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1

Ultrasound Guided Reduction of an Ileocolic Intussusception by a Hydrostatic Method by Using Normal Saline Enema in Paediatric Patients: A Study of 30 Cases  

PubMed Central

Introduction The conventional hydrostatic reduction of an intussusception with barium enema or the pneumatic reduction of an intussusception is associated with considerable ionizing radiations and a risk of perforation; while the hydrostatic reduction of an intussusception under ultrasound guidance is a very safe method because the whole procedure is visualized with real time ultrasound. Also, being a non-invasive method with a high success rate, this procedure has emerged as a useful alternative to a surgical intervention. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ultrasound and colour Doppler studies for the guidance of the hydrostatic reduction of a childhood intussusception by using normal saline. Method Among 41 children who were evaluated with ultrasonography for the confirmation of the presence of intussusceptions, hydrostatic reduction of intussusception were performed under a sonographic guidance in 30 patients, whereas 11 patients were excluded due to clinical contraindications. Results This disease was observed mostly at the ages of 6 months to 24 months. In 80% of the patients, there was a recent history of gastroenteritis and 40 % had a history of common cold. The most common site of the intussusception was the transverse colon near the hepatic flexor of the colon (90%), with a mean duration of 22.1±17.3 hours. The overall rate of a successful reduction was 87% and the mean reduction time was 14 minutes. None of the cases showed recurrence within 24 hrs. No complications were observed. Conclusion We conclude that ultrasound with colour Doppler study is very useful for the diagnosis of intussusceptions, as well as for guided hydrostatic reductions by using normal saline enema. This is an optimal, simple, and a safe procedure for the treatment of intussusceptions in paediatric patients.

Digant, Shastri Mona; Rucha, Seth; Eke, Dessai

2012-01-01

2

Barium enema (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A barium enema is performed to examine the walls of the colon. During the procedure, a well lubricated enema tube is inserted gently into the rectum. The barium, a radiopaque (shows up on X-ray) contrast ...

3

Minimum effective volume of normal saline for epidural volume extension  

PubMed Central

Background: Rescue strategies like changes in tilt of table are used to raise the level of an inadequate sensory block following intrathecal injection. Epidural volume extension (EVE) refers to an injection of normal saline through epidural catheter following an intrathecal block. It results in a rapid increase in the sensory level of subarachnoid block. Thus, it has been postulated that EVE may be used as a rescue strategy for an inadequate post-spinal sensory block. However, the minimum effective volume (MEV) of normal saline for EVE induced increase in level of spinal block has not been researched till date. We proposed to determine the MEV of normal saline required for EVE induced increase in post-spinal block sensory level. Materials and Methods: This prospective sequential allocation study was conducted in consenting adult males after institutional ethical committee approval scheduled for lower limb surgery under combined spinal epidural (CSE) anesthesia, who had an inadequate level of sensory block. Herein, an inadequate level was defined as lower than T10 at 10 min after the intrathecal injection, with no ascent for two consecutive readings taken 2 min apart. The EVE was performed with normal saline injected through epidural catheter, and was considered successful if the level of sensory block increased by two or more dermatomal segments within 5 min of the injection. The volume of normal saline for EVE was decided by using the up-and-down method, with the first patient receiving 10 mL and a dosing interval of 1 mL in subsequent patients. The analysis was done using the formula of Dixon and Massey, which enabled calculation of the MEV with 95% CI. Quantitative parametric data is represented as mean ± SD and nonparametric data as median (range). Results and Conclusion: The MEV of normal saline to raise the level of sensory block by two or more dermatomal segments within 5 min of EVE is 7.4 mL (95% CI: 5.5-9.9 mL).

Tyagi, Asha; Kumar, Surendra; Salhotra, Rashmi; Sethi, Ashok Kumar

2014-01-01

4

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate. I. Volume fraction dependence in saline solution.  

PubMed

We have measured volume fraction dependence of the sedimentation curve of swine erythrocytes in a physiological saline solution at 10 degrees C, 20 degrees C, 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C. The sedimentation curves were found to consist of initial constant velocity region and final plateau region at the lower temperatures of 10 degrees C and 20 degrees C, while modified S-shaped curves were observed at the higher temperatures of 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C. The volume fraction dependence of the initial slope v of the sedimentation curve was fitted well to the following exponential type equation at all the temperatures: v = vs,exp (1 - H)exp[-(BH + CH2)] where vs,exp is the velocity in infinite dilution corresponding to the Stokes velocity and H is the volume fraction of erythrocytes. The volume fraction dependence of the relative velocity v/vs,exp was in close agreement with a semi-empirical equation derived for slurrys in the field of chemical engineering at the lower temperatures, while a small deviation between the observed and calculated curves was found at the higher temperatures. The volume fraction dependence of v at 20 degrees C was also analyzed on a theory recently developed by Oka. The explicit functional form of the medium up-flow factor phi (H) and the deformability factor f in the theory were determined using the experimental data. PMID:3651588

Dobashi, T; Goto, H; Sakanishi, A; Oka, S

1987-01-01

5

The Malone Antegrade Continence Enema for Neurogenic and Structural Fecal Incontinence and Constipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of fecal elimination are commonly encountered by the pediatric urologist and surgeon. The Malone antegrade continence enema has been described as a means to administer a large volume enema via a continent catheterizable appendicocecostomy, resulting in reliable fecal elimination. Of 22 patients undergoing this procedure 16 reported total continence 4 months or longer after surgery. Complications are relatively minor

Martin A. Koyle; Devonna M. Kaji; Manuel Duque; Jodi Wild

1995-01-01

6

Sucralfate enema in ulcerative rectosigmoid lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the efficacy of sucralfate enemas in distal colonic ulcerative lesions, 22 patients with radiation proctitis (n=8), idiopathic ulcerative proctitis (n=5), and solitary rectal ulcer (n=5) unresponsive to conventional medical therapy, and those with ulcerated and bleeding rectal polyps awaiting polypectomy (n=4) were studied. Enemas of sucralfate suspension (2 gm in 20 ml water) were administered twice daily for

R. Kochhar; S. K. Mehta; R. Aggarwal; A. Dhar; F. Patel

1990-01-01

7

Bowel preparation for the double-contrast barium enema: How to maintain coating with cleansing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: Poor mucosal coating, due to excess of fluid in the colon lumen, is a problem when the oral lavage method (4 litres of an iso-osmotic saline solution containing polyethylene glycol) is used as a preparation for double-contrast barium enema. Our aim was to assess the value of prior administration of sennosides to obtain a clean colon with a reduced

G. Cittadini; F. Sardanelli; E. De Cicco; M. Valle; E. Rosso; R. C. Parodi

1999-01-01

8

Comparison of water immersion and saline infusion as a means of inducing volume expansion in man  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study compares the natriuresis induced by head-out water immersion to that of a standard saline infusion and assesses the relative effectiveness of these two techniques as volume determinants of renal sodium and water handling in humans in a seated posture. The data obtained show that the volume stimulus of immersion is identical to that of standard saline-induced extracellular fluid volume expansion (ECVE) in normal seated subjects. The ability of head-out water immersion to induce a natriuresis without a concomitant increase in total blood volume and with a decrease in body weight suggests that water immersion may be preferred as an investigative tool for assessing the effects of ECVE in man.

Epstein, M.; Pins, D. S.; Arrington, R.; Denunzio, A. G.; Engstrom, R.

1975-01-01

9

Effect of enteric biopsy closure orientation on enteric circumference and volume of saline needed for leak testing.  

PubMed

This study describes the effect of enteric biopsy closure orientation on circumference and volume of saline needed for leak testing. There were significant differences in circumference measurements at baseline, central circumference of longitudinally closed sites, and volume of saline for leak testing. PMID:24381348

Matz, Brad M; Boothe, Harry W; Wright, James C; Boothe, Dawn M

2014-01-01

10

Hydrogeology, distribution, and volume of saline groundwater in the southern midcontinent and adjacent areas of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hydrogeology, distribution, and volume of saline water in 22 aquifers in the southern midcontinent of the United States were evaluated to provide information about saline groundwater resources that may be used to reduce dependency on freshwater resources. Those aquifers underlie six States in the southern midcontinent—Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas—and adjacent areas including all or parts of Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Wyoming and some offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico. Saline waters of the aquifers were evaluated by defining salinity zones; digitizing data, primarily from the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program of the U.S. Geological Survey; and computing the volume of saline water in storage. The distribution of saline groundwater in the southern midcontinent is substantially affected by the hydrogeology and groundwater-flow systems of the aquifers. Many of the aquifers in the southern midcontinent are underlain by one or more aquifers, resulting in vertically stacked aquifers containing groundwaters of varying salinity. Saline groundwater is affected by past and present hydrogeologic conditions. Spatial variation of groundwater salinity in the southern midcontinent is controlled primarily by locations of recharge and discharge areas, groundwater-flow paths and residence time, mixing of freshwater and saline water, and interactions with aquifer rocks and sediments. The volume calculations made for the evaluated aquifers in the southern midcontinent indicate that about 39,900 million acre-feet (acre-ft) of saline water is in storage. About 21,600 million acre-ft of the water in storage is slightly to moderately saline (1,000–10,000 milligrams per liter [mg/L] dissolved solids), and about 18,300 million acre-ft is very saline (10,000–35,000 mg/L dissolved solids). The largest volumes of saline water are in the coastal lowlands (about 16,300 million acre-ft), Mississippi embayment and Texas coastal uplands (about 12,000 million acre-ft), and Great Plains (about 8,170 million acre-ft) aquifer systems. Of the 22 aquifers evaluated in this report, the Maha aquifer in the Great Plains aquifer system contains both the largest total volume of saline water (about 6,280 million acre-ft) and the largest volume of slightly to moderately saline water (about 5,150 million acre-ft).

Osborn, Noël I.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Seger, Christian H.

2013-01-01

11

Herbal enema: At the cost of colon  

PubMed Central

Various colonic side-effects of herbal enema have been reported in literature ranging from mild abdominal discomfort to self-limiting haemorrhagic colitis. It rarely requires blood transfusion or subtotal colectomy. We report a 57-year-old male patient developing severe ileo-colitis with persistent massive rectal bleeding immediately after herbal enema administration for the treatment of chronic constipation and was resistant to conservative management. Patient was managed successfully with emergency total laparoscopic colectomy. Post-operative recovery of the patient was excellent.

Prasad, Parmanand; Tantia, Om; Patle, Nirmal M; Mukherjee, Jayanta

2012-01-01

12

Effect of prolonged LBNP and saline ingestion on plasma volume and orthostatic responses during bed rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic intolerance remains a significant problem following space flight despite frequent use of the saline fluid-loading countermeasure and volitional use of an anti-gravity suite during reentry and landing. The purpose of this project is to examine the plasma volume (PV), endocrine, and orthostatic responses of bedrested subjects following 2-hr and 4-hr treatments of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and saline ingestion. Ten healthy men were randomly assigned into 2 groups. Group A underwent a 4-hr LBNP/saline treatment on best rest day 5 and the 2-hr treatment on day 11. Group B underwent the 2-hr treatment on day 6 and the 4-hr treatment on day 10. Blood volume was determined before and after bed rest using radiolabelling. Changes in PV between measurements were calculated from changes in hematocrit and estimated red cell volume. Urinary excretion of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone (ALD) were measured each day during the study. Orthostatic responses were measured using a ramp LBNP protocol before bed rest, before each treatment, and 24 hours after each treatment. Both 2-hr and 4-hr treatments resulted in a restoration of PV to pre-bed rest levels which persisted at least 24 hours. This increase in PV was associated with significant increases in urinary excretion of ADH and ALD. Twenty-four hours after the 4-hr treatment, the heart rate and pulse pressure response to LBNP were significantly lower and stroke volumes during LBNP were increased. Twenty-four hours after the 2-hr treatment, there was no evidence of improvement in orthostatic responses. These results suggest that a countermeasure which simply restores PV during space flight may not be sufficient for restoring orthostatic responses.

Fortney, Suzanne M.; Dussack, Larry; Rehbein, Tracy; Wood, Margie; Steinmann, Laura

1991-01-01

13

Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas - Volume 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas - Volume 2 is a publication project in the framework of the study of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. It follows the publication of a first volume in 2011 (see Editors' websites: http://ccgm.free.fr & http://sgfr.free.fr) and aims to illustrate the seismic characteristics of the MSC markers over news study areas. The Messinian Salinity Crisis is a huge outstanding succession of events that deeply modified the Mediterranean area within a short time span at the geological scale. In 2011, a seismic atlas of the Messinian markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas has been published [1]. This collective work summarizes, in one publication with a common format, the most relevant seismic features related to this exceptional event in the offshore domain. It also proposes a new global and consistent terminology for the MSC markers in the entire offshore Mediterranean area in order to avoid nomenclatural problems. Throughout 13 study areas, the seismic facies, geometry and extend of the Messinian markers (bounding surfaces and depositional units) are described. The Atlas however does not provide a complete description of all what that is known about the MSC and about the geology of each study area. Accordingly, illustrations in the Atlas should be used for a global description of the offshore imprints of the MSC at a broad scale, or for local information or site-specific general interpretations. Interpreted seismic data were carefully selected according to their quality, position and significance. Raw and interpreted seismic profiles are available on CD-Rom. Volume 2 is currently under preparation with the objectives : (1) to image the Messinian seismic marker from margins and basins that have not been illustrated in the first volume and (2) to complete the extension map of the MSC markers in the offshore and onshore domains at the Mediterranean scale. As the first volume, Volume 2 will also aim to share the geological interpretation of seismic reflection data imaging Messinian markers, to make this information accessible to the non geophysician community and to be a reference work that can be used by teachers and future researchers working on the Messinian event. This publication project is still open to anybody from industry and academia willing to contribute. At the present time, 16 new sites have been identified. Publication of the Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas - Volume 2 is planned for Fall 2014. For more details, contact presenting author J. Lofi (atlas coordinator). This contribution has been funded by the Actions Marges French research program. [1] : Lofi J., Deverchère J., Gaullier V., Gillet H., Gorini C., Guennoc P., Loncke L., Maillard A., Sage F. and Thinon I., 2011. Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) / Mémoires de la Société Géologique de France, n.s., 179, 72 pp., 1 CD. Atlas contributors (first authors): A. Camerlenghi, A. Del Ben, D. Do Couto, F. Estrada, F. Gallais, M. Garcia, V. Gaullier, A. Maillard, A. Micallef, M. Rossi, F. Sage, U. Schattner, A. Tassy, R. Urgeles

Lofi, Johanna

2014-05-01

14

Infarct Volume After Hyperacute Infusion of Hypertonic Saline in a Rat Model of Acute Embolic Stroke  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hypertonic saline (HS) can treat cerebral edema arising from a number of pathologic conditions. However, physicians are reluctant to use it during the first 24 h after stroke because of experimental evidence that it increases infarct volume when administered early after reperfusion. Here, we determined the effect of HS on infarct size in an embolic clot model without planned reperfusion. Methods A clot was injected into the internal carotid artery of male Wistar rats to reduce perfusion in the middle cerebral artery territory to less than 40 % of baseline, as monitored by laser-Doppler flowmetry. After 25 min, rats were randomized to receive 10 mL/kg of 7.5 % HS (50:50 chloride:acetate) or normal saline (NS) followed by a 0.5 mL/h infusion of the same solution for 22 h. Results Infarct volume was similar between NS and HS groups (in mm3: cortex 102 ± 65 mm3 vs. 93 ± 49 mm3, p = 0.72; caudoputamenal complex 15 ± 9 mm3 vs. 21 ± 14, p = 0.22; total hemisphere 119 ± 76 mm3 vs. 114 ± 62, p = 0.88, respectively). Percent water content was unchanged in the infarcted hemisphere (NS 81.6 ± 1.5 %; HS 80.7 ± 1.3 %, p = 0.16), whereas the HS-treated contralateral hemisphere was significantly dehydrated (NS 79.4 ± 0.8 %; HS 77.5 ± 0.8 %, p < 0.01). Conclusions HS reduced contralateral hemispheric water content but did not affect ipsilateral brain water content when compared to NS. Infarct volume was unaffected by HS administration at all evaluated locations.

Toung, Thomas J. K.; Gottschalk, Allan; Mirski, Marek A.; Koehler, Raymond C.

2013-01-01

15

Cleansing of the colon without enemas.  

PubMed

Several methods have been used to cleanse the large bowel prior to roentgen examination and rectoscopy for more than ten years. A method with administration of a salt solution (SALAX) in combination with different oral laxatives (Cascara sagrada, Dantron, Bisacodyl) without cleansing enemas is described. Hospitalized patients should have an individual preparation while ambulatory patients are almost completely cleansed if they carefully follow the given instructions. PMID:1215526

Rosengren, J E; Aberg, T

1975-11-01

16

Comparative study of enema retention and preference in ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Therapeutic enemas are often used to treat active colitis but their retention may be limited because of urgency to defecate. Some preparations may be better retained and tolerated than others because of their physical properties. Aim: To compare patient preference and retention of four therapeutic enemas, including a nicotine enema, in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: Twenty four patients with active UC received the four trial enemas—corticosteroid, 5-amino salicylate (5-ASA), and nicotine liquid enemas and a corticosteroid foam, in a randomised order, taking one enema on each of four successive nights. Patients scored them 1 to 4 for ease of administration and retention, degree of abdominal bloating, and for their overall preference. Results: Fifteen patients rated nicotine their overall favourite or second favourite, compared with 14 for corticosteroid foam and 11 for 5-ASA and corticosteroid liquids, but this was not significant (p = 0.302). Overall, there was no significant difference in overnight retention. However, the nicotine enema tended to be less well retained in patients with milder urgency but a higher proportion retained it overnight with more severe urgency (p = 0.031 compared with 5-ASA enema). Conclusion: There was no significant difference in patient preference or overall duration of retention for the four enemas.

Ingram, J; Rhodes, J; Evans, B; Newcombe, R; Thomas, G

2005-01-01

17

Single-dose ceftriaxone, ornidazole, and povidone-iodine enema in elective left colectomy. A randomized multicenter controlled trial. The French Association for Surgical Research.  

PubMed

Patients undergoing elective left colectomy for colonic carcinoma or diverticulosis (n = 341) were randomly assigned to three groups. Patients in groups 1 (102 patients) and 2 (122 patients) had two 5% povidone-iodine enemas whereas those in group 3 (117 patients) had saline enemas. Groups 1 and 3 received 24-hour intravenous cefotaxime sodium and metronidazole hydrochloride. Group 2 received single injections of ceftriaxone sodium (1 g) and ornidazole (1 g). Senna concentrate was administered the evening before surgery. There was no statistically significant difference found between groups 1 and 2 concerning the number of infected patients (eight vs 11), anastomotic leakages (four vs four), extra-abdominal complications (32 vs 29), or infection-related deaths (one vs zero). Despite poorer tolerance, povidone-iodine enema was more effective than saline enemas, as there were less infected patients in group 1 (8%) or groups 1 + 2 (8.5%) than in group 3 (13%). Single-dose ceftriaxone-ornidazole combined with povidone-iodine enemas is effective against infective complications in elective left colonic surgery for carcinoma or diverticular disease. Single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis reduces costs and work for the nursing staff. PMID:8431124

Fingerhut, A; Hay, J M

1993-02-01

18

Hyperphosphataemia after enemas in childhood: prevention and treatment.  

PubMed Central

The case of a child with severe hyperphosphataemia and symptomatic hypocalcaemia secondary to retention of phosphate administered through an antegrade continence enema is reported. Caution should be exercised with the use of phosphate enemas and prompt action taken to remedy retention. The use of glucose with insulin in the emergency management of acute hyperphosphataemia is discussed.

Hunter, M F; Ashton, M R; Griffiths, D M; Ilangovan, P; Roberts, J P; Walker, V

1993-01-01

19

Acute changes in extracellular fluid volume modify the antroduodenal flow of saline in dogs: a possible physiological role.  

PubMed

The antroduodenal (AD) flow of saline was measured in anesthetized dogs following two different protocols of acute changes in extracellular fluid (ECF) volume. ECF expansion by iv infusion of saline before or after hemorrhage decreased the AD flow; conversely, hemorrhage before or after expansion increased flow. These alternating modifications in the AD flow are independent of the sequence of volemic changes and may constitute part of the homeostatic responses of the gut to confront life-threatening situations such as accidental hyperhydration or hemorrhage. PMID:3266845

dos Santos, A A; Xavier Neto, J; Pereira, J M; Gondim, F A; Santiago Júnior, A T; Capelo, L R; Rola, F H

1988-01-01

20

The instant enema in inflammatory disease of the colon.  

PubMed

The instant, or unprepared, double contrast barium enema has been used routinely at St Mark's Hospital in the investigation of active inflammatory disease of the colon since 1963. The use of air contrast is preferred to show the fine detail of the mucosal changes and to detect early involvement. With the instant enema technique the diagnostic results are satisfactory and patients are minimally disturbed by the procedure. The majority of examinations consist of a total of four films, which includes a plain film of the abdomen prior to the administration of contrast. For short-term follow-up a repeat enema with a single film is usually adequate. PMID:436365

Thomas, B M

1979-03-01

21

Volume replacement with saline solutions during pancreatitis in rats and the hepatic profiles of apoptotic proteins and heat-shock proteins  

PubMed Central

Objective Liver failure can occur as a consequence of the systemic inflammation after acute pancreatitis. We assessed the effect of volume repositioning with hypertonic saline solution or normal saline on hepatic cytokine production and the expression of heat-shock proteins and apoptotic proteins after acute pancreatitis. Methods Wistar rats were divided in four groups: C - control animals that were not subjected to insult or treatment; NT - animals that were subjected to acute pancreatitis and received no treatment; normal saline - animals that were subjected to acute pancreatitis and received normal saline (NaCl 0.9%); and HS - animals that were subjected to acute pancreatitis and received hypertonic saline solution (NaCl 7.5%). Acute pancreatitis was induced by retrograde transduodenal infusion of 2.5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct. At 4, 12 and 24 h following acute pancreatitis induction, TNF-alpha, IL-1-beta, IL-6 and IL-10, caspase-2 and -7, Apaf-1, AIF and HSP60 and 90 were analyzed in the liver. Results Casp2 decreased in the normal saline and hypertonic saline groups (p<0.05 versus. C) at 12 h. Apaf-1, AIF and HSP90 remained unchanged. At 4 h, Casp7 increased in the NT group (p<0.01 versus C), although it remained at the baseline levels in the reperfused groups. HSP60 increased in all of the groups at 4 h (p<0.0.001 vs. C). However, the hypertonic saline group showed lower expression of HSP60 than the normal saline group (p<0.05). Hypertonic saline solution maintained the production of cytokines at normal levels. Volume reperfusion with normal or hypertonic saline significantly modulated the expression of Casp7. Conclusion Volume replacement with hypertonic or normal saline was effective in reducing caspase 7. However, only hypertonic solution was capable of regulating cytokine production and HSP60 expression at all time points.

Rios, Ester Correia Sarmento; Moretti, Ana Iochabel Soares; de Souza, Heraldo Possolo; Velasco, Irineu Tadeu; Soriano, Francisco Garcia

2012-01-01

22

Therapeutic benefits from a poorly absorbed prednisolone enema in distal colitis.  

PubMed Central

A double blind controlled trial has been conducted in 40 patients to compare the therapeutic effects of prednisolone metasulphobenzoate enemas with those of prednisolone-21-phosphate enemas. Both enemas brought about improvement in symptoms and sigmoidoscopic appearances in more than 70% of patients treated. The absorption of prednisolone from the metasulphobenzoate enema in three patients was less than from the 21-phosphate enema. In view of the low plasma prednisolone concentrations obtained, there are theoretical advantages in using a poorly absorbed enema to avoid the possibility of systemic steroid effects in patients requiring long term steroid treatment.

McIntyre, P B; Macrae, F A; Berghouse, L; English, J; Lennard-Jones, J E

1985-01-01

23

Isoosmolar enemas demonstrate preferential gastrointestinal distribution, safety, and acceptability compared with hyperosmolar and hypoosmolar enemas as a potential delivery vehicle for rectal microbicides.  

PubMed

Rectally applied antiretroviral microbicides for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV infection are currently in development. Since enemas (rectal douches) are commonly used by men who have sex with men prior to receptive anal intercourse, a microbicide enema could enhance PrEP adherence by fitting seamlessly within the usual sexual practices. We assessed the distribution, safety, and acceptability of three enema types-hyperosmolar (Fleet), hypoosmolar (distilled water), and isoosmolar (Normosol-R)-in a crossover design. Nine men received each enema type in random order. Enemas were radiolabeled [(99m)Tc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)] to assess enema distribution in the colon using single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. Plasma (99m)Tc-DTPA indicated mucosal permeability. Sigmoidoscopic colon tissue biopsies were taken to assess injury as well as tissue penetration of the (99m)Tc-DTPA. Acceptability was assessed after each product use and at the end of the study. SPECT/CT imaging showed that the isoosmolar enema had greater proximal colonic distribution (up to the splenic flexure) and greater luminal and colon tissue concentrations of (99m)Tc-DTPA when compared to the other enemas (p<0.01). Colon biopsies also showed that only the hyperosmolar enema caused sloughing of the colonic epithelium (p<0.05). In permeability testing, the hypoosmolar enema had higher plasma (99m)Tc-DTPA 24-h area under the concentration-time curve and peak concentration compared to the hyperosmolar and isoosmolar enemas, respectively. Acceptability was generally good with no clear preferences among the three enema types. The isoosmolar enema was superior or similar to the other enemas in all categories and is a good candidate for further development as a rectal microbicide vehicle. PMID:23885722

Leyva, Francisco J; Bakshi, Rahul P; Fuchs, Edward J; Li, Liye; Caffo, Brian S; Goldsmith, Arthur J; Ventuneac, Ana; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Du, Yong; Leal, Jeffrey P; Lee, Linda A; Torbenson, Michael S; Hendrix, Craig W

2013-11-01

24

Psychrometric Pressure-Volume Analysis of Osmoregulation in Roots, Shoots, and Whole Sporophytes of Salinized Ceratopteris1  

PubMed Central

Osmotic and turgor adjustment in roots, shoots, and whole sporophytes of a NaCl-tolerant mutant and a NaCl-sensitive wild-type strain of the fern Ceratopteris richardii Brongn. were characterized following exposure to 60 millimolar NaCl, using a psychrometric approach to pressure-volume analysis. Water potential components of whole plants and shoots at full or ambient hydration were similar between strains. Roots of the mutant, however, had osmotic potentials at full turgor and water potentials at zero turgor which were lower (0.32 and 0.46 megapascal, respectively) than those in roots of the wild type after salinization. Although compromised in the absence of NaCl, sporophytes of the mutant strain were larger and much less necrotic in 60 millimolar NaCl after 17 days, compared to the wild type. Root growth in the mutant strain was unaffected by salinization and far exceeded root growth in the wild type. Correlation coefficients of the linear regression and the general consistency and precision of the pressure-volume data demonstrated the feasibility of using PV curves for estimating water potential components of roots. The technique should also provide a means of studying osmoregulation in a variety of other rapidly equilibrating plant tissues.

Auge, Robert M.; Hickok, Leslie G.; Stodola, Ann J. W.

1989-01-01

25

21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas...X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished...medical literature reports a number of deaths associated with the addition of tannic acid to barium enemas....

2013-04-01

26

Effect of volume expansion with hypertonic- and isotonic saline and isotonic glucose on sodium and water transport in the principal cells in the kidney  

PubMed Central

Background The renal distal nephron plays an important role in the maintenance of sodium balance, extra cellular volume and blood pressure. The degree of water transport, via aquaporin2 water channels (AQP2), and sodium transport, via epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) in renal collecting duct principal cells are reflected by the level of urinary excretion of AQP2 (u-AQP2) and the ?-fraction of ENaC (u-ENaC?). The effects of an acute intravenous volume load with isotonic saline, hypertonic saline and glucose on u-AQP2, u-ENaC? and underlying mechanisms have never been studied in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in healthy humans. Methods We studied the effects of 0.9% saline (23 ml/kg), 3% saline (7 ml/kg) and 5% glucose (23 ml/kg) on u-AQP2 and u-ENaC?, fractional sodium excretion (FENa), free water clearance (CH2O), and plasma concentrations of vasopressin (AVP), renin (PRC), angiotensin II (ANG II) and aldosterone (Aldo) in a randomized, crossover study of 23 healthy subjects, who consumed a standardized diet, regarding calories, sodium and fluid for 4 days before each examination day. Results After isotonic saline infusion, u-AQP2 increased (27%). CH2O and u-ENaC? were unchanged, whereas FENa increased (123%). After hypertonic saline infusion, there was an increase in u-AQP2 (25%), u-ENaC? (19%) and FENa (96%), whereas CH2O decreased (-153%). After isotonic glucose infusion, there was a decrease in u-AQP2 (-16%), ENaC? (-10%) and FENa (-44%) whereas CH2O increased (164%). AVP remained unchanged after isotonic saline and glucose, but increased after hypertonic saline (139%). PRC, AngII and p-Aldo decreased after isotonic and hypertonic saline infusion, but not after glucose infusion. Conclusions Volume expansion with 3% and 0.9% saline increased u-AQP2, while isotonic glucose decreased u-AQP2. Infusion of hypertonic saline increased u-ENaC?, whereas u-ENaC? was not significantly changed after isotonic saline and tended to decrease after glucose. Thus, the transport of water and sodium is changed both via the aquaporin 2 water channels and the epithelial sodium channels during all three types of volume expansion to regulate and maintain water- and sodium homeostasis in the body. Trial registration Clinical Trial no: NCT01414088

2013-01-01

27

PERFORATION OF MALONE ANTEGRADE CONTINENCE ENEMA: DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:Severe bowel dysfunction often accompanies neurogenic bladder, and Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) procedures can lead to improvement in the quality of life of these patients. However, complications such as catheter false passage with subsequent intraperitoneal instillation of irrigation can lead to significant morbidity. We present our experience with the diagnosis and management of this condition.

WILLIAM DeFOOR; EUGENE MINEVICH; PRAMOD REDDY; ALBAHA BARQAWI; DAVID KITCHENS; CURTIS SHELDON; MARTIN KOYLE

2005-01-01

28

Small bowel enema in non-responsive coeliac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small bowel enema was performed in patients with non-responsive coeliac disease, in coeliac patients on a normal diet (untreated) and those who had shown a good response to a gluten free diet, and in control subjects to determine whether there were any specific radiological features of the non-responsive state. A significant reduction in the average number of jejunal folds

N Mike; U Udeshi; P Asquith; J Ferrando

1990-01-01

29

Relationship among latest Miocene oxygen isotopic enrichment, antarctic ice volume, and the Messinian salinity crisis  

SciTech Connect

An interval of high variable, enriched benthic /sup 18/O values was found to bracket the Miocene/Pliocene boundary, between 5.6 and 5.1 Ma, in five sites from the Southwest Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The duration of this enrichment event was less than 500,000 years, and is shown by paleomagnetic correlation to be equivalent in time with the deposition of Messinian evaporites. The /sup 18/O enrichment occurred in two main stages separated by a brief interval of relatively depleted /sup 18/O values. Between 5.5 and 5.3 Ma, glacioeustatic lowering of sea level due to increased Antarctic ice volume isolated the Mediterranean basin, and resulted in the deposition of the lower evaporite unit (Main Salt unit). A temporary decrease in ice volume occurred between 5.3 and 5.2 Ma, and corresponded to the intra-Messinian transgression where evaporite deposition ceased temporarily. Between 5.2 and 5.1 Ma, a second Antarctic glacial advance lowered sea level again and resulted in the deposition of the upper evaporite unit. A rapid decreased in delta/sup 18/O values occurred in all sites during the early Pliocene at 5.0 Ma. This depletion marks a glacial retreat and marine transgression, which refilled the Mediterranean Basin and permanently terminated evaporite deposition.

Hodell, D.A.; Elmstrom, K.M.; Kennett, J.P.

1985-01-01

30

Salinization and Saline Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and

A. Vengosh

2003-01-01

31

Adequacy of preparation for barium enema among elderly outpatients.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether outpatients 75 years of age or older have a higher rate of inadequate bowel preparation for barium enema and of complications associated with the preparation and the test than patients aged 55 to 74 years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Radiology department in a teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Patients 55 years or older referred for a barium enema from March to August 1988. OUTCOME MEASURES: All films were reviewed independently by a study radiologist blind to the staff radiologist's report. Patients were interviewed by telephone within several days after the test to assess the occurrence of problems during the preparation or the test. MAIN RESULTS: Of the 213 patients assessed 72 were excluded: 43 refused to participate or could not be contacted, 16 had previously undergone colonic surgery, and 13 were excluded for other reasons. The remaining 141 patients were separated into three age groups: those 55 to 64 years (46 patients), those 65 to 74 (47) and those 75 or older (48). In 104 cases (74%) the bowel had been prepared adequately; there was no significant difference between the three groups with regard to the adequacy of preparation. The incidence of problems reported by the patients did not differ significantly between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Outpatients aged 75 years or more are no more likely than those aged 55 to 74 to have problems with bowel preparation or the barium enema itself. Age should not be a criterion for exclusion from barium enema. To try to lower the rate of poor bowel preparation clinicians and radiologists should consider counselling patients more carefully about the importance of proper preparation. Also, the current method of preparation could be examined to determine whether simple changes would significantly improve colon cleanliness.

Grad, R M; Clarfield, A M; Rosenbloom, M; Perrone, M

1991-01-01

32

Therapeutic enema for pediatric ileocolic intussusception: using a balloon catheter improves efficacy.  

PubMed

A therapeutic enema for pediatric intussusception may benefit by using a rectal catheter with an inflated balloon. We compared the efficacy of rectal catheters without and with an inflated balloon for air and liquid enemas. We retrospectively reviewed PACS images and hospital records of children who had a therapeutic enema for intussusception at our institution between January 2006 and May 2011. Sixty-two enemas in 60 children were included. Physician assistants with training in pediatric fluoroscopy and pediatric radiologists were more likely to use air enema (37/41 or 90 %), and general radiologists were more likely to use liquid enema (18/21 or 86 %). However, the reduction rate for air enema overall was only slightly higher than for liquid enema using an inflated balloon catheter (36/40 or 90 % versus 14/17 or 82 %) (P=0.653). For air enema, mean procedure time for successful reductions was shorter with an inflated balloon catheter than with a plastic catheter (7.6 versus 28.2 min) (P<0.009), but the reduction rate was not affected. For liquid enema, the reduction rate was higher with an inflated balloon catheter than without inflation (14/17 or 82 % versus 1/5 or 20 %; P=0.021), but the procedure time was not shortened. No procedural complications were directly attributed to using a rectal catheter with an inflated balloon. Using a rectal catheter with an inflated balloon appears to safely shorten the procedure time of a successful air enema and improve the reduction rate of liquid enema. PMID:23748969

Betz, Bradford W; Hagedorn, Jeffrey E; Guikema, Jeffrey S; Barnes, Courtney L

2013-10-01

33

Salinization and Saline Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g L-1), although the chloride comprises only a fraction of the total dissolved salts in water. The Cl/TDS ratio varies from 0.1 in nonmarine saline waters to ˜0.5 in marine-associated saline waters. Water salinity is also defined by electrical conductivity (EC). In soil studies, the electrical conductivity and the ratio of Na/?(Ca+Mg) (SAR) are often used as an indirect measure of soil salinity. In addition to chloride, high levels of other dissolved constituents may limit the use of water for domestic, agriculture, and industrial applications. In some parts of Africa, China, and India, for example, high fluoride content is associated with saline groundwater and causes severe dental and skeletal fluorosis (Shiklomanov, 1997). Hence, the "salinity" problem is only the "tip of the iceberg," as high levels of salinity are associated with high concentrations of other inorganic pollutants (e.g., sodium, sulfate, boron, fluoride), and bioaccumulated elements (e.g., selenium, and arsenic) (see Chapter 9.03).The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the chloride concentration of the water supply for human consumption should not exceed 250 mg L-1. Agriculture applications also depend upon the salinity level of the supplied water. Many crops, such as citrus, avocado, and mango, are sensitive to chloride concentration in irrigation water (an upper limit of 250 mg L-1). In addition, long-term irrigation with water enriched with sodium results in a significant reduction in the hydraulic conductivity and hence the fertility of the irrigated soil. Similarly, the industrial sector demands water of high quality. For example, the high-tech industry requires a large amount of water with low levels of dissolved salts. Hence, the salinity level of groundwater is one of the limiting factors that determine the suitability of water for a variety of applications.The salinity problem is a global phenomenon but it is more severe in water-scarce areas, such as arid and semi-arid zones. The increasing demand for water has created tremendous pressur

Vengosh, A.

2003-12-01

34

Physiology of Body Water and Salt Regulation. Part 2: Volume and Electrolyte Homeostasis after an Acute Saline Infusion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six healthy male volunteers were investigated under strictly controlled conditions to determine the renal and hormonal responses to an acute isotonic saline infusion. During a nine day study in recumbent body position, the volunteers received an infusion ...

C. Drummer M. Heer B. Molz M. Schlossberger C. Stadeager

1990-01-01

35

Acute left colonic diverticulitis—compared performance of computed tomography and water-soluble contrast enema  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The most valuable radiologic examination to be done initially when acute left colonic diverticulitis is suspected is still a matter of controversy. This study compares the performance between water-soluble contrast enema and computed tomography. METHODS: From 1986 to 1997, all patients admitted in our emergency center with clinically suspected left-colonic diverticulitis had a contrast enema and a computed tomography

Patrick Ambrosetti; Alexandra Jenny; Christophe Becker; François Terrier; Philippe Morel

2000-01-01

36

Relative sensitivity of colonoscopy and barium enema for detection of colorectal cancer in clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The relative sensitivities of barium enema and colonoscopy for colorectal cancer are still debated. The aim of this study was to determine the relative sensitivity of barium enema and colonoscopy in general clinical practice. METHODS: Medical records of 2193 consecutive colorectal cancer cases identified in 20 central Indiana hospitals were reviewed. All procedures performed within 3 years

DK Rex; EY Rahmani; JH Haseman; GT Lemmel; S Kaster; JS Buckley

1997-01-01

37

Rectal perforations and fistulae secondary to a glycerin enema: Closure by over-the-scope-clip  

PubMed Central

Rectal perforations due to glycerin enemas (GE) typically occur when the patient is in a seated or lordotic standing position. Once the perforation occurs and peritonitis results, death is usually inevitable. We describe two cases of rectal perforation and fistula caused by a GE. An 88-year-old woman presented with a large rectal perforation and a fistula just after receiving a GE. Her case was further complicated by an abscess in the right rectal wall. The second patient was a 78-year-old woman who suffered from a rectovesical fistula after a GE. In both cases, we performed direct endoscopic abscess lavage with a saline solution and closed the fistula using an over-the-scope-clip (OTSC) procedure. These procedures resulted in dramatic improvement in both patients. Direct endoscopic lavage and OTSC closure are very useful for pararectal abscess lavage and fistula closure, respectively, in elderly patients who are in poor general condition. Our two cases are the first reports of the successful endoscopic closure of fistulae using double OTSCs after endoscopic lavage of the debris and an abscess of the rectum secondary to a GE.

Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi; Masaki, Tsutomu; Izuishi, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

2012-01-01

38

Perforation and mortality after cleansing enema for acute constipation are not rare but are preventable  

PubMed Central

Objectives Constipation is a common complaint, frequently treated with cleansing enema. Enemas can be very effective but may cause serious adverse events, such as perforation or metabolic derangement. Our aim was to evaluate the outcome of the use of cleansing enema for acute constipation and to assess adverse events within 30 days of therapy. Methods We performed a two-phase study: an initial retrospective and descriptive study in 2010, followed by a prospective study after intervention, in 2011. According to the results of the first phase we established guidelines for the treatment of constipation in the Emergency Department and then used these in the second phase. Results There were 269 and 286 cases of severe constipation in the first and second periods of the study, respectively. In the first study period, only Fleet® Enema was used, and in the second, this was changed to Easy Go enema (free of sodium phosphate). There was a 19.2% decrease in the total use of enema, in the second period of the study (P < 0.0001). Adverse events and especially, the perforation rate and the 30-day mortality in patients with constipation decreased significantly in the second phase: 3 (1.4%) versus 0 (P = 0.0001) and 8 (3.9%) versus 2 (0.7%) (P = 0.0001), for perforation and death in the first and second period of the study, respectively. Conclusion Enema for the treatment of acute constipation is not without adverse events, especially in the elderly, and should be applied carefully. Perforation, hyperphosphatemia (after Fleet Enema), and sepsis may cause death in up to 4% of cases. Guidelines for the treatment of acute constipation and for enema administration are urgently needed.

Niv, Galia; Grinberg, Tamar; Dickman, Ram; Wasserberg, Nir; Niv, Yaron

2013-01-01

39

The antegrade continence enema procedure and total anorectal reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Patients may present with anal incontinence (AI) following repair of a congenital anorectal anomaly years previously, or require total anorectal reconstruction (TAR) following radical rectal extirpation, most commonly for rectal cancer. Others may require removal of their colostomy following sphincter excision for Fournier's gangrene, or in cases of severe perineal trauma. Most of the data pertaining to antegrade continence enema (the ACE or Malone procedure) comes from the pediatric literature in the management of children with AI, but also with supervening chronic constipation, where the quality of life and compliance with this technique appears superior to retrograde colonic washouts. Total anorectal reconstruction requires an anatomical or physical supplement to the performance of a perineal colostomy, which may include an extrinsic muscle interposition (which may or may not be ‘dynamized'), construction of a neorectal reservoir, implantation of an incremental artificial bowel sphincter or creation of a terminal, smooth-muscle neosphincter. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and their outcome are presented here.

Zbar, Andrew P.

2014-01-01

40

Pre-hospital cooling of patients following cardiac arrest is effective using even low volumes of cold saline  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pre-hospital induction of therapeutic mild hypothermia (TH) may reduce post-cardiac arrest brain injury in patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Most often, it is induced by a rapid intravenous administration of as much as 30 ml/kg of cold crystalloids. We decided to assess the pre-hospital cooling effectivity of this approach by using a target dose of 15-20 ml/kg of 4°C cold normal saline in the setting of the physician-staffed Emergency Medical Service. The safety and impact on the clinical outcome have also been analyzed. Methods We performed a prospective observational study with a retrospective control group. A total of 40 patients were cooled by an intravenous administration of 15-20 ml/kg of 4°C cold normal saline during transport to the hospital (TH group). The pre-hospital decrease of tympanic temperature (TT) was analyzed as the primary endpoint. Patients in the control group did not undergo any pre-hospital cooling. Results In the TH group, administration of 12.6 ± 6.4 ml/kg of 4°C cold normal saline was followed by a pre-hospital decrease of TT of 1.4 ± 0.8°C in 42.8 ± 19.6 min (p < 0.001). The most effective cooling was associated with a transport time duration of 38-60 min and with an infusion of 17 ml/kg of cold saline. In the TH group, a trend toward a reduced need for catecholamines during transport was detected (35.0 vs. 52.5%, p = 0.115). There were no differences in demographic variables, comorbidities, parameters of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation and in other post-resuscitation characteristics. The coupling of pre-hospital cooling with subsequent in-hospital TH predicted a favorable neurological outcome at hospital discharge (OR 4.1, CI95% 1.1-18.2, p = 0.046). Conclusions Pre-hospital induction of TH by the rapid intravenous administration of cold normal saline has been shown to be efficient even with a lower dose of coolant than reported in previous studies. This dose can be associated with a favorable impact on circulatory stability early after the return of spontaneous circulation and, when coupled with in-hospital continuation of cooling, can potentially improve the prognosis of patients. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials (NCT): NCT00915421

2010-01-01

41

Plasma prednisolone levels after administration of prednisolone-21-phosphate as a retention enema in colitis.  

PubMed Central

A competitive protein-binding assay was used to measure plasma prednisolone levels after administration of prednisolone-21-phosphate retention enemas to seven patients with colitis. Prednisolone appeared in the plasma of all patients after the enema, and concentrations rose to a peak within three hours. In five of the patients plasma prednisolone levels were also measured after the same dose of prednisolone by mouth. Although in individual patients the plasma levels achieved by enema were often quite different from those achieved by mouth, overall the levels achieved by each mode of administration were of a similar order. These findings suggest that 20 mg prednisolone given by retention enema may well exert a systemic effect.

Powell-Tuck, J; Lennard-Jones, J E; May, C S; Wilson, C G; Paterson, J W

1976-01-01

42

Antegrade continence enema for the treatment of neurogenic constipation and fecal incontinence after spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the effects of an antegrade continence enema stoma formed in a paraplegic man with intractable constipation and fecal incontinence.Design: Case report.Setting: Spinal cord injury unit, Veterans Affairs hospital.Participants: Spinal cord injury (SCI) patient with T12 paraplegia.Intervention: Surgical formation of antegrade continence enema stoma.Main Outcome Measures: Time of bowel program care, ease of fecal elimination, safety of procedure.Results:

Claire C. Yang; Steven A. Stiens

2000-01-01

43

Fatal Hypermagnesemia Caused by an Epsom Salt Enema: A Case Illustration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a case of fatal hypermagnesemia caused by an Epsom salt enema. A 7-year-old male presented with cardiac arrest and was found to have a serum magnesium level of 41.2 mg\\/dL (33.9 mEq\\/L) after having received an Epsom salt enema earlier that day. The medical history of Epsom salt, the common causes and symptoms of hypermagnesemia, and the

Nancy M. Tofil; Kim W. Benner; Margaret K. Winkler

2005-01-01

44

Hypertonic saline.  

