Sample records for volume saline enemas

  1. Effects of high volume saline enemas vs no enema during labour – The N-Ma Randomised Controlled Trial [ISRCTN43153145

    PubMed Central

    Cuervo, Luis Gabriel; Bernal, María del Pilar; Mendoza, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    Background Enemas are used during labour in obstetric settings with the belief that they reduce puerperal and neonatal infections, shorten labour duration, and make delivery cleaner for attending personnel. However, a systematic review of the literature found insufficient evidence to support the use of enemas. The objective of this RCT was to address an identified knowledge gap by determining the effect of routine enemas used during the first stage of labour on puerperal and neonatal infection rates. Methods Design: RCT (randomised controlled trial; randomized clinical trial). Outcomes: Clinical diagnosis of maternal or neonatal infections, labour duration, delivery types, episiotomy rates, and prescription of antibiotics Setting: Tertiary care referral hospital at the Javeriana University (Bogotá, Colombia) that attended 3170 births during study period with a caesarean section rate of 26%. Participants: 443 women admitted for delivery to the obstetrics service (February 1997 to February 1998) and followed for a month after delivery. Inclusion criteria were women with: low risk pregnancy and expected to remain in Bogotá during follow up; gestational age ? 36 weeks; no pelvic or systemic bacterial infection; intact membranes; cervix dilatation ?7 cm. Intervention: 1 litre saline enema, versus no enema, allocated following a block random allocation sequence and using sealed opaque envelopes. Results Allocation provided balanced groups and 86% of the participants were followed up for one month. The overall infection rate for newborns was 21%, and 18% for women. We found no significant differences in puerperal or neonatal infection rates (Puerperal infection: 41/190 [22%] with enema v 26/182 [14%] without enema; RR 0.66 CI 95%: 0.43 to 1.03; neonatal infection 38/191 [20%] with enema v 40/179 [22%] without enema; RR 1.12, 95% CI 95% 0.76 to 1.66), and median labour time was similar between groups (515 min. with enema v 585 min. without enema; P = 0.24). Enemas didn't significantly change episiorraphy dehiscence rates (21/182 [12%] with enema v 32/190 [17%] without enema; P = 0.30). Conclusion This RCT found no evidence to support routine use of enemas during labour. Although these results cannot rule out a small clinical effect, it seems unlikely that enemas will improve maternal and neonatal outcomes and provide an overall benefit. PMID:16545140

  2. [Warm saline enema for reduction of intestinal invagination under the ultrasonographic guidance: preliminary results apropos of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Cisse, R; Wandaogo, A; Bandre, E; Lougue, C; Tapsoba, T L; Sano, D; Traore, S S; Kirakoya, B; Bonkoungou, G; Sanou, A

    2001-11-01

    The authors describe the use of isotonic normal saline enema under US guidance in the treatment of acute uncomplicated intestinal intussusception in infants. The technique was successfully used in two patients aged respectively 18 and 16 months, with 11 and 9-month follow-up. The various steps of this technique and the results are analyzed and discussed. It is a valuable alternative to surgical treatment or hydrostatic reduction with opaque x-ray contrast under fluoroscopic guidance. PMID:11894553

  3. [Glucagon-based cleansing enemas prior to a double-contrast barium enema].

    PubMed

    Pietilä, J A

    1992-01-01

    The cleansing effect of large-volume enemas supported or unsupported by glucagon was studied in 20 each outpatients before a double-contrast barium enema. There was no statistically significant difference in respect of the remaining rests of faeces and the contrast medium coat. Patients suffering from intestinal spasms and anal insufficiency experience a feeling of relief by the intramuscular administration of glucagon during the preparatory enema; the quality of the double-contrast barium enema is not affected. PMID:1547292

  4. World Ocean Atlas 1994. Volume 3. Salinity

    SciTech Connect

    Levitus, S.; Burgett, R.; Boyer, T.P.

    1994-04-01

    This atlas contains maps of salinity at selected standard levels of the worlds ocean on a one-degree grid. Maps for all-data annual and seasonal compositing periods are presented. The fields used to generate these maps were computed by objective analysis of historical data. Data distribution maps are presented for various compositing periods. Basin zonal averages and basin volume averages are computed from these objectively analyzed fields and presented in the form of figures and tables.

  5. Recognition and prevention of barium enema complications.

    PubMed

    Williams, S M; Harned, R K

    1991-01-01

    The barium enema is a safe and accurate diagnostic study of the colon but, in rare cases, complications may result. Many of these can be prevented by proper equipment and careful attention to technique. When a complication does occur, prompt recognition and management is vital in decreasing morbidity and mortality. Perforation of the bowel is the most frequent serious complication, occurring in approximately 0.02% to 0.04% of patients. Rarely the colon may burst due to excessive transmural pressure alone. However, a colon weakened by iatrogenic trauma or disease is more likely to perforate during an enema than is a normal healthy bowel. Injury to the rectal mucosa or anal canal due to the enema tip or retention balloon is probably the most common traumatic cause of barium enema perforation. Inflation of a retention balloon within a stricture, neoplasm, inflamed rectum, or colostomy stoma is particularly hazardous. Recent deep biopsy or polypectomy with electrocautery makes the bowel more vulnerable to rupture. The tensile strength of the bowel wall is impaired in elderly patients, patients receiving long-term steroid therapy, and in disease states including neoplasm, diverticulitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and ischemia. Intraperitoneal perforation leads to a severe, acute peritonitis with intravascular volume depletion. The ensuing shock may be rapidly fatal. Prompt fluid replacement and laparotomy are essential. If the patient survives the initial shock and sepsis, later complications caused by dense intraperitoneal adhesions may develop. Extraperitoneal perforation is usually less catastrophic but may result in pain, sepsis, cellulitis, abscess, rectal stricture, or fistula. Intramural extravasation often forms a persistent submucosal barium granuloma which may ulcerate or be mistaken for a neoplasm. The most dramatic complication of barium enema is venous intravasation of barium. Fortunately, this is quite rare as it may be immediately lethal. Most cases have been attributed to trauma from the enema tip or retention balloon, mucosal inflammation, or misplacement of the tip in the vagina. Bacteremia has been found in as many as 23% of patients following barium enema and, in rare cases, may cause symptomatic septicemia. Other less common complications include barium impaction, water intoxication, allergic reactions, and cardiac arrhythmias. Preparatory laxatives and cleansing enemas have been implicated in some instances of dehydration, rectal trauma, water intoxication, and perforation. Careful review of the indications for examination, previous radiographs, and clinical history will identify many of the patients at greater risk for complications so that appropriate precautions may be observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1889235

  6. Retrograde spread of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with active ulcerative colitis

    SciTech Connect

    Campieri, M.; Lanfranchi, G.A.; Brignola, C.; Bazzocchi, G.; Gionchetti, P.; Minguzzi, M.R.; Cappello, I.P.; Corbelli, C.; Boschi, S.

    1986-02-01

    In an attempt to know the exact retrograde spread of high-dosage 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas, we have studied eight patients with active left-sided colitis, by adding a small amount of barium sulfate to the enemas and by checking the spread radiologically after 15 minutes, 1 hour, and 6 hours. Four grams of 5-aminosalicylic acid in 100-ml enemas and 4 gm in 200-ml enemas were used. The same experiment was repeated in a subsequent attack, with enemas labeled with technetium-99m and checked by scintiscans in five of these patients. We always have observed a volume-dependent spread of enemas but, interestingly, in the patients studied with technetium-99m there was always a wider spread than that which was detected with barium enemas. In all five patients, 100-ml enemas reached the splenic flexure. In two patients with total colitis, a progression of 100-ml technetium-99m enemas was performed in the transverse colon, but the maximum opacity remained in the left side. We can conclude that 4 gm of 5-aminosalicylic acid in 100-ml enemas can be suitable for treating patients with left-sided colitis, and will represent a valid addition for patients with more extensive colitis.

  7. A complication of cleansing enema: Retained protective shield of the enema tip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard E. Zeligman; Lawrence E. Feinberg; Eric D. Johnson

    1986-01-01

    A retained enema tube sheath was encountered in 4 outpatients who underwent preparation for barium enema. This object can be detected on a plain abdominal roentgenogram, but is more readily apparent as an intraluminal foreign body during barium enema examination. We suggest that a prominent warning to remove the sheath before taking a cleansing enema be attached to the enema

  8. 21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device...

  13. On salinity errors induced in volume-conserved numerical models

    E-print Network

    Huang, Rui Xin

    ocean. The global mean salinity diagnosed from ECCO2 and SODA data indicates that there might be some salinity sensors based on CTD have been widely used, accuracy of salinity measurements is approximately 0

  14. Quantitative distribution of radiolabeled 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis

    SciTech Connect

    Vitti, R.A.; Meyers, F.; Knight, L.C.; Siegel, J.A.; Malmud, L.S.; Fisher, R.S. (Temple Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Rectally administered suspensions of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) are topically effective in treating left-sided ulcerative colitis. The extent to which the contents of these enemas are distributed to inflamed mucosal linings has not previously been determined. This study was undertaken to validate a technique for labeling 5-ASA with 99mTc and to quantitate the distribution of (99mTc)5-ASA in eight patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis. Eight patients underwent three colonic scintigraphic exams within five days, receiving a 60-ml radiolabeled 5-ASA enema into the unprepared rectum for each study, with sequential anterior abdominal images obtained for 4 hr. Activity within the rectum, sigmoid, descending, transverse, and ascending colon was quantitated. Over 50% of the labeled enema had advanced beyond the rectum in five of eight patients and in six of eight patients by 30 min and 60 min, respectively. The distribution of (99mTc)5-ASA was quantitatively reproducible when repeated in the same patient on different days, despite apparent visual differences. By 2 hr, the amount of the enema present within the rectum decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) compared to the initial distribution. The amount of enema present within the descending colon was increased significantly at 0.5 hr (P less than 0.05) and at 2 hr (P less than 0.01). There were no significant changes in the distribution from initial values for the sigmoid, transverse, or ascending colon at any time. In each of these cases the spread of the enema to or beyond the extent of disease was documented. In patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis, small volume (99mTc)5-ASA enemas reliably reach the area of inflammation.

  15. Retrograde spreading of hydrocortisone enema in inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Jay, M.; Digenis, G.A.; Foster, T.S.; Antonow, D.R.

    1986-02-01

    A hydrocortisone suspension enema was radiolabeled with (/sup 99m/Tc)technetium sulfur colloid and administered to four normal subjects and eight patients with varying degrees of inflammatory bowel disease. The extent of enema spreading was monitored using external scintigraphy for a period of up to 4 hr after administration. Pretreatment of normal subjects with an evacuation enema resulted in spreading of the radiolabeled enema throughout the entire colon. In seven of the eight patients studied, the enema migrated a distance equal to or greater than the extent of disease involvement. An in vivo stability study with an indium-111-labeled enema, using the perturbed angular correlation technique, revealed that the enema retains its stability for up to 90 min after administration. These results indicate that the use of hydrocortisone enemas may not be restricted to distal bowel disease, but may also be effective in inflammatory bowel diseases involving proximal regions of the colon.

  16. Comparison of water immersion and saline infusion as a means of inducing volume expansion in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, M.; Pins, D. S.; Arrington, R.; Denunzio, A. G.; Engstrom, R.

    1975-01-01

    The study compares the natriuresis induced by head-out water immersion to that of a standard saline infusion and assesses the relative effectiveness of these two techniques as volume determinants of renal sodium and water handling in humans in a seated posture. The data obtained show that the volume stimulus of immersion is identical to that of standard saline-induced extracellular fluid volume expansion (ECVE) in normal seated subjects. The ability of head-out water immersion to induce a natriuresis without a concomitant increase in total blood volume and with a decrease in body weight suggests that water immersion may be preferred as an investigative tool for assessing the effects of ECVE in man.

  17. Effects of Salinity on Measurement of Water Volume Fraction and Correction Method Based on RBF Neural Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunguo Jing; Guangzhong Xing; Bin Liu; Qiuguo Bai

    2007-01-01

    The gamma ray dual modality densitometry was presented to measure salinity independent of water volume fraction in pipe flows.\\u000a The simulation geometries of the dual modality densitometry were built using Monte Carlo software Geant4. Computer simulations\\u000a were carried out with different types of salt and various salinity. The results show that type of salt and salinity have significant\\u000a effects on

  18. Saline lavage: a rapid, effective, and acceptable method for cleansing the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Levy, A G; Benson, J W; Hewlett, E L; Herdt, J R; Doppman, J L; Gordon, R S

    1976-02-01

    The standard preparation for cleansing the gastrointestinal tract for diagnostic studies such as barium enema usually involves dietary restrictions, purgatives, and cleansing enemas. This preparation is time consuming, often uncomfortable for the patient, and frequently unsuccessful. In this study, we examined the efficacy of saline lavage (without dietary restrictions or cleansing enemas) as a gentle, alternative method for cleansing the bowel, and compared lavage to the standard castor oil method of bowel preparation. Lavage cleansing was preferred by 75% of patients who had previously experienced a castor oil preparation. Although 11% of patients could not consume an adequate (4-liter) lavage volume, there was no significant difference in preparation success rate between the remaining lavage patients and the castor oil patients. Total preparation time for lavage (3 +/- 1 hr) was 60% less than for castor oil. The anticipated dehydration produced by castor oil and the hydration produced by lavage were confirmed. No significant changes were noted, however, in serum electrolytes with either method of preparation. Additional early studies are promising for the lavage method when used in inflammatory bowel disease patients and as a cleansing preparation for colonoscopy. PMID:1248676

  19. Enema ion compositions for enhancing colorectal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Maisel, Katharina; Chattopadhyay, Sumon; Moench, Thomas; Hendrix, Craig; Cone, Richard; Ensign, Laura M; Hanes, Justin

    2015-07-10

    Delivering drugs to the colorectum by enema has advantages for treating or preventing both local and systemic diseases. However, the properties of the enema itself are not typically exploited for improving drug delivery. Sodium ions are actively pumped out of the lumen of the colon, which is followed by osmotically-driven water absorption, so we hypothesized that this natural mechanism could be exploited to drive nanoparticles and drugs to the colorectal tissue surface. Here, we report that sodium-based, absorption-inducing (hypotonic) enemas rapidly transport hydrophilic drugs and non-mucoadhesive, mucus penetrating nanoparticles (MPP), deep into the colorectal folds to reach virtually the entire colorectal epithelial surface. In contrast, isotonic and secretion-inducing (hypertonic) vehicles led to non-uniform, poor surface coverage. Sodium-based enemas induced rapid fluid absorption even when moderately hyper-osmolal (~350mOsm) compared to blood (~300mOsm), which suggests that active sodium absorption plays a key role in osmosis-driven fluid uptake. We then used tenofovir, an antiretroviral drug in clinical trials for preventing HIV, to test the effects of enema composition on local and systemic drug delivery. We found that strongly hypotonic and hypertonic enemas caused rapid systemic drug uptake, whereas moderately hypotonic enemas with ion compositions similar to feces resulted in high local tissue levels with minimal systemic drug exposure. Similarly, moderately hypotonic enemas provided improved local drug retention in colorectal tissue, whereas hypertonic and isotonic enemas provided markedly reduced drug retention in colorectal tissue. Lastly, we found that moderately hypotonic enema formulations caused little to no detectable epithelial damage, while hypertonic solutions caused significant damage, including epithelial sloughing; the epithelial damage caused increased systemic drug absorption and penetration of MPP into colorectal tissue, a potential advantage in certain drug delivery applications. In summary, we illustrate that enema composition can be adjusted to maximize local versus systemic drug delivery, and that mildly hypotonic, sodium-based vehicles can provide uniform drug and MPP delivery in the colon that maximizes local drug concentrations. PMID:25937321

  20. A randomised trial comparing mesalazine and prednisolone foam enemas in patients with acute distal ulcerative colitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F I Lee; D P Jewell; V Mani; M R Keighley; R D Kingston; C O Record; R H Grace; S Daniels; J Patterson; K Smith

    1996-01-01

    Distal ulcerative colitis can be treated with oral or rectal mesalazine, or both. A foam enema preparation has been developed and its efficacy investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mesalazine foam enemas compared with prednisolone foam enemas in the treatment of patients with acute distal ulcerative colitis. Patients aged over 18 years

  1. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

  2. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

  3. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

  4. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

  5. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

  6. Estimating Plume Volume for Geologic Storage of CO2 in Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Christine

    2008-07-11

    Typically, when a new subsurface flow and transport problem is first being considered, very simple models with a minimal number of parameters are used to get a rough idea of how the system will evolve. For a hydrogeologist considering the spreading of a contaminant plume in an aquifer, the aquifer thickness, porosity, and permeability might be enough to get started. If the plume is buoyant, aquifer dip comes into play. If regional groundwater flow is significant or there are nearby wells pumping, these features need to be included. Generally, the required parameters tend to be known from pre-existing studies, are parameters that people working in the field are familiar with, and represent features that are easy to explain to potential funding agencies, regulators, stakeholders, and the public. The situation for geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in saline aquifers is quite different. It is certainly desirable to do preliminary modeling in advance of any field work since geologic storage of CO{sub 2} is a novel concept that few people have much experience with or intuition about. But the parameters that control CO{sub 2} plume behavior are a little more daunting to assemble and explain than those for a groundwater flow problem. Even the most basic question of how much volume a given mass of injected CO{sub 2} will occupy in the subsurface is non-trivial. However, with a number of simplifying assumptions, some preliminary estimates can be made, as described below. To make efficient use of the subsurface storage volume available, CO{sub 2} density should be large, which means choosing a storage formation at depths below about 800 m, where pressure and temperature conditions are above the critical point of CO{sub 2} (P = 73.8 bars, T = 31 C). Then CO{sub 2} will exist primarily as a free-phase supercritical fluid, while some CO{sub 2} will dissolve into the aqueous phase.

  7. The Dynamics of Vascular Volume and Fluid Shifts of Lactated Ringer???s Solution and Hypertonic-Saline-Dextran Solutions Infused in Normovolemic Sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geir I. Elgjo; Donald S. Prough; Chad A. Williams; Daniel L. Traber; George C. Kramer

    2001-01-01

    Infusions of hyperosmotic-hyperoncotic solutions such as hypertonic saline dextran (HSD) are used in Europe for resuscitation of traumatic shock and perioperative volume support as an adjunct to conventional isotonic crystalloids. Whereas plasma volume expansion of HSD has been measured at single time points after the intravascular volume expansion, the detailed time course of fluid shifts during and after infusions have

  8. Gas volume quantitation during argon ion laser ablation of atheromatous aorta in blood and 0.9% saline media with an optically shielded catheter.

    PubMed

    Davis, G S; Bott-Silverman, C; Goormastic, M; Gerrity, R G; Kittrell, C; Feld, M; Kramer, J R

    1988-01-01

    Using an optically shielded fiber optic laser catheter, the amount of gas produced when firing an argon ion laser into 0.9% saline solution or blood alone and into atheromatous aorta in either a blood or 0.9% saline medium was quantitated. Energies from 0.25 to 4 joules (J) were used at powers of 2, 5, and 8 W. We found that total volume of gas produced is small not only at equilibrium (0.3 +/- 0.1 microliter/J when firing in blood alone and also when ablating aorta in blood or saline media) but also at peak (2.5 +/- 0.2 microliters/J firing in blood alone and 1.0 +/- 0.1 microliter/J or 0.9 +/- 0.1 microliter/J when ablating aorta in saline or blood, respectively). Because these volumes are small, a clinically significant event from a gas embolus is unlikely during intravascular laser ablation of atheromatous plaque in the energy and power range studied. No gas was quantitated when firing the argon ion laser into 0.9% saline solution alone. The peak gas volume when firing in blood alone was significantly greater than that produced in the other chamber environments. This is thought to be due to increased absorption of argon laser light by hemoglobin. The gas volumes produced by lasing aorta in 0.9% saline or blood were not statistically different. PMID:2965290

  9. Relative sensitivity of colonoscopy and barium enema for detection of colorectal cancer in clinical practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DK Rex; EY Rahmani; JH Haseman; GT Lemmel; S Kaster; JS Buckley

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The relative sensitivities of barium enema and colonoscopy for colorectal cancer are still debated. The aim of this study was to determine the relative sensitivity of barium enema and colonoscopy in general clinical practice. METHODS: Medical records of 2193 consecutive colorectal cancer cases identified in 20 central Indiana hospitals were reviewed. All procedures performed within 3 years

  10. A comparison of bowel preparations for flexible sigmoidoscopy: oral magnesium citrate combined with oral bisacodyl, one hypertonic phosphate enema, or two hypertonic phosphate enemasFig. 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Keith Fincher; Eric M. Osgard; Jeffrey L. Jackson; Jeffrey S. Strong; Roy K. H. Wong

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Magnesium citrate with hypertonic enemas or oral bisacodyl provides superior preparation quality for sigmoidoscopy over enemas alone. We compared three magnesium citrate sigmoidoscopy preparations in a randomized, single-blind, controlled trial.METHODS:Two hundred and ninety-one adults scheduled for routine sigmoidoscopy were randomly assigned to receive one of three preparations containing oral magnesium citrate (296 cc) taken the night before the procedure in

  11. Influence of Salinous Solutions in the Pressure and Volume Modulations of the Intracranial Cavity

    E-print Network

    Ceballos, Mariana

    2012-10-19

    agents and skull removal. The mechanical properties of bone can be affected by the administration of different solutions. If the malleability of skull is influenced by the osmotic agents that are administered to the patient then the pressure and volume...

  12. Salinization and Saline Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Vengosh

    2003-01-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and

  13. Effective damage zone volume of fault zones and initial salinity distribution determine intensity of shallow aquifer salinization in geological underground utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, M.; Tillner, E.; Kempka, T.; Kühn, M.

    2015-06-01

    Injection of fluids into deep saline aquifers causes a pore pressure increase in the storage formation, and thus displacement of resident brines. Via hydraulically conductive faults, brine may migrate upwards into shallower aquifers, and lead to unwanted salinization of potable groundwater resources. In the present study, we investigated different scenarios for a prospective storage site close to the city of Beeskow in the Northeast German Basin by using a 3-D regional scale model (100 km × 100 km × 1.34 km) that includes four ambient fault zones. The focus was on assessing the impact of fault length and the effect of an overlying secondary reservoir as well as model boundary conditions on the potential salinization of shallow groundwater resources. We employed numerical simulations of brine injection as a representative fluid using the simulator TOUGH2-MP. Our simulation results demonstrate that pressure build-up within the reservoir determines the intensity and duration of fluid flow through the faults, and hence salinization of shallower aquifers. Application of different boundary conditions proved that these have a crucial impact on reservoir fluid displacement. If reservoir boundaries are closed, the fluid migrated upwards into the shallow aquifer, corresponds to the overall injected fluid mass. In that case, a short hydraulically conductive fault length and the presence of an overlying secondary reservoir leads only to retardation in brine displacement up to a factor of five and three, respectively. If the reservoir boundaries are open, salinization is considerably reduced: in the presence of a secondary reservoir, 33% of equivalent brine mass migrates into the shallow aquifer, if all four faults are hydraulically open over their entire length, whereas the displaced equivalent brine mass is only 12% for a single fault of two kilometres length. Taking into account the considered geological boundary conditions, the brine originates in maximum from the upper 4 to 298 m of the investigated faults. Hence, the initial salt-freshwater interface present in the fault is of high relevance for the resulting shallow aquifer salinization. The present study demonstrates that the existence of hydraulically conductive faults is not necessarily an exclusion criterion for potential injection sites, because salinization of shallower aquifers strongly depends on initial salinity distribution, location of hydraulically conductive faults and their length as well as geological boundary conditions. These constraints are location specific, and need to be explored thoroughly in advance of any field activity. They provide the basis for scenario analyses and a reliable risk assessment.

  14. Influence of Salinous Solutions in the Pressure and Volume Modulations of the Intracranial Cavity 

    E-print Network

    Ceballos, Mariana

    2012-10-19

    ). In the human body, there are eleven main organ systems: circulatory, digestive, endocrine, integumentary, immune, skeletal, muscular, nervous, reproductive, respiratory, and urinary (3). This thesis will mainly focus on the study of the circulatory system... Test Sys Organ System TBI Traumatic Brain Injury Trans Transport V Volume ? Strain ? Viscosity ? Tissue Pressure ?pl Peak stress iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT...

  15. Beclomethasone dipropionate enemas for treating inflammatory bowel disease without producing Cushing's syndrome or hypothalamic pituitary adrenal suppression.

    PubMed

    Kumana, C R; Seaton, T; Meghji, M; Castelli, M; Benson, R; Sivakumaran, T

    1982-03-13

    Since beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) is a very potent glucocorticoid and since small oral doses (1 mg) seem to be metabolised (possibly in the gut wall or liver) before they reach the systemic circulation, a study was conducted to find out whether patients with inflammatory bowel disease could be treated with enemas containing small doses of BDP without their acquiring Cushing's syndrome or hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) suppression. The BDP in the 100 ml enemas used was stable and present in a concentration likely to be therapeutic (0.5 mg/dl). Single overnight BDP enemas, unlike conventional betamethasone (5 mg) enemas, did not interfere with the HPA axis in 6 healthy volunteers. In the double-blind randomised part of the study 2-week courses of BDP or betamethasone enemas were assessed in 9 patients having exacerbations of distal inflammatory bowel disease. The clinical and sigmoidoscopic responses as well as adrenocortical function (judged by the 'Cosyntropin' test) were evaluated on the morning after the last day of a course of enemas. Both types of enemas had similar beneficial effects, but only BDP enemas did not interfere with HPA function. Over a prolonged period, a patient with distal ulcerative colitis had been completely dependent on regular treatment with betamethasone enemas to control his symptoms. Substitution with BDP enemas successfully controlled his bowel symptoms, whilst his cushingoid features and HPA suppression regressed. PMID:6121181

  16. Use of Bisacodyl in Preparation of the Bowels for a Barium Enema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Sowerbutts

    1960-01-01

    This account of a new and successful technique in preparing patients for a barium enema examination will interest clinicians, for its eventual adoption by radiologists would greatly reduce the discomfort of this invaluable but disagreeable investigation.

  17. Current perspectives in colon radiography: the postendoscopy and postbiopsy barium enema.

    PubMed

    Lappas, J C; Maglinte, D D

    1985-01-01

    Controversy prevails regarding the same-day performance of barium enema examinations and endoscopy. Concerns focus upon the diagnostic quality of the postendoscopy barium enema and the risk of perforation if colorectal biopsy is performed during the endoscopy. Results of a study of 295 patients support that rigid or fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy can be performed the same day as single- or double-contrast barium enemas without adversely affecting the quality or interpretation of the barium examination. Animal studies suggest that a barium enema may be performed safely immediately after a superficial biopsy of a nondiseased colon and 6 days after a deep biopsy. Barium sulfate appears to have no deleterious effect on the healing of colorectal biopsy sites. These findings have important implications when considering health care logistics and cost containment. PMID:3896653

  18. Salinization and Saline Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g L-1), although the chloride comprises only a fraction of the total dissolved salts in water. The Cl/TDS ratio varies from 0.1 in nonmarine saline waters to ˜0.5 in marine-associated saline waters. Water salinity is also defined by electrical conductivity (EC). In soil studies, the electrical conductivity and the ratio of Na/?(Ca+Mg) (SAR) are often used as an indirect measure of soil salinity. In addition to chloride, high levels of other dissolved constituents may limit the use of water for domestic, agriculture, and industrial applications. In some parts of Africa, China, and India, for example, high fluoride content is associated with saline groundwater and causes severe dental and skeletal fluorosis (Shiklomanov, 1997). Hence, the "salinity" problem is only the "tip of the iceberg," as high levels of salinity are associated with high concentrations of other inorganic pollutants (e.g., sodium, sulfate, boron, fluoride), and bioaccumulated elements (e.g., selenium, and arsenic) (see Chapter 9.03).The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the chloride concentration of the water supply for human consumption should not exceed 250 mg L-1. Agriculture applications also depend upon the salinity level of the supplied water. Many crops, such as citrus, avocado, and mango, are sensitive to chloride concentration in irrigation water (an upper limit of 250 mg L-1). In addition, long-term irrigation with water enriched with sodium results in a significant reduction in the hydraulic conductivity and hence the fertility of the irrigated soil. Similarly, the industrial sector demands water of high quality. For example, the high-tech industry requires a large amount of water with low levels of dissolved salts. Hence, the salinity level of groundwater is one of the limiting factors that determine the suitability of water for a variety of applications.The salinity problem is a global phenomenon but it is more severe in water-scarce areas, such as arid and semi-arid zones. The increasing demand for water has created tremendous pressur

  19. Infection of Aedes albopictus with Chikungunya Virus Rectally Administered by Enema

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Sarah A.; Huang, Yan-Jang Scott; McAuley, Alex J.; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Klowden, Marc J.; Spratt, Heidi; Davey, Robert A.; Higgs, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in tropical areas of Africa, Asia, and the islands of the Indian Ocean. In 2007 and 2009, CHIKV was transmitted outside these tropical areas and caused geographically localized infections in people in Italy and France. To temporally and spatially characterize CHIKV infection of Ae. albopictus midguts, a comparison of viral distribution in mosquitoes infected per os or by enema was conducted. Ae. albopictus infected with CHIKV LR 5? green fluorescent protein (GFP) at a titer 106.95 tissue culture infective dose50 (TCID50)/mL, were collected and analyzed for virus dissemination by visualizing GFP expression and titration up to 14 days post inoculation (dpi). Additionally, midguts were dissected from the mosquitoes and imaged by fluorescence microscopy for comparison of midgut infection patterns between orally- and enema-infected mosquitoes. When virus was delivered via enema, the anterior midgut appeared more readily infected by 3?dpi, with increased GFP presentation observed in this same location of the midgut at 7 and 14?dpi when compared to orally-infected mosquitoes. This work demonstrates that enema delivery of virus is a viable technique for use of mosquito infection. Enema injection of mosquitoes may be an alternative to intrathoracic inoculation because the enema delivery more closely models natural infection and neither compromises midgut integrity nor involves a wound that can induce immune responses. Furthermore, unlike intrathoracic delivery, the enema does not bypass midgut barriers to infect tissues artificially in the hemocoel of the mosquito. PMID:23249139

  20. Colonoscopy can miss diverticula of the left colon identified by barium enema

    PubMed Central

    Niikura, Ryota; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Shimbo, Takuro; Akiyama, Junichi; Uemura, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To identify the diagnostic value of colonoscopy for diverticulosis as determined by barium enema. METHODS: A total of 65 patients with hematochezia who underwent colonoscopy and barium enema were analyzed, and the diagnostic value of colonoscopy for diverticula was assessed. The receiver operating characteristic area under the curve was compared in relation to age (< 70 or ? 70 years), sex, and colon location. The number of diverticula was counted, and the detection ratio was calculated. RESULTS: Colonic diverticula were observed in 46 patients with barium enema. Colonoscopy had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 90%. No significant differences were found in the receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROC-AUC) for age group or sex. The ROC-AUC of the left colon was significantly lower than that of the right colon (0.81 vs 0.96, P = 0.02). Colonoscopy identified 486 colonic diverticula, while barium enema identified 1186. The detection ratio for the entire colon was therefore 0.41 (486/1186). The detection ratio in the left colon (0.32, 189/588) was significantly lower than that of the right colon (0.50, 297/598) (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Compared with barium enema, only half the number of colonic diverticula can be detected by colonoscopy in the entire colon and even less in the left colon. PMID:23613630

  1. Randomized clinical trial on the use of antispasmodic drugs in barium enema: impact on radiological practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reginald Goei; Alphons H Kessels; Maarten Nix; Paul G Knipschild

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the willingness of radiologists to change their practice when the results of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) on the use of antispasmodic drugs in barium enema are presented. Materials and Methods: During the years 1994 and 1995 two postal questionnaires were sent to 481 practicing radiologists who were all members of the Netherlands Society of Radiology. In

  2. Salinity Protocol

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this resource is to measure the salinity of the water at your hydrology site. Students use a hydrometer to measure the specific gravity of the water sample, and use a thermometer to measure the temperature. With these two values, students will use tables to determine the salinity.

  3. Failure of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas to improve chronic radiation proctitis

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, C.A.; Biddle, W.L.; Miner, P.B. Jr.

    1989-05-01

    Radiation proctitis is a well-known complication of abdominal and pelvic radiation. Conventional medical and surgical treatment often is disappointing. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is the active component in sulfasalazine and is effective in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. Four patients with radiation proctitis were treated with 4 g 5-ASA by enema nightly for two to six months. Patients were seen monthly, interviewed, and a sigmoidoscopic exam performed. No change was seen in the degree of mucosal inflammation on follow-up sigmoidoscopic exams. Three patients noted no change in their symptoms of bleeding, pain, or tenesmus. One patient noted initial improvement, but this was not sustained. 5-ASA enemas do not appear to be effective in the treatment of radiation proctitis.

  4. Topical administration of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with ulcerative colitis. Studies on rectal absorption and excretion.

    PubMed Central

    Campieri, M; Lanfranchi, G A; Boschi, S; Brignola, C; Bazzocchi, G; Gionchetti, P; Minguzzi, M R; Belluzzi, A; Labò, G

    1985-01-01

    5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is a new treatment for patients suffering from ulcerative colitis but only limited information is available about its rectal absorption. We therefore studied seven patients with ulcerative colitis in remission, and five with active disease to determine acetylated and free 5-ASA plasma concentrations and urinary acetyl 5-ASA after the administration of three different types of enemas: (2 g 5-ASA/100 ml, 4 g/100 ml, and 200 ml). In patients in remission urinary acetyl 5-ASA excretion was dose and volume dependent (p less than 0.01; p less than 0.05) but this correlation was absent in active disease. Because aminosalicylates are usually eliminated through the kidney, these low values (10% in active disease and 19% in those in remission) suggest that the beneficial action may be local. Urinary recovery was significantly lower in patients with active disease (p less than 0.01; p less than 0.02). No accumulation of 5-ASA was found in plasma after repeated daily administration. PMID:3979912

  5. Accidental embryo irradiation during barium enema examinations: An estimation of absorbed dose

    SciTech Connect

    Damilakis, J.; Perisinakis, K.; Grammatikakis, J. [Univ. Hospital of Iraklion, Crete (Greece)] [and others] [Univ. Hospital of Iraklion, Crete (Greece); and others

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to investigate the possibility of an embryo to receive a dose of more than 10 cGy, the threshold of malformation induction in embryos reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, during barium enema examinations. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were place in a phantom to calculate the depth-to-skin conversion coefficient needed for dose estimation at the average embryo depth in patients. Barium enema examinations were performed in 20 women of childbearing age with diagnostic problems demanding longer fluoroscopy times. Doses at 6 cm, the average embryo depth, were determined by measurements at the patients` skin followed by dose calculation at the site of interest. The range of doses estimated at embryo depth for patients was 1.9 to 8.2 cGy. The dose always exceeded 5 cGy when fluoroscopy time was longer than 7 minutes. The dose at the embryo depth never exceeded 10 cGy. This study indicates that fluoroscopy time should not exceed 7 minutes in childbearing-age female patients undergoing barium enema examinations. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Salinity Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Walter R.

    1987-01-01

    Discussed are the costs of deriving energy from the earth's natural reserves of salt. Argues that, as fossil fuel supplies become more depleted in the future, the environmental advantages of salinity power may prove to warrant its exploitation. (TW)

  7. Isohaline Salinity Budget of the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, F.; Bachman, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS) field experiment was designed as a multi-scale investigation of the processes that give rise to the North Atlantic subtropical salinity maximum. The choice of control volume influences the processes that dominate budgets of ocean properties. In this study we analyze the salinity budget of the North Atlantic subtropical salinity maximum region for control volumes bounded by isohaline surfaces. We provide closed budgets based on output from a high-resolution numerical simulation, and partial budgets based on climatological analyses of observations. With this choice of control volume, advection is eliminated from the instantaneous volume integrated salt budget, and time mean advection eliminated from the budget evaluated from time-averaged data. In this way, the role of irreversible mixing processes in the maintenance and variability of the salinity maximum are more readily revealed. By carrying out the analysis with near instantaneous and time-filtered model output, the role of mesoscale eddies in stirring and mixing for this region is determined. We find that the small-scale mixing acting on enhanced gradients generated by the mesoscale eddies is approximately equal to that acting on the large-scale gradients estimated from climatological mean conditions. The isohaline salinity budgets can be related to water mass transformation rates associated with surface forcing and mixing processes in a straightforward manner. We find that the surface net evaporation in the North Atlantic salinity maximum region accounts for a transformation of 7 Sv of water into the salinity maximum in the simulation, whereas the estimate based on climatological observations is 10 Sv.

