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Sample records for volume saline enemas

  1. Effects of high volume saline enemas vs no enema during labour The N-Ma Randomised Controlled Trial [ISRCTN43153145

    PubMed Central

    Cuervo, Luis Gabriel; Bernal, Mara del Pilar; Mendoza, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    Background Enemas are used during labour in obstetric settings with the belief that they reduce puerperal and neonatal infections, shorten labour duration, and make delivery cleaner for attending personnel. However, a systematic review of the literature found insufficient evidence to support the use of enemas. The objective of this RCT was to address an identified knowledge gap by determining the effect of routine enemas used during the first stage of labour on puerperal and neonatal infection rates. Methods Design: RCT (randomised controlled trial; randomized clinical trial). Outcomes: Clinical diagnosis of maternal or neonatal infections, labour duration, delivery types, episiotomy rates, and prescription of antibiotics Setting: Tertiary care referral hospital at the Javeriana University (Bogot, Colombia) that attended 3170 births during study period with a caesarean section rate of 26%. Participants: 443 women admitted for delivery to the obstetrics service (February 1997 to February 1998) and followed for a month after delivery. Inclusion criteria were women with: low risk pregnancy and expected to remain in Bogot during follow up; gestational age ? 36 weeks; no pelvic or systemic bacterial infection; intact membranes; cervix dilatation ?7 cm. Intervention: 1 litre saline enema, versus no enema, allocated following a block random allocation sequence and using sealed opaque envelopes. Results Allocation provided balanced groups and 86% of the participants were followed up for one month. The overall infection rate for newborns was 21%, and 18% for women. We found no significant differences in puerperal or neonatal infection rates (Puerperal infection: 41/190 [22%] with enema v 26/182 [14%] without enema; RR 0.66 CI 95%: 0.43 to 1.03; neonatal infection 38/191 [20%] with enema v 40/179 [22%] without enema; RR 1.12, 95% CI 95% 0.76 to 1.66), and median labour time was similar between groups (515 min. with enema v 585 min. without enema; P = 0.24). Enemas didn't significantly change episiorraphy dehiscence rates (21/182 [12%] with enema v 32/190 [17%] without enema; P = 0.30). Conclusion This RCT found no evidence to support routine use of enemas during labour. Although these results cannot rule out a small clinical effect, it seems unlikely that enemas will improve maternal and neonatal outcomes and provide an overall benefit. PMID:16545140

  2. Analysis of 777 cases with obstruction of the ureter or extrahepatic bile duct by ultrasonography after normal saline retention enema

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Conventional transabdominal ultrasound usually fails to visualize parts of the ureter or extrahepatic bile duct covered by bowel gas. In this study, we propose a new method for gaining acoustic access to the ureters and extrahepatic bile duct to help determine the nature of obstruction to these structures when conventional transabdominal ultrasound fails. Methods The normal saline retention enema method, that is, using normal saline-filled colons to gain acoustic access to the bilateral ureters and extrahepatic bile duct and detecting the lesions with transabdominal ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus, was applied to 777 patients with obstructive lesions, including 603 with hydroureter and 174 with dilated common bile duct, which were not visualized by conventional ultrasonography. The follow-up data of all the patients were collected to verify the results obtained by this method. Results Of the 755 patients who successfully finished the examination after normal saline retention enema (the success rate of the enema is about 98%), the nature of obstruction in 718 patients was determined (the visualizing rate is approximately 95%), including 533 with ureteral calculus, 23 with ureteral stricture, 129 with extrahepatic bile duct calculus, and 33 with common bile duct tumor. Conclusions Colons filled fully with normal saline can surely give acoustic access to the bilateral ureters and extrahepatic bile duct so as to determine the nature of obstruction of these structures when conventional transabdominal ultrasound fails. PMID:22871226

  3. Relationship between the pH of enema solutions and intestinal damage in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Li, Xia; Xu, Xujuan; Cai, Duanying; Zhang, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical enemas can lead to intestinal mucosal injuries and bowel barrier damage, presenting as electrolyte disturbances and functional intestinal disorders. Most researchers believe that the mechanism of injury is related to osmolality, volume and temperature of the solution, infusion pressure, and the composition of the enema tube. We hypothesized that the pH of the enema solution may also contribute to intestinal damage. We administered enema solutions--normal saline, soapsuds, or vinegar (neutral, alkaline, or acidic solutions, respectively)--to three groups of rabbits (n = 20 per group). The solutions were standardized for volume and temperature and the soapsuds and vinegar solutions were adjusted to be isotonic with normal saline or deionized water. We also included a control group (n = 20) in which the enema tubes were inserted but no solution was administered. We biopsied 3 sites (rectum and distal and proximal colon). Damage to intestinal mucosa was observed by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In order to explore the detection of damage using noninvasive methods, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 gene expression was measured in the exfoliated cells gathered from postenema defecation. Epithelial loss, inflammatory reaction, and cellular microstructure damage was increased in the vinegar and soapsuds groups. Also, exfoliated cells in these groups had higher COX-2 expression than the normal saline group. The acidic and alkaline enema solutions thus caused more severe damage to the intestinal mucosa compared to the neutral liquid, supporting our hypothesis. Further, the detection of COX-2 expression shows promise as a noninvasive method for estimating enema-induced damage. PMID:25504953

  4. Barium enema (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A barium enema is performed to examine the walls of the colon. During the procedure, a well lubricated enema tube is inserted gently into the rectum. The barium, a radiopaque (shows up on X-ray) contrast ...

  5. How to administer an enema.

    PubMed

    Peate, Ian

    2015-12-01

    Rationale and key points This article aims to help nurses to undertake the administration of enemas in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner, ensuring privacy and dignity. The administration of an enema is a common healthcare procedure, which can be used to deliver medication or aid bowel evacuation. ? The administration of an enema should be undertaken by a competent nurse. ? An enema is a liquid preparation inserted into the rectum. ? The nurse must explain the procedure to the patient and should assist the individual before, during and after the procedure. ? The nurse should document all care given. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How you felt performing this intimate procedure. 2. The positive elements of care delivery and those that could be enhanced. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26639291

  6. 21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enema kit. 876.5210 Section 876.5210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device intended to instill water...

  7. Effects of a Glutamine Enema on Anastomotic Healing in an Animal Colon Anastomosis Model

    PubMed Central

    Oner, Osman Zekai; Oruc, Mehmet Tahir; Bulbuller, Nurullah; Ozdem, Sebahat; Ozdemir, Sukru; Alikanooglu, Arsenal Sezgin; Karakoyun, Rojbin; Dogan, Ugur; Ongen, Ayper; Koc, Umit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Anastomotic leakage in colorectal surgery is a very important issue. Although many studies have shown the positive effects of enteral glutamine (Gln) on anastomotic healing, none has assessed the effects of administering Gln via an enema for anastomotic healing. To fill this study gap, this study investigated the intraluminal effect of administration of Gln enema on the healing of colonic anastomosis in a rat model. Methods Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups containing 10 rats each and were subjected to distal left colon transection and anastomosis. Postoperatively, group I (the control group) was administered no treatment, group II was administered daily placebo enemas containing physiological saline, and group III was administered daily 2% L-Gln enemas. After sacrifice on postoperative day 5, anastomotic healing, burst pressure, tissue hydroxyproline levels, and histological parameters were measured, and group values were compared via statistical analysis. Results Group III was found to have the highest mean bursting pressure and tissue hydroxyproline levels and the lowest mean ischemia score. While the values of these parameters were not found to differ significantly among the groups, the lack of significance may have been due to the limited number of subjects examined. Conclusion Administration of a Gln enema may have a positive effect on anastomosis in terms of bursting pressure and histopathological parameters. Future research should examine administration of a preoperative Gln enema as a means of decreasing the traumatic effects of the enema and identifying its applicability in surgical practice. PMID:26817016

  8. Haemodynamic effects of small volume hypertonic saline in experimentally induced haemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Schmall, L M; Muir, W W; Robertson, J T

    1990-07-01

    A comparison of the haemodynamic benefits of small volume hypertonic saline (2,400 mOsm/litre) versus isotonic saline (300 mOsm/litre) was conducted in 12 adult horses using a haemorrhagic shock model. The horses were anaesthetised and intravascular catheters placed for the measurement of haemodynamic data. Mean systemic arterial pressure was then reduced to 50 to 60 mmHg by controlled haemorrhage and maintained at that level for 40 mins. Cardiac output, stroke volume, mean systemic arterial pressure, plasma volume and urine production decreased significantly following blood loss. Hypertonic or isotonic saline was administered randomly by intravenous infusion and haemodynamic data recorded for a 2 h period. Treatment with hypertonic saline produced rapid elevations in cardiac output, stroke volume, mean systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures, cardiac contractility and urine output, and was accompanied by expansion of the plasma volume. The changes in cardiac output and stroke volume were maintained for the duration of the recording period, whereas increases in mean systemic arterial pressure were not as remarkable. Infusion of isotonic saline caused only transient increases in cardiac output and mean systemic and pulmonary arterial pressure, and cardiac output; urine output and plasma volume did not change. This study indicates that hypertonic saline produces haemodynamic improvements in experimentally induced haemorrhagic shock in horses. PMID:2209524

  9. Saline resuscitation after fixed-volume hemorrhage. Role of resuscitation volume and rate of infusion.

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, M P; Gala, G J; Carlson, D E; Sutherland, B E; Gann, D S

    1992-01-01

    The authors have reported previously that small-volume resuscitation (1.8 x bled volume) with 0.9% NaCl restores blood volume and attenuates hormonal responses after large hemorrhage without correction of arterial hypotension. The authors studied the role of rate of infusion in this observation in chronically prepared dogs (aortic flow probe, right atrial pressure and volume, and arterial catheters) after 30% hemorrhage (24.1 +/- 0.4 mL/kg). After 30 minutes, subjects were observed either without treatment (no resuscitation) or with infusion of 43 mL/kg 0.9% NaCl over 3 hours by one of three protocols: (1) impulse infusion over 10 minutes, (2) variable rate infusion, bolus with tapering infusion, or (3) constant rate infusion. Significant improvement in cardiac output and in blood volume and significant decreases of vasopressin and arterial catecholamines were observed in all fluid-treated groups. This benefit was relatively independent of rate of infusion, although impulse infusion produced greater early improvement, which dissipated with time, and constant rate infusion produced better late results. In none of the fluid-treated groups were these improvements reflected in improved mean arterial pressure compared with the no resuscitation group. The authors conclude that small-volume, slow-rate saline infusion produces physiologic benefits that cannot be assessed by easily measured clinical parameters. Thus, early resuscitation after trauma could aid patients even if arterial pressure is unchanged. This benefit might be even greater in patients with uncontrolled bleeding because arterial pressure, and hence bleeding, may not be increased by resuscitation of this type. A reassessment of the value of prehospital fluid resuscitation in the injured patient is warranted. PMID:1503518

  10. Comparison of water immersion and saline infusion as a means of inducing volume expansion in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, M.; Pins, D. S.; Arrington, R.; Denunzio, A. G.; Engstrom, R.

    1975-01-01

    The study compares the natriuresis induced by head-out water immersion to that of a standard saline infusion and assesses the relative effectiveness of these two techniques as volume determinants of renal sodium and water handling in humans in a seated posture. The data obtained show that the volume stimulus of immersion is identical to that of standard saline-induced extracellular fluid volume expansion (ECVE) in normal seated subjects. The ability of head-out water immersion to induce a natriuresis without a concomitant increase in total blood volume and with a decrease in body weight suggests that water immersion may be preferred as an investigative tool for assessing the effects of ECVE in man.

  11. Effect of fluid loading with normal saline and 6% hydroxyethyl starch on stroke volume variability and left ventricular volume

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Hirotsugu; Hirasaki, Yuji; Iida, Takafumi; Kanao, Megumi; Toyama, Yuki; Kunisawa, Takayuki; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate changes in stroke volume variability (SVV) and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) after a fluid bolus of crystalloid or colloid using real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D-TEE) and the Vigileo-FloTrac™ system. Materials and methods After obtaining Institutional Review Board approval, and informed consent from the research participants, 22 patients undergoing scheduled peripheral vascular bypass surgery were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to receive 500 mL of hydroxyethyl starch (HES; HES group, n=11) or normal saline (Saline group, n=11) for fluid replacement therapy. SVV was measured using the Vigileo-FloTrac system. LVEDV, stroke volume, and cardiac output were measured by 3D-TEE. The measurements were performed over 30 minutes before and after the fluid bolus in both groups. Results SVV significantly decreased after fluid bolus in both groups (HES group, 14.7%±2.6% to 6.9%±2.7%, P<0.001; Saline group, 14.3%±3.9% to 8.8%±3.1%, P<0.001). LVEDV significantly increased after fluid loading in the HES group (87.1±24.0 mL to 99.9±27.2 mL, P<0.001), whereas no significant change was detected in the Saline group (88.8±17.3 mL to 91.4±17.6 mL, P>0.05). Stroke volume significantly increased after infusion in the HES group (50.6±12.5 mL to 61.6±19.1 mL, P<0.01) but not in the Saline group (51.6±13.4 mL to 54.1±12.8 mL, P>0.05). Cardiac output measured by 3D-TEE significantly increased in the HES group (3.5±1.1 L/min to 3.9±1.3 L/min, P<0.05), whereas no significant change was seen in the Saline group (3.4±1.1 L/min to 3.3±1.0 L/min, P>0.05). Conclusion Administration of colloid and crystalloid induced similar responses in SVV. A higher plasma-expanding effect of HES compared to normal saline was demonstrated by the significant increase in LVEDV. PMID:26491368

  12. Rubbing salt into wounds: hypertonic saline to assist with volume removal in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Liszkowski, Mark; Nohria, Anju

    2010-09-01

    Traditionally accepted management strategies for patients with heart failure include sodium and fluid restriction, neurohormonal blockade, and the use of loop diuretics to achieve and maintain euvolemia. Despite continued advances in medical and device therapy, fluid management remains a significant problem in patients with the cardiorenal syndrome (manifested as diuretic resistance and worsening renal function with more aggressive attempts at volume removal). This article examines the counterintuitive use of hypertonic saline as a potential therapy to facilitate diuresis in patients with decompensated heart failure and diuretic resistance. Low-volume hypertonic saline administration offsets counterproductive neurohormonal upregulation, transiently improves hemodynamics, and promotes renal sodium excretion with accompanied net water loss and preservation of renal function. This "new" therapeutic tool should be explored further as an adjunct to current medical therapies in the management of patients with refractory volume overload. PMID:20607462

  13. Hydrogeology, distribution, and volume of saline groundwater in the southern midcontinent and adjacent areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osborn, Nol I.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Seger, Christian H.

    2013-01-01

    The hydrogeology, distribution, and volume of saline water in 22 aquifers in the southern midcontinent of the United States were evaluated to provide information about saline groundwater resources that may be used to reduce dependency on freshwater resources. Those aquifers underlie six States in the southern midcontinentArkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texasand adjacent areas including all or parts of Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Wyoming and some offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico. Saline waters of the aquifers were evaluated by defining salinity zones; digitizing data, primarily from the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program of the U.S. Geological Survey; and computing the volume of saline water in storage. The distribution of saline groundwater in the southern midcontinent is substantially affected by the hydrogeology and groundwater-flow systems of the aquifers. Many of the aquifers in the southern midcontinent are underlain by one or more aquifers, resulting in vertically stacked aquifers containing groundwaters of varying salinity. Saline groundwater is affected by past and present hydrogeologic conditions. Spatial variation of groundwater salinity in the southern midcontinent is controlled primarily by locations of recharge and discharge areas, groundwater-flow paths and residence time, mixing of freshwater and saline water, and interactions with aquifer rocks and sediments. The volume calculations made for the evaluated aquifers in the southern midcontinent indicate that about 39,900 million acre-feet (acre-ft) of saline water is in storage. About 21,600 million acre-ft of the water in storage is slightly to moderately saline (1,00010,000 milligrams per liter [mg/L] dissolved solids), and about 18,300 million acre-ft is very saline (10,00035,000 mg/L dissolved solids). The largest volumes of saline water are in the coastal lowlands (about 16,300 million acre-ft), Mississippi embayment and Texas coastal uplands (about 12,000 million acre-ft), and Great Plains (about 8,170 million acre-ft) aquifer systems. Of the 22 aquifers evaluated in this report, the Maha aquifer in the Great Plains aquifer system contains both the largest total volume of saline water (about 6,280 million acre-ft) and the largest volume of slightly to moderately saline water (about 5,150 million acre-ft).

  14. Effect of acute saline volume expansion in the anaesthetised DeltaF508 cystic fibrosis mouse.

    PubMed

    Kibble, J D; Neal, A; Green, R; Colledge, W H; Taylor, C J

    2001-01-01

    It has been suggested that CFTR Cl(-) channels in the renal inner medullary collecting duct may be involved in mediating increased renal salt excretion during extracellular fluid volume expansion. To investigate this hypothesis, in-vivo clearance experiments were performed comparing wild-type (WT) and DeltaF508-CFTR transgenic mice (cftr (tm2Cam)). Control animals were given a 0.1-ml bolus of 0.9% saline, followed by I.V. infusion at 0.3 ml x h(-1). Volume expansion was applied by infusing a 1-ml bolus of 0.9% saline followed by infusion at 0.6 ml x h(-1). No significant differences in renal NaCl handling between WT mice ( C(Na)=1.2 +/- 0.3 microl x min(-1), C(Cl)=4.0 +/- 0.5 microl x min(-1)) and DeltaF508-CFTR mice ( C(Na)=1.7 +/- 0.5 microl x min(-1), C(Cl)=4.1 +/- 0.8 microl x min(-1)) were observed under control conditions. Volume expansion resulted in large significant increases in NaCl clearance in both WT mice ( C(Na)=7.0 +/- 0.9 microl x min(-1), C(Cl)=12.0 +/- 0.6 microl x min(-1)) and DeltaF508-CFTR mice ( C(Na)=7.2 +/- 1.6 microl x min(-1), C(Cl)=11.0 +/- 2.2 microl x min(-1)). However, there was no significant difference between WT and DeltaF508-CFTR mice. In conclusion, renal NaCl excretion is not significantly different under basal conditions and during saline volume expansion in DeltaF508-CFTR mice. The data suggest that CFTR is not a physiologically important mediator of volume natriuresis. PMID:11845297

  15. Effect of prolonged LBNP and saline ingestion on plasma volume and orthostatic responses during bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Dussack, Larry; Rehbein, Tracy; Wood, Margie; Steinmann, Laura

    1991-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance remains a significant problem following space flight despite frequent use of the saline fluid-loading countermeasure and volitional use of an anti-gravity suite during reentry and landing. The purpose of this project is to examine the plasma volume (PV), endocrine, and orthostatic responses of bedrested subjects following 2-hr and 4-hr treatments of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and saline ingestion. Ten healthy men were randomly assigned into 2 groups. Group A underwent a 4-hr LBNP/saline treatment on best rest day 5 and the 2-hr treatment on day 11. Group B underwent the 2-hr treatment on day 6 and the 4-hr treatment on day 10. Blood volume was determined before and after bed rest using radiolabelling. Changes in PV between measurements were calculated from changes in hematocrit and estimated red cell volume. Urinary excretion of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone (ALD) were measured each day during the study. Orthostatic responses were measured using a ramp LBNP protocol before bed rest, before each treatment, and 24 hours after each treatment. Both 2-hr and 4-hr treatments resulted in a restoration of PV to pre-bed rest levels which persisted at least 24 hours. This increase in PV was associated with significant increases in urinary excretion of ADH and ALD. Twenty-four hours after the 4-hr treatment, the heart rate and pulse pressure response to LBNP were significantly lower and stroke volumes during LBNP were increased. Twenty-four hours after the 2-hr treatment, there was no evidence of improvement in orthostatic responses. These results suggest that a countermeasure which simply restores PV during space flight may not be sufficient for restoring orthostatic responses.

  16. Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas - Volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofi, Johanna

    2014-05-01

    The Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas - Volume 2 is a publication project in the framework of the study of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. It follows the publication of a first volume in 2011 (see Editors' websites: http://ccgm.free.fr & http://sgfr.free.fr) and aims to illustrate the seismic characteristics of the MSC markers over news study areas. The Messinian Salinity Crisis is a huge outstanding succession of events that deeply modified the Mediterranean area within a short time span at the geological scale. In 2011, a seismic atlas of the Messinian markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas has been published [1]. This collective work summarizes, in one publication with a common format, the most relevant seismic features related to this exceptional event in the offshore domain. It also proposes a new global and consistent terminology for the MSC markers in the entire offshore Mediterranean area in order to avoid nomenclatural problems. Throughout 13 study areas, the seismic facies, geometry and extend of the Messinian markers (bounding surfaces and depositional units) are described. The Atlas however does not provide a complete description of all what that is known about the MSC and about the geology of each study area. Accordingly, illustrations in the Atlas should be used for a global description of the offshore imprints of the MSC at a broad scale, or for local information or site-specific general interpretations. Interpreted seismic data were carefully selected according to their quality, position and significance. Raw and interpreted seismic profiles are available on CD-Rom. Volume 2 is currently under preparation with the objectives : (1) to image the Messinian seismic marker from margins and basins that have not been illustrated in the first volume and (2) to complete the extension map of the MSC markers in the offshore and onshore domains at the Mediterranean scale. As the first volume, Volume 2 will also aim to share the geological interpretation of seismic reflection data imaging Messinian markers, to make this information accessible to the non geophysician community and to be a reference work that can be used by teachers and future researchers working on the Messinian event. This publication project is still open to anybody from industry and academia willing to contribute. At the present time, 16 new sites have been identified. Publication of the Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas - Volume 2 is planned for Fall 2014. For more details, contact presenting author J. Lofi (atlas coordinator). This contribution has been funded by the Actions Marges French research program. [1] : Lofi J., Deverchre J., Gaullier V., Gillet H., Gorini C., Guennoc P., Loncke L., Maillard A., Sage F. and Thinon I., 2011. Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) / Mmoires de la Socit Gologique de France, n.s., 179, 72 pp., 1 CD. Atlas contributors (first authors): A. Camerlenghi, A. Del Ben, D. Do Couto, F. Estrada, F. Gallais, M. Garcia, V. Gaullier, A. Maillard, A. Micallef, M. Rossi, F. Sage, U. Schattner, A. Tassy, R. Urgeles

  17. Haematological, serum electrolyte and blood gas effects of small volume hypertonic saline in experimentally induced haemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Schmall, L M; Muir, W W; Robertson, J T

    1990-07-01

    The effects of treatment with small volume hypertonic (2400 mOsm/litre) and isotonic (300 mOsm/litre) saline on serum electrolyte and biochemical concentrations, haemograms and blood gases were evaluated in 12 horses using a haemorrhagic shock model. Intravascular catheters were placed surgically for sample collection prior to anaesthesia. Controlled haemorrhage was initiated and continued until mean systemic pressure reached 50 to 60 mmHg. Hypertonic or isotonic saline (2 litres) was administered by intravenous infusion and data collected for 2 h. Following haemorrhage, packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin, blood glucose concentrations and erythrocyte numbers increased whereas plasma total protein and albumin concentrations decreased. Infusion of hypertonic saline resulted in a further decrease in total protein and albumin concentrations. Glucose concentrations and other haematological variables were unaffected. Isotonic saline administration did not affect electrolyte, total protein or albumin concentrations. Concentrations of sodium and chloride were unaffected by hypotension but increased significantly following hypertonic saline treatment, exceeding normal values during the immediate post treatment period. Serum osmolality increased concurrently. No significant changes in arterial and venous blood gas values were observed with haemorrhage or isotonic saline treatment. A transient decrease in arterial and venous blood pH and a sustained decrease in venous bicarbonate and base excess concentrations occurred following hypertonic saline administration. No significant increases in any serum biochemical concentrations occurred during hypotension or following infusion of either isotonic or hypertonic saline. These results demonstrate that small volume hypertonic saline can be administered safely to horses without producing extreme changes in electrolyte concentrations, blood gases or haematological parameters. PMID:2120034

  18. Extraperitoneal perforation of the rectum during barium enema.

    PubMed

    Rosenklint, A; Buemann, B; Hansen, P; Baden, H

    1975-01-01

    During barium enema, barium pentrated the rectum to the perirectal extraperitoneal tissue in six patients. Four of these died, and the two survivors have permanent colostomies. The incidence of this rare complication may be further reduced if barium enema is postponed after instrumentation of the rectum, the enema can not lifted more than one meter, the balloon not distended too much, the tip of the balloon catheter made very short, and the personnel in the radiological department made aware of the complication. The complication is probably best treated by prompt diverting colostomy, drainage of perirectal tissue, and antibiotics. PMID:1124343

  19. Effect of glucagon on the diagnostic accuracy of double-contrast barium enema examinations.

    PubMed

    Thoeni, R F; Vandeman, F; Wall, S D

    1984-01-01

    The effect of glucagon-induced hypotonicity on the diagnostic accuracy of double-contrast barium enema examinations was determined in 133 consecutive patients in a double-blind crossover study. All patients underwent colonoscopy and served as their own controls by undergoing a double-contrast study after intravenous injection of 1 mg of glucagon and another after intravenous injection of 1 ml of saline placebo, in randomized order. The frequencies of good/excellent hypotonicity and quality of examinations after first doses of glucagon (55.3% and 80.8%) were not significantly different from the frequencies of good/excellent results after first doses of saline (51.3% and 86.5%). The sensitivity was 72.6% after glucagon and 64.5% after placebo; the specificity was 88.7% after glucagon and 77.9% after placebo; and the respective accuracies were 81.2% and 71.9%. These percentages should be used only to compare results with and without glucagon and, by study design, do not represent results of a complete double-contrast study. The variation among these percentages was not statistically significant, but diverticulitis was more accurately diagnosed after glucagon. It was concluded that glucagon does not significantly improve the sensitivity and specificity of the double-contrast barium enema examination and should be used only in selected instances. PMID:6606942

  20. Enema ion compositions for enhancing colorectal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Maisel, Katharina; Chattopadhyay, Sumon; Moench, Thomas; Hendrix, Craig; Cone, Richard; Ensign, Laura M; Hanes, Justin

    2015-07-10

    Delivering drugs to the colorectum by enema has advantages for treating or preventing both local and systemic diseases. However, the properties of the enema itself are not typically exploited for improving drug delivery. Sodium ions are actively pumped out of the lumen of the colon, which is followed by osmotically-driven water absorption, so we hypothesized that this natural mechanism could be exploited to drive nanoparticles and drugs to the colorectal tissue surface. Here, we report that sodium-based, absorption-inducing (hypotonic) enemas rapidly transport hydrophilic drugs and non-mucoadhesive, mucus penetrating nanoparticles (MPP), deep into the colorectal folds to reach virtually the entire colorectal epithelial surface. In contrast, isotonic and secretion-inducing (hypertonic) vehicles led to non-uniform, poor surface coverage. Sodium-based enemas induced rapid fluid absorption even when moderately hyper-osmolal (~350 mOsm) compared to blood (~300 mOsm), which suggests that active sodium absorption plays a key role in osmosis-driven fluid uptake. We then used tenofovir, an antiretroviral drug in clinical trials for preventing HIV, to test the effects of enema composition on local and systemic drug delivery. We found that strongly hypotonic and hypertonic enemas caused rapid systemic drug uptake, whereas moderately hypotonic enemas with ion compositions similar to feces resulted in high local tissue levels with minimal systemic drug exposure. Similarly, moderately hypotonic enemas provided improved local drug retention in colorectal tissue, whereas hypertonic and isotonic enemas provided markedly reduced drug retention in colorectal tissue. Lastly, we found that moderately hypotonic enema formulations caused little to no detectable epithelial damage, while hypertonic solutions caused significant damage, including epithelial sloughing; the epithelial damage caused increased systemic drug absorption and penetration of MPP into colorectal tissue, a potential advantage in certain drug delivery applications. In summary, we illustrate that enema composition can be adjusted to maximize local versus systemic drug delivery, and that mildly hypotonic, sodium-based vehicles can provide uniform drug and MPP delivery in the colon that maximizes local drug concentrations. PMID:25937321

  1. Interfraction Prostate Movement in Bone Alignment After Rectal Enema for Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young Eun; Kim, Tae Hyo; Lee, Ki Soo; Cho, Won Yeol; Lee, Hyung-Sik; Hur, Won-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effect of a rectal enema on interfraction prostate movement in bone alignment (BA) for prostate radiotherapy (RT), we analyzed the spatial difference in prostates in a bone-matched setup. Materials and Methods We performed BA retrospectively with data from prostate cancer patients who underwent image-guided RT (IGRT). The prostate was identified with implanted fiducial markers. The setup for the IGRT was conducted with the matching of three fiducial markers on RT planning computed tomography images and those on two oblique kV x-ray images. Offline BA was performed at the same position. The coordinates of a virtual prostate in BA and a real prostate were obtained by use of the ExaxTrac/NovalisBody system, and the distance between them was calculated as the spatial difference. Interfraction prostate displacement was drawn from the comparison of the spatial differences. Results A total of 15 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with curative hypofractionated IGRT were enrolled. A total of 420 fractions were analyzed. The mean of the interfraction prostate displacements after BA was 3.122.00 mm (range, 0.20-10.53 mm). The directional difference was profound in the anterior-posterior and supero-inferior directions (2.141.73 mm and 1.971.44 mm, respectively) compared with the right-left direction (0.260.22 mm, p<0.05). The required margin around the clinical target volume was 4.97 mm with the formula of van Herk et al. Conclusions The interfraction prostate displacement was less frequent when a rectal enema was performed before the procedure. A rectal enema can be used to reduce interfraction prostate displacement and resulting clinical target volume-to-planning target volume margin. PMID:24466393

  2. Fault damage zone volume and initial salinity distribution determine intensity of shallow aquifer salinisation in subsurface storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillner, Elena; Langer, Maria; Kempka, Thomas; Kühn, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Injection of fluids into deep saline aquifers causes a pore pressure increase in the storage formation, and thus displacement of resident brine. Via hydraulically conductive faults, brine may migrate upwards into shallower aquifers and lead to unwanted salinisation of potable groundwater resources. In the present study, we investigated different scenarios for a potential storage site in the Northeast German Basin using a three-dimensional (3-D) regional-scale model that includes four major fault zones. The focus was on assessing the impact of fault length and the effect of a secondary reservoir above the storage formation, as well as model boundary conditions and initial salinity distribution on the potential salinisation of shallow groundwater resources. We employed numerical simulations of brine injection as a representative fluid. Our simulation results demonstrate that the lateral model boundary settings and the effective fault damage zone volume have the greatest influence on pressure build-up and development within the reservoir, and thus intensity and duration of fluid flow through the faults. Higher vertical pressure gradients for short fault segments or a small effective fault damage zone volume result in the highest salinisation potential due to a larger vertical fault height affected by fluid displacement. Consequently, it has a strong impact on the degree of shallow aquifer salinisation, whether a gradient in salinity exists or the saltwater-freshwater interface lies below the fluid displacement depth in the faults. A small effective fault damage zone volume or low fault permeability further extend the duration of fluid flow, which can persist for several tens to hundreds of years, if the reservoir is laterally confined. Laterally open reservoir boundaries, large effective fault damage zone volumes and intermediate reservoirs significantly reduce vertical brine migration and the potential of freshwater salinisation because the origin depth of displaced brine is located only a few decametres below the shallow aquifer in maximum. The present study demonstrates that the existence of hydraulically conductive faults is not necessarily an exclusion criterion for potential injection sites, because salinisation of shallower aquifers strongly depends on initial salinity distribution, location of hydraulically conductive faults and their effective damage zone volumes as well as geological boundary conditions.

  3. Isoosmolar Enemas Demonstrate Preferential Gastrointestinal Distribution, Safety, and Acceptability Compared with Hyperosmolar and Hypoosmolar Enemas as a Potential Delivery Vehicle for Rectal Microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Leyva, Francisco J.; Bakshi, Rahul P.; Fuchs, Edward J.; Li, Liye; Caffo, Brian S.; Goldsmith, Arthur J.; Ventuneac, Ana; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Du, Yong; Leal, Jeffrey P.; Lee, Linda A.; Torbenson, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Rectally applied antiretroviral microbicides for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV infection are currently in development. Since enemas (rectal douches) are commonly used by men who have sex with men prior to receptive anal intercourse, a microbicide enema could enhance PrEP adherence by fitting seamlessly within the usual sexual practices. We assessed the distribution, safety, and acceptability of three enema types—hyperosmolar (Fleet), hypoosmolar (distilled water), and isoosmolar (Normosol-R)—in a crossover design. Nine men received each enema type in random order. Enemas were radiolabeled [99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)] to assess enema distribution in the colon using single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. Plasma 99mTc-DTPA indicated mucosal permeability. Sigmoidoscopic colon tissue biopsies were taken to assess injury as well as tissue penetration of the 99mTc-DTPA. Acceptability was assessed after each product use and at the end of the study. SPECT/CT imaging showed that the isoosmolar enema had greater proximal colonic distribution (up to the splenic flexure) and greater luminal and colon tissue concentrations of 99mTc-DTPA when compared to the other enemas (p<0.01). Colon biopsies also showed that only the hyperosmolar enema caused sloughing of the colonic epithelium (p<0.05). In permeability testing, the hypoosmolar enema had higher plasma 99mTc-DTPA 24-h area under the concentration-time curve and peak concentration compared to the hyperosmolar and isoosmolar enemas, respectively. Acceptability was generally good with no clear preferences among the three enema types. The isoosmolar enema was superior or similar to the other enemas in all categories and is a good candidate for further development as a rectal microbicide vehicle. PMID:23885722

  4. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished liver... use in enemas. Tannic acid for rectal use to enhance X-ray visualization is regarded as a new...

  5. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a warning to the effect: Warning Not for use in enemas. (c) Any tannic acid intended for use by... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to...

  6. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a warning to the effect: Warning Not for use in enemas. (c) Any tannic acid intended for use by... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to...

  7. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a warning to the effect: Warning Not for use in enemas. (c) Any tannic acid intended for use by... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to...

  8. Transrectal-ultrasound prostatic biopsy preparation: rectal enema vs. mechanical bowel preparation

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Riccardo; Presicce, Fabrizio; Bellangino, Mariangela; Agro, Enrico Finazzi; Gambrosier, Matteo Bonetto; Trucchi, Alberto; Petta, Stefano; Tubaro, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Transrectal prostate biopsy (TRUSbx) is the standard for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Different bowel preparations are used for patients undergoing TRUSbx. The aim of our study was to compare two different bowel preparations for TRUSbx. Material and methods From May 2012 and onwards, a selected group of men undergoing TRUS 12-core prostate biopsy were enrolled into a prospective database. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive a rectal enema (Group A) the night before the procedure or polyethylene glycol 34.8 grams/4 liters of water the day before the procedure (Group B). A VAS scale to evaluate the patients discomfort according to the two preparations was collected. The same antibiotic prophylaxis was performed in both groups. All complications were prospectively recorded and graded according to the Clavien Classification System (CCS). Results A total of 198 patients were consecutively enrolled. Mean age was 67.5 7.9 years, mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.1 4.2 Kg/m2, mean PSA value was 9.3 12.6 ng/ml and the mean prostatic volume was 60.6 29 ml. 97 patients were enrolled in Group A and 101 in Group B. Overall post-biopsy morbidity rate was 60%. No significant differences for low-grade and high-grade complications was observed between the two groups. Patients receiving the rectal enema presented with a significantly lower VAS score (3.1 1.1 vs. 5.9 1.7; p = 0.02). Conclusions Our study confirmed that a rectal enema should be considered as the standard bowel preparation in patients undergoing a TRUS biopsy; it is as effective as PEG and associated with less discomfort. PMID:26251750

  9. Effect of tidal volume on the output and particle size distribution of hypertonic saline from an ultrasonic nebulizer.

    PubMed

    Riedler, J; Robertson, C F

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to measure the output and particle size distribution of hypertonic saline from an ultrasonic nebulizer over the range of tidal volumes (VT) used in an epidemiological survey of asthma in children. A Starling pump was used to generate different VTs from 250 to 500 ml, at different respiratory rates of 12 and 20 breaths.min-1, to cover the normal range of respiratory pattern of children aged 7-14 yrs. The Starling pump was connected to a Timeter Compuneb Ultrasonic Nebulizer Model MP 500 with 24 cm of corrugated aerosol tubing, ID 2.2 cm, and a two-way non-rebreathing valve. Nebulizer output was measured by weighing the nebulizer chamber plus tubing and valve before and after each nebulization. To measure particle size distribution, a Malvern Particle Sizer M 3.0 (laser diffraction) was used, with a special adapter attached between valve and Starling pump. Nebulizer output increased linearly from 1.6 to 2.5 ml.min-1 for VT 250 to 500 ml, with little influence by the respiratory frequency. Furthermore, we found that in the range of VT = 300-500 ml the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) was 2.61 microns, with 100% of the particles less than 5 microns, whereas at VT = 150-250 ml the MMAD was 8.89 microns, with 90% larger than 5 microns. As output from this ultrasonic nebulizer correlates linearly with tidal volumes, size correction may not be necessary in hypertonic saline challenge tests in children. Above a VT of 300 ml, the MMAD is in the respirable range, with 100% of particles less than 5 microns.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8050559

  10. Relationship among latest Miocene oxygen isotopic enrichment, antarctic ice volume, and the Messinian salinity crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Hodell, D.A.; Elmstrom, K.M.; Kennett, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    An interval of high variable, enriched benthic /sup 18/O values was found to bracket the Miocene/Pliocene boundary, between 5.6 and 5.1 Ma, in five sites from the Southwest Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The duration of this enrichment event was less than 500,000 years, and is shown by paleomagnetic correlation to be equivalent in time with the deposition of Messinian evaporites. The /sup 18/O enrichment occurred in two main stages separated by a brief interval of relatively depleted /sup 18/O values. Between 5.5 and 5.3 Ma, glacioeustatic lowering of sea level due to increased Antarctic ice volume isolated the Mediterranean basin, and resulted in the deposition of the lower evaporite unit (Main Salt unit). A temporary decrease in ice volume occurred between 5.3 and 5.2 Ma, and corresponded to the intra-Messinian transgression where evaporite deposition ceased temporarily. Between 5.2 and 5.1 Ma, a second Antarctic glacial advance lowered sea level again and resulted in the deposition of the upper evaporite unit. A rapid decreased in delta/sup 18/O values occurred in all sites during the early Pliocene at 5.0 Ma. This depletion marks a glacial retreat and marine transgression, which refilled the Mediterranean Basin and permanently terminated evaporite deposition.

  11. Effective damage zone volume of fault zones and initial salinity distribution determine intensity of shallow aquifer salinization in geological underground utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, M.; Tillner, E.; Kempka, T.; Kühn, M.

    2015-06-01

    Injection of fluids into deep saline aquifers causes a pore pressure increase in the storage formation, and thus displacement of resident brines. Via hydraulically conductive faults, brine may migrate upwards into shallower aquifers, and lead to unwanted salinization of potable groundwater resources. In the present study, we investigated different scenarios for a prospective storage site close to the city of Beeskow in the Northeast German Basin by using a 3-D regional scale model (100 km × 100 km × 1.34 km) that includes four ambient fault zones. The focus was on assessing the impact of fault length and the effect of an overlying secondary reservoir as well as model boundary conditions on the potential salinization of shallow groundwater resources. We employed numerical simulations of brine injection as a representative fluid using the simulator TOUGH2-MP. Our simulation results demonstrate that pressure build-up within the reservoir determines the intensity and duration of fluid flow through the faults, and hence salinization of shallower aquifers. Application of different boundary conditions proved that these have a crucial impact on reservoir fluid displacement. If reservoir boundaries are closed, the fluid migrated upwards into the shallow aquifer, corresponds to the overall injected fluid mass. In that case, a short hydraulically conductive fault length and the presence of an overlying secondary reservoir leads only to retardation in brine displacement up to a factor of five and three, respectively. If the reservoir boundaries are open, salinization is considerably reduced: in the presence of a secondary reservoir, 33% of equivalent brine mass migrates into the shallow aquifer, if all four faults are hydraulically open over their entire length, whereas the displaced equivalent brine mass is only 12% for a single fault of two kilometres length. Taking into account the considered geological boundary conditions, the brine originates in maximum from the upper 4 to 298 m of the investigated faults. Hence, the initial salt-freshwater interface present in the fault is of high relevance for the resulting shallow aquifer salinization. The present study demonstrates that the existence of hydraulically conductive faults is not necessarily an exclusion criterion for potential injection sites, because salinization of shallower aquifers strongly depends on initial salinity distribution, location of hydraulically conductive faults and their length as well as geological boundary conditions. These constraints are location specific, and need to be explored thoroughly in advance of any field activity. They provide the basis for scenario analyses and a reliable risk assessment.

  12. Solar eclipse sign of intussusception on barium enema.

    PubMed

    Raveenthiran, V

    2002-01-01

    The colographic appearance of intussusception is variously described as a claw sign, pincer defect, shouldering effect, and coiled-spring pattern. This report adds a new radiographic sign to the list. An end-on view of an intussusception on barium enema shows a ring of contrast resembling a solar eclipse. Familiarity with this bizarre appearance is desirable, lest it may be mistaken for spillage of barium due to a colonic perforation. PMID:11793074

  13. Hirschsprung disease: accuracy of the barium enema examination.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, N S; Ablow, R C; Markowitz, R I; DiPietro, M; Seashore, J H; Touloukian, R J; Cicchetti, D V

    1984-02-01

    To determine the relative accuracy of the various radiologic signs of Hirschsprung disease (HD), we retrospectively reviewed both radiographs obtained after a barium enema and the medical records of 62 children who had surgery to prove or exclude the diagnosis of HD. The visualization of a rectosigmoid transition zone was highly predictive of HD, but nonvisualization did not rule out HD. A false positive transition zone at the splenic flexure was seen in four neonates who had small left colon syndrome rather than HD. Retention of barium seen on radiographs obtained 24 hours after a barium enema was not a specific sign, but it was the only sign of HD in seven neonates, including two who had total colonic aganglionosis. Anal manipulation prior to the barium enema examination did not affect the diagnostic value of that procedure. We conclude that the single most reliable radiographic sign of HD is the presence of a rectosigmoid transition zone. Statistically, the use of three radiographic features combined (rectosigmoid transition zone, retention of barium, and stool mixed with barium) correlated better with the presence or absence of HD than did any of these features alone. A comparison of 24 and 48 hour postevacuation radiographs may help to differentiate HD from meconium plug syndrome. PMID:6691093

  14. Effect of traditional Chinese medicinal enemas on ulcerative colitis of rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Song-Ming; Tong, Hong-Bin; Bai, Lian-Song; Yang, Wei

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of traditional Chinese medicinal enema (TCME) on inflammatory and immune response of colonic mucosa of rats with ulcerative colitis (UC), and to observe the pathogenic mechanism. METHODS: Thirty UC rats, induced by intestinal enema together with 2.4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and acetic acid, were randomly divided into 3 groups, i.e., G I, G II and G III. Groups G I and G II were administered with TCME and salazosulfapyridine enema (SASPE), respectively. Group G III was clystered with only normal saline (NSE), served as control. Group G IV was taken from normal rats as reference, once daily, from the 7th day after the establishment of UC for total 28 d. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the colonic mucosa was assayed by 3H-TdR incorporation assay. Colonic mucosal lymphocyte subpopulation adhesive molecules, CD4+CD11a+, CD4+CD18+, CD8+CD11a+, CD8+CD18+ (LSAM), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and interferon-? (IFN-?), were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, the expression of TNF-? mRNA and IFN-? mRNA in colonic mucosa were detected by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Before therapies, in model groups, G I, G II and G III, levels of IL-6, TNF-?, IFN-?, CD8+CD11a+ and CD8+CD18+ were significantly different (38.29 2.61 U/mL, 16.54 1.23 ng/L, 8.61 0.89 ng/L, 13.51% 2.31% and 12.22% 1.13%, respectively) compared to those in G IV group (31.56 2.47 U/mL, 12.81 1.38 ng/L, 5.28 0.56 ng/L, 16.68% 1.41% and 16.79% 1.11%, respectively). After therapeutic enemas, in G I group, the contents of IL-6 (32.48 2.53 U/m), TNF-? (13.42 1.57 ng/L) and IFN-? (5.87 0.84 ng/L) were reduced; then, the contents of CD8+CD11a+ (16.01% 1.05 %) and CD8+CD18+ (16.28% 0.19%) were raised. There was no significant difference between groups G I and G IV, but the difference between groups G I and G II was quite obvious (P < 0.05). The expressions of TNF-? mRNA and IFN-? mRNA in group G III were much higher than those of group G IV, but those in group G I were significantly suppressed by TCME therapy. CONCLUSION: Ulcerative colitis is related to colonic regional mucosal inflammatory factors and immune imbalance. TCME can effectively inhibit regional mucosal inflammatory factors and improve their disorder of immunity. PMID:15222036

  15. Coffee Enema for Preparation for Small Bowel Video Capsule Endoscopy: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang

    2014-01-01

    Coffee enemas are believed to cause dilatation of bile ducts and excretion of bile through the colon wall. Proponents of coffee enemas claim that the cafestol palmitate in coffee enhances the activity of glutathione S-transferase, an enzyme that stimulates bile excretion. During video capsule endoscopy (VCE), excreted bile is one of the causes of poor preparation of the small bowel. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effect of coffee enema for preparation of the small bowel during VCE. In this pilot study, 17 of 34 patients were assigned to the coffee enema plus polyethylene glycol (PEG) 2 L ingestion group, whereas the 17 remaining control patients received 2 L of PEG only. The quality of bowel preparation was evaluated in the two patient groups. Bowel preparations in the proximal segments of small bowel were not differ between two groups. In the mid and distal segments of the small intestine, bowel preparations tend to be better in patients who received coffee enemas plus PEG than in patients who received PEG only. The coffee enema group did not experience any complications or side effects. Coffee enemas may be a feasible option, and there were no clinically significant adverse events related to coffee enemas. More prospective randomized studies are warranted to improve small bowel preparation for VCE. PMID:25136541

  16. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304 Section 201.304 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations....

  17. Rectal perforations and fistulae secondary to a glycerin enema: Closure by over-the-scope-clip

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi; Masaki, Tsutomu; Izuishi, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Rectal perforations due to glycerin enemas (GE) typically occur when the patient is in a seated or lordotic standing position. Once the perforation occurs and peritonitis results, death is usually inevitable. We describe two cases of rectal perforation and fistula caused by a GE. An 88-year-old woman presented with a large rectal perforation and a fistula just after receiving a GE. Her case was further complicated by an abscess in the right rectal wall. The second patient was a 78-year-old woman who suffered from a rectovesical fistula after a GE. In both cases, we performed direct endoscopic abscess lavage with a saline solution and closed the fistula using an over-the-scope-clip (OTSC) procedure. These procedures resulted in dramatic improvement in both patients. Direct endoscopic lavage and OTSC closure are very useful for pararectal abscess lavage and fistula closure, respectively, in elderly patients who are in poor general condition. Our two cases are the first reports of the successful endoscopic closure of fistulae using double OTSCs after endoscopic lavage of the debris and an abscess of the rectum secondary to a GE. PMID:22791955

  18. Effect of Volume Loading with Water, Normal Saline, Palm Wine and Lipton Tea on Urinary Output, pH, Specific Gravity, Sodium and Potassium Concentrations in Human Subjects.

    PubMed

    Udokang, N E; Akpogomeh, B A

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study of the diuretic effect of water, normal saline, palm wine and Lipton tea was carried out on forty (40) randomly selected, apparently normal undergraduate students of Medicine and Pharmacy at the University of Uyo, Nigeria. One and a half (1.5) litres of water, normal saline, palm wine and Lipton tea were given on separate days to the same subjects. The subjects were made to void their bladder before ingesting these substances and the urine sample collected was taken as control sample at the time zero. Thereafter, all the subjects emptied their bladder hourly for 3 hours. The urinary output, pH, specific gravity, sodium and potassium concentrations were determined. The results showed that water, palm wine and Lipton tea produced diuresis. Normal saline did not. Reduction of specific gravity and pH of urine accompanied these diuretic effects. Administration of normal saline and Lipton tea caused natriuresis. Potassium sparing diuresis was seen with Lipton tea and palm wine, whereas, water diuresis led to increased levels of potassium in urine. Volume loading with the above substances affected not only urinary output but also renal handling of sodium and potassium ions. PMID:17220918

  19. A comparison of epidural blockade produced by plain 1% lidocaine and 1% lidocaine prepared by dilution of 2% lidocaine with the same volume of saline.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Akifumi; Hoka, Sumio

    2006-06-01

    Local anesthetics are commonly diluted with saline, but the influence of the dilution on the epidural anesthesia remains unclear. We randomized 40 patients scheduled for gynecological abdominal surgery under epidural anesthesia to one of two groups; those in group P received plain commercially prepared 1% lidocaine and those in group D received 1% lidocaine derived from 2% lidocaine and the same volume of saline was infused epidurally with an epidural catheter at L1-2. The pH and sodium and chloride ion concentrations of the solutions were measured. Sensory and motor blockade, foot skin temperature, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate were assessed at 5, 10, and 15 min after the epidural infusion. The spread of sensory blockade was significantly wider in group P at all assessment times than in group D. The increase of foot temperature and decrease of mean arterial blood pressure were significantly faster in group P than in group D. Although the mean pH values of the two solutions were similar, sodium and chloride ion concentrations of the diluted solution were significantly larger than those of the plain solution. We conclude that 2% lidocaine diluted with the same volume of saline produces less potent epidural blockade than commercially prepared plain 1% lidocaine. PMID:16717336

  20. Salinization and Saline Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g L-1), although the chloride comprises only a fraction of the total dissolved salts in water. The Cl/TDS ratio varies from 0.1 in nonmarine saline waters to ˜0.5 in marine-associated saline waters. Water salinity is also defined by electrical conductivity (EC). In soil studies, the electrical conductivity and the ratio of Na/√(Ca+Mg) (SAR) are often used as an indirect measure of soil salinity. In addition to chloride, high levels of other dissolved constituents may limit the use of water for domestic, agriculture, and industrial applications. In some parts of Africa, China, and India, for example, high fluoride content is associated with saline groundwater and causes severe dental and skeletal fluorosis (Shiklomanov, 1997). Hence, the "salinity" problem is only the "tip of the iceberg," as high levels of salinity are associated with high concentrations of other inorganic pollutants (e.g., sodium, sulfate, boron, fluoride), and bioaccumulated elements (e.g., selenium, and arsenic) (see Chapter 9.03).The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the chloride concentration of the water supply for human consumption should not exceed 250 mg L-1. Agriculture applications also depend upon the salinity level of the supplied water. Many crops, such as citrus, avocado, and mango, are sensitive to chloride concentration in irrigation water (an upper limit of 250 mg L-1). In addition, long-term irrigation with water enriched with sodium results in a significant reduction in the hydraulic conductivity and hence the fertility of the irrigated soil. Similarly, the industrial sector demands water of high quality. For example, the high-tech industry requires a large amount of water with low levels of dissolved salts. Hence, the salinity level of groundwater is one of the limiting factors that determine the suitability of water for a variety of applications.The salinity problem is a global phenomenon but it is more severe in water-scarce areas, such as arid and semi-arid zones. The increasing demand for water has created tremendous pressures on water resources that have resulted in lowering water level and increasing salinization. For example, in the Middle East salinity is the main factor that limits water utilization, and future prospects for water use in Israel, Palestinian Authority, and Jordan are overshadowed by the increasing salinization (Vengosh and Rosenthal, 1994; Salameh, 1996). The salinity problem has numerous grave economic, social, and political consequences, particularly in cross-boundary basins that are shared by different communities (e.g., Salinas Valley California; Vengosh et al., 2002a), friendly states (e.g., salinization of the Colorado River along Mexico-US border; Stanton et al., 2001), and hostile states (e.g., the Jordan River, Vengosh et al., 2001; Aral Basin, Weinthal, 2002; Euphrates River, Beaumont, 1996; and the Nile River, Ohlsson, 1995).Salinization of water resources also affects agricultural management. The type of irrigation water and its quality determine the salinity and fertility of the soil and eventually the quality of the underlying water resource. The use of treated wastewater or other marginal water (e.g., brackish water) depends on the salinity and the chemical composition of the water. Treated wastewater with high contents of chloride, sodium, and boron is suitable only for salt-tolerant crops and requires special treatment of the soil. Finally, high boron in irrigation water and consequently in soil water is also an important limiting factor for crops, as boron is an essential micronutrient for plants but becomes toxic at high levels (typically >0.75 mg L-1 in irrigation water).This chapter investigates the different mechanisms and geochemistry of salinization in different parts of the world. The role of the unsaturated zone in shaping the chemical composition of dryland salinization is discussed. Special emphasis is on the anthropogenic effects and to man-made fluids and reused water, such as treated wastewater and agricultural drainage water. Two anthropogenic salinization cycles are introduced - the agricultural and the domestic cycles. Some useful geochemical fingerprinting tracers are also included for defining the sources of salinity. Finally, the chemical composition of future water resources is predicted, based on the chemical and isotopic fractionation associated with remediation and desalination.

  1. "The medicine from behind": The frequent use of enemas in western African traditional medicine.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    van Andel T; van Onselen S; Myren B; Towns A; Quiroz D

    2015-11-04

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Purgative enemas form an integral part of African traditional medicine. Besides possible benefits, serious health risks of rectal herbal therapy have been described in literature. To design appropriate health education programs, it is essential to understand traditional herbal practices and local perceptions of health and illness. Little is known about the herbal ingredients of enemas in Sub-Saharan Africa and consumers' personal reasons to use them.AIM OF THE STUDY: To analyze the importance of enema use with regard to plant species used and illnesses treated in West and Central Africa, to understand the local health beliefs that underlie frequent enema use and to evaluate which recipes and practices could be beneficial or harmful.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We extracted data from 266 ethnobotanical questionnaires on medicinal (in particular women's health and childcare) and ritual plant use in Ghana, Benin and Gabon. Plants mentioned during interviews were vouchered and identified in herbaria. Health issues treated by means of enemas were ranked according to the number of plant species used for a specific illness. We compared our results with findings of medical research on benefits and risks of enema use in Sub-Saharan Africa.RESULTS: We recorded ca. 213 different plant species used in hundreds of recipes for rectal insertions, mostly in Ghana and Gabon. Stomachache, abdominal pain, female infertility and birth facilitation were treated with the highest number of plants species. Cleansing the intestines of young children to promote their health by getting rid of 'dirt', instead of treating constipation, was an important cultural practice that required the rectal application of herbal medicine, as well as other cultural bound health issues like stimulating children to walk at an early age. Tradition, the bitter taste of herbal medicine and the rapid effect of enemas were frequently mentioned reasons for enema use.DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Literature indicates that although enemas can help to improve the hygienic conditions of a household with young infants, frequent enema use can pose serious risks like direct toxicity caused by harmful ingredients, mechanical injury and infections. In Africa, enemas containing herbal medicine are common methods of administering herbal medicine for a variety of diseases, rather than just medicinal treatments for constipation as previously thought. Health professionals should be aware of the extent of, and motivation behind enema use to develop culturally appropriate education programs, especially targeted at vulnerable groups such as elderly people, parents of young infants and pregnant women.

  2. Appendicitis in children. Accuracy of the barium enema.

    PubMed

    Garcia, C; Rosenfield, N S; Markowitz, R I; Seashore, J H; Touloukian, R J; Cicchetti, D V

    1987-12-01

    The barium enema (BE) may be useful in the diagnosis of atypical appendicitis in children. We analyzed our experience with 18 children in whom appendicitis was suspected and BE was performed. All of the children underwent surgical exploration. Nonfilling of the appendix with cecal indentation, extravasation of barium from the appendix, or both, were considered positive signs of an inflamed appendix on BE. Using these criteria, 12 of 14 cases of proved appendicitis were true positive and two were equivocal. Four children were proved not to have appendicitis; one of these patients had a true-negative BE, two had equivocal BEs, and there was one false-positive BE (Schnlein-Henoch purpura). Extravasation of barium into the peritoneal cavity was noted in one patient; this was a rare complication. PMID:3687874

  3. Small-bowel enema in the diagnosis of adhesive obstructions.

    PubMed

    Caroline, D F; Herlinger, H; Laufer, I; Kressel, H Y; Levine, M S

    1984-06-01

    The small-bowel enema was evaluated in 60 patients in whom a final diagnosis of adhesive obstruction was made by surgery or on the basis of clinical findings. Distinctive radiographic and clinical features were found with single versus multiple bands. While 72% of 32 single-band obstructions were graded as severe, this grading was given to only 34% of 18 obstructions by multiple bands. Extensive adhesions were demonstrated in 10 patients and presented varied radiographic features. The radiographic diagnosis of adhesive obstruction was found to be correct in 36 (87.8%) of 41 patients in whom a surgical diagnosis could subsequently be made. However, an incorrect radiologic diagnosis of obstruction by metastases was made in five patients. They form the basis for a discussion of the differential diagnosis. PMID:6609596

  4. The value of the preoperative barium-enema examination in the assessment of pelvic masses

    SciTech Connect

    Gedgaudas, R.K.; Kelvin, F.M.; Thompson, W.M.; Rice, R.P.

    1983-03-01

    The value of the barium-enema examination in the assessment of pelvic masses was studied in 44 patients. Findings from those barium-enema examinations and from pathological specimens from 37 patients who had malignant tumors and seven patients who had endometriosis were retrospectively analyzed to determine if the barium-enema examination is useful in differentiating extrinsic lesions with and without invasion of the colon. None of the 12 patients who had extrinsic lesions had any of the criteria that indicated bowel-wall invasion. These criteria included fixation and serrations of the bowel wall in all patients with invasion, and ulceration and fistulizaton in those patients who had complete transmural invasion. In patients with pelvic masses, the preoperative barium-enema examination may be useful to the surgeon in planning surgery and in preparing the patient for the possibility of partial colectomy or colostomy.

  5. Pre-hospital cooling of patients following cardiac arrest is effective using even low volumes of cold saline

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Pre-hospital induction of therapeutic mild hypothermia (TH) may reduce post-cardiac arrest brain injury in patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Most often, it is induced by a rapid intravenous administration of as much as 30 ml/kg of cold crystalloids. We decided to assess the pre-hospital cooling effectivity of this approach by using a target dose of 15-20 ml/kg of 4°C cold normal saline in the setting of the physician-staffed Emergency Medical Service. The safety and impact on the clinical outcome have also been analyzed. Methods We performed a prospective observational study with a retrospective control group. A total of 40 patients were cooled by an intravenous administration of 15-20 ml/kg of 4°C cold normal saline during transport to the hospital (TH group). The pre-hospital decrease of tympanic temperature (TT) was analyzed as the primary endpoint. Patients in the control group did not undergo any pre-hospital cooling. Results In the TH group, administration of 12.6 ± 6.4 ml/kg of 4°C cold normal saline was followed by a pre-hospital decrease of TT of 1.4 ± 0.8°C in 42.8 ± 19.6 min (p < 0.001). The most effective cooling was associated with a transport time duration of 38-60 min and with an infusion of 17 ml/kg of cold saline. In the TH group, a trend toward a reduced need for catecholamines during transport was detected (35.0 vs. 52.5%, p = 0.115). There were no differences in demographic variables, comorbidities, parameters of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation and in other post-resuscitation characteristics. The coupling of pre-hospital cooling with subsequent in-hospital TH predicted a favorable neurological outcome at hospital discharge (OR 4.1, CI95% 1.1-18.2, p = 0.046). Conclusions Pre-hospital induction of TH by the rapid intravenous administration of cold normal saline has been shown to be efficient even with a lower dose of coolant than reported in previous studies. This dose can be associated with a favorable impact on circulatory stability early after the return of spontaneous circulation and, when coupled with in-hospital continuation of cooling, can potentially improve the prognosis of patients. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials (NCT): NCT00915421 PMID:21176218

  6. The antegrade continence enema procedure and total anorectal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zbar, Andrew P

    2014-05-01

    Patients may present with anal incontinence (AI) following repair of a congenital anorectal anomaly years previously, or require total anorectal reconstruction (TAR) following radical rectal extirpation, most commonly for rectal cancer. Others may require removal of their colostomy following sphincter excision for Fournier's gangrene, or in cases of severe perineal trauma. Most of the data pertaining to antegrade continence enema (the ACE or Malone procedure) comes from the pediatric literature in the management of children with AI, but also with supervening chronic constipation, where the quality of life and compliance with this technique appears superior to retrograde colonic washouts. Total anorectal reconstruction requires an anatomical or physical supplement to the performance of a perineal colostomy, which may include an extrinsic muscle interposition (which may or may not be 'dynamized'), construction of a neorectal reservoir, implantation of an incremental artificial bowel sphincter or creation of a terminal, smooth-muscle neosphincter. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and their outcome are presented here. PMID:24759342

  7. The antegrade continence enema procedure and total anorectal reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zbar, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Patients may present with anal incontinence (AI) following repair of a congenital anorectal anomaly years previously, or require total anorectal reconstruction (TAR) following radical rectal extirpation, most commonly for rectal cancer. Others may require removal of their colostomy following sphincter excision for Fournier's gangrene, or in cases of severe perineal trauma. Most of the data pertaining to antegrade continence enema (the ACE or Malone procedure) comes from the pediatric literature in the management of children with AI, but also with supervening chronic constipation, where the quality of life and compliance with this technique appears superior to retrograde colonic washouts. Total anorectal reconstruction requires an anatomical or physical supplement to the performance of a perineal colostomy, which may include an extrinsic muscle interposition (which may or may not be dynamized'), construction of a neorectal reservoir, implantation of an incremental artificial bowel sphincter or creation of a terminal, smooth-muscle neosphincter. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and their outcome are presented here. PMID:24759342

  8. Antioxidant effects after coffee enema or oral coffee consumption in healthy Thai male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Teekachunhatean, S; Tosri, N; Sangdee, C; Wongpoomchai, R; Ruangyuttikarn, W; Puaninta, C; Srichairatanakool, S

    2012-07-01

    We designed an open-label, randomized two-phase crossover study to investigate the antioxidant effects after single and multiple doses of a coffee enema versus coffee consumed orally. Eleven healthy subjects were randomly assigned to either receive a coffee enema (3 times weekly for 6 visits) or consume ready-to-drink coffee (2 times daily for 11 days). After a washout period, subjects were switched to receive the alternate coffee procedure. Blood samples were collected at specific time points for the determination of serum levels of glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). The findings showed that either single or multiple administrations of the coffee enema or orally consumed coffee doses seemed not to produce any beneficial effects to enhance serum GSH levels or to decrease serum MDA levels over the study period of 12 days. In contrast, mean serum TEAC levels at day 12 after the coffee enema and at days 6 and 12 after oral coffee consumption were significantly reduced from their corresponding baseline values. Thus, no beneficial effects with respect to an enhancement of serum GSH and TEAC levels or a decrease in serum MDA concentrations were demonstrated after coffee enema or orally consumed ready-to-drink coffee. PMID:22249393

  9. Dose optimisation of double-contrast barium enema examinations.

    PubMed

    Berner, K; Båth, M; Jonasson, P; Cappelen-Smith, J; Fogelstam, P; Söderberg, J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to optimise the filtration and dose setting for double-contrast barium enema examinations using a Philips MultiDiagnost Eleva FD system. A phantom study was performed prior to a patient study. A CDRAD phantom was used in a study where copper and aluminium filtration, different detector doses and tube potentials were examined. The image quality was evaluated using the software CDRAD Analyser and the phantom dose was determined using the Monte Carlo-based software PCXMC. The original setting [100 % detector dose (660 nGy air kerma) and a total filtration of 3.5 mm Al, at 81 kVp] and two other settings identified by the phantom study (100 % detector dose and additional filtration of 1 mm Al and 0.2 mm Cu as well as 80 % detector dose and added filtration of 1 mm Al and 0.2 mm Cu) were included in the patient study. The patient study included 60 patients and up to 8 images from each patient. Six radiologists performed a visual grading characteristics study to evaluate the image quality. A four-step scale was used to judge the fulfillment of three image quality criteria. No overall statistical significant difference in image quality was found between the three settings (P > 0.05). The decrease in the effective dose for the settings in the patient study was 15 % when filtration was added and 34 % when both filtrations was added and detector dose was reduced. The study indicates that additional filtration of 1 mm Al and 0.2 mm Cu and a decrease in detector dose by 20 % from the original setting can be used in colon examinations with Philips MultiDiagnost Eleva FD to reduce the patient dose by 30 % without significantly affecting the image quality. For 20 exposures, this corresponds to a decrease in the effective dose from 1.6 to 1.1 mSv. PMID:20231164

  10. DETECTION OF SMALL LESIONS OF THE LARGE BOWELBarium Enema Versus Double Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, J. Maurice

    1954-01-01

    Roentgen study with the so-called opaque barium enema with some modifications is superior to double contrast study as the primary means of demonstrating polyps in the colon as well as other lesions. The method described combines fluoroscopy, high kilovoltage radiography, fluoroscopically aimed spot films taken with compression, suction and evacuation studies. In this way unsuspected as well as suspected polyps can be demonstrated, particularly if attention is directed to the region where polyps are most likely to be foundnamely, the distal third of the large bowel. Double contrast study is quite valuable as a supplement to the modified single contrast barium enema, but it has not been sufficiently perfected to replace the modified opaque barium enema as a primary procedure. In many instances a combination of methods will, of course, be required. PMID:13209360

  11. Rhubarb Enema Attenuates Renal Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis in 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats by Alleviating Indoxyl Sulfate Overload

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fuhua; Liu, Xusheng; Zou, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effects of rhubarb enema treatment using a 5/6 nephrectomized rat model and study its mechanisms. Methods Twenty-eight Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham operation group (n = 8), 5/6 nephrectomized (5/6Nx) (n = 10), and 5/6Nx with rhubarb enema treatment (n = 10). The rhubarb enema was continuous for 1.0 month. Serum creatinine, serum indoxyl sulfate (IS) level, renal pathology, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and renal oxidative stress were assessed. Results 5/6Nx rats showed increasing levels of serum creatinine and severe pathological lesions. Their serum creatinine levels obviously decreased after rhubarb enema treatment (P < 0.05 vs 5/6Nx group). The administration of rhubarb enema attenuated the histopathological changes in 5/6Nx rats. In addition, 5/6Nx rats showed an enhanced extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis compared with sham rats, and administration of rhubarb enema to 5/6Nx rats ameliorated tubulointerstitial fibrosis. 5/6Nx rats showed increased serum levels of IS, renal oxidative stress, and NF-κB compared with sham rats, whereas administration of rhubarb enema to 5/6Nx rats decreased serum levels of IS, renal oxidative stress, and NF-κB levels. Conclusion Rhubarb enema treatment ameliorates tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the kidneys of 5/6Nx rats, most likely by alleviating IS overload and reducing kidney oxidative stress and inflammatory injury. PMID:26671452

  12. A randomised, controlled, double blind, escalating dose study of alicaforsen enema in active ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    van Deventer, S J H; Tami, J A; Wedel, M K

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of an enema formulation of alicaforsen, an antisense inhibitor of intercellular adhesion molecule, after 1, 3, and 6 months. Methods: This was a randomised, placebo controlled, double blind, escalating dose multicentre study in 40 patients with mild to moderately active distal ulcerative colitis (disease activity index (DAI) 4–10). Patients were assigned to four dosing cohorts of 10 patients each (eight active, two placebo). Each patient received 60 ml of alicaforsen enema (0.1, 0.5, 2, or 4 mg/ml or placebo) once daily for 28 consecutive days. Safety and efficacy (DAI and clinical activity index) scores were evaluated up to six months after initiation of dosing. Results: At day 29, alicaforsen enema resulted in dose dependent improvement in DAI (overall p = 0.003). Alicaforsen 4 mg/ml improved DAI by 70% compared with the placebo response of 28% (p = 0.004). Alicaforsen 2 and 4 mg/ml improved DAI status by 72% and 68% compared with a placebo response of 11.5% at month 3 (p = 0.016 and 0.021, respectively). Specifically, DAI improved from 5.6 to 1.6 and from 6.3 to 2.5 in the 2 and 4 mg/ml groups compared with placebo (7.5 to 6.1). None of the patients in the 4 mg/ml group compared with 4/8 placebo patients required additional medical or surgical intervention over baseline during the six month period after starting the enema treatment. The safety profile was favourable. Conclusions: Alicaforsen enema showed promising acute and long term benefit in patients with mild to moderate descending ulcerative colitis. Alicaforsen enemas had a favourable safety profile. These findings require verification in larger randomised controlled clinical trials. PMID:15479686

  13. Development of in situ gelling and bio adhesive 5-Fluorouracil enema.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu-Lu; Zheng, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Shao-Hua; Fang, Xia-Qin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a novel 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) enema with good bio adhesion and temperature sensitivity was developed using in situ gelling technology. The preparation was formulated as a free-flowing liquid before use, while a layer of gel film was quickly formed when administered in the rectum, with a large contact surface area. It also demonstrated good biocompatibility, appropriate gel strength and bio adhesive force with excellent adhesion to rectal mucosa and prolonged action time, allowing more effective drug absorption and diffusion to surrounding tissues. Poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188 were applied to adjust the gelling temperature. With the addition of carbopol and polycarbophil (bio adhesive substances), the solubility of 5-FU and gel strength increased, the temperature of gelation and the surface area of drug contact on mucous epithelium decreased. Decreased adhesive force between the preparation and the mucous membrane of the rectum was demonstrated with improving carbopol and polycarbophil's concentration. In vitro release demonstrated that 5-FU in situ gelling enema with different bases had a rapid and almost complete drug release. We used an optimized formulation of P407/P188/polycarbophil/5-FU (17/2.5/0.2/1.0) for animal experiments. The result showed that the drug evenly covered the surface of the rectum and there was no leakage in 6 hours. The in situ gelling enema showed significantly higher rectal tissue levels of 5-FU compared with suppository and intravenous administration, indicating that 5-FU could be well absorbed due to the enlarged releasing area, longer retention time and larger amount of dissolved active ingredients. Systemically, 5-FU levels in the enema group were similar to those in the suppository group and significantly lower than the intravenous group. The enema was not associated with morphological damage to rectal tissue. These results suggest that the bio adhesive and in situ gelling enema could be a more effective rectal delivery system of 5-FU. PMID:23976976

  14. Development of In Situ Gelling and Bio Adhesive 5-Fluorouracil Enema

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu-Lu; Zheng, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Shao-Hua; Fang, Xia-Qin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a novel 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) enema with good bio adhesion and temperature sensitivity was developed using in situ gelling technology. The preparation was formulated as a free-flowing liquid before use, while a layer of gel film was quickly formed when administered in the rectum, with a large contact surface area. It also demonstrated good biocompatibility, appropriate gel strength and bio adhesive force with excellent adhesion to rectal mucosa and prolonged action time, allowing more effective drug absorption and diffusion to surrounding tissues. Poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188 were applied to adjust the gelling temperature. With the addition of carbopol and polycarbophil (bio adhesive substances), the solubility of 5-FU and gel strength increased, the temperature of gelation and the surface area of drug contact on mucous epithelium decreased. Decreased adhesive force between the preparation and the mucous membrane of the rectum was demonstrated with improving carbopol and polycarbophil’s concentration. In vitro release demonstrated that 5-FU in situ gelling enema with different bases had a rapid and almost complete drug release. We used an optimized formulation of P407/P188/polycarbophil/5-FU (17/2.5/0.2/1.0) for animal experiments. The result showed that the drug evenly covered the surface of the rectum and there was no leakage in 6 hours. The in situ gelling enema showed significantly higher rectal tissue levels of 5-FU compared with suppository and intravenous administration, indicating that 5-FU could be well absorbed due to the enlarged releasing area, longer retention time and larger amount of dissolved active ingredients. Systemically, 5-FU levels in the enema group were similar to those in the suppository group and significantly lower than the intravenous group. The enema was not associated with morphological damage to rectal tissue. These results suggest that the bio adhesive and in situ gelling enema could be a more effective rectal delivery system of 5-FU. PMID:23976976

  15. Use of chelating resins and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of trace and major elements in small volumes of saline water samples.