PubMed

A key feature in the successful resuscitation of dehydrated or endotoxemic ruminants is the total amount of sodium administered. Administration of small volumes of HS and HSD offer major advantages over large volumes of isotonic saline because HS and HSD do not require intravenous catheterization or periodic monitoring, and are therefore suitable for use in the field. Hypertonic saline and HSD exert their beneficial effect by rapidly increasing preload and transiently decreasing afterload. Contrary to early reports, HS and HSD decrease cardiac contractility and do not activate a pulmonary reflex. The osmolality of HS and HSD should be 2400 mOsm/L (7.2% NaCl solution, 8 times normal plasma osmolality). Use of HS and HSD solutions of different osmolality to 2400 mOsm/L should be avoided at all costs, as too low a tonicity removes the main advantages of HS (low cost, decreased infusion time), whereas too high a tonicity may cause rapid vasodilation and decreased cardiac contractility, resulting in death. Rapid administration (> 1 mL/kg-1/min-1) of HS (2400 mOsm/L) should be avoided, as the induced hypotension may be fatal when coupled with a transient decrease in cardiac contractility. For treating dehydrated adult ruminants, HS (2400 mOsm/L, 4-5 mL/kg i.v. over 4-5 minutes) should be administered through the jugular vein and the cow allowed to drink water. This means that 2 L of HS should be administered to adult cattle. HSD should be administered in conjunction with isotonic oral electrolyte solutions to all calves 8% or more dehydrated (eyes recessed > or = 4 mm into the orbit, cervical skin tent duration > 6 seconds) or calves with reduced cardiac output (fetlock temperature < 29 degrees C when housed at 10-24 degrees C). For treating dehydrated calves, HSD (2400 mOsm/L NaCl in 6% dextran-70, 4-5 mL/kg i.v. over 4-5 minutes) should be administered through the jugular vein and the calf allowed to suckle an isotonic oral electrolyte solution. This means that 120-200 mL of HSD of HSD should be administered to a calf. HSD should be routinely administered to severely depressed or comatose calves, as HSD provides the fastest method of resuscitation while rapidly reversing the effects of hyperkalemia. PMID:10573812

Constable, P D

1999-11-01

45

Infection of Aedes albopictus with Chikungunya Virus Rectally Administered by Enema  

PubMed Central

Abstract Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in tropical areas of Africa, Asia, and the islands of the Indian Ocean. In 2007 and 2009, CHIKV was transmitted outside these tropical areas and caused geographically localized infections in people in Italy and France. To temporally and spatially characterize CHIKV infection of Ae. albopictus midguts, a comparison of viral distribution in mosquitoes infected per os or by enema was conducted. Ae. albopictus infected with CHIKV LR 5? green fluorescent protein (GFP) at a titer 106.95 tissue culture infective dose50 (TCID50)/mL, were collected and analyzed for virus dissemination by visualizing GFP expression and titration up to 14 days post inoculation (dpi). Additionally, midguts were dissected from the mosquitoes and imaged by fluorescence microscopy for comparison of midgut infection patterns between orally- and enema-infected mosquitoes. When virus was delivered via enema, the anterior midgut appeared more readily infected by 3?dpi, with increased GFP presentation observed in this same location of the midgut at 7 and 14?dpi when compared to orally-infected mosquitoes. This work demonstrates that enema delivery of virus is a viable technique for use of mosquito infection. Enema injection of mosquitoes may be an alternative to intrathoracic inoculation because the enema delivery more closely models natural infection and neither compromises midgut integrity nor involves a wound that can induce immune responses. Furthermore, unlike intrathoracic delivery, the enema does not bypass midgut barriers to infect tissues artificially in the hemocoel of the mosquito.

Ziegler, Sarah A.; Huang, Yan-Jang Scott; McAuley, Alex J.; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Klowden, Marc J.; Spratt, Heidi; Davey, Robert A.; Higgs, Stephen

2013-01-01

46

[Electrolyte solution with polyethylene glycol to cleanse the colon for colonoscopy or enema].  

PubMed

The efficacy and safety of an electrolyte-polyethylene glycol solution (SE-PEG) for colonic lavage, was compared with standard bowel preparation (SBP) in a randomized blinded study of volunteers and patients undergoing colonoscopy and barium enema examination. Side effects, biochemical and hematologic changes and quality of examinations were monitored. Colonoscopy and barium enema was scored by colonic segment for type of residual stool and percentage of bowel wall visualized. For colonoscopy and barium enema, preparation with SE-PEG allowed better visualization and produced more optimal exams (8 vs 3; p less than 0.03) and (6 vs 4; p = NS) respectively. We conclude that colonic lavage with SE-PEG is an alternative bowel preparation method and is cheaper, more safe and effective than SBP procedure. PMID:2091186

Valdovinos, M A; Male, R; Gil, S; Gallo, S; Tielve, M; Ferral, H

1990-01-01

47

Ultrasound-guided water enema: an alternative method of nonoperative treatment for childhood intussusception.  

PubMed

Ultrasound-guided water enema (USWE) reduction was performed in 115 patients with intussusception, which was diagnosed by ultrasound between April 1988 and August 1992 at Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. The overall rate of successful reduction was 80.9%. The rate was 91.0% for patients with symptoms of < or = 24 hours' duration, and 61.1% for patients with symptoms of more than 24 hours' duration (P < .001). Six patients had recurrence during the study period (recurrence rate, 5.2%). There was no perforation or other complications during and after the water enema reduction. The authors conclude that (1) USWE reduction for childhood intussusception has a higher rate of successful reduction and a lower rate of recurrence than does barium enema and (2) USWE is safe and may be an alternative method in the nonoperative treatment of intussusception. PMID:8014802

Choi, S O; Park, W H; Woo, S K

1994-04-01

48

DETECTION OF SMALL LESIONS OF THE LARGE BOWEL--Barium Enema Versus Double Contrast  

PubMed Central

Roentgen study with the so-called opaque barium enema with some modifications is superior to double contrast study as the primary means of demonstrating polyps in the colon as well as other lesions. The method described combines fluoroscopy, high kilovoltage radiography, fluoroscopically aimed “spot films” taken with compression, suction and evacuation studies. In this way unsuspected as well as suspected polyps can be demonstrated, particularly if attention is directed to the region where polyps are most likely to be found—namely, the distal third of the large bowel. Double contrast study is quite valuable as a supplement to the modified “single contrast” barium enema, but it has not been sufficiently perfected to replace the modified opaque barium enema as a primary procedure. In many instances a combination of methods will, of course, be required.

Robinson, J. Maurice

1954-01-01

49

Use of chelating resins and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of trace and major elements in small volumes of saline water samples.  

PubMed

For some saline environments (e.g. deeply percolating groundwater, interstitial water in marine sediments, water sample collected after several steps of fractionation) the volume of water sample available is limited. A technique is presented which enables simultaneous determination of major and trace elements after preconcentration of only 60 mL sample on chelating resins. Chelex-100 and Chelamine were used for the preconcentration of trace elements (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Sc) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Yb) from saline water before their measurement by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Retention of the major elements (Na, Ca, Mg) by the Chelamine resin was lower than by Chelex; this enabled their direct measurement in the solution after passage through the resin column. For trace metal recoveries both resins yield the same mass balance. Only Chelex resin enabled the quantitative recovery of rare earth elements. The major elements, trace metals and rare earth elements cannot be measured after passage through one resin only. The protocol proposes the initial use of Chelamine for measurement of trace and major elements and then passage the same sample through the Chelex resin for determination of the rare earth elements. The detection limit ranged from 1 to 12 pg mL(-1). At concentrations of 1 ng mL(-1) of trace metals and REE spiked in coastal water the precision for 10 replicates was in the range of 0.3-3.4% (RSD). The accuracy of the method was demonstrated by analyzing two standard reference waters, SLRS-3 and CASS-3. PMID:11569874

Guéguen, C; Dominik, J; Perret, D

2001-08-01

50

Development of In Situ Gelling and Bio Adhesive 5-Fluorouracil Enema  

PubMed Central

In this study, a novel 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) enema with good bio adhesion and temperature sensitivity was developed using in situ gelling technology. The preparation was formulated as a free-flowing liquid before use, while a layer of gel film was quickly formed when administered in the rectum, with a large contact surface area. It also demonstrated good biocompatibility, appropriate gel strength and bio adhesive force with excellent adhesion to rectal mucosa and prolonged action time, allowing more effective drug absorption and diffusion to surrounding tissues. Poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188 were applied to adjust the gelling temperature. With the addition of carbopol and polycarbophil (bio adhesive substances), the solubility of 5-FU and gel strength increased, the temperature of gelation and the surface area of drug contact on mucous epithelium decreased. Decreased adhesive force between the preparation and the mucous membrane of the rectum was demonstrated with improving carbopol and polycarbophil’s concentration. In vitro release demonstrated that 5-FU in situ gelling enema with different bases had a rapid and almost complete drug release. We used an optimized formulation of P407/P188/polycarbophil/5-FU (17/2.5/0.2/1.0) for animal experiments. The result showed that the drug evenly covered the surface of the rectum and there was no leakage in 6 hours. The in situ gelling enema showed significantly higher rectal tissue levels of 5-FU compared with suppository and intravenous administration, indicating that 5-FU could be well absorbed due to the enlarged releasing area, longer retention time and larger amount of dissolved active ingredients. Systemically, 5-FU levels in the enema group were similar to those in the suppository group and significantly lower than the intravenous group. The enema was not associated with morphological damage to rectal tissue. These results suggest that the bio adhesive and in situ gelling enema could be a more effective rectal delivery system of 5-FU.

Wang, Lu-Lu; Zheng, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Shao-Hua; Fang, Xia-Qin

2013-01-01

51

Perforations of the rectosigmoid colon induced by cleansing enema: CT findings in 14 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We report the computed tomographic (CT) features of colorectal perforations caused by cleansing enema.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: We reviewed the medical records and CT studies of all patients with colorectal perforations caused by a cleansing enema.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results: Fourteen patients (10 men, four women; average age = 80 years) were included in the study. The most common presenting symptoms\\u000a were severe abdominal

G. Gayer; R. Zissin; S. Apter; A. Oscadchy; M. Hertz

2002-01-01

52

Salinity Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are the costs of deriving energy from the earth's natural reserves of salt. Argues that, as fossil fuel supplies become more depleted in the future, the environmental advantages of salinity power may prove to warrant its exploitation. (TW)

Schmitt, Walter R.

1987-01-01

53

Successful treatment of ileocolic intussusception with air enema reduction in an adult patient.  

PubMed

Intussusception is a rare condition in adults, representing only 1% of all bowel obstructions. In adult cases, operative explorations are recommended to treat the bowel obstruction and to diagnose underlying diseases. The objective of the current case report was to describe the successful treatment of ileocolic intussusception with air enema reduction in an adult patient. A previously healthy 21-year-old woman had a 20-hour history of colicky abdominal pain and vomiting and was diagnosed as having idiopathic ileocolic intussusception by abdominal computed tomography. We treated the patient with air enema reduction under fluoroscopic guidance instead of an operative procedure. She received oxygen and intravenous midazolam to provide some degree of pain relief. Air was carefully pumped manually into the rectum, and the air pressure was monitored with a manometer. Because of air leakage from the rectum through the void to the outside the body, we continued to provide air to maintain the air pressure between 40 and 60 mm Hg. Three minutes after initiation of the air enema, when the patient experienced increasing abdominal pain and vomiting, the pressure was temporarily increased to greater than 100 mm Hg, and the air reached the terminal ileum. We considered the reduction successful and confirmed it with an abdominal ultrasound examination. We believe that air enema reduction is effective for treating idiopathic intussusception within 24 hours of symptom onset in young, previously healthy adult patients. PMID:24332898

Matsui, Satoshi; Kanemura, Takashi; Yokouchi, Yukako; Kamiichi, Hideo; Kiriu, Nobuaki; Koike, Yuji

2014-05-01

54

Utility of hospital admission after successful enema reduction of ileocolic intussusception  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn-hospital observation of 24 to 48 hours has been the standard practice after successful enema reduction (ER) of ileocolic intussusceptions, but this practice has not been validated. We evaluated retrospectively the safety of short-term emergency department observation.

Ayman Al-Jazaeri; Salam Yazbeck; Denis Filiatrault; Marianne Beaudin; Mohammad Emran; Andreana Bütter

2006-01-01

55

Patient specific doses used to analyse the optimum dose delivery in barium enema examinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exposure and geometrical data for 89 barium enema examination patients were recorded manually in five hospitals in Finland. From the recorded data, organ and primary exit doses as well as effective individual doses were calculated for each patient using the ODS-60 program, which is capable of adjusting the calculation phantom according to a patient's size and sex. The mean

J S LAMPINEN; S RANNIKKO

56

Effects of high-dose furosemide and small-volume hypertonic saline solution infusion in comparison with a high dose of furosemide as bolus in refractory congestive heart failure: Long-term effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Diuretics have been accepted as first-line treatment in refractory congestive heart failure (CHF), but a lack of response to them is a frequent event. A randomized, single-blind study was performed to evaluate the effects of the combination of high-dose furosemide and small-volume hypertonic saline solution (HSS) infusion in the treatment of refractory New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV

Giuseppe Licata; Pietro Di Pasquale; Gaspare Parrinello; Antonietta Cardinale; Angela Scandurra; Giuseppe Follone; Christiano Argano; Antonino Tuttolomondo; Salvatore Paterna

2003-01-01

57

Enema Use Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Behavioral Epidemiologic Study with Implications for HIV/STI Prevention.  

PubMed

Enema use or douching is a risk factor for HIV/STI in men who have sex with men (MSM). However, few studies have explored enema use practices. We examined the frequency of enema use, type of products used, and reasons to use and not to use before and after receptive anal sex in a large sample of MSM (N = 4,992) recruited from 16 U.S. cities. Through online surveys, we examined personal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with enema use. Most (52 %) participants reported having douched at least once and 35 % reported douching within the last 3 months. While most (88 %) reported enema use before receptive anal sex, 28 % douched after receptive anal sex. Most participants (65 %) used water to douche, 24 % added salt, soap, and/or antibacterial products to water, and 30 % reported using commercially available products. Being a man of color, HIV-positive, diagnosed with an STI, identifying as "versatile" in sex, and having more than two unprotected sex partners were significantly associated with recent enema use. Douching behavior appears closely associated with HIV/STI risk. Douching with water may be a concern since it may increase HIV/STI infection by damaging the epithelium. Development and promotion of a non-damaging, non-water based enema specifically for use in anal sex are recommended. In addition, the seemingly contradictory recommendations that water-based lubricant is recommended for anal sex but water-based enemas are dangerous need to be reconciled into a single consistent message. PMID:24346864

Noor, Syed W; Rosser, B R Simon

2014-05-01

58

Flow-through peritoneal dialysis in neonatal enema-induced hyperphosphatemia.  

PubMed

Fleet enemas are hypertonic solutions with an osmotic action and a high concentration of phosphate. When retained in the human body they have a great toxic potential, causing severe hydro-electrolyte disorders in children, especially in newborns. We report the case of a previously healthy 8-day-old newborn who needed neonatal intensive care treatment after the inadvertent administration of an osmotically active hypertonic phosphate enema. Taking into account that phosphate removal by peritoneal dialysis (PD) strongly depends on total dialysate turnover, we chose continuous flow PD (CFPD) as the treatment option, with a successful outcome. Clinical experience with this dialytic modality is limited to a few case reports in pediatric and adult patients. To the best of our knowledge, we report here the first description of CFPD in the setting of acute phosphate nephropathy in the neonatal period. The modality of PD described here has potential as an alternative management option as it is a highly efficient, methodologically simple, and low-cost method without any need for sophisticated equipment. Physicians and parents should be aware of the adverse effects of a hypertonic phosphate enema and should never use these medications in infants and newborns. PMID:20526851

Kostic, Dusan; Rodrigues, Andre Broggin Dutra; Leal, Antônio; Metran, Camila; Nagaiassu, Meire; Watanabe, Andréia; Ceccon, Maria Esther; Tannuri, Uenis; Koch, Vera Hermina

2010-10-01

59

Efficacy and Safety of Gwakhyangjeonggi-San Retention Enema in Normal Rats and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to establish a protocol of retention-enema experiments and evaluate the antihypertensive effect and the safety of Gwakhyangjeonggi-san retention enema. Normal and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were divided into treatment and control groups, respectively. We applied the Gwakhyangjeonggi-san extract by decoction and 0.9% NaCl in each group, estimated the blood pressure and body weight, and performed HPLC analysis. ALT, AST, BUN, and creatinine were examined. The systolic blood pressure within each group in normal rats differed significantly in time effect, and so did the diastolic blood pressure in the treatment group of normal rats. The systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure showed significant differences in group effect in the treatment group of the SHRs. The time effect of the body weight in both groups of normal rats differed significantly, so did group × time and time effects in both groups of SHRs. AST, ALT, BUN, and creatinine showed no significant difference between groups. We concluded that the Gwakhyangjeonggi-san retention enema has a hypotensive effect in normal rats within the regular range of blood pressure, but an antihypertensive effect in SHRs. Also, the intervention is safe and does not affect the liver and kidney functions in normal rats.

Song, Eunyoung; Lee, Euiju; Bu, Yongmin; Lee, Junhee; Shin, Seungwon; Yoo, Junghee; Park, Jaewoo

2013-01-01

60

Accidental embryo irradiation during barium enema examinations: An estimation of absorbed dose  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to investigate the possibility of an embryo to receive a dose of more than 10 cGy, the threshold of malformation induction in embryos reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, during barium enema examinations. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were place in a phantom to calculate the depth-to-skin conversion coefficient needed for dose estimation at the average embryo depth in patients. Barium enema examinations were performed in 20 women of childbearing age with diagnostic problems demanding longer fluoroscopy times. Doses at 6 cm, the average embryo depth, were determined by measurements at the patients` skin followed by dose calculation at the site of interest. The range of doses estimated at embryo depth for patients was 1.9 to 8.2 cGy. The dose always exceeded 5 cGy when fluoroscopy time was longer than 7 minutes. The dose at the embryo depth never exceeded 10 cGy. This study indicates that fluoroscopy time should not exceed 7 minutes in childbearing-age female patients undergoing barium enema examinations. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Damilakis, J.; Perisinakis, K.; Grammatikakis, J. [Univ. Hospital of Iraklion, Crete (Greece)] [and others] [Univ. Hospital of Iraklion, Crete (Greece); and others

1996-04-01

61

Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine following a Single Administration of Coffee Enema versus Oral Coffee Consumption in Healthy Male Subjects.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of caffeine after single administration of a coffee enema versus coffee consumed orally in healthy male subjects. The study design was an open-label, randomized two-phase crossover study. Eleven healthy subjects were randomly assigned either to receive 500?mL of coffee enema for 10 minutes or to consume 180?mL of ready-to-drink coffee beverage. After a washout period of at least 10 days, all the subjects were switched to receive the alternate coffee procedure. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at specific time points until 12 hours after coffee administration in each phase. The mean caffeine content in both the coffee solution prepared for the coffee enema and the ready-to-drink coffee beverage was not statistically different. The C max and AUC of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema were about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally, despite having slightly but statistically faster T max. The t 1/2 of caffeine obtained following both coffee procedures did not statistically differ. In summary, the relative bioavailability of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema was about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally. PMID:23533801

Teekachunhatean, Supanimit; Tosri, Nisanuch; Rojanasthien, Noppamas; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Sangdee, Chaichan

2013-01-01

62

Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine following a Single Administration of Coffee Enema versus Oral Coffee Consumption in Healthy Male Subjects  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of caffeine after single administration of a coffee enema versus coffee consumed orally in healthy male subjects. The study design was an open-label, randomized two-phase crossover study. Eleven healthy subjects were randomly assigned either to receive 500?mL of coffee enema for 10 minutes or to consume 180?mL of ready-to-drink coffee beverage. After a washout period of at least 10 days, all the subjects were switched to receive the alternate coffee procedure. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at specific time points until 12 hours after coffee administration in each phase. The mean caffeine content in both the coffee solution prepared for the coffee enema and the ready-to-drink coffee beverage was not statistically different. The Cmax and AUC of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema were about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally, despite having slightly but statistically faster Tmax. The t1/2 of caffeine obtained following both coffee procedures did not statistically differ. In summary, the relative bioavailability of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema was about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally.

Tosri, Nisanuch; Rojanasthien, Noppamas; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Sangdee, Chaichan

2013-01-01

63

Saline Valley  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Figure 2

These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000 and cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the complementary nature of surface compositional information available as a function of wavelength. This image displays visible and near infrared bands 3, 2, and 1 in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. Figure 1 displays short wavelength infrared bands 4, 6, and 8 as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have diagnostic absorption features, resulting in distinct colors on the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich. Figure 2 displays thermal infrared bands 13, 12 and 10 as RGB. In this wavelength region, variations in quartz content appear as more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple. The image is located at 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2001-01-01

64

Familial colonic varices--a cause of "polyposis" on barium enema.  

PubMed

A 61-year-old woman with diarrhoea had multiple filling defects on a barium enema and was assumed to have multiple colonic polyps. However, colonoscopy showed colonic varices and relatively few true polyps. She bled significantly after polypectomy of a tubular adenoma. There was no evidence to support a diagnosis of portal hypertension or liver disease. A case report of her father's idiopathic colonic varices has previously been reported in this journal in 1985, and we update his subsequent progress and discuss other reports of this rare condition. PMID:18079346

Zaman, L; Bebb, J R; Dunlop, S P; Jobling, J C; Teahon, K

2008-01-01

65

The role of the Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) in the management of myelodeysplatic patients.  

PubMed

Myelodysplasia is a congenital neural tube defect commonly affecting bladder and bowel function. Management of fecal incontinence is paramount to achieve patient independence and self-confidence. When conservative measures fail alternative invasive methods can be successfully applied. The Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) was introduced in the late 1980's to treat spina bifida patients with fecal incontinence refractory to conservative management. Since its introduction, multiple successful variations have been described and its role has expanded. Indeed, the MACE has revolutionized the care of myelodysplastic patients, their bowel function, and ultimately their self image. PMID:21791795

Zamilpa, Ismael; Koyle, Martin A

2009-01-01

66

[New preparation method for barium enema: efficacy and administration of oral intestinal lavage solution with gastrointestinal prokinetic agent].  

PubMed

The modified Brown's method is commonly used in Japan as preparation for barium enema; however, in a few cases, its cleansing effect is not satisfactory even with the use of adequate diet. To develop a new method of preparation for barium enema, we examined the use of an oral intestinal lavage solution (PEG-ELS) with mosapride and compared it with the modified Brown's method. We administered mosapride and PEG-ELS by four different methods. These methods were assessed by the amount of remaining feces and the adequacy of barium coating. Methods in which mosapride was taken separately before and after the intake of PEG-ELS were more effective than the method using mosapride and the modified Brown's method. Lesion detection was almost the same as that with the modified Brown's method. In conclusion, preparation for barium enema using mosapride before and after PEG-ELS intake is more effective than the modified Brown's method. PMID:14994507

Futei, Shinichi; Sugino, Yoshinori; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Imai, Yutaka; Ueno, Fumiaki; Hibi, Toshifumi; Mitsushima, Toru

2004-01-01

67

Single blind, randomised trial of efficacy and acceptability of oral Picolax versus self administered phosphate enema in bowel preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy screening  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the acceptability and efficacy of two methods of self administered bowel preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy screening: a single phosphate enema and a single sachet of Picolax. Design Single blind, randomised trial. Setting Endoscopy units of two general hospitals. Participants 1442 men and women aged 55-64 years who had agreed to be screened by flexible sigmoidoscopy. Main outcome measures Attendance rates, compliance with allocated preparations, adverse effects, quality of bowel preparation, procedure time, and yield of neoplasia. Results Compliance with the enema was higher than with the Picolax (608 (84%) v 566 (79%); difference 6%, 95% confidence interval 2% to 10%). Almost half of those who refused Picolax used an enema at home. Wind, incontinence, and sleep disturbance were more frequent in the Picolax group than the enema group; bottom soreness was more frequent in the enema group. Around 30% (187) found the diet restriction required by Picolax difficult; 78% (471) found the enema easy to administer. The quality of preparation was better with the enema; the proportion of procedures complete to the descending colon was greater and the mean duration of the procedure was shorter. There was no significant difference in polyp detection rates. Conclusion A single phosphate enema self administered around one hour before leaving home is a more acceptable and effective method of preparing the distal bowel for flexible sigmoidoscopy than Picolax.

Atkin, Wendy S; Hart, Andrew; Edwards, Robert; Cook, Claire F; Wardle, Jane; McIntyre, Peter; Aubrey, Roger; Baron, Clare; Sutton, Stephen; Cuzick, Jack; Senapati, Asha; Northover, John M A

2000-01-01

68

A therapeutic barium enema is a practical option to control bleeding from the appendix  

PubMed Central

Background Acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage originating from the appendix is rare and often intractable, because it is almost impossible to approach the bleeding point by endoscopy. We herein describe the first case of bleeding from the appendix, which was successively controlled by a therapeutic barium enema administered into the appendix. Case presentation A 71-year-old male visited our hospital because of melena. He has been receiving an anti-coagulation drug, ticlopidine hydrochloride, for 10 years. By an emergency colonoscopy, a hemorrhage was detected in the appendix, and the lesion responsible for the bleeding was regarded to exist in the appendix. Two hundred milliliters of 50 W/V% barium was sprayed into the orifice of the appendix using a spraying tube. The bleeding could thus be immediately stopped, and a radiological examination revealed the accumulation of barium at the cecum and the orifice of the appendix. The barium accumulation disappeared by the next day, and no obvious anal bleeding was observed. Two weeks after stopping the bleeding from the appendix, an appendectomy was performed to prevent any further refractory hemorrhaging. The patient has had no complaints of any abdominal symptoms or anal bleeding for 10 months. Conclusions A therapeutic barium enema is a useful procedure to control bleeding from the appendix and to avoid emergency surgery, such as partial cecectomy and hemicolectomy.

2013-01-01

69

[A case of the latex-induced anaphylaxis by contact with barium enema catheter].  

PubMed

The subject was a 34-year-old female with asthma and atopic dermatitis who had previously undergone a Cesarean section. In December 1995, the patient had an acute abdominal pain, so she underwent a barium enema examination. During the procedure, severe anaphylactic shock developed, and the examination was stopped. The patient responded well to appropriate emergency therapy, and her symptoms were resolved. However, the woman visited our outpatient clinic because the symptoms of her atopic dermatitis got worse. She indicated that she felt itchy when using rubber gloves. Also, at the age of thirty, she had urticaria and dyspnea after drinking a glass of fruit juice. Subsequently radioallergosorbent testing demonstrated the presence of specific IgEs against latex, banana, kiwi, grapefruit, and avocado. Skin prick tests were positive for banana, grapefruit, avocado, and latex extract at a dilution of 1:1000. A scratch test was positive to an extract of a balloon catheter which included 0.3 microg/g latex proteins by the LEAP method. In conclusion, the patient was diagnosed with an anaphylaxis to the latex contained in a balloon catheter used for the barium enema. PMID:14762330

Fujie, Sayuri; Yagami, Akiko; Suzuki, Kayoko; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Matsunaga, Kayoko

2004-01-01

70

Barium enema  

MedlinePLUS

... be done in a doctor's office or hospital radiology department. It is done after your colon is ... Grainger RG, et al., eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 5th ed. Philadelphia, ...

71

Limitations in the CT Diagnosis of Acute Diverticulitis: Comparison of CT, Contrast Enema, and Pathologic Findings in 16 Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pitfalls in CT diagnosis of acute diverticuhitis were investigated in 16 patients with the disease who had misleading or equivocal CT features. The CT appearance was corre- hated with contrast enemas (13 cases) and with surgical assessment and pathologic evaluation of resected specimens (12 cases). Limitations in the CT diagnosis were related to (1) marked thickening of the colonic wall,

Emil J. Balthazar; Alec Megibow; Roger A. Schinella; Richard Gordon

72

[Antegrade colonic enema is a choice for the treatment of faecal incontinence and constipation].  

PubMed

Faecal incontinence and constipation cannot always be treated successfully by conservative or surgical methods. In these cases regular retrograde colonic enema can reduce the symptoms of the patients and can establish pseudocontinence. The authors present a method of colon cleaning which has been used successfully. The method was introduced in clinical practice by Malone in 1990. The antegrade enema is administered through the appendicostomy. In cases, where the appendectomy was performed earlier, a neoappendix was created from the coecal wall and used for the irrigation of the colon. During procedure the patients injected tap water (300-450 ml) through the (neo-)appendicostomy with a thin catheter. After a short time period this was followed by passing of the stool. The procedure was performed on twelve patients, five female, and seven male patients (mean age: 39.2 years). The indications for the procedure were the following: faecal incontinence induced by denervation of the pelvic floor in three patients, sphincter trauma in two patients and congenital sphincter malformation in two cases. In addition, combined symptoms of faecal incontinence and constipation caused by pelvic floor denervation in three patients. Finally, intractable constipation was the reason in two patients. After irrigation, the stool was passed, but the functional result was rather variable. Eight out of twelve patients were satisfied with the result, two patients reported improvement in the constipation, but it failed in one case. In another case, the appendicostomy could not have been used due to surgical complications. The stricture of the (neo-)appendicostomy was observed in two cases. Significant reflux occurred only in one case. Conclusion: after adequate patient selection this method can be applied with success. PMID:17931998

Lestár, Béla; Polányi, Csaba; Bihari, László; Garcia, Jose; Vörös, Attila

2007-08-01

73

MR colonography without bowel cleansing or water enema: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The value of screening for colorectal cancer has been well demonstrated, and national programmes are being implemented. At present the primary imaging modality is colonoscopy, which has an associated morbidity and mortality. CT colonography (CTC) has been proposed as an alternative, but this is associated with radiation exposure and generally requires bowel preparation. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of MR colonography (MRC) without bowel preparation or water enema for the detection of colorectal neoplasia. Methods Patients scheduled for colonoscopy were invited to participate in the study; informed consent was obtained. MRC (with oral barium faecal tagging and colonic air distension) was performed 1–2 weeks before the colonoscopy. Axial T2 weighted single-shot fast spin-echo (prone and supine) and axial T1 weighted fast spoiled gradient-recalled (pre- and post-iv gadolinium) supine MRI sequences were performed. The examinations were reported by two gastrointestinal radiologists by consensus. Colonoscopy following standard bowel preparation was performed by a single endoscopist blinded to the MRC results. Significant lesions were defined as polyps or masses >10 mm in diameter. Results 29 patients were studied. Colonoscopy revealed 25 mass lesions in 13 patients. MRC correctly identified four of the nine lesions >10 mm in diameter (sensitivity 44%; specificity 100%). Although specificity remained high for smaller lesions, sensitivity was poor. Conclusion This pilot study has demonstrated the feasibility of performing MRC without bowel preparation or water enema. This would seem to be a promising modality for colorectal cancer screening. Larger studies are required to determine the accuracy of this modality for the detection of colorectal neoplasia.

Sambrook, A; Mcateer, D; Yule, S; Phull, P

2012-01-01

74

Soil Salinity Detection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Growth forms and herbage biomass production varied considerably among saline and nonsaline soil range sites in Starr County. Grasses on saline soil sites were shallow-rooted and short whereas on...

C. L. Wiegand A. J. Richardson H. W. Gausman R. Leamer A. H. Gerbermann

1975-01-01

75

Measuring Salinity by Conductivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines procedures for constructing an instrument which uses an electrode and calibration methods to measure the salinity of waters in environments close to and affected by a saline estuary. (Author/DC)

Lapworth, C. J.

1981-01-01

76

SALINITY AND PLANT TOLERANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION Soil salinity is a measure of the total amount of soluble salt in soil. As salinity levels increase, plants extract water less easily from soil, aggravating water stress conditions. High soil salinity can also cause nutrient imbalances, result in the accumulation of elements toxic to plants, and reduce water infiltration if the level of one salt element—sodium—is high. In

Jan Kotuby-Amacher; Rich Koenig; Boyd Kitchen

77

Hypertonic saline solution reduces the inflammatory response in endotoxemic rats  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Volume replacement in septic patients improves hemodynamic stability. This effect can reduce the inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 7.5% hypertonic saline solution versus 0.9% normal saline solution for volume replacement during an inflammatory response in endotoxemic rats. METHODS: We measured cytokines (serum and gut), nitrite, and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) as indicators of oxidative stress in the gut. Rats were divided into four groups: control group (C) that did not receive lipopolysaccharide; lipopolysaccharide injection without treatment (LPS); lipopolysaccharide injection with saline treatment (LPS +S); and lipopolysaccharide injection with hypertonic saline treatment (LPS +H). Serum and intestine were collected. Measurements were taken at 1.5, 8, and 24 h after lipopolysaccharide administration. RESULTS: Of the four groups, the LPS +H group had the highest survival rate. Hypertonic saline solution treatment led to lower levels of IL-6, IL-10, nitric oxide, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances compared to 0.9% normal saline. In addition, hypertonic saline treatment resulted in a lower mortality compared to 0.9% normal saline treatment in endotoxemic rats. Volume replacement reduced levels of inflammatory mediators in the plasma and gut. CONCLUSION: Hypertonic saline treatment reduced mortality and lowered levels of inflammatory mediators in endotoxemic rats. Hypertonic saline also has the advantage of requiring less volume replacement.

Theobaldo, Mariana Cardillo; Barbeiro, Hermes Vieira; Barbeiro, Denise Frediani; Petroni, Ricardo; Soriano, Francisco Garcia

2012-01-01

78

[The diagnostic significance of the small bowel enema in lesions of the small intestine requiring surgery].  

PubMed

Given its anatomical location the small intestine is the section of the digestive tract most inaccessible to objective clinical and instrumental examination. For this reason, traditional investigation methods provide inadequate data. In the barium meal X-ray, images are superimposed and the barium excessively fragmented due to the tortuosity and length of the intestinal loop. Access problems limit the value of endoscopy. The indications to angiography are fairly restrictive. Ultrasound and CT scans provide no conclusive evidence in this area. The so-called Small Bowel Enema technique based on the direct infusion of an opaque contrast medium after duodenal intubation remains the only way to obtain images with a satisfactory diagnostic value and should be the method of choice in examinations of the small intestine. Introduced in the twenties, the value of the technique was long questioned, mainly because it was difficult to perform correctly and it is only quite recently that several decisive technological innovations have made it highly reliable. The present paper describes its use on a series of patients with suspected pathologies of the small intestine requiring surgical treatment. The aim is to specify the correct indications to this technique as well as its limitations with a view to promoting its appropriate use in routine practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The study covers 42 small bowel enemas performed on 29 male and 13 female patients aged 12-85 years. Indications to the enema included chronic abdominal pain in 28.5%, chronic diarrhea in 21.4%, pain+diarrhea in 14%, subocclusion in 16.5%, faecal blood in 11.9%, abdominal pain+diarrhea+intestinal haemorrhage in 4.7%, anaemia in 2.4%. We adopted the Sellink technique involving intubation with a French 14 Bilbao-Dotter probe and the infusion of 200-350 cc barium sulphate in a 90%-70% P/V concentration at a speed of 100 ml/min, followed by the infusion of 1000-1500 cc 0.5-1% methylcellulose in a 50-50 mixture with water for double contrast purposes. Mean duration of procedure 35-40 mins. RESULTS. We found lesions of the small intestine in 18 cases or 45% (true positives) and no alterations in 18 or 42.8% (true negatives). In 3 cases (7%) the examination was inconclusive. One false positive and one false negative complete the series, making a diagnostic accuracy of 89.1%. In 23.8% of the total series the diagnosis of Crohn's disease was confirmed; cancerous lesions were found in 11.9% and adhesions following earlier surgery in 9.7%. Surgery confirmed this diagnosis in 10 cases (5 tumours, 3 stenoses caused by adhesion fragments, 2 Crohn's disease) and disproved it in one case. Biopsy was used, for objective confirmation in 5 cases (2 Crohn's disease, 3 negatives). In the other cases reliance was placed on clinical course and the patients' response to treatment. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS. Examination of our results reveals that in most clinical cases the small bowel enema was used to confirm suspected Crohn's disease (31 cases out of 42) and with a very high degree of diagnostic accuracy (96.7%). In line with data in the literature we decided to base the indication to this examination on certain primary symptoms such as chronic abdominal pain, diarrhea, blood in the faeces, whether in isolation or in combination. On this rather general basis the diagnosis of Crohn's disease concerned only 23.8% of the cases studied, an incidence that rose dramatically in the few cases in which the indications were made more specific. We therefore conclude that the adoption of more restrictive criteria will improve the cost-benefit ratio for this test. Another major pathology in which small bowel enema possesses a high diagnostic value is partial obstruction of the small intestine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7970036

Racalbuto, A; Trombatore, G; Greco, L; Gresta, S; De Luca, B; Scilletta, B; Puleo, S; Licata, A

1994-05-01

79

Effects of Groundwater Withdrawal on Borehole Flow and Salinity Measured in Deep Monitor Wells in Hawaii: Implications for Groundwater Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vertical salinity profiles measured in deep monitor wells commonly are used to estimate the volume of freshwater in aquifers in Hawaii. Water-resource managers use information from salinity profiles to monitor changes in the freshwater volume over time an...

K. Rotzoll

2010-01-01

80

Colonic Cleansing for Radiographic Detection of Neoplasia: Efficacy of the Magnesium Citrate-Castor Oil-Cleansing Enema  

Microsoft Academic Search

of the 500 cases. In an additional 1.4% of patients, fecal residue was limited to small amounts in the cecum or ascending colon. In only two cases (0.4%) did fecal material prevent an examination that was suitable for detection of large polypoid or circumfer- ential lesions. The single- and double-contrast barium enemas detected 80% and 91%, respectively, of polypoid lesions

David W. Gelfand; Vu Men Chen; David J. Ott

81

Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

2013-01-01

82

The efficacy of intraoperative methylene blue enemas to assess the integrity of a colonic anastomosis  

PubMed Central

Background Intraoperative testing of colonic anastomoses is routine in assuring anastamotic integrity. We sought to determine the efficacy of the methylene blue enema (MBE) as an intraoperative test for anastomotic leaks. Methods This study is a retrospective review of consecutive colonic operations performed from January 2001 to December 2004 in a community hospital setting by a general surgical group that uses the MBE exclusively. All operations featuring a colonic anastomosis and an intraoperative MBE were studied (n = 229). Intraoperative MBE via a rectal tube was used as the diagnostic test. Intraoperative leak (IOL) rate and clinically significant postoperative leak (POL) rate were the outcome measures. Results The IOL rate was 4.5% for proximal anastomoses, 8% for distal anastomoses, and 7% of total anastomoses. The POL rate was 3% of anastomosis. There were no other testing methods employed. There were no POLs in cases where an IOL led to concomitant intraoperative repair. POL rate for proximal anastomosis was 0.8% and for distal 3%, for stapled 1% and hand sewn 5%. Conclusion MBE IOL rate is comparable to published IOL rates for other methods of intraoperative testing. The MBE can be applied to proximal and distal anastomosis. Patients who were found to have an IOL, and underwent immediate repair, did not develop a clinical POL.

Smith, Stanton; McGeehin, William; Kozol, Robert A; Giles, David

2007-01-01

83

An experimental study to evaluate the pharmacokinetic aspect of Lekhana Basti (Emaciating/ Desiccating Medicated Enema).  

PubMed

Basti therapy is used widely for treatment of various diseases in the field of Ayurveda with several proven clinical applications, however; the exact mechanism through which the benefits are obtained are yet to be ascertained in the light of the contemporary developments in clinical science. It is also not clear that when administered Basti the active principles in the formulation gain entry in to the systemic circulation or not. The present study was planned to acquire some preliminary data with regards to the absorption of phytochemical constituents of the formulations when administered in the form of Basti. Gallic acid was used as marker compound and it's absorption in systemic circulation was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography. Gallic acid present in Lekhana Basti (Emaciating/ Desiccating Medicated Enema) was found to get absorbed in to systemic circulation. Maximum concentration in serum was seen in the animal which received Lekhana Basti with Prakshepa Dravya ( Catalytic Adjuvant) in comparison to animal which received Lekhana Basti without Prakshepa Dravya. Area under curve in chromatogram was also more in animal which received Lekhana Basti with Prakshepa Dravya. From primary evidence created by HPLC study it can be said that, phytochemicals of the Basti formulation do get absorbed in systemic circulation. PMID:23284203

Auti, Swapnil S; Ashok, B K; Thakar, Anup B; Shukla, V J; Ravishankar, B

2011-10-01

84

Observing Salinity Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part 1: Students measure the salinity of samples using a refractometer, and consider the units and density of these values. Part 2: Students apply concepts and reinforce what they've learned about salinity and the water cycle to interpret a salinity contour map of a transect of the Pacific Ocean using WOCE data. Another goal is to familiarize students with using contour graphs of ocean data, in general.

Jaeger, Stephanie

85

Water Body Salinities I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate the different salinity levels of oceans, rivers and estuaries. Learners then use experimentation to determine which sample is the best model of each type of natural water source. The first test, for conductivity, shows learners that a water sample with the right salinity can even be used to light a bulb or ring an electric buzzer. The second test, for evaporation, shows how rate of evaporation is affected by salinity level. This activity can be followed by Water Body Salinities II from the same resource. Includes background material.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

86

A review of anaerobic treatment of saline wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large volumes of saline (>2% w\\/v NaCl) wastewaters are discharged from many industries; e.g. seafood processing, textile dyeing, oil and gas production, tanneries and drinking water treatment processes. Although anaerobic treatment would be the most cost?effective and sustainable technology for the treatment of many of these saline wastewaters, the salinity is considered to be inhibitory to anaerobic biological treatment processes.

Yeyuan Xiao; Deborah J. Roberts

2010-01-01

87

Tomato and salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of salinity on tomato plant growth and fruit production, the cultural techniques which can be applied to alleviate the deleterious effects of salt, and the possibilities of breeding salt- tolerant tomatoes are reviewed. Salinity reduces tomato seed germination and lengthens the time needed for germination to such an extent that the establishment of a competitive crop by direct

Jesus Cuartero; Rafael Fernandez-Munoz; Estacion Experimental La Mayora

1999-01-01

88

Measuring soil salinity.  

PubMed

Soil salinity is a form of land degradation in which salts accumulate in the soil profile to an extent that plant growth or infrastructure are negatively affected. A range of both field and laboratory procedures exist for measuring soil salinity. In the field, soil salinity is usually inferred from apparent electrical conductivity (EC(a)) using a range of devices, depending on the required depth of analysis, or size of the survey area. Field measurements of EC(a) require calibration to the actual salt content by laboratory analysis. In the laboratory, soil salinity is usually assessed by determining either the total soluble salts by evaporation of a soil water extract (TSS), or by determining the electrical conductivity (EC) of either a 1:5 distilled water:soil dilution, or a saturated paste extract. Although procedures for measuring soil salinity appear relatively straightforward, differences in methodology have considerable influence on measured values and interpretation of results. PMID:22895776

Hardie, Marcus; Doyle, Richard

2012-01-01

89

Can nutritional supplements and rectal enema be used as bowel cleansing for colonoscopy? - results of a randomized controlled pilot study.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. Currently available preparations for colonoscopy have low tolerability and may cause fluid and electrolyte shifts. An alternative method of bowel cleansing is required. Material and methods. Preparation of the gut using oral nutritional supplements (ONS) and rectal enema was tested as an alternative method of bowel cleansing. During 2008-2012, patients were randomized to oral nutritional supplements (n = 27) for 5 days and rectal enema or polyethylene glycol (PEG) (n = 23) prior to colonoscopy. Blinded endoscopists rated the degree of bowel cleansing according to the Ottawa bowel preparation scale (OBS) (primary outcome). Tolerability of either preparation was also assessed (ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier no: NCT00123456). Results. Due to a high rate of bowel cleansing failure among patients receiving ONS, the study was interrupted prematurely. Colonoscopies were incomplete due to stools in 6 of 27 patients in the ONS group compared to 1 of 23 in the PEG group (ns). The mean total OBS were 8.3 ± 3.3 and 5.3 ± 2.8, respectively (p = 0.002). Four patients (15%) in the ONS group and eight patients (35%) receiving PEG had an OBS score ?4 (good preparation) (ns). ONS was better tolerated than PEG with more patients reporting acceptable taste (27 of 27 [100%] vs. 15 of 23 [65%], p = 0.001), and fewer reporting difficulties with the intake (0 of 27 [0%] vs. 10 of 23 [43%], p < 0.001) and nausea (5 of 27 [19%] vs. 13 of 23 [57%], p < 0.008). Conclusions. For routine use, ONS with enema instead of traditional preparation for colonoscopy with PEG cannot be generally recommended. PMID:24495046

Gustafsson, Ulf O; Segelman, Josefin; Ljungqvist, Olle; Thorell, Anders; Nygren, Jonas

2014-04-01

90

Effect of Majja Basti (therapeutic enema) and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) in the management of Osteoporosis (Asthi-Majjakshaya)  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder that affects entire skeleton, which is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of the skeleton, leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk. In Ayurveda, it can be correlated with Asthi-Majjakshaya. Basti (therapeutic enema) is the prime therapy for Asthi related diseases and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) is the drug which is being used for strengthening of bone by traditional Vaidya since long. It has been selected for oral administration. In clinical trial, 12 patients treated with Majja Basti along with Asthi Shrinkhala pulp capsules and results are very encouraging.

Gupta, Ajay K.; Shah, Nehal; Thakar, A. B.

2012-01-01

91

Effect of Majja Basti (therapeutic enema) and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) in the management of Osteoporosis (Asthi-Majjakshaya).  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder that affects entire skeleton, which is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of the skeleton, leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk. In Ayurveda, it can be correlated with Asthi-Majjakshaya. Basti (therapeutic enema) is the prime therapy for Asthi related diseases and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) is the drug which is being used for strengthening of bone by traditional Vaidya since long. It has been selected for oral administration. In clinical trial, 12 patients treated with Majja Basti along with Asthi Shrinkhala pulp capsules and results are very encouraging. PMID:23049194

Gupta, Ajay K; Shah, Nehal; Thakar, A B

2012-01-01

92

Salinity Simulation with WRAP.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP) modeling system is documented by basic reference and users manuals and supplemental manuals covering specific features, including this manual which deals specifically with salinity simulation capabilities. This Sal...

R. A. Wurbs

2009-01-01

93

Sea Surface Salinity  

NASA Video Gallery

The heat of the sun also forces evaporation at the ocean's surface, which puts water vapor into the atmosphere but leaves minerals and salts behind, keeping the ocean salty. The salinity of the oce...

94

Bioconversion of Saline Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Saline water conversion has not yet become economically feasible for municipal, industrial or agricultural use. This report presents results from experiments for algal uptake and excretion of sodium as a possible desalting technique. Environmental changes...

J. D. Isbister G. V. Levin

1978-01-01

95

Pattern and distribution of colonic diverticulosis: Analysis of 2877 barium enemas in Thailand  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the pattern and distribution of colonic diverticulosis in Thai adults. METHODS: A review of the computerized radiology database for double contrast barium enema (DCBE) in Thai adults was performed at the Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. Incomplete studies and DCBE examinations performed in non-Thai individuals were excluded. The pattern and distribution of colonic diverticulosis detected during DCBE studies from June 2009 to October 2011 were determined. The occurrence of solitary cecal diverticulum, rectal diverticulum and giant diverticulum were reported. Factors influencing the presence of colonic diverticulosis were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 2877 suitable DCBE examinations were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age of patients was 59.8 ± 14.7 years. Of these patients, 1778 (61.8%) were female and 700 (24.3%) were asymptomatic. Colonic diverticulosis was identified in 820 patients (28.5%). Right-sided diverticulosis (641 cases; 22.3%) was more frequently reported than left-sided diverticulosis (383 cases; 13.3%). Pancolonic diverticulosis was found in 98 cases (3.4%). The occurrence of solitary cecal diverticulum, rectal diverticulum and giant diverticulum were 1.5% (42 cases), 0.4% (12 cases), and 0.03% (1 case), respectively. There was no significant difference in the overall occurrence of colonic diverticulosis between male and female patients (28.3% vs 28.6%, P = 0.85). DCBE examinations performed in patients with some gastrointestinal symptoms revealed the frequent occurrence of colonic diverticulosis compared with those performed in asymptomatic individuals (29.5% vs 25.3%, P = 0.03). Change in bowel habit was strongly associated with the presence of diverticulosis (a relative risk of 1.39; P = 0.005). The presence of diverticulosis was not correlated with age in symptomatic patients or asymptomatic individuals (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Colonic diverticulosis was identified in 28.5% of DCBE examinations in Thai adults. There was no association between the presence of diverticulosis and gender or age.

