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1

Ultrasound Guided Reduction of an Ileocolic Intussusception by a Hydrostatic Method by Using Normal Saline Enema in Paediatric Patients: A Study of 30 Cases  

PubMed Central

Introduction The conventional hydrostatic reduction of an intussusception with barium enema or the pneumatic reduction of an intussusception is associated with considerable ionizing radiations and a risk of perforation; while the hydrostatic reduction of an intussusception under ultrasound guidance is a very safe method because the whole procedure is visualized with real time ultrasound. Also, being a non-invasive method with a high success rate, this procedure has emerged as a useful alternative to a surgical intervention. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ultrasound and colour Doppler studies for the guidance of the hydrostatic reduction of a childhood intussusception by using normal saline. Method Among 41 children who were evaluated with ultrasonography for the confirmation of the presence of intussusceptions, hydrostatic reduction of intussusception were performed under a sonographic guidance in 30 patients, whereas 11 patients were excluded due to clinical contraindications. Results This disease was observed mostly at the ages of 6 months to 24 months. In 80% of the patients, there was a recent history of gastroenteritis and 40 % had a history of common cold. The most common site of the intussusception was the transverse colon near the hepatic flexor of the colon (90%), with a mean duration of 22.1±17.3 hours. The overall rate of a successful reduction was 87% and the mean reduction time was 14 minutes. None of the cases showed recurrence within 24 hrs. No complications were observed. Conclusion We conclude that ultrasound with colour Doppler study is very useful for the diagnosis of intussusceptions, as well as for guided hydrostatic reductions by using normal saline enema. This is an optimal, simple, and a safe procedure for the treatment of intussusceptions in paediatric patients.

Digant, Shastri Mona; Rucha, Seth; Eke, Dessai

2012-01-01

2

World Ocean Atlas 1994. Volume 3. Salinity  

SciTech Connect

This atlas contains maps of salinity at selected standard levels of the worlds ocean on a one-degree grid. Maps for all-data annual and seasonal compositing periods are presented. The fields used to generate these maps were computed by objective analysis of historical data. Data distribution maps are presented for various compositing periods. Basin zonal averages and basin volume averages are computed from these objectively analyzed fields and presented in the form of figures and tables.

Levitus, S.; Burgett, R.; Boyer, T.P.

1994-04-01

3

Barium enema (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A barium enema is performed to examine the walls of the colon. During the procedure, a well lubricated enema tube is inserted gently into the rectum. The barium, a radiopaque (shows up on X-ray) contrast ...

4

L-glutamine enemas attenuate mucosal injury in experimental colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of I-glutamine, short chain fatty acid, prednisolone, and mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid) enemas on mucosal damage and inflammation in experimental colitis. METHODS: Colitis was induced in rats with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid in ethanol. Saline (n=14), prednisolone (n=13), 5-aminosalicylic acid (n=14), I-glutamine (n=14), and short chain fatty acid (n=13) enemas were

Ekrem Kaya; Esma Sürmen Gür; Halil Özgüç; Ahmet Bayer; Rifat Tokyay

1999-01-01

5

Retrograde spread of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with active ulcerative colitis  

SciTech Connect

In an attempt to know the exact retrograde spread of high-dosage 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas, we have studied eight patients with active left-sided colitis, by adding a small amount of barium sulfate to the enemas and by checking the spread radiologically after 15 minutes, 1 hour, and 6 hours. Four grams of 5-aminosalicylic acid in 100-ml enemas and 4 gm in 200-ml enemas were used. The same experiment was repeated in a subsequent attack, with enemas labeled with technetium-99m and checked by scintiscans in five of these patients. We always have observed a volume-dependent spread of enemas but, interestingly, in the patients studied with technetium-99m there was always a wider spread than that which was detected with barium enemas. In all five patients, 100-ml enemas reached the splenic flexure. In two patients with total colitis, a progression of 100-ml technetium-99m enemas was performed in the transverse colon, but the maximum opacity remained in the left side. We can conclude that 4 gm of 5-aminosalicylic acid in 100-ml enemas can be suitable for treating patients with left-sided colitis, and will represent a valid addition for patients with more extensive colitis.

Campieri, M.; Lanfranchi, G.A.; Brignola, C.; Bazzocchi, G.; Gionchetti, P.; Minguzzi, M.R.; Cappello, I.P.; Corbelli, C.; Boschi, S.

1986-02-01

6

The Malone Antegrade Continence Enema for Neurogenic and Structural Fecal Incontinence and Constipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of fecal elimination are commonly encountered by the pediatric urologist and surgeon. The Malone antegrade continence enema has been described as a means to administer a large volume enema via a continent catheterizable appendicocecostomy, resulting in reliable fecal elimination. Of 22 patients undergoing this procedure 16 reported total continence 4 months or longer after surgery. Complications are relatively minor

Martin A. Koyle; Devonna M. Kaji; Manuel Duque; Jodi Wild

1995-01-01

7

Spontaneous Autoinflation of Saline-Filled Mammary Implants: Postoperative Volume Determination by Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Autoinflation of saline-filled mammary implants has recently been reported in the literature. Except for a few controversial\\u000a hypotheses, the cause of autoinflation has not been clarified. The need to remove implants for accurate measurement of fill\\u000a volume has been a deterrent to studies of autoinflation. To measure in situ volumes of saline-filled mammary implants, a noninvasive technique using magnetic

Dogan Tuncali; Figen Özgür

1999-01-01

8

The malone antegrade continence enema  

Microsoft Academic Search

The previously reported Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) was used in 21 children for intractable fecal incontinence or constipation. Twelve are completely clean, and three are much improved (71% success rate). However, only four of the 21 have not had some type of complication, either minor or major. Five of the 21 now have a colostomy, and one has abandoned

D. M Griffiths; P. S Malone

1995-01-01

9

Effects of size upon salinity tolerance and volume regulation in the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas small Pagurus bernhardus (L.) occur in large numbers in the intertidal areas of rocky shores, large hermit crabs living in whelk shells are most uncommon, although they are easily collected by sublittoral dredging. Experiments were carried out to assess the salinity tolerance, and the ability to regulate body volume in a dilute medium, of both small and large hermit

J. Davenport

1972-01-01

10

Bacteremia during barium enema study.  

PubMed

The occurrence of bacteremia was studied in patients undergoing barium enema. Blood cultures were done on 34 patients before, during, and after the procedure using two schedules. Cultures were obtained once during the procedure in the first schedule and four times in the second. None of the cultures were positive by the first schedule, while 23% of patients studied by the second schedule had one or more positive cultures. Organisms isolated were anaerobes. The bacteremia was transient and self-limited, without serious clinical sequelae. The incidence of bacteremia during barium enema examination was statistically indistinguishable from bacteremia previously reported during colonscopy. It is concluded that antibiotic prophylaxis is not indicated in most patients undergoing colonic diagnostic procedures. Prophylaxis in selected high-risk patients requires further study. PMID:416682

Butt, J; Hentges, D; Pelican, G; Henstorf, H; Haag, T; Rolfe, R; Hutcheson, D

1978-04-01

11

Saline volume expansion and cardiovascular physiology: novel observations, old explanations, and new questions.  

PubMed

In a clinical investigation, Kumar and coworkers reported the hemodynamic events that accompany plasma volume expansion over 3 hours in healthy adult volunteers, and found that increases in stroke volume (SV) may be related to increases in left ventricular (LV)/right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic volume, as they expected, but also to decreases in LV/RV end-systolic volume. The latter finding suggests increased contractility and/or decreased afterload, which do not fit with their perception that clinicians ascribe increases in SV to increases in end-diastolic volume based on Starling's work. Increased ejection fraction and decreased vascular resistances were also observed. The same authors recently reported novel data suggesting that reduced blood viscosity may account for the observed reduction in vascular resistances with saline volume expansion. However, the variances in preload and afterload, along with uncertainty in estimates of contractility, substantially limit their ability to define a primary mechanism to explain decreases in LV end-systolic volume. A focus on using ejection fraction to evaluate the integrated performance of the cardiovascular system is provided to broaden this analytic perspective. Sagawa and colleagues described an approach to estimate the relationship, under clinical conditions, between ventricular and arterial bed elastances (i.e. maximal ventricular systolic elastance [Emax] and maximal arterial systolic elastance [Ea]), reflecting ventricular-arterial coupling. I used the mean data provided in one of the reports from Kumar and coworkers to calculate that LV Emax decreased from 1.09 to 0.96 mmHg/ml with saline volume expansion, while Ea decreased from 1.1 to 0.97 mmHg/ml and the SV increased (i.e. the increase in mean SV was associated with a decrease in mean afterload while the mean contractility decreased). The results reported by Kumar and coworkers invite further studies in normal and critically ill patients during acute saline-induced plasma volume expansion and hemodilution. If reduced viscosity decreases afterload, then this raises the questions by what mechanism, and what is the balance of benefit and harm associated with reduced blood viscosity affecting oxygen delivery? Why the mean Emax might decrease must be evaluated with respect to benefit in reducing ventricular work or a negative inotropic effect of saline. PMID:15469589

Robotham, James L

2004-09-01

12

Antegrade continence enema (ACE): current practice.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess current status of antegrade continence enema (ACE) procedure taking into account the recent improvement in the technique and outcome. Reviewing our record of 48 patients with ACE procedure performed between January 2002 and May 2007, we found that the underlying diagnoses were idiopathic constipation in 56%, anorectal malformation in 31%, spina bifida in 8% and Hirschsprung's disease in 4%. Mean age of operation was 10.7 years. Appendix was used as stoma in 73% of cases. Stomal stenosis requiring revision was seen in 6% of cases and continence was achieved in 92% of cases. A systematic search of database was performed for the same period. Twenty-four studies describing 676 patients were found. The mean age was 10 years and various sites used for ACE were, right side of abdomen in 71%, umbilicus in 15% and left side of abdomen in 14%. The incidence of open and laparoscopic procedures were 87 and 13%, respectively. Appendix was used for stoma in 76% procedures. Other operative modalities were retubularised colon, retubularised ileum, caecal button and caecostomy tube, etc. The mean volume of enema fluid used was 516 ml. The mean evacuation time was 42 min. Stomal stenosis requiring revision was seen in 13% of cases. Continence was achieved in 93% of cases. There has been significant improvement in the outcome during last 5 years in comparison to the outcome published in late 1990s. Advancements in techniques, better-trained stoma care nurses and better stoma appliances could have played major role in this success. PMID:18408942

Sinha, Chandrasen Kumar; Grewal, Alka; Ward, Harry C

2008-04-12

13

Contrast enema diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis.  

PubMed

Contrast enema was performed in a select group of 126 neonates with ambiguous diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Enema findings were compared with that on plain abdominal radiographs (AXR) and the clinical outcome. Thirty-one of the 34 patients with a discharge diagnosis of NEC were interpreted to have a positive contrast enema, and 91 of the 92 patients without a discharge diagnosis of NEC were interpreted to have a negative contrast enema. The AXR was interpreted as positive in 57 patients and as negative or indeterminate in 69. Not a single case of perforation was produced. Judicious use of contrast enema can improve specificity of diagnosis in cases with discordant clinical and plain radiographic findings. PMID:1501938

Kao, S C; Smith, W L; Franken, E A; Sato, Y; Sullivan, J H; McGee, J A

1992-01-01

14

Non-laxative CT colonography with barium-based faecal tagging: is additional phosphate enema beneficial and well tolerated?  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerance of an additional phosphate enema prior to non-laxative CT colonography (CTC). Methods 71 patients (mean age 80 years, 28 male, 43 female) underwent non-laxative CTC following 4 oral doses of diluted 2% w/w barium sulphate. Patients were invited to self-administer a phosphate enema 2 h before CTC. An experienced observer graded the volume of retained stool (1 (nil) to 4 (>75% bowel circumference coated)), retained fluid ((1 (nil) to 4 (>50% circumference obscured)), retained stool tagging quality (1 (untagged) to 5 (?75% to 100%) tagged) and confidence a polyp ?6 mm could be excluded (yes/no) for each of six colonic segments. Tolerance of the enema was assessed via questionnaire. Data were analysed between those using and not using the enema by Mann–Whitney and Fisher's exact test. 18/71 patients declined the enema. Results There was no reduction in residual stool volume with enema use compared with non-use either overall (mean score 2.6 vs 2.7, p = 0.76) or in the left colon (mean 2.3 vs 2.4, p = 0.47). Overall tagging quality was no different (mean score 4.4 vs 4.3, p = 0.43). There was significantly more retained left colonic fluid post enema (mean score 1.9 vs 1.1, p<0.0001), and diagnostic confidence in excluding polyps was significantly reduced (exclusion not possible in 35% segments vs 21% without enema, p = 0.006). Of 53 patients, 30 (56%) found the enema straightforward to use, but 4 (8%) found it unpleasant. Conclusion Phosphate enema use prior to non-laxative CTC leads to greater retained fluid, reducing diagnostic confidence, and is not recommended.

Davis, W; Nisbet, P; Hare, C; Cooke, P; Taylor, S A

2011-01-01

15

The effect of different volumes and temperatures of saline on the bladder pressure measurement in critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intra-abdominal hypertension is common in critically ill patients and is associated with increased severity of organ failure and mortality. The techniques most commonly used to estimate intra-abdominal pressure are measurements of bladder and gastric pressures. The bladder technique requires that the bladder be infused with a certain amount of saline, to ensure that there is a conductive fluid column between the bladder and the transducer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different volumes and temperatures of infused saline on bladder pressure measurements in comparison with gastric pressure. Methods Thirteen mechanically ventilated critically ill patients (11 male; body mass index 25.5 ± 4.6 kg/m2; arterial oxygen tension/fractional inspired oxygen ratio 225 ± 48 mmHg) were enrolled. Bladder pressure was measured using volumes of saline from 50 to 200 ml at body temperature (35 to 37°C) and room temperature (18 to 20°C). Results Bladder pressure was no different between 50 ml and 100 ml saline (9.5 ± 3.7 mmHg and 13.7 ± 5.6 mmHg), but it significantly increased with 150 and 200 ml (21.1 ± 10.4 mmHg and 27.1 ± 15.5 mmHg). Infusion of saline at room temperature caused a significantly greater bladder pressure compared with saline at body temperature. The lowest difference between bladder and gastric pressure was obtained with a volume of 50 ml. Conclusion The bladder acts as a passive structure, transmitting intra-abdominal pressure only with saline volumes between 50 ml and 100 ml. Infusion of a saline at room temperature caused a higher bladder pressure, probably because of contraction of the detrusor bladder muscle.

Chiumello, Davide; Tallarini, Federica; Chierichetti, Monica; Polli, Federico; Li Bassi, Gianluigi; Motta, Giuliana; Azzari, Serena; Carsenzola, Cristian; Gattinoni, Luciano

2007-01-01

16

Quantitative distribution of radiolabeled 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis  

SciTech Connect

Rectally administered suspensions of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) are topically effective in treating left-sided ulcerative colitis. The extent to which the contents of these enemas are distributed to inflamed mucosal linings has not previously been determined. This study was undertaken to validate a technique for labeling 5-ASA with 99mTc and to quantitate the distribution of (99mTc)5-ASA in eight patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis. Eight patients underwent three colonic scintigraphic exams within five days, receiving a 60-ml radiolabeled 5-ASA enema into the unprepared rectum for each study, with sequential anterior abdominal images obtained for 4 hr. Activity within the rectum, sigmoid, descending, transverse, and ascending colon was quantitated. Over 50% of the labeled enema had advanced beyond the rectum in five of eight patients and in six of eight patients by 30 min and 60 min, respectively. The distribution of (99mTc)5-ASA was quantitatively reproducible when repeated in the same patient on different days, despite apparent visual differences. By 2 hr, the amount of the enema present within the rectum decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) compared to the initial distribution. The amount of enema present within the descending colon was increased significantly at 0.5 hr (P less than 0.05) and at 2 hr (P less than 0.01). There were no significant changes in the distribution from initial values for the sigmoid, transverse, or ascending colon at any time. In each of these cases the spread of the enema to or beyond the extent of disease was documented. In patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis, small volume (99mTc)5-ASA enemas reliably reach the area of inflammation.

Vitti, R.A.; Meyers, F.; Knight, L.C.; Siegel, J.A.; Malmud, L.S.; Fisher, R.S. (Temple Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

1989-11-01

17

Determination of volume and surface scattering from saline ice using ice sheets with precisely controlled roughness parameters  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were performed at the US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) in Hanover, NH, to precisely determine the relative contributions of surface and volume scattering from saline ice that has well-known surface roughness characteristics. The ice growth phase of the experiment made use of two 6-ft diameter tanks and a 6-ft diameter mold with known roughness statistical parameters of rms height = 0.25 cm and Gaussian correlation (correlation length = 2.0 cm). One tank was used for growing a moderately thick saline ice sheet with very smooth surface, and the other was used for growing a thin layer of freshwater ice over the surface mold. The latter resulted in a layer with one statistically known rough boundary and one smooth boundary. Wide-bandwidth, multiple incidence angle backscattering measurements were performed, first on the bare saline ice sheet and then on the same sheet after the thin freshwater ice sheet was placed on top of it. Results indicate that the surface scattering dominates over saline ice volume scattering at all frequencies for low incidence angles for both the very smooth and Gaussian rough surfaces. The significance of volume scattering depends strongly on angle of incidence, frequency, volume scattering albedo, surface roughness, and surface correlation function.

Bredow, J.W.; Porco, R.L.; Fung, A.K.; Tjuatja, S. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States). Wave Scattering Research Center; Jezek, K.C. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Byrd Polar Research Center; Gogineni, S. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Remote Sensing Lab.; Gow, A.J. [Cold Regions Research and Engineering Labs., Hanover, NH (United States)

1995-09-01

18

21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...enema kit is a device intended to instill water or other fluids into the colon through a nozzle inserted into the rectum to promote evacuation of the contents of the lower colon. The device consists of a container for fluid connected to the...

2013-04-01

19

Estimating Plume Volume for Geologic Storage of CO2 in Saline Aquifers  

SciTech Connect

Typically, when a new subsurface flow and transport problem is first being considered, very simple models with a minimal number of parameters are used to get a rough idea of how the system will evolve. For a hydrogeologist considering the spreading of a contaminant plume in an aquifer, the aquifer thickness, porosity, and permeability might be enough to get started. If the plume is buoyant, aquifer dip comes into play. If regional groundwater flow is significant or there are nearby wells pumping, these features need to be included. Generally, the required parameters tend to be known from pre-existing studies, are parameters that people working in the field are familiar with, and represent features that are easy to explain to potential funding agencies, regulators, stakeholders, and the public. The situation for geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in saline aquifers is quite different. It is certainly desirable to do preliminary modeling in advance of any field work since geologic storage of CO{sub 2} is a novel concept that few people have much experience with or intuition about. But the parameters that control CO{sub 2} plume behavior are a little more daunting to assemble and explain than those for a groundwater flow problem. Even the most basic question of how much volume a given mass of injected CO{sub 2} will occupy in the subsurface is non-trivial. However, with a number of simplifying assumptions, some preliminary estimates can be made, as described below. To make efficient use of the subsurface storage volume available, CO{sub 2} density should be large, which means choosing a storage formation at depths below about 800 m, where pressure and temperature conditions are above the critical point of CO{sub 2} (P = 73.8 bars, T = 31 C). Then CO{sub 2} will exist primarily as a free-phase supercritical fluid, while some CO{sub 2} will dissolve into the aqueous phase.

Doughty, Christine

2008-07-11

20

Randomized controlled trial of prophylactic rectal stimulation and enemas on stooling patterns in extremely low birth weight infants.  

PubMed

Objective:We hypothesized that rectal stimulation and small volume enemas would accelerate normalization of stooling patterns in extremely low birth weight infants.Study Design:In a randomized controlled trial, infants with a gestational age ?28 weeks received one of the following: twice daily rectal stimulation and/or enemas until two stools were passed daily, without enemas or stimulation, for three consecutive days. Intervention only occurred when symptoms, abdominal distension and no defecation, occurred in the previous 24?h. Enema administration occurred if abdominal distension persisted without defecation occurring after rectal stimulation. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the contribution of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) on normalization of stooling patterns and feeding tolerance.Result:Rectal stimulation and/or small volume enemas did not accelerate the median (quartile range) time normalization of stooling patterns, 13 (11-20) days in control group and 16 (12-25.5) days in intervention group. A higher frequency of PDA occurred in the intervention than the non-intervention group. Infants with a persistent PDA had a longer duration of parenteral nutrition, worse feeding tolerance and more days to achieve normal stooling patterns. In multivariable regression analysis, a PDA, not repeated rectal stimulation and/or enemas, was significantly related to stooling and feeding tolerance.Conclusion:Twice daily administration of rectal stimulation and/or enemas did not normalize stooling patterns (fecal frequency). A PDA is an important determinant of acquisition of normal stooling patterns and feeding tolerance of very immature newborns. PMID:23907087

Sáenz de Pipaón Marcos, M; Teresa Montes Bueno, M; Sanjosé, B; Gil, M; Parada, I; Amo, P

2013-08-01

21

A comparative study on the efficacy of 10% hypertonic saline and equal volume of 20% mannitol in the treatment of experimentally induced cerebral edema in adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hypertonic saline and mannitol are commonly used in the treatment of cerebral edema and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) at present. In this connection, 10% hypertonic saline (HS) alleviates cerebral edema more effectively than the equal volume of 20% mannitol. However, the exact underlying mechanism for this remains obscure. This study aimed to explore the possible mechanism whereby 10% hypertonic

Hong-Ke Zeng; Qiao-Sheng Wang; Yi-Yu Deng; Wen-Qiang Jiang; Ming Fang; Chun-Bo Chen; Xin Jiang

2010-01-01

22

Comparative study of enema retention and preference in ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Therapeutic enemas are often used to treat active colitis but their retention may be limited because of urgency to defecate. Some preparations may be better retained and tolerated than others because of their physical properties. Aim: To compare patient preference and retention of four therapeutic enemas, including a nicotine enema, in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: Twenty four patients with active UC received the four trial enemas—corticosteroid, 5-amino salicylate (5-ASA), and nicotine liquid enemas and a corticosteroid foam, in a randomised order, taking one enema on each of four successive nights. Patients scored them 1 to 4 for ease of administration and retention, degree of abdominal bloating, and for their overall preference. Results: Fifteen patients rated nicotine their overall favourite or second favourite, compared with 14 for corticosteroid foam and 11 for 5-ASA and corticosteroid liquids, but this was not significant (p = 0.302). Overall, there was no significant difference in overnight retention. However, the nicotine enema tended to be less well retained in patients with milder urgency but a higher proportion retained it overnight with more severe urgency (p = 0.031 compared with 5-ASA enema). Conclusion: There was no significant difference in patient preference or overall duration of retention for the four enemas.

Ingram, J; Rhodes, J; Evans, B; Newcombe, R; Thomas, G

2005-01-01

23

The antegrade continence enema procedure: A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the antegrade continence enema (ACE) was first described in 1990 for fecal incontinence, more than 100 cases have been reported in the literature. This report reviews the indications, operative modifications, outcome, and complications of the procedure.

Joy L Graf; Christopher Strear; Barbara Bratton; H. Tamiko Housley; Russell W Jennings; Michael R Harrison; Craig T Albanese

1998-01-01

24

Relationship among latest Miocene oxygen isotopic enrichment, antarctic ice volume, and the Messinian salinity crisis  

SciTech Connect

An interval of high variable, enriched benthic /sup 18/O values was found to bracket the Miocene/Pliocene boundary, between 5.6 and 5.1 Ma, in five sites from the Southwest Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The duration of this enrichment event was less than 500,000 years, and is shown by paleomagnetic correlation to be equivalent in time with the deposition of Messinian evaporites. The /sup 18/O enrichment occurred in two main stages separated by a brief interval of relatively depleted /sup 18/O values. Between 5.5 and 5.3 Ma, glacioeustatic lowering of sea level due to increased Antarctic ice volume isolated the Mediterranean basin, and resulted in the deposition of the lower evaporite unit (Main Salt unit). A temporary decrease in ice volume occurred between 5.3 and 5.2 Ma, and corresponded to the intra-Messinian transgression where evaporite deposition ceased temporarily. Between 5.2 and 5.1 Ma, a second Antarctic glacial advance lowered sea level again and resulted in the deposition of the upper evaporite unit. A rapid decreased in delta/sup 18/O values occurred in all sites during the early Pliocene at 5.0 Ma. This depletion marks a glacial retreat and marine transgression, which refilled the Mediterranean Basin and permanently terminated evaporite deposition.

Hodell, D.A.; Elmstrom, K.M.; Kennett, J.P.

1985-01-01

25

Isoosmolar enemas demonstrate preferential gastrointestinal distribution, safety, and acceptability compared with hyperosmolar and hypoosmolar enemas as a potential delivery vehicle for rectal microbicides.  

PubMed

Abstract Rectally applied antiretroviral microbicides for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV infection are currently in development. Since enemas (rectal douches) are commonly used by men who have sex with men prior to receptive anal intercourse, a microbicide enema could enhance PrEP adherence by fitting seamlessly within the usual sexual practices. We assessed the distribution, safety, and acceptability of three enema types-hyperosmolar (Fleet), hypoosmolar (distilled water), and isoosmolar (Normosol-R)-in a crossover design. Nine men received each enema type in random order. Enemas were radiolabeled [(99m)Tc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)] to assess enema distribution in the colon using single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. Plasma (99m)Tc-DTPA indicated mucosal permeability. Sigmoidoscopic colon tissue biopsies were taken to assess injury as well as tissue penetration of the (99m)Tc-DTPA. Acceptability was assessed after each product use and at the end of the study. SPECT/CT imaging showed that the isoosmolar enema had greater proximal colonic distribution (up to the splenic flexure) and greater luminal and colon tissue concentrations of (99m)Tc-DTPA when compared to the other enemas (p<0.01). Colon biopsies also showed that only the hyperosmolar enema caused sloughing of the colonic epithelium (p<0.05). In permeability testing, the hypoosmolar enema had higher plasma (99m)Tc-DTPA 24-h area under the concentration-time curve and peak concentration compared to the hyperosmolar and isoosmolar enemas, respectively. Acceptability was generally good with no clear preferences among the three enema types. The isoosmolar enema was superior or similar to the other enemas in all categories and is a good candidate for further development as a rectal microbicide vehicle. PMID:23885722

Leyva, Francisco J; Bakshi, Rahul P; Fuchs, Edward J; Li, Liye; Caffo, Brian S; Goldsmith, Arthur J; Ventuneac, Ana; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Du, Yong; Leal, Jeffrey P; Lee, Linda A; Torbenson, Michael S; Hendrix, Craig W

2013-08-24

26

Impact of cecostomy and antegrade colonic enemas on management of fecal incontinence and constipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn childhood and adolescence, fecal soiling represents a psychologically devastating problem. Physical and emotional distress associated with daily rectal enemas is minimized by the introduction of a cecostomy tube for colonic cleansing with antegrade colonic enemas (ACEs).

Andrew L. Wong; Dragan Kravarusic; Sarah L. Wong

2008-01-01

27

The use of antispasmodic drugs during barium enemas.  

PubMed

In 1958, Welin recommended the routine use of atropine before a barium enema to reduce mucus secretion and make the examination more comfortable. Currently, many radiologists believe that smooth-muscle spasmolysis is a useful adjunct during a barium enema and use such a spasmolytic agent. One survey found that spasmolytic agents were administered more frequently in 1987 than in 1976. The use of glucagon had increased 20% between 1976 and 1987. Among 34 foreign institutions responding to the survey, 37% used glucagon and 45% used scopolamine butylbromide (Buscopan). Nevertheless, it is still controversial whether spasmolytic agents play a significant role in the performance and interpretation of a barium enema. Some radiologists routinely use a spasmolytic agent; others do so only selectively. PMID:8191992

Skucas, J

1994-06-01

28

[Treatment of severe chronic constipation through the antegrade continent enema procedure].  

PubMed

The antegrade continent enema procedure was first described in 1990 by Malone for the treatment of severe fecal neurogenic incontinence in children. Since then, this technique has been successfully carried out in adults, as well as in patients with refractory constipation. The procedure provides a continent and catheterizable channel, generally an appendicostomy, through which antegrade washouts are given to produce colonic emptying. We describe the case of a 23-year-old man with severe constipation and overflow fecal incontinence who underwent an appendicostomy. There were no immediate postoperative complications and saline washouts were started on the fourth day. Since then, the patient has had a bowel movement between 1 and 3 hours after each washout, has recovered continence, and no longer wears an absorbent pad. PMID:17192226

Pera, Miguel; Parés, David; Pascual, Marta; Pérez, Marta; Cañete, Nuria; Sánchez de la Blanca, M Isabel; Andréu, Montserrat; Grande, Luis

2006-12-01

29

21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304 Section...Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has...practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray...

2010-04-01

30

21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304 Section...Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has...practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray...

2013-04-01

31

21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304 Section...Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has...practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray...

2009-04-01

32

Predictive value of a diagnosis of colonic polyp on the double-contrast barium enema  

Microsoft Academic Search

The positive predictive value of a diagnosis of colonic polyp on the double-contrast barium enema was determined by analyzing 160 polypoid lesions reported in 105 patients. Of the 160 polyps, 139 were confirmed by endoscopy, surgery, or repeat barium enema for a positive predictive value of 87%. Twenty-one lesions were not confirmed despite repeat endoscopy, repeat barium enema, review of

David J. Ott; Deborah S. Ablin; David W. Gelfand; Isadore Meschan

1983-01-01

33

Fecal incontinence successfully managed by antegrade continence enema in children: A report of two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two children with intractable fecal incontinence after correction of high anorectal malformations were successfully managed by the daily administration of a glycerin enema into the cecum via an appendicocecostomy or tubularized cecostomy, according to the method of Malone's antegrade continence enema (ACE). Fluoroscopic defecography performed during this procedure in each patient disclosed that the glycerin enema promptly evoked cecal peristalsis,

Takayuki Yamamoto; Hiroyuki Kubo; Makoto Honzumi

1996-01-01

34

Routine colonic lavage is unnecessary for double-contrast barium enema in outpatients  

PubMed Central

Four different cleansing regimens were assessed in a prospective survey of 435 patients referred for barium enema. A regimen using simple dietary instructions and laxatives is as effective as a preliminary cleansing enema. It is suggested that routine cleansing enemas in outpatients represent an unnecessary and uncomfortable ritual that might usefully be abandoned.

De Lacey, Gerald; Benson, Mark; Wilkins, Robert; Spencer, John; Cramer, Benvon

1982-01-01

35

Phosphate enema toxicosis in a pygmy goat wether  

PubMed Central

Abstract Phosphate enema toxicity was diagnosed in a 7-month-old, castrated male, pygmy goat. On presentation, clinical findings included mild depression, tachycardia, tachypnea, rumen stasis, muscle tremors, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, hyperphosphatemia, azotemia, and metabolic acidosis. Fluid diuresis and parenteral antimicrobial therapy resulted in recovery after 3 d of treatment.

2004-01-01

36

PERFORATION OF MALONE ANTEGRADE CONTINENCE ENEMA: DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:Severe bowel dysfunction often accompanies neurogenic bladder, and Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) procedures can lead to improvement in the quality of life of these patients. However, complications such as catheter false passage with subsequent intraperitoneal instillation of irrigation can lead to significant morbidity. We present our experience with the diagnosis and management of this condition.

WILLIAM DeFOOR; EUGENE MINEVICH; PRAMOD REDDY; ALBAHA BARQAWI; DAVID KITCHENS; CURTIS SHELDON; MARTIN KOYLE

2005-01-01

37

The effect of lactose-in-saline infusion on packed cell volume variation during trypanosoma vivax - induced anaemia of cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of intravenous infusion of a solution of lactose-in-normal saline on the course of Trypanosoma vivax induced anaemia in Zebu yearlings was investigated. The animals were infected with 11 x 10 6 trypanosomes by jugular venipuncture and lactose-in-normal saline infusion started on day 6, post-infection (p.i). Three four-hourly doses of 0.5 g lactose\\/kg body weight were administered to each

I. A. Umar; I. O. Igbokwe; J. J. Omage; D. A. Ameh; H. O. Kwanashie; K. A. N. Esievo

38

Prospective comparison of double contrast barium enema plus flexible sigmoidoscopy v colonoscopy in rectal bleeding: barium enema v colonoscopy in rectal bleeding.  

PubMed Central

Rectal bleeding often heralds serious colonic disease. The literature suggests that colonoscopy is superior to barium enema plus sigmoidoscopy, although no good comparative studies exist. Seventy one patients with overt rectal bleeding had prospectively flexible sigmoidoscopy, double contrast barium enema and colonoscopy completed independently. Against the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of colonoscopy were 0.69 and 0.78 respectively for a spectrum of colonic lesions, while for combined flexible sigmoidoscopy and double contrast barium enema these values were 0.80 and 0.56, respectively. When assessing adenoma or carcinoma, colonoscopy was more sensitive at 0.82 v 0.73, while flexible sigmoidoscopy plus double contrast barium enema was superior for detecting diverticular disease. The positive predictive value for colonoscopy was 0.87 against 0.81 for flexible sigmoidoscopy and double contrast barium enema. This study confirms that colonoscopy should be a first line investigation in subjects likely to require biopsy or therapeutic intervention.

Irvine, E J; O'Connor, J; Frost, R A; Shorvon, P; Somers, S; Stevenson, G W; Hunt, R H

1988-01-01

39

Self-administered disposable micro-enemas before outpatient sigmoidoscopy.  

PubMed Central

Many colorectal carcinomas can be diagnosed by rigid sigmoidoscopy. One important limiting factor in the usefulness of this investigation is the presence of faeces; another is inability to negotiate the recto-sigmoid bend. 101 patients (47 men) were sent a Microlax enema with instruction to use it before their first attendance in the outpatient department. The grade of preparation [on a scale of 0 (empty rectum) to 3, with grades 0 and 1 providing an adequate view], height achieved with the sigmoidoscope and whether or not the extent of the examination was limited by faeces were recorded. These data were compared with results in 78 patients (38 men) who did not receive any special preparation. There were no serious difficulties with self-administration. An adequate view was obtained in 89 (88%) of those who had received an enema and in 41 (53%) of those who were unprepared (P < 0.001, chi 2 test). The height achieved and the percentage of patients in whom the sigmoidoscopy was not limited by faeces were also significantly increased. The mailing of micro-enemas to patients who are likely to need sigmoidoscopy is a cheap measure that increases diagnostic yield and saves reattendances.

Marsh, S K; Huddy, S P

1996-01-01

40

Therapeutic enema for pediatric ileocolic intussusception: using a balloon catheter improves efficacy.  

PubMed

A therapeutic enema for pediatric intussusception may benefit by using a rectal catheter with an inflated balloon. We compared the efficacy of rectal catheters without and with an inflated balloon for air and liquid enemas. We retrospectively reviewed PACS images and hospital records of children who had a therapeutic enema for intussusception at our institution between January 2006 and May 2011. Sixty-two enemas in 60 children were included. Physician assistants with training in pediatric fluoroscopy and pediatric radiologists were more likely to use air enema (37/41 or 90 %), and general radiologists were more likely to use liquid enema (18/21 or 86 %). However, the reduction rate for air enema overall was only slightly higher than for liquid enema using an inflated balloon catheter (36/40 or 90 % versus 14/17 or 82 %) (P?=?0.653). For air enema, mean procedure time for successful reductions was shorter with an inflated balloon catheter than with a plastic catheter (7.6 versus 28.2 min) (P?enema, the reduction rate was higher with an inflated balloon catheter than without inflation (14/17 or 82 % versus 1/5 or 20 %; P?=?0.021), but the procedure time was not shortened. No procedural complications were directly attributed to using a rectal catheter with an inflated balloon. Using a rectal catheter with an inflated balloon appears to safely shorten the procedure time of a successful air enema and improve the reduction rate of liquid enema. PMID:23748969

Betz, Bradford W; Hagedorn, Jeffrey E; Guikema, Jeffrey S; Barnes, Courtney L

2013-06-09

41

Pre-hospital cooling of patients following cardiac arrest is effective using even low volumes of cold saline  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pre-hospital induction of therapeutic mild hypothermia (TH) may reduce post-cardiac arrest brain injury in patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Most often, it is induced by a rapid intravenous administration of as much as 30 ml/kg of cold crystalloids. We decided to assess the pre-hospital cooling effectivity of this approach by using a target dose of 15-20 ml/kg of 4°C cold normal saline in the setting of the physician-staffed Emergency Medical Service. The safety and impact on the clinical outcome have also been analyzed. Methods We performed a prospective observational study with a retrospective control group. A total of 40 patients were cooled by an intravenous administration of 15-20 ml/kg of 4°C cold normal saline during transport to the hospital (TH group). The pre-hospital decrease of tympanic temperature (TT) was analyzed as the primary endpoint. Patients in the control group did not undergo any pre-hospital cooling. Results In the TH group, administration of 12.6 ± 6.4 ml/kg of 4°C cold normal saline was followed by a pre-hospital decrease of TT of 1.4 ± 0.8°C in 42.8 ± 19.6 min (p < 0.001). The most effective cooling was associated with a transport time duration of 38-60 min and with an infusion of 17 ml/kg of cold saline. In the TH group, a trend toward a reduced need for catecholamines during transport was detected (35.0 vs. 52.5%, p = 0.115). There were no differences in demographic variables, comorbidities, parameters of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation and in other post-resuscitation characteristics. The coupling of pre-hospital cooling with subsequent in-hospital TH predicted a favorable neurological outcome at hospital discharge (OR 4.1, CI95% 1.1-18.2, p = 0.046). Conclusions Pre-hospital induction of TH by the rapid intravenous administration of cold normal saline has been shown to be efficient even with a lower dose of coolant than reported in previous studies. This dose can be associated with a favorable impact on circulatory stability early after the return of spontaneous circulation and, when coupled with in-hospital continuation of cooling, can potentially improve the prognosis of patients. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials (NCT): NCT00915421

2010-01-01

42

The influence of environmental factors on seasonal changes in bacterial cell volume in two prairie saline lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial biovolumes of hypertrophic Humboldt Lake (total dissolved solids = 3.3 g liter-1; 6 m deep) and oligotrophic Redberry Lake (total dissolved solids = 20.9 g liter-1; 17 m deep), Saskatchewan, were measured concurrently with a variety of environmental variables to identify the major factors correlated with volume changes. There was no difference (P > 0.05) in mean bacterial volume

Vijay P. Tumber; Richard D. Robarts; Michael T. Arts; Marlene S. Evans; Douglas E. Caldwell

1993-01-01

43

Relative sensitivity of colonoscopy and barium enema for detection of colorectal cancer in clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The relative sensitivities of barium enema and colonoscopy for colorectal cancer are still debated. The aim of this study was to determine the relative sensitivity of barium enema and colonoscopy in general clinical practice. METHODS: Medical records of 2193 consecutive colorectal cancer cases identified in 20 central Indiana hospitals were reviewed. All procedures performed within 3 years

DK Rex; EY Rahmani; JH Haseman; GT Lemmel; S Kaster; JS Buckley

1997-01-01

44

The Malone Antegrade Continence Enema Procedure in the Management of Patients with Spina Bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In patients with spina bifida, traditional bowel management programs such as suppositories, retrograde enemas, and manual disimpaction have been largely unsatisfactory. The Malone antegrade continence enema (ACE) procedure has largely changed our approach to bowel management in this patient group.Study Design: Over a 3-year period between January 1994 and January 1997, 27 patients with spina bifida underwent the Malone

Terry W. Hensle; Elizabeth A. Reiley; David T. Chang

1998-01-01

45

Colonoscopy without premedication versus barium enema: a comparison of patient discomfort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Colonoscopy is considered a painful procedure requiring routine intravenous sedation. We investigated whether unsedated colonoscopy causes more discomfort than barium enema. Methods: Procedure-related discomfort was determined in 100 consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy without premedication and in an equal number of patients referred for sigmoidoscopy and barium enema. All patients underwent such examinations for the first time and had no

Volker F. Eckardt; Gerd Kanzler; Dieter Willems; Alexander J. Eckardt; Gudrun Bernhard

1996-01-01

46

Rectal perforations and fistulae secondary to a glycerin enema: closure by over-the-scope-clip.  

PubMed

Rectal perforations due to glycerin enemas (GE) typically occur when the patient is in a seated or lordotic standing position. Once the perforation occurs and peritonitis results, death is usually inevitable. We describe two cases of rectal perforation and fistula caused by a GE. An 88-year-old woman presented with a large rectal perforation and a fistula just after receiving a GE. Her case was further complicated by an abscess in the right rectal wall. The second patient was a 78-year-old woman who suffered from a rectovesical fistula after a GE. In both cases, we performed direct endoscopic abscess lavage with a saline solution and closed the fistula using an over-the-scope-clip (OTSC) procedure. These procedures resulted in dramatic improvement in both patients. Direct endoscopic lavage and OTSC closure are very useful for pararectal abscess lavage and fistula closure, respectively, in elderly patients who are in poor general condition. Our two cases are the first reports of the successful endoscopic closure of fistulae using double OTSCs after endoscopic lavage of the debris and an abscess of the rectum secondary to a GE. PMID:22791955

Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi; Masaki, Tsutomu; Izuishi, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

2012-06-28

47

Fecal incontinence successfully managed by antegrade continence enema in children: a report of two cases.  

PubMed

Two children with intractable fecal incontinence after correction of high anorectal malformations were successfully managed by the daily administration of a glycerin enema into the cecum via an appendicocecostomy or tubularized cecostomy, according to the method of Malone's antegrade continence enema (ACE). Fluoroscopic defecography performed during this procedure in each patient disclosed that the glycerin enema promptly evoked cecal peristalsis, which was transmitted to the distal colon and rectum, and squeezed out almost all the fecal matter, evacuating it from the anus. However, two enemas within a short interval were required to achieve a complete washout of feces. Although this report describes only two patients, our experience confirmed that the ACE was very effective and that adding the word "continence" to antegrade enema was justifiable. Moreover, fluoroscopic defecography was proven to play a significant role in determining the appropriate regimens of this technique to achieve complete washout of the feces. PMID:9017969

Yamamoto, T; Kubo, H; Honzumi, M

1996-01-01

48

Can barium enema indicate when colonoscopy will be difficult?  

PubMed

The barium enemas of 48 consecutive patients, who were technically difficult to intubate at colonoscopy, were compared to those of 46 patients who were not. Measurements were taken of colonic length and mobility, and an assessment made of diverticular disease. Rectosigmoid length (mean difficult group = 61 cm, mean control = 54 cm, P = 0.01) and total colonic length (mean difficult group = 157 cm, mean control = 140 cm, P < 0.0001) were greater in the difficult colonoscopy group as were transverse colon mobility (mean difficult group = 10 cm, mean control = 7 cm, P = 0.003) or redundancy (transverse colon reaching the true pelvis on the erect film); 65% difficult group vs 17% control group, P < 0.0001. The presence of moderate or severe diverticular disease was also greater in the difficult (23%) compared to the control (4%) group, P = 0.02. When available, assessment of a previous barium enema is a useful guide to probable technical difficulty of colonscopy. It may allow appropriate allocation of potentially difficult cases to specialist endoscopy lists. PMID:7743720

Saunders, B P; Halligan, S; Jobling, C; Fukumoto, M; Moussa, M E; Williams, C B; Bartram, C I

1995-05-01

49

[Value of small bowel double contrast enema in clinical interventions].  

PubMed

The double contrast enema is the most effective morphological screening method for the evaluation of the whole small bowel. Its sensitivity is 85%, its specifity 96.7%. In specific clinical problems the number of pathological roentgen findings rises: from 34.4% when all indications are taken into consideration to 58% in indications specific to the small intestine such as Morbus Crohn or the malabsorption syndrome. Search for tumours and the double contrast of the small bowel in unclear gastro-intestinal bleeding are unproductive. The weak point of this screening method is the lower part of the small intestine. Therefore, the selective peroral or retrograde analysis of the terminal ileum supplement the contrast method. A precondition for good results is an adequate technical standard. Besides the clinical results some technical results are therefore discussed such as contrast medium quantities, examination and X-ray time, radiation exposure and influences on the image quality. PMID:3083480

Rödl, W; Possel, H M; Prull, A; Wunderlich, L

1986-02-01

50

Assessment of patient exposure for barium enema examinations.  

PubMed

Methods are described for the assessment of patient exposure during clinical fluoroscopic procedures. Values of the roentgen-area-product (RAP) and their distribution throughout the examination are presented for both single-contrast and double-contrast barium enema studies. The double-contrast procedure was measured to give 50% more radiation to the patient than the single-contrast procedure when the same size optical aperture is used between the intensifier and TV pick-up tube. However, it was possible to decrease the fluoroscopic RAP value by over a factor of two for the double-contrast procedure without an adverse clinical effect by increasing the area of the aperture diaphragm. PMID:6642942

Bednarek, D R; Rudin, S; Wong, R

51

Salinity Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to measure the salinity of the water at your hydrology site. Students use a hydrometer to measure the specific gravity of the water sample, and use a thermometer to measure the temperature. With these two values, students will use tables to determine the salinity.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

52

SOIL SALINITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil salinity is defined as the total salts present in the liquid portion of the soil. The significance of soil salinity lies in its effect on crop productivity primarily on irrigated agricultural soils and soils with shallow depths to groundwater with over 20 million ha severely effected by salinit...

53

Left-colon antegrade continence enema (LACE) procedure for fecal incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Antegrade continence enemas (ACE) are an efficacious therapeutic option for patients with fecal incontinence. The authors review their institution’s experience with a variation of the Monti-Malone ACE procedure using the left colon as a source of an intestinal conduit and enema reservoir.Methods: From 2000 to 2002, 18 patients with fecal incontinence or intractable constipation underwent left-colon ACE (LACE) procedure.