    PubMed

    Guguen, C; Dominik, J; Perret, D

    2001-08-01

    For some saline environments (e.g. deeply percolating groundwater, interstitial water in marine sediments, water sample collected after several steps of fractionation) the volume of water sample available is limited. A technique is presented which enables simultaneous determination of major and trace elements after preconcentration of only 60 mL sample on chelating resins. Chelex-100 and Chelamine were used for the preconcentration of trace elements (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Sc) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Yb) from saline water before their measurement by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Retention of the major elements (Na, Ca, Mg) by the Chelamine resin was lower than by Chelex; this enabled their direct measurement in the solution after passage through the resin column. For trace metal recoveries both resins yield the same mass balance. Only Chelex resin enabled the quantitative recovery of rare earth elements. The major elements, trace metals and rare earth elements cannot be measured after passage through one resin only. The protocol proposes the initial use of Chelamine for measurement of trace and major elements and then passage the same sample through the Chelex resin for determination of the rare earth elements. The detection limit ranged from 1 to 12 pg mL(-1). At concentrations of 1 ng mL(-1) of trace metals and REE spiked in coastal water the precision for 10 replicates was in the range of 0.3-3.4% (RSD). The accuracy of the method was demonstrated by analyzing two standard reference waters, SLRS-3 and CASS-3. PMID:11569874

  16. Successful treatment of ileocolic intussusception with air enema reduction in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Satoshi; Kanemura, Takashi; Yokouchi, Yukako; Kamiichi, Hideo; Kiriu, Nobuaki; Koike, Yuji

    2014-05-01

    Intussusception is a rare condition in adults, representing only 1% of all bowel obstructions. In adult cases, operative explorations are recommended to treat the bowel obstruction and to diagnose underlying diseases. The objective of the current case report was to describe the successful treatment of ileocolic intussusception with air enema reduction in an adult patient. A previously healthy 21-year-old woman had a 20-hour history of colicky abdominal pain and vomiting and was diagnosed as having idiopathic ileocolic intussusception by abdominal computed tomography. We treated the patient with air enema reduction under fluoroscopic guidance instead of an operative procedure. She received oxygen and intravenous midazolam to provide some degree of pain relief. Air was carefully pumped manually into the rectum, and the air pressure was monitored with a manometer. Because of air leakage from the rectum through the void to the outside the body, we continued to provide air to maintain the air pressure between 40 and 60 mm Hg. Three minutes after initiation of the air enema, when the patient experienced increasing abdominal pain and vomiting, the pressure was temporarily increased to greater than 100 mm Hg, and the air reached the terminal ileum. We considered the reduction successful and confirmed it with an abdominal ultrasound examination. We believe that air enema reduction is effective for treating idiopathic intussusception within 24 hours of symptom onset in young, previously healthy adult patients. PMID:24332898

  17. Barium enema examination using a remote controlled positive and negative contrast media inflator.

    PubMed

    Hisamichi, S; Masuda, Y; Shirane, A; Sugawara, N; Gomi, T; Oshiba, S

    1977-11-01

    In a series of 30 patients, barium enema examination of the colon was performed via a remote controlled air and contrast media inflator. With this apparatus, introduction and elimination of air and barium into the colon can be accomplished at a freely adjustable rate of injection by remote control. Fluoroscopy time is significantly reduced and the operator is not exposed to radiation. PMID:910070

  18. Enema Use among Men who have Sex with Men: A behavioral epidemiologic study with implications for HIV/STI prevention

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Syed W; Rosser, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Enema use or douching is a risk factor for HIV/STI in men who have sex with men (MSM). However, few studies have explored enema use practices. We examined the frequency of enema use, type of products used, and reasons to use and not to use before and after receptive anal sex in a large sample of MSM (N=4992) recruited from sixteen US cities. Through online surveys, we examined personal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with enema use. Most (52%) participants reported having douched at least once and 35% reported douching within the last three months. While most (88%) reported enema use before receptive anal sex, 28% douched after receptive anal sex. Most participants (65%) used water to douche, 24% added salt, soap, and/or antibacterial products to water, and 30% reported using commercially-available products. Being a man of color (p<0.05); HIV-positive (p<0.001); diagnosed with an STI (p<0.01); identifying as versatile in sex (p<0.001); and having more than two unprotected sex partners (p<0.001) were significantly associated with recent enema use. Douching behavior appears closely associated with HIV/STI risk. Douching with water may be a concern since it may increase HIV/STI infection by damaging the epithelium. Development and promotion of a non-damaging, non-water based enema specifically for use in anal sex is recommended. In addition, the seemingly contradictory recommendations that water-based lubricant is recommended for anal sex but water-based enemas are dangerous need to be reconciled into a single consistent message. PMID:24346864

  19. Salinity Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Walter R.

    1987-01-01

    Discussed are the costs of deriving energy from the earth's natural reserves of salt. Argues that, as fossil fuel supplies become more depleted in the future, the environmental advantages of salinity power may prove to warrant its exploitation. (TW)

  20. Failure of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas to improve chronic radiation proctitis

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, C.A.; Biddle, W.L.; Miner, P.B. Jr.

    1989-05-01

    Radiation proctitis is a well-known complication of abdominal and pelvic radiation. Conventional medical and surgical treatment often is disappointing. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is the active component in sulfasalazine and is effective in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. Four patients with radiation proctitis were treated with 4 g 5-ASA by enema nightly for two to six months. Patients were seen monthly, interviewed, and a sigmoidoscopic exam performed. No change was seen in the degree of mucosal inflammation on follow-up sigmoidoscopic exams. Three patients noted no change in their symptoms of bleeding, pain, or tenesmus. One patient noted initial improvement, but this was not sustained. 5-ASA enemas do not appear to be effective in the treatment of radiation proctitis.

  1. Novel and Effective Almagate Enema for Hemorrhagic Chronic Radiation Proctitis and Risk Factors for Fistula Development.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zi-Xu; Ma, Teng-Hui; Zhong, Qing-Hua; Wang, Huai-Ming; Yu, Xi-Hu; Qin, Qi-Yuan; Chu, Li-Li; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Radiation proctitis is a common complication after radiotherapy for pelvic malignant tumors. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy of novel almagate enemas in hemorrhagic chronic radiation proctitis (CRP) and evaluate risk factors related to rectal deep ulcer or fistula secondary to CRP. All patients underwent a colonoscopy to confirm the diagnosis of CRP and symptoms were graded. Typical endoscopic and pathological images, risk factors, and quality of life were also recorded. A total of 59 patients were enrolled. Gynecological cancers composed 93.1% of the primary malignancies. Complete or obvious reduction of bleeding was observed in 90% (53/59) patients after almagate enema. The mean score of bleeding improved from 2.17 to 0.83 (P<0.001) after the enemas. The mean response time was 12 days. No adverse effects were found. Moreover, long-term successful rate in controlling bleeding was 69% and the quality of life was dramatically improved (P=0.001). The efficacy was equivalent to rectal sucralfate, but the almagate with its antacid properties acted more rapidly than sucralfate. Furthermore, we firstly found that moderate to severe anemia was the risk factor of CRP patients who developed rectal deep ulcer or fistulas (P= 0.015). We also found abnormal hyaline-like thick wall vessels, which revealed endarteritis obliterans and the fibrosis underlying this disease. These findings indicate that almagate enema is a novel effective, rapid and well-tolerated method for hemorrhagic CRP. Moderate to severe anemia is a risk factor for deep ulceration or fistula. PMID:26925655

  2. Small bowel double-contrast enema in stage III ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Wittich, G; Salomonowitz, E; Szepesi, T; Czembirek, H; Fruehwald, F

    1984-02-01

    The efficiency of small bowel double-contrast enema in the detection and localization of tumor- or therapy-induced lesions of the intestine was studied retrospectively in 43 patients with stage III ovarian carcinoma. The radiographic findings in 62 examinations were verified by operative and autopsy findings and by the clinical course. Postoperative changes in the small bowel were noted in 69% of the patients (63% moderate, 6% severe). Signs of acute radiation enteritis were found in 36% (all moderate). Signs of chronic radiation enteropathy were detected in 71% (53% moderate, 18% severe). Small bowel obstruction due to recurrent tumor was correctly identified in 9%. Nonobstructing peritoneal implants were detected in 27% of the patients. The small bowel double-contrast enema is accurate in localizing lesions resulting from adhesions, acute and chronic radiation enteritis, or obstructing tumor; it is less efficient in detecting nonobstructive peritoneal metastases. The major clinical value of this examination is its ability to differentiate "dysfunctional intestine," which is managed conservatively, from focal obstruction requiring surgery. The radiographic features of chronic radiation enteritis on double-contrast enema examination are discussed in detail. PMID:6607594

  3. Accidental embryo irradiation during barium enema examinations: An estimation of absorbed dose

    SciTech Connect

    Damilakis, J.; Perisinakis, K.; Grammatikakis, J.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to investigate the possibility of an embryo to receive a dose of more than 10 cGy, the threshold of malformation induction in embryos reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, during barium enema examinations. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were place in a phantom to calculate the depth-to-skin conversion coefficient needed for dose estimation at the average embryo depth in patients. Barium enema examinations were performed in 20 women of childbearing age with diagnostic problems demanding longer fluoroscopy times. Doses at 6 cm, the average embryo depth, were determined by measurements at the patients` skin followed by dose calculation at the site of interest. The range of doses estimated at embryo depth for patients was 1.9 to 8.2 cGy. The dose always exceeded 5 cGy when fluoroscopy time was longer than 7 minutes. The dose at the embryo depth never exceeded 10 cGy. This study indicates that fluoroscopy time should not exceed 7 minutes in childbearing-age female patients undergoing barium enema examinations. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Isohaline Salinity Budget of the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, F.; Bachman, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS) field experiment was designed as a multi-scale investigation of the processes that give rise to the North Atlantic subtropical salinity maximum. The choice of control volume influences the processes that dominate budgets of ocean properties. In this study we analyze the salinity budget of the North Atlantic subtropical salinity maximum region for control volumes bounded by isohaline surfaces. We provide closed budgets based on output from a high-resolution numerical simulation, and partial budgets based on climatological analyses of observations. With this choice of control volume, advection is eliminated from the instantaneous volume integrated salt budget, and time mean advection eliminated from the budget evaluated from time-averaged data. In this way, the role of irreversible mixing processes in the maintenance and variability of the salinity maximum are more readily revealed. By carrying out the analysis with near instantaneous and time-filtered model output, the role of mesoscale eddies in stirring and mixing for this region is determined. We find that the small-scale mixing acting on enhanced gradients generated by the mesoscale eddies is approximately equal to that acting on the large-scale gradients estimated from climatological mean conditions. The isohaline salinity budgets can be related to water mass transformation rates associated with surface forcing and mixing processes in a straightforward manner. We find that the surface net evaporation in the North Atlantic salinity maximum region accounts for a transformation of 7 Sv of water into the salinity maximum in the simulation, whereas the estimate based on climatological observations is 10 Sv.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine following a Single Administration of Coffee Enema versus Oral Coffee Consumption in Healthy Male Subjects.

    PubMed

    Teekachunhatean, Supanimit; Tosri, Nisanuch; Rojanasthien, Noppamas; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Sangdee, Chaichan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of caffeine after single administration of a coffee enema versus coffee consumed orally in healthy male subjects. The study design was an open-label, randomized two-phase crossover study. Eleven healthy subjects were randomly assigned either to receive 500?mL of coffee enema for 10 minutes or to consume 180?mL of ready-to-drink coffee beverage. After a washout period of at least 10 days, all the subjects were switched to receive the alternate coffee procedure. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at specific time points until 12 hours after coffee administration in each phase. The mean caffeine content in both the coffee solution prepared for the coffee enema and the ready-to-drink coffee beverage was not statistically different. The C max and AUC of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema were about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally, despite having slightly but statistically faster T max. The t 1/2 of caffeine obtained following both coffee procedures did not statistically differ. In summary, the relative bioavailability of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema was about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally. PMID:23533801

  6. A review of factors affecting patient doses for barium enemas and meals.

    PubMed

    Martin, C J

    2004-10-01

    A study of patient doses for barium enema and meal examinations has been carried out for hospitals in the West of Scotland to assess the impact of dose reduction facilities on new X-ray equipment. Dose-area product (DAP) information has been collected on examinations for groups of patients at 20 hospitals and results reviewed together with data on equipment performance measurements. Median DAPs for barium enemas and meals were 15.7 Gy cm(2) and 4.8 Gy cm(2), respectively, and effective doses estimated from the results are 3.5+/-0.7 mSv and 1.5+/-0.5 mSv, respectively. These doses are lower than those reported in earlier studies and in previous surveys in the West of Scotland. The reduction in dose is linked primarily to the low dose facilities available on newer X-ray equipment, such as low dose pulsed fluoroscopy, digital imaging facilities and use of copper filtration. Use of the image intensifier for decubitus images on C-arm units employed for barium enemas also gives a significantly lower dose. Equipment with copper filtration had the lowest doses. The reduction in effective dose will be significantly less than the reduction in DAP for units in which a copper filter is included and the adoption of lower diagnostic reference levels is proposed for units with this facility. It is important that the operators are aware of the low dose imaging options on their equipment in order that techniques can be fully optimized. PMID:15482999

  7. Complications of barium enema examinations: a survey of UK Consultant Radiologists 1992 to 1994.

    PubMed

    Blakeborough, A; Sheridan, M B; Chapman, A H

    1997-02-01

    Questionnaires were sent to all Consultant Radiologists in the UK regarding complications from barium enema examinations. The 756 respondents performed a total of 738,216 examinations over the three year period 1992 to 1994. Seventy-seven Consultants (10.2%) reported a total of 82 complications including 13 deaths: an overall mortality rate of 1 in 56,786. Only three of 30 (10%) cases of bowel perforation died, as compared with nine out of 16 (56%) cases of cardiac arrhythmia. The only remaining death was a consequence of vaginal intubation. Details of all the reported complications are recorded. This was an entirely retrospective study. PMID:9043049

  8. [A case of the latex-induced anaphylaxis by contact with barium enema catheter].

    PubMed

    Fujie, Sayuri; Yagami, Akiko; Suzuki, Kayoko; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2004-01-01

    The subject was a 34-year-old female with asthma and atopic dermatitis who had previously undergone a Cesarean section. In December 1995, the patient had an acute abdominal pain, so she underwent a barium enema examination. During the procedure, severe anaphylactic shock developed, and the examination was stopped. The patient responded well to appropriate emergency therapy, and her symptoms were resolved. However, the woman visited our outpatient clinic because the symptoms of her atopic dermatitis got worse. She indicated that she felt itchy when using rubber gloves. Also, at the age of thirty, she had urticaria and dyspnea after drinking a glass of fruit juice. Subsequently radioallergosorbent testing demonstrated the presence of specific IgEs against latex, banana, kiwi, grapefruit, and avocado. Skin prick tests were positive for banana, grapefruit, avocado, and latex extract at a dilution of 1:1000. A scratch test was positive to an extract of a balloon catheter which included 0.3 microg/g latex proteins by the LEAP method. In conclusion, the patient was diagnosed with an anaphylaxis to the latex contained in a balloon catheter used for the barium enema. PMID:14762330

  9. Bowel management with antegrade colonic enema using a Malone or a Monti conduit--clinical results.

    PubMed

    Perez, M; Lemelle, J L; Barthelme, H; Marquand, D; Schmitt, M

    2001-10-01

    During this last decade, major surgical improvements have been proposed for the treatment of patients suffering from faecal incontinence or intractable constipation. Between 1996 and 1999, 12 patients mainly presenting with spina bifida were operated for antegrade colonic enema (ACE). In seven cases, a Malone procedure was performed. In 5 cases we used a Monti plasty to create a continent catheterisable conduit. In 4 cases the neoconduit was placed between the transverse colon and the umbilicus. The mean follow-up was 15 months. Bowel control and continence were obtained in 11 cases, postoperatively. One early complete stenosis of the cutaneous stoma occurred, after which the patient did not wish to carry on. Another patient stopped using his ACE stoma after several months because he was able to manage his bowel evacuation voluntarily without requiring an enema. The other ten patients have greatly improved their quality of life. Complications included principally stomal stenosis which can be regularly dilated by the patient himself using the Hegar dilator. Patients with umbilical stoma have a result comparable to patients with Malone procedure. Our series shows that ACE can be performed without an appendix using a Monti plasty. Implantation of the continent conduit in the caecum or in the transverse colon does not modify the overall results of ACE. PMID:11719869

  10. Saline Systems highlights for 2005

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    On the 4th of July, 2005, the Saline Systems editorial group launched the new online open access journal, Saline Systems, with BioMed Central as the publisher. The scope of the journal includes both basic and applied research on halophilic organisms and saline environments, from gene systems to ecosystems. The stated goal of the journal is to meet publication needs for researchers working in coastal and inland saline environments and provide an interdisciplinary and readily accessible forum for scientists worldwide. The inaugural volume of the journal contains a significant number of high quality original research papers and reviews on a wide range of relevant topics. At the end of the launch period, from January 1, 2006 onwards, the journal will be introducing article-processing charges to cover the cost of publication. Charges will be partly or completely waived for authors from BioMed Central institutional subscribers and in cases of financial hardship. PMID:16417635

  11. Barium enema

    MedlinePLUS

    ... clean. Your doctor will give you instructions for cleansing your colon. During the test: You lie flat ... large intestine. You will be given instructions for cleansing your bowel. This is also called bowel preparation. ...

  12. Comparison of Golytely lavage with standard diet/cathartic preparation for double-contrast barium enema.

    PubMed

    Girard, C M; Rugh, K S; DiPalma, J A; Brady, C E; Pierson, W P

    1984-06-01

    In a two-part study, two groups of 100 outpatients each were randomly assigned a colon preparation. In part 1, a standard 1-day diet/cathartic combination was compared with Golytely. In part 2, diet/cathartics was compared with Golytely plus Dulcolax (bisacodyl). The standard preparation provided good or excellent feces removal in 81 (80%) of 101 subjects. Golytely alone was successful in only 21 (53%) of 40 patients, but Golytely followed by Dulcolax achieved good or excellent feces removal in 31 (82%) of 38. Degraded mucosal coating with Golytely alone, due to excessive fluid retention, was also corrected by the addition of Dulcolax. Golytely alone is not an adequate method of colon cleansing for double-contrast barium enema, but Golytely plus Dulcolax is as effective as the standard preparation. PMID:6609598

  13. MR colonography without bowel cleansing or water enema: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sambrook, A; Mcateer, D; Yule, S; Phull, P

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The value of screening for colorectal cancer has been well demonstrated, and national programmes are being implemented. At present the primary imaging modality is colonoscopy, which has an associated morbidity and mortality. CT colonography (CTC) has been proposed as an alternative, but this is associated with radiation exposure and generally requires bowel preparation. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of MR colonography (MRC) without bowel preparation or water enema for the detection of colorectal neoplasia. Methods Patients scheduled for colonoscopy were invited to participate in the study; informed consent was obtained. MRC (with oral barium faecal tagging and colonic air distension) was performed 1–2 weeks before the colonoscopy. Axial T2 weighted single-shot fast spin-echo (prone and supine) and axial T1 weighted fast spoiled gradient-recalled (pre- and post-iv gadolinium) supine MRI sequences were performed. The examinations were reported by two gastrointestinal radiologists by consensus. Colonoscopy following standard bowel preparation was performed by a single endoscopist blinded to the MRC results. Significant lesions were defined as polyps or masses >10 mm in diameter. Results 29 patients were studied. Colonoscopy revealed 25 mass lesions in 13 patients. MRC correctly identified four of the nine lesions >10 mm in diameter (sensitivity 44%; specificity 100%). Although specificity remained high for smaller lesions, sensitivity was poor. Conclusion This pilot study has demonstrated the feasibility of performing MRC without bowel preparation or water enema. This would seem to be a promising modality for colorectal cancer screening. Larger studies are required to determine the accuracy of this modality for the detection of colorectal neoplasia. PMID:22167505

  14. Barium enema: use of increased copper filtration to optimize dose and image quality.

    PubMed

    Morrell, R E; Rogers, A T; Jobling, J C; Shakespeare, K E

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and validate the optimum copper filtration for adult double contrast barium enema examinations. Entrance surface dose rates to polymethyl methacrylate slabs and corresponding image intensifier input kermas, were measured for various added copper filters. Image contrast was assessed using a Leeds TO.10 test object. Copper filter thickness of 0.3 mm was chosen, as this reduced entrance surface dose rate by 56%, without substantially degrading image contrast due to kV and mA saturation. 20 sets of clinical films taken with each of 0.3 mm copper, 0.1 mm copper and no copper were reviewed following randomization, by a specialist gastrointestinal radiologist. Each set of digital spot and conventional films was allocated a score for each of three regions of the bowel, on a scale of 0-3 for perceived barium coating. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed no significant difference in perceived coating between the three groups (Digital spot: sigmoid colon p=0.207, splenic flexure p=0.103, hepatic flexure p=0.894. Screen-film: left colon p=0.803, right colon p=0.487, transverse colon p=0.905). All examinations but one were classified as diagnostic. The remaining one was classified indeterminate, due to poor distension of the colon. On adding 0.3 mm copper filtration, the mean dose-area product per examination was reduced by 57%, from 17.7 Gy cm(2) to 7.6 Gy cm(2). The estimated reduction in effective dose was 11%, from 3.0 mSv to 2.7 mSv. X-ray tube loading increased by 30%, but this caused no overheating with our local examination protocol and schedule. Additional filtration of 0.3 mm copper for adult double contrast barium enemas has now been implemented in routine clinical use at our hospital. PMID:15010383

  15. Practically Saline

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Jonathan; O’Neal, Catherine; Jagneaux, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In December 2014, the Food and Drug Administration issued a recall of all Wallcur simulation products due to reports of their use in clinical practice. We present a case of septic shock and multiorgan failure after the accidental intravenous infusion of a nonsterile Wallcur simulation product. Case. The patient presented with symptoms of rigors and dyspnea occurring immediately after infusion of Wallcur Practi-0.9% saline. Initial laboratory evidence was consistent with severe septic shock and multiorgan dysfunction. His initial lactic acid level was 9 mmol/L (reference range = 0.5-2.2), and he had evidence of acute kidney injury and markers of disseminated intravascular coagulation. All 4 blood culture bottles isolated multidrug-resistant Empedobacter brevis. The patient recovered from his illness and was discharged with ciprofloxacin therapy per susceptibilities. Discussion. This patient represents the first described case of severe septic shock associated with the infusion of a Wallcur simulation product. Intravenous inoculation of a nonsterile fluid is rare and exposes the patient to unusual environmental organisms, toxins, or unsafe fluid characteristics such as tonicity. During course of treatment, we identified the possible culprit to be a multidrug-resistant isolate of Empedobacter brevis. We also discuss the systemic failures that led to this outbreak. PMID:26668812

  16. Saline Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Figure 2

    These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000 and cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the complementary nature of surface compositional information available as a function of wavelength. This image displays visible and near infrared bands 3, 2, and 1 in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. Figure 1 displays short wavelength infrared bands 4, 6, and 8 as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have diagnostic absorption features, resulting in distinct colors on the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich. Figure 2 displays thermal infrared bands 13, 12 and 10 as RGB. In this wavelength region, variations in quartz content appear as more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple. The image is located at 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  17. Practically Saline.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Jonathan; O'Neal, Catherine; Jagneaux, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In December 2014, the Food and Drug Administration issued a recall of all Wallcur simulation products due to reports of their use in clinical practice. We present a case of septic shock and multiorgan failure after the accidental intravenous infusion of a nonsterile Wallcur simulation product. Case. The patient presented with symptoms of rigors and dyspnea occurring immediately after infusion of Wallcur Practi-0.9% saline. Initial laboratory evidence was consistent with severe septic shock and multiorgan dysfunction. His initial lactic acid level was 9 mmol/L (reference range = 0.5-2.2), and he had evidence of acute kidney injury and markers of disseminated intravascular coagulation. All 4 blood culture bottles isolated multidrug-resistant Empedobacter brevis. The patient recovered from his illness and was discharged with ciprofloxacin therapy per susceptibilities. Discussion. This patient represents the first described case of severe septic shock associated with the infusion of a Wallcur simulation product. Intravenous inoculation of a nonsterile fluid is rare and exposes the patient to unusual environmental organisms, toxins, or unsafe fluid characteristics such as tonicity. During course of treatment, we identified the possible culprit to be a multidrug-resistant isolate of Empedobacter brevis. We also discuss the systemic failures that led to this outbreak. PMID:26668812

  18. Effect of Basti (oil enema) therapy for the management of cough in pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Gujarathi, Rahul H.; Gokhale, Vivek M.; Tongaonkar, Jayashree N.

    2013-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis continues to circulate even in countries with good childhood vaccination coverage. Sporadic cases are still observed either due to no vaccination, incomplete vaccination or as a result of failure of vaccination. Though acute in nature it has a longer disease span with multiple life-threatening complications despite adequate management. This study was undertaken to study the effect of Sneha Basti (oil enema) in pertussis in relation to reduction in intensity of cough and complications of the disease when administered along with the conventional pharmacological therapy. Patients with the clinical picture mimicking pertussis were screened, investigated for pertussis and appropriate conventional pharmacological therapy of Erythromycin a preferred antimicrobial agent was started. Concurrently, Sneha Basti was administered to these two children. Both patients showed favourable results in terms of reduction of Kasa (cough) and the disease period with a faster recovery when compared to conventional therapy alone as has been observed routinely. No complications incurred during the complete disease span. It was concluded that if the pharmacological therapy is augmented with the complimentary systems of medicines, it can reduce the prolonged span and intensity of the disease and prevent other complications. PMID:24696577

  19. Ileoanal pouches: Comparison of CT, scintigraphy, and contrast enemas for diagnosing postsurgical complications

    SciTech Connect

    Thoeni, R.F.; Fell, S.C.; Engelstad, B.; Schrock, T.B. )

    1990-01-01

    The value of CT of the pelvis, 111In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy, and contrast enema (pouchography) for detecting postsurgical complications was assessed in 44 patients with total colectomy, rectal mucosectomy, and ileoanal pouches. Ileoanal pouches were created as reservoirs from an ileal loop that was anastomosed to the dentate line of the anus and stayed connected to the remainder of the ileum. This pouch preserves the normal defecatory pathway and eliminates disease-producing mucosa. A total of 57 sets of examinations revealed 22 cases of normal postoperative findings, 22 of pouchitis, 13 of abscess, and three of fistula. Overall sensitivity for detecting complications with pouchography was 60% (18 of 30 findings); with CT, 78% (28 of 36 findings); and with scintigraphy, 79% (23 of 29 findings). Pouchitis was best diagnosed by scintigraphy (sensitivity, 80%), followed by CT (sensitivity, 71%) and pouchography (sensitivity, 53%). Only CT correctly diagnosed all cases of abscess. Fistulas were frequently missed by all three methods. If tests were combined, the overall sensitivity rose to 93% for the combination CT/scintigraphy and to 86% for CT/pouchography, but did not improve for pouchography/scintigraphy (78%). For evaluation of complications in patients with ileoanal pouches, CT should be the initial test. If an abscess is found, no further tests are needed. If CT findings are negative, a scintigram should be obtained. Our data did not establish a clear role for pouchography.

  20. Reducing Antibiotic Use for Young Children with Intussusception following Successful Air Enema Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yinghui; Ye, Weimin; Chen, Xingdong; Liu, Qian; Liu, Huandi; Si, Chunfeng; Jia, Hongying

    2015-01-01

    China introduced a new policy regarding the management of antibiotic use. We evaluated the reasonableness of antibiotic use among children suffering from intussusception before and after policy. A retrospective study was conducted involving 234 young children with intussusception who were treated between January 1, 2011 and December 30, 2013. Demographics and detailed antibiotics regimens were collected. ?2 test was used to evaluate differences between the phase I (preintervention, n = 68) and phase II (postintervention, n = 166). We determined that the overall antibiotic use rate following successful air enema reduction was 41% (97/234), which decreased from 99% (67/68) in phase I to 18% (30/166) in phase II. In phase I, prophylactic antibiotic usage reached up to 84% (56/67). The quantity of aztreonam for injection accounted for 63% (45/71), and cefamandole nafate for injection accounted for 25% (18/71). In phases II, prophylactic antibiotic usage were reduced to 13% (4/30). The quantity of aztreonam for injection was decreased to 12% (4/33) and cefamandole nafate for injection was 3% (1/33). Antibiotics' options were more diverse. In conclusion, policy intervention was effective in addressing some aspects of antibacterial drug usage among young children with intussusception. However, excessive drug use remains a public health problem. The guidelines for the antibiotic management of intussusception for children must be established in China. PMID:26569111

  1. Measuring Salinity by Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapworth, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    Outlines procedures for constructing an instrument which uses an electrode and calibration methods to measure the salinity of waters in environments close to and affected by a saline estuary. (Author/DC)

  2. Enema reduction of intussusception: the success rate of hydrostatic and pneumatic reduction

    PubMed Central

    Khorana, Jiraporn; Singhavejsakul, Jesda; Ukarapol, Nuthapong; Laohapensang, Mongkol; Wakhanrittee, Junsujee; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Intussusception is a common surgical emergency in infants and children. The incidence of intussusception is from one to four per 2,000 infants and children. If there is no peritonitis, perforation sign on abdominal radiographic studies, and nonresponsive shock, nonoperative reduction by pneumatic or hydrostatic enema can be performed. The purpose of this study was to compare the success rates of both the methods. Methods Two institutional retrospective cohort studies were performed. All intussusception patients (ICD-10 code K56.1) who had visited Chiang Mai University Hospital and Siriraj Hospital from January 2006 to December 2012 were included in the study. The data were obtained by chart reviews and electronic databases, which included demographic data, symptoms, signs, and investigations. The patients were grouped according to the method of reduction followed into pneumatic reduction and hydrostatic reduction groups with the outcome being the success of the reduction technique. Results One hundred and seventy episodes of intussusception occurring in the patients of Chiang Mai University Hospital and Siriraj Hospital were included in this study. The success rate of pneumatic reduction was 61% and that of hydrostatic reduction was 44% (P=0.036). Multivariable analysis and adjusting of the factors by propensity scores were performed; the success rate of pneumatic reduction was 1.48 times more than that of hydrostatic reduction (P=0.036, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.03–2.13). Conclusion Both pneumatic and hydrostatic reduction can be performed safely according to the experience of the radiologist or pediatric surgeon and hospital setting. This study showed that pneumatic reduction had a higher success rate than hydrostatic reduction. PMID:26719697

  3. Contrast Enema for Hirschsprung Disease Investigation: Diagnostic Accuracy and Validity for Subsequent Diagnostic and Surgical Planning.

    PubMed

    Frongia, Giovanni; Günther, Patrick; Schenk, Jens-Peter; Strube, Kai; Kessler, Markus; Mehrabi, Arianeb; Romero, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    Introduction A targeted Hirschsprung disease (HD) diagnostic is necessary, as it determines a specific approach primarily based on surgical resection of the affected aganglionic colonic segment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a contrast enema (CE) for HD diagnosis and to determine whether it should be performed before or after rectal biopsies (RBs). Methods A retrospective observational study of children undergoing RB for HD investigation was performed. In the performed CE, the occurrence and the level of a colonic caliber change (CCC) were recorded and its concordance with the histologically assessed level of aganglionosis by RB and the odds ratio were calculated. Results A total of 107 cases were included. Sensitivity and specificity for a CCC in CE were 74.1% and 94.6%. A CCC present in CE was associated with a 50-fold increased probability for a histologically proven HD. The overall concordance between a CCC and the histologically assessed level of aganglionosis was high (kappa 0.642, p = 0.003), being correct in 94.4% of cases when the CCC was located in the rectosigmoid, but only in 50% of cases when it was located in more proximal segments. By performing a CE only after HD diagnosis confirmation by RB would avoid 67.5% of CE with no loss of diagnostic accuracy. Conclusion We confirm that CE is a valuable tool for HD diagnosis; however, it should only be performed for subsequent diagnostic and surgical planning following histological confirmation of HD by RB. On the basis of this, an algorithm for an optimized investigation and management of HD is presented. PMID:25803244

  4. Phased surgical treatment of barium enema-induced rectal injury and retention of barium in the pelvic floor space

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuefei; Xia, Ligang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Iatrogenic injuries caused by barium enema are rarely reported. Following a phased surgical protocol for up to one year, we have successfully treated a patient with rectal injury and severe infection of the pelvic floor space complicated with retention of large amounts of barium and vaginal fistula. In this article, the phased surgery planning for the treatment of rectal injury complicated with vaginal fistula is discussed in terms of the pros and cons, and the observed effect and evolution of barium retained in the pelvic floor space are described. PMID:25405155

  5. Effect of Majja Basti (therapeutic enema) and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) in the management of Osteoporosis (Asthi-Majjakshaya).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ajay K; Shah, Nehal; Thakar, A B

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder that affects entire skeleton, which is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of the skeleton, leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk. In Ayurveda, it can be correlated with Asthi-Majjakshaya. Basti (therapeutic enema) is the prime therapy for Asthi related diseases and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) is the drug which is being used for strengthening of bone by traditional Vaidya since long. It has been selected for oral administration. In clinical trial, 12 patients treated with Majja Basti along with Asthi Shrinkhala pulp capsules and results are very encouraging. PMID:23049194

  6. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  7. Pattern and distribution of colonic diverticulosis: Analysis of 2877 barium enemas in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Lohsiriwat, Varut; Suthikeeree, Wanwarang

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the pattern and distribution of colonic diverticulosis in Thai adults. METHODS: A review of the computerized radiology database for double contrast barium enema (DCBE) in Thai adults was performed at the Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. Incomplete studies and DCBE examinations performed in non-Thai individuals were excluded. The pattern and distribution of colonic diverticulosis detected during DCBE studies from June 2009 to October 2011 were determined. The occurrence of solitary cecal diverticulum, rectal diverticulum and giant diverticulum were reported. Factors influencing the presence of colonic diverticulosis were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 2877 suitable DCBE examinations were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age of patients was 59.8 ± 14.7 years. Of these patients, 1778 (61.8%) were female and 700 (24.3%) were asymptomatic. Colonic diverticulosis was identified in 820 patients (28.5%). Right-sided diverticulosis (641 cases; 22.3%) was more frequently reported than left-sided diverticulosis (383 cases; 13.3%). Pancolonic diverticulosis was found in 98 cases (3.4%). The occurrence of solitary cecal diverticulum, rectal diverticulum and giant diverticulum were 1.5% (42 cases), 0.4% (12 cases), and 0.03% (1 case), respectively. There was no significant difference in the overall occurrence of colonic diverticulosis between male and female patients (28.3% vs 28.6%, P = 0.85). DCBE examinations performed in patients with some gastrointestinal symptoms revealed the frequent occurrence of colonic diverticulosis compared with those performed in asymptomatic individuals (29.5% vs 25.3%, P = 0.03). Change in bowel habit was strongly associated with the presence of diverticulosis (a relative risk of 1.39; P = 0.005). The presence of diverticulosis was not correlated with age in symptomatic patients or asymptomatic individuals (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Colonic diverticulosis was identified in 28.5% of DCBE examinations in Thai adults. There was no association between the presence of diverticulosis and gender or age. PMID:24379590

  8. Dietary Geraniol by Oral or Enema Administration Strongly Reduces Dysbiosis and Systemic Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    De Fazio, Luigia; Spisni, Enzo; Cavazza, Elena; Strillacci, Antonio; Candela, Marco; Centanni, Manuela; Ricci, Chiara; Rizzello, Fernando; Campieri, Massimo; Valerii, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    (Trans)-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol, commonly called geraniol (Ge-OH), is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol with well-known anti-inflammatory, antitumoral, and antimicrobial properties. It is widely used as a preservative in the food industry and as an antimicrobial agent in animal farming. The present study investigated the role of Ge-OH as an anti-inflammatory and anti-dysbiotic agent in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. Ge-OH was orally administered to C57BL/6 mice at daily doses of 30 and 120 mg kg(−1) body weight, starting 6 days before DSS treatment and ending the day after DSS removal. Furthermore, Ge-OH 120 mg kg(−1) dose body weight was administered via enema during the acute phase of colitis to facilitate its on-site action. The results show that orally or enema-administered Ge-OH is a powerful antimicrobial agent able to prevent colitis-associated dysbiosis and decrease the inflammatory systemic profile of colitic mice. As a whole, Ge-OH strongly improved the clinical signs of colitis and significantly reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in colonocytes and in the gut wall. Ge-OH could be a powerful drug for the treatment of intestinal inflammation and dysbiosis. PMID:26973525

  9. Salinity Management in Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Existing guidelines and standards for reclamation of saline soils and management to control salinity exist but have not been updated for over 25 years. In the past few years a looming water scarcity has resulted in questioning of the long term future of irrigation projects in arid and semi arid regi...

  10. Flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy and double-contrast barium-enema examination in the identification of adenomas and carcinoma of the colon.

    PubMed

    Farrands, P A; Vellacott, K D; Amar, S S; Balfour, T W; Hardcastle, J D

    1983-11-01

    To assess the accuracy of the flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscope, 227 consecutive patients (mean age 61.8 +/- 13 years) requiring investigation of colonic symptoms were evaluated using rigid and flexible sigmoidoscopy (PAF and KDV) and double-contrast barium enema (SSA). Patients with equivocal findings or adenomatous polyps underwent colonoscopy (TWB). Thirty-four patients had carcinoma and 50 patients had one or more adenomatous polyps (greater than 5mm). The neoplastic yield from rigid sigmoidoscopy was 12 per cent, flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy 90 per cent, and double-contrast barium enema only 76 per cent. Barium enema failed to identify eight carcinomas and 13 adenomatous polyps; seven of the eight carcinomas were polypoid Dukes' Stage A lesions, and associated diverticular disease was present in 62.5 per cent of cases. Flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy failed to identify seven carcinomas and one adenomatous polyp. Five of the carcinomas were beyond range of the instrument; in one patient, a stricture was seen that was caused by the carcinoma; and in the seventh patient, the examination was terminated because of angulation spasm. Double-contrast barium enema is inaccurate in detecting lesions in the sigmoid colon, with flexible sigmoidoscopy being superior. PMID:6628146

  11. Saline infusion sonohysterography.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    Saline infusion sonohysterography consists of ultrasonographic imaging of the uterus and uterocervical cavity, using real-time ultrasonography during injection of sterile saline into the uterus. When properly performed, saline infusion sonohysterography can provide information about the uterus and endometrium. The most common indication for sonohysterography is abnormal uterine bleeding. sonohysterography should not be performed in a woman who is pregnant or could be pregnant or in a woman with a pelvic infection or unexplained pelvic tenderness. Physicians who perform or supervise diagnostic saline infusion sonohysterograpy should have training, experience, and demonstrated competence in gynecologic ultrasonography and saline infusion sonohysterography. Portions of this document were developed jointly with the American College of Radiology and the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. PMID:14968760

  12. Measuring soil salinity.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Marcus; Doyle, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Soil salinity is a form of land degradation in which salts accumulate in the soil profile to an extent that plant growth or infrastructure are negatively affected. A range of both field and laboratory procedures exist for measuring soil salinity. In the field, soil salinity is usually inferred from apparent electrical conductivity (EC(a)) using a range of devices, depending on the required depth of analysis, or size of the survey area. Field measurements of EC(a) require calibration to the actual salt content by laboratory analysis. In the laboratory, soil salinity is usually assessed by determining either the total soluble salts by evaporation of a soil water extract (TSS), or by determining the electrical conductivity (EC) of either a 1:5 distilled water:soil dilution, or a saturated paste extract. Although procedures for measuring soil salinity appear relatively straightforward, differences in methodology have considerable influence on measured values and interpretation of results. PMID:22895776

  13. The use of carbon dioxide as an insufflation agent in barium enema--does it have a role?

    PubMed

    Robson, N K; Lloyd, M; Regan, F

    1993-03-01

    A double blind prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit of using carbon dioxide in double contrast barium enema (DCBE). 142 consecutive patients referred for DCBE were randomly allocated to receive either air or carbon dioxide (CO2) as the insufflation agent. The use of CO2 reduced the incidence of immediate and delayed severe pain from 31% to 12.5% and from 12.9% to 4.2% respectively. There was a statistically significant higher incidence of delayed severe pain in the younger age group as found in previous studies. Post-evacuation films showed that there was less residual gas after CO2. The quality of the DCBE was unchanged. We urge the more widespread use of CO2 as insufflation agent in DCBE. PMID:8472110

  14. Hydrogeologic processes in saline systems: Playas, sabkhas, and saline lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yechieli, Y.; Wood, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    Pans, playas, sabkhas, salinas, saline lakes, and salt flats are hydrologically similar, varying only in their boundary conditions. Thus, in evaluating geochemical processes in these systems, a generic water and solute mass-balance approach can be utilized. A conceptual model of a coastal sabkha near the Arabian Gulf is used as an example to illustrate the various water and solute fluxes. Analysis of this model suggests that upward flux of ground water from underlying formations could be a major source of solutes in the sabkha, but contribute only a small volume of the water. Local rainfall is the main source of water in the modeled sabkha system with a surprisingly large recharge-to-rainfall ratio of more than 50%. The contribution of seawater to the solute budget depends on the ratio of the width of the supratidal zone to the total width and is generally confined to a narrow zone near the shoreline of a typical coastal sabkha. Because of a short residence time of water, steady-state flow is expected within a short time (50,000 years). The solute composition of the brine in a closed saline system depends largely on the original composition of the input water. The high total ion content in the brine limits the efficiency of water-rock interaction and absorption. Because most natural systems are hydrologically open, the chemistry of the brines and the associated evaporite deposits may be significantly different than that predicted for hydrologically closed systems. Seasonal changes in temperature of the unsaturated zone cause precipitation of minerals in saline systems undergoing evaporation. Thus, during the hot dry season months, minerals exhibit retrograde solubility so that gypsum, anhydrite and calcite precipitate. Evaporation near the surface is also a major process that causes mineral precipitation in the upper portion of the unsaturated zone (e.g. halite and carnallite), provided that the relative humidity of the atmosphere is less than the activity of water. The slope of the fresh/brine-water interface in saline lake systems is shallower than in fresh/seawater interface because of the greater density difference between the fresh/brine-water bodies. The interface between sabkha brines and seawater slopes seaward, unlike normal marine-fresh water systems that slope landward. Moreover, the brine/seawater interface does not achieve steady state because it is pushed toward the sea by the sabkha's brine. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrogeologic processes in saline systems: playas, sabkhas, and saline lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yechieli, Yoseph; Wood, Warren W.

    2002-10-01

    Pans, playas, sabkhas, salinas, saline lakes, and salt flats are hydrologically similar, varying only in their boundary conditions. Thus, in evaluating geochemical processes in these systems, a generic water and solute mass-balance approach can be utilized. A conceptual model of a coastal sabkha near the Arabian Gulf is used as an example to illustrate the various water and solute fluxes. Analysis of this model suggests that upward flux of ground water from underlying formations could be a major source of solutes in the sabkha, but contribute only a small volume of the water. Local rainfall is the main source of water in the modeled sabkha system with a surprisingly large recharge-to-rainfall ratio of more than 50%. The contribution of seawater to the solute budget depends on the ratio of the width of the supratidal zone to the total width and is generally confined to a narrow zone near the shoreline of a typical coastal sabkha. Because of a short residence time of water, steady-state flow is expected within a short time (<100 years), while steady state for solutes may take much longer (>50,000 years). The solute composition of the brine in a closed saline system depends largely on the original composition of the input water. The high total ion content in the brine limits the efficiency of water-rock interaction and absorption. Because most natural systems are hydrologically open, the chemistry of the brines and the associated evaporite deposits may be significantly different than that predicted for hydrologically closed systems. Seasonal changes in temperature of the unsaturated zone cause precipitation of minerals in saline systems undergoing evaporation. Thus, during the hot dry season months, minerals exhibit retrograde solubility so that gypsum, anhydrite and calcite precipitate. Evaporation near the surface is also a major process that causes mineral precipitation in the upper portion of the unsaturated zone (e.g. halite and carnallite), provided that the relative humidity of the atmosphere is less than the activity of water. The slope of the fresh/brine-water interface in saline lake systems is shallower than in fresh/seawater interface because of the greater density difference between the fresh/brine-water bodies. The interface between sabkha brines and seawater slopes seaward, unlike normal marine-fresh water systems that slope landward. Moreover, the brine/seawater interface does not achieve steady state because it is pushed toward the sea by the sabkha's brine.

  16. Radiochromium distribution during saline diuresis

    SciTech Connect

    Wallach, S.; Verch, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Free water diuresis in vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats does not influence body conservation of chromium (Cr/sup +3/), suggesting a proximal tubular site for renal Cr reabsorption. Other data suggest that Cr conservation is accomplished primarily by lack of glomerular filtration or by tissue binding to a specific Cr-binding substance. To provide further data, radiochromium (/sup 51/Cr) retention and tissue distribution were studied in SHR and WKY rats undergoing saline diuresis. Despite high urine flows, body retention and urinary excretion of /sup 51/Cr were unchanged. Tissue content of /sup 51/Cr was minimally and not consistently influenced by saline diuresis in either rat strain. Compared to WKY rats, the SHR rats had a trend to lower serum and tissue /sup 51/Cr content but higher tissue/serum /sup 51/Cr ratios. These data fail to incriminate collecting duct reabsorption in Cr conservation but are compatible with proximal Cr reabsorption or either of the two hypotheses mentioned above. The decreased serum /sup 51/Cr content of SHR rats may be due to the mechanical effect of increased plasma and extracellular volumes. One possible explanation for the increased tissue/serum /sup 51/Cr ratios may be the presence of a factor in SHR rats promoting cellular Cr transport. However, there is no present evidence to suggest that any of the hormones believed capable of increasing Cr transport (insulin, growth hormone, thyroxine, ADH) are increased in the SHR rat.

  17. Genotypic Responses to Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Rush, Dale W.; Epstein, Emanuel

    1976-01-01

    Four ecotypes of the species Lycopersicon cheesmanii ssp. minor (Hook.) C.H. Mull. from the Galapagos Islands were compared with L. esculentum Mill cv. VF 36 with respect to salt tolerance. The L. cheesmanii ecotype that proved most salt-tolerant was selected for detailed comparison with the L. esculentum cultivar. Plants were grown in modified Hoagland solution salinized with synthetic seawater salt mix. Growth rates under saline conditions were examined and amino acid, sugar, total amino nitrogen, free acidity, and Na and K levels in the tissues of the most and least tolerant plants were measured under salt stress and nonstress conditions. Results indicate that all Galapagos ecotypes were far more salt-tolerant than was the esculentum cultivar. They could survive in full strength seawater nutrient solution while the esculentum cultivar could not in most cases withstand levels higher than 50% seawater. Growth rates were reduced in both species under saline conditions but the esculentum cultivar was more severely affected. High levels of total amino nitrogen, specific amino acids, and free acidity along with low sodium content were found in the salt stressed VF 36 cultivar. The opposite responses were noted in the salt stressed treatments of the Galapagos ecotype. Tissue sugar levels did not appear to be similarly correlated with salt stress in either species. Potassium content fell sharply during salinization in the Galapagos ecotype while in the esculentum cultivar it declined relatively little even at high levels of salinity. PMID:16659442

  18. Salinity on irrigated lands

    SciTech Connect

    Westmore, R.A.; Manbeck, D.M.

    1984-02-01

    The technology for controlling salinity on irrigated lands is relatively simple, involving both minor and major changes in current land-management practices. Minor changes include more frequent irrigation, the use of salt-tolerant crops, preplanning irrigation, and seed placement. The major changes require a shift from gravity to sprinkler or drip systems, increased water supply and quality, soil modification, land grading, and improved drainage. Some of the major changes are difficult, and some impossible, to accomplish. Examples of reclamation include the Mardan Salinity Control and Reclamation Project (SCARP) in Pakistan. 5 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  19. Geochemistry of Saline Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. F.; Deocampo, D. M.

    2003-12-01

    Saline lakes are important environmental features, with significant geochemical impacts on ecology, water resources, and economic activity around the world. Ancient sediments within saline lake basins also offer important sedimentary archives of past climates and tectonics, because such deposits can record significant hydrologic variations.Saline lake geochemistry is the product of a complex system involving meteoric precipitation, weathering, groundwater, evaporation, precipitation-dissolution reactions, and biotic activity. Its study is therefore an inherently interdisciplinary effort, and substantial reviews of the subject have emphasized relevant aspects of the hydrology (Rosen, 1994), mineralogy ( Spencer, 2000), sedimentology ( Hardie et al., 1978; Smoot and Lowenstein, 1991), and evolutionary pathways taken by progressively evaporated waters ( Eugster and Hardie, 1978).The purpose of this paper is to summarize the geochemistry of saline lake basins throughout the world, from dilute inflow to evaporated brine. Following the general approach of Eugster and Hardie (1978), we will review the theoretical background of the evolution of closed basin waters, and then selected field examples that are representative of the major water types. In this work, we have assigned an increased importance to the effect of magnesium salts on brine evolution pathways, and have incorporated this into new models of brine evolution and evaporite precipitation. We follow Chapter 5.16 in referring to waters with total dissolved solids greater than 3.5104 mg L-1 as true "brines," and those with from 1 mg L-1 to 104 mg L-1 as "brackish."

  20. Saline Systems highlights for 2006

    PubMed Central

    DasSarma, Shiladitya

    2007-01-01

    Saline Systems is a journal devoted to both basic and applied studies of saline and hypersaline environments and their biodiversity. Here, I review the reports and commentaries published in the journal in 2006, including some exploring the geochemistry of saline estuaries, lakes, and ponds, others on the ecology and molecular biology of the indigenous halophilic organisms, and still others addressing the environmental challenges facing saline environments. Several studies are relevant to applications in biotechnology and aquaculture. PMID:17244355

  1. [Hemodynamic effects of hypertonic saline solutions].

    PubMed

    Sztark, F; Gkire, J P; Dabadie, P

    1997-01-01

    Haemodynamic effects of hypertonic saline solutions (HSS) have been extensively studied in animals and humans. Hypertonic sodium chloride (7.5%, 2,500 mOsm.L-1) either alone or combined with colloids, remains the standard solution. The haemodynamic response of HSS observed during treatment of hypovolaemic shock is explained by 1) an increase in preload due to the expansion of the plasma volume and a musculocutaneous vasoconstriction and 2) a decrease in systemic vascular resistance and afterload. A myocardial stimulation has been shown in various experimental conditions and in humans. However, the clinical relevance of this inotropic effect is questionable. Haemorrhagic shock is the main indication for small volume resuscitation with HSS. Other potential situations for the use of HSS are volume replacement in perioperative period, septic shock or burn injury and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Before recommending the clinical use of HSS, additional clinical studies are required to substantiate the benefits of HSS over colloids. PMID:9732776

  2. Enema versus polyethylene glycol for the management of rectal faecal impaction in children with constipation – a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyniak, Katarzyna; Horvath, Andrea; Szajewska, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rectal faecal impaction (RFI) from functional constipation is a common problem in children. Maintenance therapy should start after successful disimpaction. However, there is uncertainty with regard to the optimal disimpaction regimen. Aim We systematically evaluated the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) compared to enema for treating RFI. Material and methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, with no language restrictions, were searched up to July 2014 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of PEG compared with enema for disimpaction in children with functional constipation. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results Two RCTs, involving 170 children aged 1 to 17 years, met the inclusion criteria. The studies were generally low in methodological quality. Compared with the enema group, the PEG 3350 group had significantly reduced chance for treatment success, but the difference was of a borderline statistical significance (RR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.7–0.99). The use of PEG was also more likely to increase defecation frequency, but increased the risk of watery stools and increased faecal incontinence. Other outcomes, in general, were similar in both groups. Conclusions Current evidence does not allow us to conclude which intervention is more effective for treating RFI in children with functional constipation. These results should be interpreted with caution due to the limited number of trials and the low quality of reporting in these trials, high or unknown risk of bias, and sparse data. Further high-quality, adequately powered RCTs are needed to determine the optimal management. PMID:26759631

  3. Overview of SMOS Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, R.

    2014-12-01

    While it is well known that the ocean is one of the most important components of the climate system, with a heat capacity 1100 times greater than the atmosphere, the ocean is also the primary reservoir for freshwater transport to the atmosphere and largest component of the global water cycle. Two new satellite sensors, the ESA Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and the NASA Aquarius SAC-D missions are now providing the first space borne measurements of the sea surface salinity (SSS). In this talk, we will present examples demonstrating how SMOS-derived SSS data are being used to better characterize key land-ocean and atmosphere-ocean interaction processes that occur within the marine hydrological cycle. In particular, we shall illustrate how SMOS and its ocean mapping capability provides observations across the world's largest tropical ocean fresh pool regions and we will discuss intra-seasonal to interannual precipitation impacts as well as large-scale river runoff from the Amazon-Orinoco and Congo rivers and its offshore advection. Synergistic multi-satellite analyses of these new surface salinity data sets combined with sea surface temperature, dynamical height and currents from altimetry, surface wind, ocean color, rainfall estimates, and in situ observations will be shown to yield new freshwater budget and ocean circulation insight. Examples of SMOS capabilities of monitoring salt exchanges across the Gulf Stream through meso-scale eddies will be provided. SSS observations from the SMOS and Aquarius/SAC-D sensors are combined to examine the response of the upper ocean to tropical cyclone passage including the potential role that a freshwater-induced upper ocean barrier layer may play in modulating surface cooling and enthalpy flux in tropical cyclone track regions.

  4. Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, D.H.

    1984-08-30

    The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water that is cold, nutrient rich and relatively fresh in comparison to the surface water which is relatively warm, relatively nutrient deficient and relatively saline. A plurality of elongated flow segregating tubes are disposed in the main duct and extend from the upper cover plate beyond the lower cover plate into a lower manifold plate. The lower manifold plate is spaced from the lower cover plate to define a deep water fluid flow path to the interior space of the main duct. Spacer tubes extend from the upper cover plate and communicate with the interior space of the main duct. The spacer tubes are received in an upper manifold plate spaced from the upper cover plate to define a surface water fluid flow path into the flow segregating tubes. A surface water-deep water counterflow is thus established with deep water flowing upwardly through the main duct interior for discharge beyond the upper manifold plate while surface water flows downwardly through the flow segregating tubes for discharge below the lower manifold plate. During such counterflow heat is transferred from the downflowing warm water to the upflowing cold water. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep water and the surface water due to their differences in salinity. The upwelling of nutrient rich deep water is used for marifarming by fertilizing the nutrient deficient surface water. 1 fig.

  5. Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, David H.

    1986-01-01

    The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water that is cold, nutrient rich and relatively fresh in comparison to the surface water which is relatively warm, relatively nutrient deficient and relatively saline. A plurality of elongated flow segregating tubes are disposed in the main duct and extend from the upper cover plate beyond the lower cover plate into a lower manifold plate. The lower manifold plate is spaced from the lower cover plate to define a deep water fluid flow path to the interior space of the main duct. Spacer tubes extend from the upper cover plate and communicate with the interior space of the main duct. The spacer tubes are received in an upper manifold plate spaced from the upper cover plate to define a surface water fluid flow path into the flow segregating tubes. A surface water-deep water counterflow is thus established with deep water flowing upwardly through the main duct interior for discharge beyond the upper manifold plate while surface water flows downwardly through the flow segregating tubes for discharge below the lower manifold plate. During such counterflow heat is transferred from the downflowing warm water to the upflowing cold water. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep water and the surface water due to their differences in salinity. The upwelling of nutrient rich deep water is used for marifarming by fertilizing the nutrient deficient surface water.

  6. A review of anaerobic treatment of saline wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yeyuan; Roberts, Deborah J

    2010-01-01

    Large volumes of saline (> 2% w/v NaCl) wastewaters are discharged from many industries; e.g. seafood processing, textile dyeing, oil and gas production, tanneries and drinking water treatment processes. Although anaerobic treatment would be the most cost-effective and sustainable technology for the treatment of many of these saline wastewaters, the salinity is considered to be inhibitory to anaerobic biological treatment processes. The recent applications of salt-tolerant cultures for the treatment of wastewaters from seafood processing and ion-exchange processes suggest that biological systems can be used to treat salty wastewaters. Additionally, organisms capable of anaerobic degradation of contaminants in saline solutions have been observed in marine sediments and have been characterized during the last two decades. This manuscript provides a review of the recent research on anaerobic treatment of saline wastewater and bacterial consortia capable of the anaerobic degradation of pollutants in saline solutions, documenting that the biological treatment of saline wastewaters is promising. PMID:20662390

  7. geothermal salinity control system

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, B.C.; Zajac, E.

    1985-01-08

    Highly saline geothermal brine, such as that produced from the lower geothermal reserve of the Salton Sea geothermal field, is diluted with non-geothermal water of much lower salinity in a mixing zone proximate the high temperature end of a geothermal power plant, and preferably down in the production well just above the production zone, so as to reduce the chloride salt content of the production brine to a level that is at or below the saturated level at reinjection temperatures, thereby preventing any material chloride salt scaling at any location in the plant through reinjection. The permanent cemented-in production casing in the well is protected against the corrosive effects of the hot production brine by means of a removable production liner that is generally coextensive with the casing. Said mixing zone is provided in the lower portion of the liner, and the liner establishes an annulus between it and the casing through which said non-geothermal water flows downwardly to the mixing zone so as to exclude the production brine from contact with the casing.

  8. Chemical response of salinity in groundwater-dominated lakes to perturbations in climate

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, J.J. . Dept. of Geology and Geography); Duffy, C.J. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Lakes with neither surface-water inflow nor outflow are groundwater-dominated. Under semi-arid conditions where evaporation exceeds precipitation, salinity of such lakes is higher than that of source groundwater; chemistry additionally varies with time under climatic perturbation and is a potential recorder of hydrologic and paleohydrologic state. Detailed time-series datasets of lake water chemistry are relatively rare; therefore, coupled fluid and chemical mass balance modeling allows examination of salinity sensitivity to climate, based on field observations of volume-stage, area-stage, and volume-outflow relationships. Salinity variation may be discriminated into mean-state and variational-state components. Mean-state salinity is controlled by evaporation-precipitation balance, recharge efficiency, and other spatially-variable hydrologic factors. Time variations in salinity are influenced by amplitude and frequency of climatic fluctuations, lake geometry, and volume-outflow relationships. Salinity response to even simple patterns of climatic forcing may be complex and non-linear for basin shapes and outflow hydraulics characteristic of field conditions. Salinity response to even simple patterns of climatic forcing may be complex and non-linear for basins shapes and outflow hydraulics characteristic of field conditions. Salinity trajectories from water samples collected at a series of Montana-North Dakota lakes during the 1981--90 drought resemble predicted behavior. These results are pertinent to interpretation of past climatic conditions by forward inverse modeling of lake core or salinity records.

  9. CAN BROCCOLI TOLERATE HIGHER CONCENTRATIONS OF BORON UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reuse of saline drainage water is a management option that is necessary for reducing the volume of drainage water produced on the west side of California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV). A potential limitation in implementing a drainage water reuse system is determining the extent by which boron, a natur...

  10. Simulating root water uptake from a shallow saline groundwater resource

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of saline drainage water is a significant problem for irrigated agriculture. One proposal to deal with this problem is sequential biological concentration (SBC), which is the process of recycling drainage water on increasingly more salt tolerant crops until the volume of drainage water has ...

  11. Management of dryland saline seeps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discussed is the identification, diagnosis, control, and reclamation of dryland saline seep problems as found in the North American Great Plains. Saline seeps develop because of geologic stratifications within the soil profile and insufficient use of precipitation by crops used in dryland farming s...

  12. Salinity patterns of Florida Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelble, Christopher R.; Johns, Elizabeth M.; Nuttle, William K.; Lee, Thomas N.; Smith, Ryan H.; Ortner, Peter B.

    2007-01-01

    The salinity of Florida Bay has undergone dramatic changes over the past century. Salinity values reached their most extreme, up to 70, in the late 1980s, concurrent with ecological changes in Florida Bay including a mass seagrass die-off. In this study, surface salinity was measured at approximately monthly intervals between 1998 and 2004. The 7-year data set was analyzed to quantify the effects of precipitation, runoff, evaporation, and climatic variability on salinity in Florida Bay. Overall mean Bay-wide salinity varied from a low of 24.2 just after the passing of Hurricane Irene in October 1999 to a high of 41.8 near the end of a drought period in July 2001. Bay-wide mean salinity exhibited dramatic decreases, up to -0.5 per day, whereas increases were slower, with a maximum rate of 0.1 per day. The freshwater budget for Florida Bay was slightly negative on an annual basis with significant positive monthly values observed during the peak of the rainy season (August through October) and significant negative monthly values observed during the peak of the dry season (March through May). This resulted in a minimum mean monthly Bay-wide salinity in January and a maximum monthly mean in July. Mean salinity for the overall Bay and for each of its four sub-regions could be predicted with reasonable accuracy utilizing a mass balance box model. There was no monotonic trend in salinity over this 7-year study; however, meteorological phenomena, such as tropical cyclones and El Nino-Southern Oscillation, dramatically altered the salinity patterns of Florida Bay on interannual time scales.

  13. Barium Enema Examination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... los hubiera, seran necesarios. Aumente la cantidad de agua que toma en los das siguientes a su ... Podr recibir instrucciones de aumentar su consumo de agua o tomar un laxante. ? Esta pgina educacional del ...

  14. Barium Enema Examination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... radiographic visualization of the gastrointestinal tract. It coats the walls of you lower digestive tract, casting shad- ows ... to side. This allows the barium to coat the walls of your colon. If you feel uncom- fortable ...

  15. The Mediterranean salinity crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, K.J.

    1988-08-01

    That the Mediterranean Sea underwent a salinity crisis during the Miocene (Messinian) is proven by the 1970 JOIDES deep sea drilling expedition. Subsequent work by ocean drilling and by studies on land have recorded the history of this crisis. Based upon the deep desiccated-basin model, the use of event-stratigraphy, calibrated by strontium-isotope dating and magnetostratigraphy, has enabled them to decipher the following events between 6.0 and 5.1 Ma: (1) deposition of marine diatom-rich sediments in a partially restricted basin, (2) first desiccation of the Mediterranean when Calcare di base was deposited at a time of isolation from the Atlantic because of a glacial eustatic drop of sea level, (3) influx of marine waters through southern Spanish basins to furnish brines for the deposition of the main salt, (4) Intra-Messinian desiccation, as evidenced by the erosional unconformity above the lower evaporite, (5) Intra-Messinian denudation, when reefs grew on Cyprus and marine sediments were deposited in basins, (6) frequency isolations due to oscillating sea level, when the upper evaporite was deposited, (7) Lago mare, formation of freshwater and brackish lakes due to influx of Paratethys water, (8) opening of the Gibraltar and Pliocene inundation of the Mediterranean.

  16. Detection of rectal and rectosigmoid lesions by double-contrast barium enema examination and sigmoidoscopy. Accuracy of technique and efficacy of standard overhead views.

    PubMed

    Thoeni, R F; Petras, A

    1982-01-01

    The double-contrast barium-enema examination (DC-BE) and endoscopy were compared in 100 patients (126 lesions) to determine the accuracy of each method and assess the efficacy of standard overhead views in detecting rectal and rectosigmoid masses. Seven lesions were missed with DB-BE (accurate rate, 95%) and 20 with endoscopy (accuracy rate, 84%). Lateral and angled rectum views were positive in 74% and 94%, respectively; combining these with supine, prone, and left posterior oblique views, 95% of 121 lesions were detected on at least 2 radiographs. Fifteen of 41 lesions (37%) were missed with the rigid sigmoidoscope, but only 5 of 85 (6%) with the flexible sigmoidoscope. The authors conclude that suspected rectal or rectosigmoid tumors can be diagnosed accurately with only 5 projections, rather than the 11 often employed for the entire colon, and that the flexible sigmoidoscope should be used routinely instead of the rigid sigmoidoscope. PMID:7053548

  17. Salinity of the Delaware Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, Bernard; McCarthy, Leo T., Jr.

    1962-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to obtain data on and study the factors affecting the salinity of the Delaware River from Philadelphia, Pa., to the Appoquinimink River, Del. The general chemical quality of water in the estuary is described, including changes in salinity in the river cross section and profile, diurnal and seasonal changes, and the effects of rainfall, sea level, and winds on salinity. Relationships are established of the concentrations of chloride and dissolved solids to specific conductance. In addition to chloride profiles and isochlor plots, time series are plotted for salinity or some quantity representing salinity, fresh-water discharge, mean river level, and mean sea level. The two major variables which appear to have the greatest effect on the salinity of the estuary are the fresh-water flow of the river and sea level. The most favorable combination of these variables for salt-water encroachment occurs from August to early October and the least favorable combination occurs between December and May.