Lohsiriwat, Varut; Suthikeeree, Wanwarang

2013-01-01

96

Short chain fatty acid distributions of enema samples from a sigmoidoscopy population: an association of high acetate and low butyrate ratios with adenomatous polyps and colon cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the distribution of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in enema samples taken from subjects before sigmoidoscopy as an indicator of possible microbial community differences between subjects subsequently diagnosed as normal or having colonic disorders. The major SCFA in all groups were acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. A significantly higher ratio of acetate to total SCFA and lower ratio

G A Weaver; J A Krause; T L Miller; M J Wolin

1988-01-01

97

TOXICITY STUDIES ON TANNIC ACID ADMINISTERED BY ENEMA* II. THE COLONIC ABSORPTION AND INTRAPERITONEAL TOXICITY OF TANNIC ACID AND ITS HYDROLYTIC PRODUCTS IN RATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ration for roentgenologic examination or after incorporation in the barium enema. Since gastrointestinal absorption must have preceded hepatotoxicity, the condi- tions necessary for absorption are of inter- est. Unfortunately, absorption from the gastrointestinal tract has been poorly de- fined, largely due to the lack of adequate methods to detect intact tannic acid in biologic fluids and to distinguish it from

PHILLIP A. HARRIS; F. FRANK ZBORALSKE; OSCAR N. RAMBO; ALEXANDER R. MARGULIS; SIDNEY RIEGELMAN

98

Salinity Driven Oceanographic Upwelling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean suc...

D. H. Johnson

1984-01-01

99

Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water

Johnson; David H

1986-01-01

100

A novel alternative for renal replacement therapy: 2-year successful colonic dialysis via a Malone antegrade continent enema stoma.  

PubMed

This study is a case report of home-based colonic dialysis (CD) for treating end-stage renal disease in a 20-year-old woman. She had a history of Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) for treating neuropathic bowel at the age of 11 years. The patient refused any type of renal replacement therapy. However, she agreed to CD through the MACE stoma by changing the colonic irrigation solution to the peritoneal dialysis solution. The patient was discharged with a plasma creatinine (Cr) level of 1.7 mg/dL and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level of 8 mg/dL. She has continued CD on a regular basis at home. The patient's serum Cr and BUN has remained in the steady low state during 24 months of follow-up (mean Cr level = 2.8 mg/dL and mean BUN level = 10.7 mg/dL). PMID:24345419

Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Zeinoddini, Atefeh; Heidari, Reza; NaserHodjjati, Haleh; Tourchi, Ali

2014-06-01

101

Water Body Salinities II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discuss the different salinities of oceans, rivers and estuaries. Learners then use experimentation to determine which sample is the best model of each type of natural water source. For the first test, learners make a hydrometer and use it to measure the density of the liquid samples. In the second test, learners freeze the water samples and examine them at certain time intervals to check degree of freezing, texture of the frozen samples, and other specifics that vary according to the amount of salt in the water. This activity can follow the Water Salinities I activity and/or be used in conjunction with the Estuaries activity, both of which can be found on SMILE.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

102

Salinity patterns of Florida Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salinity of Florida Bay has undergone dramatic changes over the past century. Salinity values reached their most extreme, up to 70, in the late 1980s, concurrent with ecological changes in Florida Bay including a mass seagrass die-off. In this study, surface salinity was measured at approximately monthly intervals between 1998 and 2004. The 7-year data set was analyzed to

Christopher R. Kelble; Elizabeth M. Johns; William K. Nuttle; Thomas N. Lee; Ryan H. Smith; Peter B. Ortner

2007-01-01

103

Salinity, Growth and Phytohormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity reduces the ability of plants to take up water, and this quickly causes reductions in the growth rate, along with\\u000a a suite of effects identical to those caused by water stress. Later, there may be a salt-specific and additional effect on\\u000a growth: if excessive amounts of salt enter the plant they will eventually rise to toxic levels in the

Rana Munns

104

Chloride and Salinity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-07-15

105

Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling  

DOEpatents

The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water that is cold, nutrient rich and relatively fresh in comparison to the surface water which is relatively warm, relatively nutrient deficient and relatively saline. A plurality of elongated flow segregating tubes are disposed in the main duct and extend from the upper cover plate beyond the lower cover plate into a lower manifold plate. The lower manifold plate is spaced from the lower cover plate to define a deep water fluid flow path to the interior space of the main duct. Spacer tubes extend from the upper cover plate and communicate with the interior space of the main duct. The spacer tubes are received in an upper manifold plate spaced from the upper cover plate to define a surface water fluid flow path into the flow segregating tubes. A surface water-deep water counterflow is thus established with deep water flowing upwardly through the main duct interior for discharge beyond the upper manifold plate while surface water flows downwardly through the flow segregating tubes for discharge below the lower manifold plate. During such counterflow heat is transferred from the downflowing warm water to the upflowing cold water. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep water and the surface water due to their differences in salinity. The upwelling of nutrient rich deep water is used for marifarming by fertilizing the nutrient deficient surface water. 1 fig.

Johnson, D.H.

1984-08-30

106

Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online in 2009, the Aquarius instrument will measure sea surface salinity. Site provides background information about salinity, salinity lesson plans, and salinity data and tools. Activities include relating salt to density, conductivity, buoyancy, and understanding the effect of the water cycle on salinity. View figures of sea surface salinity and temperature as they change from month to month and more.

107

Flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy and double-contrast barium-enema examination in the identification of adenomas and carcinoma of the colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the accuracy of the flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscope, 227 consecutive patients (mean age 61.813 years) requiring\\u000a investigation of colonic symptoms were evaluated using rigid and flexible sigmoidoscopy (PAF and KDV) and double-contrast\\u000a barium enema (SSA). Patients with equivocal findings or adenomatous polyps underwent colonoscopy (TWB). Thirty-four patients\\u000a had carcinoma and 50 patients had one or more adenomatous polyps (>5mm).

P. A. Farands; K. D. Vellacott; S. S. Amar; T. W. Balfour; J. D. Hardcastle; M. Chir

1983-01-01

108

Radiofrequency ablation during continuous saline infusion can extend ablation margins  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine whether fluid injection during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) can increase the coagulation area. METHODS: Bovine liver (1-2 kg) was placed on an aluminum tray with a return electrode affixed to the base, and the liver was punctured by an expandable electrode. During RFA, 5% glucose; 50% glucose; or saline fluid was infused continuously at a rate of 1.0 mL/min through the infusion line connected to the infusion port. The area and volume of the thermocoagulated region of bovine liver were determined after RFA. The Joule heat generated was determined from the temporal change in output during the RFA experiment. RESULTS: No liquid infusion was 17.3 ± 1.6 mL, similar to the volume of a 3-cm diameter sphere (14.1 mL). Mean thermocoagulated volume was significantly larger with continuous infusion of saline (29.3 ± 3.3 mL) than with 5% glucose (21.4 ± 2.2 mL), 50% glucose (16.5 ± 0.9 mL) or no liquid infusion (17.3 ± 1.6 mL). The ablated volume for RFA with saline was approximately 1.7-times greater than for RFA with no liquid infusion, representing a significant difference between these two conditions. Total Joule heat generated during RFA was highest with saline, and lowest with 50% glucose. CONCLUSION: RFA with continuous saline infusion achieves a large ablation zone, and may help inhibit local recurrence by obtaining sufficient ablation margins. RFA during continuous saline infusion can extend ablation margins, and may be prevent local recurrence.

Ishikawa, Toru; Kubota, Tomoyuki; Horigome, Ryoko; Kimura, Naruhiro; Honda, Hiroki; Iwanaga, Akito; Seki, Keiichi; Honma, Terasu; Yoshida, Toshiaki

2013-01-01

109

Low-Salinity Resistance of Juvenile Cobias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile cobias Rachycentron canadum were exposed to decreasing salinity (?1‰ per day) in a series of five experiments to assess their low-salinity resistance. All fish survived for 24 h at a salinity of 2‰, but 73% died within 24 h of a reduction to 1‰ salinity. Plasma osmolality decreased significantly with decreasing salinity. Fish held for 7 d at 2,

K. Burkey; S. P. Young; T. I. J. Smith; J. R. Tomasso

2007-01-01

110

The Mediterranean salinity crisis  

SciTech Connect

That the Mediterranean Sea underwent a salinity crisis during the Miocene (Messinian) is proven by the 1970 JOIDES deep sea drilling expedition. Subsequent work by ocean drilling and by studies on land have recorded the history of this crisis. Based upon the deep desiccated-basin model, the use of event-stratigraphy, calibrated by strontium-isotope dating and magnetostratigraphy, has enabled them to decipher the following events between 6.0 and 5.1 Ma: (1) deposition of marine diatom-rich sediments in a partially restricted basin, (2) first desiccation of the Mediterranean when Calcare di base was deposited at a time of isolation from the Atlantic because of a glacial eustatic drop of sea level, (3) influx of marine waters through southern Spanish basins to furnish brines for the deposition of the main salt, (4) Intra-Messinian desiccation, as evidenced by the erosional unconformity above the lower evaporite, (5) Intra-Messinian denudation, when reefs grew on Cyprus and marine sediments were deposited in basins, (6) frequency isolations due to oscillating sea level, when the upper evaporite was deposited, (7) Lago mare, formation of freshwater and brackish lakes due to influx of Paratethys water, (8) opening of the Gibraltar and Pliocene inundation of the Mediterranean.

Hsue, K.J.

1988-08-01

111

ConcepTest: Ocean Salinity #2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How would salinity of the oceans vary if the oceans were twice as deep as present and held approximately twice as much water? a. Salinity would be less than present b. Salinity would be greater than present c. ...

112

Salinity Effects on Leaf Anatomy  

PubMed Central

Increasing salinity led to substantially higher ratios of mesophyll surface area to leaf area (Ames/A) for Phaseolus vulgaris and Gossypium hirsutum and a smaller increase for Atriplex patula, a salt-tolerant species. The increase in internal surface for CO2 absorption did not lead to higher CO2 uptake rates, since the CO2 resistance expressed on the basis of mesophyll cell wall area (rcell) increased even more with salinity. The differences among species in the sensitivity of photosynthesis to salinity in part reflect the different Ames/A and rcell responses.

Longstreth, David J.; Nobel, Park S.

1979-01-01

113

Electrical Properties of Saline Ice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are presented of a study of the (normalized) complex dielectric coefficient, and related parameters, of unidirectionally frozen artificial sea ice having salinities from 4 to 20%. The frequency dispersion was investigated between 20 Hz and 100 MHz...

J. R. Addison

1968-01-01

114

Validation of dilution of plasma samples with phosphate buffered saline to eliminate the problem of small volumes associated with children infected with HIV-1 for viral load testing using Cobas AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test, version 2.0 (CAP CTM HIV v2.0).  

PubMed

The sample requirement of 1 mL for the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test, version 2.0 (CAP CTM HIV v2.0) limits its utility in measuring plasma HIV-1 RNA levels for small volume samples from children infected with HIV-1. Viral load monitoring is the standard of care for HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Botswana. The study aimed to validate the dilution of small volume samples with phosphate buffered saline (1× PBS) when quantifying HIV-1 RNA in patient plasma. HIV RNA concentrations were determined in undiluted and diluted pairs of samples comprising panels of quality assessment standards (n=52) as well as patient samples (n=325). There was strong correlation (R(2)) of 0.98 and 0.95 within the dynamic range of the CAP CTM HIV v2.0 test between undiluted and diluted samples from quality assessment standards and patients, respectively. The difference between viral load measurements of diluted and undiluted pairs of quality assessment standards and patient samples using the Altman-Bland test showed that the 95% limits of agreement were between -0.40 Log 10 and 0.49 Log 10. This difference was within the 0.5 Log 10 which is generally considered as normal assay variation of plasma RNA levels. Dilution of samples with 1× PBS produced comparable viral load measurements to undiluted samples. PMID:24025342

Mine, Madisa; Nkoane, Tapologo; Sebetso, Gaseene; Sakyi, Bright; Makhaola, Kgomotso; Gaolathe, Tendani

2013-12-01

115

Soutth Atlantic Circulation and Salinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an update of the "South Atlantic Circulation and Salinity" project which is a U.S/Argentina partnership team that seeks to use Aquarius sea surface salinity data to improve our understanding of the South Atlantic circulation, including its linkages to interocean exchanges, its response to hydrological cycles and its role in climate variability. Our research concerns aspects of both the large-scale circulation and the shelf-deep ocean exchanges.

Matano, R.; Strub, P. T.; Chao, Y.; Piola, A. R.; Palma, E. D.; Saraceno, M.

2012-12-01

116

Salinity of the Delaware Estuary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this investigation was to obtain data on and study the factors affecting the salinity of the Delaware River from Philadelphia, Pa., to the Appoquinimink River, Del. The general chemical quality of water in the estuary is described, including changes in salinity in the river cross section and profile, diurnal and seasonal changes, and the effects of rainfall, sea level, and winds on salinity. Relationships are established of the concentrations of chloride and dissolved solids to specific conductance. In addition to chloride profiles and isochlor plots, time series are plotted for salinity or some quantity representing salinity, fresh-water discharge, mean river level, and mean sea level. The two major variables which appear to have the greatest effect on the salinity of the estuary are the fresh-water flow of the river and sea level. The most favorable combination of these variables for salt-water encroachment occurs from August to early October and the least favorable combination occurs between December and May.

Cohen, Bernard; McCarthy, Leo Thomas.

1962-01-01

117

Different effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolates from saline or non-saline soil on salinity tolerance of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to test the hypothesis that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from saline soil have a higher capacity to alleviate the saline stress in plants than that of fungi from non-saline soil, cotton plants growth at four NaCl levels (0–3g\\/kg) under greenhouse condition were inoculated with two Glomus mosseae isolates collected from non-saline soil (GM1) and saline soil (GM2). The results

C. Y Tian; G Feng; X. L Li; F. S Zhang

2004-01-01

118

Salinity Management in the Rio Grande Bosque  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses management options for salinity control in the Rio Grande Bosque. First, salt sources are identified and quantified. Capillary rise of ground water is the most important cause for soil salinization in the bosque. Next, a riparian salt balance is presented to explain the different mechanisms for soil salinization. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of three salinity control

Jan M. H. Hendrickx; Bruce J. Harrison; Jelle Beekma; Graciela Rodriguez-Marin

1999-01-01

119

Global Surface Salinity Variability: Modal Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission of the European Space Agency will provide global surface salinity (SSS) observations starting in 2009. The development and validation of satellite SSS products requires an adequate understanding of the salinity variability at global scales. In this study, a preliminary characterization of the surface salinity variability for the global ocean using both observed

A. L. Aretxabaleta; J. Gourrion; J. Ballabrera; B. Mourre

2009-01-01

120

Salinity requirements of a marine Thiobacillus intermedius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thiobacillus intermedius was isolated from a salt marsh sediment with an interstitial water salinity of 30‰. This bacterium was cultured in a chemostat for 9 months. The optimum salinity for CO2 fixation by this Thiobacillus was 10‰, much less than the salinity of its natural environment. Respiration of cultures increased at high salinities and the pathway of thiosulfate oxidation was

David W. Smith; Susan F. Finazzo

1981-01-01

121

Microdetermination of Insect Blood Volume  

Microsoft Academic Search

METHODS of estimating insect blood volume depend either on haemocyte counts before and after an injection of a measured volume of saline or on the dilution of amaranth dye by the haemolymph1. The latter method has been recommended for repeatable and consistent results with locusts2. Neither method, however, is likely to be practical for experiments with small insects, for example,

H. H. Shatoury

1966-01-01

122

Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

2005-01-01

123

Measurement of salinity of paleoformation waters in sedimentary basins for better evaluation of oil migration and reserve estimation  

SciTech Connect

Irreducible water salinity is important in determining hydrocarbon reserves since relative hydrocarbon saturation is determined indirectly as the difference between reservoir porosity and the water volume determined from its electrical conductivity. Formation water salinity may range from 0-300,000 ppm, corresponding to electrical conductivities of 0-200 mmho/cm. This range in conductivities indicates the potential errors in determining hydrocarbon volume that might arise from using inappropriate salinity estimates. Current formation waters in Mesozoic basins from Australia and Papua New Guinea generally have low salinities. Further, these Mesozoic sections typically contain siliciclastic sediments deposited when the plate was at high latitudes, and connate waters are expected to have low salinities. Irreducible water is therefore usually assigned low salinity.

Eadington, P.; Lisk, M.; Kreiger, F.; Hamilton, J.; Das, M. (CSIRO Division of Petroleum Resources and APCRC, North Ride (Australia)); Person, M. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States))

1994-07-01

124

Temperature/Salinity/Density activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an in-class activity. I used it relatively early in the semester, after covering the basic water properties portion of the class. I use the relationship between temperature/salinity/density to begin discussing vertical movement of water. The first purpose of this activity is to reinforce the concepts that have just been explained about the relationship between temperature and density and salinity and density. The second purpose is to bring these ideas back to what they have learned about density differences. Finally, the activity is also designed to help them learn how to read graphs.

Dekens, Petra

125

Osmotic adjustment of sugar beets in response to soil salinity and its influence on stomatal conductance, growth and yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar beets were grown in tanks filled with loam and clay, and were irrigated with waters of three different levels of salinity. Osmotic adjustment was determined by analyzing the pressure-volume curves at three growth stages. Sugar beets showed osmotic adjustment in two ways: with their phenological development and towards salinity. Owing to the latter adjustment sugar beets are able to

N. Katerji; J. W. van Hoorn; A. Hamdy; M. Mastrorilli; E. Mou Karzel

1997-01-01

126

40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...within that estuary. The downstream migration of the salinity gradient can...circulation pattern can cause the upstream migration of the salinity gradient displacing...maximim sedimentation zone. This migration may affect those organisms...

2010-07-01

127

INTEGRATING DESALINATION AND AGRICULTURAL SALINITY CONTROL ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The cost-effectiveness relationships for various agricultural and desalination alternatives for controlling salinity in irrigation return flows are developed. Selection of optimal salinity management strategies on a river basin scale is described as a problem of integrating optim...

128

ConcepTest: Ocean Salinity #1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How would the salinity of the oceans vary if the continents and oceans each covered 50% of Earth's surface and precipitation and evaporation were similar to present? a. salinity would be lower than today b. ...

129

Novel Determinants of Salinity Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A novel method for the isolation of plant cDNA clones that provide functional sufficiency for salinity tolerance in E. coli cells was developed. A cDNA library containing genes expressed in salt-adapted tobacco cells was constructed in the AZAPII\\u000a vector. E. coli cells were infected with the rescued pBluescript phagemid library, and the infected bacterial cells were selected on agar\\u000a plates

Narendra K. Singh; Sagadevan G. Mundree; Robert D. Locy

130

Salinity effects on leaf anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing salinity led to substantially higher ratios of mesophyll surface area to leaf area (A\\/sup mes\\/\\/A) for Phaseolus vulgaris and Gossypium hirsutum and a smaller increase for Atriplex patula, a salt-tolerant species. The increase in internal surface for COâ absorption did not lead to higher COâ uptake rates, since the COâ resistance expressed on the basis of mesophyll cell wall

D. J. Longstreth; P. S. Nobel

1979-01-01

131

The Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first part of this presentation gives an overview over the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The instrument calibration [2] converts Aquarius radiometer counts into antenna temperatures (TA). The salinity retrieval algorithm converts those TA into brightness temperatures (TB) at a flat ocean surface. As a first step, contributions arising from the intrusion of solar, lunar and galactic radiation are subtracted. The antenna pattern correction (APC) removes the effects of cross-polarization contamination and spillover. The Aquarius radiometer measures the 3rd Stokes parameter in addition to vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations, which allows for an easy removal of ionospheric Faraday rotation. The atmospheric absorption at L-band is almost entirely due to molecular oxygen, which can be calculated based on auxiliary input fields from numerical weather prediction models and then successively removed from the TB. The final step in the TA to TB conversion is the correction for the roughness of the sea surface due to wind, which is addressed in more detail in section 3. The TB of the flat ocean surface can now be matched to a salinity value using a surface emission model that is based on a model for the dielectric constant of sea water [3], [4] and an auxiliary field for the sea surface temperature. In the current processing only v-pol TB are used for this last step.

Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank; Hilburn, Kyle; Lagerloef, Gary; Le Vine, David

2012-01-01

132

Naturally Saline Boreal Communities as Models for Reclamation of Saline Oil Sand Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reclaimed landscapes after oil sands mining have saline soils; yet, they are required to have similar biodiversity and productivity as the predisturbance nonsaline land- scape. Given that many species in the boreal forest are not tolerant of salinity, we studied the effects of soil salin- ity on plant communities in natural saline landscapes to understand potential plant responses during the

Brett G. Purdy; S. Ellen Macdonald; Victor J. Lieffers

2005-01-01

133

Salinization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students work as a team to determine the effect salt has on plant germination. They then use their lab data to create a report on how the increasing salt concentrations affected the germination of the seeds and at what salt concentration no seeds will germinate. Students will discover that salt buildup is an existing or potential hazard on almost all of the 42 million acres of irrigated farmland in the United States. Much of the world's unused land is in arid and semiarid regions where irrigation will be necessary. Water contains a small amount of salt and over time this salt accumulates in the soil. This activity has an accompanying teacher site with hints and more information.

Miller, Lonnie

134

Comparison of hypertonic saline versus normal saline on cytokine profile during CABG  

PubMed Central

Background and the purpose of the study Blood contact with artificial surfaces of the extracorporeal circuit and ischemia-reperfusion injury in CABG with CPB, may lead to a systemic inflammatory response. Hypertonic saline have been recently investigated as a fluid in order to decrease inflammatory response and cytokines generation in patients undergo cardiac operations. Our purpose is to study the prophylactic effect of HS 5% infusion versus NS on serum IL-6 as an inflammatory & IL-10 as an anti-inflammatory biomarker in CABG patients. Methods The present study is a randomized double-blinded clinical trial. 40 patients undergoing CABG were randomized to receive HS 5% or NS before operation. Blood samples were obtained after receiving HS or NS, just before operation, 24 and 48 hours post-operatively. Plasma levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were measured by ELISA. Results and major conclusion Patients received HS had lower levels of IL-6 and higher level of IL-10 compared with NS group, however these differences were not statistically significant. Results of this study suggest that pre-treatment with small volume hypertonic saline 5% may have beneficial effects on inflammatory response following CABG operation.

2012-01-01

135

Intralesional saline injection for effective ultrasound-guided aspiration of benign viscous cystic thyroid nodules  

PubMed Central

Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vigorous saline injection for viscous cystic thyroid nodules. Methods: Eighteen patients who underwent ultrasound-guided aspiration for viscous cystic thyroid nodules using a saline injection were included in our study. After failing to aspirate the cyst by the usual method, we vigorously injected saline into the cyst in multiple directions to break up and liquefy the viscous cystic contents to enable aspiration. The initial and the residual volume of the nodule were calculated, and the volume reduction rate and the time taken to perform the aspiration were recorded. Results: The mean volume of the cystic nodules before aspiration was 11.0 mL (range, 1.2 to 26.0 mL), while the postaspiration volume was 4.2 mL (range, 0.2 to 14.5 mL). The mean aspirated volume was 63.7% of the initial volume. The mean procedure time was 12.4 minutes (range, 5 to 26 minutes). There were no significant complications related to the procedure. Conclusion: A vigorous saline injection followed by aspiration can be a useful method to aspirate viscous cystic thyroid nodules as a prestep for further intervention or simple management.

2014-01-01

136

A prospective randomized study of saline solution amnioinfusion.  

PubMed

We performed a prospective randomized study of saline solution amnioinfusion in four types of pregnancy complications: postterm pregnancy, variable decelerations in labor, preterm labor, and oligohydramnios-suspected growth retardation. A total of 100 patients were randomized, 43 to undergo amnioinfusion and 57 to be in a control group. Patients undergoing amnioinfusion had a significantly decreased incidence of postpartum endometritis (2.4% vs 19%, p = 0.01) and a lower incidence of cesarean delivery that was due to fetal distress in labor (4.7% vs 16%, p = 0.07). The use of amnioinfusion also made a significant contribution to the four-quadrant ultrasonographic estimate of amniotic fluid volume (14.7 vs 9.8 cm, p less than 0.001). All other maternal and neonatal outcome parameters were similar between the two groups. We conclude that saline solution amnioinfusion in labor may be a beneficial procedure but that further studies are needed. PMID:2187344

Owen, J; Henson, B V; Hauth, J C

1990-05-01

137

Runoff quality impacts of dust suppression using saline water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In mining and gas operations, dust generation from unsealed roads is a major problem. Commonly, road watering is used to suppress dust, with the lowest water quality available generally being selected for that purpose. Whilst minimising water usage for the site, that practice does create concerns with respect to potential environmental impacts if runoff from the treated roads has significantly elevated salinity. For coal seam gas operations, the water extracted concurrently with the gas contains predominantly sodium bicarbonate. Therefore, where coal seam gas water is sprayed onto roads, there is potential for elevated sodium in runoff to impact on soil adjoining the roads, but there is no information on the rates of dissolution and mobilisation of soluble salt from the surface of roads that have been sprayed with low quality water to reduce dust. Therefore a rainfall simulator study was carried out to investigate rates of mobilisation of sodium bicarbonate from compacted soil surfaces simulating an unsealed road. The study considered effects of the amount of precipitated sodium bicarbonate on the soil surface and variations in rainfall intensity. Because the soil surfaces were compacted, runoff commenced almost immediately following application of rain. For all treatments with applied surface salt, runoff quality data showed a peak in salt concentration in the first flush of runoff, and relatively rapid reduction through time in those initial concentrations. The magnitude and duration of peak concentrations depended on both rainfall rate and the quantity of salt present on the soil surface. The flush of salts in run-off from the roads occurred very early in the run-off event, when none of the surrounding area would have commenced to run off. Consequently, the relatively small volume of run-off produced directly by the road could be expected to predominantly infiltrate in the table drain adjoining the road. The initial flush of saline water would then be leached to depth or diluted by the less saline runoff generated from the road in the latter part of the run-off event, or by non- saline runoff from the surrounding catchment. Particularly for mine sites, the data indicate that the use of saline water in dust suppression on unsealed roads is unlikely to impact significantly on the wider surrounding environment. It is recognised that watering for dust suppression on mine sites typically salinises the road area, and that eventual rehabilitation has to deal with those saline areas. Therefore, additional salinity in the soil adjoining the road is not considered to be of concern.

Loch, Rob J.; Squires, Helen

2010-05-01

138

Caribbean Salinity Variation During the Last Glacial Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation exceeds precipitation in the tropical Atlantic, resulting in a net freshwater removal across the Central American Isthmus. Because most of the north Atlantic's subtropical gyre water circulates through the Caribbean before flowing north to sub-polar regions via the Gulf Stream, changes in tropical atmospheric circulation have the potential to affect the salinity and density structure of the entire north Atlantic, thereby influencing glacial-interglacial oscillations in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation. Here, we combine Mg/Ca measurements (a proxy for the temperature of calcification) and ? 18O analyses of shells from the surface-dwelling foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber s.s. (white var.) from the western Caribbean Colombian Basin at ODP Site 999A (2827m; 4cm/ka sed. rate) and VM28-122 (3623m; 4-10cm/ka sed. rate) to produce the first continuous record of western tropical Atlantic ? 18OSEAWATER (? 18OSW) during the last 130ka. In order to generate a record for sea surface salinity (SSS) due to regional hydrological change, we removed the ? 18OSW signal due to glacial ice volume variation and normalized the residual to the modern ? 18OSW value for the Colombian Basin (0.8‰ ). The resulting ice volume-free (? ? 18OIVF-SW) record shows that Caribbean ? ? 18OIVF-SW increased by ˜0.5‰ during the Last Glacial Maximum and Marine Isotope Stage 4. Using a modern western Caribbean ? 18OSW:SSS relationship, these enriched ? 18OSW values suggest glacial Caribbean salinities were 2.3 - 2.8‰ higher than modern after removing the influence of ice-volume. Our data supports the hypothesis that the tropics might have been in a state more similar to the modern El Nino mode, characterized by a more southerly position of the ITCZ, during cold phases of the last glacial cycle. Within the resolution of our ? ? 18OIVF-SW record from VM28-122, elevated glacial Caribbean salinity decreased to modern levels at the onset of the Bolling-Allerod (B/A) interstadial event (14.6 cal ka) as NADW formation reinitiated and the ITCZ migrated northward. We hypothesize that the transport of salty tropical waters into the North Atlantic during the early deglaciation, in combination with a reorganization of ocean circulation, may have served to increase subpolar surface water density and amplify the overturning circulation that produced the warm B/A. The B/A salinity reduction occurs simultaneously with previous evidence for wetter conditions in the Cariaco Basin, suggesting a northward shift in the ITCZ to a wetter, more La Nina-like state in the tropics.

Schmidt, M. W.; Spero, H. J.; Lea, D. W.

2003-12-01

139

Saline Infusion Markedly Reduces Impedance and Improves Efficacy of Pulmonary Radiofrequency Ablation  

SciTech Connect

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a relatively new technique that has been investigated for the treatment of lung tumors. We evaluated for the first time the in vivo use of saline infusion during radiofrequency ablation of sheep lung. We performed RFA on 5 sheep using open and closed chest RFA and the RITA starburst XL and Xli probes using saline infusion with the Xli probe. The impedance and volume of ablation were compared. A total of 16 ablations were produced, 5 percutaneously and 11 open. The impedance during percutaneous and open RFA without saline infusion was 110 {+-} 16.2 and 183.3 {+-} 105.8 O, respectively. With the saline infusion the impedance was 71.3 {+-} 22O and 103.6 {+-} 37.5O. The effect of this was a significantly larger volume of ablation using the saline infusion during percutaneous RFA (90.6 {+-} 23 cm{sup 3} vs 10.47 {+-} 2.9 cm{sup 3}, p = 0.01) and open RFA (107.8 {+-} 25.8 cm{sup 3} vs 24.9 {+-} 19.3 cm{sup 3}, p = 0.0002). Saline infusion during RFA is associated with lower impedance, higher power delivery and larger lesion size.

Gananadha, Sivakumar, E-mail: david.morris@unsw.edu.au; Morris, David Lawson [Pitney Clinical Sciences Building, Level 3, UNSW Department of Surgery (Australia)

2004-08-15

140

Salinity and Defoliation Effects on Soybean Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to determine if salinity stress alters the response and tolerance of soybean to defoliation. Four soybean [Glycine max(L.) Merr.] cultivars (‘Tachiutaka,’ ‘Tousan 69,’ ‘Dare’ and ‘Enrei’) in a growth chamber were exposed to two salinity treatments (0 and 40 mM NaCl) and two defoliation treatments (with and without defoliation). The interactive effects of salinity stress and

Xiangjun Li; Ping An; Shinobu Inanaga; A. Egrinya Eneji; Kenji Tanabe

2006-01-01

141

“Great Salinity Anomalies” in the North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We revisited the “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1970s (GSA'70s; Dickson et al., 1988) and documented the newly identified “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1980s (hence termed GSA'80s), both propagated around the North Atlantic in a similar fashion. The advective mechanism, initially proposed to explain the observed sequence of low-salinity, low-temperature events during the GSA'70s, apparently holds also for the

Igor M. Belkin; Sydney Levitus; John Antonov; Svend-Aage Malmberg

1998-01-01

142

Secondary salinity effects on soil microbial biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary soil salinilization is a big problem in irrigated agriculture. We have studied the effects of irrigation-induced\\u000a salinity on microbial biomass of soil under traditional cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) monoculture in Sayhunobod district of the Syr-Darya province of northwest Uzbekistan. Composite samples were randomly\\u000a collected at 0–30 cm depth from weakly saline (2.3?±?0.3 dS m?1), moderately saline (5.6?±?0.6 dS m?1), and strongly saline (7.1?±?0.6 dS m?1) replicated

Dilfuza Egamberdieva; Giancarlo Renella; Stephan Wirth; Rafiq Islam

2010-01-01

143

Experience of unpleasant sensations in the mouth after injection of saline from prefilled syringes  

PubMed Central

Background Nurses at The Norwegian Radium Hospital have reported that some patients notice an unpleasant smell or taste in accordance with flushing of intravenous lines with commercially available prefilled syringes. We have conducted a study in healthy volunteers to investigate the occurrence, consistency and intensity of this phenomenon. Methods A randomised, blinded, crossover study comparing commercial available prefilled saline 9 mg/ml syringes to saline 9 mg/ml for injection in polyethylene package was performed in 10 healthy volunteers. The volunteers were given intravenous injections of varying volume and speed. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and also Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test to compare groups. Results After intravenous injection, 2 of 15 recordings demonstrated any sensation of smell or taste after injection of saline from polyethylene package, while 14 of 15 recordings noted a sensation after injection of saline from prefilled syringes. The intensity of the unpleasant sensation was rated significantly higher after injection of saline from prefilled syringes compared to saline from polyethylene (p = 0.001). Conclusions Injection of saline from prefilled syringes in healthy volunteers resulted in an experience of bad taste or smell. It is important that nurses and health workers are aware of the phenomenon as described in this article in order to choose the preferred product for a given patient.

2010-01-01

144

Salinity Effects on Superhydrophobic Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments are carried out to investigate the effect of NaCl concentrations on degree of hydrophobicity and longevity of polystyrene fibrous coating. A rheological study using salt water as a test fluid is performed to observe the generated drag reduction from the coating with increasing salt concentration compared to deionized water. Contact-angle measurements of droplets of solutions on the surface are used to validate the results from the rheometer. In situ noninvasive optical spectroscopy system is used to measure the time-dependent loss of entrapped air within the submerged fibrous coating. water for comparison. The superhydrophobic coating used is made of polystyrene fibers that are deposited using DC-biased AC-electrospinning. Such fabrication methods are far less expensive than ordered-microstructured fabrications, bringing the technology closer to large-scale submerged bodies such as submarines and ships. The present study sheds some light on how properties of a superhydrophobic coating could be influenced by water salinity.

Ochanda, F. O.; Samaha, M. A.; Vahedi Tafreshi, H.; Tepper, G. C.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

2011-11-01

145

Aquarius Instrument and Salinity Retrieval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius has been designed to map the surface salinity field of the global ocean from space a parameter important for understanding ocean circulation and its relationship to climate and the global water cycle. Salinity is measured remotely from space by measuring the thermal emission from the ocean surface. This is done at the low frequency end of the microwave spectrum (e.g. 1.4 GHz) where the emission is sufficiently sensitive to changes in salinity to be detected with sophisticated radiometers. The goal is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean by providing maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. These are challenging requirements that have led to some unique features of the instrument. These include: a) The addition of a co-located scatterometer to help provide a correction for roughness; b) The addition of a polarimetric channel (third Stokes parameter) to the radiometer to help correct for Faraday rotation; c) Asun-synchronous orbit with a 6 pm ascending equatorial crossing to minimize Faraday rotation and with the antennas looking away from the sun toward the nighttime side to minimize contamination by radiation from the sun; and d) An antenna designed to limit side lobes in the direction of rays from the sun. In addition, achieving the accuracy goal of 0.2 psu requires averaging over one month and to do this requires a highly stable radiometer. Aquarius has three separate radiometers that image in pushbroom fashion with the three antenna beams looking across track. The antenna is a 2.5-m diameter, offset parabolic reflector with three feed horns and the three beams are arranged to image with the boresight aligned to look across track, roughly perpendicular to the spacecraft heading and pointing away from the Sun. The three beams point at angles of theta = 25.8 deg., 33.8 deg. and 40.3 deg. with respect to the spacecraft nadir which correspond to local incidence angles at the surface of 28.7 deg., 37.8 deg. and 45.6 deg., respectively. The resolution of the three radiometer beams (axes of the 3dB ellipse) is: 76 x 94 km for the inner beam, 84 x 120 km for the middle beam to 96 x 156 km for the outer beam. Together they cover a swath of about 390 km. Aquarius will map the global ice-free ocean every 7-days from which monthly average composites will be derived. This will provide a snapshot of the mean field, as well as resolving the seasonal to interannual variations over the three-year baseline of the mission.

Le Vine, D. M.

2011-01-01

146

The value of colonoscopy and double-contrast barium-enema examinations in the evaluation of patients with subacute and chronic lower intestinal bleeding  

SciTech Connect

One hundred thirty six consecutive patients were examined with histories of guaiac positive stool examinations, bright red blood per rectum, or hematochezia to determine the value of the double-contrast barium-enema (DC-BE) examination and colonoscopy/proctoscopy in establishing bleeding sites. If examination findings were analyzed in conjunction with findings of visual examination of the anal area, the difference in the respective sensitivities of the two examinations was not statistically significant. If findings at the visual inspection were excluded, the DC-BE examination missed 45 of 155 proved bleeding sites (sensitivity, 71%) and 13 of 35 nonbleeding lesions (sensitivity for all lesions 70%), while colonoscopy missed 13 of 155 bleeding sites (sensitivity, 92%) and seven of 35 nonbleeding lesions (sensitivity for all lesions, 90%). The sensitivity of both methods was similar if all rectal and anal lesions were excluded. We conclude that colonoscopy is superior to the DC-BE examination in the detection of bleeding sites but similar in results to the DC-BE examination if lesions in the anal canal and rectum are excluded. The routine use of the DC-BE examination in patients with superficial lesions in the anal canal should be discouraged unless the patient has persistent bleeding or is 50 years old or older.

Thoeni, R.F. (Univ. of California, San Francisco); Venbrux, A.C.

1983-03-01

147

Effects of salinities on the gene expression of a (NAD+)-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in Dunaliella salina.  

PubMed

Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh) is a key enzyme in the pathway of glycerol synthesis, which converts dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to glycerol-3-phosphate. In this study, the effects of salinity changes on variation of cell shape and single cell glycerol content of Dunaliella salina were observed, and the effects of salinity changes on the gene expressions of a (NAD+)-dependent G3pdh (EC1.1.1.8) among G3pdh isozymes in D. salina were detected by real-time quantitative PCR. Results showed that the changes of shape and volume of D. salina cell cultured chronically at various salinities were minor, but when the salinity was changed rapidly, the variations of cell shape and cell volume of D. salina were significant, which were recovered basically after 2h except treating by high salinity. Also, it was found some lipid globules in the surface of D. salina cells when the salinity increased from 2.0 to 4.0-5.0 M NaCl rapidly. When D. salina was cultured chronically at various salinities, the accumulation of single cell glycerol increased with increased salinity, and D. salina also could rapidly decrease or increase single cell glycerol contents to adapt to hypoosmotic or hyperosmotic shock. The expression level of G3pdh in D. salina grown at various salinities was significantly inversely correlated to the salinity, but there was no significant correlation between the expression level of G3pdh and salinity after 2 h of treatment by hyperosmotic or hypoosmotic shock. PMID:21272918

Chen, Hui; Lao, Yong-Min; Jiang, Jian-Guo

2011-03-01

148

Salinity Gradients at the Ocean Surface: Consequences for Satellite-Derived Salinity Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to validate the spaceborne measurement of sea surface salinity, in-situ data from drifters, moorings, and floats will be used. However, these in-situ measurements are usually made at several meters below the surface, whereas the SMOS satellite will measure the salinity in the upper centimeter. Our objective is to investigate the magnitude of the salinity gradients in the upper

B. Ward; G. Reverdin; J. M. Lilly; R. W. Schmitt

2009-01-01

149

[Structural changes in mitochondrion-rich cells in the gills of artificial selected Trachinotus ovatus offspring under different salinities].  

PubMed

Distribution and ultrastructural changes in the mitochondrion-rich cells in gills of artificial selected Trachinotus ovatus under different salinities (5, 20, and 30) were examined by light and transmission electron micrograph. Results indicated that the mitochondrion-rich cells were mainly present on the base of the gill filaments and branchial leaflets, and the volume and quantity of mitochondrion-rich cells increased with salinity. All three salinity groups had apical crypts, which were constituted by the mitochondrion-rich cells, pavement cells and accessory cells. Mitochondrion-rich cells in the salinity 5 group had large apical membranes with developed microridges and shallow apical crypts. Apical crypts in the salinity 20 and 30 groups had small apical membranes and undeveloped microridges, and were embolic obviously. Cytoplasm of mitochondrion-rich cells in the salinity 5 and 30 groups developed tubular systems and abundant cristae mitochondria. The tubular system of the salinity 20 group was non-spatially constant and had loose structure. Part of the tubular system contracted into a pearl bubble structure and shared rough endoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondrion-rich cells in Trachinotus ovatus under salinities 5 and 20 appeared both seawater-type's and freshwater-type's features, and those in salinity 30 had typical characteristics as seawater-type MR cells. Structural changes of mitochondrion-rich cells were suited to different osmotic pressure. PMID:23913893

Ou, You-Jun; Liu, Ru-Jian; Li, Jia-Er; Cao, Shou-Hua

2013-08-01

150

Salinity change impairs pipefish immune defence.  

PubMed

Global change is associated with fast and severe alterations of environmental conditions. Superimposed onto existing salinity variations in a semi-enclosed brackish water body such as the Baltic Sea, a decrease in salinity is predicted due to increased precipitation and freshwater inflow. Moreover, we predict that heavy precipitation events will accentuate salinity fluctuations near shore. Here, we investigated how the immune function of the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle), an ecologically important teleost with sex-role reversal, is influenced by experimentally altered salinities (control: 18 PSU, lowered: 6 PSU, increased: 30 PSU) upon infection with bacteria of the genus Vibrio. Salinity changes resulted in increased activity and proliferation of immune cells. However, upon Vibrio infection, individuals at low salinity were unable to mount specific immune response components, both in terms of monocyte and lymphocyte cell proliferation and immune gene expression compared to pipefish kept at ambient salinities. We interpret this as resource allocation trade-off, implying that resources needed for osmoregulation under salinity stress are lacking for subsequent activation of the immune defence upon infection. Our data suggest that composition of small coastal fish communities may change due to elevated environmental stress levels and the incorporated consequences thereof. PMID:22982326

Birrer, Simone C; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Roth, Olivia

2012-12-01

151

Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a science activity in which the student investigates methods of calibration of a simple conductivity meter via a hands-on inquiry technique. Conductivity is mathematically compared to salinity using a point slope formula and graphical techniques. Sample solutions of unknown salinity are provided so that the students can sharpen their…

Schlenker, Richard M.

152

The Electrical Properties of Saline Ice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of a current study of the (normalized) dielectric coefficient and the equivalent parallel resistivity of unidirectionally frozen saline ice are given. Frequencies ranged from 20 Hz to 100 MHz. Salinities were of the order 7-20 p.p.t. A detailed st...

J. R. Addison E. R. Pounder

1967-01-01

153

V92 Using Hypertonic Saline as a Resuscitation Fluid in the Veterinary Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of hypertonic saline may be appropriate in the following patients: patients with hemorrhagic shock, patients with traumatic brain injury, large to giant breed dogs requiring massive volume resuscitation, patients with gastric dilatation volvulus, animals with inappropriately small catheters who require shock resuscitation, and potentially patients with the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or sepsis. Dehydration is a contraindication

Rebecca S. Syring

154

Response of tomatoes, a crop of indeterminate growth, to soil salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomatoes were grown in tanks filled with loam and clay, and were irrigated with waters of three different levels of salinity. Osmotic adjustment was determined by analysing the pressure–volume curves at four growth stages. Owing to the osmotic adjustment, tomatoes are able to maintain the turgor potential and the stomatal conductance at the same value for the lower values of

N. Katerji; J. W. van Hoorn; A. Hamdy; M. Mastrorilli

1998-01-01

155

Response of Artemisia annua L. to Soil Salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of soil salinity on the growth, yield, and composition of Artemisia annua L. was conducted in a pot experiment. While plant height decreased, as salinity stress increased, the leaf to stem ratio was generally increased in salinized plants as compared with control plants not subjected to salinity stress. The vegetative yield increased significantly with increasing salinity stress to

Arun Prasad; Dinesh Kumar; M. Anwar; D. V. Singh; D. C. Jain

1998-01-01

156

Reconstructing Past Ocean Salinity ((delta)18Owater)  

SciTech Connect

Temperature and salinity are two of the key properties of ocean water masses. The distribution of these two independent but related characteristics reflects the interplay of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the uneven distribution of heat loss and gain by the ocean, with that of precipitation, evaporation, and the freezing and melting of ice. Temperature and salinity to a large extent, determine the density of a parcel of water. Small differences in temperature and salinity can increase or decrease the density of a water parcel, which can lead to convection. Once removed from the surface of the ocean where 'local' changes in temperature and salinity can occur, the water parcel retains its distinct relationship between (potential) temperature and salinity. We can take advantage of this 'conservative' behavior where changes only occur as a result of mixing processes, to track the movement of water in the deep ocean (Figure 1). The distribution of density in the ocean is directly related to horizontal pressure gradients and thus (geostrophic) ocean currents. During the Quaternary when we have had systematic growth and decay of large land based ice sheets, salinity has had to change. A quick scaling argument following that of Broecker and Peng [1982] is: the modern ocean has a mean salinity of 34.7 psu and is on average 3500m deep. During glacial maxima sea level was on the order of {approx}120m lower than present. Simply scaling the loss of freshwater (3-4%) requires an average increase in salinity a similar percentage or to {approx}35.9psu. Because much of the deep ocean is of similar temperature, small changes in salinity have a large impact on density, yielding a potentially different distribution of water masses and control of the density driven (thermohaline) ocean circulation. It is partly for this reason that reconstructions of past salinity are of interest to paleoceanographers.

Guilderson, T P; Pak, D K

2005-11-23

157

Osmotic responses of Dunaliella to the changes of salinity.  

PubMed

Some species in genus Dunaliella are unique in their remarkable abilities to accumulate large numbers of beta-carotene and thrive in media containing a wide range of NaCl concentrations ranging from about 0.05 M to saturation (around 5.5 M). The algae contain no rigid polysaccharide cell wall and thus have been found to be able to rapidly change their volume and shape in response to changes in the extracellular hypo- or hyper-osmotic pressure. In osmotic adjustment, the osmoregulatory response of Dunaliella functions to maintain osmotic balance at high salinities by synthesis and varying the intracellular concentration of glycerol. In this review, we describe the osmotic response process of Dunaliella under salinity stress, including the changes of cell volume, intracellular ions concentration, intracellular glycerol concentration, and the expression of some salt-induced genes. Some specific proteins and enzymes can be induced by different salinities in osmotic response process. In addition, we introduce the exogenous expression of salt-related genes of Dunaliella salina in plants and microorganisms for the purpose of confirming the functions of related genes, proteins, and enzymes. The aim of this review is to emphasize the importance of the studies on the mechanisms of osmotic adjustments of Dunaliella in order to develop its unique osmotic characteristics. It is prospected that future research should pay attention to the specific signal transduction pathway and the mechanism of osmoregulation, and to improve the salt tolerance of higher plants by using salt-tolerant genes of Dunaliella. PMID:19202552

Chen, Hui; Jiang, Jian-Guo

2009-05-01

158

Determining salinization extent, identifying salinity sources, and estimating chloride mass using surface, borehole, and airborne electromagnetic induction methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Using an example from an oil field in the semiarid Red River basin in Texas, we show that electromagnetic (EM) methods are useful in locating salinized soil and water, determining salinization extent, identifying likely salinity sources, and estimating the total mass of chloride within a saline-water plume. Each of these aspects assists in managing salinization and assessing its impact.

Jeffrey G. Paine

2003-01-01

159

75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control [[Page 25878

2010-05-10

160

76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council...INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council was...

2011-05-02

161

78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...REG0000, RR04084000] Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

2013-11-26

162

78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Public Law...