  8. Patient experiences of colonoscopy, barium enema and CT colonography: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Von Wagner, C; Knight, K; Halligan, S; Atkin, W; Lilford, R; Morton, D; Wardle, J

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of patient experience with bowel screening tests, in particular CT colonography (CTC), have superimposed global rating scales and not explored individual experience in detail. To redress this, we performed qualitative interviews in order to characterize patient expectations and experiences in depth. Following ethical permission, 16 patients undergoing CTC, 18 undergoing colonoscopy and 15 undergoing barium enema agreed to a semi-structured interview by a health psychologist. Interviews were recorded, responses transcribed and themes extracted with the aim of assimilating individual experiences to facilitate subsequent development and interpretation of quantitative surveys of overall satisfaction with each diagnostic test. Transcript analysis identified three principal themes: physical sensations, social interactions and information provision. Physical sensations differed for each test but were surprisingly well tolerated overall. Social interactions with staff were perceived as very important in colouring the whole experience, particularly in controlling the feelings of embarrassment, which was critical for all procedures. Information provision was also an important determinant of experience. Verbal feedback was most common during colonoscopy and invariably reassuring. However, patients undergoing CTC received little visual or verbal feedback and were often confused regarding the test outcome. Barium enema had no specific advantage over other tests. Qualitative interviews provided important perspectives on patient experience. Our data demonstrated that models describing the quality of medical encounters are applicable to single diagnostic episodes. Staff interactions and information provision were particularly important. We found advantages specific to both CTC and colonoscopy but none for barium enema. CTC could benefit greatly from improved information provision following examination. PMID:18824501

  9. Single blind, randomised trial of efficacy and acceptability of oral Picolax versus self administered phosphate enema in bowel preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy screening

    PubMed Central

    Atkin, Wendy S; Hart, Andrew; Edwards, Robert; Cook, Claire F; Wardle, Jane; McIntyre, Peter; Aubrey, Roger; Baron, Clare; Sutton, Stephen; Cuzick, Jack; Senapati, Asha; Northover, John M A

    2000-01-01

    Objective To compare the acceptability and efficacy of two methods of self administered bowel preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy screening: a single phosphate enema and a single sachet of Picolax. Design Single blind, randomised trial. Setting Endoscopy units of two general hospitals. Participants 1442 men and women aged 55-64 years who had agreed to be screened by flexible sigmoidoscopy. Main outcome measures Attendance rates, compliance with allocated preparations, adverse effects, quality of bowel preparation, procedure time, and yield of neoplasia. Results Compliance with the enema was higher than with the Picolax (608 (84%) v 566 (79%); difference 6%, 95% confidence interval 2% to 10%). Almost half of those who refused Picolax used an enema at home. Wind, incontinence, and sleep disturbance were more frequent in the Picolax group than the enema group; bottom soreness was more frequent in the enema group. Around 30% (187) found the diet restriction required by Picolax difficult; 78% (471) found the enema easy to administer. The quality of preparation was better with the enema; the proportion of procedures complete to the descending colon was greater and the mean duration of the procedure was shorter. There was no significant difference in polyp detection rates. Conclusion A single phosphate enema self administered around one hour before leaving home is a more acceptable and effective method of preparing the distal bowel for flexible sigmoidoscopy than Picolax. PMID:10834891

  10. Spiral CT of the abdomen after distention of small bowel loops with transparent enema in patients with Crohn's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Rollandi; P. F. Curone; E. Biscaldi; F. Nardi; E. Bonifacino; R. Conzi; L. E. Derchi

    1999-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the capability of a computed tomographic (CT) technique that combines distention of the small bowel loops with\\u000a a transparent enema with contrast-enhanced spiral CT of the abdomen in patients with Crohn's disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: We evaluated the abdomen with spiral CT after distention of the small bowel loops with a transparent enema of methylcellulose\\u000a in 40 patients consecutively

  11. [A case of the latex-induced anaphylaxis by contact with barium enema catheter].

    PubMed

    Fujie, Sayuri; Yagami, Akiko; Suzuki, Kayoko; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2004-01-01

    The subject was a 34-year-old female with asthma and atopic dermatitis who had previously undergone a Cesarean section. In December 1995, the patient had an acute abdominal pain, so she underwent a barium enema examination. During the procedure, severe anaphylactic shock developed, and the examination was stopped. The patient responded well to appropriate emergency therapy, and her symptoms were resolved. However, the woman visited our outpatient clinic because the symptoms of her atopic dermatitis got worse. She indicated that she felt itchy when using rubber gloves. Also, at the age of thirty, she had urticaria and dyspnea after drinking a glass of fruit juice. Subsequently radioallergosorbent testing demonstrated the presence of specific IgEs against latex, banana, kiwi, grapefruit, and avocado. Skin prick tests were positive for banana, grapefruit, avocado, and latex extract at a dilution of 1:1000. A scratch test was positive to an extract of a balloon catheter which included 0.3 microg/g latex proteins by the LEAP method. In conclusion, the patient was diagnosed with an anaphylaxis to the latex contained in a balloon catheter used for the barium enema. PMID:14762330

  12. MR colonography without bowel cleansing or water enema: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sambrook, A; Mcateer, D; Yule, S; Phull, P

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The value of screening for colorectal cancer has been well demonstrated, and national programmes are being implemented. At present the primary imaging modality is colonoscopy, which has an associated morbidity and mortality. CT colonography (CTC) has been proposed as an alternative, but this is associated with radiation exposure and generally requires bowel preparation. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of MR colonography (MRC) without bowel preparation or water enema for the detection of colorectal neoplasia. Methods Patients scheduled for colonoscopy were invited to participate in the study; informed consent was obtained. MRC (with oral barium faecal tagging and colonic air distension) was performed 1–2 weeks before the colonoscopy. Axial T2 weighted single-shot fast spin-echo (prone and supine) and axial T1 weighted fast spoiled gradient-recalled (pre- and post-iv gadolinium) supine MRI sequences were performed. The examinations were reported by two gastrointestinal radiologists by consensus. Colonoscopy following standard bowel preparation was performed by a single endoscopist blinded to the MRC results. Significant lesions were defined as polyps or masses >10 mm in diameter. Results 29 patients were studied. Colonoscopy revealed 25 mass lesions in 13 patients. MRC correctly identified four of the nine lesions >10 mm in diameter (sensitivity 44%; specificity 100%). Although specificity remained high for smaller lesions, sensitivity was poor. Conclusion This pilot study has demonstrated the feasibility of performing MRC without bowel preparation or water enema. This would seem to be a promising modality for colorectal cancer screening. Larger studies are required to determine the accuracy of this modality for the detection of colorectal neoplasia. PMID:22167505

  13. Salinity Patterns in the Ocean Lynne D Talley

    E-print Network

    Talley, Lynne D.

    Salinity Patterns in the Ocean Lynne D Talley Volume 1, The Earth system: physical and chemical, Ltd, Chichester, 2002 #12;Salinity Patterns in the Ocean Lynne D Talley Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, La Jolla, CA, USA Ocean salinity varies geographically and with time

  14. Salinity Budget and WRAP Salinity Simulation Studies of the Brazos River/Reservoir System

    E-print Network

    Wurbs, Ralph; Lee, Chihun

    Possum Kingdom, Granbury, and Whitney and (2) to improve salinity simulation capabilities of the Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP) modeling system. Water volume and TDS load budgets are presented for five river reaches covering about 500 miles... Routing through Reservoirs ...........................................................................95 Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP) Modeling System .................................................... 95 Salinity Routing Methodology...

  15. Allometric relations of total volumes of prolactin cells and corticotropic cells to body length in the annual cyprinodont Cynolebias whitei : effects of environmental salinity, stress and ageing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Ruijter; S. E. Wendelaar Bonga

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of the allometric relations of the total volumes occupied by prolactin (PRL) and corticotropic (ACTH) cells (PRL volume and ACTH volume, respectively) to body length and a study of the immunocytochemical staining intensity of PRL and ACTH cells were used to determine the differences in activity of PRL and ACTH cells in freshwater-reared and in saltwater-reared Cynolebias whitei

  16. Pirenzepine versus scopolamine methyl bromide in double-contrast barium enema study of large bowel.

    PubMed

    Marraccini, P; Braccini, G; Marrucci, A; Boraschi, P; Bertellotti, L; Testa, R

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of pirenzepine for diagnostic double-contrast barium enema study of the large bowel, pirenzepine and scopolamine methyl bromide (SMB) were compared in a single, blind, randomized trial. Sixty consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. Quantitative analysis of bowel distention was done by measuring the maximum diameter of the transverse colon before and after drug administration. Four independent observers blindly evaluated distention and mucosal coating of the large bowel and global quality of the images. No differences were found in the diagnostic performance between the two drugs. However, pirenzepine induced a slight but significantly larger distention of the large bowel (68 +/- 12 vs. 65 +/- 8 mm, p = 0.02). Heart rate and rhythm during the study were recorded by ECG. SMB induced tachycardia in all patients (from 72 +/- 15 to 98 +/- 24 beats/min, p < 0.01), whereas pirenzepine did not (from 76 +/- 13 to 78 +/- 20, p = NS). After SMB, one-patient exhibited faintness, and some patients complained of visual accommodation defects, dryness of the mouth, and dizziness. Pirenzepine had a diagnostic performance similar to SMB in avoiding adverse effects elicited by SMB. PMID:8661571

  17. Using microbial desalination cells to reduce water salinity prior to reverse Maha Mehanna,a

    E-print Network

    ) is a new method to reduce the salinity of one solution while generating electrical power from organic matter and bacteria in another (anode) solution. Substantial reductions in the salinity can require much larger volumes of the anode solution than the saline water, but any reduction of salinity will benefit

  18. A comparison of bowel preparations for flexible sigmoidoscopy: oral magnesium citrate combined with oral bisacodyl, one hypertonic phosphate enema, or two hypertonic phosphate enemas 1 1 The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and should not be construed to represent in any way those of the Department of Defense or the Department of the Army

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Keith Fincher; Eric M Osgard; Jeffrey L Jackson; Jeffrey S Strong; Roy K. H Wong

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Magnesium citrate with hypertonic enemas or oral bisacodyl provides superior preparation quality for sigmoidoscopy over enemas alone. We compared three magnesium citrate sigmoidoscopy preparations in a randomized, single-blind, controlled trial.METHODS:Two hundred and ninety-one adults scheduled for routine sigmoidoscopy were randomly assigned to receive one of three preparations containing oral magnesium citrate (296 cc) taken the night before the procedure in

  19. Measuring Salinity by Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapworth, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    Outlines procedures for constructing an instrument which uses an electrode and calibration methods to measure the salinity of waters in environments close to and affected by a saline estuary. (Author/DC)

  20. Saline Sinus Rinse Recipe

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ounces of water. Using a soft rubber ear bulb syringe, infant nasal bulb or a commercial nasal saline rinse product from ... these steps: 1. Draw up saline into the bulb. Tilt your head downward over a sink (or ...

  1. Phased surgical treatment of barium enema-induced rectal injury and retention of barium in the pelvic floor space

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuefei; Xia, Ligang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Iatrogenic injuries caused by barium enema are rarely reported. Following a phased surgical protocol for up to one year, we have successfully treated a patient with rectal injury and severe infection of the pelvic floor space complicated with retention of large amounts of barium and vaginal fistula. In this article, the phased surgery planning for the treatment of rectal injury complicated with vaginal fistula is discussed in terms of the pros and cons, and the observed effect and evolution of barium retained in the pelvic floor space are described. PMID:25405155

  2. SALINITY PANEL SUMMARY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. Oster

    The session focused on salinity and water management and dealt with several topics: 1) The characteristic effects of salinity on crop growth and yield (Shalhevet and Shan- non), 2) Salinity effects on the yields of Hass and Ettinger on Mexican, Guatemalan, and West Indian rootstocks in a field experiment conducted near Haifa Israel in the 1970's (Shalhevet), 3) Effects of

  3. Mechanisms of Salinity Tolerance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rana Munns; Mark Tester

    2008-01-01

    The physiological and molecular mechanisms of tolerance to os- motic and ionic components of salinity stress are reviewed at the cel- lular, organ, and whole-plant level. Plant growth responds to salinity in two phases: a rapid, osmotic phase that inhibits growth of young leaves, and a slower, ionic phase that accelerates senescence of ma- ture leaves. Plant adaptations to salinity

  4. Rebampide enema therapy as a treatment for patients with chronic radiation proctitis: initial treatment or when other methods of conservative management have failed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tae Oh Kim; Geun Am Song; Sun Mi Lee; Gwang Ha Kim; Jeong Heo; Dae Hwan Kang; Mong Cho

    2008-01-01

    Introduction  Radiation proctitis is a common complication following radiation therapy for pelvic malignancies. There have been no formal\\u000a trials of treatment for radiation proctitis and a variety of methods are currently used. We assessed the efficacy of rebamipide\\u000a enema to control symptoms and proctoscopic findings from radiation proctitis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Fifteen patients with radiation proctitis were enrolled. Enemas containing 150 mg rebamipide

  5. TOXICITY STUDIES ON TANNIC ACID ADMINISTERED BY ENEMA* II. THE COLONIC ABSORPTION AND INTRAPERITONEAL TOXICITY OF TANNIC ACID AND ITS HYDROLYTIC PRODUCTS IN RATS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PHILLIP A. HARRIS; F. FRANK ZBORALSKE; OSCAR N. RAMBO; ALEXANDER R. MARGULIS; SIDNEY RIEGELMAN

    ration for roentgenologic examination or after incorporation in the barium enema. Since gastrointestinal absorption must have preceded hepatotoxicity, the condi- tions necessary for absorption are of inter- est. Unfortunately, absorption from the gastrointestinal tract has been poorly de- fined, largely due to the lack of adequate methods to detect intact tannic acid in biologic fluids and to distinguish it from

  6. Observing Salinity Patterns

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stephanie Jaeger

    Part 1: Students measure the salinity of samples using a refractometer, and consider the units and density of these values. Part 2: Students apply concepts and reinforce what they've learned about salinity and the water cycle to interpret a salinity contour map of a transect of the Pacific Ocean using WOCE data. Another goal is to familiarize students with using contour graphs of ocean data, in general.

  7. Effective glomerular filtration pressure and single nephron filtration rate during hydropenia, elevated ureteral pressure, and acute volume expansion with isotonic saline

    PubMed Central

    Andreucci, Vittorio E.; Herrera-Acosta, Jaime; Rector, Floyd C.; Seldin, Donald W.

    1971-01-01

    Free-flow and stop-flow intratubular pressures were measured in rats with an improved Gertz technique using Landis micropipets or a Kulite microtransducer. In hydropenia, average single nephron glomerular filtration rate was 29.3 nl/min, glomerular hydrostatic pressure (stop-flow pressure + plasma colloid osmotic pressure) was 70 cm H2O and mean glomerular effective filtration pressure was 12.7-14.3 cm H2O, approaching zero at the efferent end of the glomerulus. Thus, the glomerulus is extremely permeable, having a filtration coefficient four to five times greater than previously estimated. Mean effective filtration pressure and single nephron glomerular filtartion rate fell with elevated ureteral pressure and rose with volume expansion, more or less proportionately. Changes in effective filtration pressure were due primarily to increased intratubular pressure in ureteral obstruction and to reduced plasma colloid osmotic pressure in volume expansion; glomerular hydrostatic pressure remained constant in both conditions and thus played no role in regulation of filtration rate. PMID:5116212

  8. Effective glomerular filtration pressure and single nephron filtration rate during hydropenia, elevated ureteral pressure, and acute volume expansion with isotonic saline.

    PubMed

    Andreucci, V E; Herrera-Acosta, J; Rector, F C; Seldin, D W

    1971-10-01

    Free-flow and stop-flow intratubular pressures were measured in rats with an improved Gertz technique using Landis micropipets or a Kulite microtransducer. In hydropenia, average single nephron glomerular filtration rate was 29.3 nl/min, glomerular hydrostatic pressure (stop-flow pressure + plasma colloid osmotic pressure) was 70 cm H(2)O and mean glomerular effective filtration pressure was 12.7-14.3 cm H(2)O, approaching zero at the efferent end of the glomerulus. Thus, the glomerulus is extremely permeable, having a filtration coefficient four to five times greater than previously estimated. Mean effective filtration pressure and single nephron glomerular filtartion rate fell with elevated ureteral pressure and rose with volume expansion, more or less proportionately. Changes in effective filtration pressure were due primarily to increased intratubular pressure in ureteral obstruction and to reduced plasma colloid osmotic pressure in volume expansion; glomerular hydrostatic pressure remained constant in both conditions and thus played no role in regulation of filtration rate. PMID:5116212

  9. USDA SALINITY CONTROL ENVIRONMENTALASSESSMENT

    E-print Network

    ted States Departrrent of Agri culture Prepared under Title II of the Colorado River Basin Salinity n Ri ver Uni t Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program Prepared by Soil Conservati on Servi ce ·Resource " '.' . Soil Survey and Land Classification .. Erosion and Sediment ... Biotic Resources

  10. Tomato and salinity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesus Cuartero; Rafael Fernandez-Munoz; Estacion Experimental La Mayora

    1999-01-01

    The effects of salinity on tomato plant growth and fruit production, the cultural techniques which can be applied to alleviate the deleterious effects of salt, and the possibilities of breeding salt- tolerant tomatoes are reviewed. Salinity reduces tomato seed germination and lengthens the time needed for germination to such an extent that the establishment of a competitive crop by direct

  11. Measuring soil salinity.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Marcus; Doyle, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Soil salinity is a form of land degradation in which salts accumulate in the soil profile to an extent that plant growth or infrastructure are negatively affected. A range of both field and laboratory procedures exist for measuring soil salinity. In the field, soil salinity is usually inferred from apparent electrical conductivity (EC(a)) using a range of devices, depending on the required depth of analysis, or size of the survey area. Field measurements of EC(a) require calibration to the actual salt content by laboratory analysis. In the laboratory, soil salinity is usually assessed by determining either the total soluble salts by evaporation of a soil water extract (TSS), or by determining the electrical conductivity (EC) of either a 1:5 distilled water:soil dilution, or a saturated paste extract. Although procedures for measuring soil salinity appear relatively straightforward, differences in methodology have considerable influence on measured values and interpretation of results. PMID:22895776

  12. Saline infusion sonohysterography.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    Saline infusion sonohysterography consists of ultrasonographic imaging of the uterus and uterocervical cavity, using real-time ultrasonography during injection of sterile saline into the uterus. When properly performed, saline infusion sonohysterography can provide information about the uterus and endometrium. The most common indication for sonohysterography is abnormal uterine bleeding. sonohysterography should not be performed in a woman who is pregnant or could be pregnant or in a woman with a pelvic infection or unexplained pelvic tenderness. Physicians who perform or supervise diagnostic saline infusion sonohysterograpy should have training, experience, and demonstrated competence in gynecologic ultrasonography and saline infusion sonohysterography. Portions of this document were developed jointly with the American College of Radiology and the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. PMID:14968760

  13. volumes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. von Ungern-Sternberg; A. Regli; M. C. Schneider; F. Kunz; A. Reber

    Methods. We prospectively studied 161 patients having either breast surgery (Group A, n=80) or lower abdominal laparotomy (Group B, n=81). Premedication and general anaesthesia were standardized. Spirometry was measured with the patient supine, in a 30? head-up position. We measured vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow and forced expiratory volume in 1 s at preoperative assessment (baseline),

  14. Avg.salinity(ppt) Femalecrabnumber

    E-print Network

    Childress, Michael J.

    0 5 10 15 20 25 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Avg.salinity(ppt) Femalecrabnumber > 25 ppt 15-25 ppt ppt Salinity 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Avg.salinity(ppt) Malecrabnumber > 25 ppt 15-25 ppt Salinity In South Carolina, blue crab commercial landings have decreased more than 30

  15. Air dissipation in saline breast implants.

    PubMed

    Schanzer, Andres; Wong, Granger B

    2002-06-01

    Residual air within saline breast implants can cause patient discomfort due to the mechanical and auditory effects of sloshing. Small amounts of air have no clinical significance, but if larger quantities are present and audible, the patient is reassured that the implant shell is gas-permeable and that the air will dissipate/diffuse. This study examined the time necessary for air dissipation in saline breast implants.Twelve McGhan style #68 saline breast implants were divided into two groups: group A, which included six implants with a size of 240 cc, and group B, which included six implants with a size of 270 cc. The implants were filled with room-temperature, intravenous, normal saline to their designated volumes, plus 30 cc of overfill. All air was evacuated, and each implant was inoculated with 5 cc of air. The implants were then submerged in a single tank of normal saline at 37 degrees C, at a depth of 20.4 cm to replicate capillary pressure. Intragroup analysis showed the air bubble was absent in group A at an average of 35.3 days (variance = 4.13) and in group B at an average of 38.0 days (variance = 0). If audible intraluminal air is present in the clinical setting, the patient can be reassured that the problem will resolve in approximately 30 days or less. PMID:12045543

  16. Metabolomics for salinity research.

    PubMed

    Roessner, Ute; Beckles, Diane M

    2012-01-01

    Soil salinity devastates agriculture. It reduces crop yields and makes arable land unsuitable for later use. Many species have evolved highly efficient strategies to sense, transduce, and build up tolerance to high salinity and even sensitive species have endogenous mechanism for coping with this stress. These underlying physiological and metabolic mechanisms can be unraveled using metabolomics. Here we describe detailed protocols of how to extract polar metabolites for analysis using GC-MS and LC-MS. We also touch briefly on considerations that should be taken into account when designing the experiment and how the resulting data may be analyzed and visualized in a biological context. PMID:22895761

  17. Geochemistry of Saline Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. F.; Deocampo, D. M.

    2003-12-01

    Saline lakes are important environmental features, with significant geochemical impacts on ecology, water resources, and economic activity around the world. Ancient sediments within saline lake basins also offer important sedimentary archives of past climates and tectonics, because such deposits can record significant hydrologic variations.Saline lake geochemistry is the product of a complex system involving meteoric precipitation, weathering, groundwater, evaporation, precipitation-dissolution reactions, and biotic activity. Its study is therefore an inherently interdisciplinary effort, and substantial reviews of the subject have emphasized relevant aspects of the hydrology (Rosen, 1994), mineralogy ( Spencer, 2000), sedimentology ( Hardie et al., 1978; Smoot and Lowenstein, 1991), and evolutionary pathways taken by progressively evaporated waters ( Eugster and Hardie, 1978).The purpose of this paper is to summarize the geochemistry of saline lake basins throughout the world, from dilute inflow to evaporated brine. Following the general approach of Eugster and Hardie (1978), we will review the theoretical background of the evolution of closed basin waters, and then selected field examples that are representative of the major water types. In this work, we have assigned an increased importance to the effect of magnesium salts on brine evolution pathways, and have incorporated this into new models of brine evolution and evaporite precipitation. We follow Chapter 5.16 in referring to waters with total dissolved solids greater than 3.5×104 mg L-1 as true "brines," and those with from 1 mg L-1 to 104 mg L-1 as "brackish."

  18. 3, 16611680, 2006 DSOW salinity

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    OSD 3, 1661­1680, 2006 DSOW salinity forcing J. Holfort and T. Albrecht Title Page Abstract Atmospheric forcing of DSOW salinity J. Holfort 1,* and T. Albrecht 2 1 Institut f¨ur Meereskunde der 2006 Correspondence to: J. Holfort (juergen@holfort.org) 1661 #12;OSD 3, 1661­1680, 2006 DSOW salinity

  19. Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Online in 2009, the Aquarius instrument will measure sea surface salinity. Site provides background information about salinity, salinity lesson plans, and salinity data and tools. Activities include relating salt to density, conductivity, buoyancy, and understanding the effect of the water cycle on salinity. View figures of sea surface salinity and temperature as they change from month to month and more.

  20. Managing Soil Salinity 

    E-print Network

    Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

    2001-07-13

    The terms salt and salinity are often used inter- changeably, and sometimes incorrectly. A salt is sim- ply an inorganic mineral that can dissolve in water. Many people associate salt with sodium chloride? common table salt. In reality, the salts that affect... both surface water and groundwater often are a combina- tion of sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, chlo- rides, nitrates, sulfates, bicarbonates and carbonates (Table 1). These salts often originate from the earth?s crust. They also can result from...

  1. Chloride and Salinity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-07-15

    This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  2. Dryland salinity in Western Australia: managing a changing water cycle.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R J; Hoxley, G

    2003-01-01

    Clearing of agricultural land has resulted in significant changes to the surface and groundwater hydrology. Currently about 10% of agricultural land in Western Australia is affected by dryland salinity and between a quarter and a third of the area is predicted to be lost to salinity before a new hydrological equilibrium is reached. This paper develops a general statement describing the changes to the surface and groundwater hydrology of the wheatbelt of Western Australia between preclearing, the year 2000 and into the future. For typical catchments in the wheatbelt it is estimated that average groundwater recharge and surface runoff have increased about tenfold when comparing the current hydrology to that preclearing. Saline groundwater discharge and flood volumes have also increased significantly. Saline groundwater discharge and associated salt load will probably double in the future in line with the predicted increase in the area of dryland salinity. In addition, future increases in the area of dryland salinity/permanent waterlogging will probably double the volumes in flood events and further increase surface runoff in average years. The outcomes of surface and groundwater management trials have been briefly described to estimate how the hydrology would be modified if the trials were implemented at a catchment scale. These results have been used to formulate possible integrated revegetation and drainage management strategies. The future hydrology and impacts with and without integrated management strategies have been compared. PMID:12793681

  3. Morphologic and morphometric analyses of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats after treatment with enemas from Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All. (Aroeira do Sertão).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Lusmar Veras; Ferreira, Francisco Valdeci; Regadas, F Sérgio P; Matos, Délcio; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros

    2002-05-01

    The present work showed the effects of Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All., popularly known as 'aroeira' (AE), in the form of enemas prepared from the stem bark, on several morphologic and morphometric parameters after acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Enemas from 5-ASA were used as standard while the vehicle, carboxymethylcellulose, was used as a control. The results of the morphological evaluation showed that on day 1 acetic acid produced significantly more necrosis in the groups treated with AE (10% and 20%) or 5-ASA than the controls. However, on day 60, there were more caliciform and absorptive cells in the treated groups compared with the controls. A significantly higher number of eosinophil and mononuclear cells and also collagen deposition in the controls compared with the treated groups were observed on day 60. However, a higher number of polymorphonuclear cells was detected on day 60 only in the AE treated group but not in the 5-ASA group. These data indicate that animals treated with AE or 5-ASA showed complete epithelial tissue regeneration, while in the controls chronic inflammatory exudate persisted and tissue regeneration occurred through fibrosis. PMID:12164275

  4. Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, David H. (Lakewood, CO)

    1986-01-01

    The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water that is cold, nutrient rich and relatively fresh in comparison to the surface water which is relatively warm, relatively nutrient deficient and relatively saline. A plurality of elongated flow segregating tubes are disposed in the main duct and extend from the upper cover plate beyond the lower cover plate into a lower manifold plate. The lower manifold plate is spaced from the lower cover plate to define a deep water fluid flow path to the interior space of the main duct. Spacer tubes extend from the upper cover plate and communicate with the interior space of the main duct. The spacer tubes are received in an upper manifold plate spaced from the upper cover plate to define a surface water fluid flow path into the flow segregating tubes. A surface water-deep water counterflow is thus established with deep water flowing upwardly through the main duct interior for discharge beyond the upper manifold plate while surface water flows downwardly through the flow segregating tubes for discharge below the lower manifold plate. During such counterflow heat is transferred from the downflowing warm water to the upflowing cold water. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep water and the surface water due to their differences in salinity. The upwelling of nutrient rich deep water is used for marifarming by fertilizing the nutrient deficient surface water.

  5. Radiofrequency ablation during continuous saline infusion can extend ablation margins

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Toru; Kubota, Tomoyuki; Horigome, Ryoko; Kimura, Naruhiro; Honda, Hiroki; Iwanaga, Akito; Seki, Keiichi; Honma, Terasu; Yoshida, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether fluid injection during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) can increase the coagulation area. METHODS: Bovine liver (1-2 kg) was placed on an aluminum tray with a return electrode affixed to the base, and the liver was punctured by an expandable electrode. During RFA, 5% glucose; 50% glucose; or saline fluid was infused continuously at a rate of 1.0 mL/min through the infusion line connected to the infusion port. The area and volume of the thermocoagulated region of bovine liver were determined after RFA. The Joule heat generated was determined from the temporal change in output during the RFA experiment. RESULTS: No liquid infusion was 17.3 ± 1.6 mL, similar to the volume of a 3-cm diameter sphere (14.1 mL). Mean thermocoagulated volume was significantly larger with continuous infusion of saline (29.3 ± 3.3 mL) than with 5% glucose (21.4 ± 2.2 mL), 50% glucose (16.5 ± 0.9 mL) or no liquid infusion (17.3 ± 1.6 mL). The ablated volume for RFA with saline was approximately 1.7-times greater than for RFA with no liquid infusion, representing a significant difference between these two conditions. Total Joule heat generated during RFA was highest with saline, and lowest with 50% glucose. CONCLUSION: RFA with continuous saline infusion achieves a large ablation zone, and may help inhibit local recurrence by obtaining sufficient ablation margins. RFA during continuous saline infusion can extend ablation margins, and may be prevent local recurrence. PMID:23483097

  6. CAN BROCCOLI TOLERATE HIGHER CONCENTRATIONS OF BORON UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reuse of saline drainage water is a management option that is necessary for reducing the volume of drainage water produced on the west side of California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV). A potential limitation in implementing a drainage water reuse system is determining the extent by which boron, a natur...

  7. Management of dryland saline seeps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discussed is the identification, diagnosis, control, and reclamation of dryland saline seep problems as found in the North American Great Plains. Saline seeps develop because of geologic stratifications within the soil profile and insufficient use of precipitation by crops used in dryland farming s...

  8. ConcepTest: Ocean Salinity #2

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How would salinity of the oceans vary if the oceans were twice as deep as present and held approximately twice as much water? a. Salinity would be less than present b. Salinity would be greater than present c. ...

  9. The Mediterranean salinity crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, K.J.

    1988-08-01

    That the Mediterranean Sea underwent a salinity crisis during the Miocene (Messinian) is proven by the 1970 JOIDES deep sea drilling expedition. Subsequent work by ocean drilling and by studies on land have recorded the history of this crisis. Based upon the deep desiccated-basin model, the use of event-stratigraphy, calibrated by strontium-isotope dating and magnetostratigraphy, has enabled them to decipher the following events between 6.0 and 5.1 Ma: (1) deposition of marine diatom-rich sediments in a partially restricted basin, (2) first desiccation of the Mediterranean when Calcare di base was deposited at a time of isolation from the Atlantic because of a glacial eustatic drop of sea level, (3) influx of marine waters through southern Spanish basins to furnish brines for the deposition of the main salt, (4) Intra-Messinian desiccation, as evidenced by the erosional unconformity above the lower evaporite, (5) Intra-Messinian denudation, when reefs grew on Cyprus and marine sediments were deposited in basins, (6) frequency isolations due to oscillating sea level, when the upper evaporite was deposited, (7) Lago mare, formation of freshwater and brackish lakes due to influx of Paratethys water, (8) opening of the Gibraltar and Pliocene inundation of the Mediterranean.

  10. Stochastic Modeling of Soil Salinity

    E-print Network

    Suweis, S; Van der Zee, S E A T M; Daly, E; Maritan, A; Porporato, A; 10.1029/2010GL042495

    2012-01-01

    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equation to a single stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. The novel analytical solutions provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long-term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in long-term soil salinization trend...

  11. Ecology of Inland Saline Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pawan K. Kasera; Sher Mohammed

    \\u000a This chapter describes the ecology and adaptive strategies of inland halophytes growing in natural saline areas, with special\\u000a reference to classification, metabolic products, soil–water relationships, the role of proline in their survival, etc. Studies\\u000a on eight saline plants, viz. Aeluropus lagopoides (Poaceae), Cressa cretica (Convolvulaceae), Salsola baryosma (Chenopodiaceae), Sesuvium sesuvioides (Aizoaceae), Sporobolus helvolus (Poaceae), Suaeda fruticosa (Chenopodiaceae), Trianthema triquetra (Aizoaceae),

  12. Hypoaigic influences on groundwater flux to a seasonally saline river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trefry, M. G.; Svensson, T. J. A.; Davis, G. B.

    2007-03-01

    SummaryHypoaigic zones are aquifer volumes close to and beneath the shores of saline surface water bodies, and are characterized by the presence of time-dependent natural convection and chemical stratification. When transient and cyclic processes are involved there is significant potential for complex flow and reaction in the near-shore aquifer, presenting a unique challenge to pollutant risk assessment methodologies. This work considers the nature of some hypoaigic processes generated by the seasonally saline Canning River of Western Australia near a site contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. A dissolved hydrocarbon plume migrates within the shallow superficial aquifer to the nearby bank of the Canning River. Beneath the river bank a zone of complex fluid mixing is established by seasonal and tidal influences. Understanding this complexity and the subsequent ramifications for local biogeochemical conditions is critical to inferring the potential for degradation of advecting contaminants. A range of modelling approaches throws light on the overall topographic controls of discharge to the river, on the saline convection processes operating under the river bank, on the potential for fluid mixing, and on the various important time scales in the system. Saline distributions simulated within the aquifer hypoaigic zone are in at least qualitative agreement with previous field measurements at the site and are strongly affected by seasonal influences. Groundwater seepage velocities at the shoreline are found to be positively correlated with river salinity. Calculations of fluid age distributions throughout the system show sensitivity to dispersivity values; however, maximum fluid ages under the river appear to be diffusion limited to a few decades. The saline convection cell in the aquifer defines a zone of strong dispersive dilution of aged (many decades) deep aquifer fluids with relatively young (several months) riverine fluids. Seasonal recharge and river salinity cycles induce regular perturbations to the convection cell, yielding intra-annual variations of 50% in seepage velocity and almost 30% in wedge penetration distance at the plume location.

  13. Therapeutic effects of compound hypertonic saline on rats with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fang; Chen, Wei; Xu, Liang; Wang, Huabing; Lu, Huizhi

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is one of the major causes of death and is the biggest obstacle preventing improvement of the success rate in curing critical illnesses. Currently, isotonic solutions are used in fluid resuscitation technique. Several studies have shown that hypertonic saline applied in hemorrhagic shock can rapidly increase the plasma osmotic pressure, facilitate the rapid return of interstitial fluid into the blood vessels, and restore the effective circulating blood volume. Here, we established a rat model of sepsis by using the cecal ligation and puncture approach. We found that intravenous injection of hypertonic saline dextran (7.5% NaCl/6% dextran) after cecal ligation and puncture can improve circulatory failure at the onset of sepsis. We found that the levels of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 levels in the lung tissue of cecal ligation and puncture rats treated with hypertonic saline dextran were significantly lower than the corresponding levels in the control group. We inferred that hypertonic saline dextran has a positive immunoregulatory effect and inhibits the overexpression of the inflammatory response in the treatment of sepsis. The percentage of neutrophils, lung myeloperoxidase activity, wet to dry weight ratio of lung tissues, histopathological changes in lung tissues, and indicators of arterial blood gas analysis was significantly better in the hypertonic saline dextran-treated group than in the other groups in this study. Hypertonic saline dextran-treated rats had significantly improved survival rates at 9 and 18 h compared to the control group. Our results suggest that hypertonic saline dextran plays a protective role in acute lung injury caused after cecal ligation and puncture. In conclusion, hypertonic/hyperoncotic solutions have beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of an animal model of sepsis. PMID:24983672

  14. Different effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolates from saline or non-saline soil on salinity tolerance of plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Y Tian; G Feng; X. L Li; F. S Zhang

    2004-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from saline soil have a higher capacity to alleviate the saline stress in plants than that of fungi from non-saline soil, cotton plants growth at four NaCl levels (0–3g\\/kg) under greenhouse condition were inoculated with two Glomus mosseae isolates collected from non-saline soil (GM1) and saline soil (GM2). The results

  15. Mucus Clearance and Lung Function in Cystic Fibrosis with Hypertonic Saline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott H. Donaldson; William D. Bennett; Kirby L. Zeman; Michael R. Knowles; Robert Tarran; Richard C. Boucher

    2006-01-01

    background Abnormal homeostasis of the volume of airway surface liquid in patients with cys- tic fibrosis is thought to produce defects in mucus clearance and airway defense. Through osmotic forces, hypertonic saline may increase the volume of airway sur- face liquid, restore mucus clearance, and improve lung function. methods A total of 24 patients with cystic fibrosis were randomly assigned

  16. The Effect of Epidural Saline Injection on Analgesic Level During Combined Spinal and Epidural Anesthesia Assessed Clinically and Myelographically

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuo Takiguchi; Takatoshi Okano; Hirotoshi Egawa; Yoshinori Okubo; Kyoko Saito; Toshimitsu Kitajima

    1997-01-01

    An epidural injection of physiological saline solution after spinal anesthesia may produce a higher level of analgesia than spinal anesthesia alone because of a vol- ume effect. The purpose of this study was to clarify the volume effect caused by epidural injection of saline af- ter spinal anesthesia. Twenty patients undergoing com- bined spinal and epidural anesthesia for elective sur-

  17. Effect of saline infusions on intrarenal distribution of glomerular filtrate and proximal reabsorption in the dog

    PubMed Central

    Mandin, Henry; Israelit, Arnold H.; Rector, Floyd C.; Seldin, Donald W.

    1971-01-01

    The effect of acute extracellular volume expansion with saline on the intrarenal distribution of glomerular filtrate, was studied in dogs utilizing micropuncture techniques in which samples were obtained by both recollection and from new tubules. Recollection was examined in seven dogs during continuous hydropenia and in five dogs during continuous saline diuresis. Recollection was associated with an increase in nephron flow rate of 8% during hydropenia and 27% during saline diuresis. In addition, during continuous saline diuresis, shortened transit times and lowered intratubular pressures were recorded in previously punctured tubules. Despite increased tubular flow, fractional reabsorption was unchanged. Nephron glomerular filtration rates (gfr) were measured during hydropenia and then after acute volume expansion in 10 dogs. In the repunctured tubules gfr rose 38% more than total glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In contrast, when new tubules were punctured during volume expansion, nephron gfr and total GFR changed proportionately. The disproportionate rise in nephron gfr after volume expansion noted with the recollection technique appears to be artifactual when contrasted to micropuncture of new tubules. With acute volume expansion, fractional reabsorption decreased 15% in recollected samples and 16% in newly sampled tubules. Increased nephron gfr cannot account for the fall in fractional reabsorption. It is concluded that in dogs, saline diuresis is not associated with redistribution of filtrate from deep to superficial nephrons, and that the fall in proximal fractional reabsorption is caused by diminished absolute reabsorption. PMID:5545118

  18. Selecting an optimal configuration for the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Waldteufel; Jacqueline Boutin; Yann Kerr

    2003-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission is aimed at monitoring, globally, surface soil moisture and sea surface salinity from radiometric L-band observations. The SMOS radiometer relies upon a two-dimensional (2-D) synthetic aperture concept in order to achieve satisfactory spatial resolution performances for a minimal cost in terms of payload mass and volume. Counterparts of this advantage are reduced

  19. Effect of NaCl salinity on photosynthesis and dry matter accumulation in developing rice grains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Sultana; T. Ikeda; R. Itoh

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of salinity on rice at the reproductive phase. From flag leaf stage to dough stage, potted rice plants were irrigated twice a week with saline water (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) at a volume of 1.5 times that of the soil. Photosynthesis and leaf biochemical constituents were measured at flowering (15 days after

  20. Temperature/Salinity/Density activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Petra Dekens

    This is an in-class activity. I used it relatively early in the semester, after covering the basic water properties portion of the class. I use the relationship between temperature/salinity/density to begin discussing vertical movement of water. The first purpose of this activity is to reinforce the concepts that have just been explained about the relationship between temperature and density and salinity and density. The second purpose is to bring these ideas back to what they have learned about density differences. Finally, the activity is also designed to help them learn how to read graphs.