Bernard M Churchill; Daniel A De Ugarte; James B Atkinson

2003-01-01

54

Rebamipide Enemas–New Effective Treatment for Patients with Corticosteroid Dependent or Resistant Ulcerative Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated the effect of rebamipide enema in patients with steroid-resistant and\\/or dependent ulcerative colitis. Rebamipide enemas were administered twice daily for a 12-week period; this treatment was further continued longer in patients who requested this. Disease activity index as reflecting the clinical condition and endoscopic index with histological grading were determined before and after the treatment

Mitsuki Miyata; Kunio Kasugai; Tetsuya Ishikawa; Shinichi Kakumu; Masafumi Onishi; Takeshi Mori

2005-01-01

55

Antegrade continence enema for the treatment of neurogenic constipation and fecal incontinence after spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the effects of an antegrade continence enema stoma formed in a paraplegic man with intractable constipation and fecal incontinence.Design: Case report.Setting: Spinal cord injury unit, Veterans Affairs hospital.Participants: Spinal cord injury (SCI) patient with T12 paraplegia.Intervention: Surgical formation of antegrade continence enema stoma.Main Outcome Measures: Time of bowel program care, ease of fecal elimination, safety of procedure.Results:

Claire C. Yang; Steven A. Stiens

2000-01-01

56

Bacterial Translocation in the Course of Acute Pancreatitis: Beneficial Role of Nonabsorbable Antibiotics and Lactitol Enemas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-hundred Wistar rats were allocated to 4 groups. The groups, 3 representing our acute pancreatitis model induced by intrabiliary injection of a trypsin\\/enterokinase mixture, were studied as follows: (A) no treatment; (B) given a daily 30-ml enema with 20 mg\\/kg rifaximin; (C) given a daily 30-ml enema with 20 mg\\/kg rifaximin plus lactitol 0.5 g\\/kg, and (D) given a daily

F. Marotta; T. C. Geng; C. C. Wu; G. Barbi

1996-01-01

57

Salinity Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are the costs of deriving energy from the earth's natural reserves of salt. Argues that, as fossil fuel supplies become more depleted in the future, the environmental advantages of salinity power may prove to warrant its exploitation. (TW)

Schmitt, Walter R.

1987-01-01

58

Salinity Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussed are the costs of deriving energy from the earth's natural reserves of salt. Argues that, as fossil fuel supplies become more depleted in the future, the environmental advantages of salinity power may prove to warrant its exploitation. (TW)|

Schmitt, Walter R.

1987-01-01

59

Infection of Aedes albopictus with chikungunya virus rectally administered by enema.  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in tropical areas of Africa, Asia, and the islands of the Indian Ocean. In 2007 and 2009, CHIKV was transmitted outside these tropical areas and caused geographically localized infections in people in Italy and France. To temporally and spatially characterize CHIKV infection of Ae. albopictus midguts, a comparison of viral distribution in mosquitoes infected per os or by enema was conducted. Ae. albopictus infected with CHIKV LR 5' green fluorescent protein (GFP) at a titer 10(6.95) tissue culture infective dose(50) (TCID(50))/mL, were collected and analyzed for virus dissemination by visualizing GFP expression and titration up to 14 days post inoculation (dpi). Additionally, midguts were dissected from the mosquitoes and imaged by fluorescence microscopy for comparison of midgut infection patterns between orally- and enema-infected mosquitoes. When virus was delivered via enema, the anterior midgut appeared more readily infected by 3 dpi, with increased GFP presentation observed in this same location of the midgut at 7 and 14 dpi when compared to orally-infected mosquitoes. This work demonstrates that enema delivery of virus is a viable technique for use of mosquito infection. Enema injection of mosquitoes may be an alternative to intrathoracic inoculation because the enema delivery more closely models natural infection and neither compromises midgut integrity nor involves a wound that can induce immune responses. Furthermore, unlike intrathoracic delivery, the enema does not bypass midgut barriers to infect tissues artificially in the hemocoel of the mosquito. PMID:23249139

Nuckols, John T; Ziegler, Sarah A; Huang, Yan-Jang Scott; McAuley, Alex J; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Klowden, Marc J; Spratt, Heidi; Davey, Robert A; Higgs, Stephen

2012-12-18

60

DETECTION OF SMALL LESIONS OF THE LARGE BOWEL--Barium Enema Versus Double Contrast  

PubMed Central

Roentgen study with the so-called opaque barium enema with some modifications is superior to double contrast study as the primary means of demonstrating polyps in the colon as well as other lesions. The method described combines fluoroscopy, high kilovoltage radiography, fluoroscopically aimed “spot films” taken with compression, suction and evacuation studies. In this way unsuspected as well as suspected polyps can be demonstrated, particularly if attention is directed to the region where polyps are most likely to be found—namely, the distal third of the large bowel. Double contrast study is quite valuable as a supplement to the modified “single contrast” barium enema, but it has not been sufficiently perfected to replace the modified opaque barium enema as a primary procedure. In many instances a combination of methods will, of course, be required.

Robinson, J. Maurice

1954-01-01

61

Development of In Situ Gelling and Bio Adhesive 5-Fluorouracil Enema  

PubMed Central

In this study, a novel 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) enema with good bio adhesion and temperature sensitivity was developed using in situ gelling technology. The preparation was formulated as a free-flowing liquid before use, while a layer of gel film was quickly formed when administered in the rectum, with a large contact surface area. It also demonstrated good biocompatibility, appropriate gel strength and bio adhesive force with excellent adhesion to rectal mucosa and prolonged action time, allowing more effective drug absorption and diffusion to surrounding tissues. Poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188 were applied to adjust the gelling temperature. With the addition of carbopol and polycarbophil (bio adhesive substances), the solubility of 5-FU and gel strength increased, the temperature of gelation and the surface area of drug contact on mucous epithelium decreased. Decreased adhesive force between the preparation and the mucous membrane of the rectum was demonstrated with improving carbopol and polycarbophil’s concentration. In vitro release demonstrated that 5-FU in situ gelling enema with different bases had a rapid and almost complete drug release. We used an optimized formulation of P407/P188/polycarbophil/5-FU (17/2.5/0.2/1.0) for animal experiments. The result showed that the drug evenly covered the surface of the rectum and there was no leakage in 6 hours. The in situ gelling enema showed significantly higher rectal tissue levels of 5-FU compared with suppository and intravenous administration, indicating that 5-FU could be well absorbed due to the enlarged releasing area, longer retention time and larger amount of dissolved active ingredients. Systemically, 5-FU levels in the enema group were similar to those in the suppository group and significantly lower than the intravenous group. The enema was not associated with morphological damage to rectal tissue. These results suggest that the bio adhesive and in situ gelling enema could be a more effective rectal delivery system of 5-FU.

Wang, Lu-Lu; Zheng, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Shao-Hua; Fang, Xia-Qin

2013-01-01

62

Compensation filtration for decubitus radiography during double-contrast barium enema examinations  

SciTech Connect

Lateral decubitus images obtained during double-contrast barium enema examinations may be difficult to interpret because of the large difference in density between the various parts of the radiographs. Several types of filters are described which can be used to rectify this problem, thus improving the quality of the decubitus radiographs and achieving a slight reduction in radiation exposure.

Feczko, P.J.; Haggar, A.M.; Rauch, P.L.; Halpert, R.D.; Simms, S.M.

1983-12-01

63

Sulphasalazine retention enemas in ulcerative colitis: a double-blind trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-four patients with ulcerative colitis completed a double-blind assessment comparing the efficacy of two weeks of treatment with nightly retention enemas containing 3 g sulphasalazine or placebo. Symptom grading, sigmoidoscopic appearance, rectal biopsy specimens, and diary records were used to assess benefit and side effects. The active drug conferred significant benefit compared with placebo as shown by several criteria, but

K R Palmer; J R Goepel; C D Holdsworth

1981-01-01

64

Primary lymphoma of the colon and rectum: CT and barium enema correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the computed tomographic (CT) and barium enema (BE) findings in seven patients with proven primary lymphoma of the colon and rectum. CT and BE examination are complimentary studies in the evaluation of primary lymphoma of the colorectum, and certain relevant findings may be missed when radiographic evaluation does not include both modalities. Both CT and barium studies

Susan H. Wyatt; Elliot K. Fishman; Bronwyn Jones

1993-01-01

65

Antegrade continence enema in the treatment of obstructed defaecation with or without faecal incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Obstructed defaecation and faecal incontinence are complex functional disorders that pose management challenges. In recent times, the antegrade continence enema (ACE) has been tried both as a primary procedure and as a final resort to avoid a colostomy in patients with a variety of functional problems. The pur- pose of this study was to evaluate the role of the

G. R. Hirst; P. J. Arumugam; A. J. Watkins; P. Mackey; A. R. Morgan; N. D. Carr; J. Beynon

2005-01-01

66

Y-appendicoplasty: A technique to minimize stomal complications in antegrade continence enema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The antegrade continence enema (ACE) is an effective method of treatment of fecal incontinence and constipation. However, the original procedure described is not easy to perform and is associated with a high complication rate, especially stomal stenosis-necrosis (55%). Even with introduction of orthotopic appendicostomy, composite series still report an incidence of 30% with stomal problems. The authors report a

Paul K. H Tam

1999-01-01

67

The Malone antegrade continence enema combined with urinary diversion in adult neurogenic patients: early results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Patients with neurogenic voiding dysfunction often have coexisting neurogenic bowel problems. Impaired bowel evacuation is a cause of major morbidity and impaired lifestyle for these patients. The Malone antegrade continence enema (ACE) performed synchronously with a urinary continence procedure has been successful in pediatric patients. We report early experience combining the ACE with a urinary continence procedure in adult

Joel M. H. Teichman; Vince J. Rogenes; Douglas B. Barber

1997-01-01

68

Combined Mitrofanoff and Antegrade Continence Enema Procedures for Urinary and Fecal Incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeFecal soiling or intractable constipation frequently occurs in association with urinary incontinence in children undergoing major reconstructive urological operations. To treat double incontinence or the combination of wetting and severe constipation, we constructed a Mitrofanoff conduit and a channel for antegrade continence enemas in 18 patients between 1989 and 1995. We review the underlying pathological conditions, various surgical techniques and

Y. Mor; F. M. J. Quinn; B. Carr; P. D. Mouriquand; P. G. Duffy; P. G. Ransley

1997-01-01

69

Failure of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas to improve chronic radiation proctitis  

SciTech Connect

Radiation proctitis is a well-known complication of abdominal and pelvic radiation. Conventional medical and surgical treatment often is disappointing. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is the active component in sulfasalazine and is effective in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. Four patients with radiation proctitis were treated with 4 g 5-ASA by enema nightly for two to six months. Patients were seen monthly, interviewed, and a sigmoidoscopic exam performed. No change was seen in the degree of mucosal inflammation on follow-up sigmoidoscopic exams. Three patients noted no change in their symptoms of bleeding, pain, or tenesmus. One patient noted initial improvement, but this was not sustained. 5-ASA enemas do not appear to be effective in the treatment of radiation proctitis.

Baum, C.A.; Biddle, W.L.; Miner, P.B. Jr.

1989-05-01

70

[A case of hepatic encephalopathy successfully treated by antegrade glycerin enema through percutaneous endoscopic cecostomy].  

PubMed

A 76-year-old man with liver cirrhosis, a chronic defecation disorder and a refractory hepatic encephalopathy was hospitalized for the hepatic encephalopathy. The encephalopathy quickly improved upon treatment, but a high level of serum ammonia persisted. We inserted a percutaneous endoscopic cecostomy at the cecum and an antegrade glycerin enema through it to treat the chronic defecation disorder, which was a deteriorative factor of the hepatic encephalopathy. After the aforementioned procedure, the chronic defecation disorder improved and the serum ammonia level dramatically decreased. The patient continued the antegrade glycerin enema at home, and serum ammonia values remained low in comparison to levels measured prior to the administration of treatment. The subject has not experienced a recurrence of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:18176043

Tomikashi, Koichi; Nomura, Yuh; Miyawaki, Kiichiro; Shimada, Ayumi; Kanemitsu, Daisuke; Takashima, Hidetaka; Abe, Mitsumasa

2008-01-01

71

Perforation of the colon and rectum during administration of barium enema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  Perforation of the colon or rectum, with an attendant high mortality rate, is apt to occur during administration of barium\\u000a enema in patients in whom the bowel has been weakened by disease or trauma. This accident is probably more common than reports\\u000a in medical literature would indicate.\\u000a \\u000a Five cases have been presented in which either intraperitoneal or extraperitoneal rupture of

Lewis Grodsky

1959-01-01

72

Treatment of distal ulcerative colitis with beclomethasone enemas: High therapeutic efficacy without endocrine side effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen patients with 18 attacks of distal ulcerative colitis were treated randomly with either 0.5 mg topically administered\\u000a beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) or 5 mg betamethasone phosphate (BMT). The effect of the steroid enemas on adrenocortical\\u000a function was examined by ACTH tests, which were performed before and 20 days after treatment. At completion of the trial,\\u000a a marked suppression of the

George Bansky; HUGO BIJHLER; Bernhard Stamm; Walter H. Häcki; Peter Buchmann; Jürg Müller

1987-01-01

73

Efficacy of Rebamipide Enemas in Active Distal Ulcerative Colitis and Proctitis: A Prospective Study Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rebamipide has a broad spectrum of pharmacological actions that include suppression of neutrophil functions and stimulation\\u000a of mucosal epithelial cell regeneration by increasing the expression of epithelial growth factor (EGF) and the EGF receptor.\\u000a Sixteen patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC; mild in 1 patient, moderate in 11, and severe in 4) were recruited. Enemas\\u000a containing 150 mg rebamipide per

K. Makiyama; F. Takeshima; T. Hamamoto

2005-01-01

74

Comparison of results of laparoscopic and open antegrade continence enema procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several modifications of the Malone antegrade continence enema (ACE) procedure have now been reported. In this study we have\\u000a compared the results of our experience with the laparoscopic appendicostomy (LACE procedure) with the published results of\\u000a previously described open ACE procedures. Children who had the LACE procedure at our institutions were reviewed. Intra- and\\u000a postoperative problems were identified by review

A. C. Lynch; S. W. Beasley; R. W. Robertson; P. N. Morreau

1999-01-01

75

Evaluation of the barium-enema examination and colonoscopy in diagnosis of colonic cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary and Conclusions  The diagnostic value of colonoscopy was investigated in 123 patients with certain or questionable cancer of the colon as demonstrated\\u000a by an ordinary barium-enema examination. The diagnosis was revised by laparotomy or clinical follow-up studied in cases of\\u000a patients having no operation. The following conclusions were deduced: 1) The number of unnecessary laparotomies may be reduced\\u000a by doing

Ole Kronborg; Asser Østergaard

1975-01-01

76

Appendicostomy for Antegrade Enema: Effects on Somatic and Psychosocial Functioning in Children With Myelomeningocele  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To assess changes in somatic variables, psychosocial functioning, mental health and self-esteem after appendicostomy for antegrade enema (MACE) in children with myelomeningocele (MMC). Methods. We performed the MACE procedure in 20 children, aged 6.3 to 17.0 years. Twelve patients had an open and 8 had a laparoscopic operation. Somatic func- tion was assessed preoperatively and 6 and 16 months

Marianne Stange; Gabrielle Aafos; Ragnhild Emblem

2010-01-01

77

Modelling Wind Effects on Subtidal Salinity in Apalachicola Bay, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity is an important factor for oyster and estuarine productivity in Apalachicola Bay. Observations of salinity at oyster reefs have indicated a high correlation between subtidal salinity variations and the surface winds along the bay axis in an approximately east–west direction. In this paper, we applied a calibrated hydrodynamic model to examine the surface wind effects on the volume fluxes

W. Huang; W. K. Jones; T. S. Wu

2002-01-01

78

Resuscitation of Conscious Pigs Following Hemorrhage: Blood Gas and Acid-Base Status during Fixed Volume Hemorrhage and Resuscitation with Hypertonic Saline/Dextran,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six conscious, chronically instrumented pigs were subjected to a progressive , fixed-volume hemorrhage (37.5 ml/kg over 1 h) l and subsequent resuscitation with 7.5% NaC1/6% Dextran 70 (4ml/kg). Hemorrhage led to increases in arterial PO2, Hboz, plasma la...

J. P. Hannon C. E. Wade C. A. Bossone M. M. Hunt J. A. Loveday

1989-01-01

79

Diagnostic yield from barium enemas: a study among patients referred by general practitioners and hospital outpatient departments.  

PubMed Central

Although the double contrast barium enema is the standard radiological examination of the colon, it is not universally available to patients referred by their general practitioners. A retrospective survey of all double contrast barium enemas carried out over a two year period in one health district was undertaken to determine the diagnostic yield of pathological findings for patients referred by general practitioners and hospital outpatient departments and for patients who had rigid sigmoidoscopy prior to the enema and those who did not. A total of 530 patients were studied. The diagnostic yield for the hospital outpatients was 41.6% and in the general practitioner group 35.6%. In the patients who had rigid sigmoidoscopy the yield was 42.7% compared with 32.6% in those who had no prior sigmoidoscopy. It is concluded that the withdrawal of direct access for barium enemas to general practitioner patients in this district because of a low diagnostic yield cannot be justified. The lower diagnostic yield in the patients who did not have sigmoidoscopy supports the policy of requiring this examination prior to all barium enemas.

Wafula, J M

1992-01-01

80

Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine following a Single Administration of Coffee Enema versus Oral Coffee Consumption in Healthy Male Subjects  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of caffeine after single administration of a coffee enema versus coffee consumed orally in healthy male subjects. The study design was an open-label, randomized two-phase crossover study. Eleven healthy subjects were randomly assigned either to receive 500?mL of coffee enema for 10 minutes or to consume 180?mL of ready-to-drink coffee beverage. After a washout period of at least 10 days, all the subjects were switched to receive the alternate coffee procedure. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at specific time points until 12 hours after coffee administration in each phase. The mean caffeine content in both the coffee solution prepared for the coffee enema and the ready-to-drink coffee beverage was not statistically different. The Cmax and AUC of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema were about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally, despite having slightly but statistically faster Tmax. The t1/2 of caffeine obtained following both coffee procedures did not statistically differ. In summary, the relative bioavailability of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema was about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally.

Tosri, Nisanuch; Rojanasthien, Noppamas; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Sangdee, Chaichan

2013-01-01

81

Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine following a Single Administration of Coffee Enema versus Oral Coffee Consumption in Healthy Male Subjects.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of caffeine after single administration of a coffee enema versus coffee consumed orally in healthy male subjects. The study design was an open-label, randomized two-phase crossover study. Eleven healthy subjects were randomly assigned either to receive 500?mL of coffee enema for 10 minutes or to consume 180?mL of ready-to-drink coffee beverage. After a washout period of at least 10 days, all the subjects were switched to receive the alternate coffee procedure. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at specific time points until 12 hours after coffee administration in each phase. The mean caffeine content in both the coffee solution prepared for the coffee enema and the ready-to-drink coffee beverage was not statistically different. The C max and AUC of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema were about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally, despite having slightly but statistically faster T max. The t 1/2 of caffeine obtained following both coffee procedures did not statistically differ. In summary, the relative bioavailability of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema was about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally. PMID:23533801

Teekachunhatean, Supanimit; Tosri, Nisanuch; Rojanasthien, Noppamas; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Sangdee, Chaichan

2013-03-04

82

Colon imaging in radiology departments in 2008: goodbye to the routine double contrast barium enema.  

PubMed

We radiologists are free to choose DCBE or CTC when patients are referred to us for colonic examination. The studies reported during 2007 have confirmed that CTC is more accurate, preferred by patients, with a shorter room time, fewer complications, lower radiation exposure, and reveals therapeutically significant extracolonic lesions in 5% to 10% of cases, so that it is beginning to seem rather irresponsible to continue to offer routine DCBE examinations. In older patients the yield of extracolonic abnormalities is even greater, with 505 abnormalities found in 268 of 400 consecutive patients aged 70 years and older, including 23 extracolonic malignancies. More than 90 Canadian radiology departments have bought the necessary carbon dioxide insufflators, so there is clearly great interest. Many training workshops are available in Europe and the United States to help radiologists become familiar and skilled with CTC, and it will be helpful to have more local ones within Canada over the next few years. Some studies have shown that CTC can be done with poorer results than those I have quoted, and this is often in the early experience of departments. As large numbers of radiologists train, there is the potential for hundreds of errors while experience is being gained. We have the advantage over endoscopists, in that we can train on known data sets. Several institutions have put together sets of 50 complete CTC cases, mixed abnormal and normal, and these are an ideal training tool so that one can make one's mistakes in training rather than on live patients. One such data set is even available with one of the recent textbooks. Would it be useful for the CAR, or provincial radiology associations, to purchase several of these sets, and make them available for an appropriate fee to radiologists who are learning? CTC technologists will necessarily have a role on the workstations, including doing the primary read. Additional budgets will be needed for CTC with a diminution in fluoroscopy budgets as barium enemas are discontinued. Some larger hospitals may reserve a scanner purely for alimentary tract work- perhaps CTC and CT enterography. The essential administrative breakthrough will be to establish either a technical fee for CTC or an appropriate increase in the hospital global budget to allow high-volume CTC to flourish Nationally standards and guidelines will be needed, and if we are to play a major role in screening, where high standards have to be evaluated and maintained, we may need nationally organized individual audit feedback, much as we have with breast screening. Should the known data sets have a role in training for radiologists embarking on screening or in demonstrating continued competence? It is an exciting time once again for radiologists interested in colonic disease. We now know that CTC can be done very well. The challenges are going to be achieving consistency and deciding which of the 6 areas of opportunity described above are our priorities. PMID:19069601

Stevenson, Giles

2008-10-01

83

On observing acoustic backscattering from salinity turbulence.  

PubMed

It has been hypothesized that at sufficiently high levels of oceanic salinity turbulence it should be possible to observe acoustic backscattering. However, there have been limited in situ measurements to confirm this hypothesis. Using an autonomous underwater vehicle equipped with upward and downward looking 1.2 MHz acoustic Doppler current profilers and with turbulence and fine scale sensors, measurements were performed in a region of intense turbulence and a strong salinity gradient. The approach taken was to correlate variations in the backscattered acoustic intensity, I, with a theoretical acoustic backscattering cross section per volume for salinity turbulence, ?(s), to obtain an estimated scattering cross section per volume, ?(e). Results indicated that of order 50% of the observed region was characterized by salinity turbulence induced backscattering. PMID:21877785

Goodman, Louis; Sastre-Cordova, Marcos M

2011-08-01

84

Mucosal colonic tube fistula with antireflux wrap for antegrade colonic enema.  

PubMed

Antegrade enemas can provide children with excellent faecal continence in situations where adequate control has been compromised because of underlying congential anomaly or poor surgical outcome in their treatment. The enema is often delivered through an appendicostomy. If the appendix is absent or utilized for another purpose, then placement of a chait tube or caecostomy button can provide access to the colon for the enema. However, these devices may be associated with breakages, accidental removal and leakage and replacement may require another operative procedure under a general anaesthetic. Full thickness colonic tubes can also be constructed at any point along the colon but in the author's experience, they can be associated with significant leakage of both gas and faecal material. The construction of a mucosal colonic tube with anti-reflux wrap is a technique that avoids the above problems and offers a distinctive advantage in selected situations. The technique relies on tabularising mucosa alone to create a continent fistula. Six children with severe soiling underwent the technique. The outcomes were evaluated using a modified quality of life score (QOLI). The score included assessment of soiling, staining, odour, self-esteem and socialization measure. Technical evaluation included analysis of the ease of catheterization and continence of the mucosal fistula site. All six patients had dramatic improvement in their faecal continence with complete resolution of soiling in all six. Follow up median is 42 months and the range is 6-48 months. QOLI scores improved from a total of 4.75 to 18.5. Possible range is 0-21. All the six fistula sites catheterize easily and no stenosis or faecal leakage has occurred. Two patients required treatment of minor granulations at the entry site of the fistula during the early healing phase. PMID:19455343

Bowkett, Brendon Douglas; Kelly, E W

2009-05-20

85

High salinity wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The shock effect, survival and ability of activated sludge to acclimatize to wastewater containing different concentrations of NaCl and Na2SO4 were investigated under laboratory conditions. To accomplish this, the potential penetration of a sewage system by seawater as a consequence of storm surge flooding was simulated. The experiments were conducted using activated sludge taken from the aeration tank of a communal wastewater treatment plant and adding different concentrations up to 40 g/L of NaCl and 4.33 g/L of Na2SO4. The effects of salinity on the activated sludge were monitored for 5 weeks based on the values of pH, dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, volatile suspended solids, sludge volume, sludge volume index, electrokinetic potential, respirometric measurements and enzymatic activity. The addition of salt sharply reduced or completely inhibited the microbial activity in activated sludge. When salt concentrations were below 10 g/L NaCl, microorganisms were able to acclimatize in several weeks and achieve the same initial activity as in raw sludge samples. When the salt concentration was above 30 g/L NaCl, the acclimatization process was very slow or impossible. PMID:24056440

Linari?, M; Marki?, M; Sipos, L

2013-01-01

86

Colon polyp morphology on double-contrast berium enema: its pathologic predictive value  

SciTech Connect

The morphologic appearance of 96 polyps seen on double-contrast barium enema was reviewed to assess the predictive value of various signs described to diagnose malignancy. Size, surface contour, basal indentation, and pedunculation were studied. Sessile polyps had an appreciable incidence of malignancy, with size being the best indicator of that risk. Pedunculation was found to be a reliable sign of benignity in predicting the absence of malignant invasion into the adjacent colonic wall. Polyps under 1 cm and having a smooth contour were invariably benign. Conversely, polyps larger than 1 cm with a lobulated contour and basal indentation had a significant incidence of malignancy.

Ott, D.J. (Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC); Gelfand, D.W.; Wu, W.C.; Ablin, D.S.

1983-11-01

87

Measuring Salinity by Conductivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outlines procedures for constructing an instrument which uses an electrode and calibration methods to measure the salinity of waters in environments close to and affected by a saline estuary. (Author/DC)|

Lapworth, C. J.

1981-01-01

88

Mechanisms of Salinity Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological and molecular mechanisms of tolerance to os- motic and ionic components of salinity stress are reviewed at the cel- lular, organ, and whole-plant level. Plant growth responds to salinity in two phases: a rapid, osmotic phase that inhibits growth of young leaves, and a slower, ionic phase that accelerates senescence of ma- ture leaves. Plant adaptations to salinity

Rana Munns; Mark Tester

2008-01-01

89

Observing Salinity Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part 1: Students measure the salinity of samples using a refractometer, and consider the units and density of these values. Part 2: Students apply concepts and reinforce what they've learned about salinity and the water cycle to interpret a salinity contour map of a transect of the Pacific Ocean using WOCE data. Another goal is to familiarize students with using contour graphs of ocean data, in general.

Jaeger, Stephanie

90

A review of anaerobic treatment of saline wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large volumes of saline (>2% w\\/v NaCl) wastewaters are discharged from many industries; e.g. seafood processing, textile dyeing, oil and gas production, tanneries and drinking water treatment processes. Although anaerobic treatment would be the most cost?effective and sustainable technology for the treatment of many of these saline wastewaters, the salinity is considered to be inhibitory to anaerobic biological treatment processes.

Yeyuan Xiao; Deborah J. Roberts

2010-01-01

91

MR colonography without bowel cleansing or water enema: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The value of screening for colorectal cancer has been well demonstrated, and national programmes are being implemented. At present the primary imaging modality is colonoscopy, which has an associated morbidity and mortality. CT colonography (CTC) has been proposed as an alternative, but this is associated with radiation exposure and generally requires bowel preparation. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of MR colonography (MRC) without bowel preparation or water enema for the detection of colorectal neoplasia. Methods Patients scheduled for colonoscopy were invited to participate in the study; informed consent was obtained. MRC (with oral barium faecal tagging and colonic air distension) was performed 1–2 weeks before the colonoscopy. Axial T2 weighted single-shot fast spin-echo (prone and supine) and axial T1 weighted fast spoiled gradient-recalled (pre- and post-iv gadolinium) supine MRI sequences were performed. The examinations were reported by two gastrointestinal radiologists by consensus. Colonoscopy following standard bowel preparation was performed by a single endoscopist blinded to the MRC results. Significant lesions were defined as polyps or masses >10 mm in diameter. Results 29 patients were studied. Colonoscopy revealed 25 mass lesions in 13 patients. MRC correctly identified four of the nine lesions >10 mm in diameter (sensitivity 44%; specificity 100%). Although specificity remained high for smaller lesions, sensitivity was poor. Conclusion This pilot study has demonstrated the feasibility of performing MRC without bowel preparation or water enema. This would seem to be a promising modality for colorectal cancer screening. Larger studies are required to determine the accuracy of this modality for the detection of colorectal neoplasia.

Sambrook, A; Mcateer, D; Yule, S; Phull, P

2012-01-01

92

DOES SALINITY REDUCE BORON'S TOXIC EFFECT IN BROCCOLI?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reuse of saline drainage water is a management option on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California that is necessary for reducing the volumes of saline drainage that require disposal. A potential limitation to the use of these waters for agricultural production is the extent by wh...

93

Tomato and salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of salinity on tomato plant growth and fruit production, the cultural techniques which can be applied to alleviate the deleterious effects of salt, and the possibilities of breeding salt- tolerant tomatoes are reviewed. Salinity reduces tomato seed germination and lengthens the time needed for germination to such an extent that the establishment of a competitive crop by direct

Jesus Cuartero; Rafael Fernandez-Munoz; Estacion Experimental La Mayora

1999-01-01

94

Power from salinity gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large source of energy exists at the interface between water bodies of different salinities. Two techniques, pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis, appear to be promising entrees into this energy source. Although the present cost of membranes suitable to these methods is too high, a research and development effort should make this salinity gradient energy competitive with other energy sources.

G Wick

1978-01-01

95

Saline infusion sonohysterography.  

PubMed

Saline infusion sonohysterography consists of ultrasonographic imaging of the uterus and uterocervical cavity, using real-time ultrasonography during injection of sterile saline into the uterus. When properly performed, saline infusion sonohysterography can provide information about the uterus and endometrium. The most common indication for sonohysterography is abnormal uterine bleeding. sonohysterography should not be performed in a woman who is pregnant or could be pregnant or in a woman with a pelvic infection or unexplained pelvic tenderness. Physicians who perform or supervise diagnostic saline infusion sonohysterograpy should have training, experience, and demonstrated competence in gynecologic ultrasonography and saline infusion sonohysterography. Portions of this document were developed jointly with the American College of Radiology and the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. PMID:14968760

2004-01-01

96

Salinity is Reduced Below the Evaporation Front During Soil Salinization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly 50% of irrigated lands in arid and semi-arid regimes have salinization problems. Salinization is generally caused by salts carried to the soil surface by capillary rising water and occurs under very dry conditions, when vapor fluxes become the main water flux mechanism. Despite its global importance, actual salinization mechanisms are only poorly understood. Soil salinization is generally studied by

M. Gran; J. Carrera; S. Olivella; J. Massana; M. W. Saaltink; C. Ayora; A. Lloret

2009-01-01

97

Salinity is Reduced Below the Evaporation Front During Soil Salinization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly 50% of irrigated lands in arid and semi-arid regimes have salinization problems. Salinization is generally caused by salts carried to the soil surface by capillary rising water and occurs under very dry conditions, when vapor fluxes become the main water flux mechanism. Despite its global importance, actual salinization mechanisms are only poorly understood. Soil salinization is generally studied by

M. Gran; J. Carrera; S. Olivella; J. Massana; M. W. Saaltink; C. Ayora; A. Lloret

2008-01-01

98

Land and Stream Salinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil salinity and salinity in water supplies are two major problems facing agricultural production in many arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Salt, in varying concentrations, occurs naturally in both soils and aquifers. However, salinity problems usually result from man's interference with natural processes and disturbance of the hydrologic balance. For example, the clearing of trees in southwestern Australia and the breaking of native sod on the Great Plains of North America for wheat cropping have reduced evapotranspiration. At the same time, over irrigation in dry regions concentrates dissolved salts in the soil profile, while irrigation return flows add to downstream salinity problems. These problems are of great economic significance, and opportunities are being sought for improved drainage and for interception and disposal of saline groundwater. However, these structural solutions are capital-intensive and quite expensive to say the least. The most cost-effective measures, but also the most challenging, are in the areas of improved on-farm water management to reduce losses, modified cropping patterns, selected retirement of marginally productive lands, and basin-wide water resource management with regard to both quantity and quality objectives.

El-Ashry, Mohamed T.

99

Genotypic Responses to Salinity  

PubMed Central

Four ecotypes of the species Lycopersicon cheesmanii ssp. minor (Hook.) C.H. Mull. from the Galapagos Islands were compared with L. esculentum Mill cv. VF 36 with respect to salt tolerance. The L. cheesmanii ecotype that proved most salt-tolerant was selected for detailed comparison with the L. esculentum cultivar. Plants were grown in modified Hoagland solution salinized with synthetic seawater salt mix. Growth rates under saline conditions were examined and amino acid, sugar, total amino nitrogen, free acidity, and Na and K levels in the tissues of the most and least tolerant plants were measured under salt stress and nonstress conditions. Results indicate that all Galapagos ecotypes were far more salt-tolerant than was the esculentum cultivar. They could survive in full strength seawater nutrient solution while the esculentum cultivar could not in most cases withstand levels higher than 50% seawater. Growth rates were reduced in both species under saline conditions but the esculentum cultivar was more severely affected. High levels of total amino nitrogen, specific amino acids, and free acidity along with low sodium content were found in the salt stressed VF 36 cultivar. The opposite responses were noted in the salt stressed treatments of the Galapagos ecotype. Tissue sugar levels did not appear to be similarly correlated with salt stress in either species. Potassium content fell sharply during salinization in the Galapagos ecotype while in the esculentum cultivar it declined relatively little even at high levels of salinity.

Rush, Dale W.; Epstein, Emanuel

1976-01-01

100

Modelling Wind Effects on Subtidal Salinity in Apalachicola Bay, Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinity is an important factor for oyster and estuarine productivity in Apalachicola Bay. Observations of salinity at oyster reefs have indicated a high correlation between subtidal salinity variations and the surface winds along the bay axis in an approximately east-west direction. In this paper, we applied a calibrated hydrodynamic model to examine the surface wind effects on the volume fluxes in the tidal inlets and the subtidal salinity variations in the bay. Model simulations show that, due to the large size of inlets located at the east and west ends of this long estuary, surface winds have significant effects on the volume fluxes in the estuary inlets for the water exchanges between the estuary and ocean. In general, eastward winds cause the inflow from the inlets at the western end and the outflow from inlets at the eastern end of the bay. Winds at 15 mph speed in the east-west direction can induce a 2000 m 3 s -1 inflow of saline seawater into the bay from the inlets, a rate which is about 2·6 times that of the annual average freshwater inflow from the river. Due to the varied wind-induced volume fluxes in the inlets and the circulation in the bay, the time series of subtidal salinity at oyster reefs considerably increases during strong east-west wind conditions in comparison to salinity during windless conditions. In order to have a better understanding of the characteristics of the wind-induced subtidal circulation and salinity variations, the researchers also connected model simulations under constant east-west wind conditions. Results show that the volume fluxes are linearly proportional to the east-west wind stresses. Spatial distributions of daily average salinity and currents clearly show the significant effects of winds on the bay.

Huang, W.; Jones, W. K.; Wu, T. S.

2002-07-01

101

Determining salinization extent, identifying salinity sources, and estimating chloride mass using surface, borehole, and airborne electromagnetic induction methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using an example from an oil field in the semiarid Red River basin in Texas, we show that electromagnetic (EM) methods are useful in locating salinized soil and water, determining salinization extent, identifying likely salinity sources, and estimating the total mass of chloride within a saline-water plume. Each of these aspects assists in managing salinization and assessing its impact. We used ground EM instruments to establish salinization boundaries and determine the range of electrical conductivity, airborne measurements to locate potential sources and quantify the lateral extent and intensity of salinization, and borehole measurements and time domain EM soundings to determine salinization depth and relate ground conductivity to chloride content. We estimated infiltration volume and total chloride mass in the plume from EM data and an empirical, site-specific chloride:conductivity ratio established from well data. Because the measured conductivity of water strongly correlates with total dissolved solids concentration, mass estimation could be extended to any ionic constituent that covaries linearly with total dissolved solids concentration. EM methods owe their success to the large increase in electrical conductivity that occurs where highly conductive, saline water infiltrates geologic materials having naturally low conductivities.

Paine, Jeffrey G.

2003-03-01

102

Hypertonic Saline in Treatment of Pulmonary Disease in Cystic Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

Reeves, Emer P.; Molloy, Kevin; Pohl, Kerstin; McElvaney, Noel G.

2012-01-01

103

Hypertonic saline in treatment of pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration. PMID:22645424

Reeves, Emer P; Molloy, Kevin; Pohl, Kerstin; McElvaney, Noel G

2012-05-03

104

Effect of Majja Basti (therapeutic enema) and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) in the management of Osteoporosis (Asthi-Majjakshaya)  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder that affects entire skeleton, which is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of the skeleton, leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk. In Ayurveda, it can be correlated with Asthi-Majjakshaya. Basti (therapeutic enema) is the prime therapy for Asthi related diseases and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) is the drug which is being used for strengthening of bone by traditional Vaidya since long. It has been selected for oral administration. In clinical trial, 12 patients treated with Majja Basti along with Asthi Shrinkhala pulp capsules and results are very encouraging.

Gupta, Ajay K.; Shah, Nehal; Thakar, A. B.

2012-01-01

105

Effect of Majja Basti (therapeutic enema) and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) in the management of Osteoporosis (Asthi-Majjakshaya).  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder that affects entire skeleton, which is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of the skeleton, leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk. In Ayurveda, it can be correlated with Asthi-Majjakshaya. Basti (therapeutic enema) is the prime therapy for Asthi related diseases and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) is the drug which is being used for strengthening of bone by traditional Vaidya since long. It has been selected for oral administration. In clinical trial, 12 patients treated with Majja Basti along with Asthi Shrinkhala pulp capsules and results are very encouraging. PMID:23049194

Gupta, Ajay K; Shah, Nehal; Thakar, A B

2012-01-01

106

Saline lavage: a rapid, safe, effective method of whole-gut irrigation for bowel preparation.  

PubMed

The standard preparation for cleansing the colon usually involves dietary restrictions, purgatives, and enemas. This is time-consuming, often uncomfortable, and at times unsuccessful. This study of 37 patients examines the efficacy of saline lavage as an alternative method for cleansing the bowel. Isotonic sodium chloride solution is passed into the gut via a small nasogastric tube. The flush is continued for about four hours, until clear effluent is passed per anus. There were no significant complications or variations in weight or serum electrolyte values. Patient acceptance was generally excellent. In our opinion, this rapid bowel preparation consistently provided a clean bowel so that both bowel preparation and colonscopy were accomplished the same day. PMID:684491

Chambers, C E; Carter, H G

1978-09-01

107

Salinity patterns of Florida Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salinity of Florida Bay has undergone dramatic changes over the past century. Salinity values reached their most extreme, up to 70, in the late 1980s, concurrent with ecological changes in Florida Bay including a mass seagrass die-off. In this study, surface salinity was measured at approximately monthly intervals between 1998 and 2004. The 7-year data set was analyzed to

Christopher R. Kelble; Elizabeth M. Johns; William K. Nuttle; Thomas N. Lee; Ryan H. Smith; Peter B. Ortner

2007-01-01

108

Chloride and Salinity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-07-15

109

Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online in 2009, the Aquarius instrument will measure sea surface salinity. Site provides background information about salinity, salinity lesson plans, and salinity data and tools. Activities include relating salt to density, conductivity, buoyancy, and understanding the effect of the water cycle on salinity. View figures of sea surface salinity and temperature as they change from month to month and more.

110

Short chain fatty acid distributions of enema samples from a sigmoidoscopy population: an association of high acetate and low butyrate ratios with adenomatous polyps and colon cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the distribution of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in enema samples taken from subjects before sigmoidoscopy as an indicator of possible microbial community differences between subjects subsequently diagnosed as normal or having colonic disorders. The major SCFA in all groups were acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. A significantly higher ratio of acetate to total SCFA and lower ratio

G A Weaver; J A Krause; T L Miller; M J Wolin

1988-01-01

111

Nitrogen Mineralization Under Saline Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of soil nitrogen (N) from its organic into inorganic forms has been the subject of several investigations, but information on N mineralization in saline soil is scanty. The study was therefore carried out to observe trends in N mineralization in saline soils amended with manure and urea. The electrical conductivity (ECe) of saline soils was 0.2 (S0), 4.1

M. Irshad; T. Honna; S. Yamamoto; A. E. Eneji; N. Yamasaki

2005-01-01

112

Radiofrequency ablation during continuous saline infusion can extend ablation margins  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine whether fluid injection during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) can increase the coagulation area. METHODS: Bovine liver (1-2 kg) was placed on an aluminum tray with a return electrode affixed to the base, and the liver was punctured by an expandable electrode. During RFA, 5% glucose; 50% glucose; or saline fluid was infused continuously at a rate of 1.0 mL/min through the infusion line connected to the infusion port. The area and volume of the thermocoagulated region of bovine liver were determined after RFA. The Joule heat generated was determined from the temporal change in output during the RFA experiment. RESULTS: No liquid infusion was 17.3 ± 1.6 mL, similar to the volume of a 3-cm diameter sphere (14.1 mL). Mean thermocoagulated volume was significantly larger with continuous infusion of saline (29.3 ± 3.3 mL) than with 5% glucose (21.4 ± 2.2 mL), 50% glucose (16.5 ± 0.9 mL) or no liquid infusion (17.3 ± 1.6 mL). The ablated volume for RFA with saline was approximately 1.7-times greater than for RFA with no liquid infusion, representing a significant difference between these two conditions. Total Joule heat generated during RFA was highest with saline, and lowest with 50% glucose. CONCLUSION: RFA with continuous saline infusion achieves a large ablation zone, and may help inhibit local recurrence by obtaining sufficient ablation margins. RFA during continuous saline infusion can extend ablation margins, and may be prevent local recurrence.

Ishikawa, Toru; Kubota, Tomoyuki; Horigome, Ryoko; Kimura, Naruhiro; Honda, Hiroki; Iwanaga, Akito; Seki, Keiichi; Honma, Terasu; Yoshida, Toshiaki

2013-01-01

113

Hypoaigic influences on groundwater flux to a seasonally saline river  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoaigic zones are aquifer volumes close to and beneath the shores of saline surface water bodies, and are characterized by the presence of time-dependent natural convection and chemical stratification. When transient and cyclic processes are involved there is significant potential for complex flow and reaction in the near-shore aquifer, presenting a unique challenge to pollutant risk assessment methodologies. This work

M. G. Trefry; T. J. A. Svensson; G. B. Davis

2007-01-01

114

Effect of saline intake on water flux and osmotic homeostasis in Pekin ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological regulation of body water volume and concentration was evaluated in Pekin ducks, Anas platyrhynchos, slowly acclimated to increasingly saline drinking water (six equal 75 mM NaCl increments). Body mass, total body water (TBW), water flux, plasma osmolality (Osmpl), and ionic and osmoregulatory hormone concentrations were measured at the end of each increment. The salinity at which each variable

D. C. Bennett; D. A. Gray; M. R. Hughes

2003-01-01

115

Diatom-inferred salinity in palaeolakes: An indirect tracer of climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lakes in arid and semi-arid regions respond to climatic change through shifts in lake water volume and ionic concentration. Because diatom distribution is highly correlated with lake hydrochemistry, diatoms can be used to infer changes in salinity and brine composition and thus to infer past climates. Here we critically examine the use of diatom-inferred salinity as a climate proxy, with

Françoise Gasse; Philip Barker; Peter A. Gell; Sherilyn C. Fritz; Françoise Chalie

1997-01-01

116

Management of dryland saline seeps  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Discussed is the identification, diagnosis, control, and reclamation of dryland saline seep problems as found in the North American Great Plains. Saline seeps develop because of geologic stratifications within the soil profile and insufficient use of precipitation by crops used in dryland farming s...

117

Salinity forum: what, how, why  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, salinity in the Colorado River System has increased significantly due to export of high-quality water from the upper reaches and salt pickup from irrigation return flow. Actions in any part of the basin (including parts of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming) affect the problem, and basinwide approach is highly desirable. Although damages due to salinity

D. F. Lawrence; B. C. Saunders

1981-01-01

118

Salinity patterns of Florida Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The salinity of Florida Bay has undergone dramatic changes over the past century. Salinity values reached their most extreme, up to 70, in the late 1980s, concurrent with ecological changes in Florida Bay including a mass seagrass die-off. In this study, surface salinity was measured at approximately monthly intervals between 1998 and 2004. The 7-year data set was analyzed to quantify the effects of precipitation, runoff, evaporation, and climatic variability on salinity in Florida Bay. Overall mean Bay-wide salinity varied from a low of 24.2 just after the passing of Hurricane Irene in October 1999 to a high of 41.8 near the end of a drought period in July 2001. Bay-wide mean salinity exhibited dramatic decreases, up to -0.5 per day, whereas increases were slower, with a maximum rate of 0.1 per day. The freshwater budget for Florida Bay was slightly negative on an annual basis with significant positive monthly values observed during the peak of the rainy season (August through October) and significant negative monthly values observed during the peak of the dry season (March through May). This resulted in a minimum mean monthly Bay-wide salinity in January and a maximum monthly mean in July. Mean salinity for the overall Bay and for each of its four sub-regions could be predicted with reasonable accuracy utilizing a mass balance box model. There was no monotonic trend in salinity over this 7-year study; however, meteorological phenomena, such as tropical cyclones and El Nino-Southern Oscillation, dramatically altered the salinity patterns of Florida Bay on interannual time scales.