  18. Comparison of Normal Saline, Hypertonic Saline Albumin and Terlipressin plus Hypertonic Saline Albumin in an Infant Animal Model of Hypovolemic Shock

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In series of cases and animal models suffering hemorrhagic shock, the use of vasopressors has shown potential benefits regarding hemodynamics and tissue perfusion. Terlipressin is an analogue of vasopressin with a longer half-life that can be administered by bolus injection. We have previously observed that hypertonic albumin improves resuscitation following controlled hemorrhage in piglets. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether the treatment with the combination of terlipressin and hypertonic albumin can produce better hemodynamic and tissular perfusion parameters than normal saline or hypertonic albumin alone at early stages of hemorrhagic shock in an infant animal model. Methods Experimental, randomized animal study including 39 2-to-3-month-old piglets. Thirty minutes after controlled 30 ml/kg bleed, pigs were randomized to receive either normal saline (NS) 30 ml/kg (n = 13), 5% albumin plus 3% hypertonic saline (AHS) 15 ml/kg (n = 13) or single bolus of terlipressin 15 μg/kg i.v. plus 5% albumin plus 3% hypertonic saline 15 ml/kg (TAHS) (n = 13) over 30 minutes. Global hemodynamic and tissular perfusion parameters were compared. Results After controlled bleed a significant decrease of blood pressure, cardiac index, central venous saturation, carotid and peripheral blood flow, brain saturation and an increase of heart rate, gastric PCO2 and lactate was observed. After treatment no significant differences in most hemodynamic (cardiac index, mean arterial pressure) and perfusion parameters (lactate, gastric PCO2, brain saturation, cutaneous blood flow) were observed between the three therapeutic groups. AHS and TAHS produced higher increase in stroke volume index and carotid blood flow than NS. Conclusions In this pediatric animal model of hypovolemic shock, albumin plus hypertonic saline with or without terlipressin achieved similar hemodynamics and perfusion parameters than twice the volume of NS. Addition of terlipressin did not produce better results than AHS. PMID:25794276

  19. In situ determination of salinity by PGNAA.

    PubMed

    Borsaru, M; Smith, C; Merritt, J; Aizawa, T; Rojc, A

    2006-05-01

    Salinity is a very important environmental issue all around the world. In many cases salinity was produced from human activities like farming and mining. Different soluble salts contribute to salinity, however, NaCl is the most common salt producing salinity. This work deals with the application of the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique for in situ determination of salinity. The technique is based on the measurement of chlorine, a component of the common salt, by PGNAA. PMID:16448819

  20. Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

    2005-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

  1. Analysis of Geometric Shifts and Proper Setup-Margin in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Pelvic Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Using Endorectal Ballooning and Daily Enema for Prostate Immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Songmi; Lee, Jong Hoon; Chung, Mi Joo; Lee, Sea Won; Lee, Jeong Won; Kang, Dae Gyu; Kim, Sung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We evaluate geometric shifts of daily setup for evaluating the appropriateness of treatment and determining proper margins for the planning target volume (PTV) in prostate cancer patients. We analyzed 1200 sets of pretreatment megavoltage-CT scans that were acquired from 40 patients with intermediate to high-risk prostate cancer. They received whole pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). They underwent daily endorectal ballooning and enema to limit intrapelvic organ movement. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of daily translational shifts in right-to-left (X), anterior-to-posterior (Y), and superior-to-inferior (Z) were evaluated for systemic and random error. The mean ± SD of systemic error (Σ) in X, Y, Z, and roll was 2.21 ± 3.42 mm, −0.67 ± 2.27 mm, 1.05 ± 2.87 mm, and −0.43 ± 0.89°, respectively. The mean ± SD of random error (δ) was 1.95 ± 1.60 mm in X, 1.02 ± 0.50 mm in Y, 1.01 ± 0.48 mm in Z, and 0.37 ± 0.15° in roll. The calculated proper PTV margins that cover >95% of the target on average were 8.20 (X), 5.25 (Y), and 6.45 (Z) mm. Mean systemic geometrical shifts of IMRT were not statistically different in all transitional and three-dimensional shifts from early to late weeks. There was no grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal or genitourianry toxicity. The whole pelvic IMRT technique is a feasible and effective modality that limits intrapelvic organ motion and reduces setup uncertainties. Proper margins for the PTV can be determined by using geometric shifts data. PMID:26765418

  2. Breast implants: saline or silicone?

    PubMed

    Spear, Scott L; Jespersen, M Renee

    2010-01-01

    The United States has seen significant shifts in the breast implant market over the past five decades. From the moratorium on silicone gel breast implants in 1992 to their approval in 2006, there have been many developments in their manufacturing and usage. Meanwhile, saline breast implants have remained somewhat unchanged, still offering a few distinct advantages but none of the technological innovation of the silicone gel models. In this article, the authors review the current state of silicone gel and saline implants, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each. Much of the current data on complications of gel and saline implants are examined, as well as some practical implications associated with the use of each implant type. PMID:20829254

  3. Salinity forum: what, how, why

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, D.F.; Saunders, B.C.

    1981-10-01

    Historically, salinity in the Colorado River System has increased significantly due to export of high-quality water from the upper reaches and salt pickup from irrigation return flow. Actions in any part of the basin (including parts of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming) affect the problem, and basinwide approach is highly desirable. Although damages due to salinity are principally experienced in the lower basin, implications of the Clean Water Act make solving the problem a matter of concern for the upper basin as well. The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Forum, an interstate organization, was created in 1972 to address the problem. The forum has been very successful because there is a clear mission to which all members are committed, and the forum members can normally expect their decision to be supported by their governors. 1 figure.

  4. Acute volume loading and exercise capacity in postural tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Roco A; Arnold, Amy C; Nwazue, Victor C; Okamoto, Luis E; Paranjape, Sachin Y; Black, Bonnie K; Diedrich, Andre; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo; Raj, Satish R; Gamboa, Alfredo

    2014-09-15

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is associated with exercise intolerance, hypovolemia, and cardiac atrophy, which may contribute to reduced stroke volume and compensatory exaggerated heart rate (HR) increases. Acute volume loading with intravenous (iv) saline reduces HR and improves orthostatic tolerance and symptoms in POTS, but its effect on exercise capacity is unknown. In this study, we determined the effect of iv saline infusion on peak exercise capacity (VO2peak) in POTS. Nineteen patients with POTS participated in a sequential study. VO2peak was measured on two separate study days, following administration of placebo or 1 liter of i.v. saline (NaCl 0.9%). Patients exercised on a semirecumbent bicycle with resistance increased by 25 W every 2 min until maximal effort was achieved. Patients exhibited blood volume deficits (-13.4 1.4% ideal volume), consistent with mild to moderate hypovolemia. At baseline, saline significantly increased stroke volume (saline 80 8 ml vs. placebo 64 4 ml; P = 0.010), increased cardiac output (saline 6.9 0.5 liter/min vs. placebo 5.7 0.2 liter/min; P = 0.021), and reduced systemic vascular resistance (saline 992.6 70.0 dyn-s/cm(5) vs. placebo 1,184.0 50.8 dyn-s/cm(5); P = 0.011), with no effect on HR or blood pressure. During exercise, saline did not produce differences in VO2peak (saline 26.3 1.2 mgkg(-1)min(-1) vs. placebo 27.7 1.8 mgkg(-1)min(-1); P = 0.615), peak HR [saline 174 4 beats per minute (bpm) vs. placebo 175 3 bpm; P = 0.672] or other cardiovascular parameters. These findings suggest that acute volume loading with saline does not improve VO2peak or cardiovascular responses to exercise in POTS, despite improvements in resting hemodynamic function. PMID:25059240

  5. Determining Salinity by Simple Means.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper describes the construction and use of a simple salinometer. The salinometer is composed, mainly, of a milliammeter and a battery and uses the measurement of current flow to determine the salinity of water. A complete list of materials is given, as are details of construction and operation of the equipment. The use of the salinometer in

  6. REVEGETATION OF SALINE PLAYA MARGINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New shrub recruitment in saline playa margins is limited by extremely high osmotic potentials of the seedbed. In the Eagle Valley playa near Fernley NV, recruitment is rare and occurs mostly in recently deposited eolian and flood-deposited sediments of low osmotic potential. In most instances, howev...

  7. Mycelial bacteria of saline soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Zenova, G. M.; Oborotov, G. V.

    2008-10-01

    The actinomycetal complexes of saline soils comprise the representatives of the Streptomyces and Micromonospora genera, the number of which are hundreds and thousands of CFU/g soil. Complexes of mycelial bacteria in saline soils are poorer in terms of number (by 1-3 orders of magnitude) and taxonomic composition than the complexes of the zonal soil types. A specific feature of the actinomycetal complexes of saline soils is the predominance of halophilic, alkaliphilic, and haloalkaliphilic streptomycetes that well grow at pH 8-9 and concentrations of NaCl close to 5%. Actinomycetes in saline soils grow actively, and the length of their mycelium reaches 140 m in 1 gram of soil. The haloalkaliphilic streptomycetes grow fast and inhibit the formation of spores at pH 9 and high concentrations of salts (Na2SO4 and MgCl2, 5%) as compared to their behavior on a neutral medium with a salt concentration of 0.02%. They are characterized by the maximal radial growth rate of colonies on an alkaline medium with 5% NaCl.

  8. Determining Salinity by Simple Means.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper describes the construction and use of a simple salinometer. The salinometer is composed, mainly, of a milliammeter and a battery and uses the measurement of current flow to determine the salinity of water. A complete list of materials is given, as are details of construction and operation of the equipment. The use of the salinometer in…

  9. INTEGRATING DESALINATION AND AGRICULTURAL SALINITY CONTROL ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cost-effectiveness relationships for various agricultural and desalination alternatives for controlling salinity in irrigation return flows are developed. Selection of optimal salinity management strategies on a river basin scale is described as a problem of integrating optim...

  10. The diurnal salinity cycle in the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drushka, Kyla; Gille, Sarah T.; Sprintall, Janet

    2014-09-01

    Observations from 35 tropical moorings are used to characterize the diurnal cycle in salinity at 1 m depth. The amplitude of diurnal salinity anomalies is up to 0.01 psu and more typically 0.005 psu. Diurnal variations in precipitation and vertical entrainment appear to be the dominant drivers of diurnal salinity variability, with evaporation also contributing. Areas where these processes are strong are expected to have relatively strong salinity cycles: the eastern Atlantic and Pacific equatorial regions, the southwestern Bay of Bengal, the Amazon outflow region, and the Indo-Pacific warm pool. We hypothesize that salinity anomalies resulting from precipitation and evaporation are initially trapped very near the surface and may not be observed at the 1 m instrument depths until they are mixed downward. As a result, the pattern of diurnal salinity variations is not only dependent on the strength of the forcing terms, but also on the phasing of winds and convective overturning. A comparison of mixed-layer depth computed with hourly and with daily averaged salinity reveals that diurnal salinity variability can have a significant effect on upper ocean stratification, suggesting that representing diurnal salinity variability could potentially improve air-sea interaction in climate models. Comparisons between salinity observations from moorings and from the Aquarius satellite (level 2 version 3.0 data) reveal that the typical difference between ascending-node and descending-node Aquarius salinity is an order of magnitude greater than the observed diurnal salinity anomalies at 1 m depth.

  11. Improving the view during flexible sigmoidoscopy: a systematic review of published randomized, controlled trials comparing the use of oral bowel preparation versus enema bowel preparation.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad Shafique; Caswell, Jennifer F; Abbas, Mustafa A Q; Baig, Mirza K; McFall, Malcolm R

    2015-09-01

    To systematically analyse the published randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the use of oral bowel preparation (OBP) versus enema bowel preparation (EBP) for diagnostic or screening flexible sigmoidoscopy. Published RCTs, comparing the use of OBP versus EBP, were analysed using RevMan(), and the combined outcomes were expressed as odds ratios (OR). Eight RCTs evaluating 2457 patients were retrieved from the standard electronic databases. There was significant heterogeneity among included trials. The compliance of the patients (p = 0.32) and the acceptability of both bowel preparation regimens (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 0.67, 2.99; z = 0.92; p = 0.36) were similar in both groups. In addition, the incidence of adverse reactions (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.54, 1.41; z = 0.57; p = 0.57), the risk of incomplete procedure due to poor bowel preparation (p = 0.18) and the incidence of poor bowel preparation (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.63, 2.33; z = 0.59; p = 0.56) were also similar in both groups. EBP and OBP were equally effective for bowel preparation in patients undergoing flexible sigmoidoscopy. Although this study failed to demonstrate the superiority of EBP, at least equivalent efficacy for bowel cleansing may be extrapolated. PMID:25894508

  12. Salinity in the Colorado River

    SciTech Connect

    Kneese, A.V.

    1982-07-01

    The 1922 Colorado River Compact's failure to address salinity is responsible for many of the regional conflicts over users of Colorado River water. Salinity was again omitted in a 1944 treaty with Mexico. This was not a problem until water quality began deteriorating in the early 1960s. Negotiations between the Colorado Basin states and Mexico included the construction of a desalination facility and improvements in irrigation systems. This article examines the states' role in the conflict and the rationale for US agreement to Minute 242, which accrues costs to the US and benefits to Mexico. The likelihood that distributive politics will lead to massive inter-basin transfers is small. 5 references. (DCK)

  13. The Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank; Hilburn, Kyle; Lagerloef, Gary; Le Vine, David

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this presentation gives an overview over the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The instrument calibration [2] converts Aquarius radiometer counts into antenna temperatures (TA). The salinity retrieval algorithm converts those TA into brightness temperatures (TB) at a flat ocean surface. As a first step, contributions arising from the intrusion of solar, lunar and galactic radiation are subtracted. The antenna pattern correction (APC) removes the effects of cross-polarization contamination and spillover. The Aquarius radiometer measures the 3rd Stokes parameter in addition to vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations, which allows for an easy removal of ionospheric Faraday rotation. The atmospheric absorption at L-band is almost entirely due to molecular oxygen, which can be calculated based on auxiliary input fields from numerical weather prediction models and then successively removed from the TB. The final step in the TA to TB conversion is the correction for the roughness of the sea surface due to wind, which is addressed in more detail in section 3. The TB of the flat ocean surface can now be matched to a salinity value using a surface emission model that is based on a model for the dielectric constant of sea water [3], [4] and an auxiliary field for the sea surface temperature. In the current processing only v-pol TB are used for this last step.

  14. Characterization of saline dust emission resulted from Urmia Lake drying.

    PubMed

    Gholampour, Akbar; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Taghipour, Hasan; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Compared with common dust storms, saline dust storms transport high concentrations of fine-grain saline and alkaline material. The saline dust storm differs from common dust storm, especially considering the sources of the suspended particulate matter (PM), chemical composition, grain size, and circulation processes. Atmospheric particulate matters (TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) and their water-soluble ions were concurrently measured at two sites located at north and southeast part of Urmia lake from January 2013 to September 2013. Particulate matters (PMs) were measured using high volume sampler and HAZ-DUST EPAM-5000 particulate air monitors. In both of the sampling sites, the highest concentration of PM was observed during the summer season (521.6, 329.1, 42.6, and 36.5 for TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1, respectively). A total of 11 inorganic water-soluble ions in the TSP and PM10 were identified by ion chromatography (IC). No statistically significant difference was found between PM's ions concentrations of two sampling sites. The average of the total measured water-soluble ions in the sampling sites was 28.75??12.9 ?g/m(3) (11.9??4.8% of total TSP mass) for TSP and 14.65??7.1?g/m(3) (8.7??4.4 of total PM10 mass) for PM10. Among all detected ions, sulfate was the dominant constituent followed by nitrate and sodium. This study showed that the water soluble salts compose 3-20% of the total mass of TSP and PM10. The PCA analysis showed that saline particulates formed from Urmia lake bed were the dominant source (57.6 %) of TSP. In addition, saline particulates together with crustal materials resulted from resuspension were the main source (59.9%) of PM10. PMID:26617986

  15. Saline Infusion Markedly Reduces Impedance and Improves Efficacy of Pulmonary Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Gananadha, Sivakumar Morris, David Lawson

    2004-08-15

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a relatively new technique that has been investigated for the treatment of lung tumors. We evaluated for the first time the in vivo use of saline infusion during radiofrequency ablation of sheep lung. We performed RFA on 5 sheep using open and closed chest RFA and the RITA starburst XL and Xli probes using saline infusion with the Xli probe. The impedance and volume of ablation were compared. A total of 16 ablations were produced, 5 percutaneously and 11 open. The impedance during percutaneous and open RFA without saline infusion was 110 {+-} 16.2 and 183.3 {+-} 105.8 O, respectively. With the saline infusion the impedance was 71.3 {+-} 22O and 103.6 {+-} 37.5O. The effect of this was a significantly larger volume of ablation using the saline infusion during percutaneous RFA (90.6 {+-} 23 cm{sup 3} vs 10.47 {+-} 2.9 cm{sup 3}, p = 0.01) and open RFA (107.8 {+-} 25.8 cm{sup 3} vs 24.9 {+-} 19.3 cm{sup 3}, p = 0.0002). Saline infusion during RFA is associated with lower impedance, higher power delivery and larger lesion size.

  16. Runoff quality impacts of dust suppression using saline water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loch, Rob J.; Squires, Helen

    2010-05-01

    In mining and gas operations, dust generation from unsealed roads is a major problem. Commonly, road watering is used to suppress dust, with the lowest water quality available generally being selected for that purpose. Whilst minimising water usage for the site, that practice does create concerns with respect to potential environmental impacts if runoff from the treated roads has significantly elevated salinity. For coal seam gas operations, the water extracted concurrently with the gas contains predominantly sodium bicarbonate. Therefore, where coal seam gas water is sprayed onto roads, there is potential for elevated sodium in runoff to impact on soil adjoining the roads, but there is no information on the rates of dissolution and mobilisation of soluble salt from the surface of roads that have been sprayed with low quality water to reduce dust. Therefore a rainfall simulator study was carried out to investigate rates of mobilisation of sodium bicarbonate from compacted soil surfaces simulating an unsealed road. The study considered effects of the amount of precipitated sodium bicarbonate on the soil surface and variations in rainfall intensity. Because the soil surfaces were compacted, runoff commenced almost immediately following application of rain. For all treatments with applied surface salt, runoff quality data showed a peak in salt concentration in the first flush of runoff, and relatively rapid reduction through time in those initial concentrations. The magnitude and duration of peak concentrations depended on both rainfall rate and the quantity of salt present on the soil surface. The flush of salts in run-off from the roads occurred very early in the run-off event, when none of the surrounding area would have commenced to run off. Consequently, the relatively small volume of run-off produced directly by the road could be expected to predominantly infiltrate in the table drain adjoining the road. The initial flush of saline water would then be leached to depth or diluted by the less saline runoff generated from the road in the latter part of the run-off event, or by non- saline runoff from the surrounding catchment. Particularly for mine sites, the data indicate that the use of saline water in dust suppression on unsealed roads is unlikely to impact significantly on the wider surrounding environment. It is recognised that watering for dust suppression on mine sites typically salinises the road area, and that eventual rehabilitation has to deal with those saline areas. Therefore, additional salinity in the soil adjoining the road is not considered to be of concern.

  17. Assessment by Using a Water-Soluble Contrast Enema Study of Radiologic Leakage in Lower Rectal Cancer Patients With Sphincter-Saving Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Seok In; Lee, Jong Lyul; Park, Seong Ho; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the efficacy of a water-soluble contrast enema (WCE) in predicting anastomotic healing after a low anterior resection (LAR). Methods Between January 2000 and March 2012, 682 consecutive patients underwent a LAR or an ultra-low anterior resection (uLAR) and were followed up for leakage. Clinical leakage was established by using physical and laboratory findings. Radiologic leakage was identified by using retrograde WCE imaging. Abnormal radiologic features on WCE were categorized into four types based on morphology: namely, dendritic, horny, saccular, and serpentine. Results Of the 126 patients who received a concurrent diverting stoma, only two (1.6%) suffered clinical leakage due to pelvic abscess. However, 37 patients (6.7%) in the other group suffered clinical leakage following fecal diversion (P = 0.027). Among the 163 patients who received a fecal diversion, 20 showed radiologic leakage on the first WCE (eight with and 12 without a concurrent diversion); 16 had abnormal features continuously until the final WCE while four patients healed spontaneously. Eleven of the 16 patients (69%), by their surgeon's decision, underwent a stoma restoration based on clinical findings (2/3 dendritic, 3/4 horny, 5/7 saccular, 1/2 serpentine). After stoma reversal, only 2 of the 11 (19%) complained of complications related to the rectal anastomosis. Conclusion WCE is helpful for detecting radiologic leakage before stoma restoration, especially in patients suffering clinical leakage after an uLAR. However, surgeons appear to opt for stoma restoration despite the persistent existence of radiologic leakage in cases with particular features on the WCE. PMID:26361614

  18. Comparative study of the effects of air or saline to identify the extradural space.

    PubMed

    Valentine, S J; Jarvis, A P; Shutt, L E

    1991-02-01

    Fifty women in labour were allocated randomly to receive either air or saline to assist in the identification of the extradural space by the loss of resistance technique. A study volume of 4 ml of air or saline was used before 0.5% bupivacaine 8 ml and the spread of analgesia was followed for 30 min. The first segment blocked, time of onset, number of blocked segments and height of block were comparable in the two groups. At 30 min, there were eight patients with an unblocked segment in the air group, compared with two in the saline group (P less than 0.01). All unblocked segments were blocked subsequently by further doses of bupivacaine. We conclude that air is more likely than saline to produce unblocked segments in the initiation of extradural analgesia in labour. PMID:1817625

  19. Relating river discharges to salinity changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, X.; Liu, W. T.

    2014-12-01

    New river discharge data are brought together with spacebased sea surface salinity measurements by Aquarius and SMOS to demonstrate the role of river discharge in salinity changes near three river mouths: the Mississippi, the Ganges, and the Amazon. The characteristics of the seasonal cycle and the year-to-year changes of the river runoff are described. Various versions of the satellite salinity data are compared. The relative roles of river discharge, surface water flux, and horizontal advection in changing surface salinity in regions near the river mouths are examined. Satellite measurements of SSS clearly track movements of the fresh water from river discharges. Besides the river discharge, E-P plays an important role in the seasonal salinity variation near the Ganges and Irrawaddy River mouths. For the Mississippi and Amazon river mouths, central and eastern ITCZ, E-P contributes very little to the salinity seasonal change. In the central and eastern ITCZ, contribution of advection to the salinity tendency is clearly identified. Both salinity and salinity tendency are dominated by semi-annual cycle in the Atlantic ITCZ between 5N to 9N, whereas annual cycle dominates at other latitudes.

  20. Soil Salinity in Arid Riparian Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S.; Hendrickx, J. M.

    2002-12-01

    The dynamics of soil salinity in the riparian areas of the arid Southwest are not well understood. Some riparian areas maintain a relatively low soil salinity with thriving salt sensitive vegetation such as Cottonwoods while other areas are completely salinized and covered by Saltcedars. Is the difference in soil salinity caused by a small amount of excess rainfall sufficient to leach salts back to the ground water or by ground water dynamics that "wash" the soil profile from below? First, we verify that the model HYDRUS1D can be used to predict long term soil salinity in the middle Rio Grande valley around Albuquerque. The validation was carried out by demonstrating that the predicted apparent soil electrical conductivities of six representative soil profiles matched quite well the apparent soil electrical conductivities measured in the field with the Geonics EM38 ground conductivity meter. Next, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to analyze which factors determine soil salinity under riparian conditions. Soil texture -which determines capillary rise- is the most important predictor variable for long term soil salinity: generally a finer soil texture leads to more saline soils. Ground water dynamics appear to have an effect on the long term soil salinity of coarser textured soils.

  1. Soil salinity detection from satellite image analysis: an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data.

    PubMed

    Morshed, Md Manjur; Islam, Md Tazmul; Jamil, Raihan

    2016-02-01

    This paper attempts to detect soil salinity from satellite image analysis using remote sensing and geographic information system. Salinity intrusion is a common problem for the coastal regions of the world. Traditional salinity detection techniques by field survey and sampling are time-consuming and expensive. Remote sensing and geographic information system offer economic and efficient salinity detection, monitoring, and mapping. To predict soil salinity, an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data was used to develop a multiple regression equation. The correlations between different indices and field data of soil salinity were calculated to find out the highly correlated indices. The best regression model was selected considering the high R (2) value, low P value, and low Akaike's Information Criterion. About 20 % variation was observed between the field data and predicted EC from the satellite image analysis. The precision of this salinity detection technique depends on the accuracy and uniform distribution of field data. PMID:26815557

  2. Aquarius Instrument and Salinity Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Aquarius has been designed to map the surface salinity field of the global ocean from space a parameter important for understanding ocean circulation and its relationship to climate and the global water cycle. Salinity is measured remotely from space by measuring the thermal emission from the ocean surface. This is done at the low frequency end of the microwave spectrum (e.g. 1.4 GHz) where the emission is sufficiently sensitive to changes in salinity to be detected with sophisticated radiometers. The goal is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean by providing maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. These are challenging requirements that have led to some unique features of the instrument. These include: a) The addition of a co-located scatterometer to help provide a correction for roughness; b) The addition of a polarimetric channel (third Stokes parameter) to the radiometer to help correct for Faraday rotation; c) Asun-synchronous orbit with a 6 pm ascending equatorial crossing to minimize Faraday rotation and with the antennas looking away from the sun toward the nighttime side to minimize contamination by radiation from the sun; and d) An antenna designed to limit side lobes in the direction of rays from the sun. In addition, achieving the accuracy goal of 0.2 psu requires averaging over one month and to do this requires a highly stable radiometer. Aquarius has three separate radiometers that image in pushbroom fashion with the three antenna beams looking across track. The antenna is a 2.5-m diameter, offset parabolic reflector with three feed horns and the three beams are arranged to image with the boresight aligned to look across track, roughly perpendicular to the spacecraft heading and pointing away from the Sun. The three beams point at angles of theta = 25.8 deg., 33.8 deg. and 40.3 deg. with respect to the spacecraft nadir which correspond to local incidence angles at the surface of 28.7 deg., 37.8 deg. and 45.6 deg., respectively. The resolution of the three radiometer beams (axes of the 3dB ellipse) is: 76 x 94 km for the inner beam, 84 x 120 km for the middle beam to 96 x 156 km for the outer beam. Together they cover a swath of about 390 km. Aquarius will map the global ice-free ocean every 7-days from which monthly average composites will be derived. This will provide a snapshot of the mean field, as well as resolving the seasonal to interannual variations over the three-year baseline of the mission.

  3. Effects of Methane-Rich Saline on the Capability of One-Time Exhaustive Exercise in Male SD Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Lei; Sun, Xuejun; Lou, Shujie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore the effects of methane-rich saline (CH4 saline) on the capability of one-time exhaustive exercise in male SD rats. Methods Thirty rats were equally divided into to three groups at random: control group (C), placebo group (P) and methane saline group (M). Rats in M group underwent intraperitoneal injection of CH4 saline, and the other two groups simultaneously underwent intraperitoneal injection of normal saline. Then, the exercise capability of rats was tested through one-time exhaustive treadmill exercise except C group. Exercise time and body weight were recorded before and after one-time exhaustive exercise. After exhaustive exercise, the blood and gastrocnemius samples were collected from all rats to detect biochemical parameters in different methods. Results It was found that the treadmill running time was significantly longer in rats treated with CH4 saline. At the same time, CH4 saline reduced the elevation of LD and UN in blood caused by one-time exhaustive exercise. The low level of blood glucose induced by exhaustive exercise was also normalized by CH4 saline. Also CH4 saline lowered the level of CK in plasma. Furthermore, this research indicated that CH4 saline markedly increased the volume of T-AOC in plasma and alleviated the peak of TNF-α in both plasma and gastrocnemius. From H&E staining, CH4 saline effectively improved exercise-induced structural damage in gastrocnemius. Conclusions CH4 saline could enhance exercise capacity in male SD rats through increase of glucose aerobic oxidation, improvement of metabolic clearance and decrease of exhaustive exercise-induced gastrocnemius injury. PMID:26942576

  4. The Inter-Ocean Salinity Gradient-Holocene vs. Glacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, L.; Cannariato, K.

    2004-12-01

    In a previous investigation of LGM and Holocene surface water ? 18OSMOW (\\deltaw)and temperature variability within the western tropical Pacific we documented higher \\deltaw values (\\sim0.5% higher than the ice volume component) during the LGM and during stadials, implying increased salinities at times of tropical cooling (Stott et al., 2002). We have also recently documented a systematic decrease in SSTs and \\deltaw during the late Holocene between 8^{o}N and 10^{o}S in the western tropical Pacific that indicates surface salinities have decreased progressively by about 1psu within the Pacific Warm Pool since the early Holocene (Stott et al., 2004). The progressive decrease in western Pacific salinities during the Holocene tracked shifts in the ITCZ in response to changing orbital forcing. We hypothesized that shifts in the ITCZ during millennial-scale climate shifts disrupted the exchange of moisture between the Atlantic and Pacific and affected the salinity contrast between the two ocean basins. If so, it is possible that the hydrologic cycle has had a primary role in modulating thermohaline circulation during large climate oscillations. However, on the basis of the Pacific records alone we can not assess whether the trends we observed in the Pacific were accompanied by opposing changes in the Atlantic. In this study combined planktonic foraminiferal oxygen isotope and Mg/Ca paleothermometry to reconstruct the oxygen isotope composition of tropical surface waters (\\deltaw) in the Atlantic during the last Glacial and Holocene in order to assess whether there has been a redistribution of salt between the two oceans over last 20 thousand years. We focus on the subtropical regions of the tropical Atlantic and the western tropical Pacific in this comparative study because these two regions should be sensitive to changes in the vapor exchange between the two basins. Diminished freshwater exchange between the Atlantic and the Pacific when the ITCZ is in a more northerly position would tend to decrease salinities in the Atlantic and increase them in the Pacific. Samples of Globigerinoides ruber (white) were taken every centimeter through 8 box cores collected at sites along the mid-Atlantic ridge between 20^{o}N and 20^{o}S. The carbonate sequences contain well preserved foraminifera but the sedimentation rates at these locations are low (\\sim 1.5cm/ka). However, we showed in a previous study that despite the low sedimentation rates, the amount of mixing has not significantly effected the oxygen isotopic contrasts between glacial and Holocene samples (Stott and Tang 1996). Therefore, although it is not possible to resolve discrete millennial-scale features from the geochemical records, it is possible to resolve whether there has been a systematic shift in the dw and hence salinity. In the subtropical North and South Atlantic G. ruber Mg/Ca temperatures were 1.5^{o}$cooler during the LGM compared to the late Holocene. We observe that at each of the sites within the subtropical north and south Atlantic the Holocene-LGM dw contrast averages 1%, which is equivalent to the ice volume effect. On the basis of these records we conclude that there was not a systematic change in the salinity of the mid ocean gyres in the North and South Atlantic during the LGM. Furthermore, these data do not support the hypothesis that shifts in the ITCZ during the LGM and during the Holocene affected the salinity contrast between the two ocean basins.

  5. Low salinity intrusions in the western English Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly-Gerreyn, B. A.; Hydes, D. J.; Jgou, A. M.; Lazure, P.; Fernand, L. J.; Puillat, I.; Garcia-Soto, C.

    2006-08-01

    Low salinity (<35) surface waters (LSSW) at the southern entrance to the western English Channel (48.5N, 5.1W, near Ushant) were observed in late winter (March-April) in three successive years (2002-04) during near continuous ship of opportunity operations. The source of the LSSW is the northward spreading plumes from the Loire (47.5N, 2.5W) and Gironde (45.6N, 1.2W) along the French Atlantic coast. Fastest plume travel times were associated with northeasterly winds, consistent with Ekman theory. Differences between years in the mean winter (January-March) combined river discharges ( D) was consistent with the minimum salinities ( Smin) of the LSSW (2004: D=4211 m 3 s -1, Smin=33.68; 2003: D=3630 m 3 s -1, Smin=33.90; 2002: D=1579 m 3 s -1, Smin=34.53). Winter mean (1905-74) salinity is otherwise 35.33 near Ushant. The LSSW intruded into the western English Channel in each year, suggesting a common phenomenon. The low salinity intrusion was freshest (mean=35.110.21) and most penetrative (reaching 50.7N, 1.0W by the end of the year) in 2003 on account of (1) entering on a spring tide giving greater tidal excursion into the western English Channel and (2) intrusion favourable winds (southwesterly/southeasterly) acting on the longer term residual flow. Less penetration occurred in 2004 when the arrival of the LSSW coincided with a neap tide followed by intrusion-resistant northwesterly winds, resulting in a less saline (mean=35.200.23) intrusion. In 2004, transport tended to be offshore to at least 100 km from the French Atlantic coast (47N, 4.8W-48N, 4.7W). In 2002, the lower volume of plume water relative to the other years produced a more saline intrusion (mean=35.250.12). Prevailing westerly winds may have pushed this intrusion northwards beyond the route of the ferry, making it difficult to assess the true extent of the intrusion in 2002. A link of the LSSW to phases of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index from a literature search of the last 84 years was inconclusive.

  6. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a science activity in which the student investigates methods of calibration of a simple conductivity meter via a hands-on inquiry technique. Conductivity is mathematically compared to salinity using a point slope formula and graphical techniques. Sample solutions of unknown salinity are provided so that the students can sharpen their…

  7. Managing Irrigation And Drainage In Saline Environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of saline drainage water is one of the most vexing problems facing irrigated agriculture. The sustainability of irrigation will require that cost effective and environmentally acceptable methods be found for disposal of saline drainage water. Oftentimes, drainage water contains fertilizers...

  8. Salinity change impairs pipefish immune defence.

    PubMed

    Birrer, Simone C; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Roth, Olivia

    2012-12-01

    Global change is associated with fast and severe alterations of environmental conditions. Superimposed onto existing salinity variations in a semi-enclosed brackish water body such as the Baltic Sea, a decrease in salinity is predicted due to increased precipitation and freshwater inflow. Moreover, we predict that heavy precipitation events will accentuate salinity fluctuations near shore. Here, we investigated how the immune function of the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle), an ecologically important teleost with sex-role reversal, is influenced by experimentally altered salinities (control: 18 PSU, lowered: 6 PSU, increased: 30 PSU) upon infection with bacteria of the genus Vibrio. Salinity changes resulted in increased activity and proliferation of immune cells. However, upon Vibrio infection, individuals at low salinity were unable to mount specific immune response components, both in terms of monocyte and lymphocyte cell proliferation and immune gene expression compared to pipefish kept at ambient salinities. We interpret this as resource allocation trade-off, implying that resources needed for osmoregulation under salinity stress are lacking for subsequent activation of the immune defence upon infection. Our data suggest that composition of small coastal fish communities may change due to elevated environmental stress levels and the incorporated consequences thereof. PMID:22982326

  9. Weight Loss, Saline Loading, and the Natriuretic Peptide System

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Pankaj; Reingold, Jason; Baggish, Aaron; Guanaga, Derek P.; Wu, Connie; Ghorbani, Anahita; Song, Yanna; Chen‐Tournaux, Annabel; Khan, Abigail May; Tainsh, Laurel T.; Buys, Emmanuel S.; Williams, Jonathan S.; Heublein, Denise M.; Burnett, John C.; Semigran, Marc J.; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Scherrer‐Crosbie, Marielle; Newton‐Cheh, Christopher; Kaplan, Lee M.; Wang, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Background In epidemiologic studies, obesity has been associated with reduced natriuretic peptide (NP) concentrations. Reduced NP production could impair the ability of obese individuals to respond to salt loads, increasing the risk of hypertension and other disorders. We hypothesized that weight loss enhances NP production before and after salt loading. Methods and Results We enrolled 15 obese individuals (mean BMI 45±5.4 kg/m2) undergoing gastric bypass surgery. Before and 6 months after surgery, subjects were admitted to the clinical research center and administered a large‐volume intravenous saline challenge. Echocardiography and serial blood sampling were performed. From the pre‐operative visit to 6 months after surgery, subjects had a mean BMI decrease of 27%. At the 6‐month visit, N‐terminal pro‐atrial NP (Nt‐proANP) levels were 40% higher before, during, and after the saline infusion, compared with levels measured at the same time points during the pre‐operative visit (P<0.001). The rise in Nt‐pro‐ANP induced by the saline infusion (≈50%) was similar both before and after surgery (saline, P<0.001; interaction, P=0.2). Similar results were obtained for BNP and Nt‐proBNP; resting concentrations increased by 50% and 31%, respectively, after gastric bypass surgery. The increase in NP concentrations after surgery was accompanied by significant decreases in mean arterial pressure (P=0.004) and heart rate (P<0.001), and an increase in mitral annular diastolic velocity (P=0.02). Conclusion In obese individuals, weight loss is associated with a substantial increase in the “setpoint” of circulating NP concentrations. Higher NP concentrations could contribute to an enhanced ability to handle salt loads after weight loss. PMID:25595796

  10. Response of Stream Biodiversity to Increasing Salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, C. P.; Vander Laan, J. J.; Olson, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We used a large data set of macroinvertebrate samples collected from streams in both reference-quality (n = 68) and degraded (n = 401) watersheds in the state of Nevada, USA to assess relationships between stream biodiversity and salinity. We used specific electrical conductance (EC)(?S/cm) as a measure of salinity, and applied a previously developed EC model to estimate natural, baseflow salinity at each stream. We used the difference between observed and predicted salinity (EC-Diff) as a measure of salinization associated with watershed degradation. Observed levels of EC varied between 22 and 994 ?S/cm across reference sites and 22 to 3,256 uS/cm across non-reference sites. EC-Diff was as high as 2,743 ?S/cm. We used a measure of local biodiversity completeness (ratio of observed to expected number of taxa) to assess ecological response to salinity. This O/E index decreased nearly linearly up to about 25% biodiversity loss, which occurred at EC-Diff of about 300 ?S/cm. Too few sites had EC-Diff greater than 300 ?S/cm to draw reliable inferences regarding biodiversity response to greater levels of salinization. EC-Diff increased with % agricultural land use, mine density, and % urban land use in the watersheds implying that human activities have been largely responsible for increased salinization in Nevada streams and rivers. Comparison of biological responses to EC and other stressors indicates that increased salinization may be the primary stressor causing biodiversity loss in these streams and that more stringent salinity water quality standards may be needed to protect aquatic life.

  11. Reconstructing Past Ocean Salinity ((delta)18Owater)

    SciTech Connect

    Guilderson, T P; Pak, D K

    2005-11-23

    Temperature and salinity are two of the key properties of ocean water masses. The distribution of these two independent but related characteristics reflects the interplay of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the uneven distribution of heat loss and gain by the ocean, with that of precipitation, evaporation, and the freezing and melting of ice. Temperature and salinity to a large extent, determine the density of a parcel of water. Small differences in temperature and salinity can increase or decrease the density of a water parcel, which can lead to convection. Once removed from the surface of the ocean where 'local' changes in temperature and salinity can occur, the water parcel retains its distinct relationship between (potential) temperature and salinity. We can take advantage of this 'conservative' behavior where changes only occur as a result of mixing processes, to track the movement of water in the deep ocean (Figure 1). The distribution of density in the ocean is directly related to horizontal pressure gradients and thus (geostrophic) ocean currents. During the Quaternary when we have had systematic growth and decay of large land based ice sheets, salinity has had to change. A quick scaling argument following that of Broecker and Peng [1982] is: the modern ocean has a mean salinity of 34.7 psu and is on average 3500m deep. During glacial maxima sea level was on the order of {approx}120m lower than present. Simply scaling the loss of freshwater (3-4%) requires an average increase in salinity a similar percentage or to {approx}35.9psu. Because much of the deep ocean is of similar temperature, small changes in salinity have a large impact on density, yielding a potentially different distribution of water masses and control of the density driven (thermohaline) ocean circulation. It is partly for this reason that reconstructions of past salinity are of interest to paleoceanographers.

  12. Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Eric V; Murphy, Dan; Stefan, Heinz G

    2008-11-15

    Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds. PMID:18762321

  13. Salinity tolerance and growth response of juvenile Oreochromis mossambicus at different salinity levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Khalid; Shoaib, Muhammad; Ameer, Faisal; Lin, Hong

    2004-04-01

    Juveniles of Oreochromis mossambicus with initial wet weights of 0.0382 0.0859 g and initial total lengths of 0.7351.425 cm were tested for their salinity tolerance. The juveniles were subjected to five salinity levels for a period of seventy-five days. These salinity levels correspond to the salinities found along the creek and in estuarine regions. Each set of experiments was conducted at a fifteen day intervals. The weight, length and survival rate were calculated. No mortality was observed at salinity levels 0, 5, 10 and 15, while the juveniles faced slight mortality at 20 in the same environmental conditions, including the diet. There was no significant difference in specific growth rate at all salinity levels. The juveniles of O. mossambicus could survive up to 20 salinity. These results suggest that this species can grow and be exploited commercially in brackish waters, rivers and estuarine regions.

  14. Sources of salinity in ground water from Jericho area, Jordan Valley.

    PubMed

    Marie, A; Vengosh, A

    2001-01-01

    One of the major problems in the lower Jordan Valley is the increasing salinization (i.e., chloride content) of local ground water. The high levels of salinity limit the utilization of ground water for both domestic and agriculture applications. This joint collaborative study evaluates the sources and mechanisms for salinization in the Jericho area. We employ diagnostic geochemical fingerprinting methods to trace the potential sources of the salinity in (1) the deep confined subaquifer system (K2) of Lower Cenomanian age; (2) the upper subaquifer system (K1) of Upper Cenomanian and Turonian ages; and (3) the shallow aquifer system (Q) of Plio-Pleistocene ages. The chemical composition of the saline ground water from the two Cenomanian subaquifers (K1 and K2) point to a single saline source with Na/Cl approximately 0.5 and Br/Cl approximately 7 x 10(-3). This composition is similar to that of thermal hypersaline spring that are found along the western shore of the Dead Sea (e.g., En Gedi thermal spring). We suggest that the increasing salinity in both K1 and K2 subaquifers is derived from mixing with deep-seated brines that flow through the Rift fault system. The salinization rate depends on the discharge volume of the fresh meteoric water in the Cenomanian Aquifer. In contrast, the chemical composition of ground water from the Plio-Pleistocene Aquifer shows a wide range of Cl- (100-2000 mg/L), Na/Cl (0.4-1.0), Br/Cl (2-6 x 10(-3)), and SO4/Cl (0.01-0.4) ratios. These variations, together with the high SO4(2-), K+, and NO3- concentrations, suggest that the salinity in the shallow aquifer is derived from the combination of (1) upconing of deep brines as reflected by low Na/Cl and high Br/Cl ratios; (2) leaching of salts from the Lisan Formation within the Plio-Pleistocene Aquifer, as suggested by the high SO4(2-) concentrations; and (3) anthropogenic contamination of agriculture return flow and sewage effluents with distinctive high K+ (80 mg/L) and NO3- (80 mg/l) contents and low Br/Cl ratios (2 x 10(-3)). Our data demonstrates that the chemical composition of salinized ground water can be used to delineate the sources of salinity and hence to establish the conceptual model for explaining salinization processes. PMID:11286071

  15. Salinity and groundwater flow below beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, T. B.; Wilson, A. M.; Moore, W. S.

    2013-12-01

    High rates of exchange between seawater and fresh groundwater in beach sediments drive significant chemical reactions, but the groundwater flow that controls this is poorly understood. Current conceptual models for groundwater flow in beaches highlight an upper saline plume, which is separated from the traditional freshwater-saltwater interface by a zone of brackish to fresh groundwater discharge. The lack of an upper saline plume at our study site led us to ask whether the plume exists in all beaches and what hydrogeological features control its formation. We used variable-density, saturated-unsaturated, transient groundwater flow models to investigate the geometry of the freshwater-saltwater interface in beaches with slopes varying from 0.1 to 0.01. We also varied hydraulic conductivity, dispersivity, tidal amplitude, inflow of fresh groundwater and precipitation. All models showed that a salinity gradient developed between the fresh groundwater and seawater in the intertidal zone, but the magnitude of the gradient was variable. The hydraulic conductivity was an important control on the development of an upper saline plume. A hydraulic conductivity of 100 m/d allowed the formation of an upper saline plume in every beach slope. No upper saline plumes formed in any beach with hydraulic conductivities less than 10 m/d. The slope of the beach was also a significant control. In models using a representative hydraulic conductivity of 10 m/d, the upper saline plume only formed in beaches with a slope of 0.5 or greater. The salinity of brackish groundwater that discharges seaward of the upper saline plume was inversely proportional to the input of fresh groundwater. Prior studies of groundwater flow and salinity in beaches have used very small dispersivities, but we found that the upper saline plume becomes much less distinct when larger dispersivities are used. Real beaches are highly mixed environments and the appropriate magnitude of dispersivity remains unclear. Our results suggest that upper saline plumes may not form in beaches of the U.S. Southeast, which are characterized by fine-grained sediment and moderate slopes. The concentration gradient between the upper saline plume and adjacent groundwater discharge zone increased with decreasing longitudinal dispersivity.

  16. Salinity Effects on Superhydrophobic Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochanda, F. O.; Samaha, M. A.; Vahedi Tafreshi, H.; Tepper, G. C.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2011-11-01

    Experiments are carried out to investigate the effect of NaCl concentrations on degree of hydrophobicity and longevity of polystyrene fibrous coating. A rheological study using salt water as a test fluid is performed to observe the generated drag reduction from the coating with increasing salt concentration compared to deionized water. Contact-angle measurements of droplets of solutions on the surface are used to validate the results from the rheometer. In situ noninvasive optical spectroscopy system is used to measure the time-dependent loss of entrapped air within the submerged fibrous coating. water for comparison. The superhydrophobic coating used is made of polystyrene fibers that are deposited using DC-biased AC-electrospinning. Such fabrication methods are far less expensive than ordered-microstructured fabrications, bringing the technology closer to large-scale submerged bodies such as submarines and ships. The present study sheds some light on how properties of a superhydrophobic coating could be influenced by water salinity. Financial support from DARPA, contract number W91CRB-10-1-0003, is acknowledged.

  17. World salinization with emphasis on Australia.

    PubMed

    Rengasamy, Pichu

    2006-01-01

    Salinization is the accumulation of water-soluble salts in the soil solum or regolith to a level that impacts on agricultural production, environmental health, and economic welfare. Salt-affected soils occur in more than 100 countries of the world with a variety of extents, nature, and properties. No climatic zone in the world is free from salinization, although the general perception is focused on arid and semi-arid regions. Salinization is a complex process involving the movement of salts and water in soils during seasonal cycles and interactions with groundwater. While rainfall, aeolian deposits, mineral weathering, and stored salts are the sources of salts, surface and groundwaters can redistribute the accumulated salts and may also provide additional sources. Sodium salts dominate in many saline soils of the world, but salts of other cations such as calcium, magnesium, and iron are also found in specific locations. Different types of salinization with a prevalence of sodium salts affect about 30% of the land area in Australia. While more attention is given to groundwater-associated salinity and irrigation salinity, which affects about 16% of the agricultural area, recent investigations suggest that 67% of the agricultural area has a potential for "transient salinity", a type of non-groundwater-associated salinity. Agricultural soils in Australia, being predominantly sodic, accumulate salts under seasonal fluctuations and have multiple subsoil constraints such as alkalinity, acidity, sodicity, and toxic ions. This paper examines soil processes that dictate the exact edaphic environment upon which root functions depend and can help in research on plant improvement. PMID:16510516

  18. Salinity changes in the World Ocean since 1950 in relation to changing surface freshwater fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skliris, Nikolaos; Marsh, Robert; Josey, Simon A.; Good, Simon A.; Liu, Chunlei; Allan, Richard P.

    2014-08-01

    Global hydrographic and air-sea freshwater flux datasets are used to investigate ocean salinity changes over 1950-2010 in relation to surface freshwater flux. On multi-decadal timescales, surface salinity increases (decreases) in evaporation (precipitation) dominated regions, the Atlantic-Pacific salinity contrast increases, and the upper thermocline salinity maximum increases while the salinity minimum of intermediate waters decreases. Potential trends in E-P are examined for 1950-2010 (using two reanalyses) and 1979-2010 (using four reanalyses and two blended products). Large differences in the 1950-2010 E-P trend patterns are evident in several regions, particularly the North Atlantic. For 1979-2010 some coherency in the spatial change patterns is evident but there is still a large spread in trend magnitude and sign between the six E-P products. However, a robust pattern of increased E-P in the southern hemisphere subtropical gyres is seen in all products. There is also some evidence in the tropical Pacific for a link between the spatial change patterns of salinity and E-P associated with ENSO. The water cycle amplification rate over specific regions is subsequently inferred from the observed 3-D salinity change field using a salt conservation equation in variable isopycnal volumes, implicitly accounting for the migration of isopycnal surfaces. Inferred global changes of E-P over 1950-2010 amount to an increase of 1 0.6 % in net evaporation across the subtropics and an increase of 4.2 2 % in net precipitation across subpolar latitudes. Amplification rates are approximately doubled over 1979-2010, consistent with accelerated broad-scale warming but also coincident with much improved salinity sampling over the latter period.

  19. Water salination: a source of energy.

    PubMed

    Norman, R S

    1974-10-25

    The thermodynamically reversible mixing of freshwater and seawater at constant temperature releases free energy. Salination power as a resource is comparable with hydroelectric power in magnitude; U.S. freshwater runoff could yield over 10(10) watts. The energy flux available for natural salination is equivalent to each river in the world ending at its mouth in a waterfall 225 meters high. An osmotic salination converter could possibly operate at 25 percent efficiency. This energy source is renewable and nonpolluting. Although its full utilization would destroy estuarine environments, it might be practical for specialized purposes. PMID:17839865

  20. Influence of variable salinity conditions in a tidal creek on riparian groundwater flow and salinity dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenkopane, Mothei; Werner, Adrian D.; Lockington, David A.; Li, Ling

    2009-09-01

    SummaryWhile recent studies have revealed that tidal fluctuations in an estuary significantly affect groundwater flows and salt transport in the riparian zone, only seawater salinity in the estuary has been considered. A numerical study is conducted to investigate the influence of estuarine salinity variations on the groundwater flow and salt dynamics in the adjacent aquifer to extend our understanding of these complex and dynamic systems. Tidal salinity fluctuations (synchronous with estuary stage) were found to alter the magnitude and distribution of groundwater discharge to the estuary, which subsequently impacted on groundwater salinity patterns and residence times, especially in the riparian zone. The effects of salinity fluctuations were not fully captured by adopting a constant, time-averaged estuarine salinity. The modelling analysis also included an assessment of the impact of a seasonal freshwater flush in the estuary, similar to that expected in tropical climates (e.g. mean estuary level during flood significantly greater than average), on adjacent groundwater flow and salinity conditions. The three-month freshwater flushing event temporarily disrupted the salt distribution and re-circulation patterns predicted to occur under conditions of constant salinity and tidal water level fluctuations in the estuary. The results indicate that the salinity variations in tidal estuaries impact significantly on estuary-aquifer interaction and need to be accounted for to properly assess salinity and flow dynamics and groundwater residence times of riparian zones.

  1. Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... series by talking with a health care provider cleansing the bowel Talking with a health care provider. ... he or she may suggest a different procedure. Cleansing the bowel. The health care provider will give ...

  2. Effect of hypertonic and isotonic saline solutions on plasma constituents of conscious horses.

    PubMed

    Bertone, J J; Shoemaker, K E

    1992-10-01

    Blood constituents and vascular volume indices were determined in 5 standing horses by use of 2-period crossover experimental design. Horses were either administered hypertonic (2,400 mosm/kg of body weight, i.v.) or isotonic (300 mosm/kg, i.v.) saline solution. Each solution was administered at a dosage of 5 ml/kg (infusion rate, 80 ml/min). Samples for determination of PCV, plasma volume, blood volume, plasma osmolality, total amount of plasma protein and plasma concentrations of protein, Na, K, and Cl were collected at 0 hour (baseline, before fluid infusion) and 0.5 hour (at the end of fluid infusion), and subsequently, at 0.25- or 0.5-hour intervals for 4.5 hours. All horses were given the predetermined dose of fluids by 0.5 hour after beginning the saline infusion. Values of P < or = 0.05 were considered significant. Administration of hypertonic saline solution was associated with decreased mean body weight by 4.5 hours, but weight change after isotonic saline administration was not significant. Other than body weight and plasma protein concentration, between-trial difference (treatment effect) was not observed for any measured variable or index. The F values indicated that increasing the number of horses would have not changed these results. A time effect was evident across both trials, so that mean (+/- SD) plasma volume increased (12.3 +/- 1.07%) and mean plasma protein concentration (-12.1 +/- 1.03%) and PCV (-11.9 + 0.67%) decreased proportionately and transiently in association with administration of either fluid at that volume. Other time effects included increased plasma osmolality and Na and Cl concentrations. Blood volume estimates and total amount of plasma protein remained unchanged.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1456531

  3. Acute toxicity of arsenic under different temperatures and salinity conditions on the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Valentino-lvarez, Jess Alberto; Nez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Fernndez-Bringas, Laura

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine acute toxicity in the post larvae of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after 96h of exposure to dissolved arsenic under three different temperatures and salinity conditions. Recent reports have shown an increase in the presence of this metalloid in coastal waters, estuaries, and lagoons along the Mexican coast. The white shrimp stands out for its adaptability to temperature and salinity changes and for being the main product for many commercial fisheries; it has the highest volume of oceanic capture and production in Mexican shrimp farms. Lethal concentrations (LC50-96h) were obtained at nine different combinations (3??3 combinations in total) of temperature (20, 25, and 30C) and salinity (17, 25, and 33) showing mean LC50-96h values (standard error) of 9.13??0.76, 9.17??0.56, and 6.23??0.57mgAs?L(-1)(at 20C and 17, 25, and 33 salinity); 12.29??2.09, 8.70??0.82, and 8.03??0.59mgAs?L(-1) (at 25C and 17, 25, and 33 salinity); and 7.84??1.30, 8.49??1.40, and 7.54??0.51mgAs?L(-1) (at 30C and 17, 25, and 33 salinity), respectively. No significant differences were observed for the optimal temperature and isosmotic point of maintenance (25C-S 25) for the species, with respect to the other experimental conditions tested, except for at 20C-S 33, which was the most toxic. Toxicity under 20C-S 33 conditions was also higher than 25C-S 17 and 20C (S 17 or 25). The least toxic condition was 25C-S 17. All this suggests that the toxic effect of arsenic is not affected by temperature changes; it depends on the osmoregulatory pattern developed by the shrimp, either hyperosmotic at low salinity or hiposmotic at high salinity, as observed at least on the extreme salinity conditions here tested (17 and 33). However, further studies testing salinities near the isosmotic point (between 20 and 30 salinities) are needed to clarify these mechanisms. PMID:23471636

  4. Sea Surface Salinity - Duration: 61 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The heat of the sun also forces evaporation at the ocean's surface, which puts water vapor into the atmosphere but leaves minerals and salts behind, keeping the ocean salty. The salinity of the oce...

  5. Acute volume loading and exercise capacity in postural tachycardia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Rocío A.; Arnold, Amy C.; Nwazue, Victor C.; Okamoto, Luis E.; Paranjape, Sachin Y.; Black, Bonnie K.; Diedrich, Andre; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo; Raj, Satish R.

    2014-01-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is associated with exercise intolerance, hypovolemia, and cardiac atrophy, which may contribute to reduced stroke volume and compensatory exaggerated heart rate (HR) increases. Acute volume loading with intravenous (iv) saline reduces HR and improves orthostatic tolerance and symptoms in POTS, but its effect on exercise capacity is unknown. In this study, we determined the effect of iv saline infusion on peak exercise capacity (V̇o2peak) in POTS. Nineteen patients with POTS participated in a sequential study. V̇o2peak was measured on two separate study days, following administration of placebo or 1 liter of iv saline (NaCl 0.9%). Patients exercised on a semirecumbent bicycle with resistance increased by 25 W every 2 min until maximal effort was achieved. Patients exhibited blood volume deficits (−13.4 ± 1.4% ideal volume), consistent with mild to moderate hypovolemia. At baseline, saline significantly increased stroke volume (saline 80 ± 8 ml vs. placebo 64 ± 4 ml; P = 0.010), increased cardiac output (saline 6.9 ± 0.5 liter/min vs. placebo 5.7 ± 0.2 liter/min; P = 0.021), and reduced systemic vascular resistance (saline 992.6 ± 70.0 dyn-s/cm5 vs. placebo 1,184.0 ± 50.8 dyn-s/cm5; P = 0.011), with no effect on HR or blood pressure. During exercise, saline did not produce differences in V̇o2peak (saline 26.3 ± 1.2 mg·kg−1·min−1 vs. placebo 27.7 ± 1.8 mg·kg−1·min−1; P = 0.615), peak HR [saline 174 ± 4 beats per minute (bpm) vs. placebo 175 ± 3 bpm; P = 0.672] or other cardiovascular parameters. These findings suggest that acute volume loading with saline does not improve V̇o2peak or cardiovascular responses to exercise in POTS, despite improvements in resting hemodynamic function. PMID:25059240

  6. Effect of seawater salinity on pore-size distribution on a poly(styrene)-based HP20 resin and its adsorption of diarrhetic shellfish toxins.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lin; Sun, Geng; Qiu, Jiangbing; Ma, Qimin; Hess, Philipp; Li, Aifeng

    2014-12-19

    In the present study, okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) were spiked into artificial seawater at low, medium and high estuarine salinities (9, 13.5 and 27). Passive samplers (HP20 resin) used for solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) technology were exposed in these seawaters for 12-h periods. Adsorption curves well fitted a pseudo-secondary kinetics model. The highest initial sorption rates of both toxins occurred in the seawater of medium salinity, followed by seawater of low and high estuarine salinity. Pore volumes of micropores (<2 nm) and small mesopores (2 nmsalinity but not in seawater at medium salinity, which demonstrated that the toxin molecules entered into micropores and mesopores (below 10nm in size) in seawaters of high and low salinity. More toxin or other matrix agglomerates were displayed on the surface of resin deployed in the seawater of medium salinity. Taking into consideration the pore-size distribution and surface images, it appears that intra-particle diffusion governs toxin adsorption in seawater at high salinity while film diffusion mainly controls the adsorption process in seawater at medium salinity. This is the first study to confirm that molecules of OA and DTX1 are able to enter into micropores (<2nm) and small mesopores (2-10nm) of HP20 resin in estuarine seawater with high salinity (?27). PMID:25464996

  7. Sea Surface Salinity : Research Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David; Lagerloef, Gary; Font, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) can be important in regulating sea surface temperature (SST). Two technological breakthrough satellite SSS missions, Aquarius and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), are currently producing high-quality SSS data. This paper provides an overview of the importance of SSS for weather and climate applications and describes the Aquarius and SMOS missions. The newness of adequately sampled SSS data prompted a first-time at-sea field campaign devoted to improved understanding of SSS variations.

  8. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  9. High salinity anomalies south of Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, K.; Carter, G. S.

    2013-12-01

    Patches of higher salinity water were observed, using Seaglider data, in the upper 50m of the water-column between Oahu and Penguin Bank. These anomalies occur approximately once a month, and are visible in the glider data for an average of 3 days. Anomalies have abrupt transitions occurring over mere hours. Salinity within the patches can reach values in excess of 35.2 psu, 0.3 higher than the average profile for the region. The salinity signature associated with the anomalies corresponds to Subtropical surface water, found north of the Hawaiian island chain. The high salinity water is trapped by the thermocline in the mixed layer. Seasonal variations of the anomaly depth are directly related to the seasonal variations of mixed layer depth. These patches of high salinity coincide with the presence of eddies. Using sea surface height as an indicator, we found that eddy-eddy interaction and eddy-island interaction dictate the advection of upwelled waters into the region. Infrequently, we observe corresponding temperature anomalies. The larger the distance between the center of the eddy and the glider, the less visible the temperature anomaly. Positive (negative) values indicate salinity above (below) the mean profile.

  10. [Investigation and canonical correspondence analysis of salinity contents in secondary salinization greenhouse soils in Shanghai suburb].

    PubMed

    Tang, Dong; Mao, Liang; Zhi, Yue-e; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Zhou, Pei; Chai, Xiao-Tong

    2014-12-01

    The salinity characteristics of greenhouse soils with cropping obstacles in Shanghai suburb were investigated and analyzed. The salinity contents of the salinization greenhouse soils showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing with the increasing cropping duration. The salinized soils mainly included slightly salted, mildly salted and salted soils, which accounted for 17.39%, 56.52% and 13.04%, respectively. Among them, the degree of salinity in greenhouse soil planted with asparagus in Chongming County was the highest. Among the salt ions in greenhouse soils, the cations were mainly Ca2+ and Na+, while the anions were mainly NO3- and SO4(2-). The degree of salinity was mainly influenced by fertilization mode, cropping duration, crop type and management level, which led to the great variation in the salinity contents and salt ions. Canonical correspondence analysis found that the contents of Ca2+, Mg2+ and NO3- in greenhouse soils were greatly affected by cropping duration, and the degree of salinity would be enhanced and attenuated with long-term application of single fertilizer and mixed application of chemical fertilizer and organic manure, respectively. The greenhouse soils in Shanghai suburb could be classified as four patterns influenced by the relationship between salinity ions and samples, and the most soils were influenced by Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3- and Cl-, which required to be primarily controlled. PMID:25826944

  11. Salinity Measurements During the Gulf Stream Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Howden, S.; Goodberlet, M.

    2000-01-01

    The salinity of the open ocean is important for understanding ocean circulation, for understanding energy exchange with the atmosphere and for improving models to predict weather and climate. Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (1 psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approx. 0.1 psu) required to be scientifically viable. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of a compliment of airborne microwave instruments (radiometers and scatterometer) and ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the compliment of instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer. A GPS backscatter experiment was also part of the package. These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Surface salinity measurements were provided by the RN Cape Henlopen and MN Oleander (thermosalinographs) plus salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the RN Cape Henopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made with the airborne sensors on August 28 and 29 and on September 2 flights were made over the surface drifters to look for effects due to a change in surface roughness resulting from the passage of Hurricane Dennis. Preliminary results show a good agreement between the microwave measurements and ship measurements of salinity. The features of the brightness temperature maps correspond well with the features of the salinity field measured by the ship and drifters and a preliminary retrieval of salinity compares well with the ship data.

  12. Caribbean Salinity Variation During the Last Glacial Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. W.; Spero, H. J.; Lea, D. W.

    2003-12-01

    Evaporation exceeds precipitation in the tropical Atlantic, resulting in a net freshwater removal across the Central American Isthmus. Because most of the north Atlantic's subtropical gyre water circulates through the Caribbean before flowing north to sub-polar regions via the Gulf Stream, changes in tropical atmospheric circulation have the potential to affect the salinity and density structure of the entire north Atlantic, thereby influencing glacial-interglacial oscillations in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation. Here, we combine Mg/Ca measurements (a proxy for the temperature of calcification) and δ 18O analyses of shells from the surface-dwelling foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber s.s. (white var.) from the western Caribbean Colombian Basin at ODP Site 999A (2827m; 4cm/ka sed. rate) and VM28-122 (3623m; 4-10cm/ka sed. rate) to produce the first continuous record of western tropical Atlantic δ 18OSEAWATER (δ 18OSW) during the last 130ka. In order to generate a record for sea surface salinity (SSS) due to regional hydrological change, we removed the δ 18OSW signal due to glacial ice volume variation and normalized the residual to the modern δ 18OSW value for the Colombian Basin (0.8‰ ). The resulting ice volume-free (Δ δ 18OIVF-SW) record shows that Caribbean Δ δ 18OIVF-SW increased by ˜0.5‰ during the Last Glacial Maximum and Marine Isotope Stage 4. Using a modern western Caribbean δ 18OSW:SSS relationship, these enriched δ 18OSW values suggest glacial Caribbean salinities were 2.3 - 2.8‰ higher than modern after removing the influence of ice-volume. Our data supports the hypothesis that the tropics might have been in a state more similar to the modern El Nino mode, characterized by a more southerly position of the ITCZ, during cold phases of the last glacial cycle. Within the resolution of our Δ δ 18OIVF-SW record from VM28-122, elevated glacial Caribbean salinity decreased to modern levels at the onset of the Bolling-Allerod (B/A) interstadial event (14.6 cal ka) as NADW formation reinitiated and the ITCZ migrated northward. We hypothesize that the transport of salty tropical waters into the North Atlantic during the early deglaciation, in combination with a reorganization of ocean circulation, may have served to increase subpolar surface water density and amplify the overturning circulation that produced the warm B/A. The B/A salinity reduction occurs simultaneously with previous evidence for wetter conditions in the Cariaco Basin, suggesting a northward shift in the ITCZ to a wetter, more La Nina-like state in the tropics.

  13. Oxygation enhances growth, gas exchange and salt tolerance of vegetable soybean and cotton in a saline vertisol.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Surya P; Midmore, David J

    2009-07-01

    Impacts of salinity become severe when the soil is deficient in oxygen. Oxygation (using aerated water for subsurface drip irrigation of crop) could minimize the impact of salinity on plants under oxygen-limiting soil environments. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of oxygation (12% air volume/volume of water) on vegetable soybean (moderately salt tolerant) and cotton (salt tolerant) in a salinized vertisol at 2, 8, 14, 20 dS/m EC(e). In vegetable soybean, oxygation increased above ground biomass yield and water use efficiency (WUE) by 13% and 22%, respectively, compared with the control. Higher yield with oxygation was accompanied by greater plant height and stem diameter and reduced specific leaf area and leaf Na+ and Cl- concentrations. In cotton, oxygation increased lint yield and WUE by 18% and 16%, respectively, compared with the control, and was accompanied by greater canopy light interception, plant height and stem diameter. Oxygation also led to a greater rate of photosynthesis, higher relative water content in the leaf, reduced crop water stress index and lower leaf water potential. It did not, however, affect leaf Na+ or Cl- concentration. Oxygation invariably increased, whereas salinity reduced the K+ : Na+ ratio in the leaves of both species. Oxygation improved yield and WUE performance of salt tolerant and moderately tolerant crops under saline soil environments, and this may have a significant impact for irrigated agriculture where saline soils pose constraints to crop production. PMID:19566646

  14. Estimates of natural salinity and hydrology in a subtropical estuarine ecosystem: implications for Greater Everglades restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, Frank E.; Wingard, Georgiana L.; Pitts, Patrick A.

    2014-01-01

    Disruption of the natural patterns of freshwater flow into estuarine ecosystems occurred in many locations around the world beginning in the twentieth century. To effectively restore these systems, establishing a pre-alteration perspective allows managers to develop science-based restoration targets for salinity and hydrology. This paper describes a process to develop targets based on natural hydrologic functions by coupling paleoecology and regression models using the subtropical Greater Everglades Ecosystem as an example. Paleoecological investigations characterize the circa 1900 CE (pre-alteration) salinity regime in Florida Bay based on molluscan remains in sediment cores. These paleosalinity estimates are converted into time series estimates of paleo-based salinity, stage, and flow using numeric and statistical models. Model outputs are weighted using the mean square error statistic and then combined. Results indicate that, in the absence of water management, salinity in Florida Bay would be about 3 to 9 salinity units lower than current conditions. To achieve this target, upstream freshwater levels must be about 0.25 m higher than indicated by recent observed data, with increased flow inputs to Florida Bay between 2.1 and 3.7 times existing flows. This flow deficit is comparable to the average volume of water currently being diverted from the Everglades ecosystem by water management. The products (paleo-based Florida Bay salinity and upstream hydrology) provide estimates of pre-alteration hydrology and salinity that represent target restoration conditions. This method can be applied to any estuarine ecosystem with available paleoecologic data and empirical and/or model-based hydrologic data.

  15. Postoperative analgesia for stifle surgery: a comparison of intra-articular bupivacaine, morphine, or saline.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, J L; Conzemius, M G; Perkowski, S Z; Weinstein, M J; Gregor, T P; Smith, G K

    1996-01-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to compare the analgesic effect of intra-articular bupivacaine, morphine, or saline in the 24-hour period following cranial cruciate ligament repair in dogs. Thirty-six clinical patients with ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments were randomly assigned to one of three groups. After surgical stabilization, and before skin closure, an intra-articular injection was given; group one (n = 12) received 0.5% bupivacaine HCl at 0.5 mL/kg, group two (n = 12) received morphine at 0.1 mg/kg diluted with saline to a volume of 0.5 mL/kg, and group three (n = 12) received saline at 0.5 mL/kg. Heart rate, respiratory rate, mean arterial blood pressure, cumulative pain score, visual analog pain score, and pain threshold test on both stifles were recorded preoperatively and at 0 to 6 and 24 hours postoperatively. Surgeons and pain scoring investigators were unaware of the intra-articular medication given. Supplemental analgesia, if needed, was provided in the postoperative period according to subjective assessment of patient discomfort. Postoperative pain scores were lowest in the bupivacaine group and highest in the saline group. Pain threshold, measured by applying calibrated loads to the knee, was higher postoperatively in the bupivacaine group than in the saline group. Dogs in the morphine and bupivacaine groups required less supplemental analgesia than dogs in the saline group. The local provision of analgesia reduces the need for systemic drugs with potential side effects. Both intra-articular morphine and intra-articular bupivacaine provided better postoperative analgesia than intra-articular saline, with intra-articular bupivacaine showing the greatest effect. PMID:8719087

  16. Soil salinity as affected by high-sulfate water

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, I.

    1985-11-01

    In a laboratory experiment, the author investigated both salt buildup in three soils irrigated with various amounts of water high in sulfates and also the good-quality water needed for reclaiming such soils. Salt buildup followed in two distinct stages. The first stage was marked by a sharp increase in soil salinity as ions of both high and low solubility contributed to it. Salt buildup in the second stage was substantially slower and linearly related to the concentration of highly soluble ions. The SAR measured in soils taken from the pots at the end of salinization increased with every volume of sulfate water applied. There was initially also an increase in saturated hydraulic conductivity, followed thereafter by a sharp decrease. As with salt buildup the rate of leaching of salts followed two stages. First soluble salts were readily leached. Sharp decrease of both soil solution EC and SAR occurred at this stage. Thereafter, a steady state was reached, and decrease in soil solution EC was gradual and strongly dependent on gypsum dissolution.

  17. Using discriminant analysis to determine sources of salinity in shallow groundwater prior to hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Lautz, Laura K; Hoke, Gregory D; Lu, Zunli; Siegel, Donald I; Christian, Kayla; Kessler, John Daniel; Teale, Natalie G

    2014-08-19

    High-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) gas-drilling operations in the Marcellus Play have raised environmental concerns, including the risk of groundwater contamination. Fingerprinting water impacted by gas-drilling operations is not trivial given other potential sources of contamination. We present a multivariate statistical modeling framework for developing a quantitative, geochemical fingerprinting tool to distinguish sources of high salinity in shallow groundwater. The model was developed using new geochemical data for 204 wells in New York State (NYS), which has a HVHF moratorium and published data for additional wells in NYS and several salinity sources (Appalachian Basin brines, road salt, septic effluent, and animal waste). The model incorporates a stochastic simulation to predict the geochemistry of high salinity (>20 mg/L Cl) groundwater impacted by different salinity sources and then employs linear discriminant analysis to classify samples from different populations. Model results indicate Appalachian Basin brines are the primary source of salinity in 35% of sampled NYS groundwater wells with >20 mg/L Cl. The model provides an effective means for differentiating groundwater impacted by basin brines versus other contaminants. Using this framework, similar discriminatory tools can be derived for other regions from background water quality data. PMID:25062431

  18. Biomarker-based salinity reconstruction immediately prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (Sorbas Basin, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayser, Jan Peter; Martins, Cesar; Flecker, Rachel; Pancost, Rich D.

