soil Salinization in Mediterranean agro-ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Angelo; Viola, Francesco; Valerio Noto, Leonardo; Mau, Yair; Porporato, Amilcare

    2015-04-01

    During the warm and dry growing season of Mediterranean climates, the availability of good quality water for primary production in agriculture tends to be limited. This aspect makes the use of saline and brackish water appealing, given the potential of natural flushing of the soils by deep percolation during the wet and colder dormant season. Thus the cyclic alternation between the two different phases in the cold and warm season gives rise to a delicate equilibrium that can lead to long term secondary salinization if the mean salt input from irrigation overpasses the average annual natural leakage amount. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the long term salt mass balance in the presence of irrigation and possible changes in seasonality. An elevated concentration of salt in the soil may in turn lead to both a decrease of its fertility and to osmotic stress reducing plant productivity. To this purpose, a stochastic soil and water balance salinity model is developed to quantify the balance between salt accumulation phases during the growing season and leaching phases during the wet season. We provide the numerical and the analytical representation of secondary long-term salinization process, highlighting the role of soil depth, plant and climate together with the impact of shifts in the seasonal vs. interannual rainfall fluctuations. An application to a test case in the Southern part of Sicily (ITALY) is also presented, highlighting the strong relationship between salt dynamics, water management and climatic conditions.

  9. Home Brew Salinity Measuring Devices: Their Construction and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper discusses several inexpensive methods of evaluating the salinity of seawater. One method is presented in some detail. This method has several attractive features. First, it can be used to provide instruction, not only in marine chemistry, but also in studying the mathematics of the point slope formula, and as an aid in teaching students…

  10. Salinity effects on Atlantic sturgeon growth and osmoregulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus Mitchill, 1815) is an anadromous sturgeon species, yet little is known with regard to its osmoregulatory ability and habitat use at early life stages. In order to examine whether salinity poses a physiological challenge to juvenile Atlantic stur...

  11. Desiccation-crack-induced salinization in deep clay sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baram, S.; Ronen, Z.; Kurtzman, D.; Küells, C.; Dahan, O.

    2012-11-01

    A study on water infiltration and solute transport in a clayey vadose zone underlying a dairy farm waste source was conducted to assess the impact of desiccation cracks on subsurface evaporation and salinization. The study is based on five years of continuous measurements of the temporal variation in the vadose zone water-content and on the chemical and isotopic composition of the sediment and pore-water in it. The isotopic composition of water stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H) in water and sediment samples, from the area where desiccation crack networks prevail, indicated subsurface evaporation down to ∼3.5 m below land surface, and vertical and lateral preferential transport of water, following erratic preferential infiltration events. Chloride (Cl-) concentrations in the vadose zone pore water substantially increased with depth, evidence of deep subsurface evaporation and down flushing of concentrated solutions from the evaporation zones during preferential infiltration events. These observations led to development of a Desiccation-Crack-Induced Salinization (DCIS) conceptual model. DCIS suggests that thermally driven convective air flow in the desiccation cracks induces evaporation and salinization in relatively deep sections of the subsurface. This conceptual model supports previous conceptual models on vadose zone and groundwater salinization in fractured rock in arid environments and extends its validity to clayey soils in semi-arid environments.

  12. RICE IS MORE SENSITIVE TO SALINITY THAN PREVIOUSLY THOUGHT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies conducted in the field by the University of California and controlled greenhouse conditions by the USDA-ARS indicate that rice is more sensitive to salinity than current guidelines suggest. This information is particularly important to a number of rice growers in Colusa and Glenn counties wh...

  13. Soil salinity effects on germination of native and introduced grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing salinity of formerly productive soil in the James River valley in east central South Dakota is an increasing concern for crop producers. This problem arises when water evaporates from poorly drained and subirrigated soils and leaves salts on the soil surface. Replacing evaporation from ...

  14. Assessment of salt tolerant plants to remediate saline soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil salinity has intensified in the James River valley in east central South Dakota in the past 20 years. Surface evaporation on poorly drained and subirrigated soils leaves salts on the soil surface. Replacing evaporation from the soil surface with transpiration through deep-rooted salt-tolerant...

  15. Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Ramsis B.; Otto, Claus J.; Fitzpatrick, Robert W.

    Salinization is the process whereby the concentration of dissolved salts in water and soil is increased due to natural or human-induced processes. Water is lost through one or any combination of four main mechanisms: evaporation, evapotranspiration, hydrolysis, and leakage between aquifers. Salinity increases from catchment divides to the valley floors and in the direction of groundwater flow. Salinization is explained by two main chemical models developed by the authors: weathering and deposition. These models are in agreement with the weathering and depositional geological processes that have formed soils and overburden in the catchments. Five soil-change processes in arid and semi-arid climates are associated with waterlogging and water. In all represented cases, groundwater is the main geological agent for transmitting, accumulating, and discharging salt. At a small catchment scale in South and Western Australia, water is lost through evapotranspiration and hydrolysis. Saline groundwater flows along the beds of the streams and is accumulated in paleochannels, which act as a salt repository, and finally discharges in lakes, where most of the saline groundwater is concentrated. In the hummocky terrains of the Northern Great Plains Region, Canada and USA, the localized recharge and discharge scenarios cause salinization to occur mainly in depressions, in conjunction with the formation of saline soils and seepages. On a regional scale within closed basins, this process can create playas or saline lakes. In the continental aquifers of the rift basins of Sudan, salinity increases along the groundwater flow path and forms a saline zone at the distal end. The saline zone in each rift forms a closed ridge, which coincides with the closed trough of the groundwater-level map. The saline body or bodies were formed by evaporation coupled with alkaline-earth carbonate precipitation and dissolution of capillary salts. Résumé La salinisation est le processus par lequel la

  16. Artificial upwelling driven by salinity differences in the ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D H; Decicco, J

    1983-12-01

    A concept for an artificial upwelling driven by salinity differences in the ocean to supply nutrients to a mariculture farm is described and analyzed. A long shell-and-tube counterflow heat exchanger built of inexpensive plastic and concrete is suspended vertically in the ocean. Cold, nutrient rich, but relatively fresh water from deep in the ocean flows up the shell side of the heat exchanger, and warm but relatively saline water from the surface flows down the tube side. The two flows exchange heat across the thin plastic walls of the tubes, maintaining a constant temperature difference along the heat exchanger. The plastic tubes are protected by the concrete outer shell of the heat exchanger. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep and surface water due to their difference in salinity. This phenomenon was first recognized by the oceanographer Stommel, who termed it The Perpetual Salt Fountain. The heat transfer and flow rate as a function of tube number and diameter is analyzed and the size of the heat exchanger optimized for cost is determined for a given flow of nutrients for various locations. Reasonable sizes (outer diameter on the order of 5 m) are obtained. The incremental capital cost of the salinity-driven artificial upwelling is compared to the incremental capital cost and present value of the operating cost of an artificial upwell fueled by liquid hydrocarbons.

  17. Oral hypertonic saline causes transient fall of vasopressin in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Seckl, J.R.; Williams, D.M.; Lightman, S.L.

    1986-08-01

    After dehydration, oral rehydration causes a fall in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) that precedes changes in plasma osmolality. To investigate further the stimulus for this effect, its specificity, and association with thirst, six volunteers were deprived of water for 24 h and given a salt load on two separate occasions. On each study day they then drank rapidly 10 ml/kg of either tap water or hypertonic saline (360 mosmol/kg). There was a significant fall in plasma AVP from 2.0 +/- 0.3 to 1.2 +/- 0.4 pmol/l 5 min after drinking water and from 1.8 +/- 0.3 to 0.9 +/- 0.2 pmol/l after hypertonic saline. Plasma osmolality fell 30-60 min after water and was unchanged after saline. Plasma renin activity, oxytocin, and total protein all remained unchanged. All subjects reported diminished thirst after hypertonic saline. Gargling with water reduced thirst but did not affect plasma AVP. There appears to be a drinking-mediated neuroendocrine reflex that decreases plasma AVP irrespective of the osmolality of the liquid consumed. The sensation of thirst did not correlate with plasma osmolality and was not always related to plasma AVP concentration. AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay.

  18. Food Production in Arid Regions as Related to Salinity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arid and semi arid regions of the world are generally associated with high population density and lower than average per capita incomes and living standards. These regions are vulnerable to food shortages due to current, unsustainable use of fresh water for irrigation and soil salinization. This pa...

  19. Salinization Enhances Mobilization of Nutrients from Sediments to Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, S.; Kaushal, S.; Hohman, S.; Coplin, J.; Duan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Many regions of the U.S. and elsewhere are experiencing increased salinization of freshwater due to the widespread application of road salts. Increased salinization has the potential to release stored nutrients from sediments, decrease biodiversity, and perturb water quality. We conducted laboratory experiments to investigate the potential effects of road salt (NaCl) on nutrient mobilization from sediments to stream water. Sediments and stream water were incubated from 2 urbanizing watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay in the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan area. Stream sediment was incubated from 11 routinely monitored streams exhibiting a land use gradient within the Baltimore Ecosystem Study Long-Term Ecological Research (BES LTER) site and Anacostia River watershed. Our results indicate that salinization increased the release of soluble reactive phosphorus and total dissolved nitrogen at all sites. The release of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved inorganic carbon varied between sites, and these differential responses may be due to: stream sediment composition, organic matter content, and ambient water quality. The magnitude and frequency of road salt application may be amplified in the near future due to the interactive effects of climate variability and urbanization, and our research suggests this can have water quality and ecological implications for freshwater ecosystems. Further research is necessary to elucidate driving mechanisms of changes in sediment biogeochemical cycles in response to salinization and the temporal response of freshwater ecosystems.