Kelble, Christopher R.; Johns, Elizabeth M.; Nuttle, William K.; Lee, Thomas N.; Smith, Ryan H.; Ortner, Peter B.

2007-01-01

119

Intravenous saline injection as an interoceptive signal in rats  

PubMed Central

Rationale Addictive drugs are commonly delivered in the organism by means of intravenous (iv) injections. Since saline mimics the blood environment by basic ionic properties and pH, it is generally assumed that it should not have any physiological effects, serving as a control for the effects induced by drugs. Objective To examine central, behavioral and physiological effects of stress- and cue-free iv saline injection in freely moving rats. Methods We examined how typical, low-volume and slow-speed saline injections affects cortical EEG and neck EMG, locomotor activity as well as central and peripheral temperatures. Results Saline injection made during slow-wave synchronized activity induces rapid, transient EEG desynchronization, manifesting as a drop of EEG total power, decrease in alpha activity, and increases in beta and gamma activities. Saline injection did not affect locomotor activity as well as brain and body temperatures, but induced a transient increase in neck EMG activity and rapid, brief drop in skin temperature, suggesting peripheral vasoconstriction. These responses were virtually fully absent when saline injection was made during naturally occurring desynchronized EEG activity during behavioral activity. Conclusions Since iv injection is able to produce a peripheral sensory signal that is transmitted rapidly to the CNS and followed by a more prolonged effect of the injected drug on brain cells, with repeated drug administrations the injection itself could play a role of drug-related sensory cue, thus inducing conditioned physiological responses and altering the effects of injected drugs.

Kiyatkin, Eugene A.; Lenoir, Magalie

2012-01-01

120

40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230.25 ...Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity gradients form where salt water from the...

2013-07-01

121

40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230.25 ...Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity gradients form where salt water from the...

2010-07-01

122

ConcepTest: Ocean Salinity #2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How would salinity of the oceans vary if the oceans were twice as deep as present and held approximately twice as much water? a. Salinity would be less than present b. Salinity would be greater than present c. ...

123

40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...24 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230.25 ...Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity gradients form where salt water from the...

2009-07-01

124

Salinity tolerance of Populus.  

PubMed

The genus Populus has a wide distribution in different climatic zones. Besides its economic and ecological relevance, Populus also serves as a model for elucidating physiological and molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance in tree species. In this review, adaptation strategies of poplars to excess soil salinity are addressed at different scales, from the cellular to the whole-plant level. Striking differences in salt tolerance exist among different poplar species and ecotypes, with Populus euphratica being outstanding in this respect. Key mechanisms identified in this species to mediate salt tolerance are compartmentalisation of Cl(-) in the vacuoles of the root cortex cells, diminished xylem loading of NaCl, activation of Na(+) extrusion into the soil solution under stress, together with simultaneously avoiding excessive K(+) loss by regulation of depolarisation-activated cation channels. This leads to improved maintenance of the K(+)/Na(+) balance, a crucial precondition for survival under salt stress. Leaf cells of this species are able to compartmentalise Na(+) preferentially in the apoplast, whereas in susceptible poplar species, as well as in crop plants, vacuolar Na(+) deposition precedes apoplastic transport. ABA, Ca(2+)and ROS are involved in stress sensing, with higher or faster activation of defences in tolerant than in susceptible poplar species. P. euphratica develops leaf succulence after prolonged salt exposure as a plastic morphological adaptation that leads to salt dilution. Transgenic approaches to improve salt tolerance by transformation of candidate genes have had limited success, since salt tolerance is a multigenic trait. In future attempts towards increased salt resistance, barriers between different poplar sections must be overcome and application of novel biotechnological tools, such as gene stacking, are recommended. PMID:20398238

Chen, S; Polle, A

2010-03-01

125

Does large-bowel enema reduce septic complications in acute pancreatitis? 1 1 This study was performed in the Experimental Medical Research Center of Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The source of septic complications in acute pancreatitis was unknown until recent years. The pathogenesis of bacterial translocation from the gut has been accepted as the main source of pancreatic or peripancreatic infection. This study was designed to investigate the role of large bowel enema during acute pancreatitis in preventing bacterial translocation.MATERIALS AND METHODS:Twenty-four Spraque-Dawley rats were used in

Serdar Yol; Mahmut Baykan; ?ükrü Özer; Mehmet Aköz; Osman Yilmaz; Cüneyt Kuru

1998-01-01

126

Saline Tolerance Physiology In Grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinization of agricultural lands is accelerating, with over 1 Mha of irrigated lands deteriorating to non-productivity each\\u000a year (Hamdy, 1996; Choukr-Allah, 1996). Currently from 100 Mha to 1000 Mha of irrigated land is salt-affected due to human\\u000a activity (Szabolcs, 1989; Oldeman et al., 1991). Though much of this land is currently too saline for conventional agriculture,\\u000a it has the potential

Kenneth B. Marcum

127

Salinity is Reduced Below the Evaporation Front During Soil Salinization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly 50% of irrigated lands in arid and semi-arid regimes have salinization problems. Salinization is generally caused by salts carried to the soil surface by capillary rising water and occurs under very dry conditions, when vapor fluxes become the main water flux mechanism. Despite its global importance, actual salinization mechanisms are only poorly understood. Soil salinization is generally studied by means of water and salt balances without entering on small scale processes. This may suffice for explaining large scale behavior but hardly for designing remediation practices. The objective of this work is to study the solute transport under evaporation conditions. We have performed laboratory experiments and modelled them. We have built open sand columns initially saturated with an epsomite (MgSO4-7H2O) solution. Evaporation was driven by an infrared lamp and proceeded until the overall saturation fell down to 0.32. Results imply that water vapor flows not only upwards above the evaporation front, but also downwards beneath this front, where it condensates. Condensation causes the dilution of the solution. That is, concentrations fall below the initial values. The experiments have been modelled with the program RetrasoCodeBright, which couples non isothermal multiphase flow and reactive transport. Reproducing the observations required modifying the standard retention and relative permeability functions to include oven dry conditions. The model reproduces the observed concentration, water content and temperature profiles along the column and confirms the existence of condensation and decrease of salt concentration below the evaporation front. The model also allows us to distinguish the relevance between the advective and diffusive vapor fluxes, showing that the latter is, by far, the largest. The mechanism displays positives feedbacks, as condensation will be most intense in areas of highest salinity, thus diluting saline water that may have infiltrated.

Gran, M.; Carrera, J.; Olivella, S.; Massana, J.; Saaltink, M. W.; Ayora, C.; Lloret, A.

2008-12-01

128

Salinity is Reduced Below the Evaporation Front During Soil Salinization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly 50% of irrigated lands in arid and semi-arid regimes have salinization problems. Salinization is generally caused by salts carried to the soil surface by capillary rising water and occurs under very dry conditions, when vapor fluxes become the main water flux mechanism. Despite its global importance, actual salinization mechanisms are only poorly understood. Soil salinization is generally studied by means of water and salt balances without entering on small scale processes. This may suffice for explaining large scale behavior but hardly for designing remediation practices. The objective of this work is to study the solute transport under evaporation conditions. We have performed laboratory experiments and modelled them. We have built open sand columns initially saturated with an epsomite (MgSO4•7H2O) solution. Evaporation was driven by an infrared lamp and proceeded until the overall saturation fell down to 0.32. Results imply that water vapor flows not only upwards above the evaporation front, but also downwards beneath this front, where it condensates. Condensation causes the dilution of the solution. That is, concentrations fall below the initial values. The experiments have been modelled with the program Retraso-CodeBright, which couples non isothermal multiphase flow and reactive transport. Reproducing the observations required modifying the standard retention and relative permeability functions to include oven dry conditions. The model reproduces the observed concentration, water content and temperature profiles along the column and confirms the existence of condensation and decrease of salt concentration below the evaporation front. The model also allows us to distinguish the relevance between the advective and diffusive vapor fluxes, showing that the latter is, by far, the largest. The mechanism displays positives feedbacks, as condensation will be most intense in areas of highest salinity, thus diluting saline water that may have infiltrated.

Gran, M.; Carrera, J.; Olivella, S.; Massana, J.; Saaltink, M. W.; Ayora, C.; Lloret, A.

2009-04-01

129

Hypoaigic influences on groundwater flux to a seasonally saline river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hypoaigic zones are aquifer volumes close to and beneath the shores of saline surface water bodies, and are characterized by the presence of time-dependent natural convection and chemical stratification. When transient and cyclic processes are involved there is significant potential for complex flow and reaction in the near-shore aquifer, presenting a unique challenge to pollutant risk assessment methodologies. This work considers the nature of some hypoaigic processes generated by the seasonally saline Canning River of Western Australia near a site contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. A dissolved hydrocarbon plume migrates within the shallow superficial aquifer to the nearby bank of the Canning River. Beneath the river bank a zone of complex fluid mixing is established by seasonal and tidal influences. Understanding this complexity and the subsequent ramifications for local biogeochemical conditions is critical to inferring the potential for degradation of advecting contaminants. A range of modelling approaches throws light on the overall topographic controls of discharge to the river, on the saline convection processes operating under the river bank, on the potential for fluid mixing, and on the various important time scales in the system. Saline distributions simulated within the aquifer hypoaigic zone are in at least qualitative agreement with previous field measurements at the site and are strongly affected by seasonal influences. Groundwater seepage velocities at the shoreline are found to be positively correlated with river salinity. Calculations of fluid age distributions throughout the system show sensitivity to dispersivity values; however, maximum fluid ages under the river appear to be diffusion limited to a few decades. The saline convection cell in the aquifer defines a zone of strong dispersive dilution of aged (many decades) deep aquifer fluids with relatively young (several months) riverine fluids. Seasonal recharge and river salinity cycles induce regular perturbations to the convection cell, yielding intra-annual variations of 50% in seepage velocity and almost 30% in wedge penetration distance at the plume location.

Trefry, M. G.; Svensson, T. J. A.; Davis, G. B.

2007-03-01

130

Measurement of salinity of paleoformation waters in sedimentary basins for better evaluation of oil migration and reserve estimation  

SciTech Connect

Irreducible water salinity is important in determining hydrocarbon reserves since relative hydrocarbon saturation is determined indirectly as the difference between reservoir porosity and the water volume determined from its electrical conductivity. Formation water salinity may range from 0-300,000 ppm, corresponding to electrical conductivities of 0-200 mmho/cm. This range in conductivities indicates the potential errors in determining hydrocarbon volume that might arise from using inappropriate salinity estimates. Current formation waters in Mesozoic basins from Australia and Papua New Guinea generally have low salinities. Further, these Mesozoic sections typically contain siliciclastic sediments deposited when the plate was at high latitudes, and connate waters are expected to have low salinities. Irreducible water is therefore usually assigned low salinity.

Eadington, P.; Lisk, M.; Kreiger, F.; Hamilton, J.; Das, M. (CSIRO Division of Petroleum Resources and APCRC, North Ride (Australia)); Person, M. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States))

1994-07-01

131

Temperature/Salinity/Density activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an in-class activity. I used it relatively early in the semester, after covering the basic water properties portion of the class. I use the relationship between temperature/salinity/density to begin discussing vertical movement of water. The first purpose of this activity is to reinforce the concepts that have just been explained about the relationship between temperature and density and salinity and density. The second purpose is to bring these ideas back to what they have learned about density differences. Finally, the activity is also designed to help them learn how to read graphs.

Dekens, Petra

132

Diagenetic saline formation waters: Their role in crustal processes  

SciTech Connect

Formation waters typical of most sedimentary basins are Bi-rich, Na-Ca-Cl brines. High Cl content is due to halite dissolution and high Ca content to albitization of metastable detrital plagioclase deposited in both sands and shales. High Br content is due to halite recrystallization, especially during deformation, and to the conversion of carnallite to sylvite. Minor elements and isotopes are all controlled by mineral/water reactions. Saline formation waters are thus a normal diagenetic product formed during burial. Diagenetic formation waters constitute a previously unrecognized loop in crustal cycling. Transfer of Li, B, S, Cl, Ca, and Br from sediments to brines, and then discharge of brines back to the ocean, explains why these six elements are depleted in the average igneous crust relative to the average sedimentary crust. Diagenetic saline formation waters are limited in volume only by the availability of sedimentary halite and detrital plagioclase. Thus, the volume of fluids available for MVT-type mineralization and late stage sediment diagenesis is much larger than would be true if formation waters were modified surficial brines. Discharge of saline formation waters from sedimentary basins accounts for efficient chloride cycling (225 Ma residence time in the ocean), and for most of the chloride content of the world's rivers not due to aerosols. Expulsion of large volumes of diagenetic formation waters during tectonism can account for rapid excursions in oceanic chemistry, as in the case of [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr.

Land, L.S. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. Geology)

1992-01-01

133

Osmotic adjustment of sugar beets in response to soil salinity and its influence on stomatal conductance, growth and yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar beets were grown in tanks filled with loam and clay, and were irrigated with waters of three different levels of salinity. Osmotic adjustment was determined by analyzing the pressure-volume curves at three growth stages. Sugar beets showed osmotic adjustment in two ways: with their phenological development and towards salinity. Owing to the latter adjustment sugar beets are able to

N. Katerji; J. W. van Hoorn; A. Hamdy; M. Mastrorilli; E. Mou Karzel

1997-01-01

134

REVEGETATION OF SALINE PLAYA MARGINS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New shrub recruitment in saline playa margins is limited by extremely high osmotic potentials of the seedbed. In the Eagle Valley playa near Fernley NV, recruitment is rare and occurs mostly in recently deposited eolian and flood-deposited sediments of low osmotic potential. In most instances, howev...

135

Mycelial bacteria of saline soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The actinomycetal complexes of saline soils comprise the representatives of the Streptomyces and Micromonospora genera, the number of which are hundreds and thousands of CFU/g soil. Complexes of mycelial bacteria in saline soils are poorer in terms of number (by 1-3 orders of magnitude) and taxonomic composition than the complexes of the zonal soil types. A specific feature of the actinomycetal complexes of saline soils is the predominance of halophilic, alkaliphilic, and haloalkaliphilic streptomycetes that well grow at pH 8-9 and concentrations of NaCl close to 5%. Actinomycetes in saline soils grow actively, and the length of their mycelium reaches 140 m in 1 gram of soil. The haloalkaliphilic streptomycetes grow fast and inhibit the formation of spores at pH 9 and high concentrations of salts (Na2SO4 and MgCl2, 5%) as compared to their behavior on a neutral medium with a salt concentration of 0.02%. They are characterized by the maximal radial growth rate of colonies on an alkaline medium with 5% NaCl.

Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Zenova, G. M.; Oborotov, G. V.

2008-10-01

136

Determining Salinity by Simple Means.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the construction and use of a simple salinometer. The salinometer is composed, mainly, of a milliammeter and a battery and uses the measurement of current flow to determine the salinity of water. A complete list of materials is given, as are details of construction and operation of the equipment. The use of the salinometer in…

Schlenker, Richard M.

137

Effect of saline intake on water flux and osmotic homeostasis in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).  

PubMed

The physiological regulation of body water volume and concentration was evaluated in Pekin ducks, Anas platyrhynchos, slowly acclimated to increasingly saline drinking water (six equal 75 mM NaCl increments). Body mass, total body water (TBW), water flux, plasma osmolality (Osm(pl)), and ionic and osmoregulatory hormone concentrations were measured at the end of each increment. The salinity at which each variable deviates from its homeostatic set point was calculated by continuous two-phase linear regression. We hypothesized that, as drinking water salinity increases: (1) body water increases in concentration before it decreases in volume and (2) that regulating variables that help determine homeostatically set values (plasma hormone concentrations and water flux) deviate from values of freshwater ducks at lower drinking water salinities than the variables they regulate (Osm(pl), hematocrit, TBW). Osm(pl) was the first variable for which we could calculate a deviation from its homeostatically controlled value. It increases at much lower drinking water salinity than that at which TBW decreases, supporting our first hypothesis, but not our second hypothesis. We further hypothesized that, because the concentration of Pekin duck salt gland secretion is only slightly higher than that of their drinking water, they increase water flux (drinking) as salinity of drinking water increases, until the latter exceeds the secretion concentration and then they drink less. There was no change in water flux until it decreases when TBW decreases, 329 mM NaCl and 335 mM NaCl, respectively. The results do not support our hypothesis that Pekin ducks increase drinking as the salinity of their drinking water increases, but do indicate that, at tolerable salinities, Pekin ducks maintain body water volume while allowing body water osmolality to increase. At higher salinities, ducks decrease drinking and use body water to get rid of the excess salt. PMID:12592440

Bennett, D C; Gray, D A; Hughes, M R

2002-11-22

138

A volumetric temperature\\/salinity census for the Middle Atlantic Bight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two seasonal volumetric temperature\\/salinity diagrams have been prepared for the waters of the Middle Atlantic Bight from Nantucket Shoals to Cape Hatteras, to a depth of 200 m and extending as much as 130 km beyond the edge of the continental shelf. Total volume included is 23,145.6 kms, of which about half is slope water, more saline than 35%,. Most

W. R. WRIGHT; C. E. PARKER

1976-01-01

139

Selecting an optimal configuration for the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission is aimed at monitoring, globally, surface soil moisture and sea surface salinity from radiometric L-band observations. The SMOS radiometer relies upon a two-dimensional (2-D) synthetic aperture concept in order to achieve satisfactory spatial resolution performances for a minimal cost in terms of payload mass and volume. Counterparts of this advantage are reduced

Philippe Waldteufel; Jacqueline Boutin; Yann Kerr

2003-01-01

140

INTEGRATING DESALINATION AND AGRICULTURAL SALINITY CONTROL ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The cost-effectiveness relationships for various agricultural and desalination alternatives for controlling salinity in irrigation return flows are developed. Selection of optimal salinity management strategies on a river basin scale is described as a problem of integrating optim...

141

ConcepTest: Ocean Salinity #1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How would the salinity of the oceans vary if the continents and oceans each covered 50% of Earth's surface and precipitation and evaporation were similar to present? a. salinity would be lower than today b. ...

142

Salinization: unplumbed salt in a parched landscape.  

PubMed

The global hydrological and salt cycles are described, as are the ways in which human activities have led to their disturbance. One effect of this disturbance is the unnatural increase in the salinity of many inland waters (secondary salinization). The geographical extent of secondary salinization is outlined, together with its effects on various types of inland waters, such as salt lakes, freshwater lakes and wetlands, and rivers and streams. The likely impact on salinization of global climate change is summarized. PMID:11379231

Williams, W D

2001-01-01

143

Polymer tensiometers in a saline environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is estimated that 20% of all cultivated land and nearly half of the irrigated land is salt-affected, which pose major economic and environmental problems. Salinity may be the result of two processes; dryland and irrigation salinity. Dryland salinity is caused by a rise in the groundwater table, which occurs as a result of the replacement of deep-rooted, perennial native

Martine van der Ploeg; H. P. A. Gooren; G. Bakker; W. Russell; C. W. Hoogendam; C. Huiskes; P. Shouse; G. H. de Rooij

2010-01-01

144

Ocean salinity measurement using remote sensing data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean salinity is a very important parameter for the ocean fishery industry. The importance of scientific fishery resources development has necessitated this research. Water salinity is often measured to help the fishermen in locating their targets. But measurement of ocean salinity has formally been possible only by using traditional ship methods. In consequence, this paper has developed another way of

Boniface Ekechukwu; Shattri Mansor; M. I. H. Mohamed; M. M. Emeka

1999-01-01

145

Salinity Variations in the Southern California Current  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrographic observations southwestward of the Southern California Bight in the period 1937-99 show that temperature and salinity variations have very different interannual variability. Temperature varies within and above the thermocline and is correlated with climate indices of El Niño, the Pacific decadal oscillation, and local upwelling. Salinity variability is largest in the surface layers of the offshore salinity minimum and

Niklas Schneider; Emanuele di Lorenzo; Pearn P. Niiler

2005-01-01

146

[Diagnostic accuracy and clinical significance of combined small bowel enema and scintigraphy with pure fractions of neutrophil granulocytes labeled with HMPAO-Tc99m in chronic intestinal inflammation].  

PubMed

Enema is the primary imaging method in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease in the small bowel, with clinical follow-up examinations performed by gastroenterologists as the gold standard. The information provided by small bowel enema, in addition to endoscopic findings, is usually sufficient for the gastroenterologist to make the definitive diagnosis and to plan the whole treatment. Scintigraphy with leukocytes labelled with HMPAO-Tc99m has several unique characteristics favoring its use as a diagnostic imaging method in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. It is a noninvasive method requiring no bowel preparation and it is safe in severely ill patients in whom such conventional imaging methods as barium enema or colonscopy might be hazardous. In this study, the authors report the results of their experience with diagnostic small bowel enema and leukocyte scintigraphy with HMPAO-Tc99m in 28 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease in 18 patients, ulcerative colitis in 7 and radiation-induced inflammatory stenosis of the sigma-rectum, bowel inflammation after appendicectomy and bladder surgery, respectively, in 1 patient each). Scintigraphy with autologous granulocytes with HMPAO-Tc99m was positive in 26 patients and negative in 2. Twenty-five patients were true positives and 1 was a false positive. Fifteen patients were also submitted to small bowel enema: 12 of them were positive (true positive) and 3 negative (1 false negative and 2 true negative). The results of granulocytes scintigraphy were compared with those of small bowel enema: the radionuclide study appeared superior in the assessment of bowel inflammation associated with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Indeed, scintigraphy depicted granulocyte uptake in the colon where enema had shown no major findings in 4 patients with Crohn's disease. In the author's opinion, the overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of combined leukocyte scintigraphy and small bowel enema play a major role in the early diagnosis of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis and in the assessment of disease extent and activity. PMID:9045240

Celentano, L; Cirillo, L C; D'Arienzo, A; De Santis, D A

1996-10-01

147

Novel Determinants of Salinity Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A novel method for the isolation of plant cDNA clones that provide functional sufficiency for salinity tolerance in E. coli cells was developed. A cDNA library containing genes expressed in salt-adapted tobacco cells was constructed in the AZAPII\\u000a vector. E. coli cells were infected with the rescued pBluescript phagemid library, and the infected bacterial cells were selected on agar\\u000a plates

Narendra K. Singh; Sagadevan G. Mundree; Robert D. Locy

148

Effect of initial soil salinity and subirrigation water salinity on potato tuber yield and size  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field lysimeter study was conducted to investigate the effect of initial soil salinity and salinity level of brackish subirrigation water on tuber weight and tuber size of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars (Kennebec, Norland and Russet Burbank) under simulated arid conditions. Both saline and non-saline initial soil conditions were simulated in a total of 36 lysimeters. Eighteen lysimeters

R. M. Patell; S. O. Prasher; D. Donnelly; R. B. Bonnell

2001-01-01

149

The effect of acclimation salinity and age on the salinity tolerance of pink shrimp postlarvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum (Burkenroad) lives in south Florida ecosystems in different salinity regimes ranging from brackish to hypersaline. In Florida Bay, the main nursery grounds, juveniles reside in 25–50 salinity; while 20km northwest of the Bay, juveniles inhabit more estuarine salinities between 5 and 15. In this study we investigated the hypothesis that the disparate salinity regimes in

Maria M. Criales; Ian C. Zink; Joan A. Browder; Thomas L. Jackson

150

Salinization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students work as a team to determine the effect salt has on plant germination. They then use their lab data to create a report on how the increasing salt concentrations affected the germination of the seeds and at what salt concentration no seeds will germinate. Students will discover that salt buildup is an existing or potential hazard on almost all of the 42 million acres of irrigated farmland in the United States. Much of the world's unused land is in arid and semiarid regions where irrigation will be necessary. Water contains a small amount of salt and over time this salt accumulates in the soil. This activity has an accompanying teacher site with hints and more information.

Miller, Lonnie

151

Comparison of hypertonic saline versus normal saline on cytokine profile during CABG  

PubMed Central

Background and the purpose of the study Blood contact with artificial surfaces of the extracorporeal circuit and ischemia-reperfusion injury in CABG with CPB, may lead to a systemic inflammatory response. Hypertonic saline have been recently investigated as a fluid in order to decrease inflammatory response and cytokines generation in patients undergo cardiac operations. Our purpose is to study the prophylactic effect of HS 5% infusion versus NS on serum IL-6 as an inflammatory & IL-10 as an anti-inflammatory biomarker in CABG patients. Methods The present study is a randomized double-blinded clinical trial. 40 patients undergoing CABG were randomized to receive HS 5% or NS before operation. Blood samples were obtained after receiving HS or NS, just before operation, 24 and 48 hours post-operatively. Plasma levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were measured by ELISA. Results and major conclusion Patients received HS had lower levels of IL-6 and higher level of IL-10 compared with NS group, however these differences were not statistically significant. Results of this study suggest that pre-treatment with small volume hypertonic saline 5% may have beneficial effects on inflammatory response following CABG operation.

2012-01-01

152

Volume Control by Muscle Fibers of the Blue Crab  

PubMed Central

Single isolated muscle fibers from the walking legs of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus act as Boyle-van't Hoff osmometers with an osmotically inactive volume of 33 %. Fibers in hypotonic salines undergo a spontaneous volume readjustment toward the initial volumes of the cells found in isotonic salines. The volume readjustment is initiated by the increase in cell volume in hypotonic salines and appears to be dependent on the duration of exposure of the fiber to external sodium, the sodium concentration, and the pH of the external medium. The volume-readjusted cells continue to behave as osmometers, but with an increased relative osmotically inactive volume and a decreased internal resistivity. The decreases in cell volumes appear to be, in large part, due to losses of osmotically active nonelectrolytes from the cells.

Lang, Michael A.; Gainer, Harold

1969-01-01

153

Fever control and application of hypothermia using intravenous cold saline  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the use and feasibility of cold saline to decrease body temperature in pediatric neurocritical care. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Pediatric tertiary care university hospital. Patients Children between 1 week and 17 yrs of age admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with acute brain injury and having received intravenous cold saline between June-August 2009. Intervention(s) None. Measurements and Main Results Eighteen subjects accounted for 20 infusions with mean infusion volume 18 ± 10 cc/kg. Eight subjects had traumatic brain injury (TBI), 2 had intracranial hemorrhage, 6 had cardiac arrest, and one each had ischemic stroke and status epilepticus. The mean age was 9.5 ± 4.8 yrs. Temperature decreased from 38.7 ± 1.1°C to 37.7 ± 1.2°C and 37.0 ± 2.0 to 35.3 ± 1.6°C one h after infusion for fever (n=14, p<.05) or hypothermia (HT) induction (n=6, p=.05), respectively. Cold saline was not bolused, rather infused over 10–15 minutes. Mean arterial blood pressure and oxygenation parameters (PaO2/FiO2 ratio, mean airway pressure) were unchanged, but heart rate decreased in HT subjects (121 ± 4 vs. 109 ± 12; p<.05). Serum sodium concentration and International normalized ratio were significantly increased after cold saline infusion. There were no differences between pre- and post-infusion serum glucose and hematocrit, nor cerebral perfusion pressure or intracranial pressure in TBI patients. Conclusions Cold saline was an effective method of reducing temperature in children with acute brain injury. This approach can be considered to treat fever or to induce HT. Prospective study comparing safety and efficacy versus other cooling measures should be considered.

Fink, Ericka L.; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Clark, Robert S. B.; Bell, Michael J.

2013-01-01

154

Colloid Transport in Porous Medium: Impact of High Salinity Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explored the transport of colloids suspended in natural saline solutions with a wide range of ionic strengths, up to Dead Sea brines. Migration of latex microspheres through saturated sand columns of different sizes was studied in lab experiments, and colloid transport was simulated with a mathematical model. We have found that latex microspheres were mobile even in the extremely saline brines of the Dead Sea (ionic strength = 100.9 M). At this high ionic strength, according to the common colloid transport theories, no energetic barrier to colloid attachment exists and colloid adsorption was expected to be a favorable process. Apparently, even in that high salinity, colloids adsorption is not complete and ~20% colloids are allowed to transport (through 30-cm long column). Colloid transport was found to be related to the solution salinity, as expected. After 2-3 pore volumes (PV) the relative concentration of colloids at the outlet of 30-cm long columns decreased as the solution ionic strength increased until some critical value (ionic strength greater than 10-1.8 M) and then remained constant as the solution salinity increased. To further explore the sorption of colloids on sand surfaces in Dead Sea brines, breakthrough curves (BTCs) were studied using 7-cm long columns, through which hundreds of PV were introduced. The observed BTCs exhibited a bi-modal shape that suggests different rates of colloid attachment. After initial breakthrough the relative concentration of colloids at the outlet rose to a value of 0.8 (after 1.5 PV), and it remained relatively constant until approximately 17 PV were flushed through the column. After a total flow of about 20 PV, the relative concentration reached a value of one. The colloid migration process was successfully modeled using the limited entrapment model (Pachepsky et al., 2006), assuming the colloid attachment rate is dependent on the concentration of attached colloids.

Weisbrod, N.; Magal, E.; Yechieli, Y.; Yakirevich, A.

2009-12-01

155

Runoff quality impacts of dust suppression using saline water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In mining and gas operations, dust generation from unsealed roads is a major problem. Commonly, road watering is used to suppress dust, with the lowest water quality available generally being selected for that purpose. Whilst minimising water usage for the site, that practice does create concerns with respect to potential environmental impacts if runoff from the treated roads has significantly elevated salinity. For coal seam gas operations, the water extracted concurrently with the gas contains predominantly sodium bicarbonate. Therefore, where coal seam gas water is sprayed onto roads, there is potential for elevated sodium in runoff to impact on soil adjoining the roads, but there is no information on the rates of dissolution and mobilisation of soluble salt from the surface of roads that have been sprayed with low quality water to reduce dust. Therefore a rainfall simulator study was carried out to investigate rates of mobilisation of sodium bicarbonate from compacted soil surfaces simulating an unsealed road. The study considered effects of the amount of precipitated sodium bicarbonate on the soil surface and variations in rainfall intensity. Because the soil surfaces were compacted, runoff commenced almost immediately following application of rain. For all treatments with applied surface salt, runoff quality data showed a peak in salt concentration in the first flush of runoff, and relatively rapid reduction through time in those initial concentrations. The magnitude and duration of peak concentrations depended on both rainfall rate and the quantity of salt present on the soil surface. The flush of salts in run-off from the roads occurred very early in the run-off event, when none of the surrounding area would have commenced to run off. Consequently, the relatively small volume of run-off produced directly by the road could be expected to predominantly infiltrate in the table drain adjoining the road. The initial flush of saline water would then be leached to depth or diluted by the less saline runoff generated from the road in the latter part of the run-off event, or by non- saline runoff from the surrounding catchment. Particularly for mine sites, the data indicate that the use of saline water in dust suppression on unsealed roads is unlikely to impact significantly on the wider surrounding environment. It is recognised that watering for dust suppression on mine sites typically salinises the road area, and that eventual rehabilitation has to deal with those saline areas. Therefore, additional salinity in the soil adjoining the road is not considered to be of concern.

Loch, Rob J.; Squires, Helen

2010-05-01

156

The SMOS ocean salinity retrieval algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) will be, from spring 2009, the first space mission attempting the determination of sea surface salinity using microwave L-band radiometry. The SMOS aperture synthesis technique poses strict requirements to instrument calibration and stability for a successful brightness temperature image reconstruction. Besides this, the low sensitivity of Tb to salinity, even at L-band, and the still not fully developed/validated emissivity models at this frequency taking into account all the physical processes that impact on it, mainly the effects of surface roughness, plus the need of removing from the recorded signal the contributions of scattered radiation from external sources (sun, galaxy) result in a really challenging salinity determination by SMOS. In this presentation we review the approach implemented in SMOS for salinity retrieval from the calibrated brightness temperature maps. The different processing steps are summarily described, as well as their implementation status and validation in the SMOS level 2 salinity processor.

Font, J.

2009-04-01

157

Detecting a salinity plume in an unconfined sandy aquifer and assessing secondary soil salinization using electromagnetic induction techniques, North Dakota, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-use changes on the Sheyenne Delta in southeastern North Dakota, USA, have prompted research on impacts to the unconfined Sheyenne Delta aquifer (SDA). This study examines effects of the saline discharge of a flowing artesian well that taps the Dakota aquifer (DAK) on SDA groundwater chemistry and soil salinity. Objectives were to map the saline plume in the SDA using induction techniques, to assess chloride migration in the SDA, and to evaluate induction sensitivity to moderately saline sands. Induction data, collected in a 2.9-ha grid, were compared to 31 soil profiles analyzed for gravimetric moisture, electrical conductivity, and chloride. Soil salinization is widespread, but only 7% of the area meets the 4-dS/m threshold for saline soils. SDA chloride distribution was determined on transects oriented with and perpendicular to the flow path determined from induction readings. Chloride was detected in the aquifer 550 m from the source, indicating a transport rate of 21 m/yr. Complex recharge and discharge patterns and hummocky relief contribute to a wide chloride plume at this site. A mass balance based on soil-water content and chloride concentration shows that only 4% of the chloride from the DAK well remains in the grid volume.

Hopkins, D. G.; Richardson, J. L.

1999-08-01

158

“Great Salinity Anomalies” in the North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We revisited the “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1970s (GSA'70s; Dickson et al., 1988) and documented the newly identified “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1980s (hence termed GSA'80s), both propagated around the North Atlantic in a similar fashion. The advective mechanism, initially proposed to explain the observed sequence of low-salinity, low-temperature events during the GSA'70s, apparently holds also for the

Igor M. Belkin; Sydney Levitus; John Antonov; Svend-Aage Malmberg

1998-01-01

159

Salinity minimum in the tropical Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the salinity minimum at subsurface depths of the tropical Pacific is a local phenomenon. Characteristics\\u000a of the salinity minimum are relative by absolute values and variable in time. It appears and disappears in the intertropical\\u000a convergence zone according to variability of the freshwater budget sign. The salinity minimum appears during the negative\\u000a phase of the freshwater

V. A. Sosnin

2008-01-01

160

Soil Salinity in Arid Riparian Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of soil salinity in the riparian areas of the arid Southwest are not well understood. Some riparian areas maintain a relatively low soil salinity with thriving salt sensitive vegetation such as Cottonwoods while other areas are completely salinized and covered by Saltcedars. Is the difference in soil salinity caused by a small amount of excess rainfall sufficient to leach salts back to the ground water or by ground water dynamics that "wash" the soil profile from below? First, we verify that the model HYDRUS1D can be used to predict long term soil salinity in the middle Rio Grande valley around Albuquerque. The validation was carried out by demonstrating that the predicted apparent soil electrical conductivities of six representative soil profiles matched quite well the apparent soil electrical conductivities measured in the field with the Geonics EM38 ground conductivity meter. Next, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to analyze which factors determine soil salinity under riparian conditions. Soil texture -which determines capillary rise- is the most important predictor variable for long term soil salinity: generally a finer soil texture leads to more saline soils. Ground water dynamics appear to have an effect on the long term soil salinity of coarser textured soils.

Hong, S.; Hendrickx, J. M.

2002-12-01

161

Detection of rectal and rectosigmoid lesions by double-contrast barium enema examination and sigmoidoscopy. Accuracy of technique and efficacy of standard overhead views.  

PubMed

The double-contrast barium-enema examination (DC-BE) and endoscopy were compared in 100 patients (126 lesions) to determine the accuracy of each method and assess the efficacy of standard overhead views in detecting rectal and rectosigmoid masses. Seven lesions were missed with DB-BE (accurate rate, 95%) and 20 with endoscopy (accuracy rate, 84%). Lateral and angled rectum views were positive in 74% and 94%, respectively; combining these with supine, prone, and left posterior oblique views, 95% of 121 lesions were detected on at least 2 radiographs. Fifteen of 41 lesions (37%) were missed with the rigid sigmoidoscope, but only 5 of 85 (6%) with the flexible sigmoidoscope. The authors conclude that suspected rectal or rectosigmoid tumors can be diagnosed accurately with only 5 projections, rather than the 11 often employed for the entire colon, and that the flexible sigmoidoscope should be used routinely instead of the rigid sigmoidoscope. PMID:7053548

Thoeni, R F; Petras, A

1982-01-01

162

Improvement of salinity representation in an ensemble coupled data assimilation system using pseudo salinity profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scarcity of salinity observations prior to the Argo period makes it tremendously difficult to estimate ocean states. By using the so-called pseudo salinity profiles constructed from temperature and altimetry information, here we show the improvement of salinity representation estimated by the ensemble coupled data assimilation system of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. The comparisons with climatology and independent observations show that the pseudo salinity data considerably improve the assimilation skill for the pre-Argo period (1993-2001). For the Argo period (2002-2007), there is little degradation of the assimilation skill using pseudo salinity instead of Argo observations. This result ensures the robustness of the new assimilation fields with pseudo salinity for the pre-Argo period when salinity observations are sparse. We also suggest that the interannual variability of the existing reanalysis products could suffer from erroneously-estimated discontinuities due to the non-stationary nature of the salinity observing system.

Chang, You-Soon; Zhang, Shaoqing; Rosati, Anthony

2011-07-01

163

Salinity Effects on Superhydrophobic Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments are carried out to investigate the effect of NaCl concentrations on degree of hydrophobicity and longevity of polystyrene fibrous coating. A rheological study using salt water as a test fluid is performed to observe the generated drag reduction from the coating with increasing salt concentration compared to deionized water. Contact-angle measurements of droplets of solutions on the surface are used to validate the results from the rheometer. In situ noninvasive optical spectroscopy system is used to measure the time-dependent loss of entrapped air within the submerged fibrous coating. water for comparison. The superhydrophobic coating used is made of polystyrene fibers that are deposited using DC-biased AC-electrospinning. Such fabrication methods are far less expensive than ordered-microstructured fabrications, bringing the technology closer to large-scale submerged bodies such as submarines and ships. The present study sheds some light on how properties of a superhydrophobic coating could be influenced by water salinity.

Ochanda, F. O.; Samaha, M. A.; Vahedi Tafreshi, H.; Tepper, G. C.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

2011-11-01

164

Morphological and anatomical characterization of six jojoba clones at saline and non-saline sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider) clones have been demonstrated to differ in their susceptibility to salinity in northern Chile. Our objective was to characterize the anatomical and morphological response of six of these clones when grown under saline and non-saline conditions. Two of these clones are resistant to soil salinity (4.11.32 and Mirov), based on previous field evaluations, and

Claudia Botti; David Palzkill; Diego Muñoz; Loreto Prat

1998-01-01

165

Effects of saline water irrigation on soil salinity, Pecan tree growth and nut production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigated cultivation of pecans (Carya illinoensis K.) has increased dramatically in the Southwestern USA, yet their tolerance to salinity remains largely unknown. The first part of this study was conducted to assess if stunted tree growth reported in clayey soils is related to salinity, and the second part was to evaluate changes in soil salinity and the performance of 11

S. Miyamoto; T. Riley; G. Gobran; J. Petticrew

1986-01-01

166

Determination of the Sea Surface Salinity Error Budget in the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission will provide sea surface salinity maps over the oceans, beginning in late 2009. In this paper an ocean salinity error budget is described, an analysis needed to identify the magnitude of the error sources associated with the retrieval. Instrumental, external noise sources, and geophysical errors have been analyzed, stressing their relative impact. This

Roberto Sabia; Adriano Camps; Marco Talone; Mercè Vall-Llossera

2010-01-01

167

ISSUES RELATED TO SEISMIC ACTIVITY INDUCED BY THE INJECTION OF CO2 IN DEEP SALINE AQUIFERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case studies, theory, regulation, and special considerations regarding the disposal of carbon dioxide (CO2) into deep saline aquifers were investigated to assess the potential for induced seismic activity. Formations capable of accepting larg e volumes of CO2 make deep well injection of CO2 an attractive option. While seismic implications must be considered for injection facilities, induced seismic activity may be

Charles Byrer; Perry Bergman

168

Low-Cost Salinity Sensor Increases Profitability and Environmental Sustainability for Small Plot Shrimp Farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 80% of the world shrimp production comes from developing countries. The nutrient-rich cash crop can provide a small plot entrepreneur with higher revenues than alternative crops; however, the extreme poor are unable to afford the necessary equipment to monitor the salinity concentration in the ponds. Consequently, their yields per volume are on average one-third the amount of their commercial

S. G. Honan; B. E. Bishop

2011-01-01

169

Heat Transfer Model of Hyporthermic Intracarotid Infusion of Cold Saline for Stroke Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3-dimensional hemispheric computational brain model is developed to simulate infusion of cold saline in the carotid arteries in terms of brain cooling for stroke therapy. The model is based on the Pennes bioheat equation, with four tissue layers: white matter, gray matter, skull, and scalp. The stroke lesion is simulated by reducing blood flow to a selected volume of

Matthew A. Neimark; Angelos-Aristeidis Konstas; Andrew F. Laine; John Pile-Spellman

2006-01-01

170

Low salinity intrusions in the western English Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low salinity (<35) surface waters (LSSW) at the southern entrance to the western English Channel (48.5°N, 5.1°W, near Ushant) were observed in late winter (March-April) in three successive years (2002-04) during near continuous ship of opportunity operations. The source of the LSSW is the northward spreading plumes from the Loire (47.5°N, 2.5°W) and Gironde (45.6°N, 1.2°W) along the French Atlantic coast. Fastest plume travel times were associated with northeasterly winds, consistent with Ekman theory. Differences between years in the mean winter (January-March) combined river discharges ( D) was consistent with the minimum salinities ( Smin) of the LSSW (2004: D=4211 m 3 s -1, Smin=33.68; 2003: D=3630 m 3 s -1, Smin=33.90; 2002: D=1579 m 3 s -1, Smin=34.53). Winter mean (1905-74) salinity is otherwise 35.33 near Ushant. The LSSW intruded into the western English Channel in each year, suggesting a common phenomenon. The low salinity intrusion was freshest (mean=35.11±0.21) and most penetrative (reaching 50.7°N, 1.0°W by the end of the year) in 2003 on account of (1) entering on a spring tide giving greater tidal excursion into the western English Channel and (2) intrusion favourable winds (southwesterly/southeasterly) acting on the longer term residual flow. Less penetration occurred in 2004 when the arrival of the LSSW coincided with a neap tide followed by intrusion-resistant northwesterly winds, resulting in a less saline (mean=35.20±0.23) intrusion. In 2004, transport tended to be offshore to at least 100 km from the French Atlantic coast (47°N, 4.8°W-48°N, 4.7°W). In 2002, the lower volume of plume water relative to the other years produced a more saline intrusion (mean=35.25±0.12). Prevailing westerly winds may have pushed this intrusion northwards beyond the route of the ferry, making it difficult to assess the true extent of the intrusion in 2002. A link of the LSSW to phases of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index from a literature search of the last 84 years was inconclusive.

Kelly-Gerreyn, B. A.; Hydes, D. J.; Jégou, A. M.; Lazure, P.; Fernand, L. J.; Puillat, I.; Garcia-Soto, C.

2006-08-01

171

Vigna Radiata Seed Germination under Salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity reduced mung bean (Vigna radiata Wilczek) radicle and root elongation, delayed and inhibited hypocotyl elongation and mobilization of reserves from the cotyledons to the embryo axis. Fresh and dry masses and water content of the embryo axes were reduced. Under salinity, a net leakage of K to the media increased with time and increasing NaCl concentrations. Sugars present in

K. Promila; S. Kumar

2000-01-01

172

Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a science activity in which the student investigates methods of calibration of a simple conductivity meter via a hands-on inquiry technique. Conductivity is mathematically compared to salinity using a point slope formula and graphical techniques. Sample solutions of unknown salinity are provided so that the students can sharpen their…

Schlenker, Richard M.

173

Relationship between salinity and efficient water use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between salinity and water use efficiency is highly dependent upon which definition of water use efficiency is used. The two common definitions, yield per unit evapotranspiration and yield per unit applied water, both have significant deficiencies and can lead to erroneous conclusions. Thus, the analysis of efficient use of saline waters invokes a broader analysis than merely computing

J. Letey

1993-01-01

174

Unusual monomixis in two saline Arizona ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red Pond and Green Pond are shallow, saline pools in Apache County, Arizona, that stratify chemically during winter and circulate in midsummer. Stability is brought about by addition of dilute runoff and seep water to the surfaces; circulation occurs bccausc evaporation increases the salinity of the upper waters and lowers the pond surfaces. Iso- thermy, dichothermy, mcsothermy, and poikilothermy occur

GERALD A. COLE; MELBOURNE C. WHITESIDE; ROBERT J. BROWN

1967-01-01

175

Sea Surface Salinity Influence on Earth's Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short NASA video focuses on the Aquarius satellite, launched on June 10, 2011 to observe how variations in ocean salinity relate to climatic changes. By measuring salinity globally, Aquarius shows the ocean's role in climate change and climate's effects on ocean circulation.

Harris, Brooke; Center, Nasa/goddard S.

176

Reconstructing Past Ocean Salinity ((delta)18Owater)  

SciTech Connect

Temperature and salinity are two of the key properties of ocean water masses. The distribution of these two independent but related characteristics reflects the interplay of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the uneven distribution of heat loss and gain by the ocean, with that of precipitation, evaporation, and the freezing and melting of ice. Temperature and salinity to a large extent, determine the density of a parcel of water. Small differences in temperature and salinity can increase or decrease the density of a water parcel, which can lead to convection. Once removed from the surface of the ocean where 'local' changes in temperature and salinity can occur, the water parcel retains its distinct relationship between (potential) temperature and salinity. We can take advantage of this 'conservative' behavior where changes only occur as a result of mixing processes, to track the movement of water in the deep ocean (Figure 1). The distribution of density in the ocean is directly related to horizontal pressure gradients and thus (geostrophic) ocean currents. During the Quaternary when we have had systematic growth and decay of large land based ice sheets, salinity has had to change. A quick scaling argument following that of Broecker and Peng [1982] is: the modern ocean has a mean salinity of 34.7 psu and is on average 3500m deep. During glacial maxima sea level was on the order of {approx}120m lower than present. Simply scaling the loss of freshwater (3-4%) requires an average increase in salinity a similar percentage or to {approx}35.9psu. Because much of the deep ocean is of similar temperature, small changes in salinity have a large impact on density, yielding a potentially different distribution of water masses and control of the density driven (thermohaline) ocean circulation. It is partly for this reason that reconstructions of past salinity are of interest to paleoceanographers.