    2014-05-01

    The salinity crisis which occurred in the Mediterranean at the end of the Miocene (5.97 to 5.33 Ma) was a time of large-scale environmental change and thick evaporite deposits formed both in the deep basins and on the surrounding margins. Late Miocene successions in the Sorbas Basin, south east Spain preserve sediments that were deposited immediately prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and during the initial phase of gypsum precipitation (Sierro et al., 2001). Salinity changes are indicated by evaporite formation and fluctuations in faunal assemblages, but these provide threshold measurements only e.g. gypsum forms at a salinity of 130 psu. By analysing the lipid biomarker composition by GC and HPLC-MS after Soxhlet extraction of pre-MSC sediments we aim to reconstruct granular changes in salinity leading up to initial gypsum precipitation. The pre-MSC sediments comprise regular alternations of marine marls and terrigenous clays with interspersed diatomites. This lithological cyclicity is climatically forced by orbitally-driven changes in insolation (Krijgsman et al., 1999) such that specific lithologies are thought to accumulate during precession minima (homogeneous marls) and maxima (laminated marls). By targeting these lithologies for salinity reconstruction we can evaluate the orbital control on quantified environmental change. The reconstruction of the salinity is predominantly based on the ACE proxy introduced by Turich and Freeman (2011). The GDGT-based proxy can show differences over a wide range of salinity, because Archaea can survive over a much larger salinity range than haptophyte algae or other plankton and can therefore also record the salinity signal over a wider range. This makes it suitable for the broad salinity ranges leading up to the MSC e.g. ~35 to 130 psu. Turich et al. (2011) already have published 10 low resolution salinity values for pre-MSC sediments from Torrente Vaccarizzo and Serra Pirciata on Sicily. Our high resolution preliminary data already suggests differences in salinity between insolation maxima's and minima's, which is not expressed in this low resolution signal. In addition we are backing up the ACE proxy data by deuterium values as an independent comparison. Krijgsman, W., Hilgen, F.J., Raffi, I., Sierro, F.J., Wilson, D.S., 1999. Chronology, causes and progression of the Messinian salinity crisis. Nature 400, 652-655. Sierro, F.J., Hilgen, F.J., Krijgsman, W., Flores, J.A., 2001. The Abad composite (SE Spain): a Messinian reference section for the Mediterranean and the APTS. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 168, 141-169. Turich, C., Freeman, K.H., 2011. Archaeal lipids record paleosalinity in hypersaline systems. Organic Geochemistry 42, 1147-1157.

  19. "SPURS" in the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Raymond

    2014-05-01

    The North Atlantic Salinity Maximum is the world's saltiest open ocean salinity maximum and was the focus of the recent Salinity Processes Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS) program. SPURS was a joint venture between US, French, Irish, and Spanish investigators. Three US and two EU cruises were involved from August, 1012 - October, 2013 as well as surface moorings, glider, drifter and float deployments. Shipboard operations included underway meteorological and oceanic data, hydrographic surveys and turbulence profiling. The goal is to improve our understanding of how the salinity maximum is maintained and how it may be changing. It is formed by an excess of evaporation over precipitation and the wind-driven convergence of the subtropical gyre. Such salty areas are getting saltier with global warming (a record high SSS was observed in SPURS) and it is imperative to determine the relative roles of surface water fluxes and oceanic processes in such trends. The combination of accurate surface flux estimates with new assessments of vertical and horizontal mixing in the ocean will help elucidate the utility of ocean salinity in quantifying the changing global water cycle.

  20. Effect of low environmental salinity on plasma composition and renal function of the Atlantic stingray, a euryhaline elasmobranch.

    PubMed

    Janech, Michael G; Fitzgibbon, Wayne R; Ploth, David W; Lacy, Eric R; Miller, Donald H

    2006-10-01

    Marine elasmobranchs maintain internal osmolality higher than their external environment, resulting in an osmotic gradient for branchial water uptake. This gradient is markedly increased in low-salinity habitats. The subsequent increase in water uptake presents a challenge to volume homeostasis. The Atlantic stingray is a marine elasmobranch that inhabits a remarkable range of environmental salinities. We hypothesized that the ability of these stingrays to regulate fluid volume in low-salinity environments is due primarily to a renal glomerular and tubular functional reserve. We tested this hypothesis by measuring renal excretory function after a rapid and sustained 50% reduction in the osmolality of the external medium. Atlantic stingrays were maintained in harbor water [control salinity (CS) approximately 850 mosmol/kgH(2)O] for 1 wk. Rays were then either transferred to diluted harbor water [low salinity (LS) approximately 440 mosmol/kgH(2)O] or maintained in CS for a further 24 h. Renal excretory function was markedly higher in the rays subjected to low salinity. Glomerular filtration rate was threefold higher and urine flow rate ninefold higher in the LS group. The clearance of solute-free water was greater, and solute-free water comprised a significantly larger proportion of the urine output for the stingrays transferred to dilute harbor water. We conclude that 1) the kidneys of Atlantic stingrays have a remarkable glomerular and tubular functional reserve, and 2) the marked increase in renal function attenuates the increase in fluid volume when these fish move into low-salinity habitats. PMID:16609153

  1. Hypertonic saline for bronchiolitis in infants

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Simran; Goldman, Ran D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Question Recently, a 1-year-old patient returned from admission in the hospital for bronchiolitis, and the report I received indicated that he was treated with inhaled hypertonic saline, among other treatments. Is this therapy recommended for children in the acute care setting? Answer Bronchiolitis, caused mostly by respiratory syncytial virus, is very common in the winter. It is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in infancy. Several good studies have been conducted in the past decade on the use of nebulized hypertonic saline for bronchiolitis management; however, they offer conflicting results. While there might be a role for the use of nebulized hypertonic saline in children who are hospitalized with bronchiolitis for more than 3 days, treatment in other settings does not confer enough benefit to recommend its use. PMID:26071156

  2. Advantages and disadvantages of fludrocortisone or saline load in preventing post-spaceflight orthostatic hypotension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernikos, Joan; Convertino, Victor A.

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of saline load to fludrocortisone (florinef) as countermeasures for reduced plasma volume and orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight. Eleven males (ages 30-50 yr) underwent a 3-day ambulatory baseline period followed by 7 days of 6 head-down bedrest, during which cardiopulmonary and arterial baroreflex sensitivity and plasma volume (PV) were determined. During pre-bedrest and 2.5 h after treatment on day 8, PV was also measured and subjects underwent a 15-min unsupported stand test. Treatments consisted of 8 salt tablets (1 g NaCl per tablet) and 960 ml of water in 5 subjects and 0.6 mg (0.2 mg 3) over 24 h in the other 6 subjects. PV decreased by 12% on day 7 of bedrest. This was restored on day 8 by florinef but not by saline load. The effect of florinef on PV was paralleled by decreases in urine volume and the urinary sodium/potassium ratio. Reduced PV was associated with greater vascular resistance for the same drop in central venous pressure, suggesting less vasoconstriction reserve after bedrest. Carotid baroreflex control of heart rate was attenuated after 7 days of bedrest. Both baroreflex functions were restored by florinef but not saline load. Only 1 of 6 subjects showed syncopal symptoms in the florinef-treated group, whereas 4 of 5 subjects did so in the saline-load group. Acute florinef treatment appears to have distinct advantages as a protective measure for post-bedrest orthostatic intolerance, not only through its salt retaining, volume-expanding mineralcorticoid effect, but possibly through its actions on baroreflex and sympathetic functions.

  3. Computed tomographic colonography compared with colonoscopy or barium enema for diagnosis of colorectal cancer in older symptomatic patients: two multicentre randomised trials with economic evaluation (the SIGGAR trials).

    PubMed Central

    Halligan, Steve; Dadswell, Edward; Wooldrage, Kate; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian; Lilford, Richard; Yao, Guiqing L; Zhu, Shihua; Atkin, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a relatively new diagnostic test that may be superior to existing alternatives to investigate the large bowel. OBJECTIVES To compare the diagnostic efficacy, acceptability, safety and cost-effectiveness of CTC with barium enema (BE) or colonoscopy. DESIGN Parallel randomised trials: BE compared with CTC and colonoscopy compared with CTC (randomisation 2 : 1, respectively). SETTING A total of 21 NHS hospitals. PARTICIPANTS Patients aged ≥ 55 years with symptoms suggestive of colorectal cancer (CRC). INTERVENTIONS CTC, BE and colonoscopy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES For the trial of CTC compared with BE, the primary outcome was the detection rate of CRC and large polyps (≥ 10 mm), with the proportion of patients referred for additional colonic investigation as a secondary outcome. For the trial of CTC compared with colonoscopy, the primary outcome was the proportion of patients referred for additional colonic investigation, with the detection rate of CRC and large polyps as a secondary outcome. Secondary outcomes for both trials were miss rates for cancer (via registry data), all-cause mortality, serious adverse events, patient acceptability, extracolonic pathology and cost-effectiveness. RESULTS A total of 8484 patients were registered and 5384 were randomised and analysed (BE trial: 2527 BE, 1277 CTC; colonoscopy trial: 1047 colonoscopy, 533 CTC). Detection rates in the BE trial were 7.3% (93/1277) for CTC, compared with 5.6% (141/2527) for BE (p = 0.0390). The difference was due to better detection of large polyps by CTC (3.6% vs. 2.2%; p = 0.0098), with no significant difference for cancer (3.7% vs. 3.4%; p = 0.66). Significantly more patients having CTC underwent additional investigation (23.5% vs. 18.3%; p = 0.0003). At the 3-year follow-up, the miss rate for CRC was 6.7% for CTC (three missed cancers) and 14.1% for BE (12 missed cancers). Significantly more patients randomised to CTC than to colonoscopy underwent additional investigation (30% vs. 8.2%; p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in detection rates for cancer or large polyps (10.7% for CTC vs. 11.4% for colonoscopy; p = 0.69), with no difference when cancers (p = 0.94) and large polyps (p = 0.53) were analysed separately. At the 3-year follow-up, the miss rate for cancer was nil for colonoscopy and 3.4% for CTC (one missed cancer). Adverse events were uncommon for all procedures. In 1042 of 1748 (59.6%) CTC examinations, at least one extracolonic finding was reported, and this proportion increased with age (p < 0.0001). A total of 149 patients (8.5%) were subsequently investigated, and extracolonic neoplasia was diagnosed in 79 patients (4.5%) and malignancy in 29 (1.7%). In the short term, CTC was significantly more acceptable to patients than BE or colonoscopy. Total costs for CTC and colonoscopy were finely balanced, but CTC was associated with higher health-care costs than BE. The cost per large polyp or cancer detected was £4235 (95% confidence interval £395 to £9656). CONCLUSIONS CTC is superior to BE for detection of cancers and large polyps in symptomatic patients. CTC and colonoscopy detect a similar proportion of large polyps and cancers and their costs are also similar. CTC precipitates significantly more additional investigations than either BE or colonoscopy, and evidence-based referral criteria are needed. Further work is recommended to clarify the extent to which patients initially referred for colonoscopy or BE undergo subsequent abdominopelvic imaging, for example by computed tomography, which will have a significant impact on health economic estimates. TRIAL REGISTRATION Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN95152621. PMID:26198205

  4. Evaporation over fresh and saline water surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelrady, Ahmed; Timmermans, Joris; Vekerdy, Zoltan

    2013-04-01

    Evaporation over large water bodies has a crucial role in the global hydrological cycle. Evaporation occurs whenever there is a vapor pressure deficit between a water surface and the atmosphere, and the available energy is sufficient. Salinity affects the density and latent heat of vaporization of the water body, which reflects on the evaporation rate. Different models have been developed to estimate the evaporation process over water surfaces using earth observation data. Most of these models are concerned with the atmospheric parameters. However these models do not take into account the influence of salinity on the evaporation rate; they do not consider the difference in the energy needed for vaporization. For this purpose an energy balance model is required. Several energy balance models that calculate daily evapotranspiration exist, such as the surface energy balance system (SEBS). They estimate the heat fluxes by integration of satellite data and hydro-meteorological field data. SEBS has the advantage that it can be applied over a large scale because it incorporates the physical state of the surface and the aerodynamic resistances in the daily evapotranspiration estimation. Nevertheless this model has not used over water surfaces. The goal of this research is to adapt SEBS to estimate the daily evaporation over fresh and saline water bodies. In particular, 1) water heat flux and roughness of momentum and heat transfer estimation need to be updated, 2) upscaling to daily evaporation needs to be investigated and finally 3) integration of the salinity factor to estimate the evaporation over saline water needs to be performed. Eddy covariance measurements over the Ijsselmeer Lake (The Netherlands) were used to estimate the roughness of momentum and heat transfer at respectively 0.0002 and 0.0001 m. Application of these values over Tana Lake (freshwater), in Ethiopia showed latent heat to be in a good agreement with the measurements, with RMSE of 35.5 Wm-2and rRMSE of 4.7 %. Afterwards the validity of salinity adapted model was tested over different study areas using ECMWF data. It was found that for the original SEBS model and salinity-adapted model over Great Salt Lake, the RMSE were 0.62 and 0.24 mm respectively and the rRMSE 19% and 24%. The evaporation reduction of the Great Salt Lake and the oceans are 27% and 1 %, respectively. In conclusion, SEBS model is adapted to calculate the daily evaporation over fresh water and salt water by integration the salinity factor in the model.

  5. Pressure, volume and the pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, C P; Taylor, T V; Torrance, H B

    1985-01-01

    The effects of injection volume and pressure on the rat pancreas have been investigated. An experimental model using transduodenal cannulation of the rat bile-pancreatic duct was used. Injection volumes of 100 microliter or above produced gross ductal extravasation regardless of pressure. With a 50 microliter volume leakage from the ducts occurred via intercellular clefts at a pressure of 20 cmH2O and via duct ruptures at 50 cmH2O. Survival experiments (24 hours) were carried out using the 50 microliter volume. Infusion of 50 microliter saline at increasing pressures produced rises in amylase concentrations, pancreatic gland weights and water content of the gland at pressures of 20 cmH2O or above. These changes were maximal when 50 cmH2O of pressure was maintained for 60 minutes. The changes correlated with extravasation shown by Indian ink. Histological oedema related closely to pressure (r = 0.92), and was the most pronounced histological change observed. In experiments using intraduct injection into the rat pancreas a volume of 50 microliter or less should be used with careful consideration given to pressure. Unless these prerequisites are followed the results of experimental investigation cannot be extrapolated to acute gall stone pancreatitis in man. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 9 PMID:2408971

  6. Understanding salinity responses and adopting 'omics-based' approaches to generate salinity tolerant cultivars of rice.

    PubMed

    Das, Priyanka; Nutan, Kamlesh K; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L; Pareek, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    Soil salinity is one of the main constraints affecting production of rice worldwide, by reducing growth, pollen viability as well as yield of the plant. Therefore, detailed understanding of the response of rice towards soil salinity at the physiological and molecular level is a prerequisite for its effective management. Various approaches have been adopted by molecular biologists or breeders to understand the mechanism for salinity tolerance in plants and to develop salt tolerant rice cultivars. Genome wide analysis using 'omics-based' tools followed by identification and functional validation of individual genes is becoming one of the popular approaches to tackle this task. On the other hand, mutation breeding and insertional mutagenesis has also been exploited to obtain salinity tolerant crop plants. This review looks into various responses at cellular and whole plant level generated in rice plants toward salinity stress thus, evaluating the suitability of intervention of functional genomics to raise stress tolerant plants. We have tried to highlight the usefulness of the contemporary 'omics-based' approaches such as genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and phenomics towards dissecting out the salinity tolerance trait in rice. In addition, we have highlighted the importance of integration of various 'omics' approaches to develop an understanding of the machinery involved in salinity response in rice and to move forward to develop salt tolerant cultivars of rice. PMID:26442026

  7. Probability analysis of the relation of salinity to freshwater discharge in the St. Sebastian River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wicklein, S.M.; Gain, W.S.

    1999-01-01

    The St. Sebastian River lies in the southern part of the Indian River basin on the east coast of Florida. Increases in freshwater discharge due to urbanization and changes in land use have reduced salinity in the St. Sebastian River and, consequently, salinity in the Indian River, affecting the commercial fishing industry. Wind, water temperature, tidal flux, freshwater discharge, and downstream salinity all affect salinity in the St. Sebastian River estuary, but freshwater discharge is the only one of these hydrologic factors which might be affected by water-management practices. A probability analysis of salinity conditions in the St. Sebastian River estuary, taking into account the effects of freshwater discharge over a period from May 1992 to March 1996, was used to determine the likelihood (probability) that salinities, as represented by daily mean specific- conductance values, will fall below a given threshold. The effects of freshwater discharge on salinities were evaluated with a simple volumetric model fitted to time series of measured specific conductance, by using nonlinear optimization techniques. Specific-conductance values for two depths at monitored sites represent stratified flow which results from differences in salt concentration between freshwater and saltwater. Layering of freshwater and saltwater is assumed, and the model is applied independently to each layer with the assumption that the water within the layer is well mixed. The model of specific conductance as a function of discharge (a salinity response model) was combined with a model of residual variation to produce a total probability model. Flow distributions and model residuals were integrated to produce a salinity distribution and determine differences in salinity probabilities as a result of changes in water-management practices. Two possible management alternatives were analyzed: stormwater detention (reducing the peak rate of discharge but not reducing the overall flow volume) and stormwater retention (reducing peak discharges without later release). Detention of freshwater discharges increased the probability of specific- conductance values falling below a given limit (20,000 microsiemens per centimeter) for all sites but one. The retention of freshwater input to the system decreased the likelihood of falling below a selected limit of specific conductance at all sites. For limits of specific conductance (1,000 microsiemens per centimeter or 20,000 microsiemens per centimeter, depending on the site), the predicted days of occurrence below a limit decreased ranging from 17 to 68 percent of the predicted days of occurrence for unregulated flow. The primary finding to be drawn from the discharge-salinity analysis is that an empirical-response model alone does not provide adequate information to assess the response of the system to changes in flow regime. Whether a given level of discharge can produce a given response on a given day is not as important as the probability of that response on a given day and over a period of many days. A deterministic model of the St. Sebastian River estuary based only on discharge would predict that retention of discharge peaks should increase the average salinity conditions in the St. Sebastian River estuary. The probabilistic model produces a very different response indicating that salinity can decrease by a power of three as discharges increase, and that random factors can predominate and control salinity until discharges increase sufficiently to flush the entire system of saltwater.

  8. Salinity Variation in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, L.; Bayler, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    The eastern tropical Pacific Ocean is characterized with low salinity (less than 33 psu) waters due to excess of precipitation over evaporation. Monitoring the salinity variation in this region is of primary importance to ENSO studies. The precipitation, evaporation, and the ocean current all contribute to complex surface salinity variability in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. This study attempts to address the atmospheric and oceanic causes of sub-monthly, monthly, seasonal variability in mixed-layer salinity from observational data sets. The data sets include measurements from the Aquarius sea surface salinity, SMOS sea surface salinity, Argo profiling float data, CMORPH precipitation, OAFlux evaporation and the ocean current measurements from OSCAR.

  9. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a unit designed for curriculum infusion and which relies on the hands-on discovery method as an instructive device. The student is introduced to the theory of a functioning salt water conductivity meter. The student explores the resistance of salt water as salinity increases and he treats the data which he has gathered,

  10. Proteomic response of barley leaves to salinity.

    PubMed

    Rasoulnia, Abdolrahman; Bihamta, Mohammad Reza; Peyghambari, Seyed Ali; Alizadeh, Houshang; Rahnama, Afrasyab

    2011-11-01

    Drought and salinity stresses are adverse environmental factors that affect crop growth and yield. Proteomic analysis offers a new approach to identify a broad spectrum of genes that are expressed in living system. We applied this technique to investigate protein changes that were induced by salinity in barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.), Afzal, as a salt-tolerant genotype and L-527, as a salt-sensitive genotype. The seeds of two genotypes were sown in pot under controlled condition of greenhouse, using a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Salt stress was imposed at seedling stage and leaves were collected from control and salt-stressed plant. The Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in leaves changed significantly in response to short-term stress. About 850 spots were reproducibly detected and analyzed on 2-DE gels. Of these, 117 proteins showed significant change under salinity condition in at least one of the genotypes. Mass spectrometry analysis using MALDI-TOF/TOF led to the identification some proteins involved in several salt responsive mechanisms which may increase plant adaptation to salt stress including higher constitutive expression level and upregulation of antioxidant, upregulation of protein involved in signal transduction, protein biosynthesis, ATP generation and photosynthesis. These findings may enhance our understanding of plant molecular response to salinity. PMID:21181273

  11. Saline Soils in the Red River Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Red River Valley of the North stretches over 315 miles from northeastern South Dakota through northwestern Minnesota and eastern North Dakota into southern Manitoba. Nearly all this area is in dryland farms and is highly productive. Salinity has been recognized as a major factor affecting crop p...

  12. Evaluation of lettuce genotypes for salinity tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lettuce is one of the most commonly used salad vegetables and considered to be a relatively salt sensitive crop. Salinity is a major constraint to crop production in all important lettuce districts of the U.S., and the water quality problem is exacerbated by the climate change. In order to identify ...

  13. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a unit designed for curriculum infusion and which relies on the hands-on discovery method as an instructive device. The student is introduced to the theory of a functioning salt water conductivity meter. The student explores the resistance of salt water as salinity increases and he treats the data which he has gathered,…

  14. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts...

  15. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts...

  16. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts...

  17. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... entrance to an estuary or river mouth that significantly restricts the movement of the salt water into and... estuary. The downstream migration of the salinity gradient can occur, displacing the maximum sedimentation... estuary below that which is considered normal can affect the location and type of mixing thereby...

  18. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... entrance to an estuary or river mouth that significantly restricts the movement of the salt water into and... estuary. The downstream migration of the salinity gradient can occur, displacing the maximum sedimentation... estuary below that which is considered normal can affect the location and type of mixing thereby...

  19. Salinity Tolerance Turfgrass: History and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Kamal; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor

    2013-01-01

    Land and water resources are becoming scarce and are insufficient to sustain the burgeoning population. Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses affecting agricultural productions across the world. Cultivation of salt-tolerant turfgrass species may be promising option under such conditions where poor quality water can also be used for these crops. Coastal lands in developing countries can be used to grow such crops, and seawater can be used for irrigation of purposes. These plants can be grown using land and water unsuitable for conventional crops and can provide food, fuel, fodder, fibber, resin, essential oils, and pharmaceutical products and can be used for landscape reintegration. There are a number of potential turfgrass species that may be appropriate at various salinity levels of seawater. The goal of this review is to create greater awareness of salt-tolerant turfgrasses, their current and potential uses, and their potential use in developing countries. The future for irrigating turf may rely on the use of moderate- to high-salinity water and, in order to ensure that the turf system is sustainable, will rely on the use of salt-tolerant grasses and an improved knowledge of the effects of salinity on turfgrasses. PMID:24222734

  20. Responses of Baltic Sea ice and open-water natural bacterial communities to salinity change.

    PubMed

    Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Laamanen, Maria; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2005-08-01

    To investigate the responses of Baltic Sea wintertime bacterial communities to changing salinity (5 to 26 practical salinity units), an experimental study was conducted. Bacterial communities of Baltic seawater and sea ice from a coastal site in southwest Finland were used in two batch culture experiments run for 17 or 18 days at 0 degrees C. Bacterial abundance, cell volume, and leucine and thymidine incorporation were measured during the experiments. The bacterial community structure was assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes with sequencing of DGGE bands from initial communities and communities of day 10 or 13 of the experiment. The sea ice-derived bacterial community was metabolically more active than the open-water community at the start of the experiment. Ice-derived bacterial communities were able to adapt to salinity change with smaller effects on physiology and community structure, whereas in the open-water bacterial communities, the bacterial cell volume evolution, bacterial abundance, and community structure responses indicated the presence of salinity stress. The closest relatives for all eight partial 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained were either organisms found in polar sea ice and other cold habitats or those found in summertime Baltic seawater. All sequences except one were associated with the alpha- and gamma-proteobacteria or the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group. The overall physiological and community structure responses were parallel in ice-derived and open-water bacterial assemblages, which points to a linkage between community structure and physiology. These results support previous assumptions of the role of salinity fluctuation as a major selective factor shaping the sea ice bacterial community structure. PMID:16085826

  1. Hydraulic and salinity characteristics of the tidal reach of the Peace River, southwestern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoker, Y.E.; Henderson, S.E.; McPherson, B.F.

    1989-01-01

    The tidal reach of the Peace River in southwestern Florida extends about 26 miles upstream from Charlotte Harbor and is characterized by flow-direction reversals, low velocities, and salinity gradients that vary with freshwater inflow, tides, and wind. Flow reversals generally occur on each tide throughout most of the tidal reach, their upstream limit determined primarily by freshwater inflow and tide. Flow reversals occur at river mile 18.9 whenever freshwater inflows are less than about 1,000 cu ft/sec. Velocities were less than 0.3 ft/sec more than half the time at river mile 18.9. The volume of the flood and ebb tidal flows in the midreach of the tidal river (mile 11.5) on July 12-13, 1984, was about five times the volume of flood and ebb tidal flow near the upstream end of the tidal reach July 10-11, 1984 (mile 18.9). Salinity varied along the 26-mile river reach, across channel and with depth, depending upon complex patterns of flow, freshwater runoff, wind, tide, and salinity in Charlotte Harbor. Daily variations in salinity increased downstream and variations were larger near the surface than near the bottom. Regression analysis indicated that the location of the 0.5 ppt salinity will move upstream more than 2 river miles if low flows are reduced by 50%. Freshwater flushing of the lower 20-mile tidal reach, approximated from freshwater replacement time, varied from about 2 days during heavy freshwater runoff to 40 days during extreme low flows. (USGS)

  2. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Lung Ablation Combined with Transbronchial Saline Injection: An Experimental Study in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, T. Kaminou, T. Sugiura, K.; Hashimoto, M.; Ohuchi, Y.; Adachi, A.; Fujioka, S.; Ito, H.; Nakamura, K.; Ihaya, T.; Ogawa, T.

    2010-02-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of radiofrequency lung ablation with transbronchial saline injection. The bilateral lungs of eight living swine were used. A 13-gauge bone biopsy needle was inserted percutaneously into the lung, and 1 ml of muscle paste was injected to create a tumor mimic. In total, 21 nodules were ablated. In the saline injection group (group A), radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was performed for 11 nodules after transbronchial saline injection under balloon occlusion with a 2-cm active single internally cooled electrode. In the control group (group B), conventional RFA was performed for 10 nodules as a control. The infused saline liquid showed a wedge-shaped and homogeneous distribution surrounding a tumor mimic. All 21 RFAs were successfully completed. The total ablation time was significantly longer (13.4 {+-} 2.8 min vs. 8.9 {+-} 3.5 min; P = 0.0061) and the tissue impedance was significantly lower in group A compared with group B (73.1 {+-} 8.8 {Omega} vs. 100.6 {+-} 16.6 {Omega}; P = 0.0002). The temperature of the ablated area was not significantly different (69.4 {+-} 9.1{sup o}C vs. 66.0 {+-} 7.9{sup o}C; P = 0.4038). There was no significant difference of tumor mimic volume (769 {+-} 343 mm{sup 3} vs. 625 {+-} 191 mm{sup 3}; P = 0.2783). The volume of the coagulated area was significantly larger in group A than in group B (3886 {+-} 1247 mm{sup 3} vs. 2375 {+-} 1395 mm{sup 3}; P = 0.0221). Percutaneous radiofrequency lung ablation combined with transbronchial saline injection can create an extended area of ablation.

  3. Salinity Trends in the Upper Colorado River Basin Upstream From the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, Colorado, 1986-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leib, Kenneth J.; Bauch, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    In 1974, the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act was passed into law. This law was enacted to address concerns regarding the salinity content of the Colorado River. The law authorized various construction projects in selected areas or 'units' of the Colorado River Basin intended to reduce the salinity load in the Colorado River. One such area was the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit in western Colorado. The U. S. Geological Survey has done extensive studies and research in the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit that provide information to aid the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the Natural Resources Conservation Service in determining where salinity-control work may provide the best results, and to what extent salinity-control work was effective in reducing salinity concentrations and loads in the Colorado River. Previous studies have indicated that salinity concentrations and loads have been decreasing downstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, and that the decreases are likely the result of salinity control work in these areas. Several of these reports; however, also document decreasing salinity loads upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. This finding was important because only a small amount of salinity-control work was being done in areas upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit at the time the findings were reported (late 1990?s). As a result of those previous findings, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate salinity trends in selected areas bracketing the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit and regions upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. The results of the study indicate that salinity loads were decreasing upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit from 1986 through 2003, but the rates of decrease have slowed during the last 10 years. The average rate of decrease in salinity load upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit was 10,700 tons/year. This accounts for approximately 27 percent of the decrease observed downstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. Salinity loads were decreasing at the fastest rate (6,950 tons/year) in Region 4, which drains an area between the Colorado River at Cameo, Colorado (station CAMEO) and Colorado River above Glenwood Springs, Colorado (station GLEN) streamflow-gaging stations. Trends in salinity concentration and streamflow were tested at station CAMEO to determine if salinity concentration, streamflow, or both are controlling salinity loads upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. Trend tests of individual ion concentrations were included as potential indicators of what sources (based on mineral composition) may be controlling trends in the upper Colorado. No significant trend was detected for streamflow from 1986 to 2003 at station CAMEO; however, a significant downward trend was detected for salinity concentration. The trend slope indicates that salinity concentration is decreasing at a median rate of about 3.54 milligrams per liter per year. Five major ions (calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulfate, and chloride) were tested for trends. The results indicate that processes within source areas with rock and soil types (or other unidentified sources) bearing calcium, sodium, and sulfate had the largest effect on the downward trend in salinity load upstream from station CAMEO. Downward trends in salinity load resulting from ground-water sources and/or land-use change were thought to be possible reasons for the observed decreases in salinity loads; however, the cause or causes of the decreasing salinity loads are not fully understood. A reduction in the amount of ground-water percolation from Region 4 (resulting from work done through Federal irrigation system improvement programs as well as privately funded irrigation system improvements) has helped reduce annual salinity load from Region 4 by approxima

  4. Extended Jarosite Lifetimes in High Salinity Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elwood Madden, M. E.; Madden, A. S.

    2008-12-01

    Particle lifetime calculations utilizing olivine (Olsen and Rimstidt, 2007; Stopar et al., 2006) and jarosite (Elwood Madden et al. 2008) dissolution rates have been used to constrain the duration of aqueous environments on the surface of Mars. Previous rate experiments have shown that jarosite dissolves relatively quickly in dilute aqueous solutions leading to short particle lifetimes. However, mineralogy and bulk chemistry of outcrops containing jarosite at Meridiani Planum suggest high salinity fluids were active in the region. The goal of this study is to determine the effects of high salinity (low activity of water) on jarosite dissolution rates. K-jarosite was synthesized using the methods of Baron and Palmer (1996) and characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, BET surface area analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microcopy. Dissolution experiments were conducted by adding 0.5 g K- jarosite to 500 g ultrapure water at 293K. Samples were collected from the continuously-stirred batch reaction at predetermined intervals and filtered using 0.2 micron filters. K+ concentrations in the resulting supernatants were measured using atomic adsorption spectroscopy to determine the rate of jarosite dissolution. Jarosite dissolution experiments in halite saturated brine result in dissolution rates over one order of magnitude slower than similar experiments conducted in dilute solutions. Dissolution in ultrapure water proceeds at log k= -8.5. Jarosite dissolution in halite saturated brine is significantly slower: log k = -10. Using a shrinking sphere model to calculate particle lifetimes, the lifetime of a 10 micron diameter jarosite particle is extended from 1-2 years in dilute solutions to 100 years in high salinity brine. This suggests that while jarosite is an ephemeral phase in dilute solutions, it may persist for significantly longer time periods in high salinity waters, such as those interpreted at Meridiani Planum based on bulk chemistry and evaporite minerals present within the outcrops. However, even in high salinity fluids, jarosite would not be preserved in aqueous systems lasting thousands to millions of years.

  5. Global Surface Salinity Variability: Modal Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretxabaleta, A. L.; Gourrion, J.; Ballabrera, J.; Mourre, B.; Font, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission of the European Space Agency will provide global surface salinity (SSS) observations starting in 2009. The development and validation of satellite SSS products requires an adequate understanding of the salinity variability at global scales. In this study, a preliminary characterization of the surface salinity variability for the global ocean using both observed and model data is accomplished. A comparison with surface temperature (SST) characteristics is also conducted. Recent ARGO profiles (2004-2008) are used as observational data while the model data is obtained from hindcast simulations (2003-2008) from available prediction systems. Single-variate Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) are estimated for both model and observed temperature and salinity. To achieve a more complete observational temporal and spatial distribution, gap filling is conducted using EOFs through an iterative process to project the available ARGO information. The avoid the overwhelming effect of the Arctic SSS variability on the EOF analysis, that region is separated from the model-observation comparison. The modes of variability from model data presents both spatial and temporal similarities with observational data, especially for surface temperature. The main mode of variability in both SSS and SST is likely associated with the ENSO cycle. Additionally, Single- and Multivariate EOFs can be used to propagate information (gap filling) from data rich variables (SST) or areas to regions where SSS data is sparse. This work is part of the SMOS Barcelona Expert Center (http://www.smos-bec.icm.es) effort to contribute to the ground segment of the SMOS mission.

  6. Water table salinization due to seawater intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badaruddin, Sugiarto; Werner, Adrian D.; Morgan, Leanne K.

    2015-10-01

    Seawater intrusion (SWI) is a significant threat to freshwater resources in coastal aquifers around the world. Previous studies have focused on SWI impacts involving salinization of the lower domain of coastal aquifers. However, under certain conditions, SWI may cause salinization of the entire saturated zone of the aquifer, leading to water table salinization (WTS) in unconfined aquifers by replacing freshwater within the upper region of the saturated zone with seawater, thereby posing a salinity threat to the overlying soil zone. There is presently limited guidance on the extent to which WTS may occur as a secondary impact of SWI. In this study, physical experiments and numerical modeling were used to explore WTS associated with SWI in various nontidal, unconfined coastal aquifer settings. Laboratory experiments and corresponding numerical simulations show that significant WTS can occur under active SWI (i.e., the freshwater hydraulic gradient slopes toward the land) because the cessation of freshwater discharge to the sea and the subsequent landward flow across the entire sea boundary eventually lead to water table salinities approaching seawater concentration. WTS during active SWI is larger under conditions of high hydraulic conductivity, rapid SWI, high dispersivity and for deeper aquifers. Numerical modeling of four published field cases demonstrates that rates of WTS of up to 60 m/yr are plausible. Under passive SWI (i.e., the hydraulic gradient slopes toward the sea), minor WTS may arise as a result of dispersive processes under certain conditions (i.e., high dispersivity and hydraulic conductivity, and low freshwater discharge). Our results show that WTS is probably widespread in coastal aquifers experiencing considerable groundwater decline sustained over several years, although further evidence is needed to identify WTS under field settings.

  7. Biodiversity patterns of soil ciliates along salinity gradients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated ciliate diversity in saline soils with a salinity range from 6.5 to 65psu by the morphological method of the Ludox-quantitative protargol stain (QPS) and the molecular techniques of ciliate-specific clone library and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. No active ciliates could be detected with the Ludox-QPS method, while high molecular diversity of ciliates was found. The highest ciliate molecular diversity was obtained from the soil at salinity of 8.9psu, moderate diversity was found at salinity of 6.5psu, and the diversity sharply decreased at salinity of 50.5psu. By contrast, the number of ciliate classes clearly decreased with increasing soil salinity: six, five, four and two classes from sites with salinity of 6.5psu, 8.9psu, 29.5psu and 50.5psu, respectively. Ciliate diversity pattern is different from that of bacteria, whose diversity is also high in extremely saline environments. Meanwhile, the composition of ciliate community was significantly different along salinity gradient. Colpodea and Oligohymenophorea were diverse in soils at salinity less than 29.5psu, while absent in soils with salinity above 50.5psu. BIOENV analysis indicated soil salinity and water content were the main factors regulating the distribution of ciliates in saline soils. PMID:26773903

  8. Impacts of climate variability on wetland salinization in the North American Prairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachshon, U.; Ireson, A.; van der Kamp, G.; Davies, S. R.; Wheater, H. S.

    2013-11-01

    The glaciated plains of the North American continent, also known as the "prairies", are a complex hydrological system characterized by hummocky terrain, where wetlands, containing seasonal or semi-permanent ponds, occupy the numerous topographic depressions. The prairie subsoil and many of its water bodies contain high salt concentrations, in particular sulfate salts, which are continuously cycled within the closed drainage basins. The period between 2000 and 2012 was characterized by an unusual degree of climatic variability, including severe floods and droughts, and this had a marked effect on the spatial distribution, water levels and chemical composition of wetland ponds. Understanding the geochemical and hydrological processes under changing environmental conditions is needed in order to better understand the risk and mitigate the impacts of future soil and water salinization. Here we explore salt dynamics in the prairies using field observations from St. Denis, Saskatchewan, taken over the last 40 yr. Measurements include meteorological data, soil salinity, groundwater levels and pond water volume, salinity, and chemical composition. The record includes periods of exceptional snow (1997, 2007) and periods of exception rainfall (2010, 2012), both of which resulted in unusually high pond water levels. However, severe salinization only occurred in response to extreme summer rainfall. We hypothesize that since rainfall and snowmelt activate different hydrological pathways, they have markedly different impacts on salinization. We propose that a wet condition associated with high snowmelt conditions does not pose a strong threat to salinization, which has important implications for agricultural planning. Whilst this hypothesis is consistent with our conceptual understanding of the system, it needs to be tested further at a range of field sites in the prairies.

  9. Morphological and physiological responses of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants to salinity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Ma, Huijuan; Chen, Tingting; Pen, Jun; Yu, Shuxun; Zhao, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    Salinization usually plays a primary role in soil degradation, which consequently reduces agricultural productivity. In this study, the effects of salinity on growth parameters, ion, chlorophyll, and proline content, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation of two cotton cultivars, [CCRI-79 (salt tolerant) and Simian 3 (salt sensitive)], were evaluated. Salinity was investigated at 0 mM, 80 mM, 160 mM, and 240 mM NaCl for 7 days. Salinity induced morphological and physiological changes, including a reduction in the dry weight of leaves and roots, root length, root volume, average root diameter, chlorophyll and proline contents, net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. In addition, salinity caused ion imbalance in plants as shown by higher Na+ and Cl- contents and lower K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ concentrations. Ion imbalance was more pronounced in CCRI-79 than in Simian3. In the leaves and roots of the salt-tolerant cultivar CCRI-79, increasing levels of salinity increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR), but reduced catalase (CAT) activity. The activities of SOD, CAT, APX, and GR in the leaves and roots of CCRI-79 were higher than those in Simian 3. CAT and APX showed the greatest H2O2 scavenging activity in both leaves and roots. Moreover, CAT and APX activities in conjunction with SOD seem to play an essential protective role in the scavenging process. These results indicate that CCRI-79 has a more effective protection mechanism and mitigated oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation by maintaining higher antioxidant activities than those in Simian 3. Overall, the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and Chl (a+b) contents, net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, SOD, CAT, APX, and GR activities showed the most significant variation between the two cotton cultivars. PMID:25391141

  10. Morphological and Physiological Responses of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Plants to Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Ma, Huijuan; Chen, Tingting; Pen, Jun; Yu, Shuxun; Zhao, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    Salinization usually plays a primary role in soil degradation, which consequently reduces agricultural productivity. In this study, the effects of salinity on growth parameters, ion, chlorophyll, and proline content, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation of two cotton cultivars, [CCRI-79 (salt tolerant) and Simian 3 (salt sensitive)], were evaluated. Salinity was investigated at 0 mM, 80 mM, 160 mM, and 240 mM NaCl for 7 days. Salinity induced morphological and physiological changes, including a reduction in the dry weight of leaves and roots, root length, root volume, average root diameter, chlorophyll and proline contents, net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. In addition, salinity caused ion imbalance in plants as shown by higher Na+ and Cl− contents and lower K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ concentrations. Ion imbalance was more pronounced in CCRI-79 than in Simian3. In the leaves and roots of the salt-tolerant cultivar CCRI-79, increasing levels of salinity increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR), but reduced catalase (CAT) activity. The activities of SOD, CAT, APX, and GR in the leaves and roots of CCRI-79 were higher than those in Simian 3. CAT and APX showed the greatest H2O2 scavenging activity in both leaves and roots. Moreover, CAT and APX activities in conjunction with SOD seem to play an essential protective role in the scavenging process. These results indicate that CCRI-79 has a more effective protection mechanism and mitigated oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation by maintaining higher antioxidant activities than those in Simian 3. Overall, the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and Chl (a+b) contents, net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, SOD, CAT, APX, and GR activities showed the most significant variation between the two cotton cultivars. PMID:25391141

  11. How a patent ductus arteriosus effects the premature lamb's ability to handle additional volume loads.

    PubMed

    Clyman, R I; Roman, C; Heymann, M A; Mauray, F

    1987-11-01

    A model of patent ductus arteriosus in premature lambs was created to examine the lamb's ability to handle the volume load imposed by a patent ductus arteriosus and to determine the lamb's ability to handle any additional volume load. Fifteen preterm lambs [133 +/- 2 (+/- SD) days gestation, term 145 days], whose ductal diameter could be regulated with a mechanical occluder, were studied to determine the independent effects of ductus patency and a saline volume load (50 ml/kg over 3 min) on left ventricular output and its distribution. During a saline infusion, preterm lambs with a closed ductus could only increase their stroke volume by 40% above baseline stroke volume. When challenged with a saline infusion, lambs with an open ductus still were able to increase their stroke volume significantly; the maximal increase in stroke volume during the saline load with the ductus open was 70% above baseline stroke volume. We hypothesize that the associated reduced left ventricular afterload plays a significant role in the preterm lamb's ability to increase its stroke volume when challenged with a patent ductus arteriosus. Even with a patent ductus arteriosus, the lamb still has the ability to handle additional volume loads. PMID:3684380

  12. Climate change and soil salinity: The case of coastal Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David

    2015-12-01

    This paper estimates location-specific soil salinity in coastal Bangladesh for 2050. The analysis was conducted in two stages: First, changes in soil salinity for the period 2001-2009 were assessed using information recorded at 41 soil monitoring stations by the Soil Research Development Institute. Using these data, a spatial econometric model was estimated linking soil salinity with the salinity of nearby rivers, land elevation, temperature, and rainfall. Second, future soil salinity for 69 coastal sub-districts was projected from climate-induced changes in river salinity and projections of rainfall and temperature based on time trends for 20 Bangladesh Meteorological Department weather stations in the coastal region. The findings indicate that climate change poses a major soil salinization risk in coastal Bangladesh. Across 41 monitoring stations, the annual median projected change in soil salinity is 39 % by 2050. Above the median, 25 % of all stations have projected changes of 51 % or higher. PMID:26152508

  13. Effect of salinity on extracellular polymeric substances of activated sludge from an anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zichao; Gao, Mengchun; Wang, Zhe; She, Zonglian; Chang, Qingbo; Sun, Changqing; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Yun; Yang, Ning

    2013-11-01

    The effect of salinity on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of activated sludge was investigated in an anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The contents of loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) were positively correlated with the salinity. The polysaccharide (PS) and protein (PN) contents in both LB-EPS and TB-EPS increased with the increase of salinity. With the increase of salinity from 0.5% to 6%, the PN/PS ratios in LB-EPS and TB-EPS decreased from 4.8 to 0.9 and from 2.9 to 1.4, respectively. The four fluorescence peaks in both LB-EPS and TB-EPS identified by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy are attributed to PN-like substances and humic acid-like substances. The Fourier transform infrared spectra of the LB-EPS and TB-EPS appeared to be very similar, but the differences across the spectra were apparent in terms of the relative intensity of some bands with the increase of salinity. The sludge volume index showed a linear correlation with LB-EPS (R(2)=0.9479) and TB-EPS (R(2)=0.9355) at different salinities, respectively. PMID:24134890

  14. A comparison of osmoregulatory responses in plasma and tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following acute salinity challenges.

    PubMed

    Al-Jandal, Noura J; Wilson, Rod W

    2011-06-01

    Euryhaline teleosts regulate their internal osmotic and ionic status across a wide range of external salinities. Studies often rely on measurements on plasma when osmoregulatory status is perturbed, whereas tissue measurements are used for small fish with limited blood volume. However, a direct comparison is lacking for plasma and various tissues. In the present study the relationships between plasma, white muscle and carcass were examined for a range of osmoregulatory variables in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following challenge with an acute (24 h) transfer from freshwater to a hyper-osmotic salinity of either 25 or 35. Significant increases in plasma osmolality, [Na+], [Cl⁻], [Ca²+], and [Mg²+] were observed when salinity was increased, but plasma [K+] was unaffected. The water content of both tissues showed reciprocal changes to plasma osmolality. The carcass content of all ions measured showed a significant increase at the highest ambient salinity. In white muscle, Na+, K+ and Mg²+ showed significant increases with external salinity, but Cl⁻ and Ca²+ were unaffected. Measurements from both tissues can provide reliable surrogates for most of the plasma osmoregulatory variables except Cl⁻ and Ca²+ when using white muscle tissue. In the case of internal regulation of K+ both tissues provide sensitive and quantitatively similar indicators of environmental salinity disturbance, whereas plasma does not. PMID:21354472

  15. IMPLEMENTATION OF AGRICULTURAL SALINITY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY IN GRAND VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A summary of the results of applied research on salinity control of irrigation return flows in the Grand Valley of Colorado is presented for the period of 1969 to 1976. Salinity and economic impacts are described for the Grand Valley Salinity Control Demonstration Project which c...

  16. 77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  17. 75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  18. 78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974...

  19. 76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  20. 78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  1. 75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  2. 77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  3. 75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control ] Act of 1974...

  4. Sea Surface Salinity: The Next Remote Sensing Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagerloef, Gary S. E.; Swift, Calvin T.; LeVine, David M.

    1995-01-01

    A brief history of salinity remote sensing is presented. The role of sea surface salinity (SSS) in the far north Atlantic and the influence of salinity variations on upper ocean dynamics in the tropics are described. An assessment of the present state of the technology of the SSS satellite remote sensing is given.

  5. DOES SALINITY REDUCE BORON’S TOXIC EFFECT IN BROCCOLI?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High salinity and boron often occur together in irrigation water in arid climates, but very little research has been done to study the interaction of the two. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the U.S. Salinity Laboratory in sand tanks to evaluate the interactions between B and saline draina...

  6. Salinity-buffered methane hydrate formation and dissociation in gas-rich systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Kehua; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Flemings, Peter B.; Polito, Peter; Bryant, Steven L.

    2015-02-01

    Methane hydrate formation and dissociation are buffered by salinity in a closed system. During hydrate formation, salt excluded from hydrate increases salinity, drives the system to three-phase (gas, water, and hydrate phases) equilibrium, and limits further hydrate formation and dissociation. We developed a zero-dimensional local thermodynamic equilibrium-based model to explain this concept. We demonstrated this concept by forming and melting methane hydrate from a partially brine-saturated sand sample in a controlled laboratory experiment by holding pressure constant (6.94 MPa) and changing temperature stepwise. The modeled methane gas consumptions and hydrate saturations agreed well with the experimental measurements after hydrate nucleation. Hydrate dissociation occurred synchronously with temperature increase. The exception to this behavior is that substantial subcooling (6.4°C in this study) was observed for hydrate nucleation. X-ray computed tomography scanning images showed that core-scale hydrate distribution was heterogeneous. This implied core-scale water and salt transport induced by hydrate formation. Bulk resistivity increased sharply with initial hydrate formation and then decreased as the hydrate ripened. This study reproduced the salinity-buffered hydrate behavior interpreted for natural gas-rich hydrate systems by allowing methane gas to freely enter/leave the sample in response to volume changes associated with hydrate formation and dissociation. It provides insights into observations made at the core scale and log scale of salinity elevation to three-phase equilibrium in natural hydrate systems.

  7. Decreased surface salinity in the Sea of Okhotsk during the last glacial period estimated from alkenones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Osamu; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Ikehara, Minoru; Nakatsuka, Takeshi; Wakatsuchi, Masaaki

    2005-04-01

    Studies of sediment cores from the Sea of Okhotsk, which is characterized by seasonal sea ice, have shown a large variability of sea ice indicators during the glacial-interglacial cycles. In this study, we apply the relative abundance of the C37:4 alkenone to total C37 alkenones (%C37:4) as a molecular indicator of salinity and water masses to further investigate surface oceanographic condition in the Sea of Okhotsk in the glacial period. We found a large fluctuation of %C37:4 (4-35%) with higher values (20~35%) during the last glacial period and lower values (<8%) during warm periods, suggesting a decreased surface salinity in the glacial period. The variation of %C37:4 was found to be consistent with the ice rafted debris (IRD) in the sediment core (correlation coefficient (r2) between %C37:4 and IRD: 0.72). This suggests that the duration of seasonal sea ice was longer in the glacial period than today. The lowered surface salinity in the glacial might also have been seriously affected by the close-off of the shallow Soya Strait, which currently transports massive volumes of saline water from the Sea of Japan to the Sea of Okhotsk.

  8. Effect of salinity on methylation of mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, J.E.; Bartha, R.

    1980-09-01

    Monomethyl and dimethylmercury are potent neurotoxins subject to biomagnification in food webs. This fact was tragically demonstrated by the Minamata and Niigata poisoning incidents in Japan in which 168 persons who ate seafood from mercury polluted waters were poisoned, 52 fatally. Shortly after these two incidents, work conducted in freshwater environments demonstrated the microbial conversion of inorganic and phenylmercury compounds to mono- and di-methylmercury. Consideration of some fragmentary evidence from the literature, however, indicates that the rate and the significance of microbial methylation of mercury in freshwater and saltwater environments may not be the same. A demonstrated relationship between mercury methylation rates and water salinity would greatly influence our thinking about mercury pollution effects in marine versus freshwater environments. Since we were unable to locate published reports on this subject, we are investigating the influence of salinity on the rate of mercury methylation in an estuarine sediment.

  9. Contaminated soils salinity, a threat for phytoextraction?

    PubMed

    Sirguey, Catherine; Ouvrard, Stphanie

    2013-04-01

    Phytoremediation, given the right choice of plant, may be theoretically applicable to multi-contamination. Laboratory and some field trials have proven successful, but this ideal technique is in all cases dependent on plant growth ability on (generally) low-fertility soil or media. While contaminant concentration has often been proposed as an explanation for plant growth limitation, other factors, commonly occurring in industrial soils, such as salinity, should be considered. The present work highlights the fact that besides contaminants (trace elements and PAH), soil salinity may strongly affect germination and growth of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens. Elevated concentrations of nitrate proved highly toxic for seed germination. At the growth stage the salt effect (sulfate) seemed less significant and the limited biomass production observed could be attributed mostly to organic contamination. PMID:23245576

  10. Mechanisms controlling evaporation of a saline film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragila, M. I.; Gitelman, E. M.; Weisbrod, N.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding salt precipitation dynamics during evaporation of saline and sodic soils is necessary for the improvement of agricultural conditions of those soils. In a series of highly controlled laboratory experiments, we found that evaporation of saline solution (copper sulfate) from both homogenous and heterogeneous porous media produces an initial crust followed by subsequent banding patterns. The salt precipitation site represents a rough approximation of the evaporation front. The spacing of the subfluoresecnt deposition sites indicate that the evaporation front is receding in a non-smooth fashion. During the experiments, mass, matric-potential, and photo data were collected. The data indicates that salt precipitates in from the film region of capillary fringe, and thus many contributing mechanisms control this banding phenomena, particularly surface tension and its' variation with concentration.

  11. Cold, salinity and drought stresses: an overview.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Shilpi; Tuteja, Narendra

    2005-12-15

    World population is increasing at an alarming rate and is expected to reach about six billion by the end of year 2050. On the other hand food productivity is decreasing due to the effect of various abiotic stresses; therefore minimizing these losses is a major area of concern for all nations to cope with the increasing food requirements. Cold, salinity and drought are among the major stresses, which adversely affect plants growth and productivity; hence it is important to develop stress tolerant crops. In general, low temperature mainly results in mechanical constraint, whereas salinity and drought exerts its malicious effect mainly by disrupting the ionic and osmotic equilibrium of the cell. It is now well known that the stress signal is first perceived at the membrane level by the receptors and then transduced in the cell to switch on the stress responsive genes for mediating stress tolerance. Understanding the mechanism of stress tolerance along with a plethora of genes involved in stress signaling network is important for crop improvement. Recently, some genes of calcium-signaling and nucleic acid pathways have been reported to be up-regulated in response to both cold and salinity stresses indicating the presence of cross talk between these pathways. In this review we have emphasized on various aspects of cold, salinity and drought stresses. Various factors pertaining to cold acclimation, promoter elements, and role of transcription factors in stress signaling pathway have been described. The role of calcium as an important signaling molecule in response to various stress signals has also been covered. In each of these stresses we have tried to address the issues, which significantly affect the gene expression in relation to plant physiology. PMID:16309626

  12. Evaporites and the Salinity of the Ocean During the Phanerozoic: Implications for Climate, Ocean Circulation and Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floegel, S.; Hay, W. W.; Migdisov, A.; Balukhovsky, A. N.; Wold, C. N.; Soeding, E.

    2005-12-01

    A compilation of data on volumes and masses of evaporite deposits is used as the basis for reconstruction of the salinity of the ocean in the past. Chloride is tracked as the only ion essentially restricted to the ocean, and past salinities are calculated from reconstructed chlorine content of the ocean. Models for ocean salinity through the Phanerozoic are developed using maximal and minimal estimates of the volumes of existing evaporite deposits, and constant and declining volumes of ocean water through the Phanerozoic. We conclude that there have been significant changes in the mean salinity of the ocean accompanying a general decline throughout the Phanerozoic. The greatest changes are related to major extractions of salt into the ocean basins which developed during the Mesozoic as Pangaea broke apart. Unfortunately, the sizes of these salt deposits are also the least well known. The last major extractions of salt from the ocean occurred during the Miocene, shortly after the large scale extraction of water from the ocean to form the ice cap of Antarctica. However, these two modifications of the masses of H2O and salt in the ocean followed in sequence and did not cancel each other out. Accordingly, salinities during the Early Miocene were reconstructed to be between 37‰ and 39‰. The Mesozoic was a time of generally declining salinity associated with the deep sea salt extractions of the North Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico (Middle to Late Jurassic) and South Atlantic (Early Cretaceous). The earliest of the major extractions of the Phanerozoic occurred during the Permian. There were few large extractions of salt during the earlier Paleozoic. The models suggest that this was a time of relatively stable but slowly increasing salinities ranging through the upper 40‰'s into the lower 50‰'s. Higher salinities for the world ocean had profound consequences for the thermohaline circulation of the ocean in the past. In the modern ocean, with an average salinity of about 34.7‰, the density of water is only slightly affected by cooling as it approaches the freezing point. Consequently, salinization through sea-ice formation or evaporation is usually required to make water dense enough to sink into the ocean interior. At salinities above about 40‰ water continues to become more dense as it approaches the freezing point, and salinization is not required. The energy-consuming phase changes involved in sea-ice formation and evaporation would not be required for vertical circulation in the ocean. The hypothesized major declines in salinity correspond closely to the evolution of both planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannoplankton. Both groups were restricted to shelf regions in the Jurassic and early Cretaceous, but spread into the open ocean in the mid Cretaceous. The modeling also suggests that there was a major salinity decline in from the late Precambrian to the Cambrian, and it is tempting to speculate that this may have been a factor in the Cambrian explosion of life.

  13. Incorporation of salinity in Water Availability Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Lee, Chihun

    2011-10-01

    SummaryNatural salt pollution from geologic formations in the upper watersheds of several large river basins in the Southwestern United States severely constrains the use of otherwise available major water supply sources. The Water Rights Analysis Package modeling system has been routinely applied in Texas since the late 1990s in regional and statewide planning studies and administration of the state's water rights permit system, but without consideration of water quality. The modeling system was recently expanded to incorporate salinity considerations in assessments of river/reservoir system capabilities for supplying water for environmental, municipal, agricultural, and industrial needs. Salinity loads and concentrations are tracked through systems of river reaches and reservoirs to develop concentration frequency statistics that augment flow frequency and water supply reliability metrics at pertinent locations for alternative water management strategies. Flexible generalized capabilities are developed for using limited observed salinity data to model highly variable concentrations imposed upon complex river regulation infrastructure and institutional water allocation/management practices.

  14. Deep roots of the Messinian salinity crisis.

    PubMed

    Duggen, Svend; Hoernle, Kaj; van den Bogaard, Paul; Rpke, Lars; Morgan, Jason Phipps

    2003-04-10

    The Messinian salinity crisis--the desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea between 5.96 and 5.33 million years (Myr) ago--was one of the most dramatic events on Earth during the Cenozoic era. It resulted from the closure of marine gateways between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, the causes of which remain enigmatic. Here we use the age and composition of volcanic rocks to reconstruct the geodynamic evolution of the westernmost Mediterranean from the Middle Miocene epoch to the Pleistocene epoch (about 12.1-0.65 Myr ago). Our data show that a marked shift in the geochemistry of mantle-derived volcanic rocks, reflecting a change from subduction-related to intraplate-type volcanism, occurred between 6.3 and 4.8 Myr ago, largely synchronous with the Messinian salinity crisis. Using a thermomechanical model, we show that westward roll back of subducted Tethys oceanic lithosphere and associated asthenospheric upwelling provides a plausible mechanism for producing the shift in magma chemistry and the necessary uplift (approximately 1 km) along the African and Iberian continental margins to close the Miocene marine gateways, thereby causing the Messinian salinity crisis. PMID:12686997

  15. Bolus intravenous 0.9% saline, but not 4% albumin or 5% glucose, causes interstitial pulmonary edema in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Bihari, Shailesh; Wiersema, Ubbo F; Schembri, David; De Pasquale, Carmine G; Dixon, Dani-Louise; Prakash, Shivesh; Lawrence, Mark D; Bowden, Jeffrey J; Bersten, Andrew D

    2015-10-01

    Rapid intravenous (iv) infusion of 0.9% saline alters respiratory mechanics in healthy subjects. However, the relative cardiovascular and respiratory effects of bolus iv crystalloid vs. colloid are unknown. Six healthy male volunteers were given 30 ml/kg iv 0.9% saline, 4% albumin, and 5% glucose at a rate of 100 ml/min on 3 separate days in a double-blinded, randomized crossover study. Impulse oscillometry, spirometry, lung volumes, diffusing capacity (DLCO), and blood samples were measured before and after fluid administration. Lung ultrasound B-line score (indicating interstitial pulmonary edema) and Doppler echocardiography indices of cardiac preload were measured before, midway, immediately after, and 1 h after fluid administration. Infusion of 0.9% saline increased small airway resistance at 5 Hz (P = 0.04) and lung ultrasound B-line score (P = 0.01) without changes in Doppler echocardiography measures of preload. In contrast, 4% albumin increased DLCO, decreased lung volumes, and increased the Doppler echocardiography mitral E velocity (P = 0.001) and E-to-lateral/septal e' ratio, estimated blood volume, and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (P = 0.01) but not lung ultrasound B-line score, consistent with increased pulmonary blood volume without interstitial pulmonary edema. There were no significant changes with 5% glucose. Plasma angiopoietin-2 concentration increased only after 0.9% saline (P = 0.001), suggesting an inflammatory mechanism associated with edema formation. In healthy subjects, 0.9% saline and 4% albumin have differential pulmonary effects not attributable to passive fluid filtration. This may reflect either different effects of these fluids on active signaling in the pulmonary circulation or a protective effect of albumin. PMID:26228998

  16. Effect of sudden salinity change on Penaeus latisulcatus Kishinouye osmoregulation, ionoregulation and condition in inland saline water and potassium-fortified inland saline water.

    PubMed

    Prangnell, David I; Fotedar, Ravi

    2006-12-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effect of sudden decrease in salinity of raw and potassium-fortified inland saline water on western king prawn Penaeus latisulcatus osmoregulation, ionoregulation and condition. Prawns were subjected to salinity decrease over 1 h from 32 to 25 ppt in the first trial and from 27 to 20 ppt in the second trial in three water types: inland saline water with potassium fortified to 100% and 80% of the marine water concentration (IS100, IS80), and raw inland saline water (ISW). In the first trial condition and ingestion rate were monitored over 19 days following salinity change. In the second trial condition, haemolymph osmo- and iono-regulation were recorded over 48 h following salinity change. In the first trial, 100% mortality was observed in ISW by day 13, with final survival 94% in IS80 and 100% in IS100. Tail muscle moisture content increased significantly (P < 0.05) over time in both trials and in all water types, suggesting loss of energy reserves. In the second trial, serum osmolality, sodium concentration and osmoregulatory capacity decreased following salinity change, stabilising by 24 h in IS100 and IS80 but continuing to decrease till 48 h in ISW, suggesting partial breakdown of osmoregulatory function in the potassium-deficient medium. Prawns were stronger regulators of divalent than monovalent cations. These trials demonstrate that potassium-deficient inland saline water requires fortification with potassium to allow prawn survival and efficient osmoregulation. PMID:17030137

  17. Effects of salinity on baldcypress seedlings: Physiological responses and their relation to salinity tolerance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Chambers, J.L.; Pezeshki, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    Growth and physiological responses of 15 open-pollinated families of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum var. distichum) subjected to flooding with saline water were evaluated in this study. Ten of the families were from coastal sites in Louisiana and Alabama, USA that have elevated levels of soil-water salinity. The other five families were from inland, freshwater sites in Louisiana. Seedlings from all families tolerated flooding with water of low (2 g l-1) salinity. Differences in biomass among families became most apparent at the highest salinity levels (6 and 8 g l-1). Overall, increasing salinity reduced leaf biomass more than root biomass, which in turn was reduced more than stem biomass. A subset of seedlings from the main greenhouse experiment was periodically placed indoors under artificial light, and measurements were made of gas exchange and leaf water potential. Also, tissue concentrations of Cl-, Na+, K+, and Ca2+ were determined at the end of the greenhouse experiment. Significant intraspecific variation was found for nearly all the physiological parameters evaluated, but only leaf concentrations of Na+ and Cl- were correlated with an index of family-level differences in salt tolerance.

  18. Relating aggregated surface water flux with Aquarius salinity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, X.; Liu, W.

    2012-12-01

    One of the original objectives of Aquarius is to use surface salinity measurement as a rain gauge to characterize the hydrologic balance. Rain affects Aquarius salinity measurements by changing the roughness and the brightness temperature, and the accumulated rain forms a fresh-water lens that dilutes the surface salinity. We have examined high frequency rainfall provided by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Climate Prediction Center Morphing Technique (CMORPH), co-incident with about one year of Aquarius salinity measurements. The relation of rainfall accumulated over various periods and the Aquarius salinity measurement has been examined over various regions of the tropical oceans. Using surface ocean currents provided by the Ocean Surface Currents Analyses - Realtime (OSCAR) and fresh water flux from TRMM, combined with Aquarius salinity, oceanic salinity budget was examined and the role of precipitation and ocean dynamics were evaluated over various regions.

  19. Mapping Salinity Tolerance during Arabidopsis thaliana Germination and Seedling Growth

    PubMed Central

    DeRose-Wilson, Leah; Gaut, Brandon S.

    2011-01-01

    To characterize and dissect genetic variation for salinity tolerance, we assessed variation in salinity tolerance during germination and seedling growth for a worldwide sample of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. By combining QTL mapping, association mapping and expression data, we identified genomic regions involved in salinity response. Among the worldwide sample, we found germination ability within a moderately saline environment (150 mM NaCl) varied considerable, from >90% among the most tolerant lines to complete inability to germinate among the most susceptible. Our results also demonstrated wide variation in salinity tolerance within A. thaliana RIL populations and identified multiple genomic regions that contribute to this variation. These regions contain known candidate genes, but at least four of the regions contain loci not yet associated with salinity tolerance response phenotypes. Our observations suggest A. thaliana natural variation may be an underutilized resource for investigating salinity stress response. PMID:21857956

  20. Review of factors affecting recovery of freshwater stored in saline aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    A simulation analysis reported previously, and summarized herein, identified the effects of various geohydrologic and operational factors on recoverability of the injected water. Buoyancy stratification, downgradient advection, and hydrodynamic dispersion are the principal natural processes that reduce the amount of injected water that can be recovered. Buoyancy stratification is shown to depend on injection-zone permeability and the density contrast between injected and saline native water. Downgradient advection occurs as a result of natural or induced hydraulic gradients in the aquifer. Hydrodynamic dispersion reduces recovery efficiency by mixing some of the injected water with native saline aquifer water. In computer simulations, the relation of recovery efficiency to volume injected and its improvement during successive injection-recovery cycles was shown to depend on changes in the degree of hydrodynamic dispersion that occurs. Additional aspects of the subject are discussed.

  1. Impacts of climate variability on wetland salinization in the North American prairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachshon, U.; Ireson, A.; van der Kamp, G.; Davies, S. R.; Wheater, H. S.

    2014-04-01

    The glaciated plains of the North American continent, also known as the "prairies", are a complex hydrological system characterized by hummocky terrain, where wetlands, containing seasonal or semi-permanent ponds, occupy the numerous topographic depressions. The prairie subsoil and many of its water bodies contain high salt concentrations, in particular sulfate salts, which are continuously cycled within the closed drainage basins. The period between 2000 and 2012 was characterized by an unusual degree of climatic variability, including severe floods and droughts, and this had a marked effect on the spatial distribution, water levels and chemical composition of wetland ponds. Understanding the geochemical and hydrological processes under changing environmental conditions is needed in order to better understand the risk and mitigate the impacts of future soil and water salinization. Here we explore salt dynamics in the prairies using field observations from St. Denis, Saskatchewan, taken mostly over the last 20 years. Measurements include meteorological data, soil moisture, soil salinity, groundwater levels and pond water volume, salinity, and chemical composition. The record includes periods of exceptional snow (1997, 2007) and periods of exception rainfall (2010, 2012), both of which resulted in unusually high pond water levels. Measurements indicated that severe pond salinization only occurred in response to extreme summer rainfall. It is hypothesized that since rainfall water infiltrates through the soil towards the depressions, while snowmelt water flows mainly as surface water over frozen soils, they have markedly different impacts on salt transport and pond salinization. Whilst this hypothesis is consistent with our conceptual understanding of the system, it needs to be tested further at a range of field sites in the prairies.

  2. The effects of salinity and temperature on the transparency of the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio.

    PubMed

    Bhandiwad, Ashwin; Johnsen, Snke

    2011-03-01

    Transparency is an effective form of camouflage, but it must be present throughout the entire volume of an animal to succeed. Certain environmental stressors may cause physiological responses that increase internal light scattering, making tissue less transparent and more conspicuous to predators. We tested this in the transparent grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, which is found in shallow estuaries where both salinity and temperature change rapidly because of tidal cycles, evaporation and runoff. Animals originally kept at a salinity of 15 p.p.t. and a temperature of 20C were placed into solutions with salinities of 0, 15, 25 or 30 p.p.t. and temperatures of 13, 20 or 27C for 12 h (N=26 for each of 12 treatments). Under the control conditions of 15 p.p.t. at 20C, the transparency of grass shrimp tails was 543% (mean s.e.). At higher salinities and at both higher and lower temperatures, transparency dropped significantly (P<0.001, two-way ANOVA), reaching 0.040.01% at 30 p.p.t. at 27C. Confocal microscopy of P. pugio's tail suggested that the observed loss of transparency was due to the pooling of low refractive index hemolymph between the high index muscle fibers, creating many index boundaries that increased light scattering. Analysis of a year-long salinity and temperature record from a North Carolina estuary showed that changes of the order of those found in this study are relatively common, suggesting that P. pugio may undergo periods of reduced crypsis, potentially leading to increased predation. PMID:21307056

  3. Durum wheat seedlings in saline conditions: Salt spray versus root-zone salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanò, Carmelina; Bottega, Stefania

    2016-02-01

    Salinity is an increasingly serious problem with a strong negative impact on plant productivity. Though many studies have been made on salt stress induced by high NaCl concentrations in the root-zone, few data concern the response of plants to saline aerosol, one of the main constraints in coastal areas. In order to study more in depth wheat salinity tolerance and to evaluate damage and antioxidant response induced by various modes of salt application, seedlings of Triticum turgidum ssp. durum, cv. Cappelli were treated for 2 and 7 days with salt in the root-zone (0, 50 and 200 mM NaCl) or with salt spray (400 mM NaCl + 0 or 200 mM NaCl in the root-zone). Seedlings accumulated Na+ in their leaves and therefore part of their ability to tolerate high salinity seems to be due to Na+ leaf tissue tolerance. Durum wheat, confirmed as a partially tolerant plant, shows a higher damage under airborne salinity, when both an increase in TBA-reactive material (indicative of lipid peroxidation) and a decrease in root growth were recorded. A different antioxidant response was activated, depending on the type of salt supply. Salt treatment induced a depletion of the reducing power of both ascorbate and glutathione while the highest contents of proline were detected under salt spray conditions. In the short term catalase and ascorbate peroxidase co-operated with glutathione peroxidase in the scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, in particular in salt spray-treated plants. From our data, the durum wheat cultivar Cappelli seems to be sensitive to airborne salinity.

