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1

Effects of high volume saline enemas vs no enema during labour - The N-Ma Randomised Controlled Trial [ISRCTN43153145  

PubMed Central

Background Enemas are used during labour in obstetric settings with the belief that they reduce puerperal and neonatal infections, shorten labour duration, and make delivery cleaner for attending personnel. However, a systematic review of the literature found insufficient evidence to support the use of enemas. The objective of this RCT was to address an identified knowledge gap by determining the effect of routine enemas used during the first stage of labour on puerperal and neonatal infection rates. Methods Design: RCT (randomised controlled trial; randomized clinical trial). Outcomes: Clinical diagnosis of maternal or neonatal infections, labour duration, delivery types, episiotomy rates, and prescription of antibiotics Setting: Tertiary care referral hospital at the Javeriana University (Bogotá, Colombia) that attended 3170 births during study period with a caesarean section rate of 26%. Participants: 443 women admitted for delivery to the obstetrics service (February 1997 to February 1998) and followed for a month after delivery. Inclusion criteria were women with: low risk pregnancy and expected to remain in Bogotá during follow up; gestational age ? 36 weeks; no pelvic or systemic bacterial infection; intact membranes; cervix dilatation ?7 cm. Intervention: 1 litre saline enema, versus no enema, allocated following a block random allocation sequence and using sealed opaque envelopes. Results Allocation provided balanced groups and 86% of the participants were followed up for one month. The overall infection rate for newborns was 21%, and 18% for women. We found no significant differences in puerperal or neonatal infection rates (Puerperal infection: 41/190 [22%] with enema v 26/182 [14%] without enema; RR 0.66 CI 95%: 0.43 to 1.03; neonatal infection 38/191 [20%] with enema v 40/179 [22%] without enema; RR 1.12, 95% CI 95% 0.76 to 1.66), and median labour time was similar between groups (515 min. with enema v 585 min. without enema; P = 0.24). Enemas didn't significantly change episiorraphy dehiscence rates (21/182 [12%] with enema v 32/190 [17%] without enema; P = 0.30). Conclusion This RCT found no evidence to support routine use of enemas during labour. Although these results cannot rule out a small clinical effect, it seems unlikely that enemas will improve maternal and neonatal outcomes and provide an overall benefit. PMID:16545140

Cuervo, Luis Gabriel; Bernal, Maria del Pilar; Mendoza, Natalia

2006-01-01

2

Effects of high volume saline enemas vs no enema during labour – The N-Ma Randomised Controlled Trial [ISRCTN43153145  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Enemas are used during labour in obstetric settings with the belief that they reduce puerperal and neonatal infections, shorten labour duration, and make delivery cleaner for attending personnel. However, a systematic review of the literature found insufficient evidence to support the use of enemas. The objective of this RCT was to address an identified knowledge gap by determining the

Luis Gabriel Cuervo; María del Pilar Bernal; Natalia Mendoza

2006-01-01

3

World Ocean Atlas 1994. Volume 3. Salinity  

SciTech Connect

This atlas contains maps of salinity at selected standard levels of the worlds ocean on a one-degree grid. Maps for all-data annual and seasonal compositing periods are presented. The fields used to generate these maps were computed by objective analysis of historical data. Data distribution maps are presented for various compositing periods. Basin zonal averages and basin volume averages are computed from these objectively analyzed fields and presented in the form of figures and tables.

Levitus, S.; Burgett, R.; Boyer, T.P.

1994-04-01

4

Retrograde spread of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with active ulcerative colitis  

SciTech Connect

In an attempt to know the exact retrograde spread of high-dosage 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas, we have studied eight patients with active left-sided colitis, by adding a small amount of barium sulfate to the enemas and by checking the spread radiologically after 15 minutes, 1 hour, and 6 hours. Four grams of 5-aminosalicylic acid in 100-ml enemas and 4 gm in 200-ml enemas were used. The same experiment was repeated in a subsequent attack, with enemas labeled with technetium-99m and checked by scintiscans in five of these patients. We always have observed a volume-dependent spread of enemas but, interestingly, in the patients studied with technetium-99m there was always a wider spread than that which was detected with barium enemas. In all five patients, 100-ml enemas reached the splenic flexure. In two patients with total colitis, a progression of 100-ml technetium-99m enemas was performed in the transverse colon, but the maximum opacity remained in the left side. We can conclude that 4 gm of 5-aminosalicylic acid in 100-ml enemas can be suitable for treating patients with left-sided colitis, and will represent a valid addition for patients with more extensive colitis.

Campieri, M.; Lanfranchi, G.A.; Brignola, C.; Bazzocchi, G.; Gionchetti, P.; Minguzzi, M.R.; Cappello, I.P.; Corbelli, C.; Boschi, S.

1986-02-01

5

The Malone Antegrade Continence Enema for Neurogenic and Structural Fecal Incontinence and Constipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of fecal elimination are commonly encountered by the pediatric urologist and surgeon. The Malone antegrade continence enema has been described as a means to administer a large volume enema via a continent catheterizable appendicocecostomy, resulting in reliable fecal elimination. Of 22 patients undergoing this procedure 16 reported total continence 4 months or longer after surgery. Complications are relatively minor

Martin A. Koyle; Devonna M. Kaji; Manuel Duque; Jodi Wild

1995-01-01

6

21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device...

2014-04-01

7

21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device...

2013-04-01

8

21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device...

2010-04-01

9

21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device...

2011-04-01

10

21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device...

2012-04-01

11

Comparison of water immersion and saline infusion as a means of inducing volume expansion in man  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study compares the natriuresis induced by head-out water immersion to that of a standard saline infusion and assesses the relative effectiveness of these two techniques as volume determinants of renal sodium and water handling in humans in a seated posture. The data obtained show that the volume stimulus of immersion is identical to that of standard saline-induced extracellular fluid volume expansion (ECVE) in normal seated subjects. The ability of head-out water immersion to induce a natriuresis without a concomitant increase in total blood volume and with a decrease in body weight suggests that water immersion may be preferred as an investigative tool for assessing the effects of ECVE in man.

Epstein, M.; Pins, D. S.; Arrington, R.; Denunzio, A. G.; Engstrom, R.

1975-01-01

12

The malone antegrade continence enema  

Microsoft Academic Search

The previously reported Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) was used in 21 children for intractable fecal incontinence or constipation. Twelve are completely clean, and three are much improved (71% success rate). However, only four of the 21 have not had some type of complication, either minor or major. Five of the 21 now have a colostomy, and one has abandoned

D. M Griffiths; P. S Malone

1995-01-01

13

Hydrogeology, distribution, and volume of saline groundwater in the southern midcontinent and adjacent areas of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hydrogeology, distribution, and volume of saline water in 22 aquifers in the southern midcontinent of the United States were evaluated to provide information about saline groundwater resources that may be used to reduce dependency on freshwater resources. Those aquifers underlie six States in the southern midcontinent—Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas—and adjacent areas including all or parts of Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Wyoming and some offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico. Saline waters of the aquifers were evaluated by defining salinity zones; digitizing data, primarily from the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program of the U.S. Geological Survey; and computing the volume of saline water in storage. The distribution of saline groundwater in the southern midcontinent is substantially affected by the hydrogeology and groundwater-flow systems of the aquifers. Many of the aquifers in the southern midcontinent are underlain by one or more aquifers, resulting in vertically stacked aquifers containing groundwaters of varying salinity. Saline groundwater is affected by past and present hydrogeologic conditions. Spatial variation of groundwater salinity in the southern midcontinent is controlled primarily by locations of recharge and discharge areas, groundwater-flow paths and residence time, mixing of freshwater and saline water, and interactions with aquifer rocks and sediments. The volume calculations made for the evaluated aquifers in the southern midcontinent indicate that about 39,900 million acre-feet (acre-ft) of saline water is in storage. About 21,600 million acre-ft of the water in storage is slightly to moderately saline (1,000–10,000 milligrams per liter [mg/L] dissolved solids), and about 18,300 million acre-ft is very saline (10,000–35,000 mg/L dissolved solids). The largest volumes of saline water are in the coastal lowlands (about 16,300 million acre-ft), Mississippi embayment and Texas coastal uplands (about 12,000 million acre-ft), and Great Plains (about 8,170 million acre-ft) aquifer systems. Of the 22 aquifers evaluated in this report, the Maha aquifer in the Great Plains aquifer system contains both the largest total volume of saline water (about 6,280 million acre-ft) and the largest volume of slightly to moderately saline water (about 5,150 million acre-ft).

Osborn, Noël I.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Seger, Christian H.

2013-01-01

14

Effect of prolonged LBNP and saline ingestion on plasma volume and orthostatic responses during bed rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic intolerance remains a significant problem following space flight despite frequent use of the saline fluid-loading countermeasure and volitional use of an anti-gravity suite during reentry and landing. The purpose of this project is to examine the plasma volume (PV), endocrine, and orthostatic responses of bedrested subjects following 2-hr and 4-hr treatments of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and saline ingestion. Ten healthy men were randomly assigned into 2 groups. Group A underwent a 4-hr LBNP/saline treatment on best rest day 5 and the 2-hr treatment on day 11. Group B underwent the 2-hr treatment on day 6 and the 4-hr treatment on day 10. Blood volume was determined before and after bed rest using radiolabelling. Changes in PV between measurements were calculated from changes in hematocrit and estimated red cell volume. Urinary excretion of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone (ALD) were measured each day during the study. Orthostatic responses were measured using a ramp LBNP protocol before bed rest, before each treatment, and 24 hours after each treatment. Both 2-hr and 4-hr treatments resulted in a restoration of PV to pre-bed rest levels which persisted at least 24 hours. This increase in PV was associated with significant increases in urinary excretion of ADH and ALD. Twenty-four hours after the 4-hr treatment, the heart rate and pulse pressure response to LBNP were significantly lower and stroke volumes during LBNP were increased. Twenty-four hours after the 2-hr treatment, there was no evidence of improvement in orthostatic responses. These results suggest that a countermeasure which simply restores PV during space flight may not be sufficient for restoring orthostatic responses.

Fortney, Suzanne M.; Dussack, Larry; Rehbein, Tracy; Wood, Margie; Steinmann, Laura

1991-01-01

15

Rectal impaction following enema with concrete mix.  

PubMed

This article describes an unusual rectal foreign body resulting from homosexual anal erotic activities. The patient had used an enema containing a concrete mix which became impacted and required surgical removal. The use, abuse, and complications of enemas are reviewed. PMID:3649167

Stephens, P J; Taff, M L

1987-06-01

16

Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas - Volume 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas - Volume 2 is a publication project in the framework of the study of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. It follows the publication of a first volume in 2011 (see Editors' websites: http://ccgm.free.fr & http://sgfr.free.fr) and aims to illustrate the seismic characteristics of the MSC markers over news study areas. The Messinian Salinity Crisis is a huge outstanding succession of events that deeply modified the Mediterranean area within a short time span at the geological scale. In 2011, a seismic atlas of the Messinian markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas has been published [1]. This collective work summarizes, in one publication with a common format, the most relevant seismic features related to this exceptional event in the offshore domain. It also proposes a new global and consistent terminology for the MSC markers in the entire offshore Mediterranean area in order to avoid nomenclatural problems. Throughout 13 study areas, the seismic facies, geometry and extend of the Messinian markers (bounding surfaces and depositional units) are described. The Atlas however does not provide a complete description of all what that is known about the MSC and about the geology of each study area. Accordingly, illustrations in the Atlas should be used for a global description of the offshore imprints of the MSC at a broad scale, or for local information or site-specific general interpretations. Interpreted seismic data were carefully selected according to their quality, position and significance. Raw and interpreted seismic profiles are available on CD-Rom. Volume 2 is currently under preparation with the objectives : (1) to image the Messinian seismic marker from margins and basins that have not been illustrated in the first volume and (2) to complete the extension map of the MSC markers in the offshore and onshore domains at the Mediterranean scale. As the first volume, Volume 2 will also aim to share the geological interpretation of seismic reflection data imaging Messinian markers, to make this information accessible to the non geophysician community and to be a reference work that can be used by teachers and future researchers working on the Messinian event. This publication project is still open to anybody from industry and academia willing to contribute. At the present time, 16 new sites have been identified. Publication of the Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas - Volume 2 is planned for Fall 2014. For more details, contact presenting author J. Lofi (atlas coordinator). This contribution has been funded by the Actions Marges French research program. [1] : Lofi J., Deverchère J., Gaullier V., Gillet H., Gorini C., Guennoc P., Loncke L., Maillard A., Sage F. and Thinon I., 2011. Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) / Mémoires de la Société Géologique de France, n.s., 179, 72 pp., 1 CD. Atlas contributors (first authors): A. Camerlenghi, A. Del Ben, D. Do Couto, F. Estrada, F. Gallais, M. Garcia, V. Gaullier, A. Maillard, A. Micallef, M. Rossi, F. Sage, U. Schattner, A. Tassy, R. Urgeles

Lofi, Johanna

2014-05-01

17

Haematological, serum electrolyte and blood gas effects of small volume hypertonic saline in experimentally induced haemorrhagic shock.  

PubMed

The effects of treatment with small volume hypertonic (2400 mOsm/litre) and isotonic (300 mOsm/litre) saline on serum electrolyte and biochemical concentrations, haemograms and blood gases were evaluated in 12 horses using a haemorrhagic shock model. Intravascular catheters were placed surgically for sample collection prior to anaesthesia. Controlled haemorrhage was initiated and continued until mean systemic pressure reached 50 to 60 mmHg. Hypertonic or isotonic saline (2 litres) was administered by intravenous infusion and data collected for 2 h. Following haemorrhage, packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin, blood glucose concentrations and erythrocyte numbers increased whereas plasma total protein and albumin concentrations decreased. Infusion of hypertonic saline resulted in a further decrease in total protein and albumin concentrations. Glucose concentrations and other haematological variables were unaffected. Isotonic saline administration did not affect electrolyte, total protein or albumin concentrations. Concentrations of sodium and chloride were unaffected by hypotension but increased significantly following hypertonic saline treatment, exceeding normal values during the immediate post treatment period. Serum osmolality increased concurrently. No significant changes in arterial and venous blood gas values were observed with haemorrhage or isotonic saline treatment. A transient decrease in arterial and venous blood pH and a sustained decrease in venous bicarbonate and base excess concentrations occurred following hypertonic saline administration. No significant increases in any serum biochemical concentrations occurred during hypotension or following infusion of either isotonic or hypertonic saline. These results demonstrate that small volume hypertonic saline can be administered safely to horses without producing extreme changes in electrolyte concentrations, blood gases or haematological parameters. PMID:2120034

Schmall, L M; Muir, W W; Robertson, J T

1990-07-01

18

Quantitative distribution of radiolabeled 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis  

SciTech Connect

Rectally administered suspensions of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) are topically effective in treating left-sided ulcerative colitis. The extent to which the contents of these enemas are distributed to inflamed mucosal linings has not previously been determined. This study was undertaken to validate a technique for labeling 5-ASA with 99mTc and to quantitate the distribution of (99mTc)5-ASA in eight patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis. Eight patients underwent three colonic scintigraphic exams within five days, receiving a 60-ml radiolabeled 5-ASA enema into the unprepared rectum for each study, with sequential anterior abdominal images obtained for 4 hr. Activity within the rectum, sigmoid, descending, transverse, and ascending colon was quantitated. Over 50% of the labeled enema had advanced beyond the rectum in five of eight patients and in six of eight patients by 30 min and 60 min, respectively. The distribution of (99mTc)5-ASA was quantitatively reproducible when repeated in the same patient on different days, despite apparent visual differences. By 2 hr, the amount of the enema present within the rectum decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) compared to the initial distribution. The amount of enema present within the descending colon was increased significantly at 0.5 hr (P less than 0.05) and at 2 hr (P less than 0.01). There were no significant changes in the distribution from initial values for the sigmoid, transverse, or ascending colon at any time. In each of these cases the spread of the enema to or beyond the extent of disease was documented. In patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis, small volume (99mTc)5-ASA enemas reliably reach the area of inflammation.

Vitti, R.A.; Meyers, F.; Knight, L.C.; Siegel, J.A.; Malmud, L.S.; Fisher, R.S. (Temple Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

1989-11-01

19

Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death  

PubMed Central

Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema.

Peterson, Thomas; Rentmeester, Landen; Judge, Bryan S.; Cohle, Stephen D.; Jones, Jeffrey S.

2014-01-01

20

Use of butyrate or glutamine in enema solution reduces inflammation and fibrosis in experimental diversion colitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether butyrate or glutamine enemas could diminish inflammation in experimental diversion colitis. METHODS: Wistar specific pathogen-free rats were submitted to a Hartmann’s end colostomy and treated with enemas containing glutamine, butyrate, or saline. Enemas were administered twice a week in the excluded segment of the colon from 4 to 12 wk after the surgical procedure. Follow-up colonoscopy was performed every 4 wk for 12 wk. The effect of treatment was evaluated using video-endoscopic and histologic scores and measuring interleukin-1?, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and transforming growth factor beta production in organ cultures by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Colonoscopies of the diverted segment showed mucosa with hyperemia, increased number of vessels, bleeding and mucus discharge. Treatment with either glutamine or butyrate induced significant reductions in both colonoscopic (P < 0.02) and histological scores (P < 0.01) and restored the densities of collagen fibers in tissue (P = 0.015; P = 0.001), the number of goblet cells (P = 0.021; P = 0.029), and the rate of apoptosis within the epithelium (P = 0.043; P = 0.011) to normal values. The high levels of cytokines in colon explants from rats with diversion colitis significantly decreased to normal values after treatment with butyrate or glutamine. CONCLUSION: The improvement of experimental diversion colitis following glutamine or butyrate enemas highlights the importance of specific luminal nutrients in the homeostasis of the colonic mucosa and supports their utilization for the treatment of human diversion colitis. PMID:22969190

Pacheco, Rodrigo Goulart; Esposito, Christiano Costa; Muller, Lucas CM; Castelo-Branco, Morgana TL; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Chagas, Vera Lucia A; de Souza, Heitor Siffert P; Schanaider, Alberto

2012-01-01

21

Hyperphosphataemia after enemas in childhood: prevention and treatment.  

PubMed Central

The case of a child with severe hyperphosphataemia and symptomatic hypocalcaemia secondary to retention of phosphate administered through an antegrade continence enema is reported. Caution should be exercised with the use of phosphate enemas and prompt action taken to remedy retention. The use of glucose with insulin in the emergency management of acute hyperphosphataemia is discussed. PMID:8481047

Hunter, M F; Ashton, M R; Griffiths, D M; Ilangovan, P; Roberts, J P; Walker, V

1993-01-01

22

Effects of a highly concentrated hypertonic saline-dextran volume expander on cardiopulmonary function in anesthetized normovolemic horses.  

PubMed

Conventional fluid resuscitation is unsatisfactory in a small percentage of equine emergency surgical cases because the large volumes of fluids required cannot be given rapidly enough to adequately stabilize the horse. In anesthetized horses, the volume expansion and cardiopulmonary effects of a small volume of highly concentrated hypertonic saline-dextran solution were evaluated as an alternative initial fluid choice. Seven halothane-anesthetized, laterally recumbent, spontaneously ventilating, normovolemic horses were treated with a 25% NaCl-24% dextran 70 solution (HSD) at a dosage of 1.0 ml/kg of body weight, IV, infused over 10 minutes, and the effects were measured for 120 minutes after infusion. Plasma volume expansion was rapid and significant (from 36.6 +/- 4.6 ml/kg to 44.9 +/- 4.8 ml/kg), and remained significantly expanded for the duration of the experiment. Packed cell volume, total blood hemoglobin, and plasma protein concentrations significantly decreased, confirming rapid and sustained volume expansion with hemodilution. Cardiac index and stroke index immediately increased and remained high for the entire study (from 69.6 +/- 15.3 ml/min/kg to 106.6 +/- 28.4 ml/min/kg, and from 1.88 +/- 0.49 ml/beat/kg to 2.50 +/- 0.72 ml/beat/kg, respectively). Systemic vascular resistance significantly decreased immediately after HSD infusion and remained decreased for the duration of the study (from 1.41 +/- 0.45 mm of Hg/ml/min/kg to 0.88 +/- 0.22 mm of Hg/ml/min/kg). Arterial and venous blood oxygen content decreased significantly because of hemodilution, but actual oxygen transport transiently increased at the 10-minute measurement before returning toward baseline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1722655

Moon, P F; Snyder, J R; Haskins, S C; Perron, P R; Kramer, G C

1991-10-01

23

Influence of Salinous Solutions in the Pressure and Volume Modulations of the Intracranial Cavity  

E-print Network

agents and skull removal. The mechanical properties of bone can be affected by the administration of different solutions. If the malleability of skull is influenced by the osmotic agents that are administered to the patient then the pressure and volume...

Ceballos, Mariana

2012-10-19

24

Resuscitation of Conscious Pigs Following Hemorrhage: Comparative Efficacy of Small-Volume Resuscitation with Normal Saline, 7.5% NaC1, 6% Dextran 70, and 7.5% NaC1 in 6% Dextran 70.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of small-volume resuscitation (4 ml/kg) with hypertonic saline/dextran (HSD) (7.5% NaCL in 6% Dextran, n=6), hypertonic saline (HS) (n=8), dextran (n=6), or normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride, n=8) was evaluated in chronically instrumented, sp...

C. A. Bossone, C. E. Wade, J. A. Loveday, J. P. Hannon, M. M. Hunt

1988-01-01

25

Isoosmolar Enemas Demonstrate Preferential Gastrointestinal Distribution, Safety, and Acceptability Compared with Hyperosmolar and Hypoosmolar Enemas as a Potential Delivery Vehicle for Rectal Microbicides  

PubMed Central

Abstract Rectally applied antiretroviral microbicides for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV infection are currently in development. Since enemas (rectal douches) are commonly used by men who have sex with men prior to receptive anal intercourse, a microbicide enema could enhance PrEP adherence by fitting seamlessly within the usual sexual practices. We assessed the distribution, safety, and acceptability of three enema types—hyperosmolar (Fleet), hypoosmolar (distilled water), and isoosmolar (Normosol-R)—in a crossover design. Nine men received each enema type in random order. Enemas were radiolabeled [99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)] to assess enema distribution in the colon using single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. Plasma 99mTc-DTPA indicated mucosal permeability. Sigmoidoscopic colon tissue biopsies were taken to assess injury as well as tissue penetration of the 99mTc-DTPA. Acceptability was assessed after each product use and at the end of the study. SPECT/CT imaging showed that the isoosmolar enema had greater proximal colonic distribution (up to the splenic flexure) and greater luminal and colon tissue concentrations of 99mTc-DTPA when compared to the other enemas (p<0.01). Colon biopsies also showed that only the hyperosmolar enema caused sloughing of the colonic epithelium (p<0.05). In permeability testing, the hypoosmolar enema had higher plasma 99mTc-DTPA 24-h area under the concentration-time curve and peak concentration compared to the hyperosmolar and isoosmolar enemas, respectively. Acceptability was generally good with no clear preferences among the three enema types. The isoosmolar enema was superior or similar to the other enemas in all categories and is a good candidate for further development as a rectal microbicide vehicle. PMID:23885722

Leyva, Francisco J.; Bakshi, Rahul P.; Fuchs, Edward J.; Li, Liye; Caffo, Brian S.; Goldsmith, Arthur J.; Ventuneac, Ana; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Du, Yong; Leal, Jeffrey P.; Lee, Linda A.; Torbenson, Michael S.

2013-01-01

26

Salinization and Saline Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g L-1), although the chloride comprises only a fraction of the total dissolved salts in water. The Cl/TDS ratio varies from 0.1 in nonmarine saline waters to ˜0.5 in marine-associated saline waters. Water salinity is also defined by electrical conductivity (EC). In soil studies, the electrical conductivity and the ratio of Na/?(Ca+Mg) (SAR) are often used as an indirect measure of soil salinity. In addition to chloride, high levels of other dissolved constituents may limit the use of water for domestic, agriculture, and industrial applications. In some parts of Africa, China, and India, for example, high fluoride content is associated with saline groundwater and causes severe dental and skeletal fluorosis (Shiklomanov, 1997). Hence, the "salinity" problem is only the "tip of the iceberg," as high levels of salinity are associated with high concentrations of other inorganic pollutants (e.g., sodium, sulfate, boron, fluoride), and bioaccumulated elements (e.g., selenium, and arsenic) (see Chapter 9.03).The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the chloride concentration of the water supply for human consumption should not exceed 250 mg L-1. Agriculture applications also depend upon the salinity level of the supplied water. Many crops, such as citrus, avocado, and mango, are sensitive to chloride concentration in irrigation water (an upper limit of 250 mg L-1). In addition, long-term irrigation with water enriched with sodium results in a significant reduction in the hydraulic conductivity and hence the fertility of the irrigated soil. Similarly, the industrial sector demands water of high quality. For example, the high-tech industry requires a large amount of water with low levels of dissolved salts. Hence, the salinity level of groundwater is one of the limiting factors that determine the suitability of water for a variety of applications.The salinity problem is a global phenomenon but it is more severe in water-scarce areas, such as arid and semi-arid zones. The increasing demand for water has created tremendous pressur

Vengosh, A.

2003-12-01

27

Sucralfate and Methylprednisolone Enemas in Active Ulcerative Colitis (A Prospective, Single-Blind Study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the role of sucralfatein active ulcerative colitis, 60 patients wererandomized to receive either sucralfate enemas (20 g\\/100ml) or methylprednisolone enemas (20 mg\\/100 ml). The enemas were administered twice daily for oneweek, and then once daily for three weeks. Clinicalevaluation was documented at entry and at two weeks andfour weeks. The sigmoidoscopic appearance of the rectal mucosa

John P. Wright; Trevor A. Winter; Sally Candy; In Marks

1999-01-01

28

Patient and occupational dosimetry in double contrast barium enema examinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new and relatively simple method is presented to distribute total dose-area product (DAP) over a number of projections that model exposure during double contrast barium enema (DCBE) examinations. In addition, hitherto unavailable entrance and effective doses to the physician performing the DCBE examination have been determined. DAP, fluoroscopy time, number of images as well as some patient data were

G J KEMERINK; A C W BORSTLAP; M J FRANTZEN; F W SCHULTZ; J ZOETELIEF; JMA VAN ENGELSHOVEN

29

Saline Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource introduces students to the idea of saline water. Topics include how saline water is defined and how dissolved salt concentrations are expressed (parts per million). Parameters for the various ranges of salinity (fresh to highly saline, or seawater) are also presented, and there is a brief discussion of water quality considerations regarding saline water. Links to additional information are embedded in the text.

2011-09-30

30

Saline Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource introduces students to the idea of saline water. Topics include how saline water is defined and how dissolved salt concentrations are expressed (parts per million). Parameters for the various ranges of salinity (fresh to highly saline, or seawater) are also presented, and there is a brief discussion of water quality considerations regarding saline water. Links to additional information are embedded in the text.

31

Solar eclipse sign of intussusception on barium enema.  

PubMed

The colographic appearance of intussusception is variously described as a claw sign, pincer defect, shouldering effect, and coiled-spring pattern. This report adds a new radiographic sign to the list. An end-on view of an intussusception on barium enema shows a ring of contrast resembling a solar eclipse. Familiarity with this bizarre appearance is desirable, lest it may be mistaken for spillage of barium due to a colonic perforation. PMID:11793074

Raveenthiran, V

2002-01-01

32

Adequacy of preparation for barium enema among elderly outpatients.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether outpatients 75 years of age or older have a higher rate of inadequate bowel preparation for barium enema and of complications associated with the preparation and the test than patients aged 55 to 74 years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Radiology department in a teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Patients 55 years or older referred for a barium enema from March to August 1988. OUTCOME MEASURES: All films were reviewed independently by a study radiologist blind to the staff radiologist's report. Patients were interviewed by telephone within several days after the test to assess the occurrence of problems during the preparation or the test. MAIN RESULTS: Of the 213 patients assessed 72 were excluded: 43 refused to participate or could not be contacted, 16 had previously undergone colonic surgery, and 13 were excluded for other reasons. The remaining 141 patients were separated into three age groups: those 55 to 64 years (46 patients), those 65 to 74 (47) and those 75 or older (48). In 104 cases (74%) the bowel had been prepared adequately; there was no significant difference between the three groups with regard to the adequacy of preparation. The incidence of problems reported by the patients did not differ significantly between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Outpatients aged 75 years or more are no more likely than those aged 55 to 74 to have problems with bowel preparation or the barium enema itself. Age should not be a criterion for exclusion from barium enema. To try to lower the rate of poor bowel preparation clinicians and radiologists should consider counselling patients more carefully about the importance of proper preparation. Also, the current method of preparation could be examined to determine whether simple changes would significantly improve colon cleanliness. PMID:2025821

Grad, R M; Clarfield, A M; Rosenbloom, M; Perrone, M

1991-01-01

33

Internal hemorrhoids: diagnosis with double-contrast barium enema examinations.  

PubMed

The authors retrospectively studied 43 patients suspected of having internal hemorrhoids at double-contrast barium enema examination. At endoscopy, 24 patients (56%) had internal hemorrhoids, four (9%) had other pathologic lesions in the rectum without evidence of hemorrhoids, and 15 (35%) had no reported abnormalities in the rectum. Internal hemorrhoids were found at endoscopy in 10 of 20 patients (50%) with lobulated folds extending 3 cm or less from the anorectal junction and 10 of 13 patients (77%) with multiple submucosal nodules. However, no patients with these characteristic radiographic findings were found to have other pathologic lesions in the rectum that had been mistaken for hemorrhoids at barium enema examination. Conversely, three of four patients with lobulated folds extending more than 3 cm from the anorectal junction and one of six patients with solitary nodules had proctitis or rectal neoplasms. Thus, specific criteria are suggested for the diagnosis of internal hemorrhoids on double-contrast barium enema examinations. Suspected hemorrhoids that do not fulfill these criteria should be evaluated endoscopically to rule out other more serious pathologic lesions in the rectum. PMID:2399313

Levine, M S; Kam, L W; Rubesin, S E; Ekberg, O

1990-10-01

34

Coffee enema for preparation for small bowel video capsule endoscopy: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Coffee enemas are believed to cause dilatation of bile ducts and excretion of bile through the colon wall. Proponents of coffee enemas claim that the cafestol palmitate in coffee enhances the activity of glutathione S-transferase, an enzyme that stimulates bile excretion. During video capsule endoscopy (VCE), excreted bile is one of the causes of poor preparation of the small bowel. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effect of coffee enema for preparation of the small bowel during VCE. In this pilot study, 17 of 34 patients were assigned to the coffee enema plus polyethylene glycol (PEG) 2 L ingestion group, whereas the 17 remaining control patients received 2 L of PEG only. The quality of bowel preparation was evaluated in the two patient groups. Bowel preparations in the proximal segments of small bowel were not differ between two groups. In the mid and distal segments of the small intestine, bowel preparations tend to be better in patients who received coffee enemas plus PEG than in patients who received PEG only. The coffee enema group did not experience any complications or side effects. Coffee enemas may be a feasible option, and there were no clinically significant adverse events related to coffee enemas. More prospective randomized studies are warranted to improve small bowel preparation for VCE. PMID:25136541

Kim, Eun Sun; Chun, Hoon Jai; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang

2014-07-01

35

Acute left colonic diverticulitis—compared performance of computed tomography and water-soluble contrast enema  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The most valuable radiologic examination to be done initially when acute left colonic diverticulitis is suspected is still a matter of controversy. This study compares the performance between water-soluble contrast enema and computed tomography. METHODS: From 1986 to 1997, all patients admitted in our emergency center with clinically suspected left-colonic diverticulitis had a contrast enema and a computed tomography

Patrick Ambrosetti; Alexandra Jenny; Christophe Becker; François Terrier; Philippe Morel

2000-01-01

36

Relative sensitivity of colonoscopy and barium enema for detection of colorectal cancer in clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The relative sensitivities of barium enema and colonoscopy for colorectal cancer are still debated. The aim of this study was to determine the relative sensitivity of barium enema and colonoscopy in general clinical practice. METHODS: Medical records of 2193 consecutive colorectal cancer cases identified in 20 central Indiana hospitals were reviewed. All procedures performed within 3 years

DK Rex; EY Rahmani; JH Haseman; GT Lemmel; S Kaster; JS Buckley

1997-01-01

37

Routine barium enema prior to closure of defunctioning ileostomy is not necessary  

PubMed Central

Purpose The use of barium enemas to confirm the anastomotic integrity prior to ileostomy closure is still controversial. The purpose of the study was to determine the utility of routine contrast enema prior to ileostomy closure and its impact on patient management in patients with a low pelvic anastomosis. Methods One hundred forty-five patients had a temporary loop ileostomy constructed to protect a low colorectal or coloanal anastomosis following low anterior resection for rectal cancer. All patients were evaluated by physical examination, proctoscopy, and barium enema prior to ileostomy closure. Results The median time from ileostomy creation to closure was 8 months. Five (3.5%) of the 144 patients were found to have clinically relevant strictures at the colorectal anastomosis on routine barium enema. One patient (0.7%) showed anastomotic leak on their barium enema. Overall, 141 patients (97.9%) had an uncomplicated postoperative course. Postoperative complication occurred in three patients (2.1%). None of them showed abnormal barium enema finding, which suggested that routine contrast enema examination did not predict postoperative complication. Conclusion Routine barium enema evaluation of low pelvic anastomoses before loop ileostomy closure did not provide any additional information for postoperative colorectal anastomotic complication. PMID:22880182

Hong, Sung Yeon; Kim, Do Yun; Suh, Kwang Wook

2012-01-01

38

A comparison of bowel preparations for flexible sigmoidoscopy: oral magnesium citrate combined with oral bisacodyl, one hypertonic phosphate enema, or two hypertonic phosphate enemasFig. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Magnesium citrate with hypertonic enemas or oral bisacodyl provides superior preparation quality for sigmoidoscopy over enemas alone. We compared three magnesium citrate sigmoidoscopy preparations in a randomized, single-blind, controlled trial.METHODS:Two hundred and ninety-one adults scheduled for routine sigmoidoscopy were randomly assigned to receive one of three preparations containing oral magnesium citrate (296 cc) taken the night before the procedure in

Roger Keith Fincher; Eric M. Osgard; Jeffrey L. Jackson; Jeffrey S. Strong; Roy K. H. Wong

1999-01-01

39

Salinity Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to measure the salinity of the water at your hydrology site. Students use a hydrometer to measure the specific gravity of the water sample, and use a thermometer to measure the temperature. With these two values, students will use tables to determine the salinity.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

40

Damage control immunoregulation: is there a role for low-volume hypertonic saline resuscitation in patients managed with damage control surgery?  

PubMed

Hypertonic saline (HTS) is beneficial in the treatment of head-injured patients as a result of its potent cytoprotective effects on various cell lines. We hypothesize that low-volume resuscitation with 3 per cent HTS, when used after damage control surgery (DCS), improves outcomes compared with standard resuscitation with isotonic crystalloid solution (ICS). This is a 4-year retrospective review from two Level I trauma centers. Patients included had 10 units or more of packed red blood cells during initial DCS. On arrival to the trauma intensive care unit (TICU), patients were resuscitated with low-volume 3 per cent HTS or with conventional ICS. A cohort analysis was performed comparing resuscitation strategies. Univariate analysis of continuous data was done with Student t test followed by multivariate analysis. Of 188 patients included, 76 were in the low-volume HTS group and 112 in the ICS group. Demographics were similar between the groups. Over the next 48 hours after DCS in HTS versus ISC groups, intravenous fluids were given: 1920 ± 455 mL versus 8400 ± 1200 mL (P < 0.0001); urine output was 4320 ± 480 mL versus 1940 ± 480 mL(P < 0.0001); mean TICU length of stay was 10 ± 8 versus 16 ± 15 days (P < 0.01); prevalence of acute respiratory distress syndrome was 4.0 versus 13.4 per cent (P = 0.02); sepsis was 6.6 versus 15.2 per cent (P = 0.06); multisystem organ failure was: 2.6 versus 16.1 per cent (P < 0.01); and 30-day mortality was 5.3 versus 15.2 per cent (P = 0.03). There was no difference for prevalence of renal failure at 5.3 versus 3.6 per cent (P = 0.58). Low-volume resuscitation with HTS administered after DCS on arrival to the TICU may have a protective effect on the polytrauma patient. We believe that this study demonstrates a role for low-volume resuscitation with HTS to improve outcomes in patients undergoing DCS. PMID:22964205

Duchesne, Juan C; Simms, Eric; Guidry, Chrissy; Duke, Marquinn; Beeson, Esther; McSwain, Norman E; Cotton, Bryan

2012-09-01

41

Salinity Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are the costs of deriving energy from the earth's natural reserves of salt. Argues that, as fossil fuel supplies become more depleted in the future, the environmental advantages of salinity power may prove to warrant its exploitation. (TW)

Schmitt, Walter R.

1987-01-01

42

Does peppermint oil relieve spasm during barium enema?  

PubMed

The effectiveness of topical peppermint oil added to barium sulphate suspension in relieving colonic muscle spasm during double contrast barium enema examination was assessed in a double blind study. 141 patients were randomized either to a control group (71 patients) examined with standard barium suspension or to the treatment group which received peppermint oil mixed with the barium preparation. No residual spasm was evident in a significant proportion of patients in the treated group (60%) compared with the control group (35%) (p < 0.001). The patients' acceptability of the procedure was good and there were no adverse effects on the overall quality of the examination. In conclusion, the addition of peppermint oil to the barium suspension seems to reduce the incidence of colonic spasm during the examination. The technique is simple, safe, cheap and it may lessen the need for intravenous administration of spasmolytic agents. PMID:7551780

Sparks, M J; O'Sullivan, P; Herrington, A A; Morcos, S K

1995-08-01

43

Appendicitis in children. Accuracy of the barium enema.  

PubMed

The barium enema (BE) may be useful in the diagnosis of atypical appendicitis in children. We analyzed our experience with 18 children in whom appendicitis was suspected and BE was performed. All of the children underwent surgical exploration. Nonfilling of the appendix with cecal indentation, extravasation of barium from the appendix, or both, were considered positive signs of an inflamed appendix on BE. Using these criteria, 12 of 14 cases of proved appendicitis were true positive and two were equivocal. Four children were proved not to have appendicitis; one of these patients had a true-negative BE, two had equivocal BEs, and there was one false-positive BE (Schönlein-Henoch purpura). Extravasation of barium into the peritoneal cavity was noted in one patient; this was a rare complication. PMID:3687874

Garcia, C; Rosenfield, N S; Markowitz, R I; Seashore, J H; Touloukian, R J; Cicchetti, D V

1987-12-01

44

Bacterial Translocation in the Course of Acute Pancreatitis: Beneficial Role of Nonabsorbable Antibiotics and Lactitol Enemas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-hundred Wistar rats were allocated to 4 groups. The groups, 3 representing our acute pancreatitis model induced by intrabiliary injection of a trypsin\\/enterokinase mixture, were studied as follows: (A) no treatment; (B) given a daily 30-ml enema with 20 mg\\/kg rifaximin; (C) given a daily 30-ml enema with 20 mg\\/kg rifaximin plus lactitol 0.5 g\\/kg, and (D) given a daily

F. Marotta; T. C. Geng; C. C. Wu; G. Barbi

1996-01-01

45

Long-term Follow-up of Patients After Antegrade Continence Enema Procedure  

PubMed Central

Background Antegrade continence enema (ACE) has become an important therapeutic modality in the treatment of intractable constipation and fecal incontinence. There are little data available on the long-term performance of the ACE procedure in children. Methods A retrospective review of patients who underwent the ACE procedure was conducted. Irrigation characteristics and complications were noted. Outcome was assessed for individual encounters based on frequency of bowel movements, incontinence, pain, and predictability. Results One hundred seventeen patients underwent an ACE. One hundred five patients had at least 6 months of follow-up, and were included in the analysis. Diagnoses included myelodysplasia (39%), functional intractable constipation (26%), anorectal malformations (21%), nonrelaxing internal anal sphincter (7%), cerebral palsy (3%), and other diagnoses (4%). The average follow-up was 68 months (range 7–178 months). At the last follow-up, 69% of patients had successful bowel management. Of the 31% of patients who did not have successful bowel management, 20% were using the ACE despite suboptimal results, 10% required surgical removal, and 2% were not using the ACE because of behavioral opposition to it. Patients were started on normal saline, but were switched to GoLYTELY (PEG-3350 and electrolyte solution) if there was an inadequate response (61% at final encounter). Additives were needed in 34% of patients. The average irrigation dose was 23 ± 0.7mL/kg. The average toilet sitting time was 51.7 ± 3.5minutes, with infusions running for 12.1 ± 1.2minutes. Stomal complications occurred in 63% (infection, leakage, and stenosis) of patients, 33% required surgical revision and 6% eventually required diverting ostomies. Conclusions Long-term use of the ACE gives successful results in 69% of patients, whereas 63% had a stoma-related complication and 33% required surgical revision of the stoma. PMID:21502828

Siddiqui, Anees A.; Fishman, Steven J.; Bauer, Stuart B.; Nurko, Samuel

2013-01-01

46

[Perineal colostomy with antegrade continence enemas as an alternative after abdominoperineal resection for low rectal cancer].  

PubMed

Some young and active patients requiring abdominoperineal resection for rectum cancer ask for an alternative of an abdominal colostomy. We analysed the results after a combination of a perineal colostomy and antegrade continence enemas (ACE). Fifteen patients have been operated between 1999 and 2004. Follow-up was >six months in 12 patients with a mean of two years and with a maximum of 55 months. The QLQ-C30 (version 3) and CR 38 questionnaires of the EORTC have been used to evaluate quality of life aspects. Five out of 15 patients presented complications: infection of the caecal conduit (2), small bowel obstruction (1), prolapse of the perineal colostomy (1), eventration (1), urologic complications (2). ACE are still used by all patients. The volume needed was 400 ml and duration of irrigation was 30 minutes (15-45 minutes). The median score for faecal incontinence was 0 ; faecal pseudocontinence was obtained by 7/12 patients. The scores for all aspects of functioning were excellent, as well as the score for body image. The general health status and quality of life were estimated at 75% from normal value. The procedure is simple and can be performed in one operative session. A perineal colostomy with ACE seems to be a valuable and less expensive alternative for an abdominal colostomy, and certainly for total anorectal reconstruction. PMID:15935789

Penninckx, F; D'Hoore, A; Vanden Bosch, A

2005-06-01

47

Further refinements in the plain radiologic diagnosis of splenic rupture: the air enema.  

PubMed

Plain film radiography, by appraisal of the soft tissues of the descending colon and left paracolonic gutter, comprises a safe, accurate, and quick determination of the presence of free fluid, which, in the proper clinical setting, indicates splenic rupture. The air enema, introduced under fluoroscopic control, is a valuable aid in eliminating false negatives and false positives, and also in distinguishing intraperitoneal clots from subserosal hematoma. The preoperative diagnosis was correct in 27 of 28 cases. The one error occurred in a case in which the interpretation of paravesical fluid (dog ears) was faulty, and in which the air enema had not been used. PMID:663152

Cimmino, C V; Southworth, L E

1978-06-01

48

Saline Valley  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Figure 2

These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000 and cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the complementary nature of surface compositional information available as a function of wavelength. This image displays visible and near infrared bands 3, 2, and 1 in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. Figure 1 displays short wavelength infrared bands 4, 6, and 8 as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have diagnostic absorption features, resulting in distinct colors on the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich. Figure 2 displays thermal infrared bands 13, 12 and 10 as RGB. In this wavelength region, variations in quartz content appear as more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple. The image is located at 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2001-01-01

49

The Malone Antegrade Colonic Enema Enhances the Quality of Life in Children Undergoing Urological Incontinence Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeFunctional alterations of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, and physical limitations in children with spina bifida, imperforate anus and spinal cord injury challenge the ability to have independent fecal and urinary continence. Urologists have successfully helped these patients achieve urinary continence. We report our experience with the antegrade colonic enema procedure, which allows select individuals to achieve continence of stool,

P. I. Ellsworth; H. W. Webb; J. M. Crump; M. A. Barraza; P. S. Stevens; H.-G. J. Mesrobian

1996-01-01

50

Use of Malone Antegrade Continence Enema in Patients With Perineal Colostomy After Rectal Resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE  Abdominoperineal resection, with iliac colostomy, remains the gold standard treatment for very low-lying rectal cancer, but it alters patients quality of life. Alternatives to iliac colostomy need to be experimented. Antegrade enemas via a cecal access (Malone operation) obtains a colonic emptying and improves continence for incontinent patients. Continence and quality of life after abdominoperineal resection and perineal colostomy associated

Guillaume Portier; Nicolas Bonhomme; Ivan Platonoff; Frank Lazorthes

2005-01-01

51

Enema use among men who have sex with men: a behavioral epidemiologic study with implications for HIV/STI prevention.  

PubMed

Enema use or douching is a risk factor for HIV/STI in men who have sex with men (MSM). However, few studies have explored enema use practices. We examined the frequency of enema use, type of products used, and reasons to use and not to use before and after receptive anal sex in a large sample of MSM (N = 4,992) recruited from 16 U.S. cities. Through online surveys, we examined personal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with enema use. Most (52 %) participants reported having douched at least once and 35 % reported douching within the last 3 months. While most (88 %) reported enema use before receptive anal sex, 28 % douched after receptive anal sex. Most participants (65 %) used water to douche, 24 % added salt, soap, and/or antibacterial products to water, and 30 % reported using commercially available products. Being a man of color, HIV-positive, diagnosed with an STI, identifying as "versatile" in sex, and having more than two unprotected sex partners were significantly associated with recent enema use. Douching behavior appears closely associated with HIV/STI risk. Douching with water may be a concern since it may increase HIV/STI infection by damaging the epithelium. Development and promotion of a non-damaging, non-water based enema specifically for use in anal sex are recommended. In addition, the seemingly contradictory recommendations that water-based lubricant is recommended for anal sex but water-based enemas are dangerous need to be reconciled into a single consistent message. PMID:24346864

Noor, Syed W; Rosser, B R Simon

2014-05-01

52

Open-channel chip-based solid-phase extraction combined with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for online determination of trace elements in volume-limited saline samples.  

PubMed

In this study, we used an automated online chip-based solid-phase extraction (SPE)-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) system for analyzing trace elements in small-volume saline samples (?15 ?L). The proposed method involved the adsorption of trace metal ions in the interior of a functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) channel in order to separate these ions from saline matrices. The adsorption of transition metal ions was presumably dominated by the surface complexation between the carboxylate moieties in the interior of the PMMA channel and the metal ions, which facilitated the formation of metal-carboxylate complexes. The components of the proposed online analytical system used for the simultaneous detection of multiple trace metals in saline samples involved microdialysis (MD) sampling, an established chip-based SPE procedure, and ICP-MS. The SPE-ICP-MS hyphenated system was optimized, and then, the analytical reliability of this system was further confirmed by using it to analyze the certified reference materials-SRM 2670 (human urine) and SRM 1643e (artificial saline water). The satisfactory analytical results indicated that the proposed on-chip SPE device could be readily used as an interface for coupling the MD probe with the ICP-MS system. The dramatically reduced consumption of chemicals and "hands-on" manipulations enabled the realization of a simplified and relatively clean procedure with extremely low detection limits in the range of 5.86-76.91 ng L(-1) for detecting Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Pb in 15-?L samples by ICP-MS. The effectiveness of an online MD-chip-based SPE-ICP-MS technique for continuous monitoring of trace elements in a simulated biological system was also demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to report the direct exploitation of a PMMA chip as an SPE adsorbent for online sample pretreatment and trace metal preconcentration prior to ICP-MS measurement. PMID:21392771

Shih, Tsung-Ting; Chen, Wei-Yu; Sun, Yuh-Chang

2011-04-22

53

Failure of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas to improve chronic radiation proctitis  

SciTech Connect

Radiation proctitis is a well-known complication of abdominal and pelvic radiation. Conventional medical and surgical treatment often is disappointing. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is the active component in sulfasalazine and is effective in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. Four patients with radiation proctitis were treated with 4 g 5-ASA by enema nightly for two to six months. Patients were seen monthly, interviewed, and a sigmoidoscopic exam performed. No change was seen in the degree of mucosal inflammation on follow-up sigmoidoscopic exams. Three patients noted no change in their symptoms of bleeding, pain, or tenesmus. One patient noted initial improvement, but this was not sustained. 5-ASA enemas do not appear to be effective in the treatment of radiation proctitis.