Guilderson, T P; Pak, D K

2005-11-23

177

Effect of Dehydration on Cardiovascular Responses and Electrolytes after Hypertonic Saline/Dextran Treatment for Moderate Hemorrhage. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hypertonic saline/dextran (HSD) has recently demonstrated to be efficacious in the treatment of hemorrhagic hypotension. This solution increases vascular volume by mobilizing fluid from the extravascular space, primarily the cellular compartment. Because ...

C. E. Wade F. J. Tillman J. A. Loveday A. Blackmon E. Potanko

1992-01-01

178

Origins of saline fluids at convergent margins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The compositions of pore and venting fluids at convergent margins differ from seawater values, reflecting mixing and diagenesis. Most significantly, the concentration of Cl-, assumed to be a conservative ion, differs from its seawater value. Chloride concentrations could be elevated by four processes, although two, the formation of gas hydrate and ion filtration by clay membranes, are insignificant in forming saline fluids at convergent margins. During the formation of gas hydrate, the resulting Cl--rich fluids, estimated to contain an average excess of ˜140 mM Cl- over seawater value, probably would be flushed from the sediment when the pore fluids vent to seawater. Ion filtration by clay membranes requires compaction pressures typical of >2 km burial depths. Even at these depths, the efficiency of ion filtration will be negligible because (1) fluids will flow through fractures, thereby bypassing clay membranes, (2) concentrations of clay minerals are diluted by other phases, and (3) during burial, smectite converts to illite, which has little capacity for ion filtration. A third process, mixing with subaerially evaporated seawater, elevates Cl- concentrations to 1043 mM in forearc basins along the Peru margin. Evaporation of seawater, however, will be important only in limited geographic regions that are characterized by enclosed basins, arid climates, and permeable sediments. At the New Hebrides and Izu-Bonin margins, Cl- concentrations are elevated to a maximum of 1241 mM. The process responsible for this increase is the alteration of volcanic ash to hydrous clay and zeolite minerals. Mass balance calculations, based on the decrease in ?18O values to -9.5‰ (SMOW), suggest that the Cl- concentrations could increase solely from the formation of smectite in a closed system. The diagenesis of volcanic ash also alters the concentrations of most dissolved species in addition to Cl-. Depending on the volume of this altered fluid, it could influence seawater chemistry when vented from the sediment.

Martin, Jonathan B.; Kastner, Miriam; Egeberg, Per Kr.

179

Oil Recovery by Low Salinity Water Injection into a Reservoir: A New Study of Tertiary Oil Recovery Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low salinity water injections for oil recovery have shown seemingly promising results in the case of clay-bearing sandstones\\u000a saturated with asphaltic crude oil. Reported data showed that low salinity water injection could provide up to 20% pore volume\\u000a (PV) of additional oil recovery for core samples and up to 25% PV for reservoirs in near wellbore regions, compared with brine

Y. Li

180

Determining salinization extent, identifying salinity sources, and estimating chloride mass using surface, borehole, and airborne electromagnetic induction methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Using an example from an oil field in the semiarid Red River basin in Texas, we show that electromagnetic (EM) methods are useful in locating salinized soil and water, determining salinization extent, identifying likely salinity sources, and estimating the total mass of chloride within a saline-water plume. Each of these aspects assists in managing salinization and assessing its impact.

Jeffrey G. Paine

2003-01-01

181

Calcite Dissolution in Saline Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The specific effect of ionic strength on the reaction kinetics of calcite dissolution in intermediate to high ionic strength (0.5 < I < 6.0) solutions applicable to natural waters has been investigated using classical free-drift methods where all other parameters (mCa2+, PCO2, and T) have been held constant. Both phosphate-free solutions of potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl) as the dominant ionic strength determining salt were investigated where calcium concentrations were held constant in all solutions at approximately 0.010 molal. Reaction rates were found to vary significantly as a function of ionic strength of the reacting solution, which we suggest is due to the lowered activity of water with an increase in ionic strength which decreases the rate of cation hydration. When modeled with the general rate equation, R = k(1-Ømega)n, first-order kinetics (n=1) are sufficient to fit the experimental data. Furthermore, the rate constant (k) appears to be a function of the square root of the ionic strength of the reacting solution. These results may have potential applications to the response of the ocean to acidification by fossil fuel CO2 as well as CO2 sequestration in subsurface saline waters in calcium carbonate-hosted reservoirs.

Finneran, D. W.; Morse, J. W.

2007-12-01

182

76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council...INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council was...

2011-05-02

183

78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Public Law...

2013-04-22

184

76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2011-10-04

185

75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control [[Page 25878

2010-05-10

186

77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2012-10-11

187

75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2010-05-14

188

77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2012-04-19

189

ConcepTest: Ocean Salinity #3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Predict what would happen to the salinity of the world's oceans if the Indian Ocean was blocked off and all of its water evaporated. a. World's oceans would become more salty b. World's oceans would ...

190

BAM R27: Formalinized Physiological Saline Solution  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... R27 Formalinized Physiological Saline Solution. Formaldehyde solution (36-38%), 6 ml. ... Cool to room temperature. Add 6 ml formaldehyde solution. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

191

Growth of Avocado Plants Under Saline Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is an important multipurpose tree crop. A study was conducted to investigate the growth and gas exchange characteristics of avocado seedlings growing under different salinity levels. Plants were grown in 4.5 liter plastic pots containing soil were subjected to 0 (control), 15, 30, 45 and 60 mM NaCl salinity treatments. Growth, net photosynthetic rate (PN), stomatal

D. M. Musyimi; G. W. Netondo; G. Ouma

2007-01-01

192

Biodynamics, saline giants and late miocene catastrophism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Messinian Salinity Crisis is several crises that fit the context of catastrophic modeling of the history of a Mediterranean\\u000a “saline giant.” Of the explanations available, we prefer the deep-basin\\/deep-water precipitation model for the early, deep-basin,\\u000a massive gypsums and halites, contemporaneous with marginal, lagoonal gypsums; and the deep-basin\\/shallow-water desiccation\\u000a theory to explain the later, shallow cyclic gypsums with associatedlago mare

Richard H. Benson

1991-01-01

193

Decomposition of maize straw in saline soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactive effects of salinity and water on organic matter decomposition in soil are poorly known. A loamy topsoil adjusted\\u000a to five concentrations of salinity (0, 31, 62, 93 and 124 mmol Na kg?1 soil) using either NaCl or Na2SO4 was incubated at a water content of either 17 or 25% (w\\/w) in the dark at 28.5°C for 47 days, with

Xiaogang Li; Fengmin Li; Bhupinderpal-Singh; Zhijun Cui; Zed Rengel

2006-01-01

194

Chasing the base deficit: hyperchloraemic acidosis following 0.9% saline fluid resuscitation  

PubMed Central

Base deficit is a parameter often used to guide further treatment in acidotic children and is taken as a measure of how "sick" they are. Five children with septic shock are presented who had persisting base deficit after large volume resuscitation with 0.9% saline. Stewart's strong ion theory of acid-base balance is able to quantify the causes of metabolic acidosis and is used to show that our patients had a hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis. We show how the chloride content of the saline loads given to our patients caused this hyperchloraemia. It is concluded that 0.9% saline and other chloride rich fluids may not be ideal resuscitation fluids; if used, clinicians must be aware of their potential to cause a persistent base deficit.??

Skellett, S; Mayer, A; Durward, A; Tibby, S; Murdoch, I

2000-01-01

195

Strength development in blended cement admixed saline clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cement stabilization is extensively used to improve engineering properties of soft saline clays. The effect of salinity, which is modified by geological and climate changes, on the strength development in cement admixed saline clay is investigated in this paper. For a particular curing time and salt content, the strength development in saline clay admixed with cement is governed by the

Suksun Horpibulsuk; Worawit Phojan; Apichat Suddeepong; Avirut Chinkulkijniwat; Martin D. Liu

196

Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a wealth of published research on salinity tolerance of plants, neither the metabolic sites at which salt stress damages plants nor the adaptive mechanisms utilized by plants to survive under saline conditions are well understood. As a result, there are no well-defined indicators for salinity tolerance available to assist plant breeders in the improvement of salinity tolerance of important

M. Ashraf; P. J. C. Harris

2004-01-01

197

The effects of thermochemical sulfate reduction upon formation water salinity and oxygen isotopes in carbonate gas reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) is a well known process that can lead to sour (H 2S-rich) petroleum accumulations. Most studies of TSR have concentrated upon gas chemistry. In this study we have investigated palaeoformation water characteristics in a deep, anhydrite-bearing dolomite, sour-gas reservoir of Permian age in Abu Dhabi using fluid inclusion, stable isotope, petrographic, and gas chemical data. The data show that low salinity, isotopically-distinct water was generated within the reservoir by reaction between anhydrite and methane. The amount of water added to the reservoir from TSR, indicated by reduced fluid inclusion salinity and water ?18O values, varied systematically with the extent of anhydrite reaction with methane. Water salinity and isotope data show that the original formation water was diluted by between four and five times by water from TSR. Thus, we have shown that large volumes of very low salinity water were generated within the gas reservoirs during diagenesis following gas emplacement. The salinity of formation water in evaporite lithologies is, therefore, not necessarily high. Modelling, based upon a typical Khuff gas reservoir rock volume, suggests that initial formation water volumes can only be increased by about three times as a result of TSR. The extreme local dilution shown by the water salinity and ?18O data must, therefore, reflect transiently imperfect mixing between TSR water and original formation water. The creation of large volumes of water has important implications for the mechanism and rate of thermochemical sulphate reduction and the interpretation of gas volumes using petrophysical logging tools.

Worden, R. H.; Smalley, P. C.; Oxtoby, N. H.

1996-10-01

198

The effect of salinity on the requirement for potassium by barramundi ( Lates calcarifer) in saline groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant international interest exists in utilising inland saline groundwater sources for mariculture; however potassium deficiency is a factor that may limit their use. In this study we investigated the effects of potassium supplementation between 25% and 100% of that found in equivalent salinity seawater on the growth, survival and physiological response of barramundi (Lates calcarifer) at hyperosmotic (45 ppt), near-isosmotic (15 ppt)

G. J. Partridge; A. J. Lymbery

2008-01-01

199

COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF HYPERTONIC SALINE AND NORMAL SALINE SOLUTIONS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ENDOTOXIC SHOCK IN DOGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was contemplated to determine the comparative beneficial effects of hypertonic saline solution and sterile saline solution in induced endotoxic shock in dogs. For this purpose, 12 healthy Mongrel dogs were randomly divided into two equal groups (A and B). All the animals were induced endotoxaemia by slow intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxins 0111:B4. Group A was treated

M. A. ZAFAR; G. MUHAMMAD; M. H. HUSSAIN; T. AHMAD; A. YOUSAF; I. SARFARAZ

200

Cold Saline Is More Effective Than Room Temperature Saline in Inducing Paresthesia During Axillary Block  

Microsoft Academic Search

Confirmation of the perivascular position of the needle by the injection of cold saline may be helpful to the perivascular technique, since the elicitation of a pares- thesia indicates the correct positioning of the needle. In this prospective, randomized study of 48 patients, we found a 100% incidence of successful block with saline at S-11°C compared to 75% in a

Jaime Rodriguez; Javier Carceller; Maria Barcena; Ignacio Pedraza; Belen Calvo; Julian Alvarez

1995-01-01

201

RF tumor ablation with internally cooled electrodes and saline infusion: what is the optimal location of the saline infusion?  

PubMed Central

Background Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of tumors by means of internally cooled electrodes (ICE) combined with interstitial infusion of saline may improve clinical results. To date, infusion has been conducted through outlets placed on the surface of the cooled electrode. However, the effect of infusion at a distance from the electrode surface is unknown. Our aim was to assess the effect of perfusion distance (PD) on the coagulation geometry and deposited power during RFA using ICE. Methods Experiments were performed on excised bovine livers. Perfusion distance (PD) was defined as the shortest distance between the infusion outlet and the surface of the ICE. We considered three values of PD: 0, 2 and 4 mm. Two sets of experiments were considered: 1) 15 ablations of 10 minutes (n ? 4 for each PD), in order to evaluate the effect of PD on volume and diameters of coagulation; and 2) 20 additional ablations of 20 minutes. The effect of PD on deposited power and relative frequency of uncontrolled impedance rises (roll-off) was evaluated using the results from the two sets of experiments (n ? 7 for each PD). Comparisons between PD were performed by analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis test. Additionally, non-linear regression models were performed to elucidate the best PD in terms of coagulation volume and diameter, and the occurrence of uncontrolled impedance rises. Results The best-fit least square functions were always obtained with quadratic curves where volume and diameters of coagulation were maximum for a PD of 2 mm. A thirty per cent increase in volume coagulation was observed for this PD value compared to other values (P < 0.05). Likewise, the short coagulation diameter was nearly twenty five per cent larger for a 2 mm PD than for 0 mm. Regarding deposited power, the best-fit least square function was obtained by a quadratic curve with a 2 mm PD peak. This matched well with the higher relative frequency of uncontrolled impedance rises for PD of 0 and 4 mm. Conclusion Saline perfusion at around 2 mm from the electrode surface while using an ICE in RFA improves deposition of energy and enlarges coagulation volume.

Burdio, Fernando; Berjano, Enrique J; Navarro, Ana; Burdio, Jose M; Guemes, Antonio; Grande, Luis; Sousa, Ramon; Subiro, Jorge; Gonzalez, Ana; Cruz, Ignacio; Castiella, Tomas; Tejero, Eloy; Lozano, Ricardo; de Gregorio, Miguel A

2007-01-01

202

Uranium Distribution along the Salinity Gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uranium distribution has been examined in the estuarine waters of the Keum River, Korea. Water samples were collected along a salinity gradient, range from 0.2 to 31.5 psu. Dissolved uranium in the samples has been extracted by C-18 SPE cartridge after pre-treatment. Extraction of uranium by C-18 cartridge after complexation with APDC/DDDC shows about 90 % recovery. After concentration of sample onto C-18 cartridge, uranium complex has been sequentially extracted by 50 % and 100 % acetonitrile, respectively. Result shows good recovery efficiency at low pH (2.5 _ 3.0) during the pre-treatment of sample which was presumably related with destabilization of uranium-carbonate complex. In the estuary, uranium shows typical conservative behavior along the salinity gradient. The current result substantiates earlier reports that uranium is conservatively transported from the river to the ocean. Most of dissolved trace metals, except cadmium, decreased with increasing salinity in the estuary. Dissolved organic carbon also decreased along the salinity gradient. Copper was rapidly removed during the mixing with seawaters as a result of organic matter flocculation. Dissolved molybdenum, vanadium and uranium distribution in the estuary showed similarities that those concentration increase along the salinity gradient.

Yoon, C.; Yoon, H.; Seo, J.; Lee, J.; Chung, K.

2006-12-01

203

Effects of Varying Salinity on Phytoplankton Growth in a Low-Salinity Coastal Pond Under Two Nutrient Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal ponds are highly susceptible to negative effects from nu- trient loading (1). The usual approach for managing such systems is to reduce nutrient input. Another possibility for some low-salinity sys- tems may be to control salinity if salinity has a pronounced infl uence on phytoplankton growth. Freshwater species generally compose the phytoplankton of low-salinity systems. One might expect growth

Stacy Barron; Carolyn Weber; Roxanne Marino; Eric Davidson; Gabrielle Tomasky

204

Impeded alveolar-capillary gas transfer with saline infusion in heart failure.  

PubMed

The microvascular pulmonary endothelium barrier is critical in preventing interstitial fluid overflow and deterioration in gas diffusion. The role of endothelium in transporting small solutes in pathological conditions, such as congestive heart failure (CHF), has not been studied. Monitoring of pulmonary gas transfer during saline infusion in CHF was used to probe this issue. Carbon monoxide diffusion (DL(CO)), its membrane diffusion (D(M)) and capillary blood volume (V(C)) subcomponents, and mean right atrial (rap) and mean pulmonary wedge (wpp) pressures after saline or 5% D-glucose solution infusions were compared with baseline in 26 moderate CHF patients. Saline was also tested in 13 healthy controls. In patients, 750 mL of saline lowered DL(CO) (-8%, P<0.01 versus baseline), D(M) (-10%, P<0.01 versus baseline), aldosterone (-29%, P<0.01 versus baseline), renin (-52%, P<0.01 versus baseline), and hematocrit (-6%, P<0.05 versus baseline) and increased V(C) (20%, P<0.01 versus baseline), without changing rap and wpp. Saline at 150 mL produced qualitatively similar results regarding DL(CO) (-5%, P<0.01 versus baseline), D(M) (-7%, P<0.01 versus baseline), V(C) (9%, P<0.01 versus baseline), rap, wpp, aldosterone (-9%, P<0.05 versus baseline), and renin (-14%, P<0.05 versus baseline). Glucose solution (750 mL), on the contrary, increased DL(CO) (5%, P<0.01 versus 750 mL of saline) and D(M) (11%, P<0.01 versus 750 mL of saline) and decreased V(C) (-9, P<0.01 versus 750 mL of saline); aldosterone (-40%), renin (-41%), hematocrit (-3%), rap, and wpp behaved as they did after saline infusion. In controls, responses to both saline amounts were similar to responses in CHF patients regarding aldosterone, renin, hematocrit, rap, and wpp, whereas DL(CO), D(M), and V(C) values tended to rise. Hindrance to gas transfer (reduced DL(CO) and D(M)) with salt infusion in CHF, despite an increase in V(C) and no variations in pulmonary hydrostatic forces, indicates an upregulation in sodium transport from blood to interstitium with interstitial edema. Redistribution of blood from the lungs, facilitating interstitial fluid reabsorption, or sodium uptake from the alveolar lumen by the sodium-glucose cotransport system might underlie the improved alveolar-capillary conductance with glucose. PMID:10601119

Guazzi, M; Agostoni, P; Bussotti, M; Guazzi, M D

1999-12-01

205

Proton magnetic resonance imaging of flow motion of heavy water injected into a hollow fiber dialyzer filled with saline.  

PubMed

Observations using MRI were performed for the motion of heavy water injected into a hollow fiber dialyzer. A cylindrical dialyzer houses a bundle of 10,000 hollow fibers. Because blood components permeate through the hollow fiber membrane from the interior to the exterior of the hollow fiber, which is the dialysate flow path, uniformity of dialysate flow is required. The dialyzer was initially filled with saline and heavy water was injected into the inlet port of the dialysate flow path. MRI tuned for protons could distinguish the injected heavy water from the already present saline. Due to the specific gravity difference, MRI could observe the sedimentation of the injected heavy water flowing beneath the already present saline. The uniformity of the dialysate flow was supported by the finding that the injected heavy water brought about uniform sedimentation and distributed the already present saline uniformly throughout the entire volume of the dialyzer. PMID:15062937

Osuga, T; Obata, T; Ikehira, H

2004-04-01

206

Biotechnology of water and salinity stress tolerance.  

PubMed

Drought and salinity are among the environmental factors that constrain agricultural productivity most dramatically. Classical breeding programs aiming to improve stress tolerance have been hampered by the multigenic nature of the trait and the seemingly scarce natural genetic variability in crop plants. Novel genetic determinants governing the function of stomata and improving the performance of plants under water shortage have been identified and show promise of application in crops. Moreover, receptors of the stress hormone abscisic acid have been characterized and their interplay with key regulatory components is being understood. A critical factor of salinity tolerance in plants is the ability to exclude Na(+) from the shoot, and the modification of specific Na(+) transport processes has yielded enhanced salinity tolerance. PMID:20189794

Pardo, Jose M

2010-02-26

207

Modeling salinity distributions in the Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 4½-layer model with active thermodynamics and mixed-layer physics is used to isolate effects on salinity distributions in the Indian Ocean that result from various forcing mechanisms. These forcings include evaporation (?) and precipitation (P) through the ocean surface and inflows across basin boundaries by river runoff in the Bay of Bengal, the Indonesian Throughflow, the Persian Gulf, and the Red Sea. A suite of solutions is obtained in which each forcing is added sequentially. In the solution forced only by P-?, salinity patterns in the upper three layers agree qualitatively with the observations, but values tend to be higher throughout most of the basin. When river inflow into the Bay of Bengal is included, salinity values are significantly improved in the upper three layers, especially in the northern Bay and along the east and west coasts of India. In addition, solutions suggest that during the Northeast Monsoon part of the river water flows out of the Bay in the shallow channel between Sri Lanka and India: Only when this channel is opened in the upper layer do solutions develop a strong, across-shelf salinity gradient along the west Indian coast, consistent with the observations. When the Indonesian Throughflow is added, salinities are lowered in all four layers, especially in the southern tropical ocean. Most of the Throughflow eventually flows out of the Indian Ocean along the western boundary and near Madagascar, but some is advected across the equator by the East African Coastal Current, where it is carried eastward and northward into the central Arabian Sea. Saltier Persian Gulf Water is introduced into the model in layer 3. Some of it subsequently entrains into the surface mixed layer, increasing sea surface salinity by 0.1-0.2 practical salinity units (psu) in a broad region of the Arabian Sea. Saltier Red Sea Water enters the basin in layer 4. It increases layer 4 salinity values throughout much of the Indian Ocean, particularly in the Somali Basin, the interior Arabian Sea, and the central and western equatorial ocean.

Han, Weiqing; McCreary, Julian P.

2001-01-01

208

Reconstructing sea surface temperature and salinity using delta18O and alkenone records  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE oxygen isotope (delta18O) composition of foraminiferal tests from deep-sea sediments is widely used as a palaeoclimate proxy, but it includes contributions from sea surface temperature, global ice volume and local salinity, which are difficult to separate. Recently a new technique for deriving palaeotemperatures has been developed which is based on the abundance ratios of unsaturated alkenones in phytoplankton algae1,2.

Frauke Rostek; Götz Ruhlandt; Franck C. Bassinot; Peter J. Muller; Laurent D. Labeyrie; Yves Lancelot; Edouard Bard

1993-01-01

209

Salinity effects on water potential components and bulk elastic modulus of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. ) Griseb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure volume curves for Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Grixeb. (alligator weed) grown in 0 to 400 millimolar NaCl were used to determine water potential (PSI), osmotic potential (psi\\/sub s\\/), turgor potential (psi\\/sub p\\/) and the bulk elastic modulus (element of) of shoots at different tissue water contents. Values of psi decreased with increasing salinity and tissue PSI was always lower than

J. A. Bolanos; D. J. Longstreth

1984-01-01

210

The response of young mandarin trees grown under saline conditions depends on the rootstock  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of the rootstocks, Cleopatra mandarin and Carrizo citrange and of saline irrigation water (3, 15 and 30mM NaCl) on yield, growth, fruit quality and leaf mineral composition of ‘Clemenules’ mandarin citrus trees. At the end of the experiment, ‘Clemenules’ trees grafted on Carrizo had higher yield efficiency (cumulative yield of three years per canopy volume) than

F. García-Sánchez; J. G. Perez-Perez; P. Botia; V. Martínez

2006-01-01

211

Bronchial hyperreactivity in response to inhalation of ultrasonically nebulised solutions of distilled water and saline  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess non-specific bronchial reactivity the effect of inhaling ultrasonically nebulised solutions of distilled water and hypotonic (0.3%), isotonic (0.9%), and hypertonic (2.7%, 3.6%) saline was investigated in 10 asthmatic patients and nine normal subjects. Expired ventilation and the maximum percentage fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were recorded. The sensitivity to the inhaled solutions was determined

R E Schoeffel; S D Anderson; R E Altounyan

1981-01-01

212

Cardiorenal-endocrine dynamics during and following volume expansion  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between atrial pressure, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and renal hemodynamic and excretory function was examined during and following acute 10% body weight saline volume expansion and measurements were made at 3.3, 6.6, and 10% body weight volume expansion in pentobarbital anesthetized dogs. Right atrial pressure (RAP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), fractional excretion of Na (FE/sub Na/), and ANP all increased in parallel during volume expansion. Plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone decreased in parallel during 10% volume expansion. ANP, PRA and aldosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. Following 10% volume expansion, saline was infused at the peak urine flow rate to maintain peak volume expansion. Despite continued saline infusion, RAP, PCWP, and ANP decreased in parallel. In contrast, FE/sub Na/ remained increased, and aldosterone and PRA remained depressed. These studies demonstrate that atrial pressures, ANP, and FE/sub Na/ increase in parallel during volume expansion; this suggests a role for ANP in modulating acute atrial volume overload. During stable volume expansion periods, however, despite a decrease in ANP levels, Na excretion remains elevated, suggesting that non-ANP mechanisms may be important in maintaining natriuresis during stable volume expansion.

Zimmerman, R.S.; Edwards, B.S.; Schwab, T.R.; Heublein, D.M.; Burnett, J.C. Jr.

1987-02-01

213

Reservoir engineering. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

Forty-one papers are included in Volume 1 of the proceedings. The papers were presented at the 1994 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition held September 25-28, 1994 in New Orleans, LA. The papers covered such topics as: shallow marine 3-D seismic and high-angle slant drilling, short radius horizontal boreholes, water coning, water saturation, determination, rock types, water salinity variations, use of resistivity logs, cavity well performance, coalbed methane, new two-phase scaleup method, steam flooding in heterogeneous reservoirs, oil-base mud pressure caring, neural networks, placement of gels, combustion performance, reservoir characterization, and reserved determination. A separate abstract and indexing was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Not Available

1994-01-01

214

Sea ice salinity and structure: A winter time series of salinity and its distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a winter time series of Antarctic sea ice salinity from eastern McMurdo Sound, an area close to an ice shelf where a subice platelet layer forms below the sea ice late in winter. This dramatically changes the sea ice structure as the sea ice grows into the subice platelet layer. Every 2 weeks during the 5 months of sea ice formation, salinity profiles were measured, along with detailed measurements of ice structure and growth rates. Once the influence of growth rate on sea ice bulk salinity is removed, the data from 69 cores and the results of a basic parameterization demonstrate that bulk salinity for platelet ice is higher than that for columnar sea ice. We also present measurements of the salinity profile close to the ice-water interface and use these to investigate the expected regime of fluid flow within the permeable portions of the sea ice, with particular reference to mushy layer and percolation theory. Finally, we provide a new distribution of sea ice salinity from 740 measurements, which can be interpreted as the sum of two spatial fields that we attribute to sea ice samples with and without brine channels and which should be reproduced by any realistic sea ice models. This distribution suggests that two measurements of quantities linearly linked to sea ice salinity must differ by 29% if they are to be considered different with 90% confidence.

Gough, A. J.; Mahoney, A. R.; Langhorne, P. J.; Williams, M. J. M.; Haskell, T. G.

2012-03-01

215

Effects of liquid paraffin in the diet or infused via colonic enema on fecal elimination of /sup 14/C-hexachlorobenzene from body burdens in rats  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-one male rats were dosed once intraperitoneally with 32.2 mg /sup 14/C-hexachlorobenzene in corn oil (/sup 14/C-HCB activity 11.67 ..mu..Ci/rat). After 4 d, six rats were randomly selected, bled and hemi-castrated with sampling of epididymal adipose tissue to establish /sup 14/C-HCB body burdens. Thereafter, all rats were allocated randomly into three groups, each with five intact and two hemi-castrated rats. One group (controls) received only a basal diet; another received the basal diet amended with 5% light mineral oil (MO); and the third received the basal diet and 1 ml of MO once daily via enema in the upper colon. Treatments were continued throughout 27 d. Excretion of /sup 14/C-HCB and(or) metabolites into feces and urine was measured daily for each rat for 31 d after /sup 14/C-HCB dosage. Fecal excretion of /sup 14/C-HCB and(or) metabolites was increased 2.5-fold by dietary MO and 1.7-fold by MO in the colon. When adjusted to equal dosage, MO by colon was 93% as effective as MO by diet. Urinary /sup 14/C-HCB excretion was not affected by MO, except indirectly through lowered body burden. Addition of hexadecane (25 ..mu..l per 100 mg adipose tissue) into the incubation mixture enhanced (P < 0.05) distribution of /sup 14/C-HCB into the liquid fraction for rats not previously fed hexadecane, but had no effect on incubation mixtures from rats fed hexadecane. Results confirm that liquid paraffins enhance elimination of /sup 14/C-HCB from body burdens into feces and suggest that distribution into blood cells and plasma may partially explain the effect.

Robles-Porras, H.

1985-01-01

216

Determination of metals in saline and biological matrices by axial inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry using microconcentric nebulization  

Microsoft Academic Search

spectrometer equipped with a commercially available microconcentric nebulizer (MCN) was evaluated for the to larger volumes, so that a standard nebulizer can be used, often creates detection problems. The use of the ICP as an determination of metals in saline and biological samples. The performance of the MCN was optimized regarding the sample ionization source for mass spectrometry could solve

Machteld De Wit; Ronny Blust

1998-01-01

217

Rapid decreases in salinity, but not increases, lead to immune dysregulation in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.).  

PubMed

Rapid changes in salinity, as with other environmental stressors, can have detrimental effects on fish and may trigger increased susceptibility to disease. However, the precise mechanisms of these effects are not well understood. We examined the effects of sudden increases or decreases in salinity on teleost immune function using Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), as the fish model in a battery of bioassays of increasing immune system specificity. Two different salinity experiments were performed: one of increasing salinity (0 to 5, 10 and 20 g L(-1) ) and one of decreasing salinity (20 to 15, 10 and 5 g L(-1) ). Histopathology of anterior kidney, gills, gonads, intestines and liver of exposed fish was performed, but no remarkable lesions were found that were attributable to the salinity treatment regimes. The spleen was removed from each fish for analysis of cytokine expression, and peripheral blood was used for haematology, cortisol and phagocytosis assays. In the increasing salinity experiments, no significant changes were observed in any immune system assays. However, in the decreasing salinity experiments, lymphopenia, neutrophilia and monocytosis were observed in the peripheral blood without modification of the packed cell volume, plasma protein or plasma cortisol levels. Phagocytosis was increased in response to decreases in salinity from 20 g L(-1) to 15 g L(-1) , 10 g L(-1) and 5 g L(-1) , whereas phagocytic index was not significantly altered. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) transcription increased during the same decreases in salinity. However, the TGF-? value at 5 g L(-1) was less than those in the 15 and 10 g L(-1) salinity treatments. Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) transcription did not significantly respond to either salinity regime. In total, acute salinity changes appeared to trigger reactive dysregulation of the immune response in tilapia, a situation which, when combined with additional co-occurring stressors such as sudden changes in temperature and/or dissolved oxygen, could make fish more susceptible to infectious diseases. Accordingly, these findings may help to explain how sudden environmental changes may initiate disease outbreaks and lead to critical declines in cultured or wild fish populations. PMID:23134071

Choi, K; Cope, W G; Harms, C A; Law, J M

2012-11-08

218

INHALED HYPERTONIC SALINE IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN LESS THAN SIX YEARS OF AGE WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS: THE ISIS RANDOMIZED TRIAL  

PubMed Central

Context Inhaled hypertonic saline is recommended as therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients 6 years of age and older, but its efficacy has never been evaluated in CF patients <6 years of age. Objective To determine if hypertonic saline reduces the rate of protocol-defined pulmonary exacerbations in CF patients <6 years of age. Design and Setting A multicenter, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted from April 2009 to October 2011 at 30 CF care centers in the United States and Canada. Participants Participants had an established diagnosis of CF and were 4 to 60 months of age. A total of 344 patients were assessed for eligibility; 321 participants were randomized; 29 (9%) withdrew prematurely. Intervention The active group (n=158) received 7% hypertonic saline and the control group (n=163) received 0.9% isotonic saline nebulized twice daily for 48 weeks. Both groups received albuterol or levalbuterol prior to each study drug dose. Main Outcome Measures the rate of protocol-defined pulmonary exacerbations during the 48 week treatment period treated with oral, inhaled or intravenous antibiotics. Results The mean pulmonary exacerbation rate (events/person-year) was 2.3 (95% CI, 2.0, 2.5) in the hypertonic saline group and 2.3 (95% CI, 2.1, 2.6) in the isotonic saline group; the rate ratio was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.84, 1.14)). Among participants with pulmonary exacerbations, the mean number of total antibiotic treatment days for a pulmonary exacerbation was 60 (95% CI 49, 70) in the hypertonic saline group and 52 (95% CI 43, 61) in the isotonic saline group. There was no significant difference in secondary endpoints including height, weight, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, cough or respiratory symptom scores. Infant pulmonary function testing performed as an exploratory outcome in a subgroup (N=73, with acceptable measurements at 2 visits in 45) did not demonstrate significant differences between groups except for the mean change in forced expiratory volume in 0.5 seconds which was 38 ml greater (95% CI 1, 76) in the hypertonic saline group. Adherence by returned study drug ampoules was at least 75% in each group. Adverse event profiles were also similar, with the most common adverse event of moderate or severe severity in each group being cough (39% of hypertonic saline group, 38% of isotonic saline group). Conclusions Among infants and children with cystic fibrosis less than 6 years old, the use of inhaled hypertonic saline compared with isotonic saline did not reduce the rate of pulmonary exacerbations over 48 weeks of treatment. Trial Registration www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00709280

Rosenfeld, Margaret; Ratjen, Felix; Brumback, Lyndia; Daniel, Stephen; Rowbotham, Ron; McNamara, Sharon; Johnson, Robin; Kronmal, Richard; Davis, Stephanie D

2013-01-01

219

Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas and soil salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses the growth and activity of vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi in saline conditions. The review includes examination of the effects of high concentrations of salts on the occurrence of VA mycorrhizal fungi in field soils, and on spore germination, growth of hyphae, establishment of the symbiosis and production of spores in controlled conditions. Information on the growth and

S. Juniper; L. Abbott

1993-01-01

220

Saline Soils in the Red River Valley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Red River Valley of the North stretches over 315 miles from northeastern South Dakota through northwestern Minnesota and eastern North Dakota into southern Manitoba. Nearly all this area is in dryland farms and is highly productive. Salinity has been recognized as a major factor affecting crop p...

221

Modeling salinity distributions in the Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 412-layer model with active thermodynamics and mixed-layer physics is used to isolate effects on salinity distributions in the Indian Ocean that result from various forcing mechanisms. These forcings include evaporation (E) and precipitation (P) through the ocean surface and inflows across basin boundaries by river runoff in the Bay of Bengal, the Indonesian Throughflow, the Persian Gulf, and the

Weiqing Han; Julian P. McCreary

2001-01-01

222

Salinity history of the Earth's early ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly thought that the oceans are becoming saltier with time as sodium and chlorine are weathered out of continental rocks and transported to the sea. Here we argue that the salinity of the early ocean was 1.5 to 2 times the modern value, and that it did not decline significantly until surprisingly late in the Earth's history. If

L. Paul Knauth

1998-01-01

223

The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface soil moisture is a key variable of water and energy exchanges at the land surface\\/atmosphere interface. But currently there are no means to assess it on a global and timely fashion. Similarly, our current knowledge of sea surface salinity is very reduced. One way to overcome this issue would be to use an adequate space-borne instrument. The most promising

Y. H. Kerr; P. Waldteufel; J.-P. Wigneron; M. Berger

2003-01-01

224

About uncertainties in practical salinity calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current state of the art, salinity is a quantity computed from conductivity ratio measurements, with temperature and pressure known at the time of the measurement, and using the Practical Salinity Scale algorithm of 1978 (PSS-78). This calculation gives practical salinity values S. The uncertainty expected in PSS-78 values is ±0.002, but no details have ever been given on the method used to work out this uncertainty, and the error sources to include in this calculation. Following a guide published by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), using two independent methods, this paper assesses the uncertainties of salinity values obtained from a laboratory salinometer and Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) measurements after laboratory calibration of a conductivity cell. The results show that the part due to the PSS-78 relations fits is sometimes as significant as the instrument's. This is particularly the case with CTD measurements where correlations between variables contribute mainly to decreasing the uncertainty of S, even when expanded uncertainties of conductivity cell calibrations are for the most part in the order of 0.002 mS cm-1. The relations given here, and obtained with the normalized GUM method, allow a real analysis of the uncertainties' sources and they can be used in a more general way, with instruments having different specifications.

Le Menn, M.

2011-10-01

225

Evaluation of soil salinity leaching requirement guidelines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water for irrigation is a major limitation to agricultural production in many parts of the world. Use of waters with elevated levels of salinity is one likely option to meet the supply of increased demands. The sources of these waters include drainage water generated by irrigated agriculture, munici...

226

Hydraulic and salinity characteristics of the tidal reach of the Peace River, southwestern Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The tidal reach of the Peace River in southwestern Florida extends about 26 miles upstream from Charlotte Harbor and is characterized by flow-direction reversals, low velocities, and salinity gradients that vary with freshwater inflow, tides, and wind. Flow reversals generally occur on each tide throughout most of the tidal reach, their upstream limit determined primarily by freshwater inflow and tide. Flow reversals occur at river mile 18.9 whenever freshwater inflows are less than about 1,000 cu ft/sec. Velocities were less than 0.3 ft/sec more than half the time at river mile 18.9. The volume of the flood and ebb tidal flows in the midreach of the tidal river (mile 11.5) on July 12-13, 1984, was about five times the volume of flood and ebb tidal flow near the upstream end of the tidal reach July 10-11, 1984 (mile 18.9). Salinity varied along the 26-mile river reach, across channel and with depth, depending upon complex patterns of flow, freshwater runoff, wind, tide, and salinity in Charlotte Harbor. Daily variations in salinity increased downstream and variations were larger near the surface than near the bottom. Regression analysis indicated that the location of the 0.5 ppt salinity will move upstream more than 2 river miles if low flows are reduced by 50%. Freshwater flushing of the lower 20-mile tidal reach, approximated from freshwater replacement time, varied from about 2 days during heavy freshwater runoff to 40 days during extreme low flows. (USGS)

Stoker, Y. E.; Henderson, S. E.; McPherson, B. F.

1989-01-01

227

Percutaneous Radiofrequency Lung Ablation Combined with Transbronchial Saline Injection: An Experimental Study in Swine  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the efficacy of radiofrequency lung ablation with transbronchial saline injection. The bilateral lungs of eight living swine were used. A 13-gauge bone biopsy needle was inserted percutaneously into the lung, and 1 ml of muscle paste was injected to create a tumor mimic. In total, 21 nodules were ablated. In the saline injection group (group A), radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was performed for 11 nodules after transbronchial saline injection under balloon occlusion with a 2-cm active single internally cooled electrode. In the control group (group B), conventional RFA was performed for 10 nodules as a control. The infused saline liquid showed a wedge-shaped and homogeneous distribution surrounding a tumor mimic. All 21 RFAs were successfully completed. The total ablation time was significantly longer (13.4 {+-} 2.8 min vs. 8.9 {+-} 3.5 min; P = 0.0061) and the tissue impedance was significantly lower in group A compared with group B (73.1 {+-} 8.8 {Omega} vs. 100.6 {+-} 16.6 {Omega}; P = 0.0002). The temperature of the ablated area was not significantly different (69.4 {+-} 9.1{sup o}C vs. 66.0 {+-} 7.9{sup o}C; P = 0.4038). There was no significant difference of tumor mimic volume (769 {+-} 343 mm{sup 3} vs. 625 {+-} 191 mm{sup 3}; P = 0.2783). The volume of the coagulated area was significantly larger in group A than in group B (3886 {+-} 1247 mm{sup 3} vs. 2375 {+-} 1395 mm{sup 3}; P = 0.0221). Percutaneous radiofrequency lung ablation combined with transbronchial saline injection can create an extended area of ablation.

Kawai, T., E-mail: t-kawai@hosp.yoka.hyogo.jp; Kaminou, T., E-mail: kaminout@grape.med.tottori-u.ac.jp; Sugiura, K.; Hashimoto, M.; Ohuchi, Y.; Adachi, A. [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine (Japan); Fujioka, S.; Ito, H. [Tottori University, Division of Organ Pathology, Department of Microbiology and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine (Japan); Nakamura, K. [Hakuai Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Ihaya, T. [Sanin Rosai Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Ogawa, T. [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine (Japan)

2010-02-15

228

BAM R67: Salts-Phosphate Buffered Saline Solution (Salts ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM R67: Salts-Phosphate Buffered Saline Solution (Salts-PBS). January 2001. ... R67 Salts-Phosphate Buffered Saline Solution (Salts-PBS). ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

229

Equations for Calculating the Dielectric Constant of Saline Water (Correspondence)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectric constant of saline water may be represented by an equation of the Debye form. Equations for the parameters in the Debye expression are given as functions of the water temperature and salinity.

A. Stogryn

1971-01-01

230

BAM R77: Standard Saline Citrate (SSC) Solution (20%)  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM R77: Standard Saline Citrate (SSC) Solution (20%). January 2001. ... R77 Standard Saline Citrate (SSC) Solution (20%). ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

231

An algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity in the global ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, density and other thermodynamic properties of seawater have been calculated from Practical Salinity, S P. It is more accurate however to use Absolute Salinity, S A (the mass fraction of dissolved material in seawater). Absolute Salinity S A can be expressed in terms of Practical Salinity S P as S A=(35.165 04 g kg-1\\/35)S P+delta S A(phi, lambda,

T. J. McDougall; D. R. Jackett; F. J. Millero

2009-01-01

232

Discriminating important ocean salinity and temperature patterns in argo data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean salinity and temperature variations have been observed for decades to clarify their effect to global climate changes. Data mining techniques are effective in extracting implicit and useful information from large databases. Discovering salinity and temperature variation patterns from Argo ocean data will in turn help reveal the spatio-temporal relationship between salinity and temperature variations. However, some of the discovered

Yo-Ping Huang; Li-Jen Kao; F. E. Sandnes

2008-01-01

233

DOES SALINITY REDUCE BORON’S TOXIC EFFECT IN BROCCOLI?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High salinity and boron often occur together in irrigation water in arid climates, but very little research has been done to study the interaction of the two. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the U.S. Salinity Laboratory in sand tanks to evaluate the interactions between B and saline draina...

234

Overview of the SMOS Sea Surface Salinity Prototype Processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The L-band interferometric radiometer onboard the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission will measure polarized brightness temperatures (Tb). The measurements are affected by strong radiometric noise. However, during a satellite overpass, numerous measurements are acquired at various incidence angles at the same location on the Earth's surface. The sea surface salinity (SSS) retrieval algorithm implemented in the Level 2 Salinity

Sonia Zine; Jacqueline Boutin; Nicolas Reul; Philippe Waldteufel; Carolina Gabarro; Joseph Tenerelli; François Petitcolin; Jean-Luc Vergely; Marco Talone; Steven Delwart

2008-01-01

235

SMOS: The Challenging Sea Surface Salinity Measurement From Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity, European Space Agency, is the first satellite mission addressing the challenge of measuring sea surface salinity from space. It uses an L-band microwave interferometric radiometer with aperture synthesis (MIRAS) that generates brightness temperature images, from which both geophysical variables are computed. The retrieval of salinity requires very demanding performances of the instrument in terms of

Adriano Camps; Andrés Borges; Manuel Martin-Neira; Jacqueline Boutin; Nicolas Reul; Yann H. Kerr; Achim Hahne; Susanne Mecklenburg

2010-01-01

236

Ultrastructural effects of salinity stress in higher plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity stress induces various types of ultrastructural changes in higher plant cells. These structural changes provide useful information as to the underlying mechanism of salinity stress. In this report the ultrastructural effects of salinity (NaCl) stress in crop plants especially in rice are described based on the research work conducted in our laboratory. Relevant research results are also described and

HIROSHI MIYAKE; SHIRO MITSUYA; M. D. SHAHIDUR RAHMAN

237

Effect of Salinity on Seed Germination of Wheat Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is rated as moderately salt tolerant . Nevertheless, salinity reduces germination and delays emergence in this species and stands tend to be irregular with depressed crop yield. Some varieties, however, are less affected by salinity than others. In this study, our objective was to determine the effects of salinity on germination of a range of commercially

Seyfollah Fallah

238

Neural network modeling of salinity variation in Apalachicola River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity is an important indicator for water quality and aquatic ecosystem in tidal rivers. The increase of salinity intrusion in a river may have an adverse effect on the aquatic environment system. This study presents an application of the artificial neural network (ANN) to assess salinity variation responding to the multiple forcing functions of freshwater input, tide, and wind in

Wenrui Huang; Simon Foo

2002-01-01

239

SALINITY HAZARD MAPPING METHODOLOGIES: THE PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dryland salinity is a key environmental issue in Australia. Over the last 30 years, numerous studies have been undertaken in an attempt to increase our understanding and to try to remedy this growing problem. However, the extent of primary, secondary and urban salinity continues to expand. Various salinity hazard mapping methodologies have been tried, and published hazards maps and 'risk

Daniella Csaky

240

Analysis of the SMOS ocean salinity inversion algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the preparation for the European Space Agency SMOS (soil moisture and ocean salinity) satellite mission, empirical sea surface emissivity (forward) models have been applied to retrieve sea surface salinity from L-band brightness temperature (TB) measurements. However, the salinity inversion is not straightforward and an important effort is required to define the most appropriate cost function (inversion algorithm).