2013-04-22

163

75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2010-05-14

164

77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2012-10-11

165

76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2011-10-04

166

77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2012-04-19

167

75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2010-10-28

168

Effects of liquid paraffin in the diet or infused via colonic enema on fecal elimination of /sup 14/C-hexachlorobenzene from body burdens in rats  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-one male rats were dosed once intraperitoneally with 32.2 mg /sup 14/C-hexachlorobenzene in corn oil (/sup 14/C-HCB activity 11.67 ..mu..Ci/rat). After 4 d, six rats were randomly selected, bled and hemi-castrated with sampling of epididymal adipose tissue to establish /sup 14/C-HCB body burdens. Thereafter, all rats were allocated randomly into three groups, each with five intact and two hemi-castrated rats. One group (controls) received only a basal diet; another received the basal diet amended with 5% light mineral oil (MO); and the third received the basal diet and 1 ml of MO once daily via enema in the upper colon. Treatments were continued throughout 27 d. Excretion of /sup 14/C-HCB and(or) metabolites into feces and urine was measured daily for each rat for 31 d after /sup 14/C-HCB dosage. Fecal excretion of /sup 14/C-HCB and(or) metabolites was increased 2.5-fold by dietary MO and 1.7-fold by MO in the colon. When adjusted to equal dosage, MO by colon was 93% as effective as MO by diet. Urinary /sup 14/C-HCB excretion was not affected by MO, except indirectly through lowered body burden. Addition of hexadecane (25 ..mu..l per 100 mg adipose tissue) into the incubation mixture enhanced (P < 0.05) distribution of /sup 14/C-HCB into the liquid fraction for rats not previously fed hexadecane, but had no effect on incubation mixtures from rats fed hexadecane. Results confirm that liquid paraffins enhance elimination of /sup 14/C-HCB from body burdens into feces and suggest that distribution into blood cells and plasma may partially explain the effect.

Robles-Porras, H.

1985-01-01

169

Aggregation dynamics along a salinity gradient in the Bach Dang estuary, North Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations of the sticking properties of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) were investigated by studying the interactions between latex beads and TEP precursors collected along a salinity gradient in the Bach Dang estuary, North Vietnam. For each sampling station, a suspension of TEP and beads was prepared and the formation of mixed aggregates was monitored in the laboratory under controlled turbulence intensity. The number of beads attached to TEP per volume of TEP increased from 0.22 × 10 -3 ± 0.15 × 10 -3 ?m -3 to 5.33 × 10 -3 ± 1.61 × 10 -3 ?m -3, from low (<1) to high (>28) salinities, respectively. The sudden increase in TEP sticking properties from salinity 10 to 15 suggests the occurrence of an "aggregation web" resulting from the stimulation of aggregation processes. For a given turbulence level, the formation of large aggregates should be enhanced seaward. The presence of a higher fraction of large aggregates seaward is supported by the increase of the slope of the particle size spectra measured in situ. The observed increase in TEP sticking properties toward high salinities may affect the vertical export pump in estuaries. This study suggests that the transition from a low to a high physico-chemical reactivity of TEP along estuaries may result in a succession from recycling for salinity <10 to enhanced aggregation/sedimentation processes and export dominated systems for salinity >10.

Mari, Xavier; Torréton, Jean-Pascal; Bich-Thuy Trinh, Claire; Bouvier, Thierry; Van Thuoc, Chu; Lefebvre, Jean-Pierre; Ouillon, Sylvain

2012-01-01

170

Environmental geophysics mapping salinity and water resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinity and fresh water are two sides of the same coin, most conveniently measured by electrical conductivity; they can now be mapped rapidly in three dimensions using airborne electromagnetics (AEM). Recent developments in the calibration of airborne data against in-field measurements and additional information from radiometrics, magnetics and digital elevation models lend new insights into salinity, groundwater flow systems and water resources. Freshwater resources can be mapped, and salinity risk and the outcome of management interventions may be forecast, on the basis of the specific architecture of complete groundwater flow systems-enabling practical, cost-effective protection and development of water resources.

Dent, David

2007-05-01

171

Salinity changes in the World Ocean since 1950 in relation to changing surface freshwater fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global hydrographic and air-sea freshwater flux datasets are used to investigate ocean salinity changes over 1950-2010 in relation to surface freshwater flux. On multi-decadal timescales, surface salinity increases (decreases) in evaporation (precipitation) dominated regions, the Atlantic-Pacific salinity contrast increases, and the upper thermocline salinity maximum increases while the salinity minimum of intermediate waters decreases. Potential trends in E-P are examined for 1950-2010 (using two reanalyses) and 1979-2010 (using four reanalyses and two blended products). Large differences in the 1950-2010 E-P trend patterns are evident in several regions, particularly the North Atlantic. For 1979-2010 some coherency in the spatial change patterns is evident but there is still a large spread in trend magnitude and sign between the six E-P products. However, a robust pattern of increased E-P in the southern hemisphere subtropical gyres is seen in all products. There is also some evidence in the tropical Pacific for a link between the spatial change patterns of salinity and E-P associated with ENSO. The water cycle amplification rate over specific regions is subsequently inferred from the observed 3-D salinity change field using a salt conservation equation in variable isopycnal volumes, implicitly accounting for the migration of isopycnal surfaces. Inferred global changes of E-P over 1950-2010 amount to an increase of 1 ± 0.6 % in net evaporation across the subtropics and an increase of 4.2 ± 2 % in net precipitation across subpolar latitudes. Amplification rates are approximately doubled over 1979-2010, consistent with accelerated broad-scale warming but also coincident with much improved salinity sampling over the latter period.

Skliris, Nikolaos; Marsh, Robert; Josey, Simon A.; Good, Simon A.; Liu, Chunlei; Allan, Richard P.

2014-04-01

172

Aquarius Observations of Sea Surface Salinity  

NASA Video Gallery

This visualization shows changes in global sea surface salinity, as measured by NASAâ??s Aquarius instrument aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft, from December 2011 through December 2012. Red repr...

173

Crop Response to Soil Salinity and Sodicity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides the effects of salinity on crop germination, development and yield, nutrient, water, carbohydrate, protein, fat and hormone metabolisms, relative tolerance of crop species/varieties, and also their tolerance at different growth stages...

U. S. Gupta

1975-01-01

174

ConcepTest: Ocean Salinity #3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Predict what would happen to the salinity of the world's oceans if the Indian Ocean was blocked off and all of its water evaporated. a. World's oceans would become more salty b. World's oceans would ...

175

Towards salinity tolerance in Brassica : an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the various abiotic stresses limiting the crop productivity, salinity stress is a major problem, which needs to be addressed\\u000a and answered urgently. Since members of Brassicaceae are important contributor to total oilseed production, there is an immediate\\u000a need being felt to raise Brassica plants which would be more suitable for saline and dry lands in years to come. One

Ram Singh Purty; Gautam Kumar; Sneh L. Singla-Pareek; Ashwani Pareek

2008-01-01

176

Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones  

DOEpatents

A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

Vinegar, Harold J

2013-06-11

177

Ultrastructural Effects of Salinity in Higher Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity leads to structural and ultrastructural effects, particularly in salt-sensitive species. Some of them are indicative\\u000a of the onset of injury, for example the aggregation of chloroplasts accompanied by a swelling in the granal and fret compartments\\u000a or the complete distortion of chloroplastic grana and thylakoid structures. Others are associated with metabolic acclimation\\u000a to salinity stress. For instance increased density

Hans-Werner Koyro

178

Biodynamics, saline giants and late miocene catastrophism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Messinian Salinity Crisis is several crises that fit the context of catastrophic modeling of the history of a Mediterranean\\u000a “saline giant.” Of the explanations available, we prefer the deep-basin\\/deep-water precipitation model for the early, deep-basin,\\u000a massive gypsums and halites, contemporaneous with marginal, lagoonal gypsums; and the deep-basin\\/shallow-water desiccation\\u000a theory to explain the later, shallow cyclic gypsums with associatedlago mare

Richard H. Benson

1991-01-01

179

Fretting corrosion in saline and serum.  

PubMed

Fretting corrosion of stainless-steel round hole plates and spherical head screws was studied using a simulator that produced a rocking motion of the heads in the plate holes. Experiments were run for 7 days, with the simulator producing 1 oscillation/s for 16 h/day. Fretting corrosion was studied in 0.9% NaCl and in a 10% solution of fetal calf serum in saline. The results showed a tenfold decrease in fretting corrosion when the serum was added to the saline. Measurements of the weight of the two screws and two-hole plate showed those in saline lost 2.9 mg as compared to 0.3 for those in 10% serum. The concentration of nickel in the saline solutions was 12.4 micrograms/mL compared with 0.85 in serum. Visual examination of the solutions and implants revealed that those in saline had a significant amount of corrosion products while those tested in 10% serum were bright and shiny. Recordings of electrical potentials demonstrated that the addition of serum to saline significantly reduced the change in potential from rest to fretting condition. PMID:7276018

Brown, S A; Merritt, K

1981-07-01

180

Acute toxicity of arsenic under different temperatures and salinity conditions on the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine acute toxicity in the post larvae of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after 96 h of exposure to dissolved arsenic under three different temperatures and salinity conditions. Recent reports have shown an increase in the presence of this metalloid in coastal waters, estuaries, and lagoons along the Mexican coast. The white shrimp stands out for its adaptability to temperature and salinity changes and for being the main product for many commercial fisheries; it has the highest volume of oceanic capture and production in Mexican shrimp farms. Lethal concentrations (LC50-96 h) were obtained at nine different combinations (3?×?3 combinations in total) of temperature (20, 25, and 30 °C) and salinity (17, 25, and 33) showing mean LC50-96 h values (±standard error) of 9.13?±?0.76, 9.17?±?0.56, and 6.23?±?0.57 mgAs?L(-1)(at 20 °C and 17, 25, and 33 salinity); 12.29?±?2.09, 8.70?±?0.82, and 8.03?±?0.59 mgAs?L(-1) (at 25 °C and 17, 25, and 33 salinity); and 7.84?±?1.30, 8.49?±?1.40, and 7.54?±?0.51 mgAs?L(-1) (at 30 °C and 17, 25, and 33 salinity), respectively. No significant differences were observed for the optimal temperature and isosmotic point of maintenance (25 °C-S 25) for the species, with respect to the other experimental conditions tested, except for at 20 °C-S 33, which was the most toxic. Toxicity under 20 °C-S 33 conditions was also higher than 25 °C-S 17 and 20 °C (S 17 or 25). The least toxic condition was 25 °C-S 17. All this suggests that the toxic effect of arsenic is not affected by temperature changes; it depends on the osmoregulatory pattern developed by the shrimp, either hyperosmotic at low salinity or hiposmotic at high salinity, as observed at least on the extreme salinity conditions here tested (17 and 33). However, further studies testing salinities near the isosmotic point (between 20 and 30 salinities) are needed to clarify these mechanisms. PMID:23471636

Valentino-Álvarez, Jesús Alberto; Núñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Fernández-Bringas, Laura

2013-06-01

181

Salinity Measurements During the Gulf Stream Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The salinity of the open ocean is important for understanding ocean circulation, for understanding energy exchange with the atmosphere and for improving models to predict weather and climate. Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (1 psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approx. 0.1 psu) required to be scientifically viable. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of a compliment of airborne microwave instruments (radiometers and scatterometer) and ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the compliment of instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer. A GPS backscatter experiment was also part of the package. These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Surface salinity measurements were provided by the RN Cape Henlopen and MN Oleander (thermosalinographs) plus salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the RN Cape Henopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made with the airborne sensors on August 28 and 29 and on September 2 flights were made over the surface drifters to look for effects due to a change in surface roughness resulting from the passage of Hurricane Dennis. Preliminary results show a good agreement between the microwave measurements and ship measurements of salinity. The features of the brightness temperature maps correspond well with the features of the salinity field measured by the ship and drifters and a preliminary retrieval of salinity compares well with the ship data.

LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Howden, S.; Goodberlet, M.

2000-01-01

182

The outcome and long-term follow-up of 94 patients with recurrent and refractory Clostridium difficile infection using single to multiple fecal microbiota transplantation via retention enema.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most frequent causes of healthcare-associated infections, and its rates are also increasing in the community. The management of CDI has become a major challenge, given growing rates of recurrences and failures with standard antibiotic therapy. Mounting evidence suggests that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may be effective; however, as there is a paucity of data with regard to repeat FMT for primary non-response to this treatment, this study examined the outcome of multiple FMTs for recurrent CDI. Case records were reviewed for 94 patients who underwent FMT via retention enema for recurrent or refractory CDI during the period 2008-2012. Demographic information, treatment data, and clinical resolution rates were examined for single FMT and cumulative resolution was assessed for multiple FMTs in the context of ongoing symptoms. The cumulative clinical resolution following four or more FMTs was 86 %. When antibiotic therapy was used between FMTs, the clinical resolution rate increased to 92 %. There were no reported adverse events and no patients who were cured with FMT had further episodes of CDI at 6-24 months follow-up. Multiple FMTs administered through enemas is an effective, safe, and simple therapy for the management of recurrent or refractory CDI. PMID:24627239

Lee, C H; Belanger, J E; Kassam, Z; Smieja, M; Higgins, D; Broukhanski, G; Kim, P T

2014-08-01

183

Uranium Distribution along the Salinity Gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uranium distribution has been examined in the estuarine waters of the Keum River, Korea. Water samples were collected along a salinity gradient, range from 0.2 to 31.5 psu. Dissolved uranium in the samples has been extracted by C-18 SPE cartridge after pre-treatment. Extraction of uranium by C-18 cartridge after complexation with APDC/DDDC shows about 90 % recovery. After concentration of sample onto C-18 cartridge, uranium complex has been sequentially extracted by 50 % and 100 % acetonitrile, respectively. Result shows good recovery efficiency at low pH (2.5 _ 3.0) during the pre-treatment of sample which was presumably related with destabilization of uranium-carbonate complex. In the estuary, uranium shows typical conservative behavior along the salinity gradient. The current result substantiates earlier reports that uranium is conservatively transported from the river to the ocean. Most of dissolved trace metals, except cadmium, decreased with increasing salinity in the estuary. Dissolved organic carbon also decreased along the salinity gradient. Copper was rapidly removed during the mixing with seawaters as a result of organic matter flocculation. Dissolved molybdenum, vanadium and uranium distribution in the estuary showed similarities that those concentration increase along the salinity gradient.

Yoon, C.; Yoon, H.; Seo, J.; Lee, J.; Chung, K.

2006-12-01

184

"SPURS" in the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Atlantic Salinity Maximum is the world's saltiest open ocean salinity maximum and was the focus of the recent Salinity Processes Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS) program. SPURS was a joint venture between US, French, Irish, and Spanish investigators. Three US and two EU cruises were involved from August, 1012 - October, 2013 as well as surface moorings, glider, drifter and float deployments. Shipboard operations included underway meteorological and oceanic data, hydrographic surveys and turbulence profiling. The goal is to improve our understanding of how the salinity maximum is maintained and how it may be changing. It is formed by an excess of evaporation over precipitation and the wind-driven convergence of the subtropical gyre. Such salty areas are getting saltier with global warming (a record high SSS was observed in SPURS) and it is imperative to determine the relative roles of surface water fluxes and oceanic processes in such trends. The combination of accurate surface flux estimates with new assessments of vertical and horizontal mixing in the ocean will help elucidate the utility of ocean salinity in quantifying the changing global water cycle.

Schmitt, Raymond

2014-05-01

185

Biomarker-based salinity reconstruction immediately prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (Sorbas Basin, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The salinity crisis which occurred in the Mediterranean at the end of the Miocene (5.97 to 5.33 Ma) was a time of large-scale environmental change and thick evaporite deposits formed both in the deep basins and on the surrounding margins. Late Miocene successions in the Sorbas Basin, south east Spain preserve sediments that were deposited immediately prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and during the initial phase of gypsum precipitation (Sierro et al., 2001). Salinity changes are indicated by evaporite formation and fluctuations in faunal assemblages, but these provide threshold measurements only e.g. gypsum forms at a salinity of 130 psu. By analysing the lipid biomarker composition by GC and HPLC-MS after Soxhlet extraction of pre-MSC sediments we aim to reconstruct granular changes in salinity leading up to initial gypsum precipitation. The pre-MSC sediments comprise regular alternations of marine marls and terrigenous clays with interspersed diatomites. This lithological cyclicity is climatically forced by orbitally-driven changes in insolation (Krijgsman et al., 1999) such that specific lithologies are thought to accumulate during precession minima (homogeneous marls) and maxima (laminated marls). By targeting these lithologies for salinity reconstruction we can evaluate the orbital control on quantified environmental change. The reconstruction of the salinity is predominantly based on the ACE proxy introduced by Turich and Freeman (2011). The GDGT-based proxy can show differences over a wide range of salinity, because Archaea can survive over a much larger salinity range than haptophyte algae or other plankton and can therefore also record the salinity signal over a wider range. This makes it suitable for the broad salinity ranges leading up to the MSC e.g. ~35 to 130 psu. Turich et al. (2011) already have published 10 low resolution salinity values for pre-MSC sediments from Torrente Vaccarizzo and Serra Pirciata on Sicily. Our high resolution preliminary data already suggests differences in salinity between insolation maxima's and minima's, which is not expressed in this low resolution signal. In addition we are backing up the ACE proxy data by deuterium values as an independent comparison. Krijgsman, W., Hilgen, F.J., Raffi, I., Sierro, F.J., Wilson, D.S., 1999. Chronology, causes and progression of the Messinian salinity crisis. Nature 400, 652-655. Sierro, F.J., Hilgen, F.J., Krijgsman, W., Flores, J.A., 2001. The Abad composite (SE Spain): a Messinian reference section for the Mediterranean and the APTS. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 168, 141-169. Turich, C., Freeman, K.H., 2011. Archaeal lipids record paleosalinity in hypersaline systems. Organic Geochemistry 42, 1147-1157.

Mayser, Jan Peter; Martins, Cesar; Flecker, Rachel; Pancost, Rich D.

2014-05-01

186

Oxygation enhances growth, gas exchange and salt tolerance of vegetable soybean and cotton in a saline vertisol.  

PubMed

Impacts of salinity become severe when the soil is deficient in oxygen. Oxygation (using aerated water for subsurface drip irrigation of crop) could minimize the impact of salinity on plants under oxygen-limiting soil environments. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of oxygation (12% air volume/volume of water) on vegetable soybean (moderately salt tolerant) and cotton (salt tolerant) in a salinized vertisol at 2, 8, 14, 20 dS/m EC(e). In vegetable soybean, oxygation increased above ground biomass yield and water use efficiency (WUE) by 13% and 22%, respectively, compared with the control. Higher yield with oxygation was accompanied by greater plant height and stem diameter and reduced specific leaf area and leaf Na+ and Cl- concentrations. In cotton, oxygation increased lint yield and WUE by 18% and 16%, respectively, compared with the control, and was accompanied by greater canopy light interception, plant height and stem diameter. Oxygation also led to a greater rate of photosynthesis, higher relative water content in the leaf, reduced crop water stress index and lower leaf water potential. It did not, however, affect leaf Na+ or Cl- concentration. Oxygation invariably increased, whereas salinity reduced the K+ : Na+ ratio in the leaves of both species. Oxygation improved yield and WUE performance of salt tolerant and moderately tolerant crops under saline soil environments, and this may have a significant impact for irrigated agriculture where saline soils pose constraints to crop production. PMID:19566646

Bhattarai, Surya P; Midmore, David J

2009-07-01

187

On the mechanisms behind salinity anomaly signals of the northern North Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrographic time series from the northern North Atlantic throughout the 20th century show oscillations in temperature and salinity at more or less regular intervals. The Great Salinity Anomalies described during the 1970s [Dickson, R.R., Meincke, J., Malmberg, S.-A., Lee, A.J., 1988. The “Great Salinity Anomaly” in the North Atlantic, 1968-1982. Progress in Oceanography 20, 103-151.], during the 1980s [Belkin, I.M., Levitus, S., Antonov, J., Malmberg, S.-A., 1998. “Great Salinity Anomalies” in the North Atlantic. Progress in Oceanography 41, 1-68.], and during the 1990s [Belkin, I.M., 2004. Propagation of the “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1990s around the northern North Atlantic. Geophysical Research Letters 31(8), L08306, doi:10.1029/2003GL019334.] have distinct amplitudes, and all three of them were interpreted as low salinity anomalies propagating downstream through the anti-clockwise circulation system of the northern North Atlantic Ocean. Further inspection of time series from the Northeast Atlantic and the Northwest Atlantic over the past century shows, however, several other distinct negative anomalies of lesser amplitudes. Additionally, a number of high salinity anomalies can be identified. The present paper analyses further the propagation of the negative and positive anomalies and links them together. It is shown that they have varying speeds of propagation, and that the varying speeds are correlated across the North Atlantic. We propose that varying volume fluxes in and out of the Arctic Basin is the causal mechanism behind the anomaly signals, and that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) partly has influence on the flux variations described. Periods of large decadal-scale amplitudes of the NAO coincide with periods of large decadal-scale oscillation in the marine climate.

Sundby, Svein; Drinkwater, Kenneth

2007-05-01

188

Sea Surface Salinity Algorithm from MODIS Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a new approach for measuring sea surface salinity (SSS) from Aqua/terra MODIS level 1B reflectance data with 250m and 500m spatial resolutions. In-situ measurements of SSS were compared with coincident MODIS spectral reflectance measurements over the ocean surface. Non linear model based on linear regression and polynomial formula has been developed on the MODIS data and the ‘in-situ' measurement datasets to retrieve SSS from remote sensing data. A segmentation algorithm was developed to track the velocity changes of salinity frontal zone. These developed models were validated by using real time SSS measurements along Johor coastal waters. The results show high correlation of R2 of 0.91 between modeled sea surface salinity from MODIS and in situ measurements with RMSE of 20 psu.

Mansor, S.; Taher, S.; Marghany, M.; Pradhan, B.; Mahmud, A. R.

2009-04-01

189

Towards salinity tolerance in Brassica: an overview.  

PubMed

Among the various abiotic stresses limiting the crop productivity, salinity stress is a major problem, which needs to be addressed and answered urgently. Since members of Brassicaceae are important contributor to total oilseed production, there is an immediate need being felt to raise Brassica plants which would be more suitable for saline and dry lands in years to come. One of the suggested way to develop salinity tolerant Brassica plants is to make use of the broad gene pool available within the family. Efforts of breeders have been successful in such endeavors to a large extent and several salinity tolerant Brassica genotypes have been developed within India and elsewhere. On the other hand, transgenic technology will undoubtedly continue to aid the search for the cellular mechanisms that confer tolerance, but the complexity of the trait is likely to mean that the road to engineer such tolerance into sensitive species will not be easy. However, with increasing number of reports available for suitable genetic transformation for various Brassica genotypes, there is a hope that salinity tolerance can be improved in this important crop plant. In this direction, the complete genome sequence of related wild plants such as Arabidopsis or crop plants such as rice can also serve as a platform for identification of "candidate genes". Recently, complete genome sequencing of the Brassica genomes has also been initiated with the view that availability of such useful information can pave way towards raising Brassica with improved tolerance towards these stresses. In the present paper, we discuss the success obtained so far; in raising brassica genotypes with improved salinity tolerance employing both plant breeding and/or genetic engineering tools. PMID:23572872

Purty, Ram Singh; Kumar, Gautam; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L; Pareek, Ashwani

2008-04-01

190

Proton magnetic resonance imaging of flow motion of heavy water injected into a hollow fiber dialyzer filled with saline.  

PubMed

Observations using MRI were performed for the motion of heavy water injected into a hollow fiber dialyzer. A cylindrical dialyzer houses a bundle of 10,000 hollow fibers. Because blood components permeate through the hollow fiber membrane from the interior to the exterior of the hollow fiber, which is the dialysate flow path, uniformity of dialysate flow is required. The dialyzer was initially filled with saline and heavy water was injected into the inlet port of the dialysate flow path. MRI tuned for protons could distinguish the injected heavy water from the already present saline. Due to the specific gravity difference, MRI could observe the sedimentation of the injected heavy water flowing beneath the already present saline. The uniformity of the dialysate flow was supported by the finding that the injected heavy water brought about uniform sedimentation and distributed the already present saline uniformly throughout the entire volume of the dialyzer. PMID:15062937

Osuga, T; Obata, T; Ikehira, H

2004-04-01

191

Reversal of bedrest-induced orthostatic intolerance by lower body negative pressure and saline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six healthy male volunteers underwent two 1-week periods of bedrest, each preceded and followed by 2-week control and recovery periods. The daily metabolic diet contained 150 mEq of sodium. Following one 7-day bedrest period, each man was subjected to LBNP at a level of -30 mm Hg for 4 hr while consuming 1000 ml of beef bouillon containing 154 mEq of sodium. After the other bedrest period, each man simply consumed the bouillon without LBNP treatment during 4 hr of continued bedrest. Measurements of plasma volume and orthostatic tolerance were made before and after each treatment period. After combined LBNP and saline therapy, plasma volume and response to LBNP testing showed a return to pre-bedrest levels. Saline consumption alone had a lesser effect. With continuation of bedrest in three subjects, the beneficial effects of these measures appeared to be largely gone after 18 hr.

Hyatt, K. H.; West, D. A.

1977-01-01

192

Fluid shifts following 7% hypertonic saline (2400 mosmol/L) infusion.  

PubMed

Small volumes of hyperosmolar saline solutions may rapidly improve MAP and CO in hemorrhagic shock. In the present study, the effects of infusion of 7% NaCl on interstitial fluid volume and intracellular fluid volume were determined. In anesthetized, normovolemic rats either 7% NaCl (1.1 mL/100 g, intravenously), acetated Ringer's solution (10 mL/100 g), or no fluid (controls) were infused and extracellular volume (ECV) and plasma volume were determined in samples from skin, skeletal muscle, small intestine, liver, and lung. Intracellular volume was determined as local tissue water content minus ECV. Extracellular fluid volumes were 21.1 +/- .6 mL/ 100 g(mean +/- SEM; n = 6) (control animals), 26.1 +/- .4 mL/100 g (following 7% NaCl) (p < .05), and 32.8 +/- .5 mL/100 g (following Ringer's) (p < .05). Following 7% NaCl ECV increased by four to five times the infused volume. With 7% NaCl ECV in skin, muscle and intestine increased significantly, whereas cell volume was reduced by 10% in muscle and liver. Skeletal muscle, constituting > 40% of body mass with a large cell volume, was the main source for fluid mobilized by administration of 7% NaCl. PMID:7648336

Onarheim, H

1995-05-01

193

Resuspension by saline and particle-driven gravity currents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saline and particle-driven gravity currents play an important role in resuspension by environmental and industrial flows. We develop a model of resuspension by unsteady buoyancy-driven flows by bringing together results from the large body of literature dealing with the dynamics of gravity current and resuspension in channel flows. The criterion for resuspending material of density ?p and diameter b is expressed in terms of a modified Shields parameter, ? = ?fu2/(?p - ?f)gb, where u is the depth-averaged velocity within the current and ?f is the bulk fluid density. The critical modified Shields parameter, ?c, which corresponds to the condition when erosion is initiated, is a function of the particle Reynolds number, Rep = b?T/?, expressed in terms of the terminal fall velocity of the sediment particles ?T. Particles characterized by Rep ? 1 are resuspended when ? > ?c ? 0.04/cD where cD is the bed drag coefficient. According to this resuspension criterion, a two-dimensional saline gravity current generated by the release of a volume V per unit width of fluid density ?c in an ambient fluid ?a resuspends material over an erosive distance which scales as (V/b)((?c-?a)?c/(?p-?c)?a)?c-1. These results are extended to describe resuspension by particle-driven gravity currents, an analysis complicated by the change of bulk density of the suspension with time as particles sediment from the current. Here the erosive length scale is bounded by the maximum extent of the particle-driven gravity current. A general form for the vertical mass flux qd is assumed, and the total mass resuspended is calculated in terms of the initial characteristics of the gravity current and shown to be a function of the volume V of dense fluid released, independent of the geometry of release, and independent of gravitational acceleration. Complementary laboratory experiments of resuspension by two-dimensional saline and particle-driven gravity currents are presented. These experiments consisted of a lock release of dense fluid running over a layer of particles. The critical conditions for resuspension were determined for different materials, and the variation of the erosive distance with gravity current characteristics was studied. These observations are discussed with reference to the theoretical model.

Eames, I.; Hogg, A. J.; Gething, S.; Dalziel, S. B.

2001-07-01

194

Bronchial hyperreactivity in response to inhalation of ultrasonically nebulised solutions of distilled water and saline  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess non-specific bronchial reactivity the effect of inhaling ultrasonically nebulised solutions of distilled water and hypotonic (0.3%), isotonic (0.9%), and hypertonic (2.7%, 3.6%) saline was investigated in 10 asthmatic patients and nine normal subjects. Expired ventilation and the maximum percentage fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were recorded. The sensitivity to the inhaled solutions was determined

R E Schoeffel; S D Anderson; R E Altounyan

1981-01-01

195

Reconstructing sea surface temperature and salinity using delta18O and alkenone records  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE oxygen isotope (delta18O) composition of foraminiferal tests from deep-sea sediments is widely used as a palaeoclimate proxy, but it includes contributions from sea surface temperature, global ice volume and local salinity, which are difficult to separate. Recently a new technique for deriving palaeotemperatures has been developed which is based on the abundance ratios of unsaturated alkenones in phytoplankton algae1,2.

Frauke Rostek; Götz Ruhlandt; Franck C. Bassinot; Peter J. Muller; Laurent D. Labeyrie; Yves Lancelot; Edouard Bard

1993-01-01

196

Effects of 7.5% hypertonic saline on fluid balance after radical surgery for gastrointestinal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

METHODS: Fifty-two patients with gastrointestinal carcinoma undergoing radical surgery were studied. The patients were assigned to receive either Ringer lactate solution following 4 mL\\/kg of 7.5% hypertonic saline (the experimental group, n = 26) or Ringer lactate solution (the control group, n = 26) during the early postoperative period in SICU. Fluid infusion volumes, urine outputs, fluid balance, body weight

Yong-Sheng Shao; Ying-Tian Zhang; Kai-Qin Peng; Zhuo-Yong Quan

2005-01-01

197

SALINE WATER CONVERSION. A Literature Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bibliography is presented on the developments in the production of ; potable water from saline or brackish waters The 372 references cover literature ; through September 1961. The report references are arranged alpha-numerically ; under the corporate authors. The journal references are arranged alphabetically ; by title. (M.C.G.);

Raleigh

1961-01-01

198

Aquarius Sea surface salinity from space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquarius is a new NASA Earth System Science Pathfinder mission that will be carried out in partnership with the Argentine space commission to study the impact of the global water cycle on the ocean, including the response of the ocean to buoyancy forcing and the subsequent feedback of the ocean on the climate. The measurement objective is sea surface salinity,

C. J. Koblinsky

2003-01-01

199

Variability Scales of Sea Surface Salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variability of sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity (SSS) were investigated from the monthly World Ocean Atlas (WOA) Climatology. First, the zonal means and standard deviations were constructed for each 10° latitude bins from the climatology. Both the SST and SSS zonal means are nearly symmetric about the ITCZ between the hemispheres. There are differences in the zonal standard

S. Jacob; D. M. Le Vine; G. S. Lagerloef

2007-01-01

200

Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas and soil salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses the growth and activity of vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi in saline conditions. The review includes examination of the effects of high concentrations of salts on the occurrence of VA mycorrhizal fungi in field soils, and on spore germination, growth of hyphae, establishment of the symbiosis and production of spores in controlled conditions. Information on the growth and

S. Juniper; L. Abbott

1993-01-01

201

DETERMINATION OF RADIOACTIVITY IN SALINE WATERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening method for the determination of gross radioactivity in ; saline waters is based on the precipitation of many cations as sulfides from ; ammoniacal solution. Carrier lanthanum, iron(III), cobalt(II), zinc, and nickel ; are precipitated while the major sea water salts are left in solution. An ; alkaline earth fraction containing strontium, barium, and radium can be recovered

V. J. Sodd; A. S. Goldin; R. J. Velten

1960-01-01

202

Metagenomes from the saline desert of kutch.  

PubMed

We provide the first report on the metagenomic approach for unveiling the microbial diversity in the saline desert of Kutch. High-throughput metagenomic sequencing of environmental DNA isolated from soil collected from seven locations in Kutch was performed on an Ion Torrent platform. PMID:24831151

Pandit, A S; Joshi, M N; Bhargava, P; Ayachit, G N; Shaikh, I M; Saiyed, Z M; Saxena, A K; Bagatharia, S B

2014-01-01

203

Metagenomes from the Saline Desert of Kutch  

PubMed Central

We provide the first report on the metagenomic approach for unveiling the microbial diversity in the saline desert of Kutch. High-throughput metagenomic sequencing of environmental DNA isolated from soil collected from seven locations in Kutch was performed on an Ion Torrent platform.

Pandit, A. S.; Joshi, M. N.; Bhargava, P.; Ayachit, G. N.; Shaikh, I. M.; Saiyed, Z. M.; Saxena, A. K.

2014-01-01

204

Salinity tolerance turfgrass: history and prospects.  

PubMed

Land and water resources are becoming scarce and are insufficient to sustain the burgeoning population. Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses affecting agricultural productions across the world. Cultivation of salt-tolerant turfgrass species may be promising option under such conditions where poor quality water can also be used for these crops. Coastal lands in developing countries can be used to grow such crops, and seawater can be used for irrigation of purposes. These plants can be grown using land and water unsuitable for conventional crops and can provide food, fuel, fodder, fibber, resin, essential oils, and pharmaceutical products and can be used for landscape reintegration. There are a number of potential turfgrass species that may be appropriate at various salinity levels of seawater. The goal of this review is to create greater awareness of salt-tolerant turfgrasses, their current and potential uses, and their potential use in developing countries. The future for irrigating turf may rely on the use of moderate- to high-salinity water and, in order to ensure that the turf system is sustainable, will rely on the use of salt-tolerant grasses and an improved knowledge of the effects of salinity on turfgrasses. PMID:24222734

Uddin, Md Kamal; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor

2013-01-01

205

Halophyte Improvement for a Salinized World  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is more important to improve the salt tolerance of crops in a salinized world with the situations of increasing populations, declining crop yields, and a decrease in agricultural lands. Attempts to produce salt-tolerant crops have involved the manipulation of existing crops through conventional breeding, genetic engineering and marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, these have, so far, not produced lines growing

Cheng-Jiang Ruan; Susan Mopper; Pei Qin; Stanley Lutts

2010-01-01

206

Rapid decreases in salinity, but not increases, lead to immune dysregulation in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.).  

PubMed

Rapid changes in salinity, as with other environmental stressors, can have detrimental effects on fish and may trigger increased susceptibility to disease. However, the precise mechanisms of these effects are not well understood. We examined the effects of sudden increases or decreases in salinity on teleost immune function using Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), as the fish model in a battery of bioassays of increasing immune system specificity. Two different salinity experiments were performed: one of increasing salinity (0 to 5, 10 and 20 g L(-1) ) and one of decreasing salinity (20 to 15, 10 and 5 g L(-1) ). Histopathology of anterior kidney, gills, gonads, intestines and liver of exposed fish was performed, but no remarkable lesions were found that were attributable to the salinity treatment regimes. The spleen was removed from each fish for analysis of cytokine expression, and peripheral blood was used for haematology, cortisol and phagocytosis assays. In the increasing salinity experiments, no significant changes were observed in any immune system assays. However, in the decreasing salinity experiments, lymphopenia, neutrophilia and monocytosis were observed in the peripheral blood without modification of the packed cell volume, plasma protein or plasma cortisol levels. Phagocytosis was increased in response to decreases in salinity from 20 g L(-1) to 15 g L(-1) , 10 g L(-1) and 5 g L(-1) , whereas phagocytic index was not significantly altered. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) transcription increased during the same decreases in salinity. However, the TGF-? value at 5 g L(-1) was less than those in the 15 and 10 g L(-1) salinity treatments. Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) transcription did not significantly respond to either salinity regime. In total, acute salinity changes appeared to trigger reactive dysregulation of the immune response in tilapia, a situation which, when combined with additional co-occurring stressors such as sudden changes in temperature and/or dissolved oxygen, could make fish more susceptible to infectious diseases. Accordingly, these findings may help to explain how sudden environmental changes may initiate disease outbreaks and lead to critical declines in cultured or wild fish populations. PMID:23134071

Choi, K; Cope, W G; Harms, C A; Law, J M

2013-04-01

207

Why Is Saline So Acidic (and Does It Really Matter?)  

PubMed Central

Commercial 0.9% saline solution for infusion has a pH around 5.5. There are many reasons for this acidity, some of them still obscure. It is also true that infusion of normal saline can lead to metabolic acidaemia, yet the link between the acidity of saline solution and the acidaemia it can engender is not straightforward. This commentary draws together the known and putative sources of acidity in saline solutions: it turns out that the acidity of saline solution is essentially unrelated to the acidaemia complicating saline infusion.

Reddi, Benjamin AJ

2013-01-01

208

Determination of metals in saline and biological matrices by axial inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry using microconcentric nebulization  

Microsoft Academic Search

spectrometer equipped with a commercially available microconcentric nebulizer (MCN) was evaluated for the to larger volumes, so that a standard nebulizer can be used, often creates detection problems. The use of the ICP as an determination of metals in saline and biological samples. The performance of the MCN was optimized regarding the sample ionization source for mass spectrometry could solve

Machteld De Wit; Ronny Blust

1998-01-01

209

Volume-Restricted Freezing of Living Cells and Tissues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of constant-volume freezing on the survival of red blood cells in diluted rabbit blood and of Artemia Salina (brine shrimp) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-saline solution was examined. Constant-volume freezing significantly improved red-blood-cel...

S. D. Engstrom Y. E. Chu W. F. Sung M. S. Giroux

1977-01-01

210

Effect of sustained saline irrigation on soil salinity and crop yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies were conducted for a period of ten years (1974 to 1984) on Typic Ustochrept to determine the sustained effects of saline irrigation water electrical conductivity (ECiw) 3.2 dS\\/m, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) 21 (mmol\\/1)1\\/2 and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) 4me\\/1, on the build up of salinity in the soil profile and yield of crops grown under fixed rice-wheat

M. S. Bajwa; A. S. Josan; G. S. Hira; N. T. Singh

1986-01-01

211

Hydraulic and salinity characteristics of the tidal reach of the Peace River, southwestern Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The tidal reach of the Peace River in southwestern Florida extends about 26 miles upstream from Charlotte Harbor and is characterized by flow-direction reversals, low velocities, and salinity gradients that vary with freshwater inflow, tides, and wind. Flow reversals generally occur on each tide throughout most of the tidal reach, their upstream limit determined primarily by freshwater inflow and tide. Flow reversals occur at river mile 18.9 whenever freshwater inflows are less than about 1,000 cu ft/sec. Velocities were less than 0.3 ft/sec more than half the time at river mile 18.9. The volume of the flood and ebb tidal flows in the midreach of the tidal river (mile 11.5) on July 12-13, 1984, was about five times the volume of flood and ebb tidal flow near the upstream end of the tidal reach July 10-11, 1984 (mile 18.9). Salinity varied along the 26-mile river reach, across channel and with depth, depending upon complex patterns of flow, freshwater runoff, wind, tide, and salinity in Charlotte Harbor. Daily variations in salinity increased downstream and variations were larger near the surface than near the bottom. Regression analysis indicated that the location of the 0.5 ppt salinity will move upstream more than 2 river miles if low flows are reduced by 50%. Freshwater flushing of the lower 20-mile tidal reach, approximated from freshwater replacement time, varied from about 2 days during heavy freshwater runoff to 40 days during extreme low flows. (USGS)

Stoker, Y. E.; Henderson, S. E.; McPherson, B. F.

1989-01-01

212

Irrigation Scheduling, Freeze Warning and Soil Salinity Detecting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Correlations of multispectral scanner (MSS) digital data differences between vegetated and bare soil areas with salinity levels from the eight saline areas using MSS bands seven and ten in the i...

1975-01-01

213

Cardiorenal-endocrine dynamics during and following volume expansion  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between atrial pressure, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and renal hemodynamic and excretory function was examined during and following acute 10% body weight saline volume expansion and measurements were made at 3.3, 6.6, and 10% body weight volume expansion in pentobarbital anesthetized dogs. Right atrial pressure (RAP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), fractional excretion of Na (FE/sub Na/), and ANP all increased in parallel during volume expansion. Plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone decreased in parallel during 10% volume expansion. ANP, PRA and aldosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. Following 10% volume expansion, saline was infused at the peak urine flow rate to maintain peak volume expansion. Despite continued saline infusion, RAP, PCWP, and ANP decreased in parallel. In contrast, FE/sub Na/ remained increased, and aldosterone and PRA remained depressed. These studies demonstrate that atrial pressures, ANP, and FE/sub Na/ increase in parallel during volume expansion; this suggests a role for ANP in modulating acute atrial volume overload. During stable volume expansion periods, however, despite a decrease in ANP levels, Na excretion remains elevated, suggesting that non-ANP mechanisms may be important in maintaining natriuresis during stable volume expansion.

Zimmerman, R.S.; Edwards, B.S.; Schwab, T.R.; Heublein, D.M.; Burnett, J.C. Jr.

1987-02-01

214

Contaminated soils salinity, a threat for phytoextraction?  

PubMed

Phytoremediation, given the right choice of plant, may be theoretically applicable to multi-contamination. Laboratory and some field trials have proven successful, but this ideal technique is in all cases dependent on plant growth ability on (generally) low-fertility soil or media. While contaminant concentration has often been proposed as an explanation for plant growth limitation, other factors, commonly occurring in industrial soils, such as salinity, should be considered. The present work highlights the fact that besides contaminants (trace elements and PAH), soil salinity may strongly affect germination and growth of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens. Elevated concentrations of nitrate proved highly toxic for seed germination. At the growth stage the salt effect (sulfate) seemed less significant and the limited biomass production observed could be attributed mostly to organic contamination. PMID:23245576

Sirguey, Catherine; Ouvrard, Stéphanie

2013-04-01

215

Effect of salinity on methylation of mercury  

SciTech Connect

Monomethyl and dimethylmercury are potent neurotoxins subject to biomagnification in food webs. This fact was tragically demonstrated by the Minamata and Niigata poisoning incidents in Japan in which 168 persons who ate seafood from mercury polluted waters were poisoned, 52 fatally. Shortly after these two incidents, work conducted in freshwater environments demonstrated the microbial conversion of inorganic and phenylmercury compounds to mono- and di-methylmercury. Consideration of some fragmentary evidence from the literature, however, indicates that the rate and the significance of microbial methylation of mercury in freshwater and saltwater environments may not be the same. A demonstrated relationship between mercury methylation rates and water salinity would greatly influence our thinking about mercury pollution effects in marine versus freshwater environments. Since we were unable to locate published reports on this subject, we are investigating the influence of salinity on the rate of mercury methylation in an estuarine sediment.

Blum, J.E.; Bartha, R.

1980-09-01

216

Changes in Salinity Due to Glacier Movement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity requires construction of a simple salinity tester. Students will create their own calibration scale during this experiment, and look at the change in salinity that would arise if freshwater was suddenly dumped into the ocean. Materials needed for this investigation include a DC mill ampere meter, 2 D-cell batteries and holder, bronze sheeting, #18 solid wire, salt, deionized water, and a stream table or pan apparatus to create a hydrologic model of ice-ocean interaction. Included is a student worksheet to guide interpretation of data. The resource is supported by teacher background information, assessment suggestions, and a scoring rubric. This is Activity 3 of the learning module, Water: Here, There, and Everywhere, part of the lesson series, The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change.

217

Instilling Normal Saline with Suctioning: Beneficial or Harmful?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of normal saline in suctioning has been an established practice in health care professions for decades. Researchers have found that this practice can cause infection; however, use of normal saline remains common practice among health care providers. The purpose of this EBP project is to compare the effects on respiratory infection rates of normal saline lavage and not using

Brent Pavell; Charity Letko; Graciela Olivares; Jenny Luedke; John Gustavson

2012-01-01

218

Saline Systems: A research journal bridging gene systems and ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saline Systems addresses the publication needs of scientists conducting basic and applied research on coastal and inland saline environments and their flora and fauna. The journal covers research at all levels, from individual genes to whole genomes and entire ecosystems. Rapid progress in the molecular biology and microbial ecology of halotolerant and halophilic organisms and the sensitivity of many saline

Shiladitya DasSarma

2005-01-01

219

Overview of the SMOS Sea Surface Salinity Prototype Processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The L-band interferometric radiometer onboard the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission will measure polarized brightness temperatures (Tb). The measurements are affected by strong radiometric noise. However, during a satellite overpass, numerous measurements are acquired at various incidence angles at the same location on the Earth's surface. The sea surface salinity (SSS) retrieval algorithm implemented in the Level 2 Salinity

Sonia Zine; Jacqueline Boutin; Nicolas Reul; Philippe Waldteufel; Carolina Gabarro; Joseph Tenerelli; François Petitcolin; Jean-Luc Vergely; Marco Talone; Steven Delwart

2008-01-01

220

Seasonal variability of surface salinity in the tropical Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal river discharge, precipitation, and evaporation contribute to a complex seasonal cycle of surface salinity in the tropical Atlantic. In this study we investigate the roles of surface fluxes and horizontal advection in generating the observed seasonal cycle of salinity. Primary data sets include historical surface salinity measurements, satellite-derived surface currents, and observation-based precipitation and evaporation climatologies.

G. R. Foltz; M. J. McPhaden

2006-01-01

221

TRENDS IN SALINITIES AND FLUSHING TIMES OF GEORGIA ESTUARIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1973-1992, the Georgia EPD sponsored a monitoring program in which surface salinities were sampled regularly at fixed stations in many of Georgia's estuaries. We used these data to examine changes in the salinities and flushing times of the Savannah, Ogeechee, Altamaha, Satilla, and St. Marys estuaries over the period of record. Water-year average salinities increased slightly over time in

Merryl Alber; Joan E. Sheldon

222

A DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF OPTIMAL WATER USE UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigation with saline waters is a major problem in many parts of the world. Economic questions have usually been addressed using synthesized production functions and theoretically based soil salinity relations. The purpose of this paper is to estimate functions relating crop yield and salt accumulation in the soil to initial soil salinity and water quantity and quality. Crop response functions

Keith C. Knapp; Ariel Dinar

1986-01-01

223

IMPLEMENTATION OF AGRICULTURAL SALINITY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY IN GRAND VALLEY  

EPA Science Inventory

A summary of the results of applied research on salinity control of irrigation return flows in the Grand Valley of Colorado is presented for the period of 1969 to 1976. Salinity and economic impacts are described for the Grand Valley Salinity Control Demonstration Project which c...