  20. Managing cytotoxic chemotherapy extravasation: use of saline washout.

    PubMed

    Harrold, Karen

    Florence Nightingale Foundation scholar Karen Harrold received funding to support her PhD exploring the patient experience of saline washout as a management strategy for chemotherapy extravasation. She discusses the focus of her thesis, the completion of phase one and looks ahead to phase two. PMID:25904536

  1. Laser/Heterodyne Measurement of Temperature and Salinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, D. J.; Fales, C. L.; Katzberg, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed visible-light laser/heterodyne receiver would remotely measure temperature and salinity of subsurface water. Operation is based on acoustic/optical scattering of light by sound waves. Application of this concept is foreseen in current research on energy conversion from ocean currents produced by thermal gradients and on future marine remote-sensing program.

  2. Effects of drainage salinity evolution on irrigation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Iddo

    2003-12-01

    A soil physics theory of solute movement through a drained saturated zone underlying agricultural land is introduced into a long-term economic analysis of farm-level irrigation management; this is an alternative to the immediate, homogeneous blending assumption employed in previous studies as a base for calculating changes in drainage salinity over time. Using data from California, the effect of drainage salinity evolution is analyzed through a year-by-year profit optimization under the requirement of on-farm drainage disposal. Paths of optimal land allocation among crop production with fresh surface water, saline drainage reuse and evaporation ponds appear to depend on the relative profitability of the first two; that of reuse is affected by the trend of drainage salinity. Tile spacing and environmental regulations associated with evaporation ponds affect the timing of evaporation pond construction. The system converges into a solution involving both drainage-disposal activities; this solution includes an outlet for salts and is therefore sustainable. Following this strategy, the system is asymptotically approaching a steady state that possesses both hydrological and salt balances. Economic implications associated with land retirement programs in California are discussed.

  3. ENSO signature in the SMOS sea surface salinity maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballabrera, J.; Umbert, M.; Hoareau, N.; Turiel, A.; Font, J.

    2012-12-01

    Until recently, the role of salinity observations in the operational simulation and prediction of ENSO was neglected because of the historical lack of observations and because leading intermediate coupled models had significant predictive skill without directly accounting for salinity effects. In Ballabrera-Poy et al., (2002), the potential role of sea surface salinity (SSS) observations on the statistical predictions of ENSO was investigated. It was shown that, although SSS observations would play little role in statistical nowcasts of ENSO, they would provide a significant role in the 6-12 month predictions. The European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Earth Explorer opportunity mission was launched on November 2, 2009, becoming the first satellite mission addressing the challenge of measuring SSS from space with the help of MIRAS (Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis), a novel two-dimensional interferometer operating at L-band (1.4 GHz). Although the L-band frequency is the optimal for ocean salinity measurements, the retrieval of SSS information requires special care because of the low sensitivity of the brightness temperature to SSS: from 0.2-0.8 K per salinity unit. Maps of 10-day averages of SSS in 1x1 degree boxes are distributed by the SMOS Barcelona Expert Centre on Radiometric Calibration and Ocean Salinity (SMOS-BEC, http://www.smos-bec.icm.csic.es). These maps are derived from the SMOS reprocessing campaign released to the SMOS user community in March 2011, and span the period from January 2010 through December 2011. The current accuracy of these SSS maps ranges from 0.2-0.4, depending on the ocean region being considered (Umbert et al., 2012). During the period of the reprocessing campaign, the equatorial Pacific has been in a quasi-continuous La Niña state. During the cold phases of ENSO, positive anomalies of SSS are expected with a largest anomalous values in the western warm-fresh pool. The anomalies

  4. The Aquarius Mission: Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koblinsky, Chester; Chao, Y.; deCharon, A.; Edelstein, W.; Hildebrand, P.; Lagerloef, G.; LeVine, D.; Pellerano, F.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.; Ruf, C.

    2001-01-01

    Aquarius is a new satellite mission concept to study the impact of the global water cycle on the ocean, including the response of the ocean to buoyancy forcing and the subsequent feedback of the ocean on the climate. The measurement objective of Aquarius is sea surface salinity, which reflects the concentration of freshwater at the ocean surface. Salinity affects the dielectric constant of sea water and, consequently, the radiometric emission of the sea surface to space. Rudimentary space observations with an L-band radiometer were first made from Skylab in the mid-70s and numerous aircraft missions of increasing quality and improved technology have been conducted since then. Technology is now available to carry out a global mission, which includes both an accurate L band (1.413 Ghz) radiometer and radar system in space and a global array of in situ observations for calibration and validation, in order to address key NASA Earth Science Enterprise questions about the global cycling of water and the response of the ocean circulation to climate change. The key scientific objectives of Aquarius examine the cycling of water at the ocean's surface, the response of the ocean circulation to buoyancy forcing, and the impact of buoyancy forcing on the ocean's thermal feedback to the climate. Global surface salinity will also improve our ability to model the surface solubility chemistry needed to estimate the air-sea exchange of CO2. In order to meet these science objectives, the NASA Salinity Sea Ice Working Group over the past three years has concluded that the mission measurement goals should be better than 0.2 practical salinity units (psu) accuracy, 100 km resolution, and weekly to revisits. The Aquarius mission proposes to meet these measurement requirements through a real aperture dual-polarized L band radiometer and radar system. This system can achieve the less than 0.1 K radiometric temperature measurement accuracy that is required. A 3 m antenna at approx. 600km

  5. Three Years of Aquarius Salinity Measurements: Algorithm, Validation and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, T.; Wentz, F. J.; Le Vine, D. M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Aquarius is an L-band radiometer/scatterometer (i.e. active/passive) system designed to provide monthly salinity maps at 150 km spatial scale to an accuracy of 0.2 psu. The sensor was launched on June 10, 2011 as part of the Aquarius/SAC-D mission and has been collecting data since August 25, 2011. Version 3 of the data product was released in June 2014 and provides a major milestone towards reaching the mission requirement of 0.2 psu. This presentation reports the status of the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm highlighting the advances that have been made for and since the Version 3 release. The most important ones are: 1) An improved surface roughness correction that is based on Aquarius scatterometer observations; 2) A reduction in ascending/descending differences due to galactic background radiation reflected from the ocean surface; 3) A refinement of the quality control flags and masks that indicate degradation under certain environmental conditions. The Aquarius salinity algorithm also retrieves wind speed as part of the roughness correction with an accuracy comparable to the products from other satellites such as WindSat, SSMIS, ASCAT, and QuikSCAT. Validation of the salinity retrievals is accomplished using measurements from ARGO drifters measuring at 5 m depth and in the tropics also from moored buoys measuring at 1 m depth which are co-located with the nearest Aquarius footprint. In the most recent work an effort has also been made to identify areas with frequent rain to isolate potential issues with rain freshening in the upper ocean layer. Results in rain-free regions indicate that on monthly basis and 150 km grid, the V3 Aquarius salinity maps have an accuracy of about 0.13 psu in the tropics and 0.22 psu globally. Comparing Aquarius with ARGO and moored buoy salinity measurements during and after rain events permits a quantitative assessment of the effect of salinity stratification within the first 5 m of the upper ocean layer.

  6. Towards Estimating the Salinity of Subglacial Lakes from Aerogeophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studinger, M.

    2007-12-01

    Subglacial lakes are now being recognized as an integral part of the global cryosphere and the global climate system. Knowledge of the physical, chemical and biological processes operating within these features is crucial for addressing questions about the presence and functioning of life in subglacial lakes. However, little is known about the prevailing in situ environmental conditions. Existing airborne ice-penetrating radar and laser altimeter data over large subglacial lakes can be used to estimate the salinity without penetrating the lakes. The underlying assumption for estimating the salinity from aerogeophysical data is that the ice sheet above large subglacial lakes is in hydrostatic equilibrium and the hydrological potential of the lake surface is constant. Because the flexural support of the ice near the shoreline reduces the load and thus the ice overburden pressure the data analysis has to be restricted to regions several ice thicknesses away from the shoreline allowing this analysis only over the largest know subglacial lakes. In order to estimate the salinity from aerogeophysical data several effects have to be included in a refined calculation of the hydrological potential: 1) A firn layer has to be included in the calculation of ice thickness from radar wave travel times. Because the velocity v of electromagnetic waves in firn is faster than in ice (vfirn > vice) a firn correction has to be added to the preliminary ice thickness estimates. Including a firn layer will impact the ice overburden pressure estimate by changing the total ice thickness estimate and reducing the load by a near surface layer with lower density. 2) Lateral changes in the radar wave velocity for the deeper section of the ice sheet have to be accounted for. 3) The vertical density structure of the ice ρice = ρice(z) has to be included in the calculation of the ice overburden pressure pice. The water density is a function of the salinity, temperature, and pressure, i.e.