  1. Irrigation Water Quality Salinity Management

    E-print Network

    Irrigation Water Quality Standards and Salinity Management Strategies B-1667 4-03 #12;Nearly all of the earth's surface. In addition, drainage waters from irrigated lands and effluent from city sewage and industrial waste water can impact water quality. In most irrigation situations, the primary water qual- ity

  2. REVEGETATION OF SALINE PLAYA MARGINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New shrub recruitment in saline playa margins is limited by extremely high osmotic potentials of the seedbed. In the Eagle Valley playa near Fernley NV, recruitment is rare and occurs mostly in recently deposited eolian and flood-deposited sediments of low osmotic potential. In most instances, howev...

  3. Determining Salinity by Simple Means.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper describes the construction and use of a simple salinometer. The salinometer is composed, mainly, of a milliammeter and a battery and uses the measurement of current flow to determine the salinity of water. A complete list of materials is given, as are details of construction and operation of the equipment. The use of the salinometer in…

  4. INTEGRATING DESALINATION AND AGRICULTURAL SALINITY CONTROL ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cost-effectiveness relationships for various agricultural and desalination alternatives for controlling salinity in irrigation return flows are developed. Selection of optimal salinity management strategies on a river basin scale is described as a problem of integrating optim...

  5. ConcepTest: Ocean Salinity #1

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How would the salinity of the oceans vary if the continents and oceans each covered 50% of Earth's surface and precipitation and evaporation were similar to present? a. salinity would be lower than today b. ...

  6. Ocean salinity measurement using remote sensing data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boniface Ekechukwu; Shattri Mansor; M. I. H. Mohamed; M. M. Emeka

    1999-01-01

    Ocean salinity is a very important parameter for the ocean fishery industry. The importance of scientific fishery resources development has necessitated this research. Water salinity is often measured to help the fishermen in locating their targets. But measurement of ocean salinity has formally been possible only by using traditional ship methods. In consequence, this paper has developed another way of

  7. HYDROCLIMATOLOGY Exploring the Mystery of Salinity

    E-print Network

    ALPINE HYDROCLIMATOLOGY Exploring the Mystery of Salinity Change in Portions of the StanislausLeo #12;#12;ALPINE HYDROCLIMATOLOGY Exploring the Mystery of Salinity Change in Portions of the Stanislaus 1. Distribution of precipitation and soil salinity, Western United States. 1 INTRODUCTION

  8. 4, 139, 2007 Estimate of salinity

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    OSD 4, 1­39, 2007 Estimate of salinity from temperature profiles F. Reseghetti Title Page Abstract reconstruction of salinity from temperature profiles with phenomenological constraints F. Reseghetti ENEA@santateresa.enea.it) 1 #12;OSD 4, 1­39, 2007 Estimate of salinity from temperature profiles F. Reseghetti Title Page

  9. Plant physiology Interaction of salinity and temperature

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Plant physiology Interaction of salinity and temperature on the germination of alfalfa cv CUF 101 problem. A laboratory experiment was initiated to evaluate the effect of salinity - tempera- ture interactions on the germination of alfalfa cv CUF 101. The alfalfa seeds were sown in Petri dishes with saline

  10. Students measuring salinity at Pier 45, Manhattan

    E-print Network

    Khatiwala, Samar

    Students measuring salinity at Pier 45, Manhattan Atlantic silversides, a marker of salty conditions, at Englewood Seining at Englewood A Day in the Life of the Hudson River 2010: Salinity Changes Year to Year Your site _________________If measured, your salinity on Oct. 14__________ 2010

  11. WATER QUALITY STANDARDS FOR SALINITY NUMERIC CRITERIA AND PLAN OF IMPLEMENTATION FOR SALINITY CONTROL

    E-print Network

    PROPOSED WATER QUALITY STANDARDS FOR SALINITY INCLUDING NUMERIC CRITERIA AND PLAN OF IMPLEMENTATION FOR SALINITY CONTROL COLORADO RIVER SYSTEM I ' Prepared by Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Forum June 1975 #12;MEMBERS OF COLORADO RIVER BASIN SALINITY CONTROL FORUM ARIZONA: CALIFORNIA

  12. Swart and Price Salinity Variations in Florida Bay Origin of Salinity Variations in Florida Bay

    E-print Network

    Swart, Peter K.

    Swart and Price Salinity Variations in Florida Bay 1 Origin of Salinity Variations in Florida Bay causes reductions in salinity in the coastal environment of South Florida. This technique, which uses the major source of fresh waters causing depressions in the salinity in the western portion of Florida Bay

  13. [Is there any place for hypertonic saline for fluid resuscitation in septic shock].

    PubMed

    Libert, N; de Rudnicki, S; Cirodde, A; Thépenier, C; Mion, G

    2010-01-01

    Fluid loading is the first step, necessary to care for severe sepsis. Two main classes of solutions are currently available: crystalloids and colloids. The concept of small volume resuscitation with hypertonic saline has emerged these last years in the care of traumatic haemorrhagic shock. The main benefits are the restoration of intravascular volume, improvement of cardiac output and improvement of regional circulations. Many experiments highlight modulation of immune and inflammatory cascades. We report the mechanisms of action of hypertonic saline based on experimental human and animal studies, which advocate its use in septic shock. PMID:20096535

  14. DNA Saline Solutions Near Surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Pettitt; A. Vainrub; K.-Y. Wong

    DNA hybridization occurs with different equilibrium constants and kinetics when near surfaces as opposed to in homogeneous\\u000a saline solution. Thus melting temperatures are shifted by the presence of a surface. Much effort has gone into understanding\\u000a DNA in homogeneous solution. The goal of this article is to review the current molecular picture of DNA in salt solution near\\u000a surfaces which

  15. The Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank; Hilburn, Kyle; Lagerloef, Gary; Le Vine, David

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this presentation gives an overview over the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The instrument calibration [2] converts Aquarius radiometer counts into antenna temperatures (TA). The salinity retrieval algorithm converts those TA into brightness temperatures (TB) at a flat ocean surface. As a first step, contributions arising from the intrusion of solar, lunar and galactic radiation are subtracted. The antenna pattern correction (APC) removes the effects of cross-polarization contamination and spillover. The Aquarius radiometer measures the 3rd Stokes parameter in addition to vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations, which allows for an easy removal of ionospheric Faraday rotation. The atmospheric absorption at L-band is almost entirely due to molecular oxygen, which can be calculated based on auxiliary input fields from numerical weather prediction models and then successively removed from the TB. The final step in the TA to TB conversion is the correction for the roughness of the sea surface due to wind, which is addressed in more detail in section 3. The TB of the flat ocean surface can now be matched to a salinity value using a surface emission model that is based on a model for the dielectric constant of sea water [3], [4] and an auxiliary field for the sea surface temperature. In the current processing only v-pol TB are used for this last step.

  16. Fever control and application of hypothermia using intravenous cold saline

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Ericka L.; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Clark, Robert S. B.; Bell, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the use and feasibility of cold saline to decrease body temperature in pediatric neurocritical care. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Pediatric tertiary care university hospital. Patients Children between 1 week and 17 yrs of age admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with acute brain injury and having received intravenous cold saline between June-August 2009. Intervention(s) None. Measurements and Main Results Eighteen subjects accounted for 20 infusions with mean infusion volume 18 ± 10 cc/kg. Eight subjects had traumatic brain injury (TBI), 2 had intracranial hemorrhage, 6 had cardiac arrest, and one each had ischemic stroke and status epilepticus. The mean age was 9.5 ± 4.8 yrs. Temperature decreased from 38.7 ± 1.1°C to 37.7 ± 1.2°C and 37.0 ± 2.0 to 35.3 ± 1.6°C one h after infusion for fever (n=14, p<.05) or hypothermia (HT) induction (n=6, p=.05), respectively. Cold saline was not bolused, rather infused over 10–15 minutes. Mean arterial blood pressure and oxygenation parameters (PaO2/FiO2 ratio, mean airway pressure) were unchanged, but heart rate decreased in HT subjects (121 ± 4 vs. 109 ± 12; p<.05). Serum sodium concentration and International normalized ratio were significantly increased after cold saline infusion. There were no differences between pre- and post-infusion serum glucose and hematocrit, nor cerebral perfusion pressure or intracranial pressure in TBI patients. Conclusions Cold saline was an effective method of reducing temperature in children with acute brain injury. This approach can be considered to treat fever or to induce HT. Prospective study comparing safety and efficacy versus other cooling measures should be considered. PMID:21037507

  17. Comparative study of the effects of air or saline to identify the extradural space.

    PubMed

    Valentine, S J; Jarvis, A P; Shutt, L E

    1991-02-01

    Fifty women in labour were allocated randomly to receive either air or saline to assist in the identification of the extradural space by the loss of resistance technique. A study volume of 4 ml of air or saline was used before 0.5% bupivacaine 8 ml and the spread of analgesia was followed for 30 min. The first segment blocked, time of onset, number of blocked segments and height of block were comparable in the two groups. At 30 min, there were eight patients with an unblocked segment in the air group, compared with two in the saline group (P less than 0.01). All unblocked segments were blocked subsequently by further doses of bupivacaine. We conclude that air is more likely than saline to produce unblocked segments in the initiation of extradural analgesia in labour. PMID:1817625

  18. Runoff quality impacts of dust suppression using saline water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loch, Rob J.; Squires, Helen

    2010-05-01

    In mining and gas operations, dust generation from unsealed roads is a major problem. Commonly, road watering is used to suppress dust, with the lowest water quality available generally being selected for that purpose. Whilst minimising water usage for the site, that practice does create concerns with respect to potential environmental impacts if runoff from the treated roads has significantly elevated salinity. For coal seam gas operations, the water extracted concurrently with the gas contains predominantly sodium bicarbonate. Therefore, where coal seam gas water is sprayed onto roads, there is potential for elevated sodium in runoff to impact on soil adjoining the roads, but there is no information on the rates of dissolution and mobilisation of soluble salt from the surface of roads that have been sprayed with low quality water to reduce dust. Therefore a rainfall simulator study was carried out to investigate rates of mobilisation of sodium bicarbonate from compacted soil surfaces simulating an unsealed road. The study considered effects of the amount of precipitated sodium bicarbonate on the soil surface and variations in rainfall intensity. Because the soil surfaces were compacted, runoff commenced almost immediately following application of rain. For all treatments with applied surface salt, runoff quality data showed a peak in salt concentration in the first flush of runoff, and relatively rapid reduction through time in those initial concentrations. The magnitude and duration of peak concentrations depended on both rainfall rate and the quantity of salt present on the soil surface. The flush of salts in run-off from the roads occurred very early in the run-off event, when none of the surrounding area would have commenced to run off. Consequently, the relatively small volume of run-off produced directly by the road could be expected to predominantly infiltrate in the table drain adjoining the road. The initial flush of saline water would then be leached to depth or diluted by the less saline runoff generated from the road in the latter part of the run-off event, or by non- saline runoff from the surrounding catchment. Particularly for mine sites, the data indicate that the use of saline water in dust suppression on unsealed roads is unlikely to impact significantly on the wider surrounding environment. It is recognised that watering for dust suppression on mine sites typically salinises the road area, and that eventual rehabilitation has to deal with those saline areas. Therefore, additional salinity in the soil adjoining the road is not considered to be of concern.

  19. Volume Control by Muscle Fibers of the Blue Crab

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Michael A.; Gainer, Harold

    1969-01-01

    Single isolated muscle fibers from the walking legs of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus act as Boyle-van't Hoff osmometers with an osmotically inactive volume of 33 %. Fibers in hypotonic salines undergo a spontaneous volume readjustment toward the initial volumes of the cells found in isotonic salines. The volume readjustment is initiated by the increase in cell volume in hypotonic salines and appears to be dependent on the duration of exposure of the fiber to external sodium, the sodium concentration, and the pH of the external medium. The volume-readjusted cells continue to behave as osmometers, but with an increased relative osmotically inactive volume and a decreased internal resistivity. The decreases in cell volumes appear to be, in large part, due to losses of osmotically active nonelectrolytes from the cells. PMID:5767335

  20. Salinization

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lonnie Miller

    In this activity students work as a team to determine the effect salt has on plant germination. They then use their lab data to create a report on how the increasing salt concentrations affected the germination of the seeds and at what salt concentration no seeds will germinate. Students will discover that salt buildup is an existing or potential hazard on almost all of the 42 million acres of irrigated farmland in the United States. Much of the world's unused land is in arid and semiarid regions where irrigation will be necessary. Water contains a small amount of salt and over time this salt accumulates in the soil. This activity has an accompanying teacher site with hints and more information.

  1. Large-scale impact of CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers: A sensitivity study on pressure response in stratified systems

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Quanlin

    Large-scale impact of CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers: A sensitivity study on pressure response volumes of CO2 captured from carbon emitters (such as coal-fired power plants) may be stored in deep carbon sequestration in deep formations (e.g., saline aquifers, oil and gas reservoirs, and coalbeds) has

  2. Potential environmental issues of CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers: geochemical results from the Frio-I brine pilot test, Texas, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yousif Kharaka; James Thordsen; Susan Hovorka; H Seay Nance; David R Cole; Tommy Joe Phelps; Kevin Knauss; Ariel A Chialvo

    2009-01-01

    Sedimentary basins in general and deep saline aquifers in particular, are being investigated as possible repositories for large volumes of anthropogenic CO that must be sequestered to mitigate global warming and related climate changes. To investigate the potential for the long-term storage of CO in such saline aquifers, 1600 t of CO were injected at 1500 m depth into a

  3. Hidden menace or opportunity - Groundwater hydrology, playas and commercial options for salinity in wheatbelt valleys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard George; Mark Coleman

    2001-01-01

    Wheatbelt valleys contain evidence of a long history of hydrologic and climatic change. In particular they contain ancient palaeodrainage systems comprising large volumes of saline groundwater. Prior to clearing, these palaeodrainages discharged small amounts of groundwater derived from episodic recharge on the hillslopes and in situ within valleys. However, as a result of significant increases in recharge following clearing, these

  4. Polarimetric backscattering from thin saline ice related to ice physical and morphological characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Nghiemt; R. Kwokt; S. H. Yueht; J. A. Kongll; M. A. Tassoudjill; C. C. Hsull; A. J. Gows; D. K. Perovichs

    1994-01-01

    A model for polarimetric backscattering from thin saline ice, including volume and surface scattering mechanisms, is used to relate ice physical and morphological characteristics to the backscattering signatures obtained under controlled laboratory conditions. The model is based on the analytic wave theory and accounts for ellipsoidal brine inclusions, c-axis orientations, rough interfaces, vertical anisotropy, and permittivity tensor determined with brine

  5. Strategies for Crop Improvement in Saline Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Munns

    With increasing salinization and desertification of previously productive land, new sources of salt tolerance are needed for\\u000a crops grown in areas with saline sub-soils, or with rising water tables that bring salts to the surface. Salt tolerance is\\u000a needed in perennial species that might be used to lower the water tables and so control salinization, and also for annual\\u000a crops

  6. “Great Salinity Anomalies” in the North Atlantic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor M. Belkin; Sydney Levitus; John Antonov; Svend-Aage Malmberg

    1998-01-01

    We revisited the “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1970s (GSA'70s; Dickson et al., 1988) and documented the newly identified “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1980s (hence termed GSA'80s), both propagated around the North Atlantic in a similar fashion. The advective mechanism, initially proposed to explain the observed sequence of low-salinity, low-temperature events during the GSA'70s, apparently holds also for the

  7. Oil Recovery by Low Salinity Water Injection into a Reservoir: A New Study of Tertiary Oil Recovery Mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Li

    Low salinity water injections for oil recovery have shown seemingly promising results in the case of clay-bearing sandstones\\u000a saturated with asphaltic crude oil. Reported data showed that low salinity water injection could provide up to 20% pore volume\\u000a (PV) of additional oil recovery for core samples and up to 25% PV for reservoirs in near wellbore regions, compared with brine

  8. Low salinity intrusions in the western English Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly-Gerreyn, B. A.; Hydes, D. J.; Jégou, A. M.; Lazure, P.; Fernand, L. J.; Puillat, I.; Garcia-Soto, C.

    2006-08-01

    Low salinity (<35) surface waters (LSSW) at the southern entrance to the western English Channel (48.5°N, 5.1°W, near Ushant) were observed in late winter (March-April) in three successive years (2002-04) during near continuous ship of opportunity operations. The source of the LSSW is the northward spreading plumes from the Loire (47.5°N, 2.5°W) and Gironde (45.6°N, 1.2°W) along the French Atlantic coast. Fastest plume travel times were associated with northeasterly winds, consistent with Ekman theory. Differences between years in the mean winter (January-March) combined river discharges ( D) was consistent with the minimum salinities ( Smin) of the LSSW (2004: D=4211 m 3 s -1, Smin=33.68; 2003: D=3630 m 3 s -1, Smin=33.90; 2002: D=1579 m 3 s -1, Smin=34.53). Winter mean (1905-74) salinity is otherwise 35.33 near Ushant. The LSSW intruded into the western English Channel in each year, suggesting a common phenomenon. The low salinity intrusion was freshest (mean=35.11±0.21) and most penetrative (reaching 50.7°N, 1.0°W by the end of the year) in 2003 on account of (1) entering on a spring tide giving greater tidal excursion into the western English Channel and (2) intrusion favourable winds (southwesterly/southeasterly) acting on the longer term residual flow. Less penetration occurred in 2004 when the arrival of the LSSW coincided with a neap tide followed by intrusion-resistant northwesterly winds, resulting in a less saline (mean=35.20±0.23) intrusion. In 2004, transport tended to be offshore to at least 100 km from the French Atlantic coast (47°N, 4.8°W-48°N, 4.7°W). In 2002, the lower volume of plume water relative to the other years produced a more saline intrusion (mean=35.25±0.12). Prevailing westerly winds may have pushed this intrusion northwards beyond the route of the ferry, making it difficult to assess the true extent of the intrusion in 2002. A link of the LSSW to phases of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index from a literature search of the last 84 years was inconclusive.

  9. Effects of saline water irrigation on soil salinity, Pecan tree growth and nut production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Miyamoto; T. Riley; G. Gobran; J. Petticrew

    1986-01-01

    Irrigated cultivation of pecans (Carya illinoensis K.) has increased dramatically in the Southwestern USA, yet their tolerance to salinity remains largely unknown. The first part of this study was conducted to assess if stunted tree growth reported in clayey soils is related to salinity, and the second part was to evaluate changes in soil salinity and the performance of 11

  10. Sea Surface Salinity Influence on Earth's Climate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brooke Harris

    This short NASA video focuses on the Aquarius satellite, launched on June 10, 2011 to observe how variations in ocean salinity relate to climatic changes. By measuring salinity globally, Aquarius shows the ocean's role in climate change and climate's effects on ocean circulation.

  11. Managing Irrigation And Drainage In Saline Environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of saline drainage water is one of the most vexing problems facing irrigated agriculture. The sustainability of irrigation will require that cost effective and environmentally acceptable methods be found for disposal of saline drainage water. Oftentimes, drainage water contains fertilizers...

  12. Breeding for Salinity Tolerance in Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ashraf; Lin Wu

    1994-01-01

    Accumulation of high levels of salts in the soil is characteristic of arid and semi-arid regions. Although different curative and management measures are being used to render salt-affected soils fit for agriculture, they are extremely expensive and do not provide permanent solutions to overcome the salinity problem. In contrast, a biotic approach for overcoming salinity stress has gained considerable recognition

  13. Mechanisms of High Salinity Tolerance in Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narendra Tuteja

    2007-01-01

    Among abiotic stresses, high salinity stress is the most severe environmental stress, which impairs crop production on at least 20% of irrigated land worldwide. In response to high salinity stress, various genes get upregulated, the products of which are involved either directly or indirectly in plant protection. Some of the genes encoding osmolytes, ion channels, receptors, components of calcium signaling,

  14. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a science activity in which the student investigates methods of calibration of a simple conductivity meter via a hands-on inquiry technique. Conductivity is mathematically compared to salinity using a point slope formula and graphical techniques. Sample solutions of unknown salinity are provided so that the students can sharpen their…

  15. Aquarius Instrument and Salinity Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Aquarius has been designed to map the surface salinity field of the global ocean from space a parameter important for understanding ocean circulation and its relationship to climate and the global water cycle. Salinity is measured remotely from space by measuring the thermal emission from the ocean surface. This is done at the low frequency end of the microwave spectrum (e.g. 1.4 GHz) where the emission is sufficiently sensitive to changes in salinity to be detected with sophisticated radiometers. The goal is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean by providing maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. These are challenging requirements that have led to some unique features of the instrument. These include: a) The addition of a co-located scatterometer to help provide a correction for roughness; b) The addition of a polarimetric channel (third Stokes parameter) to the radiometer to help correct for Faraday rotation; c) Asun-synchronous orbit with a 6 pm ascending equatorial crossing to minimize Faraday rotation and with the antennas looking away from the sun toward the nighttime side to minimize contamination by radiation from the sun; and d) An antenna designed to limit side lobes in the direction of rays from the sun. In addition, achieving the accuracy goal of 0.2 psu requires averaging over one month and to do this requires a highly stable radiometer. Aquarius has three separate radiometers that image in pushbroom fashion with the three antenna beams looking across track. The antenna is a 2.5-m diameter, offset parabolic reflector with three feed horns and the three beams are arranged to image with the boresight aligned to look across track, roughly perpendicular to the spacecraft heading and pointing away from the Sun. The three beams point at angles of theta = 25.8 deg., 33.8 deg. and 40.3 deg. with respect to the spacecraft nadir which correspond to local incidence angles at the surface of 28.7 deg., 37.8 deg. and 45.6 deg., respectively. The resolution of the three radiometer beams (axes of the 3dB ellipse) is: 76 x 94 km for the inner beam, 84 x 120 km for the middle beam to 96 x 156 km for the outer beam. Together they cover a swath of about 390 km. Aquarius will map the global ice-free ocean every 7-days from which monthly average composites will be derived. This will provide a snapshot of the mean field, as well as resolving the seasonal to interannual variations over the three-year baseline of the mission.

  16. Response of Stream Biodiversity to Increasing Salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, C. P.; Vander Laan, J. J.; Olson, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We used a large data set of macroinvertebrate samples collected from streams in both reference-quality (n = 68) and degraded (n = 401) watersheds in the state of Nevada, USA to assess relationships between stream biodiversity and salinity. We used specific electrical conductance (EC)(?S/cm) as a measure of salinity, and applied a previously developed EC model to estimate natural, baseflow salinity at each stream. We used the difference between observed and predicted salinity (EC-Diff) as a measure of salinization associated with watershed degradation. Observed levels of EC varied between 22 and 994 ?S/cm across reference sites and 22 to 3,256 uS/cm across non-reference sites. EC-Diff was as high as 2,743 ?S/cm. We used a measure of local biodiversity completeness (ratio of observed to expected number of taxa) to assess ecological response to salinity. This O/E index decreased nearly linearly up to about 25% biodiversity loss, which occurred at EC-Diff of about 300 ?S/cm. Too few sites had EC-Diff greater than 300 ?S/cm to draw reliable inferences regarding biodiversity response to greater levels of salinization. EC-Diff increased with % agricultural land use, mine density, and % urban land use in the watersheds implying that human activities have been largely responsible for increased salinization in Nevada streams and rivers. Comparison of biological responses to EC and other stressors indicates that increased salinization may be the primary stressor causing biodiversity loss in these streams and that more stringent salinity water quality standards may be needed to protect aquatic life.

  17. Mark your Calendars Water Supply, Agriculture and Salinity Management Workshop

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Eric E.

    Mark your Calendars Water Supply, Agriculture and Salinity Management Workshop September 29 supply, agriculture and salinity manage- ment an opportunity to network with their colleagues. Topics, desalination of agricultural drainage water, salinity management options based on irrigation methods

  18. ORIGINAL PAPER Implication of nutrient and salinity interaction

    E-print Network

    ORIGINAL PAPER Implication of nutrient and salinity interaction on the productivity of Spartina nutrient availability and reduced salinity. Although studies have documented nutrient limitation and salinity stress in coastal marshes, interpreting the effects of freshwater rein- troduction on plant

  19. 77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

  20. 76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

  1. 76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council...INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council was...

  2. 78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Public Law...

  3. 75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control [[Page 25878

  4. 75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

  5. 75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

  6. Developing Pedotransfer Functions for Saline and Saline-Alkali Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramezani, Meysam; Ghanbarian-Alavijeh, Behzad; Liaghat, Abdolmajid

    2010-05-01

    Soil moisture curve is one of the soil hydraulic properities which its direct measurement is time consuming and expensive. Therefore, indirect methods such as developing pedotransfer functions have been used to predict this characteristic from soil readily available or easily measurable data. In this study, multiple linear regression method was used to develop point pedotransfer functions (PTFs) for saline and saline-alkali soils of Iran. For this purpose, 68 soil samples which their EC values were greater than 4 ds/m, and more than half of them had ESP values greater than 15% were selected. Using Jackknife method, the random splitting of data into the development and validation subsets was repeated 10 times. A ratio of 3:1 was used to split data into development and validation sets in each replication. In the SPSS software, parameters such as geometric standard deviation (?g), geometric mean diameter (dg), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), electrical conductivity (EC), carbonate calcium (CaCO3), bulk density (BD), organic matter (OM), and clay and silt content were applied as the independent variables, and volumetric water content was determined at matric potentials of -10, -33, -100 , -300, -500, -1000, -1500 kPa. The derived PTFs were compared with the H3 model of Rosetta software for 10 splits of validation data set. Comparison of the mean RMSE and R2 values showed that the developed PTFs resulted in more accurate estimation than the Rosetta software at matric potentials of -100 , -300, -500, -1000, -1500 kPa. Whereas, Rosetta model resulted in slightly better estimation than derived PTFs at matric potentials of -10, -33 kPa. For the PTFs developed in this study, the RMSE and R2 values ranged from 0.12 to 0.35 (cm3.cm-3) and 0.64 to 0.83, respectively. While for the Rosetta model, RMSE and R2 values ranged from 0.22 to 0.33 (cm3.cm-3) and 0.37 to 0.74, respectively.

  7. Effect of seawater salinity on pore-size distribution on a poly(styrene)-based HP20 resin and its adsorption of diarrhetic shellfish toxins.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lin; Sun, Geng; Qiu, Jiangbing; Ma, Qimin; Hess, Philipp; Li, Aifeng

    2014-12-19

    In the present study, okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) were spiked into artificial seawater at low, medium and high estuarine salinities (9‰, 13.5‰ and 27‰). Passive samplers (HP20 resin) used for solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) technology were exposed in these seawaters for 12-h periods. Adsorption curves well fitted a pseudo-secondary kinetics model. The highest initial sorption rates of both toxins occurred in the seawater of medium salinity, followed by seawater of low and high estuarine salinity. Pore volumes of micropores (<2 nm) and small mesopores (2 nmsalinity but not in seawater at medium salinity, which demonstrated that the toxin molecules entered into micropores and mesopores (below 10nm in size) in seawaters of high and low salinity. More toxin or other matrix agglomerates were displayed on the surface of resin deployed in the seawater of medium salinity. Taking into consideration the pore-size distribution and surface images, it appears that intra-particle diffusion governs toxin adsorption in seawater at high salinity while film diffusion mainly controls the adsorption process in seawater at medium salinity. This is the first study to confirm that molecules of OA and DTX1 are able to enter into micropores (<2nm) and small mesopores (2-10nm) of HP20 resin in estuarine seawater with high salinity (?27‰). PMID:25464996

  8. Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... series by talking with a health care provider cleansing the bowel Talking with a health care provider. ... he or she may suggest a different procedure. Cleansing the bowel. The health care provider will give ...

  9. Salinity Variability in the California Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpatrick, T.; Schneider, N.; di Lorenzo, E.

    2008-12-01

    A regional model is used to study the interannual to decadal salinity variability in the California Current (CC) system, using multiple simulations of 1950-2005. The model reproduces the mean structure, red variance spectrum, and the spiciness in the CalCoFI observations. However, the model standard deviation is too high by roughly 40%, and has too high positive skewness. The model also fails to reproduce the phase of the salinity time evolution; however the salinity shows variability between different realizations of the model, suggesting intrinsic variability as a contributing cause. To study the generation mechanism for low-frequency anomalies, we first try to remove the effect of isopycnal heave (associated with eddies) by using a density surface. Anomalies on the 1025.6 density surface at 36N have a decorrelation time scale of 23 months. Their generation is consistent with anomalous advection upstream in the CC, such that anomalously salty water in the CC is associated with a southward displacement of the North Pacific Current and weakened inflow from the north. Strong lateral gradients characterize the one-month averages of CC salinity, temperature and density. In the region southwest of the mean CC path, the salinity gradients are compensated and thus lack a strong dynamical signature. We propose that these dynamically passive salinity gradients are displaced by eddies and lead to the intrinsic variability observed there. At the region closer to Cape Mendocino, salinity gradients are associated with a density front and may be an active player in the dynamics.

  10. World salinization with emphasis on Australia.

    PubMed

    Rengasamy, Pichu

    2006-01-01

    Salinization is the accumulation of water-soluble salts in the soil solum or regolith to a level that impacts on agricultural production, environmental health, and economic welfare. Salt-affected soils occur in more than 100 countries of the world with a variety of extents, nature, and properties. No climatic zone in the world is free from salinization, although the general perception is focused on arid and semi-arid regions. Salinization is a complex process involving the movement of salts and water in soils during seasonal cycles and interactions with groundwater. While rainfall, aeolian deposits, mineral weathering, and stored salts are the sources of salts, surface and groundwaters can redistribute the accumulated salts and may also provide additional sources. Sodium salts dominate in many saline soils of the world, but salts of other cations such as calcium, magnesium, and iron are also found in specific locations. Different types of salinization with a prevalence of sodium salts affect about 30% of the land area in Australia. While more attention is given to groundwater-associated salinity and irrigation salinity, which affects about 16% of the agricultural area, recent investigations suggest that 67% of the agricultural area has a potential for "transient salinity", a type of non-groundwater-associated salinity. Agricultural soils in Australia, being predominantly sodic, accumulate salts under seasonal fluctuations and have multiple subsoil constraints such as alkalinity, acidity, sodicity, and toxic ions. This paper examines soil processes that dictate the exact edaphic environment upon which root functions depend and can help in research on plant improvement. PMID:16510516

  11. Oxygation enhances growth, gas exchange and salt tolerance of vegetable soybean and cotton in a saline vertisol.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Surya P; Midmore, David J

    2009-07-01

    Impacts of salinity become severe when the soil is deficient in oxygen. Oxygation (using aerated water for subsurface drip irrigation of crop) could minimize the impact of salinity on plants under oxygen-limiting soil environments. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of oxygation (12% air volume/volume of water) on vegetable soybean (moderately salt tolerant) and cotton (salt tolerant) in a salinized vertisol at 2, 8, 14, 20 dS/m EC(e). In vegetable soybean, oxygation increased above ground biomass yield and water use efficiency (WUE) by 13% and 22%, respectively, compared with the control. Higher yield with oxygation was accompanied by greater plant height and stem diameter and reduced specific leaf area and leaf Na+ and Cl- concentrations. In cotton, oxygation increased lint yield and WUE by 18% and 16%, respectively, compared with the control, and was accompanied by greater canopy light interception, plant height and stem diameter. Oxygation also led to a greater rate of photosynthesis, higher relative water content in the leaf, reduced crop water stress index and lower leaf water potential. It did not, however, affect leaf Na+ or Cl- concentration. Oxygation invariably increased, whereas salinity reduced the K+ : Na+ ratio in the leaves of both species. Oxygation improved yield and WUE performance of salt tolerant and moderately tolerant crops under saline soil environments, and this may have a significant impact for irrigated agriculture where saline soils pose constraints to crop production. PMID:19566646

  12. Incorporating salinity considerations in water availability modeling 

    E-print Network

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh

    2006-08-16

    This research focused on expanding the capabilities of the Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP) for incorporating salinity considerations in assessments of water availability. A simulation modeling approach was used to address this issue and a...

  13. ConcepTest: Ocean Salinity #3

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Predict what would happen to the salinity of the world's oceans if the Indian Ocean was blocked off and all of its water evaporated. a. World's oceans would become more salty b. World's oceans would ...

  14. Characterizing Salinity Tolerance in Greenhouse Roses 

    E-print Network

    Solis Perez, Alma R.

    2011-08-08

    limit for greenhouse roses, although greatly influenced by the rootstock, was between 12 and 15 mmol.L-1. Plants grafted on ?Manetti? sustained their productivity/quality characteristics for longer time periods, tolerated greater salinity concentrations...

  15. Physiological response of tomato to saline irrigation in long-term salinized soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Maggio; S. De Pascale; G. Angelino; C. Ruggiero; G. Barbieri

    2004-01-01

    On an experimental field that had been irrigated with saline water for more than 10 years, we assessed the effects of saline irrigation on water relations and yield of a processing tomato crop (Lycopersicon lycopersicum Mill., Cois HC01). Three NaCl concentrations (43, 86 and 171mM) and a non-salinized control were compared. Total (?t), osmotic (??) and pressure (?p) potentials decreased

  16. EXPERIMENTAL MESOCOSM STUDIES OF SALINITY EFFECTS ON THE BENTHIC ALGAL COMMUNITY OF A SALINE LAKE1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Herbst; Dean W. Blinn

    As closed-basin systems, saline lakes are prone to fluc- tuate in level and salinity with climate change and hydro- logic alterations. Loss of many Great Basin lakes has re- sulted from the diversion of tributary streams for agricul- tural or municipal uses. At Mono Lake, an alkaline salt lake in eastern California, salinities have risen from 50 to 100 g·L21

  17. Magnesium-salinity relation in the saline lake ostracode Cyprideis americana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teeter, James W.; Quick, Thomas J.

    1990-03-01

    Magnesium concentration in the carapace of live specimens of the euryhaline ostracode Cyprideis americana from lakes of varying salinity on San Salvador Island, Bahamas, is inversely related to salinity. Temperature exerts little if any control of Mg content over the range observed. Magnesium concentration in well-preserved fossil specimens of C. americana reveal paleosalinities in close agreement with results obtained from fossil ostracode assemblages, apparent sea-level-salinity relations, and sedimentological observations.

  18. Sodium-calcium interactions under salinity stress 205 SODIUM-CALCIUM INTERACTIONS UNDER SALINITY STRESS

    E-print Network

    Cramer, Grant R.

    level of salinity is dependent upon the concentration and composition of the ions in solution as well as the genotype that is exposed to the salinity. Once the importance of Ca in the external solution was fully in solution (e.g. NaCl). Saline soils are commonly defined as those soils having an EC of 4 dS m-1 or greater

  19. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  20. Plant Growth And Development Under Salinity Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Läuchli; S. R. Grattan

    Plant growth and development are adversely affected by salinity – a major environmental stress that limits agricultural production.\\u000a This chapter provides an overview of the physiological mechanisms by which growth and development of crop plants are affected\\u000a by salinity. The initial phase of growth reduction is due to an osmotic effect, is similar to the initial response to water\\u000a stress

  1. Towards salinity tolerance in Brassica : an overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ram Singh Purty; Gautam Kumar; Sneh L. Singla-Pareek; Ashwani Pareek

    2008-01-01

    Among the various abiotic stresses limiting the crop productivity, salinity stress is a major problem, which needs to be addressed\\u000a and answered urgently. Since members of Brassicaceae are important contributor to total oilseed production, there is an immediate\\u000a need being felt to raise Brassica plants which would be more suitable for saline and dry lands in years to come. One

  2. Ultrastructural Effects of Salinity in Higher Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Werner Koyro

    Salinity leads to structural and ultrastructural effects, particularly in salt-sensitive species. Some of them are indicative\\u000a of the onset of injury, for example the aggregation of chloroplasts accompanied by a swelling in the granal and fret compartments\\u000a or the complete distortion of chloroplastic grana and thylakoid structures. Others are associated with metabolic acclimation\\u000a to salinity stress. For instance increased density

  3. Genetics of Salinity Responses and Plant Breeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Gorham; GARETH WYN JONES

    Molecular biology offers the possibility of designing new plant genotypes with enhanced resistance to salinity. This does\\u000a not, however, mean that understanding the genetics and physiology of responses to salinity is complete or no longer necessary.\\u000a To be able to exploit the new technologies it is important to understand the inheritance of traits and how they can be integrated\\u000a in

  4. Stomatal Conductance of Differentially Salinized Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Kirkham; W. R. Gardner; G. C. Gerloff

    1972-01-01

    Stomatal resistance was measureddaily witha stomatal diffusion porometer during a 4-weekperiod inleaves ofbean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.,var.BushBlueLake)andbarley (Hordeumvulgare L.,var.Liberty) plants having rootsequally split betweentwodifferentially salinized nutrient solutions. Thestomatal conductance (reciprocal ofstomatal resistance) ofplants withhalftheir rootsinsaline solutions wasintermedi- atebetween thestomatal conductances ofplants growninnon- saline solutions andthosegrowninsaline solutions. Results fromaprevious experiment (4)showedthatthede- greeofosmotic adjustment andtherateofgrowth ofbean andbarley plants werefunctions oftheproportion ofthe rootsystemexposed tosaline

  5. Effects of salinity on plant diseases development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Besri

    \\u000a In arid and semi arid areas, irrigation water must be brought to the land to increase crop production. In these areas, poor\\u000a quality irrigation water and inadequate soil drainage often result in the accumulation of salts. Many physiological processes\\u000a are altered in plants grown in saline soils which ultimately reduce their growth and yield.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a While salinity stress can cause severe

  6. Proteomic response of barley leaves to salinity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdolrahman Rasoulnia; Mohammad Reza Bihamta; Seyed Ali Peyghambari; Houshang Alizadeh; Afrasyab Rahnama

    Drought and salinity stresses are adverse environmental factors that affect crop growth and yield. Proteomic analysis offers\\u000a a new approach to identify a broad spectrum of genes that are expressed in living system. We applied this technique to investigate\\u000a protein changes that were induced by salinity in barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.), Afzal, as a salt-tolerant genotype and L-527, as

  7. The use of fluorescent dyes as tracers in highly saline groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magal, Einat; Weisbrod, Noam; Yakirevich, Alex; Yechieli, Yoseph

    2008-08-01

    SummaryThe capability of five fluorescent dyes to serve as conservative tracers in highly saline groundwater was evaluated by a series of batch experiments on pure minerals and natural sediments. Dye sorption was tested in four different salinities (from fresh rainwater to Dead Sea water) on five pure minerals and four natural sediments taken from boreholes drilled along the Dead Sea shore. It was found that the dyes Sulfo-Rhodamine B and Eosin are strongly adsorbed on pure minerals and sediments and therefore cannot be used as conservative tracers in saline groundwater. Uranine and Pyranine sorption is increased at higher salinities, therefore they can be used as tracers in moderately saline groundwater only. Na Naphthionate was found to be the best tracer for fresh and saline water, with minimal sorption in all cases. Sorption of the dyes on four natural sediments was measured and values were found to be in accord with those of previous sorption on pure minerals. Sorption on natural sediments was also estimated based on the mineral composition of the sediment and the known sorption on the pure minerals. The estimated sorption values were usually 25% lower than those of the sorption directly measured. Nevertheless, sorption on pure minerals can be used as a first approximation for sorption on natural sediments. The impact of sediment to solution ratio was tested for Uranine as a model dye. The distribution coefficient ( Kd) of Uranine in highly saline Dead Sea water was found to be dependent on the sediment to solution ratio (mass/volume), where low ratios resulted in higher values of Kd. Also, higher Kd values were calculated for fine grain size due to higher sorption capacity on larger surface areas. The difference in Kd, however, is not directly related to the specific surface size of the grains and should be examined separately.