C. Gabarro; Marcos Portabella; Marco Talone

2007-01-01

241

Extended Ocean Salinity Error Budget Analysis within the SMOS Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission will provide from 2009 onwards sea surface salinity maps over the oceans. In this paper an ocean salinity error budget is described. Instrumental, external noise sources and geophysical errors have been analysed, stressing their relative degree of impact. With the aim of improving this study, an extended version of this analysis provides an

Roberto Sabia; Adriano Camps; Mercè Vall-Llossera; Marco Talone

2008-01-01

242

Salinity Effects on Bud Yield and Vegetative Growth of Artichoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globe artichokes recently have been planted in the irrigated desert area of southern California. Soils in this area are, or have the potential to become, highly saline from the application of saline irrigation water. Thus, a 2-year field plot study was conducted. A control and five saline treatments were imposed by irrigation with waters that contained equal weights of NaCl

Leland E. Francois

1995-01-01

243

Effect of salinity on methylation of mercury  

SciTech Connect

Monomethyl and dimethylmercury are potent neurotoxins subject to biomagnification in food webs. This fact was tragically demonstrated by the Minamata and Niigata poisoning incidents in Japan in which 168 persons who ate seafood from mercury polluted waters were poisoned, 52 fatally. Shortly after these two incidents, work conducted in freshwater environments demonstrated the microbial conversion of inorganic and phenylmercury compounds to mono- and di-methylmercury. Consideration of some fragmentary evidence from the literature, however, indicates that the rate and the significance of microbial methylation of mercury in freshwater and saltwater environments may not be the same. A demonstrated relationship between mercury methylation rates and water salinity would greatly influence our thinking about mercury pollution effects in marine versus freshwater environments. Since we were unable to locate published reports on this subject, we are investigating the influence of salinity on the rate of mercury methylation in an estuarine sediment.

Blum, J.E.; Bartha, R.

1980-09-01

244

Review Adverse Effects of Salinity on Citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the rapid expansion of irrigated agriculture, efficient use of the limited water resources in arid and semi-arid regions is becoming more and more vital. However, water salinity is a major problem due to its negative influence on the yields of many crops. It reduces citrus trees' growth and causes physiological disorders. Salt-stress lowers net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance,

ADNAN AL-YASSIN

245

Multispectral Remote Sensing of Saline Seeps  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aircraft experiment was conducted in early summer of 1981 to determine the feasibility of optical and microwave remote sensing techniques for the detection of fully developed and incipient saline seeps in South Dakota and Montana. The NASA C-130 earth resources aircraft was used to acquire L-band and C-band scatterometer data (backscattering coefficient profiles), radiometer data (brightness temperature profiles), and

Lokesh Chaturvedi; Keith R. Carver; J. Clifford Harlan; Gary D. Hancock; Frederick V. Small; Kevin J. Dalstead

1983-01-01

246

Development of a linear predictive model for carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline carbonate aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO 2 injection into deep saline aquifers is a preferred method for mitigating CO 2 emission. Although deep saline aquifers are found in many sedimentary basins and provide very large storage capacities, several numerical simulations are needed before injection to determine the storage capacity of an aquifer. Since numerical simulations are expensive and time-consuming, using a predictive model enables quick estimation of CO 2 storage capacity of a deep saline aquifer. In order to create a predictive model, the ranges of variables that affect the CO 2 storage capacity were determined from published literature data. Correlations found in literature were used for other important parameters such as pore volume compressibility and density of brine. Latin hypercube space filling design was used to construct 100 simulation cases prepared using CMG STARS. The simulation period covered a total of 300 years of CO 2 storage. By using a least-squares method, linear and nonlinear predictive models were developed to estimate CO 2 storage capacity of deep saline carbonate aquifers. Numerical dispersion effects were considered by decreasing the grid dimensions. It was observed that a dimensionless linear predictive model is better than the nonlinear. The sensitivity analyses showed that the most important parameter that affects CO 2 storage capacity is depth. Most of the (up to 90%) injected gas dissolved into the formation water and a negligible amount of CO 2 reacted with carbonate.

Anbar, Sultan; Akin, Serhat

2011-11-01

247

Water Use of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on Highly? Saline and Non-Saline Soils in Yang Talad, Kalasin Province, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat- pulse velocity technique was used to monitor water use by Eucalyptus camaldulensis trees from Petford, Queensland, Australia. The trees were planted on recharge (non-saline soil) and discharge (highly saline soil) areas for ecological studies in Yang Talad, Kalasin province, Thailand. Watertables were over at 7.6 m depth on non-saline and 1.5 m on highly saline soil areas during

Jesada Luangjame; Rungruang Lertsirivorakul

248

The hydrography of the Mozambique Channel from six years of continuous temperature, salinity, and velocity observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature, salinity and velocity data are presented, along with the estimated volume transport, from seven full-length deep sea moorings placed across the narrowest part of the Mozambique Channel, southwest Indian Ocean, during the period November 2003 to December 2009. The dominant water mass in the upper layer is Sub-Tropical Surface Water (STSW) which overlies South Indian Central Water (SICW), and is normally capped by fresher Tropical Surface Water (TSW). Upper ocean salinity increased through 2005 as a result of saline STSW taking up a relatively larger part of the upper layer, at the expense of TSW. Upper waters are on average warmer and lighter in the central Channel than on the sides. Throughout the upper 1.5 km of the water column there is large hydrographic variability, short-term as well as interannual, and in particular at frequencies (four to seven cycles per year) associated with the southward passage of anticyclonic Mozambique Channel eddies. The eddies have a strong T-S signal, in the upper and central waters as well as on the intermediate level, as the eddies usually carry saline Red Sea Water (RSW) in their core. While the interannual frequency band displays an east-west gradient with higher temperature variance on the western side, the eddy frequency band shows highest variance in the centre of the Channel, where the eddy band contains about 40% of the total isopycnal hydrographic variability. Throughout the >6 years of measurements, the frequency and characteristics of eddies vary between periods, both in terms of strength and vertical structure of eddy T-S signals. These changes contribute to the interannual variability of water mass properties: an increase in central water salinity to a maximum in late 2007 coincided with a period of unusually frequent eddies with strong salinity signals. The warmest and most saline deep water is found within the northward flowing Mozambique Undercurrent, on the western side of the Channel. The Undercurrent has two cores: an intermediate one mainly containing diluted Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), and a deep one consisting of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). In the intermediate core, T-S properties are strongly correlated with current velocity, probably because of the strong salinity gradient at the interface between Red Sea Water (RSW) and AAIW. In the deep core, velocity and hydrographic time series do not correlate on a daily basis, but they do at longer time scales.

Ullgren, J. E.; van Aken, H. M.; Ridderinkhof, H.; de Ruijter, W. P. M.

2012-11-01

249

Interactive Effect Of Cobalt And Salinity On Tomato Plants I- Growth And Mineral Composition As Affected By Cobalt And Salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was carried out at the greenhouse, of Faculty of Agriculture Ain Shams University, during 2003 August 15th to study the interactive effect of cobalt and salinity on growth and mineral composition of two tomato varieties differing in their salt tolerance, namely Moneymaker (as salinity sensitive) and Edcawy (as salinity tolerance). A pot experiment was carried using acid washed

Nadia Gad

2005-01-01

250

Anti-inflammation effects of hydrogen saline in LPS activated macrophages and carrageenan induced paw oedema  

PubMed Central

Background Oxidative stress is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammation. Recent studies have found that hydrogen gas has the effect of eliminating free radicals. Whether hydrogen saline (more convenient to be used than hydrogen gas) has the anti-inflammation effect or not is still unknown. Methods Carrageenan-induced paw oedema and LPS-activated macrophages are studied in this article. Injection of carrageenan into the foot of a mouse elicited an acute inflammatory response characterized by increase of foot volume and infiltration of neutrophils. While tumor necrosis factor?(TNF-?) secreted by activated macrophages was determined by ELISA and real-time PCR. Results All parameters of inflammation (foot volume, infiltration of neutrophils, amount of TNF-? and the level of TNF-?'s mRNA) were attenuated by the hydrogen saline treatment. Conclusion As a more convenient way than inhaling H2, hydrogen saline exhibits a protective effect against inflammation and it might provide a novel therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases.

2012-01-01

251

Pretreatment and biotreatment of saline industrial wastewaters.  

PubMed

Wastewater from an Akzo Nobel production site contains more than 50 g/l total dissolved salts, mainly chlorides and sulphates, and is currently being treated after 10-20 x dilution. Biological treatment of undiluted or less diluted wastewater is very desirable for environmental and economic reasons. Possibilities were investigated in laboratory scale reactors to treat this highly saline and high strength wastewater aerobically, either after long adaptation or after removing part of the salts by a pretreatment. Adaptation and selection from mixed activated sludge populations took approximately 40 days to finally achieve a COD removal in aerobic treatment of 55-65% at two times dilution (11-16 g/l chloride and 5-7 g/l sulphate). Undiluted wastewater was not treatable. A higher removal percentage (> 80%) was possible at the original high salt concentration only when the sludge load was limited to approximately 0.4-0.5 kg COD/kg sludge/day. A longer adaptation time was required. Nanofiltration (NF) and crystallization could be used as a pretreatment to remove and recover up to 80% of the sulphate in the form of crystallized Glauber salt. Recovery strongly depended on the sulphate and chloride concentration in the NF concentrate and on crystallization temperature. The salt (sulphate) reduction through the NF improved the removal efficiency of a consecutive biotreatment only at a relatively low chloride level, demonstrating that the combination of nanofiltration-crystallization-aerobic biodegradation is less feasible for very saline wastewaters. Anaerobic pretreatment of saline waters turned out to be rather sensitive to high salinities. Only wastewater diluted to 10 g/l chloride could be treated well: sulphate concentration decreased by 80% and COD by 40%. Removal efficiencies of the combined anaerobic-aerobic treatment were approximately 80-85%, proving that this was a feasible route for 2-3 x diluted wastewater. The study has shown that several alternatives are available for treatment of the very saline wastewaters at a much lower degree of dilution than currently practiced. PMID:16605013

Tuin, B J W; Geerts, R; Westerink, J B; van Ginkel, C G

2006-01-01

252

Effects of salinity on baldcypress seedlings: Physiological responses and their relation to salinity tolerance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Growth and physiological responses of 15 open-pollinated families of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum var. distichum) subjected to flooding with saline water were evaluated in this study. Ten of the families were from coastal sites in Louisiana and Alabama, USA that have elevated levels of soil-water salinity. The other five families were from inland, freshwater sites in Louisiana. Seedlings from all families tolerated flooding with water of low (2 g l-1) salinity. Differences in biomass among families became most apparent at the highest salinity levels (6 and 8 g l-1). Overall, increasing salinity reduced leaf biomass more than root biomass, which in turn was reduced more than stem biomass. A subset of seedlings from the main greenhouse experiment was periodically placed indoors under artificial light, and measurements were made of gas exchange and leaf water potential. Also, tissue concentrations of Cl-, Na+, K+, and Ca2+ were determined at the end of the greenhouse experiment. Significant intraspecific variation was found for nearly all the physiological parameters evaluated, but only leaf concentrations of Na+ and Cl- were correlated with an index of family-level differences in salt tolerance.

Allen, J. A.; Chambers, J. L.; Pezeshki, S. R.

1997-01-01

253

Effect of sudden salinity change on Penaeus latisulcatus Kishinouye osmoregulation, ionoregulation and condition in inland saline water and potassium-fortified inland saline water.  

PubMed

Two trials were conducted to determine the effect of sudden decrease in salinity of raw and potassium-fortified inland saline water on western king prawn Penaeus latisulcatus osmoregulation, ionoregulation and condition. Prawns were subjected to salinity decrease over 1 h from 32 to 25 ppt in the first trial and from 27 to 20 ppt in the second trial in three water types: inland saline water with potassium fortified to 100% and 80% of the marine water concentration (IS100, IS80), and raw inland saline water (ISW). In the first trial condition and ingestion rate were monitored over 19 days following salinity change. In the second trial condition, haemolymph osmo- and iono-regulation were recorded over 48 h following salinity change. In the first trial, 100% mortality was observed in ISW by day 13, with final survival 94% in IS80 and 100% in IS100. Tail muscle moisture content increased significantly (P < 0.05) over time in both trials and in all water types, suggesting loss of energy reserves. In the second trial, serum osmolality, sodium concentration and osmoregulatory capacity decreased following salinity change, stabilising by 24 h in IS100 and IS80 but continuing to decrease till 48 h in ISW, suggesting partial breakdown of osmoregulatory function in the potassium-deficient medium. Prawns were stronger regulators of divalent than monovalent cations. These trials demonstrate that potassium-deficient inland saline water requires fortification with potassium to allow prawn survival and efficient osmoregulation. PMID:17030137

Prangnell, David I; Fotedar, Ravi

2006-08-30

254

Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)  

MedlinePLUS

... because the large intestine is filled with barium liquid. The barium liquid coats the lining of the large intestine and ... bowel prep instructions. Generally, patients follow a clear liquid diet for 1 to 3 days before the ...

255

Towards a paleo-salinity proxy: Decreasing D/H fractionation in algal and bacterial lipids with increasing salinity in Christmas Island saline ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effect of a wide range of salinities (13 -149 PSU) on the D/H ratio of lipids in microbial mat sediments from hypersaline ponds on Christmas Island. The hydrogen isotope ratios (expressed as ?D values) of total lipid extracts, and the individual hydrocarbons heptadecane, heptadecene, octadecane, octadecene, diploptene and phytene from algae and bacteria, became increasingly enriched in deuterium as salinity increased, spanning a range of 100‰ while lake water ?D values spanned a range of just 12‰. D/H fractionation between lipids and source water thus decreased as salinity increased. Isotope fractionation factors (?lipid-water) were strongly correlated with salinity and increased in all compound classes studied. The apparent isotope fractionation (?lipid-water) decreased by 0.8 to 1.1‰ per PSU increase in salinity. Differences in the hydrogen isotopic composition of lipids derived from three biosynthetic pathways (acetogenic, MVA and DOXP/MEP) remained similar irrespective of the salinity, suggesting that the mechanism responsible for the observed ?lipid-water - salinity relationship originates prior to the last common biosynthetic branching point, the Calvin Cycle. These findings imply that caution must be exercised when attempting to reconstruct source water ?D values using lipid ?D values from aquatic environments that may have experienced salinity variations of ~3 PSU or more (based on a 1‰ per PSU response of D/H fractionation to salinity changes, and a lipid ?D measurement precision of 3‰). On the other hand our results can be used to establish a paleo-salinity proxy based on algal and bacterial lipid ?D values if salinity variations exceeded ~3 PSU and/or if additional constraints on source water ?D values can be made.

Sachse, D.; Sachs, J. P.

2007-12-01

256

Linear Crop Response Functions to Soil Salinity With a Threshold Salinity Level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response function of a crop yield to soil salinity level is essential in decision-making in regard to irrigation with saline water. A switching regression approach to estimate the piecewise linear response function with critical threshold level is presented, and the asymptotical stochastic properties of the estimates are described. The empirical estimates, based on grapefruit yield data, are compared with those of a recent published study by Maas and Hoffman (1977) and the statistical significance of the differences is discussed. Finally, the threshold hypothesis is tested empirically against some alternative formulations. It turns out that the `threshold hypothesis' is confirmed.

Feinerman, E.; Yaron, D.; Bielorai, H.

1982-02-01

257

Feasibility of irrigating pickleweed (Salicornia bigelovii. Torr) with hyper-saline drainage water.  

PubMed

Reuse of drainage water (DW) for irrigation reduces the volume of DW requiring treatment or disposal. We conducted a greenhouse study to evaluate the performance of the halophyte Salicornia bigelovii Torr. when irrigated with hyper-saline DW and seawater (SW) treatments, ranging from 1/3 strength to full strength (18-49 dS m(-1)), in a sand-culture system. Results indicate that Salicornia grows well over the entire range of iso-osmotic SW and DW salinity treatments. Moreover, when boron (B) was added to SW treatments to concentrations equivalent to that of corresponding 1/3- and 2/3-strength DW treatments (i.e., 9 and 17 mg L(-1)), growth was not affected, and tissue B concentrations were <150 mg kg(-1) dry wt. However, when plants were irrigated with synthetic DW where B was reduced to solution culture levels (0.5-1.0 mg L(-1)), plants generally performed worse than when irrigated with actual DW high in B at the same salinity level. Evapotranspiration (ET) rates exceeded that lost from an evaporation pan from 1.5 to 2.5 times. Using a method accounting for changes in the isotopic signature of water in the reservoir due to evaporation, we estimated that high ET rates were due primarily to high transpiration rates (>78% of ET). The salt content in the tissue was very high (ash content 43-52%), but ionic composition in the shoot tissue reflected that of the treatment water used to irrigate the plants. These data indicate that hyper-saline DW, characteristic of California's San Joaquin Valley, can be used to irrigate Salicornia and substantially reduce drainage volumes. PMID:18765761

Grattan, S R; Benes, S E; Peters, D W; Diaz, F

258

Absolute Salinity, ''Density Salinity'' and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale: present and future use in the seawater standard TEOS-10  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy and scope, including its use

D. G. Wright; R. Pawlowicz; T. J. McDougall; R. Feistel; G. M. Marion

2011-01-01

259

Flow and Salinity Variation in a Large HyperSaline Lake in North of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Orumiyeh Lake with a surface area of about 5000 km square and mean depth of 6 m located in the northwest of Iran is one of the world's largest hyper-saline lakes. In 1979 a 15-km causeway was constructed across the lake for a highway crossing to connect Western and Eastern Azarbayejan provinces. The causeway divided the lake into two

M. Jamali; A. A. Marjani

2008-01-01

260

Responses of freshwater biota to rising salinity levels and implications for saline water management: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. All of the plants and animals that make up freshwater aquatic communities,are affected by salinity. Many taxa possess morphological, physiological and life-history characteristics that provide some capacity for tolerance, acclimatisation or avoidance. These characteristics impart a level of resilience to freshwater communities. Tomaintain biodiversity in aquatic systems it is important to manage the rate, timing, pattern, frequency and duration

Kimberley R. James; Belinda Cant; Tom Ryan

2003-01-01

261

Responses of freshwater biota to rising salinity levels and implications for saline water management: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

All of the plants and animals that make up freshwater aquatic communities are affected by salinity. Many taxa possess morphological, physiological and life-history characteristics that provide some capacity for tolerance, acclimatisation or avoidance. These characteristics impart a level of resilience to freshwater communities. To maintain biodiversity in aquatic systems it is important to manage the rate, timing, pattern, frequency and

Kimberley R. JamesA; Tom RyanB

262

Salinity in water markets: An experimental investigation of the Sunraysia Salinity Levy in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigation can have a significant negative impact on the environment. Policies available to regulators to reduce the impact of irrigation include externality taxes and levies. In 2002 the Victorian Government introduced a system of salinity levies in the irrigation regions of Sunraysia, northern Victoria. These levies differ from typical taxes because they also introduce trade barriers between certain locations. These

Charlotte Duke; Lata Gangadharan

2008-01-01

263

STREAMBED INDUCTION LOGS: AN AIRBORNE APPROACH TO IDENTIFYING SALINITY SOURCES AND QUANTIFYING SALINITY LOADS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We delineated natural and oil-field salinity sources that degrade water quality in the upper Colorado River (west Texas) and Petronila Creek (Texas coast) by combining multifrequency airborne EM measurements of apparent ground conductivity with chemical analyses of surface water at key stream locations. To reduce the cost of high-resolution airborne surveying over such large areas, we first flew along the

Jeffrey G. Paine; Edward W. Collins; Austin H. S. Nance; Kerry L. Niemann

2006-01-01

264

Saline groundwaters in the hercynian granites (Chardon Mine, France): geochemical evidence for the salinity origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the chemical evolution of high Cl? Chardon mine groundwaters is modelled as a mixing between an oxidising recharge and an old marine component on which the water–rock interaction is superimposed. Chemical and isotopic similarities with saline Carnmenellis mine groundwaters are emphasised and a general comparison with other brines is discussed.The cation content of deep granitic groundwaters is

Catherine Beaucaire; Nathalie Gassama; Nathalie Tresonne; Didier Louvat

1999-01-01

265

Intravenous hypertonic saline to reduce intraocular pressure.  

PubMed

Purpose:? To quantitate the effect of intravenous hypertonic saline (IVHTS) injection on elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Methods:? Nineteen patients (median age, 65?years; range, 41-84?years) with glaucoma and an IOP 30?mmHg or higher were recruited. A bolus of IVHTS (sodium chloride concentration 23.4%) was injected in an antecubital vein over 10-20?seconds. The IOP and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) were measured frequently for 2?hr. The dosage was 0.5?mmol/kg sodium in 11 patients (Group 1) and 1.0?mmol/kg in eight patients (Group 2). Results:? In both groups, a median absolute IOP reduction of 7?mmHg was achieved in 5?min. The maximum median reduction was 7?mmHg (range, 4-16) and 9?mmHg (range, 3-14) at 5 and 16?min after IVHTS in Group 1 and 2, respectively, at which point the median IOP had reduced from 38 and 35?mmHg to 31 and 27?mmHg (p?saline solution reduces IOP moderately within minutes for up to 2?hr. PMID:22834976

Harju, Mika; Kivelä, Tero; Lindbohm, Nina; Koivusalo, Riku; Paloheimo, Markku

2012-07-27

266

Albumin and IgG in skin and skeletal muscle after plasmapheresis with saline loading  

SciTech Connect

The acute effect of removing plasma equivalent to 1.7% body wt and replacing it with saline equivalent to 10% body wt on the extravascular distribution of water, albumin, and immunoglobulin G (IgG) in skin and skeletal muscle was studied in anesthetized rabbits. The plasma protein concentration decreased by 43%. Prenodal lymph was collected from hindpaw skin or skeletal muscle. The extracellular and plasma volumes in excised tissue samples were measured using /sup 51/Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and /sup 125/I-labeled albumin, respectively. The protein spaces were calculated from measurements of endogenous albumin and IgG concentrations using immunochemical techniques. Lymph flow both tissues increased more than twice control, whereas the lymph total protein concentration decreased to less than one-half control. Three to six hours after the saline infusion, the skin interstitial volume was 30% greater than control, whereas the extravascular masses of albumin and IgG were 20% greater than control. For muscle, the interstitial volume was twice the control value, whereas the extravascular masses of albumin and IgG were not significantly altered. There was a large decrease in the lymph protein concentration after acute plasmapheresis. However, there was not an acute decrease in the extravascular albumin or IgG masses from skin or skeletal muscle. This may be due to the presence of the collagen matrix and edema fluid.

Mullins, R.J.; Powers, M.R.; Bell, D.R.

1987-01-01

267

Temperature, Salinity and Flow Variations in the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monthly temperature and salinity of the upper and lower layers in the Strait of Istanbul are evaluated between February 1996 and February 2009 to obtain long term changes in physical parameters in the strait. The volume fluxes of the layers are also calculated by using monthly ADCP transects data collected in both exits of the strait, from June 1999 to February 2009. The Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus) connects the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. It has a two-layer exchange flow system. The upper layer with ~18psu flows from the Black Sea and the lower layer with ~38psu flows from the Sea of Marmara. The southward barotropic flow in the upper layer and baroclinic flow in the lower layer are separated from each other by a thin interface. The average volume fluxes of the layers (600km3year-1 in the upper layer, 300km3/year-1 in the lower layer) were calculated in terms of the salt and water budget of the Turkish Sea Straits. Investigation of monthly temperature, salinity and ADCP measurements at two ends of the strait indicate that these parameters vary in wide range. The temperature is changes between 1.9°C in February 1996 and 26.7°C in July 2002 in Black Sea enters. The salinity is in the range of 15.01-18.64 psu. The flow exchange is mostly influenced the hydraulic conditions constituted geometry of the strait and rapid changes in atmospheric conditions. In the strait of Istanbul, the volume fluxes vary in an extensive range (upper layer: 5-1051 km3y-1 lower layer: 0.6-866 km3y-1in northern exit of the strait, upper layer: 0-1216 km3y-1 lower layer: 0-654 km3y-1in southern exit of the strait).

Alt?ok, Husne; Sur, Halil Ibrahim; Edip Müftüo?lu, A.; Yüce, Hüseyin

2010-05-01

268

More on Renal Salt Wasting Without Cerebral Disease: Response to Saline Infusion  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: The existence and prevalence of cerebral salt wasting (CSW) or the preferred term, renal salt wasting (RSW), and its differentiation from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) have been controversial. This controversy stems from overlapping clinical and laboratory findings and an inability to assess the volume status of these patients. The authors report another case of RSW without clinical cerebral disease and contrast it to SIADH. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Three patients with hyponatremia, hypouricemia, increased fractional excretion (FE) of urate, urine sodium >20 mmol/L, and concentrated urines were infused with isotonic saline after collection of baseline data. Results: One patient with RSW had pneumonia without cerebral disease and showed increased plasma aldosterone and FEphosphate, and two patients with SIADH had increased blood volume, low plasma renin and aldosterone, and normal FEphosphate. The patient with RSW responded to isotonic saline by excretion of dilute urines, prompt correction of hyponatremia, and normal water loading test after volume repletion. Hypouricemia and increased FEurate persisted after correction of hyponatremia. Two patients with SIADH failed to dilute their urines and remained hyponatremic during 48 and 110 h of saline infusion. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate appropriate stimulation of ADH in RSW. Differences in plasma renin and aldosterone levels and FEphosphate can differentiate RSW from SIADH, as will persistent hypouricemia and increased FEurate after correction of hyponatremia in RSW. FEphosphate was the only contrasting variable at baseline. The authors suggest an approach to treat the hyponatremic patient meeting criteria for SIADH and RSW and changing CSW to the more appropriate term, RSW.

Bitew, Solomon; Imbriano, Louis; Miyawaki, Nobuyuki; Fishbane, Steven; Maesaka, John K.

2009-01-01

269

Simultaneous temperature and salinity monitoring with a fiber optic sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel fiber optic sensor for simultaneous measurement of temperature and salinity with multiplexed polymer-coated fiber Bragg gratings is demonstrated. It has been found that the polyimide-coated fibre Bragg grating respond to variations of both temperature and salinity while the acrylate-coated fiber Bragg grating is only sensitive to the environmental temperature. The experimental results showed that the temperature and salinity

Qiying Chen; Ping Lu; Liqiu Men

2007-01-01

270

Phytoremediation of Saline Soils for Sustainable Agricultural Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Salinization of soils is one of the major factors which severely affect the agricultural productivity worldwide. Due to salinity,\\u000a more than half a billion hectares of land are not being properly used for crop production. Thus, there is a need to search\\u000a means to improve saline soils so that such soils could support highly productive and meaningful land-use systems to

M. Yasin Ashraf; Khalid Mahmood; Javed Akhter; F. Hussain; M. Arshad

271

Estimating Salinity Variance Dissipation Rate from Conductivity Microstructure Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the smallest length scales, conductivity measurements include a contribution from salinity fluctuations in the inertial-convective and viscous-diffusive ranges of the turbulent scalar variance spectrum. Interpreting these measurements is complicated because conductivity is a compound quantity of both temperature and salinity. Accurate estimates of the dissipation rate of salinity variance xS and temperature variance xT from conductivity gradient spectra require

Jonathan D. Nash; James N. Moum

1999-01-01

272

The role of mean ocean salinity in climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe numerical simulations designed to help elucidate the role of ocean salinity in climate. Using a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, we study a 100-year sensitivity experiment in which the global-mean salinity is approximately doubled from its present observed value, by adding 35 psu everywhere. The salinity increase produces a rapid global-mean sea-surface warming of 0.8oC within a few

P. D. Williams; Eric Guilyardi; Gurvan Madec; Silvio Gualdi; E. Scoccimarro

2009-01-01

273

The role of mean ocean salinity in climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe numerical simulations designed to elucidate the role of mean ocean salinity in climate. Using a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, we study a 100-year sensitivity experiment in which the global-mean salinity is approximately doubled from its present observed value, by adding 35psu everywhere in the ocean. The salinity increase produces a rapid global-mean sea-surface warming of 0.8°C within

Paul D. Williams; Eric Guilyardi; Gurvan Madec; Silvio Gualdi; Enrico Scoccimarro

2010-01-01

274

Indian Ocean sea surface salinity variations in a coupled model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variability of the sea surface salinity (SSS) in the Indian Ocean is studied using a 100-year control simulation of the\\u000a Community Climate System Model (CCSM 2.0). The monsoon-driven seasonal SSS pattern in the Indian Ocean, marked by low salinity\\u000a in the east and high salinity in the west, is captured by the model. The model overestimates runoff into the

P. N. Vinayachandran; Ravi S. Nanjundiah

2009-01-01

275

Toward an Optimal SMOS Ocean Salinity Inversion Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the preparation for the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission, empirical sea-surface emissivity (forward) models have been used to retrieve sea-surface salinity from L-band brightness-temperature (T B) measurements. However, the salinity inversion is not straightforward, and substantial effort is required to define the most appropriate cost function. Various Bayesian-based configurations of the

Carolina Gabarro; Marcos Portabella; Marco Talone

2009-01-01

276

Water Salinity and Initial Development of Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity is an important environmental problem, especially in arid and semiarid regions of the world. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of water salinity on the initial development of pitaya (Hylocereus undatus)using five levels of irrigation water with electrical conductivity (ECw) levels: 0; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0 and 4.0 dS m. Salinity inhibited plant height, stem diameter, root length,

?talo Herbert Lucena Cavalcante; Mãrkilla Zunete Beckmann; Antonio Baldo Geraldo Martins; João Antônio Galbiatti; Lourival Ferreira Cavalcante

2008-01-01

277

Antioxidative responses of Calendula officinalis under salinity conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gain a better insight into long-term salt-induced oxidative stress, some physiological parameters in marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) under 0, 50 and 100 mM NaCl were investigated. Salinity affected most of the considered parameters. High salinity caused reduction in growth parameters, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Under high salinity stress, a decrease in total glutathione and an increase in total ascorbate

Nader Chaparzadeh; Maria Lucia D'Amico; Ramazan-Ali Khavari-Nejad; Riccardo Izzo; Flavia Navari-Izzo

2004-01-01

278

Effect of hypersaline cooling canals on aquifer salinization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined effect of salinity and temperature on density-driven convection was evaluated in this study for a large (28 km2) cooling canal system (CCS) at a thermoelectric power plant in south Florida, USA. A two-dimensional cross-section model\\u000a was used to evaluate the effects of hydraulic heterogeneities, cooling canal salinity, heat transport, and cooling canal geometry\\u000a on aquifer salinization and movement of

Joseph D. Hughes; Christian D. Langevin; Linzy Brakefield-Goswami

2010-01-01

279

Effect of hypersaline cooling canals on aquifer salinization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined effect of salinity and temperature on density-driven convection was evaluated in this study for a large (28 km2) cooling canal system (CCS) at a thermoelectric power plant in south Florida, USA. A two-dimensional cross-section model was used to evaluate the effects of hydraulic heterogeneities, cooling canal salinity, heat transport, and cooling canal geometry on aquifer salinization and movement

Joseph D. Hughes; Christian D. Langevin; Linzy Brakefield-Goswami

2010-01-01

280

Mungbean response to irrigation with waters of different salinities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted in lysimeters (1985) and field plots (1986) to evaluate changes in soil moisture and salinity status following irrigations with different blends of a saline water, SW (ECiw = 6.4 dS\\/m) and non-saline water, NSW (0.3 dS\\/m) and their effects on the growth and yield of Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). Normalised to the yield of the treatment

P. S. Minhas; D. R. Sharma; B. K. Khosla

1990-01-01

281

Saline made viscous with polyethylene glycol: a new alternate breast implant filler material.  

PubMed

Silicone shell implants filled with either saline or polyethylene glycol 20,000 at 85 percent weight/volume were placed subcutaneously on the dorsal aspect of 20 rabbits, and after 2 weeks, selected implants were ruptured by subcutaneous insertion of a hypodermic needle. After 6 weeks and 6 months, histologic analyses of tissue samples from both groups showed no deviation in any organ from the norm. Further physical and chemical experiments on these devices showed no contradiction to their use as potential alternative filler material for breast implants in plastic surgery. PMID:8942906

Friedman, R M; Gyimesi, I; Robinson, J B; Rohrich, R J

1996-12-01

282

VOLUME AND OSMOLALITY OF URINE OF HYPOVITAMINOTIC A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five heifers, approximately 1 yr of age, were previously fed a vitamin A depletion ration containing 3.4% iodized salt and restricted water intake until cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) was elevated to an average of 348 mm of saline. During a 24-hr period in which no water or feed was allowed, these heifers excreted greater volumes of urine of lower osmolality

HOLSTEIN HEIFERS

283

Soil salinity decreases global soil organic carbon stocks.  

PubMed

Saline soils cover 3.1% (397 million hectare) of the total land area of the world. The stock of soil organic carbon (SOC) reflects the balance between carbon (C) inputs from plants, and losses through decomposition, leaching and erosion. Soil salinity decreases plant productivity and hence C inputs to the soil, but also microbial activity and therefore SOC decomposition rates. Using a modified Rothamsted Carbon model (RothC) with a newly introduced salinity decomposition rate modifier and a plant input modifier we estimate that, historically, world soils that are currently saline have lost an average of 3.47tSOCha(-1) since they became saline. With the extent of saline soils predicted to increase in the future, our modelling suggests that world soils may lose 6.8Pg SOC due to salinity by the year 2100. Our findings suggest that current models overestimate future global SOC stocks and underestimate net CO2 emissions from the soil-plant system by not taking salinity effects into account. From the perspective of enhancing soil C stocks, however, given the lower SOC decomposition rate in saline soils, salt tolerant plants could be used to sequester C in salt-affected areas. PMID:22959898

Setia, Raj; Gottschalk, Pia; Smith, Pete; Marschner, Petra; Baldock, Jeff; Setia, Deepika; Smith, Jo

2012-09-05

284

Absolute Salinity, ''Density Salinity'' and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale: present and future use in the seawater standard TEOS-10  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy and scope, including its use in the reduction of field data and in numerical models. First, in the TEOS-10 formulation for IAPSO Standard Seawater, the Gibbs function takes the Reference Salinity as its salinity argument, denoted SR, which provides a measure of the mass fraction of dissolved material in solution based on the Reference Composition approximation for Standard Seawater. We discuss uncertainties in both the Reference Composition and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale on which Reference Salinity is reported. The Reference Composition provides a much-needed fixed benchmark but modified reference states will inevitably be required to improve the representation of Standard Seawater for some studies. However, the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale should remain unaltered to provide a stable representation of salinity for use with the TEOS-10 Gibbs function and in climate change detection studies. Second, when composition anomalies are present in seawater, no single salinity variable can fully represent the influence of dissolved material on the thermodynamic properties of seawater. We consider three distinct representations of salinity that have been used in previous studies and discuss the connections and distinctions between them. One of these variables provides the most accurate representation of density possible as well as improvements over Reference Salinity for the determination of other thermodynamic properties. It is referred to as "Density Salinity" and is represented by the symbol SAdens; it stands out as the most appropriate representation of salinity for use in dynamical physical oceanography. The other two salinity variables provide alternative measures of the mass fraction of dissolved material in seawater. "Solution Salinity", denoted SAsoln, is the most obvious extension of Reference Salinity to allow for composition anomalies; it provides a direct estimate of the mass fraction of dissolved material in solution. "Added-Mass Salinity", denoted SAadd, is motivated by a method used to report laboratory experiments; it represents the component of dissolved material added to Standard Seawater in terms of the mass of material before it enters solution. We also discuss a constructed conservative variable referred to as "Preformed Salinity", denoted S∗, which will be useful in process-oriented numerical modelling studies. Finally, a conceptual framework for the incorporation of composition anomalies in numerical models is presented that builds from studies in which composition anomalies are simply ignored up to studies in which the influences of composition anomalies are accounted for using the results of biogeochemical models. 1TEOS-10: international Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010, http://www.teos-10.org/.

Wright, D. G.; Pawlowicz, R.; McDougall, T. J.; Feistel, R.; Marion, G. M.

2011-01-01

285

Absolute Salinity, "Density Salinity" and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale: present and future use in the seawater standard TEOS-10  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy and scope, including its use in the reduction of field data and in numerical models. First, in the TEOS-10 formulation for IAPSO Standard Seawater, the Gibbs function takes the Reference Salinity as its salinity argument, denoted SR, which provides a measure of the mass fraction of dissolved material in solution based on the Reference Composition approximation for Standard Seawater. We discuss uncertainties in both the Reference Composition and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale on which Reference Salinity is reported. The Reference Composition provides a much-needed fixed benchmark but modified reference states will inevitably be required to improve the representation of Standard Seawater for some studies. The Reference-Composition Salinity Scale should remain unaltered to provide a stable representation of salinity for use with the TEOS-10 Gibbs function and in climate change detection studies. Second, when composition anomalies are present in seawater, no single salinity variable can fully represent the influence of dissolved material on the thermodynamic properties of seawater. We consider three distinct representations of salinity that have been used in previous studies and discuss the connections and distinctions between them. One of these variables provides the most accurate representation of density possible as well as improvements over Reference Salinity for the determination of other thermodynamic properties. It is referred to as "Density Salinity" and is represented by the symbol SAdens; it stands out as the most appropriate representation of salinity for use in dynamical physical oceanography. The other two salinity variables provide alternative measures of the mass fraction of dissolved material in seawater. "Solution Salinity", denoted SAsoln, is the most obvious extension of Reference Salinity to allow for composition anomalies; it provides a direct estimate of the mass fraction of dissolved material in solution. "Added-Mass Salinity", denoted SAadd, is motivated by a method used to report laboratory experiments; it represents the component of dissolved material added to Standard Seawater in terms of the mass of material before it enters solution. We also discuss a constructed conservative variable referred to as "Preformed Salinity", denoted S*, which will be useful in process-oriented numerical modelling studies. Finally, a conceptual framework for the incorporation of composition anomalies in numerical models is presented that builds from studies in which composition anomalies are simply ignored up to studies in which the influences of composition anomalies are accounted for using the results of biogeochemical models. 1TEOS-10: international thermodynamic equation of seawater 2010, http://www.teos-10.org.

Wright, D. G.; Pawlowicz, R.; McDougall, T. J.; Feistel, R.; Marion, G. M.

2010-08-01

286

Scaling of Gill Metabolic Potential as a Function of Salinity in the Euryhaline Crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun  

Microsoft Academic Search

The body-size scaling pattern of enzymes that are important in energy metabolism was examined in gills of the blue crab as a function of acclimation salinity. We hypothesized that the higher surface-area-to-volume ratio of small crabs would im- pose a greater metabolic cost for hyperosmoregulation, leading to an increase in the capacity for ATP production in gills. Postmetamorphic crabs spanning

Stephen T. Kinsey; Elizabeth Buda; Jennifer Nordeen

2003-01-01

287

Stable isotope record of late holocene salinity and river discharge in san francisco bay, california  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen and carbon isotopic measurements of fossil mollusks from San Francisco Bay are used to derive a record of paleosalinity and paleostreamflow for the past 5,900 years. The delta(18)O and delta(13)C values of river water (-12 parts per thousand and -9 parts per thousand) are markedly different than seawater (0 parts per thousand and 1 parts per thousand), and vary systematically as a function of salinity in the estuary. The data show that annually averaged salinity in the south-central part of the Bay was very close to the modern ''diversion-corrected'' value of 26.8 parts per thousand over the past 2,700 years, and 4 parts per thousand lower than modern between 3,800 and 5,100 yr B.P. Based on those salinities, the average annual river inflow to San Francisco Bay is calculated to have been 1290 m(3)/s over the past 2,400 years, and 1990 m(3)/s between 3,800 and 5,100 yr B.P., 1.8 times greater than the modern ''diversion-corrected'' value of 1100 m(3)/s, assuming a constant bay volume. The inferred river discharge record generally corroborates independent paleohydrologic records in California, including tree-ring, treeline and lake level records.

Ingram, B.L.; Ingle, J.C.; Conrad, M.E

1995-01-31

288

Salinity of oceanic hydrothermal fluids: a fluid inclusion study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensive microthermometric study of quartz, epidote, plagioclase, anhydrite and sphalerite-hosted fluid inclusions from ophiolitic [Semail (Oman) and Trinity (California) ophiolites] and oceanic (East Pacific Rise hydrothermal vents, Gorringe Bank, ODP Leg 111 Hole 504B) crust has been carried out in order to constrain a model accounting for wide salinity variations measured in the oceanic hydrothermal fluids. Recorded salinities in fluid inclusions vary between 0.3 and 52 wt% NaCl eq. However, more than 60% of the mean (+/- standard deviation) salinities of the samples are within the range 3.2 +/- 0.3 wt% NaCl eq (= microthermometric error) and the mean salinity of all fluid inclusions (without the brines) is 4.0 wt% NaCl eq with a standard deviation of 1.6 wt% NaCl eq. Whereas most samples display slightly higher salinities than seawater, several samples exhibit very high salinities (more than two times that of seawater). These high salinities are restricted to the plagiogranites (Semail and Trinity ophiolites) which mark the top of the fossil magma chamber, in the transition zone between the plutonic sequence and the sheeted dyke complex. The fluid inclusion population studied in the plagiogranites is characterized by the occurrence of four major fluid inclusion families: (1) low- to medium-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions which homogenize into the liquid phase; (2) low-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions with pseudocritical homogenization; (3) low- to medium-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions which homogenize into the vapor phase; and (4) high-salinity Liquid/Vapor/Halite fluid inclusions which homogenize into the liquid phase by halite dissolution and exhibit salinities as high as 52 wt% NaCl eq. These fluid inclusion families are interpreted as resulting from phase separation occurring in hydrothermal or magmatic fluids within the transition zone between the hydrothermal system and the magma chamber at temperatures higher than 500°C. Very low salinities (less than half that of seawater) have been found only in one dioritic sample from the Gorringe Bank. Mineralogical and petrological data from the Semail Ophiolite shows the absence of Cl-rich minerals. Furthermore, hydration of the crust, although very important, cannot account for the large salinity variations. Thus the large salinity variations measured are interpreted as resulting from phase separation and generation of brine-rich fluids at the top of the magma chamber. This phase separation and subsequent phase segregation and brine accumulation may result in a double-diffusive convection of the fluids in the hydrothermal system. Present address: B.R.G.M., SGN/GEO, B.P. 6009, 45060 Orleans Cedex 2, France

Nehlig, Pierre

1991-03-01

289

An algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity in the global ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date, density and other thermodynamic properties of seawater have been calculated from Practical Salinity, S P. It is more accurate however to use Absolute Salinity, S A (the mass fraction of dissolved material in seawater). Absolute Salinity S A can be expressed in terms of Practical Salinity S P as S A=(35.165 04 g kg-1/35)S P+? S A(?, ?, p) where ? S A is the Absolute Salinity Anomaly as a function of longitude ?, latitude ? and pressure. When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic), the Absolute Salinity Anomaly is zero. When seawater is not of standard composition, the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg-1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (?, ?, p) in the world ocean. To develop this algorithm we use the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811). To expand our data set we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally). We approximate the laboratory-determined values of ? S A of the 811 seawater samples as a series of simple functions of the silicate concentration of the seawater sample and latitude; one function for each ocean basin. We use these basin-specific correlations and a digital atlas of silicate in the world ocean to deduce the Absolute Salinity Anomaly globally and this is stored as an atlas, ? S A (?, ?, p). This atlas can be interpolated to the latitude, longitude and pressure of a seawater sample to estimate its Absolute Salinity Anomaly. For the 811 samples studied, ignoring the Absolute Salinity Anomaly results in a standard error in S A of 0.0107 g kg-1. Using our algorithm for ? S A reduces the error to 0.0048 g kg-1, reducing the mean square error by a factor of five. The number of sea water samples used to develop the correlation relationship is limited, and we hope that the algorithm and error can be improved as further data becomes available.

McDougall, T. J.; Jackett, D. R.; Millero, F. J.

2009-02-01

290

Changes in red blood cell volume on fixation in glutaraldehyde solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light scattering (nephelometry) was used to determine directly the change in volume of red blood cells immersed in a variety of buffer and fixative solutions. Cells immersed in saline or phosphate buffer solutions showed a change in volume that reflected the osmolarity of the solution, shrinkage taking place in hypertonic solutions and swelling and haemolysis occurring in strongly hypotonic solutions.

Christopher A. Squier; John S. Hart; Alan Churchland

1976-01-01

291

Petrophysical laboratory invertigations of carbon dioxide storage in a subsurface saline aquifer in Ketzin\\/Germany within the scope of CO2SINK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since June of 2008 carbon dioxide has been injected into a saline aquifer at the Ketzin test site [Würdemann et al., this volume]. The food grade CO2 is injected into a sandstone zone of the Stuttgart formation at ca. 650 m depth at 35°C reservoir temperature and 62 bar reservoir pressure. With the injection of CO2 into the geological formation,

K. Zemke; J. Kummmerow; M. Wandrey

2009-01-01

292

Factors affecting the hydrogen isotopic composition of dissolved organic matter along a salinity gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) in regulating estuarine ecosystem processes is poorly understood, in part due to difficulties in tracking terrestrial DOM in marine environments. Analysis of multiple stable isotopes (C, N, S) is often required due to poor separation of the carbon isotope signatures of marine and terrestrial sources. However, hydrogen isotopes exhibit greater fractionation. Marine DOM sources have a hydrogen isotope signature of 0‰ while terrestrial DOM can have signatures of up to -270‰ at the poles. Some challenges must be addressed before hydrogen isotopes can be used to track terrestrial DOM in aquatic environments. Hydrogen isotopes may undergo exchange between water and organic matter, obscuring terrestrial signatures. Riverine discharge into marine environments introduces terrestrial DOM to water of different chemical and isotopic compositions which could influence the isotopic composition of the terrestrial DOM. We investigate the effects of changes in water isotopic composition on DOM by introducing terrestrial DOM to freshwaters of isotopic compositions up to +1000‰ for up to two months. We also use surface water samples along a salinity transect at the Salmonier Arm, Newfoundland, Canada to investigate the effects of changes in water mass conditions (pH, salinity and water isotopes) on terrestrial DOM. In addition to changes in water mass conditions, methods for isolating estuarine DOM may regulate affect its isotopic composition. Ultrafiltration (UF), a size-exclusion technique, has been shown to isolate and concentrate the largest proportion of DOM in estuarine environments. UF separates DOM into low molecular weight (LMW, <1kDa) and high molecular weight (HMW, >1kDa) fractions. However, under certain processing conditions, some LMW DOM can be retained. During desalting (diafiltration), LMW DOM continues to be removed from the concentrate, whereas HMW DOM is retained. The proportion of LMW DOM retained becomes important when UF is used in environments requiring a range of diafiltration volumes, such as along a salinity transect in an estuary. As ~70% of marine DOM is LMW, UF-processed estuarine samples likely show a bias toward the terrestrial DOM component which will likely impact its isotopic composition. We examine the effects of DOM recovery following ultrafiltration and diafiltration on its bulk stable isotopic signatures along a salinity transect at the Salmonier Arm. Freshwater, high and intermediate salinity samples are diafiltered using a range of volumes, resulting in differences in recovery. DOM recovery, and isotopic signatures are compared across each treatment and along the transect. Results from these experimental and field samples are expected to provide key insight into the utility of hydrogen isotopes for understanding the transport and fate of terrestrial DOM in the marine environment.