  7. Practical salinity management for leachate irrigation to poplar trees.

    PubMed

    Smesrud, Jason K; Duvendack, George D; Obereiner, James M; Jordahl, James L; Madison, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    Landfill leachate can be beneficially reused for irrigation of fiber crops with appropriate attention to nutrient and salinity management. The Riverbend Landfill in Western Oregon has been effectively practicing irrigation of landfill leachate to poplar trees since 1993. Over that time, the site has been adaptively managed to control salinity impacts to the tree crop while beneficially utilizing the applied water and nutrients during each growing season. Representative leachate irrigation water has ranged in concentration of total dissolved solids from 777 to 6,940 mg/L, chloride from 180 to 1,760 mg/L and boron from 3.2 to 7.3 mg/L. Annual leachate irrigation applications have also ranged between 102 and 812 mm/yr. Important conclusions from this site have included: 1) Appropriate tree clone selection and tree stand spacing, thinning, and harvest rotations are critical to maintaining a productive tree stand that is resilient and resistant to salt stress. The most effective combinations have included clones DN-34, OP-367, 184-411, 49-177, and 15-29 planted at spacing of 3.7-m x 1.8-m to 3.7-m x 3.7-m; 2) Leaf tissue boron levels are closely correlated to soil boron levels and can be managed with leaching. When leaf tissue boron levels exceed 200 to 250 mg/kg, signs of salt stress may emerge and should be monitored closely; 3) Salinity from leachate irrigation can be managed to sustain a healthy tree crop by controlling mass loading rates and providing appropriate irrigation blending if necessary. Providing freshwater irrigation following each leachate irrigation and targeting freshwater irrigation as 30 percent of total irrigation water applied has successfully controlled salt impacts to vegetation; and 4) Drip irrigation generally requires more careful attention to long-term soil salinity management than spray irrigation. Moving drip irrigation tubes periodically to prevent the formation of highly saline zones within the soil profile is important. In this paper, a

  8. A methodological approach for quantifying and characterizing the stability of agitated saline contrast: implications for quantifying intrapulmonary shunt.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Heather K; Boulet, Lindsey M; Dominelli, Paolo B; Foster, Glen E

    2016-08-01

    Agitated saline contrast echocardiography is often used to determine blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (Q̇IPAVA). We applied indicator dilution theory to time-acoustic intensity curves obtained from a bolus injection of hand-agitated saline contrast to acquire a quantitative index of contrast mass. Using this methodology and an in vitro model of the pulmonary circulation, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of transit time and gas composition [air vs. sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)] on contrast conservation between two detection sites separated by a convoluted network of vessels. We hypothesized that the contrast lost between the detection sites would increase with transit times and be reduced by using contrast bubbles composed of SF6 Changing the flow and/or reducing the volume of the circulatory network manipulated transit time. Contrast conservation was measured as the ratio of outflow and inflow contrast masses. For air, 53.2 ± 3.4% (SE) of contrast was conserved at a transit time of 9.25 ± 0.02 s but dropped to 16.0 ± 1.0% at a transit time of 10.17 ± 0.06 s. Compared with air, SF6 contrast conservation was significantly greater (P < 0.05) with 114.3 ± 2.9% and 73.7 ± 3.3% of contrast conserved at a transit time of 10.39 ± 0.02 s and 13.46 ± 0.04 s, respectively. In summary, time-acoustic intensity curves can quantify agitated saline contrast, but loss of contrast due to bubble dissolution makes measuring Q̇IPAVA across varying transit time difficult. Agitated saline composed of SF6 is stabilized and may be a suitable alternative for Q̇IPAVA measurement. PMID:27365283

  9. Geologic effects on groundwater salinity and discharge into an estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russonielloa, Christopher J.; Fernandeza, Cristina; Brattonb, John F.; Banaszakc, Joel F.; Krantzc, David E.; Andresd, Scott; Konikowe, Leonard F.; Michaela, Holly A.

    2013-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) can be an important pathway for transport of nutrients and contaminants to estuaries. A better understanding of the geologic and hydrologic controls on these fluxes is critical for their estimation and management. We examined geologic features, porewater salinity, and SGD rates and patterns at an estuarine study site. Seismic data showed the existence of paleovalleys infilled with estuarine mud and peat that extend hundreds of meters offshore. A low-salinity groundwater plume beneath this low-permeability fill was mapped with continuous resistivity profiling. Extensive direct SGD measurements with seepage meters (n = 551) showed fresh groundwater discharge patterns that correlated well with shallow porewater salinity and the hydrogeophysical framework. Small-scale variability in fresh and saline discharge indicates influence of meter-scale geologic heterogeneity, while site-scale discharge patterns are evidence of the influence of the paleovalley feature. Beneath the paleovalley fill, fresh groundwater flows offshore and mixes with saltwater before discharging along paleovalley flanks. On the adjacent drowned interfluve where low-permeability fill is absent, fresh groundwater discharge is focused at the shoreline. Shallow saltwater exchange was greatest across sandy sediments and where fresh SGD was low. The geologic control of groundwater flowpaths and discharge salinity demonstrated in this work are likely to affect geochemical reactions and the chemical loads delivered by SGD to coastal surface waters. Because similar processes are likely to exist in other estuaries where drowned paleovalleys commonly cross modern shorelines, the existence and implications of complex hydrogeology are important considerations for studies of groundwater fluxes and related management decisions.

  10. Hydrogen saline prevents selenite-induced cataract in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun-xiao; Ding, Tian-bing

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antioxidative effect and mechanism for the protective effects of hydrogen saline on selenite-induced cataract in rats. Methods Sprague-Dawley rat pups were divided into the following groups: control (Group A), selenite induced (Group B), and selenite plus hydrogen saline treated (Group C). Rat pups in Groups B and C received a single subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (25 μmol/kg bodyweight) on postnatal day 12. Group C also received an intraperitoneal injection of H2 saline (5 ml/kg bodyweight) daily from postnatal day 8 to postnatal day 17. The development of cataract was assessed weekly by slit-lamp examination for 2 weeks. After sacrifice, extricated lenses were analyzed for activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, levels of malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione (GSH), and total sulfhydryl contents. Results The magnitude of lens opacification in Group B was significantly higher than in Group A (p<0.05), while Group C had less opacification than Group B (p<0.05). Compared with Group B, the mean activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, levels of GSH, and total sulfhydryl contents were higher, whereas the level of malondialdehyde was lower following treatment with hydrogen saline(p<0.05). Conclusions This is an initial report showing that hydrogen saline can prevent selenite-induced cataract in rats. It acts via maintaining antioxidant enzymes and GSH, protecting the sulfhydryl group, and inhibiting lipid peroxidation. PMID:23922487

  11. Salinity Impacts on Agriculture and Groundwater in Delta Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, D.; Salehin, M.; Jairuddin, M.; Saleh, A. F. M.; Rahman, M. M.; Parks, K. E.; Haque, M. A.; Lázár, A. N.; Payo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Delta regions are attractive for high intensity agriculture due to the availability of rich sedimentary soils and of fresh water. Many of the world's tropical deltas support high population densities which are reliant on irrigated agriculture. However environmental changes such as sea level rise, tidal inundation and reduced river flows have reduced the quantity and quality of water available for successful agriculture. Additionally, anthropogenic influences such as the over abstraction of ground water and the increased use of low quality water from river inlets has resulted in the accumulation of salts in the soils which diminishes crop productivity. Communities based in these regions are usually reliant on the same water for drinking and cooking because surface water is frequently contaminated by commercial and urban pollution. The expansion of shallow tube well systems for drinking water and agricultural use over the last few decades has resulted in mobilisation of salinity in the coastal and estuarine fringes. Sustainable development in delta regions is becoming constrained by water salinity. However salinity is often studied as an independent issue by specialists working in the fields of agriculture, community water supply and groundwater. The lack of interaction between these disciplines often results in corrective actions being applied to one sector without fully assessing the effects of these actions on other sectors. This paper describes a framework for indentifying the causes and impacts of salinity in delta regions based on the source-pathway-receptor framework. It uses examples and scenarios from the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta in Bangladesh together with field measurements and observations made in vulnerable coastal communities. The paper demonstrates the importance of creating an holistic understanding of the development and management of water resources to reduce the impact of salinity in fresh water in delta regions.