  8. Wetland Flow and Salinity Budgets and Elements of a Decision Support System toward Implementation of Real-Time Seasonal Wetland Salinity Management

    E-print Network

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2013-01-01

    plant   change   assessment   using   remote   sensing,   soil   salinity  plant  succession,  combined  with  surveys  of  soil  salinity,  plants   can   provide   direct   evidence   of   impacts   due   to   salinity  

  9. Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ashraf; P. J. C. Harris

    2004-01-01

    Despite a wealth of published research on salinity tolerance of plants, neither the metabolic sites at which salt stress damages plants nor the adaptive mechanisms utilized by plants to survive under saline conditions are well understood. As a result, there are no well-defined indicators for salinity tolerance available to assist plant breeders in the improvement of salinity tolerance of important

  10. Salinity Transport in the Florida Straits ZOLTAN B. SZUTS

    E-print Network

    Salinity Transport in the Florida Straits ZOLTAN B. SZUTS Max Planck Institute for Meteorology calibrations, and here a calibration is defined for salinity transport using data not yet compared to the cable/LADCP data are consistent with previous studies. A salinity calibration is obtained by regressing salinity

  11. Salinity Measurements During the Gulf Stream Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Howden, S.; Goodberlet, M.

    2000-01-01

    The salinity of the open ocean is important for understanding ocean circulation, for understanding energy exchange with the atmosphere and for improving models to predict weather and climate. Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (1 psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approx. 0.1 psu) required to be scientifically viable. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of a compliment of airborne microwave instruments (radiometers and scatterometer) and ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the compliment of instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer. A GPS backscatter experiment was also part of the package. These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Surface salinity measurements were provided by the RN Cape Henlopen and MN Oleander (thermosalinographs) plus salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the RN Cape Henopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made with the airborne sensors on August 28 and 29 and on September 2 flights were made over the surface drifters to look for effects due to a change in surface roughness resulting from the passage of Hurricane Dennis. Preliminary results show a good agreement between the microwave measurements and ship measurements of salinity. The features of the brightness temperature maps correspond well with the features of the salinity field measured by the ship and drifters and a preliminary retrieval of salinity compares well with the ship data.

  12. Polymer tensiometers in a saline environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ploeg, Martine; Gooren, H. P. A.; Bakker, G.; Russell, W.; Hoogendam, C. W.; Huiskes, C.; Shouse, P.; de Rooij, G. H.

    2010-05-01

    It is estimated that 20% of all cultivated land and nearly half of the irrigated land is salt-affected, which pose major economic and environmental problems. Salinity may be the result of two processes; dryland and irrigation salinity. Dryland salinity is caused by a rise in the groundwater table, which occurs as a result of the replacement of deep-rooted, perennial native vegetation by shallow-rooted annual species meant for production. Irrigation salinity may occur as a result of poor water quality, poor drainage, or inefficient use of water. Consequently, new strategies to enhance crop yield stability on saline soils represent a major research priority (Botella et al. 2005). At the same time, native vegetation is capable of thriving under saline and/or dry conditions. The plant physiology of such vegetation has been investigated thoroughly, but the relation with in situ soil properties (soil moisture and salinity) may be more difficult to unravel as soil moisture sensors are less sensitive in dry soil, and the signal of most soil moisture content sensors is strongly attenuated by soil salinity. Recently, polymer tensiometer were developed that are able to measure matric potentials (closely related to a soil's moisture status) in dry soils. Polymer tensiometers consist of a solid ceramic, a stainless steel cup and a pressure transducer. The ceramic consist of a support layer and a membrane with 2 nm pore-size to prevent polymer leakage. Between the ceramic membrane and the pressure transducer a tiny chamber is located, which contains the polymer solution. The polymer's osmotic potential strongly reduces the total water potential inside the polymer tensiometer, which causes build-up of osmotic pressure. Polymer tensiometers would thus be an ideal instrument to measure in dry soil, if the polymer inside the tensiometer is not affected by the salts in the soil solution. We will address some key issues regarding the use of POTs in saline environments by showing results from a field experiment conducted in a very saline soil. This research was funded by the Dutch Technology Foundation (STW).

  13. RF tumor ablation with internally cooled electrodes and saline infusion: what is the optimal location of the saline infusion?

    PubMed Central

    Burdío, Fernando; Berjano, Enrique J; Navarro, Ana; Burdío, José M; Güemes, Antonio; Grande, Luis; Sousa, Ramón; Subiró, Jorge; Gonzalez, Ana; Cruz, Ignacio; Castiella, Tomás; Tejero, Eloy; Lozano, Ricardo; de Gregorio, Miguel A

    2007-01-01

    Background Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of tumors by means of internally cooled electrodes (ICE) combined with interstitial infusion of saline may improve clinical results. To date, infusion has been conducted through outlets placed on the surface of the cooled electrode. However, the effect of infusion at a distance from the electrode surface is unknown. Our aim was to assess the effect of perfusion distance (PD) on the coagulation geometry and deposited power during RFA using ICE. Methods Experiments were performed on excised bovine livers. Perfusion distance (PD) was defined as the shortest distance between the infusion outlet and the surface of the ICE. We considered three values of PD: 0, 2 and 4 mm. Two sets of experiments were considered: 1) 15 ablations of 10 minutes (n ? 4 for each PD), in order to evaluate the effect of PD on volume and diameters of coagulation; and 2) 20 additional ablations of 20 minutes. The effect of PD on deposited power and relative frequency of uncontrolled impedance rises (roll-off) was evaluated using the results from the two sets of experiments (n ? 7 for each PD). Comparisons between PD were performed by analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis test. Additionally, non-linear regression models were performed to elucidate the best PD in terms of coagulation volume and diameter, and the occurrence of uncontrolled impedance rises. Results The best-fit least square functions were always obtained with quadratic curves where volume and diameters of coagulation were maximum for a PD of 2 mm. A thirty per cent increase in volume coagulation was observed for this PD value compared to other values (P < 0.05). Likewise, the short coagulation diameter was nearly twenty five per cent larger for a 2 mm PD than for 0 mm. Regarding deposited power, the best-fit least square function was obtained by a quadratic curve with a 2 mm PD peak. This matched well with the higher relative frequency of uncontrolled impedance rises for PD of 0 and 4 mm. Conclusion Saline perfusion at around 2 mm from the electrode surface while using an ICE in RFA improves deposition of energy and enlarges coagulation volume. PMID:17634117

  14. INHALED HYPERTONIC SALINE IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN LESS THAN SIX YEARS OF AGE WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS: THE ISIS RANDOMIZED TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Margaret; Ratjen, Felix; Brumback, Lyndia; Daniel, Stephen; Rowbotham, Ron; McNamara, Sharon; Johnson, Robin; Kronmal, Richard; Davis, Stephanie D

    2013-01-01

    Context Inhaled hypertonic saline is recommended as therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients 6 years of age and older, but its efficacy has never been evaluated in CF patients <6 years of age. Objective To determine if hypertonic saline reduces the rate of protocol-defined pulmonary exacerbations in CF patients <6 years of age. Design and Setting A multicenter, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted from April 2009 to October 2011 at 30 CF care centers in the United States and Canada. Participants Participants had an established diagnosis of CF and were 4 to 60 months of age. A total of 344 patients were assessed for eligibility; 321 participants were randomized; 29 (9%) withdrew prematurely. Intervention The active group (n=158) received 7% hypertonic saline and the control group (n=163) received 0.9% isotonic saline nebulized twice daily for 48 weeks. Both groups received albuterol or levalbuterol prior to each study drug dose. Main Outcome Measures the rate of protocol-defined pulmonary exacerbations during the 48 week treatment period treated with oral, inhaled or intravenous antibiotics. Results The mean pulmonary exacerbation rate (events/person-year) was 2.3 (95% CI, 2.0, 2.5) in the hypertonic saline group and 2.3 (95% CI, 2.1, 2.6) in the isotonic saline group; the rate ratio was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.84, 1.14)). Among participants with pulmonary exacerbations, the mean number of total antibiotic treatment days for a pulmonary exacerbation was 60 (95% CI 49, 70) in the hypertonic saline group and 52 (95% CI 43, 61) in the isotonic saline group. There was no significant difference in secondary endpoints including height, weight, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, cough or respiratory symptom scores. Infant pulmonary function testing performed as an exploratory outcome in a subgroup (N=73, with acceptable measurements at 2 visits in 45) did not demonstrate significant differences between groups except for the mean change in forced expiratory volume in 0.5 seconds which was 38 ml greater (95% CI 1, 76) in the hypertonic saline group. Adherence by returned study drug ampoules was at least 75% in each group. Adverse event profiles were also similar, with the most common adverse event of moderate or severe severity in each group being cough (39% of hypertonic saline group, 38% of isotonic saline group). Conclusions Among infants and children with cystic fibrosis less than 6 years old, the use of inhaled hypertonic saline compared with isotonic saline did not reduce the rate of pulmonary exacerbations over 48 weeks of treatment. Trial Registration www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00709280 PMID:22610452

  15. Hydrology, Salinity, and Salinity Control Possibilities of the Middle Pecos River: A Reconnaissance Report 

    E-print Network

    Miyamoto, S.; Anand, Shilpa; Hatler, Will

    2008-01-01

    The Middle Pecos River between Malaga, New Mexico, and Girvin, Texas, is known for high salinity. Streamflow salinity during the last decade (1991-2000), for example, averaged 3,500 and 6,150 mg L-1 at Malaga and at the ...

  16. Treatment with hypertonic saline versus normal saline nasal wash of pediatric chronic sinusitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Shoseyov; Haim Bibi; Pintov Shai; Nurit Shoseyov; Gila Shazberg; Haggit Hurvitz

    1998-01-01

    Background: Chronic sinusitis (CS) is a common disease in children, especially those with allergies, that is caused by impaired drainage from the sinuses. Hypertonic NaCl solution has been shown to increase mucociliary clearance and ciliary beat frequency. Objective: We performed a randomized double blind study to compare the effect of nasal wash with hypertonic saline (HS) (3.5%) versus normal saline

  17. Interactive effects of salinity and irradiance on growth: implications for mangrove forest structure along salinity gradients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn C. Ball

    2002-01-01

    Early growth of Ceriops australis and C. decandra was studied in response to salinity and irradiance under laboratory conditions. These results provided a basis for interpretation of growth patterns during seedling establishment by seven species of Rhizophoraceae with variation in irradiance under natural low and high salinity regimes in a tropical mangrove forest. Survival declined with decrease in irradiance, except

  18. Reconstructing sea surface temperature and salinity using delta18O and alkenone records

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frauke Rostek; Götz Ruhlandt; Franck C. Bassinot; Peter J. Muller; Laurent D. Labeyrie; Yves Lancelot; Edouard Bard

    1993-01-01

    THE oxygen isotope (delta18O) composition of foraminiferal tests from deep-sea sediments is widely used as a palaeoclimate proxy, but it includes contributions from sea surface temperature, global ice volume and local salinity, which are difficult to separate. Recently a new technique for deriving palaeotemperatures has been developed which is based on the abundance ratios of unsaturated alkenones in phytoplankton algae1,2.

  19. Biomarker-based salinity reconstruction immediately prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (Sorbas Basin, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayser, Jan Peter; Martins, Cesar; Flecker, Rachel; Pancost, Rich D.

    2014-05-01

    The salinity crisis which occurred in the Mediterranean at the end of the Miocene (5.97 to 5.33 Ma) was a time of large-scale environmental change and thick evaporite deposits formed both in the deep basins and on the surrounding margins. Late Miocene successions in the Sorbas Basin, south east Spain preserve sediments that were deposited immediately prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and during the initial phase of gypsum precipitation (Sierro et al., 2001). Salinity changes are indicated by evaporite formation and fluctuations in faunal assemblages, but these provide threshold measurements only e.g. gypsum forms at a salinity of 130 psu. By analysing the lipid biomarker composition by GC and HPLC-MS after Soxhlet extraction of pre-MSC sediments we aim to reconstruct granular changes in salinity leading up to initial gypsum precipitation. The pre-MSC sediments comprise regular alternations of marine marls and terrigenous clays with interspersed diatomites. This lithological cyclicity is climatically forced by orbitally-driven changes in insolation (Krijgsman et al., 1999) such that specific lithologies are thought to accumulate during precession minima (homogeneous marls) and maxima (laminated marls). By targeting these lithologies for salinity reconstruction we can evaluate the orbital control on quantified environmental change. The reconstruction of the salinity is predominantly based on the ACE proxy introduced by Turich and Freeman (2011). The GDGT-based proxy can show differences over a wide range of salinity, because Archaea can survive over a much larger salinity range than haptophyte algae or other plankton and can therefore also record the salinity signal over a wider range. This makes it suitable for the broad salinity ranges leading up to the MSC e.g. ~35 to 130 psu. Turich et al. (2011) already have published 10 low resolution salinity values for pre-MSC sediments from Torrente Vaccarizzo and Serra Pirciata on Sicily. Our high resolution preliminary data already suggests differences in salinity between insolation maxima's and minima's, which is not expressed in this low resolution signal. In addition we are backing up the ACE proxy data by deuterium values as an independent comparison. Krijgsman, W., Hilgen, F.J., Raffi, I., Sierro, F.J., Wilson, D.S., 1999. Chronology, causes and progression of the Messinian salinity crisis. Nature 400, 652-655. Sierro, F.J., Hilgen, F.J., Krijgsman, W., Flores, J.A., 2001. The Abad composite (SE Spain): a Messinian reference section for the Mediterranean and the APTS. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 168, 141-169. Turich, C., Freeman, K.H., 2011. Archaeal lipids record paleosalinity in hypersaline systems. Organic Geochemistry 42, 1147-1157.

  20. Resuspension by saline and particle-driven gravity currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eames, I.; Hogg, A. J.; Gething, S.; Dalziel, S. B.

    2001-07-01

    Saline and particle-driven gravity currents play an important role in resuspension by environmental and industrial flows. We develop a model of resuspension by unsteady buoyancy-driven flows by bringing together results from the large body of literature dealing with the dynamics of gravity current and resuspension in channel flows. The criterion for resuspending material of density ?p and diameter b is expressed in terms of a modified Shields parameter, ? = ?fu2/(?p - ?f)gb, where u is the depth-averaged velocity within the current and ?f is the bulk fluid density. The critical modified Shields parameter, ?c, which corresponds to the condition when erosion is initiated, is a function of the particle Reynolds number, Rep = b?T/?, expressed in terms of the terminal fall velocity of the sediment particles ?T. Particles characterized by Rep ? 1 are resuspended when ? > ?c ? 0.04/cD where cD is the bed drag coefficient. According to this resuspension criterion, a two-dimensional saline gravity current generated by the release of a volume V per unit width of fluid density ?c in an ambient fluid ?a resuspends material over an erosive distance which scales as (V/b)((?c-?a)?c/(?p-?c)?a)?c-1. These results are extended to describe resuspension by particle-driven gravity currents, an analysis complicated by the change of bulk density of the suspension with time as particles sediment from the current. Here the erosive length scale is bounded by the maximum extent of the particle-driven gravity current. A general form for the vertical mass flux qd is assumed, and the total mass resuspended is calculated in terms of the initial characteristics of the gravity current and shown to be a function of the volume V of dense fluid released, independent of the geometry of release, and independent of gravitational acceleration. Complementary laboratory experiments of resuspension by two-dimensional saline and particle-driven gravity currents are presented. These experiments consisted of a lock release of dense fluid running over a layer of particles. The critical conditions for resuspension were determined for different materials, and the variation of the erosive distance with gravity current characteristics was studied. These observations are discussed with reference to the theoretical model.

  1. Tomato plant-water uptake and plant-water relationships under saline growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Romero-Aranda, R; Soria, T; Cuartero, J

    2001-01-01

    Growth and water uptake both decreases when tomato plants are irrigated with saline water. To determine the relative contribution of physiological traits to these decreases plant fresh and dry weight, leaf area, leaf water (Psi(w)) and osmotic (Psi(Pi)) potentials, gas exchange parameters, stomatal density, leaf chlorophyll and Na content were investigated in the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cultivars, Daniela and Moneymaker. Plants were grown in greenhouse, in sand culture, and irrigated with a complete nutrient solution supplied with 0 (control), 35 and 70 mM NaCl over a period of 2 months. Salinity reduced plant dry weight, height and number of leaves even at 35 mM NaCl. Leaf Psi(w) and Psi(Pi) decreased with salinity but leaf turgor pressures were significantly higher in salinised than in control plants which suggests that bulk tissue turgor did not limit growth under the saline conditions tested. Increasing salinity in the irrigation solution led to both morphological changes [(reduction of plant leaf area and stomatal density) and physiological changes [reduction of stomatal conductance, transpiration, and net CO(2) assimilation (A(CO(2)))] Plant water uptake, measured as the difference between volume of nutrient solution supplied and drainage collected, was closely related to transpiration, stomatal conductance, and stomatal density. Chlorophyll content per unit of leaf area increased with salinity. Reduction of net A(CO(2)) with salinity was explained in higher degree by stomatal conductance and stomatal density than by Na accumulation in the leaves. Although plant water uptake was similar for the two cultivars, Daniela transported, per unit of water uptake, more Na to the leaves than did Moneymaker. However, Daniela reduced leaf area less than did Moneymaker. Water use efficiency, calculated either as the ratio between total plant dry matter and total plant water uptake, or as the ratio between net A(CO(2)) and transpiration, did not change under our saline growth conditions. The contribution of the observed salt-responses to reduction in shoot water loss, plant water uptake and salt loading, while keeping water use efficiency, is discussed in relation to salt tolerance. Because some of these salt-responses take a long time to develop, growing seedlings in seedbeds with saline media could be of interest to better tolerate further salty conditions in the field or greenhouse. PMID:11164598

  2. Hydraulic and salinity characteristics of the tidal reach of the Peace River, southwestern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoker, Y.E.; Henderson, S.E.; McPherson, B.F.

    1989-01-01

    The tidal reach of the Peace River in southwestern Florida extends about 26 miles upstream from Charlotte Harbor and is characterized by flow-direction reversals, low velocities, and salinity gradients that vary with freshwater inflow, tides, and wind. Flow reversals generally occur on each tide throughout most of the tidal reach, their upstream limit determined primarily by freshwater inflow and tide. Flow reversals occur at river mile 18.9 whenever freshwater inflows are less than about 1,000 cu ft/sec. Velocities were less than 0.3 ft/sec more than half the time at river mile 18.9. The volume of the flood and ebb tidal flows in the midreach of the tidal river (mile 11.5) on July 12-13, 1984, was about five times the volume of flood and ebb tidal flow near the upstream end of the tidal reach July 10-11, 1984 (mile 18.9). Salinity varied along the 26-mile river reach, across channel and with depth, depending upon complex patterns of flow, freshwater runoff, wind, tide, and salinity in Charlotte Harbor. Daily variations in salinity increased downstream and variations were larger near the surface than near the bottom. Regression analysis indicated that the location of the 0.5 ppt salinity will move upstream more than 2 river miles if low flows are reduced by 50%. Freshwater flushing of the lower 20-mile tidal reach, approximated from freshwater replacement time, varied from about 2 days during heavy freshwater runoff to 40 days during extreme low flows. (USGS)

  3. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Lung Ablation Combined with Transbronchial Saline Injection: An Experimental Study in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, T., E-mail: t-kawai@hosp.yoka.hyogo.jp; Kaminou, T., E-mail: kaminout@grape.med.tottori-u.ac.jp; Sugiura, K.; Hashimoto, M.; Ohuchi, Y.; Adachi, A. [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine (Japan); Fujioka, S.; Ito, H. [Tottori University, Division of Organ Pathology, Department of Microbiology and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine (Japan); Nakamura, K. [Hakuai Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Ihaya, T. [Sanin Rosai Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Ogawa, T. [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of radiofrequency lung ablation with transbronchial saline injection. The bilateral lungs of eight living swine were used. A 13-gauge bone biopsy needle was inserted percutaneously into the lung, and 1 ml of muscle paste was injected to create a tumor mimic. In total, 21 nodules were ablated. In the saline injection group (group A), radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was performed for 11 nodules after transbronchial saline injection under balloon occlusion with a 2-cm active single internally cooled electrode. In the control group (group B), conventional RFA was performed for 10 nodules as a control. The infused saline liquid showed a wedge-shaped and homogeneous distribution surrounding a tumor mimic. All 21 RFAs were successfully completed. The total ablation time was significantly longer (13.4 {+-} 2.8 min vs. 8.9 {+-} 3.5 min; P = 0.0061) and the tissue impedance was significantly lower in group A compared with group B (73.1 {+-} 8.8 {Omega} vs. 100.6 {+-} 16.6 {Omega}; P = 0.0002). The temperature of the ablated area was not significantly different (69.4 {+-} 9.1{sup o}C vs. 66.0 {+-} 7.9{sup o}C; P = 0.4038). There was no significant difference of tumor mimic volume (769 {+-} 343 mm{sup 3} vs. 625 {+-} 191 mm{sup 3}; P = 0.2783). The volume of the coagulated area was significantly larger in group A than in group B (3886 {+-} 1247 mm{sup 3} vs. 2375 {+-} 1395 mm{sup 3}; P = 0.0221). Percutaneous radiofrequency lung ablation combined with transbronchial saline injection can create an extended area of ablation.

  4. Evaporation over fresh and saline water surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelrady, Ahmed; Timmermans, Joris; Vekerdy, Zoltan

    2013-04-01

    Evaporation over large water bodies has a crucial role in the global hydrological cycle. Evaporation occurs whenever there is a vapor pressure deficit between a water surface and the atmosphere, and the available energy is sufficient. Salinity affects the density and latent heat of vaporization of the water body, which reflects on the evaporation rate. Different models have been developed to estimate the evaporation process over water surfaces using earth observation data. Most of these models are concerned with the atmospheric parameters. However these models do not take into account the influence of salinity on the evaporation rate; they do not consider the difference in the energy needed for vaporization. For this purpose an energy balance model is required. Several energy balance models that calculate daily evapotranspiration exist, such as the surface energy balance system (SEBS). They estimate the heat fluxes by integration of satellite data and hydro-meteorological field data. SEBS has the advantage that it can be applied over a large scale because it incorporates the physical state of the surface and the aerodynamic resistances in the daily evapotranspiration estimation. Nevertheless this model has not used over water surfaces. The goal of this research is to adapt SEBS to estimate the daily evaporation over fresh and saline water bodies. In particular, 1) water heat flux and roughness of momentum and heat transfer estimation need to be updated, 2) upscaling to daily evaporation needs to be investigated and finally 3) integration of the salinity factor to estimate the evaporation over saline water needs to be performed. Eddy covariance measurements over the Ijsselmeer Lake (The Netherlands) were used to estimate the roughness of momentum and heat transfer at respectively 0.0002 and 0.0001 m. Application of these values over Tana Lake (freshwater), in Ethiopia showed latent heat to be in a good agreement with the measurements, with RMSE of 35.5 Wm-2and rRMSE of 4.7 %. Afterwards the validity of salinity adapted model was tested over different study areas using ECMWF data. It was found that for the original SEBS model and salinity-adapted model over Great Salt Lake, the RMSE were 0.62 and 0.24 mm respectively and the rRMSE 19% and 24%. The evaporation reduction of the Great Salt Lake and the oceans are 27% and 1 %, respectively. In conclusion, SEBS model is adapted to calculate the daily evaporation over fresh water and salt water by integration the salinity factor in the model.

  5. Impacts of climate variability on wetland salinization in the North American Prairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachshon, U.; Ireson, A.; van der Kamp, G.; Davies, S. R.; Wheater, H. S.

    2013-11-01

    The glaciated plains of the North American continent, also known as the "prairies", are a complex hydrological system characterized by hummocky terrain, where wetlands, containing seasonal or semi-permanent ponds, occupy the numerous topographic depressions. The prairie subsoil and many of its water bodies contain high salt concentrations, in particular sulfate salts, which are continuously cycled within the closed drainage basins. The period between 2000 and 2012 was characterized by an unusual degree of climatic variability, including severe floods and droughts, and this had a marked effect on the spatial distribution, water levels and chemical composition of wetland ponds. Understanding the geochemical and hydrological processes under changing environmental conditions is needed in order to better understand the risk and mitigate the impacts of future soil and water salinization. Here we explore salt dynamics in the prairies using field observations from St. Denis, Saskatchewan, taken over the last 40 yr. Measurements include meteorological data, soil salinity, groundwater levels and pond water volume, salinity, and chemical composition. The record includes periods of exceptional snow (1997, 2007) and periods of exception rainfall (2010, 2012), both of which resulted in unusually high pond water levels. However, severe salinization only occurred in response to extreme summer rainfall. We hypothesize that since rainfall and snowmelt activate different hydrological pathways, they have markedly different impacts on salinization. We propose that a wet condition associated with high snowmelt conditions does not pose a strong threat to salinization, which has important implications for agricultural planning. Whilst this hypothesis is consistent with our conceptual understanding of the system, it needs to be tested further at a range of field sites in the prairies.

  6. Salinity Trends in the Upper Colorado River Basin Upstream From the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, Colorado, 1986-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leib, Kenneth J.; Bauch, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    In 1974, the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act was passed into law. This law was enacted to address concerns regarding the salinity content of the Colorado River. The law authorized various construction projects in selected areas or 'units' of the Colorado River Basin intended to reduce the salinity load in the Colorado River. One such area was the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit in western Colorado. The U. S. Geological Survey has done extensive studies and research in the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit that provide information to aid the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the Natural Resources Conservation Service in determining where salinity-control work may provide the best results, and to what extent salinity-control work was effective in reducing salinity concentrations and loads in the Colorado River. Previous studies have indicated that salinity concentrations and loads have been decreasing downstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, and that the decreases are likely the result of salinity control work in these areas. Several of these reports; however, also document decreasing salinity loads upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. This finding was important because only a small amount of salinity-control work was being done in areas upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit at the time the findings were reported (late 1990?s). As a result of those previous findings, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate salinity trends in selected areas bracketing the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit and regions upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. The results of the study indicate that salinity loads were decreasing upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit from 1986 through 2003, but the rates of decrease have slowed during the last 10 years. The average rate of decrease in salinity load upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit was 10,700 tons/year. This accounts for approximately 27 percent of the decrease observed downstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. Salinity loads were decreasing at the fastest rate (6,950 tons/year) in Region 4, which drains an area between the Colorado River at Cameo, Colorado (station CAMEO) and Colorado River above Glenwood Springs, Colorado (station GLEN) streamflow-gaging stations. Trends in salinity concentration and streamflow were tested at station CAMEO to determine if salinity concentration, streamflow, or both are controlling salinity loads upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. Trend tests of individual ion concentrations were included as potential indicators of what sources (based on mineral composition) may be controlling trends in the upper Colorado. No significant trend was detected for streamflow from 1986 to 2003 at station CAMEO; however, a significant downward trend was detected for salinity concentration. The trend slope indicates that salinity concentration is decreasing at a median rate of about 3.54 milligrams per liter per year. Five major ions (calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulfate, and chloride) were tested for trends. The results indicate that processes within source areas with rock and soil types (or other unidentified sources) bearing calcium, sodium, and sulfate had the largest effect on the downward trend in salinity load upstream from station CAMEO. Downward trends in salinity load resulting from ground-water sources and/or land-use change were thought to be possible reasons for the observed decreases in salinity loads; however, the cause or causes of the decreasing salinity loads are not fully understood. A reduction in the amount of ground-water percolation from Region 4 (resulting from work done through Federal irrigation system improvement programs as well as privately funded irrigation system improvements) has helped reduce annual salinity load from Region 4 by approxima

  7. Photovoltaic Powered Electrokinetic Restoration of Saline Soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Do-Hyung Kim; Ji-Min Jung; Sung-Ung Jo; Woo-Seung Kim; Kitae Baek

    2012-01-01

    Electrokinetic techniques are currently being explored as a means of extracting or removing contaminants from soils, sediments, and sludge. However, energy costs account for 25% of total operation costs. In this study, we investigated the efficiency of conventional electrokinetic and photovoltaic powered electrokinetic systems for the removal of salts from saline agricultural soils. We tested four different potentiostatic systems: a

  8. Soil Salinity Abatement Following Hurricane Ike

    E-print Network

    Mueller, Ryan

    2012-10-19

    tsunami or a hurricane storm surge, salinity would affect the topsoil more than the subsoil (McLeod et al., 2009). Storm surges have not been found to permanently change or eliminate vegetation in an area, but have been found to temporarily raise...

  9. FUEL PROPERTIES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SALINE BIOMASS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated farm drainage management (IFDM) systems employ sequential reuse of water with biomass production to help control saline groundwater and improve the sustainability of arid land irrigated agriculture. Currently operating near Five Points, CA is a 640 acre IFDM demonstration project. Subsu...

  10. [Bronchial hyperreactivity to physiological saline solution].

    PubMed

    Manzke, H; Vogel, A; Brohm, R

    1991-11-01

    A case of a 10-year old boy suffering from asthma bronchiale following pleuropneumonia is reported. Paradoxically, bronchospasmolysis tests using physiological saline + salbutamol or ipratropium bromide impaired the lung function of this patient. Salt solutions inhaled in increasing doses until 1.4% generated severe bronchoconstriction, however, inhalation of DNCG + salbutamol normalized the lung function completely. PMID:1763001

  11. The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. H. Kerr; P. Waldteufel; J.-P. Wigneron; M. Berger

    2003-01-01

    Surface soil moisture is a key variable of water and energy exchanges at the land surface\\/atmosphere interface. But currently there are no means to assess it on a global and timely fashion. Similarly, our current knowledge of sea surface salinity is very reduced. One way to overcome this issue would be to use an adequate space-borne instrument. The most promising

  12. Halophyte Improvement for a Salinized World

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-Jiang Ruan; Susan Mopper; Pei Qin; Stanley Lutts

    2010-01-01

    It is more important to improve the salt tolerance of crops in a salinized world with the situations of increasing populations, declining crop yields, and a decrease in agricultural lands. Attempts to produce salt-tolerant crops have involved the manipulation of existing crops through conventional breeding, genetic engineering and marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, these have, so far, not produced lines growing

  13. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a unit designed for curriculum infusion and which relies on the hands-on discovery method as an instructive device. The student is introduced to the theory of a functioning salt water conductivity meter. The student explores the resistance of salt water as salinity increases and he treats the data which he has gathered,…

  14. Cellular basis of salinity tolerance in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Magdy F. Mansour; Karima H. A. Salama

    2004-01-01

    Glycophytes and halophytes are believed to have salt tolerance mechanisms that occur at the cellular level. One facet of the cellular mechanisms concerns the elements of the protoplasm. Variations in the response of plasma membrane permeability in salt sensitive and tolerant genotypes to salinity are explained by differences in composition and\\/or structure of the plasma membrane. Changes in plasma membrane

  15. Saline-water withdrawals, 2005. New Hampshire

    E-print Network

    Alaska Hawaii Maryland District of Columbia Delaware New Jersey Lake Superior LakeMichigan Lake Ontario Lake Erie La keHuron Saline-water withdrawals EXPLANATION Water withdrawals, in million gallons per day, Estimated use of water in the United States in 2005: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1344, 52 p. #12;

  16. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas and soil salinity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Juniper; L. Abbott

    1993-01-01

    This review discusses the growth and activity of vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi in saline conditions. The review includes examination of the effects of high concentrations of salts on the occurrence of VA mycorrhizal fungi in field soils, and on spore germination, growth of hyphae, establishment of the symbiosis and production of spores in controlled conditions. Information on the growth and

  17. Volumetrics of CO2 storage in deep saline formations.

    PubMed

    Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Capobianco, Ryan M; Dilmore, Robert; Goodman, Angela; Guthrie, George; Rimstidt, J Donald; Bodnar, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Concern about the role of greenhouse gases in global climate change has generated interest in sequestering CO(2) from fossil-fuel combustion in deep saline formations. Pore space in these formations is initially filled with brine, and space to accommodate injected CO(2) must be generated by displacing brine, and to a lesser extent by compression of brine and rock. The formation volume required to store a given mass of CO(2) depends on the storage mechanism. We compare the equilibrium volumetric requirements of three end-member processes: CO(2) stored as a supercritical fluid (structural or stratigraphic trapping); CO(2) dissolved in pre-existing brine (solubility trapping); and CO(2) solubility enhanced by dissolution of calcite. For typical storage conditions, storing CO(2) by solubility trapping reduces the volume required to store the same amount of CO(2) by structural or stratigraphic trapping by about 50%. Accessibility of CO(2) to brine determines which storage mechanism (structural/stratigraphic versus solubility) dominates at a given time, which is a critical factor in evaluating CO(2) volumetric requirements and long-term storage security. PMID:22916959

  18. Equations for Calculating the Dielectric Constant of Saline Water (Correspondence)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Stogryn

    1971-01-01

    The dielectric constant of saline water may be represented by an equation of the Debye form. Equations for the parameters in the Debye expression are given as functions of the water temperature and salinity.

  19. Time Series of Suspended-Solids Concentration, Salinity, Temperature, and

    E-print Network

    Time Series of Suspended-Solids Concentration, Salinity, Temperature, and Total Mercury.................................................................................................................................. 3 Time Series Data................................................................................................................................... 15 #12;3 San Francisco Estuary Institute Time Series of Suspended-Solids Concentration, Salinity

  20. 77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control...Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control...held at the Central Arizona Water Conservation District Office...Bureau of Reclamation, Upper Colorado Regional Office, 125...

  1. Echinoderm responses to variation in salinity.

    PubMed

    Russell, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Although Echinodermata is one of the only stenohaline phyla in the animal kingdom, several species show remarkable abilities to acclimate and survive in euryhaline habitats. The last comprehensive review of this topic was over 25 years ago and much work has been published since. These recent studies expand the field reports of species living in hyposaline environments and detail experimental research on the responses, physiological range, and limits of echinoderms to salinity challenges. I provide a brief review of the historical concepts and measures of salinity and relate this overview to the physiological and ecological studies on echinoderms. Many marine biologists are not aware that chemical oceanographers advocate abandoning today's commonly used measure of salinity, 'PSU', in favour of absolute salinity (SA)-a return to the ppt (‰) metric. The literature survey reveals only one euryhaline-tolerant species in the Southern Hemisphere (there are 42 in the North) and more euryhaline species in the geologically older, brackish seas. The green sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, is one of the most tolerant echinoids to hyposalinity. Different source populations have varying levels of acclimation and tolerance to hyposalinity. Experiments show that green urchins previously unexposed to hyposalinity experience a clear decrease in growth rates; however, this adverse effect is short lived. Green urchins already acclimated to hyposalinity can endure intense and repeated bouts and grow at the same rate of urchins not exposed. Promising future work on the physiological and cellular mechanisms of hyposalinity acclimation includes comparative studies of the role of heat shock proteins in the response to changing salinities. PMID:24182901

  2. River salinity on a mega-delta, an unstructured grid model approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bricheno, Lucy; Saiful Islam, Akm; Wolf, Judith

    2014-05-01

    With an average freshwater discharge of around 40,000 m3/s the BGM (Brahmaputra Ganges and Meghna) river system has the third largest discharge worldwide. The BGM river delta is a low-lying fertile area covering over 100,000 km2 mainly in India and Bangladesh. Approximately two-thirds of the Bangladesh people work in agriculture and these local livelihoods depend on freshwater sources directly linked to river salinity. The finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) has been applied to the BGM delta in order to simulate river salinity under present and future climate conditions. Forced by a combination of regional climate model predictions, and a basin-wide river catchment model, the 3D baroclinic delta model can determine river salinity under the current climate, and make predictions for future wet and dry years. The river salinity demonstrates a strong seasonal and tidal cycle, making it important for the model to be able to capture a wide range of timescales. The unstructured mesh approach used in FVCOM is required to properly represent the delta's structure; a complex network of interconnected river channels. The model extends 250 km inland in order to capture the full extent of the tidal influence and grid resolutions of 10s of metres are required to represent narrow inland river channels. The use of FVCOM to simulate flows so far inland is a novel challenge, which also requires knowledge of the shape and cross-section of the river channels.