Debond, A. A.; Ziegler, S. E.; Fogel, M. L.; Morrill, P. L.; Bowden, R.

2010-12-01

293

Seed germination and salinity tolerance in plant species growing on saline wastelands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven plant species including three chenopods:Suaeda fruticosa, Kochia indica, Atriplex crassifolia and four grasses:Sporobolus arabicus, Cynodon dactylon, Polypogon monspeliensis, Desmostachya bipinnata, varied greatly in their seed germination and growth responses to soil moisture or salinity. The germination percentage of\\u000a each species was significantly lower at soil moisture level of 25 % of water holding capacity than at the levels ranging

K. Mahmood; K. A. Malik; M. A. K. Lodhi; K. H. Sheikh

1996-01-01

294

PROPERTIES OF MEDIUM-DENSITY PARTICLEBOARD FROM SALINE ATHEL WOOD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Athel, Tamarix aphylla (L), a saline wood, is a potential biomass crop for helping to manage saline subsurface drainage water in arid land irrigated agriculture. Athel, as a woody crop, was used in this study with the objectives to characterize the mechanical properties and dimensional stability of...

295

NEW USE OF SALINE BIOMASS AS RAW MATERIAL FOR PARTICLEBOARDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Saline biomass crops have been planted in California for helping manage saline subsurface water in arid land-irrigated agriculture. There is a need to develop value-added uses of such crops. Three such crops; Athel, Tamarix aphylla (L), Eucalyptus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and Jose Tall Wheatgras...

296

Aquarius Ocean Salinity Mission High Stability L-band Radiometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NASA Earth Science System Pathfinder (ESSP) mission Aquarius, will measure global ocean surface salinity with approx.120 km spatial resolution every 7-days with an average monthly salinity accuracy of 0.2 psu (parts per thousand). This requires an L-b...

F. A. Pellerano J. Piepmeier M. Triesky K. Horgan J. Forgione J. Caldwell W. J. Wilson S. Yueh M. Spencer D. McWatters A. Freedman

2006-01-01

297

Chemical flood oil recovery with highly saline reservoir water  

SciTech Connect

In an oil reservoir in which the water contains more than about 9% dissolved salt, oil is produced by injecting an oil-displacin dispersion of at least one surface active alkylaryloxy polyethoxyethane sulfonate in the reservoir water or an equally saline water followed by a mobility controlling dispersion of noncondensible gas in an equally saline water.

Reisberg, J.

1980-05-20

298

Practical Salinity Management for Leachate Irrigation to Poplar Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfill leachate can be beneficially reused for irrigation of fiber crops with appropriate attention to nutrient and salinity management. The Riverbend Landfill in Western Oregon has been effectively practicing irrigation of landfill leachate to poplar trees since 1993. Over that time, the site has been adaptively managed to control salinity impacts to the tree crop while beneficially utilizing the applied

Jason K. Smesrud; George D. Duvendack; James M. Obereiner; James L. Jordahl; Mark F. Madison

2012-01-01

299

Effects of salinity on the growth of Phragmites australis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field salinity tolerance of Phragmites australis was evaluated by investigating 27 natural reed habitats along the eastern and western coasts of Jutland, Denmark. Die-back took place in the lower fringe of stands, before the onset of flowering, at sites where soil water salinities were higher than 15‰ within the rooting depth. In greenhouse experiments, juvenile plants produced from seeds

Jørgen Lissner; Hans-Henrik Schierup

1997-01-01

300

Ground water dependence of endangered ecosystems: Nebraska's eastern saline wetlands.  

PubMed

Many endangered or threatened ecosystems depend on ground water for their survival. Nebraska's saline wetlands, home to a number of endangered species, are ecosystems whose development, sustenance, and survival depend on saline ground water discharge at the surface. This study demonstrates that the saline conditions present within the eastern Nebraska saline wetlands result from the upwelling of saline ground water from within the underlying Dakota Aquifer and deeper underlying formations of Pennsylvanian age. Over thousands to tens of thousands of years, saline ground water has migrated over regional scale flowpaths from recharge zones in the west to the present-day discharge zones along the saline streams of Rock, Little Salt, and Salt Creeks in Lancaster and Saunders counties. An endangered endemic species of tiger beetle living within the wetlands has evolved under a unique set of hydrologic conditions, is intolerant to recent anthropogenic changes in hydrology and salinity, and is therefore on the brink of extinction. As a result, the fragility of such systems demands an even greater understanding of the interrelationships among geology, hydrology, water chemistry, and biology than in less imperiled systems where adaptation is more likely. Results further indicate that when dealing with ground water discharge-dependent ecosystems, and particularly those dependent on dissolved constituents as well as the water, wetland management must be expanded outside of the immediate surface location of the visible ecosystem to include areas where recharge and lateral water movement might play a vital role in wetland hydrologic and chemical mixing dynamics. PMID:17973752

Harvey, F Edwin; Ayers, Jerry F; Gosselin, David C

301

Salinity and Temperature Effects on Seed Germination of Milk Thistle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk thistle [Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn] is an annual plant belonging to the Asteraceae family whose ripe seeds contain flavonoid substances, which are important in the modern pharmaceutical industry. Seed germination is a major factor limiting the establishment of plants under saline conditions. The effect of salinity and temperatures on germination and seedling establishment was studied in two genotypes of

N. Ghavami; A. A. Ramin

2007-01-01

302

Hurricane-induced failure of low salinity wetlands  

PubMed Central

During the 2005 hurricane season, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527 km2 of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained robust and largely unchanged. Here we highlight geotechnical differences between the soil profiles of high and low salinity regimes, which are controlled by vegetation and result in differential erosion. In low salinity wetlands, a weak zone (shear strength 500–1450 Pa) was observed ?30 cm below the marsh surface, coinciding with the base of rooting. High salinity wetlands had no such zone (shear strengths > 4500 Pa) and contained deeper rooting. Storm waves during Hurricane Katrina produced shear stresses between 425–3600 Pa, sufficient to cause widespread erosion of the low salinity wetlands. Vegetation in low salinity marshes is subject to shallower rooting and is susceptible to erosion during large magnitude storms; these conditions may be exacerbated by low inorganic sediment content and high nutrient inputs. The dramatic difference in resiliency of fresh versus more saline marshes suggests that the introduction of freshwater to marshes as part of restoration efforts may therefore weaken existing wetlands rendering them vulnerable to hurricanes.

Howes, Nick C.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Hughes, Zoe J.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kulp, Mark A.; Miner, Michael D.; Smith, Jane M.; Barras, John A.

2010-01-01

303

Salinity and the discharge of salts from catchments in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discharge of soluble salts from catchments following clearing of native vegetation for dryland agriculture is a serious environmental and economic problem affecting soil and water resources in Australia. The fundamental challenges are: To identify areas of soil at risk of becoming saline. To relate soil and water salinity risk to options for management of land in the area that contributes

A. J Peck; Tom Hatton

2003-01-01

304

High-latitude salinity effects and interhemispheric thermohaline circulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general circulation model for the ocean is used to investigate the interaction between the global-scale thermohaline circulation and the salinity distribution. It is shown that an equatorially asymmetric circulation can be maintained even under equatorially symmetric basin geometry and surface forcing. Multiple equilibrium solutions are obtained for the same forcing by perturbing the high-latitude salinity field in an otherwise

Frank Bryan

1986-01-01

305

Alternate interpretation of the Messinian salinity crisis: Controversy resolved?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-resolution chronology of the Mediterranean Messinian salinity crisis is proposed. Two types of evaporite deposition may be distinguished: those in marginal areas vs. those in basinal ones. Their diachroneity is deduced from the stratigraphic relationships linking these evaporites to a major Messinian erosional surface. A two-step model is proposed for the evolution of the salinity crisis through time. During

Georges Clauzon; Jean-Pierre Suc; François Gautier; André Berger; Marie-France Loutre

1996-01-01

306

Novel low-cost salinity sensor for embedded environmental monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand for embedded environmental sensors is increasing. One of the key sensor capabilities is the ability to measure salinity. In addition to understanding the environment, a salinity measurement is needed to estimate water density and to convert pressure to estimates of water depth. This outlines a low-cost sensor that combines an H-bridge and digital potentiometer to make an AC resistance

Samuel H. Russ; V. Perepa; S. Leavesly; B. Webb

2010-01-01

307

Analysis of Production-Water-Salinity of Index Crops in  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One method to investigate the advantages of irrigation in cultivation is to evaluate the amount of increase in productions as a result of irrigation. Such relations which usually characterized by mathematics formulas or curves are called production to water function. In the agricultural analysis like pattern optimization and culture accumulation, we need some function like agricultural crops production, water and salinity. The amount of water used and salinity has influence on crops function, so that by increase in both components in various stages of plant growth, crop function decreases. Many researches have been performed on production-water and production-salinity function, therefore less researches on production-water-salinity components. The equation provided by Letey and Dinar (1986) is a sample of these researches. Their model is a quadratics equation from independent variables of water salinity in irrigation (ECi) and dimensionless proportion of the amount of water used to evaporation in class A (AW/EP) in plant growth stage. Therefore, by using this model and parameters like evaporation, rainfall and also quantity and quality water potential in Golestan farmlands, we obtained production-water-salinity components for each product in three different areas across Golestan province (moisture to dry areas). These products include sunflower, cotton, wheat, barely, potato, tomato, corn, sorgom, water melon, soybean and rice. Finally, these equations were compared by results of previous experiments, some results correspond and others were different. Key Word: production-water, production-salinity and production-water-salinity function, Letey and Dinar, Golestan.

Sharifan, H.; Ghahreman, B.

2009-04-01

308

Improving Seed Germination of Saltgrass under Saline Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saltgrass (Distichlis spicata var. stricta (Greene)) has a great potential for use as a turfgrass and as a revegetation species of saline sites. Experi- ments were conducted to test the effect of the application of different concentrations of ethep- hon, fusicoccin, kinetin, thiourea, and Proxy on saltgrass seed germination under three salinity levels. Saltgrass germination percentage was 56% under nonsaline

M. A. Shahba; Y. L. Qian; K. D. Lair

2008-01-01

309

Irrigation with saline water: benefits and environmental impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shortage of water resources of good quality is becoming an important issue in the arid and semi-arid zones. For this reason the availability of water resources of marginal quality such as drainage water, saline groundwater and treated wastewater has become an important consideration. Nevertheless, the use of these waters in irrigated lands requires the control of soil salinity by

Julián Mart??nez Beltrán

1999-01-01

310

Transvaginal Saline Hysterosonography: Characteristics Distinguishing Malignant and Various Benign Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study is to establish criteria for distinguishing en- dometrial polyps, submucosal leiomyomas, endometrial hyperplasia, and endometrial carci- noma on saline hysterosonography. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Sixty-three saline hysterosonograms with histologic con- firmation were retrospectively analyzed. We found 26 endometrial polyps, 16 submucosal lei- omyomas. three endometrial hyperplasias. one abnormal endometrium associated with a sloughed polyp. one

Sherelle L Laifer-Narin; Nagesh Ragavendra; David S. K. Lu; James Sayre; Rita R. Perrella; Edward G. Grant

311

Wound irrigation in children: Saline solution or tap water?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: Irrigation, a critical component of wound management, is commonly performed with sterile normal saline solution. The purpose of this study was to compare the infection rates of wounds irrigated with normal saline solution versus those of wounds irrigated with running tap water. Methods: A prospective trial was conducted in an urban pediatric emergency department. Tap water pressure and

Jonathan H. Valente; Rene J. Forti; Lawrence F. Freundlich; Stephanie O. Zandieh; Ellen F. Crain

2003-01-01

312

Sedimentology and geochemistry of saline lakes of the Great Plains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern Saskatchewan and portions of adjacent Alberta, North Dakota and Montana are occupied by hundreds of saline and hypersaline lakes ranging in size from small prairie potholes (less than 1 km2) to relatively large bodies of water (greater than 300 km2). From a sedimentological perspective, distinction must be made between two basic types of saline lakes: playas and perennial lakes.

W. M. Last; T. H. Schweyen

1983-01-01

313

Effects of drainage salinity evolution on irrigation management  

Microsoft Academic Search

A soil physics theory of solute movement through a drained saturated zone underlying agricultural land is introduced into a long-term economic analysis of farm-level irrigation management; this is an alternative to the immediate, homogeneous blending assumption employed in previous studies as a base for calculating changes in drainage salinity over time. Using data from California, the effect of drainage salinity

Iddo Kan

2003-01-01

314

Effects of salinity on germination, growth and yield of cowpea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate information on salt tolerance is lacking for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), a crop grown under both dryland and irrigated conditions. A two-year field plot study was conducted to determine the responses of both the vegetative and dry seed yield of cowpea to a range of soil salinities. Four salinity levels were imposed each year on a Pachappa fine

D. W. Wests; L. E. Francois

1982-01-01

315

SMOS ocean salinity performance and TB bias correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of the SMOS ocean salinity mission, a validation study has been carried out to determine the performance at Level 1 (brightness temperatures, TB) and Level 2 (sea surface salinity, SSS) products that can be expected. For this purpose a processing chain has been developed which includes the instrument simulator SEPS-GS to generate Level 0 products as well

I. Meirold-Mautner; C. Mugerin; J.-L. Vergely; P. Spurgeon; F. Rouffi; N. Meskini

2009-01-01

316

Aquarius and Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Salinity from Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aquarius is an L-band radiometer and scatterometer instrument combination designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The instrument is designed to provide global salinity maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of...

D. M. LeVine G. S. E. Lagerloef S. Torrusio

2012-01-01

317

The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission - An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission is the European Space Agency's (ESA) second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. The scientific objectives of the SMOS mission directly respond to the current lack of global observations of soil moisture and ocean salinity, two key variables used in predictive hydrological, oceanographic and atmospheric models. The paper will give an overview on the

Susanne Mecklenburg; Yann Kerr; Achim Hahne

2008-01-01

318

Advances in measuring ocean salinity with an optical sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absolute salinity measurement of seawater has become a key issue in thermodynamic models of the oceans. One of the most direct ways is to measure the seawater refractive index which is related to density and can therefore be related to the absolute salinity. Recent advances in high resolution position sensitive devices enable us to take advantage of small beam deviation

M. Le Menn; J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye; P. Grosso; L. Delauney; C. Podeur; P. Brault; O. Guillerme

2011-01-01

319

Imbibition of saline solutions into dry and prewetted porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infiltration of saline solutions and pure water into homogeneous packs of prewetted and air-dry silica sands was investigated using a light transmission system. Four sand grades and five solutions were considered. Narrow fingers with a sharp, almost saturated, wetting front were observed in the air-dry sands. The water content left behind the fingertip of saline solutions was higher than for

Noam Weisbrod; Michael R. Niemet; John S. Selker

2002-01-01

320

Peculiarities of the centennial salinity regime of the Caspian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on primary information from the Caspian Sea oceanographic database, the centennial salinity regime was analyzed. The regularities of the salinity spatial dynamics and vertical distribution were found for the characteristic periods of the sea level changes. Significant changes in the hydrological regime and the structure of the water mass for the centennial period were shown.

Matishov, G. G.; Yaitskaya, N. A.; Berdnikov, S. V.

2012-06-01

321

OCEAN SURFACE SALINITY - THE WHY, WHAT AND WHETHER  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a range of oceanographic problems are reviewed, for which knowledge of the ocean surface salinity is an important factor (which will answer the question why the measurements are needed). These problems include: the circulation of the ocean on global scales, the effect of changes in salinity on the tropical ocean, the formation of deep water in the

M. A. Srokosz

322

Long-term salinity development in a lysimeter experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a period of 6 years, various crops were grown in tanks, filled with loam and clay, and were irrigated with water of three different levels of salinity. A combination of soil water sampling, salt balance and salt model was used to study the change in the composition of the soil water and the development of soil salinity. After 3

J. W. Van Hoorn; N. Katerji; A. Hamdy

1997-01-01

323

Influence of Salinity on the Nitrogen Metabolism of Cordyline fruticosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigated agriculture depends on adequate and quality water supplies. As the level of salt increases in an irrigation source, the quality of that water for plant growth decreases. Crop plants are usually nonhalophytes that tolerate only moderate salt concentrations. Under salinity, they accumulate salt in their aboveground organs and, to a smaller extent, in roots. High salinity reduces plant growth

B. M. Plaza; S. Jiménez; M. L. Segura; J. I. Contreras; M. T. Lao

2009-01-01

324

Effects of Salinity on Turbulent Diffusion of Pollutants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Due to the spatial variation of salinity in estuaries and coastal waters, a study was made in the laboratory of the molecular and the turbulent diffusion process in the fluid media with various salinity. Dye diffusions were performed in salt water of know...

C. Y. Kuo

1973-01-01

325

Inverse relationship between D/H fractionation in cyanobacterial lipids and salinity in Christmas Island saline ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediments from 28 saline and hypersaline (salinity 13.6-149.2) ponds on Christmas Island (Kiritimati), in the Central tropical Pacific Ocean, were investigated for the effect of salinity on the D/H ratios of lipid biomarkers. Hydrogen isotope ratios (expressed as ?D values) of total lipid extracts, and individual hydrocarbons heptadecane, heptadecene, octadecane, octadecene, diploptene, and phytene from cyanobacteria, became increasingly enriched in deuterium as salinity increased, spanning a range of 100‰, while lake water ?D values spanned a range of just 12‰. Net D/H fractionation between lipids and source water thus decreased as salinity increased. Isotope fractionation factors ( ?lipid-water) were strongly correlated with salinity, and increased in all compound classes studied by up to 0.0967 over a salinity range of 136. Differences in the hydrogen isotopic composition of lipids derived from three biosynthetic pathways (acetogenic, mevalonate, and non-mevalonate) remained similar irrespective of the salinity. This suggests that the mechanism responsible for the observed ?lipid-water-salinity relationship originates prior to the last common biosynthetic branching point, the Calvin Cycle. We propose that a decrease in the exchange of intra- and extra-cellular (ambient) water resulting from down-regulation or closure of water channels (aquaporins) within cyanobacterial cell membranes, and subsequent isotopic enrichment of the intracellular water, likely resulting from metabolic reactions. These findings imply that caution must be exercised when attempting to reconstruct source water ?D values using lipid ?D values from environments that may have experienced salinity variations. On the other, hand our results can be used to establish a paleo-salinity proxy based on lipid ?D, if additional constraints on source water ?D values can be made.

Sachse, Dirk; Sachs, Julian P.

2008-02-01

326

NASA Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space Education Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The educational resources and activities on this Web site teach fundamental concepts about salinity variations and the role these changes play in controlling global ocean circulation and Earthâs climate. The modules augment existing El Nino/La Nina materials with salinity-based content, provide on-line interactive tools demonstrating environmental change through data sets and in situ time-series analysis, and engage students in activities designed to demonstrate salt-water interactions. Launched in June 2011, NASAâs Aquarius will provide the first global map of sea surface salinity with unprecedented accuracy, resolution and coverage. The importance of salinity measurements in understanding coastal ocean processes is critical as salinity is a key factor in understanding and predicting biological and physical processes and their interactions with the food web, climate, and global water cycle.

2007-01-01

327

Identifying the Western Pacific Salinity Front Using Aquarius Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquarius satellite mission is designed to measure high-resolution sea surface salinity both spatially and temporally. In this study, we smoothed the Aquarius salinity data on a 1/3*1/3 degree weekly gridded map over the western Pacific warm pool region. A sharp northeast-southwest oriented salinity front is seen in detail, but is not observed in the 1*1 degree monthly Argo map due to the low resolution. The salinity front (defined by the largest salinity gradient) is located close to 34.6 PSU isohaline (criteria generally used to define the location of salinity front), but is better defined with physical meanings. During the first four months of Aquarius measurement from Sep/2011-Dec/2011, the salinity front has penetrated much farther west than usual, associated with the westward shift of eastern edge of warm pool. Also, from the surface currents calculated from Ocean Surface Current Analyses - Real time (OSCAR), we notice that the strong westward currents enhance the zonal advection of sea surface temperature/salinity and bring the cold/salty water from central to western Pacific. This is related to the evolution of the central Pacific type of La Nina (i.e. cooling event centered in the central Pacific) in the end of 2011. The results also show that the salinity front shows up at the boundary between the south equatorial currents and north equatorial counter currents, suggesting the strong relationship between the formation of salinity front and the movement of salty and fresh water. Although further calibration/validation work is still ongoing, the preliminary results give us the confidence that the Aquarius measurement is going to help us better understand the fresh water flux and zonal advections in the western Pacific warm pool.

Kao, H.; Lagerloef, G.

2012-04-01

328

Geochemical tracers to evaluate hydrogeologic controls on river salinization.  

PubMed

The salinization of rivers, as indicated by salinity increases in the downstream direction, is characteristic of arid and semiarid regions throughout the world. Historically, salinity increases have been attributed to various mechanisms, including (1) evaporation and concentration during reservoir storage, irrigation, and subsequent reuse; (2) displacement of shallow saline ground water during irrigation; (3) erosion and dissolution of natural deposits; and/or (4) inflow of deep saline and/or geothermal ground water (ground water with elevated water temperature). In this study, investigation of salinity issues focused on identification of relative salinity contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources in the Lower Rio Grande in the New Mexico-Texas border region. Based on the conceptual model of the system, the various sources of water and, therefore, salinity to the Lower Rio Grande were identified, and a sampling plan was designed to characterize these sources. Analysis results for boron (delta(11)B), sulfur (delta(34)S), oxygen (delta(18)O), hydrogen (delta(2)H), and strontium ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) isotopes, as well as basic chemical data, confirmed the hypothesis that the dominant salinity contributions are from deep ground water inflow to the Rio Grande. The stable isotopic ratios identified the deep ground water inflow as distinctive, with characteristic isotopic signatures. These analyses indicate that it is not possible to reproduce the observed salinization by evapotranspiration and agricultural processes alone. This investigation further confirms that proper application of multiple isotopic and geochemical tracers can be used to identify and constrain multiple sources of solutes in complex river systems. PMID:18266732

Moore, Stephanie J; Bassett, R L; Liu, Beiling; Wolf, Christopher P; Doremus, Dale

2008-02-08

329

Salinity’s influence on boron toxicity in broccoli: II. Impacts on boron uptake, uptake mechanisms and tissue ion relations.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Limited research has been conducted on the interactive effects of salinity and boron stresses on plants despite their common occurrence in natural systems. The purpose of this research was to determine and quantify the interactive effects of salinity, salt composition and boron on broccoli (Brassica...

330

[Efficiency of saline contrast hysterosonography for evaluating the uterine cavity].  

PubMed

Diagnostic hysteroscopy is the standard investigation performed in the case of abnormal vaginal blood loss. More recently there has been increasing interest for minimal invasive saline contrast hysterosonography (SCHS) as this technique is less painful and less expensive. SCHS is indicated in case of abnormal uterine bleeding (premenopausal and postmenopausal), bleeding while using tamoxifen, suspicion of a congenital uterine abnormality and Asherman's syndrome. As well as intracavity abnormalities (polyps and myomas) SCHS can also be used to evaluate the intramural extension of myomas, which is necessary to assess whether hysteroscopic resection is possible. The sensitivity and specificity of SCHS for demonstrating intracavity abnormalities (with a prevalence of 54%) are 94% (95%-CI; 91-97) and 89% (95%-CI: 85-94) respectively. The positive and negative predictive values are 91% (95%-CI: 87-95) and 92% (95%-CI: 89-97) respectively. SCHS has a short learning curve and can be performed in an outpatient setting. SCHS fails more frequently in postmenopausal women than premenopausal women (12.5% vs. 4.7%; p = 0.03). The chance of a non-conclusive SCHS is 7.6% and is higher if the uterine volume is greater than 600 cm3 (relative risk: 2.63; 95%-CI: 1.05-6.60) and if two or more myomas are present: (RR 2.65; 95%-CI: 1.16-6.10). SCHS is 2 to 9 times cheaper than diagnostic hysteroscopy. It can replace 84% of the diagnostic hysteroscopies. SCHS, in combination with endometrial sampling, whenever indicated, might be able to replace diagnostic hysteroscopy as gold standard in the evaluation of the uterine cavity. PMID:12942842

de Kroon, C D; Jansen, F W; Trimbos, J B

2003-08-01

331

Effect of salinity on root-nodule conductance to the oxygen diffusion in the Medicago truncatula-Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiosis.  

PubMed

In order to determine the effect of salinity on the nodule conductance, oxygen uptake by the nodulated roots was measured by registering the concentration of O(2) as a function of time in a tight incubator of known volume containing the nodulated roots of Medicago truncatula. Four lines, namely TN8.20 and TN6.18, originated from local populations, F83005.5 originated from Var (France) and Jemalong 6, a cultivar from Australia, were hydroponically grown in 250 ml glass bottles under semi-controlled conditions in a glasshouse, after germination and inoculation with the strain Sinorhizobium meliloti 2011. The saline treatment was applied gradually to reach 75 mM after 2 weeks. Results show that oxygen uptake increased significantly with salinity in TN6.18 and F83005.5, but not in Jemalong nor in TN8.20. Without salt, Jemalong showed a significantly higher O(2) uptake of 240 micromol O(2) per h per plant than the mean of 130 micromol O(2) per h per plant for other lines. Salinity increased significantly the nodule conductance in all genotypes. This salt effect was significantly higher for TN6.18 than for TN8.20, and for Jemalong than for F83005.5. Without salt there was less genotypic variation in nodule conductance in the range of 5-8 microm s(-1) for F83005.5 and TN8.20, respectively. Thus the sensitivity to salinity appears to be associated with an increase in nodule conductance that supports the increased respiration of N(2)-fixing nodules under salinity. PMID:15596103

Aydi, Samir; Drevon, Jean-Jacques; Abdelly, Chedly

2004-12-01

332

A sensitivity analysis of low salinity habitats simulated by a hydrodynamic model in the Manatee River estuary in Florida, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a sensitivity study of simulated availability of low salinity habitats by a hydrodynamic model for the Manatee River estuary located in the southwest portion of the Florida peninsula. The purpose of the modeling study was to establish a regulatory minimum freshwater flow rate required to prevent the estuarine ecosystem from significant harm. The model used in the study was a multi-block model that dynamically couples a three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic model with a laterally averaged (2DV) hydrodynamic model. The model was calibrated and verified against measured real-time data of surface elevation and salinity at five stations during March 2005-July 2006. The calibrated model was then used to conduct a series of scenario runs to investigate effects of the flow reduction on salinity distributions in the Manatee River estuary. Based on simulated salinity distribution in the estuary, water volumes, bottom areas and shoreline lengths for salinity less than certain predefined values were calculated and analyzed to help establish the minimum freshwater flow rate for the estuarine system. The sensitivity analysis conducted during the modeling study for the Manatee River estuary examined effects of the bottom roughness, ambient vertical eddy viscosity/diffusivity, horizontal eddy viscosity/diffusivity, and ungauged flow on the model results and identified the relative importance of these model parameters (input data) to the outcome of the availability of low salinity habitats. It is found that the ambient vertical eddy viscosity/diffusivity is the most influential factor controlling the model outcome, while the horizontal eddy viscosity/diffusivity is the least influential one.

Chen, XinJian

2012-06-01

333

A geochemical transport model for thermo-hydro-chemical (THC) coupled processes with saline water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anhydrous MgSO4 is considered as a potential sealing material for the isolation of high-level-waste repositories in salt rock. When an aqueous solution, usually a brine type, penetrates the sealing, different MgSO4 hydrates along with other mineral phases form, removing free water from the solution. The uptake of water leads to an overall increase of solid phase volume. If deformation is constrained, the pore volume decreases and permeability is reduced. In order to simulate such processes, especially for conditions without free water, a coupling between OpenGeoSys and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were implemented on the basis of the commercially available thermodynamic simulator ChemApp and the object-oriented programming finite-element method simulator OpenGeoSys. ChemApp uses the Gibbs energy minimization approach for the geochemical reaction simulation. Based on this method, the thermodynamic equilibrium of geochemical reactions can be calculated by giving the amount of each system component and the molar Gibbs energy of formation for all the possible phases and phase constituents. Activity coefficients in high-saline solutions were calculated using the Pitzer formalism. This model has the potential to handle 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D saturated and nonsaturated thermo-hydro-chemical coupled processes even with highly saline solutions under complex conditions. The model was verified by numerical comparison with other simulators and applied for the modeling of SVV experimental data.

Xie, Mingliang; Kolditz, Olaf; Moog, Helge C.

2011-02-01

334

Chemistry of saline-water chlorination  

SciTech Connect

Vast quantities of natural waters are used by power plants for cooling purposes. This water is chlorinated to prevent slime build-up inside the cooling pipes, is circulated through the cooling system, and eventually discharged back into the water body. In order to assess the environmental impact of water chlorination, it is necessary to know what chemical compounds are produced and discharged into the receiving waters. To attack this problem, a review of the present state of knowledge of natural water chlorination chemistry was performed, and some experimental work explained the results of previous workers by showing that chlorine losses at very high doses in seawater are simply the result of chlorate and bromate formation which, however, is negligible at normal doses. The most important chlorine-produced oxidants, along with the relevant chemical reactions, were chosen as a basis for a kinetic model of saline water chlorination chemistry. Kinetic data were compiled in a computer program which simultaneously solves 24 differential equations, one for each species modelled. Estimates were made for the unknown rate constants. A purely predictive model was not possible due to the great variability in the organic demand; however, the model is applicable under a broad variety of conditions (except sunlight), and it provides a reasonably good description of a halamine chemistry under environmental conditions.

Haag, W.R.

1981-06-01

335

A fluctuating salinity regime mitigates the negative effects of reduced salinity on the estuarine macroalga, Enteromorpha intestinalis (L.) link.  

PubMed

We tested the response of Enteromorpha intestinalis to fluctuating reduced salinity regimes which may occur in coastal estuaries due to both natural and anthropogenic influences. In a fully crossed two factor experiment, we subjected E. intestinalis to 0, 5, 15 and 25 psu water enriched with nutrients for 1-, 5-, 11- and 23-day periods. Each period was followed by 24 h of exposure to 25 psu (ambient) water that was not nutrient enriched. Following 24 h in ambient salinity water, algae were returned to reduced salinity conditions for the appropriate period and the cycle continued over the 24 days for which all treatments were maintained. Exposure to 0 psu for 5 days or longer resulted in loss of pigmentation, decreased wet and dry biomass, increased wet wt:dry wt ratios, decreased removal of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the water column and an accumulation of NH(4) in the water column. More frequent exposure to ambient salinity in the 1-day treatment mitigated these effects. Across all salinity levels tested, biomass increased as frequency of exposure to ambient salinity increased. At all durations of exposure to low salinity tested, biomass increased as salinity level increased. We conclude that growth of E. intestinalis is decreased by reduced salinity. E. intestinalis is able to withstand exposure to 0 psu but there is a temporal limit to this tolerance that is somewhere between 1 and 5 days. Populations of E. intestinalis in coastal estuaries may suffer from freshwater inputs if salinity conditions are persistently reduced. PMID:11058726

Kamer; Fong

2000-11-01

336

Empirical reconstruction of salinity from temperature profiles with phenomenological constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of estimating the salinity when only temperature profiles are available is having an increasing interest mainly because of multi-parametric data assimilation in ocean forecasting models. In this paper, a new method based on the introduction of a correction factor for salinity deduced from recent measurements is proposed to calculate salinity from temperature profiles and climatological datasets. It is supposed that the seawater potential density in a specific area, as deduced from climatological monthly averaged temperature and salinity values, does not change. A certain but small variability on its values is admitted and estimated combining the uncertainty of temperature and salinity in-situ measurements, and the diurnal variation, as obtained from a set of recent CTD and MedArgo measurements in Tyrrhenian Sea. Then, the deduced range of variability for salinity and potential density is imposed to synthetic values, which are compared with CTD and XCTD data. Finally, this technique is used to calculate salinity profiles from XBT temperature profiles from Ligurian and Tyrrhenian Sea (XBT probes monthly dropped along the transect Genova-Palermo, within the Mediterranean Forecasting System-Toward Experimental Prediction project). Results are analysed and discussed.

Reseghetti, F.

2007-01-01

337

Temperature versus salinity gradients below the ocean mixed layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We characterize the global ocean seasonal variability of the temperature versus salinity gradients in the transition layer just below the mixed layer using observations of conductivity temperature and depth and profiling float data from the National Ocean Data Center's World Ocean Data set. The balance of these gradients determines the temperature versus salinity control at the mixed layer depth (MLD). We define the MLD as the shallowest of the isothermal, isohaline, and isopycnal layer depths (ITLD, IHLD, and IPLD), each with a shared dependence on a 0.2°C temperature offset. Data are gridded monthly using a variational technique that minimizes the squared analysis slope and data misfit. Surface layers of vertically uniform temperature, salinity, and density have substantially different characteristics. By examining differences between IPLD, ITLD, and IHLD, we determine the annual evolution of temperature or salinity or both temperature and salinity vertical gradients responsible for the observed MLD. We find ITLD determines MLD for 63% and IHLD for 14% of the global ocean. The remaining 23% of the ocean has both ITLD and IHLD nearly identical. It is found that temperature tends to control MLD where surface heat fluxes are large and precipitation is small. Conversely, salinity controls MLD where precipitation is large and surface heat fluxes are small. In the tropical ocean, salinity controls MLD where surface heat fluxes can be moderate but precipitation is very large and dominant.

Helber, Robert W.; Kara, A. Birol; Richman, James G.; Carnes, Michael R.; Barron, Charlie N.; Hurlburt, Harley E.; Boyer, Timothy

2012-05-01

338

[Allelopathy of Phragmites australis on Spartina alterniflora under different salinity].  

PubMed

Using Phragmites australis litter as test material, two kinds of its mother liquid, i. e., water extract and decomposed products, were obtained by the methods of solution extraction and anaerobic decomposition. The two liquids with concentration 100% and 25% were used to treat the seeds and seedlings of Spartina alterniflora and the endemic beneficial fungi (Mortierella sp.) of S. alterniflora under 5 per thousand and 10 per thousand salinity, aimed to study the effects of different salinity on the germination and growth of S. alterniflora and the growth of the fungi. Salt stress promoted the seed germination and young root growth of Spartina alterniflora as well as the growth of Mortierella sp. significantly (P<0.05). The water extracts promoted the germination and growth of Spartina alterniflora and the growth of Mortierella sp. when the salinity was 10%o, but the promotion effect disappeared when the salinity was reduced to 5 per thousand. The decomposed products of Phragmites australis restrained the germination of Spartina alterniflora significantly (P<0.05) when the salinity was 5 per thousand, but promoted the growth of Mortierella sp. significantly (P<0.05) when the salinity was 10 per thousand. Under the two salinities, the decomposed products restrained the growth of Spartina alterniflora seedlings and young roots significantly (P<0.05). PMID:19947204

Zheng, Kun; Zhao, Fu-Geng; Zhang, Qian; Qin, Pei

2009-08-01

339

Stennis Space Center Salinity Drifter Project. A Collaborative Project with Hancock High School, Kiln, MS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presentation topics include: importance of salinity of coastal waters, habitat switching algorithm, habitat switching module, salinity estimates from Landsat for Sabine Calcasieu Basin, percent of time inundated in 2006, salinity data, prototyping the sys...

C. Hall M. Kalcic M. Turowski

2010-01-01

340

40 CFR 436.120 - Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. 436.120 Section 436...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salines From Brine Lakes Subcategory § 436.120 Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. The provisions of...

2013-07-01

341

40 CFR 436.120 - Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. 436.120 Section 436...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salines From Brine Lakes Subcategory § 436.120 Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. The provisions of...

2011-07-01

342

Technical Note: The determination of enclosed water volume in large flexible-wall mesocosms "KOSMOS"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volume of water enclosed inside flexible-wall mesocosm bags is hard to estimate using geometrical calculations and can be strongly variable among bags of the same dimensions. Here we present a method for precise water volume determination in mesocosms using salinity as a tracer. Knowledge of the precise volume of water enclosed allows establishment of exactly planned treatment concentrations and calculation of elemental budgets.

Czerny, J.; Schulz, K. G.; Krug, S. A.; Ludwig, A.; Riebesell, U.

2013-03-01

343

Influence of net freshwater supply on salinity in Florida Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An annual water budget for Florida Bay, the large, seasonally hypersaline estuary in the Everglades National Park, was constructed using physically based models and long-term (31 years) data on salinity, hydrology, and climate. Effects of seasonal and interannual variations of the net freshwater supply (runoff plus rainfall minus evaporation) on salinity variation within the bay were also examined. Particular attention was paid to the effects of runoff, which are the focus of ambitious plans to restore and conserve the Florida Bay ecosystem. From 1965 to 1995 the annual runoff from the Everglades into the bay was less than one tenth of the annual direct rainfall onto the bay, while estimated annual evaporation slightly exceeded annual rainfall. The average net freshwater supply to the bay over a year was thus approximately zero, and interannual variations in salinity appeared to be affected primarily by interannual fluctuations in rainfall. At the annual scale, runoff apparently had little effect on the bay as a whole during this period. On a seasonal basis, variations in rainfall, evaporation, and runoff were not in phase, and the net freshwater supply to the bay varied between positive and negative values, contributing to a strong seasonal pattern in salinity, especially in regions of the bay relatively isolated from exchanges with the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. Changes in runoff could have a greater effect on salinity in the bay if the seasonal patterns of rainfall and evaporation and the timing of the runoff are considered. One model was also used to simulate spatial and temporal patterns of salinity responses expected to result from changes in net freshwater supply. Simulations in which runoff was increased by a factor of 2 (but with no change in spatial pattern) indicated that increased runoff will lower salinity values in eastern Florida Bay, increase the variability of salinity in the South Region, but have little effect on salinity in the Central and West Regions.

Nuttle, William K.; Fourqurean, James W.; Cosby, Bernard J.; Zieman, Joseph C.; Robblee, Michael B.

2000-07-01

344

Investigation of temperature elevation and saline injection induced electrical conductivity change of hepatic tissue by using micro probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been used for a variety of clinical treatments including treatment of non-resectable liver tumors with good clinical success. Liver pretreatment with injected saline increases the volume of the RFA treatment and is a potential tool for strategically treating larger tumors. Understanding the electrical conductivity of the affected tissue is required to improve the applicator performance and to accurately control the ablation area. We have developed a micro two-electrode probe capable of measuring the local electrical conductivity of tissues at different temperature levels and recording the transient change of electrical conductivity with saline pretreatment. An optical temperature sensor was attached on the probe tip for real-time temperature monitoring to capture the dynamic effects of temperature changes. Three methods which were implemented by water bath and a commercial RF ablation applicator (Cool-tip RF ablation system) were used to heat the hepatic tissues. The results show that at elevated temperatures the electrical conductivity increases by a factor of two compared to the values at the body temperature and different heating methods cause different levels of electrical conductivity change. The preliminary measurements of the local electrical conductivity after the saline injection indicate a dynamic pattern in electrical conductivity. The results serve to provide guidance for accurate prediction of RFA area when using saline injection pretreatment.

Yi, Ming; Podhajsky, Ronald J.; Mahajan, Roop L.

2007-03-01

345

Changes in the global hydrological-cycle inferred from ocean salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using global datasets of in situ observations, we calculate salinity changes on ocean-density surfaces between 1970 and 2005. This reveals a global pattern of increased salinities near the upper-ocean salinity-maximum layer (average depth of ?100 m) and decreased salinities near the intermediate salinity minimum (average depth of ?700 m). The salinity changes imply a 3 ± 2% decrease in precipitation-minus

Kieran P. Helm; Nathaniel L. Bindoff; John A. Church

2010-01-01

346

Hypertonic saline/dextran versus lactated Ringer's treatment for hemorrhage in dehydrated swine.  

PubMed

To determine the efficacy of low-volume resuscitation in dehydrated subjects, 7.5% hypertonic saline/6% dextran 70 (HSD) and lactated Ringer's (LR) treatments were compared in conscious pigs dehydrated for 48 hr prior to a 37% blood volume hemorrhage. Pigs randomized to treatment were resuscitated with equivalent sodium loads of either HSD (4 ml/kg) or LR (33.3 ml/kg) following the 60-min hemorrhage. Dehydration resulted in a 7-8% body weight loss. Mortality through 180 min of recovery was 1/13 (7.7%) for HSD, 1/11 (9.1%) for LR, and 4/8 (50%) for a group of dehydrated and untreated controls (DC). HSD and LR solutions elicited similar heart rate, cardiac output, arterial pressure, and oxygen transport responses in the recovery period following hemorrhage and resuscitation. HSD was as effective as LR in expanding plasma volume in dehydrated hemorrhaged pigs. Serum chemistries provided no evidence for a sustained systemic toxicity from HSD treatment. These findings support low-volume HSD resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock in moderately dehydrated subjects. PMID:7543031

McKirnan, M D; Williams, R L; Limjoco, U; Ragland, J; Gray, C G

1994-12-01

347

Effect of saline acclimation on body water and sodium compartmentalization in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).  

PubMed

The compartmentalization of body fluids was measured in individual Pekin ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos) drinking freshwater and after sequential acclimation to 300 mM NaCl and 400 mM NaCl. Total body water, extracellular fluid volume, plasma volume and exchangeable sodium pool were measured using (3)H(2)O, [(14)C]-polyethylene glycol, Evans Blue dye, and (22)Na dilution, respectively. Following acclimation to 300 mM NaCl, body mass decreased, but total body water and total exchangeable sodium pool were unaltered. Na and water were redistributed from the extracellular fluid (interstitial fluid) compartment into the intracellular fluid compartment. Following further acclimation to 400 mM NaCl, body mass, total body water and intracellular fluid volume decreased, but exchangeable sodium pool and extracellular fluid volume were unchanged. Our results suggested that, when Pekin ducks drink high but tolerable salinities, they maintain total body water, but redistribute Na(+) and water from interstitial fluid to the intracellular fluid compartment. When stressed beyond their ability to maintain total body water, they lose water from the intracellular fluid. PMID:12592439

Bennett, D C; Kojwang, D; Sullivan, T M; Gray, D A; Hughes, M R

2002-11-20

348

Photochemical chlorine activation from artificial saline snowpacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Halogen activation on snow and ice substrates has a profound influence on the oxidative capacity of the polar boundary layer. The release of reactive chlorine species is of particular interest since chlorine atoms can participate in both ozone depletion and hydrocarbon oxidation. However, the mechanisms by which halides in sea ice substrates are converted into reactive halogen species are not well understood. In this study we investigated the activation of halogens from artificial saline snow in the presence of light and ozone. Gas phase Cl2, BrCl and Br2 were detected using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. We observe the dark release of Br2 in the presence of ozone; BrCl and Cl2 are only observed in the presence of both ozone and light. Interestingly, photo-induced release of halogens is still seen when a 320 nm or a 380 nm long-pass filter is placed in the light path. The observed halogen release is consistent with the chemistry occurring in a concentrated brine located at the surface of the snow grains. Results suggest that smaller snow grains, which present a larger total snow surface area, enhance chlorine production to a greater extent than BrCl or Br2 production. Chlorine production is shown to be strongly pH dependent, with higher chlorine yields under acidic conditions. Overall the results indicate that a mechanism involving UV-A light and ozone leads to accelerated halogen activation, which may be particularly important for releasing chlorine from bromide-depleted snow.

Wren, Sumi; Donaldson, James; Abbatt, Jon

2013-04-01

349

Safety and Feasibility of High-pressure Transvenous Limb Perfusion With 0.9% Saline in Human Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

We evaluated safety and feasibility of the transvenous limb perfusion gene delivery method in muscular dystrophy. A dose escalation study of single limb perfusion with 0.9% saline starting with 5% of limb volume was carried out in adults with muscular dystrophies under intravenous analgesia/anesthesia. Cardiac, vascular, renal, muscle, and nerve functions were monitored. A tourniquet was placed above the knee with inflated pressure of 310 mm Hg. Infusion was carried out with a clinically approved infuser via an intravenous catheter inserted in the saphenous vein with a goal infusion rate of 80 ml/minute. Infusion volume was escalated stepwise to 20% limb volume in seven subjects. No subject complained of any post procedure pain other than due to needle punctures. Safety warning boundaries were exceeded only for transient depression of limb tissue oximetry and transient elevation of muscle compartment pressures; these were not associated with nerve, muscle, or vascular damage. Muscle magnetic resonant imaging (MRI) demonstrated fluid accumulation in muscles of the perfused lower extremity. High-pressure retrograde transvenous limb perfusion with saline up to 20% of limb volume at above infusion parameters is safe and feasible in adult human muscular dystrophy. This study will serve as a basis for future gene transfer clinical trials.