Baum, C.A.; Biddle, W.L.; Miner, P.B. Jr.

1989-05-01

54

Sensitivity of double contrast barium enema and colonoscopy for the detection of colorectal neoplasms  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Background: Double contrast barium enema (DCBE) is the examination carried out most frequently for investigation of patients\\u000a with large bowel symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity of DCBE and colonoscopy for the detection\\u000a of colorectal cancer and neoplastic polyps ?1 cm. Methods: All patients undergoing DCBE (1389) or colonoscopy (1081) as the\\u000a primary investigation for

G. A. Smith; P. J. O'Dwyer

2001-01-01

55

Complications of Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Prostate Biopsy: Impact of Prebiopsy Enema  

PubMed Central

Purpose Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy of the prostate is usually safe. However, some patients are hospitalized owing to complications from TRUS biopsy. We identified the risk factors for complications and effective preventive measures for treating complications after TRUS biopsy. Materials and Methods Medical records and radiological images of 1,083 patients who underwent TRUS biopsy of the prostate over 10 years in Gyeongsang National University Hospital were examined retrospectively to investigate the correlation between complications after TRUS biopsy and preventive antibiotics, prebiopsy enema, number of biopsy cores, and pathological findings. Results Complications occurred in 69 patients (6.4%). The complication rates of the 1,008 patients who received antibiotics and the 75 patients who did not were 6.3% and 8.0%, respectively (p=0.469). Complication rates of the pre-biopsy enema group (n=658) and the group without prebiopsy enema (n=425) were 4.7% and 8.9%, respectively (p=0.007). Complication rates of the 6-core biopsy group (n=41) and the 12-core biopsy group (n=955) were 7.3% and 6.3%, respectively (p=0.891). Complication rates of the prostate cancer group (n=306) and the no prostate cancer group (n=713) were 6.2% and 6.6%, respectively (p=0.740). Conclusions A prebiopsy enema was associated with a reduced risk of complications after TRUS biopsy. Preventive antibiotics, number of biopsy cores, and pathological findings did not significantly influence the complication rate.

Kam, Sung Chul; Choi, See Min; Yoon, Sol; Choi, Jae Hui; Lee, Seong Hyun; Hwa, Jeong Seok; Chung, Ky Hyun

2014-01-01

56

Efficacy and Safety of Gwakhyangjeonggi-San Retention Enema in Normal Rats and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to establish a protocol of retention-enema experiments and evaluate the antihypertensive effect and the safety of Gwakhyangjeonggi-san retention enema. Normal and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were divided into treatment and control groups, respectively. We applied the Gwakhyangjeonggi-san extract by decoction and 0.9% NaCl in each group, estimated the blood pressure and body weight, and performed HPLC analysis. ALT, AST, BUN, and creatinine were examined. The systolic blood pressure within each group in normal rats differed significantly in time effect, and so did the diastolic blood pressure in the treatment group of normal rats. The systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure showed significant differences in group effect in the treatment group of the SHRs. The time effect of the body weight in both groups of normal rats differed significantly, so did group × time and time effects in both groups of SHRs. AST, ALT, BUN, and creatinine showed no significant difference between groups. We concluded that the Gwakhyangjeonggi-san retention enema has a hypotensive effect in normal rats within the regular range of blood pressure, but an antihypertensive effect in SHRs. Also, the intervention is safe and does not affect the liver and kidney functions in normal rats. PMID:23843880

Song, Eunyoung; Lee, Euiju; Bu, Yongmin; Lee, Junhee; Shin, Seungwon; Yoo, Junghee; Park, Jaewoo

2013-01-01

57

A case of cap polyposis remission by betamethasone enema after antibiotics therapy including Helicobacter pylori eradication.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 58-year-old woman who was referred to our hospital due to frequent bloody mucus diarrhea. She was diagnosed with cap polyposis based on typical endoscopic and histological findings. Colonoscopy revealed multiple, reddish, mucus-capped polypoid lesions from the rectum to the sigmoid colon. A pathological examination revealed that the polyps were covered by erosive and inflamed granulation tissue with decreased crypt cells. Laboratory data indicated positive values for Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G antibody and hypoproteinemia. Metronidazole, H. pylori eradication, and levofloxacin therapies were not effective; however, the subsequent administration of betamethasone enema dramatically improved the clinical symptoms and endoscopic findings. The hypoproteinemia was normalized after the therapy. The dose of the betamethasone enema was tapered gradually, and no recurrence was observed 6 months after discontinuation of the treatment. This case suggests that betamethasone enema may be considered as the second treatment choice for cap polyposis patients after H. pylori eradication, metronidazole or levofloxacin therapy. PMID:24949613

Suzuki, Hideo; Sato, Masashi; Akutsu, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Hiroaki; Sato, Taiki; Mizokami, Yuji

2014-06-01

58

Measuring Salinity by Conductivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines procedures for constructing an instrument which uses an electrode and calibration methods to measure the salinity of waters in environments close to and affected by a saline estuary. (Author/DC)

Lapworth, C. J.

1981-01-01

59

SALINITY AND PLANT TOLERANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION Soil salinity is a measure of the total amount of soluble salt in soil. As salinity levels increase, plants extract water less easily from soil, aggravating water stress conditions. High soil salinity can also cause nutrient imbalances, result in the accumulation of elements toxic to plants, and reduce water infiltration if the level of one salt element—sodium—is high. In

Jan Kotuby-Amacher; Rich Koenig; Boyd Kitchen

60

Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine following a Single Administration of Coffee Enema versus Oral Coffee Consumption in Healthy Male Subjects  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of caffeine after single administration of a coffee enema versus coffee consumed orally in healthy male subjects. The study design was an open-label, randomized two-phase crossover study. Eleven healthy subjects were randomly assigned either to receive 500?mL of coffee enema for 10 minutes or to consume 180?mL of ready-to-drink coffee beverage. After a washout period of at least 10 days, all the subjects were switched to receive the alternate coffee procedure. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at specific time points until 12 hours after coffee administration in each phase. The mean caffeine content in both the coffee solution prepared for the coffee enema and the ready-to-drink coffee beverage was not statistically different. The Cmax and AUC of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema were about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally, despite having slightly but statistically faster Tmax. The t1/2 of caffeine obtained following both coffee procedures did not statistically differ. In summary, the relative bioavailability of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema was about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally. PMID:23533801

Tosri, Nisanuch; Rojanasthien, Noppamas; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Sangdee, Chaichan

2013-01-01

61

Single blind, randomised trial of efficacy and acceptability of oral Picolax versus self administered phosphate enema in bowel preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy screening  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the acceptability and efficacy of two methods of self administered bowel preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy screening: a single phosphate enema and a single sachet of Picolax. Design Single blind, randomised trial. Setting Endoscopy units of two general hospitals. Participants 1442 men and women aged 55-64 years who had agreed to be screened by flexible sigmoidoscopy. Main outcome measures Attendance rates, compliance with allocated preparations, adverse effects, quality of bowel preparation, procedure time, and yield of neoplasia. Results Compliance with the enema was higher than with the Picolax (608 (84%) v 566 (79%); difference 6%, 95% confidence interval 2% to 10%). Almost half of those who refused Picolax used an enema at home. Wind, incontinence, and sleep disturbance were more frequent in the Picolax group than the enema group; bottom soreness was more frequent in the enema group. Around 30% (187) found the diet restriction required by Picolax difficult; 78% (471) found the enema easy to administer. The quality of preparation was better with the enema; the proportion of procedures complete to the descending colon was greater and the mean duration of the procedure was shorter. There was no significant difference in polyp detection rates. Conclusion A single phosphate enema self administered around one hour before leaving home is a more acceptable and effective method of preparing the distal bowel for flexible sigmoidoscopy than Picolax. PMID:10834891

Atkin, Wendy S; Hart, Andrew; Edwards, Robert; Cook, Claire F; Wardle, Jane; McIntyre, Peter; Aubrey, Roger; Baron, Clare; Sutton, Stephen; Cuzick, Jack; Senapati, Asha; Northover, John M A

2000-01-01

62

[Clinical case of the month. Portal venous gas due to a hydrogen peroxide colic enema].  

PubMed

Portal venous gas is a worrying radiological sign that was described for the first time in 1955 among newborn children suffering from necrotizing enterocolitis. It was often related to mesenteric ischemia which mortality remains very high. Now, as radiological explorations increase, portal venous gas is more and more described in less pejorative contexts, such as hydrogen peroxide intoxication. It is what happened to our patient who underwent a hydrogen peroxide colic enema followed by a major and transient portal venous gas onset. This solved quickly and spontaneously. PMID:21638834

El, Hachemi M; Couvreur, T; Meunier, P

2011-04-01

63

Observing Salinity Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part 1: Students measure the salinity of samples using a refractometer, and consider the units and density of these values. Part 2: Students apply concepts and reinforce what they've learned about salinity and the water cycle to interpret a salinity contour map of a transect of the Pacific Ocean using WOCE data. Another goal is to familiarize students with using contour graphs of ocean data, in general.

Jaeger, Stephanie

64

Water Body Salinities I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate the different salinity levels of oceans, rivers and estuaries. Learners then use experimentation to determine which sample is the best model of each type of natural water source. The first test, for conductivity, shows learners that a water sample with the right salinity can even be used to light a bulb or ring an electric buzzer. The second test, for evaporation, shows how rate of evaporation is affected by salinity level. This activity can be followed by Water Body Salinities II from the same resource. Includes background material.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

65

Tomato and salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of salinity on tomato plant growth and fruit production, the cultural techniques which can be applied to alleviate the deleterious effects of salt, and the possibilities of breeding salt- tolerant tomatoes are reviewed. Salinity reduces tomato seed germination and lengthens the time needed for germination to such an extent that the establishment of a competitive crop by direct

Jesus Cuartero; Rafael Fernandez-Munoz; Estacion Experimental La Mayora

1999-01-01

66

Salinity Patterns in the Ocean Lynne D Talley  

E-print Network

Salinity Patterns in the Ocean Lynne D Talley Volume 1, The Earth system: physical and chemical of years, and so the various salt constituents are essentially well mixed. Therefore, salinity differences dimensions of global environmental change, pp 629­640 Edited by Dr Michael C MacCracken and Dr John S Perry

Talley, Lynne D.

67

Limitations in the CT Diagnosis of Acute Diverticulitis: Comparison of CT, Contrast Enema, and Pathologic Findings in 16 Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pitfalls in CT diagnosis of acute diverticuhitis were investigated in 16 patients with the disease who had misleading or equivocal CT features. The CT appearance was corre- hated with contrast enemas (13 cases) and with surgical assessment and pathologic evaluation of resected specimens (12 cases). Limitations in the CT diagnosis were related to (1) marked thickening of the colonic wall,

Emil J. Balthazar; Alec Megibow; Roger A. Schinella; Richard Gordon

68

Barium enema  

MedlinePLUS

... be done in a doctor's office or hospital radiology department. It is done after your colon is ... Grainger RG, et al., eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 5th ed. Philadelphia, ...

69

Sea Surface Salinity  

NASA Video Gallery

The heat of the sun also forces evaporation at the ocean's surface, which puts water vapor into the atmosphere but leaves minerals and salts behind, keeping the ocean salty. The salinity of the oce...

70

Genotypic Responses to Salinity  

PubMed Central

Four ecotypes of the species Lycopersicon cheesmanii ssp. minor (Hook.) C.H. Mull. from the Galapagos Islands were compared with L. esculentum Mill cv. VF 36 with respect to salt tolerance. The L. cheesmanii ecotype that proved most salt-tolerant was selected for detailed comparison with the L. esculentum cultivar. Plants were grown in modified Hoagland solution salinized with synthetic seawater salt mix. Growth rates under saline conditions were examined and amino acid, sugar, total amino nitrogen, free acidity, and Na and K levels in the tissues of the most and least tolerant plants were measured under salt stress and nonstress conditions. Results indicate that all Galapagos ecotypes were far more salt-tolerant than was the esculentum cultivar. They could survive in full strength seawater nutrient solution while the esculentum cultivar could not in most cases withstand levels higher than 50% seawater. Growth rates were reduced in both species under saline conditions but the esculentum cultivar was more severely affected. High levels of total amino nitrogen, specific amino acids, and free acidity along with low sodium content were found in the salt stressed VF 36 cultivar. The opposite responses were noted in the salt stressed treatments of the Galapagos ecotype. Tissue sugar levels did not appear to be similarly correlated with salt stress in either species. Potassium content fell sharply during salinization in the Galapagos ecotype while in the esculentum cultivar it declined relatively little even at high levels of salinity. PMID:16659442

Rush, Dale W.; Epstein, Emanuel

1976-01-01

71

Hypertonic Saline in Treatment of Pulmonary Disease in Cystic Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration. PMID:22645424

Reeves, Emer P.; Molloy, Kevin; Pohl, Kerstin; McElvaney, Noel G.

2012-01-01

72

Effect of Basti (oil enema) therapy for the management of cough in pertussis  

PubMed Central

Bordetella pertussis continues to circulate even in countries with good childhood vaccination coverage. Sporadic cases are still observed either due to no vaccination, incomplete vaccination or as a result of failure of vaccination. Though acute in nature it has a longer disease span with multiple life-threatening complications despite adequate management. This study was undertaken to study the effect of Sneha Basti (oil enema) in pertussis in relation to reduction in intensity of cough and complications of the disease when administered along with the conventional pharmacological therapy. Patients with the clinical picture mimicking pertussis were screened, investigated for pertussis and appropriate conventional pharmacological therapy of Erythromycin a preferred antimicrobial agent was started. Concurrently, Sneha Basti was administered to these two children. Both patients showed favourable results in terms of reduction of Kasa (cough) and the disease period with a faster recovery when compared to conventional therapy alone as has been observed routinely. No complications incurred during the complete disease span. It was concluded that if the pharmacological therapy is augmented with the complimentary systems of medicines, it can reduce the prolonged span and intensity of the disease and prevent other complications. PMID:24696577

Gujarathi, Rahul H.; Gokhale, Vivek M.; Tongaonkar, Jayashree N.

2013-01-01

73

An experimental study to evaluate the pharmacokinetic aspect of Lekhana Basti (Emaciating/ Desiccating Medicated Enema).  

PubMed

Basti therapy is used widely for treatment of various diseases in the field of Ayurveda with several proven clinical applications, however; the exact mechanism through which the benefits are obtained are yet to be ascertained in the light of the contemporary developments in clinical science. It is also not clear that when administered Basti the active principles in the formulation gain entry in to the systemic circulation or not. The present study was planned to acquire some preliminary data with regards to the absorption of phytochemical constituents of the formulations when administered in the form of Basti. Gallic acid was used as marker compound and it's absorption in systemic circulation was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography. Gallic acid present in Lekhana Basti (Emaciating/ Desiccating Medicated Enema) was found to get absorbed in to systemic circulation. Maximum concentration in serum was seen in the animal which received Lekhana Basti with Prakshepa Dravya ( Catalytic Adjuvant) in comparison to animal which received Lekhana Basti without Prakshepa Dravya. Area under curve in chromatogram was also more in animal which received Lekhana Basti with Prakshepa Dravya. From primary evidence created by HPLC study it can be said that, phytochemicals of the Basti formulation do get absorbed in systemic circulation. PMID:23284203

Auti, Swapnil S; Ashok, B K; Thakar, Anup B; Shukla, V J; Ravishankar, B

2011-10-01

74

An experimental study to evaluate the pharmacokinetic aspect of Lekhana Basti (Emaciating/ Desiccating Medicated Enema)  

PubMed Central

Basti therapy is used widely for treatment of various diseases in the field of Ayurveda with several proven clinical applications, however; the exact mechanism through which the benefits are obtained are yet to be ascertained in the light of the contemporary developments in clinical science. It is also not clear that when administered Basti the active principles in the formulation gain entry in to the systemic circulation or not. The present study was planned to acquire some preliminary data with regards to the absorption of phytochemical constituents of the formulations when administered in the form of Basti. Gallic acid was used as marker compound and it's absorption in systemic circulation was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography. Gallic acid present in Lekhana Basti (Emaciating/ Desiccating Medicated Enema) was found to get absorbed in to systemic circulation. Maximum concentration in serum was seen in the animal which received Lekhana Basti with Prakshepa Dravya ( Catalytic Adjuvant) in comparison to animal which received Lekhana Basti without Prakshepa Dravya. Area under curve in chromatogram was also more in animal which received Lekhana Basti with Prakshepa Dravya. From primary evidence created by HPLC study it can be said that, phytochemicals of the Basti formulation do get absorbed in systemic circulation. PMID:23284203

Auti, Swapnil S; Ashok, B.K.; Thakar, Anup B.; Shukla, V. J.; Ravishankar, B.

2011-01-01

75

Water Body Salinities II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discuss the different salinities of oceans, rivers and estuaries. Learners then use experimentation to determine which sample is the best model of each type of natural water source. For the first test, learners make a hydrometer and use it to measure the density of the liquid samples. In the second test, learners freeze the water samples and examine them at certain time intervals to check degree of freezing, texture of the frozen samples, and other specifics that vary according to the amount of salt in the water. This activity can follow the Water Salinities I activity and/or be used in conjunction with the Estuaries activity, both of which can be found on SMILE.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

76

Salinity, Growth and Phytohormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity reduces the ability of plants to take up water, and this quickly causes reductions in the growth rate, along with\\u000a a suite of effects identical to those caused by water stress. Later, there may be a salt-specific and additional effect on\\u000a growth: if excessive amounts of salt enter the plant they will eventually rise to toxic levels in the

Rana Munns

77

Chloride and Salinity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-07-15

78

Evaporites and the Salinity of the Ocean During the Phanerozoic: Implications for Climate, Ocean Circulation and Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compilation of data on volumes and masses of evaporite deposits is used as the basis for reconstruction of the salinity of the ocean in the past. Chloride is tracked as the only ion essentially restricted to the ocean, and past salinities are calculated from reconstructed chlorine content of the ocean. Models for ocean salinity through the Phanerozoic are developed

S. Floegel; W. W. Hay; A. Migdisov; A. N. Balukhovsky; C. N. Wold; E. Soeding

2005-01-01

79

Evaporites and the salinity of the ocean during the Phanerozoic: Implications for climate, ocean circulation and life  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compilation of data on volumes and masses of evaporite deposits is used as the basis for reconstruction of the salinity of the ocean in the past. Chloride is tracked as the only ion essentially restricted to the ocean, and past salinities are calculated from reconstructed chlorine content of the ocean. Models for ocean salinity through the Phanerozoic are developed

William W. Hay; Areg Migdisov; Alexander N. Balukhovsky; Christopher N. Wold; Sascha Flögel; Emanuel Söding

2006-01-01

80

Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online in 2009, the Aquarius instrument will measure sea surface salinity. Site provides background information about salinity, salinity lesson plans, and salinity data and tools. Activities include relating salt to density, conductivity, buoyancy, and understanding the effect of the water cycle on salinity. View figures of sea surface salinity and temperature as they change from month to month and more.

81

Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling  

DOEpatents

The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water that is cold, nutrient rich and relatively fresh in comparison to the surface water which is relatively warm, relatively nutrient deficient and relatively saline. A plurality of elongated flow segregating tubes are disposed in the main duct and extend from the upper cover plate beyond the lower cover plate into a lower manifold plate. The lower manifold plate is spaced from the lower cover plate to define a deep water fluid flow path to the interior space of the main duct. Spacer tubes extend from the upper cover plate and communicate with the interior space of the main duct. The spacer tubes are received in an upper manifold plate spaced from the upper cover plate to define a surface water fluid flow path into the flow segregating tubes. A surface water-deep water counterflow is thus established with deep water flowing upwardly through the main duct interior for discharge beyond the upper manifold plate while surface water flows downwardly through the flow segregating tubes for discharge below the lower manifold plate. During such counterflow heat is transferred from the downflowing warm water to the upflowing cold water. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep water and the surface water due to their differences in salinity. The upwelling of nutrient rich deep water is used for marifarming by fertilizing the nutrient deficient surface water.

Johnson, David H. (Lakewood, CO)

1986-01-01

82

Phased surgical treatment of barium enema-induced rectal injury and retention of barium in the pelvic floor space  

PubMed Central

Iatrogenic injuries caused by barium enema are rarely reported. Following a phased surgical protocol for up to one year, we have successfully treated a patient with rectal injury and severe infection of the pelvic floor space complicated with retention of large amounts of barium and vaginal fistula. In this article, the phased surgery planning for the treatment of rectal injury complicated with vaginal fistula is discussed in terms of the pros and cons, and the observed effect and evolution of barium retained in the pelvic floor space are described. PMID:25405155

Yang, Xuefei; Xia, Ligang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Jianping

2014-01-01

83

CT colonography versus double-contrast barium enema for screening of colorectal cancer: comparison of radiation burden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim is to compare the radiation dose associated with a low-dose CT colonography (CTC) protocol for colorectal cancer screening\\u000a with that delivered by double-contrast barium enema (DCBE). CTC of twenty asymptomatic individuals (M:F = 10:10) participating\\u000a to a colorectal cancer screening program and DCBE of fifteen patients (M:F = 6:9) were evaluated. For CTC, absorbed dose was\\u000a determined by calculating the dose-length product

Emanuele Neri; Lorenzo Faggioni; Francesca Cerri; Francesca Turini; Simone Angeli; Lorenzo Cini; Franco Perrone; Fabio Paolicchi; Carlo Bartolozzi

2010-01-01

84

Effect of Majja Basti (therapeutic enema) and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) in the management of Osteoporosis (Asthi-Majjakshaya)  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder that affects entire skeleton, which is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of the skeleton, leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk. In Ayurveda, it can be correlated with Asthi-Majjakshaya. Basti (therapeutic enema) is the prime therapy for Asthi related diseases and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) is the drug which is being used for strengthening of bone by traditional Vaidya since long. It has been selected for oral administration. In clinical trial, 12 patients treated with Majja Basti along with Asthi Shrinkhala pulp capsules and results are very encouraging. PMID:23049194

Gupta, Ajay K.; Shah, Nehal; Thakar, A. B.

2012-01-01

85

geothermal salinity control system  

SciTech Connect

Highly saline geothermal brine, such as that produced from the lower geothermal reserve of the Salton Sea geothermal field, is diluted with non-geothermal water of much lower salinity in a mixing zone proximate the high temperature end of a geothermal power plant, and preferably down in the production well just above the production zone, so as to reduce the chloride salt content of the production brine to a level that is at or below the saturated level at reinjection temperatures, thereby preventing any material chloride salt scaling at any location in the plant through reinjection. The permanent cemented-in production casing in the well is protected against the corrosive effects of the hot production brine by means of a removable production liner that is generally coextensive with the casing. Said mixing zone is provided in the lower portion of the liner, and the liner establishes an annulus between it and the casing through which said non-geothermal water flows downwardly to the mixing zone so as to exclude the production brine from contact with the casing.

McCabe, B.C.; Zajac, E.

1985-01-08

86

Long-Term Functional Assessment of Antegrade Colonic Enema for Combined Incontinence and Constipation Using a Modified Marsh and Kiff Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Purpose  Constipation and fecal incontinence can severely affect quality of life for patients, particularly when simultaneously present.\\u000a Malone antegrade colonic enema enables periodic colonic emptying, thus preventing uncontrolled passage of feces and constipation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eleven patients with fecal incontinence and severe constipation or perineal colostomy after Miles’ operation underwent a modified\\u000a Marsh and Kiff ileostomy for antegrade colonic enema. Before and after

Donato F. Altomare; Marcella Rinaldi; Domenico Rubini; Giuseppe Rubini; Piero Portincasa; Michele Vacca; Niccoli-Asabella Artor; Giovanni Romano; Vincenzo Memeo

2007-01-01

87

Effect of saline intake on water flux and osmotic homeostasis in Pekin ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological regulation of body water volume and concentration was evaluated in Pekin ducks, Anas platyrhynchos, slowly acclimated to increasingly saline drinking water (six equal 75 mM NaCl increments). Body mass, total body water (TBW), water flux, plasma osmolality (Osmpl), and ionic and osmoregulatory hormone concentrations were measured at the end of each increment. The salinity at which each variable

D. C. Bennett; D. A. Gray; M. R. Hughes

2003-01-01

88

40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230.25 ...Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity gradients form where salt water from the...

2010-07-01

89

ConcepTest: Ocean Salinity #2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How would salinity of the oceans vary if the oceans were twice as deep as present and held approximately twice as much water? a. Salinity would be less than present b. Salinity would be greater than present c. ...

90

40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230.25 ...Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity gradients form where salt water from the...

2011-07-01

91

A novel alternative for renal replacement therapy: 2-year successful colonic dialysis via a Malone antegrade continent enema stoma.  

PubMed

This study is a case report of home-based colonic dialysis (CD) for treating end-stage renal disease in a 20-year-old woman. She had a history of Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) for treating neuropathic bowel at the age of 11 years. The patient refused any type of renal replacement therapy. However, she agreed to CD through the MACE stoma by changing the colonic irrigation solution to the peritoneal dialysis solution. The patient was discharged with a plasma creatinine (Cr) level of 1.7 mg/dL and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level of 8 mg/dL. She has continued CD on a regular basis at home. The patient's serum Cr and BUN has remained in the steady low state during 24 months of follow-up (mean Cr level = 2.8 mg/dL and mean BUN level = 10.7 mg/dL). PMID:24345419

Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Zeinoddini, Atefeh; Heidari, Reza; NaserHodjjati, Haleh; Tourchi, Ali

2014-06-01

92

Stochastic Modeling of Soil Salinity  

E-print Network

A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equation to a single stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. The novel analytical solutions provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long-term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in long-term soil salinization trend...

Suweis, S; Van der Zee, S E A T M; Daly, E; Maritan, A; Porporato, A; 10.1029/2010GL042495

2012-01-01

93

Salinity Control in Irrigation Agriculture.  

E-print Network

in the irrigation water or be- cause of the precipitation of calcium and magne- sium salts under certain conditions. Saline-Sodic Soils . ,: . L Saline-sodic soils contain sufficient quantitie~ of both total soluble salt and adsorbed sodium tn reduce...), car- bonate (COa) and bicarbonate (HCO.?) . Cations commonly analyzed for are : calcium (Ca), mave- sium (Mg) , sodium (Na) and potassium (K) . Ni- trates or other ions may be included. Boron tests are made in areas where waters may contain...

Longenecker, Donald E.; Lyerly, Paul J.

1957-01-01

94

Ecology of Inland Saline Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter describes the ecology and adaptive strategies of inland halophytes growing in natural saline areas, with special\\u000a reference to classification, metabolic products, soil–water relationships, the role of proline in their survival, etc. Studies\\u000a on eight saline plants, viz. Aeluropus lagopoides (Poaceae), Cressa cretica (Convolvulaceae), Salsola baryosma (Chenopodiaceae), Sesuvium sesuvioides (Aizoaceae), Sporobolus helvolus (Poaceae), Suaeda fruticosa (Chenopodiaceae), Trianthema triquetra (Aizoaceae),

Pawan K. Kasera; Sher Mohammed

95

Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

2005-01-01

96

Hypoaigic influences on groundwater flux to a seasonally saline river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryHypoaigic zones are aquifer volumes close to and beneath the shores of saline surface water bodies, and are characterized by the presence of time-dependent natural convection and chemical stratification. When transient and cyclic processes are involved there is significant potential for complex flow and reaction in the near-shore aquifer, presenting a unique challenge to pollutant risk assessment methodologies. This work considers the nature of some hypoaigic processes generated by the seasonally saline Canning River of Western Australia near a site contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. A dissolved hydrocarbon plume migrates within the shallow superficial aquifer to the nearby bank of the Canning River. Beneath the river bank a zone of complex fluid mixing is established by seasonal and tidal influences. Understanding this complexity and the subsequent ramifications for local biogeochemical conditions is critical to inferring the potential for degradation of advecting contaminants. A range of modelling approaches throws light on the overall topographic controls of discharge to the river, on the saline convection processes operating under the river bank, on the potential for fluid mixing, and on the various important time scales in the system. Saline distributions simulated within the aquifer hypoaigic zone are in at least qualitative agreement with previous field measurements at the site and are strongly affected by seasonal influences. Groundwater seepage velocities at the shoreline are found to be positively correlated with river salinity. Calculations of fluid age distributions throughout the system show sensitivity to dispersivity values; however, maximum fluid ages under the river appear to be diffusion limited to a few decades. The saline convection cell in the aquifer defines a zone of strong dispersive dilution of aged (many decades) deep aquifer fluids with relatively young (several months) riverine fluids. Seasonal recharge and river salinity cycles induce regular perturbations to the convection cell, yielding intra-annual variations of 50% in seepage velocity and almost 30% in wedge penetration distance at the plume location.

Trefry, M. G.; Svensson, T. J. A.; Davis, G. B.

2007-03-01

97

Therapeutic effects of compound hypertonic saline on rats with sepsis.  

PubMed

Sepsis is one of the major causes of death and is the biggest obstacle preventing improvement of the success rate in curing critical illnesses. Currently, isotonic solutions are used in fluid resuscitation technique. Several studies have shown that hypertonic saline applied in hemorrhagic shock can rapidly increase the plasma osmotic pressure, facilitate the rapid return of interstitial fluid into the blood vessels, and restore the effective circulating blood volume. Here, we established a rat model of sepsis by using the cecal ligation and puncture approach. We found that intravenous injection of hypertonic saline dextran (7.5% NaCl/6% dextran) after cecal ligation and puncture can improve circulatory failure at the onset of sepsis. We found that the levels of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 levels in the lung tissue of cecal ligation and puncture rats treated with hypertonic saline dextran were significantly lower than the corresponding levels in the control group. We inferred that hypertonic saline dextran has a positive immunoregulatory effect and inhibits the overexpression of the inflammatory response in the treatment of sepsis. The percentage of neutrophils, lung myeloperoxidase activity, wet to dry weight ratio of lung tissues, histopathological changes in lung tissues, and indicators of arterial blood gas analysis was significantly better in the hypertonic saline dextran-treated group than in the other groups in this study. Hypertonic saline dextran-treated rats had significantly improved survival rates at 9 and 18 h compared to the control group. Our results suggest that hypertonic saline dextran plays a protective role in acute lung injury caused after cecal ligation and puncture. In conclusion, hypertonic/hyperoncotic solutions have beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of an animal model of sepsis. PMID:24983672

Dong, Fang; Chen, Wei; Xu, Liang; Wang, Huabing; Lu, Huizhi

2014-01-01

98

Temperature/Salinity/Density activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an in-class activity. I used it relatively early in the semester, after covering the basic water properties portion of the class. I use the relationship between temperature/salinity/density to begin discussing vertical movement of water. The first purpose of this activity is to reinforce the concepts that have just been explained about the relationship between temperature and density and salinity and density. The second purpose is to bring these ideas back to what they have learned about density differences. Finally, the activity is also designed to help them learn how to read graphs.

Dekens, Petra

99

Saline ice thickness retrieval under diurnal thermal cycling conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inverse scattering algorithm is presented that reconstructs ice growth under thermal cycling conditions by using time-series active microwave measurements. The algorithm uses a direct scattering model consisting of a physically based electromagnetic model that accounts for thermal and electromagnetic properties of ice and combined volume and surface scattering effects as well as a one-dimensional (1D) thermodynamic model of saline

Shih-En Shih; Kung-Hau Ding; Jin Au Kong; S. V. Nghiem; A. K. Jordan

1998-01-01

100

Avg.salinity(ppt) Femalecrabnumber  

E-print Network

) for our 120 day experiment for crabs at 5 ppt (red), 20 ppt (green) and 35 ppt (blue). Survival-25 ppt crab commercial landings have decreased more than 30, but the relationship between crab abundance and salinity is unknown. Previous studies have suggested blue crabs have

Childress, Michael J.

101

Revegetation of Saline Playa Margins  

Microsoft Academic Search

New shrub recruitment in saline playa margins is limited by extremely high osmotic potentials of the seedbed. In the Eagle Valley playa near Fernley, NV, recruitment is rare and occurs mostly in recently deposited eolian and flood-deposited sediments of low osmotic potential. In most instances, however, sediment is of insufficient thickness to support long-term growth. In 1990, as part of

Robert R. Blank; James A. Young

102

Determining Salinity by Simple Means.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the construction and use of a simple salinometer. The salinometer is composed, mainly, of a milliammeter and a battery and uses the measurement of current flow to determine the salinity of water. A complete list of materials is given, as are details of construction and operation of the equipment. The use of the salinometer in…

Schlenker, Richard M.

103

Characterizing Salinity Tolerance in Greenhouse Roses  

E-print Network

-sensitive, however, recent nutrition studies suggest that they may actually tolerate moderate to relatively high salinities. The general objective of this research was to reassess the limits of tolerance to salinity of roses and the influence of the rootstock used...

Solis Perez, Alma R.

2011-08-08

104

ConcepTest: Ocean Salinity #1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How would the salinity of the oceans vary if the continents and oceans each covered 50% of Earth's surface and precipitation and evaporation were similar to present? a. salinity would be lower than today b. ...

105

Plant physiology Interaction of salinity and temperature  

E-print Network

Plant physiology Interaction of salinity and temperature on the germination of alfalfa cv CUF 101 occurs in a more saline en- vironment than that in which established plants grow. Several researchers; Sharma, 1976). The effects of temperature-salinity interactions on the germi- nation of some crop plants

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

106

The diurnal salinity cycle in the tropics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

from 35 tropical moorings are used to characterize the diurnal cycle in salinity at 1 m depth. The amplitude of diurnal salinity anomalies is up to 0.01 psu and more typically ˜0.005 psu. Diurnal variations in precipitation and vertical entrainment appear to be the dominant drivers of diurnal salinity variability, with evaporation also contributing. Areas where these processes are strong are expected to have relatively strong salinity cycles: the eastern Atlantic and Pacific equatorial regions, the southwestern Bay of Bengal, the Amazon outflow region, and the Indo-Pacific warm pool. We hypothesize that salinity anomalies resulting from precipitation and evaporation are initially trapped very near the surface and may not be observed at the 1 m instrument depths until they are mixed downward. As a result, the pattern of diurnal salinity variations is not only dependent on the strength of the forcing terms, but also on the phasing of winds and convective overturning. A comparison of mixed-layer depth computed with hourly and with daily averaged salinity reveals that diurnal salinity variability can have a significant effect on upper ocean stratification, suggesting that representing diurnal salinity variability could potentially improve air-sea interaction in climate models. Comparisons between salinity observations from moorings and from the Aquarius satellite (level 2 version 3.0 data) reveal that the typical difference between ascending-node and descending-node Aquarius salinity is an order of magnitude greater than the observed diurnal salinity anomalies at 1 m depth.

Drushka, Kyla; Gille, Sarah T.; Sprintall, Janet

2014-09-01

107

Naturally Saline Boreal Communities as Models for Reclamation of Saline Oil Sand Tailings  

E-print Network

mining have saline soils; yet, they are required to have similar biodiversity and productivity, we studied the effects of soil salin- ity on plant communities in natural saline landscapes mining. Key words: boreal forest, community ecology, oil sands, ordination, reclamation, salinity

Macdonald, Ellen

108

Sodium-calcium interactions under salinity stress 205 SODIUM-CALCIUM INTERACTIONS UNDER SALINITY STRESS  

E-print Network

USA cramer@unr.edu Abstract There are a wide range of responses of plants to salinity which involve of Salinity Salinity affects plant growth through ionic and osmotic effects. Sometimes these effectsSodium-calcium interactions under salinity stress 205 CHAPTER 10 SODIUM-CALCIUM INTERACTIONS UNDER

Cramer, Grant R.

109

Comparison of hypertonic saline versus normal saline on cytokine profile during CABG  

PubMed Central

Background and the purpose of the study Blood contact with artificial surfaces of the extracorporeal circuit and ischemia-reperfusion injury in CABG with CPB, may lead to a systemic inflammatory response. Hypertonic saline have been recently investigated as a fluid in order to decrease inflammatory response and cytokines generation in patients undergo cardiac operations. Our purpose is to study the prophylactic effect of HS 5% infusion versus NS on serum IL-6 as an inflammatory & IL-10 as an anti-inflammatory biomarker in CABG patients. Methods The present study is a randomized double-blinded clinical trial. 40 patients undergoing CABG were randomized to receive HS 5% or NS before operation. Blood samples were obtained after receiving HS or NS, just before operation, 24 and 48 hours post-operatively. Plasma levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were measured by ELISA. Results and major conclusion Patients received HS had lower levels of IL-6 and higher level of IL-10 compared with NS group, however these differences were not statistically significant. Results of this study suggest that pre-treatment with small volume hypertonic saline 5% may have beneficial effects on inflammatory response following CABG operation. PMID:23351427

2012-01-01

110

Analysis of influence of baicalin joint resveratrol retention enema on the TNF-?, SIgA, IL-2, IFN-? of rats with respiratory syncytial virus infection.  

PubMed

Explore the influence of baicalin joint resveratrol retention enema on TNF-?, SIgA, IL-2, and IFN-? of rats with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. The 60 SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, baicalin group, resveratrol group, joint group, and ribavirin group. For model group, baicalin group, resveratrol group, joint group, and ribavirin group, rats were given RSV virus suspension intranasally for 3 days, and model group was not given administration. Baicalin group, resveratrol group, joint group, and ribavirin group were, respectively, given baicalin 100 mg/kg/day, resveratrol 30 mg/kg/day, baicalin joint resveratrol, and ribavirin 1 g/kg/day retention enema. After continuously given administration 7 days, rats were measured in serum TNF-?, IL-2, IFN-? levels and SIgA levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Model group, TNF-?, IL-2, IFN-?, and SIgA were significantly higher than the normal group (P < 0.05); Baicalin group, resveratrol group, ribavirin group, TNF-?, IL-2, IFN-?, and SIgA were significantly higher than the model group (P < 0.05); TNF-?, IL-2 between baicalin group, resveratrol group, ribavirin group, have no significant difference (P > 0.05); Baicalin group, resveratrol group, joint group, IFN-?, and SIgA were significantly higher than the ribavirin group (P < 0.05); Joint group TNF-?, IL-2, IFN-?, and SIgA were significantly higher than baicalin group, resveratrol group, and ribavirin group (P < 0.05). Baicalin joint resveratrol retention enema can increase RSV infection model in rats serum TNF-?, IL-2, IFN-? levels and SIgA levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which may anti-virus through this mechanism. PMID:24938899

Cheng, Kebin; Wu, Zhenghua; Gao, Beilan; Xu, Jinfu

2014-11-01

111

“Great Salinity Anomalies” in the North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We revisited the “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1970s (GSA'70s; Dickson et al., 1988) and documented the newly identified “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1980s (hence termed GSA'80s), both propagated around the North Atlantic in a similar fashion. The advective mechanism, initially proposed to explain the observed sequence of low-salinity, low-temperature events during the GSA'70s, apparently holds also for the

Igor M. Belkin; Sydney Levitus; John Antonov; Svend-Aage Malmberg

1998-01-01

112

Aquarius Instrument and Salinity Retrieval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius has been designed to map the surface salinity field of the global ocean from space a parameter important for understanding ocean circulation and its relationship to climate and the global water cycle. Salinity is measured remotely from space by measuring the thermal emission from the ocean surface. This is done at the low frequency end of the microwave spectrum (e.g. 1.4 GHz) where the emission is sufficiently sensitive to changes in salinity to be detected with sophisticated radiometers. The goal is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean by providing maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. These are challenging requirements that have led to some unique features of the instrument. These include: a) The addition of a co-located scatterometer to help provide a correction for roughness; b) The addition of a polarimetric channel (third Stokes parameter) to the radiometer to help correct for Faraday rotation; c) Asun-synchronous orbit with a 6 pm ascending equatorial crossing to minimize Faraday rotation and with the antennas looking away from the sun toward the nighttime side to minimize contamination by radiation from the sun; and d) An antenna designed to limit side lobes in the direction of rays from the sun. In addition, achieving the accuracy goal of 0.2 psu requires averaging over one month and to do this requires a highly stable radiometer. Aquarius has three separate radiometers that image in pushbroom fashion with the three antenna beams looking across track. The antenna is a 2.5-m diameter, offset parabolic reflector with three feed horns and the three beams are arranged to image with the boresight aligned to look across track, roughly perpendicular to the spacecraft heading and pointing away from the Sun. The three beams point at angles of theta = 25.8 deg., 33.8 deg. and 40.3 deg. with respect to the spacecraft nadir which correspond to local incidence angles at the surface of 28.7 deg., 37.8 deg. and 45.6 deg., respectively. The resolution of the three radiometer beams (axes of the 3dB ellipse) is: 76 x 94 km for the inner beam, 84 x 120 km for the middle beam to 96 x 156 km for the outer beam. Together they cover a swath of about 390 km. Aquarius will map the global ice-free ocean every 7-days from which monthly average composites will be derived. This will provide a snapshot of the mean field, as well as resolving the seasonal to interannual variations over the three-year baseline of the mission.

Le Vine, D. M.

2011-01-01

113

Aquifer Salinization by Storm Overwash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overwash processes not only affect the morphology of barrier islands, they also introduce saltwater to surficial coastal aquifers by infiltration (saltwater intrusion from the top). Hatteras Island, North Carolina, USA is particularly susceptible to saltwater overwash because of its geography and the frequency with which tropical and extra-tropical storms strike the area. Hurricane Emily inundated the island in 1993 with saline water from Pamlico Sound. The floodwaters from overwash reached as far as 1000 meters into the interior of the island and recharged the shallow Buxton Woods Aquifer, raising salinity levels from approximately 40 mg/L prior to flooding to nearly 280 mg/L within several weeks of flooding. By 1997, chloride levels still had not returned to pre-storm levels. We use one-dimensional analytical solutions of the advection-dispersion equation to simulate chloride transport within the aquifer utilizing a pulse source with linear superposition. We calibrate this model using chloride breakthrough curves observed from water wells on the island. Initial simulations show that a pulse duration of five days provides the best fit to the data. Simulation of chloride breakthrough at two locations demonstrates that higher gradients advect chloride further into the aquifer, causing higher chloride concentrations and increasing the duration of contamination. The Cape Hatteras region historically is susceptible to several hurricanes in a single season. In order to analyze the effect of multiple overwash events on water quality, we use predictive simulations to show the effect of two overwash events separated by different time lags. Simulations indicate that higher gradients and short time lags between overwash events result in chloride MCL violations that persist for more than four months.

Anderson, W. P.; Evans, D. G.

2001-12-01

114

Salinity Budget and WRAP Salinity Simulation Studies of the Brazos River/Reservoir System  

E-print Network

with a WRAP-SALT salinity input file developed from the following USGS dataset. ? The USGS conducted an extension salinity data collection program from October 1963 through September 1986 in support of natural salt pollution control studies performed... in support of USACE salt pollution control studies. The USACE-sponsored USGS salinity measurement program was discontinued in 1986. The USACE later contracted with Texas A&M University to compile the USGS salinity data into a more conveniently usable...

Wurbs, Ralph; Lee, Chihun

115

[Structural changes in mitochondrion-rich cells in the gills of artificial selected Trachinotus ovatus offspring under different salinities].  

PubMed

Distribution and ultrastructural changes in the mitochondrion-rich cells in gills of artificial selected Trachinotus ovatus under different salinities (5, 20, and 30) were examined by light and transmission electron micrograph. Results indicated that the mitochondrion-rich cells were mainly present on the base of the gill filaments and branchial leaflets, and the volume and quantity of mitochondrion-rich cells increased with salinity. All three salinity groups had apical crypts, which were constituted by the mitochondrion-rich cells, pavement cells and accessory cells. Mitochondrion-rich cells in the salinity 5 group had large apical membranes with developed microridges and shallow apical crypts. Apical crypts in the salinity 20 and 30 groups had small apical membranes and undeveloped microridges, and were embolic obviously. Cytoplasm of mitochondrion-rich cells in the salinity 5 and 30 groups developed tubular systems and abundant cristae mitochondria. The tubular system of the salinity 20 group was non-spatially constant and had loose structure. Part of the tubular system contracted into a pearl bubble structure and shared rough endoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondrion-rich cells in Trachinotus ovatus under salinities 5 and 20 appeared both seawater-type's and freshwater-type's features, and those in salinity 30 had typical characteristics as seawater-type MR cells. Structural changes of mitochondrion-rich cells were suited to different osmotic pressure. PMID:23913893

Ou, You-Jun; Liu, Ru-Jian; Li, Jia-Er; Cao, Shou-Hua

2013-08-01

116

HYDROCLIMATOLOGY Exploring the Mystery of Salinity  

E-print Network

to a difference in watershed soil. #12;Figure 2. Baseflow (low flow) salinity vs. soil salinity in Western rivers. There are at least three motivational directions in riverine chemistry research: 1) rock, soil, and water conductivity is among the simplest water chemistry parameters to measure over a long time (months). A surprise

117

Mechanisms of High Salinity Tolerance in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among abiotic stresses, high salinity stress is the most severe environmental stress, which impairs crop production on at least 20% of irrigated land worldwide. In response to high salinity stress, various genes get upregulated, the products of which are involved either directly or indirectly in plant protection. Some of the genes encoding osmolytes, ion channels, receptors, components of calcium signaling,

Narendra Tuteja

2007-01-01

118

Breeding for Salinity Tolerance in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulation of high levels of salts in the soil is characteristic of arid and semi-arid regions. Although different curative and management measures are being used to render salt-affected soils fit for agriculture, they are extremely expensive and do not provide permanent solutions to overcome the salinity problem. In contrast, a biotic approach for overcoming salinity stress has gained considerable recognition

M. Ashraf; Lin Wu

1994-01-01

119

Sea Surface Salinity Influence on Earth's Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short NASA video focuses on the Aquarius satellite, launched on June 10, 2011 to observe how variations in ocean salinity relate to climatic changes. By measuring salinity globally, Aquarius shows the ocean's role in climate change and climate's effects on ocean circulation.

Harris, Brooke; Center, Nasa/goddard S.

120

Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a science activity in which the student investigates methods of calibration of a simple conductivity meter via a hands-on inquiry technique. Conductivity is mathematically compared to salinity using a point slope formula and graphical techniques. Sample solutions of unknown salinity are provided so that the students can sharpen their…

Schlenker, Richard M.

121

Low salinity intrusions in the western English Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low salinity (<35) surface waters (LSSW) at the southern entrance to the western English Channel (48.5°N, 5.1°W, near Ushant) were observed in late winter (March-April) in three successive years (2002-04) during near continuous ship of opportunity operations. The source of the LSSW is the northward spreading plumes from the Loire (47.5°N, 2.5°W) and Gironde (45.6°N, 1.2°W) along the French Atlantic coast. Fastest plume travel times were associated with northeasterly winds, consistent with Ekman theory. Differences between years in the mean winter (January-March) combined river discharges ( D) was consistent with the minimum salinities ( Smin) of the LSSW (2004: D=4211 m 3 s -1, Smin=33.68; 2003: D=3630 m 3 s -1, Smin=33.90; 2002: D=1579 m 3 s -1, Smin=34.53). Winter mean (1905-74) salinity is otherwise 35.33 near Ushant. The LSSW intruded into the western English Channel in each year, suggesting a common phenomenon. The low salinity intrusion was freshest (mean=35.11±0.21) and most penetrative (reaching 50.7°N, 1.0°W by the end of the year) in 2003 on account of (1) entering on a spring tide giving greater tidal excursion into the western English Channel and (2) intrusion favourable winds (southwesterly/southeasterly) acting on the longer term residual flow. Less penetration occurred in 2004 when the arrival of the LSSW coincided with a neap tide followed by intrusion-resistant northwesterly winds, resulting in a less saline (mean=35.20±0.23) intrusion. In 2004, transport tended to be offshore to at least 100 km from the French Atlantic coast (47°N, 4.8°W-48°N, 4.7°W). In 2002, the lower volume of plume water relative to the other years produced a more saline intrusion (mean=35.25±0.12). Prevailing westerly winds may have pushed this intrusion northwards beyond the route of the ferry, making it difficult to assess the true extent of the intrusion in 2002. A link of the LSSW to phases of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index from a literature search of the last 84 years was inconclusive.