  3. The hydrography of the Mozambique Channel from six years of continuous temperature, salinity, and velocity observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullgren, J. E.; van Aken, H. M.; Ridderinkhof, H.; de Ruijter, W. P. M.

    2012-11-01

    Temperature, salinity and velocity data are presented, along with the estimated volume transport, from seven full-length deep sea moorings placed across the narrowest part of the Mozambique Channel, southwest Indian Ocean, during the period November 2003 to December 2009. The dominant water mass in the upper layer is Sub-Tropical Surface Water (STSW) which overlies South Indian Central Water (SICW), and is normally capped by fresher Tropical Surface Water (TSW). Upper ocean salinity increased through 2005 as a result of saline STSW taking up a relatively larger part of the upper layer, at the expense of TSW. Upper waters are on average warmer and lighter in the central Channel than on the sides. Throughout the upper 1.5 km of the water column there is large hydrographic variability, short-term as well as interannual, and in particular at frequencies (four to seven cycles per year) associated with the southward passage of anticyclonic Mozambique Channel eddies. The eddies have a strong T-S signal, in the upper and central waters as well as on the intermediate level, as the eddies usually carry saline Red Sea Water (RSW) in their core. While the interannual frequency band displays an east-west gradient with higher temperature variance on the western side, the eddy frequency band shows highest variance in the centre of the Channel, where the eddy band contains about 40% of the total isopycnal hydrographic variability. Throughout the >6 years of measurements, the frequency and characteristics of eddies vary between periods, both in terms of strength and vertical structure of eddy T-S signals. These changes contribute to the interannual variability of water mass properties: an increase in central water salinity to a maximum in late 2007 coincided with a period of unusually frequent eddies with strong salinity signals. The warmest and most saline deep water is found within the northward flowing Mozambique Undercurrent, on the western side of the Channel. The Undercurrent has two cores: an intermediate one mainly containing diluted Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), and a deep one consisting of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). In the intermediate core, T-S properties are strongly correlated with current velocity, probably because of the strong salinity gradient at the interface between Red Sea Water (RSW) and AAIW. In the deep core, velocity and hydrographic time series do not correlate on a daily basis, but they do at longer time scales.

  4. P u b l i s h i n g Volume 28, 2001

    E-print Network

    Cramer, Grant R.

    salinity is applied to the root medium of maize (Zea mays L.) plants, leaf elongation is immediately of salinity on turgor, almost all reports indicate that growing cells of salt-stressed plants maintain normalP u b l i s h i n g Volume 28, 2001 © CSIRO 2001 Australian Journal of Plant Physiology CSIRO

  5. Fertilization management of crops irrigated with saline water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Feigin

    1985-01-01

    Summary Available data concerning nutrition and fertilization effects on crops irrigated with saline water are presented and discussed. Published data on the salinity-fertility relationship are, at least to some extent, contradictory; both positive and negative effects as well as no effect of fertilization on salinity tolerance have been recorded. However, a great deal of the experimental work supports the view

  6. A DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF OPTIMAL WATER USE UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith C. Knapp; Ariel Dinar

    1986-01-01

    Irrigation with saline waters is a major problem in many parts of the world. Economic questions have usually been addressed using synthesized production functions and theoretically based soil salinity relations. The purpose of this paper is to estimate functions relating crop yield and salt accumulation in the soil to initial soil salinity and water quantity and quality. Crop response functions

  7. Extended Ocean Salinity Error Budget Analysis within the SMOS Mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Sabia; Adriano Camps; Mercè Vall-Llossera; Marco Talone

    2008-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission will provide from 2009 onwards sea surface salinity maps over the oceans. In this paper an ocean salinity error budget is described. Instrumental, external noise sources and geophysical errors have been analysed, stressing their relative degree of impact. With the aim of improving this study, an extended version of this analysis provides an

  8. OCEANIC SALINITIES OFF THE SOUTH ATLANTIC COAST OF

    E-print Network

    389 OCEANIC SALINITIES OFF THE SOUTH ATLANTIC COAST OF THE UNITED STATES Theodore N. Gill CRUISES 1 OCEANIC SALINITIES OFF THE SOUTH ATLANTIC COAST OF THE UNITED STATES, Theodore N. Gill CRUISES 1-9, 1953 Procedures 1 Sections 1 Areas 1 Seasons 2 Gener al 2 Acknowledgments 9 Literature cited 9 Salinity data

  9. Analysis of the SMOS ocean salinity inversion algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Gabarro; Marcos Portabella; Marco Talone

    2007-01-01

    As part of the preparation for the European Space Agency SMOS (soil moisture and ocean salinity) satellite mission, empirical sea surface emissivity (forward) models have been applied to retrieve sea surface salinity from L-band brightness temperature (TB) measurements. However, the salinity inversion is not straightforward and an important effort is required to define the most appropriate cost function (inversion algorithm).

  10. Original article Effects of sodium chloride salinity on root growth

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Effects of sodium chloride salinity on root growth and respiration in oak either 50 or 250 mM NaCl. Both moderate and high salinity treatment strongly altered root elongation. In contrast, specific respiration of roots was unaffected by the moderate salinity treatment while

  11. ORIGINAL PAPER The effect of pulsed versus gradual salinity reduction

    E-print Network

    Durako, Michael J.

    ORIGINAL PAPER The effect of pulsed versus gradual salinity reduction on the physiology, in mesocosms, to either pulsed hyposalinity treatments of 30, 15, 10, and 8 or gradual salinity reduc- tions of two every 2 days. When salinity was pulsed, sur- vivorship ([80 %) and maximum quantum yields ([0

  12. DISTRIBUTION OF FISH EGGS AND LARVAE, TEMPERATURE, AND SALINITY

    E-print Network

    411 DISTRIBUTION OF FISH EGGS AND LARVAE, TEMPERATURE, AND SALINITY IN THE GEORGES BANKKernan, Director DISTRIBUTION OF FISH EGGS AND LARVAE, TEMPERATURE, AND SALINITY IN THE GEORGES BANK-GULF OF MAINE Recorder 2 Temperature and salinity 2 Drift bottles 2 Literature cited 2 FIGURES 1. Distribution

  13. Original article Genotypic variability for tolerance to salinity

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Genotypic variability for tolerance to salinity of N2-fixing common bean of these constraints is salinity which is a major limitation for grain legumes yield, especially when the plant growth depends upon N2 fixation. In order to confirm the variability of the response to moderate salinity

  14. Estimating salinity to complement observed temperature: 1. Gulf of Mexico

    E-print Network

    Estimating salinity to complement observed temperature: 1. Gulf of Mexico W.C. Thacker Atlantic companion [Thacker, W.C., Sindlinger, L., 2007-this issue. Estimating salinity to complement observed initial efforts in a project with the goal of developing capability for estimating salinity on a region

  15. Ocean water salinity and colour herald El Nio events

    E-print Network

    N° 380 July 2011 Ocean water salinity and colour herald El Niño events Scientific news Actualidad potentially useful for observation, or even prediction, of climate anomalies. This is the salinity of the ocean layers, an indicator of the salinity barrier layer located at a few tens of metres' depth

  16. Original article Response of eight Cucumis melo cultivars to salinity

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Response of eight Cucumis melo cultivars to salinity during germination and early- opment. Salinity induced a decrease in the concentrations of Ca2+, K+ and Mg2+ in the shoots, but only/Elsevier, Paris.) mineral composition / muskmelon / salinity / tolerance Résumé - Réaction de huit cultivars de

  17. Frequency, temperature and salinity variation of the permittivity of Seawater

    E-print Network

    Trumpf, Jochen

    Frequency, temperature and salinity variation of the permittivity of Seawater Ram Somaraju for the permittivity of saline water are empirical ones that best fit experimental data. We propose a physically of water with varying frequencies and salinities. Our model is in excellent agreement with existing

  18. REVIEW PAPER Salinity stress alleviation using arbuscular mycorrhizal

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    REVIEW PAPER Salinity stress alleviation using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. A review Rosa Porcel and Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011 Abstract Salinity is one of the most severe environmental stress salt-tolerant crops. Understanding the mechanisms that enable plant growth under saline conditions

  19. Estimating salinity to complement observed temperature: 2.Northwestern Atlantic

    E-print Network

    Estimating salinity to complement observed temperature: 2.Northwestern Atlantic W.C. Thacker a,, L salinity to complement observed temperature: 1. Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Marine Systems. doi:10.1016/j for developing world-wide capability for estimating salinity to complement expendable- bathythermograph (XBT

  20. Biochemical and Antioxidant Responses of Borage Seedlings in Saline Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghalavand A; Rezazadeh Sh

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although borage (Borago officinalis L.) is a valuable medicinal plant, no information is available on the responses of this plant to salinity. For this reason, it is necessary to determine responses of this plant to salinity. Objective: Since germination and early growth stage is one of the most critical phases of plant life under salinity condition; this experiment was

  1. Salinity and Plant Residue Effects on Soil Available Phosphorus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Hossein Khoshgoftarmanesh; Farshid Nourbakhsh

    2009-01-01

    The effect of salinity and plant residue on soil phosphorus (P) availability was investigated. The organic carbon content of non-saline and salinized soil samples was enhanced by 1% with applying separately different amounts of residues. Fourteen residues including roots and shoots of wheat, barley, corn, alfalfa, and clover as well as leaves of apple, oak, plant-tree, and oleaster were used.

  2. Mild salinity improves sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roghieh Hajiboland; Arshad Joudmand; Keivan Fotouhi

    2009-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is cultivated mainly on saline soils. Low levels of salinity stimulate growth of this crop plant possibly due to production of broader leaves as sources of assimilates. In this work, six cultivars were studied under mild salinity (EC = 5.5 dS m) in a field experiment to analyse its effect on growth parameters and yield

  3. Effects of salinity changes on growth of Ruppia maritima L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan K La Peyre; Sheryl Rowe

    2003-01-01

    The ability of Ruppia maritima L. to tolerate moderate salinity changes was determined in a greenhouse study. While R. maritima has been shown to survive in salinities from 0 to 70ppt, it has been suggested that changes in salinity alone may be detrimental. We tested the hypothesis that along the northern shore of the Gulf of Mexico, R. maritima may

  4. Overview of the SMOS Sea Surface Salinity Prototype Processor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonia Zine; Jacqueline Boutin; Nicolas Reul; Philippe Waldteufel; Carolina Gabarro; Joseph Tenerelli; François Petitcolin; Jean-Luc Vergely; Marco Talone; Steven Delwart

    2008-01-01

    The L-band interferometric radiometer onboard the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission will measure polarized brightness temperatures (Tb). The measurements are affected by strong radiometric noise. However, during a satellite overpass, numerous measurements are acquired at various incidence angles at the same location on the Earth's surface. The sea surface salinity (SSS) retrieval algorithm implemented in the Level 2 Salinity

  5. Ultrastructural effects of salinity stress in higher plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HIROSHI MIYAKE; SHIRO MITSUYA; M. D. SHAHIDUR RAHMAN

    Salinity stress induces various types of ultrastructural changes in higher plant cells. These structural changes provide useful information as to the underlying mechanism of salinity stress. In this report the ultrastructural effects of salinity (NaCl) stress in crop plants especially in rice are described based on the research work conducted in our laboratory. Relevant research results are also described and

  6. Effect of salinity on quality of various agricultural crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yosef Mizrahi; Dov Pasternak

    1985-01-01

    Summary The effect of salinity on the quality of various agricultural crops has not yet been explored much. This information is very important to Israel due to the increasing use of saline water for irrigation. This paper reports the effect of saline irrigation water on the quality, especially the taste, of several crops. Fruits from a processing tomato cultivar exposed

  7. IMPLEMENTATION OF AGRICULTURAL SALINITY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY IN GRAND VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A summary of the results of applied research on salinity control of irrigation return flows in the Grand Valley of Colorado is presented for the period of 1969 to 1976. Salinity and economic impacts are described for the Grand Valley Salinity Control Demonstration Project which c...

  8. Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramsis B. Salama; Claus J. Otto; Robert W. Fitzpatrick

    1999-01-01

    Salinization is the process whereby the concentration of dissolved salts in water and soil is increased due to natural or human-induced processes. Water is lost through one or any combination of four main mechanisms: evaporation, evapotranspiration, hydrolysis, and leakage between aquifers. Salinity increases from catchment divides to the valley floors and in the direction of groundwater flow. Salinization is explained

  9. Migration of saline solutions in variably saturated porous media

    E-print Network

    Selker, John

    Migration of saline solutions in variably saturated porous media Noam Weisbroda,*, Michael R angle between the imbibing and the resident fluids. For saline solutions of similar surface tension more than 4 million liters of highly saline solutions have leaked from radioactive waste storage tanks

  10. Water Use of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on Highly? Saline and Non-Saline Soils in Yang Talad, Kalasin Province, Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesada Luangjame; Rungruang Lertsirivorakul

    A heat- pulse velocity technique was used to monitor water use by Eucalyptus camaldulensis trees from Petford, Queensland, Australia. The trees were planted on recharge (non-saline soil) and discharge (highly saline soil) areas for ecological studies in Yang Talad, Kalasin province, Thailand. Watertables were over at 7.6 m depth on non-saline and 1.5 m on highly saline soil areas during

  11. Variations in the Black Sea water salinity from its latest salinization to the present state: Estimation based on mathematical modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Leonov

    2005-01-01

    The available published data were used to reveal the principal conditions and factors that control the formation and evolution of the Black Sea water salinity. Formalization of the major processes that contribute to the formation of sea salinity structure enabled, based on the present-day data on water balance, the reproduction of profiles of water salinity and the coefficient of vertical

  12. Interactive Effect Of Cobalt And Salinity On Tomato Plants I- Growth And Mineral Composition As Affected By Cobalt And Salinity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadia Gad

    2005-01-01

    The study was carried out at the greenhouse, of Faculty of Agriculture Ain Shams University, during 2003 August 15th to study the interactive effect of cobalt and salinity on growth and mineral composition of two tomato varieties differing in their salt tolerance, namely Moneymaker (as salinity sensitive) and Edcawy (as salinity tolerance). A pot experiment was carried using acid washed

  13. Changes in Salinity Due to Glacier Movement

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This activity requires construction of a simple salinity tester. Students will create their own calibration scale during this experiment, and look at the change in salinity that would arise if freshwater was suddenly dumped into the ocean. Materials needed for this investigation include a DC mill ampere meter, 2 D-cell batteries and holder, bronze sheeting, #18 solid wire, salt, deionized water, and a stream table or pan apparatus to create a hydrologic model of ice-ocean interaction. Included is a student worksheet to guide interpretation of data. The resource is supported by teacher background information, assessment suggestions, and a scoring rubric. This is Activity 3 of the learning module, Water: Here, There, and Everywhere, part of the lesson series, The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change.

  14. Contaminated soils salinity, a threat for phytoextraction?

    PubMed

    Sirguey, Catherine; Ouvrard, Stéphanie

    2013-04-01

    Phytoremediation, given the right choice of plant, may be theoretically applicable to multi-contamination. Laboratory and some field trials have proven successful, but this ideal technique is in all cases dependent on plant growth ability on (generally) low-fertility soil or media. While contaminant concentration has often been proposed as an explanation for plant growth limitation, other factors, commonly occurring in industrial soils, such as salinity, should be considered. The present work highlights the fact that besides contaminants (trace elements and PAH), soil salinity may strongly affect germination and growth of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens. Elevated concentrations of nitrate proved highly toxic for seed germination. At the growth stage the salt effect (sulfate) seemed less significant and the limited biomass production observed could be attributed mostly to organic contamination. PMID:23245576

  15. Can the vapour phase be neglected to estimate bulk salinity of halite bearing aqueous fluid inclusions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Ronald J.

    2012-06-01

    The bulk salinity cannot be directly obtained from the dissolution temperatures of halite in highly saline fluid inclusions that contain solid, liquid, and vapour at room temperature. At least two of the following independent parameters must be determined to estimate the bulk composition and density of these inclusions: 1. dissolution temperature of halite in the presence of vapour; 2. total homogenization temperature of liquid and vapour; and 3. volume fraction of the vapour phase. A new V m - x diagram for phase stabilities in the H2O-NaCl system has been constructed to obtain these bulk fluid properties from inclusions that homogenize liquid and vapour phase at higher temperatures than dissolution of halite.

  16. Can the vapour phase be neglected to estimate bulk salinity of halite bearing aqueous fluid inclusions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Ronald

    2012-06-01

    The bulk salinity cannot be directly obtained from the dissolution temperatures of halite in highly saline fluid inclusions that contain solid, liquid, and vapour at room temperature. At least two of the following independent parameters must be determined to estimate the bulk composition and density of these inclusions: 1. dissolution temperature of halite in the presence of vapour; 2. total homogenization temperature of liquid and vapour; and 3. volume fraction of the vapour phase. A new V m-x diagram for phase stabilities in the H2O-NaCl system has been constructed to obtain these bulk fluid properties from inclusions that homogenize liquid and vapour phase at higher temperatures than dissolution of halite.

  17. Mapping Salinity Tolerance during Arabidopsis thaliana Germination and Seedling Growth

    PubMed Central

    DeRose-Wilson, Leah; Gaut, Brandon S.

    2011-01-01

    To characterize and dissect genetic variation for salinity tolerance, we assessed variation in salinity tolerance during germination and seedling growth for a worldwide sample of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. By combining QTL mapping, association mapping and expression data, we identified genomic regions involved in salinity response. Among the worldwide sample, we found germination ability within a moderately saline environment (150 mM NaCl) varied considerable, from >90% among the most tolerant lines to complete inability to germinate among the most susceptible. Our results also demonstrated wide variation in salinity tolerance within A. thaliana RIL populations and identified multiple genomic regions that contribute to this variation. These regions contain known candidate genes, but at least four of the regions contain loci not yet associated with salinity tolerance response phenotypes. Our observations suggest A. thaliana natural variation may be an underutilized resource for investigating salinity stress response. PMID:21857956

  18. Thermal simulation of subsea saline permafrost

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Thermal analyses of the response of offshore permafrost to emergence and submergence have traditionally employed simple closed-form solutions where phase change is confined to a discrete freezing temperature. These have led to rather rapid rates of return to thermal equilibrium, which have proved difficult to explain in the light of recent deep temperature measurements in offshore permafrost profiles. This paper reviews the need for an appropriate unfrozen water content relationship for a saline frozen soil, and describes some simulations of long term thermal response in offshore permafrost using the author's geothermal simulator. Simulations of submergence assumed an initial permafrost thickness of 600m, and a mean soil surface temperature of -9.0/sup 0/C. The salinity was assumed constant at 30 ppt. The initial temperature profile was linear, varying between -9.0/sup 0/C and a freezing point of -1.8/sup 0/C at the bottom of ice-bonded permafrost. The salinity was assumed constant at 30 ppt, and the ground surface was assumed to be changed to -0.8/sup 0/C following submergence. After a period of 10,000 years, the predicted ground temperature at a depth of 300 m was -3.55/sup 0/C and was still warming. The equivalent temperature in a soil with a discrete freezing point, would be 0.25/sup 0/C below the freezing point.

  19. Incorporation of salinity in Water Availability Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Lee, Chihun

    2011-10-01

    SummaryNatural salt pollution from geologic formations in the upper watersheds of several large river basins in the Southwestern United States severely constrains the use of otherwise available major water supply sources. The Water Rights Analysis Package modeling system has been routinely applied in Texas since the late 1990s in regional and statewide planning studies and administration of the state's water rights permit system, but without consideration of water quality. The modeling system was recently expanded to incorporate salinity considerations in assessments of river/reservoir system capabilities for supplying water for environmental, municipal, agricultural, and industrial needs. Salinity loads and concentrations are tracked through systems of river reaches and reservoirs to develop concentration frequency statistics that augment flow frequency and water supply reliability metrics at pertinent locations for alternative water management strategies. Flexible generalized capabilities are developed for using limited observed salinity data to model highly variable concentrations imposed upon complex river regulation infrastructure and institutional water allocation/management practices.

  20. Effects of salinity on baldcypress seedlings: Physiological responses and their relation to salinity tolerance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Chambers, J.L.; Pezeshki, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    Growth and physiological responses of 15 open-pollinated families of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum var. distichum) subjected to flooding with saline water were evaluated in this study. Ten of the families were from coastal sites in Louisiana and Alabama, USA that have elevated levels of soil-water salinity. The other five families were from inland, freshwater sites in Louisiana. Seedlings from all families tolerated flooding with water of low (2 g l-1) salinity. Differences in biomass among families became most apparent at the highest salinity levels (6 and 8 g l-1). Overall, increasing salinity reduced leaf biomass more than root biomass, which in turn was reduced more than stem biomass. A subset of seedlings from the main greenhouse experiment was periodically placed indoors under artificial light, and measurements were made of gas exchange and leaf water potential. Also, tissue concentrations of Cl-, Na+, K+, and Ca2+ were determined at the end of the greenhouse experiment. Significant intraspecific variation was found for nearly all the physiological parameters evaluated, but only leaf concentrations of Na+ and Cl- were correlated with an index of family-level differences in salt tolerance.

  1. Salinity of animal manure and potential risk of secondary soil salinization through successive manure application.

    PubMed

    Li-Xian, Yao; Guo-Liang, Li; Shi-Hua, Tu; Gavin, Sulewski; Zhao-Huan, He

    2007-09-20

    To enhance animal productivity and maximize economic returns, mineral salts are routinely added to animal feed worldwide. Salinity and ionic composition of animal manure from intensive poultry and livestock farms in Guangdong province were investigated. Field experiments were conducted for six successive crops of Brassica Parachinensis to evaluate the possibility of secondary soil salinization by successive application of chicken manure (CM) and pigeon manure (PM) to a garden soil. The concentration of total soluble salts (TSS), which were mainly composed of sulfate and chloride of potassium and sodium, averaged 49.0, 20.6 and 60.3 g.kg(- 1) in chicken, pig and pigeon manure, respectively. After three crops, successive application of CM and PM increased soil concentrations of TSS, Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), SO(4)(2-), and Cl(-) with application rate, resulting in a rise in soil salinity from low to medium levels and a slight reduction in soil pH. After heavy rains during the last three crops, soil TSS was reduced considerably and pH showed a slight increase. Concentrations of Cl(-) and Mg(2+) increased and Ca(2+) decreased at the end of the experiment, all leading to changes in the ionic composition of soil salinity. Manure with higher ion concentrations appeared to play a more important role in affecting ionic composition of soil salinity. The results further suggest that even in a region with abundant rainfall like Guangzhou, there is still potential risk for secondary soil salinization when high rates of CM and PM are applied. PMID:17572477

  2. Albumin and IgG in skin and skeletal muscle after plasmapheresis with saline loading

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, R.J.; Powers, M.R.; Bell, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The acute effect of removing plasma equivalent to 1.7% body wt and replacing it with saline equivalent to 10% body wt on the extravascular distribution of water, albumin, and immunoglobulin G (IgG) in skin and skeletal muscle was studied in anesthetized rabbits. The plasma protein concentration decreased by 43%. Prenodal lymph was collected from hindpaw skin or skeletal muscle. The extracellular and plasma volumes in excised tissue samples were measured using /sup 51/Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and /sup 125/I-labeled albumin, respectively. The protein spaces were calculated from measurements of endogenous albumin and IgG concentrations using immunochemical techniques. Lymph flow both tissues increased more than twice control, whereas the lymph total protein concentration decreased to less than one-half control. Three to six hours after the saline infusion, the skin interstitial volume was 30% greater than control, whereas the extravascular masses of albumin and IgG were 20% greater than control. For muscle, the interstitial volume was twice the control value, whereas the extravascular masses of albumin and IgG were not significantly altered. There was a large decrease in the lymph protein concentration after acute plasmapheresis. However, there was not an acute decrease in the extravascular albumin or IgG masses from skin or skeletal muscle. This may be due to the presence of the collagen matrix and edema fluid.

  3. Tolerance of Venerupis philippinarum to salinity: osmotic and metabolic aspects.

    PubMed

    Carregosa, Vanessa; Figueira, Etelvina; Gil, Ana M; Pereira, Sara; Pinto, Joana; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Freitas, Rosa

    2014-05-01

    In the last few decades, attention has been focused on the impacts of contamination in marine benthic populations, while the responses of aquatic organisms to natural alterations, namely changes in salinity, have received little attention. In fact, salinity is one of the dominant environmental factors affecting marine bivalves. The ebb and flood of the tide, combined with fresh water inputs from rivers or heavy rainy events, and with extremely dry and hot seasons, can dramatically alter water salinity. Therefore, the salinity of a certain environment can restrict the spatial distribution of a given population, which is especially important when assessing the spread of an invasive species into a new environment. In the present study, the main objective was to understand how clam Venerupis philippinarum copes with salinity changes and, hence biochemical and metabolomic alterations, taking place in individuals submitted to a wide range of salinities were investigated. The results showed that V. philippinarum presented high mortality at lower salinities (0 and 7 g/L) but tolerated high salinities (35 and 42 g/L). The quantification of ionic content revealed that, clams had the capacity to maintain ionic homeostasis along the salinity gradient, mainly changing the concentration of Na, but also with the influence of Mg and Ca. The results showed a decrease in protein content at lower salinities (0 to 21 g/L). Glycogen and glucose increased with increasing salinity gradient. (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra of clam aqueous extracts revealed different metabolite profiles at 7, 28 and 42 g/L salinities, thus enabling metabolite changes to be measured in relation to salinity. PMID:24556070

  4. Aquarius Sea surface salinity from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koblinsky, C. J.; Aquarius Team

    2003-04-01

    Aquarius is a new NASA Earth System Science Pathfinder mission that will be carried out in partnership with the Argentine space commission to study the impact of the global water cycle on the ocean, including the response of the ocean to buoyancy forcing and the subsequent feedback of the ocean on the climate. The measurement objective is sea surface salinity, which describes the concentration of freshwater at the ocean surface. Salinity effects the dielectric constant of seawater and, consequently, the radiometric emission from the sea surface. Space observations with an L-band radiometer were first made from Skylab in the mid-70s. Numerous aircraft missions of increasing quality and improved technology have been conducted over the past decade to demonstrate that the technology and algorithms are now available to carry out a global mission. The Aquarius measurement goals are 0.2 practical salinity units accuracy, 100 km resolution, every month. It includes real aperture dual-polarized L-band (1.413 Ghz) radiometers and a (1.2 Ghz) scatterometer system in space and a global array of in situ observations for validation. A 3 m antenna at ˜600km altitude in a sun-synchronous orbit provide a 270 km swath from a "push-broom" configuration that lead to the desired 100 km resolution global coverage every week. Launch is planned for the fall of 2007 with a mission lifetime of at least three years. This presentation will describe both the mission and the science investigations that will benefit from these measurements.

  5. The effects of salinity on the growth and survival of the postlarval stages of Gambusia affinis

    E-print Network

    Omundson, Glenn Erwin

    1963-01-01

    of MASTER OP SCIBNCB january l963 Ma Jor Subject: Biological Oceanography THE EFFECTS OF SALINIIY ON THE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF THE POSI'LARVAL STAGES OF GAMBUSIA AFFINIS A Thesis Glenn Erwln Omundson h aved as to style and content by: Irman of Com... on the growth of the poetlarval stages of Gambusia affinis, This was accomplished by controlling all environmental factors other than salinity, l. e. , temperature, food, light, pH and fish per unit volume of water. CHAPTER II MATERIALS AND METHODS...

  6. Sampling Irrigated Soils for Salinity Appraisal. 

    E-print Network

    Miyamoto, S.

    1988-01-01

    by Equation [3] if the variability is totally unknown. The deviate range should be determined based on the sensitivity of a given crop to salinity, such as given by Maas and Hoffman (1977). Usually 15 percent at the surface and 20 percent at sub surface... as the salt index of the area, providing that each sample represents an equal share of the sampled area. This value can be compared against the crop salt tolerance values cited, for example, by Maas and Hoffman (1977). When waters having conductance...

  7. Salinity changes in the Agulhas leakage area recorded by stable hydrogen isotopes of C37 alkenones during Termination I and II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, S.; van der Meer, M. T. J.; Mets, A.; Zahn, R.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Schouten, S.

    2014-02-01

    At the southern tip of Africa, the Agulhas Current reflects back into the Indian Ocean causing so-called "Agulhas rings" to spin off and release relatively warm and saline water into the South Atlantic Ocean. Previous reconstructions of the dynamics of the Agulhas Current, based on paleo-sea surface temperature and sea surface salinity proxies, inferred that Agulhas leakage from the Indian Ocean to the South Atlantic was reduced during glacial stages as a consequence of shifted wind fields and a northwards migration of the subtropical front. Subsequently, this might have led to a buildup of warm saline water in the southern Indian Ocean. To investigate this latter hypothesis, we reconstructed sea surface salinity changes using alkenone ?D, and paleo-sea surface temperature using TEXH86 and UK'37, from two sediment cores (MD02-2594, MD96-2080) located in the Agulhas leakage area during Termination I and II. Both UK'37 and TEXH86 temperature reconstructions indicate an abrupt warming during the glacial terminations, while a shift to more negative ?Dalkenone values of approximately 14‰ during glacial Termination I and II is also observed. Approximately half of the isotopic shift can be attributed to the change in global ice volume, while the residual isotopic shift is attributed to changes in salinity, suggesting relatively high salinities at the core sites during glacials, with subsequent freshening during glacial terminations. Approximate estimations suggest that ?Dalkenone represents a salinity change of ca. 1.7-1.9 during Termination I and Termination II. These estimations are in good agreement with the proposed changes in salinity derived from previously reported combined planktonic Foraminifera ?18O values and Mg/Ca-based temperature reconstructions. Our results confirm that the ?D of alkenones is a potentially suitable tool to reconstruct salinity changes independent of planktonic Foraminifera ?18O.

  8. Impact of water quality and irrigation management on soil salinization in the Drâa valley of Morocco.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beff, L.; Descamps, C.; Dufey, J.; Bielders, C.

    2009-04-01

    Under the arid climatic conditions of the Drâa valley in southern Morocco, irrigation is essential for crop production. Two sources of water are available to farmers: (1) moderate salinity water from the Oued Drâa (classified as C3-S1 in the USDA irrigation water classification diagram) which is available only a few times per year following discrete releases from the Mansour Eddahbi dam, and (2) high salinity water from wells (C4-S2). Soil salinization is frequently observed, principally on plots irrigated with well water. As Oued water is available in insufficient amounts, strategies must be devised to use well and Oued water judiciously, without inducing severe salinization. The salinization risk under wheat production was evaluated using the HP1 program (Jacques and Šim?nek, 2005) for different combinations of the two main water sources, different irrigation frequencies and irrigation volumes. The soil was a sandy clay loam (topsoil) to sandy loam (40 cm depth). Soil hydrodynamic properties were derived from in situ measurements and lab measurements on undisturbed soil samples. The HP1 model was parameterized for wheat growth and 12 scenarios were run for 10 year periods using local climatic data. Water quality was measured or estimated on the basis of water samples in wells and various Oueds, and the soil chemical properties were determined. Depending on the scenario, soil salinity in the mean root zone increased from less than 1 meq/100g of soil to more than 5 meq/100g of soil over a ten year period. Salt accumulation was more pronounced at 45 cm soil depth, which is half of the maximum rooting depth, and when well water was preferentially used. Maximum crop yield (water transpired / potential water transpired) was achieved for five scenarios but this implied the use of well water to satisfy the crop water requirements. The usual Drâa Valley irrigation scenario, with five, 84 mm dam water applications per year, lead to a 25% yield loss. Adding the amount of well water needed to satisfy the crop water requirements as well as the leaching requirement had the lowest impact on soil salinization but resulted in a very low water use efficiency of 0.2 (water transpired / water added). This demonstrates the importance of using larger amounts of water than plant water requirements in this region in order to leach out salt of the root zone. However, in arid region, water is often limited and thus farmers can not afford to waste it. In that case, it is necessary to find a compromise between salinization, sodification and saving water. References: Jacques D., Šim?nek J. (2005). User Manual of the Multicomponent Variably-Saturated Flow and Transport Model HP1. Waste and Disposal Department, Mol, Belgium. USDA, United States Department of Agriculture (1969). Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils. United States Salinity Laboratory Staff, Agriculture Handbook No. 60, 160p.

  9. Nickel determination in saline matrices by ICP-AES after sorption on Amberlite XAD-2 loaded with PAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sérgio L. C. Ferreira; Cristiane F. de Brito; Alailson F. Dantas; Neyla M. Lopo de Araújo; A. C. Spinola Costa

    1999-01-01

    In the present paper, a solid phase extraction system for separation and preconcentration of nickel (ng g?1) in saline matrices is proposed. It is based on the adsorption of nickel(II) ions onto an Amberlite XAD-2 resin loaded with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) reagent. Parameters such as the pH effect on the nickel extraction, the effect of flow rate and sample volume on

  10. Rheology of Cystic Fibrosis Sputum after in vitro Treatment with Hypertonic Saline Alone and in Combination with Recombinant Human Deoxyribonuclease I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MALCOLM KING; BONNIE DASGUPTA; ROBERT P. TOMKIEWICZ; NEIL E. BROWN

    Treatment with recombinant human deoxyribonuclease I (rhDNase) is currently used as therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Hypertonic saline (HS) acts as an expectorant promoting mucus se- cretion and augmenting the volume of sputum. We evaluated the individual and combined effects of HS and rhDNase in vitro on the viscoelasticity of CF sputum. Sputum samples were collected from nine

  11. Responses of freshwater biota to rising salinity levels and implications for saline water management: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberley R. JamesA; Tom RyanB

    All of the plants and animals that make up freshwater aquatic communities are affected by salinity. Many taxa possess morphological, physiological and life-history characteristics that provide some capacity for tolerance, acclimatisation or avoidance. These characteristics impart a level of resilience to freshwater communities. To maintain biodiversity in aquatic systems it is important to manage the rate, timing, pattern, frequency and

  12. Toward an Optimal SMOS Ocean Salinity Inversion Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolina Gabarro; Marcos Portabella; Marco Talone

    2009-01-01

    As part of the preparation for the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission, empirical sea-surface emissivity (forward) models have been used to retrieve sea-surface salinity from L-band brightness-temperature (T B) measurements. However, the salinity inversion is not straightforward, and substantial effort is required to define the most appropriate cost function. Various Bayesian-based configurations of the

  13. The role of mean ocean salinity in climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. Williams; Eric Guilyardi; Gurvan Madec; Silvio Gualdi; E. Scoccimarro

    2009-01-01

    We describe numerical simulations designed to help elucidate the role of ocean salinity in climate. Using a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, we study a 100-year sensitivity experiment in which the global-mean salinity is approximately doubled from its present observed value, by adding 35 psu everywhere. The salinity increase produces a rapid global-mean sea-surface warming of 0.8oC within a few

  14. The role of mean ocean salinity in climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. Williams; Eric Guilyardi; Gurvan Madec; Silvio Gualdi; Enrico Scoccimarro

    2010-01-01

    We describe numerical simulations designed to elucidate the role of mean ocean salinity in climate. Using a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, we study a 100-year sensitivity experiment in which the global-mean salinity is approximately doubled from its present observed value, by adding 35psu everywhere in the ocean. The salinity increase produces a rapid global-mean sea-surface warming of 0.8°C within

  15. Indian Ocean sea surface salinity variations in a coupled model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. N. Vinayachandran; Ravi S. Nanjundiah

    2009-01-01

    The variability of the sea surface salinity (SSS) in the Indian Ocean is studied using a 100-year control simulation of the\\u000a Community Climate System Model (CCSM 2.0). The monsoon-driven seasonal SSS pattern in the Indian Ocean, marked by low salinity\\u000a in the east and high salinity in the west, is captured by the model. The model overestimates runoff into the

  16. Antioxidative responses of Calendula officinalis under salinity conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nader Chaparzadeh; Maria Lucia D'Amico; Ramazan-Ali Khavari-Nejad; Riccardo Izzo; Flavia Navari-Izzo

    2004-01-01

    To gain a better insight into long-term salt-induced oxidative stress, some physiological parameters in marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) under 0, 50 and 100 mM NaCl were investigated. Salinity affected most of the considered parameters. High salinity caused reduction in growth parameters, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Under high salinity stress, a decrease in total glutathione and an increase in total ascorbate

  17. Soil salinity decreases global soil organic carbon stocks.

    PubMed

    Setia, Raj; Gottschalk, Pia; Smith, Pete; Marschner, Petra; Baldock, Jeff; Setia, Deepika; Smith, Jo

    2013-11-01

    Saline soils cover 3.1% (397 million hectare) of the total land area of the world. The stock of soil organic carbon (SOC) reflects the balance between carbon (C) inputs from plants, and losses through decomposition, leaching and erosion. Soil salinity decreases plant productivity and hence C inputs to the soil, but also microbial activity and therefore SOC decomposition rates. Using a modified Rothamsted Carbon model (RothC) with a newly introduced salinity decomposition rate modifier and a plant input modifier we estimate that, historically, world soils that are currently saline have lost an average of 3.47 tSOC ha(-1) since they became saline. With the extent of saline soils predicted to increase in the future, our modelling suggests that world soils may lose 6.8 Pg SOC due to salinity by the year 2100. Our findings suggest that current models overestimate future global SOC stocks and underestimate net CO2 emissions from the soil-plant system by not taking salinity effects into account. From the perspective of enhancing soil C stocks, however, given the lower SOC decomposition rate in saline soils, salt tolerant plants could be used to sequester C in salt-affected areas. PMID:22959898

  18. Low-salinity water off West Luzon Island in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yunwei; Wang, Guihua; Wang, Chunzai; Su, Jilan

    2015-04-01

    Low-salinity water with two cores is found off West Luzon Island in the South China Sea (SCS) during summer. A series of salinity observations and model results show that the low-salinity water begins to appear in June, reaches its lowest salinity in September, and disappears after October. Rainfall associated with the summer monsoon impinging on the Philippine mountain ranges plays an important role in the formation of the low-salinity water, while upward Ekman pumping of high-salinity subsurface water caused by the strong winter monsoon is important for its disappearance. Variation in mixed layer depth is responsible for the formation of the two cores of the low-salinity water, while advection also contributes. The study further demonstrates that the low-salinity water has considerable interannual variability associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO): during the summer of the decaying year of an El Niño, an anticyclonic wind anomaly occurs in the SCS. The anticyclonic wind anomaly is associated with a northeasterly anomaly south of 18°N, reducing precipitation and causing salting of the low-salinity water off West Luzon Island. The situation is reversed during the summer of the decaying year of a La Niña.