224

Fertilization management of crops irrigated with saline water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Available data concerning nutrition and fertilization effects on crops irrigated with saline water are presented and discussed. Published data on the salinity-fertility relationship are, at least to some extent, contradictory; both positive and negative effects as well as no effect of fertilization on salinity tolerance have been recorded. However, a great deal of the experimental work supports the view

A. Feigin

1985-01-01

225

Biochemical and Antioxidant Responses of Borage Seedlings in Saline Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although borage (Borago officinalis L.) is a valuable medicinal plant, no information is available on the responses of this plant to salinity. For this reason, it is necessary to determine responses of this plant to salinity. Objective: Since germination and early growth stage is one of the most critical phases of plant life under salinity condition; this experiment was

Ghalavand A; Rezazadeh Sh

2009-01-01

226

Salinity of deep formation waters, Texas Gulf Coast - preliminary results  

SciTech Connect

Vertical variation in salinity can be either systematic or unpredictable. The widely reported decrease in salinity near the top of geopressure led some workers to erroneously conclude that salinities in the geopressured zone are less than in the hydropressured zone. Indeed, salinities are lowest in the transition zone, but in many areas, salinities of geopressured reservoirs tend to gradually increase with depth. High salinities at depth have been explained by hyperfiltration and proximity to salt domes. Apparently both mechanisms are responsible for some high salinities in the Frio Formation; however, concentrated brines are not necessarily indicative of salt dissolution as shown by water analyses from south Texas. This area is far removed from any known salt accumulations and yet salinities of formation water from some fields are greater than 200,000 ppM. On a local scale, lateral variations in salinity are minor and wells within the same fault-bounded reservoir produce waters with nearly uniform salinities. For intermediate ranges (35,000-70,000 ppM), well to well variations are generally less than 20,000 ppM. Even reservoirs that are stratigraphically equivalent but separated by minor faults produce waters with similar salinities. The greatest differences in salinity are found in stratigraphically separated reservoirs.

Morton, R.A.; Posey, J.S.; Garrett, C.M. Jr.

1981-01-01

227

Sea Surface Salinity: The Next Remote Sensing Challenge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief history of salinity remote sensing is presented. The role of sea surface salinity (SSS) in the far north Atlantic and the influence of salinity variations on upper ocean dynamics in the tropics are described. An assessment of the present state of the technology of the SSS satellite remote sensing is given.

Lagerloef, Gary S. E.; Swift, Calvin T.; LeVine, David M.

1995-01-01

228

Effect of salinity on extracellular polymeric substances of activated sludge from an anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor.  

PubMed

The effect of salinity on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of activated sludge was investigated in an anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The contents of loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) were positively correlated with the salinity. The polysaccharide (PS) and protein (PN) contents in both LB-EPS and TB-EPS increased with the increase of salinity. With the increase of salinity from 0.5% to 6%, the PN/PS ratios in LB-EPS and TB-EPS decreased from 4.8 to 0.9 and from 2.9 to 1.4, respectively. The four fluorescence peaks in both LB-EPS and TB-EPS identified by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy are attributed to PN-like substances and humic acid-like substances. The Fourier transform infrared spectra of the LB-EPS and TB-EPS appeared to be very similar, but the differences across the spectra were apparent in terms of the relative intensity of some bands with the increase of salinity. The sludge volume index showed a linear correlation with LB-EPS (R(2)=0.9479) and TB-EPS (R(2)=0.9355) at different salinities, respectively. PMID:24134890

Wang, Zichao; Gao, Mengchun; Wang, Zhe; She, Zonglian; Chang, Qingbo; Sun, Changqing; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Yun; Yang, Ning

2013-11-01

229

Microbial amelioration of crop salinity stress.  

PubMed

The use of soil and irrigation water with a high content of soluble salts is a major limiting factor for crop productivity in the semi-arid areas of the world. While important physiological insights about the mechanisms of salt tolerance in plants have been gained, the transfer of such knowledge into crop improvement has been limited. The identification and exploitation of soil microorganisms (especially rhizosphere bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi) that interact with plants by alleviating stress opens new alternatives for a pyramiding strategy against salinity, as well as new approaches to discover new mechanisms involved in stress tolerance. Although these mechanisms are not always well understood, beneficial physiological effects include improved nutrient and water uptake, growth promotion, and alteration of plant hormonal status and metabolism. This review aims to evaluate the beneficial effects of soil biota on the plant response to saline stress, with special reference to phytohormonal signalling mechanisms that interact with key physiological processes to improve plant tolerance to the osmotic and toxic components of salinity. Improved plant nutrition is a quite general beneficial effect and may contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis of toxic ions under saline stress. Furthermore, alteration of crop hormonal status to decrease evolution of the growth-retarding and senescence-inducing hormone ethylene (or its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid), or to maintain source-sink relations, photosynthesis, and biomass production and allocation (by altering indole-3-acetic acid and cytokinin biosynthesis) seem to be promising target processes for soil biota-improved crop salt tolerance. PMID:22403432

Dodd, Ian C; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco

2012-05-01

230

Field-derived spectra of salinized soils and vegetation as indicators of irrigation-induced soil salinization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinization is a major cause of soil degradation in the Murray–Darling Basin of Australia. The objective of this research is to evaluate the utility of field-derived spectra of saline soils and related vegetation for characterizing and mapping the spatial distribution of irrigation-induced soil salinization. A FieldSpec FR hand-held spectrometer was used to measure the spectra of a range of salinized

R. l. Dehaan; G. r. Taylor

2002-01-01

231

River salinity on a mega-delta, an unstructured grid model approach.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With an average freshwater discharge of around 40,000 m3/s the BGM (Brahmaputra Ganges and Meghna) river system has the third largest discharge worldwide. The BGM river delta is a low-lying fertile area covering over 100,000 km2 mainly in India and Bangladesh. Approximately two-thirds of the Bangladesh people work in agriculture and these local livelihoods depend on freshwater sources directly linked to river salinity. The finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) has been applied to the BGM delta in order to simulate river salinity under present and future climate conditions. Forced by a combination of regional climate model predictions, and a basin-wide river catchment model, the 3D baroclinic delta model can determine river salinity under the current climate, and make predictions for future wet and dry years. The river salinity demonstrates a strong seasonal and tidal cycle, making it important for the model to be able to capture a wide range of timescales. The unstructured mesh approach used in FVCOM is required to properly represent the delta's structure; a complex network of interconnected river channels. The model extends 250 km inland in order to capture the full extent of the tidal influence and grid resolutions of 10s of metres are required to represent narrow inland river channels. The use of FVCOM to simulate flows so far inland is a novel challenge, which also requires knowledge of the shape and cross-section of the river channels.

Bricheno, Lucy; Saiful Islam, Akm; Wolf, Judith

2014-05-01

232

Salinity Effects on Photosynthesis in Isolated Mesophyll Cells of Cowpea Leaves  

PubMed Central

Mesophyll cells from leaves of cowpea (Vigna unquiculata [L.] Walp.) plants grown under saline conditions were isolated and used for the determination of photosynthetic CO2 fixation. Maximal CO2 fixation rate was obtained when the osmotic potential of both cell isolation and CO2 fixation assay media were close to leaf osmotic potential, yielding a zero turgor pressure. Hypotonic and hypertonic media decreased the rate of photosynthesis regardless of the salinity level during plant growth. No decrease in photosynthesis was obtained for NaCl concentrations up to 87 moles per cubic meter in the plant growing media and only a 30% decrease was found at 130 moles per cubic meter when the osmotic potential of cell isolation and CO2 fixation media were optimal. The inhibition was reversible when stress was relieved. At 173 moles per cubic meter NaCl, photosynthesis was severely and irreversibly inhibited. This inhibition was attributed to toxic effects caused by high Cl? and Na+ accumulation in the leaves. Uptake of sorbitol by intact cells was insignificant, and therefore not associated with cell volume changes. The light response curve of cells from low salinity grown plants was similar to the controls. Cells from plants grown at 173 moles per cubic meter NaCl were light saturated at a lower radiant flux density than were cells from lower salinity levels.

Plaut, Z.; Grieve, C. M.; Federman, E.

1989-01-01

233

Effects of salinity on baldcypress seedlings: Physiological responses and their relation to salinity tolerance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Growth and physiological responses of 15 open-pollinated families of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum var. distichum) subjected to flooding with saline water were evaluated in this study. Ten of the families were from coastal sites in Louisiana and Alabama, USA that have elevated levels of soil-water salinity. The other five families were from inland, freshwater sites in Louisiana. Seedlings from all families tolerated flooding with water of low (2 g l-1) salinity. Differences in biomass among families became most apparent at the highest salinity levels (6 and 8 g l-1). Overall, increasing salinity reduced leaf biomass more than root biomass, which in turn was reduced more than stem biomass. A subset of seedlings from the main greenhouse experiment was periodically placed indoors under artificial light, and measurements were made of gas exchange and leaf water potential. Also, tissue concentrations of Cl-, Na+, K+, and Ca2+ were determined at the end of the greenhouse experiment. Significant intraspecific variation was found for nearly all the physiological parameters evaluated, but only leaf concentrations of Na+ and Cl- were correlated with an index of family-level differences in salt tolerance.

Allen, J. A.; Chambers, J. L.; Pezeshki, S. R.

1997-01-01

234

Biological perchlorate reduction in high-salinity solutions.  

PubMed

Perchlorate (ClO4-) has been detected in numerous ground and surface waters, and has recently been added to the drinking water Candidate Contaminant List in the United States. Perchlorate can be removed from drinking water using ion exchange, but this results in the production of highly saline (7-12%) perchlorate-contaminated brines. Perchlorate-degrading microbial enrichments capable of growth in highly saline water were obtained by screening six salt water environments including marine and lake surface waters, salt marshes, subtidal sediments, and a biofilm/sludge from a seawater filter. Perchlorate reduction was obtained in three of these samples (seawater, saline lake water, and biofilm/sludge) at a salinity of 3%. The salinity range of two of these cultures was extended through serial transfers into media having higher salt concentrations (3-7%). Growth rates were measured over a salinity range of 1-15%. The maximum growth rate measured for the saline lake-water enrichment was 0.060+/-0.003 d(-1) (doubling time of 11.6+/-0.8 d) at a salinity of 5%. Growth rates decreased to 0.037+/-0.002 d(-1) at a salinity of 11%, and no growth was observed at salinities of 13 or 15%. These results demonstrate for the first time that biological perchlorate reduction is possible in solutions having a salinity typical of ion exchange brines. PMID:11471705

Logan, B E; Wu, J; Unz, R F

2001-08-01

235

Relating aggregated surface water flux with Aquarius salinity measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the original objectives of Aquarius is to use surface salinity measurement as a rain gauge to characterize the hydrologic balance. Rain affects Aquarius salinity measurements by changing the roughness and the brightness temperature, and the accumulated rain forms a fresh-water lens that dilutes the surface salinity. We have examined high frequency rainfall provided by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Climate Prediction Center Morphing Technique (CMORPH), co-incident with about one year of Aquarius salinity measurements. The relation of rainfall accumulated over various periods and the Aquarius salinity measurement has been examined over various regions of the tropical oceans. Using surface ocean currents provided by the Ocean Surface Currents Analyses - Realtime (OSCAR) and fresh water flux from TRMM, combined with Aquarius salinity, oceanic salinity budget was examined and the role of precipitation and ocean dynamics were evaluated over various regions.

Xie, X.; Liu, W.

2012-12-01

236

Towards a paleo-salinity proxy: Decreasing D/H fractionation in algal and bacterial lipids with increasing salinity in Christmas Island saline ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effect of a wide range of salinities (13 -149 PSU) on the D/H ratio of lipids in microbial mat sediments from hypersaline ponds on Christmas Island. The hydrogen isotope ratios (expressed as ?D values) of total lipid extracts, and the individual hydrocarbons heptadecane, heptadecene, octadecane, octadecene, diploptene and phytene from algae and bacteria, became increasingly enriched in deuterium as salinity increased, spanning a range of 100‰ while lake water ?D values spanned a range of just 12‰. D/H fractionation between lipids and source water thus decreased as salinity increased. Isotope fractionation factors (?lipid-water) were strongly correlated with salinity and increased in all compound classes studied. The apparent isotope fractionation (?lipid-water) decreased by 0.8 to 1.1‰ per PSU increase in salinity. Differences in the hydrogen isotopic composition of lipids derived from three biosynthetic pathways (acetogenic, MVA and DOXP/MEP) remained similar irrespective of the salinity, suggesting that the mechanism responsible for the observed ?lipid-water - salinity relationship originates prior to the last common biosynthetic branching point, the Calvin Cycle. These findings imply that caution must be exercised when attempting to reconstruct source water ?D values using lipid ?D values from aquatic environments that may have experienced salinity variations of ~3 PSU or more (based on a 1‰ per PSU response of D/H fractionation to salinity changes, and a lipid ?D measurement precision of 3‰). On the other hand our results can be used to establish a paleo-salinity proxy based on algal and bacterial lipid ?D values if salinity variations exceeded ~3 PSU and/or if additional constraints on source water ?D values can be made.

Sachse, D.; Sachs, J. P.

2007-12-01

237

The Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm: Early Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aquarius L-band radiometer/scatterometer system is designed to provide monthly salinity maps at 150 km spatial scale to a 0.2 psu accuracy. The sensor was launched on June 10, 2011, aboard the Argentine CONAE SAC-D spacecraft. The L-band radiometers and the scatterometer have been taking science data observations since August 25, 2011. The first part of this presentation gives an overview over the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The instrument calibration converts Aquarius radiometer counts into antenna temperatures (TA). The salinity retrieval algorithm converts those TA into brightness temperatures (TB) at a flat ocean surface. As a first step, contributions arising from the intrusion of solar, lunar and galactic radiation are subtracted. The antenna pattern correction (APC) removes the effects of cross-polarization contamination and spillover. The Aquarius radiometer measures the 3rd Stokes parameter in addition to vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations, which allows for an easy removal of ionospheric Faraday rotation. The atmospheric absorption at L-band is almost entirely due to O2, which can be calculated based on auxiliary input fields from numerical weather prediction models and then successively removed from the TB. The final step in the TA to TB conversion is the correction for the roughness of the sea surface due to wind. This is based on the radar backscatter measurements by the scatterometer. The TB of the flat ocean surface can now be matched to a salinity value using a surface emission model that is based on a model for the dielectric constant of sea water and an auxiliary field for the sea surface temperature. In the current processing (as of writing this abstract) only v-pol TB are used for this last process and NCEP winds are used for the roughness correction. Before the salinity algorithm can be operationally implemented and its accuracy assessed by comparing versus in situ measurements, an extensive calibration and validation (cal/val) activity needs to be completed. This is necessary in order to tune the inputs to the algorithm and remove biases that arise due to the instrument calibration, foremost the values of the noise diode injection temperatures and the losses that occur in the feedhorns. This is the subject of the second part of our presentation. The basic tool is to analyze the observed difference between the Aquarius measured TA and an expected TA that is computed from a reference salinity field. It is also necessary to derive a relation between the scatterometer backscatter measurements and the radiometer emissivity that is induced by surface winds. In order to do this we collocate Aquarius radiometer and scatterometer measurements with wind speed retrievals from the WindSat and SSMIS F17 microwave radiometers. Both of these satellites fly in orbits that have the same equatorial ascending crossing time (6 pm) as the Aquarius/SAC-D observatory. Rain retrievals from WindSat and SSMIS F 17 can be used to remove Aquarius observations that are rain contaminated. A byproduct of this analysis is a prediction for the wind-induced sea surface emissivity at L-band.

Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank J.; Lagerloef, Gary; LeVine, David

2012-01-01

238

Aquarius Sea surface salinity from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquarius is a new NASA Earth System Science Pathfinder mission that will be carried out in partnership with the Argentine space commission to study the impact of the global water cycle on the ocean, including the response of the ocean to buoyancy forcing and the subsequent feedback of the ocean on the climate. The measurement objective is sea surface salinity, which describes the concentration of freshwater at the ocean surface. Salinity effects the dielectric constant of seawater and, consequently, the radiometric emission from the sea surface. Space observations with an L-band radiometer were first made from Skylab in the mid-70s. Numerous aircraft missions of increasing quality and improved technology have been conducted over the past decade to demonstrate that the technology and algorithms are now available to carry out a global mission. The Aquarius measurement goals are 0.2 practical salinity units accuracy, 100 km resolution, every month. It includes real aperture dual-polarized L-band (1.413 Ghz) radiometers and a (1.2 Ghz) scatterometer system in space and a global array of in situ observations for validation. A 3 m antenna at ˜600km altitude in a sun-synchronous orbit provide a 270 km swath from a "push-broom" configuration that lead to the desired 100 km resolution global coverage every week. Launch is planned for the fall of 2007 with a mission lifetime of at least three years. This presentation will describe both the mission and the science investigations that will benefit from these measurements.

Koblinsky, C. J.; Aquarius Team

2003-04-01

239

Management of parotid fistula using hypertonic saline  

PubMed Central

Parotid fistula is a very rare, unpleasant and painful complication following surgery in the maxillofacial region. Although there is consensus in the literature that acute parotid injury must be explored primarily and all injured structures be repaired accurately, the treatment of the chronic injury is controversial. Numerous methods of treatment, conservative as well as aggressive, have been described with varying success and morbidity. This paper presents a simple but effective and conservative method of treating this complication with the use of hot hypertonic saline.

Rao, J. K. Dayashankara; Gehlot, Neelima; Laxmy, Vijay; Siwach, Vijay

2011-01-01

240

Antibiotic-metal interactions in saline medium.  

PubMed

The commonly used surgical alloys, stainless steel, titanium and Vitallium, were exposed to normal saline solution containing antibiotics frequently used for the control and treatment of orthopaedic infections and the corrosion potential versus time behaviour was followed. It was found that only one antibiotic, oxytetracycline, exerted a significant effect on electrochemical behaviour, producing an anodic shift of 120-250 mV in the Ecorr of the three metals. The study indicated that oxytetracycline at addition levels of 0.01-1.0 mg/ml acts as an anodic corrosion inhibitor. PMID:2706303

von Fraunhofer, J A; Berberich, N; Seligson, D

1989-03-01

241

Salinity effects on water potential components and bulk elastic modulus of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. ) Griseb  

SciTech Connect

Pressure volume curves for Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Grixeb. (alligator weed) grown in 0 to 400 millimolar NaCl were used to determine water potential (PSI), osmotic potential (psi/sub s/), turgor potential (psi/sub p/) and the bulk elastic modulus (element of) of shoots at different tissue water contents. Values of psi decreased with increasing salinity and tissue PSI was always lower than rhizosphere PSI. The relationship between psi/sub p/ and tissue water content changed because element of increased with salinity. As a results, salt-stressed plants had larger ranges of positive turgor but smaller ranges of tissue water content over which psi/sub p/ was positive. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a salinity effect on element of in higher plants. These increases in element of with salinity provided a mechanism by which a large difference between plant PSI and rhizosphere PSI, the driving force for water uptake, could be produced with relatively little water loss by the plant. A time-course study of response after salinization to 400 millimolar NaCl showed PSI was constant with 1 day, psi/sub s/ and psi/sub p/ continued to change for 2 to 4 days, and element of continued to change for 4 to 12 days. Changes in element of modified the capacity of alligator weed to maintain a positive water balance and consideration of such changes in other species of higher plants should improve our understanding of salt stress. 24 references, 6 figures.

Bolanos, J.A.; Longstreth, D.J.

1984-06-01

242

Local adaptation to salinity in the three-spined stickleback?  

PubMed

Different lines of evidence suggest that the occurrence and extent of local adaptation in high gene flow marine environments - even in mobile and long-lived vertebrates with complex life cycles - may be more widespread than earlier thought. We conducted a common garden experiment to test for local adaptation to salinity in Baltic Sea sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Fish from three different native salinity regimes (high, mid and low) were subjected to three salinity treatments (high, mid and low) in a full-factorial experimental design. Irrespective of their origin, fish subjected to low (and mid) salinity treatments exhibited higher juvenile survival, grew to largest sizes and were in better condition than fish subjected to the high salinity treatment. However, a significant interaction between native and treatment salinities - resulting mainly from the poor performance of fish native to low salinity in the high salinity treatment - provided clear cut evidence for adaptation to local variation in salinity. Additional support for this inference was provided by the fact that the results concur with an earlier demonstration of significant differentiation in a number of genes with osmoregulatory functions across the same populations and that the population-specific responses to salinity treatments exceeded that to be expected by random genetic drift. PMID:24330503

DeFaveri, J; Merilä, J

2014-02-01

243

Integrating water by plant roots over spatially distributed soil salinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In numerical simulation models dealing with water movement and solute transport in vadose zone, the water budget largely depends on uptake patterns by plant roots. In real field conditions, the uptake pattern largely changes in time and space. When dealing with soil and water salinity, most saline soils demonstrate spatially distributed osmotic head over the root zone. In order to quantify such processes, the major difficulty stems from lacking a sink term function that adequately accounts for the extraction term especially under variable soil water osmotic heads. The question of how plants integrate such space variable over its rooting depth remains as interesting issue for investigators. To move one step forward towards countering this concern, a well equipped experiment was conducted under heterogeneously distributed salinity over the root zone with alfalfa. The extraction rates of soil increments were calculated with the one dimensional form of Richards equation. The results indicated that the plant uptake rate under different mean soil salinities preliminary reacts to soil salinity, whereas at given water content and salinity the "evaporative demand" and "root activity" become more important to control the uptake patterns. Further analysis revealed that root activity is inconstant when imposed to variable soil salinity. It can be concluded that under heterogeneously distributed salinity, most water is taken from the less saline increment while the extraction from other root zone increments with higher salinities never stops.

Homaee, Mehdi; Schmidhalter, Urs

2010-05-01

244

Tolerance of Venerupis philippinarum to salinity: osmotic and metabolic aspects.  

PubMed

In the last few decades, attention has been focused on the impacts of contamination in marine benthic populations, while the responses of aquatic organisms to natural alterations, namely changes in salinity, have received little attention. In fact, salinity is one of the dominant environmental factors affecting marine bivalves. The ebb and flood of the tide, combined with fresh water inputs from rivers or heavy rainy events, and with extremely dry and hot seasons, can dramatically alter water salinity. Therefore, the salinity of a certain environment can restrict the spatial distribution of a given population, which is especially important when assessing the spread of an invasive species into a new environment. In the present study, the main objective was to understand how clam Venerupis philippinarum copes with salinity changes and, hence biochemical and metabolomic alterations, taking place in individuals submitted to a wide range of salinities were investigated. The results showed that V. philippinarum presented high mortality at lower salinities (0 and 7 g/L) but tolerated high salinities (35 and 42 g/L). The quantification of ionic content revealed that, clams had the capacity to maintain ionic homeostasis along the salinity gradient, mainly changing the concentration of Na, but also with the influence of Mg and Ca. The results showed a decrease in protein content at lower salinities (0 to 21 g/L). Glycogen and glucose increased with increasing salinity gradient. (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra of clam aqueous extracts revealed different metabolite profiles at 7, 28 and 42 g/L salinities, thus enabling metabolite changes to be measured in relation to salinity. PMID:24556070

Carregosa, Vanessa; Figueira, Etelvina; Gil, Ana M; Pereira, Sara; Pinto, Joana; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Freitas, Rosa

2014-05-01

245

Influence of saline infusion on blood-tissue albumin transport.  

PubMed

Anesthetized rats were infused with lactated Ringer solution (LR) at constant rate for 30 or 60 min; delivered volume loads ranged from 0.03 to 0.08 ml/g body wt. Controls were given only a sustaining infusion of saline at 0.002 ml.g-1.h-1. Only 7-14% of the LR remained in the plasma at the end of the infusion; 76-88% entered the interstitial compartment, and 7-17% was excreted. The amount of plasma protein lost from the circulation with the extravasated fluid was studied simultaneously by two methods: 1) material balance in the whole animal and 2) changes in 131I-labeled albumin uptake (VA) and water content (VW) in individual tissues. The extravasation of 0.03-0.06 ml fluid/g body wt (75-160% initial plasma volume) did not significantly increase plasma protein extravasation in the whole rat. Nearly all of the sampled tissues of LR-infused rats had higher VW than controls. Tissue VA tended to increase with VW, but the regression slopes (delta VA/delta VW), a measure of the tracer albumin concentration of capillary filtrate relative to plasma, were low; skin, 0.006; paw, 0.018; skeletal muscles, 0.007; heart, 0.057; jejunum, 0.095; ileum, 0.045; cecum, 0.026; and colon, 0.027. These ratios are consistent with the very small loss of total plasma protein observed and attest to high solvent-drag reflection coefficients (sigma approximately equal to 1 - delta VA/delta VW): greater than 0.98 in capillaries of skeletal muscles, skin, and paw and 0.91-0.97 in heart and intestine. PMID:2764135

Renkin, E M; Rew, K; Wong, M; O'Loughlin, D; Sibley, L

1989-08-01

246

Albumin and IgG in skin and skeletal muscle after plasmapheresis with saline loading  

SciTech Connect

The acute effect of removing plasma equivalent to 1.7% body wt and replacing it with saline equivalent to 10% body wt on the extravascular distribution of water, albumin, and immunoglobulin G (IgG) in skin and skeletal muscle was studied in anesthetized rabbits. The plasma protein concentration decreased by 43%. Prenodal lymph was collected from hindpaw skin or skeletal muscle. The extracellular and plasma volumes in excised tissue samples were measured using /sup 51/Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and /sup 125/I-labeled albumin, respectively. The protein spaces were calculated from measurements of endogenous albumin and IgG concentrations using immunochemical techniques. Lymph flow both tissues increased more than twice control, whereas the lymph total protein concentration decreased to less than one-half control. Three to six hours after the saline infusion, the skin interstitial volume was 30% greater than control, whereas the extravascular masses of albumin and IgG were 20% greater than control. For muscle, the interstitial volume was twice the control value, whereas the extravascular masses of albumin and IgG were not significantly altered. There was a large decrease in the lymph protein concentration after acute plasmapheresis. However, there was not an acute decrease in the extravascular albumin or IgG masses from skin or skeletal muscle. This may be due to the presence of the collagen matrix and edema fluid.

Mullins, R.J.; Powers, M.R.; Bell, D.R.

1987-01-01

247

Alhagi sparsifolia Schap.: A potentially utilizable forage in saline soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Alhagi sparsifolia a semi-shrub in the family Leguminosae is widely distributed on saline meadows. It has a highly developed root system. Seeds\\u000a can survive at a salinity level of 100 m Mole sodium chloride. It has potential in the land rehabilitation. Research on Alhagi sparsifolia has been conducted in low-land saline meadows in Xinjiang, western China since 1990. The present

Qihong Jin

248

Evaluation of Citrus Rootstocks for Salinity Tolerance at Seedling Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus rootstocks i.e. Jatti khatti (Citrus jambhiri), Jambheri khatti (C. jambhiri), Gada dehi (C. aurantium), Kharna khatta (C. karna), Cleopatra mandarin (C. reshni) and Yuma citrange (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis) were evaluated for salinity tolerance by transplanting their six months old seedlings in an artificially salinized soil. Four salinity levels i.e. 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 dS m-1, were

MUHAMMAD AKBAR ANJUM; MUHAMMAD ABID; FARRUKH NAVEED

249

Groundwater salinization of the Sfax superficial aquifer, Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater salinization has become a crucial environmental problem worldwide and is considered the most widespread form of\\u000a groundwater contamination. The origin of salinity in the coastal aquifer of the Sfax Basin, Tunisia was investigated by means\\u000a of chemical analyses of groundwater samples from 65 wells. The groundwater samples present a clear gradation from calcium\\u000a sulphate salinization to that of sodium

Rouaida Trabelsi; Moncef Zairi; Hamed Ben Dhia

2007-01-01

250

Responses of two Mediterranean seagrasses to experimental changes in salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to examine the effects of variations in salinity levels on growth and survival of two fast-growing\\u000a Mediterranean seagrasses, Cymodocea nodosa and Zostera noltii. We also tested the capacity of C. nodosa to acclimate to a gradual increase in salinity and to discover how it responds to a sharp rise in salinity in combination\\u000a with

Yolanda Fernández-Torquemada; José Luis Sánchez-Lizaso

2011-01-01

251

Power generation and potable water recovery from salinous water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for simultaneously generating power and recovering potable water from a source of salinous water - e.g. ocean and\\/or sea water. A first portion of salinous water, from the surface of the source, or from a colder, deeper depth, is increased in temperature via indirect contact with a plurality of non-salinous vaporous phases (i) derived from the

1978-01-01

252

Effect of salinity on oxygen consumption in fishes: a review.  

PubMed

The effect of salinity on resting oxygen uptake was measured in the perch Perca fluviatilis and available information on oxygen uptake in teleost species at a variety of salinities was reviewed. Trans-epithelial ion transport against a concentration gradient requires energy and exposure to salinities osmotically different from the body fluids therefore imposes an energetic demand that is expected to be lowest in brackish water compared to fresh and sea water. Across species, there is no clear trend between oxygen uptake and salinity, and estimates of cost of osmotic and ionic regulation vary from a few per cent to >30% of standard metabolism. PMID:24665828

Ern, R; Huong, D T T; Cong, N V; Bayley, M; Wang, T

2014-04-01

253

Dissolution of amalgam in saline solution.  

PubMed

This experiment was designed to investigate the in vitro corrosion of several modern dental amalgams in saline solution over a six-month period by measuring changes in the soluble corrosion products. Based on the change of the electrical conductivity of the solution, the dissolution rate seemed to decrease gradually for the first three to four months. Then a rapid increase was observed, indicating a reactivated corrosion process. Larger dissolutions of copper and mercury were observed, especially for the high copper alloys, in these later stages. Zinc and indium, if present, were preferentially released at the earlier stages. Silver and tin could not be detected. Evidence exists that the corrosion of tin results in insoluble deposits of corrosion products. PMID:7174706

Kozono, Y; Moore, B K; Phillips, R W; Swartz, M L

1982-11-01

254

Growth of faba bean ( Vicia faba L.) as influenced by irrigation water salinity and time of salinization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the response of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) to water salinity applied at different times of salinization. Faba beans were grown on loamy sand in pots and irrigated daily with modified half-strength Hoagland's solution. Salinization of the nutrient solution with NaCI and CaCl2 (2:1 molar ratio) provided four treatment solutions with electrical conductivities

Osman A. Al-Tahir; Mohammad A. Al-Abdulsalam

1997-01-01

255

Inverse relationship between D\\/H fractionation in cyanobacterial lipids and salinity in Christmas Island saline ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediments from 28 saline and hypersaline (salinity 13.6–149.2) ponds on Christmas Island (Kiritimati), in the Central tropical Pacific Ocean, were investigated for the effect of salinity on the D\\/H ratios of lipid biomarkers. Hydrogen isotope ratios (expressed as ?D values) of total lipid extracts, and individual hydrocarbons heptadecane, heptadecene, octadecane, octadecene, diploptene, and phytene from cyanobacteria, became increasingly enriched in

Dirk Sachse; Julian P. Sachs

2008-01-01

256

Saline-Linked Surface Radiofrequency Ablation  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Data: Saline-linked surface radiofrequency (RF) ablation is a new technique for applying RF energy to surfaces. The surface is cooled, which prevents charring and results in deeper coagulation. However, subsurface heating may lead to steam formation and a form of tissue disruption called steam popping. We determined parameters that predict steam popping and depth of tissue destruction under nonpopping conditions. A commercially available saline-linked surface RF cautery device (Floating Ball 3.0, TissueLink, Inc.) was used. Methods: One hundred eighty circular lesions were created varying in lesion diameter, duration, power, and inflow occlusion. Variables affecting popping were determined. Then factors influencing lesion depth were studied at fixed nonpopping diameter/power combinations (1 cm/10W, 2 cm/15W, 4 cm/60W). Tissue viability was determined in selected samples by staining of tissue NADH. Results: The probability of steam popping was directly related to power level and inflow occlusion, and indirectly related to lesion diameter. Depth of injury under safe nonpopping conditions was directly related to power, lesion size, and inflow occlusion. Maximum depth in excess of 20 mm was achieved using a 4 cm diameter at 60W with inflow occlusion. Microscopy of NADH-stained tissues showed a complete cell killing in the macroscopically visible coagulated area. Conclusions: Steam popping can be avoided by selecting power level/lesion diameter combinations. Tissue destruction to 20 mm can be safely achieved with short periods of inflow occlusion. The device has promise as a treatment of superficial tumors and close resection margins.

Topp, Stefan A.; McClurken, Michael; Lipson, David; Upadhya, Gundumi A.; Ritter, Jon H.; Linehan, David; Strasberg, Steven M.

2004-01-01

257

Numerical Simulations of the Thermal Impact of Supercritical CO 2 Injection on Chemical Reactivity in a Carbonate Saline Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geological sequestration of CO2 offers a promising solution for reducing net emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. This emerging technology\\u000a must make it possible to inject CO2 into deep saline aquifers or oil- and gas-depleted reservoirs in the supercritical state (P > 7.4MPa and T > 31.1°C) to achieve a higher density and therefore occupy less volume underground. Previous

Laurent André; Mohamed Azaroual; André Menjoz

2010-01-01

258

In vivo investigation into the effects of haemodilution with hydroxyethyl starch (200\\/0.5) and normal saline on coagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We have investigated the effects of haemodilu- tion with either saline or hydroxyethyl starch (200\\/0.5) (HES) on blood coagulation in healthy volunteers in vivo. Standard haematological tests (packed cell volume (PCV), platelets, pro- thrombin time (PT), activated partial thrombo- plastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, antithrombin III, bleeding time and platelet aggregation), and thrombelastography (TEG) were performed be- fore and after

T. G. RUTTMANN; M. F. M. JAMES; I. ARONSON

259

Neurohypophyseal response to fluid resuscitation with hypertonic saline during septic shock in rats.  

PubMed

Septic shock is a serious condition with a consequent drop in blood pressure and inadequate tissue perfusion. Small-volume resuscitation with hypertonic saline (HS) has been proposed to restore physiological haemodynamics during haemorrhagic and endotoxic shock. In the present study, we sought to determine the effects produced by an HS infusion in rats subjected to caecal ligation and perforation (CLP). Male Wistar rats were randomly grouped and submitted to either CLP or sham surgery. Either HS (7.5% NaCl, 4 ml kg(-1) i.v.) or isotonic saline (IS; 0.9% NaCl, 4 ml kg(-1) i.v.) was administered 6 h after CLP. Recordings of mean arterial pressure and heart rate were made during this protocol. Moreover, measurements of electrolyte, vasopressin and oxytocin secretion were analysed after either the HS or the IS treatment. Six hours after CLP, we observed a characteristic decrease in mean arterial pressure that occurs after CLP. The HS infusion in these rats produced a transient elevation of the plasma sodium concentration and osmolality and increased plasma vasopressin and oxytocin levels. Moreover, the HS infusion could restore the mean arterial pressure after CLP, which was completely blunted by the previous injection of the vasopressin but not the oxytocin antagonist. The present study demonstrated that rats subjected to CLP and an infusion of hypertonic saline respond with secretion of neurohypophyseal hormones and a transient increase in blood pressure mediated by the V(1) receptor. PMID:22903979

Santiago, Michael Brian; Vieira, Alexandre Antonio; Elias, Lucila L K; Rodrigues, José Antunes; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

2013-02-01

260

Temperature effect on acetate and propionate consumption by sulfate-reducing bacteria in saline wastewater.  

PubMed

Seawater toilet flushing, seawater intrusion in the sewerage, and discharge of sulfate-rich industrial effluents elevates sulfate content in wastewater. The application of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in wastewater treatment is very beneficial; as for example, it improves the pathogen removal and reduces the volume of waste sludge, energy requirement and costs. This paper evaluates the potential to apply biological sulfate reduction using acetate and propionate to saline sewage treatment in moderate climates. Long-term biological sulfate reduction experiments at 10 and 20 °C were conducted in a sequencing batch reactor with synthetic saline domestic wastewater. Subsequently, acetate and propionate (soluble organic carbon) conversion rate were determined in both reactors, in the presence of either or both fatty acids. Both acetate and propionate consumption rates by SRB were 1.9 times lower at 10 °C than at 20 °C. At 10 °C, propionate was incompletely oxidized to acetate. At 10 °C, complete removal of soluble organic carbon requires a significantly increased hydraulic retention time as compared to 20 °C. The results of the study showed that biological sulfate reduction can be a feasible and promising process for saline wastewater treatment in moderate climate. PMID:24463759

van den Brand, T P H; Roest, K; Brdjanovic, D; Chen, G H; van Loosdrecht, M C M

2014-05-01

261

Effect of sea ice salinity variations on Southern Ocean water mass formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea ice has a non-zero salinity that varies in space and time. Not only does this affect the sea ice thermal properties, it also allows sea ice to store and release brine, so that the locations of sea ice formation and brine release do not necessarily coincide. Using a simple parameterization for brine entrapment and drainage, we implemented a sea ice salinity budget in the global Finite Element Sea ice Ocean Model (FESOM). The sea-ice component of this model is a single category model that neglects internal heat storage (so-called zero-layer approach), so that we can isolate the effect of a modified brine release pattern. The model is run over the period 1948-2008, forced by NCEP reanalysis data, and compared to otherwise identical simulations that assume a constant sea-ice salinity of 5 psu. While we focus on water mass modification and bottom water formation, we also assess the effect on the seasonal cycles of ice volume and extent.

Timmermann, R.; Vancoppenolle, M.

2009-04-01

262

Reclamation of highly calcareous saline-sodic soil using low quality water and phosphogypsum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency of two amendments in reclaiming saline sodic soil using moderately saline (EC) and moderate sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) canal water was investigated. Phosphogypsum (PG) and reagent grade calcium chloride were applied to packed sandy loam soil columns and leached with canal water (SAR = 4, and EC = 2.16 dS m-1). Phosphogypsum was mixed with top soil prior to leaching at application rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 35, 40 Mg ha-1, whereas calcium chloride was dissolved directly in water at equivalent rates of 4.25, 8.5, 12.75, 17.0, 21.25, 29.75, and 34 Mg ha-1, respectively. Both amendments efficiently reduced soil salinity and sodicity. Calcium chloride removed 90 % of the total Na and soluble salts whereas PG removed 79 and 60 %, respectively. Exchangeable sodium percentage was reduced by 90 % in both amendments. Results indicated that during cation exchange reactions most of the sodium was removed when effluent SAR was at maximum. Phosphogypsum has lower total costs than calcium chloride and as an efficient amendment an application of 30 Mg ha-1 and leaching with 4 pore volume (PV) of canal water could be recommended to reclaim the studied soil.

Gharaibeh, M. A.; Rusan, M. J.; Eltaif, N. I.; Shunnar, O. F.

2014-05-01

263

Utilization of Saline and Other Impaired Waters for Turfgrass Irrigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was conducted in New Mexico from 2005 to 2007 to investigate the effects of two potable water-saving strategies: irrigating with saline water and using subsurface systems, on changes in rootzone salinity and quality of nine warm-season and seven c...

B. Leinauer C. Johnson E. Sevostianova

2012-01-01

264

Priority Setting and Dryland Salinity - A Case for Policy Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March 2002 the Western Australian Minister for Environment and Heritage adopted a policy framework to guide investment decisions on salinity management in WA. This represented a significant landmark in the government's appreciation of the complex nature of salinity and offered a set of principles for prioritising investment decisions. Whilst this framework still prevails as the government's formal position on

Jonelle Black

265

Aquarius and Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Salinity from Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aquarius is an L-band radiometer and scatterometer instrument combination designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The instrument is designed to provide global salinity maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of...

D. M. LeVine G. S. E. Lagerloef S. Torrusio

2012-01-01

266

SMOS sea surface salinity prototype processor: Algorithm validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission (launch scheduled for 2008) aims at obtaining global maps of soil moisture and sea surface salinity (SSS). It uses an L-band (1.4 GHz) microwave interferometric radiometer to obtain brightness temperatures (Tb) at the Earth surface at horizontal and vertical polarizations. They will be used to retrieve both geophysical variables, following specifically designed

S. Zine; J. Boutin; N. Reul; J. Tenerelli; C. Gabarro; M. Talone; P. Waldteufel; F. Petitcolin; J.-L. Vergely

2007-01-01

267

OCEAN SURFACE SALINITY - THE WHY, WHAT AND WHETHER  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a range of oceanographic problems are reviewed, for which knowledge of the ocean surface salinity is an important factor (which will answer the question why the measurements are needed). These problems include: the circulation of the ocean on global scales, the effect of changes in salinity on the tropical ocean, the formation of deep water in the

M. A. Srokosz

268

On sensitivity of ocean circulation to sea surface salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitivity of global ocean circulation to details of sea surface boundary conditions has been revisited in a set of numerical experiments. The focus is on the role of sea surface salinity (SSS) asymmetries between different ocean basins. The results indicate that the basin-wide inter-basin salinity contrasts are the key elements of success for many idealized ocean models that have realistically

Dan Seidov; Bernd J. Haupt

2003-01-01

269

Indian Ocean Rossby waves detected in HYCOM sea surface salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rossby waves have been well identified in satellite derived sea surface height (SSH), sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean color observations. Studies of Rossby waves have yet to include sea surface salinity (SSS) as a parameter, largely because presently available in situ measurements of salinity lack sufficient spatial and temporal coverage, and as of now no methods are available for

David M. Heffner; Bulusu Subrahmanyam; Jay F. Shriver

2008-01-01

270

Response of cotton water stress indicators to soil salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. c.v. Acala SJ-2) to investigate the effects of soil salinity on the responses of stress indices derived from canopy temperature, leaf diffusion resistance and leaf water potential. The four salinity treatments used in this study were obtained by mixtures of aqueduct and well water to provide mean soil water electrical

T. A. Howell; J. L. Hatfield; J. D. Rhoades; M. Meron

1984-01-01

271

High-latitude salinity effects and interhemispheric thermohaline circulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general circulation model for the ocean is used to investigate the interaction between the global-scale thermohaline circulation and the salinity distribution. It is shown that an equatorially asymmetric circulation can be maintained even under equatorially symmetric basin geometry and surface forcing. Multiple equilibrium solutions are obtained for the same forcing by perturbing the high-latitude salinity field in an otherwise

Frank Bryan

1986-01-01

272

Improving Seed Germination of Saltgrass under Saline Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saltgrass (Distichlis spicata var. stricta (Greene)) has a great potential for use as a turfgrass and as a revegetation species of saline sites. Experi- ments were conducted to test the effect of the application of different concentrations of ethep- hon, fusicoccin, kinetin, thiourea, and Proxy on saltgrass seed germination under three salinity levels. Saltgrass germination percentage was 56% under nonsaline

M. A. Shahba; Y. L. Qian; K. D. Lair

2008-01-01

273

Effect of sputum induction by hypertonic saline on specimen quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbiologic work-up of expectorated material is routinely used to search for the etiology of pulmonary infections, but sputum is often contaminated by saliva. Inhalation of hypertonic saline induces bronchial secretions and theoretically may improve specimen quality. We compared in a laboratory-blinded, randomized study the quality of sputum obtained either with induction by saline or without induction in patients with respiratory

Christian Chuard; Dominique Fracheboud; Claude Regamey

2001-01-01

274

Integrating water by plant roots over spatially distributed soil salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In numerical simulation models dealing with water movement and solute transport in vadose zone, the water budget largely depends on uptake patterns by plant roots. In real field conditions, the uptake pattern largely changes in time and space. When dealing with soil and water salinity, most saline soils demonstrate spatially distributed osmotic head over the root zone. In order to

Mehdi Homaee; Urs Schmidhalter

2010-01-01

275

Analysis of Production-Water-Salinity of Index Crops in  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One method to investigate the advantages of irrigation in cultivation is to evaluate the amount of increase in productions as a result of irrigation. Such relations which usually characterized by mathematics formulas or curves are called production to water function. In the agricultural analysis like pattern optimization and culture accumulation, we need some function like agricultural crops production, water and salinity. The amount of water used and salinity has influence on crops function, so that by increase in both components in various stages of plant growth, crop function decreases. Many researches have been performed on production-water and production-salinity function, therefore less researches on production-water-salinity components. The equation provided by Letey and Dinar (1986) is a sample of these researches. Their model is a quadratics equation from independent variables of water salinity in irrigation (ECi) and dimensionless proportion of the amount of water used to evaporation in class A (AW/EP) in plant growth stage. Therefore, by using this model and parameters like evaporation, rainfall and also quantity and quality water potential in Golestan farmlands, we obtained production-water-salinity components for each product in three different areas across Golestan province (moisture to dry areas). These products include sunflower, cotton, wheat, barely, potato, tomato, corn, sorgom, water melon, soybean and rice. Finally, these equations were compared by results of previous experiments, some results correspond and others were different. Key Word: production-water, production-salinity and production-water-salinity function, Letey and Dinar, Golestan.

Sharifan, H.; Ghahreman, B.

2009-04-01

276

Phosphorus influence on the response of pasture plants to salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil salinity is a growing global problem, as the presence of salts in soils is known to impact on the growth of various plants. One feasible means suggested for limiting the impacts of salinity is the use of nutrient fertilisers. This project was initiated to access whether the use of phosphate fertiliser would benefit the growth of pasture plant species.

Kanjanarat Cho-Ruk

2003-01-01

277

Effects of salinity on the growth of Phragmites australis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field salinity tolerance of Phragmites australis was evaluated by investigating 27 natural reed habitats along the eastern and western coasts of Jutland, Denmark. Die-back took place in the lower fringe of stands, before the onset of flowering, at sites where soil water salinities were higher than 15‰ within the rooting depth. In greenhouse experiments, juvenile plants produced from seeds

Jørgen Lissner; Hans-Henrik Schierup

1997-01-01

278

Ground Water Seepage and Its Effects on Saline Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Saline seeps are recently developed saline soils in non-irrigated areas that are wet some or all of the time, often with white salt crusts, and where crop or grass production is reduced or eliminated. They are manifestations of 20th century dryland agricu...

L. L. Bahls M. R. Miller

1975-01-01

279

The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission - An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission is the European Space Agency's (ESA) second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. The scientific objectives of the SMOS mission directly respond to the current lack of global observations of soil moisture and ocean salinity, two key variables used in predictive hydrological, oceanographic and atmospheric models. The paper will give an overview on the

Susanne Mecklenburg; Yann Kerr; Achim Hahne

2008-01-01

280

Stable carbon isotopes in bivalve shells as a salinity proxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (?13C-DIC) often vary with salinity in estuarine settings. Variations of salinity in estuaries also complicate temperature reconstructions based on oxygen isotope values in biological carbonates. Therefore having a salinity proxy could assist in estuarine temperature reconstruction as well as providing data on freshwater discharge into the estuary. Unfortunately, ?13C values in bivalve shells are potentially influenced by several sources of carbon including DIC, metabolic carbon and sediment pore-water DIC. This study first investigates the influence of these three potential carbon sources in the Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) reared under laboratory conditions and then in the field during a two-year monitoring study. Metabolic carbon remained fairly constant in the laboratory (~12%) and we did not detect any difference between clams living in organic rich sediments and those in sediment free aquaria. There was a strong correlation between ?13C-shell and ?13C-DIC (r2=0.77) indicating that ?13C-shell can be used as a relative salinity indicator. In the field, calculated salinities were within the range of recorded salinities (± 5 salinity units), but there were significant differences between individuals. This study highlights the potential of using ?13C in bivalve shells as a salinity proxy, but also illustrates that large uncertainties are associated with this proxy.

Gillikin, D. P.; Poulain, C.; Mas, R.; Woule Ebongue, V.; Robert, R.; Paulet, Y.; Lorrain, A.