Kelly-Gerreyn, B. A.; Hydes, D. J.; Jégou, A. M.; Lazure, P.; Fernand, L. J.; Puillat, I.; Garcia-Soto, C.

2006-08-01

122

Salinity and groundwater flow below beaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High rates of exchange between seawater and fresh groundwater in beach sediments drive significant chemical reactions, but the groundwater flow that controls this is poorly understood. Current conceptual models for groundwater flow in beaches highlight an upper saline plume, which is separated from the traditional freshwater-saltwater interface by a zone of brackish to fresh groundwater discharge. The lack of an upper saline plume at our study site led us to ask whether the plume exists in all beaches and what hydrogeological features control its formation. We used variable-density, saturated-unsaturated, transient groundwater flow models to investigate the geometry of the freshwater-saltwater interface in beaches with slopes varying from 0.1 to 0.01. We also varied hydraulic conductivity, dispersivity, tidal amplitude, inflow of fresh groundwater and precipitation. All models showed that a salinity gradient developed between the fresh groundwater and seawater in the intertidal zone, but the magnitude of the gradient was variable. The hydraulic conductivity was an important control on the development of an upper saline plume. A hydraulic conductivity of 100 m/d allowed the formation of an upper saline plume in every beach slope. No upper saline plumes formed in any beach with hydraulic conductivities less than 10 m/d. The slope of the beach was also a significant control. In models using a representative hydraulic conductivity of 10 m/d, the upper saline plume only formed in beaches with a slope of 0.5 or greater. The salinity of brackish groundwater that discharges seaward of the upper saline plume was inversely proportional to the input of fresh groundwater. Prior studies of groundwater flow and salinity in beaches have used very small dispersivities, but we found that the upper saline plume becomes much less distinct when larger dispersivities are used. Real beaches are highly mixed environments and the appropriate magnitude of dispersivity remains unclear. Our results suggest that upper saline plumes may not form in beaches of the U.S. Southeast, which are characterized by fine-grained sediment and moderate slopes. The concentration gradient between the upper saline plume and adjacent groundwater discharge zone increased with decreasing longitudinal dispersivity.

Evans, T. B.; Wilson, A. M.; Moore, W. S.

2013-12-01

123

Saline breast implant fill issues.  

PubMed

Plastic surgeons' primary responsibility to patients is to inform them sufficiently to permit them to make the necessary decisions in the manner that best meets their own objectives. This makes adequate consultation a lengthy and often confusing experience for patients. One of the most confusing of these is also one of the most mandatory for discussion; that is, the issue of implant fill volume. A patient should be free to choose between an implant that must be overfilled to achieve the optimum, and one in which reaching the optimum does not require overfill or even staying within the manufacturers suboptimal fill volume. The patient must be explicitly informed of the consequences of each of these decisions and should be prepared to sign whichever consents are necessary to reflect her understanding of the compromises involved in any of these choices. PMID:11471954

Dowden, R V

2001-07-01

124

Resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock. Alterations of the intracranial pressure after normal saline, 3% saline and dextran-40.  

PubMed Central

Resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock by infusion of isotonic (normal) saline (NS) is accompanied by a transient elevation in intracranial pressure (ICP), although cerebral edema, as measured by brain weights at 24 hours, is prevented by adequate volume resuscitation. The transient increase in ICP is not observed during hypertonic saline (HS) resuscitation. The effect of colloid resuscitation on ICP is unknown. Beagles were anesthetized, intubated, and ventilated, maintaining pCO2 between 30-45 torr. Femoral artery, pulmonary artery, and urethral catheters were positioned. ICP was measured with a subarachnoid bolt. Forty per cent of the dog's blood volume was shed and the shock state maintained for 1 hour. Resuscitation was done with shed blood and a volume of either NS (n = 5), 3% HS (n = 5), or 10% dextran-40 (D-40, n = 5) equal to the amount of shed blood. Intravascular volume was then maintained with NS. ICP fell from baseline values (4.7 +/- 3.13 mmHg) during the shock state and increased greatly during initial fluid resuscitation in NS and D-40 groups, to 16.0 +/- 5.83 mmHg and 16.2 +/- 2.68 mmHg, respectively. ICP returned to baseline values of 3.0 +/- 1.73 mmHg in the HS group with initial resuscitation and remained at baseline values throughout resuscitation. NS and D-40 ICP were greater than HS ICP at 1 hour (p less than .001) and 2 hours (p less than .05) after resuscitation. These results demonstrate that NS or colloid resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock elevates ICP and that HS prevents elevated ICP. PMID:2431664

Gunnar, W P; Merlotti, G J; Barrett, J; Jonasson, O

1986-01-01

125

75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2010-05-14

126

76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council...INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council was...

2011-05-02

127

75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2010-10-28

128

78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...REG0000, RR04084000] Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

2013-11-26

129

75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control [[Page 25878

2010-05-10

130

77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2012-10-11

131

77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2012-04-19

132

78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Public Law...

2013-04-22

133

76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2011-10-04

134

ConcepTest: Ocean Salinity #3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Predict what would happen to the salinity of the world's oceans if the Indian Ocean was blocked off and all of its water evaporated. a. World's oceans would become more salty b. World's oceans would ...

135

INNOVATION IN TEACHING THROUGH SALIN-AWIT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to analyze the process of pedagogy as innovation by way of focusing the teaching\\/learning of translation through salin-awit (translated song) to selected junior and senior undergraduate students in the University of the Philippines Diliman. Its specific objectives are as follows: to define pedagogy as innovation; demonstrate the dynamics of salin-awit; and identify the emergent discourse of indigenous

Melecio Cervantes Fabros

136

Salinity patterns in the Houston Ship Channel  

E-print Network

Salinity) . 59 LIST OF FIGURES ~Fi ure ~Pa e Idealized Highly Stratified Estuary Idealized Homogeneous Estuary Research Laboratory Boat and Motors Sampling Stations Sampling Activities 13 14 16 Sampling Positions 10 12 13 Data Recording Form... Salinity Structures SS-Value Recording Position Streamflow Gauging Stations Tide Gauge Recording i&iud-Bay Relationship 19 23 25 35 38 Flow vs. DS 50 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Estuaries have recently been acknowledged to be one of our nation...

Withers, Richard Ercelray

2012-06-07

137

Ultrastructural Effects of Salinity in Higher Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity leads to structural and ultrastructural effects, particularly in salt-sensitive species. Some of them are indicative\\u000a of the onset of injury, for example the aggregation of chloroplasts accompanied by a swelling in the granal and fret compartments\\u000a or the complete distortion of chloroplastic grana and thylakoid structures. Others are associated with metabolic acclimation\\u000a to salinity stress. For instance increased density

Hans-Werner Koyro

138

Stomatal Conductance of Differentially Salinized Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stomatal resistance was measureddaily witha stomatal diffusion porometer during a 4-weekperiod inleaves ofbean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.,var.BushBlueLake)andbarley (Hordeumvulgare L.,var.Liberty) plants having rootsequally split betweentwodifferentially salinized nutrient solutions. Thestomatal conductance (reciprocal ofstomatal resistance) ofplants withhalftheir rootsinsaline solutions wasintermedi- atebetween thestomatal conductances ofplants growninnon- saline solutions andthosegrowninsaline solutions. Results fromaprevious experiment (4)showedthatthede- greeofosmotic adjustment andtherateofgrowth ofbean andbarley plants werefunctions oftheproportion ofthe rootsystemexposed tosaline

M. B. Kirkham; W. R. Gardner; G. C. Gerloff

1972-01-01

139

Genetics of Salinity Responses and Plant Breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular biology offers the possibility of designing new plant genotypes with enhanced resistance to salinity. This does\\u000a not, however, mean that understanding the genetics and physiology of responses to salinity is complete or no longer necessary.\\u000a To be able to exploit the new technologies it is important to understand the inheritance of traits and how they can be integrated\\u000a in

John Gorham; GARETH WYN JONES

140

Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a wealth of published research on salinity tolerance of plants, neither the metabolic sites at which salt stress damages plants nor the adaptive mechanisms utilized by plants to survive under saline conditions are well understood. As a result, there are no well-defined indicators for salinity tolerance available to assist plant breeders in the improvement of salinity tolerance of important

M. Ashraf; P. J. C. Harris

2004-01-01

141

Effects of Varying Salinity on Phytoplankton Growth in a Low-Salinity Coastal Pond Under Two Nutrient Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal ponds are highly susceptible to negative effects from nu- trient loading (1). The usual approach for managing such systems is to reduce nutrient input. Another possibility for some low-salinity sys- tems may be to control salinity if salinity has a pronounced infl uence on phytoplankton growth. Freshwater species generally compose the phytoplankton of low-salinity systems. One might expect growth

Stacy Barron; Carolyn Weber; Roxanne Marino; Eric Davidson; Gabrielle Tomasky

142

The use of fluorescent dyes as tracers in highly saline groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe capability of five fluorescent dyes to serve as conservative tracers in highly saline groundwater was evaluated by a series of batch experiments on pure minerals and natural sediments. Dye sorption was tested in four different salinities (from fresh rainwater to Dead Sea water) on five pure minerals and four natural sediments taken from boreholes drilled along the Dead Sea shore. It was found that the dyes Sulfo-Rhodamine B and Eosin are strongly adsorbed on pure minerals and sediments and therefore cannot be used as conservative tracers in saline groundwater. Uranine and Pyranine sorption is increased at higher salinities, therefore they can be used as tracers in moderately saline groundwater only. Na Naphthionate was found to be the best tracer for fresh and saline water, with minimal sorption in all cases. Sorption of the dyes on four natural sediments was measured and values were found to be in accord with those of previous sorption on pure minerals. Sorption on natural sediments was also estimated based on the mineral composition of the sediment and the known sorption on the pure minerals. The estimated sorption values were usually 25% lower than those of the sorption directly measured. Nevertheless, sorption on pure minerals can be used as a first approximation for sorption on natural sediments. The impact of sediment to solution ratio was tested for Uranine as a model dye. The distribution coefficient ( Kd) of Uranine in highly saline Dead Sea water was found to be dependent on the sediment to solution ratio (mass/volume), where low ratios resulted in higher values of Kd. Also, higher Kd values were calculated for fine grain size due to higher sorption capacity on larger surface areas. The difference in Kd, however, is not directly related to the specific surface size of the grains and should be examined separately.

Magal, Einat; Weisbrod, Noam; Yakirevich, Alex; Yechieli, Yoseph

2008-08-01

143

Effects of hypertonic saline on expression of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte adhesion molecules.  

PubMed

Hypertonic saline prevents vascular adherence of neutrophils and ameliorates ischemic tissue injury. We hypothesized that hypertonic saline attenuates N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-stimulated expression of adhesion molecules on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs). fMLP-stimulated up-regulation of beta2-integrins was diminished by hypertonic saline but not by hypertonic choline chloride-, mannitol-, or sucrose-modified Hanks' buffered salt solution. Shedding of L-selectin was decreased by hypertonic saline and choline chloride but not by hypertonic mannitol or sucrose. When the effects of hypertonic sodium chloride- and choline chloride-modified media were compared, neither solution affected fMLP-receptor binding but both equally inhibited fMLP-stimulated increase in intracellular calcium, ionophore A23187, and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated numerical up-regulation of beta2-integrins. Analysis of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases p38 and p44/42 for phosphorylation revealed that hypertonic solutions did not differ in preventing fMLP-stimulated increases in phospho-p38 and phospho-p44/42. Resting PMNLs shrunk by hypertonic saline increased their volume during incubation and further during chemotactic stimulation. Addition of amiloride further enhanced inhibition of up-regulation of beta2-integrins. No fMLP-stimulated volume changes occurred in PMNLs exposed to hypertonic choline chloride, resulting in significant cell shrinkage. Results suggest a sodium-specific inhibitory effect on up-regulation of beta2-integrins of fMLP-stimulated PMNLs, which is unlikely to be caused by alterations of fMLP receptor binding, decrease in cytosolic calcium, attenuation of calcium or protein kinase C-dependent pathways, suppression of p38- or p44/42 MAP kinase-dependent pathways, or cellular ability to increase or decrease volumes. PMID:11493618

Thiel, M; Buessecker, F; Eberhardt, K; Chouker, A; Setzer, F; Kreimeier, U; Arfors, K E; Peter, K; Messmer, K

2001-08-01

144

Redistribution of extracellular water and sodium may contribute to saline tolerance in wild ducks.  

PubMed

The compartmentalization of body fluids was measured in three species of ducks that differ in saline tolerance. Half of the birds of each species drank freshwater, while the other half drank saline (300 mM NaCl). Among ducks that drank freshwater, total body water (TBW) was similar among all species, but Barrow's goldeneyes (Bucephala islandica), the most marine species, had larger extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) than freshwater mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) or estuarine canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria). When acclimated to saline, only goldeneyes shifted extracellular water and Na+ into the intracellular compartment. ECFV was correlated with plasma aldosterone concentration in goldeneyes, but not in canvasbacks (aldosterone was not measured in mallards). Data summarized from the literature showed that TBW does not differ among terrestrial, freshwater, or marine species, but marine species have a larger part of their TBW in the extracellular compartment. Saline induced movement of extracellular water and Na+ into the cells only in goldeneyes. ECFV and redistribution of extracellular water and Na+ into the cells may be important components in saline tolerance of marine birds. PMID:15887091

Bennett, Darin C; Gray, David A; Sharp, Peter J; Hughes, Maryanne R

2005-01-01

145

Using discriminant analysis to determine sources of salinity in shallow groundwater prior to hydraulic fracturing.  

PubMed

High-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) gas-drilling operations in the Marcellus Play have raised environmental concerns, including the risk of groundwater contamination. Fingerprinting water impacted by gas-drilling operations is not trivial given other potential sources of contamination. We present a multivariate statistical modeling framework for developing a quantitative, geochemical fingerprinting tool to distinguish sources of high salinity in shallow groundwater. The model was developed using new geochemical data for 204 wells in New York State (NYS), which has a HVHF moratorium and published data for additional wells in NYS and several salinity sources (Appalachian Basin brines, road salt, septic effluent, and animal waste). The model incorporates a stochastic simulation to predict the geochemistry of high salinity (>20 mg/L Cl) groundwater impacted by different salinity sources and then employs linear discriminant analysis to classify samples from different populations. Model results indicate Appalachian Basin brines are the primary source of salinity in 35% of sampled NYS groundwater wells with >20 mg/L Cl. The model provides an effective means for differentiating groundwater impacted by basin brines versus other contaminants. Using this framework, similar discriminatory tools can be derived for other regions from background water quality data. PMID:25062431

Lautz, Laura K; Hoke, Gregory D; Lu, Zunli; Siegel, Donald I; Christian, Kayla; Kessler, John Daniel; Teale, Natalie G

2014-08-19

146

Effects of Initial Saturation and Salinity on Methane Hydrate Growth in Sandstone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of gas hydrate formation in sediments has been studied with emphasis on two variables: saturation and salinity. A series of hydrate formation experiments in sandstone have been conducted to better understand mechanisms of hydrate growth and pore filling in sedimentary systems. The formation rate has been quantified based on the amount of CH4 consumed during formation at constant pressure (8.37 MPa) and temperature (4 °C). The Fill fraction, defined as the fraction of initial water converted to hydrate was used to quantify final hydrate conversion and amount of residual free water. The hydrate formation rate increased during the first period of hydrate formation for low pore water salinities (0.1-1.0 wt% NaCl) and lower initial brine saturations (Hydrate saturations, Sh, from 0.1 - 0.4 fractions of pore volume). For higher salinities (3.5 wt % NaCl) the rate of formation was continuously decreasing, resulting in slower formation due to inhibition. Various hydrate growth patterns were identified through Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Low initial saturations generally revealed uniform hydrate growth while higher saturations with higher salinities exposed both uniform and piston-like hydrate growth pattern. Higher initial water saturations resulted in higher residual water saturations after hydrate formation independent of brine salinity.

Hauge, L. O.; Birkedal, K.; Ersland, G.; Graue, A.

2012-12-01

147

Salinity Effects on Water Potential Components and Bulk Elastic Modulus of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.  

PubMed

Pressure volume curves for Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. (alligator weed) grown in 0 to 400 millimolar NaCl were used to determine water potential (Psi), osmotic potential (psi(s)), turgor potential (psi(p)) and the bulk elastic modulus (epsilon) of shoots at different tissue water contents. Values of psi(s) decreased with increasing salinity and tissue Psi was always lower than rhizosphere Psi. The relationship between psi(p) and tissue water content changed because epsilon increased with salinity. As a result, salt-stressed plants had larger ranges of positive turgor but smaller ranges of tissue water content over which psi(p) was positive. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a salinity effect on epsilon in higher plants. These increases in epsilon with salinity provided a mechanism by which a large difference between plant Psi and rhizosphere Psi, the driving force for water uptake, could be produced with relatively little water loss by the plant. A time-course study of response after salinization to 400 millimolar NaCl showed Psi was constant within 1 day, psi(s) and psi(p) continued to change for 2 to 4 days, and epsilon continued to change for 4 to 12 days. Changes in epsilon modified the capacity of alligator weed to maintain a positive water balance and consideration of such changes in other species of higher plants should improve our understanding of salt stress. PMID:16663611

Bolaños, J A; Longstreth, D J

1984-06-01

148

Salinity Effects on Water Potential Components and Bulk Elastic Modulus of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. 1  

PubMed Central

Pressure volume curves for Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. (alligator weed) grown in 0 to 400 millimolar NaCl were used to determine water potential (?), osmotic potential (?s), turgor potential (?p) and the bulk elastic modulus (?) of shoots at different tissue water contents. Values of ?s decreased with increasing salinity and tissue ? was always lower than rhizosphere ?. The relationship between ?p and tissue water content changed because ? increased with salinity. As a result, salt-stressed plants had larger ranges of positive turgor but smaller ranges of tissue water content over which ?p was positive. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a salinity effect on ? in higher plants. These increases in ? with salinity provided a mechanism by which a large difference between plant ? and rhizosphere ?, the driving force for water uptake, could be produced with relatively little water loss by the plant. A time-course study of response after salinization to 400 millimolar NaCl showed ? was constant within 1 day, ?s and ?p continued to change for 2 to 4 days, and ? continued to change for 4 to 12 days. Changes in ? modified the capacity of alligator weed to maintain a positive water balance and consideration of such changes in other species of higher plants should improve our understanding of salt stress. PMID:16663611

Bolaños, Jorge A.; Longstreth, David J.

1984-01-01

149

The change of radiation doses to the patient when switching from conventional technique to digital technique without films in barium enema and IVU examinations. Final report SSI research project P933  

E-print Network

X-ray examinations of the colon (barium enema) and the kidneys (IVU) are combined with rather high radiation doses to the patients when using analogue technique with film-screen systems. It is therefore of great interest to see if the change from analogue to digital technique involves a reduction of doses. Barium enema and IVU examinations were monitored with DAP-meters before and after the X-ray department changed to digital techniques. For IVU also the change from storage phosphor plates to a Direct Digital detector is included. The study comprises between 53 and 87 patients for each modality of the two examinations. A considerable dose reduction was observed. In barium enema the overview images with large field sizes were omitted when using digital technique. On the other hand the number of spot images was increased from 6 to 22. The fluoroscopy time was increased from 4 minutes to 6 minutes. The DAP value was reduced from 54,3 Gy cm sup 2 to 21,9 Gy cm sup 2. For IVU a dose reduction from 44,5 Gy cm sup 2...

Sjöholm, B

2003-01-01

150

Evaporation over fresh and saline water surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation over large water bodies has a crucial role in the global hydrological cycle. Evaporation occurs whenever there is a vapor pressure deficit between a water surface and the atmosphere, and the available energy is sufficient. Salinity affects the density and latent heat of vaporization of the water body, which reflects on the evaporation rate. Different models have been developed to estimate the evaporation process over water surfaces using earth observation data. Most of these models are concerned with the atmospheric parameters. However these models do not take into account the influence of salinity on the evaporation rate; they do not consider the difference in the energy needed for vaporization. For this purpose an energy balance model is required. Several energy balance models that calculate daily evapotranspiration exist, such as the surface energy balance system (SEBS). They estimate the heat fluxes by integration of satellite data and hydro-meteorological field data. SEBS has the advantage that it can be applied over a large scale because it incorporates the physical state of the surface and the aerodynamic resistances in the daily evapotranspiration estimation. Nevertheless this model has not used over water surfaces. The goal of this research is to adapt SEBS to estimate the daily evaporation over fresh and saline water bodies. In particular, 1) water heat flux and roughness of momentum and heat transfer estimation need to be updated, 2) upscaling to daily evaporation needs to be investigated and finally 3) integration of the salinity factor to estimate the evaporation over saline water needs to be performed. Eddy covariance measurements over the Ijsselmeer Lake (The Netherlands) were used to estimate the roughness of momentum and heat transfer at respectively 0.0002 and 0.0001 m. Application of these values over Tana Lake (freshwater), in Ethiopia showed latent heat to be in a good agreement with the measurements, with RMSE of 35.5 Wm-2and rRMSE of 4.7 %. Afterwards the validity of salinity adapted model was tested over different study areas using ECMWF data. It was found that for the original SEBS model and salinity-adapted model over Great Salt Lake, the RMSE were 0.62 and 0.24 mm respectively and the rRMSE 19% and 24%. The evaporation reduction of the Great Salt Lake and the oceans are 27% and 1 %, respectively. In conclusion, SEBS model is adapted to calculate the daily evaporation over fresh water and salt water by integration the salinity factor in the model.

Abdelrady, Ahmed; Timmermans, Joris; Vekerdy, Zoltan

2013-04-01

151

Reversal of bedrest-induced orthostatic intolerance by lower body negative pressure and saline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six healthy male volunteers underwent two 1-week periods of bedrest, each preceded and followed by 2-week control and recovery periods. The daily metabolic diet contained 150 mEq of sodium. Following one 7-day bedrest period, each man was subjected to LBNP at a level of -30 mm Hg for 4 hr while consuming 1000 ml of beef bouillon containing 154 mEq of sodium. After the other bedrest period, each man simply consumed the bouillon without LBNP treatment during 4 hr of continued bedrest. Measurements of plasma volume and orthostatic tolerance were made before and after each treatment period. After combined LBNP and saline therapy, plasma volume and response to LBNP testing showed a return to pre-bedrest levels. Saline consumption alone had a lesser effect. With continuation of bedrest in three subjects, the beneficial effects of these measures appeared to be largely gone after 18 hr.

Hyatt, K. H.; West, D. A.

1977-01-01

152

Physiological response of the unicellular green alga Chlorococcum submarinum to rapid changes in salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell volumes and intracellular concentrations of major solutes of Chlorococcum submarinum were determined before and after salinity shocks. Cells were found to shrink in size by about 30% following changes from 0.1 to 0.5 M NaCl, there was a transitory increase in sodium concentration and more permanent increases in concentrations of potassium, proline and glycerol (the major osmolyte). Conversely, cells

John R. Blackwell; D. James Gilmour

1991-01-01

153

Advantages and disadvantages of fludrocortisone or saline load in preventing post-spaceflight orthostatic hypotension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of saline load to fludrocortisone (florinef) as countermeasures for reduced plasma volume and orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight. Eleven males (ages 30-50 yr) underwent a 3-day ambulatory baseline period followed by 7 days of 6° head-down bedrest, during which cardiopulmonary and arterial baroreflex sensitivity and plasma volume (PV) were determined. During pre-bedrest and 2.5 h after treatment on day 8, PV was also measured and subjects underwent a 15-min unsupported stand test. Treatments consisted of 8 salt tablets (1 g NaCl per tablet) and 960 ml of water in 5 subjects and 0.6 mg (0.2 mg × 3) over 24 h in the other 6 subjects. PV decreased by 12% on day 7 of bedrest. This was restored on day 8 by florinef but not by saline load. The effect of florinef on PV was paralleled by decreases in urine volume and the urinary sodium/potassium ratio. Reduced PV was associated with greater vascular resistance for the same drop in central venous pressure, suggesting less vasoconstriction reserve after bedrest. Carotid baroreflex control of heart rate was attenuated after 7 days of bedrest. Both baroreflex functions were restored by florinef but not saline load. Only 1 of 6 subjects showed syncopal symptoms in the florinef-treated group, whereas 4 of 5 subjects did so in the saline-load group. Acute florinef treatment appears to have distinct advantages as a protective measure for post-bedrest orthostatic intolerance, not only through its salt retaining, volume-expanding mineralcorticoid effect, but possibly through its actions on baroreflex and sympathetic functions.

Vernikos, Joan; Convertino, Victor A.

154

Reconstructing sea surface temperature and salinity using delta18O and alkenone records  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE oxygen isotope (delta18O) composition of foraminiferal tests from deep-sea sediments is widely used as a palaeoclimate proxy, but it includes contributions from sea surface temperature, global ice volume and local salinity, which are difficult to separate. Recently a new technique for deriving palaeotemperatures has been developed which is based on the abundance ratios of unsaturated alkenones in phytoplankton algae1,2.

Frauke Rostek; Götz Ruhlandt; Franck C. Bassinot; Peter J. Muller; Laurent D. Labeyrie; Yves Lancelot; Edouard Bard

1993-01-01

155

Testing SMOS Salinity Retrievals against surface salinity observations in the North Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since January 2010 the ESA Soil moisture and ocean salinity mission (SMOS) provides salinity data of the sea surface (SSS). Those measurements offer the possibility to better observe and understand SSS variations over the global ocean. However, an important step for any new measurement technology is to test and improve those measurements through comparisons against in situ measurements. For space based SSS measurements this is particularly important in high latitudes where uncertainties are highest due to the reduced sensitivity of the emissivity (brightness temperature) to surface salinity variations. In this paper we test SMOS salinities against surface salinity observations obtained during a series of cruises of German research vessels in the Nordic Seas. We analyze the differences of SMOS and TSG data with respect to the distance to the coast, temporal variability, as well as to the surface temperature and to the water depth. Although absolute SMOS salinities show biases, the spatial structures of the salinity variations are very similar in both data sets. SMOS data are most of the time too fresh with respect to in situ data. Especially in areas of higher SSS the average bias is ?2 -g kg. This too fresh bias could be caused by a remaining land contamination in the SMOS data.However, some local differences- particularly around the front of freshwater from the Greenland shelf- can clearly be attributed to temporal variability of the position of this front. Within the frontal zone, the SMOS salinities are higher than the TSG salinities, and the SSS gradient in the TSG data is more distinct. This is due to the monthly and spatially averaging of the SMOS product.

Köhler, Julia; Stammer, Detlef; Sena Martins, Meike; Quadfasel, Detlef

2013-04-01

156

Status of blood pressure among individuals consuming saline water.  

PubMed

Climate change is taking its toll in the form of saline water intrusion into the mainland of Bangladesh, which is one of the lowest-altitude countries in the world. The study was carried out with the objective to assess the blood pressure status associated with salinity in saline prone selected areas of Bagherhat and Tangail districts from March 2008 - June 2008 of rural Bangladesh. Two hundred and ninety subjects were selected purposively from both the districts. About 70% of the respondents were males and below forty years of age. More than two thirds of the respondents were illiterate; belong to 4-5 member family, with monthly family income of less than Tk. 4000 per month. Only one third of the respondents were smokers. More than two thirds of the respondents from salinity area had salinity level of 2-3%. Among them majority were drinking saline water for 6-10 years and 26% were drinking for more than ten years. About 20% of the non saline respondents' systolic blood pressure was 110-120 mm of Hg and 26% of saline area had systolic blood pressure >135-140 mm of Hg. Mean systolic BP among salinity area was more than that for non salinity area. About 19% of the non saline respondents' diastolic blood pressure was ? 85 mm of Hg. About one third had ? 90 mm of Hg, among them 31% were from saline area. Mean diastolic BP among salinity area was more than non salinity area. There was no history of heart disease, and less than 1% was diabetic among them. About two thirds had mean arterial pressure <70 mm of Hg, among them majority were from non saline area. About one third had >70 mm of Hg, among them majority were from saline area. The study concluded that systolic and diastolic blood pressures of saline group were significantly higher than that of the non saline group. PMID:23134909

Nath, P; Siddique, Z S; Basher, A; Bhuiyan, M R; Rahman, M H; Rubel, M M; Sayed, M S; Ahmad, S A

2012-10-01

157

INHALED HYPERTONIC SALINE IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN LESS THAN SIX YEARS OF AGE WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS: THE ISIS RANDOMIZED TRIAL  

PubMed Central

Context Inhaled hypertonic saline is recommended as therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients 6 years of age and older, but its efficacy has never been evaluated in CF patients <6 years of age. Objective To determine if hypertonic saline reduces the rate of protocol-defined pulmonary exacerbations in CF patients <6 years of age. Design and Setting A multicenter, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted from April 2009 to October 2011 at 30 CF care centers in the United States and Canada. Participants Participants had an established diagnosis of CF and were 4 to 60 months of age. A total of 344 patients were assessed for eligibility; 321 participants were randomized; 29 (9%) withdrew prematurely. Intervention The active group (n=158) received 7% hypertonic saline and the control group (n=163) received 0.9% isotonic saline nebulized twice daily for 48 weeks. Both groups received albuterol or levalbuterol prior to each study drug dose. Main Outcome Measures the rate of protocol-defined pulmonary exacerbations during the 48 week treatment period treated with oral, inhaled or intravenous antibiotics. Results The mean pulmonary exacerbation rate (events/person-year) was 2.3 (95% CI, 2.0, 2.5) in the hypertonic saline group and 2.3 (95% CI, 2.1, 2.6) in the isotonic saline group; the rate ratio was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.84, 1.14)). Among participants with pulmonary exacerbations, the mean number of total antibiotic treatment days for a pulmonary exacerbation was 60 (95% CI 49, 70) in the hypertonic saline group and 52 (95% CI 43, 61) in the isotonic saline group. There was no significant difference in secondary endpoints including height, weight, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, cough or respiratory symptom scores. Infant pulmonary function testing performed as an exploratory outcome in a subgroup (N=73, with acceptable measurements at 2 visits in 45) did not demonstrate significant differences between groups except for the mean change in forced expiratory volume in 0.5 seconds which was 38 ml greater (95% CI 1, 76) in the hypertonic saline group. Adherence by returned study drug ampoules was at least 75% in each group. Adverse event profiles were also similar, with the most common adverse event of moderate or severe severity in each group being cough (39% of hypertonic saline group, 38% of isotonic saline group). Conclusions Among infants and children with cystic fibrosis less than 6 years old, the use of inhaled hypertonic saline compared with isotonic saline did not reduce the rate of pulmonary exacerbations over 48 weeks of treatment. Trial Registration www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00709280 PMID:22610452

Rosenfeld, Margaret; Ratjen, Felix; Brumback, Lyndia; Daniel, Stephen; Rowbotham, Ron; McNamara, Sharon; Johnson, Robin; Kronmal, Richard; Davis, Stephanie D

2013-01-01

158

Students measuring salinity at Pier 45, Manhattan  

E-print Network

conditions, at Englewood Seining at Englewood A Day in the Life of the Hudson River 2010: Salinity Changes was the eighth year of A Day in the Life of the Hudson River. Thanks to all of the participants who made in the month was still making its way into the river from the watershed. The Day in the Life of the Hudson

Khatiwala, Samar

159

Salinity tolerance of Great Lakes invaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. The Laurentian Great Lakes are among the most invaded freshwater ecosystems in the world. Historically, the major vector for the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS) has been the release of contaminated ballast water via transoceanic ships. Despite regulations implemented in 1993, requiring vessels carrying fresh ballast water to exchange this water with saline ocean water, new reports of

SANDRA ELLIS; HUGH J. MACISAAC

2009-01-01

160

Incorporating salinity considerations in water availability modeling  

E-print Network

considered. Salt control dams proposed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers were also incorporated in the simulation of the river basin. It was observed that salinity in the main stem of the Brazos River was significantly reduced. However, no significant...

Krishnamurthy, Ganesh

2006-08-16

161

Cellular basis of salinity tolerance in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycophytes and halophytes are believed to have salt tolerance mechanisms that occur at the cellular level. One facet of the cellular mechanisms concerns the elements of the protoplasm. Variations in the response of plasma membrane permeability in salt sensitive and tolerant genotypes to salinity are explained by differences in composition and\\/or structure of the plasma membrane. Changes in plasma membrane

Mohamed Magdy F. Mansour; Karima H. A. Salama

2004-01-01

162

Groundwater use and salinization with grassland afforestation  

E-print Network

Groundwater use and salinization with grassland afforestation E S T E B A N G . J O B B A´ G Y *w of afforested grasslands based on biophysical, hydrologic, and edaphic factors. We tested this framework in 20 paired grassland and adjacent afforested plots across ten sites in the Argentine Pampas. Rapid

Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

163

Proteomic response of barley leaves to salinity.  

PubMed

Drought and salinity stresses are adverse environmental factors that affect crop growth and yield. Proteomic analysis offers a new approach to identify a broad spectrum of genes that are expressed in living system. We applied this technique to investigate protein changes that were induced by salinity in barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.), Afzal, as a salt-tolerant genotype and L-527, as a salt-sensitive genotype. The seeds of two genotypes were sown in pot under controlled condition of greenhouse, using a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Salt stress was imposed at seedling stage and leaves were collected from control and salt-stressed plant. The Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in leaves changed significantly in response to short-term stress. About 850 spots were reproducibly detected and analyzed on 2-DE gels. Of these, 117 proteins showed significant change under salinity condition in at least one of the genotypes. Mass spectrometry analysis using MALDI-TOF/TOF led to the identification some proteins involved in several salt responsive mechanisms which may increase plant adaptation to salt stress including higher constitutive expression level and upregulation of antioxidant, upregulation of protein involved in signal transduction, protein biosynthesis, ATP generation and photosynthesis. These findings may enhance our understanding of plant molecular response to salinity. PMID:21181273

Rasoulnia, Abdolrahman; Bihamta, Mohammad Reza; Peyghambari, Seyed Ali; Alizadeh, Houshang; Rahnama, Afrasyab

2011-11-01

164

[Hypertonic saline induced bronchoconstriction in sensitized rabbits].  

PubMed

Hypertonic saline is a potent stimulus to airway narrowing in most asthmatic patients. However, the mechanism of airway narrowing induced by a change in osmolarity is not clearly understood. In ovalbumin-sensitized rabbits, we found that bronchoconstriction occurred after inhalation of hypertonic saline, and then studied the mechanisms responsible for this bronchoconstriction. Eighteen anesthetized, paralyzed, mechanically ventilated (40 breath/min, TV 7 ml/kg) ovalbumin-sensitized rabbits were exposed to aerosols of hypertonic saline (ultrasonic nebulizer, 0.5 ml/min, 1 min). Total lung resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance (Cdyr) of the lung were measured before and after the exposure. The concentration of NaCl was increased from 0.9% to 7.2% in 0.9% steps. RL increased and Cdyr decreased as the dose of NaCl rose and they reached plateaus at doses of 6.3% and 7.2%, respectively. These responses were markedly inhibited by treatment with atropine (5 mg/kg i.v., p < 0.05 vs. control group), but treatment with chlorpheniramine (1 mg/kg iv.) suppressed the responses only at low concentrations of NaCl. In contrast, treatment with indomethacin, did not significantly change the responses. We conclude that inhalation of hypertonic saline can cause bronchoconstriction in sensitized rabbits, and that vagal stimulation plays a major role in this bronchoconstriction. PMID:8753112

Morimoto, R; Koyama, S; Tanaka, A; Horie, T

1996-05-01

165

Halophyte Improvement for a Salinized World  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is more important to improve the salt tolerance of crops in a salinized world with the situations of increasing populations, declining crop yields, and a decrease in agricultural lands. Attempts to produce salt-tolerant crops have involved the manipulation of existing crops through conventional breeding, genetic engineering and marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, these have, so far, not produced lines growing

Cheng-Jiang Ruan; Susan Mopper; Pei Qin; Stanley Lutts

2010-01-01

166

Cold, salinity and drought stresses: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

World population is increasing at an alarming rate and is expected to reach about six billion by the end of year 2050. On the other hand food productivity is decreasing due to the effect of various abiotic stresses; therefore minimizing these losses is a major area of concern for all nations to cope with the increasing food requirements. Cold, salinity

Shilpi Mahajan; Narendra Tuteja

2005-01-01

167

Salinity Tolerance Turfgrass: History and Prospects  

PubMed Central

Land and water resources are becoming scarce and are insufficient to sustain the burgeoning population. Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses affecting agricultural productions across the world. Cultivation of salt-tolerant turfgrass species may be promising option under such conditions where poor quality water can also be used for these crops. Coastal lands in developing countries can be used to grow such crops, and seawater can be used for irrigation of purposes. These plants can be grown using land and water unsuitable for conventional crops and can provide food, fuel, fodder, fibber, resin, essential oils, and pharmaceutical products and can be used for landscape reintegration. There are a number of potential turfgrass species that may be appropriate at various salinity levels of seawater. The goal of this review is to create greater awareness of salt-tolerant turfgrasses, their current and potential uses, and their potential use in developing countries. The future for irrigating turf may rely on the use of moderate- to high-salinity water and, in order to ensure that the turf system is sustainable, will rely on the use of salt-tolerant grasses and an improved knowledge of the effects of salinity on turfgrasses. PMID:24222734

Uddin, Md. Kamal; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor

2013-01-01

168

Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a unit designed for curriculum infusion and which relies on the hands-on discovery method as an instructive device. The student is introduced to the theory of a functioning salt water conductivity meter. The student explores the resistance of salt water as salinity increases and he treats the data which he has gathered,…

Schlenker, Richard M.

169

Hypertonic saline alters hydraulic conductivity and up-regulates mucosal/submucosal aquaporin 4 in resuscitation-induced intestinal edema  

PubMed Central

Objective To characterize membrane conductivity by applying mathematical modeling techniques and immunohistochemistry to localize and predict areas of the bowel where aquaporins may be associated with edema resolution/prevention associated with hypertonic saline. Intestinal edema induced by resuscitation and mesenteric venous hypertension impairs intestinal transit/contractility. Hypertonic saline decreases intestinal edema and improves transit. Aquaporins are water transport membrane proteins that may be up-regulated with edema and/or hypertonic saline. Design Laboratory study. Setting University research laboratory. Subjects Male Sprague Dawley rats, weighing 270 to 330 g. Interventions Rats were randomized to control (with and without hypertonic saline) and mesenteric venous hypertension with either 80 mL/kg normal saline (RESUS + VH + VEH) or 80 mL/kg with hypertonic saline (RESUS + VH + HTS). After 6 hrs, intestinal wet/dry ratios, urine output, peritoneal fluid, and intraluminal fluid were measured. Hydraulic conductivity was calculated from our previously known and published pressure-flow data. The cDNA microarray, Western blot, polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry studies were conducted for and candidate aquaporins and distribution in intestinal edema resolution. Measurements and Main Results Hypertonic saline decreased edema and increased urine, intraluminal, and peritoneal volume. RESUS + VH favors fluid flux into the interstitium. Hypertonic saline causes increased hydraulic conductivity at the seromuscular and mucosal surfaces at the same time limiting flow into the interstitium. This is associated with increased aquaporin 4 expression in the intestinal mucosa and submucosa. Conclusions Hypertonic saline mitigates intestinal edema development and promotes fluid redistribution secondary to increased membrane conductivity at the mucosal and seromuscular surfaces. This is associated with up-regulation of aquaporin 4 either gene expression and protein. Aquaporin 4 may be a useful therapeutic target for strategies to enhance edema resolution. PMID:19770732

Radhakrishnan, Ravi S.; Shah, Shinil K.; Lance, Samuel H.; Radhakrishnan, Hari R.; Xue, Hasen; Radhakrishnan, Geetha L.; Ramaswamy, Uma S.; Walker, Peter A.; Uray, Karen S.; Laine, Glen A.; Stewart, Randolph H.; Cox, Charles S.

2014-01-01

170

The Salinity, Heat, and Buoyancy Budgets of a Coastal Current in a Marginal Sea A. K. WA HLIN  

E-print Network

The Salinity, Heat, and Buoyancy Budgets of a Coastal Current in a Marginal Sea A. K. WA° HLIN-coast volume transport is assumed to be constant and inde- pendent of buoyancy; it is set, for example as well as temperature is included in the buoyancy forcing, the outflow from the basin can

Johnson, Helen

171

Patient satisfaction and quality of care at four diagnostic imaging procedures: mammography, double-contrast barium enema, abdominal ultrasonography and vaginal ultrasonography.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to measure patient satisfaction and to investigate the practical implications of monitoring the quality of care at four radiology procedures. A survey was conducted immediately after the examinations in eight radiology departments: 550 patients attending for mammography, 110 for double-contrast barium enema (DCBE), 97 for abdominal ultrasonography and 90 for vaginal ultrasonography. Outcome measures were seven questionnaire scales: pain, emotional distress, information received, staff's punctuality and technical ability, facilities, and general satisfaction. Response rate was 87 %. Multivariate regression analysis showed significant differences between procedures on all scales (p < 0.001). Differences considered to be of practical importance, i. e. >/= 7 scale points, were detected on five of the scales. Mammography and DCBE caused the most pain, and vaginal US and DCBE caused the most distress. The US procedures entailed dissatisfaction with information about the procedures. The DCBE patients recorded dissatisfaction with the staff's lack of punctuality, and these and the mammography patients recorded dissatisfaction with the facilities. The findings indicate a potential for improving patients' experiences. Several aspects of care, i. e. pain management, attention to the patient's emotional concerns, explanation of procedures, punctuality and quality of the facilities, can be improved. PMID:10460397

Loken, K; Steine, S; Laerum, E

1999-01-01

172

40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.  

...the movement of the salt water into and out of that area...lower the volume of salt water available for mixing...reduction in the volume of fresh water moving into an estuary...affect municipal water supplies. Note:...

2014-07-01

173

Acute volume loading and exercise capacity in postural tachycardia syndrome.  

PubMed

Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is associated with exercise intolerance, hypovolemia, and cardiac atrophy, which may contribute to reduced stroke volume and compensatory exaggerated heart rate (HR) increases. Acute volume loading with intravenous (iv) saline reduces HR and improves orthostatic tolerance and symptoms in POTS, but its effect on exercise capacity is unknown. In this study, we determined the effect of iv saline infusion on peak exercise capacity (V?o2peak) in POTS. Nineteen patients with POTS participated in a sequential study. V?o2peak was measured on two separate study days, following administration of placebo or 1 liter of iv saline (NaCl 0.9%). Patients exercised on a semirecumbent bicycle with resistance increased by 25 W every 2 min until maximal effort was achieved. Patients exhibited blood volume deficits (-13.4 ± 1.4% ideal volume), consistent with mild to moderate hypovolemia. At baseline, saline significantly increased stroke volume (saline 80 ± 8 ml vs. placebo 64 ± 4 ml; P = 0.010), increased cardiac output (saline 6.9 ± 0.5 liter/min vs. placebo 5.7 ± 0.2 liter/min; P = 0.021), and reduced systemic vascular resistance (saline 992.6 ± 70.0 dyn-s/cm(5) vs. placebo 1,184.0 ± 50.8 dyn-s/cm(5); P = 0.011), with no effect on HR or blood pressure. During exercise, saline did not produce differences in V?o2peak (saline 26.3 ± 1.2 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1) vs. placebo 27.7 ± 1.8 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1); P = 0.615), peak HR [saline 174 ± 4 beats per minute (bpm) vs. placebo 175 ± 3 bpm; P = 0.672] or other cardiovascular parameters. These findings suggest that acute volume loading with saline does not improve V?o2peak or cardiovascular responses to exercise in POTS, despite improvements in resting hemodynamic function. PMID:25059240

Figueroa, Rocío A; Arnold, Amy C; Nwazue, Victor C; Okamoto, Luis E; Paranjape, Sachin Y; Black, Bonnie K; Diedrich, Andre; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo; Raj, Satish R; Gamboa, Alfredo

2014-09-15

174

Hydraulic and salinity characteristics of the tidal reach of the Peace River, southwestern Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The tidal reach of the Peace River in southwestern Florida extends about 26 miles upstream from Charlotte Harbor and is characterized by flow-direction reversals, low velocities, and salinity gradients that vary with freshwater inflow, tides, and wind. Flow reversals generally occur on each tide throughout most of the tidal reach, their upstream limit determined primarily by freshwater inflow and tide. Flow reversals occur at river mile 18.9 whenever freshwater inflows are less than about 1,000 cu ft/sec. Velocities were less than 0.3 ft/sec more than half the time at river mile 18.9. The volume of the flood and ebb tidal flows in the midreach of the tidal river (mile 11.5) on July 12-13, 1984, was about five times the volume of flood and ebb tidal flow near the upstream end of the tidal reach July 10-11, 1984 (mile 18.9). Salinity varied along the 26-mile river reach, across channel and with depth, depending upon complex patterns of flow, freshwater runoff, wind, tide, and salinity in Charlotte Harbor. Daily variations in salinity increased downstream and variations were larger near the surface than near the bottom. Regression analysis indicated that the location of the 0.5 ppt salinity will move upstream more than 2 river miles if low flows are reduced by 50%. Freshwater flushing of the lower 20-mile tidal reach, approximated from freshwater replacement time, varied from about 2 days during heavy freshwater runoff to 40 days during extreme low flows. (USGS)

Stoker, Y. E.; Henderson, S. E.; McPherson, B. F.

1989-01-01

175

Hydrology, Salinity, and Salinity Control Possibilities of the Middle Pecos River: A Reconnaissance Report  

E-print Network

. According to Wauer (1973) and Wuerthner (1989), the native riparian vegetation included cottonwood (Populus sp.) and willows (Salix sp.). Today, none of these species can be found anywhere between Red Bluff and Girvin. A regional concern over salinity.... According to Wauer (1973) and Wuerthner (1989), the native riparian vegetation included cottonwood (Populus sp.) and willows (Salix sp.). Today, none of these species can be found anywhere between Red Bluff and Girvin. A regional concern over salinity...

Miyamoto, S.; Anand, Shilpa; Hatler, Will

176

Impacts of climate variability on wetland salinization in the North American Prairies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The glaciated plains of the North American continent, also known as the "prairies", are a complex hydrological system characterized by hummocky terrain, where wetlands, containing seasonal or semi-permanent ponds, occupy the numerous topographic depressions. The prairie subsoil and many of its water bodies contain high salt concentrations, in particular sulfate salts, which are continuously cycled within the closed drainage basins. The period between 2000 and 2012 was characterized by an unusual degree of climatic variability, including severe floods and droughts, and this had a marked effect on the spatial distribution, water levels and chemical composition of wetland ponds. Understanding the geochemical and hydrological processes under changing environmental conditions is needed in order to better understand the risk and mitigate the impacts of future soil and water salinization. Here we explore salt dynamics in the prairies using field observations from St. Denis, Saskatchewan, taken over the last 40 yr. Measurements include meteorological data, soil salinity, groundwater levels and pond water volume, salinity, and chemical composition. The record includes periods of exceptional snow (1997, 2007) and periods of exception rainfall (2010, 2012), both of which resulted in unusually high pond water levels. However, severe salinization only occurred in response to extreme summer rainfall. We hypothesize that since rainfall and snowmelt activate different hydrological pathways, they have markedly different impacts on salinization. We propose that a wet condition associated with high snowmelt conditions does not pose a strong threat to salinization, which has important implications for agricultural planning. Whilst this hypothesis is consistent with our conceptual understanding of the system, it needs to be tested further at a range of field sites in the prairies.

Nachshon, U.; Ireson, A.; van der Kamp, G.; Davies, S. R.; Wheater, H. S.