  19. Neurohypophyseal response to fluid resuscitation with hypertonic saline during septic shock in rats.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Michael Brian; Vieira, Alexandre Antonio; Elias, Lucila L K; Rodrigues, José Antunes; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2013-02-01

    Septic shock is a serious condition with a consequent drop in blood pressure and inadequate tissue perfusion. Small-volume resuscitation with hypertonic saline (HS) has been proposed to restore physiological haemodynamics during haemorrhagic and endotoxic shock. In the present study, we sought to determine the effects produced by an HS infusion in rats subjected to caecal ligation and perforation (CLP). Male Wistar rats were randomly grouped and submitted to either CLP or sham surgery. Either HS (7.5% NaCl, 4 ml kg(-1) i.v.) or isotonic saline (IS; 0.9% NaCl, 4 ml kg(-1) i.v.) was administered 6 h after CLP. Recordings of mean arterial pressure and heart rate were made during this protocol. Moreover, measurements of electrolyte, vasopressin and oxytocin secretion were analysed after either the HS or the IS treatment. Six hours after CLP, we observed a characteristic decrease in mean arterial pressure that occurs after CLP. The HS infusion in these rats produced a transient elevation of the plasma sodium concentration and osmolality and increased plasma vasopressin and oxytocin levels. Moreover, the HS infusion could restore the mean arterial pressure after CLP, which was completely blunted by the previous injection of the vasopressin but not the oxytocin antagonist. The present study demonstrated that rats subjected to CLP and an infusion of hypertonic saline respond with secretion of neurohypophyseal hormones and a transient increase in blood pressure mediated by the V(1) receptor. PMID:22903979

  20. Seasonal variability of subsurface high salinity water in the northern South China Sea and its relationship with the northwestern Pacific currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, A.; Du, Y.; Zhuang, W.; Qi, Y.

    2014-10-01

    The North Pacific Tropical Water (NPTW), characterized by the subsurface high salinity (> 34.68 PSU), is observed in the South China Sea (SCS) and often used as an indicator of the water intrusion from the northwestern Pacific into the SCS. Based on the assimilation product from a global high-resolution Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), this study investigates the seasonal variability of subsurface high salinity water (SHSW) in the northern SCS and the influence from the northwestern Pacific. Results show that there exists obvious seasonal variability in the SHSW at about 100-200 m depth. It extends as far west as 111° E in the northern SCS, reaching its volume maximum (minimum) in January (May). Further analysis shows that the seasonal change of the high salinity water is strongly affected by the seasonal variability of large-scale circulations in the low-latitude northwestern Pacific. The changes of high salinity water volume are highly correlated with the shift of the North Equatorial Current (NEC) bifurcation latitude (NECBL), which reaches the northernmost in December and the southernmost in May. Due to the large-scale wind changes in the Pacific, the Luzon Strait transport weakens (strengthens) when the NECBL shifts to the south (north) during summer (winter), which results in the reduced (enhanced) SHSW intrusion from the northwestern Pacific into the northern SCS. The velocity and salinity distribution in the Luzon Strait show that the intrusion of the SHSW mainly occurs at around 20-21.3° N.

  1. Tolerance of combined salinity and O2 deficiency in Hordeum marinum accessions from the grain-belt of Western Australia

    E-print Network

    Malik1,2,3, AI; English1,2, JP; Shepherd1,4, KA; Islam2,5, AKMR; Colmer1,2, TD

    2009-01-01

    Armstrong, 1979). Salinity reduces plant growth by osmoticbetween waterlogging and salinity in higher plants: causes,plants can be reduced by waterlogging (Wiengweera and Greenway, 2004) or salinity (

  2. Hurricane-induced failure of low salinity wetlands.

    PubMed

    Howes, Nick C; FitzGerald, Duncan M; Hughes, Zoe J; Georgiou, Ioannis Y; Kulp, Mark A; Miner, Michael D; Smith, Jane M; Barras, John A

    2010-08-10

    During the 2005 hurricane season, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527 km(2) of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained robust and largely unchanged. Here we highlight geotechnical differences between the soil profiles of high and low salinity regimes, which are controlled by vegetation and result in differential erosion. In low salinity wetlands, a weak zone (shear strength 500-1450 Pa) was observed approximately 30 cm below the marsh surface, coinciding with the base of rooting. High salinity wetlands had no such zone (shear strengths > 4500 Pa) and contained deeper rooting. Storm waves during Hurricane Katrina produced shear stresses between 425-3600 Pa, sufficient to cause widespread erosion of the low salinity wetlands. Vegetation in low salinity marshes is subject to shallower rooting and is susceptible to erosion during large magnitude storms; these conditions may be exacerbated by low inorganic sediment content and high nutrient inputs. The dramatic difference in resiliency of fresh versus more saline marshes suggests that the introduction of freshwater to marshes as part of restoration efforts may therefore weaken existing wetlands rendering them vulnerable to hurricanes. PMID:20660777

  3. Germination responses of Salicornia rubra to temperature and salinity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Ajmal Khan; Bilquees Gul; Darrell J Weber

    2000-01-01

    Salicornia rubra Nels. is one of the most salt tolerant species in the western half of the United States and Canada. Salicornia rubra seeds were collected from Goshen, Utah. Seeds were germinated at five temperature regimes and six salinities to determine optimal conditions for germination and recovery from saline conditions. A temperature regime of 25°C night and 35°C day yielded

  4. Inadvertent retrobulbar administration of hypertonic saline prior to cataract extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew G Lee; William Lipsky; James N Bates; Frank Grady

    2002-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman with retinitis pigmentosa was scheduled for removal of posterior subcapsular cataracts and experienced inadvertent retrobulbar administration of hypertonic saline. The patient developed retrobulbar pain and ophthalmoplegia that slowly improved over time. Hypertonic saline may cause ophthalmoplegia and pain if inadvertently given as a retrobulbar injection.

  5. Salinity tolerance of diapausing eggs of freshwater zooplankton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SARAH A. B AILEY; C. D UGGAN; OLIN D. A. V AN O VERDIJK; T HOMAS H. J OHENGEN

    2004-01-01

    SUMMARY 1. Many freshwater zooplankton produce diapausing eggs capable of withstanding periods of adverse environmental conditions, such as anoxia, drought and extreme temperature. These eggs may also allow oligostenohaline species to survive increased salinity during periods of tidal flux or evaporation, and here we test the ability of diapause eggs to withstand such conditions. 2. Salinity tolerance may also enable

  6. Coumarin pretreatment alleviates salinity stress in wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Ahmed Mahmoud; Madany, M M Y

    2015-03-01

    The potentiality of COU to improve plant tolerance to salinity was investigated. Wheat grains were primed with COU (50 ppm) and then grown under different levels of NaCl (50, 100, 150 mM) for two weeks. COU pretreatment improved the growth of wheat seedling under salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings, due to the accumulation of osmolytes such as soluble sugars and proline. Moreover, COU treatment significantly improved K(+)/Na(+) ratio in the shoots of both salt stressed and un-stressed seedlings. However, in the roots, this ratio increased only under non-salinity. In consistent with phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), phenolics and flavonoids were accumulated in COU-pretreated seedlings under the higher doses of salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings. COU primed seedlings showed higher content of the coumarin derivative, scopoletin, and salicylic, chlorogenic, syringic, vanillic, gallic and ferulic acids, under both salinity and non-salinity conditions. Salinity stress significantly improved the activity of peroxidase (POD) in COU-pretreated seedlings. However, the effect of COU on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was only obtained at the highest dose of NaCl (150 mM). The present results suggest that COU pretreatment could alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on the growth of wheat seedlings through enhancing, at least partly, the osmoregulation process and antioxidant defense system. PMID:25634803

  7. Growth response of four turfgrass species to salinity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. F. Alshammary; Y. L. Qian; S. J. Wallner

    2004-01-01

    The need for salinity tolerant turfgrasses is increasing because of the increased use of effluent or other low quality waters for turfgrass irrigation. Greenhouse container and hydroponic experiments were conducted to determine the relative salinity tolerance and growth responses of ‘Challenger’ Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) (KBG), ‘Arid’ tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) (TF), ‘Fults’ alkaligrass (Puccinellia distans (L.) Parl.)

  8. EVALUATION OF IRRIGATION METHODS FOR SALINITY CONTROL IN GRAND VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Irrigation return flows in the Upper Colorado River Basin carry large salt loads as a result of contact with the saline soils and the marine derived geologic substratum. The Grand Valley of western Colorado is a major contributor to the salinity problems of the basin and is, ther...

  9. Analysis of Production-Water-Salinity of Index Crops in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifan, H.; Ghahreman, B.

    2009-04-01

    One method to investigate the advantages of irrigation in cultivation is to evaluate the amount of increase in productions as a result of irrigation. Such relations which usually characterized by mathematics formulas or curves are called production to water function. In the agricultural analysis like pattern optimization and culture accumulation, we need some function like agricultural crops production, water and salinity. The amount of water used and salinity has influence on crops function, so that by increase in both components in various stages of plant growth, crop function decreases. Many researches have been performed on production-water and production-salinity function, therefore less researches on production-water-salinity components. The equation provided by Letey and Dinar (1986) is a sample of these researches. Their model is a quadratics equation from independent variables of water salinity in irrigation (ECi) and dimensionless proportion of the amount of water used to evaporation in class A (AW/EP) in plant growth stage. Therefore, by using this model and parameters like evaporation, rainfall and also quantity and quality water potential in Golestan farmlands, we obtained production-water-salinity components for each product in three different areas across Golestan province (moisture to dry areas). These products include sunflower, cotton, wheat, barely, potato, tomato, corn, sorgom, water melon, soybean and rice. Finally, these equations were compared by results of previous experiments, some results correspond and others were different. Key Word: production-water, production-salinity and production-water-salinity function, Letey and Dinar, Golestan.

  10. The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission - An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne Mecklenburg; Yann Kerr; Achim Hahne

    2008-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission is the European Space Agency's (ESA) second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. The scientific objectives of the SMOS mission directly respond to the current lack of global observations of soil moisture and ocean salinity, two key variables used in predictive hydrological, oceanographic and atmospheric models. The paper will give an overview on the

  11. The temperature-salinity relationship of the mixed layer

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    The temperature-salinity relationship of the mixed layer R. Ferrari Woods Hole Oceanographic of Oceanography, La Jolla, California - USA Abstract. The surface mixed layer of the ocean is often characterized by density compensation between the horizontal temperature and salinity gradients. In this contribution we

  12. Advances in measuring ocean salinity with an optical sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Le Menn; J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye; P. Grosso; L. Delauney; C. Podeur; P. Brault; O. Guillerme

    2011-01-01

    Absolute salinity measurement of seawater has become a key issue in thermodynamic models of the oceans. One of the most direct ways is to measure the seawater refractive index which is related to density and can therefore be related to the absolute salinity. Recent advances in high resolution position sensitive devices enable us to take advantage of small beam deviation

  13. SMOS ocean salinity performance and TB bias correction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Meirold-Mautner; C. Mugerin; J.-L. Vergely; P. Spurgeon; F. Rouffi; N. Meskini

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the SMOS ocean salinity mission, a validation study has been carried out to determine the performance at Level 1 (brightness temperatures, TB) and Level 2 (sea surface salinity, SSS) products that can be expected. For this purpose a processing chain has been developed which includes the instrument simulator SEPS-GS to generate Level 0 products as well

  14. Alternate interpretation of the Messinian salinity crisis: Controversy resolved?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georges Clauzon; Jean-Pierre Suc; François Gautier; André Berger; Marie-France Loutre

    1996-01-01

    A high-resolution chronology of the Mediterranean Messinian salinity crisis is proposed. Two types of evaporite deposition may be distinguished: those in marginal areas vs. those in basinal ones. Their diachroneity is deduced from the stratigraphic relationships linking these evaporites to a major Messinian erosional surface. A two-step model is proposed for the evolution of the salinity crisis through time. During

  15. Salinity on survival and early development of biofuel feedstock crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant survival, growth and development can be influenced by irrigation water salinity level. Affects of salinity on early development of biofuel feedstock crops need to be clarified. The biofuel feedstock crops canola (Brassica napus L.), sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], and sunflower (Helia...

  16. IRRIGATING FIELD CROPS IN THE PRESENCE OF SALINE GROUND WATER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigating crops in the presence of saline ground water presents unique opportunities and challenges. As the world demand for water increases, it is incumbent on agriculture to maximize the use of water of all qualities. Traditional irrigation management in saline environments is designed to provide...

  17. Methanotrophic communities in Australian woodland soils of varying salinity.

    PubMed

    Bissett, Andrew; Abell, Guy C J; Bodrossy, Levente; Richardson, Alan E; Thrall, Peter H

    2012-06-01

    Despite their large areas and potential importance as methane sinks, the role of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in native woodland soils is poorly understood. These environments are increasingly being altered by anthropogenic disturbances, which potentially alter ecosystem service provision. Dryland salinity is one such disturbance and is becoming increasingly prevalent in Australian soils. We used microarrays and analysis of soil physicochemical variables to investigate the methane-oxidizing communities of several Australian natural woodland soils affected to varying degrees by dryland salinity. Soils varied in terms of salinity, gravitational water content, NO(3)-N, SO(4)-S and Mg, all of which explained to a significant degree MOB community composition. Analysis of the relative abundance and diversity of the MOB communities also revealed significant differences between soils of different salinities. Type II and type Ib methanotrophs dominated the soils and differences in methanotroph communities existed between salinity groups. The low salinity soils possessed less diverse MOB communities, including most conspicuously, the low numbers or absence of type II Methylocystis phylotypes. The differences in MOB communities suggest niche separation of MOB across varying salinities, as has been observed in the closely related ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and that anthropogenic disturbance, such as dryland salinity, has the potential to alter MOB community and therefore the methane uptake rates in soils in which disturbance occurs. PMID:22375901

  18. Sedimentology and geochemistry of saline lakes of the Great Plains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. Last; T. H. Schweyen

    1983-01-01

    Southern Saskatchewan and portions of adjacent Alberta, North Dakota and Montana are occupied by hundreds of saline and hypersaline lakes ranging in size from small prairie potholes (less than 1 km2) to relatively large bodies of water (greater than 300 km2). From a sedimentological perspective, distinction must be made between two basic types of saline lakes: playas and perennial lakes.

  19. The effects of salinity and sodicity on soil carbon turnover

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa N. L. Wong; Richard S. B. Greene; Brian Murphy; Ram Dalal

    2004-01-01

    Increasing salinity and sodicity affects soil carbon dynamics, with soil carbon levels dependent on a balance between inputs and losses. Since inputs are largely related to biomass production, with soil conditions affecting microbial activity, increasing salinity and sodicity levels can potentially alter carbon (C) stocks and fluxes in the landscape. These processes can lead to a decline in vegetation health

  20. Phosphorus influence on the response of pasture plants to salinity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kanjanarat Cho-Ruk

    2003-01-01

    Soil salinity is a growing global problem, as the presence of salts in soils is known to impact on the growth of various plants. One feasible means suggested for limiting the impacts of salinity is the use of nutrient fertilisers. This project was initiated to access whether the use of phosphate fertiliser would benefit the growth of pasture plant species.

  1. GROWTH OF THREE FORAGE SPECIES IN SALINE CONDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential forage crops were evaluated under simulated saline conditions found in southeast Colorado. Due to elevated salinity levels in both the soils and in the irrigation waters of this region identifying salt tolerant crops for sustained productivity is important. The objective of the greenhous...

  2. PROPERTIES OF MEDIUM-DENSITY PARTICLEBOARD FROM SALINE ATHEL WOOD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Athel tree, Tamarix aphylla (L), can potentially be used as a biomass crop to help manage saline subsurface drainage water in arid land-irrigated agriculture. In this study, Athel wood was used to manufacture medium-density particleboard with an aim of developing new applications for the saline...

  3. Surface temperature and salinity variations between Tasmania and Antarctica, 19931999

    E-print Network

    the temperature data. The Levitus climatological and Reynolds satellite monthly mean sea surface temperature dataSurface temperature and salinity variations between Tasmania and Antarctica, 1993­1999 Alexis 2002. [1] Continuous surface temperature and salinity measurements have been collected onboard a supply

  4. Effects of salinity on the growth of Phragmites australis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jørgen Lissner; Hans-Henrik Schierup

    1997-01-01

    The field salinity tolerance of Phragmites australis was evaluated by investigating 27 natural reed habitats along the eastern and western coasts of Jutland, Denmark. Die-back took place in the lower fringe of stands, before the onset of flowering, at sites where soil water salinities were higher than 15‰ within the rooting depth. In greenhouse experiments, juvenile plants produced from seeds

  5. Purification of high-salinity wastewater by activated sludge process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bozo Dalmacija; Elvira Karlovic; Zagorka Tamas; Dusan Miskovic

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the present work was the enhancement of the efficiency of microbiological processes in purification of high-salinity oil-field brine by adding the powdered activated carbon (PAC) to the bioreactor and by diluting the brine with surface water. The investigation was carried out in a laboratory setup. Results show that the nature of pollutants and the high salinity (about

  6. Reagents and Solutions Albumin-Dextrose-Saline (ADS)

    E-print Network

    Reagents and Solutions Albumin-Dextrose-Saline (ADS) 950ml dH20 8.1g 50 g Bovine Serum Albumin alcohol. Store for 2 weeks at room temperature. CTAB Solution (Cetrimide Saline Solution) Dissolve 4.1g to precipitate insoluble material. Sterilize clarified solution by filtration through a 0.22 micron pore membrane

  7. Miscible displacement of salinity fronts: Implications for colloid mobilization

    E-print Network

    Flury, Markus

    Miscible displacement of salinity fronts: Implications for colloid mobilization Markus Flury, James on the hydrodynamic stability of the salinity displacement front. A series of experiments was conducted in packed columns where a solution of 1000 mM NaCl was displaced by 1 mM NaNO3 in a saturated porous medium

  8. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF SPRING DURUM WHEAT GENOTYPES TO SALINITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kambiz Azizpour; M. R. Shakiba; N. A. Khosh Kholg Sima; H. Alyari; M. Mogaddam; E. Esfandiari; M. Pessarakli

    2010-01-01

    Soil salinity is a serious threat in many parts of Iran, which negatively affects plant production. In order to investigate response of durum wheat to salinity, two genotypes, ‘Turkey 506’ (salt tolerant) and ‘Egypt 557’ (salt sensitive), were grown in hydroponic conditions, exposed to various salt levels (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mmol NaCl) in a split split plot

  9. Salinity and spectral reflectance of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szilagyi, A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    The basic spectral response related to the salt content of soils in the visible and reflective IR wavelengths is analyzed in order to explore remote sensing applications for monitoring processes of the earth system. The bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) was determined at 10 nm of increments over the 520-2320-nm spectral range. The effect of salts on reflectance was analyzed on the basis of 162 spectral measurements. MSS and TM bands were simulated within the measured spectral region. A strong relationship was found in variations of reflectance and soil characteristics pertaining to salinization and desalinization. Although the individual MSS bands had high R-squared values and 75-79 percent of soil/treatment combinations were separable, there was a large number of soil/treatment combinations not distinguished by any of the four highly correlated MSS bands under consideration.

  10. Recharge and salination processes in the carbonate aquifers in Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issar, A. S.

    1993-06-01

    Limestone and dolostone aquifers play a major role in the water supply system of Israel. In many cases, there are brackish to saline springs at their outlets. The source of the saline water and the mechanism of salinization differ from place to place. In some cases, it is due to mixing with seawater (Mediterranean or Dead Sea) at the fresh-saline water interface, while in other cases deepseated brines emerge along regional faults. The general policy for reclaiming the fresh component of the water before mixing with the saline component is to try to catch the fresh water as far as possible upstream from the outlet. In most cases, this is the area where the mixing takes place. The main case histories in Israel are discussed in this paper.

  11. The salinity effect in a mixed layer ocean model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    A model of the thermally mixed layer in the upper ocean as developed by Kraus and Turner and extended by Denman is further extended to investigate the effects of salinity. In the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean rapid increases in salinity occur at the bottom of a uniformly mixed surface layer. The most significant effects produced by the inclusion of salinity are the reduction of the deepening rate and the corresponding change in the heating characteristics of the mixed layer. If the net surface heating is positive, but small, salinity effects must be included to determine whether the mixed layer temperature will increase or decrease. Precipitation over tropical oceans leads to the development of a shallow stable layer accompanied by a decrease in the temperature and salinity at the sea surface.

  12. Salinity effects on the microwave emission of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Oneill, Peggy E.

    1987-01-01

    Controlled plot experiments were conducted to collect L and C band passive microwave data concurrent with ground observations of salinity and soil moisture. Two dielectric mixing models were used with an emission model to predict the emissivity from a bare smooth uniform profile. The models produce nearly identical results when near zero salinity is involved and reproduce the observed data at L band extremely well. Discrepancies at C band are attributed to sampling depth problems. Comparisons of predicted emissivities at various salinities with observed values indicate that the dynamic range of the emissivities can be explained using either of the dielectric mixing models. Evaluation of the entire data set, which included four salinity levels, indicates that for general application the effects of soil salinity can be ignored in interpreting microwave data for estimating soil moisture under most agricultural conditions.

  13. NASA Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space Education Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-01-01

    The educational resources and activities on this Web site teach fundamental concepts about salinity variations and the role these changes play in controlling global ocean circulation and Earth’s climate. The modules augment existing El Nino/La Nina materials with salinity-based content, provide on-line interactive tools demonstrating environmental change through data sets and in situ time-series analysis, and engage students in activities designed to demonstrate salt-water interactions. Launched in June 2011, NASA’s Aquarius will provide the first global map of sea surface salinity with unprecedented accuracy, resolution and coverage. The importance of salinity measurements in understanding coastal ocean processes is critical as salinity is a key factor in understanding and predicting biological and physical processes and their interactions with the food web, climate, and global water cycle.

  14. Salinity tolerance of Anopheles farauti Laveran sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Bell, D; Bryan, J; Cameron, A; Foley, D; Pholsyna, K

    1999-01-01

    To assess the salt tolerance of the malaria vector Anopheles farauti sensu stricto, larvae were collected from a freshwater environment on the outskirts of Honiara, Solomon Islands and placed in trays containing water with salinity varying from freshwater to seawater. Dead larvae and pupae and emerged adults were recorded and preserved. Most adults and nearly half of the larvae and pupae were then subjected to DNA analysis for species identification. No adult An. farauti emerged after prolonged immersion of larvae in undiluted seawater (3.5% salinity), although temporary immersion before pupation was compatible with survival. Salinities of up to 2.2% to 2.5% were compatible with good survival and adult emergence, at least from fourth instars. The results suggest that higher salinities may slow larval development and show that mortality at a given salinity is not uniform. PMID:11061001

  15. Effects of salinity on the microwave emission of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Oneill, P. E.

    1986-01-01

    Controlled plot experiments were conducted to collect L and C band passive microwave data concurrent with ground observations of salinity and soil moisture. Two dielectric mixing models were used with an emission model to predict the emissivity from a bare smooth uniform profile. The models produce nearly identical results when near zero salinity is involved and reproduce the observed data at L band extremely well. Discrepancies at C band are attributed to sampling depth problems. Comparisons of predicted emissivities at various salinities with observed values indicate that the dynamic range of the emissivities can be explained using either of the dielectric mixing models. Evaluation of the entire data set, which included four salinity levels, indicates that for general application the effects of soil salinity can be ignored in interpreting microwave data for estimating soil moisture under most agricultural conditions.

  16. Comparison analysis between NODC in situ analyzed sea surface salinity and Aquarius sea surface salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagan, J. R.; Boyer, T.; Antonov, J. I.

    2012-12-01

    The Aquarius satellite mission provides globally mapped level-3 monthly sea surface salinity (SSS) fields from August 2011 to present on a one-degree grid. The US National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) has globally analyzed monthly SSS fields from January 2009 to present on a one-degree grid. The NODC fields were created through an objective analysis scheme utilizing calculated salinity climatologies and quality controlled in situ data. The majority of in situ SSS data was from Argo floats; however, Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD), bottle, tropical moored buoy arrays, and glider data were also included. Because surface ("skin") salinity is a difficult variable to measure, all in situ profiles with a salinity observation less than 5.25m from the surface were considered to be surface observations. With two different products offering a global view of SSS at monthly time scales, a comparison analysis was conducted to look at global and regional differences as well as differences in the annual cycle. To partially eliminate systematic biases in both the Aquarius SSS and NODC SSS fields, we calculated monthly SSS anomaly fields. These fields were calculated by subtracting off the respective product's 8/2011-8/2012 SSS average from each month. From this information we investigated global and regional differences to see if they arise from a lack of in situ data in the area, inability of the objective analysis scheme to accurately depict regions of high SSS variability (e.g., Gulf Stream, Amazon River outflow), or issues with the satellite data. Furthermore, a Fourier decomposition was applied to the first year of Aquarius SSS monthly fields (08/2011 - 08/2012) and to the NODC SSS monthly fields for the same time period. The first two harmonics from the Fourier decomposition were compared to reveal any similarities and differences in the annual cycle between Aquarius SSS and NODC SSS.

  17. Seed germination and salinity tolerance in plant species growing on saline wastelands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Mahmood; K. A. Malik; M. A. K. Lodhi; K. H. Sheikh

    1996-01-01

    Seven plant species including three chenopods:Suaeda fruticosa, Kochia indica, Atriplex crassifolia and four grasses:Sporobolus arabicus, Cynodon dactylon, Polypogon monspeliensis, Desmostachya bipinnata, varied greatly in their seed germination and growth responses to soil moisture or salinity. The germination percentage of\\u000a each species was significantly lower at soil moisture level of 25 % of water holding capacity than at the levels ranging

  18. STOCHASTIC NONPARAMETRIC FRAMEWORK FOR BASIN WIDE STREAMFLOW AND SALINITY MODELING: APPLICATION FOR THE

    E-print Network

    STOCHASTIC NONPARAMETRIC FRAMEWORK FOR BASIN WIDE STREAMFLOW AND SALINITY MODELING: APPLICATION thesis entitled: Stochastic Nonparametric Framework for Basin Wide Streamflow and Salinity Modeling Nonparametric Framework for Basin Wide Streamflow and Salinity Modeling: Application for the Colorado River

  19. Effects of salinity on an intertidal hostparasite system: Is the parasite more sensitive than its host?

    E-print Network

    Poulin, Robert

    Effects of salinity on an intertidal host­parasite system: Is the parasite more sensitive than its Host­parasite interaction Parasitism Salinity Transmission Trematoda Intertidal habitats are characterised by highly fluctuating environmental conditions including varying salinity regimes. Changes

  20. Wetland Plant Guide for Assessing Habitat Impacts of Real-Time Salinity Management

    E-print Network

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Feldmann, Sara A.

    2004-01-01

    salinity and other conditions unfavorable to propagation of the most desirable moist soil plants.Plant Guide for Assessing Habitat Impacts of Real-Time SalinityPlant Herbarium Arizona State University Ammannia coccinea (Redstems) Stems Native, annual Low salinity

  1. Salinity’s influence on boron toxicity in broccoli: II. Impacts on boron uptake, uptake mechanisms and tissue ion relations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited research has been conducted on the interactive effects of salinity and boron stresses on plants despite their common occurrence in natural systems. The purpose of this research was to determine and quantify the interactive effects of salinity, salt composition and boron on broccoli (Brassica...

  2. Changes in the global hydrological-cycle inferred from ocean salinity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kieran P. Helm; Nathaniel L. Bindoff; John A. Church

    2010-01-01

    Using global datasets of in situ observations, we calculate salinity changes on ocean-density surfaces between 1970 and 2005. This reveals a global pattern of increased salinities near the upper-ocean salinity-maximum layer (average depth of ?100 m) and decreased salinities near the intermediate salinity minimum (average depth of ?700 m). The salinity changes imply a 3 ± 2% decrease in precipitation-minus

  3. Salinity routing in reservoir system modeling

    E-print Network

    Ha, Mi Ae

    2007-04-25

    -1], and ca = the concentration of the adjacent volume [ML-3]. Diffusion is the movement of mass due to random water motion or mixing. For example, sloshing motion is diffusive transport which is caused by seiches and eddys in lakes. After a long...

  4. Mechanisms of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Reduction for Saline (NaCl) and Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3)

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, W. Patrick; Walker, Phillip J.

    2014-01-01

    Nephropathy following contrast media (CM) exposure is reduced by administration before, during, and after the contrast procedure of either isotonic sodium chloride solution (Saline) or isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution (IsoBicarb). The reasons for this reduction are not well established for either sodium salt; probable mechanisms are discussed in this paper. For Saline, the mechanism for the decrease in CIN is likely related primarily to the increased tubular flow rates produced by volume expansion and therefore a decreased concentration of the filtered CM during transit through the kidney tubules. Furthermore, increased tubular flow rates produce a slight increase in tubular pH resulting from a fixed acid excretion in an increased tubular volume. The mechanism for the decreased CIN associated with sodium bicarbonate includes the same mechanisms listed for Saline in addition to a renal pH effect. Increased filtered bicarbonate anion raises both tubular pH and tubular bicarbonate anion levels toward blood physiologic levels, thus providing increased buffer for reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed in the tubules as a result of exposure to CM in renal tubular fluid. PMID:24826379

  5. Impedance measurements of the complex dielectric permittivity of sea ice at 50 MHz: pore microstructure and potential for salinity monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, Daniel; Dubuis, Guy; Eicken, Hajo

    We report impedance measurements of the complex dielectric permittivity ? = ?? - j?? of sea ice and laboratory-grown NaCl single crystals using 50 MHz Stevens Water Monitoring Systems Hydra Probes. Temperature cycling of the single-crystal samples shows hydrohalite precipitation, and hysteresis in ?? and ?? qualitatively consistent with the expected evolution of brine-inclusion microstructure. Measurements parallel and perpendicular to intra-crystalline brine layers show weak (<10%) anisotropy in ?? and a 20-40% difference in ?? due to enhanced d.c. conductivity along the layers. Measurements in landfast, first-year ice near Barrow, Alaska, USA, indicate brine motion in warming ice as the brine volume fraction vb increases above 5%. Plots of vb derived from salinity profiles against ?? and ?? for these and previous measurements display too much variability between datasets for unguided inversion of vb. Contributing to this variability are intrinsic microstructural dependence, uncertainties in vb, and sub-representative sample volumes. A standard model of sea-ice permittivity is inverted to derive the apparent brine-inclusion aspect ratio and bulk d.c. conductivity at a spatial scale complementary to previous measurements. We assess Hydra Probe performance in high-salinity environments and conclude that they are not generally suited for autonomous sea-ice salinity measurements, partly due to the range of relevant brine pocket inclusion length scales.

  6. Tracking evolution of urban biogeochemical cycles: salinization of fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, S.; McDowell, W. H.; Wollheim, W. M.; Duan, S.; Gorman, J. K.; Haq, S.; Hohman, S.; Smith, R. M.; Mayer, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The built environment often changes quickly in response to human activities, thus contributing to an evolution of stream chemistry over time. Depending upon development and management strategies, these changes can result in pulses and/or long-term trends. Here, we explore patterns of evolving salinization of fresh water over time, and we evaluate the potential water quality implications of fresh water salinization. We show that there has been global salinization of freshwater across urbanizing landscapes over a century. We also show that human-accelerated weathering in watersheds and river alkalinization can further influence regional rates of salinization (in addition to anthropogenic sources such as road salts, sewage leaks, etc.). Finally, we investigate how salinization of fresh water can impact stream sediment fluxes of carbon, nutrients, and sulfate in watersheds across a land use gradient at the Baltimore Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. The impacts of salinization on mobilization and uptake of carbon, nutrients, and sulfate in streams warrant further consideration in water quality management strategies. Overall, we propose that salinization can be a "universal tracer" of watershed urbanization globally with major regional consequences for drinking water and evolution of biogeochemical cycles in freshwater ecosystems.

  7. Salinity anomaly as a trigger for ENSO events

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jieshun; Huang, Bohua; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Balmaseda, Magdalena A.; Marx, Lawrence; Kinter III, James L.

    2014-01-01

    According to the classical theories of ENSO, subsurface anomalies in ocean thermal structure are precursors for ENSO events and their initial specification is essential for skillful ENSO forecast. Although ocean salinity in the tropical Pacific (particularly in the western Pacific warm pool) can vary in response to El Niño events, its effect on ENSO evolution and forecasts of ENSO has been less explored. Here we present evidence that, in addition to the passive response, salinity variability may also play an active role in ENSO evolution, and thus important in forecasting El Niño events. By comparing two forecast experiments in which the interannually variability of salinity in the ocean initial states is either included or excluded, the salinity variability is shown to be essential to correctly forecast the 2007/08 La Niña starting from April 2007. With realistic salinity initial states, the tendency to decay of the subsurface cold condition during the spring and early summer 2007 was interrupted by positive salinity anomalies in the upper central Pacific, which working together with the Bjerknes positive feedback, contributed to the development of the La Niña event. Our study suggests that ENSO forecasts will benefit from more accurate salinity observations with large-scale spatial coverage. PMID:25352285

  8. Influence of net freshwater supply on salinity in Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nuttle, W.K.; Fourqurean, J.W.; Cosby, B.J.; Zieman, J.C.; Robblee, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    An annual water budget for Florida Bay, the large, seasonally hypersaline estuary in the Everglades National Park, was constructed using physically based models and long-term (31 years) data on salinity, hydrology, and climate. Effects of seasonal and interannual variations of the net freshwater supply (runoff plus rainfall minus evaporation) on salinity variation within the bay were also examined. Particular attention was paid to the effects of runoff, which are the focus of ambitious plans to restore and conserve the Florida Bay ecosystem. From 1965 to 1995 the annual runoff from the Everglades into the bay was less than one tenth of the annual direct rainfall onto the bay, while estimated annual evaporation slightly exceeded annual rainfall. The average net freshwater supply to the bay over a year was thus approximately zero, and interannual variations in salinity appeared to be affected primarily by interannual fluctuations in rainfall. At the annual scale, runoff apparently had little effect on the bay as a whole during this period. On a seasonal basis, variations in rainfall, evaporation, and runoff were not in phase, and the net freshwater supply to the bay varied between positive and negative values, contributing to a strong seasonal pattern in salinity, especially in regions of the bay relatively isolated from exchanges with the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. Changes in runoff could have a greater effect on salinity in the bay if the seasonal patterns of rainfall and evaporation and the timing of the runoff are considered. One model was also used to simulate spatial and temporal patterns of salinity responses expected to result from changes in net freshwater supply. Simulations in which runoff was increased by a factor of 2 (but with no change in spatial pattern) indicated that increased runoff will lower salinity values in eastern Florida Bay, increase the variability of salinity in the South Region, but have little effect on salinity in the Central and West Regions.

  9. Aquarius and Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Torrusio, S.

    2012-01-01

    Aquarius is an L-band radiometer and scatterometer instrument combination designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The instrument is designed to provide global salinity maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. The science objective is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This data will promote understanding of ocean circulation and its role in the global water cycle and climate.

  10. GLOBE Videos: Hydrology Protocols-Salinity (11:52 min)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    The video is a procedural guide to sampling salinity measurements in water bodies in the field. It provides a step-by-step explanation of field procedures and features students conducting the investigation and asking questions about what changes in salinity could indicate in rivers, lakes, and estuaries. The resource includes a video, transcript, and is supported by the Salinity Protocol in the GLOBE Teacher's Guide. This is one of seven videos on hydrology in the 24-part instructional video series describing scientific protocols used by GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment), a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

  11. Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm: Final Pre-Launch Version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, Frank J.; Le Vine, David M.

    2011-01-01

    This document provides the theoretical basis for the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The inputs to the algorithm are the Aquarius antenna temperature (T(sub A)) measurements along with a number of NCEP operational products and pre-computed tables of space radiation coming from the galaxy and sun. The output is sea-surface salinity and many intermediate variables required for the salinity calculation. This revision of the Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) is intended to be the final pre-launch version.