Fan, Zheng; Kocis, Keith; Valley, Robert; Howard, James F; Chopra, Manisha; An, Hongyu; Lin, Weili; Muenzer, Joseph; Powers, William

2012-01-01

350

Influence of seasonal variability of lower Mississippi River discharge, temperature, suspended sediments, and salinity on oil-mineral aggregate formation.  

PubMed

Under certain conditions, oil droplets that have separated from the main oil slick may become coated by suspended sediments forming oil-mineral aggregates (OMAs). The formation of these aggregates depends on suspended particulate characteristics, temperature, salinity, mixing energy, droplet size and number, and oil properties. The OMAs do not re-coalesce with the slick and tend not to adhere to surfaces, potentially evading surface cleanup measures, enhancing opportunity for biodegradation and reducing shoreline oiling. Potential OMA formation was quantified during four distinct states of the Lower Mississippi River during a typical year using empirical relationships from laboratory and field studies for three common oils and different combinations of discharge, temperature, suspended sediments, and salinity. The largest potential OMA formation for the two lighter oils, up to 36% of the total release volume, was in the winter and spring, when high sediment availability promotes formation. For the denser, high-viscosity oil, the peak potential OMA formation, 9% of the release volume, occurred in the summer, when the salinity was higher. These results provide some evidence that, depending on environmental and spill characteristics, the formation of OMAs could be an important, but unaccounted for, process in the fate and transport of oils released in the Lower Mississippi River and should be included in oil spill dispersion models and post-spill site assessment and remediation actions. PMID:21790075

Danchuk, Samantha; Willson, Clinton S

2011-07-01

351

The Salinity Gradient and Vegetation in the Saugatucket River Estuary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Saugatucket River in South Kingstown, RI, discharges freshwater into Point Judith (Salt) Pond, diluting the seawater along the estuary. To locate the region of greatest salinity change in the Saugatucket River-Point Judith Pond system, 20 stations wer...

E. M. Smith R. D. Wood

1973-01-01

352

Ground Motion Predictions for the Grand Saline Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Finite difference calculations are used to predict the ground motion and RVP spectra from a tamped 200 pound charge of Pelletol explosive detonated in the Grand Saline Salt Dome. Computational constitutive models and material properties for dome salt are ...

N. Rimer J. T. Cherry

1982-01-01

353

Physiological Response of Plants to Salinity and Humidity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants were grown in nutrient solutions in conventional greenhouses (relative humidity 40-50 percent) and closed system greenhouses (relative humidity 85-95 percent). Some of the solutions were salinized with 5600 p...

J. W. O'Leary J. J. Riley

1970-01-01

354

Salinity Influence on Interfacial Area, Wettability, and NAPL Recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wettability, the tendency of rock or sediment particle surfaces to be preferentially wet by one fluid phase, has a strong influence on the distribution and flow of immiscible fluids in oil reservoirs or aquifers. The efficiency of oil and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) recovery processes and the displacement and production of oil/NAPL by fluids injected into the reservoir or aquifer depend on the wetting properties of the rock/sediment particle surfaces. Effects of salinity on wettability and residual oil saturation during water flooding are of particular interest in the petroleum industry with some reservoirs. It was indicated that the residual oil saturation may be reduced significantly by flooding with low salinity water instead of seawater or brine. This observation may be also true in NAPL recovery from contaminated aquifers. NAPL recovery enhancement may be achieved by manipulating the salinity of the remedial fluid. Two sets of 8 core-flooding column experiments have been completed, using decane and Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil as surrogate NAPLs. Unconsolidated sand packs were used as representative porous media. NAPL removal was conducted by flushing column at residual NAPL saturation using water with salinity ranging from 0% to 8% wt of NaCl. The NAPL-water interfacial area (anw, cm-1) was measured and used as an indicator for the wettability characteristics of the packed sand. Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate (SDBS) was used as an interfacial partitioning tracer and Pentafluoro Benzoic acid (PFBA) was used as a non-reactive and non-partitioning tracer. NAPL was imbibed into an initially water saturated column, using positive displacement methods. NAPL was then flushed out using water at certain salinity. When the column attained a residual NAPL saturation after each water flushing displacement, the partitioning and conservative tracer experiments were conducted separately, to characterize the specific NAPL-water interfacial areas, and the wettability status. Water with 8%, 4%, 2%, 0% wt NaCl salinity was used to displace NAPL from the sand column sequentially. The interfacial tension (IFT) between the salinity water and the ANS oil was monitored. The residual oil saturations indicated that the fraction of NAPL retained in the column increased after water flushing as the salinity in the displacing water increased from 0 to 8%, clearly confirming the earlier findings that lower salinity may cause additional oil to be released. The NAPL-water interfacial area, anw, does not show a monotonic dependence on salinity; instead, anw shows an increasing trend with increasing salinity in the lower salinity range, and the opposite trend at high salinity values. The maximum anw was obtained in systems flushed with 2% salinity water. This trend appears to be consistent with a similar nonlinear dependence of interfacial tension on salinity, and might be an indication of wettability alternation. The observation of this research shread lights on the optimum operation in NAPL removal. The IFT change between NAPL and the salinity water might be attributed to the enhanced NAPL recovery.

Zhong, L.; Valenta, M. M.

2007-12-01

355

Crosstalk current measurements using multi-electrode arrays in saline.  

PubMed

This paper investigates how the configuration of return electrodes in an electrode array affects the amount of current crosstalk when electrodes are driven simultaneously in saline. Two pairs of electrodes in different return configurations were stimulated with different-amplitude biphasic currents. Stimulating electrodes were controlled by current sinks and current sources while return electrodes were connected to supply voltage or ground. Measurement results show that no matter what return configuration was used, the return current was almost equally distributed amongst the return electrodes, which is problematic in bipolar concurrent stimulation, at least in saline. This result is due to the fact that the spreading impedance of saline solution is small compared to the electrode-electrolyte impedance, which makes the saline solution have almost the same potential. This result suggests that monopolar stimulation using a common remote return electrode be used in simultaneous stimulation to avoid crosstalk. PMID:23366561

Tran, N; Halpern, M; Bai, S; Skafidas, E

2012-01-01

356

ConcepTest: Ocean Salinity During an Ice Age  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One million years ago ice sheets covered much of the Earth's land surface during an ice age. How did this affect the salinity of the oceans? a. Oceans were saltier than today. b. Oceans were less salty than ...

357

Chemical Interaction of Fresh and Saline Waters with Compacted Bentonite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interaction of compacted sodium bentonite with fresh and saline ground-water simulant was studied. The parameters varied in the experiments were the compositions of the solutions and oxygen and carbon dioxide content in the surroundings. The main inte...

A. Muurinen J. Lehikoinen A. Melamed P. Pitkaenen

1996-01-01

358

Interaction of Fresh and Saline Waters with Compacted Bentonite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interaction of compacted sodium bentonite with fresh groundwater simulant (Allard water) and saline groundwater was studied. The parameters varied in the experiments were water/bentonite ratio, the density of bentonite, composition of solution, temper...

A. Muurinen H. Aalto T. Carlsson J. Lehikoinen A. Melamed M. Olin P. Salonen

1995-01-01

359

A Gibbs Pitzer function for high-salinity seawater thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-salinity Gibbs function for seawater is derived from Pitzer equations of the sea salt components, in conjunction with the 2003 Gibbs function of seawater for low salinities. Various properties, computed from both formulations by thermodynamic rules, are compared with each other, and with high-salinity measurements. The new Gibbs Pitzer function presented in this paper is valid in the range 0 110 g kg-1 in absolute salinity, -7 to +25 °C in temperature, and 0 100 MPa in applied pressure. The formulation is expressed in the International Temperature Scale 1990 (ITS-90), and is consistent with the International Standard for Fluid Water (IAPWS-95), and with the 2005/2006 equations of state of ice Ih.

Feistel, Rainer; Marion, Giles M.

2007-09-01

360

SMOS CP34 soil moisture and ocean salinity maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the soil moisture and ocean salinity maps from the SMOS mission generated operationally by the Spanish SMOS Level 3 and 4 data processing center (CP34) and experimentally by the SMOS Barcelona Expert Center (SMOS-BEC).

C. Gabarro; J. Ballabrera; A. Turiel; J. Martinez; M. Umbert; F. Perez; N. Hoareau; M. Portabella; V. Gonzalez; J. Gourrion; S. Guimbard; M. Piles; A. Camps; M. Vall-llossera

2012-01-01

361

Effects of Nasal Saline Spray on Human Neutrophils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nasal saline spray (NSS) used in the treatment of rhinitis and sinusitis often contains the preservative benzalkonium chloride (BkO). Previous studies have shown that steroid nasal sprays and topical decongestants containing BKO damage respiratory mucosa,...

M. E. Boston

2002-01-01

362

Airborne Salinity Mapper Makes Debut in Coastal Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New technology has been developed through a joint public-private partnership that could greatly improve the ocean sciences community's ability to study coastal oceanography in the same way that satellitebased infrared imaging revolutionized basinscale oceanography. Recent advances in passive microwave technologies and novel means of integrating those advances haveled to the development of the Scanning Low-Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SLFMR) for remote sensing of sea-surface salinity.Designed and built for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the SLFMR—also known as the salinity mapper—was recently used by a team of scientists from government and industry to generate the first remotely sensed image of sea-surface salinity (Figure 1). This image of salinity was obtained near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, during the Naval Research Laboratory's (NRL) Chesapeake Outflow Plume Experiment (COPE), elements of which were conducted in collaboration with NOAA.

Miller, Jerry L.; Goodberlet, Mark A.; Zaitzeff, James B.

363

Paleohydrologic controls on methanogenesis in organic-rich saline aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freshwater recharge into the margins of sedimentary basins, during periods of continental glaciation, stimulated microbial methane generation in organic-rich shales and coal beds, by significantly diluting the ambient formation water salinity. Subglacial recharge may have also transported microorganisms and nutrients into the subsurface environment. Methane is generated by a diverse consortium of both acetoclastic and CO2-reducing methanogenic Archaea, and adsorbed onto the organic matter. These shallow methane accumulations account for ~20% of the total U.S. natural gas production. Anaerobic microbial metabolism of shales and coals is in part controlled by the volume of pore waters and fluid composition, amount of extractable organic matter and intermediary substrates, reservoir temperature, and mass transport processes that provide essential rock-derived nutrients and organic acids. Methanogens are most active in low salinity environments (<2.5 mol/L Cl) with no SO4, and at the interfaces between confining units and adjacent aquifers where diffusion dominates. Microbial degradation of organic matter generates high alkalinity concentrations, which may induce calcite precipitation in shale fractures and coal cleats, which can in turn modify the subsurface hydrology. Microbial methanogenesis also imparts a strong control on the cycling of carbon, H2, and other elements in the subsurface environment. This presentation will focus on the timing of recharge and establishment of microbial communities within the Upper Devonian black shales, Pennsylvanian coal beds, and overlying glacial drift in the Illinois Basin, and the importance of continued groundwater flow on active methane generation and accumulation. There is an approximately 65-70 per mil depletion in 13C of CH4, relative to the precursor CO2 in the Upper Devonian shales, Pennsylvanian coals, and glacial drift. In addition, there is a linear correlation between the dD values of co- produced formation waters and CH4. Isotope mass-balance modeling results confirm that these isotopic shifts can be produced by coupled acetate fermentation and CO2-reduction. The lowest d13C values for CO2 and CH4 are found in the shallow glacial drift (-14 to 8 per mil, -80 to -68 per mil, respectively), where the permeable aquifers are a relatively open system, rapidly flushed by modern recharge. In contrast, the deep Upper Devonian shales have relatively positive d13C values for CO2 and CH4 (6 to 20 per mil, -56 to -50 per mil, respectively), indicating that methane has been generated over relatively long time scales (at least since the Late Pleistocene) in a closed system. The Pennsylvanian coal beds have intermediary d13C values for CO2 and CH4 (-8 to 11 per mil, -66 to -56 per mil, respectively), and contain Holocene groundwaters. Understanding the hydrobiogeochemical processes active within fractured shales and coal beds is important for energy resources, as well as CO2 sequestration.

McIntosh, J.; Petsch, S.; Schlegel, M.; Osborn, S.

2007-12-01

364

RAPID COMMUNICATION BIOLOGICAL PERCHLORATE REDUCTION IN HIGH-SALINITY SOLUTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perchlorate (ClO4 ? ) has been detected in numerous ground and surface waters, and has recently been added to the drinking water Candidate Contaminant List in the United States. Perchlorate can be removed from drinking water using ion exchange, but this results in the production of highly saline (7-12%) perchlorate-contaminated brines. Perchlorate-degrading microbial enrichments capable of growth in highly saline

BRUCE E. LOGAN; JUN WU; RICHARD F. UNZ

2001-01-01

365

Plants Under Heavy Metal Stress in Saline Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is devoted to an important yet poorly studied topic, investigations of plant responses to heavy metals (HMs) in\\u000a salinized environments. It embraces information obtained mainly during the last decade. Specific features of the actions of\\u000a NaCl and HMs on plants from various ecological groups are considered. The patterns of HM accumulation and organ specificity\\u000a under saline conditions are

Valentina Kholodova; Kirill Volkov; Vladimir Kuznetsov

366

Methane consumption in (hyper) saline habitats of Crimea (Ukraine)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents methane utilization in (hyper)saline environments. Methane consumption in the Crimea basins, exhibiting salinities of 8% to 33%, was as much as 1200 pmol cm?3 d?1. This process was mainly associated with the upper layer of sediment (microbial mat), although substantial activity was also located in adjacent water. Studies of the influence of NaCl levels on the methane

A. P. Sokolov; Y. A. Trotsenko

1995-01-01

367

Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Salinity Laboratory has made available this Web version (.pdf format) of Agriculture handbook number 60, covering a broad range of topics relating to soils and salinity, including: "Improvement and Management of soils in arid and semiarid regions; Plant Response and Crop Selection; Quality of Irrigation Water; Methods for Soil Characterization; Methods of Plant Culture and Analysis; and Methods of Analysis of Irrigation Waters." Chapters may be downloaded separately, and include a literature cited section and a glossary.

368

The oxygen consumption of Artemia salina (L.) in different salinities  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The oxygen consumption of female Artemia was measured with animals reared in sea water (S‰ 35) and in brine of salinity 140‰. The animals ranged in length from 3.4 to 7.6 mm.2.It was necessary to know whether surface area or body weight was the best standard for comparing oxygen consumption in different salinities. Changes in specific gravity and body shape

Barbara M. Gilchrist

1956-01-01

369

Faba bean productivity in saline–drought conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of faba bean (Vicia faba L., variety ILB1814) was evaluated in a factorial salinity–drought experiment, combining three levels of salinity in the irrigation water (EC 1.0, 2.3 and 3.6dS\\/m) and two levels of plant water status during two successive cropping seasons. The two levels of plant water status were obtained by supplying irrigation when the pre-dawn leaf water

N. Katerji; M. Mastrorilli; F. Z. Lahmer; F. Maalouf; T. Oweis

2011-01-01

370

SMOS: a satellite mission to measure ocean surface salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ESA's SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission will be launched by 2005. Its baseline payload is a microwave L-band (21 cm, 1.4 GHz) 2D interferometric radiometer, Y shaped, with three arms 4.5 m long. This frequency allows the measurement of brightness temperature (Tb) under the best conditions to retrieve soil moisture and sea surface salinity

Yann H. Kerr; Meric A. Srokosz; Jacqueline Etcheto; Gary S. Lagerloef; Adriano Camps; Philippe Waldteufel

2001-01-01

371

A Low-Cost, Data-Logging Salinity Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the design, development and testing of a novel low-cost, data-logging salinity sensor. The sensor was designed keeping size, cost and functionality in mind. The sensor can be submersed in water for up to two weeks (all electronics are completely sealed) while salinity is recorded onboard at user-defined intervals. The data is then downloaded to a

Thanh-Tung Pham; D. Burnett; L. Handugan; D. Frashure; Chun Jon Chen; L. Bushnell; L. Sullenberger; J. Ruesink; A. Trimble

2007-01-01

372

Salinity-induced calcium deficiencies in wheat and barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity-calcium interactions, which have been shown to be important in plants grown in dryland saline soils of the Canadian prairies, were studied in two species differing in salt tolerance. In solution culture, wheat showed a greater reduction in growth and a higher incidence of foliar Ca deficiency symptoms than barley when grown under MgSO4 or Na2SO4 plus MgSO4 salt stress.

D. L. Ehret; R. E. Redmann; B. L. Harvey; A. Cipywnyk

1990-01-01

373

A Survey of the Subsurface Saline Water of Texas. Volume 8. Geologic Well Data, Gulf Coast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report gives the depth, thickness, and areal extent of aquifers, along with their salt content and ideal producing capacities. Using all data potentially productive areas can be predicted and more detailed studies outlined. Information and data conta...

1972-01-01

374

NASA Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space Education & Public Outreach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aquarius is a focused satellite mission to measure global sea surface salinity. Launching in 2009, this mission will provide the first global map of sea surface salinity with unprecedented accuracy, resolution and coverage. The importance of salinity measurements in understanding coastal ocean processes is critical. Because of its dynamic range in the coastal oceans, salinity is a critical factor in understanding and predicting biological and physical processes and their interactions with the food Web, climate, and global water cycle. AquariusâÂÂs pioneering efforts to deliver the âÂÂmissing pieces of the climate puzzleâ will undoubtedly intrigue informal audiences via the activities and information contained in this Website. Moreover, climate and its influence on humankind is an integral part of K-16 formal education and common to national learning standards. The goal of the Education and Outreach component of Aquarius is to teach fundamental concepts about salinity variations and the role these changes play in controlling global ocean circulation and EarthâÂÂs climate. Education products will appear as modules addressing the missionâÂÂs goals and purpose, augment existing El Nino/La Nina materials with salinity based content, provide on-line interactive tools demonstrating environmental change through data sets and in situ time-series analysis, and engage students in activities designed to demonstrate salt-water interactions.

Decharon, Annette

2010-10-04

375

Interaction of flooding and salinity stress on baldcypress (Taxodium distichum).  

PubMed

Coastal wetlands of the southeastern United States are threatened by increases in flooding and salinity as a result of both natural processes and man-induced hydrologic alterations. Furthermore, global climate change scenarios suggest that, as a consequence of rising sea levels, much larger areas of coastal wetlands may be affected by flooding and salinity in the next 50 to 100 years. In this paper, we review studies designed to improve our ability to predict and ameliorate the impacts of increased flooding and salinity stress on baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.), which is a dominant species of many coastal forested wetlands. Specifically, we review studies on species-level responses to flooding and salinity stress, alone and in combination, we summarize two studies on intraspecific variation in response to flooding and salinity stress, we analyze the physiological mechanisms thought to be responsible for the interaction between flooding and salinity stress, and we discuss the implications for coastal wetland loss and the prospects for developing salt-tolerant lines of baldcypress. PMID:14871777

Allen, James A.; Pezeshki, S. Reza; Chambers, Jim L.

376

Neural network modeling of salinity variation in Apalachicola River.  

PubMed

Salinity is an important indicator for water quality and aquatic ecosystem in tidal rivers. The increase of salinity intrusion in a river may have an adverse effect on the aquatic environment system. This study presents an application of the artificial neural network (ANN) to assess salinity variation responding to the multiple forcing functions of freshwater input, tide, and wind in Apalachicola River, Florida. Parameters in the neural network model were trained until the model predictions of salinity matched well with the observations. Then, the trained model was validated by applying the model to another independent data set. The results indicate that the ANN model is capable of correlating the non-linear time series of salinity to the multiple forcing signals of wind, tides. and freshwater input in the Apalachicola River. This study suggests that the ANN model is an easy-to-use modeling tool for engineers and water resource managers to obtain a quick preliminary assessment of salinity variation in response to the engineering modifications to the river system. PMID:11766814

Huang, Wenrui; Foo, Simon

2002-01-01

377

Identifying Salinity Sources and Quantifying Salinity Loads Along Two Texas Streams Using Stream-axis Airborne EM and Focused Hydrochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We delineated natural and oil-field salinity sources that degrade water quality in the upper Colorado River (west Texas) and Petronila Creek (Texas coast) by combining multi-frequency airborne EM measurements of apparent ground conductivity with chemical analyses of surface water at key stream locations. To reduce the cost of high-resolution airborne surveying over such large areas, we first flew along the stream axes and then examined preliminary results in the field to identify likely salinized stream segments. We then flew more detailed surveys over these areas rather than over the entire basin. Stream-axis EM data also helped identify water-sampling locations upstream and downstream from each salinized segment. We used these data to calculate salinity loads and discriminate among possible natural and oil-field salinity sources. We acquired stream-axis airborne EM data along 437 km of the upper Colorado River and its major tributaries using a Geophex GEM-2A instrument operating at five frequencies between 450 Hz and 39 kHz. Increases in chloride, sulfate, and total salinity loading in the upper Colorado River basin between Lake Thomas and Ivie Reservoir occur along eleven segments of elevated apparent conductivity identified from airborne EM data. Each segment encompasses areas of baseflow salinity contributions to the stream from natural dissolution of evaporite minerals in the Permian basin, from oil-field produced water, or both. Analyses of surface water confirm increases salinity loading associated with each segment. Airborne EM data acquired on the coast along Petronila Creek and within a corridor centered on it revealed three stream segments with elevated ground conductivity. Increases in chloride, sulfate, and total salinity loading are attributed to shallow baseflow contributions along the three segments. Using airborne EM and hydrochemistry data, we interpret the dominant salinization mechanism within the two upstream segments to be historic discharge of produced water into unlined drainage ditches and pits, infiltration into sandy Pleistocene channel deposits, lateral migration as far as several kilometers, and discharge into the stream. Airborne EM and hydrochemical data suggest a combination of oil-field and seawater salinity contributions at the most downstream Petronila Creek segment.

Paine, J. G.; Collins, E. W.; Nance, H. S.; Niemann, K.

2005-12-01

378

Salinity tolerance of Picochlorum atomus and the use of salinity for contamination control by the freshwater cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena limnetica.  

PubMed

Microalgae are ideal candidates for waste-gas and -water remediation. However, salinity often varies between different sites. A cosmopolitan microalga with large salinity tolerance and consistent biochemical profiles would be ideal for standardised cultivation across various remediation sites. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of salinity on Picochlorum atomus growth, biomass productivity, nutrient uptake and biochemical profiles. To determine if target end-products could be manipulated, the effects of 4-day nutrient limitation were also determined. Culture salinity had no effect on growth, biomass productivity, phosphate, nitrate and total nitrogen uptake at 2, 8, 18, 28 and 36 ppt. 11 ppt, however, initiated a significantly higher total nitrogen uptake. While salinity had only minor effects on biochemical composition, nutrient depletion was a major driver for changes in biomass quality, leading to significant increases in total lipid, fatty acid and carbohydrate quantities. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by nutrient depletion, with an increased proportion of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. Having established that P. atomus is a euryhaline microalga, the effects of culture salinity on the development of the freshwater cyanobacterial contaminant Pseudanabaena limnetica were determined. Salinity at 28 and 36 ppt significantly inhibited establishment of P. limnetica in P. atomus cultures. In conclusion, P. atomus can be deployed for bioremediation at sites with highly variable salinities without effects on end-product potential. Nutrient status critically affected biochemical profiles--an important consideration for end-product development by microalgal industries. 28 and 36 ppt slow the establishment of the freshwater cyanobacterium P. limnetica, allowing for harvest of low contaminant containing biomass. PMID:23667639

von Alvensleben, Nicolas; Stookey, Katherine; Magnusson, Marie; Heimann, Kirsten

2013-05-07

379

Effect of saline water on soil salinity and on water stress, growth, and yield of wheat and potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Wheat and potatoes were grown,in tanks filled with loam and clay and irrigated with water of three different levels of salinity and, for the wheat, with two irrigation regimes. A combination of soil water,sampling ,and ,salt balance ,was ,used ,to study ,the development,of soil salinity and the composition,of the,soil water. This revealed an increase in adsorbed sodium, a decrease

J. W. van Hoorn; N. Katerji; A. Hamdy; M. Mastrorilli

1993-01-01

380

Expression patterns of As-ClC gene of Artemia sinica in early development and under salinity stress.  

PubMed

As-ClC (chloride channels protein from Artemia sinica), a member from the chloride channels protein family, is a ?-helical membrane protein predicted to traverse the cell membrane 11 times. It is important for several physiological functions such as cell volume regulation, cell proliferation, growth and differentiation. In this paper, the complete cDNA sequence of As-CIC was cloned from A. sinica for the first time using RACE technology. The expression pattern and location of the As-CIC gene was investigated in different stages of the embryonic development by means of quantitative real-time PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH) assay. As-CLC was distributed throughout the whole body in cells of different embryonic development of A. sinica as shown by ISH. There was a low expression level of the As-ClC gene after 0 h and a higher expression level after 15 and 40 h when the embryo entered the next growth period and the environmental salinity changed. At adult stage, the As-ClC maintained a high expression level. The results of the real-time PCR assay showed an increasing trend of As-ClC transcripts with increasing salinity. The expression of As-ClC was higher in the control group (28) than in the experimental group except at a salinity of 200 PSU. It indicated that As-ClC functions as salinity-stress-related gene, probably participated in cell volume regulation and osmotic regulation during the early embryonic development of A. sinica. PMID:23277400

Zhang, Qiaozhi; Hou, Ming; Li, Qiuying; Han, Lulu; Yuan, Zhe; Tan, Jian; Du, Bin; Zou, Xiangyang; Hou, Lin

2013-01-01

381

Reproduction cycle and tolerance to temperature and salinity of Amyloodinium ocellatum (Brown, 1931) (Dinoflagellida).  

PubMed

Reproduction cycle and tolerance to temperature and salinity of Amyloodinium ocellatum (Brown, 1931) ( Dinoflagellida ) was investigated in the laboratory using postlarval Sparus aurata (L.) as fish host and by in vitro study of the parasite is reproductive stage. Trophont growth was linear by length and exponential by volume, continuous to detachment stage at the size of 50-90 microns in length. At 19-24 degrees C detachment occurred gradually during the 3-5th days after settlement. At 16 degrees C growth, as well as detachment, was delayed. However, by the 6-7th day trophonts still attached exceeded 100 microns in length. When detached, trophonts of any age and size were transformed into dividing tomonts . 24-hour old, less than 25 microns length trophonts , however, immediately sporulated with no division. The number of divisions to sporulation was related to the size at detachment. For reproduction, 18-30 degrees C was the optimal temperature range, although the minimal division time was at 23-27 degrees C. Divisions were delayed and sporulation was interrupted at 15 degrees C. Complete interruption of division and gradual mortality occurred at 8 degrees C. At 35 degrees C the reproduction process of the tomonts was severely damaged. Tolerance to salinity was dependent on ambient temperature and was the widest at 24-25 degrees C. Divisions occurred between 1-78 ppt, but uninterrupted division, full yield sporulation and effective infection of fish occurred only between 10 to 60 ppt. No division occurred above 80 ppt, however, short term incubation up to 4 days in salinities up to 180 ppt did not affect division potency. Wide variation in tolerance was, however, evident between tested population as well as individual tomont in each population. PMID:6539091

Paperna, I

1984-01-01

382

Cumulative soil chemistry changes from land application of saline-sodic waters  

SciTech Connect

Management of large volumes (60,000 ha-m) of co-production water associated with coal bed natural gas (CBNG) water extraction is a potential concern in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana due to elevated water salinity and sodicity levels. Land application of saline-sodic CBNG water is a common water management method being practiced in the PRB, which can result in deterioration in soil quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects from 1 to 4 yr of land application with CBNG water on soil chemical properties at six study sites (fine to loamy, mixed to smectitic, mesic, Ustic Ardisols and Entisols) in the Wyoming PRB region. Changes in chemistry of soils collected from six depths irrigated with CBNG water were compared with representative non-irrigated soils. Applications of CBNG water significantly increased soil EC, SAR, and ESP values (up to 21, 74, and 24 times, respectively) compared with non-irrigated soils. Differences in soil chemical properties between an irrigated and non-irrigated coarse-textured soil were less than that of fine-textured soils, emphasizing texture as an important factor for salinity buildup. Pretreatment of CBNG water using a sulfur burner and application of gypsum and elemental S soil amendments reduced soil pH but did not prevent the build-up of salts and sodium. Study results suggest that current CBNG water management strategies are not as effective as projected. Additional research is needed to develop management strategies appropriate for mitigating adverse effects of CBNG water irrigation.

Ganjegunte, G.K.; King, L.A.; Vance, G.F. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Department for Renewable Resources

2008-09-15

383

Dispersive Behavior of the Mixing Zone between a Shallow Freshwater Lens and Upward Seeping Saline Groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Salt water intrusion and upward seepage of salt groundwater is a widespread problem in low-lying areas of coastal zones that are important for agriculture or ecology, such as in the North and West regions of the Netherlands, Southwest Florida, and many other deltaic areas, for example Camargue in France and the Nile delta in Egypt. Where the soil surface is situated below sea level, saline groundwater moves upward into superficial water networks. On the other hand, infiltrating rainwater forms small-scale fresh water lenses. The system is also comparable to the situation that develops when "skimming wells" are used, for example for irrigation in Northern India. The lenses we are studying have a thickness ranging from less then one up to several meters, their width depending on drainage density (generally 20-500 m). Field data show that the transition zone can be as thick as the fresh water lens itself. Therefore a sharp interface model cannot be assumed suitable to analyze such lenses (Sakr, 1999). When comparing numerical and analytical models for steady situations, when flow lines are parallel to the transition zone, we found that the analytical model represents the centre of the transition zone quite accurately. The width can be estimated only roughly. Climate change and human influence, through water level control and/or pumping, cause these lenses to grow or shrink. During this volume change, flow lines have a component perpendicular to the transition zone between fresh and saline water. This increases longitudinal dispersion, and thereby widens the transition zone further. Research This work is a combination of numerical modeling, dimension analysis and fieldwork; we use SUTRA (Voss and Provost, 2003), which is capable of including both density dependence and unsaturated zones. To characterize the shape of the lens and the transition zone we use spatial moments. For 2 sites in the Southwest of the Netherlands we are continuously monitoring salinity at different locations and at several depths, in cooperation with Deltares, The Netherlands. We quantified the contribution of diffusion and dispersion to the mixing process for the different phases of lens formation, when a fresh water lens grows from initially saline conditions to steady state. While the lens is growing, longitudinal dispersion dominates the (wide) mixing zone. Gradually, when the lens approaches steady state, the dominating process changes. In the middle of the field, diffusion becomes dominating, whereas transverse dispersion is most important near the ditch. In general, the width of the transition zone decreases, since both transverse dispersion and diffusion are smaller then longitudinal diffusion. Currently we are working on the effect of seasons, dry spells, and changing climatic conditions. The latter does not only influence precipitation and evaporation, but also the saline seepage, through sea level changes. Calculations show remarkably fast responses of thin lenses. This means that droughts may have their effect on root zone salinity at an earlier stage then we expected beforehand. The influence of ditches/ drains on the lens behavior is large for a zone of approximately 10 m around it. This shows the importance of careful management of ditch level and quality. We are working towards a tool that can help us identify areas or situations where crop or natural vegetation is actually threatened by saline water reaching the root zone. REFERENCES Sakr, S.A. 1999. Validity of a sharp-interface model in a confined coastal aquifer. Hydrogeology Journal 7, 155-160. Voss, C.I., A.M. Provost. 2003. SUTRA, a model for saturated-unsaturated variable-density groundwater flow with solute or energy transport. USGS, Manual No. 02-4231, Reston, Virginia.

Eeman, S.; Leijnse, A.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.

2009-04-01

384

Salinity Effects on Photosynthesis, Carbon Allocation, and Nitrogen Assimilation in the Red Alga, Gelidium coulteri1  

PubMed Central

The long-term effects of altered salinities on the physiology of the intertidal red alga Gelidium coulteri Harv. were assessed. Plants were transfered from 30 grams per liter salinity to media with salinities from 0 to 50 grams per liter. Growth rate, agar, photosynthesis, respiration, and various metabolites were quantified after 5 days and 5 weeks adaptation. After 5 days, growth rates were lower for plants at all altered salinities. Growth rates recovered from these values with 5 weeks adaptation, except for salinities of 10 grams per liter and below, where tissues bleached and died. Photosynthetic O2 evolution was lower than control values at both higher and lower salinities after 5 days and did not change over time. Carbon fixation at the altered salinities was unchanged after 5 days, but decreased below 25 grams per liter and above 40 grams per liter after 5 weeks. Respiration increased at lower salinities. Phycobili-protein and chlorophyll were lower for all altered salinities after 5 days. These decreases continued at lower salinities, then were stable after 5 weeks. Chlorophyll recovered over time at higher salinities. Decreases in protein at lower salinities were quantitatively attributable to phycobili-protein loss. Total N levels and C:N ratios were nearly constant across all salinities tested. Carbon flow into glutamate and aspartate decreased with both decreasing and increasing salinities. Glycine, serine, and glycolate levels increased with both increasing and decreasing salinity, indicating a stimulation of photorespiration. The cell wall component agar increased with decreasing salinity, although biosynthesis was inhibited at both higher and lower salinities. The storage compound floridoside increased with increasing salinity. The evidence suggests stress responses to altered salinities that directly affected photosynthesis, respiration, and nitrogen assimilation and indirectly affected photosynthate flow. At low salinities, respiration and photorespiration exceeded photosynthesis with lethal results. At higher salinities, although photosynthesis was inhibited, respiration was low and carbon fixation adequate to offset increased photorespiration.

Macler, Bruce A.

1988-01-01

385

Shallow rainwater lenses in deltaic areas with saline seepage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In deltaic areas with saline seepage, fresh water availability is often limited to shallow rainwater lenses lying on top of saline groundwater. Here we describe the characteristics and spatial variability of such lenses in areas with saline seepage and the mechanisms that control their occurrence and size. Our findings are based on different types of field measurements and detailed numerical groundwater models applied in the south-western delta of The Netherlands. By combining the applied techniques we could extrapolate in situ measurements at point scale (groundwater sampling, TEC (temperature and electrical soil conductivity)-probe measurements, electrical cone penetration tests (ECPT)) to a field scale (continuous vertical electrical soundings (CVES), electromagnetic survey with EM31), and even to a regional scale using helicopter-borne electromagnetic measurements (HEM). The measurements show a gradual S-shaped mixing zone between infiltrating fresh rainwater and upward flowing saline groundwater. The mixing zone is best characterized by the depth of the centre of the mixing zone Dmix, where the salinity is half that of seepage water, and the bottom of the mixing zone Bmix, with a salinity equal to that of the seepage water (Cl-conc. 10 to 16 g l-1). Dmix manifests at very shallow depth in the confining top layer, on average at 1.7 m below ground level (b.g.l.), while Bmix lies about 2.5 m b.g.l. Head-driven forced convection is the main mechanism of rainwater lens formation in the saline seepage areas rather than free convection due to density differences. Our model results show that the sequence of alternating vertical flow directions in the confining layer caused by head gradients determines the position of the mixing zone (Dmix and Bmix and that these flow directions are controlled by seepage flux, recharge and drainage depth.

de Louw, P. G. B.; Eeman, S.; Siemon, B.; Voortman, B. R.; Gunnink, J.; van Baaren, E. S.; Oude Essink, G. H. P.

2011-08-01

386

Microbial growth inside saline-filled breast implants.  

PubMed

In vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to determine whether intraluminal saline in breast implants can support the growth of common wound-infecting microorganisms over a prolonged period of time. The bacteria tested were Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium jeikeium, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Three fungal species also were tested: Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii, and Candida albicans. In the in vitro study, four organisms survived in flasks of sterile saline for the 2 weeks in which serial cultures were performed: K. pneumoniae, C. albicans, A. fumigatus, and P. variotii. In the in vivo study, 61 white rabbits (122 implants) received both an experimental implant inoculated with one of the test organisms and a control implant containing only sterile saline. They were sacrificed at 1-, 3-, or 6-month scheduled endpoints. None of the control implants containing sterile saline had positive cultures. In contrast, the intraluminal saline was culture positive for 7 of the 10 inoculated organisms after varying lengths of time: S. epidermidis, E. coli, E. cloacae, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, A. fumigatus, and P. variotii. Samples of capsular tissue also were cultured. Of the 122 capsular tissue specimens, 21 (17 percent) had positive cultures and surrounded both inoculated and sterile implants. In most instances, capsules that were culture positive contained an organism different from the one that had been inoculated in the group. In only 3 cases was the same organism cultured from both the periprosthetic tissue and the intraluminal saline, and these may represent instances of the inoculated organism migrating through the implants filler valves. The data show that several types of bacteria (particularly gram-negative species) and fungi can grow and reproduce in a restricted saline environment for extended periods of time. PMID:9207676

Young, V L; Hertl, M C; Murray, P R; Jensen, J; Witt, H; Schorr, M W

1997-07-01

387

Towards an ocean salinity error budget estimation within the SMOS mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission will provide from 2008 onwards global sea surface salinity estimations over the oceans. This work summarizes several insights gathered in the framework of salinity retrieval studies, aimed to address an overall salinity error budget. The paper covers issues ranging from the impact of auxiliary data on SSS error to the potential exploitation

Roberto Sabia; Adriano Camps; Mercè Vall-llossera; Marco Talone

2007-01-01

388

Soil salinization in irrigated agriculture: a regional-scale analysis in the San Joaquin Valley, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented here investigates long-term regional-scale changes in soil salinity in an irrigated area affected by salinization and drainage problems. Soil salinization is primarily a consequence of evapoconcentration of irrigation water as well as capillary rise from the shallow water table. Several factors were identified that influence observed soil salinity variations at the regional scale. These include water table

G. Schoups; J. W. Hopmans; C. Young; W. W. Wallender

2003-01-01

389

Aversion to a palatable saline solution in rats: Interactions of physiology and experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports results of 4 experiments with Wistar rats (N = 49). Ss allowed exclusive experience with hypertonic (2%) or isotonic (.9%) saline for 24 hr. displayed a subsequent reversal of the normal spontaneous saline preference when tested in a 2-bottle situation (tap water vs. isotonic saline). Ss trained in this manner were ideally suited to test the hypothesis that saline

Lynn D. Devenport

1973-01-01

390

A Conceptual Model of the Surface Salinity Distribution in the Oceanic Hadley Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual model of the salinity distribution in the oceanic Hadley cell is presented. The model pertains to the region of tropical easterly surface winds, where the surface salinity increases poleward from a local salinity minimum near the equator to a subtropical salinity maximum. A fundamental constraint is that the meridional freshwater transports in the atmosphere and the ocean have

Johan Nilsson; Heiner Körnich

2008-01-01

391

Salinity as a determinant of salt lake fauna: a question of scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

High and often variable salinity is an obvious feature of salt lakes. Correspondingly, salinity is usually assumed to be an important ecological determinant in such lakes. An investigation of the macroinvertebrate fauna of 79 lakes (salinities from 0.3 to 343 g 1-1) in the Western District of Victoria, Australia, examined this assumption. Over the total range of salinity, species richness

W. D. Williams; A. J. Boulton; R. G. Taaffe

1990-01-01

392

The effect of saline water disposal: implications for monitoring programs and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to combat rising groundwater tables andexpanding saline lakes, saline water has been disposedof into the aquatic environment, despite there beinglittle information as to the environmental effects.Monitoring of the effect of saline lake water disposalon aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality wasconducted in the Barwon River, south west Victoria,Australia, in association with toxicity tests. Thedisposal of saline lake water

Ben J. Kefford; Arthur Rylah

2000-01-01

393

GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND NUTRIENT CONTENTS OF SOME SALT TOLERANT MULTIPURPOSE TREE SPECIES GROWING UNDER SALINE ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted at NIA experimental farm, Tandojam to observe the growth and nutrients (macro and micro) content of some salt tolerant multipurpose tree species (Acacia ampliceps, Acacia stenophylla, Acacia nilotica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and Conocarpus lancifolius) under saline environment. The salinity of the soil was varying from medium saline to very highly saline. The growth performances recorded at

M. U. SHIRAZI; M. A. KHAN; MUKHTIAR ALI; S. M. MUJTABA; S. MUMTAZ; B. KHANZADA; M. A. HALO; M. RAFIQUE; J. A. SHAH; K. A. JAFRI; N. DEPAR

394

Evolution of hydrogen sulfide in sour saline aquifers during carbon dioxide sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many deep saline aquifers suitable for carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration contain measurable concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). These aquifers are described here as sour saline aquifers and the other ones as ordinary saline aquifers. Sour saline aquifers occur wherever even minor amounts of anhydrite or other sulfate sources are present in the formation. In this paper, compositional modeling of CO2

Seyyed M. Ghaderi; David W. Keith; Rob Lavoie; Yuri Leonenko

2011-01-01

395

Molecular analysis of halophilic bacterial community for high-rate denitrification of saline industrial wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A denitrification system for saline wastewater utilizing halophilic denitrifying bacteria has not been developed so far. In this study, denitrification performance and microbial community under various saline conditions were investigated using denitrifying sludge acclimated under low-salinity condition for a few years as seed sludge. A continuous denitrification experiment showed that denitrification performance and microbial community at 10% salinity was higher

Sachiko Yoshie; Hiroshi Makino; Hidenobu Hirosawa; Kosuke Shirotani; Satoshi Tsuneda; Akira Hirata

2006-01-01

396

Effects of Salinity on Eggs, Larvae, and Juveniles of Blacknose Silversides from Lake Chapala, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salinity tolerance of eggs, larvae, and juveniles of blacknose silverside Chirostoma promelas was investigated with the objective of optimizing hatchery practice. A high proportion (>90%) of eggs became eyed in all salinities. Eggs exposed to an instantaneous change of salinity hatched best at 0–15 practical salinity units (psu; 1 psu ? 1‰); reduced hatching occurred at 20 psu and

Carlos A. Martínez-Palacios; Rosa L. Salgado-García; Ilie S. Racotta; Antonio Campos-Mendoza; Lindsay G. Ross

2008-01-01

397

The Effect of Salinity on Different Developmental Stages of an Endemic Annual Plant, Aster laurentianus (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity reduces substrate water potential, thereby restricting water and nutrient uptake by plants; salinity may also cause ionic imbalance and toxicity. Because substrate salinity fluctuates through the growing season, a plant may be exposed to different salinity levels, at various stages of development, with potentially significant consequences on population dynamics. Here, we present the results of a study of the

Gilles Houle; Loic Morel; Christina E. Reynolds; Julie Siegel

2001-01-01

398

Engineering of volume-stable adipose tissues.  

PubMed

Autologous adipose tissues have been clinically used for augmentation of soft tissues lost due to mastectomy or lumpectomy in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, this therapy has problems of absorption and subsequent volume loss of the implanted adipose tissues. In this study, volume-stable adipose tissues were engineered in vivo using mechanical support structures fabricated from biodegradable synthetic polymers. Dome-shaped mechanical support structures were fabricated by reinforcing poly(glycolic acid) fiber-based matrices with poly(L-lactic acid). The support structures were placed into subcutaneous pockets of athymic mice, and human preadipocytes suspended in fibrin matrix were injected into the space under the support structures (group I). Injection of either fibrin matrix without preadipocytes under the support structures (group II) or fibrin matrix containing preadipocytes into subcutaneous spaces with no support structures (group III) served as controls. Six weeks after implantation, the original implant volume was maintained approximately in groups I and II, whereas, group III showed significant implant shrinkage. The compressive modulus of the mechanical support structures did not change significantly over 6-week incubation in phosphate-buffered saline at 37 degrees C. Histological analyses of the implants showed regeneration of adipose tissues in group I. In contrast, groups II and III did not show extensive adipose tissue formation. This study demonstrates that volume-stable adipose tissues can be engineered in vivo using mechanical support structures. This technique offers the potential for augmentation of adipose tissues with volume conservation. PMID:15621248

Cho, Seung-Woo; Kim, Sang-Soo; Rhie, Jong Won; Cho, Hyun Mi; Choi, Cha Yong; Kim, Byung-Soo

2005-06-01

399

Photosynthesis. Volume 6  

SciTech Connect

Volume six of a six volume set on photosynthesis. The main topics covered in this volume are: photosynthesis and productivity, photosynthesis and the physical environment, action mechanism of herbicides in photosynthesis, and photosynthesis and solar energy technology.

Akoyunoglou, G. (ed.)

1981-01-01

400

Clinical and safety profiles of bipolar transurethral vaporization of the prostate in saline: a preliminary report.  

PubMed

Transurethral vaporization of the prostate in saline (TURisV) is an innovative endoscopic surgical modality for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) that vaporizes prostate tissue using a uniquely designed mushroom electrode. TURisV promises instant hemostatic tissue ablation under saline irrigation and offers clinical advantages for endoscopic BPH operations. From July 2008 to February 2009, TURisV was performed in 17 cases with clinically significant BPH. Median operation time was 127.0 min and median volume of vaporized prostate tissue was 41.1 g. Median International Prostate Symptom Score improved from 20 to 4 after 12 months. Median maximum flow rate increased from 5.3 mL/s to 13.8 mL/s after 12 months. Postoperative median residual urine improved from 48.0 mL to 7.0 mL after 12 months. No changes in hemoglobin or electrolyte levels were seen postoperatively. Our results suggest that TURisV is a safe and efficacious treatment for BPH. PMID:22776338

Isotani, S; Muto, S; Yu, J; Nagae, M; China, T; Koseki, T; Kumamoto, T; Tokiwa, S; Yoshii, T; Saito, K; Yamaguchi, R; Ide, H; Horie, S

2012-02-01

401

Physical and economic potential of geological CO2 storage in saline aquifers.  