2013-11-01

177

Effect of increasing doses of hypertonic saline on mucociliary clearance in patients with cystic fibrosis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Patients with cystic fibrosis are known to have decreased mucociliary clearance. It has previously been shown that inhalation of a 7.0% solution of hypertonic saline significantly improved mucociliary clearance in a group of adult patients with cystic fibrosis. The aim of this study was to measure the response to increasing concentrations of inhaled hypertonic saline. METHODS: Ten patients (seven men) of mean (SE) age 22 (4) years and mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 52.0 (6.7)% predicted completed the study. Mucociliary clearance was measured using a radioaerosol technique for 90 minutes after the interventions which comprised 0.9% NaCl + voluntary cough (control), 3.0% NaCl, 7.0% NaCl, and 12% NaCl. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the amount of activity cleared from the right lung with all concentrations of hypertonic saline (HS) compared with control. The amount cleared at 90 minutes on the control day was 12.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 9.8 to 17.2) compared with 19.7% (95% CI 13.6 to 29.5) for 3% HS, 23.8% (95% CI 15.9 to 36.7) for 7% HS and 26.0% (95% CI 19.8 to 35.9) for 12% HS. The improvement in mucociliary clearance was not solely due to coughing as the number of coughs recorded on the control day exceeded that recorded on any other day. The hypertonic saline did not induce a clinically significant change in FEV1. CONCLUSIONS: Within the range of concentrations examined in this study, the effect of hypertonic saline appears to be dose dependent. Inhalation of hypertonic saline remains a potentially useful treatment for patients with cystic fibrosis. ??? PMID:9404379

Robinson, M.; Hemming, A. L.; Regnis, J. A.; Wong, A. G.; Bailey, D. L.; Bautovich, G. J.; King, M.; Bye, P. T.

1997-01-01

178

Morphological and Physiological Responses of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Plants to Salinity  

PubMed Central

Salinization usually plays a primary role in soil degradation, which consequently reduces agricultural productivity. In this study, the effects of salinity on growth parameters, ion, chlorophyll, and proline content, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation of two cotton cultivars, [CCRI-79 (salt tolerant) and Simian 3 (salt sensitive)], were evaluated. Salinity was investigated at 0 mM, 80 mM, 160 mM, and 240 mM NaCl for 7 days. Salinity induced morphological and physiological changes, including a reduction in the dry weight of leaves and roots, root length, root volume, average root diameter, chlorophyll and proline contents, net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. In addition, salinity caused ion imbalance in plants as shown by higher Na+ and Cl? contents and lower K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ concentrations. Ion imbalance was more pronounced in CCRI-79 than in Simian3. In the leaves and roots of the salt-tolerant cultivar CCRI-79, increasing levels of salinity increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR), but reduced catalase (CAT) activity. The activities of SOD, CAT, APX, and GR in the leaves and roots of CCRI-79 were higher than those in Simian 3. CAT and APX showed the greatest H2O2 scavenging activity in both leaves and roots. Moreover, CAT and APX activities in conjunction with SOD seem to play an essential protective role in the scavenging process. These results indicate that CCRI-79 has a more effective protection mechanism and mitigated oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation by maintaining higher antioxidant activities than those in Simian 3. Overall, the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and Chl (a+b) contents, net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, SOD, CAT, APX, and GR activities showed the most significant variation between the two cotton cultivars. PMID:25391141

Zhang, Lei; Ma, Huijuan; Chen, Tingting; Pen, Jun; Yu, Shuxun; Zhao, Xinhua

2014-01-01

179

Cardiorenal-endocrine dynamics during and following volume expansion  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between atrial pressure, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and renal hemodynamic and excretory function was examined during and following acute 10% body weight saline volume expansion and measurements were made at 3.3, 6.6, and 10% body weight volume expansion in pentobarbital anesthetized dogs. Right atrial pressure (RAP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), fractional excretion of Na (FE/sub Na/), and ANP all increased in parallel during volume expansion. Plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone decreased in parallel during 10% volume expansion. ANP, PRA and aldosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. Following 10% volume expansion, saline was infused at the peak urine flow rate to maintain peak volume expansion. Despite continued saline infusion, RAP, PCWP, and ANP decreased in parallel. In contrast, FE/sub Na/ remained increased, and aldosterone and PRA remained depressed. These studies demonstrate that atrial pressures, ANP, and FE/sub Na/ increase in parallel during volume expansion; this suggests a role for ANP in modulating acute atrial volume overload. During stable volume expansion periods, however, despite a decrease in ANP levels, Na excretion remains elevated, suggesting that non-ANP mechanisms may be important in maintaining natriuresis during stable volume expansion.

Zimmerman, R.S.; Edwards, B.S.; Schwab, T.R.; Heublein, D.M.; Burnett, J.C. Jr.

1987-02-01

180

Transport of anomalous low-salinity waters from the Mississippi River flood of 1993 to the Straits of Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent field studies in the southern Straits of Florida revealed the existence of Mississippi River outflow embedded in the Florida Current and adjacent coastal waters. Surface thermosalinograph measurements for the period of 10-13 September 1993 indicated a band of low-salinity water measuring approximately 40 km wide and 30 m in depth extending from south of Key West to Miami, a distance of 260 km. Surface salinity values as low as 31 psu were found. The estimated volume of the band is approximately 33.3 × 10 10 m 3 for the Key West to Miami region, thereby requiring roughly 1.2 × 10 10 m 3 of fresh water to mix with oceanic waters to produce this low-salinity band. The only nearby, dynamically viable, source for such a large volume of fresh water is the Mississippi River during its flood stage in 1993. The proposed transport mechanism for the transport of flood waters from the shelf in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico to the Straits of Florida is via the Loop Current through entrainment. Salinity records from offshore C-MAN towers indicate that the low-salinity band persisted off the lower Florida Keys for approximately 3 months. The variability in the flow field in the southern Straits occurs in a 30-70 day band due to the meandering of the Florida Current and the subsequent formation, and propagation, of cyclonic gyres off the Dry Tortugas. This variability in the flow field had a clear affect on the evolution of the low-salinity band, as observed by the salinity records from the C-MAN towers. Because the band traveled as a lens in the upper 30 m of the water column and because its evolution was highly dependent on the variability within the Gulf Stream System, it was a good indicator of the mixing and exchange of offshore waters with shallow waters of the Florida reef tract and Florida Bay.

Gilbert, Paula S.; Lee, Thomas N.; Podesta, Guillermo P.

1996-07-01

181

Salinity Adjustments in the Presence of Temperature Data Assimilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an evaluation of the role of salinity in the framework of temperature data assimilation in a global ocean model that is used to initialize seasonal climate forecasts. It is shown that the univariate assimilation of temperature profiles, without attempting to correct salinity, can induce first-order errors in the subsurface temperature and salinity fields. A recently developed scheme

Alberto Troccoli; Joachim Segschneider; Jerome Vialard; David L. T. Anderson; Keith Haines; Tim Stockdale; Frederic Vitart; Alan D. Fox

2002-01-01

182

Salinity and nitrogen nutrition studies on peanut and cotton plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the nitrogen form (NH4 or NO3 ) added to the nutrient solution and salinity levels (NaCl) was studied in peanut and cotton plants grown in hydroponics. Salinity levels particularly affected the growth of NH4 ?fed plants. Salinity and nitrogen form had different effects in the levels of K and Na in the shoots of these two species.

E. O. Leidi; M. Silberbush; M. I. M. Soares; S. H. Lips

1992-01-01

183

Sea Surface Salinity: The Next Remote Sensing Challenge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief history of salinity remote sensing is presented. The role of sea surface salinity (SSS) in the far north Atlantic and the influence of salinity variations on upper ocean dynamics in the tropics are described. An assessment of the present state of the technology of the SSS satellite remote sensing is given.

Lagerloef, Gary S. E.; Swift, Calvin T.; LeVine, David M.

1995-01-01

184

Evaporation Driven Soil Salinization Vishal Jambhekar, Karen Schmid, Rainer Helmig  

E-print Network

of state-of-the-art models and improve the predictability of evaporative salinization Figure: Salinized stress normal forces diffusion advection convection conduction turbulent flow laminar boundary layer of chemical equilibrium at the interface Effects of turbulence and solar radiation on salinization Literature

Cirpka, Olaf Arie

185

REVIEW PAPER Salinity stress alleviation using arbuscular mycorrhizal  

E-print Network

salt-tolerant crops. Understanding the mechanisms that enable plant growth under saline conditions is therefore required. Acclimation of plants to salinized conditions depends upon activation of cascades plant tolerance to abiotic environmental factors such as salinity. In this review, we emphasize

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

186

Salinity and Plant Residue Effects on Soil Available Phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of salinity and plant residue on soil phosphorus (P) availability was investigated. The organic carbon content of non-saline and salinized soil samples was enhanced by 1% with applying separately different amounts of residues. Fourteen residues including roots and shoots of wheat, barley, corn, alfalfa, and clover as well as leaves of apple, oak, plant-tree, and oleaster were used.

Amir Hossein Khoshgoftarmanesh; Farshid Nourbakhsh

2009-01-01

187

Original article Effects of sodium chloride salinity on root growth  

E-print Network

, studies have mainly focused on plants which naturally grew in natural saline environ- ments or on crop plants which may encounter salinity induced by agricultural practices like irrigation. There is lessOriginal article Effects of sodium chloride salinity on root growth and respiration in oak

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

188

Aquatic macrophytes in saline lakes of the Canadian prairies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular macrophyte species richness decreases with increasing salinity. Only three species of submerged plants (Potamogeton pectinatus, Ruppia maritima, R. occidentalis) tolerate hypersaline waters (>50 g l-1, total of ionic constituents). Eight emergent species occur in more saline habitats but only five (Scirpus maritimus var. paludosus, Distichlisstricta, Puccinellia nuttalliana, Scirpus americanus, Triglochin maritima) occur commonly over a range of saline lakes

U. Theodore Hammer; J. Michael Heseltine

1988-01-01

189

Fertilization management of crops irrigated with saline water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Available data concerning nutrition and fertilization effects on crops irrigated with saline water are presented and discussed. Published data on the salinity-fertility relationship are, at least to some extent, contradictory; both positive and negative effects as well as no effect of fertilization on salinity tolerance have been recorded. However, a great deal of the experimental work supports the view

A. Feigin

1985-01-01

190

Technical note Use of microwave remote sensing in salinity estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil-moisture interaction and the consequent liberation of ions causes the salinity of waters. The salinity of river, lake, ocean and ground water changes due to seepage and surface runoff. We have studied the feasibility of using microwave remote sensing for the estimation of salinity by carrying out numerical calculations to study the microwave remote sensing responses of various models representative

R. P. SINGH; V. KUMAR; S. K. SRIVASTAV

1990-01-01

191

The Systematically Merged Atlantic Regional Temperature and Salinity (SMARTS) Climatology  

E-print Network

The Systematically Merged Atlantic Regional Temperature and Salinity (SMARTS) Climatology Patrick C of Miami, Miami, FL I. Introduction A new oceanic climatology to calculate Ocean Heat Content (OHC Atlantic Regional Temperature and Salinity (SMARTS) Climatology blends temperature and salinity fields from

Shay, Lynn K. "Nick"

192

Saline Nasal Irrigation for Upper Respiratory Conditions  

PubMed Central

Acute and chronic upper respiratory conditions are common and expensive disorders with enormous impact on patient quality of life and society at large. Saline nasal irrigation (SNI), a therapy with roots in Ayurvedic medicine that bathes the nasal mucosa with in spray or liquid saline, has been used as adjunctive care for upper respiratory conditions. In liquid form, SNI has been found to be effective adjunctive care by the Cochrane Collaboration for symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive clinical trial evidence supports its use in spray and liquid forms as adjunctive treatment for mild-to-moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory infections. Consensus or expert opinion recommendations exist for SNI as a treatment for a variety of other conditions including rhinitis of pregnancy. SNI appears safe; side effects are minimal and transient. It can be recommended by clinicians to interested patients with a range of upper respiratory conditions in the context of patient education and printed instructional handouts. PMID:19904896

2009-01-01

193

Changes in Salinity Due to Glacier Movement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity requires construction of a simple salinity tester. Students will create their own calibration scale during this experiment, and look at the change in salinity that would arise if freshwater was suddenly dumped into the ocean. Materials needed for this investigation include a DC mill ampere meter, 2 D-cell batteries and holder, bronze sheeting, #18 solid wire, salt, deionized water, and a stream table or pan apparatus to create a hydrologic model of ice-ocean interaction. Included is a student worksheet to guide interpretation of data. The resource is supported by teacher background information, assessment suggestions, and a scoring rubric. This is Activity 3 of the learning module, Water: Here, There, and Everywhere, part of the lesson series, The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change.

194

P u b l i s h i n g Volume 28, 2001  

E-print Network

salinity is applied to the root medium of maize (Zea mays L.) plants, leaf elongation is immediately of salinity on turgor, almost all reports indicate that growing cells of salt-stressed plants maintain normalP u b l i s h i n g Volume 28, 2001 © CSIRO 2001 Australian Journal of Plant Physiology CSIRO

Cramer, Grant R.

195

The influence of salinity and temperature change on the functioning of the urinary bladder in the early larval stages of the atlantic herring Clupea harengus L.  

PubMed

Major changes in the morphology of the urinary bladder were observed during the transition from yolk-sac to feeding larval stages of herring, in particular bladder volume increased almost sixfold. Initially, the urine flowed into the hindgut, but within days of hatching a separate urinary duct, leading to the exterior, had formed. Micturation was intermittent but quite regular. The period between micturations increased from 1.6 to 4 min in the progression between the two larval stages. The discharge volume was approximately 50 % of the full bladder volume in all stages studied. Urine flow rate (UFR) in sea water rose slightly from 1 to 1.7 nl mg(-)(1 )h(-)(1) during early larval development. Exposure to low salinities significantly reduced UFR in yolk-sac larvae, but in the later stages UFR increased significantly in hypo-osmotic salinities, so that UFR in 4 salinity was 2.5 times that in 34 salinity. The main variable influencing UFR was discharge frequency. Cardiac output was not influenced by salinity and was considered not to be a controlling factor in the UFR response to salinity change. UFR increased with temperature with Q(10) of 2.3 in stage 1 larvae and 1. 5 in stage 2 larvae, over 7-15 degrees C. PMID:10607551

Tytler, P; Ireland, J

2000-01-01

196

Saline effects on forage growth and quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) plants were grown hydroponically in pots (NFT system), with four NaCl levels: 0, 44, 87 and 174 mM (corresponding to 1, 4, 8 and 16 dS\\/m). Plants shoot dry weight, amino acids, proline and mineral content were analysed after 35, 78, 121 and 148 days of saline

M. M. Oliveira; M. A. Carmona; M. J. Santos

197

Salinization of Mirror Lake by Road Salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salinization of Mirror Lake in the White Mountains of New Hampshire has been ongoing steadily since Interstate 93 (I-93)\\u000a was built through the NE subcatchment of the lake in the fall and winter of 1969–1970. Salt added to I-93 during winter as\\u000a a deicer has been transported to the lake by different quantified, hydrologic pathways, but primarily from the

Gene E. Likens; Donald C. Buso

2010-01-01

198

River salinity on a mega-delta, an unstructured grid model approach.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With an average freshwater discharge of around 40,000 m3/s the BGM (Brahmaputra Ganges and Meghna) river system has the third largest discharge worldwide. The BGM river delta is a low-lying fertile area covering over 100,000 km2 mainly in India and Bangladesh. Approximately two-thirds of the Bangladesh people work in agriculture and these local livelihoods depend on freshwater sources directly linked to river salinity. The finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) has been applied to the BGM delta in order to simulate river salinity under present and future climate conditions. Forced by a combination of regional climate model predictions, and a basin-wide river catchment model, the 3D baroclinic delta model can determine river salinity under the current climate, and make predictions for future wet and dry years. The river salinity demonstrates a strong seasonal and tidal cycle, making it important for the model to be able to capture a wide range of timescales. The unstructured mesh approach used in FVCOM is required to properly represent the delta's structure; a complex network of interconnected river channels. The model extends 250 km inland in order to capture the full extent of the tidal influence and grid resolutions of 10s of metres are required to represent narrow inland river channels. The use of FVCOM to simulate flows so far inland is a novel challenge, which also requires knowledge of the shape and cross-section of the river channels.

Bricheno, Lucy; Saiful Islam, Akm; Wolf, Judith

2014-05-01

199

Thermal simulation of subsea saline permafrost  

SciTech Connect

Thermal analyses of the response of offshore permafrost to emergence and submergence have traditionally employed simple closed-form solutions where phase change is confined to a discrete freezing temperature. These have led to rather rapid rates of return to thermal equilibrium, which have proved difficult to explain in the light of recent deep temperature measurements in offshore permafrost profiles. This paper reviews the need for an appropriate unfrozen water content relationship for a saline frozen soil, and describes some simulations of long term thermal response in offshore permafrost using the author's geothermal simulator. Simulations of submergence assumed an initial permafrost thickness of 600m, and a mean soil surface temperature of -9.0/sup 0/C. The salinity was assumed constant at 30 ppt. The initial temperature profile was linear, varying between -9.0/sup 0/C and a freezing point of -1.8/sup 0/C at the bottom of ice-bonded permafrost. The salinity was assumed constant at 30 ppt, and the ground surface was assumed to be changed to -0.8/sup 0/C following submergence. After a period of 10,000 years, the predicted ground temperature at a depth of 300 m was -3.55/sup 0/C and was still warming. The equivalent temperature in a soil with a discrete freezing point, would be 0.25/sup 0/C below the freezing point.

Nixon, J.F.

1985-01-01

200

Indirect electrochemical treatment of saline dyestuff wastewater.  

PubMed

Dyestuff wastewater is always found to contain highly-concentrated sodium chloride. In many cases, biological processes are not available to dispose saline dyestuff wastewater. In this paper, both direct a nd indirect electrochemical oxidation of saline dyestuff wastewater were carried out and the accessibility of indirect electrochemical oxidation by electrochemically generated hypochlorite was investigated. It was found that the indirect electrochemical process removed COD by 87% and color by 100% in 50 minutes while the direct electrochemical process removed COD by 47% and color by 50% in 5 hours. The rate-limiting step for hypochlorite evolution at the anode was found to be diffusion-controlled. For the two processes, COD removal kinetics could be simplified as the pseudo first-order kinetics. The rate constants of COD removal were 0.038 min(-1) and 0.0018 min(-1) for the indirect and direct oxidation respectively. Current efficiency of the indirect process was I while that of the direct process was 0.16; cost efficiency of the two processes was 8,000 mg-COD (kWh)(-1) and 1,000 mg-COD (kWh)(-1) respectively. It can be concluded that the indirect electrochemical process is a promising method for the disposal of saline dyestuff wastewater. PMID:11816771

Zhan, X M; Wang, J L; Wen, X H; Qian, Y

2001-09-01

201

The hydrography of the Mozambique Channel from six years of continuous temperature, salinity, and velocity observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature, salinity and velocity data are presented, along with the estimated volume transport, from seven full-length deep sea moorings placed across the narrowest part of the Mozambique Channel, southwest Indian Ocean, during the period November 2003 to December 2009. The dominant water mass in the upper layer is Sub-Tropical Surface Water (STSW) which overlies South Indian Central Water (SICW), and is normally capped by fresher Tropical Surface Water (TSW). Upper ocean salinity increased through 2005 as a result of saline STSW taking up a relatively larger part of the upper layer, at the expense of TSW. Upper waters are on average warmer and lighter in the central Channel than on the sides. Throughout the upper 1.5 km of the water column there is large hydrographic variability, short-term as well as interannual, and in particular at frequencies (four to seven cycles per year) associated with the southward passage of anticyclonic Mozambique Channel eddies. The eddies have a strong T-S signal, in the upper and central waters as well as on the intermediate level, as the eddies usually carry saline Red Sea Water (RSW) in their core. While the interannual frequency band displays an east-west gradient with higher temperature variance on the western side, the eddy frequency band shows highest variance in the centre of the Channel, where the eddy band contains about 40% of the total isopycnal hydrographic variability. Throughout the >6 years of measurements, the frequency and characteristics of eddies vary between periods, both in terms of strength and vertical structure of eddy T-S signals. These changes contribute to the interannual variability of water mass properties: an increase in central water salinity to a maximum in late 2007 coincided with a period of unusually frequent eddies with strong salinity signals. The warmest and most saline deep water is found within the northward flowing Mozambique Undercurrent, on the western side of the Channel. The Undercurrent has two cores: an intermediate one mainly containing diluted Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), and a deep one consisting of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). In the intermediate core, T-S properties are strongly correlated with current velocity, probably because of the strong salinity gradient at the interface between Red Sea Water (RSW) and AAIW. In the deep core, velocity and hydrographic time series do not correlate on a daily basis, but they do at longer time scales.

Ullgren, J. E.; van Aken, H. M.; Ridderinkhof, H.; de Ruijter, W. P. M.

2012-11-01

202

Interactive Effect Of Cobalt And Salinity On Tomato Plants I- Growth And Mineral Composition As Affected By Cobalt And Salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was carried out at the greenhouse, of Faculty of Agriculture Ain Shams University, during 2003 August 15th to study the interactive effect of cobalt and salinity on growth and mineral composition of two tomato varieties differing in their salt tolerance, namely Moneymaker (as salinity sensitive) and Edcawy (as salinity tolerance). A pot experiment was carried using acid washed

Nadia Gad

2005-01-01

203

Effects of liquid paraffin in the diet or infused via colonic enema on fecal elimination of /sup 14/C-hexachlorobenzene from body burdens in rats  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-one male rats were dosed once intraperitoneally with 32.2 mg /sup 14/C-hexachlorobenzene in corn oil (/sup 14/C-HCB activity 11.67 ..mu..Ci/rat). After 4 d, six rats were randomly selected, bled and hemi-castrated with sampling of epididymal adipose tissue to establish /sup 14/C-HCB body burdens. Thereafter, all rats were allocated randomly into three groups, each with five intact and two hemi-castrated rats. One group (controls) received only a basal diet; another received the basal diet amended with 5% light mineral oil (MO); and the third received the basal diet and 1 ml of MO once daily via enema in the upper colon. Treatments were continued throughout 27 d. Excretion of /sup 14/C-HCB and(or) metabolites into feces and urine was measured daily for each rat for 31 d after /sup 14/C-HCB dosage. Fecal excretion of /sup 14/C-HCB and(or) metabolites was increased 2.5-fold by dietary MO and 1.7-fold by MO in the colon. When adjusted to equal dosage, MO by colon was 93% as effective as MO by diet. Urinary /sup 14/C-HCB excretion was not affected by MO, except indirectly through lowered body burden. Addition of hexadecane (25 ..mu..l per 100 mg adipose tissue) into the incubation mixture enhanced (P < 0.05) distribution of /sup 14/C-HCB into the liquid fraction for rats not previously fed hexadecane, but had no effect on incubation mixtures from rats fed hexadecane. Results confirm that liquid paraffins enhance elimination of /sup 14/C-HCB from body burdens into feces and suggest that distribution into blood cells and plasma may partially explain the effect.

Robles-Porras, H.

1985-01-01

204

Evaporites and the Salinity of the Ocean During the Phanerozoic: Implications for Climate, Ocean Circulation and Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compilation of data on volumes and masses of evaporite deposits is used as the basis for reconstruction of the salinity of the ocean in the past. Chloride is tracked as the only ion essentially restricted to the ocean, and past salinities are calculated from reconstructed chlorine content of the ocean. Models for ocean salinity through the Phanerozoic are developed using maximal and minimal estimates of the volumes of existing evaporite deposits, and constant and declining volumes of ocean water through the Phanerozoic. We conclude that there have been significant changes in the mean salinity of the ocean accompanying a general decline throughout the Phanerozoic. The greatest changes are related to major extractions of salt into the ocean basins which developed during the Mesozoic as Pangaea broke apart. Unfortunately, the sizes of these salt deposits are also the least well known. The last major extractions of salt from the ocean occurred during the Miocene, shortly after the large scale extraction of water from the ocean to form the ice cap of Antarctica. However, these two modifications of the masses of H2O and salt in the ocean followed in sequence and did not cancel each other out. Accordingly, salinities during the Early Miocene were reconstructed to be between 37‰ and 39‰. The Mesozoic was a time of generally declining salinity associated with the deep sea salt extractions of the North Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico (Middle to Late Jurassic) and South Atlantic (Early Cretaceous). The earliest of the major extractions of the Phanerozoic occurred during the Permian. There were few large extractions of salt during the earlier Paleozoic. The models suggest that this was a time of relatively stable but slowly increasing salinities ranging through the upper 40‰'s into the lower 50‰'s. Higher salinities for the world ocean had profound consequences for the thermohaline circulation of the ocean in the past. In the modern ocean, with an average salinity of about 34.7‰, the density of water is only slightly affected by cooling as it approaches the freezing point. Consequently, salinization through sea-ice formation or evaporation is usually required to make water dense enough to sink into the ocean interior. At salinities above about 40‰ water continues to become more dense as it approaches the freezing point, and salinization is not required. The energy-consuming phase changes involved in sea-ice formation and evaporation would not be required for vertical circulation in the ocean. The hypothesized major declines in salinity correspond closely to the evolution of both planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannoplankton. Both groups were restricted to shelf regions in the Jurassic and early Cretaceous, but spread into the open ocean in the mid Cretaceous. The modeling also suggests that there was a major salinity decline in from the late Precambrian to the Cambrian, and it is tempting to speculate that this may have been a factor in the Cambrian explosion of life.

Floegel, S.; Hay, W. W.; Migdisov, A.; Balukhovsky, A. N.; Wold, C. N.; Soeding, E.

2005-12-01

205

Effect of sudden salinity change on Penaeus latisulcatus Kishinouye osmoregulation, ionoregulation and condition in inland saline water and potassium-fortified inland saline water.  

PubMed

Two trials were conducted to determine the effect of sudden decrease in salinity of raw and potassium-fortified inland saline water on western king prawn Penaeus latisulcatus osmoregulation, ionoregulation and condition. Prawns were subjected to salinity decrease over 1 h from 32 to 25 ppt in the first trial and from 27 to 20 ppt in the second trial in three water types: inland saline water with potassium fortified to 100% and 80% of the marine water concentration (IS100, IS80), and raw inland saline water (ISW). In the first trial condition and ingestion rate were monitored over 19 days following salinity change. In the second trial condition, haemolymph osmo- and iono-regulation were recorded over 48 h following salinity change. In the first trial, 100% mortality was observed in ISW by day 13, with final survival 94% in IS80 and 100% in IS100. Tail muscle moisture content increased significantly (P < 0.05) over time in both trials and in all water types, suggesting loss of energy reserves. In the second trial, serum osmolality, sodium concentration and osmoregulatory capacity decreased following salinity change, stabilising by 24 h in IS100 and IS80 but continuing to decrease till 48 h in ISW, suggesting partial breakdown of osmoregulatory function in the potassium-deficient medium. Prawns were stronger regulators of divalent than monovalent cations. These trials demonstrate that potassium-deficient inland saline water requires fortification with potassium to allow prawn survival and efficient osmoregulation. PMID:17030137

Prangnell, David I; Fotedar, Ravi

2006-12-01

206

Mapping Salinity Tolerance during Arabidopsis thaliana Germination and Seedling Growth  

PubMed Central

To characterize and dissect genetic variation for salinity tolerance, we assessed variation in salinity tolerance during germination and seedling growth for a worldwide sample of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. By combining QTL mapping, association mapping and expression data, we identified genomic regions involved in salinity response. Among the worldwide sample, we found germination ability within a moderately saline environment (150 mM NaCl) varied considerable, from >90% among the most tolerant lines to complete inability to germinate among the most susceptible. Our results also demonstrated wide variation in salinity tolerance within A. thaliana RIL populations and identified multiple genomic regions that contribute to this variation. These regions contain known candidate genes, but at least four of the regions contain loci not yet associated with salinity tolerance response phenotypes. Our observations suggest A. thaliana natural variation may be an underutilized resource for investigating salinity stress response. PMID:21857956

DeRose-Wilson, Leah; Gaut, Brandon S.

2011-01-01

207

Osmolytes in salinity-stressed Iris hexagona  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterize the salinity stress response of Iris hexagona, a freshwater species, by measuring three putative osmolytes, betaine, proline, and dimethylsulphonio-propionate (DMSP) in\\u000a plants after short (3 days) and long-term (4–5 months) exposure to NaCl. HPLC analyses show that untreated control leaves\\u000a contained 2.1, 0.2 and 3.2 mg g?1 DW of betaine, proline, and DMSP, respectively, and establish the presence of these compounds in

Yongyin Wang; Susan Mopper; Karl H. Hasenstein

2008-01-01

208

Effects of salinity and nutrient addition on mangrove Excoecaria agallocha.  

PubMed

Effects of salinity on seed germination and growth of young (1 month old) and old (2-year old) seedlings of Excoecaria agallocha were investigated. Combined effects of salinity and nutrient level were also examined on old seedlings. Seed germination was best at 0 and 5 psu salinity. 15 psu salinity significantly delayed root initiation and decreased final establishment rate. All seeds failed to establish at 25 psu salinity. Young seedlings performed best at 0 and 5 psu, but growth was stunned at 15 psu, and all seedlings died within 90 days at 25 psu. Old seedlings grew best at salinities below 5 psu and they survived the whole cultivation at 25 psu. This indicated that E. agallocha increased salt tolerance over time. Gas exchange was significantly compromised by salinities above 15 psu but evidently promoted by high nutrient. Proline accumulated considerably at high nutrient, and its contents increased from 0 to 15 psu but decreased at 25 psu salinity. Lipid peroxidation was aggravated by increasing salinity beyond 15 psu but markedly alleviated by nutrient addition. These responses indicated that E. agallocha was intolerant to high salinity but it can be greatly enhanced by nutrient addition. PMID:24691495

Chen, Yaping; Ye, Yong

2014-01-01

209

Diatom Cell Size, Coloniality and Motility: Trade-Offs between Temperature, Salinity and Nutrient Supply with Climate Change.  

PubMed

Reduction in body size has been proposed as a universal response of organisms, both to warming and to decreased salinity. However, it is still controversial if size reduction is caused by temperature or salinity on their own, or if other factors interfere as well. We used natural benthic diatom communities to explore how "body size" (cells and colonies) and motility change along temperature (2-26°C) and salinity (0.5-7.8) gradients in the brackish Baltic Sea. Fourth-corner analysis confirmed that small cell and colony sizes were associated with high temperature in summer. Average community cell volume decreased linearly with 2.2% per °C. However, cells were larger with artificial warming when nutrient concentrations were high in the cold season. Average community cell volume increased by 5.2% per °C of artificial warming from 0 to 8.5°C and simultaneously there was a selection for motility, which probably helped to optimize growth rates by trade-offs between nutrient supply and irradiation. Along the Baltic Sea salinity gradient cell size decreased with decreasing salinity, apparently mediated by nutrient stoichiometry. Altogether, our results suggest that climate change in this century may polarize seasonality by creating two new niches, with elevated temperature at high nutrient concentrations in the cold season (increasing cell size) and elevated temperature at low nutrient concentrations in the warm season (decreasing cell size). Higher temperature in summer and lower salinity by increased land-runoff are expected to decrease the average cell size of primary producers, which is likely to affect the transfer of energy to higher trophic levels. PMID:25279720

Svensson, Filip; Norberg, Jon; Snoeijs, Pauline

2014-01-01

210

Diatom Cell Size, Coloniality and Motility: Trade-Offs between Temperature, Salinity and Nutrient Supply with Climate Change  

PubMed Central

Reduction in body size has been proposed as a universal response of organisms, both to warming and to decreased salinity. However, it is still controversial if size reduction is caused by temperature or salinity on their own, or if other factors interfere as well. We used natural benthic diatom communities to explore how “body size” (cells and colonies) and motility change along temperature (2–26°C) and salinity (0.5–7.8) gradients in the brackish Baltic Sea. Fourth-corner analysis confirmed that small cell and colony sizes were associated with high temperature in summer. Average community cell volume decreased linearly with 2.2% per °C. However, cells were larger with artificial warming when nutrient concentrations were high in the cold season. Average community cell volume increased by 5.2% per °C of artificial warming from 0 to 8.5°C and simultaneously there was a selection for motility, which probably helped to optimize growth rates by trade-offs between nutrient supply and irradiation. Along the Baltic Sea salinity gradient cell size decreased with decreasing salinity, apparently mediated by nutrient stoichiometry. Altogether, our results suggest that climate change in this century may polarize seasonality by creating two new niches, with elevated temperature at high nutrient concentrations in the cold season (increasing cell size) and elevated temperature at low nutrient concentrations in the warm season (decreasing cell size). Higher temperature in summer and lower salinity by increased land-runoff are expected to decrease the average cell size of primary producers, which is likely to affect the transfer of energy to higher trophic levels. PMID:25279720

Svensson, Filip; Norberg, Jon; Snoeijs, Pauline

2014-01-01

211

STREAMBED INDUCTION LOGS: AN AIRBORNE APPROACH TO IDENTIFYING SALINITY SOURCES AND QUANTIFYING SALINITY LOADS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We delineated natural and oil-field salinity sources that degrade water quality in the upper Colorado River (west Texas) and Petronila Creek (Texas coast) by combining multifrequency airborne EM measurements of apparent ground conductivity with chemical analyses of surface water at key stream locations. To reduce the cost of high-resolution airborne surveying over such large areas, we first flew along the

Jeffrey G. Paine; Edward W. Collins; Austin H. S. Nance; Kerry L. Niemann

2006-01-01

212

Responses of freshwater biota to rising salinity levels and implications for saline water management: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

All of the plants and animals that make up freshwater aquatic communities are affected by salinity. Many taxa possess morphological, physiological and life-history characteristics that provide some capacity for tolerance, acclimatisation or avoidance. These characteristics impart a level of resilience to freshwater communities. To maintain biodiversity in aquatic systems it is important to manage the rate, timing, pattern, frequency and

Kimberley R. JamesA; Tom RyanB

213

Amoebae and Legionella pneumophila in saline environments  

PubMed Central

Amoeboid protists that harbor bacterial pathogens are of significant interest as potential reservoirs of disease-causing organisms in the environment, but little is known about them in marine and other saline environments. We enriched amoeba cultures from sediments from four sites in the New England estuarine system of Mt. Hope Bay, Massachusetts and from sediments from six sites in the Great Salt Lake, Utah. Cultures of amoebae were enriched using both minimal- and non-nutrient agar plates, made with fresh water, brackish water or saltwater. Recovered amoeba cultures were assayed for the presence of Legionella species using nested polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and primers specific for the genus. Positive samples were then screened with nested amplification using primers specific for the macrophage infectivity potentiator surface protein (mip) gene from L. pneumophila. Forty-eight percent (185 out of 388) of isolated amoeba cultures were positive for the presence of Legionella species. Legionella pneumophila was detected by PCR in 4% of the amoeba cultures (17 out of 388), and most of these amoebae were growing on marine media. Our results show that amoebae capable of growing in saline environments may harbor not only a diverse collection of Legionella species, but also species potentially pathogenic to humans. PMID:21301113

Gast, Rebecca J.; Moran, Dawn M.; Dennett, Mark R.; Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.; Amaral- Zettler, Linda A.

2011-01-01

214

SPOT5 imagery for soil salinity assessment in Iraq  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil salinization is a form of topsoil degradation due to the formation of soluble salts at deleterious levels. This phenomenon can seriously compromise vegetation health and agricultural productivity, and represents a worldwide environmental problem. Remote sensing is a very useful tool for soil salinization monitoring and assessment. In this work we show some results of a study aimed to define a methodology for soil salinity assessment in Iraq based on SPOT 5 imagery. This methodology allows the identification of salinized soils primarily on bare soils. Subsequently some soil salinity assessment can be done on vegetated soils. On bare soil the identification of salt is based on spectral analysis, using the Minimum Noise Fraction transformation and several indexes found in literature. In case of densely vegetated soils the methodology for the discrimination of salinized soils has been integrated with the results obtained from the classification of vegetation coverage.

Teggi, S.; Costanzini, S.; Despini, F.; Chiodi, P.; Immordino, F.

2012-10-01

215

[Physiological and molecular principles of plant salinity stress].  

PubMed

Due to the rising problem of salinity in modern agriculture, climate changes and global food crisis, the study of salinity stress is gaining the primary importance. The mechanism of plant response to salinity includes various processes that have to be coordinated. The high salinity leads to large accumulation of toxic ions (Na+, Cl-) in plant tissues, ion disequilibrium and hyperosmolarity. Salinity stress has a negative impact on plant nutrition and mineral homeostasis, particularly for Ca2+ and K+. The recent progress in trascriptomics, genomics and molecular biology has facilitated discoveries of new salt stress-related gene families. In this review the major fundamental principles of plant salt tolerance are described. Detailed analysis of main ion transport systems and their potential role in salinity stress is presented. The future perspective gene determinants, biotechnological and genetic strategies for enhancing salt tolerance in plants are discussed. PMID:23342649

Isaienkov, S V

2012-01-01

216

Effects of saline loading during head down tilt on ANP and cyclic GMP levels and on urinary fluid excretion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study the renal and humoral effects of acute saline infusions were investigated in six healthy male volunteers before, during and after a ten day period of -6° head-down-tilt (HDT). During the whole 23-day study period the subjects received a standardized diet including 40 ml water and 125 mg NaCl per kg body weight per day. After the infusion of 0.9% saline (22 ml/kg within 20 minutes) plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels were only slightly increased (not significant) at the end of the infusion, while plasma cyclic GMP levels were significantly increased by about 40% (p<0.05) one hour later. No difference was observed in the plasma ANP and cyclic GMP changes between the pre-HDT, the HDT and the post-HDT infusion experiment. Urine flow, sodium excretion and urinary cyclic GMP excretion were significantly increased (p<0.05 and below) by 100 to 300% during the second and third hour after each saline infusion. However, during these short-term periods only 20% of the infused water and less than 20% of the infused sodium were excreted. Furthermore, a significantly increased volume, sodium and cyclic GMP excretion was observed for over 48 hours after each fluid load experiment. These data suggest that HDT does not induce major alterations in the regulation of an acute saline infusion and plasma ANP does not play a major role in the diuretic/natriuretic effects of volume loading.

Drummer, C.; Lang, R. E.; Baisch, F.; Blomqvist, G.; Heer, M.; Gerzer, R.

217

Does salinity enhance Cd toxicity to soil alkaline phosphatase?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to provide data to assess the additive effects of soil salinity on the toxicity of Cd to soil alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1). Two soils (Langroud acid soil and Shervedan calcareous soil) were artificially salinized with NaCl. The natural and salinized soils were treated with CdSO4 solutions to give a Cd concentration in the range

Zahra Khan-Mohammadi; Farshid Nourbakhsh

2011-01-01

218

Effect of hypersaline cooling canals on aquifer salinization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined effect of salinity and temperature on density-driven convection was evaluated in this study for a large (28 km2) cooling canal system (CCS) at a thermoelectric power plant in south Florida, USA. A two-dimensional cross-section model\\u000a was used to evaluate the effects of hydraulic heterogeneities, cooling canal salinity, heat transport, and cooling canal geometry\\u000a on aquifer salinization and movement of

Joseph D. Hughes; Christian D. Langevin; Linzy Brakefield-Goswami

2010-01-01

219

Effect of hypersaline cooling canals on aquifer salinization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined effect of salinity and temperature on density-driven convection was evaluated in this study for a large (28 km2) cooling canal system (CCS) at a thermoelectric power plant in south Florida, USA. A two-dimensional cross-section model was used to evaluate the effects of hydraulic heterogeneities, cooling canal salinity, heat transport, and cooling canal geometry on aquifer salinization and movement

Joseph D. Hughes; Christian D. Langevin; Linzy Brakefield-Goswami

2010-01-01

220

Planting six tree species on soda-saline-alkali soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populus simonigra, Salix matsudana, Ulmus pumila, Populus nigra, Acer negundo, Fraxinus mandshurica. Tamarix chinensis, Hippophae\\u000a rhammoldes, Syriga onlata were planted on the soda-saline-alkali. The soil had pH 8.5–9.6, salinity 0.1%–0.3%, sodiumionized\\u000a ratio 16%–51% and normality ratio of saline base Na+\\/(Ca+++Mg++)>4. Populus simonigra grows very well on the all kinds of soda-saline-alkali soils except on the alkali sport with the worst

Zhang Yujiang; Liu Peng; Yang Dewei; Ma Chenghui; Liu Gang

1998-01-01

221

Comparing Volumes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lab is to investigate volume (capacity). Using multiplicative comparisons, students will try to predict how many times the amount of water of one container will fit in another container.

2011-01-01

222

The effects of salinity on the growth and survival of the postlarval stages of Gambusia affinis  

E-print Network

of MASTER OP SCIBNCB january l963 Ma Jor Subject: Biological Oceanography THE EFFECTS OF SALINIIY ON THE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF THE POSI'LARVAL STAGES OF GAMBUSIA AFFINIS A Thesis Glenn Erwln Omundson h aved as to style and content by: Irman of Com... on the growth of the poetlarval stages of Gambusia affinis, This was accomplished by controlling all environmental factors other than salinity, l. e. , temperature, food, light, pH and fish per unit volume of water. CHAPTER II MATERIALS AND METHODS...

Omundson, Glenn Erwin

2012-06-07

223

Crack nucleation mechanism in saline ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mechanism for crack nucleation in saline ice is presented, by considering a planar array of hexagonal grains containing the brine pockets as a model of poly crystalline saline ice. It is shown through a thermodynamic analysis that important local stresses arise associated with the internal pressure which builds up inside a brine pocket due to a drop in the temperature. As the temperature drops, the water inside the brine freezes, and because of the variation in the water density on freezing, this results in a buildup of pressure inside the pocket. For typical field conditions, assuming elastic behavior for the matrix, pressures as high as 7 MPa are estimated. Next, using a finite element method, the stress concentration at a grain triple junction is determined under the influence of the stress field associated with a nearby brine pocket. The resulting stress state is used to determine the condition for crack nucleation. The analysis is restricted to only elastic deformation regimes with isotropic grains, albeit with elastic constants corresponding to extreme values in a single freshwater ice crystal. The mechanism discussed here provides an explanation for the widely observed brine channels in sea ice. In addition, the effect of the externally applied stress is also considered, and the resulting stress singularities at the grain triple junctions analyzed by an asymptotic method as well as by a numerical solution. Both the strength and an approximate energy criteria suggest crack nucleation from the brine pocket surface towards the grain triple junction. The results are shown to be consistent with the experimental observations.

Picu, R. C.; Gupta, V.; Frost, H. J.

1994-06-01

224

Salinity of oceanic hydrothermal fluids: a fluid inclusion study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensive microthermometric study of quartz, epidote, plagioclase, anhydrite and sphalerite-hosted fluid inclusions from ophiolitic [Semail (Oman) and Trinity (California) ophiolites] and oceanic (East Pacific Rise hydrothermal vents, Gorringe Bank, ODP Leg 111 Hole 504B) crust has been carried out in order to constrain a model accounting for wide salinity variations measured in the oceanic hydrothermal fluids. Recorded salinities in fluid inclusions vary between 0.3 and 52 wt% NaCl eq. However, more than 60% of the mean (± standard deviation) salinities of the samples are within the range 3.2 ± 0.3wt% NaCl eq (= microthermometric error) and the mean salinity of all fluid inclusions (without the brines) is 4.0 wt% NaCl eq with a standard deviation of 1.6 wt% NaCl eq. Whereas most samples display slightly higher salinities than seawater, several samples exhibit very high salinities (more than two times that of seawater). These high salinities are restricted to the plagiogranites (Semail and Trinity ophiolites) which mark the top of the fossil magma chamber, in the transition zone between the plutonic sequence and the sheeted dyke complex. The fluid inclusion population studied in the plagiogranites is characterized by the occurrence of four major fluid inclusion families: (1) low- to medium-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions which homogenize into the liquid phase; (2) low-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions with pseudocritical homogenization; (3) low- to medium-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions which homogenize into the vapor phase; and (4) high-salinity Liquid/Vapor/Halite fluid inclusions which homogenize into the liquid phase by halite dissolution and exhibit salinities as high as 52 wt% NaCl eq. These fluid inclusion families are interpreted as resulting from phase separation occurring in hydrothermal or magmatic fluids within the transition zone between the hydrothermal system and the magma chamber at temperatures higher than 500°C. Very low salinities (less than half that of seawater) have been found only in one dioritic sample from the Gorringe Bank. Mineralogical and petrological data from the Semail Ophiolite shows the absence of Cl-rich minerals. Furthermore, hydration of the crust, although very important, cannot account for the large salinity variations. Thus the large salinity variations measured are interpreted as resulting from phase separation and generation of brine-rich fluids at the top of the magma chamber. This phase separation and subsequent phase segregation and brine accumulation may result in a double-diffusive convection of the fluids in the hydrothermal system.

Nehlig, Pierre

1991-03-01

225

Reclamation of highly calcareous saline-sodic soil using low quality water and phosphogypsum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency of two amendments in reclaiming saline sodic soil using moderately saline (EC) and moderate sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) canal water was investigated. Phosphogypsum (PG) and reagent grade calcium chloride were applied to packed sandy loam soil columns and leached with canal water (SAR = 4, and EC = 2.16 dS m-1). Phosphogypsum was mixed with top soil prior to leaching at application rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 35, 40 Mg ha-1, whereas calcium chloride was dissolved directly in water at equivalent rates of 4.25, 8.5, 12.75, 17.0, 21.25, 29.75, and 34 Mg ha-1, respectively. Both amendments efficiently reduced soil salinity and sodicity. Calcium chloride removed 90 % of the total Na and soluble salts whereas PG removed 79 and 60 %, respectively. Exchangeable sodium percentage was reduced by 90 % in both amendments. Results indicated that during cation exchange reactions most of the sodium was removed when effluent SAR was at maximum. Phosphogypsum has lower total costs than calcium chloride and as an efficient amendment an application of 30 Mg ha-1 and leaching with 4 pore volume (PV) of canal water could be recommended to reclaim the studied soil.

Gharaibeh, M. A.; Rusan, M. J.; Eltaif, N. I.; Shunnar, O. F.

2014-09-01

226

Neurohypophyseal response to fluid resuscitation with hypertonic saline during septic shock in rats.  

PubMed

Septic shock is a serious condition with a consequent drop in blood pressure and inadequate tissue perfusion. Small-volume resuscitation with hypertonic saline (HS) has been proposed to restore physiological haemodynamics during haemorrhagic and endotoxic shock. In the present study, we sought to determine the effects produced by an HS infusion in rats subjected to caecal ligation and perforation (CLP). Male Wistar rats were randomly grouped and submitted to either CLP or sham surgery. Either HS (7.5% NaCl, 4 ml kg(-1) i.v.) or isotonic saline (IS; 0.9% NaCl, 4 ml kg(-1) i.v.) was administered 6 h after CLP. Recordings of mean arterial pressure and heart rate were made during this protocol. Moreover, measurements of electrolyte, vasopressin and oxytocin secretion were analysed after either the HS or the IS treatment. Six hours after CLP, we observed a characteristic decrease in mean arterial pressure that occurs after CLP. The HS infusion in these rats produced a transient elevation of the plasma sodium concentration and osmolality and increased plasma vasopressin and oxytocin levels. Moreover, the HS infusion could restore the mean arterial pressure after CLP, which was completely blunted by the previous injection of the vasopressin but not the oxytocin antagonist. The present study demonstrated that rats subjected to CLP and an infusion of hypertonic saline respond with secretion of neurohypophyseal hormones and a transient increase in blood pressure mediated by the V(1) receptor. PMID:22903979

Santiago, Michael Brian; Vieira, Alexandre Antonio; Elias, Lucila L K; Rodrigues, José Antunes; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

2013-02-01

227

Seed germination and salinity tolerance in plant species growing on saline wastelands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven plant species including three chenopods:Suaeda fruticosa, Kochia indica, Atriplex crassifolia and four grasses:Sporobolus arabicus, Cynodon dactylon, Polypogon monspeliensis, Desmostachya bipinnata, varied greatly in their seed germination and growth responses to soil moisture or salinity. The germination percentage of\\u000a each species was significantly lower at soil moisture level of 25 % of water holding capacity than at the levels ranging

K. Mahmood; K. A. Malik; M. A. K. Lodhi; K. H. Sheikh

1996-01-01

228

The Effect of Crystalloid Resuscitation in Hemorrhagic Shock on Acid-Base Balance: A Comparison between Normal Saline and Ringer's Lactate Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twelve dogs were bled into profound hemorrhagic shock and then resuscitated with either Ringer's lactate or normal saline solution alone in a volume ratio of 3:1 (infusion: shed blood). Resuscitation was carried out over a 75 minute period. Hemodynamic an...