2010-12-01

281

Improved saline-water use under subsurface drip irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scarcity of fresh water in arid regions makes saline water a valuable alternative water source for irrigation. Although saline-water use for agricultural irrigation is associated with some reduction in the yield, it is coupled with improved yield quality, as expressed by higher total soluble solids content.Field experiments which are in progress in a pear orchard verify that under subsurface

Gideon Oron; Yoel DeMalach; Leonid Gillerman; Itsik David; V. P. Rao

1999-01-01

282

EVALUATION OF IRRIGATION METHODS FOR SALINITY CONTROL IN GRAND VALLEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Irrigation return flows in the Upper Colorado River Basin carry large salt loads as a result of contact with the saline soils and the marine derived geologic substratum. The Grand Valley of western Colorado is a major contributor to the salinity problems of the basin and is, ther...

283

Recent Advances in Photosynthesis Under Drought and Salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast increase in world population, scarcer water resources and climate change are putting pressure on the maximization of crop yield, while optimizing the use of water and soil. Salinity causes tremendous yield losses at world scale, especially in dry areas. We revise the current understanding of the impact of drought and salinity on photosynthesis, a highly sensitive process to these

Maria M. Chaves; J. Miguel Costa; Nelson J. Madeira Saibo

2011-01-01

284

Transvaginal Saline Hysterosonography: Characteristics Distinguishing Malignant and Various Benign Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study is to establish criteria for distinguishing en- dometrial polyps, submucosal leiomyomas, endometrial hyperplasia, and endometrial carci- noma on saline hysterosonography. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Sixty-three saline hysterosonograms with histologic con- firmation were retrospectively analyzed. We found 26 endometrial polyps, 16 submucosal lei- omyomas. three endometrial hyperplasias. one abnormal endometrium associated with a sloughed polyp. one

Sherelle L Laifer-Narin; Nagesh Ragavendra; David S. K. Lu; James Sayre; Rita R. Perrella; Edward G. Grant

285

Sedimentology and geochemistry of saline lakes of the Great Plains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern Saskatchewan and portions of adjacent Alberta, North Dakota and Montana are occupied by hundreds of saline and hypersaline lakes ranging in size from small prairie potholes (less than 1 km2) to relatively large bodies of water (greater than 300 km2). From a sedimentological perspective, distinction must be made between two basic types of saline lakes: playas and perennial lakes.

W. M. Last; T. H. Schweyen

1983-01-01

286

Power generation and potable water recovery from salinous water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for simultaneously generating power and recovering potable water from a source of salinous water - e.g. sea water, is described. Salinous water which is proximate to the surface and at a relatively high temperature - about 85°F - is increased in temperature via indirect contact with a vaporous phase, derived from the surface water at an elevated temperature

1978-01-01

287

Factors affecting the hydrogen isotopic composition of dissolved organic matter along a salinity gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) in regulating estuarine ecosystem processes is poorly understood, in part due to difficulties in tracking terrestrial DOM in marine environments. Analysis of multiple stable isotopes (C, N, S) is often required due to poor separation of the carbon isotope signatures of marine and terrestrial sources. However, hydrogen isotopes exhibit greater fractionation. Marine DOM sources have a hydrogen isotope signature of 0‰ while terrestrial DOM can have signatures of up to -270‰ at the poles. Some challenges must be addressed before hydrogen isotopes can be used to track terrestrial DOM in aquatic environments. Hydrogen isotopes may undergo exchange between water and organic matter, obscuring terrestrial signatures. Riverine discharge into marine environments introduces terrestrial DOM to water of different chemical and isotopic compositions which could influence the isotopic composition of the terrestrial DOM. We investigate the effects of changes in water isotopic composition on DOM by introducing terrestrial DOM to freshwaters of isotopic compositions up to +1000‰ for up to two months. We also use surface water samples along a salinity transect at the Salmonier Arm, Newfoundland, Canada to investigate the effects of changes in water mass conditions (pH, salinity and water isotopes) on terrestrial DOM. In addition to changes in water mass conditions, methods for isolating estuarine DOM may regulate affect its isotopic composition. Ultrafiltration (UF), a size-exclusion technique, has been shown to isolate and concentrate the largest proportion of DOM in estuarine environments. UF separates DOM into low molecular weight (LMW, <1kDa) and high molecular weight (HMW, >1kDa) fractions. However, under certain processing conditions, some LMW DOM can be retained. During desalting (diafiltration), LMW DOM continues to be removed from the concentrate, whereas HMW DOM is retained. The proportion of LMW DOM retained becomes important when UF is used in environments requiring a range of diafiltration volumes, such as along a salinity transect in an estuary. As ~70% of marine DOM is LMW, UF-processed estuarine samples likely show a bias toward the terrestrial DOM component which will likely impact its isotopic composition. We examine the effects of DOM recovery following ultrafiltration and diafiltration on its bulk stable isotopic signatures along a salinity transect at the Salmonier Arm. Freshwater, high and intermediate salinity samples are diafiltered using a range of volumes, resulting in differences in recovery. DOM recovery, and isotopic signatures are compared across each treatment and along the transect. Results from these experimental and field samples are expected to provide key insight into the utility of hydrogen isotopes for understanding the transport and fate of terrestrial DOM in the marine environment.

Debond, A. A.; Ziegler, S. E.; Fogel, M. L.; Morrill, P. L.; Bowden, R.

2010-12-01

288

Investigation of Lake Water Salinity by Using Four-Band Salinity Algorithm on WorldView-2 Satellite Image for a Saline Industrial Lake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinity of a lake is an important characteristic since, these are potentially industrial lakes and the degree of salinity can significantly be used for determination of mineral resources and for the production management. In the literature, there are many studies of using satellite data for salinity related lake studies such as determination of salinity distribution and detection of potential freshwater sources in less salt concentrated regions. As the study area Lake Acigol, located in Denizli (Turkey) was selected. With it's saline environment, it's the major sodium sulphate production resource of Turkey. In this study, remote sensing data and data from a field study was used and correlated. Remote sensing is an efficient tool to monitor and analyze lake properties by using it complementary to field data. Worldview-2 satellite data was used in this study which consists of 8 bands. At the same time with the satellite data acquisition, a field study was conducted to collect the salinity values in 17 points of the laker with using YSI 556 Multiparametre for measurements. The values were measured as salinity amount in grams per kilogram solution and obtained as ppt unit. It was observed that the values vary from 34 ppt - 40.1 ppt and the average is 38.056 ppt. In Thalassic serie, the lake was in mixoeuhaline state in the time of issue. As a first step, ATCOR correction was performed on satellite image for atmospheric correction. There were some clouds on the lake field, hence it was decided to continue the study by using the 12 sampling points which were clear on the image. Then, for each sampling point, a spectral value was obtained by calculating the average at a 11*11 neighborhood. The relation between the spectral reflectance values and the salinity was investigated. The 4-band algorithm, which was used for determination of chlorophyll-a distribution in highly turbid coastal environment by Wei (2012) was applied. Salinity ? (?i-1 / ?j-1) * (?k-1 / ?m-1) (i,j,k,m=1..8) (i? j? k? m) By using each band of WV-2 and possible combinationsfor 4-band algorithm, 1680 band combinations were used to get the correlation with the in-situ measured salinity values. As a result the highest correlation (R=0.926) was found. The correlation coefficient of the 4-band algorithm indices (?Coastal-1 / ?NIR2-1) * (?Red-1 / ?Green-1) and the salinity values was R2=0.86.

Budako?lu, Murat; Karaman, Muhittin; Damla Uça Avc?, Z.; Kumral, Mustafa; Geredeli (Y?lmaz), Serpil

2014-05-01

289

Inverse relationship between D/H fractionation in cyanobacterial lipids and salinity in Christmas Island saline ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediments from 28 saline and hypersaline (salinity 13.6-149.2) ponds on Christmas Island (Kiritimati), in the Central tropical Pacific Ocean, were investigated for the effect of salinity on the D/H ratios of lipid biomarkers. Hydrogen isotope ratios (expressed as ?D values) of total lipid extracts, and individual hydrocarbons heptadecane, heptadecene, octadecane, octadecene, diploptene, and phytene from cyanobacteria, became increasingly enriched in deuterium as salinity increased, spanning a range of 100‰, while lake water ?D values spanned a range of just 12‰. Net D/H fractionation between lipids and source water thus decreased as salinity increased. Isotope fractionation factors ( ?lipid-water) were strongly correlated with salinity, and increased in all compound classes studied by up to 0.0967 over a salinity range of 136. Differences in the hydrogen isotopic composition of lipids derived from three biosynthetic pathways (acetogenic, mevalonate, and non-mevalonate) remained similar irrespective of the salinity. This suggests that the mechanism responsible for the observed ?lipid-water-salinity relationship originates prior to the last common biosynthetic branching point, the Calvin Cycle. We propose that a decrease in the exchange of intra- and extra-cellular (ambient) water resulting from down-regulation or closure of water channels (aquaporins) within cyanobacterial cell membranes, and subsequent isotopic enrichment of the intracellular water, likely resulting from metabolic reactions. These findings imply that caution must be exercised when attempting to reconstruct source water ?D values using lipid ?D values from environments that may have experienced salinity variations. On the other, hand our results can be used to establish a paleo-salinity proxy based on lipid ?D, if additional constraints on source water ?D values can be made.

Sachse, Dirk; Sachs, Julian P.

2008-02-01

290

The salinity effect in a mixed layer ocean model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model of the thermally mixed layer in the upper ocean as developed by Kraus and Turner and extended by Denman is further extended to investigate the effects of salinity. In the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean rapid increases in salinity occur at the bottom of a uniformly mixed surface layer. The most significant effects produced by the inclusion of salinity are the reduction of the deepening rate and the corresponding change in the heating characteristics of the mixed layer. If the net surface heating is positive, but small, salinity effects must be included to determine whether the mixed layer temperature will increase or decrease. Precipitation over tropical oceans leads to the development of a shallow stable layer accompanied by a decrease in the temperature and salinity at the sea surface.

Miller, J. R.

1976-01-01

291

NASA Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space Education Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The educational resources and activities on this Web site teach fundamental concepts about salinity variations and the role these changes play in controlling global ocean circulation and Earthâs climate. The modules augment existing El Nino/La Nina materials with salinity-based content, provide on-line interactive tools demonstrating environmental change through data sets and in situ time-series analysis, and engage students in activities designed to demonstrate salt-water interactions. Launched in June 2011, NASAâs Aquarius will provide the first global map of sea surface salinity with unprecedented accuracy, resolution and coverage. The importance of salinity measurements in understanding coastal ocean processes is critical as salinity is a key factor in understanding and predicting biological and physical processes and their interactions with the food web, climate, and global water cycle.

2007-01-01

292

Messinian Salinity Crisis and basin fluid flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Syn- and post-depositional movement of fluids through sediments is one of the least understood aspects in the evolution of a basin. The conventional hydrostratigraphic view on marine sedimentary basins assumes that compactional and meteoric groundwater fluid circulation drives fluid movement and defines its timing. However, in the past few years, several examples of instantaneous and catastrophic release of fluids have been observed even through low-permeability sediments. A particularly complex case-study involves the presence of giant salt bodies in the depocentres of marine basins. Evaporites dramatically change the hydrostratigraphy and fluid-dynamics of the basin, and influence the P/T regimes, e.g. through changes in the geothermal gradient and in the compaction of underlying sediments. Our paper reviews the impact of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and evaporites on fluid flow in the Mediterranean sub-basins. The analysis of geological and geophysical sub-surface data provides examples from this basin, and the comparison with analogues in other well-known evaporitic provinces. During the MSC, massive sea-level changes occurred in a relatively limited time interval, and affected the balance of fluid dynamics, e.g. with sudden release or unusual trapping of fluids. Fluid expulsion events are here analysed and classified in relation to the long and short-term effects of the MSC. Our main aim is to build a framework for the correct identification of the fluid flow-related events, and their genetic mechanisms. On basin margins, where evaporites are thin or absent, the sea-level changes associated with the MSC force a rapid basinward shift of the mixing zone of meteoric/gravity flow and saline/compactional flow, 100s-km away from its pre-MSC position. This phenomenon changes the geometry of converging flows, creates hydraulic traps for fluids, and triggers specific diagenetic reactions in pre-MSC deep marine sediments. In basin-centre settings, unloading and re-loading of water associated to the sea-level changes leads to the sudden release of focused fluids, enhancing pockmark formation, evaporite dissolution, gas-hydrate dissociation and methane venting. After the MSC, and in the long-term basin evolution, the aquitard effect of the thick evaporites also created favourable condition for the development of overpressures in the pre-MSC sediments. However, the traditional view of saline giants as impermeable barriers to fluid flow has been challenged in recent years, by the documented evidence of fluid migration pathways through thick evaporites. Ultimately, these events can lead not only to fluid, but also to sediment remobilisation. The review here presented has applications as a tool for identifying, quantifying and understanding controls and timing of fluid dynamics in marine basins hosting extensive evaporitic series.

Bertoni, Claudia; Cartwight, Joe

2014-05-01

293

Assessment of soil salinization risks under irrigation with brackish water in semiarid Tunesia (Online first)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salinity problem is becoming increasingly widespread in arid countries. In semiarid Tunisia about 50% of the irrigated land is considered as highly sensitive to salinization. To avoid the risk of salinization, it is important to control the soil salinity and keep it below plant salinity tolerance thresholds. The objective of the present study was to provide farmers and rural

F. Bouksila; A. Bahrib; R. Berndtsson; M. Persson; J. Rozema; Zee van der S. E. A. T. M

2012-01-01

294

Identifying the Western Pacific Salinity Front Using Aquarius Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquarius satellite mission is designed to measure high-resolution sea surface salinity both spatially and temporally. In this study, we smoothed the Aquarius salinity data on a 1/3*1/3 degree weekly gridded map over the western Pacific warm pool region. A sharp northeast-southwest oriented salinity front is seen in detail, but is not observed in the 1*1 degree monthly Argo map due to the low resolution. The salinity front (defined by the largest salinity gradient) is located close to 34.6 PSU isohaline (criteria generally used to define the location of salinity front), but is better defined with physical meanings. During the first four months of Aquarius measurement from Sep/2011-Dec/2011, the salinity front has penetrated much farther west than usual, associated with the westward shift of eastern edge of warm pool. Also, from the surface currents calculated from Ocean Surface Current Analyses - Real time (OSCAR), we notice that the strong westward currents enhance the zonal advection of sea surface temperature/salinity and bring the cold/salty water from central to western Pacific. This is related to the evolution of the central Pacific type of La Nina (i.e. cooling event centered in the central Pacific) in the end of 2011. The results also show that the salinity front shows up at the boundary between the south equatorial currents and north equatorial counter currents, suggesting the strong relationship between the formation of salinity front and the movement of salty and fresh water. Although further calibration/validation work is still ongoing, the preliminary results give us the confidence that the Aquarius measurement is going to help us better understand the fresh water flux and zonal advections in the western Pacific warm pool.

Kao, H.; Lagerloef, G.

2012-04-01

295

[Spatial variability of soil nutrients and salinity in coastal saline-alkali land based on belt transect method].  

PubMed

A north-south transect was established in the saline-alkali land of Yellow River old course at Diaokou of northern Yellow River Delta, Shandong Province of East China to analyze the spatial distribution characteristics of soil nutrients and salinity and related affecting factors by using geostatistics method. In the study area, the nugget/still of soil organic matter, total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorus (AP), and available potassium (AK) contents and soil salinity were 0.38, 0.40, 0.50, 0.32, and 0.34, respectively, which demonstrated that these five parameters were moderately spatial dependence. The soil organic matter and TN contents in this transect had a similar distribution pattern, soil AK content was highly correlated to soil salinity, while soil AP content presented a fluctuated distribution. According to the comprehensive analysis of soil organic matter content and salinity, this transect was classified into three types, i.e., high salinity and low fertility, high salinity and high fertility, and low salinity and high fertility. The spatial distribution pattern of the five soil parameters was closed related to the soil parental material, land use pattern, distance to sea, and road block. PMID:22937640

Wang, Na-Na; Qi, Wei; Wang, Dan; Qin, Tian-Tian; Lu, Chao

2012-06-01

296

Flow cytometric characterization of hemocytes of the sunray venus clam Macrocallista nimbosa and influence of salinity variation.  

PubMed

Sunray venus clam Macrocallista nimbosa is a native bivalve mollusc of Florida, USA, currently evaluated as a potential new aquaculture species. Very little is known about the physiology and hemocyte characteristics of this species. Bivalve hemocytes are generally involved in various physiological functions including nutrition, tissue repair, detoxification and immune defense. Understanding hemocytes of M. nimbosa and their response to environmental variations is crucial. In estuarine Florida areas, salinity is probably the most important factor potentially affecting clams physiology since wide variations can occur within few days. In the present work, using flow cytometry, hemocyte types and cellular parameters (oxidative activity, lysosomal content, phagocytosis capacity) were first characterized in sunray venus clams, in relation with endogenous variables (i.e., size, body weight, gender). Clams were then transferred from salinity 30 psu to 18, 21, 25, 30, 35 and 38 psu. After 7 days, impact of salinity variations was determined on hemocyte parameters, along with estimation of physiological status of clams (mortality, valve closure, filtration activity). Hemocytes of sunray venus clam appeared as a unique population, both in terms of morphology (FSC vs. SSC) and intracellular parameters, but displayed high inter-individual variability. Allometric relationship was only described for intracellular oxidative activity. Transfer of clams to 18 psu and, at lower extent, 21 psu resulted in valve closure, mortality and decreased filtration activity. Low salinities resulted in reduction of the number of circulating hemocytes, potentially reflecting infiltration in tissues as part of an inflammatory response or to optimize nutrient distribution. Low salinities also highly impacted hemocytes as depicted by increased cell and lysosomal compartment volumes, decreased phagocytosis capacity as well as increased oxidative stress and mortality. Salinity drops depress physiology and immune defense capacities of sunray venus clams, potentially threatening survival in case of concomitant pathogen encounter or secondary stress. PMID:23765118

Jauzein, Cécile; Donaghy, Ludovic; Volety, Aswani K

2013-09-01

297

Wastewater salinity assessment using near infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a fast and inexpensive non-destructive technique for the prediction of concentrations of salts in wastewater. Conventional chemical methods are usually used, which are very accurate, take more time and require special techniques for sampling, storing and pretreatment of wastewater. In this work we studied the spectral characteristics of water and the effect of salts on the perturbations in the water absorption bands. The generation of multiple regression models with principal components was carried out on standard solutions with composition of salts similar to that of wastewater samples taken along the drainage channel network of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The spectral signatures were obtained in situ and in the laboratory using a portable high-resolution spectroradiometer (ASD FieldSpec 3). The prediction model generated showed high precision in the estimation of salinity in wastewater, a coefficient of determination of 89.6% and a low root mean square error of 0.12‰. Other compounds, which are not discussed here, cause distortion of the absorption bands of water at wavelengths less than 900 nm or near the visible region, while our results showed distortions in the water spectrum at higher wavelengths (>1,000 nm). PMID:23985519

Ontiveros, Ronald; Diakite, Lamine; Edna Alvarez, M; Coras, Pablo

2013-01-01

298

Slope destabilization during the Messinian Salinity Crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Messinian Salinity Crisis, ~ 6 Myr ago, deep canyons were incised when a huge sea-level drawdown of ~ 1.5 km affected the Mediterranean Sea. Nearly contemporaneously, more than 2 km of evaporites accumulated in the basin. This event was the consequence of a complex interaction of tectonic movements and global sea-level variation associated with climatic evolution. This unusual event ended with the reflooding of the Mediterranean area. In this paper, using seismic line interpretation, we show that several landslides occurred in various parts of the Mediterranean Basin during this crisis. Three of these landslides are well preserved, and their dynamics were analyzed. Modeling of the slope stability demonstrates that these landslides may have been due to (i) the relief created by the deep erosion, and/or (ii) the reflooding, which triggered a pore pressure increase. The relatively small run-out distances of the three landslides suggest propagation in a submarine environment and triggering by sea-level rise.

Gargani, Julien; Bache, François; Jouannic, Gwenael; Gorini, Christian

2014-05-01

299

Photochemical Chlorine Activation From Artificial Saline Snowpacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Halogen activation on snow and ice substrates has a profound influence on the oxidative capacity of the polar boundary layer. The release of reactive chlorine species is of particular interest since chlorine atoms can participate in both ozone depletion and organic oxidation. However, the mechanisms by which halides in sea ice substrates are converted into reactive halogen species are not well understood. In this study we investigated the photochemical activation of chlorine from artificial saline snow. Gas phase Cl2, BrCl and Br2 were detected using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. We observe the dark release of Br2 in the presence of ozone; BrCl and Cl2 are only observed in the presence of both ozone and light. Interestingly, the release of reactive chlorine species persists when a 320 nm or a 380 nm long-pass filter is placed in the light path. Results suggest that smaller snow grains, which present a larger total snow surface area, enhance chlorine production to a greater extent than BrCl or Br2 production. Here we also present the effect of temperature (above and below the NaCl euctectic), acidity, chloride concentration, and ozone concentration on the production of Br2, BrCl and Cl2. Overall the results indicate that a mechanism involving UV-A light and ozone leads to chlorine activation, which may be particularly important in bromide-depleted snow.

Wren, S. N.; Abbatt, J.; Donaldson, J.

2012-12-01

300

Chemistry of saline-water chlorination  

SciTech Connect

Vast quantities of natural waters are used by power plants for cooling purposes. This water is chlorinated to prevent slime build-up inside the cooling pipes, is circulated through the cooling system, and eventually discharged back into the water body. In order to assess the environmental impact of water chlorination, it is necessary to know what chemical compounds are produced and discharged into the receiving waters. To attack this problem, a review of the present state of knowledge of natural water chlorination chemistry was performed, and some experimental work explained the results of previous workers by showing that chlorine losses at very high doses in seawater are simply the result of chlorate and bromate formation which, however, is negligible at normal doses. The most important chlorine-produced oxidants, along with the relevant chemical reactions, were chosen as a basis for a kinetic model of saline water chlorination chemistry. Kinetic data were compiled in a computer program which simultaneously solves 24 differential equations, one for each species modelled. Estimates were made for the unknown rate constants. A purely predictive model was not possible due to the great variability in the organic demand; however, the model is applicable under a broad variety of conditions (except sunlight), and it provides a reasonably good description of a halamine chemistry under environmental conditions.

Haag, W.R.

1981-06-01

301

The influence of salinity on D/H fractionation in dinosterol and brassicasterol from globally distributed saline and hypersaline lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinity, growth rate, growth stage, nutrient limitation and temperature have all been shown to influence the magnitude of D/H fractionation in algal lipids through laboratory and field studies. Of these factors, salinity has been studied most extensively in the field, but to date all such investigations have focused on transect studies within specific and isolated environments. Here we test the relationship between salinity and the magnitude of D/H fractionation in algal lipids through paired analyses of sedimentary and particulate lipid and water hydrogen isotope values at a wide range of continental and coastal lake sites spanning salinities from 0 to 117 ppt. Our results demonstrate broad consistency between D/H fractionations in dinosterol and brassicasterol with those obtained from previous work, with salinity changes of 1 ppt resulting in lipid ?D changes of 0.7-1‰. Although our results also show variability in D/H fractionation between sites that is not related to salinity, the fact that any relationship emerges above the influences of other factors suggests that the salinity effect is dominant for some lipids in the majority of saline to hypersaline environments. This improved understanding of D/H fractionation in dinosterol and brassicasterol synthesis supports the use of these compounds as paleohydrologic indicators. When combined with D/H measurements from a second lipid or oxygen isotope measurements from carbonate, quantitative reconstructions of salinity and lake water isotope changes are possible. Extending the number of algal lipids within which a consistent relationship between D/H fractionation and salinity has been identified also supports the notion that the relationship is widespread among unicellular photoautotrophs.

Nelson, Daniel B.; Sachs, Julian P.

2014-05-01

302

Volume rendering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for rendering images of volumes containing mixtures of materials is presented. The shading model allows both the interior of a material and the boundary between materials to be colored. Image projection is performed by simulating the absorption of light along the ray path to the eye. The algorithms used are designed to avoid artifacts caused by aliasing and

Robert A. Drebin; Loren C. Carpenter; Pat Hanrahan

1988-01-01

303

The influnce of volume expanison on renal function after relief of chronic unilateral ureteral obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of volume expansion on renal function after relief of unilateral chronic ureteral obstruction. Postobstructive diuresis was not observed after the relief of chronic partial ureteral obstruction in hydropenic rats with an intact contralateral kidney. However, when such animals were volume-expanded with hypotonic saline solution after relief of obstruction, urine flow from the hydronephrotic kidney was double that of

Douglas R Wilson

1974-01-01

304

Sea-Surface Temperature and Salinity Mapping from Remote Microwave Radiometric Measurements of Brightness Temperature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technique to measure remotely sea surface temperature and salinity was demonstrated with a dual frequency microwave radiometer system. Accuracies in temperature of 1 C and in salinity of part thousand for salinity greater than 5 parts per thousand were ...

C. B. Hans-Juergen B. M. Kendall J. C. Fedors

1977-01-01

305

40 CFR 436.120 - Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. 436.120 Section 436...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salines From Brine Lakes Subcategory § 436.120 Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. The provisions of...

2013-07-01

306

Differences in salinity tolerance of genetically distinct Phragmites australis clones  

PubMed Central

Different clones of the wetland grass Phragmites australis differ in their morphology and physiology, and hence in their ability to cope with environmental stress. We analysed the responses of 15 P. australis clones with distinct ploidy levels (PLs) (4n, 6n, 8n, 10n, 12n) and geographic origins (Romania, Russia, Japan, Czech Republic, Australia) to step-wise increased salinity (8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 56 and 72 ppt). Shoot elongation rate, photosynthesis and plant part-specific ion accumulation were studied in order to assess if traits associated with salinity tolerance can be related to the genetic background and the geographic origin of the clones. Salt stress affected all clones, but at different rates. The maximum height was reduced from 1860 mm in control plants to 660 mm at 40 ppt salinity. The shoot elongation rate of salt-exposed plants varied significantly between clones until 40 ppt salinity. The light-saturated photosynthesis rate (Pmax) was stimulated by a salinity of 8 ppt, but decreased significantly at higher salinities. The stomatal conductance (gs) and the transpiration rate (E) decreased with increasing salinity. Only three clones survived at 72 ppt salinity, although their rates of photosynthesis were strongly inhibited. The roots and basal leaves of the salt-exposed plants accumulated high concentrations of water-extractable Na+ (1646 and 1004 µmol g?1 dry mass (DM), respectively) and Cl? (1876 and 1400 µmol g?1 DM, respectively). The concentrations of water-extractable Mg2+ and Ca2+ were reduced in salt-exposed plants compared with controls. The variation of all the measured parameters was higher among clones than among PLs. We conclude that the salinity tolerance of distinct P. australis clones varies widely and can be partially attributed to their longitudinal geographic origin, but not to PL. Further investigation will help in improving the understanding of this species' salt tolerance mechanisms and their connection to genetic factors.

Achenbach, Luciana; Eller, Franziska; Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Brix, Hans

2013-01-01

307

Salinity and Temperature Tolerance Experiments on Selected Florida Bay Mollusks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ultimate goal of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) is to restore and preserve the unique ecosystems of South Florida, including the estuaries. Understanding the effect of salinity and temperature changes, beyond typical oscillations, on the biota of South Florida's estuaries is a necessary component of achieving the goal of restoring the estuaries. The U.S. Geological Survey has been actively involved in researching the history of the South Florida Ecosystem, to provide targets, performance measures, and baseline data for restoration managers. These experiments addressed two aspects of ecosystem history research: 1) determining the utility of using molluscan shells as recorders of change in water chemistry parameters, primarily salinity, and 2) enhancing our in situ observations on modern assemblages by exceeding typically observed aquatic conditions. This set of experiments expanded our understanding of the effects of salinity, temperature and other water chemistry parameters on the reproduction, growth and overall survivability of key species of mollusks used in interpreting sediment core data. Observations on mollusks, plants and microbes made as part of these experiments have further refined our knowledge and understanding of the effects of ecosystem feedback and the role salinity and temperature play in ecosystem stability. The results have demonstrated the viability of several molluscan species as indicators of atypical salinity, and possibly temperature, modulations. For example Cerithium muscarum and Bulla striata demonstrated an ability to withstand a broad salinity and temperature range, with reproduction occurring in atypically high salinities and temperatures. These experiments also provided calibration data for the shell biogeochemistry of Chione cancellata and the possible use of this species as a water chemistry recorder. Observations made in the mesocosms, on a scale not normally observable in the field, have led to new questions about the influence of salinity on the localized ecosystem. The next phase of these experiments; to calibrate growth rate and reproductive viability in atypical salinities is currently underway.

Murray, James B.; Wingard, G. Lynn

2006-01-01

308

The individual response of saline lakes to a severe drought.  

PubMed

A severe protracted drought between 1997 and 2009 has altered the physical and chemical hydrology of a series of lakes in the Corangamite Basin of southeast Australia. Leading up to the drying out of most lakes (many for the first time on record), we document the changes in lakes' water quantity (water levels and inundation), salinity (Cl concentrations), salinity processes (Cl/Br ratios), nutrient concentrations and ratios (ammonia, phosphate and NOx (nitrate and nitrite)) and algae (as chlorophyll-a) for six lakes. All lakes show record declines in inundated areas and increases in salinity from pre-drought (<1997) to drought conditions. However, the magnitude of change in salinity varies for different lakes, and there is no systematic change in the controls on lake salinity processes. Four lakes show no change in salinity processes, one lake shows the beginnings of change; where halite dissolution reactions increased closer to the time of the lake drying up, and another lake shows a marked shift from predominantly evaporation to the cyclic dissolution and precipitation of halite. Changes in filterable reactive phosphorus (FRP) values and lake N and P limitation predictions also showed little systematic correlation with changes in lake salinity, and nutrient values varied between lakes and over time. The decline in NO(x) concentrations in lakes where electrical conductivity (EC) values were above 100 mS/cm indicates some correlation with changes in salinity. Largely, these lakes exhibit individual changes in water quality parameters and salinity processes in response to the drought, indicating that while the stress of drought is regional, the hydrochemical response is local. In future changing climates, these results suggest that the catchment adaption strategies will require comprehensive plans for individual lake systems. PMID:21752428

Tweed, Sarah; Grace, Mike; Leblanc, Marc; Cartwright, Ian; Smithyman, Donna

2011-09-01

309

Influence of net freshwater supply on salinity in Florida Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An annual water budget for Florida Bay, the large, seasonally hypersaline estuary in the Everglades National Park, was constructed using physically based models and long-term (31 years) data on salinity, hydrology, and climate. Effects of seasonal and interannual variations of the net freshwater supply (runoff plus rainfall minus evaporation) on salinity variation within the bay were also examined. Particular attention was paid to the effects of runoff, which are the focus of ambitious plans to restore and conserve the Florida Bay ecosystem. From 1965 to 1995 the annual runoff from the Everglades into the bay was less than one tenth of the annual direct rainfall onto the bay, while estimated annual evaporation slightly exceeded annual rainfall. The average net freshwater supply to the bay over a year was thus approximately zero, and interannual variations in salinity appeared to be affected primarily by interannual fluctuations in rainfall. At the annual scale, runoff apparently had little effect on the bay as a whole during this period. On a seasonal basis, variations in rainfall, evaporation, and runoff were not in phase, and the net freshwater supply to the bay varied between positive and negative values, contributing to a strong seasonal pattern in salinity, especially in regions of the bay relatively isolated from exchanges with the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. Changes in runoff could have a greater effect on salinity in the bay if the seasonal patterns of rainfall and evaporation and the timing of the runoff are considered. One model was also used to simulate spatial and temporal patterns of salinity responses expected to result from changes in net freshwater supply. Simulations in which runoff was increased by a factor of 2 (but with no change in spatial pattern) indicated that increased runoff will lower salinity values in eastern Florida Bay, increase the variability of salinity in the South Region, but have little effect on salinity in the Central and West Regions.

Nuttle, W. K.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Cosby, B. J.; Zieman, J. C.; Robblee, M. B.

2000-01-01

310

Effect of extracellular volume expansion upon sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron of dogs.  

PubMed

Micropuncture studies have disclosed that extracellular fluid (ECF) volume expansion inhibits sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule. The diuresis that ensues represents only a portion of the increment in sodium and water escaping proximal reabsorption, since a large and variable fraction of the increment is reabsorbed distally. In certain experimental models proximal reabsorption may be depressed by ECF volume expansion, yet only a negligible amount of sodium appears in the final urine. This suggests that saline diuresis is the consequence of depressed distal sodium reabsorption. Previous clearance and micropuncture studies have not conclusively proven this. Eight dogs were studied repeatedly: in some studies glomerular filtration rate and distal delivery were increased markedly without sodium administration; in others comparably high distal sodium loads were achieved by progressive 1/2 isotonic saline infusion. C(H2O) at high distal sodium loads was depressed by expansion of the ECF volume with hypotonic saline. The difference in free water formation between dogs which did and did not receive hypotonic saline was accounted for by the difference in sodium excretion. In one dog hypotonic saline expansion failed to depress free water formation; likewise the level of natriuresis in this dog was severely attenuated. The results of these experiments provide strong evidence that the natriuresis that occurs following ECF volume expansion with saline is a consequence of alteration in function of the distal nephron. PMID:4729048

Bennett, C M

1973-10-01

311

Remote Sensing of Salinity: The Dielectric Constant of Sea Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global monitoring of sea surface salinity from space requires an accurate model for the dielectric constant of sea water as a function of salinity and temperature to characterize the emissivity of the surface. Measurements are being made at 1.413 GHz, the center frequency of the Aquarius radiometers, using a resonant cavity and the perturbation method. The cavity is operated in a transmission mode and immersed in a liquid bath to control temperature. Multiple measurements are made at each temperature and salinity. Error budgets indicate a relative accuracy for both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of about 1%.

LeVine, David M.; Lang, R.; Utku, C.; Tarkocin, Y.

2011-01-01

312

Aquarius and Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Salinity from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius is an L-band radiometer and scatterometer instrument combination designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The instrument is designed to provide global salinity maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. The science objective is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This data will promote understanding of ocean circulation and its role in the global water cycle and climate.

LeVine, David M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Torrusio, S.

2012-01-01

313

GLOBE Videos: Hydrology Protocols-Salinity (11:52 min)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The video is a procedural guide to sampling salinity measurements in water bodies in the field. It provides a step-by-step explanation of field procedures and features students conducting the investigation and asking questions about what changes in salinity could indicate in rivers, lakes, and estuaries. The resource includes a video, transcript, and is supported by the Salinity Protocol in the GLOBE Teacher's Guide. This is one of seven videos on hydrology in the 24-part instructional video series describing scientific protocols used by GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment), a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

314

Effects of temperature and salinity on light scattering by water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical model on light scattering by water was developed from the thermodynamic principles and was used to evaluate the effects of temperature and salinity. The results agreed with the measurements by Morel within 1%. The scattering increases with salinity in a non-linear manner and the empirical linear model underestimate the scattering by seawater for S < 40 psu. Seawater also exhibits an 'anomalous' scattering behavior with a minimum occurring at 24.64 °C for pure water and this minimum increases with the salinity, reaching 27.49 °C at 40 psu.

Zhang, Xiaodong; Hu, Lianbo

2010-04-01

315

Salinity effects on leaf anatomy: consequences for photosynthesis.  

PubMed

Increasing salinity led to substantially higher ratios of mesophyll surface area to leaf area (A(mes)/A) for Phaseolus vulgaris and Gossypium hirsutum and a smaller increase for Atriplex patula, a salt-tolerant species. The increase in internal surface for CO(2) absorption did not lead to higher CO(2) uptake rates, since the CO(2) resistance expressed on the basis of mesophyll cell wall area (r(cell)) increased even more with salinity. The differences among species in the sensitivity of photosynthesis to salinity in part reflect the different A(mes)/A and r(cell) responses. PMID:16660795

Longstreth, D J; Nobel, P S

1979-04-01

316

Florida Current Salinity and Transport Variation across the Last Glacial Termination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By correlating increased glacial salinities in the Caribbean and the North Atlantic gyre to periods of reduced North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC), Schmidt et al. (2004) and Schmidt et al., (in press) showed that the tropical hydrologic cycle may play an important role in regulating rapid climate change through its influence on the Atlantic salinity budget. However, an important question remains as to whether the calculated glacial/stadial salinity increases are simply the result of reduced deep-water export from the North Atlantic during glacial episodes or if they result from a tropical hydrologic cycle feedback mechanism leading to decreased freshwater input into the glacial north Atlantic. In order to generate a surface-water temperature and salinity record for the last 23 kyr, we combined Mg/Ca measurements (a proxy for the temperature of calcification) with ?18O analyses of shells from the surface-dwelling foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber in the Southern Florida Straits core KNR166-2-JPC29 (24°17'N, 83°16'W; 648 m; 9-19 cm/kyr sed. rate) to produce a record of ?18OSEAWATER (?18OSW) across the last glacial termination. After removing the ?18OSW signal due to glacial ice volume variation (Fairbanks, 1989) and normalization to the modern local ?18OSW value (1.0‰), the resulting ice volume-free (??18OIVF-SW) record (a proxy for sea surface salinity (SSS) variability due to regional hydrological change) shows that Florida Straits ??18OIVF-SW increased by more than 0.6‰ during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), Heinrich Event 1, and the Younger Dryas (YD) and returned to modern values (~0.0‰) during the Bolling Allerod and the Holocene. Based on the modern tropical Atlantic ?18OSW:SSS relationship, ?18OSW = 0.26*SSS- 8.44, these enriched ?18OSW values suggest salinity increases of 2.3 to 3.5‰ during cold events in the North Atlantic. Because the Florida Current is in geostrophic balance as it passes through the Florida Straits, the seawater density contrast across the Straits can be used to calculate transport rates. Based on ?18O profiles in benthic foraminifera from across the Straits, Lynch-Stieglitz et al. (1999) showed that the LGM density contrast was significantly relaxed, reflecting reduced conveyor-belt transport. New records of benthic ?18O profiles across the Straits over the last 13 kyr also suggest significantly reduced Gulf Stream transport during the YD. The interval of reduced flow coincides with anomalously high SSS in the JPC29 record. In order to determine the relative timing between surface water ?18OSW enrichment and reduced conveyor-belt transport, we are currently constructing a high-resolution (~70 yr/sample) YD record of paired surface-water ?18OSW and benthic ?18O change from core KNR166-2-JPC26 (24°20'N, 83°15'W; 546 m, 120 cm/kyr sed. rate through the YD). If the primarily driver of surface salinity change in the tropical Atlantic is the hydrologic cycle, then paired surface and deep water proxies will show synchronous change. However, if ocean circulation changes are the primary driver, then we predict a more gradual increase in surface ?18OSW in response to reduced Gulf Stream flow. Therefore it will be possible to determine the relative importance of each feedback mechanism on elevating SSS in the Tropical Atlantic.

Schmidt, M. W.; Henry, L. E.; Lynch-Stieglitz, J.

2006-12-01

317

Photochemical chlorine activation from artificial saline snowpacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Halogen activation on snow and ice substrates has a profound influence on the oxidative capacity of the polar boundary layer. The release of reactive chlorine species is of particular interest since chlorine atoms can participate in both ozone depletion and hydrocarbon oxidation. However, the mechanisms by which halides in sea ice substrates are converted into reactive halogen species are not well understood. In this study we investigated the activation of halogens from artificial saline snow in the presence of light and ozone. Gas phase Cl2, BrCl and Br2 were detected using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. We observe the dark release of Br2 in the presence of ozone; BrCl and Cl2 are only observed in the presence of both ozone and light. Interestingly, photo-induced release of halogens is still seen when a 320 nm or a 380 nm long-pass filter is placed in the light path. The observed halogen release is consistent with the chemistry occurring in a concentrated brine located at the surface of the snow grains. Results suggest that smaller snow grains, which present a larger total snow surface area, enhance chlorine production to a greater extent than BrCl or Br2 production. Chlorine production is shown to be strongly pH dependent, with higher chlorine yields under acidic conditions. Overall the results indicate that a mechanism involving UV-A light and ozone leads to accelerated halogen activation, which may be particularly important for releasing chlorine from bromide-depleted snow.

Wren, Sumi; Donaldson, James; Abbatt, Jon

2013-04-01

318

Salinity's Role in Tropical Atlantic Instability Waves: new knowledge from salinity remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical Atlantic instability waves (TIWs) play important roles in the dynamics of the tropical Atlantic Ocean and related climate variability. Previous studies based on satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data and mooring observations suggest that these waves are the most energetic in the eastern equatorial Atlantic and during late (boreal) spring and early summer. Satellite remote sensing of sea surface salinity (SSS) from SMOS and Aquarius provides a unique vantage point to identify new features of these waves in terms of zonal and seasonal variability. Aquarius SSS data reveal that the TIWs remain energetic in the western equatorial Atlantic despite a much weaker SST signature. Surface perturbation potential energy (PPE), the source of the downward potential energy propagation associated with the TIWs, has a larger contribution by SST (than by SSS) in the east but is primarily due to SSS in the west. The co-variability between SSS and SST also has significant contribution to surface PPE across the basin. While surface PPE is large in late spring and early summer in the east, it is also large during late summer and early fall in the west. The latter is associated with the retroflection of the North Brazil Current into the North Equatorial Countercurrent in the west during these times, carrying with it the fresh water from the Amazon River outflow to set up a large meridional salinity (and thus density) gradient.

(Tony) Lee, Tong; Lagerloef, Gary; Kao, Hsun-Ying; McPhaden, Michael; Willis, Joshua; Gierach, Michelle

2014-05-01

319

Saline water irrigation effects on soil salinity distribution and some physiological responses of field grown Chemlali olive.  

PubMed

The shortage of water resources of good quality is becoming an issue in arid and semi arid regions. Per consequent, the use of water resources of marginal quality is becoming an important consideration, particularly in arid regions in Tunisia, where large quantities of saline water are used for irrigation. Nevertheless, the use of these waters in irrigated lands requires the control of soil salinity and a comprehensive analysis even beyond the area where water is applied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of saline water irrigation on soil salinity distribution and some physiological traits of field-grown adult olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) under contrasting environmental conditions of the arid region in the south of Tunisia. The plants were subjected, over two growing seasons, to two drip irrigated treatments: fresh water (ECe=1.2 dS m(-1), FW) and saline water (ECe=7.5 dS m(-1), SW). Saline water irrigation (SW) has led to a significant increase in soil salinity. Furthermore, these results showed that soil salinity and soil moisture variations are not only dependent on water salinity level but are also controlled by a multitude of factors particularly the soil texture, the distance from the irrigation source and climatic conditions (rainfall pattern, temperature average, …). On the other hand, salt treatment reduced leaf midday water potential (LMWP), relative water content and photosynthetic activity and increased the leaf proline content, and this increase was season-dependent. Indeed, LMWP in SW plants decreased to -3.71 MPa. Furthermore, the highest level of proline in SW plants was registered during summer period (2.19 ?mol/mg Fw). The proline accumulation recorded in stressed plants has allowed them to preserve appropriate leaf water status and photosynthetic activity. More to the point, this olive cultivar seems to be more sensible to soil salinity during the intense growth phase. Such tendencies would help to better manage water resources for irrigation, particularly under actual climatic conditions of water scarcity. For example, in the case of the availability of different water qualities, it would be better to preserve those of high quality for olive irrigation during the intense vegetative growth phase, in coincidence with high salt sensitive period, and those of low quality for irrigation during partial growth and plant rest phases. What's more, the urgent use of saline water for irrigation should not be applied without taking into consideration the different surroundings conditions where it is used, particularly the water salinity level, the soil type, the adopted irrigation system, the degree of the crop salt tolerance, the plant growth phase and the climatic conditions of the experimental site. PMID:22572465

Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Magdich, Salwa; Ben Rouina, Bechir; Boukhris, Makki; Ben Abdullah, Ferjani

2012-12-30

320

Maintenance of Brine Transparency in Salinity Gradient Solar Ponds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experience with maintenance of brine transparency during the more than eight years of operation of the 100 square meter Research Salinity Gradient Solar Pond at Argonne National Laboratory suggests that, for many sodium chloride brines, algal growth may b...

J. R. Hull

1989-01-01

321

Indian Ocean Rossby Waves Deteced in HYCOM Sea Surface Salinity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rossby waves have been well identified in satellite derived sea surface height (SSH), sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean color observations. Studies of Rossby waves have yet to include sea surface salinity (SSS) as a parameter, largely because presen...

B. Subrahmanyam D. Heffner J. Shriver

2008-01-01

322

SPURS Overview: Salinity Processes Upper Ocean Regional Study First Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-national study of the surface salinity maximum of the North Atlantic was initiated in 2012. We are seeking answers to basic questions about how the salinity maximum is maintained. The Salinity maximum occurs in a region where evaporation is large and precipitation small, where winds drive convergent surface flow and eddy kinetic energy is low. We are attempting to ascertain the relative roles of lateral and vertical mixing in dissipating the high salinities built up by surface water loss. The field program utilizes a suite of autonomous gliders, floats, drifters and moorings as well as ship operations. Real-time model runs incorporate satellite and in-situ data and provide guidance to the shipboard sampling. Results from the first cruise in September-October 2012 will be presented.

Schmitt, R. W.

2012-12-01

323

Effects of Salinity on the Microwave Emission of Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Controlled plot experiments were conducted to collect L and C band passive microwave data concurrent with ground observations of salinity and soil moisture. Two dielectric mixing models were used with an emission model to predict the emissivity from a bar...

T. J. Jackson P. E. Oneill

1986-01-01

324

Protein Contribution to Plant Salinity Response and Tolerance Acquisition  

PubMed Central

The review is focused on plant proteome response to salinity with respect to physiological aspects of plant salt stress response. The attention is paid to both osmotic and ionic effects of salinity stress on plants with respect to several protein functional groups. Therefore, the role of individual proteins involved in signalling, changes in gene expression, protein biosynthesis and degradation and the resulting changes in protein relative abundance in proteins involved in energy metabolism, redox metabolism, stressand defence-related proteins, osmolyte metabolism, phytohormone, lipid and secondary metabolism, mechanical stress-related proteins as well as protein posttranslational modifications are discussed. Differences between salt-sensitive (glycophytes) and salt-tolerant (halophytes) plants are analysed with respect to differential salinity tolerance. In conclusion, contribution of proteomic studies to understanding plant salinity tolerance is summarised and discussed.

Kosova, Klara; Prasil, Ilja T.; Vitamvas, Pavel

2013-01-01

325

Cyclic Storage of Fresh Water in Saline Aquifers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The storage of fresh water in horizontal, confined saline aquifers is technically feasible. Experimental results with physical aquifer models involving single and multiple injection/production wells were used to verify computer programs for: Prediction of...