  12. Coastal hazards and groundwater salinization on low coral islands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, James P.; Chui, T. F. May

    2016-04-01

    Remote oceanic communities living on low-lying coral islands (atolls) without surface water rely for their survival on the continuing viability of fragile groundwater resources. These exist in the form of fresh groundwater lenses (FGLs) that develop naturally within the porous coral sand and gravel substrate. Coastal hazards such as inundation by high-energy waves driven by storms and continuing sea-level rise (SLR) are among many possible threats to viable FGL size and quality on atolls. Yet, not much is known about the combined effects of wave washover during powerful storms and SLR on different sizes of coral island, nor conversely how island size influences lens resilience against damage. This study investigates FGL damage by salinization (and resilience) caused by such coastal hazards using a modelling approach. Numerical modelling is carried out to generate steady-state FGL configurations at three chosen island sizes (400, 600 and 800 m widths). Steady-state solutions reveal how FGL dimensions are related in a non-linear manner to coral island size, such that smaller islands develop much more restricted lenses than larger islands. A 40 cm SLR scenario is then imposed. This is followed by transient simulations to examine storm-induced wave washover and subsequent FGL responses to saline damage over a 1 year period. Smaller FGLs display greater potential for disturbance by SLR, while larger and more robust FGLs tend to show more resilience. Further results produce a somewhat counterintuitive finding: in the post-SLR condition, FGL vulnerability to washover salinization may actually be reduced, owing to the thinner layer of unsaturated substrate lying above the water table into which saline water can infiltrate during a storm event. Nonetheless, combined washover and SLR impacts imply overall that advancing groundwater salinization may lead to some coral islands becoming uninhabitable long before they are completely submerged by sea-level rise, thereby calling

  13. Management scenarios for the Jordan River salinity crisis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, A.; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Holtzman, R.; Segal, M.; Shavit, U.

    2005-01-01

    Recent geochemical and hydrological findings show that the water quality of the base flow of the Lower Jordan River, between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is dependent upon the ratio between surface water flow and groundwater discharge. Using water quality data, mass-balance calculations, and actual flow-rate measurements, possible management scenarios for the Lower Jordan River and their potential affects on its salinity are investigated. The predicted scenarios reveal that implementation of some elements of the Israel-Jordan peace treaty will have negative effects on the Jordan River water salinity. It is predicted that removal of sewage effluents dumped into the river (???13 MCM/a) will significantly reduce the river water's flow and increase the relative proportion of the saline groundwater flux into the river. Under this scenario, the Cl content of the river at its southern point (Abdalla Bridge) will rise to almost 7000 mg/L during the summer. In contrast, removal of all the saline water (16.5 MCM/a) that is artificially discharged into the Lower Jordan River will significantly reduce its Cl concentration, to levels of 650-2600 and 3000-3500 mg/L in the northern and southern areas of the Lower Jordan River, respectively. However, because the removal of either the sewage effluents or the saline water will decrease the river's discharge to a level that could potentially cause river desiccation during the summer months, other water sources must be allocated to preserve in-stream flow needs and hence the river's ecosystem. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Saline Fluids in Subduction Channels and Mantle Wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, T.; Hertwig, A.; Schertl, H. P.; Maresch, W. V.; Shigeno, M.; Mori, Y.; Nishiyama, T.

    2015-12-01

    Saline fluids can transport large-ion-lithophile elements and carbonate. Subduction-zone fluids contain salts with various amounts of NaCl equivalent similar to that of the present and/or Phanerozoic seawater (about 3.5 wt% NaCl). The salinity of aqueous fluids in the mantle wedge decreases from trench side to back-arc side, although available data have been limited. Such saline fluids from mantle peridotite underneath Pinatubo, a frontal volcano of the Luzon arc, contain 5.1 wt% NaCl equivalent and CO2 [Kawamoto et al., 2013 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] and in Ichinomegeta, a rear-arc volcano of the Northeast Japan arc, contain 3.7 wt% NaCl equivalent and CO2 [Kumagai et al., Contrib Mineral Petrol 2014]. Abundances of chlorine and H2O in olivine-hosted melt inclusions also suggest that aqueous fluids to produce frontal basalts have higher salinity than rear-arc basalts in Guatemala arc [Walker et al., Contrib Mineral Petrol 2003]. In addition to these data, quartz-free jadeitites contain fluid inclusions composed of aqueous fluids with 7 wt% NaCl equivalent and quartz-bearing jadeitite with 4.6 wt% NaCl equivalent in supra-subduction zones in Southwest Japan [Mori et al., 2015, International Eclogite Conference] and quartz-bearing jadeitite and jadeite-rich rocks contain fluid inclusions composed of aqueous fluids with 4.2 wt% NaCl equivalent in Rio San Juan Complex, Dominica Republic [Kawamoto et al., 2015, Goldschmidt Conference]. Aqueous fluids generated at pressures lower than conditions for albite=jadeite+quartz occurring at 1.5 GPa, 500 °C may contain aqueous fluids with higher salinity than at higher pressures.

  15. Salinity Adaptation and the Contribution of Parental Environmental Effects in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Moriuchi, Ken S.; Friesen, Maren L.; Cordeiro, Matilde A.; Badri, Mounawer; Vu, Wendy T.; Main, Bradley J.; Aouani, Mohamed Elarbi; Nuzhdin, Sergey V.; Strauss, Sharon Y.; von Wettberg, Eric J. B.

    2016-01-01

    High soil salinity negatively influences plant growth and yield. Some taxa have evolved mechanisms for avoiding or tolerating elevated soil salinity, which can be modulated by the environment experienced by parents or offspring. We tested the contribution of the parental and offspring environments on salinity adaptation and their potential underlying mechanisms. In a two-generation greenhouse experiment, we factorially manipulated salinity concentrations for genotypes of Medicago truncatula that were originally collected from natural populations that differed in soil salinity. To compare population level adaptation to soil salinity and to test the potential mechanisms involved we measured two aspects of plant performance, reproduction and vegetative biomass, and phenological and physiological traits associated with salinity avoidance and tolerance. Saline-origin populations had greater biomass and reproduction under saline conditions than non-saline populations, consistent with local adaptation to saline soils. Additionally, parental environmental exposure to salt increased this difference in performance. In terms of environmental effects on mechanisms of salinity adaptation, parental exposure to salt spurred phenological differences that facilitated salt avoidance, while offspring exposure to salt resulted in traits associated with greater salt tolerance. Non-saline origin populations expressed traits associated with greater growth in the absence of salt while, for saline adapted populations, the ability to maintain greater performance in saline environments was also associated with lower growth potential in the absence of salt. Plastic responses induced by parental and offspring environments in phenology, leaf traits, and gas exchange contribute to salinity adaptation in M. truncatula. The ability of plants to tolerate environmental stress, such as high soil salinity, is likely modulated by a combination of parental effects and within-generation phenotypic

  16. Effects of salinity on embryonic development, survival, and growth of Crassostrea hongkongensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Zhongming; Wang, Zhaoping; Liang, Jian; Zhang, Yuehuan; Shen, Jianping; Yao, Tuo; Su, Jiaqi; Yu, Ruihai

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the effects of salinity on embryonic development, survival, and growth of the Hong Kong oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis. The embryos, larvae, and juveniles of C. hongkongensis were held in artificial seawater at three different salinities (low, 15; medium, 23; and high, 30) to determine the optimum hatchery and nursery conditions for mass production of the seeds. Results showed that the percentage production of straight-hinged larvae from fertilized eggs was significantly lower at the high salinity than at the low- and medium-salinities ( P < 0.05). The survival rates of larvae and juveniles differed significantly among the three salinity trials, with the highest survival rate observed at the low salinity ( P < 0.05). The shell height of larvae was significantly larger at the low salinity than at the high and medium salinities from days 9 to 15 ( P < 0.05), whereas that of juveniles was significantly larger at the low salinity than at the high and medium salinities on day 70 ( P < 0.05). These results indicate that the larvae and juveniles of C. hongkongensis are tolerant to a wide range of salinities (15 to 30), but show better growth and survival at relatively low salinities. Thus, it is recommended to use relatively low salinities in hatchery and nursery systems for improved yields of C. hongkongensis.

  17. Spatial and temporal variability in microbial activities of coastal acid saline soils of Goa, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, G. R.; Manjunath, B. L.; Latare, A. M.; D'Souza, R.; Vishwakarma, S.; Singh, N. P.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the spatio-temporal variability of the microbial activities in coastal saline soils (locally called Khazan) of Goa, India (west coast region). The coastal soil salinity is a major constraint for reduced crop yields and abandonment of farming in these areas. Three replicated global positioning based soil samples (0-0.20 m depth) from each of four salinity groups i.e. non-saline (EC=0.08±0.06 dS m-1), weakly saline (EC=2.04±0.06 dS m-1), moderately saline (EC=3.50±0.57 dS m-1) and strongly saline (EC=5.49±0.49 dS m-1) during three seasons-monsoon, post-monsoon and pre-monsoon were collected. Soil microbial activity in terms of soil microbial carbon (MBC), MBC as a fraction of soil organic carbon (SOC) (MBC/SOC), basal soil respiration (BSR), metabolic quotient (qCO2) and soil enzyme activities-dehydrogenase, phosphatase and urease was tested. In all the seasons, the soil cationic composition depended significantly (p<0.01) on salinity levels and the exchangeable sodium (Na) was the second most dominant among the tested cations. The MBC, MBC/SOC and BSR reduced significantly with increasing salinity, whereas qCO2 increased with increased salinity levels. In general, MBC, MBC/SOC and BSR and soil enzyme activities were observed as: salinity levels-strongly saline < moderately saline < weakly saline < non-saline and season-post-monsoon > monsoon > during pre-monsoon season. The mean MBC and MBC/SOC of non-saline soils were 1.61 and 2.28 times higher than that of strongly saline soils, whereas qCO2 of strongly saline soils was 2.4 times higher than that of non-saline soils. This indirectly indicates the salinity stress on the soil microorganisms. Irrespective of season, the soil enzyme activities decreased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing salinity levels. Suitable countermeasures needs to be taken up to alleviate the depressive salinity effect on the microbial and activity for the sustainable crop production in