A. G. Coran, T. V. Ballantine, D. L. Horwitz, C. M. Herman

1970-01-01

229

Factors affecting the hydrogen isotopic composition of dissolved organic matter along a salinity gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) in regulating estuarine ecosystem processes is poorly understood, in part due to difficulties in tracking terrestrial DOM in marine environments. Analysis of multiple stable isotopes (C, N, S) is often required due to poor separation of the carbon isotope signatures of marine and terrestrial sources. However, hydrogen isotopes exhibit greater fractionation. Marine DOM sources have a hydrogen isotope signature of 0‰ while terrestrial DOM can have signatures of up to -270‰ at the poles. Some challenges must be addressed before hydrogen isotopes can be used to track terrestrial DOM in aquatic environments. Hydrogen isotopes may undergo exchange between water and organic matter, obscuring terrestrial signatures. Riverine discharge into marine environments introduces terrestrial DOM to water of different chemical and isotopic compositions which could influence the isotopic composition of the terrestrial DOM. We investigate the effects of changes in water isotopic composition on DOM by introducing terrestrial DOM to freshwaters of isotopic compositions up to +1000‰ for up to two months. We also use surface water samples along a salinity transect at the Salmonier Arm, Newfoundland, Canada to investigate the effects of changes in water mass conditions (pH, salinity and water isotopes) on terrestrial DOM. In addition to changes in water mass conditions, methods for isolating estuarine DOM may regulate affect its isotopic composition. Ultrafiltration (UF), a size-exclusion technique, has been shown to isolate and concentrate the largest proportion of DOM in estuarine environments. UF separates DOM into low molecular weight (LMW, <1kDa) and high molecular weight (HMW, >1kDa) fractions. However, under certain processing conditions, some LMW DOM can be retained. During desalting (diafiltration), LMW DOM continues to be removed from the concentrate, whereas HMW DOM is retained. The proportion of LMW DOM retained becomes important when UF is used in environments requiring a range of diafiltration volumes, such as along a salinity transect in an estuary. As ~70% of marine DOM is LMW, UF-processed estuarine samples likely show a bias toward the terrestrial DOM component which will likely impact its isotopic composition. We examine the effects of DOM recovery following ultrafiltration and diafiltration on its bulk stable isotopic signatures along a salinity transect at the Salmonier Arm. Freshwater, high and intermediate salinity samples are diafiltered using a range of volumes, resulting in differences in recovery. DOM recovery, and isotopic signatures are compared across each treatment and along the transect. Results from these experimental and field samples are expected to provide key insight into the utility of hydrogen isotopes for understanding the transport and fate of terrestrial DOM in the marine environment.

Debond, A. A.; Ziegler, S. E.; Fogel, M. L.; Morrill, P. L.; Bowden, R.

2010-12-01

230

Sedimentology and geochemistry of saline lakes of the Great Plains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern Saskatchewan and portions of adjacent Alberta, North Dakota and Montana are occupied by hundreds of saline and hypersaline lakes ranging in size from small prairie potholes (less than 1 km2) to relatively large bodies of water (greater than 300 km2). From a sedimentological perspective, distinction must be made between two basic types of saline lakes: playas and perennial lakes.

W. M. Last; T. H. Schweyen

1983-01-01

231

Salinity of oceanic hydrothermal fluids: a fluid inclusion study  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive microthermometric study of quartz, epidote, plagioclase, anhydrite and sphalerite-hosted fluid inclusions from ophiolitic [Semail (Oman) and Trinity (California) ophiolites] and oceanic (East Pacific Rise hydrothermal vents, Gorringe Bank, ODP Leg 111 Hole 504B) crust has been carried out in order to constrain a model accounting for wide salinity variations measured in the oceanic hydrothermal fluids. Recorded salinities in

Pierre Nehlig

1991-01-01

232

Analysis of Production-Water-Salinity of Index Crops in  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One method to investigate the advantages of irrigation in cultivation is to evaluate the amount of increase in productions as a result of irrigation. Such relations which usually characterized by mathematics formulas or curves are called production to water function. In the agricultural analysis like pattern optimization and culture accumulation, we need some function like agricultural crops production, water and salinity. The amount of water used and salinity has influence on crops function, so that by increase in both components in various stages of plant growth, crop function decreases. Many researches have been performed on production-water and production-salinity function, therefore less researches on production-water-salinity components. The equation provided by Letey and Dinar (1986) is a sample of these researches. Their model is a quadratics equation from independent variables of water salinity in irrigation (ECi) and dimensionless proportion of the amount of water used to evaporation in class A (AW/EP) in plant growth stage. Therefore, by using this model and parameters like evaporation, rainfall and also quantity and quality water potential in Golestan farmlands, we obtained production-water-salinity components for each product in three different areas across Golestan province (moisture to dry areas). These products include sunflower, cotton, wheat, barely, potato, tomato, corn, sorgom, water melon, soybean and rice. Finally, these equations were compared by results of previous experiments, some results correspond and others were different. Key Word: production-water, production-salinity and production-water-salinity function, Letey and Dinar, Golestan.

Sharifan, H.; Ghahreman, B.

2009-04-01

233

On observing acoustic backscattering from salinity turbulence Louis Goodmana)  

E-print Network

. In the ocean, den- sity and sound speed fluctuations, which arise from tempera- ture and salinity fluctuations, induce acoustic impedance fluctuations which can result in the directional scattering of sound waves salinity diffusivity is 100 times smaller than that of the molecular temperature diffusivity, the spatial

Goodman, Louis

234

Growth response of four turfgrass species to salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for salinity tolerant turfgrasses is increasing because of the increased use of effluent or other low quality waters for turfgrass irrigation. Greenhouse container and hydroponic experiments were conducted to determine the relative salinity tolerance and growth responses of ‘Challenger’ Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) (KBG), ‘Arid’ tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) (TF), ‘Fults’ alkaligrass (Puccinellia distans (L.) Parl.)

S. F. Alshammary; Y. L. Qian; S. J. Wallner

2004-01-01

235

ORIGINAL PAPER The effect of pulsed versus gradual salinity reduction  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER The effect of pulsed versus gradual salinity reduction on the physiology / Accepted: 13 March 2012 Ã? Springer-Verlag 2012 Abstract Plants of Halophila johnsonii Eiseman were exposed, in mesocosms, to either pulsed hyposalinity treatments of 30, 15, 10, and 8 or gradual salinity reduc- tions

Durako, Michael J.

236

Phosphorus influence on the response of pasture plants to salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil salinity is a growing global problem, as the presence of salts in soils is known to impact on the growth of various plants. One feasible means suggested for limiting the impacts of salinity is the use of nutrient fertilisers. This project was initiated to access whether the use of phosphate fertiliser would benefit the growth of pasture plant species.

Kanjanarat Cho-Ruk

2003-01-01

237

Surface temperature and salinity variations between Tasmania and Antarctica, 19931999  

E-print Network

the temperature data. The Levitus climatological and Reynolds satellite monthly mean sea surface temperature dataSurface temperature and salinity variations between Tasmania and Antarctica, 1993­1999 Alexis 2002. [1] Continuous surface temperature and salinity measurements have been collected onboard a supply

238

EVALUATION OF IRRIGATION METHODS FOR SALINITY CONTROL IN GRAND VALLEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Irrigation return flows in the Upper Colorado River Basin carry large salt loads as a result of contact with the saline soils and the marine derived geologic substratum. The Grand Valley of western Colorado is a major contributor to the salinity problems of the basin and is, ther...

239

Hurricane-induced failure of low salinity wetlands.  

PubMed

During the 2005 hurricane season, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527 km(2) of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained robust and largely unchanged. Here we highlight geotechnical differences between the soil profiles of high and low salinity regimes, which are controlled by vegetation and result in differential erosion. In low salinity wetlands, a weak zone (shear strength 500-1450 Pa) was observed approximately 30 cm below the marsh surface, coinciding with the base of rooting. High salinity wetlands had no such zone (shear strengths > 4500 Pa) and contained deeper rooting. Storm waves during Hurricane Katrina produced shear stresses between 425-3600 Pa, sufficient to cause widespread erosion of the low salinity wetlands. Vegetation in low salinity marshes is subject to shallower rooting and is susceptible to erosion during large magnitude storms; these conditions may be exacerbated by low inorganic sediment content and high nutrient inputs. The dramatic difference in resiliency of fresh versus more saline marshes suggests that the introduction of freshwater to marshes as part of restoration efforts may therefore weaken existing wetlands rendering them vulnerable to hurricanes. PMID:20660777

Howes, Nick C; FitzGerald, Duncan M; Hughes, Zoe J; Georgiou, Ioannis Y; Kulp, Mark A; Miner, Michael D; Smith, Jane M; Barras, John A

2010-08-10

240

Reagents and Solutions Albumin-Dextrose-Saline (ADS)  

E-print Network

-Dextrose-Saline (ADS) or Oleic Acid-Dextrose-Catalase (OADC) 10 ml 50% glycerol 2.5 ml 20% Tween-80 Dissolve with stirring for 30 min. Add 100 ml Albumin-Dextrose-Saline (ADS) or Oleic Acid-Albumin-Dextrose-Catalase (OADC

241

Stable carbon isotopes in bivalve shells as a salinity proxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (?13C-DIC) often vary with salinity in estuarine settings. Variations of salinity in estuaries also complicate temperature reconstructions based on oxygen isotope values in biological carbonates. Therefore having a salinity proxy could assist in estuarine temperature reconstruction as well as providing data on freshwater discharge into the estuary. Unfortunately, ?13C values in bivalve shells are potentially influenced by several sources of carbon including DIC, metabolic carbon and sediment pore-water DIC. This study first investigates the influence of these three potential carbon sources in the Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) reared under laboratory conditions and then in the field during a two-year monitoring study. Metabolic carbon remained fairly constant in the laboratory (~12%) and we did not detect any difference between clams living in organic rich sediments and those in sediment free aquaria. There was a strong correlation between ?13C-shell and ?13C-DIC (r2=0.77) indicating that ?13C-shell can be used as a relative salinity indicator. In the field, calculated salinities were within the range of recorded salinities (± 5 salinity units), but there were significant differences between individuals. This study highlights the potential of using ?13C in bivalve shells as a salinity proxy, but also illustrates that large uncertainties are associated with this proxy.

Gillikin, D. P.; Poulain, C.; Mas, R.; Woule Ebongue, V.; Robert, R.; Paulet, Y.; Lorrain, A.

2010-12-01

242

Effects of salinity on the growth of Phragmites australis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field salinity tolerance of Phragmites australis was evaluated by investigating 27 natural reed habitats along the eastern and western coasts of Jutland, Denmark. Die-back took place in the lower fringe of stands, before the onset of flowering, at sites where soil water salinities were higher than 15‰ within the rooting depth. In greenhouse experiments, juvenile plants produced from seeds

Jørgen Lissner; Hans-Henrik Schierup

1997-01-01

243

High-latitude salinity effects and interhemispheric thermohaline circulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general circulation model for the ocean is used to investigate the interaction between the global-scale thermohaline circulation and the salinity distribution. It is shown that an equatorially asymmetric circulation can be maintained even under equatorially symmetric basin geometry and surface forcing. Multiple equilibrium solutions are obtained for the same forcing by perturbing the high-latitude salinity field in an otherwise

Frank Bryan

1986-01-01

244

Ecological risk to aquatic systems from salinity increases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity is a major problem in many regions of Australia, and is predicted to get considerably worse over the next 30-50 years. Most effort has focused on the terrestrial environment, and specifically on the loss of productive agricultural land. Increased salinity can also result in unwanted changes to aquatic ecosystems in rivers, streams and particularly wetlands. This paper first reviews

Barry T. HartA; P. S. LakeB; J. Angus WebbA; Michael R. GraceA

245

Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)  

MedlinePLUS

... about 5 feet long in adults and absorbs water and any remaining nutrients from partially digested food passed from the small intestine. The large intestine then changes waste from liquid to a solid matter called stool. Stool passes from the colon to ...

246

Investigation of Lake Water Salinity by Using Four-Band Salinity Algorithm on WorldView-2 Satellite Image for a Saline Industrial Lake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinity of a lake is an important characteristic since, these are potentially industrial lakes and the degree of salinity can significantly be used for determination of mineral resources and for the production management. In the literature, there are many studies of using satellite data for salinity related lake studies such as determination of salinity distribution and detection of potential freshwater sources in less salt concentrated regions. As the study area Lake Acigol, located in Denizli (Turkey) was selected. With it's saline environment, it's the major sodium sulphate production resource of Turkey. In this study, remote sensing data and data from a field study was used and correlated. Remote sensing is an efficient tool to monitor and analyze lake properties by using it complementary to field data. Worldview-2 satellite data was used in this study which consists of 8 bands. At the same time with the satellite data acquisition, a field study was conducted to collect the salinity values in 17 points of the laker with using YSI 556 Multiparametre for measurements. The values were measured as salinity amount in grams per kilogram solution and obtained as ppt unit. It was observed that the values vary from 34 ppt - 40.1 ppt and the average is 38.056 ppt. In Thalassic serie, the lake was in mixoeuhaline state in the time of issue. As a first step, ATCOR correction was performed on satellite image for atmospheric correction. There were some clouds on the lake field, hence it was decided to continue the study by using the 12 sampling points which were clear on the image. Then, for each sampling point, a spectral value was obtained by calculating the average at a 11*11 neighborhood. The relation between the spectral reflectance values and the salinity was investigated. The 4-band algorithm, which was used for determination of chlorophyll-a distribution in highly turbid coastal environment by Wei (2012) was applied. Salinity ? (?i-1 / ?j-1) * (?k-1 / ?m-1) (i,j,k,m=1..8) (i? j? k? m) By using each band of WV-2 and possible combinationsfor 4-band algorithm, 1680 band combinations were used to get the correlation with the in-situ measured salinity values. As a result the highest correlation (R=0.926) was found. The correlation coefficient of the 4-band algorithm indices (?Coastal-1 / ?NIR2-1) * (?Red-1 / ?Green-1) and the salinity values was R2=0.86.

Budako?lu, Murat; Karaman, Muhittin; Damla Uça Avc?, Z.; Kumral, Mustafa; Geredeli (Y?lmaz), Serpil

2014-05-01

247

NASA Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space Education Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The educational resources and activities on this Web site teach fundamental concepts about salinity variations and the role these changes play in controlling global ocean circulation and Earthâs climate. The modules augment existing El Nino/La Nina materials with salinity-based content, provide on-line interactive tools demonstrating environmental change through data sets and in situ time-series analysis, and engage students in activities designed to demonstrate salt-water interactions. Launched in June 2011, NASAâs Aquarius will provide the first global map of sea surface salinity with unprecedented accuracy, resolution and coverage. The importance of salinity measurements in understanding coastal ocean processes is critical as salinity is a key factor in understanding and predicting biological and physical processes and their interactions with the food web, climate, and global water cycle.

2007-01-01

248

Is bacteriostatic saline superior to normal saline as an echocardiographic contrast agent?  

PubMed

Objective data on the performance characteristics and physical properties of commercially available saline formulations [normal saline (NS) vs. bacteriostatic normal saline (bNS)] are sparse. This study sought to compare the in vitro physical properties and in vivo characteristics of two commonly employed echocardiographic saline contrast agents in an attempt to assess superiority. Nineteen patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiograms were each administered agitated regular NS and bNS injections in random order and in a blinded manner according to a standardized protocol. Video time-intensity (TI) curves were constructed from a representative region of interest, placed paraseptally within the right atrium, in the bicaval view. TI curves were analyzed for maximal plateau acoustic intensity (Vmax, dB) and dwell time (DT, s), defined as time duration between onset of Vmax and decay of video intensity below clinically useful levels, reflecting the duration of homogenous opacification of the right atrium. To further characterize the physical properties of the bubbles in vitro, fixed aliquots of similarly agitated saline were injected into a glass well slide-cover slip assembly and examined using an optical microscope to determine bubble diameter in microns (µm) and concentration [bubble count/high power field (hpf)]. A higher acoustic intensity (a less negative dB level), higher bubble concentration and longer DT were considered properties of a superior contrast agent. For statistical analysis, a paired t test was conducted to evaluate the differences in means of Vmax and DT. Compared to NS, bNS administration was associated with superior opacification (video intensity -8.69 ± 4.7 vs. -10.46 ± 4.1 dB, P = 0.002), longer DT (17.3 ± 6.1 vs. 10.2 ± 3.7 s) in vivo and smaller mean bubble size (43.4 vs. 58.6 ?m) and higher bubble concentration (1,002 vs. 298 bubble/hpf) in vitro. bNS provides higher intensity and more sustained opacification of the right atrium compared to NS. Higher bubble concentration and stability appear to be additional desirable rheological characteristics favoring bNS as a contrast agent. PMID:25017710

Cardozo, Shaun; Gunasekaran, Prasad; Patel, Hena; McGorisk, Timothy; Toosi, Mehrdad; Faraz, Haroon; Zalawadiya, Sandip; Alesh, Issa; Kottam, Anupama; Afonso, Luis

2014-12-01

249

Messinian Salinity Crisis and basin fluid flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Syn- and post-depositional movement of fluids through sediments is one of the least understood aspects in the evolution of a basin. The conventional hydrostratigraphic view on marine sedimentary basins assumes that compactional and meteoric groundwater fluid circulation drives fluid movement and defines its timing. However, in the past few years, several examples of instantaneous and catastrophic release of fluids have been observed even through low-permeability sediments. A particularly complex case-study involves the presence of giant salt bodies in the depocentres of marine basins. Evaporites dramatically change the hydrostratigraphy and fluid-dynamics of the basin, and influence the P/T regimes, e.g. through changes in the geothermal gradient and in the compaction of underlying sediments. Our paper reviews the impact of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and evaporites on fluid flow in the Mediterranean sub-basins. The analysis of geological and geophysical sub-surface data provides examples from this basin, and the comparison with analogues in other well-known evaporitic provinces. During the MSC, massive sea-level changes occurred in a relatively limited time interval, and affected the balance of fluid dynamics, e.g. with sudden release or unusual trapping of fluids. Fluid expulsion events are here analysed and classified in relation to the long and short-term effects of the MSC. Our main aim is to build a framework for the correct identification of the fluid flow-related events, and their genetic mechanisms. On basin margins, where evaporites are thin or absent, the sea-level changes associated with the MSC force a rapid basinward shift of the mixing zone of meteoric/gravity flow and saline/compactional flow, 100s-km away from its pre-MSC position. This phenomenon changes the geometry of converging flows, creates hydraulic traps for fluids, and triggers specific diagenetic reactions in pre-MSC deep marine sediments. In basin-centre settings, unloading and re-loading of water associated to the sea-level changes leads to the sudden release of focused fluids, enhancing pockmark formation, evaporite dissolution, gas-hydrate dissociation and methane venting. After the MSC, and in the long-term basin evolution, the aquitard effect of the thick evaporites also created favourable condition for the development of overpressures in the pre-MSC sediments. However, the traditional view of saline giants as impermeable barriers to fluid flow has been challenged in recent years, by the documented evidence of fluid migration pathways through thick evaporites. Ultimately, these events can lead not only to fluid, but also to sediment remobilisation. The review here presented has applications as a tool for identifying, quantifying and understanding controls and timing of fluid dynamics in marine basins hosting extensive evaporitic series.

Bertoni, Claudia; Cartwight, Joe

2014-05-01

250

Genetic variation and plasticity of Plantago coronopus under saline conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenotypic plasticity may allow organisms to cope with variation in the environmental conditions they encounter in their natural habitats. Salt adaptation appears to be an excellent example of such a plastic response. Many plant species accumulate organic solutes in response to saline conditions. Comparative and molecular studies suggest that this is an adaptation to osmotic stress. However, evidence relating the physiological responses to fitness parameters is rare and requires assessing the potential costs and benefits of plasticity. We studied the response of thirty families derived from plants collected in three populations of Plantago coronopus in a greenhouse experiment under saline and non-saline conditions. We indeed found a positive selection gradient for the sorbitol percentage under saline conditions: plant families with a higher proportion of sorbitol produced more spikes. No effects of sorbitol on fitness parameters were found under non-saline conditions. Populations also differed genetically in leaf number, spike number, sorbitol concentration and percentages of different soluble sugars. Salt treatment led to a reduction of vegetative biomass and spike production but increased leaf dry matter percentage and leaf thickness. Both under saline and non-saline conditions there was a negative trade-off between vegetative growth and reproduction. Families with a high plasticity in leaf thickness had a lower total spike length under non-saline conditions. This would imply that natural selection under predominantly non-saline conditions would lead to a decrease in the ability to change leaf morphology in response to exposure to salt. All other tests revealed no indication for any costs of plasticity to saline conditions.

Smekens, Marret J.; van Tienderen, Peter H.

2001-08-01

251

Geochemical tracers to evaluate hydrogeologic controls on river salinization.  

PubMed

The salinization of rivers, as indicated by salinity increases in the downstream direction, is characteristic of arid and semiarid regions throughout the world. Historically, salinity increases have been attributed to various mechanisms, including (1) evaporation and concentration during reservoir storage, irrigation, and subsequent reuse; (2) displacement of shallow saline ground water during irrigation; (3) erosion and dissolution of natural deposits; and/or (4) inflow of deep saline and/or geothermal ground water (ground water with elevated water temperature). In this study, investigation of salinity issues focused on identification of relative salinity contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources in the Lower Rio Grande in the New Mexico-Texas border region. Based on the conceptual model of the system, the various sources of water and, therefore, salinity to the Lower Rio Grande were identified, and a sampling plan was designed to characterize these sources. Analysis results for boron (delta(11)B), sulfur (delta(34)S), oxygen (delta(18)O), hydrogen (delta(2)H), and strontium ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) isotopes, as well as basic chemical data, confirmed the hypothesis that the dominant salinity contributions are from deep ground water inflow to the Rio Grande. The stable isotopic ratios identified the deep ground water inflow as distinctive, with characteristic isotopic signatures. These analyses indicate that it is not possible to reproduce the observed salinization by evapotranspiration and agricultural processes alone. This investigation further confirms that proper application of multiple isotopic and geochemical tracers can be used to identify and constrain multiple sources of solutes in complex river systems. PMID:18266732

Moore, Stephanie J; Bassett, R L; Liu, Beiling; Wolf, Christopher P; Doremus, Dale

2008-01-01

252

Saline groundwater in Mono Basin, California. 1. Distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mono Lake, California is a perennial, closed-basin saline lake. Up to 2 km of sediments have accumulated below the lake, and a well log shows that saline groundwater of concentration >18,000 ppm extends to the bottom of the basin fill. We investigated the groundwater system with the variable-density flow and solute transport code SUTRA to determine if the basin's recharge and inferred groundwater salinity are consistent with observational data. Steady state model predictions of the position and shape of the interface separating saline from fresh groundwater are consistent with the salinity profile derived from the spontaneous-potential (SP) log of a geothermal well on the lake's shoreline. We also inferred the basin-wide saline groundwater distribution and concentration from experiments with a steady state model of the entire basin groundwater system. Hydrologic variations around the lake determine the position of the saline-fresh groundwater interface: Higher recharge rates characteristic of the Sierra Nevada shoreline push the interface far beneath the lake. The interface probably lies below the shoreline around much of the rest of the lake. On the low-recharge northeastern shoreline the interface top may lie outside the lake edge. This positions the saline groundwater discharge zone just below the playa surface and contributes to development of salt flats on the recently exposed former lake bed. Simulations suggest that the basin fill permeability may not have significant anisotropy, possibly owing to extensive faulting which increases vertical permeability. For an anisotropic basin fill, the resultant increased channeling of recharge beneath the lake readily overcomes the opposing force of the saline groundwater density, and it is flushed out of the basin sediments. A simple permeability representation of the basin lithology, with low permeability below the lake and an anisotropic transition to higher permeability outside the lake, reasonably represents the well and spring water salinity observations.

Rogers, David B.; Dreiss, Shirley J.

253

Pleistocene recharge to midcontinent basins: effects on salinity structure and microbial gas generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrogeochemistry of saline-meteoric water interface zones in sedimentary basins is important in constraining the fluid migration history, chemical evolution of basinal brines, and physical stability of saline formation waters during episodes of freshwater recharge. This is especially germane for interior cratonic basins, such as the Michigan and Illinois basins. Although there are large differences in formation water salinity and hydrostratigraphy in these basins, both are relatively quiescent tectonically and have experienced repeated cycles of glaciation during the Pleistocene. Exploration for unconventional microbial gas deposits, which began in the upper Devonian-age Antrim Shale at the northern margin of the Michigan Basin, has recently extended into the age-equivalent New Albany Shale of the neighboring Illinois Basin, providing access to heretofore unavailable fluid samples. These reveal an extensive regional recharge system that has profoundly changed the salinity structure and induced significant biogeochemical modification of formation water elemental and isotope geochemistry. New-formation water and gas samples were obtained from Devonian-Mississippian strata in the Illinois Basin. These included exploration wells in the New Albany Shale, an organic-rich black shale of upper Devonian age, and formation waters from over- and underlying regional aquifer systems (Siluro-Devonian and Mississippian age). The hydrostratigraphic relations of major aquifers and aquitards along the eastern margin of the Illinois Basin critically influenced fluid migration into the New Albany Shale. The New Albany Shale formation water chemistry indicates significant invasion of meteoric water, with ?D values as low as -46.05‰, into the shale. The carbon stable isotope system (? 13C values as high as 29.4‰), coupled with ? 18O, ?D, and alkalinity of formation waters (alkalinity ?24.08 meq/kg), identifies the presence of microbial gas associated with meteoric recharge. Regional geochemical patterns identify the underlying Siluro-Devonian carbonate aquifer system as the major conduit for freshwater recharge into the fractured New Albany Shale reservoirs. Recharge from overlying Mississippian carbonates is only significant in the southernmost portion of the basin margin where carbonates directly overlie the New Albany Shale. Recharge of dilute waters (Cl - <1000 mM) into the Siluro-Devonian section has suppressed formation water salinity to depths as great as 1 km across the entire eastern Illinois Basin margin. Taken together with salinity and stable isotope patterns in age-equivalent Michigan Basin formation waters, they suggest a regional impact of recharge of ? 18O- and ?D-depleted fluids related to Pleistocene glaciation. Devonian black shales at both basin margins have been affected by recharge and produced significant volumes of microbial methane. This recharge is also manifested in different salinity gradients in the two basins because of their large differences in original formation water salinity. Given the relatively quiet tectonic history and subdued current topography in the midcontinent region, it is likely that repeated cycles of glacial meltwater invasion across this region have induced a strong disequilibrium pattern in fluid salinity and produced a unique class of unconventional shale-hosted gas deposits.

McIntosh, J. C.; Walter, L. M.; Martini, A. M.

2002-05-01

254

[Spatial variability of soil nutrients and salinity in coastal saline-alkali land based on belt transect method].  

PubMed

A north-south transect was established in the saline-alkali land of Yellow River old course at Diaokou of northern Yellow River Delta, Shandong Province of East China to analyze the spatial distribution characteristics of soil nutrients and salinity and related affecting factors by using geostatistics method. In the study area, the nugget/still of soil organic matter, total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorus (AP), and available potassium (AK) contents and soil salinity were 0.38, 0.40, 0.50, 0.32, and 0.34, respectively, which demonstrated that these five parameters were moderately spatial dependence. The soil organic matter and TN contents in this transect had a similar distribution pattern, soil AK content was highly correlated to soil salinity, while soil AP content presented a fluctuated distribution. According to the comprehensive analysis of soil organic matter content and salinity, this transect was classified into three types, i.e., high salinity and low fertility, high salinity and high fertility, and low salinity and high fertility. The spatial distribution pattern of the five soil parameters was closed related to the soil parental material, land use pattern, distance to sea, and road block. PMID:22937640

Wang, Na-Na; Qi, Wei; Wang, Dan; Qin, Tian-Tian; Lu, Chao

2012-06-01

255

A sensitivity analysis of low salinity habitats simulated by a hydrodynamic model in the Manatee River estuary in Florida, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a sensitivity study of simulated availability of low salinity habitats by a hydrodynamic model for the Manatee River estuary located in the southwest portion of the Florida peninsula. The purpose of the modeling study was to establish a regulatory minimum freshwater flow rate required to prevent the estuarine ecosystem from significant harm. The model used in the study was a multi-block model that dynamically couples a three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic model with a laterally averaged (2DV) hydrodynamic model. The model was calibrated and verified against measured real-time data of surface elevation and salinity at five stations during March 2005-July 2006. The calibrated model was then used to conduct a series of scenario runs to investigate effects of the flow reduction on salinity distributions in the Manatee River estuary. Based on simulated salinity distribution in the estuary, water volumes, bottom areas and shoreline lengths for salinity less than certain predefined values were calculated and analyzed to help establish the minimum freshwater flow rate for the estuarine system. The sensitivity analysis conducted during the modeling study for the Manatee River estuary examined effects of the bottom roughness, ambient vertical eddy viscosity/diffusivity, horizontal eddy viscosity/diffusivity, and ungauged flow on the model results and identified the relative importance of these model parameters (input data) to the outcome of the availability of low salinity habitats. It is found that the ambient vertical eddy viscosity/diffusivity is the most influential factor controlling the model outcome, while the horizontal eddy viscosity/diffusivity is the least influential one.

Chen, XinJian

2012-06-01

256

[Efficiency of saline contrast hysterosonography for evaluating the uterine cavity].  

PubMed

Diagnostic hysteroscopy is the standard investigation performed in the case of abnormal vaginal blood loss. More recently there has been increasing interest for minimal invasive saline contrast hysterosonography (SCHS) as this technique is less painful and less expensive. SCHS is indicated in case of abnormal uterine bleeding (premenopausal and postmenopausal), bleeding while using tamoxifen, suspicion of a congenital uterine abnormality and Asherman's syndrome. As well as intracavity abnormalities (polyps and myomas) SCHS can also be used to evaluate the intramural extension of myomas, which is necessary to assess whether hysteroscopic resection is possible. The sensitivity and specificity of SCHS for demonstrating intracavity abnormalities (with a prevalence of 54%) are 94% (95%-CI; 91-97) and 89% (95%-CI: 85-94) respectively. The positive and negative predictive values are 91% (95%-CI: 87-95) and 92% (95%-CI: 89-97) respectively. SCHS has a short learning curve and can be performed in an outpatient setting. SCHS fails more frequently in postmenopausal women than premenopausal women (12.5% vs. 4.7%; p = 0.03). The chance of a non-conclusive SCHS is 7.6% and is higher if the uterine volume is greater than 600 cm3 (relative risk: 2.63; 95%-CI: 1.05-6.60) and if two or more myomas are present: (RR 2.65; 95%-CI: 1.16-6.10). SCHS is 2 to 9 times cheaper than diagnostic hysteroscopy. It can replace 84% of the diagnostic hysteroscopies. SCHS, in combination with endometrial sampling, whenever indicated, might be able to replace diagnostic hysteroscopy as gold standard in the evaluation of the uterine cavity. PMID:12942842

de Kroon, C D; Jansen, F W; Trimbos, J B

2003-08-01

257

Photochemical Chlorine Activation From Artificial Saline Snowpacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Halogen activation on snow and ice substrates has a profound influence on the oxidative capacity of the polar boundary layer. The release of reactive chlorine species is of particular interest since chlorine atoms can participate in both ozone depletion and organic oxidation. However, the mechanisms by which halides in sea ice substrates are converted into reactive halogen species are not well understood. In this study we investigated the photochemical activation of chlorine from artificial saline snow. Gas phase Cl2, BrCl and Br2 were detected using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. We observe the dark release of Br2 in the presence of ozone; BrCl and Cl2 are only observed in the presence of both ozone and light. Interestingly, the release of reactive chlorine species persists when a 320 nm or a 380 nm long-pass filter is placed in the light path. Results suggest that smaller snow grains, which present a larger total snow surface area, enhance chlorine production to a greater extent than BrCl or Br2 production. Here we also present the effect of temperature (above and below the NaCl euctectic), acidity, chloride concentration, and ozone concentration on the production of Br2, BrCl and Cl2. Overall the results indicate that a mechanism involving UV-A light and ozone leads to chlorine activation, which may be particularly important in bromide-depleted snow.

Wren, S. N.; Abbatt, J.; Donaldson, J.

2012-12-01

258

Wastewater salinity assessment using near infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a fast and inexpensive non-destructive technique for the prediction of concentrations of salts in wastewater. Conventional chemical methods are usually used, which are very accurate, take more time and require special techniques for sampling, storing and pretreatment of wastewater. In this work we studied the spectral characteristics of water and the effect of salts on the perturbations in the water absorption bands. The generation of multiple regression models with principal components was carried out on standard solutions with composition of salts similar to that of wastewater samples taken along the drainage channel network of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The spectral signatures were obtained in situ and in the laboratory using a portable high-resolution spectroradiometer (ASD FieldSpec 3). The prediction model generated showed high precision in the estimation of salinity in wastewater, a coefficient of determination of 89.6% and a low root mean square error of 0.12‰. Other compounds, which are not discussed here, cause distortion of the absorption bands of water at wavelengths less than 900 nm or near the visible region, while our results showed distortions in the water spectrum at higher wavelengths (>1,000 nm). PMID:23985519

Ontiveros, Ronald; Diakite, Lamine; Edna Alvarez, M; Coras, Pablo

2013-01-01

259

In situ bioremediation under high saline conditions  

SciTech Connect

An in situ bioremediation treatability study is in progress at the Salton Sea Test Base (SSTB) under the NAVY CLEAN 2 contract. The site is located in the vicinity of the Salon Sea with expected groundwater saline levels of up to 50,000 ppm. The site is contaminated with diesel, gasoline and fuel oils. The treatability study is assessing the use of indigenous heterotrophic bacteria to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons. Low levels of significant macro nutrients indicate that nutrient addition of metabolic nitrogen and Orthophosphate are necessary to promote the process, requiring unique nutrient addition schemes. Groundwater major ion chemistry indicates that precipitation of calcium phosphorus compounds may be stimulated by air-sparging operations and nutrient addition, which has mandated the remedial system to include pneumatic fracturing as an option. This presentation is tailored at an introductory level to in situ bioremediation technologies, with some emphasize on innovations in sparge air delivery, dissolved oxygen uptake rates, nutrient delivery, and pneumatic fracturing that should keep the expert`s interest.

Bosshard, B.; Raumin, J.; Saurohan, B.

1995-12-31

260

Seasonal variability of subsurface high salinity water in the northern South China Sea and its relationship with the northwestern Pacific currents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Pacific Tropical Water (NPTW), characterized by the subsurface high salinity (> 34.68 PSU), is observed in the South China Sea (SCS) and often used as an indicator of the water intrusion from the northwestern Pacific into the SCS. Based on the assimilation product from a global high-resolution Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), this study investigates the seasonal variability of subsurface high salinity water (SHSW) in the northern SCS and the influence from the northwestern Pacific. Results show that there exists obvious seasonal variability in the SHSW at about 100-200 m depth. It extends as far west as 111° E in the northern SCS, reaching its volume maximum (minimum) in January (May). Further analysis shows that the seasonal change of the high salinity water is strongly affected by the seasonal variability of large-scale circulations in the low-latitude northwestern Pacific. The changes of high salinity water volume are highly correlated with the shift of the North Equatorial Current (NEC) bifurcation latitude (NECBL), which reaches the northernmost in December and the southernmost in May. Due to the large-scale wind changes in the Pacific, the Luzon Strait transport weakens (strengthens) when the NECBL shifts to the south (north) during summer (winter), which results in the reduced (enhanced) SHSW intrusion from the northwestern Pacific into the northern SCS. The velocity and salinity distribution in the Luzon Strait show that the intrusion of the SHSW mainly occurs at around 20-21.3° N.

Wang, A.; Du, Y.; Zhuang, W.; Qi, Y.

2014-10-01

261

Tolerance of combined salinity and O2 deficiency in Hordeum marinum accessions from the grain-belt of Western Australia  

E-print Network

Armstrong, 1979). Salinity reduces plant growth by osmoticbetween waterlogging and salinity in higher plants: causes,plants can be reduced by waterlogging (Wiengweera and Greenway, 2004) or salinity (

Malik1,2,3, AI; English1,2, JP; Shepherd1,4, KA; Islam2,5, AKMR; Colmer1,2, TD

2009-01-01

262

Salinity anomaly as a trigger for ENSO events.  

PubMed

According to the classical theories of ENSO, subsurface anomalies in ocean thermal structure are precursors for ENSO events and their initial specification is essential for skillful ENSO forecast. Although ocean salinity in the tropical Pacific (particularly in the western Pacific warm pool) can vary in response to El Niño events, its effect on ENSO evolution and forecasts of ENSO has been less explored. Here we present evidence that, in addition to the passive response, salinity variability may also play an active role in ENSO evolution, and thus important in forecasting El Niño events. By comparing two forecast experiments in which the interannually variability of salinity in the ocean initial states is either included or excluded, the salinity variability is shown to be essential to correctly forecast the 2007/08 La Niña starting from April 2007. With realistic salinity initial states, the tendency to decay of the subsurface cold condition during the spring and early summer 2007 was interrupted by positive salinity anomalies in the upper central Pacific, which working together with the Bjerknes positive feedback, contributed to the development of the La Niña event. Our study suggests that ENSO forecasts will benefit from more accurate salinity observations with large-scale spatial coverage. PMID:25352285

Zhu, Jieshun; Huang, Bohua; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Balmaseda, Magdalena A; Marx, Lawrence; Kinter Iii, James L

2014-01-01

263

Salinity anomaly as a trigger for ENSO events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the classical theories of ENSO, subsurface anomalies in ocean thermal structure are precursors for ENSO events and their initial specification is essential for skillful ENSO forecast. Although ocean salinity in the tropical Pacific (particularly in the western Pacific warm pool) can vary in response to El Niño events, its effect on ENSO evolution and forecasts of ENSO has been less explored. Here we present evidence that, in addition to the passive response, salinity variability may also play an active role in ENSO evolution, and thus important in forecasting El Niño events. By comparing two forecast experiments in which the interannually variability of salinity in the ocean initial states is either included or excluded, the salinity variability is shown to be essential to correctly forecast the 2007/08 La Niña starting from April 2007. With realistic salinity initial states, the tendency to decay of the subsurface cold condition during the spring and early summer 2007 was interrupted by positive salinity anomalies in the upper central Pacific, which working together with the Bjerknes positive feedback, contributed to the development of the La Niña event. Our study suggests that ENSO forecasts will benefit from more accurate salinity observations with large-scale spatial coverage.

Zhu, Jieshun; Huang, Bohua; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Balmaseda, Magdalena A.; Marx, Lawrence; Kinter, James L., III

2014-10-01

264

Salinity anomaly as a trigger for ENSO events  

PubMed Central

According to the classical theories of ENSO, subsurface anomalies in ocean thermal structure are precursors for ENSO events and their initial specification is essential for skillful ENSO forecast. Although ocean salinity in the tropical Pacific (particularly in the western Pacific warm pool) can vary in response to El Niño events, its effect on ENSO evolution and forecasts of ENSO has been less explored. Here we present evidence that, in addition to the passive response, salinity variability may also play an active role in ENSO evolution, and thus important in forecasting El Niño events. By comparing two forecast experiments in which the interannually variability of salinity in the ocean initial states is either included or excluded, the salinity variability is shown to be essential to correctly forecast the 2007/08 La Niña starting from April 2007. With realistic salinity initial states, the tendency to decay of the subsurface cold condition during the spring and early summer 2007 was interrupted by positive salinity anomalies in the upper central Pacific, which working together with the Bjerknes positive feedback, contributed to the development of the La Niña event. Our study suggests that ENSO forecasts will benefit from more accurate salinity observations with large-scale spatial coverage. PMID:25352285

Zhu, Jieshun; Huang, Bohua; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Balmaseda, Magdalena A.; Marx, Lawrence; Kinter III, James L.

2014-01-01

265

Wetland Plant Guide for Assessing Habitat Impacts of Real-Time Salinity Management  

E-print Network

salinity and other conditions unfavorable to propagation of the most desirable moist soil plants.Plant Guide for Assessing Habitat Impacts of Real-Time SalinityPlant Herbarium Arizona State University Ammannia coccinea (Redstems) Stems Native, annual Low salinity

Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Feldmann, Sara A.

2004-01-01

266

40 CFR 436.120 - Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. 436.120 Section 436...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salines From Brine Lakes Subcategory § 436.120 Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. The provisions of...

2013-07-01

267

40 CFR 436.120 - Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. 436.120 Section 436...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salines From Brine Lakes Subcategory § 436.120 Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. The provisions of...

2011-07-01

268

40 CFR 436.120 - Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. 436.120 Section 436...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salines From Brine Lakes Subcategory § 436.120 Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. The provisions of...

2012-07-01

269

40 CFR 436.120 - Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. 436.120 Section 436...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salines From Brine Lakes Subcategory § 436.120 Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. The provisions of...

2010-07-01

270

Estimating salinity to complement observed temperature: 1. Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper and its companion [Thacker, W.C., Sindlinger, L., 2007-this issue. Estimating salinity to complement observed temperature: 2. Northwestern Atlantic. Journal of Marine Systems. doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2005.06.007.] document initial efforts in a project with the goal of developing capability for estimating salinity on a region-by-region basis for the world oceans. The primary motivation for this project is to provide information for correcting salinity, and thus density, when assimilating expendable-bathythermograph (XBT) data into numerical simulations of oceanic circulation, while a secondary motivation is to provide information for calibrating salinity from autonomous profiling floats. Empirical relationships between salinity and temperature, which can be identified from archived conductivity-temperature-depth ( CTD) data, provide the basis for the salinity estimates. The Gulf of Mexico was chosen as the first region to explore for several reasons: (1) It's geographical separation from the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean makes it a "small ocean" characterised by a deep central basin surrounded by a substantial continental shelf. (2) The archives contain a relatively large number of CTD data that can be used to establish empirical relationships. (3) The sharp fronts associated with the Loop Current and its rings, which separate water with different thermal and haline characteristics, pose a challenge for estimating salinity. In spite of the shelf and the fronts, the relationship between salinity and temperature was found to be sufficiently regular that a single empirical model could be used to estimate salinity on each pressure surface for the entire Gulf for all seasons. In and below the thermocline, root-mean-square estimation errors are small — less than 0.02 psu for pressures greater than 400 dbar, corresponding to potential density errors of less than 0.015 kg/m 3. Errors for estimates nearer to the surface can be an order of magnitude larger.

Thacker, W. C.

2007-03-01

271

The individual response of saline lakes to a severe drought.  

PubMed

A severe protracted drought between 1997 and 2009 has altered the physical and chemical hydrology of a series of lakes in the Corangamite Basin of southeast Australia. Leading up to the drying out of most lakes (many for the first time on record), we document the changes in lakes' water quantity (water levels and inundation), salinity (Cl concentrations), salinity processes (Cl/Br ratios), nutrient concentrations and ratios (ammonia, phosphate and NOx (nitrate and nitrite)) and algae (as chlorophyll-a) for six lakes. All lakes show record declines in inundated areas and increases in salinity from pre-drought (<1997) to drought conditions. However, the magnitude of change in salinity varies for different lakes, and there is no systematic change in the controls on lake salinity processes. Four lakes show no change in salinity processes, one lake shows the beginnings of change; where halite dissolution reactions increased closer to the time of the lake drying up, and another lake shows a marked shift from predominantly evaporation to the cyclic dissolution and precipitation of halite. Changes in filterable reactive phosphorus (FRP) values and lake N and P limitation predictions also showed little systematic correlation with changes in lake salinity, and nutrient values varied between lakes and over time. The decline in NO(x) concentrations in lakes where electrical conductivity (EC) values were above 100 mS/cm indicates some correlation with changes in salinity. Largely, these lakes exhibit individual changes in water quality parameters and salinity processes in response to the drought, indicating that while the stress of drought is regional, the hydrochemical response is local. In future changing climates, these results suggest that the catchment adaption strategies will require comprehensive plans for individual lake systems. PMID:21752428

Tweed, Sarah; Grace, Mike; Leblanc, Marc; Cartwright, Ian; Smithyman, Donna

2011-09-01

272

Differences in salinity tolerance of genetically distinct Phragmites australis clones  

PubMed Central

Different clones of the wetland grass Phragmites australis differ in their morphology and physiology, and hence in their ability to cope with environmental stress. We analysed the responses of 15 P. australis clones with distinct ploidy levels (PLs) (4n, 6n, 8n, 10n, 12n) and geographic origins (Romania, Russia, Japan, Czech Republic, Australia) to step-wise increased salinity (8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 56 and 72 ppt). Shoot elongation rate, photosynthesis and plant part-specific ion accumulation were studied in order to assess if traits associated with salinity tolerance can be related to the genetic background and the geographic origin of the clones. Salt stress affected all clones, but at different rates. The maximum height was reduced from 1860 mm in control plants to 660 mm at 40 ppt salinity. The shoot elongation rate of salt-exposed plants varied significantly between clones until 40 ppt salinity. The light-saturated photosynthesis rate (Pmax) was stimulated by a salinity of 8 ppt, but decreased significantly at higher salinities. The stomatal conductance (gs) and the transpiration rate (E) decreased with increasing salinity. Only three clones survived at 72 ppt salinity, although their rates of photosynthesis were strongly inhibited. The roots and basal leaves of the salt-exposed plants accumulated high concentrations of water-extractable Na+ (1646 and 1004 µmol g?1 dry mass (DM), respectively) and Cl? (1876 and 1400 µmol g?1 DM, respectively). The concentrations of water-extractable Mg2+ and Ca2+ were reduced in salt-exposed plants compared with controls. The variation of all the measured parameters was higher among clones than among PLs. We conclude that the salinity tolerance of distinct P. australis clones varies widely and can be partially attributed to their longitudinal geographic origin, but not to PL. Further investigation will help in improving the understanding of this species' salt tolerance mechanisms and their connection to genetic factors.

Achenbach, Luciana; Eller, Franziska; Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Brix, Hans

2013-01-01

273

Influence of net freshwater supply on salinity in Florida Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An annual water budget for Florida Bay, the large, seasonally hypersaline estuary in the Everglades National Park, was constructed using physically based models and long-term (31 years) data on salinity, hydrology, and climate. Effects of seasonal and interannual variations of the net freshwater supply (runoff plus rainfall minus evaporation) on salinity variation within the bay were also examined. Particular attention was paid to the effects of runoff, which are the focus of ambitious plans to restore and conserve the Florida Bay ecosystem. From 1965 to 1995 the annual runoff from the Everglades into the bay was less than one tenth of the annual direct rainfall onto the bay, while estimated annual evaporation slightly exceeded annual rainfall. The average net freshwater supply to the bay over a year was thus approximately zero, and interannual variations in salinity appeared to be affected primarily by interannual fluctuations in rainfall. At the annual scale, runoff apparently had little effect on the bay as a whole during this period. On a seasonal basis, variations in rainfall, evaporation, and runoff were not in phase, and the net freshwater supply to the bay varied between positive and negative values, contributing to a strong seasonal pattern in salinity, especially in regions of the bay relatively isolated from exchanges with the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. Changes in runoff could have a greater effect on salinity in the bay if the seasonal patterns of rainfall and evaporation and the timing of the runoff are considered. One model was also used to simulate spatial and temporal patterns of salinity responses expected to result from changes in net freshwater supply. Simulations in which runoff was increased by a factor of 2 (but with no change in spatial pattern) indicated that increased runoff will lower salinity values in eastern Florida Bay, increase the variability of salinity in the South Region, but have little effect on salinity in the Central and West Regions.

Nuttle, W.K.; Fourqurean, J.W.; Cosby, B.J.; Zieman, J.C.; Robblee, M.B.