O. K. Kimbler R. G. Kazmann W. R. Whitehead

1975-01-01

326

Salinity Influence on Interfacial Area, Wettability, and NAPL Recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wettability, the tendency of rock or sediment particle surfaces to be preferentially wet by one fluid phase, has a strong influence on the distribution and flow of immiscible fluids in oil reservoirs or aquifers. The efficiency of oil and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) recovery processes and the displacement and production of oil/NAPL by fluids injected into the reservoir or aquifer depend on the wetting properties of the rock/sediment particle surfaces. Effects of salinity on wettability and residual oil saturation during water flooding are of particular interest in the petroleum industry with some reservoirs. It was indicated that the residual oil saturation may be reduced significantly by flooding with low salinity water instead of seawater or brine. This observation may be also true in NAPL recovery from contaminated aquifers. NAPL recovery enhancement may be achieved by manipulating the salinity of the remedial fluid. Two sets of 8 core-flooding column experiments have been completed, using decane and Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil as surrogate NAPLs. Unconsolidated sand packs were used as representative porous media. NAPL removal was conducted by flushing column at residual NAPL saturation using water with salinity ranging from 0% to 8% wt of NaCl. The NAPL-water interfacial area (anw, cm-1) was measured and used as an indicator for the wettability characteristics of the packed sand. Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate (SDBS) was used as an interfacial partitioning tracer and Pentafluoro Benzoic acid (PFBA) was used as a non-reactive and non-partitioning tracer. NAPL was imbibed into an initially water saturated column, using positive displacement methods. NAPL was then flushed out using water at certain salinity. When the column attained a residual NAPL saturation after each water flushing displacement, the partitioning and conservative tracer experiments were conducted separately, to characterize the specific NAPL-water interfacial areas, and the wettability status. Water with 8%, 4%, 2%, 0% wt NaCl salinity was used to displace NAPL from the sand column sequentially. The interfacial tension (IFT) between the salinity water and the ANS oil was monitored. The residual oil saturations indicated that the fraction of NAPL retained in the column increased after water flushing as the salinity in the displacing water increased from 0 to 8%, clearly confirming the earlier findings that lower salinity may cause additional oil to be released. The NAPL-water interfacial area, anw, does not show a monotonic dependence on salinity; instead, anw shows an increasing trend with increasing salinity in the lower salinity range, and the opposite trend at high salinity values. The maximum anw was obtained in systems flushed with 2% salinity water. This trend appears to be consistent with a similar nonlinear dependence of interfacial tension on salinity, and might be an indication of wettability alternation. The observation of this research shread lights on the optimum operation in NAPL removal. The IFT change between NAPL and the salinity water might be attributed to the enhanced NAPL recovery.

Zhong, L.; Valenta, M. M.

2007-12-01

327

Effects of Nasal Saline Spray on Human Neutrophils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nasal saline spray (NSS) used in the treatment of rhinitis and sinusitis often contains the preservative benzalkonium chloride (BkO). Previous studies have shown that steroid nasal sprays and topical decongestants containing BKO damage respiratory mucosa,...

M. E. Boston

2002-01-01

328

A Salinity Management Strategy for Stream-Aquifer Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the pressing problems facing the irrigation intensive areas is the increasing salinity of groundwater. Currently proposed solutions, such as agricultural sewering and desalinization, require large capital investment. There appear to be few availabl...

O. J. Helweg J. W. Labadie

1976-01-01

329

Anaerobic digestion of marine microalgae in different salinity levels.  

PubMed

In the context of biofuel production from marine microalgae, anaerobic digestion has the potential to make the process more sustainable and to increase energy efficiency. However, the use of salt-containing microalgae organic residues entails the presence of salts which inhibits methanogenesis. The search for suitable anaerobic microbial consortium adapted to saline conditions can boost the anaerobic conversion into methane. The anaerobic digestion performance of three different anaerobic microbial consortia was assessed in batch tests at different salinities between 15 and 150gL(-1) and for three successive substrate additions. After an acclimation period, the methane (CH4) yield of the halophilic methanogens at 35gL(-1) of salinity was close to the reference value without salt addition. Above 75gL(-1) of salinity, methanogenesis was considerably slowed down. The results underline that methane production from halophilic sediment can be envisaged and promoted for practical application at a seawater concentration. PMID:24632407

Mottet, Alexis; Habouzit, Frédéric; Steyer, Jean Philippe

2014-04-01

330

ConcepTest: Ocean Salinity During an Ice Age  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One million years ago ice sheets covered much of the Earth's land surface during an ice age. How did this affect the salinity of the oceans? a. Oceans were saltier than today. b. Oceans were less salty than ...

331

Safety and Feasibility of High-pressure Transvenous Limb Perfusion With 0.9% Saline in Human Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

We evaluated safety and feasibility of the transvenous limb perfusion gene delivery method in muscular dystrophy. A dose escalation study of single limb perfusion with 0.9% saline starting with 5% of limb volume was carried out in adults with muscular dystrophies under intravenous analgesia/anesthesia. Cardiac, vascular, renal, muscle, and nerve functions were monitored. A tourniquet was placed above the knee with inflated pressure of 310 mm Hg. Infusion was carried out with a clinically approved infuser via an intravenous catheter inserted in the saphenous vein with a goal infusion rate of 80 ml/minute. Infusion volume was escalated stepwise to 20% limb volume in seven subjects. No subject complained of any post procedure pain other than due to needle punctures. Safety warning boundaries were exceeded only for transient depression of limb tissue oximetry and transient elevation of muscle compartment pressures; these were not associated with nerve, muscle, or vascular damage. Muscle magnetic resonant imaging (MRI) demonstrated fluid accumulation in muscles of the perfused lower extremity. High-pressure retrograde transvenous limb perfusion with saline up to 20% of limb volume at above infusion parameters is safe and feasible in adult human muscular dystrophy. This study will serve as a basis for future gene transfer clinical trials.

Fan, Zheng; Kocis, Keith; Valley, Robert; Howard, James F; Chopra, Manisha; An, Hongyu; Lin, Weili; Muenzer, Joseph; Powers, William

2012-01-01

332

Factors driving bottom salinity variability in the Chesapeake Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term variability of bottom salinity in the Chesapeake Bay is examined using observations from 1985 to 2004. Simple linear regression analysis based on annual mean data shows that the bottom salinity is significantly correlated with both the Susquehanna River discharge and the Gulf Stream (GS) index, which represents shelf and slope water salinity. This suggests that local forcings as well as external processes affect the variation of bottom salinity on interannual to decadal time scales. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is used to extract patterns among 21 sampling stations along the bay. The first seven EOF modes explain approximately 85% of total variance, and consequently they are combined to represent the variability of bottom salinity anomaly in the bay. The wavelet transform of the bottom salinity anomaly reveals significant areas centered at the periods of 2 and 7.5 years, which is consistent with the results from Fourier spectral analysis. The significant powers in the bottom salinity anomaly exhibit spectral correspondences to the wavelet power spectra of both the river discharge and the GS index, suggesting possible connections between them. Wavelet coherence is employed to determine whether relationship in power spectra between two time series is statistically significant. Our results clearly demonstrate that the interannual variability of the bottom salinity is forced by the freshwater discharge, and the quasi-decadal variability is associated with shelf-slope water condition through horizontal exchange. No evidence is found to indicate that there is influence of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the variability of the river discharge, but the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) may be related to it at decadal or longer time scales.

Lee, Younjoo J.; Lwiza, Kamazima M. M.

2008-06-01

333

Solving the Salinity Control Problem in a Potable Water System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity is the relative concentration of salts in water. In a city of southern China, the local water supply company pumps\\u000a water from a nearby river for potable use. During the winter dry season, the intrusion of sea water raises the salinity of\\u000a the river to a high level and affects approximately the daily life of 450,000 residents of the

Chiu Wo Choi; Jimmy Ho-man Lee

2007-01-01

334

SMOS: a satellite mission to measure ocean surface salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ESA's SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission will be launched by 2005. Its baseline payload is a microwave L-band (21 cm, 1.4 GHz) 2D interferometric radiometer, Y shaped, with three arms 4.5 m long. This frequency allows the measurement of brightness temperature (Tb) under the best conditions to retrieve soil moisture and sea surface salinity

Yann H. Kerr; Meric A. Srokosz; Jacqueline Etcheto; Gary S. Lagerloef; Adriano Camps; Philippe Waldteufel

2001-01-01

335

Effect of soil and water salinity on tomato growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yield of tomatoes for processing (Lycopersicon esculentum var. VF145 B. 7879) grown in artificially salinized plots, was reduced by 10% for every 1.5 mmhos\\/cm increase in ECe above 2.0 mmhos\\/cm. Yield reduction was the same for equal mean soil salinities regardless of leaching and the rate of salt accumulation in the soil. Total soluble solids content increased with increasing

J. Shalhevet; B. Yaron

1973-01-01

336

Effectiveness of normal saline diuresis in treating lithium overdose  

PubMed Central

Lithium carbonate is a common treatment for mood disorders, but it has a very narrow therapeutic index and can be toxic to multiple organ systems. Unfortunately, many patients suffer toxic effects through the course of their therapy. We describe a patient with toxic effects from a high dose of lithium who was successfully treated with normal saline diuresis. We discuss the properties that make lithium susceptible to normal saline diuresis and explore alternative options for treatment of lithium toxicity.

Boltan, David D.

2008-01-01

337

Studies on Halophytes and Salinity Problems in Mediterranean Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainability of irrigation with saline waters can only be achieved if the appropriate management of the whole soil–water–plant–atmosphere\\u000a system is considered. In the present paper is argued that existing guidelines on plant tolerance to salinity and leaching\\u000a requirement supply just roughly approximate, sometimes misleading indications for a correct management.\\u000a \\u000a Results of previous experiments and demonstration activities with woody and

A. Belligno; V. Sardo

338

Plants Under Heavy Metal Stress in Saline Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is devoted to an important yet poorly studied topic, investigations of plant responses to heavy metals (HMs) in\\u000a salinized environments. It embraces information obtained mainly during the last decade. Specific features of the actions of\\u000a NaCl and HMs on plants from various ecological groups are considered. The patterns of HM accumulation and organ specificity\\u000a under saline conditions are

Valentina Kholodova; Kirill Volkov; Vladimir Kuznetsov

339

Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Salinity Laboratory has made available this Web version (.pdf format) of Agriculture handbook number 60, covering a broad range of topics relating to soils and salinity, including: "Improvement and Management of soils in arid and semiarid regions; Plant Response and Crop Selection; Quality of Irrigation Water; Methods for Soil Characterization; Methods of Plant Culture and Analysis; and Methods of Analysis of Irrigation Waters." Chapters may be downloaded separately, and include a literature cited section and a glossary.

340

Remote sensing of soil salinity: potentials and constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil salinity caused by natural or human-induced processes is a major environmental hazard. The global extent of primary salt-affected soils is about 955 M ha, while secondary salinization affects some 77 M ha, with 58% of these in irrigated areas. Nearly 20% of all irrigated land is salt-affected, and this proportion tends to increase in spite of considerable efforts dedicated

G. I Metternicht; J. A Zinck

2003-01-01

341

Salinity-induced calcium deficiencies in wheat and barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity-calcium interactions, which have been shown to be important in plants grown in dryland saline soils of the Canadian prairies, were studied in two species differing in salt tolerance. In solution culture, wheat showed a greater reduction in growth and a higher incidence of foliar Ca deficiency symptoms than barley when grown under MgSO4 or Na2SO4 plus MgSO4 salt stress.

D. L. Ehret; R. E. Redmann; B. L. Harvey; A. Cipywnyk

1990-01-01

342

Influence of seasonal variability of lower Mississippi River discharge, temperature, suspended sediments, and salinity on oil-mineral aggregate formation.  

PubMed

Under certain conditions, oil droplets that have separated from the main oil slick may become coated by suspended sediments forming oil-mineral aggregates (OMAs). The formation of these aggregates depends on suspended particulate characteristics, temperature, salinity, mixing energy, droplet size and number, and oil properties. The OMAs do not re-coalesce with the slick and tend not to adhere to surfaces, potentially evading surface cleanup measures, enhancing opportunity for biodegradation and reducing shoreline oiling. Potential OMA formation was quantified during four distinct states of the Lower Mississippi River during a typical year using empirical relationships from laboratory and field studies for three common oils and different combinations of discharge, temperature, suspended sediments, and salinity. The largest potential OMA formation for the two lighter oils, up to 36% of the total release volume, was in the winter and spring, when high sediment availability promotes formation. For the denser, high-viscosity oil, the peak potential OMA formation, 9% of the release volume, occurred in the summer, when the salinity was higher. These results provide some evidence that, depending on environmental and spill characteristics, the formation of OMAs could be an important, but unaccounted for, process in the fate and transport of oils released in the Lower Mississippi River and should be included in oil spill dispersion models and post-spill site assessment and remediation actions. PMID:21790075

Danchuk, Samantha; Willson, Clinton S

2011-07-01

343

Mechanisms of contrast-induced nephropathy reduction for saline (NaCl) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3).  

PubMed

Nephropathy following contrast media (CM) exposure is reduced by administration before, during, and after the contrast procedure of either isotonic sodium chloride solution (Saline) or isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution (IsoBicarb). The reasons for this reduction are not well established for either sodium salt; probable mechanisms are discussed in this paper. For Saline, the mechanism for the decrease in CIN is likely related primarily to the increased tubular flow rates produced by volume expansion and therefore a decreased concentration of the filtered CM during transit through the kidney tubules. Furthermore, increased tubular flow rates produce a slight increase in tubular pH resulting from a fixed acid excretion in an increased tubular volume. The mechanism for the decreased CIN associated with sodium bicarbonate includes the same mechanisms listed for Saline in addition to a renal pH effect. Increased filtered bicarbonate anion raises both tubular pH and tubular bicarbonate anion levels toward blood physiologic levels, thus providing increased buffer for reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed in the tubules as a result of exposure to CM in renal tubular fluid. PMID:24826379

Burgess, W Patrick; Walker, Phillip J

2014-01-01

344

Mechanisms of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Reduction for Saline (NaCl) and Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3)  

PubMed Central

Nephropathy following contrast media (CM) exposure is reduced by administration before, during, and after the contrast procedure of either isotonic sodium chloride solution (Saline) or isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution (IsoBicarb). The reasons for this reduction are not well established for either sodium salt; probable mechanisms are discussed in this paper. For Saline, the mechanism for the decrease in CIN is likely related primarily to the increased tubular flow rates produced by volume expansion and therefore a decreased concentration of the filtered CM during transit through the kidney tubules. Furthermore, increased tubular flow rates produce a slight increase in tubular pH resulting from a fixed acid excretion in an increased tubular volume. The mechanism for the decreased CIN associated with sodium bicarbonate includes the same mechanisms listed for Saline in addition to a renal pH effect. Increased filtered bicarbonate anion raises both tubular pH and tubular bicarbonate anion levels toward blood physiologic levels, thus providing increased buffer for reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed in the tubules as a result of exposure to CM in renal tubular fluid.

Burgess, W. Patrick; Walker, Phillip J.

2014-01-01

345

Groundwater-saline lakes interaction - The contribution of saline groundwater circulation to solute budget of saline lakes: a lesson from the Dead Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saline lakes act as base level for both surface water and groundwater. Thus, a change in lake levels is expected to result in changes in the hydrogeological system in its vicinity, exhibited in groundwater levels, location of the fresh-saline water interface, sub-lacustrine groundwater discharge (SGD) and saline water circulation. All these processes were observed in the declining Dead Sea system, whose water level dropped by ~35 meters in the last 50 years. This work focuses mainly on the effect of circulation of Dead Sea water in the aquifer, which continues even in this very rapid base level drop. In general, seawater circulation in coastal aquifers is now recognized as a major process affecting trace element mass balances in coastal areas. Estimates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) vary over several orders of magnitude (1-1000000 m3/yr per meter shoreline). These estimates are sensitive to fresh-saline SGD ratios and to the temporal and spatial scales of the circulation. The Dead Sea system is an excellent natural field lab for studying seawater-groundwater interaction and large-scale circulation due to the absence of tides and to the minor role played by waves. During Dead Sea water circulation in the aquifer several geochemical reactions occur, ranging from short-term adsorption-desorption reactions and up to long-term precipitation and dissolution reactions. These processes affect the trace element distribution in the saline groundwater. Barite and celestine, which are supersaturated in the lake water, precipitate during circulation in the aquifer, reducing barium (from 5 to 1.5 mg/L), strontium (from 350 to 300 mg/L) and the long-lived 226Ra (from 145 to 60 dpm/L) in the saline groundwater. Redox-controlled reactions cause a decrease in uranium from 2.4 to 0.1 ?g/L, and an increase in iron from 1 to 13 mg/L. 228Ra (t1/2=5.75 yr) activity in the Dead Sea is ~1 dpm/L and increase gradually as the saline water flows further inland until reaching steady-state activities (~27 dpm/L) with the aquifer sediments. The decrease in 226Ra and increase in 228Ra in the circulation process provide a robust method for calculating the amount of Dead Sea water circulating in the aquifer. This process can affect trace element concentrations in the Dead Sea and emphasize the potential of long-term seawater circulation in mass balances of saline water bodies.

Kiro, Yael; Weinstein, Yishai; Starinsky, Abraham; Yechieli, Yoseph

2013-04-01

346

Interaction of flooding and salinity stress on baldcypress (Taxodium distichum)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coastal wetlands of the Southeastern United States are threatened by increases in flooding and salinity as a result of both natural processes and man-induced hydrolic alterations. Furthermore, global climate change scenarios suggest that, as a consequence of rising sea levels, much larger areas of coastal wetlands may be affected by flooding and salinity in the next 50 to 100 years. In this paper, we review studies designed to improve our ability to predict and ameliorate the impacts of increased flooding and salinity stress on baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.), which is a dominant species of of many coastal forested wetlands. Specifically, we review studies on species-level responses to flooding and salinity stress, alone and in combination, we summarize two studies on intraspecific variation in response to flooding and salinity stress, we analyze the physiological mechanisms thought to be responsible for the interaction between flooding and salinity stress, and we discuss the implications for coastal wetland loss and the prospects for developing salt-tolerant lines of baldcypress.

Allen, J.A.; Pezeshki, S.R.; Chambers, J.L.

1996-01-01

347

[Treatment characteristics of saline domestic wastewater by constructed wetland].  

PubMed

A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using constructed wetland (CW) to remove pollutants from saline domestic sewage. The experimental results indicated that the effects of salinity on the contaminant removal were insignificant when the influent salinities of the CWs were less than or equal to 1.5%. For the influent salinity of 0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%, the average removal rates of the CWs were found to be above 68.3% for COD and above 66.1% for NH4(+) -N. When the influent salinity was increased to 2.0%, the individual numbers of microorganisms in the CW reduced obviously. It was similar to the change of the soil enzyme activity in the CW. Then the removal efficiency of the CW also dropped significantly. The average removal rate of COD and NH4(+) -N dropped to 52.9% and 50.3%, respectively. The effects of HRT on the treatment performance of CW under the saline condition of 1.5% were also investigated in this study. And the results showed that nitrogen removal was more greatly affected by HRT than organic matter removal. The NH4(+) -N removal efficiency in CW decreased from 65.1% -78.2% to 47.1% when the HRT of the CW varied from 3-5 d to 2 d. PMID:23323411

Gao, Feng; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Li, Chen; Jin, Wei-Hong; Deng, Yi-Bing

2012-11-01

348

NASA Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space Education & Public Outreach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aquarius is a focused satellite mission to measure global sea surface salinity. Launching in 2009, this mission will provide the first global map of sea surface salinity with unprecedented accuracy, resolution and coverage. The importance of salinity measurements in understanding coastal ocean processes is critical. Because of its dynamic range in the coastal oceans, salinity is a critical factor in understanding and predicting biological and physical processes and their interactions with the food Web, climate, and global water cycle. AquariusâÂÂs pioneering efforts to deliver the âÂÂmissing pieces of the climate puzzleâ will undoubtedly intrigue informal audiences via the activities and information contained in this Website. Moreover, climate and its influence on humankind is an integral part of K-16 formal education and common to national learning standards. The goal of the Education and Outreach component of Aquarius is to teach fundamental concepts about salinity variations and the role these changes play in controlling global ocean circulation and EarthâÂÂs climate. Education products will appear as modules addressing the missionâÂÂs goals and purpose, augment existing El Nino/La Nina materials with salinity based content, provide on-line interactive tools demonstrating environmental change through data sets and in situ time-series analysis, and engage students in activities designed to demonstrate salt-water interactions.

Decharon, Annette

2010-10-04

349

Identifying Salinity Sources and Quantifying Salinity Loads Along Two Texas Streams Using Stream-axis Airborne EM and Focused Hydrochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We delineated natural and oil-field salinity sources that degrade water quality in the upper Colorado River (west Texas) and Petronila Creek (Texas coast) by combining multi-frequency airborne EM measurements of apparent ground conductivity with chemical analyses of surface water at key stream locations. To reduce the cost of high-resolution airborne surveying over such large areas, we first flew along the stream axes and then examined preliminary results in the field to identify likely salinized stream segments. We then flew more detailed surveys over these areas rather than over the entire basin. Stream-axis EM data also helped identify water-sampling locations upstream and downstream from each salinized segment. We used these data to calculate salinity loads and discriminate among possible natural and oil-field salinity sources. We acquired stream-axis airborne EM data along 437 km of the upper Colorado River and its major tributaries using a Geophex GEM-2A instrument operating at five frequencies between 450 Hz and 39 kHz. Increases in chloride, sulfate, and total salinity loading in the upper Colorado River basin between Lake Thomas and Ivie Reservoir occur along eleven segments of elevated apparent conductivity identified from airborne EM data. Each segment encompasses areas of baseflow salinity contributions to the stream from natural dissolution of evaporite minerals in the Permian basin, from oil-field produced water, or both. Analyses of surface water confirm increases salinity loading associated with each segment. Airborne EM data acquired on the coast along Petronila Creek and within a corridor centered on it revealed three stream segments with elevated ground conductivity. Increases in chloride, sulfate, and total salinity loading are attributed to shallow baseflow contributions along the three segments. Using airborne EM and hydrochemistry data, we interpret the dominant salinization mechanism within the two upstream segments to be historic discharge of produced water into unlined drainage ditches and pits, infiltration into sandy Pleistocene channel deposits, lateral migration as far as several kilometers, and discharge into the stream. Airborne EM and hydrochemical data suggest a combination of oil-field and seawater salinity contributions at the most downstream Petronila Creek segment.

Paine, J. G.; Collins, E. W.; Nance, H. S.; Niemann, K.

2005-12-01

350

Effect of saline water on soil salinity and on water stress, growth, and yield of wheat and potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Wheat and potatoes were grown,in tanks filled with loam and clay and irrigated with water of three different levels of salinity and, for the wheat, with two irrigation regimes. A combination of soil water,sampling ,and ,salt balance ,was ,used ,to study ,the development,of soil salinity and the composition,of the,soil water. This revealed an increase in adsorbed sodium, a decrease

J. W. van Hoorn; N. Katerji; A. Hamdy; M. Mastrorilli

1993-01-01

351

Continuous salinity and temperature data from san francisco estuary, 19822002: Trends and the salinity-freshwater inflow relationship  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey and other federal and state agencies have been collecting continuous temperature and salinity data, two critical estuarine habitat variables, throughout San Francisco estuary for over two decades. Although this dynamic, highly variable system has been well studied, many questions remain relating to the effects of freshwater inflow and other physical and biological linkages. This study examines up to 20 years of publically available, continuous temperature and salinity data from 10 different San Francisco Bay stations to identify trends in temperature and salinity and quantify the salinityfreshwater inflow relationship. Several trends in the salinity and temperature records were identified, although the high degree of daily and interannual variability confounds the analysis. In addition, freshwater inflow to the estuary has a range of effects on salinity from -0.0020 to -0.0096 (m3 s-1) -1 discharge, depending on location in the estuary and the timescale of analyzed data. Finally, we documented that changes in freshwater inflow to the estuary that are within the range of typical management actions can affect bay-wide salinities by 0.61.4. This study reinforces the idea that multidecadal records are needed to identify trends from decadal changes in water management and climate and, therefore, are extremely valuable. ?? 2011 Coastal Education & Research Foundation.

Shellenbarger, G. G.; Schoellhamer, D. H.

2011-01-01

352

Larval Tolerance to Salinity in Three Species of Australian Anuran: An Indication of Saline Specialisation in Litoria aurea  

PubMed Central

Recent anthropogenic influences on freshwater habitats are forcing anuran populations to rapidly adapt to high magnitude changes in environmental conditions or face local extinction. We examined the effects of ecologically relevant elevated salinity levels on larval growth, metamorphosis and survival of three species of Australian anuran; the spotted marsh frog (Limnodynastes tasmaniensis), the painted burrowing frog (Neobatrachus sudelli) and the green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea), in order to better understand the responses of these animals to environmental change. Elevated salinity (16% seawater) negatively impacted on the survival of L. tasmaniensis (35% survival) and N sudelli (0% survival), while reduced salinity had a negative impact on L. aurea. (16% seawater: 85% survival; 0.4% seawater: 35% survival). L. aurea tadpoles survived in salinities much higher than previously reported for this species, indicating the potential for inter-populations differences in salinity tolerance. In L. tasmaniensis and L. aurea, development to metamorphosis was fastest in low and high salinity treatments suggesting it is advantageous for tadpoles to invest energy in development in both highly favourable and developmentally challenging environments. We propose that this response might either maximise potential lifetime fecundity when tadpoles experience favourable environments, or, facilitate a more rapid escape from pond environments where there is a reduced probability of survival.

Kearney, Brian D.; Byrne, Phillip G.; Reina, Richard D.

2012-01-01

353

Geomorphic Characterization of the Middle Fork Saline River: Garland, Perry, and Saline Counties, Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report was prepared to help address concerns raised by local residents, State, and Federal agencies about the current geomorphic conditions of the Middle Fork Saline River. Over the past 30 years the Middle Fork Saline River Basin has experienced a marked increase in urbanization. The report summarizes the Middle Fork?s current (2003) channel characteristics at nine stream reaches in the upper 91 square miles of the basin. Assessments at each study reach included comparing measured stream geometry dimensions (cross-sectional area, top width, and mean depth) at bankfull stage to regional hydraulic geometry curves for the Ouachita Mountains Physiographic Province of Arkansas and Oklahoma, evaluations of streambed materials and sinuosity, and classification of individual stream reach types. When compared to the Ouachita Mountains? regional hydraulic geometry curves for natural, stable, stream reaches, five of the nine study reaches had slightly smaller crosssectional areas, longer top widths, and shallower depths. Streambed material analysis indicates that the Middle Fork is a bedrock influenced, gravel dominated stream with lesser amounts of sand and cobbles. Slight increases in sinuosity from 1992 to 2002 at seven of the nine study reaches indicate a slight decrease in stream channel slope. Analyses of the Middle Fork?s hydraulic geometry and sinuosity indicate that the Middle Fork is currently overly wide and shallow, but is slowly adjusting towards a deeper, narrower hydraulic geometry. Using the Rosgen system of channel classification, the two upstream study reaches classified as B4c/1 stream types; which were moderately entrenched, riffle dominated channels, with infrequently spaced pools. The downstream seven study reaches classified as C4/1 stream types; which were slightly entrenched, meandering, gravel-dominated, riffle/ pool channels with well developed flood plains. Analyses of stream reach types suggest that the downstream reaches of the Middle Fork are more vulnerable to streambank failure than the upstream reaches of the stream.

Pugh, Aaron L.; Garday, Thomas J.; Redman, Ronald

2008-01-01

354

Umbilical vein injection of misoprostol versus normal saline for the treatment of retained placenta: intrapartum placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The third stage of labour may be complicated by retained placenta, which should be managed promptly because it may cause severe bleeding and infection, with a potentially fatal outcome. This study evaluated the effectiveness of umbilical vein injection of misoprostol for the treatment of retained placenta in a hospital setting. Methods This hospital-based placebo-controlled trial was conducted at the Maternity Teaching Hospital, Erbil City, Kurdistan region, Northern Iraq from April 2011 to February 2012. The inclusion criteria were: gestational age of at least 28 weeks, vaginal delivery, and failure of the placenta to separate within 30 minutes after delivery of the infant despite active management of the third stage of labour. Forty-six women with retained placentas were eligible for inclusion. After informed consent was obtained, the women were alternately allocated to receive umbilical vein injection of either 800 mcg misoprostol dissolved in 20 mL of normal saline (misoprostol group) or 20 mL of normal saline only (saline group). The women were blinded to the group allocation, but the investigator who administered the injection was not. The trial was registered by the Research Ethics Committee of Hawler Medical University. Results After umbilical vein injection, delivery of the placenta occurred in 91.3% of women in the misoprostol group and 69.5% of women in the saline group, which was not a significant difference between the two groups. The median vaginal blood loss from the time of injection until delivery of the placenta was significantly less in the misoprostol group (100 mL) than in the saline group (210 mL) (p value?volume of vaginal blood loss with few adverse effects. Clinical Trial Registration Current Controlled Trial HMU: N252.1.2011

2014-01-01

355

Salinity and Boron Control under High-Frequency Low-Volume Irrigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 3-year study of the accumulation of soluble salts and boron in a soil profile following trickle irrigation with well water is completed. Irrigation treatments consisted of three levels of water applications based on estimated evapotranspiration (ET) req...

R. J. Miller D. E. Rolston J. W. Biggar R. S. Raushkolb

1983-01-01

356

The effects of salinity on copper and silver toxicity to embryos of the Pacific Oyster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic development of the Pacific oyster was monitored under various combinations of copper × salinity and silver × salinity. Oyster embryos were exposed to salinities between 14.5 and 33 %, copper concentrations between 0 to 10 ppb and silver concentrations between 0 to 18 ppb. Exposure to salinities between 22.7 and 33 % had no significant effect on normal embryonic

Matthew P. Coglianese

1982-01-01

357

A Conceptual Model of the Surface Salinity Distribution in the Oceanic Hadley Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual model of the salinity distribution in the oceanic Hadley cell is presented. The model pertains to the region of tropical easterly surface winds, where the surface salinity increases poleward from a local salinity minimum near the equator to a subtropical salinity maximum. A fundamental constraint is that the meridional freshwater transports in the atmosphere and the ocean have

Johan Nilsson; Heiner Körnich

2008-01-01

358

The performance and distribution of species along soil salinity gradients of mangrove swamps in southeastern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on periodic soil salinity measurements direct gradient analysis procedures were used to relate the performance and distribution of mangrove swamp species to salinity gradients. Variations in soil salinity were due to distance from the coast, tidal incursions and freshwater inputs. All overstorey species showed statistically significant negative correlations with salinity while most groundlayer species were positively correlated with the

I. E. Ukpong

1991-01-01

359

Effects of salinity increase on carotenoid accumulation in the green alga Dunaliella salina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sudden salinity increases on the kinetics of growth and carotenogenesis was studied in three geographically diverse isolates of Dunaliella saliva. A sudden increase in salinity results in a lag phase in growth and the length of this lag phase is dependent on the final salinity and the magnitude of the salinity change (no lag at 10–15% w\\/v

Michael A. Borowitzka; Lesley J. Borowitzka; David Kessly

1990-01-01

360

Studies on the exaggerated natriuretic response to a saline infusion in the hypothyroid rat  

PubMed Central

The exaggerated natriuresis of hypothyroid rats receiving a 5% saline infusion was studied to determine the mechanism and the site within the nephron responsible for this increase in sodium excretion. Sodium clearance (CNa) and fractional sodium excretion were both demonstrated to be greater in hypothyroid rats for any amount of sodium infused. The rate of increase in fractional sodium excretion in response to saline loading was 3.4 times greater in hypothyroid animals. At the conclusion of the diuresis some of the hypothyroid animals excreted greater than 45% of the filtered sodium load, while no control animal excreted more than 12% of the filtered sodium load. The mean clearance of insulin during the saline diuresis was 36.6% lower (P < 0.001) in the hypothyroid rats. D-Aldosterone given to hypothyroid animals 3 hr before the experiment did not alter the magnitude or rate of increase in fractional sodium excretion. Inulin space determinations in nephrectomized rats revealed that extracellular fluid volume was contracted by 17.1% in the hypothyroid rats (P < 0.01). Plasma sodium was not significantly different in hypothyroid and control animals. A limit on solute free water reabsorption (TeH2O) per osmolar clearance (COsm) was demonstrated in the hypothyroid rats when these animals excreted greater than 12% of the filtered osmotic load. The limit on TeH2O formation was associated with an acceleration in the rate of sodium excretion and a decline in the rate of potassium excretion. Early in the diuresis when COsm, CNa, and TeH2O were comparable in hypothyroid and control rats, the filtered sodium load was 31% lower (P < 0.01) in the hypothyroid animals. These findings indicate that diminished thyroid hormone activity decreases renal sodium reabsorptive capacity. Indirect evidence suggests that the distal and possibly the proximal tubules are the sites of this diminished sodium reabsorption in hypothyroid animals.

Holmes, Edward W.; DiScala, Vincent A.

1970-01-01

361

Cumulative soil chemistry changes from land application of saline-sodic waters  

SciTech Connect

Management of large volumes (60,000 ha-m) of co-production water associated with coal bed natural gas (CBNG) water extraction is a potential concern in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana due to elevated water salinity and sodicity levels. Land application of saline-sodic CBNG water is a common water management method being practiced in the PRB, which can result in deterioration in soil quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects from 1 to 4 yr of land application with CBNG water on soil chemical properties at six study sites (fine to loamy, mixed to smectitic, mesic, Ustic Ardisols and Entisols) in the Wyoming PRB region. Changes in chemistry of soils collected from six depths irrigated with CBNG water were compared with representative non-irrigated soils. Applications of CBNG water significantly increased soil EC, SAR, and ESP values (up to 21, 74, and 24 times, respectively) compared with non-irrigated soils. Differences in soil chemical properties between an irrigated and non-irrigated coarse-textured soil were less than that of fine-textured soils, emphasizing texture as an important factor for salinity buildup. Pretreatment of CBNG water using a sulfur burner and application of gypsum and elemental S soil amendments reduced soil pH but did not prevent the build-up of salts and sodium. Study results suggest that current CBNG water management strategies are not as effective as projected. Additional research is needed to develop management strategies appropriate for mitigating adverse effects of CBNG water irrigation.

Ganjegunte, G.K.; King, L.A.; Vance, G.F. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Department for Renewable Resources

2008-09-15

362

Climatic causes and consequences of the Mediterranean Messinian Salinity Crisis (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean gateways play a critical role in modulating ocean circulation and global climate. When the gateway links to a mid-latitude, semi-enclosed basin, an inflated response to climate is recorded in the basin and this can lead to a high amplitude feedback to the ocean via gateway exchange. In the Mediterranean the restricted gateway results in environmental variability on orbital timescales and this in turn impacts the volume and density of Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) reaching the Atlantic. Even today, there is a lithological response to this variability in the Mediterranean, but in the Late Miocene when the gateway was much more restricted, salinity fluctuations evolved to such extreme levels that a salt giant formed and ~5% of the global ocean's salt was precipitated on the Mediterranean sea floor. This event is known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange during the Late Miocene to early Pliocene is the focus of a new EU-funded project, MEDGATE. The project draws together a multidisciplinary team of geochemists, structural geologists, sedimentologists, palaeontologists and numerical modellers to work on sediments preserved in and around two fossil corridors that linked the Mediterranean with the Atlantic ~8 million years ago, one in southern Spain, the other in northern Morocco. These exceptional successions, which record the Mediterranean's sensitivity to subtle changes in climate, have been astronomically tuned to precession allowing correlation of individual beds throughout the corridors and into the Mediterranean itself. Consequently, we now have an unprecedented opportunity to reconstruct Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange during the Late Miocene-Pliocene and evaluate the impact of the Messinian Salinity Crisis on North Atlantic circulation and global climate.

Flecker, R.

2013-12-01

363

Passive Microwave Measurements of Salinity: The Gulf Stream Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (I psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approximately 0.2 psu) required of global maps to be scientifically viable. The development of a satellite microwave instrument to make global measurements of SSS (Sea Surface Salinity) is the focus of a joint JPL/GSFC/NASA ocean research program called Aquarius. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of airborne microwave instruments together with ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer (for surface temperature). These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Sea surface measurements consisted of thermosalinograph data provided by the R/V Cape Henlopen and the MN Oleander, and data from salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the R/V Cape Henlopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made with the airborne sensors on August 28 and 29 and on September 2 flights were made over the surface drifters to look for effects due to a change in surface roughness resulting from the passage of Hurricane Dennis. Results show a good agreement between the microwave measurements and ship measurements of salinity. The features of the brightness temperature maps correspond well with the features of the salinity field measured by the ship and drifters and a preliminary retrieval of salinity compares well with the ship data.

LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Haken, M.; Howden, S.; Bingham, F.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

364

Seasonal/Yearly Salinity Variations in San Francisco Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ability of resource agencies to manage fish, wildlife and freshwater supplies of San Francisco Bay estuary requires an integrated knowledge of the relations between the biota and their physical environment. A key factor in these relations is the role of salinity in determining both the physical and the biological character of the estuary. The saltiness of the water, and particularly its seasonal and interannual patterns of variability, affects which aquatic species live where within the estuary. Salinity also determines where water can and cannot be diverted for human consumption and irrigated agriculture, and plays a role in determining the capacity of the estuary to cleanse itself of wastes. In short, salinity is a fundamental property of estuarine physics and chemistry that, in turn, determines the biological characteristics of each estuary. Freshwater is a major control on estuarine salinity. Most freshwater supplied to the Bay is from river flow through the Delta, which is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada. Most contaminants in San Francisco Bay are from the Sacramento/San Joaquin Valley and the local watershed around the Bay rather than the sea or atmosphere. Land is the primary source of freshwater and freshwater serves as a tracer of land-derived substances such as the trace metals (copper, lead and selenium), pesticides and plant nutrients (nitrate and phosphate). The U.S. Geological Survey is collaborating with other agencies and institutions in studying San Francisco Bay salinity using field observations and numerical simulations to define the physical processes that control salinity. The issues that arise from salinity fluctuations, however, differ in the northern and southern parts of the bay. In North Bay we need to know how salinity responds to freshwater flow through the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta; this knowledge will benefit water managers who determine how much delta flow is needed a) to protect freshwater supplies for municipal water use and b) modulate salinity for a healthy estuary. In South Bay we need to know where the freshwater comes from (the distant Delta or local streams) to sort out the sources of a) contamination or b) dilution.

Peterson, David H.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Dettinger, Michael D.; DiLeo, Jeanne Sandra; Hager, Stephen E.; Knowles, Noah; Nichols, Frederic H.; Schemel, Laurence E.; Smith, Richard E.; Uncles, Reginald J.

1995-01-01

365

Remote sensing of drought and salinity stressed turfgrass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to detect early signs of stress in turfgrass stands using a rapid, inexpensive, and nondestructive method would be a valuable management tool. Studies were conducted to determine if digital image analysis and spectroradiometric readings obtained from drought- and salinity-stressed turfgrasses accurately reflected the varying degrees of stress and correlated strongly with visual ratings, relative water content (RWC) and leaf osmolality, standard methods for measuring stress in plants. Greenhouse drought and salinity experiments were conducted on hybrid bluegrass [Poa arachnifera (Torn.) x pratensis (L.)] cv. Reveille and bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.)] cv. Princess 77. Increasing drought and salinity stress led to decreased RWC, increased leaf osmolality, and decreased visual ratings for both species. Percent green cover and hue values obtained from digital image analysis, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), calculated from spectroradiometric readings, were moderately to highly correlated with visual ratings, RWC, and leaf osmolality. Similarly, in a field validation study conducted on hybrid bluegrass, spectral reflectance ratios were moderately to highly correlated with visual ratings. In addition, percent green cover obtained from digital image analysis was strongly correlated with most of the spectral ratios, particularly the ratio of fluorescence peaks (r = -0.88 to -0.99), modified triangular vegetation index (MTVI) (r = 0.82 to 0.98), and NDVI (r = 0.84 to 0.99), suggesting that spectral reflectance and digital image analysis are equally effective at detecting changes in color brought on by stress. The two methods differed in their ability to distinguish between drought salinity stress. Hue values obtained from digital image analysis responded differently to increasing drought stress than to increasing salinity stress. Whereas the onset of drought stress was reflected by increased hue values followed by a decrease in values as drought stress increased, there was no increase in hue values at the onset of salinity stress. Thus, changes in hue could be a key to distinguish drought and salinity stress. Both digital image analysis and spectroradiometry effectively detected drought and salinity stress and may have applications in turfgrass management as rapid and quantitative methods to determine drought and salinity stress in turf.

Ikemura, Yoshiaki

366

Analysis of Sea Surface Salinities as seen by SMOS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission provides for the first time sea surface salinities (SSS) observations from a satellite using L-Band radiometry. Generally natural emissivity of sea water in the L-Band is sensitive to the surface salinity but the measurements are susceptible to a number of perturbations like contamination due to sun glint as well as image reconstruction issues like land and ice in the FOV and Radio Frequency Interference which needs to be corrected for. Furthermore, the preliminary SSS data show a bias dependent on latitude and time due to direct solar contamination, sun illumination and the evolution of the antenna temperature along a year etc. A correction algorithm will be presented that removes much of the remaining errors in the available salinity products. As part of this a latitudinally dependent bias is being determined and removed from the data. The resulting monthly SSS maps are shown to be consistent to the mean salinity distribution as well as their annual variabilities known from climatological data. The variable input of freshwater from the major rivers is also observable. The validation with Argo data shows a global mean accuracy of 0.4 against 1.2 g/kg before the correction. A discussion on future improvements of the processing steps is also given.

Köhler, J.; Sena Martins, M.; Stammer, D.

2012-04-01

367

Effect of salinity on zinc uptake by Brassica juncea.  

PubMed

Salinity is a major worldwide problem that affects agricultural soils and limits the reclamation of contaminated sites. Despite the large number of research papers published about salt tolerance in Brassica juncea L., there are very few accounts concerning the influence of salinity on the uptake of trace metals. In this study, B. juncea plants divided through soil sets comprising 0, 900 and 1800 mg Zn kg(-1), were treated with solutions containing 0, 60 and 120 mmol L(-1) of NaCl, with the purpose of observing the effect of salt on Zn uptake, and some physiological responses throughout the 90 days experiment. Increasing concentrations of NaCl and Zn produced a decline in the ecophysiological and biochemical properties of the plants, with observable synergistic effects on parameters like shoot dry weight, leaf area, or photochemical efficiency. Nevertheless, plants treated with 60 mmol L(-1) of NaCl accumulated striking harvestable amounts of Zn per plant that largely exceed those reported for Thlaspi caerulescens. It was concluded that salinity could play an important role on the uptake of Zn by B. juncea. The potential mechanisms behind these results are discussed, as well as the implications for phytoremediation of Zn on saline and non-saline soils. PMID:24933880

Novo, Luís A B; Covelo, Emma F; González, Luís

2014-01-01

368

Physiological and proteomic analysis of salinity tolerance in Puccinellia tenuiflora.  

PubMed

Soil salinity poses a serious threat to agriculture productivity throughout the world. Studying mechanisms of salinity tolerance in halophytic plants will provide valuable information for engineering plants for enhanced salt tolerance. Monocotyledonous Puccinellia tenuiflora is a halophytic species that widely distributed in the saline-alkali soil of the Songnen plain in northeastern China. Here we investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying moderate salt tolerance of P. tenuiflora using a combined physiological and proteomic approach. The changes in biomass, inorganic ion content, osmolytes, photosynthesis, defense-related enzyme activities, and metabolites in the course of salt treatment were analyzed in the leaves. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 107 identities (representing 93 unique proteins) differentially expressed in P. tenuiflora leaves under saline conditions. These proteins were mainly involved in photosynthesis, stress and defense, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signaling, membrane, and transport. Our results showed that reduction of photosynthesis under salt treatment was attributed to the down-regulation of the light-harvesting complex (LHC) and Calvin cycle enzymes. Selective uptake of inorganic ions, high K(+)/Na(+) ratio, Ca(2+) concentration changes, and an accumulation of osmolytes contributed to ion balance and osmotic adjustment in leaf cells. Importantly, P. tenuiflora plants developed diverse reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging mechanisms in their leaves to cope with moderate salinity, including enhancement of the photorespiration pathway and thermal dissipation, synthesis of the low-molecular-weight antioxidant ?-tocopherol, and an accumulation of compatible solutes. This study provides important information toward improving salt tolerance of cereals. PMID:21732589

Yu, Juanjuan; Chen, Sixue; Zhao, Qi; Wang, Tai; Yang, Chuanping; Diaz, Carolyn; Sun, Guorong; Dai, Shaojun

2011-09-01

369

Variable change in renal function by hypertonic saline  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of hypertonic saline in the neurocritical care population. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our hospital’s use of hypertonic saline (HS) since March of 2005, and prospectively since October 2010. Comparisons were made between admission diagnoses, creatinine change (Cr), and HS formulation (3% NaCl, 3% NaCl/sodium acetate mix, and 23.4% NaCl) to patients receiving normal saline or lactated ringers. The patients (n = 1329) of the retrospective portion were identified. The data presented represents the first 230 patients with data. RESULTS: Significant differences in Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores and Glasgow Coma Scale scores occurred between different saline formulations. No significant correlation of Cl- or Na+ with Cr, nor with saline types, occurred. When dichotomized by diagnosis, significant correlations appear. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients demonstrated moderate correlation between Na+ and Cr of 0.45. Stroke patients demonstrated weak correlations between Na+ and Cr, and Cl- and Cr (0.19 for both). Patients receiving HS and not diagnosed with intracerebral hemorrhage, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or TBI demonstrated a weak but significant correlation between Cl- and Cr at 0.29. CONCLUSION: Cr directly correlates with Na+ or Cl- in stroke, Na+ in TBI, and Cl- in other populations. Prospective comparison of HS and renal function is needed.

Corry, Jesse J; Varelas, Panayiotis; Abdelhak, Tamer; Morris, Stacey; Hawley, Marlisa; Hawkins, Allison; Jankowski, Michelle

2014-01-01

370

Formation of soluble microbial products (SMP) by activated sludge at various salinities.  

PubMed

Soluble microbial products (SMP) present a significant component of effluent organic matter from biological wastewater treatment reactors, and can affect the membrane fouling and formation of disinfection by-products. Thus, SMP have attracted increasing concerns in wastewater treatment and reclamation. In this work, the formation of SMP by activated sludge at various NaCl concentrations is investigated by using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and fluorescence regional integration (FRI). The results show that a high level of salinity decreases substrate removal efficiency and leads to an accumulation of SMP, especially proteins. Three components of SMP, one protein-like and two humic-acid-like components, are identified by PARAFAC, which exhibit different trends with the variation of NaCl concentration. FRI analysis reveals that the majority of protein fluorescence is attributed to tryptophan and tryptophan-like proteins, rather than tyrosine and tyrosine-like proteins. With an increase in NaCl concentration, the normalized volume percentages of tyrosine and tryptophan region increase, while those of humic- and fulvic-acid-like region decrease significantly. This work demonstrates that salinity affects the formation of SMP, and that EEM with PARAFAC in combination with FRI analysis is a useful tool to get insight into the formation of SMP by activated sludge. PMID:22622691

Li, Yan; Li, Ai-Min; Xu, Juan; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing

2013-02-01

371

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy: is distilled water as safe as saline for irrigation?  