  12. A new operational paradigm for small-scale ASR in saline aquifers.

    PubMed

    van Ginkel, Marloes; Olsthoorn, Theo N; Bakker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    A new operational paradigm is presented for small-scale aquifer storage and recovery systems (ASR) in saline aquifers. Regular ASR is often not feasible for small-scale storage in saline aquifers because fresh water floats to the top of the aquifer where it is unrecoverable. In the new paradigm, fresh water storage is combined with salt water extraction from below the fresh water cone. The salt water extraction counteracts the buoyancy due to the density difference between fresh water and salt water, thus preventing the fresh water from floating up. The proposed approach is applied to assess the feasibility of ASR for the seasonal storage of fresh water produced by desalination plants in tourist resorts along the Egyptian Red Sea coast. In these situations, the continuous extraction of salt water can be used for desalination purposes. An analytical Dupuit solution is presented for the steady flow of salt water toward a well with a volume of fresh water floating on top of the cone of depression. The required salt water discharge for the storage of a given volume of fresh water can be computed with the analytical solution. Numerical modeling is applied to determine how the stored fresh water can be recovered. Three recovery approaches are examined. Fresh water recovery rates on the order of 70% are achievable when salt water is extracted in high volumes, subsurface impermeable barriers are constructed at a distance from the well, or several fresh water recovery drains are used. The effect of ambient flow and interruptions of salt water pumping on the recovery efficiency are reported. PMID:24102236

  13. [Treatment of hepatic hydatid cysts by percutaneous aspiration and hypertonic saline injection: results of a cooperative work].

    PubMed

    Peláez, V; Kugler, C; del Carpio, M; Correa, D; López, E; Larrieu, E; Guangiroli, M; Molina, J

    1999-01-01

    Percutaneous puncture-aspiration-injection-reaspiration (PAIR) of hydatid liver cysts, was performed in 38 patients 14-80 years old, with a total of 60 liver hydatid cysts. After aspiration under computed tomography guidance, hypertonic saline was injected into the cystic cavities of patients as a scolecidal agent. No major complications were associated with the procedures. In the follow-up period of 18 months, control CT scans of 35 cysts revealed a gradual decrease in cyst size with a mean volume reduction of 66%. Complications included two cases of urticaria, one case of anaphylaxis and one subcapsular hematoma. No mortality occurred. It is concluded that percutaneous aspiration and hypertonic saline injection for liver hydatid cysts appears to be an effective form of treatment and may eventually prove to be an alternative to surgical intervention. PMID:10883492

  14. Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) salinity data validation over Malaysia coastal water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reba, M. N. M.; Rosli, A. Z.; Rahim, N. A.

    2014-02-01

    The study of sea surface salinity (SSS) plays an important role in the marine ecosystem, estimation of global ocean circulation and observation of fisheries, aquaculture, coral reef and sea grass habitats. The new challenge of SSS estimation is to exploit the ocean surface brightness temperature (Tb) observed by the Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) onboard the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite that is specifically designed to provide the best retrieval of ocean salinity and soil moisture using the L band of 1.4 GHz radiometer. Tb observed by radiometer is basically a function of the dielectric constant, sea surface temperature (SST), wind speed (U), incidence angle, polarization and SSS. Though, the SSS estimation is an ill-posed inversion problem as the relationship between the Tb and SSS is non-linear function. Objective of this study is to validate the SMOS SSS estimates with the ground-truth over the Malaysia coastal water. The LM iteratively determines the SSS of SMOS by the reduction of the sum of squared errors between Tb SMOS and Tb simulation (using in-situ) based on the updated geophysical triplet in the direction of the minimum of the cost function. The minimum cost function is compared to the desired threshold at each iteration and this recursive least square process updates the SST, U and SSS until the cost function converged. The designed LM's non-linear inversion algorithm simultaneously estimates SST, U and SSS and thus, map of SSS over Malaysia coastal water is produced from the regression model and accuracy assessment between the SMOS and in-situ retrieved SSS. This study found a good agreement in the validation with R square of 0.9 and the RMSE of 0.4. It is concluded that the non-linear inversion method is effective and practical to extract SMOS SSS, U and SST simultaneously.

  15. SMOS CP34 soil moisture and ocean salinity maps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Gabarro; J. Ballabrera; A. Turiel; J. Martinez; M. Umbert; F. Perez; N. Hoareau; M. Portabella; V. Gonzalez; J. Gourrion; S. Guimbard; M. Piles; A. Camps; M. Vall-llossera

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the soil moisture and ocean salinity maps from the SMOS mission generated operationally by the Spanish SMOS Level 3 and 4 data processing center (CP34) and experimentally by the SMOS Barcelona Expert Center (SMOS-BEC).

  16. Aquarius Observations of Sea Surface Salinity - Duration: 31 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows changes in global sea surface salinity, as measured by NASAâ??s Aquarius instrument aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft, from December 2011 through December 2012. Red repr...

  17. Protein Contribution to Plant Salinity Response and Tolerance Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Kosová, Klára; Prášil, Ilja T.; Vítámvás, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The review is focused on plant proteome response to salinity with respect to physiological aspects of plant salt stress response. The attention is paid to both osmotic and ionic effects of salinity stress on plants with respect to several protein functional groups. Therefore, the role of individual proteins involved in signalling, changes in gene expression, protein biosynthesis and degradation and the resulting changes in protein relative abundance in proteins involved in energy metabolism, redox metabolism, stressand defence-related proteins, osmolyte metabolism, phytohormone, lipid and secondary metabolism, mechanical stress-related proteins as well as protein posttranslational modifications are discussed. Differences between salt-sensitive (glycophytes) and salt-tolerant (halophytes) plants are analysed with respect to differential salinity tolerance. In conclusion, contribution of proteomic studies to understanding plant salinity tolerance is summarised and discussed. PMID:23531537

  18. ConcepTest: Ocean Salinity During an Ice Age

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    One million years ago ice sheets covered much of the Earth's land surface during an ice age. How did this affect the salinity of the oceans? a. Oceans were saltier than today. b. Oceans were less salty than ...

  19. Protocols for Mapping Soil Salinity at Field Scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characterizing the spatial variability of soil salinity is an important spatial property that provides crucial information for crop and irrigation management strategies, particularly for site-specific management purposes. Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) is a quick, reliable measurement ...

  20. Migration and trapping of CO? in saline aquifers

    E-print Network

    MacMinn, Christopher William

    2012-01-01

    Mitigation of climate change requires a reduction in atmospheric carbon dioxide (C0 2) emissions. One promising tool for achieving this is the large-scale injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers. After injection, upward ...

  1. SPURS Overview: Salinity Processes Upper Ocean Regional Study First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    A multi-national study of the surface salinity maximum of the North Atlantic was initiated in 2012. We are seeking answers to basic questions about how the salinity maximum is maintained. The Salinity maximum occurs in a region where evaporation is large and precipitation small, where winds drive convergent surface flow and eddy kinetic energy is low. We are attempting to ascertain the relative roles of lateral and vertical mixing in dissipating the high salinities built up by surface water loss. The field program utilizes a suite of autonomous gliders, floats, drifters and moorings as well as ship operations. Real-time model runs incorporate satellite and in-situ data and provide guidance to the shipboard sampling. Results from the first cruise in September-October 2012 will be presented.

  2. RAPID COMMUNICATION BIOLOGICAL PERCHLORATE REDUCTION IN HIGH-SALINITY SOLUTIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRUCE E. LOGAN; JUN WU; RICHARD F. UNZ

    2001-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4 ? ) has been detected in numerous ground and surface waters, and has recently been added to the drinking water Candidate Contaminant List in the United States. Perchlorate can be removed from drinking water using ion exchange, but this results in the production of highly saline (7-12%) perchlorate-contaminated brines. Perchlorate-degrading microbial enrichments capable of growth in highly saline

  3. Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The United States Salinity Laboratory has made available this Web version (.pdf format) of Agriculture handbook number 60, covering a broad range of topics relating to soils and salinity, including: "Improvement and Management of soils in arid and semiarid regions; Plant Response and Crop Selection; Quality of Irrigation Water; Methods for Soil Characterization; Methods of Plant Culture and Analysis; and Methods of Analysis of Irrigation Waters." Chapters may be downloaded separately, and include a literature cited section and a glossary.

  4. Passive Microwave Measurements of Temperature And Salinity in Coastal Zones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Juergen C. Blume; Bruce M. Kendall

    1982-01-01

    A technique to remotely measure sea-surface temperature and salinity was demonstrated with a dual-frequency microwave radiometer system developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Acuracies in temperature of 1°C and 1 part per thousand in salinity were obtained using state-of-the-art radiometers. Several aircraft programs for the measurement of coastal area waters demonstrating the application of the microwave radiometer system are

  5. SMOS: a satellite mission to measure ocean surface salinity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yann H. Kerr; Meric A. Srokosz; Jacqueline Etcheto; Gary S. Lagerloef; Adriano Camps; Philippe Waldteufel

    2001-01-01

    The ESA's SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission will be launched by 2005. Its baseline payload is a microwave L-band (21 cm, 1.4 GHz) 2D interferometric radiometer, Y shaped, with three arms 4.5 m long. This frequency allows the measurement of brightness temperature (Tb) under the best conditions to retrieve soil moisture and sea surface salinity

  6. Chinese and Mongolian saline lakes: a limnological overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Williams

    1991-01-01

    More than half of China's lakes are saline (viz. have salinities > 3 g L?1). Most salt lakes are in northwestern China (Tibet, Qinghai, Sinkiang, Inner Mongolia). Most Mongolian salt lakes are in\\u000a the west of that country. Tectonic movements have been of the greatest importance in lake origins, but aeolian activity and\\u000a deflation have also played a role. Many

  7. Salinity tolerance and avoidance in juvenile paddlefish, Polyodon spathula 

    E-print Network

    Vignali, Carl R

    1999-01-01

    of the U. S. National Biological Survey for generously allowing our use of federal facilities at San Marcos, Texas. I also thank Paul Dorsett, Rita Buckner and Jim Forsberg for all their assistance in the feeding and maintenance of the fish during... of low salinity owing to high river-discharge. Renfro (1959) reported salinity levels below 5 ppt in San Antonio Bay, Aransas Bay, Copano Bay, and the intercoastal waterway during March and April of 1958. Still, the scientific community presently...

  8. Evaluation of Soil Salinity Amelioration Technologies in Timpaki, Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagea, Ioanna; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Tsanis, Ioannis; Schwilch, Gudrun

    2015-04-01

    Salinization is a soil threat that adversely affects ecosystem services and diminishes soil functions in many arid and semi-arid regions. Soil salinity management depends on a range of factors, and can be complex expensive and time demanding. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. The WOCAT Technologies Questionnaire is a standardized methodology for monitoring, evaluating and documenting sustainable land management practices through interaction with the stakeholders. Here we use WOCAT for the systematic analysis and evaluation of soil salinization amelioration measures, for the RECARE project Case Study in Greece, the Timpaki basin, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinization due to irrigation with brackish water. Amelioration technologies that have already been applied in the case study by the stakeholders are examined and classified depending on the function they promote and/or improve. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost and input requirements. Preliminary results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity such as composting, mulching, rain water harvesting and seed biopriming are preferred by the stakeholders. Further work will include result validation using qualitative approaches. Keywords: soil salinity; salinization; evaluation of soil salinization amelioration techniques; WOCAT; RECARE FP7 project; Timpaki Crete

  9. Methane consumption in (hyper) saline habitats of Crimea (Ukraine)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Sokolov; Y. A. Trotsenko

    1995-01-01

    This paper documents methane utilization in (hyper)saline environments. Methane consumption in the Crimea basins, exhibiting salinities of 8% to 33%, was as much as 1200 pmol cm?3 d?1. This process was mainly associated with the upper layer of sediment (microbial mat), although substantial activity was also located in adjacent water. Studies of the influence of NaCl levels on the methane

  10. Climate Forcing and Salinity Variability in Chesapeake Bay, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiangtao Xu; Wen Long; Jerry D. Wiggert; Lyon W. J. Lanerolle; Christopher W. Brown; Raghu Murtugudde; Raleigh R. Hood

    Salinity is a critical factor in understanding and predicting physical and biogeochemical processes in the coastal ocean where\\u000a it varies considerably in time and space. In this paper, we introduce a Chesapeake Bay community implementation of the Regional\\u000a Ocean Modeling System (ChesROMS) and use it to investigate the interannual variability of salinity in Chesapeake Bay. The\\u000a ChesROMS implementation was evaluated

  11. Salinity history of the northern Atlantic during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broecker, Wallace S.

    1990-08-01

    The claim has been made (see Broecker et al., 1988) that production of North Atlantic Deep Water terminated during Younger Dryas time and that the onset of this termination occurred about 11,000 years ago when the flow of meltwater from a large segment of the southern margin of the Laurentide ice sheet was diverted from the Mississippi to the St. Lawrence drainage. Fairbanks [1989] points out a serious weakness in this argument. Based on a sea level curve derived from radiocarbon dates on coral obtained from borings made off the Barbados coast, he suggests that a lull in the melting of the ice caps during Younger Dryas time may have more than compensated for the impact of the diversion. The purpose of this paper is to reassess the situation regarding the origin of the Younger Dryas in light of this new evidence. Currently the salinity of surface waters in the northern Atlantic is influenced by three fluxes. Water vapor transport from the Atlantic drainage basin to the Pacific-Indian basin tends to raise the salinity of the entire Atlantic. The excess over evaporation of precipitation and runoff poleward of 40°N tends to reduce the salinity of waters in this region relative to the Atlantic average. The conveyor circulation of the Atlantic trades more salty waters of the Atlantic with less salty waters outside the Atlantic tending to drive down the Atlantic's salinity. The conveyor circulation also flushes the northern Atlantic, pushing its salinity toward the mean for the Atlantic. During the period of deglaciation meltwater emanating from the Laurentide and Scandinavian ice sheets was also important. This flux tended to lower not only the salinity of the entire Atlantic but also the salinity of surface waters in the northern Atlantic relative to the Atlantic's mean. As deepwater formation in the northern Atlantic depends critically on the salinity of surface waters, the interactions among these fluxes can change the strength of the conveyor.

  12. Molecular Tools for Enhancing Salinity Tolerance in Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesus Cuartero; Maria C. Bolarin; Vicente Moreno; Benito Pineda

    \\u000a Salinity is nowadays considered one of the main factors that limit crop productivity and a threat to world’s food production.\\u000a Hence, to breed salt tolerant varieties of crops and horticultural species is necessary to increase or at least maintain food\\u000a production in order to feed the growing world’s population. Plant tolerance to salinity is a complex phenomenon at both cellular

  13. Effect of Salinity on Nodule Formation by Soybean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL W. SINGLETON; B. BEN BOHLOOL

    1984-01-01

    A split-root growth system was employed to evaluate the effect of NaCI on nodule formation by soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Davis). By applying the salinity stress and rhizobial inoculum to only one-half the root system, the effects of salinity on shoot growth were eliminated in the nodulation process. Rhizobium colonization of inoculated root surfaces was not affected by

  14. UNSTEADY MOVEMENT OF FRESH WATER IN THICK UNCONFINED SALINE AQUIFERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MAHDI S. HANTUSH

    1968-01-01

    Fresh-water lenses are formed in unconfined saline aquifers in response to deep percolation from rainfall, artificial recharge, and seepage from irrigation waters and\\/or in response to injecting fresh water through vertical or horizontal wells. An approximate differential equation is derived in terms of the depth of the fresh-salt water interface below the initial position of the saline-water table. This equation

  15. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Calcite Reactions with Saline Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Piers; *Morse, John W. (*/deceased)

    2010-11-15

    1. Objective The general objective of this research was to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of calcite reactions with saline waters over a wide range of saline water composition, carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2), and modest ranges of T and P. This would be done by studying both reaction rates and solubility from changes in solution chemistry. Also, nanoscale observations of calcite surface morphology and composition would be made to provide an understanding of rate controlling mechanisms.

  16. Salinity-induced calcium deficiencies in wheat and barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Ehret; R. E. Redmann; B. L. Harvey; A. Cipywnyk

    1990-01-01

    Salinity-calcium interactions, which have been shown to be important in plants grown in dryland saline soils of the Canadian prairies, were studied in two species differing in salt tolerance. In solution culture, wheat showed a greater reduction in growth and a higher incidence of foliar Ca deficiency symptoms than barley when grown under MgSO4 or Na2SO4 plus MgSO4 salt stress.

  17. Biological Perchlorate Reduction in High-Salinity Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce E Logan; Jun Wu; Richard F Unz

    2001-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4?) has been detected in numerous ground and surface waters, and has recently been added to the drinking water Candidate Contaminant List in the United States. Perchlorate can be removed from drinking water using ion exchange, but this results in the production of highly saline (7–12%) perchlorate-contaminated brines. Perchlorate-degrading microbial enrichments capable of growth in highly saline water were

  18. NASA Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space Education & Public Outreach

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    deCharon, Annette

    Aquarius is a focused satellite mission to measure global sea surface salinity. Launching in 2009, this mission will provide the first global map of sea surface salinity with unprecedented accuracy, resolution and coverage. The importance of salinity measurements in understanding coastal ocean processes is critical. Because of its dynamic range in the coastal oceans, salinity is a critical factor in understanding and predicting biological and physical processes and their interactions with the food Web, climate, and global water cycle. Aquariusâ??s pioneering efforts to deliver the â??missing pieces of the climate puzzleâ? will undoubtedly intrigue informal audiences via the activities and information contained in this Website. Moreover, climate and its influence on humankind is an integral part of K-16 formal education and common to national learning standards. The goal of the Education and Outreach component of Aquarius is to teach fundamental concepts about salinity variations and the role these changes play in controlling global ocean circulation and Earthâ??s climate. Education products will appear as modules addressing the missionâ??s goals and purpose, augment existing El Nino/La Nina materials with salinity based content, provide on-line interactive tools demonstrating environmental change through data sets and in situ time-series analysis, and engage students in activities designed to demonstrate salt-water interactions.

  19. Iron Catalyzed Halogenation Processes in Saline Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubbesing, C.; Lippe, S.; Kullik, V.; Hauck, L.; Krause, T.; Keppler, F.; Schoeler, H. F.

    2014-12-01

    Within upcoming years the extent of salt deserts and salt lakes will probably increase due to climate change. It is known that volatile organic halogens (VOX) are released from saline soils and thus higher emissions from these environments are likely expected in the future. The origin of some organohalogens is not reasonably constrained by established natural halogenation processes. Therefore detailed biogeochemical investigations of these environments are necessary to identify the specific halogenation pathways. Redox-sensitive metals like iron are already known as triggers of chemical reactions via so called Fenton and Fenton-like reactions requiring H2O2 which is photochemically produced in water. In this study we collected soil samples from several salt lakes in Western Australia with pH values ranging from 2 to 8. The high pH variability was considered useful to study the impact of iron mobility and availability on halogenation processes. Iron was found to mainly occur as oxides and sulfides within the alkaline soils and acidic soils, respectively. All soil samples were lyophilised and finely ground prior to incubation at 40 °C for 24 h in aqueous solutions. Formation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and VOX from these soils was observed using GC-FID and GC-MS. When H2O2 was added to the samples much higher concentrations of VOC and VOX were observed. Furthermore, when the pH of the soils was changed towards lower values higher emissions of VOC were also observed. Based on C-H activation processes we delineate a halide containing iron complex as a provider of anions reacting with previously generated hydrocarbon radicals. We suggest iron sulfate derivatives as those complexes which are generated if the above-mentioned natural H2O2 addition to iron sulfates and sulfides occurs. The origin of these complexes is able to explain the halogenation of chemically unreactive alkanes.

  20. Treatment of high salinity brines by direct contact membrane distillation: Effect of membrane characteristics and salinity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Guan, Yunshan; Cheng, Fangqin; Liu, Yu

    2015-12-01

    Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) is one of the attractive technologies for high salinity brine treatment. In this study, four polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes were examined in treating highly concentrated salt solutions. Results showed that non-supported membranes generally have a higher overall mass transfer coefficient but porosity seems to be the most important parameter controlling membrane flux and thermal efficiency. Supported membranes with large thickness had relatively higher thermal efficiency than small thickness. This can be attributed to their reduced heat loss through heat condition. In addition, KCl, NaCl and MgCl2 solutions showed distinct trends over flux decline at high salt concentrations (?2.0M). The difference in flux was largely due to the discrepancy in water activities of these solutions (KCl>NaCl>MgCl2). However, the effect of viscosity on permeate flux could not be neglected for MgCl2 at high salt concentrations as the suddenly increased viscosity could lead to serious temperature polarization. This study indicates that membrane distillation is a promising technology for high salinity brine treatment. PMID:25563165

  1. Salinity Effects on Photosynthesis, Carbon Allocation, and Nitrogen Assimilation in the Red Alga, Gelidium coulteri1

    PubMed Central

    Macler, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term effects of altered salinities on the physiology of the intertidal red alga Gelidium coulteri Harv. were assessed. Plants were transfered from 30 grams per liter salinity to media with salinities from 0 to 50 grams per liter. Growth rate, agar, photosynthesis, respiration, and various metabolites were quantified after 5 days and 5 weeks adaptation. After 5 days, growth rates were lower for plants at all altered salinities. Growth rates recovered from these values with 5 weeks adaptation, except for salinities of 10 grams per liter and below, where tissues bleached and died. Photosynthetic O2 evolution was lower than control values at both higher and lower salinities after 5 days and did not change over time. Carbon fixation at the altered salinities was unchanged after 5 days, but decreased below 25 grams per liter and above 40 grams per liter after 5 weeks. Respiration increased at lower salinities. Phycobili-protein and chlorophyll were lower for all altered salinities after 5 days. These decreases continued at lower salinities, then were stable after 5 weeks. Chlorophyll recovered over time at higher salinities. Decreases in protein at lower salinities were quantitatively attributable to phycobili-protein loss. Total N levels and C:N ratios were nearly constant across all salinities tested. Carbon flow into glutamate and aspartate decreased with both decreasing and increasing salinities. Glycine, serine, and glycolate levels increased with both increasing and decreasing salinity, indicating a stimulation of photorespiration. The cell wall component agar increased with decreasing salinity, although biosynthesis was inhibited at both higher and lower salinities. The storage compound floridoside increased with increasing salinity. The evidence suggests stress responses to altered salinities that directly affected photosynthesis, respiration, and nitrogen assimilation and indirectly affected photosynthate flow. At low salinities, respiration and photorespiration exceeded photosynthesis with lethal results. At higher salinities, although photosynthesis was inhibited, respiration was low and carbon fixation adequate to offset increased photorespiration. PMID:16666369

  2. Salinity Effects on Photosynthesis, Carbon Allocation, and Nitrogen Assimilation in the Red Alga, Gelidium coulteri.

    PubMed

    Macler, B A

    1988-11-01

    The long-term effects of altered salinities on the physiology of the intertidal red alga Gelidium coulteri Harv. were assessed. Plants were transfered from 30 grams per liter salinity to media with salinities from 0 to 50 grams per liter. Growth rate, agar, photosynthesis, respiration, and various metabolites were quantified after 5 days and 5 weeks adaptation. After 5 days, growth rates were lower for plants at all altered salinities. Growth rates recovered from these values with 5 weeks adaptation, except for salinities of 10 grams per liter and below, where tissues bleached and died. Photosynthetic O(2) evolution was lower than control values at both higher and lower salinities after 5 days and did not change over time. Carbon fixation at the altered salinities was unchanged after 5 days, but decreased below 25 grams per liter and above 40 grams per liter after 5 weeks. Respiration increased at lower salinities. Phycobili-protein and chlorophyll were lower for all altered salinities after 5 days. These decreases continued at lower salinities, then were stable after 5 weeks. Chlorophyll recovered over time at higher salinities. Decreases in protein at lower salinities were quantitatively attributable to phycobili-protein loss. Total N levels and C:N ratios were nearly constant across all salinities tested. Carbon flow into glutamate and aspartate decreased with both decreasing and increasing salinities. Glycine, serine, and glycolate levels increased with both increasing and decreasing salinity, indicating a stimulation of photorespiration. The cell wall component agar increased with decreasing salinity, although biosynthesis was inhibited at both higher and lower salinities. The storage compound floridoside increased with increasing salinity. The evidence suggests stress responses to altered salinities that directly affected photosynthesis, respiration, and nitrogen assimilation and indirectly affected photosynthate flow. At low salinities, respiration and photorespiration exceeded photosynthesis with lethal results. At higher salinities, although photosynthesis was inhibited, respiration was low and carbon fixation adequate to offset increased photorespiration. PMID:16666369

  3. Differential status of the renin-angiotensin system of silver sea bream (Sparus sarba) in different salinities.

    PubMed

    Wong, Marty K S; Takei, Yoshio; Woo, Norman Y S

    2006-10-01

    Silver sea bream (Sparus sarba) is extremely euryhaline and can survive in a wide range of salinities (0-70 per thousand). The status of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in sea bream adapted to different salinities was studied. As indicated by plasma Ang II levels, a suppressed status of the RAS was found to occur under brackish water conditions; while under hypersaline conditions, an activated RAS prevailed, especially in fish adapted to double strength seawater (70 per thousand). Captopril successfully blocked the conversion of Ang I to Ang II, causing a dramatic drop in plasma Ang II levels, and such decrease was accompanied by lowered plasma cortisol levels. The pattern of changes in branchial Na-K-ATPase activity in different salinities was similar to those of plasma Ang II and cortisol, suggesting a causal regulatory role of Ang II on branchial Na-K-ATPase activity. Intraperitoneal injection of Ang II elicited a dose-dependent increase in branchial Na-K-ATPase activity in both 33- and 6 per thousand-adapted sea bream, but a relatively more intense stimulation of enzyme activity occurred in hyposmotic-adapted fish. Abrupt hyposmotic transfer rapidly lowered plasma Ang II level but elevated branchial Na-K-ATPase and transiently elevated plasma cortisol, indicating that these parameters are not solely controlled by Ang II but are also influenced by other hormonal factors that change during salinity transfer. Blood volumes of both 33- and 6 per thousand-adapted sea bream exhibited high stability during short-term salinity transfers and after long-term salinity adaptation. Captopril significantly reduced resting blood pressure in both 33- and 6 per thousand-adapted sea bream, indicating that the RAS was involved in maintenance of resting blood pressure in both hyperosmotic and hyposmotic environments. Blood pressure was highly stable during abrupt salinity transfer and captopril blockade did not alter such stability. The vasopressive effect of angiotensins was more potent in 6 per thousand-adapted sea bream. These results showed that the RAS is involved in the maintenance of fluid and pressure homeostasis in sea bream and hyposmotic-adapted sea bream has an abated RAS status. PMID:16797551

  4. Impacts of salinity fluctuations on the productivity of coastal mangrove fish populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Robbins

    2005-01-01

    An empirical study examined the influence of salinity fluctuations on the key population demographic characteristics (i.e., survivorship, growth, and reproduction) of two types of mangrove fish populations (i.e., Poeciliidae and Cyprinodontidae). Livebearers (Family Poeciliidae) exhibited significant mortality following large, instantaneous salinity increases, while large instantaneous salinity decreases had no significant effect on mortality rate. Instantaneous salinity changes had no significant

  5. Towards an ocean salinity error budget estimation within the SMOS mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Sabia; Adriano Camps; Mercè Vall-llossera; Marco Talone

    2007-01-01

    The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission will provide from 2008 onwards global sea surface salinity estimations over the oceans. This work summarizes several insights gathered in the framework of salinity retrieval studies, aimed to address an overall salinity error budget. The paper covers issues ranging from the impact of auxiliary data on SSS error to the potential exploitation

  6. Fault detection for salinity sensors in the Columbia estuary Cynthia Archer

    E-print Network

    Leen, Todd K.

    Fault detection for salinity sensors in the Columbia estuary Cynthia Archer Department of Computer, salinity measurement Citation: Archer, C., A. Baptista, and T. K. Leen, Fault detection for salinity [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2001]. [3] CORIE salinity sensors deployed in the harsh estuary

  7. Effect of salinity on the ultrasonic absorption and flow birefringence of microemulsions

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    257 Effect of salinity on the ultrasonic absorption and flow birefringence of microemulsions E of salinity by means of ultrasonic absorption and flow birefringence techniques. As the salinity is increased = 8 g NaCl/100 g water respectively. At both S1 and S2 salinities, the flow birefringence exhibits

  8. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON THE SURVIVAL OF WINTER FLOUNDER EMBRYOS

    E-print Network

    EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON THE SURVIVAL OF WINTER FLOUNDER EMBRYOS CAROLYN A. ROGERS1 ABSTRACT A series of experiments was perfonned to detennine the optimum temperature and salinity to a 0.5 to 45%0 salinity range and a 3° to 14°C temperature range in a total of 67 salinity- temperature

  9. THE EFFECT OF SALINITY ON EXPERIMENTAL INFECTIONS OF A HEMATODINIUM SP. IN BLUE CRABS, CALLINECTES SAPIDUS

    E-print Network

    THE EFFECT OF SALINITY ON EXPERIMENTAL INFECTIONS OF A HEMATODINIUM SP. IN BLUE CRABS, CALLINECTES have only been reported from waters where salinity is .11 practical salinity units (psu). Blue crabs maintain a hyperosmotic internal concentration at low salinities (0­5 psu), roughly comparable to 24 psu

  10. Effects of Developmental Acclimation on Adult Salinity Tolerance in the Freshwater-Invading Copepod Eurytemora affinis

    E-print Network

    Lee, Carol Eunmi

    296 Effects of Developmental Acclimation on Adult Salinity Tolerance in the Freshwater effects of short-term and developmental acclimation on adult salinity tolerance in the copepod Eurytemora survival in response to acute versus gradual salinity change to low salinity (fresh water). Effects

  11. Surface salinity fields in the Arctic Ocean and statistical approaches to predicting anomalies and patterns

    E-print Network

    Golden, Kenneth M.

    1 Surface salinity fields in the Arctic Ocean and statistical approaches to predicting anomalies to analyzing the Arctic Ocean salinity were developed. Six kinds of typical patterns in the surface salinity fields were identified. Abrupt changes in the Arctic Ocean surface layer salinity were found. Abstract

  12. American Journal of Botany 89(11): 18471851. 2002. DELAYED AND CARRYOVER EFFECTS OF SALINITY ON

    E-print Network

    Van Zandt, Peter

    1847 American Journal of Botany 89(11): 1847­1851. 2002. DELAYED AND CARRYOVER EFFECTS OF SALINITY that exhibits intraspecific variation in salinity tolerance. To investigate the effect of salinity on flowering. Experimental salinity additions strongly delayed flowering phenology, but the effect was not apparent until

  13. The effects of salinity and nutrient limitation on microbial processes in coastal sediments

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    The effects of salinity and nutrient limitation on microbial processes in coastal sediments Emily the relationship between salinity, nutrient limitation, and microbial activity, I collected high and low salinity in the low salinity water and sediment samples, however significantly higher phosphatase activity than

  14. Re-evaluating the 238 U-salinity relationship in seawater: Implications for the

    E-print Network

    Buesseler, Ken

    Re-evaluating the 238 U-salinity relationship in seawater: Implications for the 238 U­234 Th form 13 July 2011 Accepted 14 July 2011 Available online 23 July 2011 Keywords: Uranium Salinity and salinity in the open ocean. The new 238 U-salinity relationship determined here is based on a larger sample

  15. Salinity Spiking The temperature and conductivity sensors used on CTDs generally have

    E-print Network

    Gille, Sarah T.

    Salinity Spiking The temperature and conductivity sensors used on CTDs generally have different in spikes in calculated salinity. A variety of methods have been used to eliminate this spiking and eliminating salinity spiking. The first thing to do is to plot profiles of temperature, salinity and density

  16. The erosion of a salinity step by a localized heat source

    E-print Network

    Dalziel, Stuart

    The erosion of a salinity step by a localized heat source D.M. Leppinen and S.B. Dalziel Department compare the erosion a salinity step by a localized heat source with the erosion of the same salinity step layers and it is shown that a localized heat source is more e cient at eroding a salinity step than

  17. Salinity as a determinant of salt lake fauna: a question of scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Williams; A. J. Boulton; R. G. Taaffe

    1990-01-01

    High and often variable salinity is an obvious feature of salt lakes. Correspondingly, salinity is usually assumed to be an important ecological determinant in such lakes. An investigation of the macroinvertebrate fauna of 79 lakes (salinities from 0.3 to 343 g 1-1) in the Western District of Victoria, Australia, examined this assumption. Over the total range of salinity, species richness

  18. Understanding the significance of sulfur in improving salinity tolerance in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahat Nazar; Noushina Iqbal; Asim Masood; Shabina Syeed; Nafees A. Khan

    2011-01-01

    Salinity is a major abiotic stress factor affecting plant growth and productivity worldwide. The salinity-induced reduction in photosynthesis, growth and development of plants is associated with ionic\\/osmotic effects, nutritional imbalance or oxidative stress. Plants develop several mechanisms to induce tolerance to overcome salinity effects. Of the several possible mechanisms to reduce the effects of salinity stress, management of mineral nutrients

  19. Effects of salinity increase on carotenoid accumulation in the green alga Dunaliella salina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Borowitzka; Lesley J. Borowitzka; David Kessly

    1990-01-01

    The effect of sudden salinity increases on the kinetics of growth and carotenogenesis was studied in three geographically diverse isolates of Dunaliella saliva. A sudden increase in salinity results in a lag phase in growth and the length of this lag phase is dependent on the final salinity and the magnitude of the salinity change (no lag at 10–15% w\\/v

  20. Effects of salinity levels and seed mass on germination in Australian species of Frankenia L. (Frankeniaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lyndlee C. Easton; Sonia Kleindorfer

    2009-01-01

    Halophyte species demonstrate differing levels of salt tolerance. Understanding interspecific variation to salinity levels is of value from both the scientific perspective, which includes the identification of traits associated with salinity tolerance, as well as from an applied perspective, which includes identifying plant species for specific salinity restoration and remediation projects. This paper investigates the effects of salinity on germination

  1. Effect of the vapor phase on the salinity of halite-bearing aqueous fluid inclusions estimated from the halite dissolution temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2013-08-01

    Salinities of aqueous fluid inclusions are commonly determined by measuring the temperatures of dissolution of solid phases (daughter minerals) during heating. The vapor bubble is, in most cases, considered to have no mass and to have no effect on the bulk salinity, owing to the low density of the vapor. In the present study we test the assumption that the vapor bubble can be ignored when estimating salinity based on the halite dissolution temperature. The errors in bulk salinity that result from neglecting the vapor bubble are generally less than ˜1.5 wt.% NaCl, and errors of this magnitude occur only when there is a large difference between the halite dissolution temperature and the vapor disappearance temperature (e.g., halite dissolution at ˜450 °C and vapor bubble disappearance at 800 °C) or, stated differently, when the vapor bubble occupies a significant volume fraction of the inclusion at the temperature of halite disappearance. In most cases errors are less than 0.5 wt.% NaCl. Salinity estimated based on Tm,H can be adjusted to account for the contribution of H2O from the vapor phase, using an empirical relationship describing the proportion of liquid in the inclusion at Tm,H as a function of the difference between Th,LV and Tm,H.

  2. Cumulative soil chemistry changes from land application of saline-sodic waters

    SciTech Connect

    Ganjegunte, G.K.; King, L.A.; Vance, G.F. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Department for Renewable Resources

    2008-09-15

    Management of large volumes (60,000 ha-m) of co-production water associated with coal bed natural gas (CBNG) water extraction is a potential concern in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana due to elevated water salinity and sodicity levels. Land application of saline-sodic CBNG water is a common water management method being practiced in the PRB, which can result in deterioration in soil quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects from 1 to 4 yr of land application with CBNG water on soil chemical properties at six study sites (fine to loamy, mixed to smectitic, mesic, Ustic Ardisols and Entisols) in the Wyoming PRB region. Changes in chemistry of soils collected from six depths irrigated with CBNG water were compared with representative non-irrigated soils. Applications of CBNG water significantly increased soil EC, SAR, and ESP values (up to 21, 74, and 24 times, respectively) compared with non-irrigated soils. Differences in soil chemical properties between an irrigated and non-irrigated coarse-textured soil were less than that of fine-textured soils, emphasizing texture as an important factor for salinity buildup. Pretreatment of CBNG water using a sulfur burner and application of gypsum and elemental S soil amendments reduced soil pH but did not prevent the build-up of salts and sodium. Study results suggest that current CBNG water management strategies are not as effective as projected. Additional research is needed to develop management strategies appropriate for mitigating adverse effects of CBNG water irrigation.

  3. Salinity Tolerance of Picochlorum atomus and the Use of Salinity for Contamination Control by the Freshwater Cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena limnetica

    PubMed Central

    von Alvensleben, Nicolas; Stookey, Katherine; Magnusson, Marie; Heimann, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae are ideal candidates for waste-gas and –water remediation. However, salinity often varies between different sites. A cosmopolitan microalga with large salinity tolerance and consistent biochemical profiles would be ideal for standardised cultivation across various remediation sites. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of salinity on Picochlorum atomus growth, biomass productivity, nutrient uptake and biochemical profiles. To determine if target end-products could be manipulated, the effects of 4-day nutrient limitation were also determined. Culture salinity had no effect on growth, biomass productivity, phosphate, nitrate and total nitrogen uptake at 2, 8, 18, 28 and 36 ppt. 11 ppt, however, initiated a significantly higher total nitrogen uptake. While salinity had only minor effects on biochemical composition, nutrient depletion was a major driver for changes in biomass quality, leading to significant increases in total lipid, fatty acid and carbohydrate quantities. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by nutrient depletion, with an increased proportion of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. Having established that P. atomus is a euryhaline microalga, the effects of culture salinity on the development of the freshwater cyanobacterial contaminant Pseudanabaena limnetica were determined. Salinity at 28 and 36 ppt significantly inhibited establishment of P. limnetica in P. atomus cultures. In conclusion, P. atomus can be deployed for bioremediation at sites with highly variable salinities without effects on end-product potential. Nutrient status critically affected biochemical profiles – an important consideration for end-product development by microalgal industries. 28 and 36 ppt slow the establishment of the freshwater cyanobacterium P. limnetica, allowing for harvest of low contaminant containing biomass. PMID:23667639

  4. Continuous salinity and temperature data from san francisco estuary, 19822002: Trends and the salinity-freshwater inflow relationship

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shellenbarger, G.G.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and other federal and state agencies have been collecting continuous temperature and salinity data, two critical estuarine habitat variables, throughout San Francisco estuary for over two decades. Although this dynamic, highly variable system has been well studied, many questions remain relating to the effects of freshwater inflow and other physical and biological linkages. This study examines up to 20 years of publically available, continuous temperature and salinity data from 10 different San Francisco Bay stations to identify trends in temperature and salinity and quantify the salinityfreshwater inflow relationship. Several trends in the salinity and temperature records were identified, although the high degree of daily and interannual variability confounds the analysis. In addition, freshwater inflow to the estuary has a range of effects on salinity from -0.0020 to -0.0096 (m3 s-1) -1 discharge, depending on location in the estuary and the timescale of analyzed data. Finally, we documented that changes in freshwater inflow to the estuary that are within the range of typical management actions can affect bay-wide salinities by 0.61.4. This study reinforces the idea that multidecadal records are needed to identify trends from decadal changes in water management and climate and, therefore, are extremely valuable. ?? 2011 Coastal Education & Research Foundation.