2000-01-01

274

Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) salinity data validation over Malaysia coastal water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of sea surface salinity (SSS) plays an important role in the marine ecosystem, estimation of global ocean circulation and observation of fisheries, aquaculture, coral reef and sea grass habitats. The new challenge of SSS estimation is to exploit the ocean surface brightness temperature (Tb) observed by the Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) onboard the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite that is specifically designed to provide the best retrieval of ocean salinity and soil moisture using the L band of 1.4 GHz radiometer. Tb observed by radiometer is basically a function of the dielectric constant, sea surface temperature (SST), wind speed (U), incidence angle, polarization and SSS. Though, the SSS estimation is an ill-posed inversion problem as the relationship between the Tb and SSS is non-linear function. Objective of this study is to validate the SMOS SSS estimates with the ground-truth over the Malaysia coastal water. The LM iteratively determines the SSS of SMOS by the reduction of the sum of squared errors between Tb SMOS and Tb simulation (using in-situ) based on the updated geophysical triplet in the direction of the minimum of the cost function. The minimum cost function is compared to the desired threshold at each iteration and this recursive least square process updates the SST, U and SSS until the cost function converged. The designed LM's non-linear inversion algorithm simultaneously estimates SST, U and SSS and thus, map of SSS over Malaysia coastal water is produced from the regression model and accuracy assessment between the SMOS and in-situ retrieved SSS. This study found a good agreement in the validation with R square of 0.9 and the RMSE of 0.4. It is concluded that the non-linear inversion method is effective and practical to extract SMOS SSS, U and SST simultaneously.

Reba, M. N. M.; Rosli, A. Z.; Rahim, N. A.

2014-02-01

275

Remote Sensing of Salinity: The Dielectric Constant of Sea Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global monitoring of sea surface salinity from space requires an accurate model for the dielectric constant of sea water as a function of salinity and temperature to characterize the emissivity of the surface. Measurements are being made at 1.413 GHz, the center frequency of the Aquarius radiometers, using a resonant cavity and the perturbation method. The cavity is operated in a transmission mode and immersed in a liquid bath to control temperature. Multiple measurements are made at each temperature and salinity. Error budgets indicate a relative accuracy for both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of about 1%.

LeVine, David M.; Lang, R.; Utku, C.; Tarkocin, Y.

2011-01-01

276

Aquarius and Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Salinity from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius is an L-band radiometer and scatterometer instrument combination designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The instrument is designed to provide global salinity maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. The science objective is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This data will promote understanding of ocean circulation and its role in the global water cycle and climate.

LeVine, David M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Torrusio, S.

2012-01-01

277

GLOBE Videos: Hydrology Protocols-Salinity (11:52 min)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The video is a procedural guide to sampling salinity measurements in water bodies in the field. It provides a step-by-step explanation of field procedures and features students conducting the investigation and asking questions about what changes in salinity could indicate in rivers, lakes, and estuaries. The resource includes a video, transcript, and is supported by the Salinity Protocol in the GLOBE Teacher's Guide. This is one of seven videos on hydrology in the 24-part instructional video series describing scientific protocols used by GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment), a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

278

Analysis of the salinity regime of the Mississippi River - Gulf Outlet Channel  

E-print Network

for correlation with various salinity regime influencin phenomena. Sufficient rela- tionships were observed to ynable a linear forecast of the channel salinity structure, using the factors of tidal range and lake delivery. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sincere appreciation... Range Preceding Channel Salinity Sampling vill 45 FIGURE NO. PAGE 16 17 18 19 20 Mean Salinity Weighted Lake Delivery Factor vs 0, 0 Mean Salinity Weighted Lake Delivery Factor vs 0, 1 Mean Salinity Weighted Lake Delivery Factor vs 1, 0...

Amstutz, David E

2012-06-07

279

Photochemical chlorine activation from artificial saline snowpacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Halogen activation on snow and ice substrates has a profound influence on the oxidative capacity of the polar boundary layer. The release of reactive chlorine species is of particular interest since chlorine atoms can participate in both ozone depletion and hydrocarbon oxidation. However, the mechanisms by which halides in sea ice substrates are converted into reactive halogen species are not well understood. In this study we investigated the activation of halogens from artificial saline snow in the presence of light and ozone. Gas phase Cl2, BrCl and Br2 were detected using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. We observe the dark release of Br2 in the presence of ozone; BrCl and Cl2 are only observed in the presence of both ozone and light. Interestingly, photo-induced release of halogens is still seen when a 320 nm or a 380 nm long-pass filter is placed in the light path. The observed halogen release is consistent with the chemistry occurring in a concentrated brine located at the surface of the snow grains. Results suggest that smaller snow grains, which present a larger total snow surface area, enhance chlorine production to a greater extent than BrCl or Br2 production. Chlorine production is shown to be strongly pH dependent, with higher chlorine yields under acidic conditions. Overall the results indicate that a mechanism involving UV-A light and ozone leads to accelerated halogen activation, which may be particularly important for releasing chlorine from bromide-depleted snow.

Wren, Sumi; Donaldson, James; Abbatt, Jon

2013-04-01

280

Salinity's Role in Tropical Atlantic Instability Waves: new knowledge from salinity remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical Atlantic instability waves (TIWs) play important roles in the dynamics of the tropical Atlantic Ocean and related climate variability. Previous studies based on satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data and mooring observations suggest that these waves are the most energetic in the eastern equatorial Atlantic and during late (boreal) spring and early summer. Satellite remote sensing of sea surface salinity (SSS) from SMOS and Aquarius provides a unique vantage point to identify new features of these waves in terms of zonal and seasonal variability. Aquarius SSS data reveal that the TIWs remain energetic in the western equatorial Atlantic despite a much weaker SST signature. Surface perturbation potential energy (PPE), the source of the downward potential energy propagation associated with the TIWs, has a larger contribution by SST (than by SSS) in the east but is primarily due to SSS in the west. The co-variability between SSS and SST also has significant contribution to surface PPE across the basin. While surface PPE is large in late spring and early summer in the east, it is also large during late summer and early fall in the west. The latter is associated with the retroflection of the North Brazil Current into the North Equatorial Countercurrent in the west during these times, carrying with it the fresh water from the Amazon River outflow to set up a large meridional salinity (and thus density) gradient.

(Tony) Lee, Tong; Lagerloef, Gary; Kao, Hsun-Ying; McPhaden, Michael; Willis, Joshua; Gierach, Michelle

2014-05-01

281

Safety and Feasibility of High-pressure Transvenous Limb Perfusion With 0.9% Saline in Human Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

We evaluated safety and feasibility of the transvenous limb perfusion gene delivery method in muscular dystrophy. A dose escalation study of single limb perfusion with 0.9% saline starting with 5% of limb volume was carried out in adults with muscular dystrophies under intravenous analgesia/anesthesia. Cardiac, vascular, renal, muscle, and nerve functions were monitored. A tourniquet was placed above the knee with inflated pressure of 310 mm Hg. Infusion was carried out with a clinically approved infuser via an intravenous catheter inserted in the saphenous vein with a goal infusion rate of 80 ml/minute. Infusion volume was escalated stepwise to 20% limb volume in seven subjects. No subject complained of any post procedure pain other than due to needle punctures. Safety warning boundaries were exceeded only for transient depression of limb tissue oximetry and transient elevation of muscle compartment pressures; these were not associated with nerve, muscle, or vascular damage. Muscle magnetic resonant imaging (MRI) demonstrated fluid accumulation in muscles of the perfused lower extremity. High-pressure retrograde transvenous limb perfusion with saline up to 20% of limb volume at above infusion parameters is safe and feasible in adult human muscular dystrophy. This study will serve as a basis for future gene transfer clinical trials. PMID:21772257

Fan, Zheng; Kocis, Keith; Valley, Robert; Howard, James F; Chopra, Manisha; An, Hongyu; Lin, Weili; Muenzer, Joseph; Powers, William

2012-01-01

282

Mechanisms of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Reduction for Saline (NaCl) and Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3)  

PubMed Central

Nephropathy following contrast media (CM) exposure is reduced by administration before, during, and after the contrast procedure of either isotonic sodium chloride solution (Saline) or isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution (IsoBicarb). The reasons for this reduction are not well established for either sodium salt; probable mechanisms are discussed in this paper. For Saline, the mechanism for the decrease in CIN is likely related primarily to the increased tubular flow rates produced by volume expansion and therefore a decreased concentration of the filtered CM during transit through the kidney tubules. Furthermore, increased tubular flow rates produce a slight increase in tubular pH resulting from a fixed acid excretion in an increased tubular volume. The mechanism for the decreased CIN associated with sodium bicarbonate includes the same mechanisms listed for Saline in addition to a renal pH effect. Increased filtered bicarbonate anion raises both tubular pH and tubular bicarbonate anion levels toward blood physiologic levels, thus providing increased buffer for reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed in the tubules as a result of exposure to CM in renal tubular fluid. PMID:24826379

Burgess, W. Patrick; Walker, Phillip J.

2014-01-01

283

Protein contribution to plant salinity response and tolerance acquisition.  

PubMed

The review is focused on plant proteome response to salinity with respect to physiological aspects of plant salt stress response. The attention is paid to both osmotic and ionic effects of salinity stress on plants with respect to several protein functional groups. Therefore, the role of individual proteins involved in signalling, changes in gene expression, protein biosynthesis and degradation and the resulting changes in protein relative abundance in proteins involved in energy metabolism, redox metabolism, stress- and defence-related proteins, osmolyte metabolism, phytohormone, lipid and secondary metabolism, mechanical stress-related proteins as well as protein posttranslational modifications are discussed. Differences between salt-sensitive (glycophytes) and salt-tolerant (halophytes) plants are analysed with respect to differential salinity tolerance. In conclusion, contribution of proteomic studies to understanding plant salinity tolerance is summarised and discussed. PMID:23531537

Kosová, Klára; Práil, Ilja T; Vítámvás, Pavel

2013-01-01

284

Highlights of the First 15 Months of Aquarius Salinity Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius satellite salinity measurements are resolving the major global and regional spatial patterns, and temporal variations, since the start of routine data collection on 25 August 2011. This description includes the principal seasonal variations over the first annual cycle as observed by the mission. In particular, we identify the evolution of low salinity anomalies associated with the Atlantic and Pacific intertropical convergence zones (ITCZ), major river outflows such as the Amazon, a seasonal low salinity anomaly in the Panama bight, and other features. We also explore the links that the salinity variations have with precipitation and surface currents. We then will describe the variations related to the presently evolving 2012 El Nino, now evident, as it progresses through the summer and fall 2012. We conclude with a brief summary of the Aquarius data products and validation

Lagerloef, Gary S. E.; Kao, Hsun-Ying; Wentz, Frank; LeVine, David M.; Yueh, Simon H.; Feldman, Gene C.

2012-01-01

285

Temperature and salinity variability in thermohaline staircase layers  

E-print Network

A moored profiler record from the western tropical North Atlantic provides the first continuous time series of temperature, salinity and velocity profiles in a thermohaline staircase. Variations in the intensity of layering ...

Stuebe, David Allen

2005-01-01

286

Chemical Interaction of Fresh and Saline Waters with Compacted Bentonite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interaction of compacted sodium bentonite with fresh and saline ground-water simulant was studied. The parameters varied in the experiments were the compositions of the solutions and oxygen and carbon dioxide content in the surroundings. The main inte...

A. Muurinen, J. Lehikoinen, A. Melamed, P. Pitkaenen

1996-01-01

287

Migration and trapping of CO? in saline aquifers  

E-print Network

Mitigation of climate change requires a reduction in atmospheric carbon dioxide (C0 2) emissions. One promising tool for achieving this is the large-scale injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers. After injection, upward ...

MacMinn, Christopher William

2012-01-01

288

ConcepTest: Ocean Salinity During an Ice Age  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One million years ago ice sheets covered much of the Earth's land surface during an ice age. How did this affect the salinity of the oceans? a. Oceans were saltier than today. b. Oceans were less salty than ...

289

Response to recharge variation of thin rainwater lenses and their mixing zone with underlying saline groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In coastal zones with saline groundwater, fresh groundwater lenses may form due to infiltration of rain water. The thickness of both the lens and the mixing zone, determines fresh water availability for plant growth. Due to recharge variation, the thickness of the lens and the mixing zone are not constant, which may adversely affect agricultural and natural vegetation if saline water reaches the root zone during the growing season. In this paper, we study the response of thin lenses and their mixing zone to variation of recharge. The recharge is varied using sinusoids with a range of amplitudes and frequencies. We vary lens characteristics by varying the Rayleigh number and Mass flux ratio of saline and fresh water, as these dominantly influence the thickness of thin lenses and their mixing zone. Numerical results show a linear relation between the normalised lens volume and the main lens and recharge characteristics, enabling an empirical approximation of the variation of lens thickness. Increase of the recharge amplitude causes increase and the increase of recharge frequency causes a decrease in the variation of lens thickness. The average lens thickness is not significantly influenced by these variations in recharge, contrary to the mixing zone thickness. The mixing zone thickness is compared to that of a Fickian mixing regime. A simple relation between the travelled distance of the centre of the mixing zone position due to variations in recharge and the mixing zone thickness is shown to be valid for both a sinusoidal recharge variation and actual records of daily recharge data. Starting from a step response function, convolution can be used to determine the effect of variable recharge in time. For a sinusoidal curve, we can determine delay of lens movement compared to the recharge curve as well as the lens amplitude, derived from the convolution integral. Together the proposed equations provide us with a first order approximation of lens characteristics using basic lens and recharge parameters without the use of numerical models. This enables the assessment of the vulnerability of any thin fresh water lens on saline, upward seeping groundwater to salinity stress in the root zone.

Eeman, S.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Leijnse, A.; de Louw, P. G. B.; Maas, C.

2012-10-01

290

Response to recharge variation of thin lenses and their mixing zone with underlying saline groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In coastal zones with saline groundwater, fresh groundwater lenses may form due to infiltration of rain water. The thickness of both the lens and the mixing zone, determines fresh water availability for plant growth. Due to recharge variation, the thickness of the lens and the mixing zone are not constant, which may adversely affect agricultural and natural vegetation if saline water reaches the root zone during the growing season. In this paper, we study the response of thin lenses and their mixing zone to variation of recharge. The recharge is varied using sinusoids with a range of amplitudes and frequencies. We vary lens characteristics by varying the Rayleigh number and Mass flux ratio of saline and fresh water, as these dominantly influence the thickness of thin lenses and their mixing zone. Numerical results show a linear relation between the normalized lens volume and the main lens and recharge characteristics, enabling an analytical approximation of the variation of lens thickness. Increase of the recharge amplitude causes increase, and increase of recharge frequency causes decrease in the variation of lens thickness. The average lens thickness is not significantly influenced by these variations in recharge, contrary to the mixing zone thickness. The mixing zone thickness is compared to that of a Fickian mixing regime. A simple relation between the travelled distance of the center of the mixing zone position due to variations in recharge and the mixing zone thickness is shown to be valid for both a sinusoidal recharge variation and actual records of daily recharge data. Starting from a step response function, convolution can be used to determine the effect of variable recharge in time. For a sinusoidal curve, we can determine delay of lens movement compared to the recharge curve as well as the lens amplitude, derived from the convolution integral. Together the proposed equations provide us with a first order approximation of lens characteristics using basic lens and recharge parameters without the use of numerical models. This enables the assessment of the vulnerability of any thin fresh water lens on saline, upward seeping groundwater to salinity stress in the root zone.

Eeman, S.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Leijnse, A.; de Louw, P. G. B.; Maas, C.

2012-01-01

291

Salinity-induced calcium deficiencies in wheat and barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity-calcium interactions, which have been shown to be important in plants grown in dryland saline soils of the Canadian prairies, were studied in two species differing in salt tolerance. In solution culture, wheat showed a greater reduction in growth and a higher incidence of foliar Ca deficiency symptoms than barley when grown under MgSO4 or Na2SO4 plus MgSO4 salt stress.

D. L. Ehret; R. E. Redmann; B. L. Harvey; A. Cipywnyk

1990-01-01

292

Molecular Tools for Enhancing Salinity Tolerance in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Salinity is nowadays considered one of the main factors that limit crop productivity and a threat to world’s food production.\\u000a Hence, to breed salt tolerant varieties of crops and horticultural species is necessary to increase or at least maintain food\\u000a production in order to feed the growing world’s population. Plant tolerance to salinity is a complex phenomenon at both cellular

Jesus Cuartero; Maria C. Bolarin; Vicente Moreno; Benito Pineda

293

Salinities and sediment transport in the Bolivian highlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guyot, J.L., Roche, M.A., Noriega, L., Calle, H. and Quintanilla, J., 1990. Salinities and sediment transport in the Bolivian highlands. J. Hydrol., 113: 147-162. Salinities and sediment loads of the rivers of the entire interior drainage basin of the Lake Titicaca, Rio Desaguadero, Lake Poopo and salars, as well as their evolution from upstream to downstream, have been characterized on

J. L. GUYOT; M. A. ROCHE; H. CALLE; J. QUINTANILLA

1990-01-01

294

Ammonia Removal from Saline Wastewater by Ion Exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion exchange materials that are highly selective for ammonia have been used for wastewater treatment but they are mainly suitable\\u000a for use in non-saline water. In this paper, some new materials have been evaluated for the selective uptake of ammonia from\\u000a saline wastewater. Those materials include: MN 500 (belongs to the group of material known as Macronets which are hypercrosslinked

N. Miladinovic; L. R. Weatherley; J. L. López-Ruiz

2004-01-01

295

Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Salinity Laboratory has made available this Web version (.pdf format) of Agriculture handbook number 60, covering a broad range of topics relating to soils and salinity, including: "Improvement and Management of soils in arid and semiarid regions; Plant Response and Crop Selection; Quality of Irrigation Water; Methods for Soil Characterization; Methods of Plant Culture and Analysis; and Methods of Analysis of Irrigation Waters." Chapters may be downloaded separately, and include a literature cited section and a glossary.

296

Soil salinity detection. [Starr and Cameron Counties, Texas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Growth forms and herbage biomass production varied considerably among saline and nonsaline soil range sites in Starr County. Grasses on saline soil sites were shallow-rooted and short whereas on nonsaline sites there was an intermixture of short and midgrass species. Differentiation between primarily undisturbed saline and nonsaline rangelands, in Starr County, is partially possible using film optical density readings from Skylab imagery. Differentiation among eight saline and nonsaline soil sites in Cameron County, using black and white and color film was not possible according to statistical results from both DMRT and correlation analysis. Linear analysis showed that Bendix 24-band MSS data (aircraft) collected at 1700 m and 4800 m, as well as Skylab and LANDSAT-1 MSS data, were significantly correlated to electrical conductivity readings. In Starr County, the best spectral band for detection of saline soil levels, using black and white SO-022 film, was in the 0.6 to 0.7 micron spectral region. In Cameron County, the best spectral bands for detection of saline soil levels were the 2.3 to 2.43 micron, 0.72 to 0.76 micron, 0.69 to 1.75 micron, and 0.7 to 1.1 micron spectral regions.

Wiegand, C. L.; Richardson, A. J.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Everitt, J. H.; Cuellar, J. A. (principal investigators)

1975-01-01

297

Effects of oceanic salinity on body condition in sea snakes.  

PubMed

Since the transition from terrestrial to marine environments poses strong osmoregulatory and energetic challenges, temporal and spatial fluctuations in oceanic salinity might influence salt and water balance (and hence, body condition) in marine tetrapods. We assessed the effects of salinity on three species of sea snakes studied by mark-recapture in coral-reef habitats in the Neo-Caledonian Lagoon. These three species include one fully aquatic hydrophiine (Emydocephalus annulatus), one primarily aquatic laticaudine (Laticauda laticaudata), and one frequently terrestrial laticaudine (Laticauda saintgironsi). We explored how oceanic salinity affected the snakes' body condition across various temporal and spatial scales relevant to each species' ecology, using linear mixed models and multimodel inference. Mean annual salinity exerted a consistent and negative effect on the body condition of all three snake species. The most terrestrial taxon (L. saintgironsi) was sensitive to salinity over a short temporal scale, corresponding to the duration of a typical marine foraging trip for this species. In contrast, links between oceanic salinity and body condition in the fully aquatic E. annulatus and the highly aquatic L. laticaudata were strongest at a long-term (annual) scale. The sophisticated salt-excreting systems of sea snakes allow them to exploit marine environments, but do not completely overcome the osmoregulatory challenges posed by oceanic conditions. Future studies could usefully explore such effects in other secondarily marine taxa such as seabirds, turtles, and marine mammals. PMID:22710931

Brischoux, François; Rolland, Virginie; Bonnet, Xavier; Caillaud, Matthieu; Shine, Richard

2012-08-01

298

Interaction of flooding and salinity stress on baldcypress (Taxodium distichum)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coastal wetlands of the Southeastern United States are threatened by increases in flooding and salinity as a result of both natural processes and man-induced hydrolic alterations. Furthermore, global climate change scenarios suggest that, as a consequence of rising sea levels, much larger areas of coastal wetlands may be affected by flooding and salinity in the next 50 to 100 years. In this paper, we review studies designed to improve our ability to predict and ameliorate the impacts of increased flooding and salinity stress on baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.), which is a dominant species of of many coastal forested wetlands. Specifically, we review studies on species-level responses to flooding and salinity stress, alone and in combination, we summarize two studies on intraspecific variation in response to flooding and salinity stress, we analyze the physiological mechanisms thought to be responsible for the interaction between flooding and salinity stress, and we discuss the implications for coastal wetland loss and the prospects for developing salt-tolerant lines of baldcypress.

Allen, J.A.; Pezeshki, S.R.; Chambers, J.L.

1996-01-01

299

NASA Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space Education & Public Outreach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aquarius is a focused satellite mission to measure global sea surface salinity. Launching in 2009, this mission will provide the first global map of sea surface salinity with unprecedented accuracy, resolution and coverage. The importance of salinity measurements in understanding coastal ocean processes is critical. Because of its dynamic range in the coastal oceans, salinity is a critical factor in understanding and predicting biological and physical processes and their interactions with the food Web, climate, and global water cycle. AquariusâÂÂs pioneering efforts to deliver the âÂÂmissing pieces of the climate puzzleâ will undoubtedly intrigue informal audiences via the activities and information contained in this Website. Moreover, climate and its influence on humankind is an integral part of K-16 formal education and common to national learning standards. The goal of the Education and Outreach component of Aquarius is to teach fundamental concepts about salinity variations and the role these changes play in controlling global ocean circulation and EarthâÂÂs climate. Education products will appear as modules addressing the missionâÂÂs goals and purpose, augment existing El Nino/La Nina materials with salinity based content, provide on-line interactive tools demonstrating environmental change through data sets and in situ time-series analysis, and engage students in activities designed to demonstrate salt-water interactions.

Decharon, Annette

2010-10-04

300

Identifying Salinity Sources and Quantifying Salinity Loads Along Two Texas Streams Using Stream-axis Airborne EM and Focused Hydrochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We delineated natural and oil-field salinity sources that degrade water quality in the upper Colorado River (west Texas) and Petronila Creek (Texas coast) by combining multi-frequency airborne EM measurements of apparent ground conductivity with chemical analyses of surface water at key stream locations. To reduce the cost of high-resolution airborne surveying over such large areas, we first flew along the stream axes and then examined preliminary results in the field to identify likely salinized stream segments. We then flew more detailed surveys over these areas rather than over the entire basin. Stream-axis EM data also helped identify water-sampling locations upstream and downstream from each salinized segment. We used these data to calculate salinity loads and discriminate among possible natural and oil-field salinity sources. We acquired stream-axis airborne EM data along 437 km of the upper Colorado River and its major tributaries using a Geophex GEM-2A instrument operating at five frequencies between 450 Hz and 39 kHz. Increases in chloride, sulfate, and total salinity loading in the upper Colorado River basin between Lake Thomas and Ivie Reservoir occur along eleven segments of elevated apparent conductivity identified from airborne EM data. Each segment encompasses areas of baseflow salinity contributions to the stream from natural dissolution of evaporite minerals in the Permian basin, from oil-field produced water, or both. Analyses of surface water confirm increases salinity loading associated with each segment. Airborne EM data acquired on the coast along Petronila Creek and within a corridor centered on it revealed three stream segments with elevated ground conductivity. Increases in chloride, sulfate, and total salinity loading are attributed to shallow baseflow contributions along the three segments. Using airborne EM and hydrochemistry data, we interpret the dominant salinization mechanism within the two upstream segments to be historic discharge of produced water into unlined drainage ditches and pits, infiltration into sandy Pleistocene channel deposits, lateral migration as far as several kilometers, and discharge into the stream. Airborne EM and hydrochemical data suggest a combination of oil-field and seawater salinity contributions at the most downstream Petronila Creek segment.

Paine, J. G.; Collins, E. W.; Nance, H. S.; Niemann, K.

2005-12-01

301

Effect of irrigation methods, management and salinity of irrigation water on tomato yield, soil moisture and salinity distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing demand for irrigation water to secure food for growing populations with limited water supply suggests re-thinking\\u000a the use of non-conventional water resources. The latter includes saline drainage water, brackish groundwater and treated waste\\u000a water. The effects of using saline drainage water (electrical conductivity of 4.2–4.8 dS m?1) to irrigate field-grown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv Floradade) using drip and furrow

N. M. Malash; T. J. Flowers; R. Ragab

2008-01-01

302

Salinity Tolerance of Picochlorum atomus and the Use of Salinity for Contamination Control by the Freshwater Cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena limnetica  

PubMed Central

Microalgae are ideal candidates for waste-gas and –water remediation. However, salinity often varies between different sites. A cosmopolitan microalga with large salinity tolerance and consistent biochemical profiles would be ideal for standardised cultivation across various remediation sites. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of salinity on Picochlorum atomus growth, biomass productivity, nutrient uptake and biochemical profiles. To determine if target end-products could be manipulated, the effects of 4-day nutrient limitation were also determined. Culture salinity had no effect on growth, biomass productivity, phosphate, nitrate and total nitrogen uptake at 2, 8, 18, 28 and 36 ppt. 11 ppt, however, initiated a significantly higher total nitrogen uptake. While salinity had only minor effects on biochemical composition, nutrient depletion was a major driver for changes in biomass quality, leading to significant increases in total lipid, fatty acid and carbohydrate quantities. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by nutrient depletion, with an increased proportion of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. Having established that P. atomus is a euryhaline microalga, the effects of culture salinity on the development of the freshwater cyanobacterial contaminant Pseudanabaena limnetica were determined. Salinity at 28 and 36 ppt significantly inhibited establishment of P. limnetica in P. atomus cultures. In conclusion, P. atomus can be deployed for bioremediation at sites with highly variable salinities without effects on end-product potential. Nutrient status critically affected biochemical profiles – an important consideration for end-product development by microalgal industries. 28 and 36 ppt slow the establishment of the freshwater cyanobacterium P. limnetica, allowing for harvest of low contaminant containing biomass. PMID:23667639

von Alvensleben, Nicolas; Stookey, Katherine; Magnusson, Marie; Heimann, Kirsten

2013-01-01

303

Larval Tolerance to Salinity in Three Species of Australian Anuran: An Indication of Saline Specialisation in Litoria aurea  

PubMed Central

Recent anthropogenic influences on freshwater habitats are forcing anuran populations to rapidly adapt to high magnitude changes in environmental conditions or face local extinction. We examined the effects of ecologically relevant elevated salinity levels on larval growth, metamorphosis and survival of three species of Australian anuran; the spotted marsh frog (Limnodynastes tasmaniensis), the painted burrowing frog (Neobatrachus sudelli) and the green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea), in order to better understand the responses of these animals to environmental change. Elevated salinity (16% seawater) negatively impacted on the survival of L. tasmaniensis (35% survival) and N sudelli (0% survival), while reduced salinity had a negative impact on L. aurea. (16% seawater: 85% survival; 0.4% seawater: 35% survival). L. aurea tadpoles survived in salinities much higher than previously reported for this species, indicating the potential for inter-populations differences in salinity tolerance. In L. tasmaniensis and L. aurea, development to metamorphosis was fastest in low and high salinity treatments suggesting it is advantageous for tadpoles to invest energy in development in both highly favourable and developmentally challenging environments. We propose that this response might either maximise potential lifetime fecundity when tadpoles experience favourable environments, or, facilitate a more rapid escape from pond environments where there is a reduced probability of survival. PMID:22916260

Kearney, Brian D.; Byrne, Phillip G.; Reina, Richard D.

2012-01-01

304

Umbilical vein injection of misoprostol versus normal saline for the treatment of retained placenta: intrapartum placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The third stage of labour may be complicated by retained placenta, which should be managed promptly because it may cause severe bleeding and infection, with a potentially fatal outcome. This study evaluated the effectiveness of umbilical vein injection of misoprostol for the treatment of retained placenta in a hospital setting. Methods This hospital-based placebo-controlled trial was conducted at the Maternity Teaching Hospital, Erbil City, Kurdistan region, Northern Iraq from April 2011 to February 2012. The inclusion criteria were: gestational age of at least 28 weeks, vaginal delivery, and failure of the placenta to separate within 30 minutes after delivery of the infant despite active management of the third stage of labour. Forty-six women with retained placentas were eligible for inclusion. After informed consent was obtained, the women were alternately allocated to receive umbilical vein injection of either 800 mcg misoprostol dissolved in 20 mL of normal saline (misoprostol group) or 20 mL of normal saline only (saline group). The women were blinded to the group allocation, but the investigator who administered the injection was not. The trial was registered by the Research Ethics Committee of Hawler Medical University. Results After umbilical vein injection, delivery of the placenta occurred in 91.3% of women in the misoprostol group and 69.5% of women in the saline group, which was not a significant difference between the two groups. The median vaginal blood loss from the time of injection until delivery of the placenta was significantly less in the misoprostol group (100 mL) than in the saline group (210 mL) (p value?volume of vaginal blood loss with few adverse effects. Clinical Trial Registration Current Controlled Trial HMU: N252.1.2011 PMID:24444360

2014-01-01

305

Cumulative soil chemistry changes from land application of saline-sodic waters  

SciTech Connect

Management of large volumes (60,000 ha-m) of co-production water associated with coal bed natural gas (CBNG) water extraction is a potential concern in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana due to elevated water salinity and sodicity levels. Land application of saline-sodic CBNG water is a common water management method being practiced in the PRB, which can result in deterioration in soil quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects from 1 to 4 yr of land application with CBNG water on soil chemical properties at six study sites (fine to loamy, mixed to smectitic, mesic, Ustic Ardisols and Entisols) in the Wyoming PRB region. Changes in chemistry of soils collected from six depths irrigated with CBNG water were compared with representative non-irrigated soils. Applications of CBNG water significantly increased soil EC, SAR, and ESP values (up to 21, 74, and 24 times, respectively) compared with non-irrigated soils. Differences in soil chemical properties between an irrigated and non-irrigated coarse-textured soil were less than that of fine-textured soils, emphasizing texture as an important factor for salinity buildup. Pretreatment of CBNG water using a sulfur burner and application of gypsum and elemental S soil amendments reduced soil pH but did not prevent the build-up of salts and sodium. Study results suggest that current CBNG water management strategies are not as effective as projected. Additional research is needed to develop management strategies appropriate for mitigating adverse effects of CBNG water irrigation.

Ganjegunte, G.K.; King, L.A.; Vance, G.F. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Department for Renewable Resources

2008-09-15

306

Z .Aquaculture 175 1999 255268 Halophytes for the treatment of saline aquaculture  

E-print Network

the feasibility of using salt-tolerant plants halophytes as biofilters to remove nutrients from saline aquaculture salinity was increased with NaCl to make salinity treatments of 0.5, 10 and 35 ppt. The plant­soil system plant evapotranspiration. It could be extended to saline effluent streams if suitable, salt

Smith, Steven E.

307

Shoot Na+ Exclusion and Increased Salinity Tolerance Engineered by Cell TypeSpecific Alteration of  

E-print Network

of root-to-shoot transfer of Na+. Plants with reduced shoot Na+ also have increased salinity tolerance of salinity tolerance of many higher plants. INTRODUCTION Soil salinity affects large areas of cultivated land of many crop plants, and the continued salinization of arable land provides an increasing threat to global

Haseloff, Jim

308

Understanding the significance of sulfur in improving salinity tolerance in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity is a major abiotic stress factor affecting plant growth and productivity worldwide. The salinity-induced reduction in photosynthesis, growth and development of plants is associated with ionic\\/osmotic effects, nutritional imbalance or oxidative stress. Plants develop several mechanisms to induce tolerance to overcome salinity effects. Of the several possible mechanisms to reduce the effects of salinity stress, management of mineral nutrients

Rahat Nazar; Noushina Iqbal; Asim Masood; Shabina Syeed; Nafees A. Khan

2011-01-01

309

Passive Microwave Measurements of Salinity: The Gulf Stream Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (I psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approximately 0.2 psu) required of global maps to be scientifically viable. The development of a satellite microwave instrument to make global measurements of SSS (Sea Surface Salinity) is the focus of a joint JPL/GSFC/NASA ocean research program called Aquarius. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of airborne microwave instruments together with ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer (for surface temperature). These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Sea surface measurements consisted of thermosalinograph data provided by the R/V Cape Henlopen and the MN Oleander, and data from salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the R/V Cape Henlopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made with the airborne sensors on August 28 and 29 and on September 2 flights were made over the surface drifters to look for effects due to a change in surface roughness resulting from the passage of Hurricane Dennis. Results show a good agreement between the microwave measurements and ship measurements of salinity. The features of the brightness temperature maps correspond well with the features of the salinity field measured by the ship and drifters and a preliminary retrieval of salinity compares well with the ship data.

LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Haken, M.; Howden, S.; Bingham, F.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

310

Remote sensing of drought and salinity stressed turfgrass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to detect early signs of stress in turfgrass stands using a rapid, inexpensive, and nondestructive method would be a valuable management tool. Studies were conducted to determine if digital image analysis and spectroradiometric readings obtained from drought- and salinity-stressed turfgrasses accurately reflected the varying degrees of stress and correlated strongly with visual ratings, relative water content (RWC) and leaf osmolality, standard methods for measuring stress in plants. Greenhouse drought and salinity experiments were conducted on hybrid bluegrass [Poa arachnifera (Torn.) x pratensis (L.)] cv. Reveille and bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.)] cv. Princess 77. Increasing drought and salinity stress led to decreased RWC, increased leaf osmolality, and decreased visual ratings for both species. Percent green cover and hue values obtained from digital image analysis, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), calculated from spectroradiometric readings, were moderately to highly correlated with visual ratings, RWC, and leaf osmolality. Similarly, in a field validation study conducted on hybrid bluegrass, spectral reflectance ratios were moderately to highly correlated with visual ratings. In addition, percent green cover obtained from digital image analysis was strongly correlated with most of the spectral ratios, particularly the ratio of fluorescence peaks (r = -0.88 to -0.99), modified triangular vegetation index (MTVI) (r = 0.82 to 0.98), and NDVI (r = 0.84 to 0.99), suggesting that spectral reflectance and digital image analysis are equally effective at detecting changes in color brought on by stress. The two methods differed in their ability to distinguish between drought salinity stress. Hue values obtained from digital image analysis responded differently to increasing drought stress than to increasing salinity stress. Whereas the onset of drought stress was reflected by increased hue values followed by a decrease in values as drought stress increased, there was no increase in hue values at the onset of salinity stress. Thus, changes in hue could be a key to distinguish drought and salinity stress. Both digital image analysis and spectroradiometry effectively detected drought and salinity stress and may have applications in turfgrass management as rapid and quantitative methods to determine drought and salinity stress in turf.

Ikemura, Yoshiaki

311

Nitrogen sources and sinks in a wastewater impacted saline aquifer beneath the Florida Keys, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater wells surrounding a high volume advance treatment wastewater (ATW) disposal well in the Florida Keys were monitored for nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium concentrations over a 14 month period. Nutrient concentrations in the shallow subsurface (9 m) show a bimodal distribution between the low salinity wastewater plume and the ambient brackish to saline groundwaters. High NO 3- concentrations are found within the ATW plume while the highest NH 4+ concentrations are found in shallow wells outside of the plume. Evidence suggests that the overlying mud layer unique to this study site contributes the bulk of the NH 4+ observed in these wells. NO 3- concentrations at 9 m wells varied by a factor of four in response to concurrent variations in ATW NO 3- loads over the coarse of the study. Estimated NO 3- uptake rates varied from 32 ± 29 to 98 ± 69 and did not directly correlate with ATW NO 3- loading as we hypothesized. We estimate that 70 ± 34% of the NO 3- from the treatment plant is removed from solution in the subsurface of the study site. Considerable decreases in NO 3- concentration and enrichment of 15NO 3- was observed in many wells, indicating significant denitrification or anaerobic ammonium oxidation is occurring in the subsurface. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations, distributions, and 15N compositions indicate that denitrification is likely the dominant mechanism for N removal in the ATW plume at Key Colony Beach, Florida.

Dillon, Kevin S.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Smith, Leslie K.

2007-06-01

312

Microstrip Antenna for Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture and Sea Surface Salinity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This compact, lightweight, dual-frequency antenna feed developed for future soil moisture and sea surface salinity (SSS) missions can benefit future soil and ocean studies by lowering mass, volume, and cost of the antenna system. It also allows for airborne soil moisture and salinity remote sensors operating on small aircraft. While microstrip antenna technology has been developed for radio communications, it has yet to be applied to combined radar and radiometer for Earth remote sensing. The antenna feed provides a key instrument element enabling high-resolution radiometric observations with large, deployable antennas. The design is based on the microstrip stacked-patch array (MSPA) used to feed a large, lightweight, deployable, rotating mesh antenna for spaceborne L-band (approximately equal to 1 GHz) passive and active sensing systems. The array consists of stacked patches to provide dual-frequency capability and suitable radiation patterns. The stacked-patch microstrip element was designed to cover the required L-band center frequencies at 1.26 GHz (lower patch) and 1.413 GHz (upper patch), with dual-linear polarization capabilities. The dimension of patches produces the required frequencies. To achieve excellent polarization isolation and control of antenna sidelobes for the MSPA, the orientation of each stacked-patch element within the array is optimized to reduce the cross-polarization. A specialized feed-distribution network was designed to achieve the required excitation amplitude and phase for each stacked-patch element.

Ramhat-Samii, Yahya; Kona, Keerti; Manteghi, Majid; Dinardo, Steven; Hunter, Don; Njoku, Eni; Wilson, Wiliam; Yueh, Simon

2009-01-01

313

Potential use of halophytes to remediate saline soils.  

PubMed

Salinity is one of the rising problems causing tremendous yield losses in many regions of the world especially in arid and semiarid regions. To maximize crop productivity, these areas should be brought under utilization where there are options for removing salinity or using the salt-tolerant crops. Use of salt-tolerant crops does not remove the salt and hence halophytes that have capacity to accumulate and exclude the salt can be an effective way. Methods for salt removal include agronomic practices or phytoremediation. The first is cost- and labor-intensive and needs some developmental strategies for implication; on the contrary, the phytoremediation by halophyte is more suitable as it can be executed very easily without those problems. Several halophyte species including grasses, shrubs, and trees can remove the salt from different kinds of salt-affected problematic soils through salt excluding, excreting, or accumulating by their morphological, anatomical, physiological adaptation in their organelle level and cellular level. Exploiting halophytes for reducing salinity can be good sources for meeting the basic needs of people in salt-affected areas as well. This review focuses on the special adaptive features of halophytic plants under saline condition and the possible ways to utilize these plants to remediate salinity. PMID:25110683

Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Alam, Md Mahabub; Bhowmik, Prasanta C; Hossain, Md Amzad; Rahman, Motior M; Prasad, Majeti Narasimha Vara; Ozturk, Munir; Fujita, Masayuki

2014-01-01

314

Variable change in renal function by hypertonic saline  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of hypertonic saline in the neurocritical care population. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our hospital’s use of hypertonic saline (HS) since March of 2005, and prospectively since October 2010. Comparisons were made between admission diagnoses, creatinine change (Cr), and HS formulation (3% NaCl, 3% NaCl/sodium acetate mix, and 23.4% NaCl) to patients receiving normal saline or lactated ringers. The patients (n = 1329) of the retrospective portion were identified. The data presented represents the first 230 patients with data. RESULTS: Significant differences in Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores and Glasgow Coma Scale scores occurred between different saline formulations. No significant correlation of Cl- or Na+ with Cr, nor with saline types, occurred. When dichotomized by diagnosis, significant correlations appear. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients demonstrated moderate correlation between Na+ and Cr of 0.45. Stroke patients demonstrated weak correlations between Na+ and Cr, and Cl- and Cr (0.19 for both). Patients receiving HS and not diagnosed with intracerebral hemorrhage, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or TBI demonstrated a weak but significant correlation between Cl- and Cr at 0.29. CONCLUSION: Cr directly correlates with Na+ or Cl- in stroke, Na+ in TBI, and Cl- in other populations. Prospective comparison of HS and renal function is needed. PMID:24892021

Corry, Jesse J; Varelas, Panayiotis; Abdelhak, Tamer; Morris, Stacey; Hawley, Marlisa; Hawkins, Allison; Jankowski, Michelle

2014-01-01

315

Effects of saline drinking water on early gosling development  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Relatively high levels of saline drinking water may adversely affect the growth, development, and survival of young waterfowl. Saline drinking water was suspect in the low survival rate of Canada goose (Branta canadensis) goslings at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (FSNWR) in western Utah. Hence, we investigated the effects of saline drinking water on the survival and growth of captive, wild-strain goslings from day 1-28 following hatch. We compared survival and growth (as measured by body mass, wing length, and culmen length) between a control group on tap water with a mean specific conductivity of 650 ??S/cm, and 2 saline water treatments: (1) intermediate level (12,000 ??S/cm), and (2) high level (18,000 ??S/cm). Gosling mortality occurred only in the 18,000 ??S/cm treatment group (33%; n = 9). Slopes of regressions of mean body mass, wing length, and culmen length on age were different from each other (P < 0.05), except for culmen length for the intermediate and high treatment levels. We predict that free-ranging wild goslings will experience mortality at even lower salinity levels than captive goslings because of the combined effects of depressed growth and environmental stresses, including hot desert temperatures and variable food quality over summer.

Stolley, D.S.; Bissonette, J.A.; Kadlec, J.A.; Coster, D.

1999-01-01

316

Effect of salinity on zinc uptake by Brassica juncea.  

PubMed

Salinity is a major worldwide problem that affects agricultural soils and limits the reclamation of contaminated sites. Despite the large number of research papers published about salt tolerance in Brassica juncea L., there are very few accounts concerning the influence of salinity on the uptake of trace metals. In this study, B. juncea plants divided through soil sets comprising 0, 900 and 1800 mg Zn kg(-1), were treated with solutions containing 0, 60 and 120 mmol L(-1) of NaCl, with the purpose of observing the effect of salt on Zn uptake, and some physiological responses throughout the 90 days experiment. Increasing concentrations of NaCl and Zn produced a decline in the ecophysiological and biochemical properties of the plants, with observable synergistic effects on parameters like shoot dry weight, leaf area, or photochemical efficiency. Nevertheless, plants treated with 60 mmol L(-1) of NaCl accumulated striking harvestable amounts of Zn per plant that largely exceed those reported for Thlaspi caerulescens. It was concluded that salinity could play an important role on the uptake of Zn by B. juncea. The potential mechanisms behind these results are discussed, as well as the implications for phytoremediation of Zn on saline and non-saline soils. PMID:24933880

Novo, Luís A B; Covelo, Emma F; González, Luís

2014-01-01

317

Salinity tolerance in plants: attempts to manipulate ion transport  

E-print Network

Ion transport is the major determining factor of salinity tolerance in plants. A simple scheme of a plant cell with ion fluxes provides basic understanding of ion transport and the corresponding changes of ion concentrations under salinity. The review describes in detail basic principles of ion transport for a plant cell, introduces set of transporters essential for sodium and potassium uptake and efflux, analyses driving forces of ion transport and compares ion fluxes measured by several techniques. Study of differences in ion transport between salt tolerant halophytes and salt-sensitive plants with an emphasis on transport of potassium and sodium via plasma membranes offers knowledge for increasing salinity tolerance. Effects of salt stress on ion transport properties of membranes show huge opportunities for manipulating ion transport. Several attempts to overexpress or knockout ion transporters for changing salinity tolerance are described. Future perspectives are questioned with more attention given to potential candidate ion channels and transporters for altered expression. The potential direction of increasing salinity tolerance by modifying ion channels and transporters is discussed and questioned. An alternative approach from synthetic biology is to modify the existing membrane transport proteins or create new ones with desired properties for transforming agricultural crops. The approach had not been widely used earlier and leads also to theoretical and pure scientific aspects of protein chemistry, structure-function relations of membrane proteins, systems biology and physiology of stress and ion homeostasis.

Vadim Volkov

2014-11-06

318

Irrigation management and investment under saline, limited drainage conditions: 3. Policy analysis and extensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water demand is characterized for the cotton-cotton-tomatoes rotation considered in the previous paper (Knapp, this issue (b)). Demand is found to be price inelastic. However, currently low water prices imply that fairly moderate increases in water prices can result in large water savings. A marginal cost curve for source control of drain water emissions is constructed. Moderate increases in drainage emissions fees can result in large reductions in drain water emissions with relatively small impacts on income. Management response and income effects from increased water salinity are estimated. The model is also extended to consider drain water reuse. Typical optimal management with reuse is low-volume, low-quality water on first-year cotton, improved quality and quantity on second-year cotton, and the highest quality water on salt-sensitive tomatoes. An approach to maximization of multifield farm-level returns is proposed using decentralized pricing and the field-level optimization model.

Knapp, Keith C.

1992-12-01

319

Assessment of salinity intrusion in the James and Chickahominy Rivers as a result of simulated sea-level rise in Chesapeake Bay, East Coast, USA.  

PubMed

Global sea level is rising, and the relative rate in the Chesapeake Bay region of the East Coast of the United States is greater than the worldwide rate. Sea-level rise can cause saline water to migrate upstream in estuaries and rivers, threatening freshwater habitat and drinking-water supplies. The effects of future sea-level rise on two tributaries of Chesapeake Bay, the James and Chickahominy (CHK) Rivers, were evaluated in order to quantify the salinity change with respect to the magnitude of sea-level rise. Such changes are critical to: 1) local floral and faunal habitats that have limited tolerance ranges to salinity; and 2) a drinking-water supply for the City of Newport News, Virginia. By using the three-dimensional Hydrodynamic-Eutrophication Model (HEM-3D), sea-level rise scenarios of 30, 50, and 100 cm, based on the U.S. Climate Change Science Program for the mid-Atlantic region for the 21st century, were evaluated. The model results indicate that salinity increases in the entire river as sea level rises and that the salinity increase in a dry year is greater than that in a typical year. In the James River, the salinity increase in the middle-to-upper river (from 25 to 50 km upstream of the mouth) is larger than that in the lower and upper parts of the river. The maximum mean salinity increase would be 2 and 4 ppt for a sea-level rise of 50 and 100 cm, respectively. The upstream movement of the 10 ppt isohaline is much larger than the 5 and 20 ppt isohalines. The volume of water with salinity between 10 and 20 ppt would increase greatly if sea level rises 100 cm. In the CHK River, with a sea-level rise of 100 cm, the mean salinity at the drinking-water intake 34 km upstream of the mouth would be about 3 ppt in a typical year and greater than 5 ppt in a dry year, both far in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's secondary standard for total dissolved solids for drinking water. At the drinking-water intake, the number of days of salinity greater than 0.1 ppt increases with increasing sea-level rise; during a dry year, 0.1 ppt would be exceeded for more than 100 days with as small a rise as 30 cm. PMID:22820747

Rice, Karen C; Hong, Bo; Shen, Jian

2012-11-30

320

Detecting a salinity plume in an unconfined sandy aquifer and assessing secondary soil salinization using electromagnetic induction techniques, North Dakota, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-use changes on the Sheyenne Delta in southeastern North Dakota, USA, have prompted research on impacts to the unconfined Sheyenne Delta aquifer (SDA). This study examines effects of the saline discharge of a flowing artesian well that taps the Dakota aquifer (DAK) on SDA groundwater chemistry and soil salinity. Objectives were to map the saline plume in the SDA using

D. G. Hopkins; J. L. Richardson

1999-01-01

321

The applicability of earth resistivity methods for saline interface definition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct current resistivity traversing has been used to characterise the nature of the saline interface at Te Horo on the Kapiti Coast in New Zealand. The results show that the interface in the vicinity of the settlement, which relies on bores for potable water, has intruded inland 10 m further than in undeveloped areas. Resistivity traversing has been particularly successful in defining subsurface areas of higher salinity by providing a two-dimensional image of the bulk resistivity structure. The results of the resistivity surveys are supported by bore water chemistry, which show evidence of saltwater mixing. Bores on beachfront properties have concentrations of up to 1% seawater. A resistivity formation factor has been derived to allow the pore fluid resistivity to be estimated for future coastal surveys. The results also illustrate the problems associated with using standard models to predict the location of the saline interface when small amounts of diffusive mixing occur.