PubMed

Purpose: To compare dilutional effect of distilled water with saline solution as an irrigation fluid in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Materials and Methods: Three hundred twenty eight adult patients (191 men, 137 women) who were candidates for PCNL were randomly assigned into two groups (distilled water, n = 158, group 1; saline solution, n = 162, group 2). Stone size, operation time, irrigation fluid volume, blood hemoglobin level, urea nitrogen, creatinine, sodium and potassium levels were checked before and at 6 and 12 hours after operation. Results: The mean age of the patients was 37.8 years, and the mean stone diameter was 31.5 mm. There was no clinical case of transurethral resection (TUR) syndrome. Serum sodium depletion was significantly more in group 1 than group 2 (P < .0001). Group 1 had significant decreased post-operative serum sodium levels (P < .0003). Similarly in group 2, postoperative serum sodium levels were significantly lower than the preoperative concentration (P < .01), but it was not the same 6 hours after the operation (P = .23). Serum sodium concentrations remained within normal limits in all cases, without causing clinical signs and symptoms of hyponatremia. Conclusion: We found that distilled water is safe irrigation fluid for PCNL in adults. In addition, it is more available and cost effective. PMID:25015597

Hosseini, Mohammad Mehdi; Hassanpour, Abbas; Manaheji, Farhad; Yousefi, Alireza; Damshenas, Mohammad Hassan; Haghpanah, Sezaneh

2014-01-01

372

Volume Illustration: Nonphotorealistic Rendering of Volume Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurately and automatically conveying the structure of a volume model is a problem not fully solved by existing volume rendering approaches. Physics-based volume rendering approaches create images which may match the appearance of translucent materials in nature, but may not embody important structural details. Transfer function approaches allow flexible design of the volume appearance, but generally require substantial hand tuning

Penny Rheingans; David S. Ebert

2001-01-01

373

Salt tolerance classification of crops according to soil salinity and to water stress day index  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observations of a long-term experiment on the use of saline water were used to compare the crop tolerance to salinity. Salinity affected significantly yield, evapotranspiration, pre-dawn leaf water potential and stomatal conductance. The higher the salinity, the lower the yield, evapotranspiration, pre-dawn leaf water potential and stomatal resistance. The crop classification, based on soil salinity, corresponds with the classification

N. Katerji; J. W. van Hoorn; A. Hamdy; M. Mastrorilli

2000-01-01

374

Direct Volume Rendering of Curvilinear Volumes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct volume rendering can visualize sampled 3D scalar data as a continuous medium, or extract features. However, it is generally slow. Furthermore, most algorithms for direct volume rendering have assumed rectilinear gridded data. This paper discusses methods for using direct volume rendering when the original volume is curvilinear, i.e. is divided into six-sided cells which are not necessarily equilateral hexahedra. One approach is to ray-cast such volumes directly. An alternative approach is to interpolate the sample volumes to a rectilinear grid, and use this regular volume for rendering. Advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches in terms of speed and image quality are explored.

Vaziri, Arsi; Wilhelms, J.; Challinger, J.; Alper, N.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

375

Effects of gypsum, Zn, and intermittent saline irrigation on the growth, yield, and nutrition of rice plants grown in a saline soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of gypsum, Zn, and intermittent saline irrigation on the growth, yield, and nutrition of rice plants grown in a coastal saline soil. Highly significant effects were detected in the treatments with various levels of salinity, gypsum, Zn, and their interactions on the growth, yield, and nutrition of the rice plants. Gypsum

Harunor R. Khan; Khwaja F. Yasmin; Tadashi Adachi; Iajuddin Ahmed

1992-01-01

376

Climate change impacts on water salinity and health.  

PubMed

It is estimated that 884 million people do not have access to clean drinking water in the world. Increasing salinity of natural drinking water sources has been reported as one of the many problems that affect low-income countries, but one which has not been fully explored. This problem is exacerbated by rising sea-levels, owing to climate change, and other contributing factors, like changes in fresh water flow from rivers and increased shrimp farming along the coastal areas. In some countries, desalination plants are used to partly remove salt and other minerals from water sources, but this is unlikely to be a sustainable option for low-income countries affected by high salinity. Using the example of Bangladesh as a model country, the following research indicates that the problem of salinity can have serious implications with regard to rising rates of hypertension and other public health problems among large sectors of the worldwide population. PMID:23856370

Vineis, Paolo; Chan, Queenie; Khan, Aneire

2011-12-01

377

Effects of temperature and salinity on Vibrio cholerae growth.  

PubMed Central

Laboratory microecosystems (microcosms) prepared with a chemically defined sea salt solution were used to study effects of selected environmental parameters on growth and activity of Vibrio cholerae. Growth responses under simulated estuarine conditions of 10 strains of V. cholerae, including clinical and environmental isolates as well as serovars O1 and non-O1, were compared, and all strains yielded populations of approximately the same final size. Effects of salinity and temperature on extended survival of V. cholerae demonstrated that, at an estuarine salinity (25%) and a temperature of 10 degrees C, V. cholerae survived (i.e., was culturable) for less than 4 days. Salinity was also found to influence activity, as measured by uptake of 14C-amino acids. Studies on the effect of selected ions on growth and activity of V. cholerae demonstrated that Na+ was required for growth. The results of this study further support the status of V. cholerae as an estuarine bacterium.

Singleton, F L; Attwell, R; Jangi, S; Colwell, R R

1982-01-01

378

Transformation of the soil clays under the anthropogenic salinization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objects of our investigation are the podzolic soils from the Seriogovo salt plug territory (Russian platform) where salt mineral waters deposites are situated. Samples were obtained from 7 soil uncontaminated (background) and saline cross sections near the Seryogovo salt deposite at the depth 0-103 cm. X-ray analysis indicates that almost all clay samples of background sections contain smectite, illite, chlorite, kaolinite with dominated smectite. In clay samples of saline soils chlorite, vermiculite, interstratified chlorite/vermiculite, kaolinite, illite and galite are contained. Chlorite became the predominant 1.4-nm-mineral. Smectite is the most abundant mineral in the clay fraction of uncontaminated soils. The smectite is not well ordered, evident by incomplete collapse to 1.0 nm when heated to 550oC. Small amount of disordered chlorite contains in this samples. In the lower parts of saline cross sections smectite is almost disappeared, the most abundant minerals are pedogenic dioctahedral chlorite and interstratified minerals. The comparison of the "d(060)" value of XRD patterns display that uncontaminated and contaminated samples has both trioctahedral and dioctahedral minerals but the intensity of the 060 peak for the dioctahedral mineral of saline soils, however, is proportionally larger than in the uncontaminated clay. The investigations display the difference between the clay minerals of saline and background soil samples of Seriogovo deposits because of their transformation under the environmental changes. The expandable layer silicates typical for the soils transformed to the unexpandable dioctahedral soil chlorite. Transformation reactions involves the introduction of non-exchangable hydroxyl-Al polymers into the interlamellar space of pre-existing smectite or vermiculite. We can propose that interlayer octahedral layers are more stable than exchangeable cations of clay minerals' crystal structure in the saline environment. The results presented suggest that chlorite was formed diagenetically by prolonged periodic percolation of salt brines through previous layer silicates.

Simakova, Y.

2009-04-01

379

Relative salinity tolerance of warm season turfgrass species.  

PubMed

Fresh water, coupled with soil salinization in many areas has resulted in an increased need forscreening of salt tolerant turf grasses. Relative salinity tolerance of eightwarm season turfgrass species were examined in this study in sand culture. Grasses were grown in a glasshouse, irrigated with either distilled water or saline sea water adjusted to 24, 48 or 72 dSm-1. Salt tolerances of the grasses were assessed on the basis of their shoot and root growth, leaf firing and turf quality. Regression analysis indicated that Zoysiajaponica (Japanese lawn grass) (JG), Stenotaphrum secundatum (St. Augustine) (SA), Cynodon dactylon (satiri) (BS), Zoysia teneuifolia (Korean grass) (KG), Digitaria didactyla (Serangoon grass) (SG), Cynodon dactylon (Tifdwarf) (TD), Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass) (BG) and Axonopus compressus(Pearl blue) (PB) suffered a 50% shoot growth reduction at 36.0, 31.8, 30.9, 28.4, 26.4, 25.7, 20.0 and 18.6 dSm1 of salinity, respectively and a root growth reduction at44.9, 43.7, 33.4, 31.0, 29.5 27.5, 21.5 and 21.4 dSm- of salinity, respectively. Leaf firing and turf quality of the selected species, as a whole, were also found to be affected harmoniously with the change in root and shoot growth. On the basis of the experimental results the selected species were ranked for salinity tolerance as JG>SA>BS>KG>SG >TD>BG>PB. PMID:22167942

Uddin, Kamal M; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Othman, Radziah; Rahim, Anuar Abdul

2011-05-01

380

Inadvertent subcutaneous injection of hypertonic saline solution during lipofilling.  

PubMed

Subcutaneous infiltration with a mixture of plain saline and adrenaline is a useful option in lipoharvesting for autologous fat grafting. This report presents the case of 34-year-old woman who experienced inadvertent subcutaneous injection of hypertonic saline solution during body fat harvesting. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors http://www.springer.com/00266 . PMID:23708249

Kerfant, N; Philandrianos, C; Alliez, A; Casanova, D

2013-08-01

381

Hypertonic saline and mannitol therapy in critical care neurology.  

PubMed

Osmotic agents play a vital role in the reduction of elevated intracranial pressure and treatment of cerebral edema in Neurologic critical care. Both mannitol and hypertonic saline reduce cerebral edema in many clinical syndromes, yet there is controversy over agent selection, timing, and dosing regimens. Despite the lack of randomized, controlled trials, our knowledge base on the appropriate clinical use of osmotic agents continues to expand. This review will summarize the evidence for the use of mannitol and hypertonic saline in a variety of disease states causing cerebral edema, as well as outlining monitoring and safety considerations. PMID:21436162

Hinson, Holly E; Stein, Deborah; Sheth, Kevin N

2013-01-01

382

Is a salinity monitoring network "Worth its salt"?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Saltwater intrusion threatens the water supplies of many coastal communities. Management of these water supplies requires well-designed and properly maintained and operated salinity monitoring networks. Long-standing deficiencies identified in a salinity monitoring network in southwest Florida during a 2013 study (Prinos, 2013) help to illustrate the types of problems that can occur in aging and poorly maintained networks. This cooperative U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) study also describes improvements that can be implemented to overcome these deficiencies.

Prinos, Scott T.

2013-01-01

383

Global monitoring of Sea Surface Salinity with Aquarius  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius is a microwave remote sensing system designed to obtain global maps of the surface salinity field of the oceans from space. It will be flown on the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA (NASA) and Argentina (CONAE) with launch scheduled for late in 2008. The objective of Aquarius is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This will provide data to address scientific questions associated with ocean circulation and its impact on climate. For example, salinity is needed to understand the large scale thermohaline circulation, driven by buoyancy, which moves large masses of water and heat around the globe. Of the two variables that determine buoyancy (salinity and temperature), temperature is already being monitored. Salinity is the missing variable needed to understand this circulation. Salinity also has an important role in energy exchange between the ocean and atmosphere, for example in the development of fresh water lenses (buoyant water that forms stable layers and insulates water below from the atmosphere) which alter the air-sea coupling. Aquarius is a combination radiometer and scatterometer (radar) operating at L-band (1.413 GHz for the radiometer and 1.26 GHz for the scatterometer). The primary instrument,for measuring salinity is the radiometer which is able to detect salinity because of the modulation salinity produces on the thermal emission from sea water. This change is detectable at the long wavelength end of the microwave spectrum. The scatterometer will provide a correction for surface roughness (waves) which is one of the greatest unknowns in the retrieval. The sensor will be in a sun-synchronous orbit at about 650 km with equatorial crossings of 6am/6pm. The antenna for these two instruments is a 3 meter offset fed reflector with three feeds arranged in pushbroom fashion looking away from the sun toward the shadow side of the orbit to minimize sunglint. The mission goal is to produce maps of the salinity field globally once each month with an accuracy of 0.2 psu and a spatial resolution of 100 km. This will be adequate to address l&ge scale features of the salinity field of the open ocean. The temporal resolution is sufficient to address seasonal changes and a three year mission is planned to-collect sufficient data to look for interannual variation. Aquarius is being developed by NASA as part of the Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. The SAC-D mission is being developed by CONAE and will include the space craft and several additional instruments, including visible and infrared cameras and a microwave radiometer to monitor rain and wind velocity over the oceans, and sea ice.

Lagerloef, G. S. E.; LeVine, D. M.; Chao, Yi; Colomb, R.; Nollmann, I.

2005-01-01

384

Sucralfate retention enemas in solitary rectal ulcer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conservative treatment of solitary rectal ulcer is generally unsatisfactory. Six patients, aged 27–54 years, with recurrent solitary rectal ulcer were treated with topical administration of sucralfate in a daily dose of 2 g twice a day for 6 weeks. Four patients experienced complete relief of symptoms and the remaining two patients had marked improvement. Although macroscopic healing of the

Showkat Ali Zargar; Mohammad Sultan Khuroo; Rakesh Mahajan

1991-01-01

385

21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...device consists of a container for fluid connected to the nozzle either directly or via tubing. This device does not include the colonic irrigation system (§ 876.5220). (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

2009-04-01

386

21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...device consists of a container for fluid connected to the nozzle either directly or via tubing. This device does not include the colonic irrigation system (§ 876.5220). (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

2010-04-01

387

Salinity induced synthesis of UV-screening compound scytonemin in the cyanobacterium Lyngbya aestuarii.  

PubMed

Lyngbya aestuarii is the dominant cyanobacterium in Chilika lagoon occurring in all the seasons irrespective of variation in the salinity regime ranging from 3 to 28 ppt. The organism possess the UV screening scytonemin pigment, which was maximum when grown at 56 ppt salinity. Three different forms of scytonemin were detected in L. aestuarii with retention time (RT) 1.76, 2.42 and 2.94 min, however, occurrence of these forms was influenced by the salinity. Scytonemin with RT 2.42 was sensitive to higher salinity and its maximum concentration was obtained at 28 ppt salinity correlated with the highest salinity level of Chilika. Formation of multilayer colored sheath around the trichome was prominently observed at the salinity of the culture from 28 to 56 ppt. But at salinity below 7 ppt and also at more than 56 ppt salinity degradation of sheath with corresponding decrease in scytonemin was observed. PMID:22819261

Rath, Jnanendra; Mandal, Sikha; Adhikary, Siba Prasad

2012-10-01

388

Salinity- and population-dependent genome regulatory response during osmotic acclimation in the killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) gill.  

PubMed

The killifish Fundulus heteroclitus is abundant in osmotically dynamic estuaries and it can quickly adjust to extremes in environmental salinity. We performed a comparative osmotic challenge experiment to track the transcriptomic and physiological responses to two salinities throughout a time course of acclimation, and to explore the genome regulatory mechanisms that enable extreme osmotic acclimation. One southern and one northern coastal population, known to differ in their tolerance to hypo-osmotic exposure, were used as our comparative model. Both populations could maintain osmotic homeostasis when transferred from 32 to 0.4 p.p.t., but diverged in their compensatory abilities when challenged down to 0.1 p.p.t., in parallel with divergent transformation of gill morphology. Genes involved in cell volume regulation, nucleosome maintenance, ion transport, energetics, mitochondrion function, transcriptional regulation and apoptosis showed population- and salinity-dependent patterns of expression during acclimation. Network analysis confirmed the role of cytokine and kinase signaling pathways in coordinating the genome regulatory response to osmotic challenge, and also posited the importance of signaling coordinated through the transcription factor HNF-4?. These genome responses support hypotheses of which regulatory mechanisms are particularly relevant for enabling extreme physiological flexibility. PMID:22442367

Whitehead, Andrew; Roach, Jennifer L; Zhang, Shujun; Galvez, Fernando

2012-04-15

389

Circulation and Salinity Distribution in the Rio Guayas Estuary, Ecuador.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Observations of velocity and salinity profiles over a tidal cycle were made throughout the Guayas esturine complex. Bihourly maps of the tidal current field show a nearly 2-hour phase shift from the estuary mouth to Guayaquil and a slack-water/high-tide p...

A. Siripong D. Conlon J. Dantoro S. P. Murray

1975-01-01

390

Aerobic biodegradation of amines in industrial saline wastewaters.  

PubMed

The treatment of hypersaline wastewaters represents a challenge since high salt concentrations disrupt bacteria present in normal biological treatments. This study was conducted to determine the fate of amines in two hypersaline wastewaters obtained from an industrial treatment plant processing influents with 3% and 7% of NaCl. The compounds were aniline (ANL), 4,4'-methylenedianiline (4,4'-MDA), cyclohexylamine (CHA), N-(2-aminoethyl)ethanolamine (AEA), N,N-diethylethanolamine (DEA), N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methylamine (MDEA), and tris(2-hydroxyethyl)amine (TEA). Mixtures of these chemicals with a mixed liquor suspended solids concentration of 1000 mg L(-1) were prepared at two salinities (3% and 7% NaCl). Ethanolamines were readily biodegraded at both salinities, following first-order kinetics with half-lives ranging between 10 and 58 h. Hydroxyl groups present in the ethanolamines had a positive impact on the biodegradation. Salinity did not affect the biodegradation rate of TEA and MDEA, whereas AEA and DEA degraded faster in 3% NaCl. After 48h, CHA was metabolized within a 24-h period in 3% NaCl, while no degradation was observed in 7% NaCl. ANL exhibited lag phases in both salinities and, in the following 24-h period, ANL concentrations dropped 40% and disappeared after 48 h. 4,4'-MDA degraded in 3% NaCl (half-life of 123 h) and remained unaltered after 120 h in 7% NaCl. PMID:21925703

Campo, Pablo; Platten, William; Suidan, Makram T; Chai, Yunzhou; Davis, John W

2011-11-01

391

Survival of Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio salmonicida at different salinities.  

PubMed Central

The fish pathogenic bacteria Vibrio anguillarum and V. salmonicida showed the capacity to survive for more than 50 and 14 months, respectively, in seawater microcosms. A salinity of 5% proved lethal to V. anguillarum harvested in the late-exponential growth phase, whereas a salinity of 9% was lethal to the bacterium after it had been starved at a salinity of 30% for 67 days. The lethal salinity for V. salmonicida harvested in the late-exponential growth phase was probably in the vicinity of 10%. V. anguillarum and V. salmonicida were very sensitive to nalidixic acid. Direct determination of viable cells after incubation with nalidixic acid was not possible, since the cells did not elongate. Samples of V. salmonicida were double stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled antibodies and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. After 3 or 4 days of starvation, there was a discrepancy between the total numbers of cells as determined by immunofluorescence versus by staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. The immunofluorescence counts remained high, which indicated the presence of intact cell envelopes but leakage of DNA and other cytoplasm components. After 2 weeks of starvation, for some of the cells, the region stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (i.e., DNA) was markedly smaller than the cell envelope. I attributed this to a shrinkage of the cytoplasm or a confined nucleoid or both. V. anguillarum lost its exoproteolytic activity before 11 days of starvation.

Hoff, K A

1989-01-01

392

Effect of salinity and calcium on tomato fruit proteome.  

PubMed

Salinity is a major abiotic stress that adversely affects plant growth and productivity. The physiology of the tomato in salty and nonsalty conditions has been extensively studied, providing an invaluable base to understand the responses of the plants to cultural practices. However few data are yet available at the proteomic level looking for the physiological basis of fruit development, under salt stress. Here, we report the effects of salinity and calcium on fruit proteome variations of two tomato genotypes (Cervil and Levovil). Tomato plants were irrigated with a control solution (3 dSm(-1)) or with saline solutions (Na or Ca+Na at 7.6 dSm(-1)). Tomato fruits were harvested at two ripening stages: green (14 days post-anthesis) and red ripe. Total proteins were extracted from pericarp tissue and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Among the 600 protein spots reproducibly detected, 53 spots exhibited significant abundance variations between samples and were submitted to mass spectrometry for identification. Most of the identified proteins were involved in carbon and energy metabolism, salt stress, oxidative stress, and proteins associated with ripening process. Overall, there was a large variation on proteins abundance between the two genotypes that can be correlated to salt treatment or/and fruit ripening stage. The results showed a protective effect of calcium that limited the impact of salinization on metabolism, ripening process, and induced plant salt tolerance. Collectively, this work has improved our knowledge about salt and calcium effect on tomato fruit proteome. PMID:23692365

Manaa, Arafet; Faurobert, Mireille; Valot, Benoît; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Grasselly, Dominique; Causse, Mathilde; Ahmed, Hela Ben

2013-06-01

393

DISTRIBUTION AND MOVEMENT OF TOXAPHENE IN ANAEROBIC SALINE MARSH SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

The distribution and method of movement of a hydrophobic pesticide through anaerobic saline marsh soils profiles was investigated. In the study are the flooding tidal water containing low concentrations of toxaphene. The compound accumulated only slightly in the marsh soils not f...

394

Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinization is the process whereby the concentration of dissolved salts in water and soil is increased due to natural or human-induced processes. Water is lost through one or any combination of four main mechanisms: evaporation, evapotranspiration, hydrolysis, and leakage between aquifers. Salinity increases from catchment divides to the valley floors and in the direction of groundwater flow. Salinization is explained by two main chemical models developed by the authors: weathering and deposition. These models are in agreement with the weathering and depositional geological processes that have formed soils and overburden in the catchments. Five soil-change processes in arid and semi-arid climates are associated with waterlogging and water. In all represented cases, groundwater is the main geological agent for transmitting, accumulating, and discharging salt. At a small catchment scale in South and Western Australia, water is lost through evapotranspiration and hydrolysis. Saline groundwater flows along the beds of the streams and is accumulated in paleochannels, which act as a salt repository, and finally discharges in lakes, where most of the saline groundwater is concentrated. In the hummocky terrains of the Northern Great Plains Region, Canada and USA, the localized recharge and discharge scenarios cause salinization to occur mainly in depressions, in conjunction with the formation of saline soils and seepages. On a regional scale within closed basins, this process can create playas or saline lakes. In the continental aquifers of the rift basins of Sudan, salinity increases along the groundwater flow path and forms a saline zone at the distal end. The saline zone in each rift forms a closed ridge, which coincides with the closed trough of the groundwater-level map. The saline body or bodies were formed by evaporation coupled with alkaline-earth carbonate precipitation and dissolution of capillary salts. Résumé La salinisation est le processus par lequel la concentration des sels dissous dans l'eau et les sols s'accroît sous l'effet de processus naturels ou anthropiques. L'eau est perdue par l'une ou l'autre combinaison de quatre principaux mécanismes : l'évaporation, l'évapotranspiration, l'hydrolyse et la drainance entre aquifères. La salinité augmente depuis les limites des bassins jusqu'au fond des vallées et le long des axes d'écoulement souterrain. La salinisation est expliquée au moyen de deux principaux modèles chimiques développés par les auteurs : l'altération et le dépôt. Ces modèles sont en accord avec les processus géologiques d'altération et de dépôt qui ont formé les sols et qui recouvrent les bassins versants. Cinq processus d'évolution de sols sous climats aride et semi-aride sont associés à l'eau et à des formations aquifères. Dans tous les cas présentés, l'eau souterraine est le principal agent géologique qui transporte, accumule et dépose les sels. A l'échelle de petits bassins versants dans le sud et dans l'ouest de l'Australie, l'eau est consommée par évapotranspiration et par hydrolyse. L'eau souterraine salée coule le long des berges de rivières et s'accumule dans des paléochenaux, qui fonctionnent comme des zones de stockage de sels, et finalement s'écoule dans des lacs, où la plupart des eaux salées se concentrent. Dans les formations bosselées des grandes plaines du nord du Canada et des États-Unis, des scénarios d'alimentation et de décharge localisées conduisent la salinisation à se produire surtout dans les dépressions, en association avec la formation de sols et d'infiltrations salins. A l'échelle régionale dans les bassins fermés, ce processus peut être à l'origine de playas ou de lacs salés. Dans les aquifères continentaux des bassins de rift du Soudan, la salinité augmente le long des axes d'écoulement souterrain et forme ainsi une zone saline à leur extrémité. La zone saline de chaque rift constitue une crête, qui coïncide avec le creux piézométrique. Le ou les ensembles salins se sont formés par évaporation couplée

Salama, Ramsis B.; Otto, Claus J.; Fitzpatrick, Robert W.

395

An Upper Limit on the Salinity of the Enceladus Plume  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a search for sodium emission from the vicinity of Enceladus as a stringent constraint on the potential salinity of the plumes. While the dominant plume constituent is H2O, the presence or absence of trace constituents may help decide between models of the plume origin. Sodium is an important first test since it is readily detectable and cosmically

Nicholas M. Schneider; M. H. Burger; R. E. Johnson; J. S. Kargel; E. L. Schaller; M. E. Brown

2007-01-01

396

Optimal surface salinity perturbations of the meridional overturning circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent observations and modeling studies have stressed the influence of sea surface salinity (SSS) perturbations on the North Atlantic circulation. To investigate this question, Generalized Stability Analyses (GSAs) are performed in a hierarchy of ocean circulation model (going from a 2D latitude-depth model to a ocean general circulation model in a realistic global configuration). In the GSAs, the optimality is

F. Sévellec; T. Huck; J. Vialard; A. V. Fedorov

2009-01-01

397

Morphological variation of Emiliania huxleyi and sea surface salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphometric analysis of coccoliths of various coccolithophore species from core top and culture samples has revealed that the morphology of single placoliths can be affected by environmental parameters such as temperature, salinity, and productivity. In this study, we have tested the morphological variations of placoliths of Emiliania huxleyi, the most common coccolithophore species in the modern ocean, with respect to

Jörg Bollmann; Jens O. Herrle

2007-01-01

398

Variability of sea surface salinity in stochastically forced systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of horizontal advection and horizontal diffusion on the variability of sea surface salinity in stochastically forced systems are investigated. Basic ideas are developed using a two dimensional box model and then extended to a more realistic three dimensional ocean general circulation model. It is shown that, in the absence of advection and diffusion, the ocean response is essentially

Michael A. Spall

1993-01-01

399

Considerations for Microwave Remote Sensing of Ocean-Surface Salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parametric calculations of the microwave emission from the ocean surface are presented to determine the optimum electromagnetic wavelength for measuring salinity. At 800 MHz, a target accuracy of 240 parts per million is within the state of the art provided that emission due to surface roughness is negligible, or correctable, and that the error resulting from galactic radiation can be

Calvin T. Swift; Robert E. Mcintosh

1983-01-01

400

Optimal Surface Salinity Perturbations Influencing the Thermohaline Circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal surface salinity perturbations influencing the meridional overturning circulation maximum are exhibited and interpreted on a stable steady state of a 2D latitude-depth ocean thermohaline circulation model. Despite the stability of the steady state, the nonnormality of the dynamics is able to create some transient growth and variability through stimulation by optimal perturbations. Two different measures are compared to obtain

Florian Sévellec; Mahdi Ben Jelloul; Thierry Huck

2007-01-01

401

Modeling of broadband airborne electromagnetic responses from saline environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of vegetation for the development of nonirrigated agriculture and the associated increase in groundwater recharge and discharge has caused significant areas of salinization of surface soil and water resources in Australia. At least three types of salt profiles are known to indicate the relative magnitude of recharge. These profiles may be differentiated by their resistivity structure. Since a

G. Buselli; D. R. Williamson

1996-01-01

402

19. The limnology of saline lakes in Western Victoria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although saline lakes are interesting to limnologists, most, unfortunately, are relatively inaccessible. The extent to which they have been studied compared with freshwater lakes is therefore limited. Though not restricted to warm arid regions, they are often numerous in such places, and Australia not surprizingly - has a large number. Most of these, too, are relatively inaccessible. However, west of

W. D. Williams; S. Australia

1981-01-01

403

Modern dolomite deposition in continental, saline lakes, western Victoria, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcrystalline dolomite forms a major constituent of Holocene sediments of numerous continental, saline playa lakes in southeastern Australia. The lake waters are highly supersaturated with respect to dolomite as well as other Mg carbonates, but undersaturated or near saturation with respect to calcite and aragonite. The dolomite shows no replacement textures and most likely formed by direct precipitation. Conditions in

P. de Deckker; William M. Last

1988-01-01

404

OPTIMIZING SALINITY CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN  

EPA Science Inventory

A simple multi-level nonlinear optimization procedure was utilized to formulate the most cost-effective array of salinity control strategies for the Upper Colorado River Basin. The incremental cost-effectiveness methodology qualitatively indicates the location and general type of...

405

Influence of brine filtration on thermal expansion of saline ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a model of the thermo-mechanical behavior of saline ice, based on Darcy's law for liquid brine and an elastic model for the solid ice fraction. The coefficient of thermal expansion is calculated from the model equations and compared with experimental data. Experiments were performed with Fiber Bragg Grating strain and temperature sensors in the cold laboratories at UNIS and UCL in 2011-2013. In the experiments, the curve describing the dependence of the coefficient of thermal expansion on the temperature is always located in between the theoretical curves for saline and fresh ice. Such thermal behavior can be explained by the assumption that only some of the brine exists in enclosed pockets. The other brine exists in channels and can easily leak out of the ice. Brine in enclosed pockets controls the abnormal properties of thermal expansion. The remaining brine, in more permeable regions of the ice, has little effect on thermal expansion. Boundary conditions in our experiments may have a strong influence on the brine filtration. Several experiments performed with saline ice samples inside steel pipes gave a lower temperature for the point of zero thermal expansion than those with unconfined saline ice.

Marchenko, Aleksey; Lishman, Ben

2014-05-01

406

Materials of Construction for High-Salinity Geothermal Brines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The high-temperature, high-salinity geothermal brines in the Salton Sea Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) are a valuable source of energy and mineral values. The brine and steam produced from them are corrosive and cause early failure of many common ...

J. P. Carter S. D. Cramer

1991-01-01

407

Halophytes for the treatment of saline aquaculture effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the feasibility of using salt-tolerant plants (halophytes) as biofilters to remove nutrients from saline aquaculture wastewater. Suaeda esteroa, Salicornia bigelovii and Atriplex barclayana (Chenopodiaceae), species with potential as forage and oil seed crops, were grown in sand in draining containers (lysimeters) in a greenhouse experiment. They were irrigated to meet evapotranspiration demand and to produce a 0.3 leaching

J. Jed Brown; Edward P. Glenn; Kevin M. Fitzsimmons; Steven E. Smith

1999-01-01

408

Saline Ice Penetration. A Joint CRREL-NSWC Test Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reports on the response of a floating saline ice sheet to penetration and perforation by 25.4-mm-diameter projectiles with three nose shapes: a full cone, a truncated cone and full flat. Impact velocity was varied to produce behavior ranging fr...

D. M. Cole H. K. Steves

1987-01-01

409

Salinity Affects Intracellular Calcium in Corn Root Protoplasts 1  

PubMed Central

Previous work with the fluorescent Ca probe chlorotetracycline (CTC) showed that salinity displaces Ca from membranes of root cells. Using a variety of indirect approaches, we studied whether salinity displaces Ca from the cell surface or from internal membranes of corn (Zea mays L. cv Pioneer 3377) root protoplasts. Preloading the cells with supplemental Ca counteracted subsequent NaCl effects on CTC fluorescence. CTC quenching by exogenous EGTA was not competitive with CTC quenching by NaCl. The Ca channel reagent (+)-202-791 had significant interactions with the effect of NaCl on CTC fluorescence. The effect of NaCl on CTC fluorescence was attenuated by pretreatment with Li, but was restored by inositol. Salinity increased Na influx, decreased Ca influx, and increased Ca efflux from the cells. Fluorescence anisotropy indicated that NaCl decreased the fluidity of the external face of the plasmalemma but increased the fluidity of cell membranes in general. Our results suggest that salinity displaces Ca associated with intracellular membranes through activation of the phosphoinositide system and depletion of intracellular Ca pools. Images Fig. 5

Lynch, Jonathan; Lauchli, Andre

1988-01-01

410

Physiological Responses to Salinity in Selected Lines of Wheat 1  

PubMed Central

Two selections of bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L., differing in their relative salt resistance, were grown in salinized solution culture, and relative growth rates, osmotic adjustment, ion accumulation, and photosynthesis were monitored to study the responses of the plants to salinity. Differences in water relations were minimal and were only apparent for 3 days following salinization. The lines differed substantially in their relative growth rates and photosynthetic responses for several weeks following salinization, despite full osmotic adjustment. Concentrations of major cations and Cl? in the plant organs were remarkably similar in both lines, indicative of minimal differences in gross ion absorption and translocation. The authors interpret these results to suggest that the major difference between these two lines of wheat was their response to specific ion effects, at the level of the organ, tissue, cell, and subcellular entities. Superior compartmentation of toxic ions by the more salt-tolerant line, presumably in the vacuole, might have enabled it to maintain its cytoplasmic metabolic apparatus in a stabler and more nearly normal state than the sensitive line was able to do; a measure of true cytoplasmic toleration of salt may also be a factor.

Kingsbury, Ralph W.; Epstein, Emanuel; Pearcy, Robert W.

1984-01-01

411

Salinity–mineral nutrient relations in horticultural crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relations between salinity and mineral nutrition of horticultural crops are extremely complex and a complete understanding of the intricate interactions involved would require the input from a multidisciplinary team of scientists. This review addresses the nutrient elements individually and we emphasise research directed towards the organ, whole-plant and field level. We have attempted to synthesise the literature and reconcile

S. r. Grattan; C. m. Grieve

1998-01-01

412

Visit to An Ocean Planet: Salinity and Deep Ocean Currents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource uses text, images, maps and a laboratory exercise to explain how differences in the temperature and salinity of ocean water cause the formation of deep-ocean currents. It is part of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's "Ocean Surface Topography from Space" website. This material is also available on the "Visit to An Ocean Planet" CD-ROM.

413

Numerical study on salinity stratification in the Oujiang River Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variations of current, salt intrusion and vertical stratification under different conditions of river flow and wind in the Oujiang River Estuary (ORE) were investigated in this article using the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). The model was verified against water level variation, velocity, and salinity variations in June 2005. The simulation results agreed well with measured data. Six sensitivity

Heng-zhi JIANG; Yong-ming SHEN; Shou-dong WANG

2009-01-01

414

Relative contribution of temperature and salinity to ocean acoustic reflectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine seismic data display laterally coherent reflectivity from the water column that is attributed to fine-scale oceanic layering. The amplitude of the different reflections is the expression of acoustic impedance contrasts between neighbouring water masses, and therefore water reflectivity maps the ocean's vertical sound speed and density (i.e., temperature and salinity) variations. Here we determine the relative contribution of each

V. Sallarès; B. Biescas; G. Buffett; R. Carbonell; J. J. Dañobeitia; J. L. Pelegrí

2009-01-01

415

Potential of Unicellular Cyanobacteria from Saline Environments as Exopolysaccharide Producers  

PubMed Central

Fifteen Cyanothece strains isolated from saline environments have been characterized with regard to exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. The polymers contained six to eight monosaccharides, with one or two acidic sugars. In some EPS samples, the additional presence of acetyl, pyruvyl, and/or sulfate groups was also detected.

De Philippis, Roberto; Margheri, Maria Cristina; Materassi, Riccardo; Vincenzini, Massimo

1998-01-01

416

Global carbon sequestration in tidal, saline wetland soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetlands represent the largest component of the terrestrial biological carbon pool and thus play an important role in global carbon cycles. Most global carbon budgets, however, have focused on dry land ecosystems that extend over large areas and have not accounted for the many small, scattered carbonstoring ecosystems such as tidal saline wetlands. We compiled data for 154 sites in

Gail L. Chmura; Shimon C. Anisfeld; Donald R. Cahoon; James C. Lynch

2003-01-01

417

How Mangroves Salinize the Soil. Modelling, Analysis and Simulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A transient one-dimensional model of the vertical movement of water and salt in the mangrove root zone is investigated. The authors show how both the time dependent and steady state salinity profiles in the soil depend on the strength of the root water up...

C. J. van Duijn G. Galiano J. H. Knight M. A. Peletier

1997-01-01

418

Patterns of fungal diversity and composition along a salinity gradient  

PubMed Central

Estuarine salinity gradients are known to influence plant, bacterial and archaeal community structure. We sequenced 18S rRNA genes to investigate patterns in sediment fungal diversity (richness and evenness of taxa) and composition (taxonomic and phylogenetic) along an estuarine salinity gradient. We sampled three marshes—a salt, brackish and freshwater marsh—in Rhode Island. To compare the relative effect of the salinity gradient with that of plants, we sampled fungi in plots with Spartina patens and in plots from which plants were removed 2 years prior to sampling. The fungal sediment community was unique compared with previously sampled fungal communities; we detected more Ascomycota (78%), fewer Basidiomycota (6%) and more fungi from basal lineages (16%) (Chytridiomycota, Glomeromycota and four additional groups) than typically found in soil. Across marshes, fungal composition changed substantially, whereas fungal diversity differed only at the finest level of genetic resolution, and was highest in the intermediate, brackish marsh. In contrast, the presence of plants had a highly significant effect on fungal diversity at all levels of genetic resolution, but less of an effect on fungal composition. These results suggest that salinity (or other covarying parameters) selects for a distinctive fungal composition, and plants provide additional niches upon which taxa within these communities can specialize and coexist. Given the number of sequences from basal fungal lineages, the study also suggests that further sampling of estuarine sediments may help in understanding early fungal evolution.

Mohamed, Devon J; Martiny, Jennifer BH

2011-01-01

419

Modelling the effect of salinity on radium desorption from sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The desorption of the four naturally occurring radium isotopes 223 Ra, 224 Ra, 226 Ra, and 228 Ra from estuarine sediments is investigated. These isotopes are created within sediments by the radioactive decay of insoluble thorium parents. Due to competition from other ions for the occupation of adsorption sites on the sediment grains, radium desorption is a function of salinity.

Ian T. Webster; Gary J. Hancock; Andrew S. Murray

1995-01-01

420

Laser measure of sea salinity, temperature and turbidity in depth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described in which a pulsed laser is used to probe the sea. Backscattered light is analyzed in time, intensity and wavelength. Tyndall, Raman and Brillouin scattering are used to obtain the backscatter turbidity, sound velocity, salinity, and the temperature as a function of depth.

Hirschberg, J. G.; Wouters, A. W.; Byrne, J. D.

1974-01-01

421

Adaptation to Increasing Salinity of the Colorado River.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Growing crops in Imperial Valley under sprinkler irrigation with water containing total dissolved solids (TDS) of 1,350 and 877 mg/l showed significant yield declines of carrots, onions, and snap beans on water of higher salinity. The crops that showed no...

F. E. Robinson J. N. Luthin R. J. Schnagl W. Padgett K. K. Tanji

1976-01-01

422

Oral hypertonic saline causes transient fall of vasopressin in humans  

SciTech Connect

After dehydration, oral rehydration causes a fall in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) that precedes changes in plasma osmolality. To investigate further the stimulus for this effect, its specificity, and association with thirst, six volunteers were deprived of water for 24 h and given a salt load on two separate occasions. On each study day they then drank rapidly 10 ml/kg of either tap water or hypertonic saline (360 mosmol/kg). There was a significant fall in plasma AVP from 2.0 +/- 0.3 to 1.2 +/- 0.4 pmol/l 5 min after drinking water and from 1.8 +/- 0.3 to 0.9 +/- 0.2 pmol/l after hypertonic saline. Plasma osmolality fell 30-60 min after water and was unchanged after saline. Plasma renin activity, oxytocin, and total protein all remained unchanged. All subjects reported diminished thirst after hypertonic saline. Gargling with water reduced thirst but did not affect plasma AVP. There appears to be a drinking-mediated neuroendocrine reflex that decreases plasma AVP irrespective of the osmolality of the liquid consumed. The sensation of thirst did not correlate with plasma osmolality and was not always related to plasma AVP concentration. AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay.

Seckl, J.R.; Williams, D.M.; Lightman, S.L.

1986-08-01

423

Sulfate reduction in Louisiana marsh soils of varying salinities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential sulfate reduction and in situ hydrogen sulfide emission rates for three Louisiana marsh soils of varying salinities (salt, brackish, and freshwater) were used to evaluate the influence of soil physicochemical parameters on sulfur transformations in different seasons (summer, winter, and spring). Solid adsorbent preconcentration and emission flux chambers were used in field experiments to measure hydrogen sulfide emissions. Soil

Ronald D. DeLaune; Istvan Devai; Carl R. Crozier; Peter Kelle

2002-01-01

424

Artificial Upwelling Driven by Salinity Differences in the Ocean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A concept for an artificial upwelling driven by salinity differences in the ocean to supply nutrients to a mariculture farm is described and analyzed. A long shell-and-tube counterflow heat exchanger built of inexpensive plastic and concrete is suspended ...

D. H. Johnson J. Decicco

1983-01-01

425

ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING MANUAL FOR SALINITY MANAGEMENT IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

An Environmental Planning Manual for Salinity Management in Irrigated Agriculture has been prepared. The primary focus of this manual is a delineation of the combinations of technological and institutional solutions, the various levels of planning effort, use of existing data and...

426

Aquarius\\/SAC-D Ocean Salinity Mission Science Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scheduled for launch in 2009, the international Aquarius\\/SAC-D satellite will begin a mission to map the global sea surface salinity (SSS) field and its variability from space. The overarching scientific goal is to provide the essential data to study the interactions between the ocean circulation, global water cycle and climate. Key scientific issues to address are (1) mapping large expanses

G. S. E. Lagerloef; Y. Chao; F. Raul Colomb

2006-01-01

427

DEVELOPMENT OF TILAPIA FOR SALINE WATERS IN THE PHILIPPINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four Oreochromis species were used in Phase 1 study. Progenies from the 28 cross combinations (5 purebreds and 23 crossbreds) were evaluated in 10 environments with different salinity levels and agro-climatic conditions using communal rearing concept. Data obtained after 120 days of culture revealed that among the different cross combinations reared across environments, pure cross of O. niloticus FaST gave

M. M. Tayamen; T. A. Abella; R. A. Reyes; J. C. Danting; A. M. Mendoza; E. B. Marquez; A. C. Salguet; M. M. Apaga; R. C. Gonzales

428

Improved in-situ measurements of sea-ice salinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present improved in-situ measurements of sea-ice salinity during sea-ice growth and decay as obtained from a newly developed instrument (Harp3d). Such measurements are important since the physical properties of sea ice and its sensitivity to a changing climate depend crucially on its salinity. Nevertheless, reliable measurements of sea-ice salinity are still largely lacking. The instrument we developed is based on impedance measurements between thin platinum wires frozen into the ice, similar to the device described by Notz et al. (2005). The improved version allows the determination of horizontal inhomogeneities in sea-ice solid fraction and salinity. Additionally, the resistive and capacitive impedance are now measured independently, which improves the accuracy of the measurements. We carried out a number of tank experiments in which a sodium chloride solution was cooled either from above or below to form artificial sea ice. During some of these experiments, supercooling of the water in the tank was observed, which is also discussed.

Ehlert, I.; Fontes, R.; Notz, D.

2009-04-01

429

Miscible displacement of salinity fronts: Implications for colloid mobilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colloids can be mobilized in the subsurface when low ionic strength pore water displaces high ionic strength pore water. Various experiments in saturated porous media, where such a change in ionic strength was used to mobilize colloids, have been reported in the literature. Here we experimentally test the effect of the flow direction on the hydrodynamic stability of the salinity displacement front. A series of experiments was conducted in packed columns where a solution of 1000 mM NaCl was displaced by 1 mM NaNO3 in a saturated porous medium. The flow direction was vertically downward, horizontal, or vertically upward. Nitrate breakthrough curves were determined at the column outflow. Results show that for downward flow of a salinity front the displacement fronts were hydrodynamically stable, but breakthrough curves showed less dispersion than in the case of equimolar miscible displacement. For upward flow of the salinity front the displacement was unstable. Breakthrough curves were not reproducible, and a family of breakthrough curves was observed for repeated experiments. This was caused by the development of distinct fingers at the displacement front. For horizontal flow of the salinity front the displacement was unstable. Repeated breakthrough curves were reproducible, but there was more dispersion than under equimolar displacement, which we attribute to some instability in the displacement front. Front instability inferred from breakthrough curves was consistent with theoretical expectations for miscible displacement.

Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B.; Mathison, Jon B.

2003-12-01

430

Home Brew Salinity Measuring Devices: Their Construction and Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses several inexpensive methods of evaluating the salinity of seawater. One method is presented in some detail. This method has several attractive features. First, it can be used to provide instruction, not only in marine chemistry, but also in studying the mathematics of the point slope formula, and as an aid in teaching students…

Schlenker, Richard M.

431

Effect of expansion of extracellular fluid volume on renal phosphate handling.  

PubMed

To examine the specific effect of extracellular fluid (ECF) volume expansion on phosphate excretion studies were performed in thyroparathyroidectomized dogs receiving saline solution intravenously. The natriuresis resulting from ECF volume expansion was consistently accompanied by an increase in phosphate excretion. The possible role of increased filtered load of phosphate was eliminated in experiments in which the filtered load of phosphate was reduced by acute reduction in the glomerular filtration rate. Despite considerable reductions in filtered phosphate, ECF volume expansion resulted in a consistent increase in phosphate excretion. Furthermore, the possible contribution of alteration in blood composition was investigated in experiments in which saline was infused during thoracic inferior vena cava constriction. In these experiments saline infusion failed to increase sodium or phosphate excretion. Cessation of saline infusion and release of caval constriction resulted in a prompt natriuresis and increased phosphate excretion. It is concluded from these studies that extracellular fluid volume expansion results in an increased phosphate excretion in the parathyroidectomized dog. This effect is the specific consequence of ECF volume expansion and is not due to increase in the filtered load of phosphate or alterations in blood composition. PMID:5822594

Suki, W N; Martinez-Maldonado, M; Rouse, D; Terry, A

1969-10-01

432

Practical salinity management for leachate irrigation to poplar trees.  

PubMed

Landfill leachate can be beneficially reused for irrigation of fiber crops with appropriate attention to nutrient and salinity management. The Riverbend Landfill in Western Oregon has been effectively practicing irrigation of landfill leachate to poplar trees since 1993. Over that time, the site has been adaptively managed to control salinity impacts to the tree crop while beneficially utilizing the applied water and nutrients during each growing season. Representative leachate irrigation water has ranged in concentration of total dissolved solids from 777 to 6,940 mg/L, chloride from 180 to 1,760 mg/L and boron from 3.2 to 7.3 mg/L. Annual leachate irrigation applications have also ranged between 102 and 812 mm/yr. Important conclusions from this site have included: 1) Appropriate tree clone selection and tree stand spacing, thinning, and harvest rotations are critical to maintaining a productive tree stand that is resilient and resistant to salt stress. The most effective combinations have included clones DN-34, OP-367, 184-411, 49-177, and 15-29 planted at spacing of 3.7-m x 1.8-m to 3.7-m x 3.7-m; 2) Leaf tissue boron levels are closely correlated to soil boron levels and can be managed with leaching. When leaf tissue boron levels exceed 200 to 250 mg/kg, signs of salt stress may emerge and should be monitored closely; 3) Salinity from leachate irrigation can be managed to sustain a healthy tree crop by controlling mass loading rates and providing appropriate irrigation blending if necessary. Providing freshwater irrigation following each leachate irrigation and targeting freshwater irrigation as 30 percent of total irrigation water applied has successfully controlled salt impacts to vegetation; and 4) Drip irrigation generally requires more careful attention to long-term soil salinity management than spray irrigation. Moving drip irrigation tubes periodically to prevent the formation of highly saline zones within the soil profile is important. In this paper, a fifteen year record of monitoring and operational data are presented that can be used by others in managing irrigation of saline water to poplar trees. When salinity is carefully managed, tree systems can help to provide sustainable leachate management solutions for landfills. PMID:22574379