  4. Salinity of animal manure and potential risk of secondary soil salinization through successive manure application.

    PubMed

    Li-Xian, Yao; Guo-Liang, Li; Shi-Hua, Tu; Gavin, Sulewski; Zhao-Huan, He

    2007-09-20

    To enhance animal productivity and maximize economic returns, mineral salts are routinely added to animal feed worldwide. Salinity and ionic composition of animal manure from intensive poultry and livestock farms in Guangdong province were investigated. Field experiments were conducted for six successive crops of Brassica Parachinensis to evaluate the possibility of secondary soil salinization by successive application of chicken manure (CM) and pigeon manure (PM) to a garden soil. The concentration of total soluble salts (TSS), which were mainly composed of sulfate and chloride of potassium and sodium, averaged 49.0, 20.6 and 60.3 g.kg(- 1) in chicken, pig and pigeon manure, respectively. After three crops, successive application of CM and PM increased soil concentrations of TSS, Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), SO(4)(2-), and Cl(-) with application rate, resulting in a rise in soil salinity from low to medium levels and a slight reduction in soil pH. After heavy rains during the last three crops, soil TSS was reduced considerably and pH showed a slight increase. Concentrations of Cl(-) and Mg(2+) increased and Ca(2+) decreased at the end of the experiment, all leading to changes in the ionic composition of soil salinity. Manure with higher ion concentrations appeared to play a more important role in affecting ionic composition of soil salinity. The results further suggest that even in a region with abundant rainfall like Guangzhou, there is still potential risk for secondary soil salinization when high rates of CM and PM are applied. PMID:17572477

  5. Feasibility of irrigating pickleweed (Salicornia bigelovii. Torr) with hyper-saline drainage water.

    PubMed

    Grattan, S R; Benes, S E; Peters, D W; Diaz, F

    2008-01-01

    Reuse of drainage water (DW) for irrigation reduces the volume of DW requiring treatment or disposal. We conducted a greenhouse study to evaluate the performance of the halophyte Salicornia bigelovii Torr. when irrigated with hyper-saline DW and seawater (SW) treatments, ranging from 1/3 strength to full strength (18-49 dS m(-1)), in a sand-culture system. Results indicate that Salicornia grows well over the entire range of iso-osmotic SW and DW salinity treatments. Moreover, when boron (B) was added to SW treatments to concentrations equivalent to that of corresponding 1/3- and 2/3-strength DW treatments (i.e., 9 and 17 mg L(-1)), growth was not affected, and tissue B concentrations were <150 mg kg(-1) dry wt. However, when plants were irrigated with synthetic DW where B was reduced to solution culture levels (0.5-1.0 mg L(-1)), plants generally performed worse than when irrigated with actual DW high in B at the same salinity level. Evapotranspiration (ET) rates exceeded that lost from an evaporation pan from 1.5 to 2.5 times. Using a method accounting for changes in the isotopic signature of water in the reservoir due to evaporation, we estimated that high ET rates were due primarily to high transpiration rates (>78% of ET). The salt content in the tissue was very high (ash content 43-52%), but ionic composition in the shoot tissue reflected that of the treatment water used to irrigate the plants. These data indicate that hyper-saline DW, characteristic of California's San Joaquin Valley, can be used to irrigate Salicornia and substantially reduce drainage volumes. PMID:18765761

  6. Linear Crop Response Functions to Soil Salinity With a Threshold Salinity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinerman, E.; Yaron, D.; Bielorai, H.

    1982-02-01

    The response function of a crop yield to soil salinity level is essential in decision-making in regard to irrigation with saline water. A switching regression approach to estimate the piecewise linear response function with critical threshold level is presented, and the asymptotical stochastic properties of the estimates are described. The empirical estimates, based on grapefruit yield data, are compared with those of a recent published study by Maas and Hoffman (1977) and the statistical significance of the differences is discussed. Finally, the threshold hypothesis is tested empirically against some alternative formulations. It turns out that the `threshold hypothesis' is confirmed.

  7. The Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm: Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank J.; Lagerloef, Gary; LeVine, David

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius L-band radiometer/scatterometer system is designed to provide monthly salinity maps at 150 km spatial scale to a 0.2 psu accuracy. The sensor was launched on June 10, 2011, aboard the Argentine CONAE SAC-D spacecraft. The L-band radiometers and the scatterometer have been taking science data observations since August 25, 2011. The first part of this presentation gives an overview over the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The instrument calibration converts Aquarius radiometer counts into antenna temperatures (TA). The salinity retrieval algorithm converts those TA into brightness temperatures (TB) at a flat ocean surface. As a first step, contributions arising from the intrusion of solar, lunar and galactic radiation are subtracted. The antenna pattern correction (APC) removes the effects of cross-polarization contamination and spillover. The Aquarius radiometer measures the 3rd Stokes parameter in addition to vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations, which allows for an easy removal of ionospheric Faraday rotation. The atmospheric absorption at L-band is almost entirely due to O2, which can be calculated based on auxiliary input fields from numerical weather prediction models and then successively removed from the TB. The final step in the TA to TB conversion is the correction for the roughness of the sea surface due to wind. This is based on the radar backscatter measurements by the scatterometer. The TB of the flat ocean surface can now be matched to a salinity value using a surface emission model that is based on a model for the dielectric constant of sea water and an auxiliary field for the sea surface temperature. In the current processing (as of writing this abstract) only v-pol TB are used for this last process and NCEP winds are used for the roughness correction. Before the salinity algorithm can be operationally implemented and its accuracy assessed by comparing versus in situ measurements, an extensive calibration and validation (cal/val) activity needs to be completed. This is necessary in order to tune the inputs to the algorithm and remove biases that arise due to the instrument calibration, foremost the values of the noise diode injection temperatures and the losses that occur in the feedhorns. This is the subject of the second part of our presentation. The basic tool is to analyze the observed difference between the Aquarius measured TA and an expected TA that is computed from a reference salinity field. It is also necessary to derive a relation between the scatterometer backscatter measurements and the radiometer emissivity that is induced by surface winds. In order to do this we collocate Aquarius radiometer and scatterometer measurements with wind speed retrievals from the WindSat and SSMIS F17 microwave radiometers. Both of these satellites fly in orbits that have the same equatorial ascending crossing time (6 pm) as the Aquarius/SAC-D observatory. Rain retrievals from WindSat and SSMIS F 17 can be used to remove Aquarius observations that are rain contaminated. A byproduct of this analysis is a prediction for the wind-induced sea surface emissivity at L-band.

  8. Diatom Cell Size, Coloniality and Motility: Trade-Offs between Temperature, Salinity and Nutrient Supply with Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Filip; Norberg, Jon; Snoeijs, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Reduction in body size has been proposed as a universal response of organisms, both to warming and to decreased salinity. However, it is still controversial if size reduction is caused by temperature or salinity on their own, or if other factors interfere as well. We used natural benthic diatom communities to explore how “body size” (cells and colonies) and motility change along temperature (2–26°C) and salinity (0.5–7.8) gradients in the brackish Baltic Sea. Fourth-corner analysis confirmed that small cell and colony sizes were associated with high temperature in summer. Average community cell volume decreased linearly with 2.2% per °C. However, cells were larger with artificial warming when nutrient concentrations were high in the cold season. Average community cell volume increased by 5.2% per °C of artificial warming from 0 to 8.5°C and simultaneously there was a selection for motility, which probably helped to optimize growth rates by trade-offs between nutrient supply and irradiation. Along the Baltic Sea salinity gradient cell size decreased with decreasing salinity, apparently mediated by nutrient stoichiometry. Altogether, our results suggest that climate change in this century may polarize seasonality by creating two new niches, with elevated temperature at high nutrient concentrations in the cold season (increasing cell size) and elevated temperature at low nutrient concentrations in the warm season (decreasing cell size). Higher temperature in summer and lower salinity by increased land-runoff are expected to decrease the average cell size of primary producers, which is likely to affect the transfer of energy to higher trophic levels. PMID:25279720

  9. Diatom cell size, coloniality and motility: trade-offs between temperature, salinity and nutrient supply with climate change.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Filip; Norberg, Jon; Snoeijs, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Reduction in body size has been proposed as a universal response of organisms, both to warming and to decreased salinity. However, it is still controversial if size reduction is caused by temperature or salinity on their own, or if other factors interfere as well. We used natural benthic diatom communities to explore how "body size" (cells and colonies) and motility change along temperature (2-26C) and salinity (0.5-7.8) gradients in the brackish Baltic Sea. Fourth-corner analysis confirmed that small cell and colony sizes were associated with high temperature in summer. Average community cell volume decreased linearly with 2.2% per C. However, cells were larger with artificial warming when nutrient concentrations were high in the cold season. Average community cell volume increased by 5.2% per C of artificial warming from 0 to 8.5C and simultaneously there was a selection for motility, which probably helped to optimize growth rates by trade-offs between nutrient supply and irradiation. Along the Baltic Sea salinity gradient cell size decreased with decreasing salinity, apparently mediated by nutrient stoichiometry. Altogether, our results suggest that climate change in this century may polarize seasonality by creating two new niches, with elevated temperature at high nutrient concentrations in the cold season (increasing cell size) and elevated temperature at low nutrient concentrations in the warm season (decreasing cell size). Higher temperature in summer and lower salinity by increased land-runoff are expected to decrease the average cell size of primary producers, which is likely to affect the transfer of energy to higher trophic levels. PMID:25279720

  10. Salinity fronts in the tropical Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Hsun-Ying; Lagerloef, Gary S E

    2015-01-01

    This study delineates the salinity fronts (SF) across the tropical Pacific, and describes their variability and regional dynamical significance using Aquarius satellite observations. From the monthly maps of the SF, we find that the SF in the tropical Pacific are (1) usually observed around the boundaries of the fresh pool under the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), (2) stronger in boreal autumn than in other seasons, and (3) usually stronger in the eastern Pacific than in the western Pacific. The relationship between the SF and the precipitation and the surface velocity are also discussed. We further present detailed analysis of the SF in three key tropical Pacific regions. Extending zonally around the ITCZ, where the temperature is nearly homogeneous, we find the strong SF of 1.2 psu from 7° to 11°N to be the main contributor of the horizontal density difference of 0.8 kg/m3. In the eastern Pacific, we observe a southward extension of the SF in the boreal spring that could be driven by both precipitation and horizontal advection. In the western Pacific, the importance of these newly resolved SF associated with the western Pacific warm/fresh pool and El Niño southern oscillations are also discussed in the context of prior literature. The main conclusions of this study are that (a) Aquarius satellite salinity measurements reveal the heretofore unknown proliferation, structure, and variability of surface salinity fronts, and that (b) the fine-scale structures of the SF in the tropical Pacific yield important new information on the regional air-sea interaction and the upper ocean dynamics. PMID:26213676

  11. Aquarius Sea surface salinity from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koblinsky, C. J.; Aquarius Team

    2003-04-01

    Aquarius is a new NASA Earth System Science Pathfinder mission that will be carried out in partnership with the Argentine space commission to study the impact of the global water cycle on the ocean, including the response of the ocean to buoyancy forcing and the subsequent feedback of the ocean on the climate. The measurement objective is sea surface salinity, which describes the concentration of freshwater at the ocean surface. Salinity effects the dielectric constant of seawater and, consequently, the radiometric emission from the sea surface. Space observations with an L-band radiometer were first made from Skylab in the mid-70s. Numerous aircraft missions of increasing quality and improved technology have been conducted over the past decade to demonstrate that the technology and algorithms are now available to carry out a global mission. The Aquarius measurement goals are 0.2 practical salinity units accuracy, 100 km resolution, every month. It includes real aperture dual-polarized L-band (1.413 Ghz) radiometers and a (1.2 Ghz) scatterometer system in space and a global array of in situ observations for validation. A 3 m antenna at 600km altitude in a sun-synchronous orbit provide a 270 km swath from a "push-broom" configuration that lead to the desired 100 km resolution global coverage every week. Launch is planned for the fall of 2007 with a mission lifetime of at least three years. This presentation will describe both the mission and the science investigations that will benefit from these measurements.

  12. Effects of Salinity and Nutrient Addition on Mangrove Excoecaria agallocha

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yaping; Ye, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Effects of salinity on seed germination and growth of young (1 month old) and old (2-year old) seedlings of Excoecaria agallocha were investigated. Combined effects of salinity and nutrient level were also examined on old seedlings. Seed germination was best at 0 and 5 psu salinity. 15 psu salinity significantly delayed root initiation and decreased final establishment rate. All seeds failed to establish at 25 psu salinity. Young seedlings performed best at 0 and 5 psu, but growth was stunned at 15 psu, and all seedlings died within 90 days at 25 psu. Old seedlings grew best at salinities below 5 psu and they survived the whole cultivation at 25 psu. This indicated that E. agallocha increased salt tolerance over time. Gas exchange was significantly compromised by salinities above 15 psu but evidently promoted by high nutrient. Proline accumulated considerably at high nutrient, and its contents increased from 0 to 15 psu but decreased at 25 psu salinity. Lipid peroxidation was aggravated by increasing salinity beyond 15 psu but markedly alleviated by nutrient addition. These responses indicated that E. agallocha was intolerant to high salinity but it can be greatly enhanced by nutrient addition. PMID:24691495

  13. Local adaptation to salinity in the three-spined stickleback?

    PubMed

    DeFaveri, J; Meril, J

    2014-02-01

    Different lines of evidence suggest that the occurrence and extent of local adaptation in high gene flow marine environments - even in mobile and long-lived vertebrates with complex life cycles - may be more widespread than earlier thought. We conducted a common garden experiment to test for local adaptation to salinity in Baltic Sea sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Fish from three different native salinity regimes (high, mid and low) were subjected to three salinity treatments (high, mid and low) in a full-factorial experimental design. Irrespective of their origin, fish subjected to low (and mid) salinity treatments exhibited higher juvenile survival, grew to largest sizes and were in better condition than fish subjected to the high salinity treatment. However, a significant interaction between native and treatment salinities - resulting mainly from the poor performance of fish native to low salinity in the high salinity treatment - provided clear cut evidence for adaptation to local variation in salinity. Additional support for this inference was provided by the fact that the results concur with an earlier demonstration of significant differentiation in a number of genes with osmoregulatory functions across the same populations and that the population-specific responses to salinity treatments exceeded that to be expected by random genetic drift. PMID:24330503

  14. Tolerance of Venerupis philippinarum to salinity: osmotic and metabolic aspects.

    PubMed

    Carregosa, Vanessa; Figueira, Etelvina; Gil, Ana M; Pereira, Sara; Pinto, Joana; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Freitas, Rosa

    2014-05-01

    In the last few decades, attention has been focused on the impacts of contamination in marine benthic populations, while the responses of aquatic organisms to natural alterations, namely changes in salinity, have received little attention. In fact, salinity is one of the dominant environmental factors affecting marine bivalves. The ebb and flood of the tide, combined with fresh water inputs from rivers or heavy rainy events, and with extremely dry and hot seasons, can dramatically alter water salinity. Therefore, the salinity of a certain environment can restrict the spatial distribution of a given population, which is especially important when assessing the spread of an invasive species into a new environment. In the present study, the main objective was to understand how clam Venerupis philippinarum copes with salinity changes and, hence biochemical and metabolomic alterations, taking place in individuals submitted to a wide range of salinities were investigated. The results showed that V. philippinarum presented high mortality at lower salinities (0 and 7 g/L) but tolerated high salinities (35 and 42 g/L). The quantification of ionic content revealed that, clams had the capacity to maintain ionic homeostasis along the salinity gradient, mainly changing the concentration of Na, but also with the influence of Mg and Ca. The results showed a decrease in protein content at lower salinities (0 to 21 g/L). Glycogen and glucose increased with increasing salinity gradient. (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra of clam aqueous extracts revealed different metabolite profiles at 7, 28 and 42 g/L salinities, thus enabling metabolite changes to be measured in relation to salinity. PMID:24556070

  15. Antibiotic-metal interactions in saline medium.

    PubMed

    von Fraunhofer, J A; Berberich, N; Seligson, D

    1989-03-01

    The commonly used surgical alloys, stainless steel, titanium and Vitallium, were exposed to normal saline solution containing antibiotics frequently used for the control and treatment of orthopaedic infections and the corrosion potential versus time behaviour was followed. It was found that only one antibiotic, oxytetracycline, exerted a significant effect on electrochemical behaviour, producing an anodic shift of 120-250 mV in the Ecorr of the three metals. The study indicated that oxytetracycline at addition levels of 0.01-1.0 mg/ml acts as an anodic corrosion inhibitor. PMID:2706303

  16. Spontaneous unilateral autoinflation of a saline-filled mammary implant.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, D; Backovic, A; Kaindl, R; Hussl, H; Wick, G

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a woman with a massive volume increase in her right breast 12 years after breast augmentation with saline-filled silicone mammary implants (SMI). Tenderness of and pressure pain in the enlarged right breast were noted on physical examination. Intraoperatively, the right implant was seen to be markedly enlarged, altered in colour and filled with a brownish fluid as compared to the other side. No macroscopic damage, including to the valve of the enlarged SMI, was noticed. The liquid in the inflated SMI was subjected to biochemical analysis. Although neither cells nor nucleic acids were detected, 4 mg/ml protein was found in the liquid of the autoinflated SMI. On SDS-PAGE separation, these proteins resolved in a pattern similar to that of serum proteins. This observation was corroborated by Western blots for several serum proteins. Surprisingly, proteins in the SMI liquid were significantly more glycosylated and oxidised than were serum proteins; this finding indicates a process of protein ageing. We hypothesise that the reason for this in vivo expansion was a defective valve and not colloid osmotic swelling, as previously suggested. PMID:17890168

  17. Direct Volume Rendering of Curvilinear Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaziri, Arsi; Wilhelms, J.; Challinger, J.; Alper, N.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Direct volume rendering can visualize sampled 3D scalar data as a continuous medium, or extract features. However, it is generally slow. Furthermore, most algorithms for direct volume rendering have assumed rectilinear gridded data. This paper discusses methods for using direct volume rendering when the original volume is curvilinear, i.e. is divided into six-sided cells which are not necessarily equilateral hexahedra. One approach is to ray-cast such volumes directly. An alternative approach is to interpolate the sample volumes to a rectilinear grid, and use this regular volume for rendering. Advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches in terms of speed and image quality are explored.

  18. Amoebae and Legionella pneumophila in saline environments

    PubMed Central

    Gast, Rebecca J.; Moran, Dawn M.; Dennett, Mark R.; Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.; Amaral- Zettler, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Amoeboid protists that harbor bacterial pathogens are of significant interest as potential reservoirs of disease-causing organisms in the environment, but little is known about them in marine and other saline environments. We enriched amoeba cultures from sediments from four sites in the New England estuarine system of Mt. Hope Bay, Massachusetts and from sediments from six sites in the Great Salt Lake, Utah. Cultures of amoebae were enriched using both minimal- and non-nutrient agar plates, made with fresh water, brackish water or saltwater. Recovered amoeba cultures were assayed for the presence of Legionella species using nested polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and primers specific for the genus. Positive samples were then screened with nested amplification using primers specific for the macrophage infectivity potentiator surface protein (mip) gene from L. pneumophila. Forty-eight percent (185 out of 388) of isolated amoeba cultures were positive for the presence of Legionella species. Legionella pneumophila was detected by PCR in 4% of the amoeba cultures (17 out of 388), and most of these amoebae were growing on marine media. Our results show that amoebae capable of growing in saline environments may harbor not only a diverse collection of Legionella species, but also species potentially pathogenic to humans. PMID:21301113

  19. Amoebae and Legionella pneumophila in saline environments.

    PubMed

    Gast, Rebecca J; Moran, Dawn M; Dennett, Mark R; Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A

    2011-03-01

    Amoeboid protists that harbor bacterial pathogens are of significant interest as potential reservoirs of disease-causing organisms in the environment, but little is known about them in marine and other saline environments. We enriched amoeba cultures from sediments from four sites in the New England estuarine system of Mt. Hope Bay, Massachusetts and from sediments from six sites in the Great Salt Lake, Utah. Cultures of amoebae were enriched using both minimal- and non-nutrient agar plates, made with fresh water, brackish water or saltwater. Recovered amoeba cultures were assayed for the presence of Legionella species using nested polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and primers specific for the genus. Positive samples were then screened with nested amplification using primers specific for the macrophage infectivity potentiator surface protein (mip) gene from L. pneumophila. Forty-eight percent (185 out of 388) of isolated amoeba cultures were positive for the presence of Legionella species. Legionella pneumophila was detected by PCR in 4% of the amoeba cultures (17 out of 388), and most of these amoebae were growing on marine media. Our results show that amoebae capable of growing in saline environments may harbor not only a diverse collection of Legionella species, but also species potentially pathogenic to humans. PMID:21301113

  20. Salinity dominance on the Indian Ocean Eastern Gyral current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Viviane V.; Phillips, Helen E.; Schiller, Andreas; Domingues, Catia M.; Bindoff, Nathaniel L.

    2013-11-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of salinity gradients to the formation of the Eastern Gyral Current (EGC) in the South Indian Ocean. The EGC flows eastward near 15∘S, opposite to the direction predicted by classical theories of wind-driven circulation and is a source of water for the Leeuwin Current. In the upper ocean, a strong salinity front exists between fresh water from the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) in the South Equatorial Current (SEC) and salty subtropical waters. In that region, salinity overwhelms the temperature contribution to density gradients, generating eastward geostrophic shear and establishing the EGC. Without the salinity front the EGC cannot be maintained: If the salinity contribution is neglected in the calculation of geostrophic currents, the EGC vanishes. Our observational analysis associated with the fact that both Sverdrup and Ekman theories produce westward flows in the region strongly supports the idea that the EGC is a salinity-driven current.

  1. Quaternary soil salinity events and Australian vegetation history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, G. M.

    A late Quaternary history of Australian soil salinization is produced by comparing Chenopodiaceae and Casuarina pollen curves. Although salinity development varied between sites, its occurrence was generally associated with arid phases and when high rainfall or high sea level caused regionally high groundwater tables. Soil salinization contributed to the shift from Casuarina- to Eucalyptus-dominance of interglacial sclerophyll vegetation. The deposition of saline sediments deflated from the Murray Basin seems more likely than Aboriginal burning to have caused the decline of Casuarina at Lake George. Soil salinization probably resulted in other vegetation changes and must be taken into account in environmental reconstructions. The renewed increase in soil salinity caused by European land-use practices and an associated decline in Casuarina are evident in the pollen records of many sites.

  2. Change of intradisc pressure versus volume change.

    PubMed

    Case, R B; Choy, D S; Altman, P

    1995-06-01

    To gain further insight into the biomechanics of the intervertebral disc and determine a potential mechanism for causation and relief of symptoms related to a herniated disc, the pressure-volume relationship was determined within the nucleus pulposus (NP). In 17 intact human cadaver lumbar discs, pressure was measured continuously within the NP by means of a miniature strain gauge at the tip of a size 4 French (1.3 mm) catheter inserted into the NP. The volume of the NP was increased at the slow, continuous rate of 0.034 ml/min by the pump-regulated infusion of saline colored with methylene blue. In 12 unloaded discs, NP pressure rose in a linear fashion (linear r2 = 0.96) from an initial mean pressure of 174 +/- 81 kPa. The mean rate of pressure rise was 327 +/- 109 kPa/ml of volume increase. The peak pressure reached was limited to 550 kPa by the capacity of the strain gauge. Similar linear relationships were obtained during saline infusion into 5 vertically loaded discs. The data define the pressure-volume relationship within the disc and show that the NP, surrounded by the relatively inelastic annulus and the solid vertebral end-plates, has the properties of a tight hydraulic space in which a large pressure rise will regularly result from a small increase in volume. Presumably, the opposite is also true. The data may provide a biomechanical basis for variation in symptoms related to physiological changes in disc volume, and for any benefit obtained from interventions designed to remove disc tissue. PMID:10150637

  3. Physiological mechanisms used by fish to cope with salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Kültz, Dietmar

    2015-06-01

    Salinity represents a critical environmental factor for all aquatic organisms, including fishes. Environments of stable salinity are inhabited by stenohaline fishes having narrow salinity tolerance ranges. Environments of variable salinity are inhabited by euryhaline fishes having wide salinity tolerance ranges. Euryhaline fishes harbor mechanisms that control dynamic changes in osmoregulatory strategy from active salt absorption to salt secretion and from water excretion to water retention. These mechanisms of dynamic control of osmoregulatory strategy include the ability to perceive changes in environmental salinity that perturb body water and salt homeostasis (osmosensing), signaling networks that encode information about the direction and magnitude of salinity change, and epithelial transport and permeability effectors. These mechanisms of euryhalinity likely arose by mosaic evolution involving ancestral and derived protein functions. Most proteins necessary for euryhalinity are also critical for other biological functions and are preserved even in stenohaline fish. Only a few proteins have evolved functions specific to euryhaline fish and they may vary in different fish taxa because of multiple independent phylogenetic origins of euryhalinity in fish. Moreover, proteins involved in combinatorial osmosensing are likely interchangeable. Most euryhaline fishes have an upper salinity tolerance limit of approximately 2× seawater (60 g kg(-1)). However, some species tolerate up to 130 g kg(-1) salinity and they may be able to do so by switching their adaptive strategy when the salinity exceeds 60 g kg(-1). The superior salinity stress tolerance of euryhaline fishes represents an evolutionary advantage favoring their expansion and adaptive radiation in a climate of rapidly changing and pulsatory fluctuating salinity. Because such a climate scenario has been predicted, it is intriguing to mechanistically understand euryhalinity and how this complex physiological phenotype evolves under high selection pressure. PMID:26085667

  4. Development of saline seeps in Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Kenneth S.

    1994-01-01

    Saline seeps are an increasingly serious problem in semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States. They result when excessive recharge of the shallow ground water in soils raises the water table locally to within one meter of the land surface, and the salinity of the shallow water is increased through evaporation. In this connection, a comprehensive study is being undertaken in Oklahoma and Texas to determine the geologic setting, hydrology, soils, land use, and history of saline-seep development.

  5. Acute toxicity of saline produced waters to marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pillard, D.A.; Evans, J.M.; DuFresne, D.L.

    1996-11-01

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of to osmotic specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow, (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silvemide (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant.

  6. Low-salinity water off West Luzon Island in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yunwei; Wang, Guihua; Wang, Chunzai; Su, Jilan

    2015-04-01

    Low-salinity water with two cores is found off West Luzon Island in the South China Sea (SCS) during summer. A series of salinity observations and model results show that the low-salinity water begins to appear in June, reaches its lowest salinity in September, and disappears after October. Rainfall associated with the summer monsoon impinging on the Philippine mountain ranges plays an important role in the formation of the low-salinity water, while upward Ekman pumping of high-salinity subsurface water caused by the strong winter monsoon is important for its disappearance. Variation in mixed layer depth is responsible for the formation of the two cores of the low-salinity water, while advection also contributes. The study further demonstrates that the low-salinity water has considerable interannual variability associated with El Nio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO): during the summer of the decaying year of an El Nio, an anticyclonic wind anomaly occurs in the SCS. The anticyclonic wind anomaly is associated with a northeasterly anomaly south of 18N, reducing precipitation and causing salting of the low-salinity water off West Luzon Island. The situation is reversed during the summer of the decaying year of a La Nia.

  7. Soil salinity decreases global soil organic carbon stocks.

    PubMed

    Setia, Raj; Gottschalk, Pia; Smith, Pete; Marschner, Petra; Baldock, Jeff; Setia, Deepika; Smith, Jo

    2013-11-01

    Saline soils cover 3.1% (397 million hectare) of the total land area of the world. The stock of soil organic carbon (SOC) reflects the balance between carbon (C) inputs from plants, and losses through decomposition, leaching and erosion. Soil salinity decreases plant productivity and hence C inputs to the soil, but also microbial activity and therefore SOC decomposition rates. Using a modified Rothamsted Carbon model (RothC) with a newly introduced salinity decomposition rate modifier and a plant input modifier we estimate that, historically, world soils that are currently saline have lost an average of 3.47 tSOC ha(-1) since they became saline. With the extent of saline soils predicted to increase in the future, our modelling suggests that world soils may lose 6.8 Pg SOC due to salinity by the year 2100. Our findings suggest that current models overestimate future global SOC stocks and underestimate net CO2 emissions from the soil-plant system by not taking salinity effects into account. From the perspective of enhancing soil C stocks, however, given the lower SOC decomposition rate in saline soils, salt tolerant plants could be used to sequester C in salt-affected areas. PMID:22959898

  8. Parasites and salinity: costly tradeoffs in a threatened species.

    PubMed

    Rogowski, David L; Stockwell, Craig A

    2006-01-01

    Parasites and environmental conditions can have direct and indirect effects on individuals. We explore the relationship between salinity and parasites in an endemic New Mexico State threatened fish, the White Sands pupfish (Cyprinodon tularosa). Spatial variation in salinity limits the distribution of the endemic springsnail (Juturnia tularosae) within Salt Creek, a small desert stream. The springsnail is the presumed intermediate host for trematodes that infect the White Sands pupfish, and trematode prevalence and intensity in pupfish are positively associated with the springsnail. Salinity and parasites both have negative impacts on pupfish, but in areas of high salinity, pupfish can effectively escape parasites. Pupfish trematodes were absent from sites lacking snails. At the upstream site, the absence of parasites and lower variance in salinity were correlated with larger pupfish that were in better condition than pupfish at either the middle or lower sites. Springsnails were present in the middle section, an area with moderate salinity, and all pupfish had trematodes (median abundance 847 trematodes/fish). Lipid levels and condition were lowest in fish from the middle site. Additionally, fewer older fish indicated an increased mortality rate. At the lower site, springsnails were absent due to high salinity; pupfish trematode abundance was much lower (six trematodes/fish), and fish condition was intermediate. An additional experiment revealed that snail activity and survival were significantly reduced at high salinities commonly present at the lower site. Although both high salinity and parasites significantly affect pupfish, parasites might be more detrimental. PMID:16133195

  9. Effect of hypersaline cooling canals on aquifer salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Joseph D.; Langevin, Christian D.; Brakefield-Goswami, Linzy

    2010-02-01

    The combined effect of salinity and temperature on density-driven convection was evaluated in this study for a large (28 km2) cooling canal system (CCS) at a thermoelectric power plant in south Florida, USA. A two-dimensional cross-section model was used to evaluate the effects of hydraulic heterogeneities, cooling canal salinity, heat transport, and cooling canal geometry on aquifer salinization and movement of the freshwater/saltwater interface. Four different hydraulic conductivity configurations, with values ranging over several orders of magnitude, were evaluated with the model. For all of the conditions evaluated, aquifer salinization was initiated by the formation of dense, hypersaline fingers that descended downward to the bottom of the 30-m thick aquifer. Saline fingers reached the aquifer bottom in times ranging from a few days to approximately 5 years for the lowest hydraulic conductivity case. Aquifer salinization continued after saline fingers reached the aquifer bottom and coalesced by lateral movement away from the site. Model results showed that aquifer salinization was most sensitive to aquifer heterogeneity, but was also sensitive to CCS salinity, temperature, and configuration.

  10. SMOS salinity in the subtropical North Atlantic salinity maximum: 1. Comparison with Aquarius and in situ salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, O.; Boutin, J.; Kolodziejczyk, N.; Reverdin, G.; Martin, N.; Gaillard, F.; Reul, N.; Vergely, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) measured from space by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission is validated in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. 39 transects of ships of opportunity equipped with thermosalinographs (TSG) crossed that region from 2010 to 2012, providing a large database of ground truth SSS. SMOS SSS is also compared to Aquarius SSS. Large seasonal biases remain in SMOS and Aquarius SSS. In order to look at the capability of satellite SSS to monitor spatial variability, especially at scales less than 300 km (not monitored with the Argo network), we first apply a monthly bias correction derived from satellite SSS and In Situ Analysis System (ISAS) SSS differences averaged over the studied region. Ship SSS averaged over 25 km is compared with satellite and ISAS SSS. Similar statistics are obtained for SMOS, Aquarius, and ISAS products (root mean square error of about 0.15 and global correlation coefficient r of about 0.92). However, in the above statistics, SSS varies due to both large-scale and mesoscale (here for scales around 100 km) variability. In order to focus on mesoscale variability, we consider SSS anomalies with respect to a monthly climatology. SMOS SSS and Aquarius SSS anomalies are more significantly correlated (r > 0.5) to TSG SSS anomaly than ISAS. We show the effective gain of resolution and coverage provided by the satellite products over the interpolated in situ data. We also show the advantage of SMOS (r = 0.57) over Aquarius (r = 0.52) to reproduce SSS mesoscale features.

  11. Space Radar Image of Saline Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Saline Valley, about 30 km (19 miles) east of the town of Independence, California created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this one are helpful to scientists because they clarify the relationships of the different types of surfaces detected by the radar and the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. The view is looking southwest across Saline Valley. The high peaks in the background are the Inyo Mountains, which rise more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above the valley floor. The dark blue patch near the center of the image is an area of sand dunes. The brighter patches to the left of the dunes are the dry, salty lake beds of Saline Valley. The brown and orange areas are deposits of boulders, gravel and sand known as alluvial fans. The image was constructed by overlaying a color composite radar image on top of a digital elevation map. The radar image was taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-bandSynthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttleEndeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was producedusing radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The elevation data were derived from a 1,500-km-long (930-mile) digital topographic map processed at JPL. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vetically received; and blue is the ratio of C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received to L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This image is centered near 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  12. Does salinity change determine zooplankton variability in the saline Qarun Lake (Egypt)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shabrawy, Gamal M.; Anufriieva, Elena V.; Germoush, Mousa O.; Goher, Mohamed E.; Shadrin, Nickolai V.

    2015-11-01

    Zooplankton and 14 abiotic variables were studied during August 2011 at 10 stations in Lake Qarun, Egypt. Stations with the lowest salinity and highest nutrient concentrations and turbidity were close to the discharge of waters from the El-Bats and El-Wadi drainage systems. A total of 15 holozooplankton species were identified. The salinity in Lake Qarun increased and fluctuated since 1901: 12 g/L in 1901; 8.5 g/L in 1905; 12.0 g/L in 1922; 30.0 g/L in 1985; 38.7 g/L in 1994; 35.3 g/L in 2006, and 33.4 g/L in 2011. The mean concentration of nutrients (nitrate, nitrite and orthophosphate) gradually increased from 35, 0.16 and 0.38 µg/L, respectively, in 1953-1955 to 113, 16.4, and 30.26 µg/L in 2011. From 1999-2003 some decrease of species diversity occurred. Average total zooplankton density was 30 000 ind./m3 in 1974-1977; 356 125 ind./m3 in 1989; 534 000 ind./m3 in 1994-1995; from 965 000 to 1 452 000 ind./m3 in 2006, and 595 000 ind./m3 in 2011. A range of long-term summer salinity variability during the last decades was very similar to a range of salinity spatial variability in summer 2011. There is no significant correlation between zooplankton abundance and salinity in spatial and long-term changes. We conclude that salinity fluctuations since at least 1955 did not directly drive the changes of composition and abundance of zooplankton in the lake. A marine community had formed in the lake, and it continues to change. One of the main drivers of this change is a regular introduction and a pressure of alien species on the existent community. Eutrophication also plays an important role. The introduction of Mnemiopsis leidyi, first reported in 2014, may lead to a start of a new stage of the biotic changes in Lake Qarun, when eutrophication and the population dynamics of this ctenophore will be main drivers of the ecosystem change.

  13. Reclamation of highly calcareous saline-sodic soil using low quality water and phosphogypsum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharaibeh, M. A.; Rusan, M. J.; Eltaif, N. I.; Shunnar, O. F.

    2014-09-01

    The efficiency of two amendments in reclaiming saline sodic soil using moderately saline (EC) and moderate sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) canal water was investigated. Phosphogypsum (PG) and reagent grade calcium chloride were applied to packed sandy loam soil columns and leached with canal water (SAR = 4, and EC = 2.16 dS m-1). Phosphogypsum was mixed with top soil prior to leaching at application rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 35, 40 Mg ha-1, whereas calcium chloride was dissolved directly in water at equivalent rates of 4.25, 8.5, 12.75, 17.0, 21.25, 29.75, and 34 Mg ha-1, respectively. Both amendments efficiently reduced soil salinity and sodicity. Calcium chloride removed 90 % of the total Na and soluble salts whereas PG removed 79 and 60 %, respectively. Exchangeable sodium percentage was reduced by 90 % in both amendments. Results indicated that during cation exchange reactions most of the sodium was removed when effluent SAR was at maximum. Phosphogypsum has lower total costs than calcium chloride and as an efficient amendment an application of 30 Mg ha-1 and leaching with 4 pore volume (PV) of canal water could be recommended to reclaim the studied soil.

  14. Temperature effect on acetate and propionate consumption by sulfate-reducing bacteria in saline wastewater.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, T P H; Roest, K; Brdjanovic, D; Chen, G H; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2014-05-01

    Seawater toilet flushing, seawater intrusion in the sewerage, and discharge of sulfate-rich industrial effluents elevates sulfate content in wastewater. The application of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in wastewater treatment is very beneficial; as for example, it improves the pathogen removal and reduces the volume of waste sludge, energy requirement and costs. This paper evaluates the potential to apply biological sulfate reduction using acetate and propionate to saline sewage treatment in moderate climates. Long-term biological sulfate reduction experiments at 10 and 20 °C were conducted in a sequencing batch reactor with synthetic saline domestic wastewater. Subsequently, acetate and propionate (soluble organic carbon) conversion rate were determined in both reactors, in the presence of either or both fatty acids. Both acetate and propionate consumption rates by SRB were 1.9 times lower at 10 °C than at 20 °C. At 10 °C, propionate was incompletely oxidized to acetate. At 10 °C, complete removal of soluble organic carbon requires a significantly increased hydraulic retention time as compared to 20 °C. The results of the study showed that biological sulfate reduction can be a feasible and promising process for saline wastewater treatment in moderate climate. PMID:24463759

  15. Stable isotope record of late holocene salinity and river discharge in san francisco bay, california

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, B.L.; Ingle, J.C.; Conrad, M.E

    1995-01-31

    Oxygen and carbon isotopic measurements of fossil mollusks from San Francisco Bay are used to derive a record of paleosalinity and paleostreamflow for the past 5,900 years. The delta(18)O and delta(13)C values of river water (-12 parts per thousand and -9 parts per thousand) are markedly different than seawater (0 parts per thousand and 1 parts per thousand), and vary systematically as a function of salinity in the estuary. The data show that annually averaged salinity in the south-central part of the Bay was very close to the modern ''diversion-corrected'' value of 26.8 parts per thousand over the past 2,700 years, and 4 parts per thousand lower than modern between 3,800 and 5,100 yr B.P. Based on those salinities, the average annual river inflow to San Francisco Bay is calculated to have been 1290 m(3)/s over the past 2,400 years, and 1990 m(3)/s between 3,800 and 5,100 yr B.P., 1.8 times greater than the modern ''diversion-corrected'' value of 1100 m(3)/s, assuming a constant bay volume. The inferred river discharge record generally corroborates independent paleohydrologic records in California, including tree-ring, treeline and lake level records.

  16. Polyvalent cation receptor proteins (CaRs) are salinity sensors in fish.

    PubMed

    Nearing, J; Betka, M; Quinn, S; Hentschel, H; Elger, M; Baum, M; Bai, M; Chattopadyhay, N; Brown, E M; Hebert, S C; Harris, H W

    2002-07-01

    To determine whether calcium polyvalent cation-sensing receptors (CaRs) are salinity sensors in fish, we used a homology-based cloning strategy to isolate a 4.1-kb cDNA encoding a 1,027-aa dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) kidney CaR. Expression studies in human embryonic kidney cells reveal that shark kidney senses combinations of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+) ions at concentrations present in seawater and kidney tubules. Shark kidney is expressed in multiple shark osmoregulatory organs, including specific tubules of the kidney, rectal gland, stomach, intestine, olfactory lamellae, gill, and brain. Reverse transcriptase-PCR amplification using specific primers in two teleost fish, winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), reveals a similar pattern of CaR tissue expression. Exposure of the lumen of winter flounder urinary bladder to the CaR agonists, Gd(3+) and neomycin, reversibly inhibit volume transport, which is important for euryhaline teleost survival in seawater. Within 24-72 hr after transfer of freshwater-adapted Atlantic salmon to seawater, there are increases in their plasma Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+) that likely serve as a signal for internal CaRs, i.e., brain, to sense alterations in salinity in the surrounding water. We conclude that CaRs act as salinity sensors in both teleost and elasmobranch fish. Their tissue expression patterns in fish provide insights into CaR functions in terrestrial animals including humans. PMID:12093923

  17. Salinity and spectral reflectance of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szilagyi, A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    The basic spectral response related to the salt content of soils in the visible and reflective IR wavelengths is analyzed in order to explore remote sensing applications for monitoring processes of the earth system. The bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) was determined at 10 nm of increments over the 520-2320-nm spectral range. The effect of salts on reflectance was analyzed on the basis of 162 spectral measurements. MSS and TM bands were simulated within the measured spectral region. A strong relationship was found in variations of reflectance and soil characteristics pertaining to salinization and desalinization. Although the individual MSS bands had high R-squared values and 75-79 percent of soil/treatment combinations were separable, there was a large number of soil/treatment combinations not distinguished by any of the four highly correlated MSS bands under consideration.

  18. Ion uptake of marigold under saline growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Koksal, Nezihe; Alkan-Torun, Ayfer; Kulahlioglu, Ilknur; Ertargin, Ebru; Karalar, Eylul

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is one of most significant environmental stresses. Marigold is moderately tolerant to salinity stress. Therefore, in this study, the fresh weights of roots and shoots, rootFW/shootFW ratio, moisture content of shoots, micronutrient and macronutrient concentrations and ratios of K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) in the roots and shoots of marigold were determined under salinity stress. Five salinity treatments (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mM NaCl) were maintained. In the current study, salinity affected the biomass of marigold. An increase of more than 100 mM in salt concentrations significantly reduced the shoot fresh weight. Increasing salinity stress increased the ratios of rootFW/shootFW, which were more significant under high salt levels (150 and 200 mM NaCl). Wet basis moisture contents of the shoots were reduced when salinity stress increased above 100 mM. In this study, salinity stress affected micronutrient and macronutrient uptake. Increases in the salt concentration and decreases in the concentration of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) in the roots and Mn(2+) and Fe(2+) in the shoots were significant. Based on an increase in salinity stress, while the Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+) concentrations increased, the K(+) concentration decreased in the roots and shoots. Moreover, the K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratios of the roots and shoots were significantly lower than those of the control in all of the salinity treatments. As a result, under increasing salinity stress, the Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), and Na(+) uptakes in marigold were significant, revealing the effects of stress. PMID:26933637

  19. A dynamical study on sodium accumulation and soil reclamation in secondary salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mau, Y.; Porporato, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigation with saline water, together with poor leaching of the salts in the root zone, are the major causes of human-caused soil salinization, or secondary salinization. About 20% of irrigated land are salt-affected, and nearly four million acres of farmland are estimated to be lost to excessive salt every year. The development of a high percentage of sodium in the soil exchangeable complex is especially problematic, changing the soil structure and greatly reducing its hydraulic conductivity. This condition, called sodicity, mainly affects arid and semi-arid areas, where precipitation is not adequate to leach salts. We investigate the coupled water and salt balance equations in the root zone irrigated with saline water. By describing the fractions of sodium (Na) and calcium (Ca) cations in the irrigation water, soil water, and exchangeable complex, we determine the dynamics of the total salt concentration in the soil water (C) and of the Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP). We found that the dynamics of the ESP can be one order of magnitude slower than that of C: while the typical time scale of convergence of C to its steady-state value is of the order of 1 year, the ESP evolves in a typical time scale of 1 decade and more. These results provide useful indications for the reclamation of sodic soils, which can be accelerated through the replacement of Na cations by Ca ions in the exchangeable complex, often by means of the application of gypsum to the irrigation water. We show that a two-phase managing scheme can shorten the time scale of reclamation, when compared to irrigation with same volumes of water of better quality (low C levels): first irrigation water with high salt concentration and low fraction of Na brings the ESP to low levels in relatively short time scales; then good quality irrigation water (low C) can be applied, decreasing total salinity levels. We also explored the effects of high sodicity on the soil hydraulic conductivity by adding a feedback between ESP and infiltration rate. Finally, the extension to stochastic inputs of water of different quality yields a probabilistic description of C and ESP, with special attention given to the influence of a changing climate to secondary salinization process.

  20. PROPERTIES OF MEDIUM-DENSITY PARTICLEBOARD FROM SALINE ATHEL WOOD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Athel tree, Tamarix aphylla (L), can potentially be used as a biomass crop to help manage saline subsurface drainage water in arid land-irrigated agriculture. In this study, Athel wood was used to manufacture medium-density particleboard with an aim of developing new applications for the saline...

  1. EVALUATION OF IRRIGATION METHODS FOR SALINITY CONTROL IN GRAND VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Irrigation return flows in the Upper Colorado River Basin carry large salt loads as a result of contact with the saline soils and the marine derived geologic substratum. The Grand Valley of western Colorado is a major contributor to the salinity problems of the basin and is, ther...

  2. Hurricane-induced failure of low salinity wetlands.

    PubMed

    Howes, Nick C; FitzGerald, Duncan M; Hughes, Zoe J; Georgiou, Ioannis Y; Kulp, Mark A; Miner, Michael D; Smith, Jane M; Barras, John A

    2010-08-10

    During the 2005 hurricane season, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527 km(2) of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained robust and largely unchanged. Here we highlight geotechnical differences between the soil profiles of high and low salinity regimes, which are controlled by vegetation and result in differential erosion. In low salinity wetlands, a weak zone (shear strength 500-1450 Pa) was observed approximately 30 cm below the marsh surface, coinciding with the base of rooting. High salinity wetlands had no such zone (shear strengths > 4500 Pa) and contained deeper rooting. Storm waves during Hurricane Katrina produced shear stresses between 425-3600 Pa, sufficient to cause widespread erosion of the low salinity wetlands. Vegetation in low salinity marshes is subject to shallower rooting and is susceptible to erosion during large magnitude storms; these conditions may be exacerbated by low inorganic sediment content and high nutrient inputs. The dramatic difference in resiliency of fresh versus more saline marshes suggests that the introduction of freshwater to marshes as part of restoration efforts may therefore weaken existing wetlands rendering them vulnerable to hurricanes. PMID:20660777

  3. 76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Bureau of Reclamation announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...) 524-3826; e-mail at: kjacobson@usbr.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin...

  4. Expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) during salinity stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a salt-tolerant crop species with considerable economic importance in salinity-affected arid and semiarid regions of the world. In this work, barley cultivar Morex was used for transcriptional profiling during salinity stress using a microarray containing ~22,750 prob...

  5. Hurricane-induced failure of low salinity wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Nick C.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Hughes, Zoe J.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kulp, Mark A.; Miner, Michael D.; Smith, Jane M.; Barras, John A.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2005 hurricane season, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527km2 of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained robust and largely unchanged. Here we highlight geotechnical differences between the soil profiles of high and low salinity regimes, which are controlled by vegetation and result in differential erosion. In low salinity wetlands, a weak zone (shear strength 5001450Pa) was observed ?30cm below the marsh surface, coinciding with the base of rooting. High salinity wetlands had no such zone (shear strengths>4500Pa) and contained deeper rooting. Storm waves during Hurricane Katrina produced shear stresses between 4253600Pa, sufficient to cause widespread erosion of the low salinity wetlands. Vegetation in low salinity marshes is subject to shallower rooting and is susceptible to erosion during large magnitude storms; these conditions may be exacerbated by low inorganic sediment content and high nutrient inputs. The dramatic difference in resiliency of fresh versus more saline marshes suggests that the introduction of freshwater to marshes as part of restoration efforts may therefore weaken existing wetlands rendering them vulnerable to hurricanes. PMID:20660777

  6. Mapping, Monitoring, and Assessment of Soil Salinity at Field Scales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past, spatial and temporal variability has made it difficult to measure, map, and monitor soil salinity at field scales. Large numbers of soil samples were needed both across the landscape and within the soil profile to map field-scale salinity, making the task too labor and cost intensive t...

  7. Tsunami-induced groundwater salinization in southeastern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violette, Sophie; Boulicot, Gilles; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2009-04-01

    On 26 December 2004, a northern Indonesia earthquake generated a tsunami that devastated coastal Indian Ocean regions. The impact of the tsunami on groundwater quality was unexpected as inundation and retreat of the tsunami wave lasted just 5 min. We report data showing salinization of the regionally extensive "Dune aquifer" in southeastern India. We present evidence that tsunami inundation resulted in contamination of groundwater supplies by locally raising salinity from potable levels up to 13,000 ?S/cm, which is approximately one quarter the salinity of seawater. Peak salinity occurred within 1 month as the saline water infiltrated. Salinization persisted for more than 10 months in the contaminated coastal region delimited by half of the run-up distance of the tsunami. Then, during the subsequent monsoon season, a second salinity peak was recorded. The timing and extent of natural attenuation of the saline groundwater is greatly influenced by recharge occurring from semiannual monsoons. Given the tsunami damage, our results highlight the fragile nature of water resources in this subsistence-level environment, which is densely populated within 500 m of the coast. We suggest guidelines for future protection of vulnerable coastal groundwater resources based on the tsunami experience. India has at least 750 km of coast bordered by the sand-dune aquifer that was flooded by the tsunami.

  8. Coumarin pretreatment alleviates salinity stress in wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Ahmed Mahmoud; Madany, M M Y

    2015-03-01

    The potentiality of COU to improve plant tolerance to salinity was investigated. Wheat grains were primed with COU (50 ppm) and then grown under different levels of NaCl (50, 100, 150 mM) for two weeks. COU pretreatment improved the growth of wheat seedling under salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings, due to the accumulation of osmolytes such as soluble sugars and proline. Moreover, COU treatment significantly improved K(+)/Na(+) ratio in the shoots of both salt stressed and un-stressed seedlings. However, in the roots, this ratio increased only under non-salinity. In consistent with phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), phenolics and flavonoids were accumulated in COU-pretreated seedlings under the higher doses of salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings. COU primed seedlings showed higher content of the coumarin derivative, scopoletin, and salicylic, chlorogenic, syringic, vanillic, gallic and ferulic acids, under both salinity and non-salinity conditions. Salinity stress significantly improved the activity of peroxidase (POD) in COU-pretreated seedlings. However, the effect of COU on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was only obtained at the highest dose of NaCl (150 mM). The present results suggest that COU pretreatment could alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on the growth of wheat seedlings through enhancing, at least partly, the osmoregulation process and antioxidant defense system. PMID:25634803

  9. Physical Properties of Medium density Particleboard Made from Saline Eucalyptus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eucalyptus tree, Eucalyptus cinerea, has the potential to be used as a biomass crop to help manage saline subsurface drainage water in arid land where irrigated agriculture is practiced. In this research, saline eucalyptus was used to manufacture medium-density particleboard in an attempt to develo...

  10. NEW USE OF SALINE BIOMASS AS RAW MATERIAL FOR PARTICLEBOARDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saline biomass crops have been planted in California for helping manage saline subsurface water in arid land-irrigated agriculture. There is a need to develop value-added uses of such crops. Three such crops; Athel, Tamarix aphylla (L), Eucalyptus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and Jose Tall Wheatgras...

  11. ACID AND ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF SALINE BIOMASS FOR SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saline crops were evaluated for their potential to be used as feedstock for fermentable sugar production via dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The saline crops included two woods, Athel (Tamarix aphylla L) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), and two grasses, Jose Tall Wheatgr...

  12. QUALITY OF MEDIUM-DENSITY PARTICLEBOARD FROM SALINE EUCALYPTUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Eucalyptus, Eucalyptus cinerea, has the potential to be used as a salt-tolerant crop utilizing saline subsurface drainage water in arid land-irrigated agriculture. In this research, saline eucalyptus was used to manufacture medium-density particleboard in order to develop a value-added applicat...

  13. Analysis of Production-Water-Salinity of Index Crops in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifan, H.; Ghahreman, B.

    2009-04-01

    One method to investigate the advantages of irrigation in cultivation is to evaluate the amount of increase in productions as a result of irrigation. Such relations which usually characterized by mathematics formulas or curves are called production to water function. In the agricultural analysis like pattern optimization and culture accumulation, we need some function like agricultural crops production, water and salinity. The amount of water used and salinity has influence on crops function, so that by increase in both components in various stages of plant growth, crop function decreases. Many researches have been performed on production-water and production-salinity function, therefore less researches on production-water-salinity components. The equation provided by Letey and Dinar (1986) is a sample of these researches. Their model is a quadratics equation from independent variables of water salinity in irrigation (ECi) and dimensionless proportion of the amount of water used to evaporation in class A (AW/EP) in plant growth stage. Therefore, by using this model and parameters like evaporation, rainfall and also quantity and quality water potential in Golestan farmlands, we obtained production-water-salinity components for each product in three different areas across Golestan province (moisture to dry areas). These products include sunflower, cotton, wheat, barely, potato, tomato, corn, sorgom, water melon, soybean and rice. Finally, these equations were compared by results of previous experiments, some results correspond and others were different. Key Word: production-water, production-salinity and production-water-salinity function, Letey and Dinar, Golestan.

  14. Stable carbon isotopes in bivalve shells as a salinity proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillikin, D. P.; Poulain, C.; Mas, R.; Woule Ebongue, V.; Robert, R.; Paulet, Y.; Lorrain, A.

    2010-12-01

    Stable carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (?13C-DIC) often vary with salinity in estuarine settings. Variations of salinity in estuaries also complicate temperature reconstructions based on oxygen isotope values in biological carbonates. Therefore having a salinity proxy could assist in estuarine temperature reconstruction as well as providing data on freshwater discharge into the estuary. Unfortunately, ?13C values in bivalve shells are potentially influenced by several sources of carbon including DIC, metabolic carbon and sediment pore-water DIC. This study first investigates the influence of these three potential carbon sources in the Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) reared under laboratory conditions and then in the field during a two-year monitoring study. Metabolic carbon remained fairly constant in the laboratory (~12%) and we did not detect any difference between clams living in organic rich sediments and those in sediment free aquaria. There was a strong correlation between ?13C-shell and ?13C-DIC (r2=0.77) indicating that ?13C-shell can be used as a relative salinity indicator. In the field, calculated salinities were within the range of recorded salinities ( 5 salinity units), but there were significant differences between individuals. This study highlights the potential of using ?13C in bivalve shells as a salinity proxy, but also illustrates that large uncertainties are associated with this proxy.

  15. Salinity on survival and early development of biofuel feedstock crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant survival, growth and development can be influenced by irrigation water salinity level. Affects of salinity on early development of biofuel feedstock crops need to be clarified. The biofuel feedstock crops canola (Brassica napus L.), sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], and sunflower (Helia...

  16. CELOSIA ARGENTEA CAN BE PRODUCED USING SALINE WASTEWATERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salinity tolerance of two cultivars of Celosia argentea (ChiefRose) and ChiefGold) was investigated using a completely randomized design with three replications. Seedlings grown in greenhouse sand tanks were exposed to six salinity levels (2.5,4,6,8,10, and 12 dS/m) and two water ionic compositi...

  17. GROWTH OF THREE FORAGE SPECIES IN SALINE CONDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential forage crops were evaluated under simulated saline conditions found in southeast Colorado. Due to elevated salinity levels in both the soils and in the irrigation waters of this region identifying salt tolerant crops for sustained productivity is important. The objective of the greenhous...

  18. Pore fluids and the LGM ocean salinity-Reconsidered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunsch, Carl

    2016-03-01

    Pore fluid chlorinity/salinity data from deep-sea cores related to the salinity maximum of the last glacial maximum (LGM) are analyzed using estimation methods deriving from linear control theory. With conventional diffusion coefficient values and no vertical advection, results show a very strong dependence upon initial conditions at -100 ky. Earlier inferences that the abyssal Southern Ocean was strongly salt-stratified in the LGM with a relatively fresh North Atlantic Ocean are found to be consistent within uncertainties of the salinity determination, which remain of order ±1 g/kg. However, an LGM Southern Ocean abyss with an important relative excess of salt is an assumption, one not required by existing core data. None of the present results show statistically significant abyssal salinity values above the global average, and results remain consistent, apart from a general increase owing to diminished sea level, with a more conventional salinity distribution having deep values lower than the global mean. The Southern Ocean core does show a higher salinity than the North Atlantic one on the Bermuda Rise at different water depths. Although much more sophisticated models of the pore-fluid salinity can be used, they will only increase the resulting uncertainties, unless considerably more data can be obtained. Results are consistent with complex regional variations in abyssal salinity during deglaciation, but none are statistically significant.

  19. Inverse relationship between D/H fractionation in cyanobacterial lipids and salinity in Christmas Island saline ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachse, Dirk; Sachs, Julian P.

    2008-02-01

    Sediments from 28 saline and hypersaline (salinity 13.6-149.2) ponds on Christmas Island (Kiritimati), in the Central tropical Pacific Ocean, were investigated for the effect of salinity on the D/H ratios of lipid biomarkers. Hydrogen isotope ratios (expressed as δD values) of total lipid extracts, and individual hydrocarbons heptadecane, heptadecene, octadecane, octadecene, diploptene, and phytene from cyanobacteria, became increasingly enriched in deuterium as salinity increased, spanning a range of 100‰, while lake water δD values spanned a range of just 12‰. Net D/H fractionation between lipids and source water thus decreased as salinity increased. Isotope fractionation factors ( αlipid-water) were strongly correlated with salinity, and increased in all compound classes studied by up to 0.0967 over a salinity range of 136. Differences in the hydrogen isotopic composition of lipids derived from three biosynthetic pathways (acetogenic, mevalonate, and non-mevalonate) remained similar irrespective of the salinity. This suggests that the mechanism responsible for the observed αlipid-water-salinity relationship originates prior to the last common biosynthetic branching point, the Calvin Cycle. We propose that a decrease in the exchange of intra- and extra-cellular (ambient) water resulting from down-regulation or closure of water channels (aquaporins) within cyanobacterial cell membranes, and subsequent isotopic enrichment of the intracellular water, likely resulting from metabolic reactions. These findings imply that caution must be exercised when attempting to reconstruct source water δD values using lipid δD values from environments that may have experienced salinity variations. On the other, hand our results can be used to establish a paleo-salinity proxy based on lipid δD, if additional constraints on source water δD values can be made.

  20. Body fluid changes during hypertonic lactated saline solution therapy for burn shock.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, S; Yoshioka, T; Tanaka, N; Sugimoto, T; Onji, Y

    1977-01-01

    The body fluid changes of 12 burn patients treated with Hypertonic Lactate Saline solution (HLS group) were compared with 26 burn patients receiving isotonic therapy (iso Na group). 1) Total infusion volume during the first 48 hours postburn in the HLS group was only one-half to two-thirds of that in the iso Na group, although the sodium loads were nearly equal. 2) HLS therapy maintained sufficient functional extracellular fluid volume (f-ECFV) in the shock period and protected the excess increase of f-ECFV in the postresuscitative period, in contradistinction to the iso Na group. In this paper, some clinical problems such as a rapid shift of ECF water into the ICF space and hypernatremia following HLS administration are discussed. PMID:833904

  1. The salinity effect in a mixed layer ocean model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    A model of the thermally mixed layer in the upper ocean as developed by Kraus and Turner and extended by Denman is further extended to investigate the effects of salinity. In the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean rapid increases in salinity occur at the bottom of a uniformly mixed surface layer. The most significant effects produced by the inclusion of salinity are the reduction of the deepening rate and the corresponding change in the heating characteristics of the mixed layer. If the net surface heating is positive, but small, salinity effects must be included to determine whether the mixed layer temperature will increase or decrease. Precipitation over tropical oceans leads to the development of a shallow stable layer accompanied by a decrease in the temperature and salinity at the sea surface.

  2. Salinity effects on the microwave emission of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Oneill, Peggy E.

    1987-01-01

    Controlled plot experiments were conducted to collect L and C band passive microwave data concurrent with ground observations of salinity and soil moisture. Two dielectric mixing models were used with an emission model to predict the emissivity from a bare smooth uniform profile. The models produce nearly identical results when near zero salinity is involved and reproduce the observed data at L band extremely well. Discrepancies at C band are attributed to sampling depth problems. Comparisons of predicted emissivities at various salinities with observed values indicate that the dynamic range of the emissivities can be explained using either of the dielectric mixing models. Evaluation of the entire data set, which included four salinity levels, indicates that for general application the effects of soil salinity can be ignored in interpreting microwave data for estimating soil moisture under most agricultural conditions.

  3. Effects of salinity on the microwave emission of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Oneill, P. E.

    1986-01-01

    Controlled plot experiments were conducted to collect L and C band passive microwave data concurrent with ground observations of salinity and soil moisture. Two dielectric mixing models were used with an emission model to predict the emissivity from a bare smooth uniform profile. The models produce nearly identical results when near zero salinity is involved and reproduce the observed data at L band extremely well. Discrepancies at C band are attributed to sampling depth problems. Comparisons of predicted emissivities at various salinities with observed values indicate that the dynamic range of the emissivities can be explained using either of the dielectric mixing models. Evaluation of the entire data set, which included four salinity levels, indicates that for general application the effects of soil salinity can be ignored in interpreting microwave data for estimating soil moisture under most agricultural conditions.

  4. Salinity tolerance of crops - what is the cost?

    PubMed

    Munns, Rana; Gilliham, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Soil salinity reduces crop yield. The extent and severity of salt-affected agricultural land is predicted to worsen as a result of inadequate drainage of irrigated land, rising water tables and global warming. The growth and yield of most plant species are adversely affected by soil salinity, but varied adaptations can allow some crop cultivars to continue to grow and produce a harvestable yield under moderate soil salinity. Significant costs are associated with saline soils: the economic costs to the farming community and the energy costs of plant adaptations. We briefly consider mechanisms of adaptation and highlight recent research examples through a lens of their applicability to improving the energy efficiency of crops under saline field conditions. PMID:26108441

  5. A sensitivity analysis of low salinity habitats simulated by a hydrodynamic model in the Manatee River estuary in Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, XinJian

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a sensitivity study of simulated availability of low salinity habitats by a hydrodynamic model for the Manatee River estuary located in the southwest portion of the Florida peninsula. The purpose of the modeling study was to establish a regulatory minimum freshwater flow rate required to prevent the estuarine ecosystem from significant harm. The model used in the study was a multi-block model that dynamically couples a three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic model with a laterally averaged (2DV) hydrodynamic model. The model was calibrated and verified against measured real-time data of surface elevation and salinity at five stations during March 2005-July 2006. The calibrated model was then used to conduct a series of scenario runs to investigate effects of the flow reduction on salinity distributions in the Manatee River estuary. Based on simulated salinity distribution in the estuary, water volumes, bottom areas and shoreline lengths for salinity less than certain predefined values were calculated and analyzed to help establish the minimum freshwater flow rate for the estuarine system. The sensitivity analysis conducted during the modeling study for the Manatee River estuary examined effects of the bottom roughness, ambient vertical eddy viscosity/diffusivity, horizontal eddy viscosity/diffusivity, and ungauged flow on the model results and identified the relative importance of these model parameters (input data) to the outcome of the availability of low salinity habitats. It is found that the ambient vertical eddy viscosity/diffusivity is the most influential factor controlling the model outcome, while the horizontal eddy viscosity/diffusivity is the least influential one.

  6. Effect of salinity on root-nodule conductance to the oxygen diffusion in the Medicago truncatula-Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Aydi, Samir; Drevon, Jean-Jacques; Abdelly, Chedly

    2004-12-01

    In order to determine the effect of salinity on the nodule conductance, oxygen uptake by the nodulated roots was measured by registering the concentration of O(2) as a function of time in a tight incubator of known volume containing the nodulated roots of Medicago truncatula. Four lines, namely TN8.20 and TN6.18, originated from local populations, F83005.5 originated from Var (France) and Jemalong 6, a cultivar from Australia, were hydroponically grown in 250 ml glass bottles under semi-controlled conditions in a glasshouse, after germination and inoculation with the strain Sinorhizobium meliloti 2011. The saline treatment was applied gradually to reach 75 mM after 2 weeks. Results show that oxygen uptake increased significantly with salinity in TN6.18 and F83005.5, but not in Jemalong nor in TN8.20. Without salt, Jemalong showed a significantly higher O(2) uptake of 240 micromol O(2) per h per plant than the mean of 130 micromol O(2) per h per plant for other lines. Salinity increased significantly the nodule conductance in all genotypes. This salt effect was significantly higher for TN6.18 than for TN8.20, and for Jemalong than for F83005.5. Without salt there was less genotypic variation in nodule conductance in the range of 5-8 microm s(-1) for F83005.5 and TN8.20, respectively. Thus the sensitivity to salinity appears to be associated with an increase in nodule conductance that supports the increased respiration of N(2)-fixing nodules under salinity. PMID:15596103

  7. The Role of Ethylene in Plants Under Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jian-Jun; Chen, Hao-Wei; Ma, Biao; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    Although the roles of ethylene in plant response to salinity and other stresses have been extensively studied, there are still some obscure points left to be clarified. Generally, in Arabidopsis and many other terrestrial plants, ethylene signaling is indispensable for plant rapid response and tolerance to salinity stress. However, a few studies showed that functional knock-out of some ACSs increased plant salinity-tolerance, while overexpression of them caused more sensitivity. This seems to be contradictory to the known opinion that ethylene plays positive roles in salinity response. Differently, ethylene in rice may play negative roles in regulating seedling tolerance to salinity. The main positive ethylene signaling components MHZ7/OsEIN2, MHZ6/OsEIL1, and OsEIL2 all negatively regulate the salinity-tolerance of rice seedlings. Recently, several different research groups all proposed a negative feedback mechanism of coordinating plant growth and ethylene response, in which several ethylene-inducible proteins (including NtTCTP, NEIP2 in tobacco, AtSAUR76/77/78, and AtARGOS) act as inhibitors of ethylene response but activators of plant growth. Therefore, in addition to a summary of the general roles of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in salinity response, this review mainly focused on discussing (i) the discrepancies between ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in salinity response, (ii) the divergence between rice and Arabidopsis in regulation of salinity response by ethylene, and (iii) the possible negative feedback mechanism of coordinating plant growth and salinity response by ethylene. PMID:26640476

  8. Identifying the Western Pacific Salinity Front Using Aquarius Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, H.; Lagerloef, G.

    2012-04-01

    Aquarius satellite mission is designed to measure high-resolution sea surface salinity both spatially and temporally. In this study, we smoothed the Aquarius salinity data on a 1/3*1/3 degree weekly gridded map over the western Pacific warm pool region. A sharp northeast-southwest oriented salinity front is seen in detail, but is not observed in the 1*1 degree monthly Argo map due to the low resolution. The salinity front (defined by the largest salinity gradient) is located close to 34.6 PSU isohaline (criteria generally used to define the location of salinity front), but is better defined with physical meanings. During the first four months of Aquarius measurement from Sep/2011-Dec/2011, the salinity front has penetrated much farther west than usual, associated with the westward shift of eastern edge of warm pool. Also, from the surface currents calculated from Ocean Surface Current Analyses - Real time (OSCAR), we notice that the strong westward currents enhance the zonal advection of sea surface temperature/salinity and bring the cold/salty water from central to western Pacific. This is related to the evolution of the central Pacific type of La Nina (i.e. cooling event centered in the central Pacific) in the end of 2011. The results also show that the salinity front shows up at the boundary between the south equatorial currents and north equatorial counter currents, suggesting the strong relationship between the formation of salinity front and the movement of salty and fresh water. Although further calibration/validation work is still ongoing, the preliminary results give us the confidence that the Aquarius measurement is going to help us better understand the fresh water flux and zonal advections in the western Pacific warm pool.

  9. Geochemical tracers to evaluate hydrogeologic controls on river salinization.

    PubMed

    Moore, Stephanie J; Bassett, R L; Liu, Beiling; Wolf, Christopher P; Doremus, Dale

    2008-01-01

    The salinization of rivers, as indicated by salinity increases in the downstream direction, is characteristic of arid and semiarid regions throughout the world. Historically, salinity increases have been attributed to various mechanisms, including (1) evaporation and concentration during reservoir storage, irrigation, and subsequent reuse; (2) displacement of shallow saline ground water during irrigation; (3) erosion and dissolution of natural deposits; and/or (4) inflow of deep saline and/or geothermal ground water (ground water with elevated water temperature). In this study, investigation of salinity issues focused on identification of relative salinity contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources in the Lower Rio Grande in the New Mexico-Texas border region. Based on the conceptual model of the system, the various sources of water and, therefore, salinity to the Lower Rio Grande were identified, and a sampling plan was designed to characterize these sources. Analysis results for boron (delta(11)B), sulfur (delta(34)S), oxygen (delta(18)O), hydrogen (delta(2)H), and strontium ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) isotopes, as well as basic chemical data, confirmed the hypothesis that the dominant salinity contributions are from deep ground water inflow to the Rio Grande. The stable isotopic ratios identified the deep ground water inflow as distinctive, with characteristic isotopic signatures. These analyses indicate that it is not possible to reproduce the observed salinization by evapotranspiration and agricultural processes alone. This investigation further confirms that proper application of multiple isotopic and geochemical tracers can be used to identify and constrain multiple sources of solutes in complex river systems. PMID:18266732

  10. Genetic variation and plasticity of Plantago coronopus under saline conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smekens, Marret J.; van Tienderen, Peter H.