Wilson, S. R.; Ingham, M.; McConchie, J. A.

2006-01-01

322

Climate change impacts on water salinity and health.  

PubMed

It is estimated that 884 million people do not have access to clean drinking water in the world. Increasing salinity of natural drinking water sources has been reported as one of the many problems that affect low-income countries, but one which has not been fully explored. This problem is exacerbated by rising sea-levels, owing to climate change, and other contributing factors, like changes in fresh water flow from rivers and increased shrimp farming along the coastal areas. In some countries, desalination plants are used to partly remove salt and other minerals from water sources, but this is unlikely to be a sustainable option for low-income countries affected by high salinity. Using the example of Bangladesh as a model country, the following research indicates that the problem of salinity can have serious implications with regard to rising rates of hypertension and other public health problems among large sectors of the worldwide population. PMID:23856370

Vineis, Paolo; Chan, Queenie; Khan, Aneire

2011-12-01

323

Comparative study of midtrimester termination of pregnancy using hypertonic saline, ethacridine lactate, prostaglandin analogue and iodine-saline.  

PubMed

The study consisted of terminations of 200 cases of second trimester pregnancies ranging from 14 weeks to 20 weeks. Out of these 200 cases, in 50 cases intra-amniotic instillation of 20% hypertonic saline (200 ml) was done after withdrawing 35-200 ml of amniotic fluid. Ethacridine lactate was instilled in 50 cases extra-amniotically. Prostaglandin F2 alpha was injected intramuscularly at regular intervals in 50 cases. Fifty cases of pregnancies were terminated with extra-amniotic instillation of 5% povidone-iodine solution mixed with normal saline. Comparison was made among all the methods regarding instillation-abortion interval, completeness of abortion, failure of the procedure and postoperative complications. Solution of 5% povidone-iodine in normal saline was found to be comparable in all aspects to other methods and above all a much cheaper alternative for poor patients. Success rate was highest with iodine-saline solution (100%) followed by ethacridine lactate (98%), hypertonic saline (96%) and lowest with prostaglandin F2 alpha (90%). PMID:1460314

Allahbadia, G

1992-09-01

324

Natural variation of salinity response, population structure and candidate genes associated with salinity tolerance in perennial ryegrass accessions.  

PubMed

Natural variation in salinity response, effects of population structure on growth and physiological traits and gene-trait association were examined in 56 global collections of diverse perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) accessions. Three population structure groups were identified with 66 simple sequence repeat markers, which on average accounted for 9 and 11% of phenotypic variation for the control and salinity treatment at 300?mm NaCl. Group 1 (10 accessions) had greater plant height, leaf dry weight and water content, chlorophyll index, K(+) concentration and K(+) /Na(+) than group 2 (39 accessions) and group 3 (7 accessions) under salinity stress, while group 3 had higher Na(+) than groups 1 and 2. Eighty-seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected from four partial candidate genes encoding aquaporin and Na(+) /H(+) antiporter in both plasma and tonoplast membranes. Overall, rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium was observed within 500?bp. Significant associations were found between the putative LpTIP1 and Na(+) for the control and between the putative LpNHX1 and K(+) /Na(+) under the control and salinity treatments after controlling population structure. These results indicate that population structure influenced phenotypic traits, and allelic variation in LpNHX1 may affect salinity tolerance of perennial ryegrass. PMID:23566156

Tang, Jinchi; Yu, Xiaoqing; Luo, Na; Xiao, Fangming; Camberato, James J; Jiang, Yiwei

2013-11-01

325

Estimating salinity to complement observed temperature: 2.Northwestern Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the problem of estimating salinity for a large region in the Atlantic Ocean containing the Gulf Stream and its recirculation. Together with Part 1 [Thacker, W.C., 2007-this issue. Estimating salinity to complement observed temperature: 1. Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Marine Systems. doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2005.06.008.] dealing with the Gulf of Mexico, this reports on the first efforts of a project for developing world-wide capability for estimating salinity to complement expendable-bathythermograph (XBT) data. Such estimates are particularly important for this region, where the strong frontal contrasts render the task of assimilating XBT data into numerical models more sensitive to the treatment of salinity. Differences in salinity's co-variability with temperature and with longitude, latitude, and day-of-year from the northwestern part of the region with the Gulf Stream to the southeastern part more characteristic of the Sargasso sea suggested that the region be partitioned to achieve more accurate salinity estimates. In general, accuracies were better in the southeastern sub-region than in the more highly variable northwestern sub-region with root-mean-square estimation errors of 0.15 psu at 25 dbar and 0.02 psu at 300 dbar as compared with 0.35 psu and 0.50 psu, respectively, but in the southeast there was an unexpected error maximum around 1000 dbar where estimates were slightly less accurate than in the northwest. For pressures greater than 1400 dbar root-mean-square errors in both sub-regions were less than 0.02 psu.

Thacker, W. C.; Sindlinger, L.

2007-03-01

326

Relative salinity tolerance of warm season turfgrass species.  

PubMed

Fresh water, coupled with soil salinization in many areas has resulted in an increased need forscreening of salt tolerant turf grasses. Relative salinity tolerance of eightwarm season turfgrass species were examined in this study in sand culture. Grasses were grown in a glasshouse, irrigated with either distilled water or saline sea water adjusted to 24, 48 or 72 dSm-1. Salt tolerances of the grasses were assessed on the basis of their shoot and root growth, leaf firing and turf quality. Regression analysis indicated that Zoysiajaponica (Japanese lawn grass) (JG), Stenotaphrum secundatum (St. Augustine) (SA), Cynodon dactylon (satiri) (BS), Zoysia teneuifolia (Korean grass) (KG), Digitaria didactyla (Serangoon grass) (SG), Cynodon dactylon (Tifdwarf) (TD), Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass) (BG) and Axonopus compressus(Pearl blue) (PB) suffered a 50% shoot growth reduction at 36.0, 31.8, 30.9, 28.4, 26.4, 25.7, 20.0 and 18.6 dSm1 of salinity, respectively and a root growth reduction at44.9, 43.7, 33.4, 31.0, 29.5 27.5, 21.5 and 21.4 dSm- of salinity, respectively. Leaf firing and turf quality of the selected species, as a whole, were also found to be affected harmoniously with the change in root and shoot growth. On the basis of the experimental results the selected species were ranked for salinity tolerance as JG>SA>BS>KG>SG >TD>BG>PB. PMID:22167942

Uddin, Kamal M; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Othman, Radziah; Rahim, Anuar Abdul

2011-05-01

327

SMOS Salinity: A New View of the Ocean Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESA/SMOS (European Space Agency/Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) satellite mission provides measurements of the Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) using L-band interferometric radiometry since end of 2009. It is the first time that this technology is used for measuring SSS from space, providing global ocean coverage every 3 to 5 days and a spatial resolution of up to 40km. In this presentation, we first assess the accuracy of the SMOS SSS recently reprocessed by ESA (version 5), and then illustrate the additional information these new satellite products bring, with respect to in situ measurements, for ocean surface processes studies. At global scale, the spatial variability of SMOS SSS is in relatively good agreement with the one derived from traditional in situ measurements. In tropical and subtropical regions, the rms error of SMOS SSS averaged over 10 days and 100x100km2 with respect to ARGO SSS is on the order of 0.3-0.4. On monthly average, SMOS SSS are systematically fresher than ARGO SSS in the tropical Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone. We demonstrate that this mean difference is due to SMOS SSS freshening correlated with rainy events. Since satellite L-band radiometers sense salinity in the first centimetre of the sea surface while ARGO upper salinity are measured at about 5m depth, this effect is likely to be partly a salinity stratification effect between 1cm and 5 m depth, an important feature for air-sea interactions studies. We will discuss this hypothesis in view of the salinity variability recently sampled in situ in the upper 50cm of the sea surface by surface autonomous drifters. With respect to existing in situ measurements, SMOS provides a much better synoptic coverage of the ocean surface at the expense of the SSS spatial resolution and accuracy. We will show some examples of frontal regions where SMOS SSS provides new information about SSS variability.

Boutin, J.; Martin, N.; Reverdin, G. P.; Yin, X.

2012-12-01

328

Selective pyrophosphate recognition by cyclic peptide receptors in physiological saline.  

PubMed

The anion binding ability of a family of bis(Zn(II)-Dpa) functionalized cyclic peptides has been investigated using displacement assays with a fluorescent coumarin indicator in water, saline solution, and Krebs buffer. Non-binding side-chain steric bulk, the relative position of binding sites, and the scaffold size were all found to affect the ability of these receptors to discriminate between polyphosphate ions. Most receptors showed some selectivity for pyrophosphate over ATP and ADP in water and saline, and this selectivity was significantly enhanced in the biologically relevant Krebs buffer giving chemosensing ensembles capable of selective recognition of pyrophosphate in the presence of excess ATP. PMID:22965665

Butler, Stephen J; Jolliffe, Katrina A

2012-11-01

329

Effective permittivity of saline ice under thermal variation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model for calculating the effective permittivity of saline ice under thermal variation is presented. The model includes multiphase inhomogeneities with multiple species characterized by orientation, size and shape distributions. The model is used to derive the effective permittivity as a function of temperature under the strong fluctuation theory which is extended to account for the complexity. The results calculated from the model are compared with experimental data at 4.8 GHz for saline ice grown at the US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL). The comparison between measured and calculated complex permittivities is good for the imaginary part, and the difference is within 10 percent for the real part.

Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.; Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T.; Gow, A. J.; Arcone, S. A.

1992-01-01

330

Removal of phenol from saline water by polyamine chelating resin.  

PubMed

Removal of phenol from saline water was carried out with chelating resin. A polyamine chelating resin, Diaion CR-20, removed phenol compounds selectively from industrial wastewater containing 2% salt. From saline water containing 20 mg/L phenol, 70% of the phenol was removed. After treatment, phenol was eluted from the resin by aqueous NaOH, and the resin could also be regenerated by heating in air. Diaion CR-20 adsorbed phenol even in the presence of FeCl3, indicating that treatment with this resin of wastewater containing metal can remove phenol and metal cations in a single step. PMID:24185065

Yamada, Arisa; Matsui, Akihiro; Tsuji, Hideyuki

2013-01-01

331

Subcellular Adaptation to Salinity and Irradiance in Dunaliella salina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dunaliella salina V-63 was cultivated in different concentrations of NaCl (0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 3.0, or 4.0 M) and at two irradiances (170 or 220\\u000a ?mol m?2s?1). Concentration-dependent suppression of growth was observed above 1 M NaCl, and elevated salinity induced formation of salt-containing\\u000a vacuoles. However, the changes in the chloroplast ultrastructure following changes in salinity and irradiance (increase of\\u000a invaginations

E. Stoynova-Bakalova; T. Toncheva-Panova

2003-01-01

332

Global monitoring of Sea Surface Salinity with Aquarius  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius is a microwave remote sensing system designed to obtain global maps of the surface salinity field of the oceans from space. It will be flown on the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA (NASA) and Argentina (CONAE) with launch scheduled for late in 2008. The objective of Aquarius is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This will provide data to address scientific questions associated with ocean circulation and its impact on climate. For example, salinity is needed to understand the large scale thermohaline circulation, driven by buoyancy, which moves large masses of water and heat around the globe. Of the two variables that determine buoyancy (salinity and temperature), temperature is already being monitored. Salinity is the missing variable needed to understand this circulation. Salinity also has an important role in energy exchange between the ocean and atmosphere, for example in the development of fresh water lenses (buoyant water that forms stable layers and insulates water below from the atmosphere) which alter the air-sea coupling. Aquarius is a combination radiometer and scatterometer (radar) operating at L-band (1.413 GHz for the radiometer and 1.26 GHz for the scatterometer). The primary instrument,for measuring salinity is the radiometer which is able to detect salinity because of the modulation salinity produces on the thermal emission from sea water. This change is detectable at the long wavelength end of the microwave spectrum. The scatterometer will provide a correction for surface roughness (waves) which is one of the greatest unknowns in the retrieval. The sensor will be in a sun-synchronous orbit at about 650 km with equatorial crossings of 6am/6pm. The antenna for these two instruments is a 3 meter offset fed reflector with three feeds arranged in pushbroom fashion looking away from the sun toward the shadow side of the orbit to minimize sunglint. The mission goal is to produce maps of the salinity field globally once each month with an accuracy of 0.2 psu and a spatial resolution of 100 km. This will be adequate to address l&ge scale features of the salinity field of the open ocean. The temporal resolution is sufficient to address seasonal changes and a three year mission is planned to-collect sufficient data to look for interannual variation. Aquarius is being developed by NASA as part of the Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. The SAC-D mission is being developed by CONAE and will include the space craft and several additional instruments, including visible and infrared cameras and a microwave radiometer to monitor rain and wind velocity over the oceans, and sea ice.

Lagerloef, G. S. E.; LeVine, D. M.; Chao, Yi; Colomb, R.; Nollmann, I.

2005-01-01

333

Epidural Meperidine After Cesarean Section: The Effect of Diluent Volume  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of diluent volume on analge- sia and systemic absorption from epidural meperidine after cesarean section in a randomized, double-blind study. At the first request for postoperative analgesia, 36 parturients were given epidural meperidine 25 mg diluted with saline to either 2 mL (12.5 mg\\/mL), 5 mL (5 mg\\/mL), or 10 mL (2.5 mg\\/mL). Visual analog pain

Warwick D. Ngan Kee; Kwok K. Lam; Tony Gin; FRCA FANZCA

334

Tsunami-induced groundwater salinization in southeastern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 26 December 2004, a northern Indonesia earthquake generated a tsunami that devastated coastal Indian Ocean regions. The impact of the tsunami on groundwater quality was unexpected as inundation and retreat of the tsunami wave lasted just 5min. We report data showing salinization of the regionally extensive “Dune aquifer” in southeastern India. We present evidence that tsunami inundation resulted in

Sophie Violette; Gilles Boulicot; Steven M. Gorelick

2009-01-01

335

Physiological Responses to Salinity in Selected Lines of Wheat 1  

PubMed Central

Two selections of bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L., differing in their relative salt resistance, were grown in salinized solution culture, and relative growth rates, osmotic adjustment, ion accumulation, and photosynthesis were monitored to study the responses of the plants to salinity. Differences in water relations were minimal and were only apparent for 3 days following salinization. The lines differed substantially in their relative growth rates and photosynthetic responses for several weeks following salinization, despite full osmotic adjustment. Concentrations of major cations and Cl? in the plant organs were remarkably similar in both lines, indicative of minimal differences in gross ion absorption and translocation. The authors interpret these results to suggest that the major difference between these two lines of wheat was their response to specific ion effects, at the level of the organ, tissue, cell, and subcellular entities. Superior compartmentation of toxic ions by the more salt-tolerant line, presumably in the vacuole, might have enabled it to maintain its cytoplasmic metabolic apparatus in a stabler and more nearly normal state than the sensitive line was able to do; a measure of true cytoplasmic toleration of salt may also be a factor. PMID:16663433

Kingsbury, Ralph W.; Epstein, Emanuel; Pearcy, Robert W.

1984-01-01

336

Nonisothermal multiphase flow of brine and gas through saline media  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a general formulation for nonisothermal multiphase flow of brine and gas through saline media. The balance equations include mass balance (three species), equilibrium of stresses and energy balance (total internal energy). Salt, water and air mass balance equations are established. The balance of salt allows the establishment of the equation for porosity evolution due to solid skeleton deformation,

S. Olivella; J. Carrera; A. Gens; E. E. Alonso

1994-01-01

337

Cyclic Irrigation of Turfgrass Using a Shallow Saline Aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

water as a supplemental irrigation source on landscapes would free up potable water for higher priority uses, A 2-yr cyclic irrigation study using shallow saline groundwater lower water tables in contact with structural founda- was conducted on a sports field in southern Nevada (bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. 'Tifway') overseeded with perennial ryegrass tions, reduce the potential of contaminating the primary

C. M. Schaan; D. A. Devitt; R. L. Morris; L. Clark

2003-01-01

338

Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinization is the process whereby the concentration of dissolved salts in water and soil is increased due to natural or human-induced processes. Water is lost through one or any combination of four main mechanisms: evaporation, evapotranspiration, hydrolysis, and leakage between aquifers. Salinity increases from catchment divides to the valley floors and in the direction of groundwater flow. Salinization is explained by two main chemical models developed by the authors: weathering and deposition. These models are in agreement with the weathering and depositional geological processes that have formed soils and overburden in the catchments. Five soil-change processes in arid and semi-arid climates are associated with waterlogging and water. In all represented cases, groundwater is the main geological agent for transmitting, accumulating, and discharging salt. At a small catchment scale in South and Western Australia, water is lost through evapotranspiration and hydrolysis. Saline groundwater flows along the beds of the streams and is accumulated in paleochannels, which act as a salt repository, and finally discharges in lakes, where most of the saline groundwater is concentrated. In the hummocky terrains of the Northern Great Plains Region, Canada and USA, the localized recharge and discharge scenarios cause salinization to occur mainly in depressions, in conjunction with the formation of saline soils and seepages. On a regional scale within closed basins, this process can create playas or saline lakes. In the continental aquifers of the rift basins of Sudan, salinity increases along the groundwater flow path and forms a saline zone at the distal end. The saline zone in each rift forms a closed ridge, which coincides with the closed trough of the groundwater-level map. The saline body or bodies were formed by evaporation coupled with alkaline-earth carbonate precipitation and dissolution of capillary salts. Résumé La salinisation est le processus par lequel la concentration des sels dissous dans l'eau et les sols s'accroît sous l'effet de processus naturels ou anthropiques. L'eau est perdue par l'une ou l'autre combinaison de quatre principaux mécanismes : l'évaporation, l'évapotranspiration, l'hydrolyse et la drainance entre aquifères. La salinité augmente depuis les limites des bassins jusqu'au fond des vallées et le long des axes d'écoulement souterrain. La salinisation est expliquée au moyen de deux principaux modèles chimiques développés par les auteurs : l'altération et le dépôt. Ces modèles sont en accord avec les processus géologiques d'altération et de dépôt qui ont formé les sols et qui recouvrent les bassins versants. Cinq processus d'évolution de sols sous climats aride et semi-aride sont associés à l'eau et à des formations aquifères. Dans tous les cas présentés, l'eau souterraine est le principal agent géologique qui transporte, accumule et dépose les sels. A l'échelle de petits bassins versants dans le sud et dans l'ouest de l'Australie, l'eau est consommée par évapotranspiration et par hydrolyse. L'eau souterraine salée coule le long des berges de rivières et s'accumule dans des paléochenaux, qui fonctionnent comme des zones de stockage de sels, et finalement s'écoule dans des lacs, où la plupart des eaux salées se concentrent. Dans les formations bosselées des grandes plaines du nord du Canada et des États-Unis, des scénarios d'alimentation et de décharge localisées conduisent la salinisation à se produire surtout dans les dépressions, en association avec la formation de sols et d'infiltrations salins. A l'échelle régionale dans les bassins fermés, ce processus peut être à l'origine de playas ou de lacs salés. Dans les aquifères continentaux des bassins de rift du Soudan, la salinité augmente le long des axes d'écoulement souterrain et forme ainsi une zone saline à leur extrémité. La zone saline de chaque rift constitue une crête, qui coïncide avec le creux piézométrique. Le ou les ensembles salins se sont formés par évaporation couplée

Salama, Ramsis B.; Otto, Claus J.; Fitzpatrick, Robert W.

339

Patterns of fungal diversity and composition along a salinity gradient  

PubMed Central

Estuarine salinity gradients are known to influence plant, bacterial and archaeal community structure. We sequenced 18S rRNA genes to investigate patterns in sediment fungal diversity (richness and evenness of taxa) and composition (taxonomic and phylogenetic) along an estuarine salinity gradient. We sampled three marshes—a salt, brackish and freshwater marsh—in Rhode Island. To compare the relative effect of the salinity gradient with that of plants, we sampled fungi in plots with Spartina patens and in plots from which plants were removed 2 years prior to sampling. The fungal sediment community was unique compared with previously sampled fungal communities; we detected more Ascomycota (78%), fewer Basidiomycota (6%) and more fungi from basal lineages (16%) (Chytridiomycota, Glomeromycota and four additional groups) than typically found in soil. Across marshes, fungal composition changed substantially, whereas fungal diversity differed only at the finest level of genetic resolution, and was highest in the intermediate, brackish marsh. In contrast, the presence of plants had a highly significant effect on fungal diversity at all levels of genetic resolution, but less of an effect on fungal composition. These results suggest that salinity (or other covarying parameters) selects for a distinctive fungal composition, and plants provide additional niches upon which taxa within these communities can specialize and coexist. Given the number of sequences from basal fungal lineages, the study also suggests that further sampling of estuarine sediments may help in understanding early fungal evolution. PMID:20882058

Mohamed, Devon J; Martiny, Jennifer BH

2011-01-01

340

Effects of drainage salinity evolution on irrigation management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A soil physics theory of solute movement through a drained saturated zone underlying agricultural land is introduced into a long-term economic analysis of farm-level irrigation management; this is an alternative to the immediate, homogeneous blending assumption employed in previous studies as a base for calculating changes in drainage salinity over time. Using data from California, the effect of drainage salinity evolution is analyzed through a year-by-year profit optimization under the requirement of on-farm drainage disposal. Paths of optimal land allocation among crop production with fresh surface water, saline drainage reuse and evaporation ponds appear to depend on the relative profitability of the first two; that of reuse is affected by the trend of drainage salinity. Tile spacing and environmental regulations associated with evaporation ponds affect the timing of evaporation pond construction. The system converges into a solution involving both drainage-disposal activities; this solution includes an outlet for salts and is therefore sustainable. Following this strategy, the system is asymptotically approaching a steady state that possesses both hydrological and salt balances. Economic implications associated with land retirement programs in California are discussed.

Kan, Iddo

2003-12-01

341

Aquarius\\/SAC-D Ocean Salinity Mission Science Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scheduled for launch in 2009, the international Aquarius\\/SAC-D satellite will begin a mission to map the global sea surface salinity (SSS) field and its variability from space. The overarching scientific goal is to provide the essential data to study the interactions between the ocean circulation, global water cycle and climate. Key scientific issues to address are (1) mapping large expanses

G. S. E. Lagerloef; Y. Chao; F. Raul Colomb

2006-01-01

342

Adaptation to salinity at the plant cell level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Various mechanisms of adaptation of plant cells to salinity are reviewed: (1) protection of enzymes and maintenance of turgor by organic solutes; (2) prevention of ion toxicity by compartmentation; and (3) energization of solute transport by the proton pump. All these mechanisms seem to play a role in adaptation. The particular advantages of using salt-adapted cells in suspension culture

H. R. Lerner

1985-01-01

343

The effect of salinity on plant available water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity acts to inhibit plant access to soil water by increasing the osmotic strength of the soil solution. As the soil dries, the soil solution becomes increasingly concentrated, further limiting plant access to soil water. An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of salt on plant available water in a heavy clay soil, using a relatively salt tolerant species,

Anna Sheldon; Neal W. Menzies; H. Bing So; Ram Dalal

344

Ocean water salinity and colour herald El Nio events  

E-print Network

's edge is more strongly green owing to surface waters' high concentration in chlorophyll a ­the mostN° 380 July 2011 Ocean water salinity and colour herald El Niño events Scientific news Actualidad cientifica Actualité scientifique The immense warm-water reservoir in the western tropical Pacific ­with sea

345

The applicability of earth resistivity methods for saline interface definition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct current resistivity traversing has been used to characterise the nature of the saline interface at Te Horo on the Kapiti Coast in New Zealand. The results show that the interface in the vicinity of the settlement, which relies on bores for potable water, has intruded inland 10m further than in undeveloped areas. Resistivity traversing has been particularly successful in

S. R. Wilson; M. Ingham; J. A. McConchie

2006-01-01

346

Charophytes, indicators for low salinity phases in North African sebkhet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among water plants of lakes and ponds, the charophytes are useful for palaeolimnology because they provide autochthonous fossils in the form of their calcified fructifications, termed gyrogonites. Particular species of the Characeae are adapted to brackish water and serve as a modern analogue to infer the salinity of salt lake sediments. Here we focus on Lamprothamnium papulosum whose significance in

Ingeborg Soulié-Märsche

2008-01-01

347

Effects of Salinity and Drought Stresses on Root Water Uptake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vadose zone numerical simulation models, root water extraction is typically accounted for by introducing a sink term into the Richards equation. Various forms of the sink term have been proposed to simulate the reduction in water extraction that occurs when soil salinity and/or drought conditions exist in the root zone. While this representation of root water uptake is a fixture of modern simulation models, there has been relatively little work demonstrating agreement between the models and measured water uptake data. In this work, we compare HYDURS-1D model simulations with drainage and root water uptake data collected for forage crops grown in lysimeters using a range of salinity and drought treatments. We found good agreement between the model and the data using a single set of salinity and water stress parameters, a noteworthy result given the broad range of experimental conditions considered (irrigation waters with electrical conductivities as high as 28 dS/m). On the other hand, the required salinity and water stress parameters did not correspond to published salt tolerance data for these crops, suggesting that the near term prospects for using this model in a purely predictive capacity (i.e., without detailed crop- and site-specific calibration) are limited.

Skaggs, T. H.; Poss, J. A.; Shouse, P. J.

2004-12-01

348

Migration of saline solutions in variably saturated porous media  

E-print Network

Migration of saline solutions in variably saturated porous media Noam Weisbroda,*, Michael R October 2003; accepted 31 October 2003 Abstract Migration of concentrated NaNO3 solutions in homogeneous molal NaNO3 were found to migrate downward 24­62% faster than pure water, in an unstable, fingered

Selker, John

349

Phytoplankton dynamics in a coastal saline lake (SE-Portugal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to characterise phytoplankton dynamics in a coastal saline lake, pinpointing putative biotic and abiotic regulatory variables of its succession and productivity. Between February and September 1998, samples for the analysis of physical, chemical and biological variables were taken fortnightly (except in February and April). The phytoplankton community showed three distinct periods of evolution. The

Pedro Morais; Maria Alexandra Chícharo; Ana Barbosa

2003-01-01

350

Influence of brine filtration on thermal expansion of saline ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a model of the thermo-mechanical behavior of saline ice, based on Darcy's law for liquid brine and an elastic model for the solid ice fraction. The coefficient of thermal expansion is calculated from the model equations and compared with experimental data. Experiments were performed with Fiber Bragg Grating strain and temperature sensors in the cold laboratories at UNIS and UCL in 2011-2013. In the experiments, the curve describing the dependence of the coefficient of thermal expansion on the temperature is always located in between the theoretical curves for saline and fresh ice. Such thermal behavior can be explained by the assumption that only some of the brine exists in enclosed pockets. The other brine exists in channels and can easily leak out of the ice. Brine in enclosed pockets controls the abnormal properties of thermal expansion. The remaining brine, in more permeable regions of the ice, has little effect on thermal expansion. Boundary conditions in our experiments may have a strong influence on the brine filtration. Several experiments performed with saline ice samples inside steel pipes gave a lower temperature for the point of zero thermal expansion than those with unconfined saline ice.

Marchenko, Aleksey; Lishman, Ben

2014-05-01

351

Increased salinization of fresh water in the northeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloride concentrations are increasing at a rate that threatens the availability of fresh water in the northeastern United States. Increases in roadways and deicer use are now salinizing fresh waters, degrading habitat for aquatic organisms, and impacting large supplies of drinking water for humans throughout the region. We observed chloride concentrations of up to 25% of the concentration of seawater

Sujay S. Kaushal; Peter M. Groffman; Gene E. Likens; Kenneth T. Belt; William P. Stack; Victoria R. Kelly; Lawrence E. Band; Gary T. Fisher

2005-01-01

352

Treatment of hyponatraemic seizures with intravenous 29.2% saline.  

PubMed Central

Five patients with severe hyponatraemia and epileptiform seizures were given 50 ml of 29.2% saline (250 mmol) through a central venous catheter over 10 minutes to control seizures rapidly, reduce cerebral oedema, and diminish the incidence of permanent neuronal damage. The saline controlled seizures in all patients, increasing the mean serum sodium concentration by 7.4 (SD 1.14) mmol(mEq)/l and decreasing the mean serum potassium concentration by 0.62 (0.5) mmol(mEq)/l. Further saline and frusemide were then administered over 10 (2) hours, raising the serum sodium concentration by 2.14 (0.49) mmol/l/h until it reached 133 (2.35) mmol/l. A total of 790 (139) mmol saline was infused and a negative fluid balance of 3.34 (0.75) litres achieved. Four patients survived without neurological abnormality. One patient, who was not treated immediately and suffered a prolonged episode of status epilepticus, was left with a permanent neurological defect. PMID:3080118

Worthley, L I; Thomas, P D

1986-01-01

353

Modern dolomite deposition in continental, saline lakes, western Victoria, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcrystalline dolomite forms a major constituent of Holocene sediments of numerous continental, saline playa lakes in southeastern Australia. The lake waters are highly supersaturated with respect to dolomite as well as other Mg carbonates, but undersaturated or near saturation with respect to calcite and aragonite. The dolomite shows no replacement textures and most likely formed by direct precipitation. Conditions in

P. de Deckker; William M. Last

1988-01-01

354

19. The limnology of saline lakes in Western Victoria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although saline lakes are interesting to limnologists, most, unfortunately, are relatively inaccessible. The extent to which they have been studied compared with freshwater lakes is therefore limited. Though not restricted to warm arid regions, they are often numerous in such places, and Australia not surprizingly - has a large number. Most of these, too, are relatively inaccessible. However, west of

W. D. Williams; S. Australia

1981-01-01

355

Global carbon sequestration in tidal, saline wetland soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetlands represent the largest component of the terrestrial biological carbon pool and thus play an important role in global carbon cycles. Most global carbon budgets, however, have focused on dry land ecosystems that extend over large areas and have not accounted for the many small, scattered carbonstoring ecosystems such as tidal saline wetlands. We compiled data for 154 sites in

Gail L. Chmura; Shimon C. Anisfeld; Donald R. Cahoon; James C. Lynch

2003-01-01

356

Desiccation-crack-induced salinization in deep clay sediment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study on water infiltration and solute transport in a clayey vadose zone underlying a dairy farm waste source was conducted to assess the impact of desiccation cracks on subsurface evaporation and salinization. The study is based on five years of continuous measurements of the temporal variation in the vadose zone water content and on the chemical and isotopic composition of the sediment and pore water in it. The isotopic composition of water stable isotopes (?18O and ?2H) in water and sediment samples, from the area where desiccation crack networks prevail, indicated subsurface evaporation down to ~ 3.5 m below land surface, and vertical and lateral preferential transport of water, following erratic preferential infiltration events. Chloride (Cl-) concentrations in the vadose zone pore water substantially increased with depth, evidence of deep subsurface evaporation and down flushing of concentrated solutions from the evaporation zones during preferential infiltration events. These observations led to development of a desiccation-crack-induced salinization (DCIS) conceptual model. DCIS suggests that thermally driven convective air flow in the desiccation cracks induces evaporation and salinization in relatively deep sections of the subsurface. This conceptual model supports previous conceptual models on vadose zone and groundwater salinization in fractured rock in arid environments and extends its validity to clayey soils in semi-arid environments.

Baram, S.; Ronen, Z.; Kurtzman, D.; Külls, C.; Dahan, O.

2013-04-01

357

Desiccation-crack-induced salinization in deep clay sediment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study on water infiltration and solute transport in a clayey vadose zone underlying a dairy farm waste source was conducted to assess the impact of desiccation cracks on subsurface evaporation and salinization. The study is based on five years of continuous measurements of the temporal variation in the vadose zone water-content and on the chemical and isotopic composition of the sediment and pore-water in it. The isotopic composition of water stable isotopes (?18O and ?2H) in water and sediment samples, from the area where desiccation crack networks prevail, indicated subsurface evaporation down to ∼3.5 m below land surface, and vertical and lateral preferential transport of water, following erratic preferential infiltration events. Chloride (Cl-) concentrations in the vadose zone pore water substantially increased with depth, evidence of deep subsurface evaporation and down flushing of concentrated solutions from the evaporation zones during preferential infiltration events. These observations led to development of a Desiccation-Crack-Induced Salinization (DCIS) conceptual model. DCIS suggests that thermally driven convective air flow in the desiccation cracks induces evaporation and salinization in relatively deep sections of the subsurface. This conceptual model supports previous conceptual models on vadose zone and groundwater salinization in fractured rock in arid environments and extends its validity to clayey soils in semi-arid environments.

Baram, S.; Ronen, Z.; Kurtzman, D.; Küells, C.; Dahan, O.

2012-11-01

358

Time Series of Suspended-Solids Concentration, Salinity, Temperature, and  

E-print Network

(RMP) water-quality data can be used to calculate time series of some trace- element concentrationsTime Series of Suspended-Solids Concentration, Salinity, Temperature, and Total Mercury Concentration in San Francisco Bay During Water Year 1998 Prepared by Catherine A. Ruhl and David H. Schoelhamer

359

Dynamic taxation schemes to manage irrigation-induced salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a dynamic model to explore the issue of irrigation-induced salinity, which puts irrigation at risk in most irrigated areas throughout the world. We address the design of instruments that an irrigation district board could implement to induce irrigators to take sustainable irrigation decisions. In our approach, the irrigators located above an aquifer participate in the accumulation of

Sophie Legras; Robert Lifran

2006-01-01

360

Laser measure of sea salinity, temperature and turbidity in depth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described in which a pulsed laser is used to probe the sea. Backscattered light is analyzed in time, intensity and wavelength. Tyndall, Raman and Brillouin scattering are used to obtain the backscatter turbidity, sound velocity, salinity, and the temperature as a function of depth.

Hirschberg, J. G.; Wouters, A. W.; Byrne, J. D.

1974-01-01

361

Visit to An Ocean Planet: Salinity and Deep Ocean Currents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource uses text, images, maps and a laboratory exercise to explain how differences in the temperature and salinity of ocean water cause the formation of deep-ocean currents. It is part of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's "Ocean Surface Topography from Space" website. This material is also available on the "Visit to An Ocean Planet" CD-ROM.

362

Home Brew Salinity Measuring Devices: Their Construction and Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses several inexpensive methods of evaluating the salinity of seawater. One method is presented in some detail. This method has several attractive features. First, it can be used to provide instruction, not only in marine chemistry, but also in studying the mathematics of the point slope formula, and as an aid in teaching students…

Schlenker, Richard M.

363

ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING MANUAL FOR SALINITY MANAGEMENT IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

An Environmental Planning Manual for Salinity Management in Irrigated Agriculture has been prepared. The primary focus of this manual is a delineation of the combinations of technological and institutional solutions, the various levels of planning effort, use of existing data and...

364

Artificial upwelling driven by salinity differences in the ocean  

SciTech Connect

A concept for an artificial upwelling driven by salinity differences in the ocean to supply nutrients to a mariculture farm is described and analyzed. A long shell-and-tube counterflow heat exchanger built of inexpensive plastic and concrete is suspended vertically in the ocean. Cold, nutrient rich, but relatively fresh water from deep in the ocean flows up the shell side of the heat exchanger, and warm but relatively saline water from the surface flows down the tube side. The two flows exchange heat across the thin plastic walls of the tubes, maintaining a constant temperature difference along the heat exchanger. The plastic tubes are protected by the concrete outer shell of the heat exchanger. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep and surface water due to their difference in salinity. This phenomenon was first recognized by the oceanographer Stommel, who termed it The Perpetual Salt Fountain. The heat transfer and flow rate as a function of tube number and diameter is analyzed and the size of the heat exchanger optimized for cost is determined for a given flow of nutrients for various locations. Reasonable sizes (outer diameter on the order of 5 m) are obtained. The incremental capital cost of the salinity-driven artificial upwelling is compared to the incremental capital cost and present value of the operating cost of an artificial upwell fueled by liquid hydrocarbons.

Johnson, D.H.; Decicco, J.

1983-12-01

365

ENSO signature in the SMOS sea surface salinity maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently, the role of salinity observations in the operational simulation and prediction of ENSO was neglected because of the historical lack of observations and because leading intermediate coupled models had significant predictive skill without directly accounting for salinity effects. In Ballabrera-Poy et al., (2002), the potential role of sea surface salinity (SSS) observations on the statistical predictions of ENSO was investigated. It was shown that, although SSS observations would play little role in statistical nowcasts of ENSO, they would provide a significant role in the 6-12 month predictions. The European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Earth Explorer opportunity mission was launched on November 2, 2009, becoming the first satellite mission addressing the challenge of measuring SSS from space with the help of MIRAS (Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis), a novel two-dimensional interferometer operating at L-band (1.4 GHz). Although the L-band frequency is the optimal for ocean salinity measurements, the retrieval of SSS information requires special care because of the low sensitivity of the brightness temperature to SSS: from 0.2-0.8 K per salinity unit. Maps of 10-day averages of SSS in 1x1 degree boxes are distributed by the SMOS Barcelona Expert Centre on Radiometric Calibration and Ocean Salinity (SMOS-BEC, http://www.smos-bec.icm.csic.es). These maps are derived from the SMOS reprocessing campaign released to the SMOS user community in March 2011, and span the period from January 2010 through December 2011. The current accuracy of these SSS maps ranges from 0.2-0.4, depending on the ocean region being considered (Umbert et al., 2012). During the period of the reprocessing campaign, the equatorial Pacific has been in a quasi-continuous La Niña state. During the cold phases of ENSO, positive anomalies of SSS are expected with a largest anomalous values in the western warm-fresh pool. The anomalies derived from the SMOS data do indeed display a positive anomaly. The persistence of the feature, its geographical pattern, and the time modulation of the anomaly amplitude indicate that the SSS fields provided by the SMOS mission do actually contain an ENSO-related signal, despite the shortness of the data gathered by the mission. Although the SMOS time span is still too short to allow any study about the factual impact of these data in the prediction of ENSO (either through data assimilation or statistical predictions), these results provide a clear indication that the novel observational technology that SMOS represents for the observation of the Earth is currently able to capture seasonal and interannual signatures of climate interest.

Ballabrera, J.; Umbert, M.; Hoareau, N.; Turiel, A.; Font, J.

2012-12-01

366

Terminology used to describe volume expanding resuscitation fluid.  

PubMed

Many published reports state that the type of resuscitation fluid to be used for volume expansion should be "isotonic crystalloid" or "isotonic fluid". Generally, this terminology refers to normal saline (NS) and lactated Ringer's (LR) solution. This terminology is suboptimal technically since not all "isotonic" crystalloids are sufficient volume expanders. A total of 48 reference books from the areas of general pediatrics, pediatric emergency medicine, emergency medicine, pediatric critical care, pediatric surgery, general surgery, internal medicine, family medicine, adult critical care, obstetrics and gynecology, endocrinology, and life support course manuals were reviewed. The description of fluids for hypovolemic shock, trauma, and diabetic ketoacidosis resuscitation was accurate in 46% of the time. PMID:16457934

Matsuno, Wendy C; Yamamoto, Loren G

2006-03-01

367

[Study on the soil salinization monitoring based on measured hyperspectral and HSI data].  

PubMed

The present paper selects the Kuqa Oasis as the study area, studies spectrum characteristics of soil salinity, and establishes soil spectrum library. Through transforming and analyzing varying degrees of soil salinization reflectance spectra data in the typical study area, and selecting the most sensitive spectral bands in response to salinization, we established the measured hyperspectral soil salinity monitoring model, and by correcting the soil salinity monitoring model established by HIS image through scale effect conversion improved the model accuracy under the conditions of a regional-scale monitoring of soil salinization. The results show that both measured hyperspectral soil salinity monitoring model and HSI image soil salinity inversion model have good accuracy, model determination coefficient (R2) is higher than 0.57 and the model stability is better. Compared with the corrected HSI image soil salinity inversion model and uncorrected HSI image soil salinity inversion model, the coefficient of determination has been greatly improved, which increased from 0.571 to 0.681, and through the 0.01 significance level, the root mean square error (RMSE) value is 0.277. The correction HIS image soil salinization monitoring model can better improve the model accuracy under the condition of regional scale soil salinization monitoring, and using this method to carry out the soil salinization quantitative remote sensing monitoring is feasible, and also can provide scientific reference for future research. PMID:25269314

Lei, Lei; Tiyip, Tashpolat; Ding, Jian-Li; Jiang, Hong-Nan; Kelimu, Ardak

2014-07-01

368

Hydrologic and salinity characteristics of Currituck Sound and selected tributaries in North Carolina and Virginia, 1998-99  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data collected at three sites in Currituck Sound and three tributary sites between March 1, 1998, and February 28, 1999, were used to describe hydrologic and salinity characteristics of Currituck Sound. Water levels and salinity were measured at West Neck Creek at Pungo and at Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal near Princess Anne in Virginia, and at Coinjock, Bell Island, Poplar Branch, and Point Harbor in North Carolina. Flow velocity also was measured at the West Neck Creek and Coinjock sites. The maximum water-level range during the study period was observed near the lower midpoint of Currituck Sound at Poplar Branch. Generally, water levels at all sites were highest during March and April, and lowest during November and December. Winds from the south typically produced higher water levels in Currituck Sound, whereas winds from the north typically produced lower water levels. Although wind over Currituck Sound is associated with fluctuations in water level within the sound, other mechanisms, such as the effects of wind on Albemarle Sound and on other water bodies south of Currituck Sound, likely affect low-frequency water-level variations in Currituck Sound. Flow in West Neck Creek ranged from 313 cubic feet per second to the south to -227 cubic feet per second to the north (negative indicates flow to the north). Flow at the Coinjock site ranged from 15,300 cubic feet per second to the south to -11,700 cubic feet per second to the north. Flow was to the south 68 percent of the time at the West Neck Creek site and 44 percent of the time at the Coinjock site. Daily flow volumes were calculated as the sum of the instantaneous flow volumes. The West Neck Creek site had a cumulative flow volume to the south of 7.69 x 108 cubic feet for the period March 1, 1998, to February 28, 1999; the Coinjock site had a cumulative flow volume to the north of -1.33 x 1010 cubic feet for the same study period. Wind direction and speed influence flow at the West Neck Creek and Coinjock sites, whereas precipitation alone has little effect on flow at these sites. Flow at the West Neck Creek site is semidiurnal but is affected by wind direction and speed. Flow to the south (positive flow) was associated with wind speeds averaging more than 15 miles per hour from the northwest; flow to the north (negative flow) was associated with wind speeds averaging more than 15 miles per hour from the south and southwest. Flow at the Coinjock site reacted in a more unpredictable manner and was not affected by winds or tides in the same manner as West Neck Creek, with few tidal characteristics evident in the record. Throughout the study period, maximum salinity exceeded 3.5 parts per thousand at all sites; however, mean and median salinities were below 3.5 parts per thousand at all sites except the Point Harbor site (3.6 and 4.2 parts per thousand, respectively) at the southern end of the sound. Salinities were less than or equal to 3.5 parts per thousand nearly 100 percent of the time at the Bell Island and Poplar Branch sites in Currituck Sound and about 86 percent of the time at the Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal site north of the sound. Salinity at the West Neck Creek and Coinjock sites was less than or equal to 3.5 parts per thousand about 82 percent of the time. During this study, prevailing winds from the north were associated with flow to the south and tended to increase salinity at the West Neck Creek and the Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal sites. Conversely, these same winds tended to decrease salinity at the other sites. Prevailing winds from the south and southwest were associated with flow to the north and tended to increase salinity at the Poplar Branch and Point Harbor sites in Currituck Sound and at the Coinjock site, but these same winds tended to decrease salinity at the West Neck Creek and the Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal sites. The greatest variations in salinity were observed at the northernmost site, West Neck Creek, and the sou

Caldwell, William Scott

2001-01-01

369

The Role of Groundwater and Reservoir Interaction in Salinity Distribution in a Saline Area in the Northeastern Part of Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinity is a process by which the concentration of soluble salt in soil and water increases. Human activities can, however, disrupt this natural equilibrium by changing the distribution of salt in the environment. Reservoirs have played a number of crucial roles in the development of human civilization. The main purposes of reservoirs are to prevent floods, to supply water for domestic consumption, to generate electricity, and to irrigate farmlands. Despite various benefits, reservoirs could bring about adverse environmental and social impacts. Infiltration or leakage from man-made reservoirs or dams could cause the change of the groundwater level, thus forcing the deposited salt onto the soil surface and/or waterways. Until now, it is nevertheless unclear as to how the operation and maintenance of reservoirs could impact in a saline soil area physically, environmentally, and/or socially. The purpose of this research is therefore to assess the impacts of reservoirs on groundwater and salinity levels in a saline soil area in the northeastern part of Thailand. Saline soil can be found in many regions of Thailand, particularly in the northeast of Thailand where the Maha Sarakham Foundation, which is composed of imbedded salt rock layers, is the main source of salinity in the region. The salinity accumulation on the surface soil is influenced by the brackish groundwater upward flow and evaporation processes. The study area is located in Nakhon Panom Province in the northeastern part of Thailand along the Great Mekong River and has a total area of approximately 1,300 km2. The yearly evaporation rate in this region is as high as the annual evaporation rate. A reservoir was constructed in the low-lying floodplain area of the Nam Kam basin and started operation since a few years ago. The reservoir is located right in the middle of the floodplain where flood always occurs every rainy season. Groundwater levels are measured and groundwater samples are collected for pH, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC), and total dissolved solids (TDS) measurement from twenty-two groundwater-sampling sites. The measurements have been performed since December 1, 2010 until now and twice a month. Daily rainfall and water levels in the reservoir and downgradient of the reservoir are also recorded. The groundwater data is interpolated using the piecewise polynomials interpolation through the least square errors method. The rainfall data is regenerated using the moving average method to smooth out the fluctuations in the raw data. Correlation analysis is performed between the moving average rainfall, interpolated groundwater level, upgradient and downgradient surface water levels in the reservoir. The rate of change of EC per change of groundwater level is computed and normalized by the groundwater EC. It is found that the groundwater level is well correlated to the level of the water in the reservoir. As the water in the reservoir rises and so the groundwater level measured from twenty-two observation wells. The rise of groundwater is however associated with non-saline groundwater with the exception of some locations. These locations therefore should be monitored over a long period since it implies the salinity risk as the result of the reservoir operation.

Seeboonruang, U.

2012-12-01

370

Volumetrics of CO{sub 2} Storage in Deep Saline Formations  

SciTech Connect

Concern about the role of greenhouse gases in global climate change has generated interest in sequestering CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion in deep saline formations. Pore space in these formations is initially filled with brine, and space to accommodate injected CO{sub 2} must be generated by displacing brine, and to a lesser extent by compression of brine and rock. The formation volume required to store a given mass of CO{sub 2} depends on the storage mechanism. We compare the equilibrium volumetric requirements of three end-member processes: CO{sub 2} stored as a supercritical fluid (structural or stratigraphic trapping); CO{sub 2} dissolved in pre-existing brine (solubility trapping); and CO{sub 2} solubility enhanced by dissolution of calcite. For typical storage conditions, storing CO{sub 2} by solubility trapping reduces the volume required to store the same amount of CO{sub 2} by structural or stratigraphic trapping by about 50%. Accessibility of CO{sub 2} to brine determines which storage mechanism (structural/stratigraphic versus solubility) dominates at a given time, which is a critical factor in evaluating CO{sub 2} volumetric requirements and long-term storage security.

Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Capobianco, Ryan M.; Dilmore, Robert; Goodman, Angela; Guthrie, George; Rimstidt, J. Donald; Bodnar, Robert J.