  18. Salinization forced anoxia in the Sea of Aral, the Dead Sea and the Urmia Lake: a temporal feature of the salt lakes development under the Global Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakushev, Evgeniy; Ghaffari, Peygham; Zavialov, Petr; Kurbaniyazov, Abilgazi

    2016-04-01

    The Sea of Aral is undergone a process of its volume decrease and salinization started about 30 years ago. In the remained now lake in the former deepest part of the Sea the salinity increased from about 8 PSU in 1990 to 120 PSU in the surface layer, and 240 PSU in the bottom layer in 2015. On top of an increase of salinity, there was formed a sulfidic zone in the bottom layer, that was separated from the upper layer by an extremely strong halocline (more than 50 PSU in 100 cm). The reason of this halocline might be an influx of the heavy high salinity water formed in summer in the shallower part of the Aral Sea to the bottom layer of the deeper part of the Sea through a strait between them. The similar processes could take place in the Urmia Lake, where salinity increased from 120 PSU in 2000 to about 350-400 PSU in 2015. This lake also consists from a shallow and deep parts connected by a channel in the dam, and where there was also reported anoxia. And finally, the Dead Sea demonstrates a further development happened after the shallower Southern part of the Sea was totally evaporated. After 1993 the vertical mixing started to occur down to the bottom layer, and the lake regime changed from meromictic to monomictic, that resulted in aeration of the bottom layer. In this work we compare interannual changes of the main salinity components in the 3 water bodies and analyze results of the vertical chemical structure of the Sea of Aral studied in 2015.

  19. Hydrologic and salinity characteristics of Currituck Sound and selected tributaries in North Carolina and Virginia, 1998-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, William Scott

    2001-01-01

    Data collected at three sites in Currituck Sound and three tributary sites between March 1, 1998, and February 28, 1999, were used to describe hydrologic and salinity characteristics of Currituck Sound. Water levels and salinity were measured at West Neck Creek at Pungo and at Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal near Princess Anne in Virginia, and at Coinjock, Bell Island, Poplar Branch, and Point Harbor in North Carolina. Flow velocity also was measured at the West Neck Creek and Coinjock sites. The maximum water-level range during the study period was observed near the lower midpoint of Currituck Sound at Poplar Branch. Generally, water levels at all sites were highest during March and April, and lowest during November and December. Winds from the south typically produced higher water levels in Currituck Sound, whereas winds from the north typically produced lower water levels. Although wind over Currituck Sound is associated with fluctuations in water level within the sound, other mechanisms, such as the effects of wind on Albemarle Sound and on other water bodies south of Currituck Sound, likely affect low-frequency water-level variations in Currituck Sound. Flow in West Neck Creek ranged from 313 cubic feet per second to the south to -227 cubic feet per second to the north (negative indicates flow to the north). Flow at the Coinjock site ranged from 15,300 cubic feet per second to the south to -11,700 cubic feet per second to the north. Flow was to the south 68 percent of the time at the West Neck Creek site and 44 percent of the time at the Coinjock site. Daily flow volumes were calculated as the sum of the instantaneous flow volumes. The West Neck Creek site had a cumulative flow volume to the south of 7.69 x 108 cubic feet for the period March 1, 1998, to February 28, 1999; the Coinjock site had a cumulative flow volume to the north of -1.33 x 1010 cubic feet for the same study period. Wind direction and speed influence flow at the West Neck Creek and Coinjock

  20. Case study on combined CO₂ sequestration and low-salinity water production potential in a shallow saline aquifer in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tausif Khizar; Nasrabadi, Hadi

    2012-10-30

    CO₂ is one of the byproducts of natural gas production in Qatar. The high rate of natural gas production from Qatar's North Field (world's largest non-associated gas field) has led to the production of significant amounts of CO₂. The release of CO₂ into the atmosphere may be harmful from the perspective of global warming. In this work, we study the CO₂ sequestration potential in Qatar's Aruma aquifer. The Aruma aquifer is a saline aquifer in the southwest of Qatar. It occupies an area of approximately 1985 km₂ on land (16% of Qatar's total area). We have developed a compositional model for CO₂ sequestration in the Aruma aquifer on the basis of available log and flow test data. We suggest water production at some distance from the CO₂ injection wells as a possible way to control the pore pressure. This method increases the potential for safe sequestration of CO₂ in the aquifer without losing integrity of the caprock and without any CO₂ leakage. The water produced from this aquifer is considerably less saline than seawater and could be a good water source for the desalination process, which is currently the main source of water in Qatar. The outcome of the desalination process is water with higher salinity than the seawater that is currently discharged into the sea. This discharge can have negative long-term environmental effects. The water produced from the Aruma aquifer is considerably less saline than seawater and can be a partial solution to this problem. PMID:22672956

  1. Salinity and Bacterial Diversity: To What Extent Does the Concentration of Salt Affect the Bacterial Community in a Saline Soil?

    PubMed Central

    Canfora, Loredana; Bacci, Giovanni; Pinzari, Flavia; Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Dazzi, Carmelo; Benedetti, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the evaluation of soil characteristics was coupled with a pyrosequencing analysis of the V2-V3 16S rRNA gene region in order to investigate the bacterial community structure and diversity in the A horizon of a natural saline soil located in Sicily (Italy). The main aim of the research was to assess the organisation and diversity of microbial taxa using a spatial scale that revealed physical and chemical heterogeneity of the habitat under investigation. The results provided information on the type of distribution of different bacterial groups as a function of spatial gradients of soil salinity and pH. The analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA showed differences in bacterial composition and diversity due to a variable salt concentration in the soil. The bacterial community showed a statistically significant spatial variability. Some bacterial phyla appeared spread in the whole area, whatever the salinity gradient. It emerged therefore that a patchy saline soil can not contain just a single microbial community selected to withstand extreme osmotic phenomena, but many communities that can be variously correlated to one or more environmental parameters. Sequences have been deposited to the SRA database and can be accessed on ID Project PRJNA241061. PMID:25188357

  2. The effects of acute salinity challenges on osmoregulation in Mozambique tilapia reared in a tidally changing salinity.

    PubMed

    Moorman, Benjamin P; Lerner, Darren T; Grau, E Gordon; Seale, Andre P

    2015-03-01

    This study characterizes the differences in osmoregulatory capacity among Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, reared in freshwater (FW), in seawater (SW) or under tidally driven changes in salinity. This was addressed through the use of an abrupt exposure to a change in salinity. We measured changes in: (1) plasma osmolality and prolactin (PRL) levels; (2) pituitary expression of prolactin (PRL) and its receptors, PRLR1 and PRLR2; (3) branchial expression of PRLR1, PRLR2, Na(+)/Cl(-) co-transporter (NCC), Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) co-transporter (NKCC), α1a and α1b isoforms of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), aquaporin 3 (AQP3) and Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3). Mozambique tilapia reared in a tidal environment successfully adapted to SW while fish reared in FW did not survive a transfer to SW beyond the 6 h sampling. With the exception of CFTR, the change in the expression of ion pumps, transporters and channels was more gradual in fish transferred from tidally changing salinities to SW than in fish transferred from FW to SW. Upon transfer to SW, the increase in CFTR expression was more robust in tidal fish than in FW fish. Tidal and SW fish successfully adapted when transferred to FW. These results suggest that Mozambique tilapia reared in a tidally changing salinity, a condition that more closely represents their natural history, gain an adaptive advantage compared with fish reared in FW when facing a hyperosmotic challenge. PMID:25617466

  3. Influence of a multiyear event of low salinity on the zooplankton from Mexican eco-regions of the California Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaniegos, Bertha E.

    2009-12-01

    Data are presented from the southern part of the California Current System (CCS) for the period 1997-2007, derived from the IMECOCAL monitoring program. Apart from El Niño 1997 to 1998, and La Niña 1998-1999 the strongest perturbation occurred in 2002 due to an intrusion of subarctic water affecting all the CCS. The response of zooplankton biomass to the strong cooling and freshening of the upper layer was an immediate drop followed by a progressive recovery between 2003 and 2007. Though the low salinity influence ended in 2006, the increased zooplankton trend continued, reinforced by increased upwelling activity beginning 2005 off north Baja California region (30-32°N) and beginning 2006 off central Baja California (24-30°N). Multiple regression analysis was done between regional variables and Upwelling Index (UI) and two basin-scale proxies: the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The significant influence of the NPGO on surface salinity, salinity stratification, zooplankton volume and secondary consumers (zooplankton carnivores) suggests a basin scale control on these variables more than local mechanisms. The signature of the NPGO was also evident in the base of the trophic web, but more related to the group of crustacean herbivores in the north eco-region, and the tunicates in central Baja California. In this last region, the effect from NPGO on the zooplankton volume and tunicates was antagonist with UI indicative of similar importance of basin and local processes. However, when the time interval is limited to the post-subarctic intrusion (2003-2007) the significance of multiple regression models and physical variables was lost. Therefore, though data and bio-physical coupling analysis off Baja California suggest a better relation with NPGO compared to PDO, it is still not sufficient to explain the magnitude of the perturbation observed in 2002.