    2001-08-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may allow organisms to cope with variation in the environmental conditions they encounter in their natural habitats. Salt adaptation appears to be an excellent example of such a plastic response. Many plant species accumulate organic solutes in response to saline conditions. Comparative and molecular studies suggest that this is an adaptation to osmotic stress. However, evidence relating the physiological responses to fitness parameters is rare and requires assessing the potential costs and benefits of plasticity. We studied the response of thirty families derived from plants collected in three populations of Plantago coronopus in a greenhouse experiment under saline and non-saline conditions. We indeed found a positive selection gradient for the sorbitol percentage under saline conditions: plant families with a higher proportion of sorbitol produced more spikes. No effects of sorbitol on fitness parameters were found under non-saline conditions. Populations also differed genetically in leaf number, spike number, sorbitol concentration and percentages of different soluble sugars. Salt treatment led to a reduction of vegetative biomass and spike production but increased leaf dry matter percentage and leaf thickness. Both under saline and non-saline conditions there was a negative trade-off between vegetative growth and reproduction. Families with a high plasticity in leaf thickness had a lower total spike length under non-saline conditions. This would imply that natural selection under predominantly non-saline conditions would lead to a decrease in the ability to change leaf morphology in response to exposure to salt. All other tests revealed no indication for any costs of plasticity to saline conditions.

  11. Is bacteriostatic saline superior to normal saline as an echocardiographic contrast agent?

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Shaun; Gunasekaran, Prasad; Patel, Hena; McGorisk, Timothy; Toosi, Mehrdad; Faraz, Haroon; Zalawadiya, Sandip; Alesh, Issa; Kottam, Anupama; Afonso, Luis

    2014-12-01

    Objective data on the performance characteristics and physical properties of commercially available saline formulations [normal saline (NS) vs. bacteriostatic normal saline (bNS)] are sparse. This study sought to compare the in vitro physical properties and in vivo characteristics of two commonly employed echocardiographic saline contrast agents in an attempt to assess superiority. Nineteen patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiograms were each administered agitated regular NS and bNS injections in random order and in a blinded manner according to a standardized protocol. Video time-intensity (TI) curves were constructed from a representative region of interest, placed paraseptally within the right atrium, in the bicaval view. TI curves were analyzed for maximal plateau acoustic intensity (Vmax, dB) and dwell time (DT, s), defined as time duration between onset of Vmax and decay of video intensity below clinically useful levels, reflecting the duration of homogenous opacification of the right atrium. To further characterize the physical properties of the bubbles in vitro, fixed aliquots of similarly agitated saline were injected into a glass well slide-cover slip assembly and examined using an optical microscope to determine bubble diameter in microns (µm) and concentration [bubble count/high power field (hpf)]. A higher acoustic intensity (a less negative dB level), higher bubble concentration and longer DT were considered properties of a superior contrast agent. For statistical analysis, a paired t test was conducted to evaluate the differences in means of Vmax and DT. Compared to NS, bNS administration was associated with superior opacification (video intensity -8.69 ± 4.7 vs. -10.46 ± 4.1 dB, P = 0.002), longer DT (17.3 ± 6.1 vs. 10.2 ± 3.7 s) in vivo and smaller mean bubble size (43.4 vs. 58.6 μm) and higher bubble concentration (1,002 vs. 298 bubble/hpf) in vitro. bNS provides higher intensity and more sustained opacification of the right atrium compared to NS. Higher bubble concentration and stability appear to be additional desirable rheological characteristics favoring bNS as a contrast agent. PMID:25017710

  12. Hyperosmolar therapy in the treatment of severe head injury in children: mannitol and hypertonic saline.

    PubMed

    Knapp, James M

    2005-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury is the result of a primary, acute injury and is complicated by the development of secondary injury due to hypotension and hypoxia. Cerebral edema due to brain injury compromises the delivery of essential nutrients and alters normal intracranial pressure. The Monroe-Kellie Doctrine defines the principles of intracranial pressure homeostasis. Treatment for intracranial hypertension is aimed at reducing the volume of 1 of the 3 intracranial compartments, brain tissue, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid. Hyperosmolar therapy is one treatment intervention in the care of patients with severe head injury resulting in cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension. The effect of hyperosmolar solutions on brain tissue was first studied nearly 90 years ago. Since that time, mannitol has become the most widely used hyperosmolar solution to treat elevated intracranial pressure. Increasingly, hypertonic saline solutions are being used as an adjunct to mannitol in basic science research and clinical studies. Hyperosmolar solutions are effective in reducing elevated intracranial pressure through 2 distinct mechanisms: plasma expansion with a resultant decrease in blood hematocrit, reduced blood viscosity, and decreased cerebral blood volume; and the creation of an osmotic gradient that draws cerebral edema fluid from brain tissue into the circulation. The pediatric section of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies adapted previously published guidelines for the treatment of adult brain injury into guidelines for the treatment of children with traumatic brain injury. These guidelines offer recommendations for the management of children with severe head injury, including the use of mannitol and hypertonic saline to treat intracranial hypertension. Acute and critical care pediatric advanced practice nurses caring for children with severe head injury should be familiar with management guidelines and the use of hyperosmolar solutions. The purpose of this article is to assist the advanced practice nurse in understanding the role of hyperosmolar therapy in the treatment of pediatric traumatic brain injury and review current guidelines for the use of mannitol and hypertonic saline. PMID:15876888

  13. FIELD CROP PRODUCTION IN AREAS WITH SALINE SOILS AND SHALLOW SALINE GROUND WATER IN THE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY OF CALIFORNIA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salinity in soil and water is irrevocably associated with irrigated agriculture throughout the world and as a result requires that salt management becomes an integral part of the production system. With careful water management it is possible to sustain irrigated agriculture in areas with saline so...

  14. Seasonal variability of subsurface high salinity water in the northern South China Sea and its relationship with the northwestern Pacific currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, A.; Du, Y.; Zhuang, W.; Qi, Y.

    2014-10-01

    The North Pacific Tropical Water (NPTW), characterized by the subsurface high salinity (> 34.68 PSU), is observed in the South China Sea (SCS) and often used as an indicator of the water intrusion from the northwestern Pacific into the SCS. Based on the assimilation product from a global high-resolution Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), this study investigates the seasonal variability of subsurface high salinity water (SHSW) in the northern SCS and the influence from the northwestern Pacific. Results show that there exists obvious seasonal variability in the SHSW at about 100-200 m depth. It extends as far west as 111 E in the northern SCS, reaching its volume maximum (minimum) in January (May). Further analysis shows that the seasonal change of the high salinity water is strongly affected by the seasonal variability of large-scale circulations in the low-latitude northwestern Pacific. The changes of high salinity water volume are highly correlated with the shift of the North Equatorial Current (NEC) bifurcation latitude (NECBL), which reaches the northernmost in December and the southernmost in May. Due to the large-scale wind changes in the Pacific, the Luzon Strait transport weakens (strengthens) when the NECBL shifts to the south (north) during summer (winter), which results in the reduced (enhanced) SHSW intrusion from the northwestern Pacific into the northern SCS. The velocity and salinity distribution in the Luzon Strait show that the intrusion of the SHSW mainly occurs at around 20-21.3 N.

  15. Messinian Salinity Crisis and basin fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni, Claudia; Cartwight, Joe

    2014-05-01

    Syn- and post-depositional movement of fluids through sediments is one of the least understood aspects in the evolution of a basin. The conventional hydrostratigraphic view on marine sedimentary basins assumes that compactional and meteoric groundwater fluid circulation drives fluid movement and defines its timing. However, in the past few years, several examples of instantaneous and catastrophic release of fluids have been observed even through low-permeability sediments. A particularly complex case-study involves the presence of giant salt bodies in the depocentres of marine basins. Evaporites dramatically change the hydrostratigraphy and fluid-dynamics of the basin, and influence the P/T regimes, e.g. through changes in the geothermal gradient and in the compaction of underlying sediments. Our paper reviews the impact of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and evaporites on fluid flow in the Mediterranean sub-basins. The analysis of geological and geophysical sub-surface data provides examples from this basin, and the comparison with analogues in other well-known evaporitic provinces. During the MSC, massive sea-level changes occurred in a relatively limited time interval, and affected the balance of fluid dynamics, e.g. with sudden release or unusual trapping of fluids. Fluid expulsion events are here analysed and classified in relation to the long and short-term effects of the MSC. Our main aim is to build a framework for the correct identification of the fluid flow-related events, and their genetic mechanisms. On basin margins, where evaporites are thin or absent, the sea-level changes associated with the MSC force a rapid basinward shift of the mixing zone of meteoric/gravity flow and saline/compactional flow, 100s-km away from its pre-MSC position. This phenomenon changes the geometry of converging flows, creates hydraulic traps for fluids, and triggers specific diagenetic reactions in pre-MSC deep marine sediments. In basin-centre settings, unloading and re-loading of water associated to the sea-level changes leads to the sudden release of focused fluids, enhancing pockmark formation, evaporite dissolution, gas-hydrate dissociation and methane venting. After the MSC, and in the long-term basin evolution, the aquitard effect of the thick evaporites also created favourable condition for the development of overpressures in the pre-MSC sediments. However, the traditional view of saline giants as impermeable barriers to fluid flow has been challenged in recent years, by the documented evidence of fluid migration pathways through thick evaporites. Ultimately, these events can lead not only to fluid, but also to sediment remobilisation. The review here presented has applications as a tool for identifying, quantifying and understanding controls and timing of fluid dynamics in marine basins hosting extensive evaporitic series.

  16. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePLUS

    ... volumes of urine), such as is seen in diabetes insipidus . ... the conditions that cause increased urine volume include: Diabetes insipidus - renal Diabetes insipidus - central Diabetes High fluid intake ...

  17. Saline sonohysterosalpingographic findings in infertile Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Onah, H E; Ezike, H A; Mgbor, S O

    2006-11-01

    This paper describes the findings in the first 100 women who underwent saline sonohysterosalpingography (SHG) at two privately owned health facilities in Enugu, South East Nigeria. This was a prospective study of the first 100 consecutive women presenting with infertility to the authors at Mbanefo Hospital and Hansa Clinics, both in Enugu, South-East geopolitical zone of Nigeria from 1 May 2005 to 20 January 2006. Saline sonohysterosalpingography was carried out in the standard way in these women. The findings were analysed using simple percentages and means +/- SD. The procedure was completed in 98 women, while in two others it was not possible to cannulate the uterine cavity. A total of 61 of the women had normal uterine musculature, 37 had interstitial fibroids and two had sonographic features of adenomyosis. Regarding the endometrial cavity, 93 women had a normal endometrium, four had a submucosal fibroid, one had intrauterine adhesions, while the endometrial cavity could not be assessed in two women who could not be cannulated. No case of submucosal polyp or uterine septa or other congenital uterine anomalies was seen. As assessed sonologically, 77 of the study subjects had bilateral patent tubes, while five had unilateral tubal patency. In one woman, there was uncertainty about tubal patency or blockage; in two women, the tubes could not be assessed because of non-cannulation of the uterine cavity and in 15 women, both tubes were blocked. A total of 74 women had normal ovaries; 15 had polycystic ovaries; five had atrophic ovaries consistent with ovarian failure and six women had ovarian cysts. In 18 women, the findings at sonosalpingography (SSG) were confirmed at laparoscopy in 11 women or laparotomy (two women) or by the fact that the patients became pregnant (five women). In 15 (83.3%) of these 18 women, the findings at SSG and laparotomy/laparoscopy or of the woman becoming pregnant were compatible. SSG is a useful screening test for assessing endometrial, tubal and ovarian factors in infertile Nigerian women, thereby obviating the need for laparoscopy and hysteroscopy in the majority of cases. PMID:17130032

  18. The influence of salinity on D/H fractionation in dinosterol and brassicasterol from globally distributed saline and hypersaline lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Daniel B.; Sachs, Julian P.

    2014-05-01

    Salinity, growth rate, growth stage, nutrient limitation and temperature have all been shown to influence the magnitude of D/H fractionation in algal lipids through laboratory and field studies. Of these factors, salinity has been studied most extensively in the field, but to date all such investigations have focused on transect studies within specific and isolated environments. Here we test the relationship between salinity and the magnitude of D/H fractionation in algal lipids through paired analyses of sedimentary and particulate lipid and water hydrogen isotope values at a wide range of continental and coastal lake sites spanning salinities from 0 to 117 ppt. Our results demonstrate broad consistency between D/H fractionations in dinosterol and brassicasterol with those obtained from previous work, with salinity changes of 1 ppt resulting in lipid ?D changes of 0.7-1. Although our results also show variability in D/H fractionation between sites that is not related to salinity, the fact that any relationship emerges above the influences of other factors suggests that the salinity effect is dominant for some lipids in the majority of saline to hypersaline environments. This improved understanding of D/H fractionation in dinosterol and brassicasterol synthesis supports the use of these compounds as paleohydrologic indicators. When combined with D/H measurements from a second lipid or oxygen isotope measurements from carbonate, quantitative reconstructions of salinity and lake water isotope changes are possible. Extending the number of algal lipids within which a consistent relationship between D/H fractionation and salinity has been identified also supports the notion that the relationship is widespread among unicellular photoautotrophs.

  19. A fluctuating salinity regime mitigates the negative effects of reduced salinity on the estuarine macroalga, Enteromorpha intestinalis (L.) link.

    PubMed

    Kamer; Fong

    2000-11-01

    We tested the response of Enteromorpha intestinalis to fluctuating reduced salinity regimes which may occur in coastal estuaries due to both natural and anthropogenic influences. In a fully crossed two factor experiment, we subjected E. intestinalis to 0, 5, 15 and 25 psu water enriched with nutrients for 1-, 5-, 11- and 23-day periods. Each period was followed by 24 h of exposure to 25 psu (ambient) water that was not nutrient enriched. Following 24 h in ambient salinity water, algae were returned to reduced salinity conditions for the appropriate period and the cycle continued over the 24 days for which all treatments were maintained. Exposure to 0 psu for 5 days or longer resulted in loss of pigmentation, decreased wet and dry biomass, increased wet wt:dry wt ratios, decreased removal of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the water column and an accumulation of NH(4) in the water column. More frequent exposure to ambient salinity in the 1-day treatment mitigated these effects. Across all salinity levels tested, biomass increased as frequency of exposure to ambient salinity increased. At all durations of exposure to low salinity tested, biomass increased as salinity level increased. We conclude that growth of E. intestinalis is decreased by reduced salinity. E. intestinalis is able to withstand exposure to 0 psu but there is a temporal limit to this tolerance that is somewhere between 1 and 5 days. Populations of E. intestinalis in coastal estuaries may suffer from freshwater inputs if salinity conditions are persistently reduced. PMID:11058726

  20. Daily Sodium Butyrate Enema for the Prevention of Radiation Proctitis in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Radical Radiation Therapy: Results of a Multicenter Randomized Placebo-Controlled Dose-Finding Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Maggio, Angelo; Magli, Alessandro; Rancati, Tiziana; Fiorino, Claudio; Valvo, Francesca; Fellin, Giovanni; Ricardi, Umberto; Munoz, Fernando; Cosentino, Dorian; Cazzaniga, Luigi Franco; Valdagni, Riccardo; Vavassori, Vittorio

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of sodium butyrate enemas (NABUREN) in prostate cancer radiation therapy (RT) in reducing the incidence, severity, and duration of acute RT-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: 166 patients, randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups (rectal sodium butyrate 1 g, 2 g, or 4 g daily or placebo), were treated with NABUREN during and 2 weeks after RT. The grade of proctitis was registered in a daily diary. The correlation between NABUREN and proctitis was investigated through χ{sup 2} statistics. The toxicity endpoints considered were as follows: total number of days with grade ≥1 proctitis (≥G1); total number of days with grade ≥2 proctitis (≥G2); ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis lasting at least 3 and 5 consecutive days starting from week 4 (≥G1+3d, ≥G2+3d); damaging effects of RT on rectal mucosa as measured by endoscopy. The relationship between endpoints and pretreatment morbidities, hormonal therapy, presence of diabetes or hypertension, abdominal surgery, or hemorrhoids was investigated by univariate analysis. Results: The patients were randomly allocated to the 4 arms. No difference in the distribution of comorbidities among the arms was observed (P>.09). The mean ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis were 7.8 and 4.9 for placebo and 8.9 and 4.7 for the NABUREN group, respectively. No favorable trend in reduction of incidence, severity, and duration of ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis was observed with NABUREN use. In univariate analysis, ≥G1+3d toxicity was found to be related to hemorrhoids (P=.008), and a slight correlation was found between ≥G2 proctitis and hormonal therapy (P=.06). The RT effects on rectal mucosa as based on endoscopic assessment were mainly related to diabetes (P<.01). Endoscopy data at 6 week showed no significant difference between the placebo and butyrate arms. The other investigated endpoints were not correlated with any of the clinical risk factors analyzed. Conclusion: There was no evidence of efficacy of NABUREN in reducing the incidence, severity, and duration of acute radiation proctitis. There was a correlation between some endpoints and clinical risk factors.

  1. Photochemical Chlorine Activation From Artificial Saline Snowpacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wren, S. N.; Abbatt, J.; Donaldson, J.

    2012-12-01

    Halogen activation on snow and ice substrates has a profound influence on the oxidative capacity of the polar boundary layer. The release of reactive chlorine species is of particular interest since chlorine atoms can participate in both ozone depletion and organic oxidation. However, the mechanisms by which halides in sea ice substrates are converted into reactive halogen species are not well understood. In this study we investigated the photochemical activation of chlorine from artificial saline snow. Gas phase Cl2, BrCl and Br2 were detected using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. We observe the dark release of Br2 in the presence of ozone; BrCl and Cl2 are only observed in the presence of both ozone and light. Interestingly, the release of reactive chlorine species persists when a 320 nm or a 380 nm long-pass filter is placed in the light path. Results suggest that smaller snow grains, which present a larger total snow surface area, enhance chlorine production to a greater extent than BrCl or Br2 production. Here we also present the effect of temperature (above and below the NaCl euctectic), acidity, chloride concentration, and ozone concentration on the production of Br2, BrCl and Cl2. Overall the results indicate that a mechanism involving UV-A light and ozone leads to chlorine activation, which may be particularly important in bromide-depleted snow.

  2. In situ bioremediation under high saline conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Bosshard, B.; Raumin, J.; Saurohan, B.

    1995-12-31

    An in situ bioremediation treatability study is in progress at the Salton Sea Test Base (SSTB) under the NAVY CLEAN 2 contract. The site is located in the vicinity of the Salon Sea with expected groundwater saline levels of up to 50,000 ppm. The site is contaminated with diesel, gasoline and fuel oils. The treatability study is assessing the use of indigenous heterotrophic bacteria to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons. Low levels of significant macro nutrients indicate that nutrient addition of metabolic nitrogen and Orthophosphate are necessary to promote the process, requiring unique nutrient addition schemes. Groundwater major ion chemistry indicates that precipitation of calcium phosphorus compounds may be stimulated by air-sparging operations and nutrient addition, which has mandated the remedial system to include pneumatic fracturing as an option. This presentation is tailored at an introductory level to in situ bioremediation technologies, with some emphasize on innovations in sparge air delivery, dissolved oxygen uptake rates, nutrient delivery, and pneumatic fracturing that should keep the expert`s interest.

  3. Salinity anomaly as a trigger for ENSO events.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jieshun; Huang, Bohua; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Balmaseda, Magdalena A; Marx, Lawrence; Kinter, James L

    2014-01-01

    According to the classical theories of ENSO, subsurface anomalies in ocean thermal structure are precursors for ENSO events and their initial specification is essential for skillful ENSO forecast. Although ocean salinity in the tropical Pacific (particularly in the western Pacific warm pool) can vary in response to El Nio events, its effect on ENSO evolution and forecasts of ENSO has been less explored. Here we present evidence that, in addition to the passive response, salinity variability may also play an active role in ENSO evolution, and thus important in forecasting El Nio events. By comparing two forecast experiments in which the interannually variability of salinity in the ocean initial states is either included or excluded, the salinity variability is shown to be essential to correctly forecast the 2007/08 La Nia starting from April 2007. With realistic salinity initial states, the tendency to decay of the subsurface cold condition during the spring and early summer 2007 was interrupted by positive salinity anomalies in the upper central Pacific, which working together with the Bjerknes positive feedback, contributed to the development of the La Nia event. Our study suggests that ENSO forecasts will benefit from more accurate salinity observations with large-scale spatial coverage. PMID:25352285

  4. Salinity anomaly as a trigger for ENSO events

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jieshun; Huang, Bohua; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Balmaseda, Magdalena A.; Marx, Lawrence; Kinter III, James L.

    2014-01-01

    According to the classical theories of ENSO, subsurface anomalies in ocean thermal structure are precursors for ENSO events and their initial specification is essential for skillful ENSO forecast. Although ocean salinity in the tropical Pacific (particularly in the western Pacific warm pool) can vary in response to El Nio events, its effect on ENSO evolution and forecasts of ENSO has been less explored. Here we present evidence that, in addition to the passive response, salinity variability may also play an active role in ENSO evolution, and thus important in forecasting El Nio events. By comparing two forecast experiments in which the interannually variability of salinity in the ocean initial states is either included or excluded, the salinity variability is shown to be essential to correctly forecast the 2007/08 La Nia starting from April 2007. With realistic salinity initial states, the tendency to decay of the subsurface cold condition during the spring and early summer 2007 was interrupted by positive salinity anomalies in the upper central Pacific, which working together with the Bjerknes positive feedback, contributed to the development of the La Nia event. Our study suggests that ENSO forecasts will benefit from more accurate salinity observations with large-scale spatial coverage. PMID:25352285

  5. Tracking evolution of urban biogeochemical cycles: salinization of fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, S.; McDowell, W. H.; Wollheim, W. M.; Duan, S.; Gorman, J. K.; Haq, S.; Hohman, S.; Smith, R. M.; Mayer, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The built environment often changes quickly in response to human activities, thus contributing to an evolution of stream chemistry over time. Depending upon development and management strategies, these changes can result in pulses and/or long-term trends. Here, we explore patterns of evolving salinization of fresh water over time, and we evaluate the potential water quality implications of fresh water salinization. We show that there has been global salinization of freshwater across urbanizing landscapes over a century. We also show that human-accelerated weathering in watersheds and river alkalinization can further influence regional rates of salinization (in addition to anthropogenic sources such as road salts, sewage leaks, etc.). Finally, we investigate how salinization of fresh water can impact stream sediment fluxes of carbon, nutrients, and sulfate in watersheds across a land use gradient at the Baltimore Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. The impacts of salinization on mobilization and uptake of carbon, nutrients, and sulfate in streams warrant further consideration in water quality management strategies. Overall, we propose that salinization can be a "universal tracer" of watershed urbanization globally with major regional consequences for drinking water and evolution of biogeochemical cycles in freshwater ecosystems.

  6. Salinity changes impact of hazardous chemicals in Enchytraeus albidus.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana L Patrcio; Amorim, Mnica J B; Holmstrup, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Supralittoral ecosystems are among the most challenging environments for soil organisms, particularly when salinity fluctuations are involved, frequently combined with the presence of contaminants as a result of intense anthropogenic activities. Knowledge of how salinity influences the effect of contaminants in supralittoral species is crucial for determining the safety factors required when extrapolating results from optimal laboratory conditions to these natural ecosystems. The present study therefore evaluated the effects of 2 metals (copper and cadmium) and 2 organic compounds (carbendazim and 4-nonylphenol) in the absence or presence of 15 NaCl in the potworm Enchytraeus albidus, a model organism for ecotoxicology studies commonly found in supralittoral ecosystems, The potworms had a higher reproduction in saline soil than in control soil. Moreover, the effects of copper and carbendazim on reproduction were smaller than when they were tested in nonsaline soil. Potworms exposed to nonsaline soils also had significantly higher tissue concentrations of metals, which partly explains the effects on reproduction. The influence of salinity on effects of 4-nonylphenol was, however, less clear; effects on survival decreased in saline soil, but effects on reproduction were highest in saline soil. The latter slightly correlated with tissue concentrations of the chemical. The present study provides the first evidence that soil salinity has a significant influence on the impact of contaminants evaluated with the enchytraeid reproduction test. PMID:25943329

  7. Bioaccumulation of perfluorochemicals in Pacific oyster under different salinity gradients.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Junho; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Lim, Han Kyu; Moon, Hyo Bang; Ra, Jin Sung; Kim, Sang Don

    2010-04-01

    Despite the reports of widespread occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in estuarine and coastal waters and open seas, little is known on the effect of salinity on bioaccumulation. In this study, effects of salinity on bioaccumulation of PFCs in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were investigated. Furthermore, partitioning of PFCs between water and particles (oysters' food) was examined at different salinities. The distribution coefficients (K(d); partitioning between water and particles) for selected PFCs, that is, PFOS, PFOA, PFDA, and PFUnDA, increased by 2.1- to 2.7-fold with the increase in water salinity from 10 to 34 psu, suggesting "salting-out" effect, and the salting constant (delta) was estimated to range from 0.80 to 1.11. The nonlinear regression analysis of bioaccumulation suggested increase in aqueous and dietary uptake rates (K(w) and K(f)), with the increase in salinity, which resulted in elevated bioaccumulation, although the depuration rates (K(e)) also increased. The relative abundance of long carbon chain length PFCs (i.e., PFDA and PFUnDA) increased as salinity increased, while the proportion of PFOS and PFOA decreased, which is explained by the positive relationship between delta and carbon chain length. The contribution of diet to bioaccumulation in oysters ranged from 18 to 92%. Overall, salinity not only affected the chemistry of PFCs, but also the physiology of oysters, contributing to sorption and bioaccumulation of perfluorochemicals in oysters. PMID:20230022

  8. Florida Current Salinity and Transport Variation across the Last Glacial Termination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. W.; Henry, L. E.; Lynch-Stieglitz, J.

    2006-12-01

    By correlating increased glacial salinities in the Caribbean and the North Atlantic gyre to periods of reduced North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC), Schmidt et al. (2004) and Schmidt et al., (in press) showed that the tropical hydrologic cycle may play an important role in regulating rapid climate change through its influence on the Atlantic salinity budget. However, an important question remains as to whether the calculated glacial/stadial salinity increases are simply the result of reduced deep-water export from the North Atlantic during glacial episodes or if they result from a tropical hydrologic cycle feedback mechanism leading to decreased freshwater input into the glacial north Atlantic. In order to generate a surface-water temperature and salinity record for the last 23 kyr, we combined Mg/Ca measurements (a proxy for the temperature of calcification) with δ18O analyses of shells from the surface-dwelling foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber in the Southern Florida Straits core KNR166-2-JPC29 (24°17'N, 83°16'W; 648 m; 9-19 cm/kyr sed. rate) to produce a record of δ18OSEAWATER (δ18OSW) across the last glacial termination. After removing the δ18OSW signal due to glacial ice volume variation (Fairbanks, 1989) and normalization to the modern local δ18OSW value (1.0‰), the resulting ice volume-free (Δδ18OIVF-SW) record (a proxy for sea surface salinity (SSS) variability due to regional hydrological change) shows that Florida Straits Δδ18OIVF-SW increased by more than 0.6‰ during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), Heinrich Event 1, and the Younger Dryas (YD) and returned to modern values (~0.0‰) during the Bolling Allerod and the Holocene. Based on the modern tropical Atlantic δ18OSW:SSS relationship, δ18OSW = 0.26*SSS- 8.44, these enriched δ18OSW values suggest salinity increases of 2.3 to 3.5‰ during cold events in the North Atlantic. Because the Florida Current is in geostrophic balance as it passes through the Florida Straits, the seawater density contrast across the Straits can be used to calculate transport rates. Based on δ18O profiles in benthic foraminifera from across the Straits, Lynch-Stieglitz et al. (1999) showed that the LGM density contrast was significantly relaxed, reflecting reduced conveyor-belt transport. New records of benthic δ18O profiles across the Straits over the last 13 kyr also suggest significantly reduced Gulf Stream transport during the YD. The interval of reduced flow coincides with anomalously high SSS in the JPC29 record. In order to determine the relative timing between surface water δ18OSW enrichment and reduced conveyor-belt transport, we are currently constructing a high-resolution (~70 yr/sample) YD record of paired surface-water δ18OSW and benthic δ18O change from core KNR166-2-JPC26 (24°20'N, 83°15'W; 546 m, 120 cm/kyr sed. rate through the YD). If the primarily driver of surface salinity change in the tropical Atlantic is the hydrologic cycle, then paired surface and deep water proxies will show synchronous change. However, if ocean circulation changes are the primary driver, then we predict a more gradual increase in surface δ18OSW in response to reduced Gulf Stream flow. Therefore it will be possible to determine the relative importance of each feedback mechanism on elevating SSS in the Tropical Atlantic.

  9. Influence of net freshwater supply on salinity in Florida Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuttle, William K.; Fourqurean, James W.; Cosby, Bernard J.; Zieman, Joseph C.; Robblee, Michael B.

    2000-07-01

    An annual water budget for Florida Bay, the large, seasonally hypersaline estuary in the Everglades National Park, was constructed using physically based models and long-term (31 years) data on salinity, hydrology, and climate. Effects of seasonal and interannual variations of the net freshwater supply (runoff plus rainfall minus evaporation) on salinity variation within the bay were also examined. Particular attention was paid to the effects of runoff, which are the focus of ambitious plans to restore and conserve the Florida Bay ecosystem. From 1965 to 1995 the annual runoff from the Everglades into the bay was less than one tenth of the annual direct rainfall onto the bay, while estimated annual evaporation slightly exceeded annual rainfall. The average net freshwater supply to the bay over a year was thus approximately zero, and interannual variations in salinity appeared to be affected primarily by interannual fluctuations in rainfall. At the annual scale, runoff apparently had little effect on the bay as a whole during this period. On a seasonal basis, variations in rainfall, evaporation, and runoff were not in phase, and the net freshwater supply to the bay varied between positive and negative values, contributing to a strong seasonal pattern in salinity, especially in regions of the bay relatively isolated from exchanges with the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. Changes in runoff could have a greater effect on salinity in the bay if the seasonal patterns of rainfall and evaporation and the timing of the runoff are considered. One model was also used to simulate spatial and temporal patterns of salinity responses expected to result from changes in net freshwater supply. Simulations in which runoff was increased by a factor of 2 (but with no change in spatial pattern) indicated that increased runoff will lower salinity values in eastern Florida Bay, increase the variability of salinity in the South Region, but have little effect on salinity in the Central and West Regions.

  10. The individual response of saline lakes to a severe drought.

    PubMed

    Tweed, Sarah; Grace, Mike; Leblanc, Marc; Cartwright, Ian; Smithyman, Donna

    2011-09-01

    A severe protracted drought between 1997 and 2009 has altered the physical and chemical hydrology of a series of lakes in the Corangamite Basin of southeast Australia. Leading up to the drying out of most lakes (many for the first time on record), we document the changes in lakes' water quantity (water levels and inundation), salinity (Cl concentrations), salinity processes (Cl/Br ratios), nutrient concentrations and ratios (ammonia, phosphate and NOx (nitrate and nitrite)) and algae (as chlorophyll-a) for six lakes. All lakes show record declines in inundated areas and increases in salinity from pre-drought (<1997) to drought conditions. However, the magnitude of change in salinity varies for different lakes, and there is no systematic change in the controls on lake salinity processes. Four lakes show no change in salinity processes, one lake shows the beginnings of change; where halite dissolution reactions increased closer to the time of the lake drying up, and another lake shows a marked shift from predominantly evaporation to the cyclic dissolution and precipitation of halite. Changes in filterable reactive phosphorus (FRP) values and lake N and P limitation predictions also showed little systematic correlation with changes in lake salinity, and nutrient values varied between lakes and over time. The decline in NO(x) concentrations in lakes where electrical conductivity (EC) values were above 100 mS/cm indicates some correlation with changes in salinity. Largely, these lakes exhibit individual changes in water quality parameters and salinity processes in response to the drought, indicating that while the stress of drought is regional, the hydrochemical response is local. In future changing climates, these results suggest that the catchment adaption strategies will require comprehensive plans for individual lake systems. PMID:21752428

  11. Influence of net freshwater supply on salinity in Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nuttle, W.K.; Fourqurean, J.W.; Cosby, B.J.; Zieman, J.C.; Robblee, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    An annual water budget for Florida Bay, the large, seasonally hypersaline estuary in the Everglades National Park, was constructed using physically based models and long-term (31 years) data on salinity, hydrology, and climate. Effects of seasonal and interannual variations of the net freshwater supply (runoff plus rainfall minus evaporation) on salinity variation within the bay were also examined. Particular attention was paid to the effects of runoff, which are the focus of ambitious plans to restore and conserve the Florida Bay ecosystem. From 1965 to 1995 the annual runoff from the Everglades into the bay was less than one tenth of the annual direct rainfall onto the bay, while estimated annual evaporation slightly exceeded annual rainfall. The average net freshwater supply to the bay over a year was thus approximately zero, and interannual variations in salinity appeared to be affected primarily by interannual fluctuations in rainfall. At the annual scale, runoff apparently had little effect on the bay as a whole during this period. On a seasonal basis, variations in rainfall, evaporation, and runoff were not in phase, and the net freshwater supply to the bay varied between positive and negative values, contributing to a strong seasonal pattern in salinity, especially in regions of the bay relatively isolated from exchanges with the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. Changes in runoff could have a greater effect on salinity in the bay if the seasonal patterns of rainfall and evaporation and the timing of the runoff are considered. One model was also used to simulate spatial and temporal patterns of salinity responses expected to result from changes in net freshwater supply. Simulations in which runoff was increased by a factor of 2 (but with no change in spatial pattern) indicated that increased runoff will lower salinity values in eastern Florida Bay, increase the variability of salinity in the South Region, but have little effect on salinity in the Central and West Regions.

  12. Salinity and Temperature Tolerance Experiments on Selected Florida Bay Mollusks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, James B.; Wingard, G. Lynn

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) is to restore and preserve the unique ecosystems of South Florida, including the estuaries. Understanding the effect of salinity and temperature changes, beyond typical oscillations, on the biota of South Florida's estuaries is a necessary component of achieving the goal of restoring the estuaries. The U.S. Geological Survey has been actively involved in researching the history of the South Florida Ecosystem, to provide targets, performance measures, and baseline data for restoration managers. These experiments addressed two aspects of ecosystem history research: 1) determining the utility of using molluscan shells as recorders of change in water chemistry parameters, primarily salinity, and 2) enhancing our in situ observations on modern assemblages by exceeding typically observed aquatic conditions. This set of experiments expanded our understanding of the effects of salinity, temperature and other water chemistry parameters on the reproduction, growth and overall survivability of key species of mollusks used in interpreting sediment core data. Observations on mollusks, plants and microbes made as part of these experiments have further refined our knowledge and understanding of the effects of ecosystem feedback and the role salinity and temperature play in ecosystem stability. The results have demonstrated the viability of several molluscan species as indicators of atypical salinity, and possibly temperature, modulations. For example Cerithium muscarum and Bulla striata demonstrated an ability to withstand a broad salinity and temperature range, with reproduction occurring in atypically high salinities and temperatures. These experiments also provided calibration data for the shell biogeochemistry of Chione cancellata and the possible use of this species as a water chemistry recorder. Observations made in the mesocosms, on a scale not normally observable in the field, have led to new questions about the influence of salinity on the localized ecosystem. The next phase of these experiments; to calibrate growth rate and reproductive viability in atypical salinities is currently underway.

  13. Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) salinity data validation over Malaysia coastal water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reba, M. N. M.; Rosli, A. Z.; Rahim, N. A.

    2014-02-01

    The study of sea surface salinity (SSS) plays an important role in the marine ecosystem, estimation of global ocean circulation and observation of fisheries, aquaculture, coral reef and sea grass habitats. The new challenge of SSS estimation is to exploit the ocean surface brightness temperature (Tb) observed by the Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) onboard the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite that is specifically designed to provide the best retrieval of ocean salinity and soil moisture using the L band of 1.4 GHz radiometer. Tb observed by radiometer is basically a function of the dielectric constant, sea surface temperature (SST), wind speed (U), incidence angle, polarization and SSS. Though, the SSS estimation is an ill-posed inversion problem as the relationship between the Tb and SSS is non-linear function. Objective of this study is to validate the SMOS SSS estimates with the ground-truth over the Malaysia coastal water. The LM iteratively determines the SSS of SMOS by the reduction of the sum of squared errors between Tb SMOS and Tb simulation (using in-situ) based on the updated geophysical triplet in the direction of the minimum of the cost function. The minimum cost function is compared to the desired threshold at each iteration and this recursive least square process updates the SST, U and SSS until the cost function converged. The designed LM's non-linear inversion algorithm simultaneously estimates SST, U and SSS and thus, map of SSS over Malaysia coastal water is produced from the regression model and accuracy assessment between the SMOS and in-situ retrieved SSS. This study found a good agreement in the validation with R square of 0.9 and the RMSE of 0.4. It is concluded that the non-linear inversion method is effective and practical to extract SMOS SSS, U and SST simultaneously.

  14. Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm: Final Pre-Launch Version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, Frank J.; Le Vine, David M.

    2011-01-01

    This document provides the theoretical basis for the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The inputs to the algorithm are the Aquarius antenna temperature (T(sub A)) measurements along with a number of NCEP operational products and pre-computed tables of space radiation coming from the galaxy and sun. The output is sea-surface salinity and many intermediate variables required for the salinity calculation. This revision of the Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) is intended to be the final pre-launch version.

  15. Salinity and temperature measurements in San Francisco Bay waters, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dedini, L.A.; Schemel, L.E.; Tembreull, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of salinity and temperature in waters of the San Francisco Bay estuarine system are presented. Sampling was conducted at selected locations (stations) and depths over the period between January-December 1980 at approximately two week intervals. Stations were located in deep channels and adjacent shallow water areas from Calaveras Point in South San Francisco Bay to the town of Rio Vista on the Sacramento River and to the Three-Mile Slough on the San Joaquin River. Numerical values of salinity, temperature, and station locations are tabulated. Contour maps of deep-channel salinity and temperature are presented and the analytical methods are briefly described.

  16. Zooplankton Seasonal Abundance of South AmericanSaline Shallow Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echaniz, Santiago Andrs; Vignatti, Alicia Mara; Jos de Paggi, Susana; Paggi, Juan Csar; Pilati, Alberto

    2006-02-01

    The central provinces of Argentina are characterized by the presence of a high number of shallow lakes, located in endorheic basins, many of which have elevated salinities as well as eutrophic or hypereutrophic condition. The zooplankton of four saline shallow lakes of the province of La Pampa was studied on a monthly basis during a 2-year period to determine its temporal and spatial variation.The surface of these shallow lakes (<2.5 m depth) varied between 56.8 and 215.9 ha, and some have from 8.4 to 20.8 g . l-1. The more saline lakes have clear water and the less saline lakes turbid water. Fishes, Jenynsia multidentata , were present in only two lakes during the last two months of the studied period.The zooplankton was composed of 17 taxa of Rotifera, 5 taxa of Cladocera and 4 taxa of Copepoda. The low diversity and the faunistic composition are characteristic of saline environments. Although the studied lakes share 38% of the species, the faunistic similarity was higher between the two least saline lakes. The lowest diversity was found in the two most saline lakes.All four shallow lakes were characterized by their very high zooplankton density, especially in the least saline lakes (<80000 ind . l-1). The abundance is significantly correlated with the water transparency but not with salinity.The zooplankton temporal variation was characterized by the alternation of macro- and microzooplankton, probably regulated by competition and intrazooplanktonic predation. In each lake, the spatial abundance distribution of the macro- and microzooplankton was homogeneous. It was related to the shallow depht of the lakes and their polymictic condition.The Scheffer model on alternative states in shallow lakes acknowledges that it cannot be applied to saline lakes because Daphnia , the main responsible for the clear water state, is not tolerant to high salinity. Our study shows that the most saline lakes, where the halophylic Daphnia menucoensis is abundant, have also the most clear waters. Another difference that we found with regards to the mentioned model is that, in turbid lakes, it could not have had a top-down control on macrozooplankton exerted by fishes because in these lakes fishes were practically absent.

  17. Aquarius and Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Torrusio, S.

    2012-01-01

    Aquarius is an L-band radiometer and scatterometer instrument combination designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The instrument is designed to provide global salinity maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. The science objective is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This data will promote understanding of ocean circulation and its role in the global water cycle and climate.

  18. Remote Sensing of Salinity: The Dielectric Constant of Sea Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M.; Lang, R.; Utku, C.; Tarkocin, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Global monitoring of sea surface salinity from space requires an accurate model for the dielectric constant of sea water as a function of salinity and temperature to characterize the emissivity of the surface. Measurements are being made at 1.413 GHz, the center frequency of the Aquarius radiometers, using a resonant cavity and the perturbation method. The cavity is operated in a transmission mode and immersed in a liquid bath to control temperature. Multiple measurements are made at each temperature and salinity. Error budgets indicate a relative accuracy for both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of about 1%.

  19. The influence of previous salt ingestion on the renal function of sheep subjected to intravenous hypertonic saline

    PubMed Central

    Potter, B. J.

    1968-01-01

    1. Sheep, which had access to a solution containing 13% sodium chloride as their sole source of drinking water for 6 months or more, were infused with a hypertonic solution (10%) of sodium chloride, and their ability to tolerate this salt load was compared with that of a similar group of sheep which drank only rain water. 2. The sheep which drank the rain water were often affected by the infusion and exhibited signs resembling potassium deficit. No such signs were apparent in the animals which consumed saline water. 3. Glomerular filtration rates were increased in all sheep by the hypertonic saline infusion, the increases being greater in the sheep which were maintained on the saline water. Effective renal plasma flow rates, though extremely variable, behaved in a similar manner. 4. Plasma values for sodium and chloride were increased in all sheep, but remained at a higher level for a longer period in the sheep which consumed rain water. The diuresis produced by hypertonic saline appeared to persist for a longer period in the sheep which drank rain water, while the excretion of sodium and chloride tended to be greater in the sheep maintained on saline water. 5. Plasma potassium was reduced in all sheep and urinary excretion of potassium increased. The latter response was more pronounced in the sheep which drank the rain water. 6. Filtered loads of sodium, chloride and potassium were greater in the sheep which were accustomed to drinking saline water. However, the amounts of potassium excreted were greater than those filtered in the rain water sheep and less than those filtered in the sheep which drank saline water. It therefore seems that secretion of potassium into the kidney tubules predominated in the former group and reabsorption prevailed in the latter. 7. Reabsorption of free water in excess of solute was greater in the kidney tubules of the sheep which drank saline water. 8. Increased blood volume and greater dilution of plasma proteins occurred in the sheep which drank rain water. PMID:5639360

  20. Understanding salinity responses and adopting ‘omics-based’ approaches to generate salinity tolerant cultivars of rice

    PubMed Central

    Das, Priyanka; Nutan, Kamlesh K.; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L.; Pareek, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    Soil salinity is one of the main constraints affecting production of rice worldwide, by reducing growth, pollen viability as well as yield of the plant. Therefore, detailed understanding of the response of rice towards soil salinity at the physiological and molecular level is a prerequisite for its effective management. Various approaches have been adopted by molecular biologists or breeders to understand the mechanism for salinity tolerance in plants and to develop salt tolerant rice cultivars. Genome wide analysis using ‘omics-based’ tools followed by identification and functional validation of individual genes is becoming one of the popular approaches to tackle this task. On the other hand, mutation breeding and insertional mutagenesis has also been exploited to obtain salinity tolerant crop plants. This review looks into various responses at cellular and whole plant level generated in rice plants toward salinity stress thus, evaluating the suitability of intervention of functional genomics to raise stress tolerant plants. We have tried to highlight the usefulness of the contemporary ‘omics-based’ approaches such as genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and phenomics towards dissecting out the salinity tolerance trait in rice. In addition, we have highlighted the importance of integration of various ‘omics’ approaches to develop an understanding of the machinery involved in salinity response in rice and to move forward to develop salt tolerant cultivars of rice. PMID:26442026

  1. Controls on the relationship between salinity and the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater: Implications for past estimates of salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, P.; Rosenheim, B.; Spero, H.

    2005-12-01

    Past estimates of salinity are normally made by removing the temperature effect from the oxygen isotope signal in calcareous organisms through the use of a proxy such as the Sr/Ca or Mg/Ca ratio in the skeleton. The residual oxygen isotopic composition is then directly related to salinity. However the slope of such a relationship varies appreciably, dependent upon whether salinity variations result from mixing of riverine water with ocean water or whether changes result from evaporation. Relationships between ?18O and salinity arising from mixing of large rivers such as the Amazon and the Mississippi with typical isotopic composition of between -8 and -6 %produce slopes between salinity and ?18O of 0.17 to 0.22. With the addition of local precipitation in the sub-tropics which has an isotopic composition of 0 to -3% typically salinity vs. ?18O relationship in the Caribbean and equatorial regions are approximately 0.12 to 0.14. In large regions of the oceans salinity vs. ?18O relationships are >> 0.14 not as a result of dilution by freshwater, but as a result of evaporation. Typically evaporation of seawater in the range 35 -37 produces slopes of 0.4 -0.6 with higher values occurring under conditions of higher relative humidity (> 90 %). A change in the temperature of evaporation has little influence upon the relationship. Failure to recognize the changing role of evaporation on the salinity vs. ?18O relationship can lead to the calculation of unrealistic changes in paleo-salinity from proxy data obtained from organisms such as corals, sclerosponges and foraminifera.

  2. Sea surface salinity variability in response to the Congo river discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Yi; Farrara, John D.; Schumann, Guy; Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Moller, Delwyn

    2015-05-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) variability associated with the Congo River discharge is examined using Aquarius satellite-retrieved SSS data and vertical profiles of salinity measured by the Argo floats. The Congo River and its adjacent coastal ocean region are selected for study because of their global importance in ocean-freshwater dynamics undermined by the lack of observational data and coordinated efforts to make in situ measurements in this region. With a weekly repeat orbit, Aquarius provides a unique opportunity to routinely map the SSS in this relatively remote and understudied region. The Congo River plume can be clearly identified in the Aquarius SSS data with a northwestward extension of 500-1000 km off the coast of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The peak amplitude of the SSS variability associated with the Congo River discharge exceeds 3.0 psu, significantly greater than the designed Aquarius SSS retrieval accuracy of 0.2 psu. Using the first two years of Aquarius data from September 2011 to August 2013, a well-defined seasonal cycle is described: maximum freshwater anomalies are found in the boreal winter and spring seasons. The anomalies during the 2012-2013 winter and spring seasons are significantly fresher than the 2011-2012 winter and spring seasons, suggesting a strong year-to-year variability. A strong correlation is found between month-to-month variations in upper ocean salinity (as revealed by Aquarius satellite and Argo observations) and month-to-month variations in the freshwater discharge from the Congo River over a region off the coast of West Africa that is large enough to be easily observed by the Aquarius satellite. Vertical profiles of salinity derived from Argo floats reveal that these freshwater anomalies can be traced to 30 m below the sea surface. Combining the spatial area characterized by strong negative correlations between Aquarius SSS data and Congo discharge with the Argo vertical profiles of salinity, the volume of the freshwater anomalies is inferred and used to estimate the Congo River discharge. Reasonably good agreement is found between the Congo River discharge as observed by a stream gauge at Brazzaville and that estimated from the combined Aquarius and Argo data, especially during the freshening portion of the seasonal cycle (during this phase the correlation is 0.84, implying ~70% of the variance can be explained). The precipitation minus evaporation portion of the freshwater flux is found to play a secondary role in this region.

  3. Response to recharge variation of thin rainwater lenses and their mixing zone with underlying saline groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eeman, S.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Leijnse, A.; de Louw, P. G. B.; Maas, C.

    2012-10-01

    In coastal zones with saline groundwater, fresh groundwater lenses may form due to infiltration of rain water. The thickness of both the lens and the mixing zone, determines fresh water availability for plant growth. Due to recharge variation, the thickness of the lens and the mixing zone are not constant, which may adversely affect agricultural and natural vegetation if saline water reaches the root zone during the growing season. In this paper, we study the response of thin lenses and their mixing zone to variation of recharge. The recharge is varied using sinusoids with a range of amplitudes and frequencies. We vary lens characteristics by varying the Rayleigh number and Mass flux ratio of saline and fresh water, as these dominantly influence the thickness of thin lenses and their mixing zone. Numerical results show a linear relation between the normalised lens volume and the main lens and recharge characteristics, enabling an empirical approximation of the variation of lens thickness. Increase of the recharge amplitude causes increase and the increase of recharge frequency causes a decrease in the variation of lens thickness. The average lens thickness is not significantly influenced by these variations in recharge, contrary to the mixing zone thickness. The mixing zone thickness is compared to that of a Fickian mixing regime. A simple relation between the travelled distance of the centre of the mixing zone position due to variations in recharge and the mixing zone thickness is shown to be valid for both a sinusoidal recharge variation and actual records of daily recharge data. Starting from a step response function, convolution can be used to determine the effect of variable recharge in time. For a sinusoidal curve, we can determine delay of lens movement compared to the recharge curve as well as the lens amplitude, derived from the convolution integral. Together the proposed equations provide us with a first order approximation of lens characteristics using basic lens and recharge parameters without the use of numerical models. This enables the assessment of the vulnerability of any thin fresh water lens on saline, upward seeping groundwater to salinity stress in the root zone.

  4. Photochemical chlorine activation from artificial saline snowpacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wren, Sumi; Donaldson, James; Abbatt, Jon

    2013-04-01

    Halogen activation on snow and ice substrates has a profound influence on the oxidative capacity of the polar boundary layer. The release of reactive chlorine species is of particular interest since chlorine atoms can participate in both ozone depletion and hydrocarbon oxidation. However, the mechanisms by which halides in sea ice substrates are converted into reactive halogen species are not well understood. In this study we investigated the activation of halogens from artificial saline snow in the presence of light and ozone. Gas phase Cl2, BrCl and Br2 were detected using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. We observe the dark release of Br2 in the presence of ozone; BrCl and Cl2 are only observed in the presence of both ozone and light. Interestingly, photo-induced release of halogens is still seen when a 320 nm or a 380 nm long-pass filter is placed in the light path. The observed halogen release is consistent with the chemistry occurring in a concentrated brine located at the surface of the snow grains. Results suggest that smaller snow grains, which present a larger total snow surface area, enhance chlorine production to a greater extent than BrCl or Br2 production. Chlorine production is shown to be strongly pH dependent, with higher chlorine yields under acidic conditions. Overall the results indicate that a mechanism involving UV-A light and ozone leads to accelerated halogen activation, which may be particularly important for releasing chlorine from bromide-depleted snow.

  5. Iron Catalyzed Halogenation Processes in Saline Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubbesing, C.; Lippe, S.; Kullik, V.; Hauck, L.; Krause, T.; Keppler, F.; Schoeler, H. F.

    2014-12-01

    Within upcoming years the extent of salt deserts and salt lakes will probably increase due to climate change. It is known that volatile organic halogens (VOX) are released from saline soils and thus higher emissions from these environments are likely expected in the future. The origin of some organohalogens is not reasonably constrained by established natural halogenation processes. Therefore detailed biogeochemical investigations of these environments are necessary to identify the specific halogenation pathways. Redox-sensitive metals like iron are already known as triggers of chemical reactions via so called Fenton and Fenton-like reactions requiring H2O2 which is photochemically produced in water. In this study we collected soil samples from several salt lakes in Western Australia with pH values ranging from 2 to 8. The high pH variability was considered useful to study the impact of iron mobility and availability on halogenation processes. Iron was found to mainly occur as oxides and sulfides within the alkaline soils and acidic soils, respectively. All soil samples were lyophilised and finely ground prior to incubation at 40 C for 24 h in aqueous solutions. Formation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and VOX from these soils was observed using GC-FID and GC-MS. When H2O2 was added to the samples much higher concentrations of VOC and VOX were observed. Furthermore, when the pH of the soils was changed towards lower values higher emissions of VOC were also observed. Based on C-H activation processes we delineate a halide containing iron complex as a provider of anions reacting with previously generated hydrocarbon radicals. We suggest iron sulfate derivatives as those complexes which are generated if the above-mentioned natural H2O2 addition to iron sulfates and sulfides occurs. The origin of these complexes is able to explain the halogenation of chemically unreactive alkanes.

  6. Saline water irrigation effects on soil salinity distribution and some physiological responses of field grown Chemlali olive.

    PubMed

    Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Magdich, Salwa; Ben Rouina, Bechir; Boukhris, Makki; Ben Abdullah, Ferjani

    2012-12-30

    The shortage of water resources of good quality is becoming an issue in arid and semi arid regions. Per consequent, the use of water resources of marginal quality is becoming an important consideration, particularly in arid regions in Tunisia, where large quantities of saline water are used for irrigation. Nevertheless, the use of these waters in irrigated lands requires the control of soil salinity and a comprehensive analysis even beyond the area where water is applied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of saline water irrigation on soil salinity distribution and some physiological traits of field-grown adult olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) under contrasting environmental conditions of the arid region in the south of Tunisia. The plants were subjected, over two growing seasons, to two drip irrigated treatments: fresh water (ECe=1.2 dS m(-1), FW) and saline water (ECe=7.5 dS m(-1), SW). Saline water irrigation (SW) has led to a significant increase in soil salinity. Furthermore, these results showed that soil salinity and soil moisture variations are not only dependent on water salinity level but are also controlled by a multitude of factors particularly the soil texture, the distance from the irrigation source and climatic conditions (rainfall pattern, temperature average, ). On the other hand, salt treatment reduced leaf midday water potential (LMWP), relative water content and photosynthetic activity and increased the leaf proline content, and this increase was season-dependent. Indeed, LMWP in SW plants decreased to -3.71 MPa. Furthermore, the highest level of proline in SW plants was registered during summer period (2.19 ?mol/mg Fw). The proline accumulation recorded in stressed plants has allowed them to preserve appropriate leaf water status and photosynthetic activity. More to the point, this olive cultivar seems to be more sensible to soil salinity during the intense growth phase. Such tendencies would help to better manage water resources for irrigation, particularly under actual climatic conditions of water scarcity. For example, in the case of the availability of different water qualities, it would be better to preserve those of high quality for olive irrigation during the intense vegetative growth phase, in coincidence with high salt sensitive period, and those of low quality for irrigation during partial growth and plant rest phases. What's more, the urgent use of saline water for irrigation should not be applied without taking into consideration the different surroundings conditions where it is used, particularly the water salinity level, the soil type, the adopted irrigation system, the degree of the crop salt tolerance, the plant growth phase and the climatic conditions of the experimental site. PMID:22572465

  7. Remote measurement of salinity in an estuarine environment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomann, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    The microwave emission of sea water is dependent upon salinity in the low microwave spectrum, and it appears possible to measure remotely surface salinity at 21-cm wavelength with an accuracy up to one part salt per thousand parts water (.1%) for a .5 to 3.5% salinity range. The dielectric constant of sea water can be represented by that of NaCl, except that the sea water conductivity is retained. The effects of the atmosphere, cosmic noise, sea surface roughness, and constant radiometer errors can be corrected by using surface calibration measurements. In experiments performed in Mississippi and Louisiana coastal waters salinity accuracies of .3 to .5 were obtained. It is believed that the accuracy was limited by the radiometer used.

  8. Protocols for Mapping Soil Salinity at Field Scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characterizing the spatial variability of soil salinity is an important spatial property that provides crucial information for crop and irrigation management strategies, particularly for site-specific management purposes. Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) is a quick, reliable measurement ...

  9. Aquarius Observations of Sea Surface Salinity - Duration: 31 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows changes in global sea surface salinity, as measured by NASA’s Aquarius instrument aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft, from December 2011 through December 2012. Red repr...

  10. Highlights of the First 15 Months of Aquarius Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagerloef, Gary S. E.; Kao, Hsun-Ying; Wentz, Frank; LeVine, David M.; Yueh, Simon H.; Feldman, Gene C.

    2012-01-01

    Aquarius satellite salinity measurements are resolving the major global and regional spatial patterns, and temporal variations, since the start of routine data collection on 25 August 2011. This description includes the principal seasonal variations over the first annual cycle as observed by the mission. In particular, we identify the evolution of low salinity anomalies associated with the Atlantic and Pacific intertropical convergence zones (ITCZ), major river outflows such as the Amazon, a seasonal low salinity anomaly in the Panama bight, and other features. We also explore the links that the salinity variations have with precipitation and surface currents. We then will describe the variations related to the presently evolving 2012 El Nino, now evident, as it progresses through the summer and fall 2012. We conclude with a brief summary of the Aquarius data products and validation

  11. Protein Contribution to Plant Salinity Response and Tolerance Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Kosová, Klára; Prášil, Ilja T.; Vítámvás, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The review is focused on plant proteome response to salinity with respect to physiological aspects of plant salt stress response. The attention is paid to both osmotic and ionic effects of salinity stress on plants with respect to several protein functional groups. Therefore, the role of individual proteins involved in signalling, changes in gene expression, protein biosynthesis and degradation and the resulting changes in protein relative abundance in proteins involved in energy metabolism, redox metabolism, stressand defence-related proteins, osmolyte metabolism, phytohormone, lipid and secondary metabolism, mechanical stress-related proteins as well as protein posttranslational modifications are discussed. Differences between salt-sensitive (glycophytes) and salt-tolerant (halophytes) plants are analysed with respect to differential salinity tolerance. In conclusion, contribution of proteomic studies to understanding plant salinity tolerance is summarised and discussed. PMID:23531537

  12. Salinity Influence on Interfacial Area, Wettability, and NAPL Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Valenta, M. M.

    2007-12-01

    Wettability, the tendency of rock or sediment particle surfaces to be preferentially wet by one fluid phase, has a strong influence on the distribution and flow of immiscible fluids in oil reservoirs or aquifers. The efficiency of oil and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) recovery processes and the displacement and production of oil/NAPL by fluids injected into the reservoir or aquifer depend on the wetting properties of the rock/sediment particle surfaces. Effects of salinity on wettability and residual oil saturation during water flooding are of particular interest in the petroleum industry with some reservoirs. It was indicated that the residual oil saturation may be reduced significantly by flooding with low salinity water instead of seawater or brine. This observation may be also true in NAPL recovery from contaminated aquifers. NAPL recovery enhancement may be achieved by manipulating the salinity of the remedial fluid. Two sets of 8 core-flooding column experiments have been completed, using decane and Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil as surrogate NAPLs. Unconsolidated sand packs were used as representative porous media. NAPL removal was conducted by flushing column at residual NAPL saturation using water with salinity ranging from 0% to 8% wt of NaCl. The NAPL-water interfacial area (anw, cm-1) was measured and used as an indicator for the wettability characteristics of the packed sand. Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate (SDBS) was used as an interfacial partitioning tracer and Pentafluoro Benzoic acid (PFBA) was used as a non-reactive and non-partitioning tracer. NAPL was imbibed into an initially water saturated column, using positive displacement methods. NAPL was then flushed out using water at certain salinity. When the column attained a residual NAPL saturation after each water flushing displacement, the partitioning and conservative tracer experiments were conducted separately, to characterize the specific NAPL-water interfacial areas, and the wettability status. Water with 8%, 4%, 2%, 0% wt NaCl salinity was used to displace NAPL from the sand column sequentially. The interfacial tension (IFT) between the salinity water and the ANS oil was monitored. The residual oil saturations indicated that the fraction of NAPL retained in the column increased after water flushing as the salinity in the displacing water increased from 0 to 8%, clearly confirming the earlier findings that lower salinity may cause additional oil to be released. The NAPL-water interfacial area, anw, does not show a monotonic dependence on salinity; instead, anw shows an increasing trend with increasing salinity in the lower salinity range, and the opposite trend at high salinity values. The maximum anw was obtained in systems flushed with 2% salinity water. This trend appears to be consistent with a similar nonlinear dependence of interfacial tension on salinity, and might be an indication of wettability alternation. The observation of this research shread lights on the optimum operation in NAPL removal. The IFT change between NAPL and the salinity water might be attributed to the enhanced NAPL recovery.

  13. Airborne Salinity Mapper Makes Debut in Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jerry L.; Goodberlet, Mark A.; Zaitzeff, James B.

    New technology has been developed through a joint public-private partnership that could greatly improve the ocean sciences community's ability to study coastal oceanography in the same way that satellitebased infrared imaging revolutionized basinscale oceanography. Recent advances in passive microwave technologies and novel means of integrating those advances haveled to the development of the Scanning Low-Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SLFMR) for remote sensing of sea-surface salinity.Designed and built for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the SLFMRalso known as the salinity mapperwas recently used by a team of scientists from government and industry to generate the first remotely sensed image of sea-surface salinity (Figure 1). This image of salinity was obtained near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, during the Naval Research Laboratory's (NRL) Chesapeake Outflow Plume Experiment (COPE), elements of which were conducted in collaboration with NOAA.

  14. Salinity affects the photoacclimation of Chlamydomonas raudensis Ettl UWO241.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Shinichiro; Hner, Norman P A; Minagawa, Jun

    2009-03-01

    Chlamydomonas raudensis Ettl UWO241, a natural variant of C. raudensis, is deficient in state transitions. Its habitat, the deepest layer of Lake Bonney in Antarctica, features low irradiance, low temperature, and high salinity. Although psychrophily and low-light acclimation of this green alga has been described, very little information is available on the effect of salinity. Here, we demonstrate that this psychrophile is halotolerant, not halophilic, and it shows energy redistribution between photosystem I and II based on energy spillover under low-salt conditions. Furthermore, we revealed that C. raudensis exhibits higher non-photochemical quenching in comparison with the mesophile Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, when grown with low-salt, which is due to the lower proton conductivity across the thylakoid membrane. Significance of the C. raudensis UWO241 traits found in the low salinity culture are implicated with their natural habitats, including the high salinity and extremely stable light environments. PMID:19137412

  15. Treatment of high salinity brines by direct contact membrane distillation: Effect of membrane characteristics and salinity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Guan, Yunshan; Cheng, Fangqin; Liu, Yu

    2015-12-01

    Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) is one of the attractive technologies for high salinity brine treatment. In this study, four polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes were examined in treating highly concentrated salt solutions. Results showed that non-supported membranes generally have a higher overall mass transfer coefficient but porosity seems to be the most important parameter controlling membrane flux and thermal efficiency. Supported membranes with large thickness had relatively higher thermal efficiency than small thickness. This can be attributed to their reduced heat loss through heat condition. In addition, KCl, NaCl and MgCl2 solutions showed distinct trends over flux decline at high salt concentrations (⩾2.0M). The difference in flux was largely due to the discrepancy in water activities of these solutions (KCl>NaCl>MgCl2). However, the effect of viscosity on permeate flux could not be neglected for MgCl2 at high salt concentrations as the suddenly increased viscosity could lead to serious temperature polarization. This study indicates that membrane distillation is a promising technology for high salinity brine treatment. PMID:25563165

  16. Evaluation of Soil Salinity Amelioration Technologies in Timpaki, Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagea, Ioanna; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Tsanis, Ioannis; Schwilch, Gudrun

    2015-04-01

    Salinization is a soil threat that adversely affects ecosystem services and diminishes soil functions in many arid and semi-arid regions. Soil salinity management depends on a range of factors, and can be complex expensive and time demanding. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. The WOCAT Technologies Questionnaire is a standardized methodology for monitoring, evaluating and documenting sustainable land management practices through interaction with the stakeholders. Here we use WOCAT for the systematic analysis and evaluation of soil salinization amelioration measures, for the RECARE project Case Study in Greece, the Timpaki basin, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinization due to irrigation with brackish water. Amelioration technologies that have already been applied in the case study by the stakeholders are examined and classified depending on the function they promote and/or improve. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost and input requirements. Preliminary results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity such as composting, mulching, rain water harvesting and seed biopriming are preferred by the stakeholders. Further work will include result validation using qualitative approaches. Keywords: soil salinity; salinization; evaluation of soil salinization amelioration techniques; WOCAT; RECARE FP7 project; Timpaki Crete

  17. Factors driving bottom salinity variability in the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Younjoo J.; Lwiza, Kamazima M. M.

    2008-06-01

    The long-term variability of bottom salinity in the Chesapeake Bay is examined using observations from 1985 to 2004. Simple linear regression analysis based on annual mean data shows that the bottom salinity is significantly correlated with both the Susquehanna River discharge and the Gulf Stream (GS) index, which represents shelf and slope water salinity. This suggests that local forcings as well as external processes affect the variation of bottom salinity on interannual to decadal time scales. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is used to extract patterns among 21 sampling stations along the bay. The first seven EOF modes explain approximately 85% of total variance, and consequently they are combined to represent the variability of bottom salinity anomaly in the bay. The wavelet transform of the bottom salinity anomaly reveals significant areas centered at the periods of 2 and 7.5 years, which is consistent with the results from Fourier spectral analysis. The significant powers in the bottom salinity anomaly exhibit spectral correspondences to the wavelet power spectra of both the river discharge and the GS index, suggesting possible connections between them. Wavelet coherence is employed to determine whether relationship in power spectra between two time series is statistically significant. Our results clearly demonstrate that the interannual variability of the bottom salinity is forced by the freshwater discharge, and the quasi-decadal variability is associated with shelf-slope water condition through horizontal exchange. No evidence is found to indicate that there is influence of the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the variability of the river discharge, but the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) may be related to it at decadal or longer time scales.

  18. Remote Sensing of Salinity and Overview of Results from Aquarius

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Dinnat, E. P.; Meissner, T.; Wentz, F.; Yueh, S. H.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.

    2015-01-01

    Aquarius is a combined active/passive microwave (L-band) instrument designed to map the salinity of global oceans from space. The specific goal of Aquarius is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the sea surface salinity (SSS) field of the open ocean (i.e. away from land). The instrumentation has been designed to provide monthly maps with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu

  19. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Calcite Reactions with Saline Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Piers; *Morse, John W.

    2010-11-15

    1. Objective The general objective of this research was to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of calcite reactions with saline waters over a wide range of saline water composition, carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2), and modest ranges of T and P. This would be done by studying both reaction rates and solubility from changes in solution chemistry. Also, nanoscale observations of calcite surface morphology and composition would be made to provide an understanding of rate controlling mechanisms.

  20. Desertification, salinization, and biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Miyazono, Seiji; Patio, Reynaldo; Taylor, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    This study determined long-term changes in fish assemblages, river discharge, salinity, and local precipitation, and examined hydrological drivers of biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem, the Trans-Pecos region of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (USA/Mexico). Historical (1977-1989) and current (2010-2011) fish assemblages were analyzed by rarefaction analysis (species richness), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (composition/variability), multiresponse permutation procedures (composition), and paired t-test (variability). Trends in hydrological conditions (1970s-2010s) were examined by Kendall tau and quantile regression, and associations between streamflow and specific conductance (salinity) by generalized linear models. Since the 1970s, species richness and variability of fish assemblages decreased in the Rio Grande below the confluence with the Rio Conchos (Mexico), a major tributary, but not above it. There was increased representation of lower-flow/higher-salinity tolerant species, thus making fish communities below the confluence taxonomically and functionally more homogeneous to those above it. Unlike findings elsewhere, this biotic homogenization was due primarily to changes in the relative abundances of native species. While Rio Conchos discharge was>2-fold higher than Rio Grande discharge above their confluence, Rio Conchos discharge decreased during the study period causing Rio Grande discharge below the confluence to also decrease. Rio Conchos salinity is lower than Rio Grande salinity above their confluence and, as Rio Conchos discharge decreased, it caused Rio Grande salinity below the confluence to increase (reduced dilution). Trends in discharge did not correspond to trends in precipitation except at extreme-high (90th quantile) levels. In conclusion, decreasing discharge from the Rio Conchos has led to decreasing flow and increasing salinity in the Rio Grande below the confluence. This spatially uneven desertification and salinization of the Rio Grande has in turn led to a region-wide homogenization of hydrological conditions and of taxonomic and functional attributes of fish assemblages. PMID:25569580

  1. Desertification, salinization, and biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miyazono, S.; Patino, Reynaldo; Taylor, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined long-term changes in fish assemblages, river discharge, salinity, and local precipitation, and examined hydrological drivers of biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem, the Trans-Pecos region of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (USA/Mexico). Historical (1977-1989) and current (2010-2011) fish assemblages were analyzed by rarefaction analysis (species richness), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (composition/variability), multiresponse permutation procedures (composition), and paired t-test (variability). Trends in hydrological conditions (1970s-2010s) were examined by Kendall tau and quantile regression, and associations between streamfiow and specific conductance (salinity) by generalized linear models. Since the 1970s, species richness and variability of fish assemblages decreased in the Rio Grande below the confluence with the Rio Conchos (Mexico), a major tributary, but not above it. There was increased representation of lower-flow/higher-salinity tolerant species, thus making fish communities below the confluence taxonomically and functionally more homogeneous to those above it. Unlike findings elsewhere, this biotic homogenization was due primarily to changes in the relative abundances of native species. While Rio Conchos discharge was > 2-fold higher than Rio Grande discharge above their confluence, Rio Conchos discharge decreased during the study period causing Rio Grande discharge below the confluence to also decrease. Rio Conchos salinity is lower than Rio Grande salinity above their confluence and, as Rio Conchos discharge decreased, it caused Rio Grande salinity below the confluence to increase (reduced dilution). Trends in discharge did not correspond to trends in precipitation except at extreme-high (90th quantile) levels. In conclusion, decreasing discharge from the Rio Conchos has led to decreasing flow and increasing salinity in the Rio Grande below the confluence. This spatially uneven desertification and salinization of the Rio Grande has in turn led to a region-wide homogenization of hydrological conditions and of taxonomic and functional attributes of fish assemblages.