PubMed

Carbon sequestration in sandstone saline reservoirs holds great potential for mitigating climate change, but its storage potential and cost per ton of avoided CO2 emissions are uncertain. We develop a general model to determine the maximum theoretical constraints on both storage potential and injection rate and use it to characterize the economic viability of geosequestration in sandstone saline aquifers. When applied to a representative set of aquifer characteristics, the model yields results that compare favorably with pilot projects currently underway. Over a range of reservoir properties, maximum effective storage peaks at an optimal depth of 1600 m, at which point 0.18-0.31 metric tons can be stored per cubic meter of bulk volume of reservoir. Maximum modeled injection rates predict minima for storage costs in a typical basin in the range of $2-7/ ton CO2 (2005 U.S.$) depending on depth and basin characteristics in our base-case scenario. Because the properties of natural reservoirs in the United States vary substantially, storage costs could in some cases be lower or higher by orders of magnitude. We conclude that available geosequestration capacity exhibits a wide range of technological and economic attractiveness. Like traditional projects in the extractive industries, geosequestration capacity should be exploited starting with the low-cost storage options first then moving gradually up the supply curve. PMID:19368199

Eccles, Jordan K; Pratson, Lincoln; Newell, Richard G; Jackson, Robert B

2009-03-15

402

Nitrogen sources and sinks in a wastewater impacted saline aquifer beneath the Florida Keys, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater wells surrounding a high volume advance treatment wastewater (ATW) disposal well in the Florida Keys were monitored for nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium concentrations over a 14 month period. Nutrient concentrations in the shallow subsurface (9 m) show a bimodal distribution between the low salinity wastewater plume and the ambient brackish to saline groundwaters. High NO3- concentrations are found within the ATW plume while the highest NH4+ concentrations are found in shallow wells outside of the plume. Evidence suggests that the overlying mud layer unique to this study site contributes the bulk of the NH4+ observed in these wells. NO3- concentrations at 9 m wells varied by a factor of four in response to concurrent variations in ATW NO3- loads over the coarse of the study. Estimated NO3- uptake rates varied from 32 ± 29 to 98 ± 69 and did not directly correlate with ATW NO3- loading as we hypothesized. We estimate that 70 ± 34% of the NO3- from the treatment plant is removed from solution in the subsurface of the study site. Considerable decreases in NO3- concentration and enrichment of 15NO3- was observed in many wells, indicating significant denitrification or anaerobic ammonium oxidation is occurring in the subsurface. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations, distributions, and 15N compositions indicate that denitrification is likely the dominant mechanism for N removal in the ATW plume at Key Colony Beach, Florida.

Dillon, Kevin S.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Smith, Leslie K.

2007-06-01

403

Physiological and proteomic analysis of salinity tolerance in Puccinellia tenuiflora.  

PubMed

Soil salinity poses a serious threat to agriculture productivity throughout the world. Studying mechanisms of salinity tolerance in halophytic plants will provide valuable information for engineering plants for enhanced salt tolerance. Monocotyledonous Puccinellia tenuiflora is a halophytic species that widely distributed in the saline-alkali soil of the Songnen plain in northeastern China. Here we investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying moderate salt tolerance of P. tenuiflora using a combined physiological and proteomic approach. The changes in biomass, inorganic ion content, osmolytes, photosynthesis, defense-related enzyme activities, and metabolites in the course of salt treatment were analyzed in the leaves. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 107 identities (representing 93 unique proteins) differentially expressed in P. tenuiflora leaves under saline conditions. These proteins were mainly involved in photosynthesis, stress and defense, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signaling, membrane, and transport. Our results showed that reduction of photosynthesis under salt treatment was attributed to the down-regulation of the light-harvesting complex (LHC) and Calvin cycle enzymes. Selective uptake of inorganic ions, high K(+)/Na(+) ratio, Ca(2+) concentration changes, and an accumulation of osmolytes contributed to ion balance and osmotic adjustment in leaf cells. Importantly, P. tenuiflora plants developed diverse reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging mechanisms in their leaves to cope with moderate salinity, including enhancement of the photorespiration pathway and thermal dissipation, synthesis of the low-molecular-weight antioxidant ?-tocopherol, and an accumulation of compatible solutes. This study provides important information toward improving salt tolerance of cereals. PMID:21732589

Yu, Juanjuan; Chen, Sixue; Zhao, Qi; Wang, Tai; Yang, Chuanping; Diaz, Carolyn; Sun, Guorong; Dai, Shaojun

2011-08-08

404

GPR study of pore water content and salinity in sand  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution studies of hydrological problems of the near-surface zone can be better accomplished by applying ground-probing radar (GPR) and geoelectrical techniques. The authors report on GPR measurements (500 and 900 MHz antennae) which were carried out on a sorted, clean sand, both in the laboratory and at outdoor experimental sites. The outdoor sites include a full-scale model measuring 5 x 3 x 2.4 m{sup 3} with three buried sand bodies saturated with water of various salinities. Studies investigate the capability of GPR to determine the pore water content and to estimate the salinity. These parameters are important for quantifying and evaluating the water quality of vadose zones and aquifers. The radar technique is increasingly applied in quantifying soil moisture but is still rarely used in studying the problems of water salinity and quality. The reflection coefficient at interfaces is obtained from the amplitude spectrum in the frequency and time domains and is confirmed by 1D wavelet modelling. In addition, the GPR velocity to a target at a known depth is determined using techniques of two-way traveltime, CMP semblance analysis and fitting an asymptotic diffraction curve. The results demonstrate that the reflection coefficient increases with increasing salinity of the moisture. These results may open up a new approach for applications in environmental problems and groundwater prospecting, e.g., mapping and monitoring of contamination and evaluation of aquifer salinity, especially in coastal areas with a time-varying fresh-water lens.

Hagrey, S.A.; Mueller, C.

2000-01-01

405

Analysis of Sea Surface Salinities as seen by SMOS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission provides for the first time sea surface salinities (SSS) observations from a satellite using L-Band radiometry. Generally natural emissivity of sea water in the L-Band is sensitive to the surface salinity but the measurements are susceptible to a number of perturbations like contamination due to sun glint as well as image reconstruction issues like land and ice in the FOV and Radio Frequency Interference which needs to be corrected for. Furthermore, the preliminary SSS data show a bias dependent on latitude and time due to direct solar contamination, sun illumination and the evolution of the antenna temperature along a year etc. A correction algorithm will be presented that removes much of the remaining errors in the available salinity products. As part of this a latitudinally dependent bias is being determined and removed from the data. The resulting monthly SSS maps are shown to be consistent to the mean salinity distribution as well as their annual variabilities known from climatological data. The variable input of freshwater from the major rivers is also observable. The validation with Argo data shows a global mean accuracy of 0.4 against 1.2 g/kg before the correction. A discussion on future improvements of the processing steps is also given.

Köhler, J.; Sena Martins, M.; Stammer, D.

2012-04-01

406

The role of mean ocean salinity in climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe numerical simulations designed to elucidate the role of mean ocean salinity in climate. Using a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, we study a 100-year sensitivity experiment in which the global-mean salinity is approximately doubled from its present observed value, by adding 35 psu everywhere in the ocean. The salinity increase produces a rapid global-mean sea-surface warming of 0.8°C within a few years, caused by reduced vertical mixing associated with changes in cabbeling. The warming is followed by a gradual global-mean sea-surface cooling of 0.4°C within a few decades, caused by an increase in the vertical (downward) component of the isopycnal diffusive heat flux. We find no evidence of impacts on the variability of the thermohaline circulation (THC) or El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The mean strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning is reduced by 20% and the North Atlantic Deep Water penetrates less deeply. Nevertheless, our results dispute claims that higher salinities for the world ocean have profound consequences for the thermohaline circulation. In additional experiments with doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide, we find that the amplitude and spatial pattern of the global warming signal are modified in the hypersaline ocean. In particular, the equilibrated global-mean sea-surface temperature increase caused by doubling carbon dioxide is reduced by 10%. We infer the existence of a non-linear interaction between the climate responses to modified carbon dioxide and modified salinity.

Williams, Paul D.; Guilyardi, Eric; Madec, Gurvan; Gualdi, Silvio; Scoccimarro, Enrico

2010-04-01

407

A Salinity Risk Index for Soils of the Canadian Prairies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural land use can impact the sustainability of inherent soil quality by its influence on the extent, severity, and dynamics of soil salinity. To assess this impact, a salinity risk index was developed and applied to the agricultural region of the Canadian prairies, utilizing land-use data sets for 1981 and 1991. The analysis is presented in map form. The total extent of moderate or more severe salinity for the prairie region, as determined from a summation of each provincial map, is 1.4 million hectares. The risk assessment based on 1991 land-use data indicates that 62.2 percent of the farm land has little to no risk of a change in salinity, 27.9 percent has a moderate risk, and 9.9 percent of the land has a high risk. A comparison of the risk index classes for the 1981 and 1991 land-use data indicates that risk of salinity for the majority of the land (92 percent) hat not changed, whereas less than 7 percent of the land had a lower risk class, and approximately 0.5 percent had a higher risk class in 1991. This approach could be utilized periodically to track the impacts of changes in land and thus serve as an indicator of agri-environmental sustainability. This information could be applied by upper levels of government to develop programs and to define agricultural policy.

Eilers, R. G.; Eilers, W. D.; Fitzgerald, M. M.

1997-01-01

408

Salt tolerance classification of crops according to soil salinity and to water stress day index  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observations of a long-term experiment on the use of saline water were used to compare the crop tolerance to salinity. Salinity affected significantly yield, evapotranspiration, pre-dawn leaf water potential and stomatal conductance. The higher the salinity, the lower the yield, evapotranspiration, pre-dawn leaf water potential and stomatal resistance. The crop classification, based on soil salinity, corresponds with the classification

N. Katerji; J. W. van Hoorn; A. Hamdy; M. Mastrorilli

2000-01-01

409

A new and novel process for separation of salts, scale salts and norm contaminant salts from saline waters and saline solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new and novel process for saline waters and saline solutions conversion has been provided that requires only a fair amount of a miscible organic solvent and heat transfer. Such requirements are ordinary in the nature of precipitation and vaporization. The proposed process consists of adding a miscible (strongly associated) organic solvent to saline water so that salt precipitates of

M. S. H. Bader

1994-01-01

410

Climate change impacts on water salinity and health.  

PubMed

It is estimated that 884 million people do not have access to clean drinking water in the world. Increasing salinity of natural drinking water sources has been reported as one of the many problems that affect low-income countries, but one which has not been fully explored. This problem is exacerbated by rising sea-levels, owing to climate change, and other contributing factors, like changes in fresh water flow from rivers and increased shrimp farming along the coastal areas. In some countries, desalination plants are used to partly remove salt and other minerals from water sources, but this is unlikely to be a sustainable option for low-income countries affected by high salinity. Using the example of Bangladesh as a model country, the following research indicates that the problem of salinity can have serious implications with regard to rising rates of hypertension and other public health problems among large sectors of the worldwide population. PMID:23856370

Vineis, Paolo; Chan, Queenie; Khan, Aneire

2011-11-17

411

New equations for density, entropy, heat capacity, and potential temperature of a saline thermal fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of fitted polynomial equations for calculating the physical variables density, entropy, heat capacity and potential temperature of a thermal saline fluid for a temperature range of 0-374 °C, pressure range of 0.1-100 MPa and absolute salinity range of 0-40 g/kg is established. The freshwater components of the equations are extracted from the recently released tabulated data of freshwater properties of Wagner and Pruß [2002. The IAPWS formulation 1995 for the thermodynamic properties of ordinary water substance for general and scientific use. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 31, 387-535]. The salt water component of the equation is based on the near-linear relationship between density, salinity and specific heat capacity and is extracted from the data sets of Feistel [2003. A new extended Gibbs thermodynamic potential of seawater. Progress in Oceanography 58, 43-114], Bromley et al. [1970. Heat capacities and enthalpies of sea salt solutions to 200 °C. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data 15, 246-253] and Grunberg [1970. Properties of sea water concentrates. In: Third International Symposium on Fresh Water from the Sea, vol. 1, pp. 31-39] in a temperature range 0-200 °C, practical salinity range 0-40, and varying pressure and is also calibrated by the data set of Millero et al. [1981. Summary of data treatment for the international high pressure equation of state for seawater. UNESCO Technical Papers in Marine Science 38, 99-192]. The freshwater and salt water components are combined to establish a workable multi-polynomial equation, whose coefficients were computed through standard linear regression analysis. The results obtained in this way for density, entropy and potential temperature are comparable with those of existing models, except that our new equations cover a wider temperature—(0-374 °C) than the traditional (0-40 °C) temperature range. One can apply these newly established equations to the calculation of in-situ or onboard density, specific volume (therefore, the porosity), and potential temperature change that are usually measured on shipboard by the Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) and other hydrothermal-fluid studies.

Sun, Hongbing; Feistel, Rainer; Koch, Manfred; Markoe, Andrew

2008-10-01

412

Natural variation of salinity response, population structure and candidate genes associated with salinity tolerance in perennial ryegrass accessions.  

PubMed

Natural variation in salinity response, effects of population structure on growth and physiological traits and gene-trait association were examined in 56 global collections of diverse perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) accessions. Three population structure groups were identified with 66 simple sequence repeat markers, which on average accounted for 9 and 11% of phenotypic variation for the control and salinity treatment at 300?mm NaCl. Group 1 (10 accessions) had greater plant height, leaf dry weight and water content, chlorophyll index, K(+) concentration and K(+) /Na(+) than group 2 (39 accessions) and group 3 (7 accessions) under salinity stress, while group 3 had higher Na(+) than groups 1 and 2. Eighty-seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected from four partial candidate genes encoding aquaporin and Na(+) /H(+) antiporter in both plasma and tonoplast membranes. Overall, rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium was observed within 500?bp. Significant associations were found between the putative LpTIP1 and Na(+) for the control and between the putative LpNHX1 and K(+) /Na(+) under the control and salinity treatments after controlling population structure. These results indicate that population structure influenced phenotypic traits, and allelic variation in LpNHX1 may affect salinity tolerance of perennial ryegrass. PMID:23566156

Tang, Jinchi; Yu, Xiaoqing; Luo, Na; Xiao, Fangming; Camberato, James J; Jiang, Yiwei

2013-05-01

413

Variable Subduction Rates of North Atlantic Salinity Maximum Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from programs back to 1982, and most recently the 2003-04 Repeat Hydrography, Tracer, CO2 program are used to highlight the role tracer data can have in monitoring decadal variability of ocean circulation. The CFC data are used to document changes in thermocline ventilation, and specifically the affect increased thermocline salinity is having, if any, on Salinity Maximum Water (SMW) subduction rates in the North Atlantic Ocean. Hydrobase data show a long term trend of increasing salinity in the North Atlantic thermocline since the 1950s, and in particular in SMW. SMW is located in the subtropical/tropical north Atlantic under the evaporation minus precipitation maximum. Since SMW are the most saline of the thermocline waters, no source for additional salt exists within the ocean. Subduction rates have been calculated for SMW from 1982-2004 CFC data at stations where there was a subsurface salinity maximum present. The subduction rate for an isopycnal projected back to its outcrop, is calculated from the inverse tracer age gradient corrected for vortex stretching. Subduction rates vary from 10 to 40 m/year. The results show a pattern of changing subduction rates that correlate well with the NAO index. Since salinity seems to have been steadily increasing, though at different rates, it appears that local fresh water variability is not the major forcing effect on the subduction process. The 1990s rise in evaporation rate coincided with a prolonged high state of the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO). The associated increase in trade winds will have enhanced both evaporation and Ekman pumping of waters into the upper ventilated thermocline. Consistent with model results, the observational based calculations suggest that increased (decreased) wind stress curl accompanying an increased (decreased) NAO has the major forcing effect on SMW subduction variability.

Fine, R. A.; Willey, D. A.; Happell, J.

2004-12-01

414

The role of mean ocean salinity in climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe numerical simulations designed to elucidate the role of mean ocean salinity in climate. Using a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, we study a 100-year sensitivity experiment in which the global-mean salinity is approximately doubled from its present observed value, by adding 35 psu everywhere in the ocean. The salinity increase produces a rapid global-mean sea-surface warming of 0.8°C within a few years, caused by reduced vertical mixing associated with changes in cabbeling. The warming is followed by a gradual global-mean sea-surface cooling of 0.4°C within a few decades, caused by an increase in the vertical (downward) component of the isopycnal diffusive heat flux. We find no evidence of impacts on the variability of the thermohaline circulation (THC) or El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The mean strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning is reduced by 20% and the North Atlantic Deep Water penetrates less deeply. Nevertheless, our results dispute claims that higher salinities for the world ocean have profound consequences for the thermohaline circulation. In additional experiments with doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide, we find that the amplitude and spatial pattern of the global warming signal are modified in the hypersaline ocean. In particular, the equilibrated global-mean sea-surface temperature increase caused by doubling carbon dioxide is reduced by 10%. We infer the existence of a non-linear interaction between the climate responses to modified carbon dioxide and modified salinity. Reference Paul D. Williams, Eric Guilyardi, Gurvan Madec, Silvio Gualdi, Enrico Scoccimarro (2009) The role of mean ocean salinity in climate, Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans, In Press, DOI: 10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2009.02.001.

Williams, Pd; Guilyardi, E.; Madec, G.; Gualdi, S.; Scoccimarro, E.

2009-09-01

415

Ground motion predictions for the Grand Saline experiment. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

Finite difference calculations are used to predict the ground motion and RVP spectra from a tamped 200 pound charge of Pelletol explosive detonated in the Grand Saline Salt Dome. Computational constitutive models and material properties for the dome salt are first normalized using ground motion data from a number of nuclear and high explosive events in salt including SALMON, GNOME, and COWBOY. The ground motion predictions for Phase III of the Grand Saline experiment are then made using our best guesses for site material properties.

Rimer, N.; Cherry, J.T.

1982-07-01

416

Selective pyrophosphate recognition by cyclic peptide receptors in physiological saline.  

PubMed

The anion binding ability of a family of bis(Zn(II)-Dpa) functionalized cyclic peptides has been investigated using displacement assays with a fluorescent coumarin indicator in water, saline solution, and Krebs buffer. Non-binding side-chain steric bulk, the relative position of binding sites, and the scaffold size were all found to affect the ability of these receptors to discriminate between polyphosphate ions. Most receptors showed some selectivity for pyrophosphate over ATP and ADP in water and saline, and this selectivity was significantly enhanced in the biologically relevant Krebs buffer giving chemosensing ensembles capable of selective recognition of pyrophosphate in the presence of excess ATP. PMID:22965665

Butler, Stephen J; Jolliffe, Katrina A

2012-09-10

417

Reflux Brines and Saline Groundwater, Murray Basin, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater in the Murray Basin typically becomes more saline along its flowpaths; however, geochemical data, particularly Br/Cl ratios, indicate limited dissolution of salt from the aquifer is occurring. In the southern Murray Basin, recharge of groundwater to the deeper aquifers (Renmark Formation) is generally considered to occur at the highlands at the south basin margin while recharge to the shallow unconfined Parilla Sands aquifer occurs across much of the region. Regionally, discharge of groundwater occurs within the centre of the basin in zones of salt lakes. Groundwater in the regional recharge area of the southern Murray Basin shows dramatic variations in salinity (TDS contents ranging from 650 to >100,000 mg/L) over distances of a few kilometres in both shallow and deep aquifers. While the variation in topography is low (<70 m over 15,000 km2), local recharge and discharge processes control groundwater composition. Fresher groundwater underlies sand ridges that contain freshwater lakes located above the water table. The high salinity areas underlie a major palaeochannel, the Douglas Depression, which forms a topographic low. This depression contains abundant salt lakes and playas that represent local discharge sites for shallow groundwater. Stable isotope data show that the water in the high salinity zones underwent evaporation. Major element data (particularly Mg/Ca/SO4 ratios) indicate that the saline groundwaters have precipitated gypsum. Together the data indicate that brines produced in these saline lakes reflux into the underlying aquifers to depths of up to 180 m. In the semi-arid environment of SE Australia, reflux brines in both local and regional discharge areas are important in controlling the distribution of salinity in the Murray Basin as a whole. The observation that both shallow and deep aquifers show similar chemical trends implies that there is significant vertical interconnection throughout the basin. The confining layers are thin, locally discontinuous, contain lenses of sand, and form relatively poor aquitards. This is in keeping with observations that hydrographs from adjacent deep and shallow wells are generally in phase and that the chemistry of shallow and deeper wells is often similar. Overall, recharge to both shallow and deep aquifer systems may locally occur throughout the basin. The results of this study show the control that surface processes have on the deeper groundwater in this basin. Recent land clearing has increased the salinity of shallow groundwater across the basin, which may begin to impact the deeper groundwater.

Cartwright, I.; Weaver, T. R.; Swane, I.

2001-12-01

418

Barbados Corals as Recorders of Amazon River Salinity Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low salinity plumes of Amazon and Orinoco sourced water have previously been detected around the island of Barbados. Barbados corals may therefore have the potential to record salinity anomalies governed by natural, climate-related, and anthropogenic changes in the Amazon and Orinoco Basin watersheds beyond the recent historic record. In order to determine whether Barbados corals record salinity variations associated with local or Amazon/Orinoco sourced signals, multiple specimens of Montastraea sp. and Siderastrea sp. coral skeletons were analyzed for stable C and O isotope and Sr/Ca variations. Corals were collected from the northwest, central-west, and southwest regions of the island to determine degree of salinity signal heterogeneity over a 5-6 year period at approximately monthly resolution. Four separate published paleotemperature equations were used to assess the importance of temperature on stable oxygen isotope composition. In situ temperature measurements obtained from NOAA show an annual sea surface temperature (SST) cycle of approximately 4 degrees Celsius off Barbados. If governed solely by SST, stable isotope data from all 8 corals in this study indicate a significantly greater annual temperature range of approximately 6 degrees Celsius. This suggests that salinity related fluctuations in oxygen isotopic composition of water are an important influence on the geochemistry of Barbados corals. Some regional differences in geochemical composition of corals were apparent. Corals from the southwest of Barbados showed the clearest sub-annual isotope signal, better correlations with mean annual SST measurements, and lowest mean salinity of the regions. Corals from the central-west and northwest showed distinctly higher mean, but more variable, salinity than corals from the south. Stable carbon isotope data from southwest corals also best potentially reflect the Suess Effect. Montastraea sp. corals generally show a higher paleotemperature offset from in situ values, suggesting that the ability to extract salinity data from Barbados corals may be species-specific. These results may have implications for understanding local eddy patterns as Amazon-sourced water encounters Barbados. It is possible that the central and northern lee coasts may be less impacted by Amazon water and more subject to local restriction from open marine conditions and/or increased evaporative effects.

Greer, L.; Telfeyan, K.; Arienzo, M. M.; Rosenberg, A. D.; Waite, A. J.; Swart, P. K.

2010-12-01

419

Classroom measurements of sound speed in fresh/saline water.  

PubMed

A tabletop apparatus permitting demonstrations and hands-on student exercises in the measurement of sound speed in water as a function of both temperature and salinity, at atmospheric pressure, is described. By measuring sound speed using a differential technique with a precisely measured path length difference ?x, errors due to uncertainty in original path length are minimized. The apparatus can be used to measure sound speed in freshwater baths of varying temperature and room temperature baths of varying salinities to provide the student a clear picture of sound speed variation along two axes. PMID:22423793

Carman, Jessie C

2012-03-01

420

The `Tortonian salinity crisis' of the eastern Betics (Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The late Miocene depositional history of the Lorca and Fortuna basins, both occupying an internal position in the eastern Betics of Spain, is marked by a regressive sequence from open marine marls, via diatomites and evaporites, to continental sediments. Based on facies similarities, these evaporites have often been correlated to the well-known Mediterranean evaporites of the Messinian salinity crisis, although this correlation was never substantiated by reliable chronological data. In this paper, we present an integrated stratigraphy of this regressive sequence which shows that the evaporites of the Lorca and Fortuna basins are entirely of late Tortonian age and as such have no relation with the Messinian salinity crisis. The main phase of basin restriction, resulting in deposition of diatomites and evaporites, took place at 7.8 Ma, while the last marine deposits (massive evaporites of the Lorca basin) are dated at 7.6 Ma. Consequently, this `Tortonian salinity crisis' of the eastern Betics had a duration of approximately 200 kyr, while continental deposition prevailed throughout the entire Messinian as also revealed by the fossil mammal record. The `Tortonian salinity crisis' of the eastern Betics is obviously related to a local phase of basin restriction caused by uplift of the metamorphic complexes at the basin margins, probably in concert with strike-slip activity along SW-NE trending fault systems. The development of a submarine sill is of crucial importance for the increase in salinity because it allows marine waters to continuously enter the basin at the surface while it restricts or prevents the outflow of dense saline waters at depth. Furthermore, we show that evaporite and diatomite cyclicity in these restricted basins is predominantly related to precession controlled circum-Mediterranean climate changes and that glacio-eustatic sea level changes only play a minor role. It is remarkable that the lithological sequence of the Tortonian salinity crisis mimics in many aspects that of the Messinian salinity crisis. This suggests that the diatomaceous facies is an essential part of the lithological sequence associated with basin restriction.

Krijgsman, W.; Garcés, M.; Agustí, J.; Raffi, I.; Taberner, C.; Zachariasse, W. J.

2000-09-01

421

Process for the recovery of uranium from a saline lixiviant  

SciTech Connect

A process is disclosed for the recovery of uranium from a saline alkaline lixiviant employed in a uranium leaching operation. An ion exchange resin is employed to adsorb uranium from the lixiviant. Prior to contacting the resin with the lixiviant, the pH of the lixiviant is reduced to a value of less than 7. By this technique , the resin loading in the presence of chloride ion is materially increased. The ph values for optimum resin loading capacity decrease as the salinity of the lixiviant increases. Resin loading is also enhanced by the presence of bicarbonate ion in the lixiviant.

Otto, J.B.

1980-11-25

422

Osmotic, sodium, carbon dioxide and acid-base state of the Port Jackson shark, Heterodontus portusjacksoni , in response to lowered salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In marine elasmobranch fish the consequences for CO 2 and acid–base state of moving into low salinity water are not well described. Sub-adult Port Jackson sharks, Heterodontus portusjacksoni, occasionally enter brackish water and survive in 50% seawater (SW). The unidirectional Na efflux and content, plasma volume, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), body mass, as well as CO 2 and acid-base state

A. R. Cooper; S. Morris

2004-01-01

423

Salinity- and population-dependent genome regulatory response during osmotic acclimation in the killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) gill.  

PubMed

The killifish Fundulus heteroclitus is abundant in osmotically dynamic estuaries and it can quickly adjust to extremes in environmental salinity. We performed a comparative osmotic challenge experiment to track the transcriptomic and physiological responses to two salinities throughout a time course of acclimation, and to explore the genome regulatory mechanisms that enable extreme osmotic acclimation. One southern and one northern coastal population, known to differ in their tolerance to hypo-osmotic exposure, were used as our comparative model. Both populations could maintain osmotic homeostasis when transferred from 32 to 0.4 p.p.t., but diverged in their compensatory abilities when challenged down to 0.1 p.p.t., in parallel with divergent transformation of gill morphology. Genes involved in cell volume regulation, nucleosome maintenance, ion transport, energetics, mitochondrion function, transcriptional regulation and apoptosis showed population- and salinity-dependent patterns of expression during acclimation. Network analysis confirmed the role of cytokine and kinase signaling pathways in coordinating the genome regulatory response to osmotic challenge, and also posited the importance of signaling coordinated through the transcription factor HNF-4?. These genome responses support hypotheses of which regulatory mechanisms are particularly relevant for enabling extreme physiological flexibility. PMID:22442367

Whitehead, Andrew; Roach, Jennifer L; Zhang, Shujun; Galvez, Fernando

2012-04-15

424

Effects of low-flow diversions from the South Wichita River on downstream salinity of the South Wichita River, Lake Kemp, and the Wichita River, North Texas, October 1982-September 1992  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In parts of the upper reaches of the Red River Basin in Texas, streamflow is characterized by levels of salinity that limit its usefulness for most purposes. Large dissolved solids and dissolved chloride concentrations are caused primarily by flow from natural salt springs in tributaries to the Red River. To reduce downstream salinity in the Wichita River, a dam in the South Wichita River downstream of an area of salt springs (designated salinity source area VIII) diverts low flows (which are the most saline) to a manmade brine lake for evaporation. Statistical tests on salinity data for the South Wichita River, Lake Kemp, and the Wichita River for the period October 1982-September 1992 were done to determine the effects on downstream salinity of low-flow diversions from the South Wichita River that began in May 1987. Salinity in the South Wichita River downstream of the low-flow diversion structure was (statistically) significantly less during the 65-month period of record after diversion than during the 55-month period of record before diversion. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests yielded strong evidence that discharge-weighted dissolved solids and discharge-weighted dissolved chloride concentrations, as well as discharge-weighted specific conductance, were significantly less after diversion. Whether salinity in Lake Kemp had a significant downward trend during the period of record August 1989--August 1992 could not be determined conclusively from observed salinity data. Mann-Kendall trend tests yielded weak evidence that volume-weighted dissolved solids and dissolved chloride concentrations in Lake Kemp tended to decrease with time. However, serial correlation in the time series of salinity data could have adversely affected the test results. The significant effects of low-flow diversions on salinity in the South Wichita River are not discernible in the Wichita River downstream from Lake Kemp. Although salinity was significantly less downstream from Lake Kemp after diversion, the decrease probably is mostly a result of dilution of Lake Kemp by large inflows of (assumed) low-salinity water that occurred in the spring of 1989 rather than an effect of diversion.

Baldys, Stanley, III; Bush, Peter W.; Kidwell, Charles C.

1996-01-01

425

Using Saline Water for Crop Production in New Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New Mexico has vast supplies of saline groundwaters whose use could expand irrigated agriculture and conserve good quality water for domestic use. Unfortunately, little is known of the long-term effects of such waters on soils and crops common to New Mexi...

G. A. O'Connor

1980-01-01

426

Remote Monitoring of Thermal Performance of Salinity Gradient Solar Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper details of the design, construction and operation of a remotely monitored data acquisition system for applications in salinity gradient solar ponds is presented. The parameters which are observed include temperature, density, Ph, and water turbidity. The problem to be solved here was the inefficient approach in data collection, which involved frequent human presence at the site of

Milan Nenad Simic; Randeep Singh; Louis Doukas; Aliakbar Akbarzadeh

2009-01-01

427

Ground motion predictions for the Grand Saline experiment. Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finite difference calculations are used to predict the ground motion and RVP spectra from a tamped 200 pound charge of Pelletol explosive detonated in the Grand Saline Salt Dome. Computational constitutive models and material properties for the dome salt are first normalized using ground motion data from a number of nuclear and high explosive events in salt including SALMON, GNOME,

N. Rimer; J. T. Cherry

1982-01-01

428

Multiphase flow dynamics during CO 2 disposal into saline aquifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injection of CO2 into saline aquifers is described by mass conservation equations for the three components water, salt (NaCl), and CO2. The equations are discretized using an integral finite difference method, and are solved using methods developed in geothermal and petroleum reservoir engineering. Phase change processes are treated through switching of primary thermodynamic variables. A realistic treatment of PVT (fluid)

Karsten Pruess; Julio García

2002-01-01

429

SALINITY EFFECTS ON WATER THICKENERS FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acceptable disposal of saline production waters poses a serious environmental and economic problem in oil recovery. An attractive solution to this problem would be to reinject these waters in tertiary recovery operations. The effects of fresh (soft) and produced (hard) waters of formulation and displacement (scavenger or drive water) on 6 potential water thickeners for the Maraflood oil recovery process

Charles Norton; David Falk

1978-01-01

430

METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS THE PERFORMANCE OF SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE SALINITY CONTROL.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The performance of subsurface drainage systems is rarely evaluated after installation either for physical or financial performance. Moreover, assessments are rarely made regarding the completion of salinity reclamation and hence the need to move to a reduced drainage requirement. This paper provide...

431

Adaptation of a freshwater anammox population to high salinity wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the successful application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in wastewater practice it is important to know how to seed new anammox reactors with biomass from existing reactors. In this study, a new high salinity anammox reactor was inoculated with biomass from a freshwater system. The changes in activity and population shifts were monitored. It was shown that freshwater anammox

Boran Kartal; Mariana Koleva; Roumen Arsov; Wouter van der Star; Mike S. M. Jetten; Marc Strous

2006-01-01

432

Authigenic smectite on diatom frustules in Bolivian saline lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observation under the electron microscope of diatom frustules from Bolivian Altiplano saline lakes shows that many of these are coated with particles occurring as tiny sheets. The frustules can be found to be almost completely replaced by these sheets. Isolated sheet aggregates seem to have resulted from completely transformed frustules. Section observations of altered frustules bear out that the sheets

Denise Badaut; François Risacher

1983-01-01

433

Survival of Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio salmonicida at different salinities.  

PubMed Central

The fish pathogenic bacteria Vibrio anguillarum and V. salmonicida showed the capacity to survive for more than 50 and 14 months, respectively, in seawater microcosms. A salinity of 5% proved lethal to V. anguillarum harvested in the late-exponential growth phase, whereas a salinity of 9% was lethal to the bacterium after it had been starved at a salinity of 30% for 67 days. The lethal salinity for V. salmonicida harvested in the late-exponential growth phase was probably in the vicinity of 10%. V. anguillarum and V. salmonicida were very sensitive to nalidixic acid. Direct determination of viable cells after incubation with nalidixic acid was not possible, since the cells did not elongate. Samples of V. salmonicida were double stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled antibodies and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. After 3 or 4 days of starvation, there was a discrepancy between the total numbers of cells as determined by immunofluorescence versus by staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. The immunofluorescence counts remained high, which indicated the presence of intact cell envelopes but leakage of DNA and other cytoplasm components. After 2 weeks of starvation, for some of the cells, the region stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (i.e., DNA) was markedly smaller than the cell envelope. I attributed this to a shrinkage of the cytoplasm or a confined nucleoid or both. V. anguillarum lost its exoproteolytic activity before 11 days of starvation.

Hoff, K A

1989-01-01

434

Effects of drainage salinity evolution on irrigation management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A soil physics theory of solute movement through a drained saturated zone underlying agricultural land is introduced into a long-term economic analysis of farm-level irrigation management; this is an alternative to the immediate, homogeneous blending assumption employed in previous studies as a base for calculating changes in drainage salinity over time. Using data from California, the effect of drainage salinity evolution is analyzed through a year-by-year profit optimization under the requirement of on-farm drainage disposal. Paths of optimal land allocation among crop production with fresh surface water, saline drainage reuse and evaporation ponds appear to depend on the relative profitability of the first two; that of reuse is affected by the trend of drainage salinity. Tile spacing and environmental regulations associated with evaporation ponds affect the timing of evaporation pond construction. The system converges into a solution involving both drainage-disposal activities; this solution includes an outlet for salts and is therefore sustainable. Following this strategy, the system is asymptotically approaching a steady state that possesses both hydrological and salt balances. Economic implications associated with land retirement programs in California are discussed.

Kan, Iddo

2003-12-01

435

The salinity normalization of marine inorganic carbon chemistry data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normalization to a constant salinity (S) is widely used for the adjustment of marine inorganic carbon chemistry data such as total alkalinity (AT) and total dissolved inorganic carbon (CT). This procedure traces back to the earliest studies in marine chemistry, but ignores the influence of riverine input of alkalinity and of dissolution of biogenic carbonates in the ocean. We tested

K. Friis; A. Körtzinger; D. W. R. Wallace

2003-01-01

436

Cumulative environmental effects of low salinity shrimp farming in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cumulative environmental effects of low salinity shrimp farming in the Bangpakong River Basin, eastern Thailand, were investigated using a GIS-assisted approach. Water supply, water quality, and agricultural land use were used to represent key environmental resources. Shrimp farming is a major consumer of freshwater, but cumulative effects on water supplies are probably negligible because of ample rainfall and similar

Brian W. Szuster; Mark Flaherty

2002-01-01

437

Soil Salinity in South India: Problems and Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil salinity is assuming menacing proportions for production of agricultural and horticultural crops in South India. South India comprises of Andhra Pradesh (AP), Tamil Nadu (TN), Karnataka, Kerala, Goa, and Islands in Bay of Bengal (Andaman and Nicobar) and Arabian Sea (Lakshadweep). It comprises central uplands, Deccan plateau (Karnataka plateau and Telangana plateau of AP), Nilgiri hills of TN, South

G. Swarajyalakshmi; P. Gurumurthy; G. V. Subbaiah

2003-01-01

438

Visit to An Ocean Planet: Salinity and Deep Ocean Currents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource uses text, images, maps and a laboratory exercise to explain how differences in the temperature and salinity of ocean water cause the formation of deep-ocean currents. It is part of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's "Ocean Surface Topography from Space" website. This material is also available on the "Visit to An Ocean Planet" CD-ROM.

439

Nonisothermal multiphase flow of brine and gas through saline media  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a general formulation for nonisothermal multiphase flow of brine and gas through saline media. The balance equations include mass balance (three species), equilibrium of stresses and energy balance (total internal energy). Salt, water and air mass balance equations are established. The balance of salt allows the establishment of the equation for porosity evolution due to solid skeleton deformation,

S. Olivella; J. Carrera; A. Gens; E. E. Alonso

1994-01-01

440

Considerations for Microwave Remote Sensing of Ocean-Surface Salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parametric calculations of the microwave emission from the ocean surface are presented to determine the optimum electromagnetic wavelength for measuring salinity. At 800 MHz, a target accuracy of 240 parts per million is within the state of the art provided that emission due to surface roughness is negligible, or correctable, and that the error resulting from galactic radiation can be

Calvin T. Swift; Robert E. Mcintosh

1983-01-01

441

Salinity–mineral nutrient relations in horticultural crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relations between salinity and mineral nutrition of horticultural crops are extremely complex and a complete understanding of the intricate interactions involved would require the input from a multidisciplinary team of scientists. This review addresses the nutrient elements individually and we emphasise research directed towards the organ, whole-plant and field level. We have attempted to synthesise the literature and reconcile

S. r. Grattan; C. m. Grieve

1998-01-01

442

Effects of increasing salinity on freshwater ecosystems in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Salt is a natural component,of the Australian landscape to which a number of biota inhabiting rivers and wetlands are adapted. Under natural flow conditions periods of low flow have resulted in the concentration of salts in wetlands and riverine pools. The organisms of these systems survive these salinities by tolerance or avoidance. Freshwater ecosystems in Australia are now becoming,increasingly

D. L Nielsen; M. A. Brock; G. N. Rees; D. S. Baldwin

2003-01-01

443

Melting characteristics of horizontal ice surfaces in cold saline water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of an experimental investigation of the buoyancy driven flow adjacent to and below a horizontal ice surface melting in cold water at near oceanic salinity are presented. This melting configuration is characteristic of circumistances encountered by sea ice, for example, by new ice and, also, on the bottom of tabular ice floes. Several ambient water temperatures t, are

Benjamin Gebhart; Bahgat Sammakia; Tore Audunson

1983-01-01

444

Comparison of normal saline with tap water for wound irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared irrigation with tap water versus saline for removing bacteria from simple skin lacerations. The study was conducted in an animal model with a randomized, nonblinded crossover design using 10 500-g laboratory rats. Two full-thickness skin lacerations were made on each animal and inoculated with standardized concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus broth. Tissue specimens were removed before and after

Ronald Moscati; James Mayrose; Lisa Fincher; Dietrich Jehle

1998-01-01

445

Effects of increasing salinity on freshwater ecosystems in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt is a natural component of the Australian landscape to which a number of biota inhabiting rivers and wetlands are adapted. Under natural flow conditions periods of low flow have resulted in the concentration of salts in wetlands and riverine pools. The organisms of these systems survive these salinities by tolerance or avoidance. Freshwater ecosystems in Australia are now becoming

D. L NielsenA; M. A. BrockB; G. N. ReesA; D. S. BaldwinA

446

Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinization is the process whereby the concentration of dissolved salts in water and soil is increased due to natural or human-induced processes. Water is lost through one or any combination of four main mechanisms: evaporation, evapotranspiration, hydrolysis, and leakage between aquifers. Salinity increases from catchment divides to the valley floors and in the direction of groundwater flow. Salinization is explained by two main chemical models developed by the authors: weathering and deposition. These models are in agreement with the weathering and depositional geological processes that have formed soils and overburden in the catchments. Five soil-change processes in arid and semi-arid climates are associated with waterlogging and water. In all represented cases, groundwater is the main geological agent for transmitting, accumulating, and discharging salt. At a small catchment scale in South and Western Australia, water is lost through evapotranspiration and hydrolysis. Saline groundwater flows along the beds of the streams and is accumulated in paleochannels, which act as a salt repository, and finally discharges in lakes, where most of the saline groundwater is concentrated. In the hummocky terrains of the Northern Great Plains Region, Canada and USA, the localized recharge and discharge scenarios cause salinization to occur mainly in depressions, in conjunction with the formation of saline soils and seepages. On a regional scale within closed basins, this process can create playas or saline lakes. In the continental aquifers of the rift basins of Sudan, salinity increases along the groundwater flow path and forms a saline zone at the distal end. The saline zone in each rift forms a closed ridge, which coincides with the closed trough of the groundwater-level map. The saline body or bodies were formed by evaporation coupled with alkaline-earth carbonate precipitation and dissolution of capillary salts. Résumé La salinisation est le processus par lequel la concentration des sels dissous dans l'eau et les sols s'accroît sous l'effet de processus naturels ou anthropiques. L'eau est perdue par l'une ou l'autre combinaison de quatre principaux mécanismes : l'évaporation, l'évapotranspiration, l'hydrolyse et la drainance entre aquifères. La salinité augmente depuis les limites des bassins jusqu'au fond des vallées et le long des axes d'écoulement souterrain. La salinisation est expliquée au moyen de deux principaux modèles chimiques développés par les auteurs : l'altération et le dépôt. Ces modèles sont en accord avec les processus géologiques d'altération et de dépôt qui ont formé les sols et qui recouvrent les bassins versants. Cinq processus d'évolution de sols sous climats aride et semi-aride sont associés à l'eau et à des formations aquifères. Dans tous les cas présentés, l'eau souterraine est le principal agent géologique qui transporte, accumule et dépose les sels. A l'échelle de petits bassins versants dans le sud et dans l'ouest de l'Australie, l'eau est consommée par évapotranspiration et par hydrolyse. L'eau souterraine salée coule le long des berges de rivières et s'accumule dans des paléochenaux, qui fonctionnent comme des zones de stockage de sels, et finalement s'écoule dans des lacs, où la plupart des eaux salées se concentrent. Dans les formations bosselées des grandes plaines du nord du Canada et des États-Unis, des scénarios d'alimentation et de décharge localisées conduisent la salinisation à se produire surtout dans les dépressions, en association avec la formation de sols et d'infiltrations salins. A l'échelle régionale dans les bassins fermés, ce processus peut être à l'origine de playas ou de lacs salés. Dans les aquifères continentaux des bassins de rift du Soudan, la salinité augmente le long des axes d'écoulement souterrain et forme ainsi une zone saline à leur extrémité. La zone saline de chaque rift constitue une crête, qui coïncide avec le creux piézométrique. Le ou les ensembles salins se sont formés par évaporation couplée

Salama, Ramsis B.; Otto, Claus J.; Fitzpatrick, Robert W.

447

OPTIMIZING SALINITY CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN  

EPA Science Inventory

A simple multi-level nonlinear optimization procedure was utilized to formulate the most cost-effective array of salinity control strategies for the Upper Colorado River Basin. The incremental cost-effectiveness methodology qualitatively indicates the location and general type of...

448

Flame photometric determination of salinity in processed foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sodium contents determined by flame photometry were used to estimate the salinities of processed foods. The interference effects of potassium and calcium ions on the determination of sodium ion were studied. The threshold interfering patterns of potassium ion and calcium ion for the determination of sodium ion were observed in the model systems. Both of the ions showed enhancement

Min-Jane Chen; Ya-Ting Hsieh; Yih-Ming Weng; Robin Y.-Y. Chiou

2005-01-01

449

Response of bean micronutrient nutrition to arsenic and salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of different levels of arsenic (As) and salinity on bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Buenos Aires) nutrition were investigated. We studied the processes of absorption and accumulation of chloride (Cl) and micronutrient elements: boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn). The experiment was performed in soilless culture at two levels of As: 2

Francisco Burló; Jorge Mataix

1998-01-01

450

Interactive effects of salinity and iron deficiency in Medicago ciliaris.  

PubMed

In calcareous salt-affected soils, iron availability to plants is subjected to the effects of both sodium and bicarbonate ions. Our aim was to study interactive effects of salinity and iron deficiency on iron acquisition and root acidification induced by iron deficiency in Medicago ciliaris L., a species commonly found in saline ecosystems. Four treatments were used: C, control treatment, complete medium (CM) containing 30 microM Fe; S, salt treatment, CM with 75 mM NaCl; D, deficient treatment, CM containing only 1 microM Fe; DS, interactive treatment, CM containing 1 microM Fe with 75 mM NaCl. Our study showed that plant growth and chlorophyll content were much more affected by the interactive treatment than by iron deficiency or by the salt treatment, indicating an additive effect of these constraints in DS plants. These results could be partially explained by Na accumulation in shoots as well as a limitation of nutrient uptake such as Fe and K under salt stress, under iron deficiency, and especially under their combined effect. The study also showed that root acidification was deeply diminished when iron deficiency was associated with salinity. This probably explained the decrease of Fe uptake and suggested that root proton pump activity would be inhibited by salinity. PMID:17923371