  4. Volumetrics of CO{sub 2} Storage in Deep Saline Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Capobianco, Ryan M; Dilmore, Robert; Goodman, Angela; Guthrie, George; Rimstidt, J Donald; Bodnar, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Concern about the role of greenhouse gases in global climate change has generated interest in sequestering CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion in deep saline formations. Pore space in these formations is initially filled with brine, and space to accommodate injected CO{sub 2} must be generated by displacing brine, and to a lesser extent by compression of brine and rock. The formation volume required to store a given mass of CO{sub 2} depends on the storage mechanism. We compare the equilibrium volumetric requirements of three end-member processes: CO{sub 2} stored as a supercritical fluid (structural or stratigraphic trapping); CO{sub 2} dissolved in pre-existing brine (solubility trapping); and CO{sub 2} solubility enhanced by dissolution of calcite. For typical storage conditions, storing CO{sub 2} by solubility trapping reduces the volume required to store the same amount of CO{sub 2} by structural or stratigraphic trapping by about 50%. Accessibility of CO{sub 2} to brine determines which storage mechanism (structural/stratigraphic versus solubility) dominates at a given time, which is a critical factor in evaluating CO{sub 2} volumetric requirements and long-term storage security.

  5. Symptomatic Abdominal Simple Cysts: Is Percutaneous Sclerotherapy with Hypertonic Saline and Bleomycin a Treatment Option?

    PubMed Central

    Souftas, V. D.; Kosmidou, M.; Karanikas, M.; Souftas, D.; Menexes, G.; Prassopoulos, P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the feasibility of percutaneous sclerotherapy of symptomatic simple abdominal cysts, using hypertonic saline and bleomycin, as an alternative to surgery. Materials and Methods. This study involved fourteen consecutive patients (ten women, four men, mean age: 59.2 y) with nineteen symptomatic simple cysts (liver n = 14, kidney n = 3, and adrenal n = 2) treated percutaneously using a modified method. Initially CT-guided drainage was performed; the next day the integrity of the cyst/exclusion of extravasation or communications was evaluated under fluoroscopy, followed by two injections/reabsorptions of the same quantity of hypertonic NaCl 15% solution and three-time repetition of the same procedure with the addition of bleomycin. The catheter was then removed; the patients were hospitalized for 12 hours and underwent follow-ups on 1st, 3rd, 6th, and 12th months. Cyst's volumes and the reduction rate (%) were calculated in each evaluation. Results. No pain or complications were noted. A significant cyst's volume reduction was documented over time (P < 0.001). On the 12th month 17 cysts disappeared and two displayed a 98.7% and 68.9% reduction, respectively. Conclusion. This percutaneous approach constitutes a very promising nonsurgical alternative for patients with symptomatic simple cyst, without complications under proper precautions, leading to eliminating the majority of cysts. PMID:25878660

  6. The Role of Groundwater and Reservoir Interaction in Salinity Distribution in a Saline Area in the Northeastern Part of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeboonruang, U.

    2012-12-01

    Salinity is a process by which the concentration of soluble salt in soil and water increases. Human activities can, however, disrupt this natural equilibrium by changing the distribution of salt in the environment. Reservoirs have played a number of crucial roles in the development of human civilization. The main purposes of reservoirs are to prevent floods, to supply water for domestic consumption, to generate electricity, and to irrigate farmlands. Despite various benefits, reservoirs could bring about adverse environmental and social impacts. Infiltration or leakage from man-made reservoirs or dams could cause the change of the groundwater level, thus forcing the deposited salt onto the soil surface and/or waterways. Until now, it is nevertheless unclear as to how the operation and maintenance of reservoirs could impact in a saline soil area physically, environmentally, and/or socially. The purpose of this research is therefore to assess the impacts of reservoirs on groundwater and salinity levels in a saline soil area in the northeastern part of Thailand. Saline soil can be found in many regions of Thailand, particularly in the northeast of Thailand where the Maha Sarakham Foundation, which is composed of imbedded salt rock layers, is the main source of salinity in the region. The salinity accumulation on the surface soil is influenced by the brackish groundwater upward flow and evaporation processes. The study area is located in Nakhon Panom Province in the northeastern part of Thailand along the Great Mekong River and has a total area of approximately 1,300 km2. The yearly evaporation rate in this region is as high as the annual evaporation rate. A reservoir was constructed in the low-lying floodplain area of the Nam Kam basin and started operation since a few years ago. The reservoir is located right in the middle of the floodplain where flood always occurs every rainy season. Groundwater levels are measured and groundwater samples are collected for p

  7. Simulated Effects of Soil Temperature and Salinity on Capacitance Sensor Measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric measurement techniques are advancing estimation of water content in environmental media. However, factors such as temperature and salinity affecting the readings require further quantitative investigation and explanation. Theoretical sensitivities of capacitance sensors to liquid salinity...

  8. 16 CFR 1500.134 - Policy on first aid labeling for saline emesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... such as ipecac syrup, the Commission no longer recommends a direction to perform saline emesis as a... directions for saline emesis have been given in the past, ipecac syrup, U.S.P., is the most...

  9. Modeling as a tool for management of saline soils and irrigation waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal management of saline soils and irrigation waters requires consideration of many interrelated factors including, climate, water applications and timing, water flow, plant water uptake, soil chemical reactions, plant response to salinity and solution composition, soil hydraulic properties and ...

  10. Golden alga presence and abundance are inversely related to salinity in a high-salinity river ecosystem, Pecos River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Israël, Natascha M.D.; VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Denny, Shawn; Ingle, John; Patino, Reynaldo

    2014-01-01

    Prymnesium parvum (golden alga, GA) is a toxigenic harmful alga native to marine ecosystems that has also affected brackish inland waters. The first toxic bloom of GA in the western hemisphere occurred in the Pecos River, one of the saltiest rivers in North America. Environmental factors (water quality) associated with GA occurrence in this basin, however, have not been examined. Water quality and GA presence and abundance were determined at eight sites in the Pecos River basin with or without prior history of toxic blooms. Sampling was conducted monthly from January 2012 to July 2013. Specific conductance (salinity) varied spatiotemporally between 4408 and 73,786 mS/cm. Results of graphical, principal component (PCA), and zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression analyses indicated that the incidence and abundance of GA are reduced as salinity increases spatiotemporally. LOWESS regression and correlation analyses of archived data for specific conductance and GA abundance at one of the study sites retrospectively confirmed the negative association between these variables. Results of PCA also suggested that at <15,000 mS/cm, GA was present at a relatively wide range of nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) concentrations whereas at higher salinity, GA was observed only at mid-to-high nutrient levels. Generally consistent with earlier studies, results of ZIP regression indicated that GA presence is positively associated with organic phosphorus and in samples where GA is present, GA abundance is positively associated with organic nitrogen and negatively associated with inorganic nitrogen. This is the first report of an inverse relation between salinity and GA presence and abundance in riverine waters and of interaction effects of salinity and nutrients in the field. These observations contribute to a more complete understanding of environmental conditions that influence GA distribution in inland waters.

  11. Mineral resources and mineral resource potential of the Saline Valley and Lower Saline Wilderness Study Areas, Inyo County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wrucke, C.T.; Marsh, S.P.; Raines, G.L.; Werschky, R.S.; Blakely, R.J.; Hoover, D.B.; McHugh, E.L.; Rumsey, C.M.; Gaps, R.S.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area and the Lower Saline Wilderness Study Area, California Desert Conservation Area, Inyo County, California. The Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area and the Lower Saline Wilderness Study Area were studied in 1981-83 using geologic, geochemical, remote sensing, and geophysical surveys and the examination of mines and prospects to evaluate mineral resources and the potential for mineral resources. The Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area has a high potential for the occurrence of gold resources in two areas. One area, largely outside the study area, is in the vicinity of the Crater mine in the Last Chance Range, and it has potential for the occurrence of gold in a disseminated deposit in an epithermal environment. The other area is in Marble Canyon in the western part of the study area, and it has high potential for the occurrence of gold placer deposits. Marble Canyon also has a moderate potential for gold in placer deposits downstream from the area of high potential. Seven areas, scattered from the Inyo Mountains to the Last Chance Range, have a low potential for the occurrence of gold in disseminated deposits, and one area that lies astride the border of Death Valley National Monument has a low potential for the occurrence of gold in vein deposits. The southern end of Eureka Valley has a low potential for the occurrence of lithium and uranium resources in buried sedimentary deposits for the occurrence of lithium and uranium resources in buried sedimentary deposits beneath the valley floor. Demonstrated resources of native sulfur exist at the Crater mine but no resource potential was identified nearby in adtacent parts of the study area. 3 figs. (ACR)

  12. In Vivo Evaluation of the Ameliorating Effects of Small-Volume Resuscitation with Four Different Fluids on Endotoxemia-Induced Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-ling; Chen, Jing-hui; Zhu, Qiong-fang; Yu, Gao-feng; Luo, Chen-fang; Luo, Gang-jian; Li, Shang-rong; Hei, Zi-qing