  2. The effect of the salinity level on conductivity sensor calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bihan, Caroline; Salvetat, Florence; Lamand, Nolwenn; Compre, Chantal

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a study on the calibration of conductivity sensors. The puropse is to demonstrate the effect of the salinity concentration on the response of conductivity sensor. Several experiments are performed on three sensors of different technologies: a Seabird Sbe37-SIP MicroCAT, a Falmouth Scientific Inc. IMCTDMBP-D and a NKE Instrumentation Smatch. The analysis of the results shows an overall impact of the salinity level on the sensor response. This effect is discussed regarding the oceanographic requirements.

  3. Comparison of reduced volume versus four-liter electrolyte lavage solutions for colon cleansing.

    PubMed

    Ker, Tim S

    2006-10-01

    In an attempt to improve patient tolerance for colon cleaning, a reduced-volume regimen with a 2-liter electrolyte lavage solution plus 20 mg of oral bisacodyl was compared with the standard 4-liter lavage for efficacy and safety. Three hundred patients were prospectively randomized into two study groups. One group of 150 patients was given four tablets of 5 mg bisacodyl at 12:00 PM the day before their colonoscopy, followed by 2 liters of electrolyte lavage by mouth at 6:00 PM the evening before their colonoscopy. Another group of 150 patients were given 4 liters of electrolyte lavage at 6:00 PM the evening before their colonoscopy. All patients were on a clear liquid diet the day before their colonoscopy. No enema was given in either groups. The bowel cleanliness was accessed by one colonoscopist. One registered nurse accessed the comfort of patient. In the 2-liter group, only one (0.6%) patient could not finish the laxative. Colon cleanliness was 80 per cent to 100 per cent, with an average of 95.9 per cent. In the 4-liter group, 11 (7.3%) patients could not finish the laxative preparation. Colon cleanliness was 78 per cent to 100 per cent, with an average of 95.3 per cent. The study that found the 2-liter electrolyte lavage solution with four tablets of bisacodyl can achieve equally good results in bowel preparation and favorable acceptance by patients compared with the 4-liter lavage. PMID:17058733

  4. Paleohydrologic controls on methanogenesis in organic-rich saline aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, J.; Petsch, S.; Schlegel, M.; Osborn, S.

    2007-12-01

    Freshwater recharge into the margins of sedimentary basins, during periods of continental glaciation, stimulated microbial methane generation in organic-rich shales and coal beds, by significantly diluting the ambient formation water salinity. Subglacial recharge may have also transported microorganisms and nutrients into the subsurface environment. Methane is generated by a diverse consortium of both acetoclastic and CO2-reducing methanogenic Archaea, and adsorbed onto the organic matter. These shallow methane accumulations account for ~20% of the total U.S. natural gas production. Anaerobic microbial metabolism of shales and coals is in part controlled by the volume of pore waters and fluid composition, amount of extractable organic matter and intermediary substrates, reservoir temperature, and mass transport processes that provide essential rock-derived nutrients and organic acids. Methanogens are most active in low salinity environments (<2.5 mol/L Cl) with no SO4, and at the interfaces between confining units and adjacent aquifers where diffusion dominates. Microbial degradation of organic matter generates high alkalinity concentrations, which may induce calcite precipitation in shale fractures and coal cleats, which can in turn modify the subsurface hydrology. Microbial methanogenesis also imparts a strong control on the cycling of carbon, H2, and other elements in the subsurface environment. This presentation will focus on the timing of recharge and establishment of microbial communities within the Upper Devonian black shales, Pennsylvanian coal beds, and overlying glacial drift in the Illinois Basin, and the importance of continued groundwater flow on active methane generation and accumulation. There is an approximately 65-70 per mil depletion in 13C of CH4, relative to the precursor CO2 in the Upper Devonian shales, Pennsylvanian coals, and glacial drift. In addition, there is a linear correlation between the dD values of co- produced formation waters and CH4. Isotope mass-balance modeling results confirm that these isotopic shifts can be produced by coupled acetate fermentation and CO2-reduction. The lowest d13C values for CO2 and CH4 are found in the shallow glacial drift (-14 to 8 per mil, -80 to -68 per mil, respectively), where the permeable aquifers are a relatively open system, rapidly flushed by modern recharge. In contrast, the deep Upper Devonian shales have relatively positive d13C values for CO2 and CH4 (6 to 20 per mil, -56 to -50 per mil, respectively), indicating that methane has been generated over relatively long time scales (at least since the Late Pleistocene) in a closed system. The Pennsylvanian coal beds have intermediary d13C values for CO2 and CH4 (-8 to 11 per mil, -66 to -56 per mil, respectively), and contain Holocene groundwaters. Understanding the hydrobiogeochemical processes active within fractured shales and coal beds is important for energy resources, as well as CO2 sequestration.

  5. 21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... exempt from the current good manufacturing practice requirements of the quality system regulation in part... device intended to instill water or other fluids into the colon through a nozzle inserted into the...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... exempt from the current good manufacturing practice requirements of the quality system regulation in part... device intended to instill water or other fluids into the colon through a nozzle inserted into the...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... exempt from the current good manufacturing practice requirements of the quality system regulation in part... device intended to instill water or other fluids into the colon through a nozzle inserted into the...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... exempt from the current good manufacturing practice requirements of the quality system regulation in part... device intended to instill water or other fluids into the colon through a nozzle inserted into the...

  9. Effects of oceanic salinity on body condition in sea snakes.

    PubMed

    Brischoux, François; Rolland, Virginie; Bonnet, Xavier; Caillaud, Matthieu; Shine, Richard

    2012-08-01

    Since the transition from terrestrial to marine environments poses strong osmoregulatory and energetic challenges, temporal and spatial fluctuations in oceanic salinity might influence salt and water balance (and hence, body condition) in marine tetrapods. We assessed the effects of salinity on three species of sea snakes studied by mark-recapture in coral-reef habitats in the Neo-Caledonian Lagoon. These three species include one fully aquatic hydrophiine (Emydocephalus annulatus), one primarily aquatic laticaudine (Laticauda laticaudata), and one frequently terrestrial laticaudine (Laticauda saintgironsi). We explored how oceanic salinity affected the snakes' body condition across various temporal and spatial scales relevant to each species' ecology, using linear mixed models and multimodel inference. Mean annual salinity exerted a consistent and negative effect on the body condition of all three snake species. The most terrestrial taxon (L. saintgironsi) was sensitive to salinity over a short temporal scale, corresponding to the duration of a typical marine foraging trip for this species. In contrast, links between oceanic salinity and body condition in the fully aquatic E. annulatus and the highly aquatic L. laticaudata were strongest at a long-term (annual) scale. The sophisticated salt-excreting systems of sea snakes allow them to exploit marine environments, but do not completely overcome the osmoregulatory challenges posed by oceanic conditions. Future studies could usefully explore such effects in other secondarily marine taxa such as seabirds, turtles, and marine mammals. PMID:22710931

  10. Soil salinity detection. [Starr and Cameron Counties, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Richardson, A. J.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Everitt, J. H.; Cuellar, J. A. (principal investigators)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Growth forms and herbage biomass production varied considerably among saline and nonsaline soil range sites in Starr County. Grasses on saline soil sites were shallow-rooted and short whereas on nonsaline sites there was an intermixture of short and midgrass species. Differentiation between primarily undisturbed saline and nonsaline rangelands, in Starr County, is partially possible using film optical density readings from Skylab imagery. Differentiation among eight saline and nonsaline soil sites in Cameron County, using black and white and color film was not possible according to statistical results from both DMRT and correlation analysis. Linear analysis showed that Bendix 24-band MSS data (aircraft) collected at 1700 m and 4800 m, as well as Skylab and LANDSAT-1 MSS data, were significantly correlated to electrical conductivity readings. In Starr County, the best spectral band for detection of saline soil levels, using black and white SO-022 film, was in the 0.6 to 0.7 micron spectral region. In Cameron County, the best spectral bands for detection of saline soil levels were the 2.3 to 2.43 micron, 0.72 to 0.76 micron, 0.69 to 1.75 micron, and 0.7 to 1.1 micron spectral regions.

  11. Managing saline waste water for crop production and minimum leaching

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, F.F.

    1986-01-01

    In arid regions of the world alternate sources of irrigation water, such as saline waste water from industrial sources and agricultural drainage water, will become an increasingly important source of water if effective crop and water management strategies for their use are developed. A field experiment was performed to determine if grain yields of double-cropped sorghum and wheat, irrigated with undiluted saline water, can be significantly increased by applying a quantity of nonsaline water at a critical growth stage while maximizing irrigation uniformity and minimizing leaching to promote precipitation and salt storage in the soil. The treatment irrigated with nonsaline water during germination and reproductive growth stages, and saline water during vegetative and grainfill growth stages, produced higher grain yields than the other saline irrigated treatments. It grain production also equaled the yield of the nonsaline check treatment for the first two years. However, in the third year when soil salinity levels were higher its grain production decreased to levels approach in the other saline treatments.

  12. Annual growth patterns of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) along salinity gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Brenda L.; Doyle, Thomas W.; Krauss, Ken W.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of salinity on Taxodium distichum seedlings have been well documented, but few studies have examined mature trees in situ. We investigated the environmental drivers of T. distichum growth along a salinity gradient on the Waccamaw (South Carolina) and Savannah (Georgia) Rivers. On each river, T. distichum increment cores were collected from a healthy upstream site (Upper), a moderately degraded mid-reach site (Middle), and a highly degraded downstream site (Lower). Chronologies were successfully developed for Waccamaw Upper and Middle, and Savannah Middle. Correlations between standardized chronologies and environmental variables showed significant relationships between T. distichum growth and early growing season precipitation, temperature, and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Savannah Middle chronology correlated most strongly with August river salinity levels. Both lower sites experienced suppression/release events likely in response to local anthropogenic impacts rather than regional environmental variables. The factors that affect T. distichum growth, including salinity, are strongly synergistic. As sea-level rise pushes the freshwater/saltwater interface inland, salinity becomes more limiting to T. distichum growth in tidal freshwater swamps; however, salinity impacts are exacerbated by locally imposed environmental modifications.

  13. Physiological effects of salinity on Delta Smelt, Hypomesus transpacificus.

    PubMed

    Kammerer, Brittany D; Hung, Tien-Chieh; Baxter, Randall D; Teh, Swee J

    2016-02-01

    Abiotic factors like salinity are relevant to survival of pelagic fishes of the San Francisco Bay Estuary. We tested the effects of 4 parts per thousand (ppt) salinity increases on Delta Smelt (DS) in a laboratory experiment simulating salinity increases that might occur around the low-salinity zone (LSZ) (<6ppt). Adult DS, fed 2% body mass per day, starting at 0.5ppt [freshwater (FW)], were exposed to weekly step-increases of 4ppt to a maximum of 10ppt saltwater (SW) over 19days, and compared to FW controls. DS (n=12/treatment per sampling) were sampled at 24, 72, and 96h (1, 3, and 4days) post-salinity increase for analyses of hematocrit, plasma osmolality, muscle water content, gill chloride cell (CC) Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and apoptosis after being weighed and measured (n=3 tanks per treatment). No apparent increase in length or weight occurred nor did a difference in survival. Following step-increases in SW, hematocrit increased over time. Other fish responses generally showed a pattern; specifically plasma osmolality became elevated at 1day and diminished over 4days in SW. Percent muscle water content (%) did not show significant changes. CCs showed increased NKA, cell size and apoptosis over time in SW, indicating that CCs turnover in DS. The cell renewal process takes days, at least over 19days. In summary, DS are affected by salinities of the LSZ and ?10ppt, though they employ physiological strategies to acclimate. PMID:26407957

  14. Soil salinity affects arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of halophytes.

    PubMed

    Asghari, H R; Amerian, M R; Gorbani, H

    2008-08-01

    In order to determine the effects of soil salinity on AM fungi colonization in halophytes, plants of semi-arid region of North-Eastern Iran were examined for their colonization in soils with different salinity levels. Roots of several halophytes were colonized and showed typical structure of AM fungi with different levels of colonization. Haloxylon aphyllum, Kochia stellaris, Halocnemum strobilaceum, Seidlitzia rosmarinus and Salsola sp. of the Chenopodiaceae and Zygophyllum eurypterum and Peganum harmala of the Zygophyllaceae were found to be colonized by AM fungi. In several species the mycorrhizal status is reported for the first time. The results of this study revealed that AM colonization in halophytes in soil with high salinity level (16 dS m(-1)), but colonization was inhibited by very high salinity (45 dS m(-1)). The AM fungi colonization was absent in halophytes in very high soil salinity conditions may was due to inability of AM fungi to survive such salinity conditions, which may limit the beneficial effects of AM fungi in halophytes. PMID:18983032

  15. Modeling the salinity profile of undeformed Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vancoppenolle, Martin; Fichefet, Thierry; Bitz, Cecilia M.

    2006-11-01

    The salinity of sea ice affects its physical and ecological properties. Here, a multilayer one-dimensional halo-thermodynamic sea ice model is used to simulate the vertical salinity profile of undeformed Arctic sea ice. The model successfully reproduces the desalination pattern observed in first-year (FY) and multi-year (MY) ice. The model can also be integrated with a prescribed, time-independent salinity profile. Substantial differences in the simulated mass balance and ice-ocean salt flux arise depending on the salinity. After 10 years into the simulation, the annual mean ice thickness is 2.85 m with the interactive halodynamic component, compared to 2.53 m (2.29 m) with a prescribed, time-independent, vertically varying (constant) salinity profile. Modelling sea ice salinity is especially important when sea ice is transitioning from a MY to FY ice regime. Thus including a halodynamic component in sea ice models would significantly improve simulations of future climate.

  16. Neural network modeling of salinity variation in Apalachicola River.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenrui; Foo, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Salinity is an important indicator for water quality and aquatic ecosystem in tidal rivers. The increase of salinity intrusion in a river may have an adverse effect on the aquatic environment system. This study presents an application of the artificial neural network (ANN) to assess salinity variation responding to the multiple forcing functions of freshwater input, tide, and wind in Apalachicola River, Florida. Parameters in the neural network model were trained until the model predictions of salinity matched well with the observations. Then, the trained model was validated by applying the model to another independent data set. The results indicate that the ANN model is capable of correlating the non-linear time series of salinity to the multiple forcing signals of wind, tides. and freshwater input in the Apalachicola River. This study suggests that the ANN model is an easy-to-use modeling tool for engineers and water resource managers to obtain a quick preliminary assessment of salinity variation in response to the engineering modifications to the river system. PMID:11766814

  17. Physiological and molecular changes in barley and wheat under salinity.

    PubMed

    Temel, Aslihan; Gozukirmizi, Nermin

    2015-03-01

    In this study, it was aimed to compare salinity-induced changes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Bornova-92) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Gerek-79). Seeds were germinated under saline conditions (0, 50, 100, 250, and 500mM NaCl) for 2days and recovered under non-saline conditions for 2days. At the end of the salt treatment, germination, water content (WC), total soluble protein content, and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity were affected in both species, while superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity was affected in barley. Salinity affected WC, protein content, and CAT activity in both species, while it affected germination in barley and affected fresh weight and SOD activity in wheat after recovery. Physiological responses of both species were correlated. Expression of ?-tubulin, Atls1, and Lls1 genes was down-regulated in barley after 250mM NaCl treatment. HVA1 gene was highly (more than 50-fold) stimulated by salinity in barley. However, ?-tubulin and Atls1 genes were down-regulated, and Lls1 gene was up-regulated in wheat after recovery from 250-mM NaCl treatment. Increase in HVA1 expression was not significant in wheat. The expression profiles of barley and wheat under salinity are different, and barley tended to regulate gene expression faster than wheat. PMID:25578157

  18. Instillation of normal saline before suctioning in patients with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ji, Young Ra; Kim, Hee Seung; Park, Jeong Hwan

    2002-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a no saline, a 2 ml and a 5 ml saline instillation prior to endotracheal suctioning on oxygen saturation in patients with pneumonia. The subjects in this study were 16 pneumonic patients with a tracheotomy tube, who had been admitted to the neuro-surgical intensive care unit at a university hospital in Seoul Korea. All three (0, 2 and 5 ml) saline instillation methods were applied to the 16 patients. The methods were randomly assigned to each patient. Each of the instillation methods was applied in a four-step sequence: 1) recording the level of oxygen saturation (baseline levels), 2) instilling normal saline, 3) supplying oxygen and suctioning, and 4) recording the level of oxygen saturation. The oxygen saturation was evaluated using pulse oximetry. The recovery times for oxygen saturation to return to baseline levels following suctioning were, just after suctioning, 45 seconds after suctioning and in excess of 5 minutes with 0, 2 and 5 ml saline instillations, respectively. Instillation of normal saline before suctioning could have an adverse effect on oxygen saturation, and should be used carefully as a routine intervention in patients who have pneumonia. PMID:12402373

  19. Saline Groundwater from Coastal Aquifers As a Source for Desalination.

    PubMed

    Stein, Shaked; Russak, Amos; Sivan, Orit; Yechieli, Yoseph; Rahav, Eyal; Oren, Yoram; Kasher, Roni

    2016-02-16

    Reverse osmosis (RO) seawater desalination is currently a widespread means of closing the gap between supply and demand for potable water in arid regions. Currently, one of the main setbacks of RO operation is fouling, which hinders membrane performance and induces pressure loss, thereby reducing system efficiency. An alternative water source is saline groundwater with salinity close to seawater, pumped from beach wells in coastal aquifers which penetrate beneath the freshwater-seawater interface. In this research, we studied the potential use of saline groundwater of the coastal aquifer as feedwater for desalination in comparison to seawater using fieldwork and laboratory approaches. The chemistry, microbiology and physical properties of saline groundwater were characterized and compared with seawater. Additionally, reverse osmosis desalination experiments in a cross-flow system were performed, evaluating the permeate flux, salt rejection and fouling propensities of the different water types. Our results indicated that saline groundwater was significantly favored over seawater as a feed source in terms of chemical composition, microorganism content, silt density, and fouling potential, and exhibited better desalination performance with less flux decline. Saline groundwater may be a better water source for desalination by RO due to lower fouling potential, and reduced pretreatment costs. PMID:26810309

  20. Groundwater-saline lakes interaction - The contribution of saline groundwater circulation to solute budget of saline lakes: a lesson from the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiro, Yael; Weinstein, Yishai; Starinsky, Abraham; Yechieli, Yoseph

    2013-04-01

    Saline lakes act as base level for both surface water and groundwater. Thus, a change in lake levels is expected to result in changes in the hydrogeological system in its vicinity, exhibited in groundwater levels, location of the fresh-saline water interface, sub-lacustrine groundwater discharge (SGD) and saline water circulation. All these processes were observed in the declining Dead Sea system, whose water level dropped by ~35 meters in the last 50 years. This work focuses mainly on the effect of circulation of Dead Sea water in the aquifer, which continues even in this very rapid base level drop. In general, seawater circulation in coastal aquifers is now recognized as a major process affecting trace element mass balances in coastal areas. Estimates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) vary over several orders of magnitude (1-1000000 m3/yr per meter shoreline). These estimates are sensitive to fresh-saline SGD ratios and to the temporal and spatial scales of the circulation. The Dead Sea system is an excellent natural field lab for studying seawater-groundwater interaction and large-scale circulation due to the absence of tides and to the minor role played by waves. During Dead Sea water circulation in the aquifer several geochemical reactions occur, ranging from short-term adsorption-desorption reactions and up to long-term precipitation and dissolution reactions. These processes affect the trace element distribution in the saline groundwater. Barite and celestine, which are supersaturated in the lake water, precipitate during circulation in the aquifer, reducing barium (from 5 to 1.5 mg/L), strontium (from 350 to 300 mg/L) and the long-lived 226Ra (from 145 to 60 dpm/L) in the saline groundwater. Redox-controlled reactions cause a decrease in uranium from 2.4 to 0.1 ?g/L, and an increase in iron from 1 to 13 mg/L. 228Ra (t1/2=5.75 yr) activity in the Dead Sea is ~1 dpm/L and increase gradually as the saline water flows further inland until reaching steady-state activities (~27 dpm/L) with the aquifer sediments. The decrease in 226Ra and increase in 228Ra in the circulation process provide a robust method for calculating the amount of Dead Sea water circulating in the aquifer. This process can affect trace element concentrations in the Dead Sea and emphasize the potential of long-term seawater circulation in mass balances of saline water bodies.

  1. [Treatment of hepatic hydatid cysts by percutaneous aspiration and hypertonic saline injection: results of a cooperative work].

    PubMed

    Pelez, V; Kugler, C; del Carpio, M; Correa, D; Lpez, E; Larrieu, E; Guangiroli, M; Molina, J

    1999-01-01

    Percutaneous puncture-aspiration-injection-reaspiration (PAIR) of hydatid liver cysts, was performed in 38 patients 14-80 years old, with a total of 60 liver hydatid cysts. After aspiration under computed tomography guidance, hypertonic saline was injected into the cystic cavities of patients as a scolecidal agent. No major complications were associated with the procedures. In the follow-up period of 18 months, control CT scans of 35 cysts revealed a gradual decrease in cyst size with a mean volume reduction of 66%. Complications included two cases of urticaria, one case of anaphylaxis and one subcapsular hematoma. No mortality occurred. It is concluded that percutaneous aspiration and hypertonic saline injection for liver hydatid cysts appears to be an effective form of treatment and may eventually prove to be an alternative to surgical intervention. PMID:10883492

  2. Gallbladder contractility and volume characteristics in gallstone dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, De-Chuan; Chang, Tzu-Ming; Chen, Cheng-Jueng; Chen, Teng-Wei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Liu, Yao-Chi

    2004-01-01

    AIM: It is difficult to differentiate gallstone dyspepsia and functional dyspepsia by clinical symptoms and signs. We hypothesized that gallstone dyspepsia was related to abnormal gallbladder motility. We aimed to differentiate gallstone dyspepsia from functional dyspepsia by measuring gallbladder motility. METHODS: We measured gallbladder volume changes in response to gastric distension (saline 500 mL) and fatty meal in 10 normal volunteers (controls) and 62 patients with gallstones and dyspepsia before cholecystectomy. Forty cholecystectomized patients were symptom free or had improvement (group I), while the remaining 22 patients had persistent dyspepsia (group II). Gallbladder volume change and ejection fraction were analyzed and compared among the three groups. RESULTS: In group I, there were significant decreases in gallbladder volumes 5-25 min after gastric distension, compared to fasting volumes. Compared to normal volunteers and group II, group I had significantly decreased gallbladder volumes 10-20 min after drinking 500 mL of normal saline and 10 to 50 min after eating fatty meal. CONCLUSION: Our results support the hypothesis that increased gallbladder contraction after gastric distension or fatty meal may be related to dyspeptic symptoms in uncomplicated gallstone disease. These findings may be useful in differentiating functional dyspepsia from gallstone dyspepsia, patients with the latter disease may benefit from laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:14991946

  3. Umbilical vein injection of misoprostol versus normal saline for the treatment of retained placenta: intrapartum placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The third stage of labour may be complicated by retained placenta, which should be managed promptly because it may cause severe bleeding and infection, with a potentially fatal outcome. This study evaluated the effectiveness of umbilical vein injection of misoprostol for the treatment of retained placenta in a hospital setting. Methods This hospital-based placebo-controlled trial was conducted at the Maternity Teaching Hospital, Erbil City, Kurdistan region, Northern Iraq from April 2011 to February 2012. The inclusion criteria were: gestational age of at least 28 weeks, vaginal delivery, and failure of the placenta to separate within 30 minutes after delivery of the infant despite active management of the third stage of labour. Forty-six women with retained placentas were eligible for inclusion. After informed consent was obtained, the women were alternately allocated to receive umbilical vein injection of either 800 mcg misoprostol dissolved in 20 mL of normal saline (misoprostol group) or 20mL of normal saline only (saline group). The women were blinded to the group allocation, but the investigator who administered the injection was not. The trial was registered by the Research Ethics Committee of Hawler Medical University. Results After umbilical vein injection, delivery of the placenta occurred in 91.3% of women in the misoprostol group and 69.5% of women in the saline group, which was not a significant difference between the two groups. The median vaginal blood loss from the time of injection until delivery of the placenta was significantly less in the misoprostol group (100mL) than in the saline group (210mL) (p value?volume of vaginal blood loss with few adverse effects. Clinical Trial Registration Current Controlled Trial HMU: N252.1.2011 PMID:24444360

  4. Identifying Salinity Sources and Quantifying Salinity Loads Along Two Texas Streams Using Stream-axis Airborne EM and Focused Hydrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paine, J. G.; Collins, E. W.; Nance, H. S.; Niemann, K.

    2005-12-01

    We delineated natural and oil-field salinity sources that degrade water quality in the upper Colorado River (west Texas) and Petronila Creek (Texas coast) by combining multi-frequency airborne EM measurements of apparent ground conductivity with chemical analyses of surface water at key stream locations. To reduce the cost of high-resolution airborne surveying over such large areas, we first flew along the stream axes and then examined preliminary results in the field to identify likely salinized stream segments. We then flew more detailed surveys over these areas rather than over the entire basin. Stream-axis EM data also helped identify water-sampling locations upstream and downstream from each salinized segment. We used these data to calculate salinity loads and discriminate among possible natural and oil-field salinity sources. We acquired stream-axis airborne EM data along 437 km of the upper Colorado River and its major tributaries using a Geophex GEM-2A instrument operating at five frequencies between 450 Hz and 39 kHz. Increases in chloride, sulfate, and total salinity loading in the upper Colorado River basin between Lake Thomas and Ivie Reservoir occur along eleven segments of elevated apparent conductivity identified from airborne EM data. Each segment encompasses areas of baseflow salinity contributions to the stream from natural dissolution of evaporite minerals in the Permian basin, from oil-field produced water, or both. Analyses of surface water confirm increases salinity loading associated with each segment. Airborne EM data acquired on the coast along Petronila Creek and within a corridor centered on it revealed three stream segments with elevated ground conductivity. Increases in chloride, sulfate, and total salinity loading are attributed to shallow baseflow contributions along the three segments. Using airborne EM and hydrochemistry data, we interpret the dominant salinization mechanism within the two upstream segments to be historic discharge of produced water into unlined drainage ditches and pits, infiltration into sandy Pleistocene channel deposits, lateral migration as far as several kilometers, and discharge into the stream. Airborne EM and hydrochemical data suggest a combination of oil-field and seawater salinity contributions at the most downstream Petronila Creek segment.

  5. Adaptation of teleosts to very high salinity.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Gary; Skadhauge, Erik

    2012-09-01

    A number of species of euryhaline teleosts have the remarkable ability to adapt and survive in environments of extreme salinity, up to two or even three times the osmolality of seawater. This review looks at some of the literature describing the adaptive changes that occur, primarily with intestinal water absorption and with the properties of the gill epithelium. While there is much that is still not completely understood, recent work has begun to look at these adaptations at the cellular and molecular level. As with seawater osmoregulation, fish adapting to hypersaline conditions generally increase drinking rates and water absorption across the intestine by solute-linked transport. This process requires increased activity, expression levels and possibly changes in subunit isoforms of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pumps, along with increases in other components of the NaCl absorptive pathway. Additionally, recent studies have demonstrated the importance of luminal anion exchange activity and of luminal alkalinization, which can support absorption against increasing osmotic gradients by promoting divalent ion precipitation (CaCO(3)) and by conversion of HCO(3)(-) ions to CO(2). The steepness of the lumen to blood osmotic gradient vis-a-vis the NaCl absorptive capacity, along with the accumulation of non-absorbed Mg(++) and SO(4)(--), likely become the limiting factors for survival in hypersaline conditions. Of interest is the observation of predicted hyperosmotic fluid absorption by the intestine in several species. Adaptive changes in the gill epithelium are also critical in this process, allowing for secretion of absorbed NaCl from the extracellular fluids. Most notably there are important changes in the numbers and size of mitochondrion-rich (MR) cells, the sites of active secretion of Cl(-), which ultimately drives the overall process of NaCl secretion. Balance studies of intake and output clearly indicate that a decrease in the osmotic permeability of the gill epithelium must also occur. The molecular correlates of this effect are not known, although decreased expression of one or more aquaporins seems to be a likely possibility. Finally, the regulatory changes seen with hypersaline adaptation may provide important new insights into epithelial function, including the role of organized transport assemblies ("metabolons") and changes in the expression of tight junction proteins such as claudins or occludins, which may modulate electrolyte permeabilities. PMID:22640831

  6. Multivariate volume rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Crawfis, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a new technique for representing multivalued data sets defined on an integer lattice. It extends the state-of-the-art in volume rendering to include nonhomogeneous volume representations. That is, volume rendering of materials with very fine detail (e.g. translucent granite) within a voxel. Multivariate volume rendering is achieved by introducing controlled amounts of noise within the volume representation. Varying the local amount of noise within the volume is used to represent a separate scalar variable. The technique can also be used in image synthesis to create more realistic clouds and fog.

  7. The importance of pH and sand substrate in the revegetation of saline non-waterlogged peat fields.

    PubMed

    Montemayor, Marilou B; Price, Jonathan; Rochefort, Line

    2015-11-01

    A partially peat-extracted coastal bog contaminated by seawater was barren and required revegetation as a wetland. Peat fields were rectangular in shape, cambered in cross-section profile, and separated by drainage ditches. Common to all peat fields were symmetrical patterns in micro-topography with slopes between differences in elevation. Saline non-waterlogged slopes of ?5% occurred as a symmetrical pair on each side of the crest of the cambered profile, at one end of each peat field. Three rows were laid across this slope (Top, Middle, and Bottom rows) and transplanted with naturally-growing plant species with their sand substrate, in three experiments, and grown for a year. In the Spartina pectinata experiment, bare root stem sections were also planted. Another experiment was conducted to determine changes in the characteristics of a volume of sand when incubated in saline peat fields. We found the salinity of peat increased with moisture downslope, and pH decreased with increase in salinity. S.pectinata grew best when planted with its sand substrate compared with bare root stem section, and when planted in Bottom rows. Juncus balticus had excellent growth in all rows. Unexpectedly, Festuca rubra that was inconspicuous beneath the J.balticus canopy in the natural donor site grew densely within the J.balticus sods. Agrostis stolonifera grew well but seemed to show intolerance to the surrounding acidic peat by curling up its stolons. The pH of the incubated sand volume was much higher than the surrounding peat. These studies suggest that recognition of plant niches and pH manipulation are important in the revegetation of disturbed Sphagnum peatlands that are found abundantly in the northern hemisphere. Results are also relevant to the reclamation of other disturbed lands. PMID:26301685

  8. Expression patterns of As-ClC gene of Artemia sinica in early development and under salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiaozhi; Hou, Ming; Li, Qiuying; Han, Lulu; Yuan, Zhe; Tan, Jian; Du, Bin; Zou, Xiangyang; Hou, Lin

    2013-05-01

    As-ClC (chloride channels protein from Artemia sinica), a member from the chloride channels protein family, is a ?-helical membrane protein predicted to traverse the cell membrane 11 times. It is important for several physiological functions such as cell volume regulation, cell proliferation, growth and differentiation. In this paper, the complete cDNA sequence of As-CIC was cloned from A. sinica for the first time using RACE technology. The expression pattern and location of the As-CIC gene was investigated in different stages of the embryonic development by means of quantitative real-time PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH) assay. As-CLC was distributed throughout the whole body in cells of different embryonic development of A. sinica as shown by ISH. There was a low expression level of the As-ClC gene after 0 h and a higher expression level after 15 and 40 h when the embryo entered the next growth period and the environmental salinity changed. At adult stage, the As-ClC maintained a high expression level. The results of the real-time PCR assay showed an increasing trend of As-ClC transcripts with increasing salinity. The expression of As-ClC was higher in the control group (28) than in the experimental group except at a salinity of 200 PSU. It indicated that As-ClC functions as salinity-stress-related gene, probably participated in cell volume regulation and osmotic regulation during the early embryonic development of A. sinica. PMID:23277400

  9. Salinity Tolerance of Picochlorum atomus and the Use of Salinity for Contamination Control by the Freshwater Cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena limnetica

    PubMed Central

    von Alvensleben, Nicolas; Stookey, Katherine; Magnusson, Marie; Heimann, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae are ideal candidates for waste-gas and –water remediation. However, salinity often varies between different sites. A cosmopolitan microalga with large salinity tolerance and consistent biochemical profiles would be ideal for standardised cultivation across various remediation sites. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of salinity on Picochlorum atomus growth, biomass productivity, nutrient uptake and biochemical profiles. To determine if target end-products could be manipulated, the effects of 4-day nutrient limitation were also determined. Culture salinity had no effect on growth, biomass productivity, phosphate, nitrate and total nitrogen uptake at 2, 8, 18, 28 and 36 ppt. 11 ppt, however, initiated a significantly higher total nitrogen uptake. While salinity had only minor effects on biochemical composition, nutrient depletion was a major driver for changes in biomass quality, leading to significant increases in total lipid, fatty acid and carbohydrate quantities. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by nutrient depletion, with an increased proportion of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. Having established that P. atomus is a euryhaline microalga, the effects of culture salinity on the development of the freshwater cyanobacterial contaminant Pseudanabaena limnetica were determined. Salinity at 28 and 36 ppt significantly inhibited establishment of P. limnetica in P. atomus cultures. In conclusion, P. atomus can be deployed for bioremediation at sites with highly variable salinities without effects on end-product potential. Nutrient status critically affected biochemical profiles – an important consideration for end-product development by microalgal industries. 28 and 36 ppt slow the establishment of the freshwater cyanobacterium P. limnetica, allowing for harvest of low contaminant containing biomass. PMID:23667639

  10. Growth responses of the mangrove Avicennia marina to salinity: development and function of shoot hydraulic systems require saline conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hoa T.; Stanton, Daniel E.; Schmitz, Nele; Farquhar, Graham D.; Ball, Marilyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Halophytic eudicots are characterized by enhanced growth under saline conditions. This study combines physiological and anatomical analyses to identify processes underlying growth responses of the mangrove Avicennia marina to salinities ranging from fresh- to seawater conditions. Methods Following pre-exhaustion of cotyledonary reserves under optimal conditions (i.e. 50 % seawater), seedlings of A. marina were grown hydroponically in dilutions of seawater amended with nutrients. Whole-plant growth characteristics were analysed in relation to dry mass accumulation and its allocation to different plant parts. Gas exchange characteristics and stable carbon isotopic composition of leaves were measured to evaluate water use in relation to carbon gain. Stem and leaf hydraulic anatomy were measured in relation to plant water use and growth. Key Results Avicennia marina seedlings failed to grow in 0–5 % seawater, whereas maximal growth occurred in 50–75 % seawater. Relative growth rates were affected by changes in leaf area ratio (LAR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) along the salinity gradient, with NAR generally being more important. Gas exchange characteristics followed the same trends as plant growth, with assimilation rates and stomatal conductance being greatest in leaves grown in 50–75 % seawater. However, water use efficiency was maintained nearly constant across all salinities, consistent with carbon isotopic signatures. Anatomical studies revealed variation in rates of development and composition of hydraulic tissues that were consistent with salinity-dependent patterns in water use and growth, including a structural explanation for low stomatal conductance and growth under low salinity. Conclusions The results identified stem and leaf transport systems as central to understanding the integrated growth responses to variation in salinity from fresh- to seawater conditions. Avicennia marina was revealed as an obligate halophyte, requiring saline conditions for development of the transport systems needed to sustain water use and carbon gain. PMID:25600273

  11. Continuous salinity and temperature data from san francisco estuary, 19822002: Trends and the salinity-freshwater inflow relationship

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shellenbarger, G.G.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and other federal and state agencies have been collecting continuous temperature and salinity data, two critical estuarine habitat variables, throughout San Francisco estuary for over two decades. Although this dynamic, highly variable system has been well studied, many questions remain relating to the effects of freshwater inflow and other physical and biological linkages. This study examines up to 20 years of publically available, continuous temperature and salinity data from 10 different San Francisco Bay stations to identify trends in temperature and salinity and quantify the salinityfreshwater inflow relationship. Several trends in the salinity and temperature records were identified, although the high degree of daily and interannual variability confounds the analysis. In addition, freshwater inflow to the estuary has a range of effects on salinity from -0.0020 to -0.0096 (m3 s-1) -1 discharge, depending on location in the estuary and the timescale of analyzed data. Finally, we documented that changes in freshwater inflow to the estuary that are within the range of typical management actions can affect bay-wide salinities by 0.61.4. This study reinforces the idea that multidecadal records are needed to identify trends from decadal changes in water management and climate and, therefore, are extremely valuable. ?? 2011 Coastal Education & Research Foundation.

  12. Larval tolerance to salinity in three species of Australian anuran: an indication of saline specialisation in Litoria aurea.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Brian D; Byrne, Phillip G; Reina, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Recent anthropogenic influences on freshwater habitats are forcing anuran populations to rapidly adapt to high magnitude changes in environmental conditions or face local extinction. We examined the effects of ecologically relevant elevated salinity levels on larval growth, metamorphosis and survival of three species of Australian anuran; the spotted marsh frog (Limnodynastes tasmaniensis), the painted burrowing frog (Neobatrachus sudelli) and the green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea), in order to better understand the responses of these animals to environmental change. Elevated salinity (16% seawater) negatively impacted on the survival of L. tasmaniensis (35% survival) and N sudelli (0% survival), while reduced salinity had a negative impact on L. aurea. (16% seawater: 85% survival; 0.4% seawater: 35% survival). L. aurea tadpoles survived in salinities much higher than previously reported for this species, indicating the potential for inter-populations differences in salinity tolerance. In L. tasmaniensis and L. aurea, development to metamorphosis was fastest in low and high salinity treatments suggesting it is advantageous for tadpoles to invest energy in development in both highly favourable and developmentally challenging environments. We propose that this response might either maximise potential lifetime fecundity when tadpoles experience favourable environments, or, facilitate a more rapid escape from pond environments where there is a reduced probability of survival. PMID:22916260

  13. Larval Tolerance to Salinity in Three Species of Australian Anuran: An Indication of Saline Specialisation in Litoria aurea

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, Brian D.; Byrne, Phillip G.; Reina, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent anthropogenic influences on freshwater habitats are forcing anuran populations to rapidly adapt to high magnitude changes in environmental conditions or face local extinction. We examined the effects of ecologically relevant elevated salinity levels on larval growth, metamorphosis and survival of three species of Australian anuran; the spotted marsh frog (Limnodynastes tasmaniensis), the painted burrowing frog (Neobatrachus sudelli) and the green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea), in order to better understand the responses of these animals to environmental change. Elevated salinity (16% seawater) negatively impacted on the survival of L. tasmaniensis (35% survival) and N sudelli (0% survival), while reduced salinity had a negative impact on L. aurea. (16% seawater: 85% survival; 0.4% seawater: 35% survival). L. aurea tadpoles survived in salinities much higher than previously reported for this species, indicating the potential for inter-populations differences in salinity tolerance. In L. tasmaniensis and L. aurea, development to metamorphosis was fastest in low and high salinity treatments suggesting it is advantageous for tadpoles to invest energy in development in both highly favourable and developmentally challenging environments. We propose that this response might either maximise potential lifetime fecundity when tadpoles experience favourable environments, or, facilitate a more rapid escape from pond environments where there is a reduced probability of survival. PMID:22916260

  14. Water And Solute Transport In A Cracking Soil Irrigated With Saline Water In Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimanno, G.; Garofalo, P.

    2003-04-01

    Irrigation with saline/sodic waters, which is a current practice in many arid and semi-arid environments, involves a risk of soil degradation and desertification due to salinization and sodification. Sustainable land management practices are urgently needed to preserve the production potential of agricultural land while safeguarding environmental quality Long-term field experiments are one way to develop suitable irrigation strategies, but these are expensive, site specific and time consuming. An alternative solution is application of simulation models to be used to examine possible different combinations of existing field-conditions (soil, climate and water) and to provide an accurate and quick estimate of crop growth, water and salt-balance. Swelling/shrinking clay soils change volume with changes in water content, and during dry periods extensive cracks will form in the field. Soil cracks alter the pore-size distribution through intermittent wetting, acting as significant pathways for water and solutes and determining the occurrence of bypass flow, i.e. the rapid transport of water and solutes via shrinkage-cracks to subsoil and to groundwater through an unsaturated soil matrix. This paper provides the results of simulating water and solute transport in some clay profiles located in a Sicilian irrigated area characterized by swelling/shrinking soils susceptible to cracking and bypass flow phenomena. Simulations were performed by using the SWAP model (van Dam et al., 1997), which accounts for cracking and bypass flow. Measurement of water content and of electrical conductivity of the pore solution, carried out from 14/07/1998 to 31/12/2000, were used to validate and calibrate the model. Management scenarios were developed by using the model in order to provide suggestions for preventing salinization in the irrigated area.

  15. Climatic causes and consequences of the Mediterranean Messinian Salinity Crisis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flecker, R.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean gateways play a critical role in modulating ocean circulation and global climate. When the gateway links to a mid-latitude, semi-enclosed basin, an inflated response to climate is recorded in the basin and this can lead to a high amplitude feedback to the ocean via gateway exchange. In the Mediterranean the restricted gateway results in environmental variability on orbital timescales and this in turn impacts the volume and density of Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) reaching the Atlantic. Even today, there is a lithological response to this variability in the Mediterranean, but in the Late Miocene when the gateway was much more restricted, salinity fluctuations evolved to such extreme levels that a salt giant formed and ~5% of the global ocean's salt was precipitated on the Mediterranean sea floor. This event is known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange during the Late Miocene to early Pliocene is the focus of a new EU-funded project, MEDGATE. The project draws together a multidisciplinary team of geochemists, structural geologists, sedimentologists, palaeontologists and numerical modellers to work on sediments preserved in and around two fossil corridors that linked the Mediterranean with the Atlantic ~8 million years ago, one in southern Spain, the other in northern Morocco. These exceptional successions, which record the Mediterranean's sensitivity to subtle changes in climate, have been astronomically tuned to precession allowing correlation of individual beds throughout the corridors and into the Mediterranean itself. Consequently, we now have an unprecedented opportunity to reconstruct Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange during the Late Miocene-Pliocene and evaluate the impact of the Messinian Salinity Crisis on North Atlantic circulation and global climate.

  16. Cumulative soil chemistry changes from land application of saline-sodic waters

    SciTech Connect

    Ganjegunte, G.K.; King, L.A.; Vance, G.F.

    2008-09-15

    Management of large volumes (60,000 ha-m) of co-production water associated with coal bed natural gas (CBNG) water extraction is a potential concern in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana due to elevated water salinity and sodicity levels. Land application of saline-sodic CBNG water is a common water management method being practiced in the PRB, which can result in deterioration in soil quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects from 1 to 4 yr of land application with CBNG water on soil chemical properties at six study sites (fine to loamy, mixed to smectitic, mesic, Ustic Ardisols and Entisols) in the Wyoming PRB region. Changes in chemistry of soils collected from six depths irrigated with CBNG water were compared with representative non-irrigated soils. Applications of CBNG water significantly increased soil EC, SAR, and ESP values (up to 21, 74, and 24 times, respectively) compared with non-irrigated soils. Differences in soil chemical properties between an irrigated and non-irrigated coarse-textured soil were less than that of fine-textured soils, emphasizing texture as an important factor for salinity buildup. Pretreatment of CBNG water using a sulfur burner and application of gypsum and elemental S soil amendments reduced soil pH but did not prevent the build-up of salts and sodium. Study results suggest that current CBNG water management strategies are not as effective as projected. Additional research is needed to develop management strategies appropriate for mitigating adverse effects of CBNG water irrigation.

  17. Reproduction cycle and tolerance to temperature and salinity of Amyloodinium ocellatum (Brown, 1931) (Dinoflagellida).

    PubMed

    Paperna, I

    1984-01-01

    Reproduction cycle and tolerance to temperature and salinity of Amyloodinium ocellatum (Brown, 1931) ( Dinoflagellida ) was investigated in the laboratory using postlarval Sparus aurata (L.) as fish host and by in vitro study of the parasite is reproductive stage. Trophont growth was linear by length and exponential by volume, continuous to detachment stage at the size of 50-90 microns in length. At 19-24 degrees C detachment occurred gradually during the 3-5th days after settlement. At 16 degrees C growth, as well as detachment, was delayed. However, by the 6-7th day trophonts still attached exceeded 100 microns in length. When detached, trophonts of any age and size were transformed into dividing tomonts . 24-hour old, less than 25 microns length trophonts , however, immediately sporulated with no division. The number of divisions to sporulation was related to the size at detachment. For reproduction, 18-30 degrees C was the optimal temperature range, although the minimal division time was at 23-27 degrees C. Divisions were delayed and sporulation was interrupted at 15 degrees C. Complete interruption of division and gradual mortality occurred at 8 degrees C. At 35 degrees C the reproduction process of the tomonts was severely damaged. Tolerance to salinity was dependent on ambient temperature and was the widest at 24-25 degrees C. Divisions occurred between 1-78 ppt, but uninterrupted division, full yield sporulation and effective infection of fish occurred only between 10 to 60 ppt. No division occurred above 80 ppt, however, short term incubation up to 4 days in salinities up to 180 ppt did not affect division potency. Wide variation in tolerance was, however, evident between tested population as well as individual tomont in each population. PMID:6539091

  18. Resuscitation of anesthetized endotoxemic pigs by use of hypertonic saline solution containing dextran.

    PubMed

    Hellyer, P W; Meyer, R E; Olson, N C

    1993-02-01

    We evaluated the biochemical and hemodynamic response to hypertonic saline solution plus dextran in isoflurane-anesthetized pigs infused IV with Escherichia coli endotoxin (5 micrograms/kg of body weight for 0 to 1 hour + 2 micrograms/kg for 1 to 4 hours). After 120 minutes of endotoxemia, pigs were treated with a bolus (4 ml/kg over 3 minutes) of either normal saline solution (NSS; 0.9% NaCl), or hypertonic saline solution plus dextran (HSSD; 7.5% NaCl + 6% dextran-70). Administration of HSSD significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum osmolality and concentrations of sodium and chloride for approximately 2 hours during endotoxemia. Plasma total protein concentration decreased significantly (P < 0.05) for 2 hours after treatment with HSSD, indicating hemodilution and increased plasma volume. Although HSSD transiently increased cardiac index (CI) for approximately 15 minutes, this effect was not sustained; however, the endotoxin-induced decrease in CI was ameliorated from 120 to 180 minutes. In pigs of the endotoxin + NSS group from 180 to 240 minutes, CI decreased significantly (P < 0.05), compared with baseline and control values. The endotoxin-induced increases in mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance were not attenuated by HSSD. At 135 minutes, total peripheral vascular resistance was transiently lower (for approx 15 minutes) in pigs treated with HSSD, compared with control pigs. The endotoxin-induced increase in plasma lactate concentration was not attenuated by HSSD, indicating continued peripheral O2 debt. We conclude that, despite sustained increases in serum osmolality and concentrations of sodium and chloride, HSSD has only transiently beneficial cardiopulmonary effects during endotoxemia in pigs. PMID:7679261

  19. Studies on the exaggerated natriuretic response to a saline infusion in the hypothyroid rat

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Edward W.; DiScala, Vincent A.

    1970-01-01

    The exaggerated natriuresis of hypothyroid rats receiving a 5% saline infusion was studied to determine the mechanism and the site within the nephron responsible for this increase in sodium excretion. Sodium clearance (CNa) and fractional sodium excretion were both demonstrated to be greater in hypothyroid rats for any amount of sodium infused. The rate of increase in fractional sodium excretion in response to saline loading was 3.4 times greater in hypothyroid animals. At the conclusion of the diuresis some of the hypothyroid animals excreted greater than 45% of the filtered sodium load, while no control animal excreted more than 12% of the filtered sodium load. The mean clearance of insulin during the saline diuresis was 36.6% lower (P < 0.001) in the hypothyroid rats. D-Aldosterone given to hypothyroid animals 3 hr before the experiment did not alter the magnitude or rate of increase in fractional sodium excretion. Inulin space determinations in nephrectomized rats revealed that extracellular fluid volume was contracted by 17.1% in the hypothyroid rats (P < 0.01). Plasma sodium was not significantly different in hypothyroid and control animals. A limit on solute free water reabsorption (TeH2O) per osmolar clearance (COsm) was demonstrated in the hypothyroid rats when these animals excreted greater than 12% of the filtered osmotic load. The limit on TeH2O formation was associated with an acceleration in the rate of sodium excretion and a decline in the rate of potassium excretion. Early in the diuresis when COsm, CNa, and TeH2O were comparable in hypothyroid and control rats, the filtered sodium load was 31% lower (P < 0.01) in the hypothyroid animals. These findings indicate that diminished thyroid hormone activity decreases renal sodium reabsorptive capacity. Indirect evidence suggests that the distal and possibly the proximal tubules are the sites of this diminished sodium reabsorption in hypothyroid animals. PMID:5422024

  20. 40 CFR 436.120 - Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... salines from brine lakes subcategory. 436.120 Section 436.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Salines From Brine Lakes Subcategory § 436.120 Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing of salines...

  1. 40 CFR 436.120 - Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... salines from brine lakes subcategory. 436.120 Section 436.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Salines From Brine Lakes Subcategory § 436.120 Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing of salines...

  2. Research Needs and Opportunities in Management of Saline Soils and Waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current research programs on irrigation with saline waters and management of saline soils at the U.S. Salinity Laboratory are reviewed. The research program includes: 1) Remote sensing of electrical conductivity (EC) for rapid assessment of salinity at the field scale; 2) EC-directed soil sampling f...

  3. Assessing the impact of soil salinity on manganese distribution in sierozem soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant availability of heavy metals from soil depends on factors such as soil type, organic matter, base saturation, texture, and salinity. Plant availability of mobile manganese (Mn) was accessed from various horizons of non-saline, medium saline, and highly saline sieriozem soils and a pasture. Man...

  4. Hypertonic Saline Dextran Ameliorates Organ Damage in Beagle Hemorrhagic Shock

    PubMed Central

    You, Guo-xing; Wang, Ying; Chen, Gan; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Xi-gang; Zhao, Lian; Zhou, Hong; He, Yue-zhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of hypertonic saline with 6% Dextran-70 (HSD) resuscitation on organ damage and the resuscitation efficiency of the combination of HSD and lactated ringers (LR) in a model of hemorrhage shock in dogs. Methods Beagles were bled to hold their mean arterial pressure (MAP) at 50±5 mmHg for 1 h. After hemorrhage, beagles were divided into three groups (n = 7) to receive pre-hospital resuscitation for 1 h (R1): HSD (4 ml/kg), LR (40 ml/kg), and HSD+LR (a combination of 4 ml/kg HSD and 40 ml/kg LR). Next, LR was transfused into all groups as in-hospital resuscitation (R2). After two hours of observation (R3), autologous blood was transfused. Hemodynamic responses and systemic oxygenation were measured at predetermined phases. Three days after resuscitation, the animals were sacrificed and tissues including kidney, lung, liver and intestinal were obtained for pathological analysis. Results Although the initial resuscitation with HSD was shown to be faster than LR with regard to an ascending MAP, the HSD group showed a similar hemodynamic performance compared to the LR group throughout the experiment. Compared with the LR group, the systemic oxygenation performance in the HSD group was similar but showed a lower venous-to-arterial CO2 gradient (Pv-aCO2) at R3 (p < 0.05). Additionally, the histology score of the kidneys, lungs and liver were significantly lower in the HSD group than in the LR group (p < 0.05). The HSD+LR group showed a superior hemodynamic response but higher extravascular lung water (EVLW) and lower arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) than the other groups (p < 0.05). The HSD+LR group showed a marginally improved systemic oxygenation performance and lower histology score than other groups. Conclusions Resuscitation after hemorrhagic shock with a bolus of HSD showed a similar hemodynamic response compared with LR at ten times the volume of HSD, but HSD showed superior efficacy in organ protection. Our findings suggest that resuscitation with the combination of HSD and LR in the pre-hospital setting is an effective treatment. PMID:26317867

  5. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed. PMID:26812088

  6. Proteomics, metabolomics, and ionomics perspectives of salinity tolerance in halophytes

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Asha; Das, Paromita; Parida, Asish Kumar; Agarwal, Pradeep K.

    2015-01-01

    Halophytes are plants which naturally survive in saline environment. They account for ∼1% of the total flora of the world. They include both dicots and monocots and are distributed mainly in arid, semi-arid inlands and saline wet lands along the tropical and sub-tropical coasts. Salinity tolerance in halophytes depends on a set of ecological and physiological characteristics that allow them to grow and flourish in high saline conditions. The ability of halophytes to tolerate high salt is determined by the effective coordination between various physiological processes, metabolic pathways and protein or gene networks responsible for delivering salinity tolerance. The salinity responsive proteins belong to diverse functional classes such as photosynthesis, redox homeostasis; stress/defense, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction and membrane transport. The important metabolites which are involved in salt tolerance of halophytes are proline and proline analog (4-hydroxy-N-methyl proline), glycine betaine, pinitol, myo-inositol, mannitol, sorbitol, O-methylmucoinositol, and polyamines. In halophytes, the synthesis of specific proteins and osmotically active metabolites control ion and water flux and support scavenging of oxygen radicals under salt stress condition. The present review summarizes the salt tolerance mechanisms of halophytes by elucidating the recent studies that have focused on proteomic, metabolomic, and ionomic aspects of various halophytes in response to salinity. By integrating the information from halophytes and its comparison with glycophytes could give an overview of salt tolerance mechanisms in halophytes, thus laying down the pavement for development of salt tolerant crop plants through genetic modification and effective breeding strategies. PMID:26284080

  7. Variable volume maser techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, V. S.

    1977-01-01

    The frequency stability of hydrogen masers in variable volume storage bulbs is discussed in terms of wall shift. Variable volume devices discussed include: Brenner flexible bulb, Debely device, and the concertina hydrogen maser. A flexible cone variable volume element outside the cavity is described.

  8. Evaluation of granular sludge for secondary treatment of saline municipal sewage.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Ben; Reid, Katherine; Middlemiss, Kyra; Krampe, Joerg

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the impact of chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on the stability and performance of granular sludge treating high saline municipal sewage. Under high DO concentrations of 4.0-7.0mg/L, and COD loading rates of 0.98 and 1.55kg/m(3)/d, rapid settling granules were established within four weeks of start-up. Under the highest COD load, a reduction in DO lead to the rapid deterioration of the sludge volume index (SVI) and washout of granules due to prolific growth of the filament Thiothrix Type 021N. Conversely, when operated under a lower COD load, a reduction in DO concentration had no adverse impact on the stability of SVI and granules. A decrease in DO also improved nitrogen removal performance, where simultaneous removal of ammonium (98%), total nitrogen (86%) and BOD5 (98%) were achieved when median DO concentrations were between 1.0 and 1.5mg/L. Phosphate removal was lower than expected, however the level of biological phosphate removal activity observed appeared sufficient to maintain granule stability, even under low DO concentrations. Nitrous oxide emissions were also characterised, which ranged between 2.3 and 6.8% of the total nitrogen load. Our results confirmed that granular sludge is a viable option for the treatment of saline sewage. PMID:25897508

  9. Microstrip Antenna for Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture and Sea Surface Salinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramhat-Samii, Yahya; Kona, Keerti; Manteghi, Majid; Dinardo, Steven; Hunter, Don; Njoku, Eni; Wilson, Wiliam; Yueh, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This compact, lightweight, dual-frequency antenna feed developed for future soil moisture and sea surface salinity (SSS) missions can benefit future soil and ocean studies by lowering mass, volume, and cost of the antenna system. It also allows for airborne soil moisture and salinity remote sensors operating on small aircraft. While microstrip antenna technology has been developed for radio communications, it has yet to be applied to combined radar and radiometer for Earth remote sensing. The antenna feed provides a key instrument element enabling high-resolution radiometric observations with large, deployable antennas. The design is based on the microstrip stacked-patch array (MSPA) used to feed a large, lightweight, deployable, rotating mesh antenna for spaceborne L-band (approximately equal to 1 GHz) passive and active sensing systems. The array consists of stacked patches to provide dual-frequency capability and suitable radiation patterns. The stacked-patch microstrip element was designed to cover the required L-band center frequencies at 1.26 GHz (lower patch) and 1.413 GHz (upper patch), with dual-linear polarization capabilities. The dimension of patches produces the required frequencies. To achieve excellent polarization isolation and control of antenna sidelobes for the MSPA, the orientation of each stacked-patch element within the array is optimized to reduce the cross-polarization. A specialized feed-distribution network was designed to achieve the required excitation amplitude and phase for each stacked-patch element.

  10. The salinity signature of the cross-shelf exchanges in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: Numerical simulations

    PubMed Central

    Matano, Ricardo P; Combes, Vincent; Piola, Alberto R; Guerrero, Raul; Palma, Elbio D; Ted Strub, P; James, Corinne; Fenco, Harold; Chao, Yi; Saraceno, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A high-resolution model is used to characterize the dominant patterns of sea surface salinity (SSS) variability generated by the freshwater discharges of the Rio de la Plata (RdlP) and the Patos/Mirim Lagoon in the southwestern Atlantic region. We identify three dominant modes of SSS variability. The first two, which have been discussed in previous studies, represent the seasonal and the interannual variations of the freshwater plumes over the continental shelf. The third mode of SSS variability, which has not been discussed hitherto, represents the salinity exchanges between the shelf and the deep ocean. A diagnostic study using floats and passive tracers identifies the pathways taken by the freshwater plumes. During the austral winter (JJA), the plumes leave the shelf region north of the BMC. During the austral summer (DJF), the plumes are entrained more directly into the BMC. A sensitivity study indicates that the high-frequency component of the wind stress forcing controls the vertical structure of the plumes while the low-frequency component of the wind stress forcing and the interannual variations of the RdlP discharge controls the horizontal structure of the plumes. Dynamical analysis reveals that the cross-shelf flow has a dominant barotropic structure and, therefore, the SSS anomalies detected by Aquarius represent net mass exchanges between the shelf and the deep ocean. The net cross-shelf volume flux is 1.21 Sv. This outflow is largely compensated by an inflow from the Patagonian shelf. PMID:26213673

  11. Fresh oxygen for the Baltic Sea An exceptional saline inflow after a decade of stagnation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrholz, V.; Naumann, M.; Nausch, G.; Krger, S.; Grwe, U.

    2015-08-01

    The ecological state of the Baltic Sea depends crucially on sufficiently frequent, strong deep water renewal on the periodic deep water renewal events by inflow of oxygen rich saline water from the North Sea. Due to the strong density stratification these inflows are the only source for deep water ventilation. Since the early eighties of the last century the frequency of inflow events has dropped drastically from 5 to 7 major inflows per decade to only one inflow per decade. Wide spread anoxic conditions became the usual state in the central Baltic. The rare major Baltic inflow (MBI) events in 1993 and 2003 could interrupt the anoxic bottom conditions only temporarily. After more than 10 years without a major Baltic inflow events, in December 2014 a strong MBI brought large amounts of saline and well oxygenated water into the Baltic Sea. Based on observations and numerical modeling, the inflow was classified as one of the rare very strong events. The inflow volume and the amount of salt transported into the Baltic were estimated to be with 198 km3 and 4 Gt, respectively. The strength of the MBI exceeded considerably the previous 2003 event. In the list of the MBIs since 1880, the 2014 inflow is the third strongest event together with the MBI in 1913. This inflow event will most probably turn the entire Baltic deep water from anoxic to oxic conditions, with substantial spread consequences for marine life and biogeochemical cycles.

  12. Effect of the vapor phase on the salinity of halite-bearing aqueous fluid inclusions estimated from the halite dissolution temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2013-08-01

    Salinities of aqueous fluid inclusions are commonly determined by measuring the temperatures of dissolution of solid phases (daughter minerals) during heating. The vapor bubble is, in most cases, considered to have no mass and to have no effect on the bulk salinity, owing to the low density of the vapor. In the present study we test the assumption that the vapor bubble can be ignored when estimating salinity based on the halite dissolution temperature. The errors in bulk salinity that result from neglecting the vapor bubble are generally less than 1.5 wt.% NaCl, and errors of this magnitude occur only when there is a large difference between the halite dissolution temperature and the vapor disappearance temperature (e.g., halite dissolution at 450 C and vapor bubble disappearance at 800 C) or, stated differently, when the vapor bubble occupies a significant volume fraction of the inclusion at the temperature of halite disappearance. In most cases errors are less than 0.5 wt.% NaCl. Salinity estimated based on Tm,H can be adjusted to account for the contribution of H2O from the vapor phase, using an empirical relationship describing the proportion of liquid in the inclusion at Tm,H as a function of the difference between Th,LV and Tm,H.

  13. Renal Response to Volume Expansion: Learning the Experimental Approach in the Context of Integrative Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Robert L.; Dukacz, Stephen A. W.; Stavraky, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experience for upper-level science students that provides a hands-on approach to understanding the basics of experimental physiology. Students design an experiment to determine the relative importance of dilution of plasma proteins in the overall renal excretory response following volume expansion with intravenous saline.

  14. Renal Response to Volume Expansion: Learning the Experimental Approach in the Context of Integrative Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Robert L.; Dukacz, Stephen A. W.; Stavraky, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experience for upper-level science students that provides a hands-on approach to understanding the basics of experimental physiology. Students design an experiment to determine the relative importance of dilution of plasma proteins in the overall renal excretory response following volume expansion with intravenous saline.…

  15. Remote sensing of drought and salinity stressed turfgrass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikemura, Yoshiaki

    The ability to detect early signs of stress in turfgrass stands using a rapid, inexpensive, and nondestructive method would be a valuable management tool. Studies were conducted to determine if digital image analysis and spectroradiometric readings obtained from drought- and salinity-stressed turfgrasses accurately reflected the varying degrees of stress and correlated strongly with visual ratings, relative water content (RWC) and leaf osmolality, standard methods for measuring stress in plants. Greenhouse drought and salinity experiments were conducted on hybrid bluegrass [Poa arachnifera (Torn.) x pratensis (L.)] cv. Reveille and bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.)] cv. Princess 77. Increasing drought and salinity stress led to decreased RWC, increased leaf osmolality, and decreased visual ratings for both species. Percent green cover and hue values obtained from digital image analysis, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), calculated from spectroradiometric readings, were moderately to highly correlated with visual ratings, RWC, and leaf osmolality. Similarly, in a field validation study conducted on hybrid bluegrass, spectral reflectance ratios were moderately to highly correlated with visual ratings. In addition, percent green cover obtained from digital image analysis was strongly correlated with most of the spectral ratios, particularly the ratio of fluorescence peaks (r = -0.88 to -0.99), modified triangular vegetation index (MTVI) (r = 0.82 to 0.98), and NDVI (r = 0.84 to 0.99), suggesting that spectral reflectance and digital image analysis are equally effective at detecting changes in color brought on by stress. The two methods differed in their ability to distinguish between drought salinity stress. Hue values obtained from digital image analysis responded differently to increasing drought stress than to increasing salinity stress. Whereas the onset of drought stress was reflected by increased hue values followed by a decrease in values as drought stress increased, there was no increase in hue values at the onset of salinity stress. Thus, changes in hue could be a key to distinguish drought and salinity stress. Both digital image analysis and spectroradiometry effectively detected drought and salinity stress and may have applications in turfgrass management as rapid and quantitative methods to determine drought and salinity stress in turf.

  16. Seasonal/Yearly Salinity Variations in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David H.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Dettinger, Michael D.; DiLeo, Jeanne Sandra; Hager, Stephen E.; Knowles, Noah; Nichols, Frederic H.; Schemel, Laurence E.; Smith, Richard E.; Uncles, Reginald J.

    1995-01-01

    The ability of resource agencies to manage fish, wildlife and freshwater supplies of San Francisco Bay estuary requires an integrated knowledge of the relations between the biota and their physical environment. A key factor in these relations is the role of salinity in determining both the physical and the biological character of the estuary. The saltiness of the water, and particularly its seasonal and interannual patterns of variability, affects which aquatic species live where within the estuary. Salinity also determines where water can and cannot be diverted for human consumption and irrigated agriculture, and plays a role in determining the capacity of the estuary to cleanse itself of wastes. In short, salinity is a fundamental property of estuarine physics and chemistry that, in turn, determines the biological characteristics of each estuary. Freshwater is a major control on estuarine salinity. Most freshwater supplied to the Bay is from river flow through the Delta, which is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada. Most contaminants in San Francisco Bay are from the Sacramento/San Joaquin Valley and the local watershed around the Bay rather than the sea or atmosphere. Land is the primary source of freshwater and freshwater serves as a tracer of land-derived substances such as the trace metals (copper, lead and selenium), pesticides and plant nutrients (nitrate and phosphate). The U.S. Geological Survey is collaborating with other agencies and institutions in studying San Francisco Bay salinity using field observations and numerical simulations to define the physical processes that control salinity. The issues that arise from salinity fluctuations, however, differ in the northern and southern parts of the bay. In North Bay we need to know how salinity responds to freshwater flow through the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta; this knowledge will benefit water managers who determine how much delta flow is needed a) to protect freshwater supplies for municipal water use and b) modulate salinity for a healthy estuary. In South Bay we need to know where the freshwater comes from (the distant Delta or local streams) to sort out the sources of a) contamination or b) dilution.

  17. Passive Microwave Measurements of Salinity: The Gulf Stream Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Haken, M.; Howden, S.; Bingham, F.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (I psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approximately 0.2 psu) required of global maps to be scientifically viable. The development of a satellite microwave instrument to make global measurements of SSS (Sea Surface Salinity) is the focus of a joint JPL/GSFC/NASA ocean research program called Aquarius. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of airborne microwave instruments together with ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer (for surface temperature). These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Sea surface measurements consisted of thermosalinograph data provided by the R/V Cape Henlopen and the MN Oleander, and data from salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the R/V Cape Henlopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made with the airborne sensors on August 28 and 29 and on September 2 flights were made over the surface drifters to look for effects due to a change in surface roughness resulting from the passage of Hurricane Dennis. Results show a good agreement between the microwave measurements and ship measurements of salinity. The features of the brightness temperature maps correspond well with the features of the salinity field measured by the ship and drifters and a preliminary retrieval of salinity compares well with the ship data.