2013-01-01

371

Intermittent saline flushes or continuous saline infusion: what works better when heparin-free dialysis is recommended?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Coagulation-free dialysis, also commonly known as “heparin-free” dialysis, can be a challenging procedure as it increases the risk of clotting the dialysis circuit. Utilizing a better saline flushing technique can lead to improved patient outcomes as well as huge financial benefits to the health institution. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of continuous saline infusion (CSI) and intermittent saline flushing (ISF) in preventing clotting of the dialysis extracorporeal circuit (ECC). Methods Fifty heparin-free treatments were randomized into two treatment arms, namely CSI and ISF. Predialysis full blood count and coagulation studies were performed for all patients. During ISF, 100 mL saline was infused via the arterial line every 30 minutes while occluding the blood inlet line. Normal saline was infused into the ECC at a rate of 200 mL/hour throughout the duration of dialysis under CSI. The ECC was inspected for clotting and graded accordingly post-dialysis. Results Seventy-six percent of the CSI treatments were completed without losing the ECC while 52% of the ISF treatments were also successful. Patients who were treated with CSI were less likely to have clotted ECCs (odds ratio 3.4, 95% CI, 1.04 to 11.2; P = 0.04). No significant differences existed between the two groups’ hematological factors that could influence clotting, such as hemoglobin and platelets. Conclusion This study demonstrates that, when heparin-free dialysis is indicated, CSI might be a better method of preventing the ECC from clotting. There is a greater chance of realizing long-term benefits to patients and the health service with the CSI method since there is a likelihood of a reduction in the use of erythropoietin-stimulating agents and blood transfusions with the CSI method. PMID:23637548

Zimbudzi, Edward

2013-01-01

372

Validate Aquarius satellite measured sea surface salinity with in situ data from SPURS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aquarius satellite measured sea surface salinity is validated against in situ measurements collected from the SPURS (Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study) field experiment during September 2012 and October 2013. A variety of in situ platforms were deployed during the one-year long field experiment. The wave glider measures salinity at 0.2 m and 6 m, respectively. Surface drifters measure salinity at 0.6 m. While conventional profiling floats measure salinity at a depth range from 5 to 10 m, the newly developed STS (Surface Temperature/Salinity) floats measure salinity all the way to the skin layer close to the surface. Results using these in situ data to validate the Aquarius satellite retrieved sea surface salinity will be presented.

Chao, Yi

2014-05-01

373

Dilute iota-and kappa-Carrageenan solutions with high viscosities in high salinity brines  

E-print Network

Dilute iota- and kappa-Carrageenan solutions with high viscosities in high salinity brines Stefan 2010 Available online 9 December 2010 Keywords: - and -Carrageenan Polymer solution High salinity evaluated the rheological characteristics of - and -Carrageenan in aqueous solutions. Viscosities strongly

Goddard III, William A.

374

The influence of salinity on the mechanical behavior of high plasticity soils  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates the influence of salinity on the mechanical behavior of smectitic rich high plasticity soils resedimented with pore fluid salinities ranging from 0 to 256 g/L. An extensive laboratory testing program ...

Fahy, Brian Patrick

2014-01-01

375

Addressing agricultural salinity in the American West : harnessing behavioral diversity to institutional design  

E-print Network

Salinity accumulation in the Lower Arkansas Basin (LAB) of Colorado threatens environmental quality, the agricultural economy and the potential for efficient reuse of water. Salinity is a threat to "hydraulic sustainability", ...

Kock, Beaudry E. (Beaudry Evan)

2010-01-01

376

Effect of permeability anisotropy on buoyancy-driven flow for CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers  

E-print Network

Effect of permeability anisotropy on buoyancy-driven flow for CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers of permeability anisotropy on buoyancy-driven flow for CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers, Water Resour. Res

Firoozabadi, Abbas

377

234U— 238U— 230Th— 232Th systematics in saline groundwaters from central Missouri  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saline groundwaters with 4.7 to 26‰ total dissolved solids were sampled from springs and artesian wells in Mississippian and Ordovician carbonates and sandstones in central Missouri. U—Th isotopic variations provide a means of evaluating processes of water-rock interaction and fluid mixing and estimating the time scales of element transport. Recently developed mass spectrometric techniques are used to make isotopic measurements on small-volume groundwater samples (0.1-4 l) with high precision (e.g., < ±5% for 234U/ 238U activity ratios). The groundwaters have a wide range of 238U concentrations, 50 × 10 -12 to 200 × 10 -12 g/g; 234U/ 234U activity ratios, 2.15-16.0; 232Th concentrations, 0.10 × 10 -12 to 33 × 10 -12 g/g; and 230Th concentrations, 0.91 × 10 -17 to 26 × 10 -17 g/g. Unfiltered and filtered (0.4 ?m, 0.1 ?m) aliquots of a saline sample have the same isotopic composition and concentration of U, indicating that 234U and 238U occur almost entirely as dissolved species. The concentration of 232Th is up to seven times lower in filtered vs. unfiltered aliquots, indicating that 232Th is predominantly associated with particulates in the groundwaters. In contrast, most of the 230Th is in solution. Previous geochemical studies indicate that: (1) the saline waters originated as meteoric recharge and evolved through halite dissolution, reactions with silicates and saline-dilute mixing processes during a long-distance flow history; and (2) interaction with limestone and dolomite aquifer rocks in central Missouri has been limited. A consistent relationship between U/Ca and 234U/ 238U activity ratio is observed in the groundwaters and provides constraints on the U/Ca ratios and 234U/ 238U activity ratios of end-member reservoirs and on the processes of isotopic exchange in this water-rock system. Model calculations that simulate (1) saline-dilute groundwater mixing and (2) limited extents of dissolution of carbonate aquifer minerals by the groundwaters can account for the variations in U/Ca, 234U/ 238U and 18O/ 16O in the suite of water samples. The model calculations demonstrate that dissolved U isotopic compositions can be a sensitive indicator of water-rock interaction, which in turn limits the usefulness of 234U— 238U disequilibria for groundwater age determinations. The concentration of dissolved 230Th in the groundwaters is (1) two to three orders of magnitude below 230Th— 234U equilibrium activity levels, and (2) significantly in excess of concentrations estimated for the supply of Th to solution via desorption and dissolution. A model involving the derivation of the excess 230Th from the in situ decay of dissolved 234U in the groundwaters indicates the operation of an adsorption mechanism on the time scale of 10-10 3 years. The results reported here may have broader application to the assessment and management of hazardous chemical species in natural environments.

Banner, Jay L.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Chen, James H.; Moore, Clyde H.

1990-12-01

378

Osmotic and volume control of diuresis in conscious ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conscious Pekin ducks made diuretic either by infusing hyposmotic glucose solution or isosmotic saline, osmotic and volume effects on renal water excretion were investigated. As in mammals, antidiuresis mediated by enhanced release of antidiuretic hormone was induced by increasing carotid blood osmolality while a decrease augmented diuresis, indicating cerebral osmotic control of renal water excretion in birds.

Christa Simon-Oppermann; Eckhart Simon

1982-01-01

379

Renal Response to Volume Expansion: Learning the Experimental Approach in the Context of Integrative Physiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory experience for upper-level science students that provides a hands-on approach to understanding the basics of experimental physiology. Students design an experiment to determine the relative importance of dilution of plasma proteins in the overall renal excretory response following volume expansion with intravenous saline.…

Kline, Robert L.; Dukacz, Stephen A. W.; Stavraky, Thomas

2000-01-01

380

76 FR 50171 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Henrys Fork Salinity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Impact Statement for the Henrys Fork Salinity Control Project Plan, Sweetwater and...Statement (EIS) for the Henrys Fork Salinity Control Project Plan (SCPP). The NRCS...Improvements'' alternative assumes a salinity control project will be...

2011-08-12

381

EFFECTS OF ACCLIMATION ON THE TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY TOLERANCE OF THE YOLKSAC LARVAE  

E-print Network

, were fertilized and incubated in various combinations of temperature and salinity, and the salinity salinity has been shown to affect the upper thermal tolerance of 'Based on a portion of a dissertation submitted in partial sat- isfaction of the requirements for the Ph.D. degree at the University of California

382

Responses of respiration and photosynthesis of Scenedesmus protuberans Fritsch to gradual and steep salinity increases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of an increase in salinity on the physiology of the halotolerant chlorophyte Scenedesmus protuberans was studied in light-limited continuous cultures. It was observed that a gradual, as well as a steep increase in salinity resulted in lower biomass. However, the mechanisms by which this was achieved were different. In the culture that was exposed to a gradual salinity

Flameling A. I; Jacco Kromkamp

1994-01-01

383

Plant responses to drought, salinity and extreme temperatures: towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity, extreme temperatures, chemical toxicity and oxidative stress are serious threats to agriculture and the natural status of the environment. Increased salinization of arable land is expected to have devastating global effects, resulting in 30% land loss within the next 25 years, and up to 50% by the year 2050. Therefore, breeding for drought and salinity

Wangxia Wang; Basia Vinocur; Arie Altman

2003-01-01

384

Physicochemical conditions for plankton in Lake Timsah, a saline lake on the Suez Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Timsah receives high salinity water from the Suez Canal, mainly from the south, and freshwater from a Nile canal and other sources, producing a salinity stratification with surface salinities of 20 400\\/00 and over 400\\/00 in deeper water. Water temperature at a depth of 50 70 cm fell to below 20 °C in winter and rose to above 30

H. A. H. El-Serehy; M. A. Sleigh

1992-01-01

385

Dissimilatory sulfate reduction in hypersaline coastal pans: Activity across a salinity gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of salinity on the metabolic activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in five highly saline to hypersaline coastal pans was studied using a radioactive tracer (35SO42-) technique. We recorded sulfate reduction at in situ porewater salinities of up to 422. Furthermore, enumeration of sulfate reduction rates in whole core incubations conducted under in situ conditions suggested a high variability in

Donovan Porter; Alakendra N. Roychoudhury; Donald Cowan

2007-01-01

386

Hyperspectral Reflectance Response of Freshwater Macrophytes to Salinity in a Brackish Subtropical Marsh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal freshwater wetlands are threatened by increased salinity due to relative sea level rise and reduced freshwater inputs. Remote radiometric measurement of freshwater marsh canopies to detect small shifts in water column salinity would be useful for assessing salinity encroachment. We measured leaf hyperspectral (300-1100 nm) reflec- tance of freshwater macrophytes (cattail, Typha latifolia and sea oxeye, Borrichia frutescens) in

David R. Tilley; Muneer Ahmed; Ji Ho Son; Harish Badrinarayanan

2007-01-01

387

Effects of Salinity on Early Life Stages of the Gulf Coast Toad, Incilius nebulifer (Anura: Bufonidae)  

E-print Network

negatively affects hatching and metamorphosis, and how exposure to salinity during development affects metamorph characteristics that influence adult fitness. Embryos exhibited 95.5­99.5% hatching success. Salinity affected hatching success and larval survival, and we found linear trends between higher salinity

Lailvaux, Simon

388

The use of fluorescent dyes as tracers in highly saline groundwater  

E-print Network

sorption was tested in four different salinities (from fresh rainwater to Dead Sea water) on five pure Naphthionate was found to be the best tracer for fresh and saline water, with minimal sorption in all cases 28 May 2008 KEYWORDS Artificial tracers; Saline groundwater; Sorption; Dead Sea brine; Fluorescent

Weisbrod, Noam

389

Saline as an alternative to air for filling the laryngeal mask airway cuff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We have assessed a new method to evacuate saline completely from the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) cuff and tested the hypothesis that intracuff pressures, fibreoptic position and oropharyngeal leak pressures are similar for saline compared with air during nitrous oxide-oxygen anaesthesia. Eight size 4 LMA were inflated with saline 30 ml. After syringe evacuation, median residual weight was 0.56

A. COOREY; J. BRIMACOMBE; C. KELLER

390

Effects of saline stress on Eucalyptus seedlings R.A. Fathi D. Prat  

E-print Network

. Difficulties arise not only from drought but also from the salinity of soils (Chapman, 1975). Plants must that of sodium. The potassium content was significantly lower in roots of plants exposed to a 300 mM salineEffects of saline stress on Eucalyptus seedlings R.A. Fathi D. Prat Laboratoire de G6n6tique des

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

391

Some aspects of salinity, plant density, and nutrient effects on Cressa cretica L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of salinity, density, and nutrient on the growth, reproduction, and ecophysiology of a perennial halophyte, Cressa cretica L., were studied. Lower salinity concentration (425 mM) promoted the growth, but the highest salinity (850 mM) did not have a significant effect. Plants grew faster and were healthier at low density treatment. Lack of nitrogen (N) in the medium substantially

M. Ajmal Khan; Seemi Aziz

1998-01-01

392

American Journal of Botany 89(11): 18471851. 2002. DELAYED AND CARRYOVER EFFECTS OF SALINITY ON  

E-print Network

, and it is particularly important to understand the effects of salinity on plants that can survive saline conditions1847 American Journal of Botany 89(11): 1847­1851. 2002. DELAYED AND CARRYOVER EFFECTS OF SALINITY ecosystems has destroyed or damaged many native plant populations. Iris hexagona is a salt- sensitive species

Van Zandt, Peter

393

PHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER Hydraulic lift and tolerance to salinity of semiarid species  

E-print Network

. In addition to withstanding drought, plants in coastal habitats often have to withstand highly saline soils of photosynthesis than isolated plants. Juniperus was more salt sensitive than Pistacia, which withstood salinityPHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGY - ORIGINAL PAPER Hydraulic lift and tolerance to salinity of semiarid species

Jackson, Robert B.

394

The effects of salinity on aquatic plant germination and zooplankton hatching from two wetland sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. The effect of increasing salinity on the emergence of zooplankton eggs and the germination of aquatic plant seeds from the sediment of two wetlands was examined. Salinity was found to cause reductions in species richness and abundance of aquatic plants and zooplankton at salinities between 1000 and 5000 mg L)1. Aquatic plants also had an associated decrease in

DARYL L. N IELSEN; K ATHARINE; C ROSSLE ´; K EN H ARRIS; MICHAEL H EALEY; I RENE J AROSINSKI

2003-01-01

395

Aquatic Botany 75 (2003) 293309 Physiological effects of short-term salinity  

E-print Network

-term changes in salinity were investi- gated. Plants cultured at 20 S were exposed to 0 S, 10 S (half in lower biomass of plants and animals (Montague and Ley, 1993). Most studies on salinityAquatic Botany 75 (2003) 293­309 Physiological effects of short-term salinity changes on Ruppia

Durako, Michael J.

396

Impacts of salinity and simulated herbivory on survival and reproduction of the threatened Gulf  

E-print Network

Abstract: Halophytic plants may experience joint, and potentially interacting, effects of salinityImpacts of salinity and simulated herbivory on survival and reproduction of the threatened Gulf and herbivory on their survival and reproduction. We investigated the impacts of salinity and (simulated

Heard, Stephen B.

397

THE EFFECT OF SALINITY ON EXPERIMENTAL INFECTIONS OF A HEMATODINIUM SP. IN BLUE CRABS, CALLINECTES SAPIDUS  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF SALINITY ON EXPERIMENTAL INFECTIONS OF A HEMATODINIUM SP. IN BLUE CRABS, CALLINECTES sp. parasitizes blue crabs along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States. Infections in blue crabs have only been reported from waters where salinity is .11 practical salinity units (psu). Blue crabs

398

ERDC/TN APCRP-EA-23 Effects of Nutrients, Salinity, and pH on  

E-print Network

ERDC/TN APCRP-EA-23 July 2010 Effects of Nutrients, Salinity, and pH on Salvinia molesta (Mitchell (nitrogen and phosphorus) concentra- tions, pH, and salinity on giant salvinia growth. BACKGROUND: Giant factors including temperature, nutrient availability, salinity, and pH may limit the distribution

US Army Corps of Engineers

399

The effect of salinity and temperature on egestion in mud snails (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of egestion in three species of mud snails under controlled conditions of salinity ranging from 10 to 30‰, and temperatures ranging from 5 to 35°C, shows that Hydrobia ulvae has maximal egestion at the combination of high salinity (30‰) and high temperature (30°C). In Hydrobia neglecta a peak of egestion occurs at the combination of 25‰ salinity

J. Hylleberg

1975-01-01

400

Dynamic prediction of soil salinization in an irrigation district based on the support vector machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil salinization has random characteristics because of the influences of natural and anthropogenic factors. Therefore, a study on the dynamic prediction model of soil salinity is important for irrigation water management in salinization irrigation districts. In the present paper, the theory of supporting vector machine was introduced in the dynamic prediction of soil electrical conductivity (EC) values. Based on groundwater

Xiaoyan Guan; Shaoli Wang; Zhanyi Gao; Ye Lv

401

Pleistocene recharge to midcontinent basins: effects on salinity structure and microbial gas generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrogeochemistry of saline-meteoric water interface zones in sedimentary basins is important in constraining the fluid migration history, chemical evolution of basinal brines, and physical stability of saline formation waters during episodes of freshwater recharge. This is especially germane for interior cratonic basins, such as the Michigan and Illinois basins. Although there are large differences in formation water salinity and

J. C. McIntosh; L. M. Walter; A. M. Martini

2002-01-01

402

EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS AND OSMOTICA IN ALLEVIATING SALINITY EFFECTS ON THE GERMINATION OF SALICORNIA UTAHENSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicornia utahensis Tiderstrom is a perennial halophyte from the family Chenopodiaceae and is widely distributed in brackish water playas of northern Utah. Salicornia utahensis produces seeds under high salinity and deposits its seed on saline soil. Seeds showed only 65% germination in distilled water. Seed germination decreased with the increase in salinity and less than 5% seeds germinated at 900

BILQUEES GUL; M. AJMAL KHAN

403

Hypertonic saline for the treatment of intracranial hypertension.  

PubMed

Intracranial hypertension is caused by brain edema generated by different disorders, the commonest of which is traumatic brain injury. The treatment of brain edema focuses on drawing water out of brain tissue into the intravascular space. This is typically accomplished with osmolar therapy, most commonly mannitol and hypertonic saline. Recent human trials suggest that hypertonic saline may have a more profound and long-lasting effect in reducing intracranial hypertension following traumatic brain injury when compared with mannitol. However, reports suffer from inconsistencies in dose, frequency, concentration, and route of administration. Side effect profile, potential complications, and contraindications to administration need to be factored in when considering which first-line osmotherapy to choose for a given patient with head injury. PMID:25082273

Kheirbek, Tareq; Pascual, Jose L

2014-09-01

404

Salinity modeling by remote sensing in central and southern Iraq  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinization, leading to a significant loss of cultivated land and crop production, is one of the most active land degradation phenomena in the Mesopotamian region in Iraq. The objectives of this study (under the auspices of ACIAR and Italian Government) are to investigate the possibility to use remote sensing technology to establish salinity-sensitive models which can be further applied to local and regional salinity mapping and assessment. Case studies were conducted in three pilot sites namely Musaib, Dujaila and West Garraf in the central and southern Iraq. Fourteen spring (February - April), seven June and four summer Landsat ETM+ images in the period 2009-2012, RapidEye data (April 2012), and 95 field EM38 measurements undertaken in this spring and summer, 16 relevant soil laboratory analysis result (Dujaila) were employed in this study. The procedure we followed includes: (1) Atmospheric correction using FLAASH model; (2) Multispectral transformation of a set of vegetation and non-vegetation indices such as GDVI (Generalized Difference Vegetation Index), NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index), SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index), SARVI (Soil Adjusted and Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index), NDII (Normalized Difference Infrared Index), Principal Components and surface temperature (T); (3) Derivation of the spring maximum (Musaib) and annual maximum (Dujaila and West Garraf) value in each pixel of each index of the observed period to avoid problems related to crop rotation (e.g. fallow) and the SLC-Off gaps in ETM+ images; (4) Extraction of the values of each vegetation and non-vegetation index corresponding to the field sampling locations (about 3 to 5 controversial samples very close to the roads or located in fallow were excluded); and (5) Coupling remote sensing indices with the available EM38 and soil electrical conductivity (EC) data using multiple linear least-square regression model at the confidence level of 95% in a stepwise (forward) manner. The results reveal that soil salinity and EM38 readings are negatively correlated with the different vegetation indices, especially, GDVI and NDVI, and positively correlated with T. The models obtained for the pilot sites are presented in Table 1. Although we are still waiting for more laboratory analytical result and satellite imagery for more comprehensive analysis, it is clearly possible to build up salinity models by remote sensing, on which further salinity mapping and assessment can be based. It is also noted that among all the vegetation indices, GDVI is the best salinity indicator followed by NDVI and T. RapidEye image shows lower correlation with EM38 measurements and EC because fallow and crop rotation issue cannot be sorted out by one acquisition image.Table 1: Salinity models obtained from the pilot sitesNote: EMV- Vertical reading of EM38, EC - Electrical conductivity in dS/m

Wu, W.; Mhaimeed, A. S.; Platonov, A.; Al-Shafie, W. M.; Abbas, A. M.; Al-Musawi, H. H.; Khalaf, A.; Salim, K. A.; Chrsiten, E.; De Pauw, E.; Ziadat, F.

2012-12-01

405

Discoloration of titanium alloy in acidic saline solutions with peroxide.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare corrosion behavior in several titanium alloys with immersion in acidulated saline solutions containing hydrogen peroxide. Seven types of titanium alloy were immersed in saline solutions with varying levels of pH and hydrogen peroxide content, and resulting differences in color and release of metallic elements determined in each alloy. Some alloys were characterized using Auger electron spectroscopy. Ti-55Ni alloy showed a high level of dissolution and difference in color. With immersion in solution containing hydrogen peroxide at pH 4, the other alloys showed a marked difference in color but a low level of dissolution. The formation of a thick oxide film was observed in commercially pure titanium showing discoloration. The results suggest that discoloration in titanium alloys immersed in hydrogen peroxide-containing acidulated solutions is caused by an increase in the thickness of this oxide film, whereas discoloration of Ti-55Ni is caused by corrosion. PMID:23370866

Takemoto, Shinji; Hattori, Masayuki; Yoshinari, Masao; Kawada, Eiji; Oda, Yutaka

2013-01-01

406

Increased salinization of fresh water in the northeastern United States  

PubMed Central

Chloride concentrations are increasing at a rate that threatens the availability of fresh water in the northeastern United States. Increases in roadways and deicer use are now salinizing fresh waters, degrading habitat for aquatic organisms, and impacting large supplies of drinking water for humans throughout the region. We observed chloride concentrations of up to 25% of the concentration of seawater in streams of Maryland, New York, and New Hampshire during winters, and chloride concentrations remaining up to 100 times greater than unimpacted forest streams during summers. Mean annual chloride concentration increased as a function of impervious surface and exceeded tolerance for freshwater life in suburban and urban watersheds. Our analysis shows that if salinity were to continue to increase at its present rate due to changes in impervious surface coverage and current management practices, many surface waters in the northeastern United States would not be potable for human consumption and would become toxic to freshwater life within the next century. PMID:16157871

Kaushal, Sujay S.; Groffman, Peter M.; Likens, Gene E.; Belt, Kenneth T.; Stack, William P.; Kelly, Victoria R.; Band, Lawrence E.; Fisher, Gary T.

2005-01-01

407

Feasibility of Geophysical Monitoring of Carbon-Sequestrated Deep Saline Aquifers  

SciTech Connect

As carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is sequestered from the bottom of a brine reservoir and allowed to migrate upward, the effects of the relative permeability hysteresis due to capillary trapping and buoyancy driven migration tend to make the reservoir patchy saturated with different fluid phases over time. Seismically, such a patchy saturated reservoir induces an effective anisotropic behavior whose properties are primarily dictated by the nature of the saturation of different fluid phases in the pores and the elastic properties of the rock matrix. By combining reservoir flow simulation and modeling with seismic modeling, it is possible to derive these effective anisotropic properties, which, in turn, could be related to the saturation of CO{sub 2} within the reservoir volume any time during the post-injection scenario. Therefore, if time-lapse seismic data are available and could be inverted for the effective anisotropic properties of the reservoir, they, in combination with reservoir simulation could potentially predict the CO{sub 2} saturation directly from the time-lapse seismic data. It is therefore concluded that the time-lapse seismic data could be used to monitor the carbon sequestrated saline reservoirs. But for its successful implementation, seismic modeling and inversion methods must be integrated with the reservoir simulations. In addition, because CO{sub 2} sequestration induces an effective anisotropy in the sequestered reservoir and anisotropy is best detected using multicomponent seismic data compared to single component (P-wave) data, acquisition, processing, and analysis is multicomponent seismic data is recommended for these time-lapse studies. Finally, a successful implementation of using time-lapse seismic data for monitoring the carbon sequestrated saline reservoirs will require development of a robust methodology for inverting multicomponent seismic data for subsurface anisotropic properties.

Mallick, Subhashis; Alvarado, Vladimir

2013-09-30

408

Continuum-scale convective mixing in geological CO2 sequestration in anisotropic and heterogeneous saline aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep saline aquifers are important geological formations for CO2 sequestration. It has been known that dissolution of CO2 increases brine density, which results in downward density-driven convection and consequently greatly enhances CO2 sequestration. In this study, a continuum-scale lattice Boltzmann model is used to investigate convective mixing of CO2 in saline aquifers. It is found that increasing permeability in either the vertical or horizontal direction accelerates the development of convective mixing. In a heterogeneous aquifer, increasing heterogeneity hampers the onset of convective mixing, because the heterogeneous permeability field results in a large portion of low-velocity region which reduces the instability of the system. The critical time for the onset of instability depends mainly on the coefficient of variation (COV) of the permeability field, and is insensitive to the correlation length. This implies that within the scale of critical time, mass transport is dominated by diffusion, and thus depends mainly on fine-scale heterogeneity controlled by COV. We derived an empirical formula for estimating the critical time, which leads to good estimates for all combinations of COV and correlation length. Fingering, channeling, and dispersion are the three mechanisms for mass transport. In dispersion, dissolved mass is approximately proportional to the square root of time, while in fingering and channeling it is approximately proportional to time. Mass transport by channeling depends significantly on permeability structure, while by fingering it is controlled by gravitational instability. It is also found that larger volumes of CO2 can be stored in heterogeneous aquifers because of higher mass dissolution rates.

Chen, Cheng; Zeng, Lingzao; Shi, Liangsheng

2013-03-01

409

How Do Deep Saline Aquifer Microbial Communities Respond to Supercritical CO2 Injection?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is currently seen as a viable strategy for mitigating anthropogenic carbon dioxide pollution. The Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies (CO2CRC) is currently conducting a field experiment in the Otway Basin (Australia) studying residual gas saturation in the water-saturated reservoir of the Paaratte Formation. As part of this study, a suite of pre-CO2 injection water samples were collected from approximately 1400 meters depth (60°C, 13.8 MPa) via an in situ sampling system. The in situ sampling system isolates aquifer water from sources of contamination while maintaining the formation pressure. Whole community DNA was extracted from these samples to investigate the prokaryotic biodiversity of the saline Paaratte aquifer (EC = 1509.6 uS/cm). Bioinformatic analysis of preliminary 16S ribosomal gene data revealed Thermincola, Acinetobacter, Sphingobium, and Dechloromonas amongst the closest related genera to environmental clone sequences obtained from a subset of pre-CO2 injection groundwater samples. Epifluorescent microscopy with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) highlighted an abundance of filamentous cells ranging from 5 to 45 ?M. Efforts are currently directed towards utilising a high throughput sequencing approach to capture an exhaustive profile of the microbial diversity of the Paaratte aquifer CO2 injection site, and to understand better the response of in situ microbial populations to the injection of large volumes (e.g. many kilotonnes) of supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2). Sequencing results will be used to direct cultivation efforts towards enrichment of a CO2-tolerant microorganism. Understanding the microbial response to sc-CO2 is an integral aspect of carbon dioxide storage, for which very little information exists in the literature. This study aims to elucidate molecular mechanisms, through genomic and cultivation-based methods, for CO2 tolerance with the prospect of engineering biofilms to enhance trapping of CO2 in saline aquifers.

Mu, A.; Billman-Jacobe, H.; Boreham, C.; Schacht, U.; Moreau, J. W.

2011-12-01

410

Photosynthetic Responses of the Tropical Spiny Shrub Lycium nodosum (Solanaceae) to Drought, Soil Salinity and Saline Spray  

PubMed Central

Water relations and photosynthetic characteristics of plants of Lycium nodosum grown under increasing water deficit (WD), saline spray (SS) or saline irrigation (SI) were studied. Plants of this perennial, deciduous shrub growing in the coastal thorn scrubs of Venezuela show succulent leaves which persist for approx. 1 month after the beginning of the dry season; leaf succulence is higher in populations closer to the sea. These observations suggested that L. nodosum is tolerant both to WD and salinity. In the glasshouse, WD caused a marked decrease in the xylem water potential (?), leaf osmotic potential (?s) and relative water content (RWC) after 21 d; additionally, photosynthetic rate (A), carboxylation efficiency (CE) and stomatal conductance (gs) decreased by more than 90 %. In contrast, in plants treated for 21 d with a foliar spray with 35 ‰ NaCl or irrigation with a 10 % NaCl solution, ? and RWC remained nearly constant, while ?s decreased by 30 %, and A, CE and gs decreased by more than 80 %. An osmotic adjustment of 0·60 (SS) and 0·94 MPa (SI) was measured. Relative stomatal and mesophyll limitations to A increased with both WD and SS, but were not determined for SI?treated plants. No evidence of chronic photoinhibition due to any treatment was observed, since maximum quantum yield of PSII, Fv/Fm, did not change with either drought in the field or water or salinity stress in the glasshouse. Nevertheless, WD and SI treatments caused a decrease in the photochemical (qP) and an increase in the non?photochemical (qN) quenching coefficients relative to controls; qN was unaffected by the SS treatment. The occurrence of co?limitation of A by stomatal and non?stomatal factors in plants of L. nodosum may be associated with the extended leaf duration under water or saline stress. Additionally, osmotic adjustment may partly explain the relative maintenance of A and gs in the SS and SI treatments and the tolerance to salinity of plants of this species in coastal habitats. PMID:14534200

TEZARA, WILMER; MARTÍNEZ, DAYAG; RENGIFO, ELIZABETH; HERRERA, ANA

2003-01-01

411

Identifying the Cause of Toxicity of a Saline Mine Water  

PubMed Central

Elevated major ions (or salinity) are recognised as being a key contributor to the toxicity of many mine waste waters but the complex interactions between the major ions and large inter-species variability in response to salinity, make it difficult to relate toxicity to causal factors. This study aimed to determine if the toxicity of a typical saline seepage water was solely due to its major ion constituents; and determine which major ions were the leading contributors to the toxicity. Standardised toxicity tests using two tropical freshwater species Chlorella sp. (alga) and Moinodaphnia macleayi (cladoceran) were used to compare the toxicity of 1) mine and synthetic seepage water; 2) key major ions (e.g. Na, Cl, SO4 and HCO3); 3) synthetic seepage water that were modified by excluding key major ions. For Chlorella sp., the toxicity of the seepage water was not solely due to its major ion concentrations because there were differences in effects caused by the mine seepage and synthetic seepage. However, for M. macleayi this hypothesis was supported because similar effects caused by mine seepage and synthetic seepage. Sulfate was identified as a major ion that could predict the toxicity of the synthetic waters, which might be expected as it was the dominant major ion in the seepage water. However, sulfate was not the primary cause of toxicity in the seepage water and electrical conductivity was a better predictor of effects. Ultimately, the results show that specific major ions do not clearly drive the toxicity of saline seepage waters and the effects are probably due to the electrical conductivity of the mine waste waters. PMID:25180579

van Dam, Rick A.; Harford, Andrew J.; Lunn, Simon A.; Gagnon, Marthe M.

2014-01-01

412

Response of Digitalis purpurea plants to temporary salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of two different levels of salinity upon adult plants of Digitalis purpurea has been studied. Seeds of D. purpurea plants were sown in pots of equal size and moistened with deionized water during one year. Afterwards, different treatments with NaCl were initiated, the concentrations being 100 mM and 200 mM NaCl in irrigation water during 63 days. Growth,

C. Morales; R. M. Cusido; J. Palazon; M. Bonfill

1993-01-01

413

Salinity Effects on Cracking Morphology and Dynamics in Desiccating Clays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saline conditions induce not only chemical but physical changes in swelling clays, and have a significant influence on the crack dynamics in desiccating clays. In this study, we used X-ray computerized tomography (CT) to experimentally investigate the effects of sodium chloride on the morphology and dynamics of desiccation cracks in three-dimensional mixtures of sand-bentonite slurry under varying rheological conditions. Rectangular glass containers (40.5x40.5x56 mm^3) were packed with sand-bentonite slurries of different salt concentrations, with the top boundary exposed to air for evaporation. The growth and propagation of the cracking network that subsequently formed was visualized in 3D at multiple intervals. 3D characterization of cracking dynamics shows a high extent of localized superficial crack networks at low salinity, with a transition to less extensive but deeper, more centralized crack networks with increased salinity. The observed behavior was described in the context of rheological and colloidal properties of the clay, which suggest the transition from a voluminous and poorly-sorted stacked clay structure to a more compact and highly cohesive entangled clay structure as salt concentration increases in the evaporating samples. This is further corroborated by vertical profiles of sample water distribution, which shows localized uniform drying at the higher salt concentrations. Our results provide new insights regarding the formation, patterns, dynamics and characteristics of desiccation cracks formed during evaporation from 3D saline clay structures, which will be useful in various hydrological applications including water management, land surface evaporation, and subsurface contaminant transport.

DeCarlo, K.; Shokri, N.

2013-12-01

414

Training dose as a factor in LSD-saline discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effects of training dose on the discriminative stimulus properties of LSD, groups of rats (eight\\/group) were trained to discriminate each of three doses of LSD (0.02, 0.08 or 0.32 mg\\/kg) from saline. This was accomplished by using a method of progressively altering dose (“fading”). Dose-response tests revealed that the three LSD cues were specific to the dose

Francis J. White; James B. Appel

1982-01-01

415

Photosynthetic flexibility in maize exposed to salinity and shade  

PubMed Central

C4 photosynthesis involves a close collaboration of the C3 and C4 metabolic cycles across the mesophyll and bundle-sheath cells. This study investigated the coordination of C4 photosynthesis in maize plants subjected to two salinity (50 and 100mM NaCl) treatments and one shade (20% of full sunlight) treatment. Photosynthetic efficiency was probed by combining leaf gas-exchange measurements with carbon isotope discrimination and assaying the key carboxylases [ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)] and decarboxylases [nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP-CK)] operating in maize leaves. Generally, salinity inhibited plant growth and photosynthesis to a lesser extent than shade. Salinity reduced photosynthesis primarily by reducing stomatal conductance and secondarily by equally reducing Rubisco and PEPC activities; the decarboxylases were inhibited more than the carboxylases. Salinity increased photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination (?p) and reduced leaf dry-matter carbon isotope composition (13?) due to changes in p i/p a (intercellular to ambient CO2 partial pressure), while CO2 leakiness out of the bundle sheath (?) was similar to that in control plants. Acclimation to shade was underpinned by a greater downregulation of PEPC relative to Rubisco activity, and a lesser inhibition of NADP-ME (primary decarboxylase) relative to PEP-CK (secondary decarboxylase). Shade reduced ?p and ? without significantly affecting leaf 13? or p i/p a relative to control plants. Accordingly, shade perturbed the balance between the C3 and C4 cycles during photosynthesis in maize, and demonstrated the flexible partitioning of C4 acid decarboxylation activity between NADP-ME and PEP-CK in response to the environment. This study highlights the need to improve our understanding of the links between leaf 13? and photosynthetic ?p, and the role of the secondary decarboxylase PEP-CK in NADP-ME plants such as maize. PMID:24692650

Sharwood, Robert E.; Sonawane, Balasaheb V.; Ghannoum, Oula

2014-01-01

416

Seasonal microbial community shift in a saline sewage treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated sludge was monthly sampled from a saline sewage treatment plant of Hong Kong (China) during June 2007 to May 2008\\u000a to analyze the microbial community shift along with environmental variations using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis\\u000a of polymerase chain reaction amplified 16S rDNA fragments. Environmental changes resulted into a seasonal microbial community\\u000a shift characterized by alterations in species number and

Qingmei Yan; Xuxiang Zhang; Tong Zhang; Herbert H. P. Fang

2011-01-01

417

LeafWaterPotential ofDifferentially Salinized Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waterandosmotic potential energies were measuredwiththermocouple psv- chrometers, atintervals during a 4-week period, ingrowing leaves ofbean(Phaseolus vulgaris, var.BlueLake) andbarley (Hordeum vulgare, var.Liberty) plants having rootsequally split between 2 differentially salinized nutrient solutions. Theosmoticpotentials ofplants with halftheir rootsinsaline solutions wereabouthalfway between theosmoticpotentials ofplants growninnonsaline solutions andthose growninsaline solutions. By theendofthe4-week measurementperiod, thebeansandbarley werealmostmature.The finaldryweights of shoots ofplants withhalftheir rootsinsaline solutions were abouthalfway

W. R. Gardner; C. Gerloff

1969-01-01

418

Antioxidative Defense Potential to Salinity in the Euhalophyte Salicornia brachiata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidative defense mechanism to salinity was assessed by monitoring the activities of some antioxidative enzymes and\\u000a levels of antioxidants in an obligate halophyte, Salicornia brachiata, subjected to varying levels of NaCl (0, 200, 400, and 600 mM) under hydroponic culture. In the shoots of S. brachiata, salt treatment preferentially enhanced the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (POX), glutathione

Asish Kumar Parida; Bhavanath Jha

2010-01-01

419

Sea surface salinity from space: Science goals and measurement approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquarius is a NASA\\/Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) mission that proposes to make the first-ever global measurements of sea surface salinity. These measurements will enable improved understanding of oceanic thermohaline circulation and of the changes in oceanic circulation that are related to seasonal to interannual climate variability. Aquarius science goals also address tropical ocean-climate feedbacks and freshwater budget components of

C. J. Koblinsky; P. Hildebrand; D. LeVine; F. Pellerano; Y. Chao; W. Wilson; S. Yueh; G. Lagerloef

2003-01-01

420

Archaeal diversity along a soil salinity gradient prone to disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We employed a cultivation-independent approach to examine archaeal diversity along a transient soil salinity gradient at Salt Spring in British Columbia, Canada that is routinely eroded due to heavy, recur- rent rainfall. Archaeal 16S rRNA gene libraries were created using DNA extracted from three soil samples collected along this gradient. Statistical comparisons indicated similar archaeal richness across sites but,

David A. Walsh; R. Thane Papke; W. Ford Doolittle

2005-01-01

421

“No-Touch” submuscular saline breast augmentation technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article represents a retrospective view of the author's 17-year experience with 2863 saline implants in 1327 patients and details his “no-touch” technique. The experience included almost an equal number of submammary and subpectoral procedures. The submammary procedures were done early on and were replaced with subpectoral procedures, done exclusively at the present time. There were significantly less complications-capsules, wrinkling

Richard A. Mladick

1993-01-01

422

Photosynthetic flexibility in maize exposed to salinity and shade.  

PubMed

C4 photosynthesis involves a close collaboration of the C3 and C4 metabolic cycles across the mesophyll and bundle-sheath cells. This study investigated the coordination of C4 photosynthesis in maize plants subjected to two salinity (50 and 100mM NaCl) treatments and one shade (20% of full sunlight) treatment. Photosynthetic efficiency was probed by combining leaf gas-exchange measurements with carbon isotope discrimination and assaying the key carboxylases [ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)] and decarboxylases [nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP-CK)] operating in maize leaves. Generally, salinity inhibited plant growth and photosynthesis to a lesser extent than shade. Salinity reduced photosynthesis primarily by reducing stomatal conductance and secondarily by equally reducing Rubisco and PEPC activities; the decarboxylases were inhibited more than the carboxylases. Salinity increased photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination (?p) and reduced leaf dry-matter carbon isotope composition ((13)?) due to changes in p i/p a (intercellular to ambient CO2 partial pressure), while CO2 leakiness out of the bundle sheath (?) was similar to that in control plants. Acclimation to shade was underpinned by a greater downregulation of PEPC relative to Rubisco activity, and a lesser inhibition of NADP-ME (primary decarboxylase) relative to PEP-CK (secondary decarboxylase). Shade reduced ?p and ? without significantly affecting leaf (13)? or p i/p a relative to control plants. Accordingly, shade perturbed the balance between the C3 and C4 cycles during photosynthesis in maize, and demonstrated the flexible partitioning of C4 acid decarboxylation activity between NADP-ME and PEP-CK in response to the environment. This study highlights the need to improve our understanding of the links between leaf (13)? and photosynthetic ?p, and the role of the secondary decarboxylase PEP-CK in NADP-ME plants such as maize. PMID:24692650

Sharwood, Robert E; Sonawane, Balasaheb V; Ghannoum, Oula

2014-07-01

423

Cold Saline Springs in Permafrost on Earth and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the research results which have emanated from work conducted on Cold Saline Springs in Permafrost on Earth and Mars. Three separate avenues of research including 1) terrestrial field work, 2) analysis of spacecraft data, and 3) numerical modeling were explored to provide a comprehensive investigation of water in the polar desert environments of both Earth and Mars. These investigations and their results are summarized.

Heldann, Jennifer; Toon, Owen B.

2003-01-01

424

Diagnosis and Management of Salinity Problems In Irrigated Pecan Productions  

E-print Network

to decrease with increasing salinity of water, and is most consistent and reproducible in alluvial soils under clean cultivation. Leave check plots for evaluating their effectiveness. There is a notion that Na can not be leached without adding chemicals... and water tables, and at times chemical properties of the soils. Site Investigation Site investigation for reclamation should include soil texture, profile configuration, and the depth to the water table. It is essential to identify the soil...

Miyamoto, S.

425

Electroacupuncture Reduces Hyperalgesia after Injections of Acidic Saline in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background. Injections of acidic saline into the gastrocnemius muscle in rats produce a bilateral long-lasting hyperalgesia similar to fibromyalgia in humans. No previous study investigated the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on this acidic saline model. This study aimed to identify the effects of EA in the hyperalgesia produced by repeated intramuscular injections of acidic saline. Methods. Rats were divided into four groups (n = 6, each group): control, acupuncture, EA 15?Hz, and 100?Hz. Left gastrocnemius muscle was injected with 100??L of pH 4.0 sterile saline twice five days apart. EA, acupuncture, or control therapy was daily administered (20?min) for 5 consecutive days under anesthesia. Needles were placed in the St36 and Sp6 acupoints. The assessment of secondary mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia, and motor performance was performed before injections and before and after the treatment performed on each day. The paw withdrawal threshold was tested using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test and differences within the group Wilcoxon Matched Pairs. The latency and motor performance were tested for ANOVA parametric test for independent measures, and for differences in the group, we used t-test for paired samples. Post hoc Tukey test was used for multiple corrections. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. Indicate that there was a significant reduction of mechanical withdrawal threshold and paw withdrawal latency 24 hours following the second injection. Moreover, mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia were significantly reversed by EA 15, 100?Hz, and acupuncture. Conclusions. The results suggest that EA high and low frequency as well as acupuncture are effective in reducing hyperalgesia in chronic muscle pain model. PMID:24772181

Maciel, Leonardo Yung dos Santos; da Cruz, Kamilla Mayara Lucas; de Araujo, Ariane Martins; Silva, Zak Moreira de Andrade; Badaue-Passos, Daniel; Santana-Filho, Valter Joviniano; DeSantana, Josimari Melo

2014-01-01

426

The cost of meeting increased cooling-water demands for CO2 capture and storage utilizing non-traditional waters from geologic saline formations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep (> ˜800 m) saline water-bearing formations in the United States have substantial pore volume that is targeted for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the associated saline water can be extracted to increase CO2 storage efficiency, manage pressure build up, and create a new water source that, once treated, can be used for power-plant cooling or other purposes. Extraction, treatment and disposal costs of saline formation water to meet added water demands from CO2 capture and storage (CCS) are discussed. This underutilized water source may be important in meeting new water demand associated with CCS. For a representative natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plant, simultaneous extraction of brine from the storage formation could provide enough water to meet all CCS-related cooling demands for 177 out of the 185 (96 %) saline formations analyzed in this study. Calculated total cost of water extraction, treatment and disposal is less than 4.00 US Dollars (USD) m-3 for 93 % of the 185 formations considered. In 90 % of 185 formations, treated water costs are less than 10.00 USD tonne-1 of CO2 injected. On average, this represents approximately 6 % of the total CO2 capture and injection costs for the NGCC scenario.

Klise, Geoffrey T.; Roach, Jesse D.; Kobos, Peter H.; Heath, Jason E.; Gutierrez, Karen A.

2013-05-01

427

Acid mine drainage and minesite salinity in Australia  

SciTech Connect

Acid mine drainage and minesite salinity are, arguably, the most serious threats posed to the environment by open-cut mining and mineral processing. Acid mine drainage arises when sulphur, usually in pyrite form, contained in the ore and/or waste materials, is exposed to oxidation, the products of which are subsequently leached out by water as acid. As the pH of the system drops, bacteria begin to catalyse the chemical reactions, and any metals present go into solution. Open-cut mining and mineral processing activities also lead to the storage of water on the surface, where evaporation and leaching raise its salinity. At many mines in Australia in dry climates, soil covers over potentially acid generating waste rock dumps are being actively trialed. The aim is to maintain the soil cover in a saturated state by covering it with a sacrificial mulch of loose-dumped inert material. The mulch also serves to take up rainfall, preventing excessive runoff which may cause erosion of the soil cover. In the coalfields of Queensland, Australia, measured pH and salinity levels have been found to vary widely between minesites, within any given minesite, and with changing climatic conditions.

Williams, D.J.

1996-12-31

428

Sublethal stress in Escherichia coli: a function of salinity.  

PubMed Central

Sublethal stress in Escherichia coli was detected in various test media after exposure (in vitro) to seawater of various salinites. Stress was measured with an electrochemical detection technique and a beta-galactosidase assay. Test media included EC medium, medium A-1, and tryptic soy broth modified to contain lactose for beta-galactosidase assay experiments. Stress was defined as the difference between a predicted electrochemical response time calculated for unstarved cells from a standard curve and the observed electrochemical response time for cells starved in seawater. The higher the salinity, the greater the stress for all test media examined. Stress was most pronounced in EC and was attributed primarily to initial die-off of starved cells exposed to the test medium at the elevated temperature of 44.5 degrees C. Lag time and growth rates in test media were not significantly affected by salinity. beta-Galactosidase specific activity, assayed in starved cells after transfer to an induction medium at 44.5 degrees C for 150 min, was inversely related to the salinity of the starved cell suspension. The consequences of these observations with respect to coliform enumeration methods are discussed. PMID:118708

Anderson, I C; Rhodes, M; Kator, H

1979-01-01

429

Ultra Stable Microwave Radiometers for Future Sea Surface Salinity Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Earth Science System Pathfinder (ESSP) mission Aquarius will measure global sea surface salinity with 100-km spatial resolution every 8 days with an average monthly salinity accuracy of 0.2 psu (parts per thousand). This requires an L-band low-noise radiometer with the long-term calibration stability of less than 0.1 K over 8 days. This three-year research program on ultra stable radiometers has addressed the radiometer requirements and configuration necessary to achieve this objective for Aquarius and future ocean salinity missions. The system configuration and component performance have been evaluated with radiometer testbeds at both JPL and GSFC. The research has addressed several areas including component characterization as a function of temperature, a procedure for the measurement and correction for radiometer system non-linearity, noise diode calibration versus temperature, low noise amplifier performance over voltage, and temperature control requirements to achieve the required stability. A breadboard radiometer, utilizing microstrip-based technologies, has been built to demonstrate this long-term stability. This report also presents the results of the radiometer test program, a detailed radiometer noise model, and details of the operational switching sequence optimization that can be used to achieve the low noise and stability requirements. Many of the results of this research have been incorporated into the Aquarius radiometer design and will allow this instrument to achieve its goals.

Wilson, William J.; Tanner, Alan B.; Pellerano, Fernando A.; Horgan, Kevin A.

2005-01-01