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury associated with renal hypoperfusion is a frequent and severe complication during sepsis. Fluid resuscitation is the main therapy. However, heart failure is usually lethal for those patients receiving large volumes of fluids. We compared the effects of small-volume resuscitation using four different treatment regimens, involving saline, hypertonic saline (HTS), hydroxyethyl starch (HES), or hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch (HSH), on the kidneys of rats treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce endotoxemia. LPS injection caused reduced and progressively deteriorated systemic (arterial blood pressure) and renal hemodynamics (renal blood flow and renal vascular resistance index) over time. This deterioration was accompanied by marked renal functional and pathological injury, as well as an oxidative and inflammatory response, manifesting as increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde and decreased activity of superoxide dismutase. Small-volume perfusion with saline failed to improve renal and systemic circulation. However, small-volume perfusion with HES and HSH greatly improved the above parameters, while HTS only transiently improved systemic and renal hemodynamics with obvious renal injury. Therefore, single small-volume resuscitation with HES and HSH could be valid therapeutic approaches to ameliorate kidney injury induced by endotoxemia, while HTS transiently delays injury and saline shows no protective effects. PMID:26273142

  13. In Vivo Evaluation of the Ameliorating Effects of Small-Volume Resuscitation with Four Different Fluids on Endotoxemia-Induced Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-ling; Chen, Jing-hui; Zhu, Qiong-fang; Yu, Gao-feng; Luo, Chen-fang; Luo, Gang-jian; Li, Shang-rong; Hei, Zi-qing

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury associated with renal hypoperfusion is a frequent and severe complication during sepsis. Fluid resuscitation is the main therapy. However, heart failure is usually lethal for those patients receiving large volumes of fluids. We compared the effects of small-volume resuscitation using four different treatment regimens, involving saline, hypertonic saline (HTS), hydroxyethyl starch (HES), or hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch (HSH), on the kidneys of rats treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce endotoxemia. LPS injection caused reduced and progressively deteriorated systemic (arterial blood pressure) and renal hemodynamics (renal blood flow and renal vascular resistance index) over time. This deterioration was accompanied by marked renal functional and pathological injury, as well as an oxidative and inflammatory response, manifesting as increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde and decreased activity of superoxide dismutase. Small-volume perfusion with saline failed to improve renal and systemic circulation. However, small-volume perfusion with HES and HSH greatly improved the above parameters, while HTS only transiently improved systemic and renal hemodynamics with obvious renal injury. Therefore, single small-volume resuscitation with HES and HSH could be valid therapeutic approaches to ameliorate kidney injury induced by endotoxemia, while HTS transiently delays injury and saline shows no protective effects. PMID:26273142

  14. Salinity increases in the navajo aquifer in southeastern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, D.L.; Spangler, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    Salinity increases in water in some parts of the Navajo aquifer in southeastern Utah have been documented previously. The purpose of this paper is to use bromide, iodide, and chloride concentrations and del oxygen-18 and deuterium values in water from the study area to determine if oil-field brines (OFB) could be the source of increased salinity. Mixing-model results indicate that the bromide-to-chloride X 10,000 weight ratio characteristic of OFB in and outside the study area could not be causing the bromide depletion with increasing salinity in the Navajo aquifer. Mixing-model results indicate that a mixture of one percent OFB with 99 percent Navajo aquifer water would more than double the bromide-to-chloride weight ratio, instead of the observed decrease in the weight ratio with increasing chloride concentration. The trend of the mixing line representing the isotopically enriched samples from the Navajo aquifer does not indicate OFB as the source of isotopically enriched water; however, the simulated isotopic composition of injection water could be a salinity source. The lighter isotopic composition of OFB samples from the Aneth, Ratherford, White Mesa Unit, and McElmo Creek injection sites relative to the Ismay site is a result of continued recycling of injection water mixed with various proportions of isotopically lighter make-up water from the alluvial aquifer along the San Juan River. A mixing model using the isotopic composition of the simulated injection water suggests that enriched samples from the Navajo aquifer are composed of 36 to 75 percent of the simulated injection water. However, chloride concentrations predicted by the isotopic mixing model are up to 13.4 times larger than the measured chloride concentrations in isotopically enriched samples from the Navajo aquifer, indicating that injection water is not the source of increased salinity. Geochemical data consistently show that OFB and associated injection water from the Greater Aneth Oil Field

  15. SMOS sea surface salinity maps of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabarro, Carolina; Olmedo, Estrella; Turiel, Antonio; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim; Martinez, Justino; Portabella, Marcos

    2016-04-01

    Salinity and temperature gradients drive the thermohaline circulation of the oceans, and play a key role in the ocean-atmosphere coupling. The strong and direct interactions between the ocean and the cryosphere (primarily through sea ice and ice shelves) is also a key ingredient of the thermohaline circulation. The ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, launched in 2009, has the objective measuring soil moisture over the continents and sea surface salinity over the oceans. Although the mission was originally conceived for hydrological and oceanographic studies [1], SMOS is also making inroads in the cryospheric monitoring. SMOS carries an innovative L-band (1.4 GHz, or 21-cm wavelength), passive interferometric radiometer (the so-called MIRAS) that measures the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the Earth's surface, at about 50 km spatial resolution wide swath (1200-km), and with a 3-day revisit time at the equator, but a more frequent one at the poles. Although the SMOS radiometer operating frequency offers almost the maximum sensitivity of the brightness temperature (TB) to sea surface salinity (SSS) variations, this is rather low, , i.e.,: 90% of ocean SSS values span a range of brightness temperatures of only 5K at L-band. This sensitivity is particularly low in cold waters. This implies that the SSS retrieval requires high radiometric performance. Since the SMOS launch, SSS Level 3 maps have been distributed by several expert laboratories including the Barcelona Expert Centre (BEC). However, since the TB sensitivity to SSS decreases with decreasing sea surface temperature (SST), large retrieval errors had been reported when retrieving salinity values at latitudes above 50⁰N. Two new processing algorithms, recently developed at BEC, have led to a considerable improvement of the SMOS data, allowing for the first time to derive SSS maps in cold waters. The first one is to empirically characterize and correct the systematic biases with six

  16. Modelling Regional Hotspots of Water Pollution Induced by Salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malsy, M.; Floerke, M.

    2014-12-01

    Insufficient water quality is one of the main global topics causing risk to human health, biodiversity, and food security. At this, salinization of water and land resources is widely spread especially in arid to semi-arid climates, where salinization, often induced by irrigation agriculture, is a fundamental aspect of land degradation. High salinity is crucial to water use for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes, and therefore poses a risk to human health and ecosystem status. However, salinization is also an economic problem, in particular in those regions where agriculture makes a significant contribution to the economy and/or where agriculture is mainly based on irrigation. Agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water resulting in lower yields. Hence, not only the quantity of irrigation water is of importance for growing cops but also its quality, which may further reduce the available resources. Thereby a major concern for food production and security persists, as irrigated agriculture accounts for over 30% of the total agricultural production. In this study, the large scale water quality model WorldQual was applied to simulate recent total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to food security. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries, as these are most threatened by water pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use were examined, indicating limitations to crop production. For this purpose, model simulations were conducted for the year 2010 to show the recent status of surface water quality and to identify hotspots and main causes of pollution. Our results show that salinity hotspots mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is by far the dominant sector contributing to water abstractions as

  17. Sea salt production over Bay of Bengal : Effect of salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K, K. N.; S K, S.; S S, B.; K, K.

    2015-12-01

    Marine aerosols constitute one of the most important natural aerosol systems globally and play an important role in global climate regulation and the marine biogenic system. One of the major constituents of the marine aerosol system is sea salt. Sea salt aerosols are produced via the bubble-bursting process resulting from whitecap generation (due to high wind speed). The resulting sea salt particles are of sub micrometre sizes and go up to a few micrometres. An increase in sea salt mass is primarily associated with increasing wind speeds. The increase in wind speed not only increases the mass concentration of the small-sized sea salt particles but also that of higher-sized particles. This behaviour is constrained by other factors like temperature and salinity. In the present work, this variability in the change in mass concentration of sea salt aerosol is studied with respect to the wind speed variation over Bay of Bengal (BoB). This work includes measurements from two field experiments held on 2006 ((ICARB) March-April) and 2012 ((CTCZ) July-August) over BoB. An analysis of the mass concentration with the wind history showed the mass concentration increasing with the increase in wind speed. Here wind history is used instead of instantaneous wind speed, because it is a good indicator of dependence of mass concentrations on wind speed. However, the cruise held in 2012 showed the size of particles constraining to 2.5 μm unlike the cruise in 2006. This difference in the size of the particles formed is majorly due to change in salinity. In 2012, the cruise was during summer monsoon season wherein the high runoff associated with high precipitation lead to reduced salinity. Whereas in 2006, the cruise was in summer season during which high evaporation lead to increase in salinity. This shows that with lower salinity the sea salt particles formed will be of smaller size. This also shows that apart from wind speed, salinity also affects the sea salt production.