  18. Potential Use of Halophytes to Remediate Saline Soils

    PubMed Central

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Bhowmik, Prasanta C.; Hossain, Md. Amzad; Rahman, Motior M.; Prasad, Majeti Narasimha Vara; Ozturk, Munir; Fujita, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the rising problems causing tremendous yield losses in many regions of the world especially in arid and semiarid regions. To maximize crop productivity, these areas should be brought under utilization where there are options for removing salinity or using the salt-tolerant crops. Use of salt-tolerant crops does not remove the salt and hence halophytes that have capacity to accumulate and exclude the salt can be an effective way. Methods for salt removal include agronomic practices or phytoremediation. The first is cost- and labor-intensive and needs some developmental strategies for implication; on the contrary, the phytoremediation by halophyte is more suitable as it can be executed very easily without those problems. Several halophyte species including grasses, shrubs, and trees can remove the salt from different kinds of salt-affected problematic soils through salt excluding, excreting, or accumulating by their morphological, anatomical, physiological adaptation in their organelle level and cellular level. Exploiting halophytes for reducing salinity can be good sources for meeting the basic needs of people in salt-affected areas as well. This review focuses on the special adaptive features of halophytic plants under saline condition and the possible ways to utilize these plants to remediate salinity. PMID:25110683

  19. Impacts of Salinity on Soil Hydraulic Properties and Evaporation Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierro, V.; Cristi Matte, F.; Suarez, F. I.; Munoz, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Saline soils are common in arid zones, where evaporation from shallow groundwater is generally the main component of the water balance. Thus, to correctly manage water resources in these zones, it is important to quantify the evaporation fluxes. Evaporation from saline soils is a complex process that couples the movement of salts, heat, liquid water and water vapor, and strongly depends on the soil water content. Precipitation/dissolution reactions can change the soil structure and alter flow paths, modifying evaporation fluxes. We utilized the HYDRUS-1D model to investigate the effects of salinity on soil hydraulic properties and evaporation fluxes. HYDRUS-1D simulates the transport of liquid water, water vapor, and heat, and can incorporate precipitation/dissolution reactions of the major ions. To run the model, we determined the water retention curve for a soil with different salinities; and we used meteorological forcing from an experimental site from the Atacama Desert. It was found that higher sodium adsorption ratios in the soil increase the soil water retention capacity. Also, it was found that evaporation fluxes increase salts concentration near the soil surface, changing the soil's water retention capacity in that zone. Finally, movement of salts causes differences in evaporation fluxes. It is thus necessary to incorporate salt precipitation/dissolution reactions and its effects on the water retention curve to correctly simulate evaporation in saline soils

  20. Genetic studies on saline and sodic tolerances in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Donghe; Tuyen, Do Duc

    2012-01-01

    Salt-affected soils are generally classified into two main categories: saline and sodic (alkaline). Developing and using soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) cultivars with high salt tolerance is an effective way of maintaining sustainable production in areas where soybean growth is threatened by salt stress. Early classical genetics studies revealed that saline tolerance was conditioned by a single dominant gene. Recently, a series of studies consistently revealed a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for saline tolerance located on linkage group N (chromosome 3) around the SSR markers Satt255 and Sat_091; other minor QTLs were also reported. In the case of sodic tolerance, most studies focused on iron deficiency caused by a high soil pH, and several QTLs associated with iron deficiency were identified. A wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) accession with high sodic tolerance was recently identified, and a significant QTL for sodic tolerance was detected on linkage group D2 (chromosome 17). These studies demonstrated that saline and sodic tolerances were controlled by different genes in soybean. DNA markers closely associated with these QTLs can be used for marker-assisted selection to pyramid tolerance genes in soybean for both saline and sodic stresses. PMID:23136495

  1. Characterization of low salinity stress in Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei Shen; Wong, Hin-Chung

    2012-02-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine foodborne pathogenic bacterium commonly found in seawater or seafood. This bacterium often encounters low salinity stress when the contaminated seafood is washed with fresh water during food processing. This study was conducted to investigate the response of exponential- and stationary-phase cells of V. parahaemolyticus ST550 to lethal or sublethal low salinity. Tolerance to lethal low salinity (0.25% NaCl) was enhanced in V. parahaemolyticus cells in the exponential phase by previous adaptation in sublethal low salinity (0.6% NaCl). Low salinity-adapted cells in the exponential phase were also cross-protected against the challenge of lethal low pH, indifferent to heat, and sensitized to bile, acetic acid, and lactic acid stress. The adapted cells in the stationary phase were significantly protected against heat treatment at 44C for 10 and 15 min, sensitized to bile and acetic acid treatment, and indifferent to low pH and lactic acid. PMID:22289582

  2. Genetic studies on saline and sodic tolerances in soybean.

    PubMed

    Xu, Donghe; Tuyen, Do Duc

    2012-01-01

    Salt-affected soils are generally classified into two main categories: saline and sodic (alkaline). Developing and using soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) cultivars with high salt tolerance is an effective way of maintaining sustainable production in areas where soybean growth is threatened by salt stress. Early classical genetics studies revealed that saline tolerance was conditioned by a single dominant gene. Recently, a series of studies consistently revealed a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for saline tolerance located on linkage group N (chromosome 3) around the SSR markers Satt255 and Sat_091; other minor QTLs were also reported. In the case of sodic tolerance, most studies focused on iron deficiency caused by a high soil pH, and several QTLs associated with iron deficiency were identified. A wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) accession with high sodic tolerance was recently identified, and a significant QTL for sodic tolerance was detected on linkage group D2 (chromosome 17). These studies demonstrated that saline and sodic tolerances were controlled by different genes in soybean. DNA markers closely associated with these QTLs can be used for marker-assisted selection to pyramid tolerance genes in soybean for both saline and sodic stresses. PMID:23136495

  3. Effects of saline drinking water on early gosling development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolley, D.S.; Bissonette, J.A.; Kadlec, J.A.; Coster, D.

    1999-01-01

    Relatively high levels of saline drinking water may adversely affect the growth, development, and survival of young waterfowl. Saline drinking water was suspect in the low survival rate of Canada goose (Branta canadensis) goslings at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (FSNWR) in western Utah. Hence, we investigated the effects of saline drinking water on the survival and growth of captive, wild-strain goslings from day 1-28 following hatch. We compared survival and growth (as measured by body mass, wing length, and culmen length) between a control group on tap water with a mean specific conductivity of 650 ??S/cm, and 2 saline water treatments: (1) intermediate level (12,000 ??S/cm), and (2) high level (18,000 ??S/cm). Gosling mortality occurred only in the 18,000 ??S/cm treatment group (33%; n = 9). Slopes of regressions of mean body mass, wing length, and culmen length on age were different from each other (P < 0.05), except for culmen length for the intermediate and high treatment levels. We predict that free-ranging wild goslings will experience mortality at even lower salinity levels than captive goslings because of the combined effects of depressed growth and environmental stresses, including hot desert temperatures and variable food quality over summer.

  4. GPR study of pore water content and salinity in sand

    SciTech Connect

    Hagrey, S.A.; Mueller, C.

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution studies of hydrological problems of the near-surface zone can be better accomplished by applying ground-probing radar (GPR) and geoelectrical techniques. The authors report on GPR measurements (500 and 900 MHz antennae) which were carried out on a sorted, clean sand, both in the laboratory and at outdoor experimental sites. The outdoor sites include a full-scale model measuring 5 x 3 x 2.4 m{sup 3} with three buried sand bodies saturated with water of various salinities. Studies investigate the capability of GPR to determine the pore water content and to estimate the salinity. These parameters are important for quantifying and evaluating the water quality of vadose zones and aquifers. The radar technique is increasingly applied in quantifying soil moisture but is still rarely used in studying the problems of water salinity and quality. The reflection coefficient at interfaces is obtained from the amplitude spectrum in the frequency and time domains and is confirmed by 1D wavelet modelling. In addition, the GPR velocity to a target at a known depth is determined using techniques of two-way traveltime, CMP semblance analysis and fitting an asymptotic diffraction curve. The results demonstrate that the reflection coefficient increases with increasing salinity of the moisture. These results may open up a new approach for applications in environmental problems and groundwater prospecting, e.g., mapping and monitoring of contamination and evaluation of aquifer salinity, especially in coastal areas with a time-varying fresh-water lens.

  5. Salt dissolution features in saline lakes of the northern Great Plains, western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last, William M.

    1993-12-01

    Large-scale salt dissolution is an important process affecting the sediments of many of the saline lakes in the northern Great Plains region of western Canada. The most easily recognized features of this salt karst are water-filled chimneys, vertical shafts, and collapse structures. The largest individual chimneys can be up to 20 m deep and 50 m in diameter, with volumes exceeding 25,000 m 3. Large, mud-filled chimneys and cavities, and salt-filled chimneys have also been identified in both the modern lakes and in the Quaternary sediments of the basins, which can adversely affect the salt mining potential of the basins. Because these salt karst features can affect large vertical sections of the sediment fill in the lakes, their recognition is of fundamental importance in attempting to use the stratigraphic records of the basins for paleoenvironmental research.

  6. Climate change impacts on water salinity and health.

    PubMed

    Vineis, Paolo; Chan, Queenie; Khan, Aneire

    2011-12-01

    It is estimated that 884 million people do not have access to clean drinking water in the world. Increasing salinity of natural drinking water sources has been reported as one of the many problems that affect low-income countries, but one which has not been fully explored. This problem is exacerbated by rising sea-levels, owing to climate change, and other contributing factors, like changes in fresh water flow from rivers and increased shrimp farming along the coastal areas. In some countries, desalination plants are used to partly remove salt and other minerals from water sources, but this is unlikely to be a sustainable option for low-income countries affected by high salinity. Using the example of Bangladesh as a model country, the following research indicates that the problem of salinity can have serious implications with regard to rising rates of hypertension and other public health problems among large sectors of the worldwide population. PMID:23856370

  7. Silicon Improves Maize Photosynthesis in Saline-Alkaline Soils

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhiming; Song, Ri; Shao, Hongbo; Song, Fengbin; Xu, Hongwen; Lu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The research aimed to determine the effects of Si application on photosynthetic characteristics of maize on saline-alkaline soil, including photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E), and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) of maize in the field with five levels (0, 45, 90, 150, and 225?kgha?1) of Si supplying. Experimental results showed that the values of Pn, gs, and Ci of maize were significantly enhanced while the values of E of maize were dramatically decreased by certain doses of silicon fertilizers, which meant that Si application with proper doses significantly increased photosynthetic efficiency of maize in different growth stages under stressing environment of saline-alkaline soil. The optimal dose of Si application in this experiment was 150?kgha?1?Si. It indicated that increase in maize photosynthesis under saline-alkaline stress took place by Si application with proper doses, which is helpful to improve growth and yield of maize. PMID:25629083

  8. Transcriptome analysis of membrane transporters in response to salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Senadheera, Prasad; Maathuis, Frans J M

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to high ambient levels of NaCl affects plant water relations and creates ionic stress. To a large extent, responses to such stress depend on the action of membrane transporters, particularly those that move cations such as Na(+) and K(+). A genomics approach can greatly help with the identification of important membrane transporter genes. This can be done by comparing transcriptomes of salinized and non-salinized plants, by comparing tolerant and non-tolerant species, or by using intraspecies variation. This chapter describes a protocol using oligo-microarrays to compare salinity treated (50 mM NaCl) and non-treated rice roots, presenting protocols for growth, RNA isolation, cDNA synthesis and labeling, and a summary of data collection, analysis, and interpretation. Although focused on rice root tissue, the described procedures can be applied to many different treatments, tissues, and plant species. PMID:22895768

  9. XPS analysis of 316 LVM corroded in serum and saline.

    PubMed

    Merritt, K; Wortman, R S; Millard, M; Brown, S A

    1983-01-01

    Surface chemical analysis by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was undertaken on 316 LVM stainless steel in the attempt to better understand corrosion occurring in vivo. Samples were dipped in saline or in blood serum, corroded in serum or saline by the application of a 5 volt anodic potential, or corroded by fretting. The products produced by fretting corrosion were also examined. XPS analysis revealed rapid protein coating of the stainless steel surfaces exposed to serum, changes in the oxidation state of the surfaces, and changes in the chlorine on the surface. In addition it was demonstrated that the corrosion products generated by fretting in saline had an oxidation state similar to that of chronic chloride whereas the corrosion products generated in serum had an oxidation state similar to that of potassium dichromate. These findings may have important implications since the chromium in dichromate is more biologically active than that in chronic chloride. PMID:6615991

  10. Effects of Hypotonic Saline Loading in Hydrated Dog: Evidence for a Saline-induced Limit on Distal Tubular Sodium Transport*

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Richard M.; Abramson, Ruth G.; Kahn, Thomas; Levitt, Marvin F.

    1967-01-01

    We performed studies on dogs under hydrated conditions, utilizing the rate of free water formation (CH2O) as an index of the rate of distal tubular sodium transport. Since CH2O could be progressively increased with no evidence of a maximal rate during loading with hypotonic (2.5%) mannitol, it was concluded that there is no limit on distal tubular sodium transport during mannitol loading. In contrast, during hypotonic (0.45%) saline loading CH2O rose initially, but as urine flow (V) exceeded 25% of the filtered load CH2O attained maximal levels (up to 20% of the filtered load) and remained stable as V increased to 50% of the filtered load. It was concluded that saline loading progressively inhibits proximal sodium reabsorption. Initially, the distal tubule absorbes a large fraction of the proximal rejectate and sodium excretion rises slightly. Eventually, an alteration in distal sodium transport appears which culminates in a maximal rate or transport limit. This distal transport limit provoked by saline loading could not be characterized by a classical Tm as seen with glucose and does not seem to be consequent to high rates of flow through the distal tubule. Regardless of the precise nature of this limit, the major increment in sodium excretion develops during saline loading only after saline alters the capacity of the distal tubule to transport sodium. PMID:6027084

  11. Natural variation of salinity response, population structure and candidate genes associated with salinity tolerance in perennial ryegrass accessions.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinchi; Yu, Xiaoqing; Luo, Na; Xiao, Fangming; Camberato, James J; Jiang, Yiwei

    2013-11-01

    Natural variation in salinity response, effects of population structure on growth and physiological traits and gene-trait association were examined in 56 global collections of diverse perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) accessions. Three population structure groups were identified with 66 simple sequence repeat markers, which on average accounted for 9 and 11% of phenotypic variation for the control and salinity treatment at 300?mm NaCl. Group 1 (10 accessions) had greater plant height, leaf dry weight and water content, chlorophyll index, K(+) concentration and K(+) /Na(+) than group 2 (39 accessions) and group 3 (7 accessions) under salinity stress, while group 3 had higher Na(+) than groups 1 and 2. Eighty-seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected from four partial candidate genes encoding aquaporin and Na(+) /H(+) antiporter in both plasma and tonoplast membranes. Overall, rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium was observed within 500?bp. Significant associations were found between the putative LpTIP1 and Na(+) for the control and between the putative LpNHX1 and K(+) /Na(+) under the control and salinity treatments after controlling population structure. These results indicate that population structure influenced phenotypic traits, and allelic variation in LpNHX1 may affect salinity tolerance of perennial ryegrass. PMID:23566156

  12. SMOS Salinity: A New View of the Ocean Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutin, J.; Martin, N.; Reverdin, G. P.; Yin, X.

    2012-12-01

    The ESA/SMOS (European Space Agency/Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) satellite mission provides measurements of the Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) using L-band interferometric radiometry since end of 2009. It is the first time that this technology is used for measuring SSS from space, providing global ocean coverage every 3 to 5 days and a spatial resolution of up to 40km. In this presentation, we first assess the accuracy of the SMOS SSS recently reprocessed by ESA (version 5), and then illustrate the additional information these new satellite products bring, with respect to in situ measurements, for ocean surface processes studies. At global scale, the spatial variability of SMOS SSS is in relatively good agreement with the one derived from traditional in situ measurements. In tropical and subtropical regions, the rms error of SMOS SSS averaged over 10 days and 100x100km2 with respect to ARGO SSS is on the order of 0.3-0.4. On monthly average, SMOS SSS are systematically fresher than ARGO SSS in the tropical Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone. We demonstrate that this mean difference is due to SMOS SSS freshening correlated with rainy events. Since satellite L-band radiometers sense salinity in the first centimetre of the sea surface while ARGO upper salinity are measured at about 5m depth, this effect is likely to be partly a salinity stratification effect between 1cm and 5 m depth, an important feature for air-sea interactions studies. We will discuss this hypothesis in view of the salinity variability recently sampled in situ in the upper 50cm of the sea surface by surface autonomous drifters. With respect to existing in situ measurements, SMOS provides a much better synoptic coverage of the ocean surface at the expense of the SSS spatial resolution and accuracy. We will show some examples of frontal regions where SMOS SSS provides new information about SSS variability.

  13. Interannual Caribbean salinity in satellite data and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodsky, Semyon A.; Johnson, Benjamin K.; Carton, James A.; Bryan, Frank O.

    2015-02-01

    Aquarius sea surface salinity (SSS) reveals the presence of interannual variations in the Caribbean with about 0.5 psu change between salty and fresh events, which propagate westward across that basin at an average speed of 11 cm/s and are preceded by corresponding SSS anomalies east of the Lesser Antilles. These upstream SSS anomalies are produced by interannual changes in the Amazon plume. Their presence is verified using in situ measurements from the northwest tropical Atlantic station. In contrast to SSS, which displays westward propagation, SST changes almost immediately across the Caribbean, suggesting large-scale atmospheric processes have a primary role in regulating interannual SST in contrast to SSS. A global 1/10 mesoscale ocean model is used to quantify possible origination mechanisms of the Caribbean salinity anomalies and their fate. Simulations confirm that they are produced by anomalous horizontal salt advection, which conveys these salinity anomalies from an area east of the Lesser Antilles across the Caribbean. Anomalous horizontal advection is dominated by mean currents acting on anomalous salinity. The model suggests that interannual Caribbean salinity anomalies eventually enter the Florida Current and reach the Gulf Stream 6-12 months after crossing the central Caribbean. Previous studies link the origin of salinity anomalies in the Amazon plume to variations in the annual freshwater discharge from the continent. In this model interannual discharge variations are absent while simulated SSS variability is in line with observations. This suggests that interannually forced ocean dynamics plays a key role in river plume variability and its spatial dispersion.

  14. Groundwater salinity in a floodplain forest impacted by saltwater intrusion.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, David A; Muoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2014-11-15

    Coastal wetlands occupy a delicate position at the intersection of fresh and saline waters. Changing climate and watershed hydrology can lead to saltwater intrusion into historically freshwater systems, causing plant mortality and loss of freshwater habitat. Understanding the hydrological functioning of tidally influenced floodplain forests is essential for advancing ecosystem protection and restoration goals, however finding direct relationships between hydrological inputs and floodplain hydrology is complicated by interactions between surface water, groundwater, and atmospheric fluxes in variably saturated soils with heterogeneous vegetation and topography. Thus, an alternative method for identifying common trends and causal factors is required. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a time series dimension reduction technique, models temporal variation in observed data as linear combinations of common trends, which represent unexplained common variability, and explanatory variables. DFA was applied to model shallow groundwater salinity in the forested floodplain wetlands of the Loxahatchee River (Florida, USA), where altered watershed hydrology has led to changing hydroperiod and salinity regimes and undesired vegetative changes. Long-term, high-resolution groundwater salinity datasets revealed dynamics over seasonal and yearly time periods as well as over tidal cycles and storm events. DFA identified shared trends among salinity time series and a full dynamic factor model simulated observed series well (overall coefficient of efficiency, Ceff=0.85; 0.52?Ceff?0.99). A reduced multilinear model based solely on explanatory variables identified in the DFA had fair to good results (Ceff=0.58; 0.38?Ceff?0.75) and may be used to assess the effects of restoration and management scenarios on shallow groundwater salinity in the Loxahatchee River floodplain. PMID:24855904

  15. Evaluation of sea-surface salinity observed by Aquarius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Hiroto; Ebuchi, Naoto

    2014-11-01

    Sea-surface salinity (SSS) observed by Aquarius was compared with global observations from Argo floats and offshore moored buoys to evaluate the quality of satellite SSS data and to assess error structures. Aquarius products retrieved by different algorithms (Aquarius Official Release version 3.0 [V3.0], Combined Active-Passive [CAP] algorithm version 3.0, and Remote Sensing Systems test bed algorithm version 3) were compared. The Aquarius SSS was in good agreement with in situ salinity measurements for all three products. Root-mean-square (rms) differences of the salinity residual, with respect to Argo salinity, ranged from 0.41 to 0.52 psu. These three Aquarius products exhibit high SSS deviation from Argo salinity under lower sea-surface temperature conditions (<10C) due to lower sensitivity of microwave emissivity to SSS. The CAP product deviates under strong wind conditions (>10 m s-1), probably due to model bias and uncertainty associated with sea-surface roughness. Furthermore, significant SSS differences between ascending (south-to-north) and descending (north-to-south) paths were detected. The monthly averaged Aquarius SSS (1 1 grid) was also compared with outputs from the ocean data optimal interpolation (OI) system operated by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science Technology (JAMSTEC) and the ocean data assimilation system used by the Meteorological Research Institute, Japan Meteorological Agency (MRI/JMA). Negative bias, attributed to near-surface salinity stratification by precipitation, was detected in tropical regions. For 40S-40N, rms difference, with respect to JAMSTEC OI, is 0.27 psu for the V3.0, while the CAP product rms difference is only 0.22 psu, which is close to the Aquarius mission goal.

  16. Groundwater salinity in a floodplain forest impacted by saltwater intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, David A.; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2014-11-01

    Coastal wetlands occupy a delicate position at the intersection of fresh and saline waters. Changing climate and watershed hydrology can lead to saltwater intrusion into historically freshwater systems, causing plant mortality and loss of freshwater habitat. Understanding the hydrological functioning of tidally influenced floodplain forests is essential for advancing ecosystem protection and restoration goals, however finding direct relationships between hydrological inputs and floodplain hydrology is complicated by interactions between surface water, groundwater, and atmospheric fluxes in variably saturated soils with heterogeneous vegetation and topography. Thus, an alternative method for identifying common trends and causal factors is required. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a time series dimension reduction technique, models temporal variation in observed data as linear combinations of common trends, which represent unexplained common variability, and explanatory variables. DFA was applied to model shallow groundwater salinity in the forested floodplain wetlands of the Loxahatchee River (Florida, USA), where altered watershed hydrology has led to changing hydroperiod and salinity regimes and undesired vegetative changes. Long-term, high-resolution groundwater salinity datasets revealed dynamics over seasonal and yearly time periods as well as over tidal cycles and storm events. DFA identified shared trends among salinity time series and a full dynamic factor model simulated observed series well (overall coefficient of efficiency, Ceff = 0.85; 0.52 ≤ Ceff ≤ 0.99). A reduced multilinear model based solely on explanatory variables identified in the DFA had fair to good results (Ceff = 0.58; 0.38 ≤ Ceff ≤ 0.75) and may be used to assess the effects of restoration and management scenarios on shallow groundwater salinity in the Loxahatchee River floodplain.

  17. Fluid volumes changes induced by spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P C

    1979-10-01

    The blood volume (BV), plasma volume (PV), and extracellular fluid volume changes produced in crewmembers during spaceflights of 11-84 days were compared to changes after 14 or 28 days of bedrest. Spaceflight and bedrest produce approximately equal BV changes but the recorded PV change after spaceflight was less. However, the diurnal change in PV may explain the smaller decreases recorded after spaceflight. The cardiovascular deconditioning caused by spaceflight and bedrest was compared using the mean heart rate response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) testing at -50 mmHg pressure. These tests show approximately equal LBNP produced heart rate changes after bedrest and spaceflight. A countermeasure which includes 4 hr of LBNP treatment at -30 mmHg and the ingestion of one l. of saline was studied and found capable of returning the heart rate response and the PV of bedrested subjects to control (prebedrest) levels suggesting that it would be useful to the crewmembers after a spaceflight. PMID:11902176

  18. Is a salinity monitoring network "Worth its salt"?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prinos, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Saltwater intrusion threatens the water supplies of many coastal communities. Management of these water supplies requires well-designed and properly maintained and operated salinity monitoring networks. Long-standing deficiencies identified in a salinity monitoring network in southwest Florida during a 2013 study (Prinos, 2013) help to illustrate the types of problems that can occur in aging and poorly maintained networks. This cooperative U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) study also describes improvements that can be implemented to overcome these deficiencies.

  19. Passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in coastal zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Calvin T.; Blume, Hans-Juergen C.; Kendall, Bruce M.

    1987-01-01

    The theory of measuring coastal-zone salinity from airborne microwave radiometers is developed. The theory, as presented, shows that precision measurements of salinity favor the lower microwave frequencies. To this end, L- and S-Band systems were built, and the flight results have shown that accuracies of at least one part per thousand were achieved.The aircraft results focus on flights conducted over the Chesapeake Bay and the mouth of the Savanna River off the Georgia Coast. This paper presents no new work, but rather summarizes the capabilities of the remote sensing technique.

  20. Removal of phenol from saline water by polyamine chelating resin.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Arisa; Matsui, Akihiro; Tsuji, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    Removal of phenol from saline water was carried out with chelating resin. A polyamine chelating resin, Diaion CR-20, removed phenol compounds selectively from industrial wastewater containing 2% salt. From saline water containing 20 mg/L phenol, 70% of the phenol was removed. After treatment, phenol was eluted from the resin by aqueous NaOH, and the resin could also be regenerated by heating in air. Diaion CR-20 adsorbed phenol even in the presence of FeCl3, indicating that treatment with this resin of wastewater containing metal can remove phenol and metal cations in a single step. PMID:24185065

  1. Barbados Corals as Recorders of Amazon River Salinity Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, L.; Telfeyan, K.; Arienzo, M. M.; Rosenberg, A. D.; Waite, A. J.; Swart, P. K.

    2010-12-01

    Low salinity plumes of Amazon and Orinoco sourced water have previously been detected around the island of Barbados. Barbados corals may therefore have the potential to record salinity anomalies governed by natural, climate-related, and anthropogenic changes in the Amazon and Orinoco Basin watersheds beyond the recent historic record. In order to determine whether Barbados corals record salinity variations associated with local or Amazon/Orinoco sourced signals, multiple specimens of Montastraea sp. and Siderastrea sp. coral skeletons were analyzed for stable C and O isotope and Sr/Ca variations. Corals were collected from the northwest, central-west, and southwest regions of the island to determine degree of salinity signal heterogeneity over a 5-6 year period at approximately monthly resolution. Four separate published paleotemperature equations were used to assess the importance of temperature on stable oxygen isotope composition. In situ temperature measurements obtained from NOAA show an annual sea surface temperature (SST) cycle of approximately 4 degrees Celsius off Barbados. If governed solely by SST, stable isotope data from all 8 corals in this study indicate a significantly greater annual temperature range of approximately 6 degrees Celsius. This suggests that salinity related fluctuations in oxygen isotopic composition of water are an important influence on the geochemistry of Barbados corals. Some regional differences in geochemical composition of corals were apparent. Corals from the southwest of Barbados showed the clearest sub-annual isotope signal, better correlations with mean annual SST measurements, and lowest mean salinity of the regions. Corals from the central-west and northwest showed distinctly higher mean, but more variable, salinity than corals from the south. Stable carbon isotope data from southwest corals also best potentially reflect the Suess Effect. Montastraea sp. corals generally show a higher paleotemperature offset from in situ values, suggesting that the ability to extract salinity data from Barbados corals may be species-specific. These results may have implications for understanding local eddy patterns as Amazon-sourced water encounters Barbados. It is possible that the central and northern lee coasts may be less impacted by Amazon water and more subject to local restriction from open marine conditions and/or increased evaporative effects.

  2. Effects of low-flow diversions from the South Wichita River on downstream salinity of the South Wichita River, Lake Kemp, and the Wichita River, North Texas, October 1982-September 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley; Bush, Peter W.; Kidwell, Charles C.

    1996-01-01

    In parts of the upper reaches of the Red River Basin in Texas, streamflow is characterized by levels of salinity that limit its usefulness for most purposes. Large dissolved solids and dissolved chloride concentrations are caused primarily by flow from natural salt springs in tributaries to the Red River. To reduce downstream salinity in the Wichita River, a dam in the South Wichita River downstream of an area of salt springs (designated salinity source area VIII) diverts low flows (which are the most saline) to a manmade brine lake for evaporation. Statistical tests on salinity data for the South Wichita River, Lake Kemp, and the Wichita River for the period October 1982-September 1992 were done to determine the effects on downstream salinity of low-flow diversions from the South Wichita River that began in May 1987. Salinity in the South Wichita River downstream of the low-flow diversion structure was (statistically) significantly less during the 65-month period of record after diversion than during the 55-month period of record before diversion. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests yielded strong evidence that discharge-weighted dissolved solids and discharge-weighted dissolved chloride concentrations, as well as discharge-weighted specific conductance, were significantly less after diversion. Whether salinity in Lake Kemp had a significant downward trend during the period of record August 1989--August 1992 could not be determined conclusively from observed salinity data. Mann-Kendall trend tests yielded weak evidence that volume-weighted dissolved solids and dissolved chloride concentrations in Lake Kemp tended to decrease with time. However, serial correlation in the time series of salinity data could have adversely affected the test results. The significant effects of low-flow diversions on salinity in the South Wichita River are not discernible in the Wichita River downstream from Lake Kemp. Although salinity was significantly less downstream from Lake Kemp after diversion, the decrease probably is mostly a result of dilution of Lake Kemp by large inflows of (assumed) low-salinity water that occurred in the spring of 1989 rather than an effect of diversion.

  3. CO2 storage potential of deep saline aquifers: the case of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donda, Federica; Volpi, Valentina; Persoglia, Sergio; Vellico, Michela; Parushev, Dobromir; Civile, Dario

    2010-05-01

    Together with the improvement of energy efficiency and a wider use of renewable sources, the CO2 Capture and Storage techniques (CCS) represent a key instrument for the reduction of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere. Deep saline aquifers offer the largest storage potential of all the geological CO2 storage options and are widely distributed throughout the Earth. In order to verify the location of geological formations having the characteristics suitable for CCS in the Italian subsurface, a comprehensive analysis of about 55000 km of 2-D multichannel seismic profiles and about 1650 well data has been performed. This dataset has been acquired since 1957 by several oil companies for hydrocarbon exploration and has been made available by the Ministry of the Economic Development in the framework of the project "Visibility of Petroleum Exploration Data in Italy (VI.D.E.P.I.; www.videpi.com)". Most of the selected sites lie in the major Italian sedimentary basins, i.e the Apennine foredeep and the Adriatic foreland, characterized by thick accumulations of sediments. The potential reservoirs are mostly represented by permeable, terrigenous deep saline formations, whose capacity ranges from 30 to more than 1300 Mt. In the evaluation of the CO2 storage potential in the Italian deep saline aquifers, we have adopted the method used in the EU GeoCapacity project (Vangkilde et al., 2008). The same procedure has been also utilized for estimating the CO2 storage potential of saline formations in the United States and Canada (U.S. Department of Energy, 2008). This method provides a regional estimate based on bulk volume of the aquifers referred to as the "effective storage capacity" (i.e. the reservoir capacity evaluated considering technical cutoff limits and technically viable estimate) (Bachu et al., 2007). CO2 emissions from the major stationary point sources (i.e. power plants) amount to about 220 Mt, placing Italy in the fifth position among the major emitting European countries (www.geocapacity.eu). The 14 saline reservoirs we have identified could potentially store Italy's annual CO2 emissions for the next 50 years. This value represents a very conservative estimate of the Italian potential for the CO2 geological storage in deep saline aquifers because other potential promising reservoirs could lie in areas where data are not available at present. Moreover, carbonate formations have not been included in the overall estimate. In our capacity estimation some uncertainties arise from the unavailability of specific data, such as the occurrence of local heterogeneities, that can affect CO2 distribution and migration within the reservoir, although, at this stage, no evidence of relevant leakage features are detected. However, additional, site-specific investigations accompanied by further data are needed to a more detailed evaluation of the potential CO2 storage sites. Despite these uncertainties, this study highlights that CO2 geological storage is a viable option in Italy and provides the first systematic evaluation of the storage capacity of the potential reservoirs identified in the country. Acknowledgments This work has been funded by the EU GeoCapacity project within FP6 - the 6th Framework Programme of the European Community for Research, Technological Development.

  4. Salinized rivers: degraded systems or new habitats for salt-tolerant faunas?

    PubMed

    Kefford, Ben J; Buchwalter, David; Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Davis, Jenny; Duncan, Richard P; Hoffmann, Ary; Thompson, Ross

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic salinization of rivers is an emerging issue of global concern, with significant adverse effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Impacts of freshwater salinization on biota are strongly mediated by evolutionary history, as this is a major factor determining species physiological salinity tolerance. Freshwater insects dominate most flowing waters, and the common lotic insect orders Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies) and Trichoptera (caddisflies) are particularly salt-sensitive. Tolerances of existing taxa, rapid adaption, colonization by novel taxa (from naturally saline environments) and interactions between species will be key drivers of assemblages in saline lotic systems. Here we outline a conceptual framework predicting how communities may change in salinizing rivers. We envision that a relatively small number of taxa will be saline-tolerant and able to colonize salinized rivers (e.g. most naturally saline habitats are lentic; thus potential colonizers would need to adapt to lotic environments), leading to depauperate communities in these environments. PMID:26932680

  5. Effect of salinity induced pH/alkalinity changes on benthic foraminifera: A laboratory culture experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswat, Rajeev; Kouthanker, Mamata; Kurtarkar, Sujata R.; Nigam, Rajiv; Naqvi, S. W. A.; Linshy, V. N.

    2015-02-01

    The salinity of coastal waters in the vicinity of seasonally fresh water fed estuaries changes tremendously and reportedly affects the living calcite secreting organisms like foraminifera, as well as their dead remains. The precise mechanism of adverse effect of such seasonal salinity changes on calcite secreting organisms is, however not clear. The seasonal fresh water influx from the estuaries also affects the pH and alkalinity of the coastal seawater. Therefore, to understand the effect of salinity induced pH/alkalinity variations on benthic foraminifera, living specimens of Rosalina globularis were subjected to different salinity. Additionally, water samples were collected from an estuary during both monsoon and post monsoon season to understand the relationship between salinity, pH and total alkalinity (TA). The pH decreased with decreasing salinity during both the seasons. A similar decrease in TA with decreasing salinity was also observed but only till 20 psu salinity, below which the TA increased with decreasing salinity. Even though the maximum growth was reported in specimens kept at 35 psu salinity, growth of specimens maintained at >25 psu salinity, was same. Specimens kept at 10 psu and 15 psu salinity, however were much smaller and turned opaque within two days of lowering the salinity and later on their tests dissolved within 24 and 43 days, respectively. No specimen reproduced at 10 psu and 15 psu salinity, while only a few specimens (3%) reproduced at 20 psu salinity. As compared to 10-20 psu salinity, ?60% reproduction was observed in specimens subjected to 25-40 salinity. The specimens maintained at 20 psu salinity took twice the time to reach maturity than those subjected to 25-40 psu salinity. Since a big drop in pH was observed at 10-15 psu salinity (pH 7.2 and 7.5, respectively), while the alkalinity was still higher, we suggest that fresh water influx induced drop in pH adversely affects calcification and reproduction in benthic foraminifera. The response is, however not linear as beyond a certain limit, a further increase in pH does not affect benthic foraminifera; rather they respond to salinity as per their salinity tolerance range. It is further inferred that the time required to reach reproductive maturity increases at the extreme salinity tolerance limits. Dissolution of calcareous foraminifera below 20 psu salinity, suggests that salinity induced changes control the carbonate inventory in the coastal regions subjected to seasonal fresh water influx.

  6. Economics and cost sharing of salinity control in the Colorado River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Salinity (dissolved solids) in water supplies arises both from natural and manmade causes. Salinity is the most serious water quality problem in the Colorado River Basin, affecting over 12 million people and 1 million irrigated acres. The Salinity Control Act of 1974 authorized a largely Federally financed solution to the problem. This dissertation endeavors to assess the economic benefits and cost of potential and proposed salinity control methods, with an emphasis on the effects of different means of sharing control costs. A linear programming model of irrigated agriculture in the Imperial Valley provides estimates of salinity damages in the 800 to 1100 mg/l salinity range. Estimates of municipal salinity damages are drawn from past research. Direct damage estimates are discounted for an assumed six-year hydraulic retention time between reductions in salt load upstream and lower salinity levels at Imperial Dam to obtain estimates of salinity control benefits.

  7. Proteomic analysis on the alteration of protein expression in gills of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) associated with salinity change.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin J; Chen, Jiong; Huang, Zuo A; Shi, Yu H; Wang, Fang

    2010-09-01

    Gill is the primary osmoregulatory organ for euryhaline fish to acclimate salinity change. The effect of salinity on gill proteome in ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis, was investigated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS/MS). Eight of eighteen altered proteins were successfully identified. They are involved in osmoregulation, cytoskeleton, energy metabolism, and stress response. Our results showed that vinculin, echinoderm microtubule-associated protein like protein 1, pyruvate kinase, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), transaldolase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) were down-regulated, whereas cofilin was up-regulated when ayu transferred from fresh water (FW) to brackish water (BW). Partial cDNA sequences of BHMT, HSP70, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (NKA) alpha-subunit and 18S rRNA genes were subsequently determined and used for 2-DE data verification by real-time PCR. Gill BHMT and HSP70 mRNAs decreased significantly in BW-transferred ayu, while NKA alpha-subunit mRNA had no significant change. It was suggested that cell volume-regulatory response, especially the protection by the BHMT/betaine system might play an important role in ayu acclimation to salinity change. PMID:20471925

  8. [Using a modified remote sensing imagery for interpreting changes in cultivated saline-alkali land].

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Liu, Hui-tao; Liu, Hong-juan; Liu, Jin-tong

    2015-04-01

    This paper developed a new interpretation symbol system for grading and classifying saline-alkali land, using Huanghua, a cosatal city in Hebei Province as a case. The system was developed by inverting remote sensing images from 1992 to 2011 based on site investigation, plant cover characteristics and features of remote sensing images. Combining this interpretation symbol system with supervising classification method, the information on arable land was obtained for the coastal saline-alkali ecosystem of Huanghua City, and the saline-alkali land area, changes in intensity of salinity-alkalinity and spatial distribution from 1992 to 2011 were analyzed. The results showed that salinization of arable land in Huanghua City alleviated from 1992 to 2011. The severely and moderately saline-alkali land area decreased in 2011 compared with 1992, while the non/slightly saline land area increased. The moderately saline-alkali land in southeast transformed to non/slightly saline-alkaline, while the severely saline-alkali land in west of the city far from the coastal zone became moderately saline-alkaline. The center of gravity (CG) of severely and non/slightly saline-alkali land moved closer the coastline, while that of the moderately saline-alkali land moved from southwest coastal line to northwest. Factors influencing changes in arable land within the saline-alkali ecosystem of Huanghua City were climate, hydrology and human activities. PMID:26259441

  9. Field and Laboratory Investigations on Seismic Properties of Unconsolidated Saline Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Shan

    Saline permafrost is mechanically weak and very sensitive to temperature disturbances, which makes its degradation particularly worrisome in a warming climate. For the purposes of hazard mitigation and prevention, it is crucial to gain knowledge about the properties and distributions of saline permafrost. However, one major challenge is that saline permafrost is hard to access, as it often is covered with a surficial layer of non-saline permafrost. Seismic methods are cost-effective methods for detecting and delineating saline permafrost, but research on seismic properties of unconsolidated saline permafrost is lacking. The body of work comprising this dissertation is the first systematic study to investigate seismic properties of unconsolidated saline permafrost. Encompassing field and laboratory components, the study reveals pervasive presence of saline permafrost across the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO) in Alaska, and illustrates saline permafrost's striking vulnerability to temperature disturbances. Besides these findings regarding the distributions and properties of saline permafrost, other key deliverables of this dissertation include 1) rich seismic datasets for field and laboratory investigations of unconsolidated saline permafrost, 2) full-wavefield-based workflow for delineating irregularly dispersive media, and 3) improved microstructural realization regarding pore-scale distributions of ice in saturated frozen sediments. Through this work we hope to call attention to the possibly ubiquitous presence of saline permafrost along the polar coasts. Considering the potentially large impact of saline permafrost degradation in a warming climate, we advocate future research needs in regional-scale mapping of saline permafrost and assessing its influences in climate modeling.

  10. Global monitoring of Sea Surface Salinity with Aquarius

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagerloef, G. S. E.; LeVine, D. M.; Chao, Yi; Colomb, R.; Nollmann, I.

    2005-01-01

    Aquarius is a microwave remote sensing system designed to obtain global maps of the surface salinity field of the oceans from space. It will be flown on the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA (NASA) and Argentina (CONAE) with launch scheduled for late in 2008. The objective of Aquarius is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This will provide data to address scientific questions associated with ocean circulation and its impact on climate. For example, salinity is needed to understand the large scale thermohaline circulation, driven by buoyancy, which moves large masses of water and heat around the globe. Of the two variables that determine buoyancy (salinity and temperature), temperature is already being monitored. Salinity is the missing variable needed to understand this circulation. Salinity also has an important role in energy exchange between the ocean and atmosphere, for example in the development of fresh water lenses (buoyant water that forms stable layers and insulates water below from the atmosphere) which alter the air-sea coupling. Aquarius is a combination radiometer and scatterometer (radar) operating at L-band (1.413 GHz for the radiometer and 1.26 GHz for the scatterometer). The primary instrument,for measuring salinity is the radiometer which is able to detect salinity because of the modulation salinity produces on the thermal emission from sea water. This change is detectable at the long wavelength end of the microwave spectrum. The scatterometer will provide a correction for surface roughness (waves) which is one of the greatest unknowns in the retrieval. The sensor will be in a sun-synchronous orbit at about 650 km with equatorial crossings of 6am/6pm. The antenna for these two instruments is a 3 meter offset fed reflector with three feeds arranged in pushbroom fashion looking away from the sun toward the shadow side of the orbit to minimize sunglint. The mission goal is to produce maps of the salinity field globally once each month with an accuracy of 0.2 psu and a spatial resolution of 100 km. This will be adequate to address l&ge scale features of the salinity field of the open ocean. The temporal resolution is sufficient to address seasonal changes and a three year mission is planned to-collect sufficient data to look for interannual variation. Aquarius is being developed by NASA as part of the Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. The SAC-D mission is being developed by CONAE and will include the space craft and several additional instruments, including visible and infrared cameras and a microwave radiometer to monitor rain and wind velocity over the oceans, and sea ice.

  11. Colon Necrosis Due to Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate with and without Sorbitol: An Experimental Study in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Isabelle; Oh, Man S.; Gupta, Raavi; McFarlane, Michael; Babinska, Anna; Salifu, Moro O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Based on a single rat study by Lillemoe et al, the consensus has been formed to implicate sorbitol rather than sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) as the culprit for colon necrosis in humans treated with SPS and sorbitol. We tested the hypothesis that colon necrosis by sorbitol in the experiment was due to the high osmolality and volume of sorbitol rather than its chemical nature. Methods 26 rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy. They were divided into 6 groups and given enema solutions under anesthesia (normal saline, 33% sorbitol, 33% mannitol, SPS in 33% sorbitol, SPS in normal saline, and SPS in distilled water). They were sacrificed after 48 hours of enema administration or earlier if they were very sick. The gross appearance of the colon was visually inspected, and then sliced colon tissues were examined under light microscopy. Results 1 rat from the sorbitol and 1 from the mannitol group had foci of ischemic colonic changes. The rats receiving SPS enema, in sorbitol, normal saline, distilled water, had crystal deposition with colonic necrosis and mucosal erosion. All the rats not given SPS survived until sacrificed at 48 h whereas 11 of 13 rats that received SPS in sorbitol, normal saline or distilled water died or were clearly dying and sacrificed sooner. There was no difference between sorbitol and mannitol when given without SPS. Conclusions In a surgical uremic rat model, SPS enema given alone or with sorbitol or mannitol seemed to cause colon necrosis and high mortality rate, whereas 33% sorbitol without SPS did not. PMID:26413782

  12. Polytope volume computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Jim

    1991-07-01

    A combinatorial form of Gram's relation for convex polytopes can be adapted for use in computing polytope volume. We present an algorithm for volume computation based on this observation. This algorithm is useful in finding the volume of a polytope given as the solution set of a system of linear inequalities, P = { x in {R^n}:Ax ? b} . As an illustration we compute a formula for the volume of a projective image of the n-cube. From this formula we deduce that, when A and b have rational entries (so that the volume of P is also a rational number), the number of binary digits in the denominator of the volume cannot be bounded by a polynomial in the total number of digits in the numerators and denominators of entries of A and b . This settles a question posed by Dyer and Frieze.

  13. Volume quantification by contrast-enhanced ultrasound: an in-vitro comparison with true volumes and thermodilution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has recently been proposed as a minimally- invasive, alternative method for blood volume measurement. This study aims at comparing the accuracy of CEUS and the classical thermodilution techniques for volume assessment in an in-vitro set-up. Methods The in-vitro set-up consisted of a variable network between an inflow and outflow tube and a roller pump. The inflow and outflow tubes were insonified with an ultrasound array transducer and a thermistor was placed in each tube. Indicator dilution curves were made by injecting indicator which consisted of an ultrasound-contrast-agent diluted in ice-cold saline. Both acoustic intensity- and thermo-dilution curves were used to calculate the indicator mean transit time between the inflow and outflow tube. The volumes were derived by multiplying the estimated mean transit time by the flow rate. We compared the volumes measured by CEUS with the true volumes of the variable network and those measured by thermodilution by Bland-Altman and intraclass-correlation analysis. Results The measurements by CEUS and thermodilution showed a very strong correlation (rs = 0.94) with a modest volume underestimation by CEUS of −40 ± 28 mL and an overestimation of 84 ± 62 mL by thermodilution compared with the true volumes. Both CEUS and thermodilution showed a high statistically significant correlation with the true volume (rs = 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95 - 0.98; P<0.0001) and rs = 0.96 (95% CI, 0.94 - 0.98; P<0.0001, respectively). Conclusions CEUS volume estimation provides a strong correlation with both the true volumes in-vitro and volume estimation by thermodilution. It may therefore represent an interesting alternative to the standard, invasive thermodilution technique. PMID:24134671

  14. Laser measure of sea salinity, temperature and turbidity in depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschberg, J. G.; Wouters, A. W.; Byrne, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A method is described in which a pulsed laser is used to probe the sea. Backscattered light is analyzed in time, intensity and wavelength. Tyndall, Raman and Brillouin scattering are used to obtain the backscatter turbidity, sound velocity, salinity, and the temperature as a function of depth.

  15. Keeping the lights on for global ocean salinity observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durack, Paul J.; Lee, Tong; Vinogradova, Nadya T.; Stammer, Detlef

    2016-03-01

    Insights about climate are being uncovered thanks to improved capacities to observe ocean salinity, an essential climate variable. However, cracks are beginning to appear in the ocean observing system that require prompt attention if we are to maintain the existing, hard-won capacity into the near future.

  16. Managing cytotoxic chemotherapy extravasation: use of saline washout.

    PubMed

    Harrold, Karen

    Florence Nightingale Foundation scholar Karen Harrold received funding to support her PhD exploring the patient experience of saline washout as a management strategy for chemotherapy extravasation. She discusses the focus of her thesis, the completion of phase one and looks ahead to phase two. PMID:25904536

  17. Home Brew Salinity Measuring Devices: Their Construction and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper discusses several inexpensive methods of evaluating the salinity of seawater. One method is presented in some detail. This method has several attractive features. First, it can be used to provide instruction, not only in marine chemistry, but also in studying the mathematics of the point slope formula, and as an aid in teaching students…

  18. TOLERANCE OF PLANTS TO SALINITY AND TO SPECIFIC IONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many communities where recycled water is available, the salinity of the water is noticeably higher than in municipal drinking waters. Landscapes designed for the successful use of recycled waters will, therefore, benefit from the inclusion of salt-tolerant trees, shrubs, vines, groundcovers, gra...

  19. Assessment of salt tolerant plants to remediate saline soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil salinity has intensified in the James River valley in east central South Dakota in the past 20 years. Surface evaporation on poorly drained and subirrigated soils leaves salts on the soil surface. Replacing evaporation from the soil surface with transpiration through deep-rooted salt-tolerant...

  20. Aerobic biodegradation of amines in industrial saline wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Campo, Pablo; Platten, William; Suidan, Makram T; Chai, Yunzhou; Davis, John W

    2011-11-01

    The treatment of hypersaline wastewaters represents a challenge since high salt concentrations disrupt bacteria present in normal biological treatments. This study was conducted to determine the fate of amines in two hypersaline wastewaters obtained from an industrial treatment plant processing influents with 3% and 7% of NaCl. The compounds were aniline (ANL), 4,4'-methylenedianiline (4,4'-MDA), cyclohexylamine (CHA), N-(2-aminoethyl)ethanolamine (AEA), N,N-diethylethanolamine (DEA), N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methylamine (MDEA), and tris(2-hydroxyethyl)amine (TEA). Mixtures of these chemicals with a mixed liquor suspended solids concentration of 1000 mg L(-1) were prepared at two salinities (3% and 7% NaCl). Ethanolamines were readily biodegraded at both salinities, following first-order kinetics with half-lives ranging between 10 and 58 h. Hydroxyl groups present in the ethanolamines had a positive impact on the biodegradation. Salinity did not affect the biodegradation rate of TEA and MDEA, whereas AEA and DEA degraded faster in 3% NaCl. After 48h, CHA was metabolized within a 24-h period in 3% NaCl, while no degradation was observed in 7% NaCl. ANL exhibited lag phases in both salinities and, in the following 24-h period, ANL concentrations dropped 40% and disappeared after 48 h. 4,4'-MDA degraded in 3% NaCl (half-life of 123 h) and remained unaltered after 120 h in 7% NaCl. PMID:21925703

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING MANUAL FOR SALINITY MANAGEMENT IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Environmental Planning Manual for Salinity Management in Irrigated Agriculture has been prepared. The primary focus of this manual is a delineation of the combinations of technological and institutional solutions, the various levels of planning effort, use of existing data and...

  2. Microbial diversity of rizosphere in two saline chenopodiaceaes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saline environments can be found on all continents and in most countries. They consist in two primary types: those that arose from seawater and those which come from nonseawater sources. The latter contain different ion ratios where the dominant anion is typically carbonate. Plants native to sali...

  3. Soil salinity effects on germination of native and introduced grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing salinity of formerly productive soil in the James River valley in east central South Dakota is an increasing concern for crop producers. This problem arises when water evaporates from poorly drained and subirrigated soils and leaves salts on the soil surface. Replacing evaporation from ...

  4. Oral hypertonic saline causes transient fall of vasopressin in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Seckl, J.R.; Williams, D.M.; Lightman, S.L.

    1986-08-01

    After dehydration, oral rehydration causes a fall in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) that precedes changes in plasma osmolality. To investigate further the stimulus for this effect, its specificity, and association with thirst, six volunteers were deprived of water for 24 h and given a salt load on two separate occasions. On each study day they then drank rapidly 10 ml/kg of either tap water or hypertonic saline (360 mosmol/kg). There was a significant fall in plasma AVP from 2.0 +/- 0.3 to 1.2 +/- 0.4 pmol/l 5 min after drinking water and from 1.8 +/- 0.3 to 0.9 +/- 0.2 pmol/l after hypertonic saline. Plasma osmolality fell 30-60 min after water and was unchanged after saline. Plasma renin activity, oxytocin, and total protein all remained unchanged. All subjects reported diminished thirst after hypertonic saline. Gargling with water reduced thirst but did not affect plasma AVP. There appears to be a drinking-mediated neuroendocrine reflex that decreases plasma AVP irrespective of the osmolality of the liquid consumed. The sensation of thirst did not correlate with plasma osmolality and was not always related to plasma AVP concentration. AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay.

  5. OPTIMIZING SALINITY CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple multi-level nonlinear optimization procedure was utilized to formulate the most cost-effective array of salinity control strategies for the Upper Colorado River Basin. The incremental cost-effectiveness methodology qualitatively indicates the location and general type of...

  6. Principal processes within the estuarine salinity gradient: a review.

    PubMed

    Telesh, Irena V; Khlebovich, Vladislav V

    2010-01-01

    The salinity gradient is one of the main features characteristic of any estuarine ecosystem. Within this gradient in a critical salinity range of 5-8 PSU the major biotic and abiotic processes demonstrate non-linear dynamics of change in rates and directions. In estuaries, this salinity range acts as both external ecological factor and physiological characteristics of internal environment of aquatic organisms; it divides living conditions appropriate for freshwater and marine faunas, separates invertebrate communities with different osmotic regulation types, and defines the distribution range of high taxa. In this paper, the non-linearity of biotic processes within the estuarine salinity gradient is illustrated by the data on zooplankton from the Baltic estuaries. The non-tidal Baltic Sea provides a good demonstration of the above phenomena due to gradual changes of environmental factors and relatively stable isohalines. The non-linearity concept coupled with the ecosystem approach served the basis for a new definition of an estuary proposed by the authors. PMID:20304437

  7. Effect of low salinity on the yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Y B M; Romano, L A; Poersch, L H S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the lethal salinity (LC50) for the yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides (Bivalvia: Mesodesmatidae) and identify histopathological alterations that could be used to diagnose structural changes in clam tissue. Clams in two size classes (adults and juveniles) were placed in 10 L chambers and exposed to salinities of 35, 30, 25, 20, 15, 10, and 5 g/L. There were triplicate chambers with seven clams each for each salinity. The LC50 values for a 48 h exposure were 6.5 g/L and 5.7 g/L for adults and juveniles, respectively. For a 96 h exposure, the LC50 values were 10.5 g/L for adults and 8.8 g/L for juveniles. The histological examination of yellow clams exposed to 10 g/L for 96 h showed intercellular oedema and necrotic foci in the epithelium of the digestive gland and occlusion of the lumen of the digestive gland. In conclusion, M. mactroides can be characterised as a moderately euryhaline species, tolerating salinities from 35 to 15 g/L. PMID:25945615

  8. Artificial upwelling driven by salinity differences in the ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.H.; Decicco, J.

    1983-12-01

    A concept for an artificial upwelling driven by salinity differences in the ocean to supply nutrients to a mariculture farm is described and analyzed. A long shell-and-tube counterflow heat exchanger built of inexpensive plastic and concrete is suspended vertically in the ocean. Cold, nutrient rich, but relatively fresh water from deep in the ocean flows up the shell side of the heat exchanger, and warm but relatively saline water from the surface flows down the tube side. The two flows exchange heat across the thin plastic walls of the tubes, maintaining a constant temperature difference along the heat exchanger. The plastic tubes are protected by the concrete outer shell of the heat exchanger. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep and surface water due to their difference in salinity. This phenomenon was first recognized by the oceanographer Stommel, who termed it The Perpetual Salt Fountain. The heat transfer and flow rate as a function of tube number and diameter is analyzed and the size of the heat exchanger optimized for cost is determined for a given flow of nutrients for various locations. Reasonable sizes (outer diameter on the order of 5 m) are obtained. The incremental capital cost of the salinity-driven artificial upwelling is compared to the incremental capital cost and present value of the operating cost of an artificial upwell fueled by liquid hydrocarbons.

  9. Two methods of preparation of xenon-133 saline solution

    SciTech Connect

    Blend, M.J.; Tantayakom, S.; Araya, G.; Pavel, D.G.

    1986-06-01

    Two procedures for dissolving /sup 133/Xe gas in isotonic saline simply and economically with reasonably high activity concentrations are described. The first method is a modification of a previously described procedure and introduces a new flow-through mixing system allowing for a more homogeneous preparation. This system can be used with significant cost and time savings in a department with large clinical demand (> 3 patients per week). The second method is a system which can be used economically in a department with a small and/or sporadic clinical demand. This technique involves the preparation of single-patient dose by introducing saline into commercially available /sup 133/Xe gas vials. The solubility of /sup 133/Xe in saline can be significantly increased (> 50%) by introducing saline into a /sup 133/Xe gas vial and incubating the reactive vial at 4 /sup 0/C for 3 hr or more. The suggested modifications are simple and the resultant activity concentrations are relatively high and clinically useful.

  10. Geoelectrical imaging of groundwater salinization in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Peter; Supper, Robert; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2006-10-01

    Soil and groundwater salinization is a major problem in aquatic systems throughout the semi-arid and arid regions. An interesting example of a natural terminal evaporative system is the Okavango Delta, a large inland Delta in Botswana. The system accumulates about 300,000 tons of dissolved solids per year. The majority of the accumulated solutes are deposited on small islands in the wetland. In the centre of the islands, the shallow groundwater is therefore highly saline and displays total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations around 30 g/l. Fresh groundwater underlying the superficial brines gives rise to a hydrodynamically unstable situation with dense brine perched on less dense fresh water. Instabilities (density fingers) can potentially occur and effectively transport the superficial brines into deeper aquifer units. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used in this study to directly map the salinity distribution in the subsurface below two different islands in the Okavango Delta. Surface arrays as well as borehole-to-surface layouts were used. Due to differences in the regional hydrologic setting, a density finger could be observed on one island, whereas on the other, the high salinity anomaly was confined to the surface layer. To our knowledge, this is the first time that fingering instabilities were observed under field conditions in natural aquifers.

  11. ACID AND ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF SALINE BIOMASS FOR SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass can be a good renewable source for sugar production. Saline crops, including two woods, Athel tree (Tamarix aphylla L) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), and two grasses, Jose Tall Wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum) (JTW) and Creeping Wild Rye (Leymus triticoides) (CWR), were produced...

  12. Food Production in Arid Regions as Related to Salinity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arid and semi arid regions of the world are generally associated with high population density and lower than average per capita incomes and living standards. These regions are vulnerable to food shortages due to current, unsustainable use of fresh water for irrigation and soil salinization. This pa...

  13. RICE IS MORE SENSITIVE TO SALINITY THAN PREVIOUSLY THOUGHT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies conducted in the field by the University of California and controlled greenhouse conditions by the USDA-ARS indicate that rice is more sensitive to salinity than current guidelines suggest. This information is particularly important to a number of rice growers in Colusa and Glenn counties wh...

  14. Laser/Heterodyne Measurement of Temperature and Salinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, D. J.; Fales, C. L.; Katzberg, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed visible-light laser/heterodyne receiver would remotely measure temperature and salinity of subsurface water. Operation is based on acoustic/optical scattering of light by sound waves. Application of this concept is foreseen in current research on energy conversion from ocean currents produced by thermal gradients and on future marine remote-sensing program.

  15. Irrigation and Soil Salinization in Mediterranean agro-ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Angelo; Viola, Francesco; Valerio Noto, Leonardo; Mau, Yair; Porporato, Amilcare

    2015-04-01

    During the warm and dry growing season of Mediterranean climates, the availability of good quality water for primary production in agriculture tends to be limited. This aspect makes the use of saline and brackish water appealing, given the potential of natural flushing of the soils by deep percolation during the wet and colder dormant season. Thus the cyclic alternation between the two different phases in the cold and warm season gives rise to a delicate equilibrium that can lead to long term secondary salinization if the mean salt input from irrigation overpasses the average annual natural leakage amount. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the long term salt mass balance in the presence of irrigation and possible changes in seasonality. An elevated concentration of salt in the soil may in turn lead to both a decrease of its fertility and to osmotic stress reducing plant productivity. To this purpose, a stochastic soil and water balance salinity model is developed to quantify the balance between salt accumulation phases during the growing season and leaching phases during the wet season. We provide the numerical and the analytical representation of secondary long-term salinization process, highlighting the role of soil depth, plant and climate together with the impact of shifts in the seasonal vs. interannual rainfall fluctuations. An application to a test case in the Southern part of Sicily (ITALY) is also presented, highlighting the strong relationship between salt dynamics, water management and climatic conditions.

  16. Home Brew Salinity Measuring Devices: Their Construction and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper discusses several inexpensive methods of evaluating the salinity of seawater. One method is presented in some detail. This method has several attractive features. First, it can be used to provide instruction, not only in marine chemistry, but also in studying the mathematics of the point slope formula, and as an aid in teaching students

  17. DISTRIBUTION AND MOVEMENT OF TOXAPHENE IN ANAEROBIC SALINE MARSH SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The distribution and method of movement of a hydrophobic pesticide through anaerobic saline marsh soils profiles was investigated. In the study are the flooding tidal water containing low concentrations of toxaphene. The compound accumulated only slightly in the marsh soils not f...

  18. Salinity effects on Atlantic sturgeon growth and osmoregulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus Mitchill, 1815) is an anadromous sturgeon species, yet little is known with regard to its osmoregulatory ability and habitat use at early life stages. In order to examine whether salinity poses a physiological challenge to juvenile Atlantic stur...

  19. Multi-Method Monitoring of Shallow Gas Injection in Saline Coastal Reservoir at Maguelone (Languedoc coastline, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denchik, N.; Pezard, P. A.; Lofi, J.; Luquot, L.; Neyens, D.; Jaafar, O.; Perroud, H.; Abdelghafour, H.; Henry, G.; Levannier, A.

    2014-12-01

    Geological storage of CO2 is still a recent technology and many questions remain open, particularly for saline formations. Geological storage in accessible saline formations is, in fact, expected to become over time more important than that in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs. The Maguelone shallow experimental site, located near Montpellier (Languedoc, France) has been used over the past few years to perform CO2 injection experiments. The geology, petrophysics and hydrology of this site are well known from previous studies. The presence of small saline coastal reservoirs bounded above and below by clay-rich layers provides an opportunity to study a saline formation for geological storage at field laboratory scale with a set of hydrogeophysical (seismic, electrical, sonic, pressure) and geochemical (pH, minor and major ion concentrations) methods, either downhole or at surface. Series of experiments can be run at moderate costs from the shallow depth of one of these reservoirs (13-16 m), offering flexibility for testing different monitoring configurations, performing repeated injection releases with variable injection parameters and type of gas (e.g., N2, CO2), and cross-calibrating the monitoring methods. Moreover, additional methods/boreholes can be easily implemented at this experimental site. Three N2 injections were thus undertaken at Maguelone in 2012 to measure the site response to neutral gas injection. An experiment involving the release of CO2 was successively conducted in January 2013. A volume of 111 m3 of CO2 was injected during 3.5 hours. Both the N2 and CO2 gas plumes were detected by all monitoring techniques, and the response to gas propagation was instantaneous. Integrating the lesson learned from past injection experiments, the next stage of the project will allow to establish the best guidelines for CO2 injection and post-injection monitoring and, in perspective, not only to detect the CO2 plume but to quantify CO2 migration in the subsurface.

  20. Practical salinity management for leachate irrigation to poplar trees.

    PubMed

    Smesrud, Jason K; Duvendack, George D; Obereiner, James M; Jordahl, James L; Madison, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    Landfill leachate can be beneficially reused for irrigation of fiber crops with appropriate attention to nutrient and salinity management. The Riverbend Landfill in Western Oregon has been effectively practicing irrigation of landfill leachate to poplar trees since 1993. Over that time, the site has been adaptively managed to control salinity impacts to the tree crop while beneficially utilizing the applied water and nutrients during each growing season. Representative leachate irrigation water has ranged in concentration of total dissolved solids from 777 to 6,940 mg/L, chloride from 180 to 1,760 mg/L and boron from 3.2 to 7.3 mg/L. Annual leachate irrigation applications have also ranged between 102 and 812 mm/yr. Important conclusions from this site have included: 1) Appropriate tree clone selection and tree stand spacing, thinning, and harvest rotations are critical to maintaining a productive tree stand that is resilient and resistant to salt stress. The most effective combinations have included clones DN-34, OP-367, 184-411, 49-177, and 15-29 planted at spacing of 3.7-m x 1.8-m to 3.7-m x 3.7-m; 2) Leaf tissue boron levels are closely correlated to soil boron levels and can be managed with leaching. When leaf tissue boron levels exceed 200 to 250 mg/kg, signs of salt stress may emerge and should be monitored closely; 3) Salinity from leachate irrigation can be managed to sustain a healthy tree crop by controlling mass loading rates and providing appropriate irrigation blending if necessary. Providing freshwater irrigation following each leachate irrigation and targeting freshwater irrigation as 30 percent of total irrigation water applied has successfully controlled salt impacts to vegetation; and 4) Drip irrigation generally requires more careful attention to long-term soil salinity management than spray irrigation. Moving drip irrigation tubes periodically to prevent the formation of highly saline zones within the soil profile is important. In this paper, a fifteen year record of monitoring and operational data are presented that can be used by others in managing irrigation of saline water to poplar trees. When salinity is carefully managed, tree systems can help to provide sustainable leachate management solutions for landfills. PMID:22574379

  1. The Aquarius Mission: Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koblinsky, Chester; Chao, Y.; deCharon, A.; Edelstein, W.; Hildebrand, P.; Lagerloef, G.; LeVine, D.; Pellerano, F.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.; Ruf, C.

    2001-01-01

    Aquarius is a new satellite mission concept to study the impact of the global water cycle on the ocean, including the response of the ocean to buoyancy forcing and the subsequent feedback of the ocean on the climate. The measurement objective of Aquarius is sea surface salinity, which reflects the concentration of freshwater at the ocean surface. Salinity affects the dielectric constant of sea water and, consequently, the radiometric emission of the sea surface to space. Rudimentary space observations with an L-band radiometer were first made from Skylab in the mid-70s and numerous aircraft missions of increasing quality and improved technology have been conducted since then. Technology is now available to carry out a global mission, which includes both an accurate L band (1.413 Ghz) radiometer and radar system in space and a global array of in situ observations for calibration and validation, in order to address key NASA Earth Science Enterprise questions about the global cycling of water and the response of the ocean circulation to climate change. The key scientific objectives of Aquarius examine the cycling of water at the ocean's surface, the response of the ocean circulation to buoyancy forcing, and the impact of buoyancy forcing on the ocean's thermal feedback to the climate. Global surface salinity will also improve our ability to model the surface solubility chemistry needed to estimate the air-sea exchange of CO2. In order to meet these science objectives, the NASA Salinity Sea Ice Working Group over the past three years has concluded that the mission measurement goals should be better than 0.2 practical salinity units (psu) accuracy, 100 km resolution, and weekly to revisits. The Aquarius mission proposes to meet these measurement requirements through a real aperture dual-polarized L band radiometer and radar system. This system can achieve the less than 0.1 K radiometric temperature measurement accuracy that is required. A 3 m antenna at approx. 600km altitude in a sun-synchronous orbit and 300 km swath can provide the desired 100 km resolution global coverage every week. Within this decade, it may be possible to combine satellite sea surface salinity measurements with ongoing satellite observations of temperature, surface height, air-sea fluxes; vertical profiles of temperature and salinity from the Argo program; and modern ocean/atmosphere modeling and data assimilation tools, in order to finally address the complex influence of buoyancy on the ocean circulation and climate.

  2. Three Years of Aquarius Salinity Measurements: Algorithm, Validation and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, T.; Wentz, F. J.; Le Vine, D. M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Aquarius is an L-band radiometer/scatterometer (i.e. active/passive) system designed to provide monthly salinity maps at 150 km spatial scale to an accuracy of 0.2 psu. The sensor was launched on June 10, 2011 as part of the Aquarius/SAC-D mission and has been collecting data since August 25, 2011. Version 3 of the data product was released in June 2014 and provides a major milestone towards reaching the mission requirement of 0.2 psu. This presentation reports the status of the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm highlighting the advances that have been made for and since the Version 3 release. The most important ones are: 1) An improved surface roughness correction that is based on Aquarius scatterometer observations; 2) A reduction in ascending/descending differences due to galactic background radiation reflected from the ocean surface; 3) A refinement of the quality control flags and masks that indicate degradation under certain environmental conditions. The Aquarius salinity algorithm also retrieves wind speed as part of the roughness correction with an accuracy comparable to the products from other satellites such as WindSat, SSMIS, ASCAT, and QuikSCAT. Validation of the salinity retrievals is accomplished using measurements from ARGO drifters measuring at 5 m depth and in the tropics also from moored buoys measuring at 1 m depth which are co-located with the nearest Aquarius footprint. In the most recent work an effort has also been made to identify areas with frequent rain to isolate potential issues with rain freshening in the upper ocean layer. Results in rain-free regions indicate that on monthly basis and 150 km grid, the V3 Aquarius salinity maps have an accuracy of about 0.13 psu in the tropics and 0.22 psu globally. Comparing Aquarius with ARGO and moored buoy salinity measurements during and after rain events permits a quantitative assessment of the effect of salinity stratification within the first 5 m of the upper ocean layer.

  3. Effects of a hypertonic saline solution and dextran 70 combination in the treatment of diarrhoeic dehydrated calves.

    PubMed

    Sentrk, S

    2003-03-01

    Thirty dehydrated diarrheic calves aged 2-45 days were used to study the effects of small volume intravenous 7.2% hypertonic saline and 6% dextran 70 solution in combination with alkalinising oral fluids and to compare this therapy with the large volume intravenous isotonic saline with alkalinising oral fluid treatment. This study included a total of 30 diarrhoeic dehydrated calves aged 2-45 days. After routine clinical and haematological examinations, the calves were allotted to two treatment groups. Isotonic saline solution (32 ml/kg, i.v.) with an oral electrolyte solution (22 ml/kg, p.o.) were administered to group I (control), and the combination of 7.2% hypertonic saline in 6% dextran 70 solutions (HSD) (4 ml/kg, i.v.) with an oral electrolyte solution (50 ml/kg, p.o.) were administered to group II (test). Additionally, an oral electrolyte solution (50 ml/kg, p.o.) was readministered to both groups at 12 h of the study. The clinical and haematological examinations of all calves were performed both before and after the treatment at the 1/2, 1, 2, 4, 12 and 24 h. The capillary refill time, peripheral pulse quality, dehydration degrees, mental status, haematocrit rates, haemoglobin and plasma values after treatment were found to be statistically different compared with the values before treatment. In comparison with group I, group II is observed to have shorter capillary refill time at 1, 4 and 12 h (P < 0.001) and better peripheral pulse quality at 1/2 (P < 0.05), 1, 2, 4 and 12 h (P < 0.001). Moreover, the degree of dehydration in group II, was significantly improved at 2 (P < 0.01), 4 and 12 h. Results of the study indicated that administration of low volumes of hypertonic sodium chloride and dextran 70 solution combinations with oral electrolyte solutions was concluded as quicker, practical, economical and most importantly an effective way for the treatment of dehydrated diarrhoeic calves. PMID:12667194

  4. Geologic effects on groundwater salinity and discharge into an estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russoniello, Christopher J.; Fernandez, Cristina; Bratton, John F.; Banaszak, Joel F.; Krantz, David E.; Andres, A. Scott; Konikow, Leonard F.; Michael, Holly A.

    2013-08-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) can be an important pathway for transport of nutrients and contaminants to estuaries. A better understanding of the geologic and hydrologic controls on these fluxes is critical for their estimation and management. We examined geologic features, porewater salinity, and SGD rates and patterns at an estuarine study site. Seismic data showed the existence of paleovalleys infilled with estuarine mud and peat that extend hundreds of meters offshore. A low-salinity groundwater plume beneath this low-permeability fill was mapped with continuous resistivity profiling. Extensive direct SGD measurements with seepage meters (n = 551) showed fresh groundwater discharge patterns that correlated well with shallow porewater salinity and the hydrogeophysical framework. Small-scale variability in fresh and saline discharge indicates influence of meter-scale geologic heterogeneity, while site-scale discharge patterns are evidence of the influence of the paleovalley feature. Beneath the paleovalley fill, fresh groundwater flows offshore and mixes with saltwater before discharging along paleovalley flanks. On the adjacent drowned interfluve where low-permeability fill is absent, fresh groundwater discharge is focused at the shoreline. Shallow saltwater exchange was greatest across sandy sediments and where fresh SGD was low. The geologic control of groundwater flowpaths and discharge salinity demonstrated in this work are likely to affect geochemical reactions and the chemical loads delivered by SGD to coastal surface waters. Because similar processes are likely to exist