  18. Role of angiotensin II in the antinatriuresis that follows acute volume depletion.

    PubMed

    Gamba, G; Pedraza-Chaverrí, J; Cervera, J; Cruz, C; Hernández-Pando, R; Peña, J C

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of the renin angiotensin system to the antinatriuresis that follows acute volume depletion. Four groups of six dogs each were studied. The first group was exposed to saline expansion (8% body weight) (SE). The second group was exposed to acute volume depletion (2% body weight) followed in one hour by saline expansion (AVD). The third and fourth groups were similar but in dogs treated with high doses of captopril (SE + C and AVD + C). Dogs were anesthetized with phenobarbital. Control measurements were made for 30 minutes before and 60 minutes during saline expansion. Glomerular filtration rate (inulin), renal blood flow (para-aminohippuric acid) and mean arterial pressure were similar in the four groups during the experiment. The increase in fractional sodium excretion from the control period to the end of saline expansion was in the SE group from 0.6 +/- 0.2 to 6.4 +/- 1% and in the SE + C group from 1.1 +/- 0.3 to 8.5 +/- 1.3%. In contrast, in the AVD group it only rose from 0.8 +/- 0.2 to 3.5 +/- 0.7% and in the AVD + C group from 1.3 +/- 0.4 to 4.1 +/- 0.6%. Therefore, the increment in sodium excretion during saline expansion was significantly lower in dogs exposed to acute volume depletion, independent of the treatment with captopril. The blunted natriuresis cannot be explained by differences in GFR, RBF or MAP. These results suggest that renin angiotensin system is not the responsible agent of the sodium retention that follows acute volume depletion. PMID:1488579

  19. DIGESTIVE TUBULE ATROPHY IN EASTERN OYSTERS, CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA (GMELI, 1791), EXPOSED TO SALINITY AND STARVATION STRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oysters sampled in February 1992, from a low salinity site (3 ppt) in Apalachicola Bay, Florida, showed digestive tubule atrophy when salinity site (18 ppt) 16 kilometers away. xperiments designed to induce tubule atrophy in the and two salinity stress tests. o quantify tubule co...

  20. A preliminary study of the distribution of saline water in the bedrock aquifers of eastern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryling, Roy W.

    1961-01-01

    The occurrence of saline water in the bedrock aquifers of eastern Wisconsin has been known for many years. Because of the ready availability of fresh water from other sources, little has been known of the extent of the saline-water area. Saline ground water is a potential source of contamination to wells if it moves into fresh-water zones.

  1. Remote sensing soil salinity map for the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil salinization is a major natural hazard to worldwide agriculture. We present a remote imagery approach that maps salinity within a range (i.e., salinities less than 20 dS m-1, when measured as the electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract), accuracy, and resolution most relevant to ...

  2. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... National Park Service Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death...: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Saline Valley Warm Springs... environmental impact analysis process for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan for Death...

  3. Salinity effects on viability, metabolic activity and proliferation of three Perkinsus species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La, Peyre M.; Casas, S.; La, Peyre J.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known regarding the range of conditions in which many Perkinsus species may proliferate, making it difficult to predict conditions favorable for their expansion, to identify conditions inducing mortality, or to identify instances of potential cross-infectivity among sympatric host species. In this study, the effects of salinity on viability, metabolic activity and proliferation of P. marinus, P. olseni and P. chesapeaki were determined. Specifically, this research examined the effects of 5 salinities (7, 11, 15, 25, 35???), (1) without acclimation, on the viability and metabolic activity of 2 isolates of each Perkinsus species, and (2) with acclimation, on the viability, metabolic activity, size and number of 1 isolate of each species. P. chesapeaki showed the widest range of salinity tolerance of the 3 species, with high viability and cell proliferation at all salinities tested. Although P. chesapeaki originated from low salinity areas (i.e. <15???), several measures (i.e. cell number and metabolic activity) indicated that higher salinities (15, 25???) were more favorable for its growth. P. olseni, originating from high salinity areas, had better viability and proliferation at the higher salinities (15, 25, 35???). Distinct differences in acute salinity response of the 2 P. olseni isolates at lower salinities (7, 11???), however, suggest the need for a more expansive comparison of isolates to better define the lower salinity tolerance. Lastly, P. marinus was more tolerant of the lower salinities (7 and 11???) than P. olseni, but exhibited reduced viability at 7???, even after acclimation. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  4. SALINITY EFFECTS ON COTTON N UPTAKE AND ASSIMILATION OF UREA APPLIED WITH NBPT AND DCD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salinity is an abiotic stress factor that can cause significant crop yield losses. It is usually common in irrigated areas with arid climates. Cotton is classified as a moderately salt-tolerant species with a salinity threshold level of 7.7 dS m-1. However cultivation of cotton in high salinity soil...

  5. EFFECT OF SALINITY ON COTTON N UPTAKE AND ASSIMILATION OF UREA APPLIED WITH NBPT AND DCD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salinity is an abiotic stress factor that can cause significant crop yield losses. It is usually common in irrigated areas with arid climates. Cotton is classified as a moderately salt-tolerant species with a salinity threshold level of 7.7 dS m-1. However cultivation of cotton in high salinity soil...

  6. The cost of meeting increased cooling-water demands for CO2 capture and storage utilizing non-traditional waters from geologic saline formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klise, Geoffrey T.; Roach, Jesse D.; Kobos, Peter H.; Heath, Jason E.; Gutierrez, Karen A.

    2013-05-01

    Deep (> ˜800 m) saline water-bearing formations in the United States have substantial pore volume that is targeted for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the associated saline water can be extracted to increase CO2 storage efficiency, manage pressure build up, and create a new water source that, once treated, can be used for power-plant cooling or other purposes. Extraction, treatment and disposal costs of saline formation water to meet added water demands from CO2 capture and storage (CCS) are discussed. This underutilized water source may be important in meeting new water demand associated with CCS. For a representative natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plant, simultaneous extraction of brine from the storage formation could provide enough water to meet all CCS-related cooling demands for 177 out of the 185 (96 %) saline formations analyzed in this study. Calculated total cost of water extraction, treatment and disposal is less than 4.00 US Dollars (USD) m-3 for 93 % of the 185 formations considered. In 90 % of 185 formations, treated water costs are less than 10.00 USD tonne-1 of CO2 injected. On average, this represents approximately 6 % of the total CO2 capture and injection costs for the NGCC scenario.

  7. How Do Deep Saline Aquifer Microbial Communities Respond to Supercritical CO2 Injection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, A.; Billman-Jacobe, H.; Boreham, C.; Schacht, U.; Moreau, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is currently seen as a viable strategy for mitigating anthropogenic carbon dioxide pollution. The Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies (CO2CRC) is currently conducting a field experiment in the Otway Basin (Australia) studying residual gas saturation in the water-saturated reservoir of the Paaratte Formation. As part of this study, a suite of pre-CO2 injection water samples were collected from approximately 1400 meters depth (60°C, 13.8 MPa) via an in situ sampling system. The in situ sampling system isolates aquifer water from sources of contamination while maintaining the formation pressure. Whole community DNA was extracted from these samples to investigate the prokaryotic biodiversity of the saline Paaratte aquifer (EC = 1509.6 uS/cm). Bioinformatic analysis of preliminary 16S ribosomal gene data revealed Thermincola, Acinetobacter, Sphingobium, and Dechloromonas amongst the closest related genera to environmental clone sequences obtained from a subset of pre-CO2 injection groundwater samples. Epifluorescent microscopy with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) highlighted an abundance of filamentous cells ranging from 5 to 45 μM. Efforts are currently directed towards utilising a high throughput sequencing approach to capture an exhaustive profile of the microbial diversity of the Paaratte aquifer CO2 injection site, and to understand better the response of in situ microbial populations to the injection of large volumes (e.g. many kilotonnes) of supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2). Sequencing results will be used to direct cultivation efforts towards enrichment of a CO2-tolerant microorganism. Understanding the microbial response to sc-CO2 is an integral aspect of carbon dioxide storage, for which very little information exists in the literature. This study aims to elucidate molecular mechanisms, through genomic and cultivation-based methods, for CO2 tolerance with the prospect of engineering biofilms to enhance

  8. Effects of salinity on photoreactivation of Escherichia coli after UV disinfection.

    PubMed

    Oguma, Kumiko; Izaki, Kentaro; Katayama, Hiroyuki

    2013-09-01

    The effects of sodium chloride on photoreactivation of Escherichia coli were examined, assuming the discharge of ultraviolet (UV)-treated wastewater to water environment at different salinities. Suspensions of E. coli were first exposed to a low-pressure UV lamp in phosphate buffer to achieve 3 log inactivation, followed by an exposure to fluorescent light in NaCl solutions at the concentration of 1.0, 1.4, 1.9, 2.4 and 2.9 weight/volume %. When photoreactivation was completed in 3 h, survival ratio was recovered about 2 log in 1.0, 1.4, and 1.9% NaCl solutions, which was equivalent to the recovery observed in phosphate-buffered solution. Meanwhile, the recovery was suppressed to 0.8 log and -0.2 log in 2.4 and 2.9% NaCl solutions, respectively, which was significantly less than the recovery in phosphate buffer according to the t-test (p < 0.05). An endonuclease sensitive site assay demonstrated that the suppressed photoreactivation in 2.9% NaCl solution was due to the failure at repairing UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in the genome. In conclusion, photoreactivation of E. coli was significantly suppressed in NaCl solution at 2.4% or higher but not affect