  5. Nitrogen sources and sinks in a wastewater impacted saline aquifer beneath the Florida Keys, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Kevin S.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Smith, Leslie K.

    2007-06-01

    Groundwater wells surrounding a high volume advance treatment wastewater (ATW) disposal well in the Florida Keys were monitored for nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium concentrations over a 14 month period. Nutrient concentrations in the shallow subsurface (9 m) show a bimodal distribution between the low salinity wastewater plume and the ambient brackish to saline groundwaters. High NO 3- concentrations are found within the ATW plume while the highest NH 4+ concentrations are found in shallow wells outside of the plume. Evidence suggests that the overlying mud layer unique to this study site contributes the bulk of the NH 4+ observed in these wells. NO 3- concentrations at 9 m wells varied by a factor of four in response to concurrent variations in ATW NO 3- loads over the coarse of the study. Estimated NO 3- uptake rates varied from 32 ± 29 to 98 ± 69 and did not directly correlate with ATW NO 3- loading as we hypothesized. We estimate that 70 ± 34% of the NO 3- from the treatment plant is removed from solution in the subsurface of the study site. Considerable decreases in NO 3- concentration and enrichment of 15NO 3- was observed in many wells, indicating significant denitrification or anaerobic ammonium oxidation is occurring in the subsurface. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations, distributions, and 15N compositions indicate that denitrification is likely the dominant mechanism for N removal in the ATW plume at Key Colony Beach, Florida.

  6. The salinity signature of the cross-shelf exchanges in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: Numerical simulations

    PubMed Central

    Matano, Ricardo P; Combes, Vincent; Piola, Alberto R; Guerrero, Raul; Palma, Elbio D; Ted Strub, P; James, Corinne; Fenco, Harold; Chao, Yi; Saraceno, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A high-resolution model is used to characterize the dominant patterns of sea surface salinity (SSS) variability generated by the freshwater discharges of the Rio de la Plata (RdlP) and the Patos/Mirim Lagoon in the southwestern Atlantic region. We identify three dominant modes of SSS variability. The first two, which have been discussed in previous studies, represent the seasonal and the interannual variations of the freshwater plumes over the continental shelf. The third mode of SSS variability, which has not been discussed hitherto, represents the salinity exchanges between the shelf and the deep ocean. A diagnostic study using floats and passive tracers identifies the pathways taken by the freshwater plumes. During the austral winter (JJA), the plumes leave the shelf region north of the BMC. During the austral summer (DJF), the plumes are entrained more directly into the BMC. A sensitivity study indicates that the high-frequency component of the wind stress forcing controls the vertical structure of the plumes while the low-frequency component of the wind stress forcing and the interannual variations of the RdlP discharge controls the horizontal structure of the plumes. Dynamical analysis reveals that the cross-shelf flow has a dominant barotropic structure and, therefore, the SSS anomalies detected by Aquarius represent net mass exchanges between the shelf and the deep ocean. The net cross-shelf volume flux is 1.21 Sv. This outflow is largely compensated by an inflow from the Patagonian shelf.

  7. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Hydrodynamics and Salinity in the San Francisco Estuary: An Evaluation of Model Accuracy, X2, and the Low–Salinity Zone

    E-print Network

    MacWilliams, Michael L.; Bever, Aaron J.; Gross, Edward S.; Ketefian, Gerard S.; Kimmerer, Wim J.

    2015-01-01

    of 1995. The salinity at the ocean boundary was thereforeTypical observed salinity in the coastal ocean near Sansalinity observations from the Farallon Islands (SCCOOS 2012), approximately 20 km west of the tidal ocean

  8. Sodium bicarbonate versus normal saline for protection against contrast nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Budhiraja, Pooja; Chen, Zhao; Popovtzer, Mordecai

    2009-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a form of acute kidney injury and a significant source of morbidity and mortality. We defined CIN as an increase in serum creatinine (SCr) of 25% or more within 48 hours of receiving contrast. We retrospectively compared sodium bicarbonate with normal saline for prevention of CIN. One hundred and eighty-seven patients exposed to contrast during cardiac angiography, treated prophylactically either with sodium bicarbonate (n = 89) or with normal saline (n = 98), were studied. Baseline characteristics of both groups were similar in terms of age, amount of contrast, presence of diabetes mellitus, and use of furosemide and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. Patients in bicarbonate group had more severe renal disease with higher baseline SCr (1.58 +/- 0.5 mg/dL vs. 1.28 +/- 0.3 mg/dL, p = 0.001) and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, 51.06 +/- 14.0 mL/min vs. 62.3+/-13.5 mL/min, p = 0.001) compared to the normal saline group. After the contrast exposure, there was significant drop in eGFR (6.4%) and increase in SCr (11.3%) in the normal saline group and no significant change in the bicarbonate group. Three patients (3.4%) in the bicarbonate group as opposed to 14 patients (14.3%) in the normal saline group developed CIN (p = 0.011). Two patients in the normal saline group and none in the bicarbonate group needed dialysis. There was no significant difference in serum creatinine at three-month follow-up in either group. The above findings suggest that hydration with intravenous sodium bicarbonate is more effective than normal saline in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. PMID:19212908

  9. ?-Human-ANP response to preanesthetic volume expansion and subsequent renal transplantation in diabetic and nondiabetic uremic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Lindgren; I. Tikkanen; E. Reissell; M. Kirvelä; R. Orko; K. Salmela; J. Ahonen

    1992-01-01

    a-Human atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations were measured in 11 diabetic patients with uremia and in 16 nondiabetic uremic controls undergoing renal transplantation after preanesthetic volume expansion with 1000 ml saline solution within 10 min. Two diabetic and seven nondiabetic patients received grafts from living donors and the rest from cadaveric donors. Volume expansion induced a significant increase in the

  10. Effects of low-flow diversions from the South Wichita River on downstream salinity of the South Wichita River, Lake Kemp, and the Wichita River, North Texas, October 1982-September 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley; Bush, Peter W.; Kidwell, Charles C.

    1996-01-01

    In parts of the upper reaches of the Red River Basin in Texas, streamflow is characterized by levels of salinity that limit its usefulness for most purposes. Large dissolved solids and dissolved chloride concentrations are caused primarily by flow from natural salt springs in tributaries to the Red River. To reduce downstream salinity in the Wichita River, a dam in the South Wichita River downstream of an area of salt springs (designated salinity source area VIII) diverts low flows (which are the most saline) to a manmade brine lake for evaporation. Statistical tests on salinity data for the South Wichita River, Lake Kemp, and the Wichita River for the period October 1982-September 1992 were done to determine the effects on downstream salinity of low-flow diversions from the South Wichita River that began in May 1987. Salinity in the South Wichita River downstream of the low-flow diversion structure was (statistically) significantly less during the 65-month period of record after diversion than during the 55-month period of record before diversion. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests yielded strong evidence that discharge-weighted dissolved solids and discharge-weighted dissolved chloride concentrations, as well as discharge-weighted specific conductance, were significantly less after diversion. Whether salinity in Lake Kemp had a significant downward trend during the period of record August 1989--August 1992 could not be determined conclusively from observed salinity data. Mann-Kendall trend tests yielded weak evidence that volume-weighted dissolved solids and dissolved chloride concentrations in Lake Kemp tended to decrease with time. However, serial correlation in the time series of salinity data could have adversely affected the test results. The significant effects of low-flow diversions on salinity in the South Wichita River are not discernible in the Wichita River downstream from Lake Kemp. Although salinity was significantly less downstream from Lake Kemp after diversion, the decrease probably is mostly a result of dilution of Lake Kemp by large inflows of (assumed) low-salinity water that occurred in the spring of 1989 rather than an effect of diversion.

  11. Irrigation management and investment under saline, limited drainage conditions: 3. Policy analysis and extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Keith C.

    1992-12-01

    Water demand is characterized for the cotton-cotton-tomatoes rotation considered in the previous paper (Knapp, this issue (b)). Demand is found to be price inelastic. However, currently low water prices imply that fairly moderate increases in water prices can result in large water savings. A marginal cost curve for source control of drain water emissions is constructed. Moderate increases in drainage emissions fees can result in large reductions in drain water emissions with relatively small impacts on income. Management response and income effects from increased water salinity are estimated. The model is also extended to consider drain water reuse. Typical optimal management with reuse is low-volume, low-quality water on first-year cotton, improved quality and quantity on second-year cotton, and the highest quality water on salt-sensitive tomatoes. An approach to maximization of multifield farm-level returns is proposed using decentralized pricing and the field-level optimization model.

  12. Biomass yield and nutritional quality of forage species under long-term irrigation with saline-sodic drainage water: Field evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Suyama; S. E. Benes; P. H. Robinson; G. Getachew; S. R. Grattan; C. M. Grieve

    2007-01-01

    On the Westside of California's San Joaquin Valley, the discharge of subsurface agricultural drainage water (DW) is subject to strict environmental regulations due to its high selenium (Se) content and potential risks to wildlife. Re-use of saline-sodic DW to irrigate salt-tolerant forage crops is attractive because it reduces the volume of DW requiring disposal and the land area affected by

  13. Osmotic, sodium, carbon dioxide and acid-base state of the Port Jackson shark, Heterodontus portusjacksoni , in response to lowered salinity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Cooper; S. Morris

    2004-01-01

    In marine elasmobranch fish the consequences for CO 2 and acid–base state of moving into low salinity water are not well described. Sub-adult Port Jackson sharks, Heterodontus portusjacksoni, occasionally enter brackish water and survive in 50% seawater (SW). The unidirectional Na efflux and content, plasma volume, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), body mass, as well as CO 2 and acid-base state

  14. A new and novel process for separation of salts, scale salts and norm contaminant salts from saline waters and saline solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. H. Bader

    1994-01-01

    A new and novel process for saline waters and saline solutions conversion has been provided that requires only a fair amount of a miscible organic solvent and heat transfer. Such requirements are ordinary in the nature of precipitation and vaporization. The proposed process consists of adding a miscible (strongly associated) organic solvent to saline water so that salt precipitates of

  15. New equations for density, entropy, heat capacity, and potential temperature of a saline thermal fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongbing; Feistel, Rainer; Koch, Manfred; Markoe, Andrew

    2008-10-01

    A set of fitted polynomial equations for calculating the physical variables density, entropy, heat capacity and potential temperature of a thermal saline fluid for a temperature range of 0-374 °C, pressure range of 0.1-100 MPa and absolute salinity range of 0-40 g/kg is established. The freshwater components of the equations are extracted from the recently released tabulated data of freshwater properties of Wagner and Pruß [2002. The IAPWS formulation 1995 for the thermodynamic properties of ordinary water substance for general and scientific use. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 31, 387-535]. The salt water component of the equation is based on the near-linear relationship between density, salinity and specific heat capacity and is extracted from the data sets of Feistel [2003. A new extended Gibbs thermodynamic potential of seawater. Progress in Oceanography 58, 43-114], Bromley et al. [1970. Heat capacities and enthalpies of sea salt solutions to 200 °C. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data 15, 246-253] and Grunberg [1970. Properties of sea water concentrates. In: Third International Symposium on Fresh Water from the Sea, vol. 1, pp. 31-39] in a temperature range 0-200 °C, practical salinity range 0-40, and varying pressure and is also calibrated by the data set of Millero et al. [1981. Summary of data treatment for the international high pressure equation of state for seawater. UNESCO Technical Papers in Marine Science 38, 99-192]. The freshwater and salt water components are combined to establish a workable multi-polynomial equation, whose coefficients were computed through standard linear regression analysis. The results obtained in this way for density, entropy and potential temperature are comparable with those of existing models, except that our new equations cover a wider temperature—(0-374 °C) than the traditional (0-40 °C) temperature range. One can apply these newly established equations to the calculation of in-situ or onboard density, specific volume (therefore, the porosity), and potential temperature change that are usually measured on shipboard by the Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) and other hydrothermal-fluid studies.

  16. Seasonal/Yearly Salinity Variations in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David H.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Dettinger, Michael D.; DiLeo, Jeanne Sandra; Hager, Stephen E.; Knowles, Noah; Nichols, Frederic H.; Schemel, Laurence E.; Smith, Richard E.; Uncles, Reginald J.

    1995-01-01

    The ability of resource agencies to manage fish, wildlife and freshwater supplies of San Francisco Bay estuary requires an integrated knowledge of the relations between the biota and their physical environment. A key factor in these relations is the role of salinity in determining both the physical and the biological character of the estuary. The saltiness of the water, and particularly its seasonal and interannual patterns of variability, affects which aquatic species live where within the estuary. Salinity also determines where water can and cannot be diverted for human consumption and irrigated agriculture, and plays a role in determining the capacity of the estuary to cleanse itself of wastes. In short, salinity is a fundamental property of estuarine physics and chemistry that, in turn, determines the biological characteristics of each estuary. Freshwater is a major control on estuarine salinity. Most freshwater supplied to the Bay is from river flow through the Delta, which is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada. Most contaminants in San Francisco Bay are from the Sacramento/San Joaquin Valley and the local watershed around the Bay rather than the sea or atmosphere. Land is the primary source of freshwater and freshwater serves as a tracer of land-derived substances such as the trace metals (copper, lead and selenium), pesticides and plant nutrients (nitrate and phosphate). The U.S. Geological Survey is collaborating with other agencies and institutions in studying San Francisco Bay salinity using field observations and numerical simulations to define the physical processes that control salinity. The issues that arise from salinity fluctuations, however, differ in the northern and southern parts of the bay. In North Bay we need to know how salinity responds to freshwater flow through the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta; this knowledge will benefit water managers who determine how much delta flow is needed a) to protect freshwater supplies for municipal water use and b) modulate salinity for a healthy estuary. In South Bay we need to know where the freshwater comes from (the distant Delta or local streams) to sort out the sources of a) contamination or b) dilution.

  17. Genetic studies on saline and sodic tolerances in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Donghe; Tuyen, Do Duc

    2012-01-01

    Salt-affected soils are generally classified into two main categories: saline and sodic (alkaline). Developing and using soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) cultivars with high salt tolerance is an effective way of maintaining sustainable production in areas where soybean growth is threatened by salt stress. Early classical genetics studies revealed that saline tolerance was conditioned by a single dominant gene. Recently, a series of studies consistently revealed a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for saline tolerance located on linkage group N (chromosome 3) around the SSR markers Satt255 and Sat_091; other minor QTLs were also reported. In the case of sodic tolerance, most studies focused on iron deficiency caused by a high soil pH, and several QTLs associated with iron deficiency were identified. A wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) accession with high sodic tolerance was recently identified, and a significant QTL for sodic tolerance was detected on linkage group D2 (chromosome 17). These studies demonstrated that saline and sodic tolerances were controlled by different genes in soybean. DNA markers closely associated with these QTLs can be used for marker-assisted selection to pyramid tolerance genes in soybean for both saline and sodic stresses. PMID:23136495

  18. Physiological and proteomic analysis of salinity tolerance in Puccinellia tenuiflora.

    PubMed

    Yu, Juanjuan; Chen, Sixue; Zhao, Qi; Wang, Tai; Yang, Chuanping; Diaz, Carolyn; Sun, Guorong; Dai, Shaojun

    2011-09-01

    Soil salinity poses a serious threat to agriculture productivity throughout the world. Studying mechanisms of salinity tolerance in halophytic plants will provide valuable information for engineering plants for enhanced salt tolerance. Monocotyledonous Puccinellia tenuiflora is a halophytic species that widely distributed in the saline-alkali soil of the Songnen plain in northeastern China. Here we investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying moderate salt tolerance of P. tenuiflora using a combined physiological and proteomic approach. The changes in biomass, inorganic ion content, osmolytes, photosynthesis, defense-related enzyme activities, and metabolites in the course of salt treatment were analyzed in the leaves. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 107 identities (representing 93 unique proteins) differentially expressed in P. tenuiflora leaves under saline conditions. These proteins were mainly involved in photosynthesis, stress and defense, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signaling, membrane, and transport. Our results showed that reduction of photosynthesis under salt treatment was attributed to the down-regulation of the light-harvesting complex (LHC) and Calvin cycle enzymes. Selective uptake of inorganic ions, high K(+)/Na(+) ratio, Ca(2+) concentration changes, and an accumulation of osmolytes contributed to ion balance and osmotic adjustment in leaf cells. Importantly, P. tenuiflora plants developed diverse reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging mechanisms in their leaves to cope with moderate salinity, including enhancement of the photorespiration pathway and thermal dissipation, synthesis of the low-molecular-weight antioxidant ?-tocopherol, and an accumulation of compatible solutes. This study provides important information toward improving salt tolerance of cereals. PMID:21732589

  19. GPR study of pore water content and salinity in sand

    SciTech Connect

    Hagrey, S.A.; Mueller, C.

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution studies of hydrological problems of the near-surface zone can be better accomplished by applying ground-probing radar (GPR) and geoelectrical techniques. The authors report on GPR measurements (500 and 900 MHz antennae) which were carried out on a sorted, clean sand, both in the laboratory and at outdoor experimental sites. The outdoor sites include a full-scale model measuring 5 x 3 x 2.4 m{sup 3} with three buried sand bodies saturated with water of various salinities. Studies investigate the capability of GPR to determine the pore water content and to estimate the salinity. These parameters are important for quantifying and evaluating the water quality of vadose zones and aquifers. The radar technique is increasingly applied in quantifying soil moisture but is still rarely used in studying the problems of water salinity and quality. The reflection coefficient at interfaces is obtained from the amplitude spectrum in the frequency and time domains and is confirmed by 1D wavelet modelling. In addition, the GPR velocity to a target at a known depth is determined using techniques of two-way traveltime, CMP semblance analysis and fitting an asymptotic diffraction curve. The results demonstrate that the reflection coefficient increases with increasing salinity of the moisture. These results may open up a new approach for applications in environmental problems and groundwater prospecting, e.g., mapping and monitoring of contamination and evaluation of aquifer salinity, especially in coastal areas with a time-varying fresh-water lens.

  20. Salinity changes in the Agulhas leakage area recorded by stable hydrogen isotopes of C37 alkenones during Termination I and II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, S.; van der Meer, M. T. J.; Mets, A.; Zahn, R.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Schouten, S.

    2013-06-01

    At the southern tip of the African shelf, the Agulhas Current reflects back into the Indian Ocean causing so called "Agulhas rings" to spin off and release relatively warm and saline water into the South Atlantic Ocean. Previous reconstructions of the dynamics of the Agulhas current, based on paleo sea surface temperature and sea surface salinity proxies, inferred that Agulhas leakage from the Indian Ocean to the South Atlantic is reduced as a consequence of changes in wind fields related to a northwards migration of ice masses and the subtropical front during glacial stages. Subsequently, this might have led to a build-up of warm saline water in the southern Indian Ocean. To investigate this latter hypothesis, we reconstructed sea surface salinity changes using alkenone ? D, and paleo sea surface temperature using TEXH86 and UK'37, from two sediment cores (MD02-2594, MD96-2080) located in the Agulhas leakage area during Termination I and II. Both UK'37 and TEXH86 temperature reconstructions infer an abrupt warming during the glacial terminations, which is different from the gradual warming trend previously reconstructed based on Mg/Ca ratios of Globigerina bulloides. These differences in temperature reconstructions might be related to differences in the growth season or depth habitat between organisms. A shift to more negative ? Dalkenone values of approximately 14‰ during glacial Termination I and approximately 13‰ during Termination II is also observed. Approximately half of these shifts can be attributed to the change in global ice volume, while the residual isotopic shift is attributed to changes in salinity, suggesting relatively high salinities at the core sites during glacials, with subsequent freshening during glacial terminations. Approximate estimations suggest that ? Dalkenone represents a salinity change of ca. 1.7-2 during Termination I and ca. 1.5-1.7 during Termination II. These estimations are in good agreement with the proposed changes in salinity derived from previously reported combined planktonic foraminifera ?18O values and Mg/Ca-based temperature reconstructions. Our results show that the ? D of alkenones is a potentially suitable tool to reconstruct salinity changes independent of planktonic foraminifera ?18O.

  1. Climate change impacts on water salinity and health.

    PubMed

    Vineis, Paolo; Chan, Queenie; Khan, Aneire

    2011-12-01

    It is estimated that 884 million people do not have access to clean drinking water in the world. Increasing salinity of natural drinking water sources has been reported as one of the many problems that affect low-income countries, but one which has not been fully explored. This problem is exacerbated by rising sea-levels, owing to climate change, and other contributing factors, like changes in fresh water flow from rivers and increased shrimp farming along the coastal areas. In some countries, desalination plants are used to partly remove salt and other minerals from water sources, but this is unlikely to be a sustainable option for low-income countries affected by high salinity. Using the example of Bangladesh as a model country, the following research indicates that the problem of salinity can have serious implications with regard to rising rates of hypertension and other public health problems among large sectors of the worldwide population. PMID:23856370

  2. Groundwater salinity in a floodplain forest impacted by saltwater intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, David A.; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2014-11-01

    Coastal wetlands occupy a delicate position at the intersection of fresh and saline waters. Changing climate and watershed hydrology can lead to saltwater intrusion into historically freshwater systems, causing plant mortality and loss of freshwater habitat. Understanding the hydrological functioning of tidally influenced floodplain forests is essential for advancing ecosystem protection and restoration goals, however finding direct relationships between hydrological inputs and floodplain hydrology is complicated by interactions between surface water, groundwater, and atmospheric fluxes in variably saturated soils with heterogeneous vegetation and topography. Thus, an alternative method for identifying common trends and causal factors is required. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a time series dimension reduction technique, models temporal variation in observed data as linear combinations of common trends, which represent unexplained common variability, and explanatory variables. DFA was applied to model shallow groundwater salinity in the forested floodplain wetlands of the Loxahatchee River (Florida, USA), where altered watershed hydrology has led to changing hydroperiod and salinity regimes and undesired vegetative changes. Long-term, high-resolution groundwater salinity datasets revealed dynamics over seasonal and yearly time periods as well as over tidal cycles and storm events. DFA identified shared trends among salinity time series and a full dynamic factor model simulated observed series well (overall coefficient of efficiency, Ceff = 0.85; 0.52 ? Ceff ? 0.99). A reduced multilinear model based solely on explanatory variables identified in the DFA had fair to good results (Ceff = 0.58; 0.38 ? Ceff ? 0.75) and may be used to assess the effects of restoration and management scenarios on shallow groundwater salinity in the Loxahatchee River floodplain.

  3. Interannual Caribbean salinity in satellite data and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodsky, Semyon A.; Johnson, Benjamin K.; Carton, James A.; Bryan, Frank O.

    2015-02-01

    Aquarius sea surface salinity (SSS) reveals the presence of interannual variations in the Caribbean with about 0.5 psu change between salty and fresh events, which propagate westward across that basin at an average speed of 11 cm/s and are preceded by corresponding SSS anomalies east of the Lesser Antilles. These upstream SSS anomalies are produced by interannual changes in the Amazon plume. Their presence is verified using in situ measurements from the northwest tropical Atlantic station. In contrast to SSS, which displays westward propagation, SST changes almost immediately across the Caribbean, suggesting large-scale atmospheric processes have a primary role in regulating interannual SST in contrast to SSS. A global 1/10° mesoscale ocean model is used to quantify possible origination mechanisms of the Caribbean salinity anomalies and their fate. Simulations confirm that they are produced by anomalous horizontal salt advection, which conveys these salinity anomalies from an area east of the Lesser Antilles across the Caribbean. Anomalous horizontal advection is dominated by mean currents acting on anomalous salinity. The model suggests that interannual Caribbean salinity anomalies eventually enter the Florida Current and reach the Gulf Stream 6-12 months after crossing the central Caribbean. Previous studies link the origin of salinity anomalies in the Amazon plume to variations in the annual freshwater discharge from the continent. In this model interannual discharge variations are absent while simulated SSS variability is in line with observations. This suggests that interannually forced ocean dynamics plays a key role in river plume variability and its spatial dispersion.

  4. Is a salinity monitoring network "Worth its salt"?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prinos, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Saltwater intrusion threatens the water supplies of many coastal communities. Management of these water supplies requires well-designed and properly maintained and operated salinity monitoring networks. Long-standing deficiencies identified in a salinity monitoring network in southwest Florida during a 2013 study (Prinos, 2013) help to illustrate the types of problems that can occur in aging and poorly maintained networks. This cooperative U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) study also describes improvements that can be implemented to overcome these deficiencies.

  5. Genetic analysis of salinity tolerance in rice ( Oryza sativa L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. B. Gregorio; D. Senadhira

    1993-01-01

    The genetics of salinity tolerance in rice was investigated by a nine-parent complete diallel including reciprocals. Test materials involved susceptible (IR28, IR29, and MI-48), moderately tolerant (IR4595-4-1-13, IR9884-54-3-1E-P1, and IR10206-29-2-1), and tolerant (“Nona Bokra”, “Pokkali”, and SR26B) parents. Twoweek-old seedlings were grown in a salinized (EC = 12 dS\\/m) culture solution for 19 days under controlled conditions in the IRRI

  6. Passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in coastal zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Calvin T.; Blume, Hans-Juergen C.; Kendall, Bruce M.

    1987-01-01

    The theory of measuring coastal-zone salinity from airborne microwave radiometers is developed. The theory, as presented, shows that precision measurements of salinity favor the lower microwave frequencies. To this end, L- and S-Band systems were built, and the flight results have shown that accuracies of at least one part per thousand were achieved.The aircraft results focus on flights conducted over the Chesapeake Bay and the mouth of the Savanna River off the Georgia Coast. This paper presents no new work, but rather summarizes the capabilities of the remote sensing technique.

  7. Multi-Method Monitoring of Shallow Gas Injection in Saline Coastal Reservoir at Maguelone (Languedoc coastline, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denchik, N.; Pezard, P. A.; Lofi, J.; Luquot, L.; Neyens, D.; Jaafar, O.; Perroud, H.; Abdelghafour, H.; Henry, G.; Levannier, A.

    2014-12-01

    Geological storage of CO2 is still a recent technology and many questions remain open, particularly for saline formations. Geological storage in accessible saline formations is, in fact, expected to become over time more important than that in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs. The Maguelone shallow experimental site, located near Montpellier (Languedoc, France) has been used over the past few years to perform CO2 injection experiments. The geology, petrophysics and hydrology of this site are well known from previous studies. The presence of small saline coastal reservoirs bounded above and below by clay-rich layers provides an opportunity to study a saline formation for geological storage at field laboratory scale with a set of hydrogeophysical (seismic, electrical, sonic, pressure) and geochemical (pH, minor and major ion concentrations) methods, either downhole or at surface. Series of experiments can be run at moderate costs from the shallow depth of one of these reservoirs (13-16 m), offering flexibility for testing different monitoring configurations, performing repeated injection releases with variable injection parameters and type of gas (e.g., N2, CO2), and cross-calibrating the monitoring methods. Moreover, additional methods/boreholes can be easily implemented at this experimental site. Three N2 injections were thus undertaken at Maguelone in 2012 to measure the site response to neutral gas injection. An experiment involving the release of CO2 was successively conducted in January 2013. A volume of 111 m3 of CO2 was injected during 3.5 hours. Both the N2 and CO2 gas plumes were detected by all monitoring techniques, and the response to gas propagation was instantaneous. Integrating the lesson learned from past injection experiments, the next stage of the project will allow to establish the best guidelines for CO2 injection and post-injection monitoring and, in perspective, not only to detect the CO2 plume but to quantify CO2 migration in the subsurface.

  8. Industry use of saline water not expected in tar sand triangle

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    An environmental assessment of the Dirty Devil River Salinity Control Unit resulted in a finding of no significant impact. The purpose of the unit is to reduce salinity in the Colorado River by collecting flows below two saline springs and disposing of them by deep-well injection into the Coconino Sandstone. During formulation of the salinity control plan, the potential use of saline water in the development of tar sand resources was considered, but it was concluded that saline water would not be needed for this purpose in the foreseeable future, because of the currently depressed world oil market and the development status of tar sand extraction technologies.

  9. Effects of salinity on embryonic development, survival, and growth of Crassostrea hongkongensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Zhongming; Wang, Zhaoping; Liang, Jian; Zhang, Yuehuan; Shen, Jianping; Yao, Tuo; Su, Jiaqi; Yu, Ruihai

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the effects of salinity on embryonic development, survival, and growth of the Hong Kong oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis. The embryos, larvae, and juveniles of C. hongkongensis were held in artificial seawater at three different salinities (low, 15; medium, 23; and high, 30) to determine the optimum hatchery and nursery conditions for mass production of the seeds. Results showed that the percentage production of straight-hinged larvae from fertilized eggs was significantly lower at the high salinity than at the low- and medium-salinities ( P < 0.05). The survival rates of larvae and juveniles differed significantly among the three salinity trials, with the highest survival rate observed at the low salinity ( P < 0.05). The shell height of larvae was significantly larger at the low salinity than at the high and medium salinities from days 9 to 15 ( P < 0.05), whereas that of juveniles was significantly larger at the low salinity than at the high and medium salinities on day 70 ( P < 0.05). These results indicate that the larvae and juveniles of C. hongkongensis are tolerant to a wide range of salinities (15 to 30), but show better growth and survival at relatively low salinities. Thus, it is recommended to use relatively low salinities in hatchery and nursery systems for improved yields of C. hongkongensis.

  10. [Study on the soil salinization monitoring based on measured hyperspectral and HSI data].

    PubMed

    Lei, Lei; Tiyip, Tashpolat; Ding, Jian-Li; Jiang, Hong-Nan; Kelimu, Ardak

    2014-07-01

    The present paper selects the Kuqa Oasis as the study area, studies spectrum characteristics of soil salinity, and establishes soil spectrum library. Through transforming and analyzing varying degrees of soil salinization reflectance spectra data in the typical study area, and selecting the most sensitive spectral bands in response to salinization, we established the measured hyperspectral soil salinity monitoring model, and by correcting the soil salinity monitoring model established by HIS image through scale effect conversion improved the model accuracy under the conditions of a regional-scale monitoring of soil salinization. The results show that both measured hyperspectral soil salinity monitoring model and HSI image soil salinity inversion model have good accuracy, model determination coefficient (R2) is higher than 0.57 and the model stability is better. Compared with the corrected HSI image soil salinity inversion model and uncorrected HSI image soil salinity inversion model, the coefficient of determination has been greatly improved, which increased from 0.571 to 0.681, and through the 0.01 significance level, the root mean square error (RMSE) value is 0.277. The correction HIS image soil salinization monitoring model can better improve the model accuracy under the condition of regional scale soil salinization monitoring, and using this method to carry out the soil salinization quantitative remote sensing monitoring is feasible, and also can provide scientific reference for future research. PMID:25269314

  11. Solid earth response to the Messinian salinity crisis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Govers; P. T. Meijer; W. Krijgsman

    2006-01-01

    The salinity crisis of the Mediterranean during Messinian time was one of the most dramatic episodes of oceanic change of the past 20 or so million years. The onset at 5.96 Ma was followed by complete isolation from the Atlantic Ocean, causing a large and rapid drawdown of the Mediterranean water level, erosion and deposition of non-marine sediments in a

  12. Ecophysiological aspects of halophyte zonation in saline sloughs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bansi L. Tiku

    1975-01-01

    Summary  The distribution of halophytes along the shoreline of a saline lake was studied in relation to the edaphic gradient, defined in terms of soil moisture, quality and quantity of dissolved solids, and osmotic and matric potential of the soil substrate. The edaphic gradient extends laterally from the wet depression area to the upslope drier area. The depression areas have low

  13. Microbial diversity of rizosphere in two saline chenopodiaceaes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saline environments can be found on all continents and in most countries. They consist in two primary types: those that arose from seawater and those which come from nonseawater sources. The latter contain different ion ratios where the dominant anion is typically carbonate. Plants native to sali...

  14. Adaptation of a freshwater anammox population to high salinity wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boran Kartal; Mariana Koleva; Roumen Arsov; Wouter van der Star; Mike S. M. Jetten; Marc Strous

    2006-01-01

    For the successful application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in wastewater practice it is important to know how to seed new anammox reactors with biomass from existing reactors. In this study, a new high salinity anammox reactor was inoculated with biomass from a freshwater system. The changes in activity and population shifts were monitored. It was shown that freshwater anammox

  15. ORIGINAL PAPER Effects of temperature, salinity, and water level

    E-print Network

    Poulin, Robert

    cercariae Janet Koprivnikar & Robert Poulin Received: 19 January 2009 /Accepted: 8 May 2009 /Published on the emer- gence of cercariae in marine systems. We investigated the response of trematodes salinity used (30 PSU). More M. novaezealan- densis cercariae emerged when snails were kept partially

  16. Association Analysis of Ocean Salinity and Temperature Variations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yo-Ping Huang; Wen-Tin Hsu; Frode Eika Sandnes

    2008-01-01

    Ocean salinity and temperature variations have received increasing attention due to their relation to global climate changes such as warm winters, the universal drought, heat waves, floods and snowstorms. The factors that affect climate changes vary across the world. For example, Taiwan is subtropical where the climate is influenced by airstreams and ocean currents. In this study, association rule mining

  17. Global carbon sequestration in tidal, saline wetland soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail L. Chmura; Shimon C. Anisfeld; Donald R. Cahoon; James C. Lynch

    2003-01-01

    Wetlands represent the largest component of the terrestrial biological carbon pool and thus play an important role in global carbon cycles. Most global carbon budgets, however, have focused on dry land ecosystems that extend over large areas and have not accounted for the many small, scattered carbonstoring ecosystems such as tidal saline wetlands. We compiled data for 154 sites in

  18. SMOS: a satellite mission to measure ocean surface salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, Jordi; Kerr, Yann H.; Srokosz, Meric A.; Etcheto, Jacqueline; Lagerloef, Gary S.; Camps, Adriano; Waldteufel, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    The ESA's SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission will be launched by 2005. Its baseline payload is a microwave L-band (21 cm, 1.4 GHz) 2D interferometric radiometer, Y shaped, with three arms 4.5 m long. This frequency allows the measurement of brightness temperature (Tb) under the best conditions to retrieve soil moisture and sea surface salinity (SSS). Unlike other oceanographic variables, until now it has not been possible to measure salinity from space. However, large ocean areas lack significant salinity measurements. The 2D interferometer will measure Tb at large and different incidence angles, for two polarizations. It is possible to obtain SSS from L-band passive microwave measurements if the other factors influencing Tb (SST, surface roughness, foam, sun glint, rain, ionospheric effects and galactic/cosmic background radiation) can be accounted for. Since the radiometric sensitivity is low, SSS cannot be recovered to the required accuracy from a single measurement as the error is about 1-2 psu. If the errors contributing to the uncertainty in Tb are random, averaging the independent data and views along the track, and considering a 200 km square, allow the error to be reduced to 0.1-0.2 pus, assuming all ancillary errors are budgeted.

  19. Desiccation-crack-induced salinization in deep clay sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baram, S.; Ronen, Z.; Kurtzman, D.; Külls, C.; Dahan, O.

    2013-04-01

    A study on water infiltration and solute transport in a clayey vadose zone underlying a dairy farm waste source was conducted to assess the impact of desiccation cracks on subsurface evaporation and salinization. The study is based on five years of continuous measurements of the temporal variation in the vadose zone water content and on the chemical and isotopic composition of the sediment and pore water in it. The isotopic composition of water stable isotopes (?18O and ?2H) in water and sediment samples, from the area where desiccation crack networks prevail, indicated subsurface evaporation down to ~ 3.5 m below land surface, and vertical and lateral preferential transport of water, following erratic preferential infiltration events. Chloride (Cl-) concentrations in the vadose zone pore water substantially increased with depth, evidence of deep subsurface evaporation and down flushing of concentrated solutions from the evaporation zones during preferential infiltration events. These observations led to development of a desiccation-crack-induced salinization (DCIS) conceptual model. DCIS suggests that thermally driven convective air flow in the desiccation cracks induces evaporation and salinization in relatively deep sections of the subsurface. This conceptual model supports previous conceptual models on vadose zone and groundwater salinization in fractured rock in arid environments and extends its validity to clayey soils in semi-arid environments.

  20. Desiccation-crack-induced salinization in deep clay sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baram, S.; Ronen, Z.; Kurtzman, D.; Küells, C.; Dahan, O.

    2012-11-01

    A study on water infiltration and solute transport in a clayey vadose zone underlying a dairy farm waste source was conducted to assess the impact of desiccation cracks on subsurface evaporation and salinization. The study is based on five years of continuous measurements of the temporal variation in the vadose zone water-content and on the chemical and isotopic composition of the sediment and pore-water in it. The isotopic composition of water stable isotopes (?18O and ?2H) in water and sediment samples, from the area where desiccation crack networks prevail, indicated subsurface evaporation down to ∼3.5 m below land surface, and vertical and lateral preferential transport of water, following erratic preferential infiltration events. Chloride (Cl-) concentrations in the vadose zone pore water substantially increased with depth, evidence of deep subsurface evaporation and down flushing of concentrated solutions from the evaporation zones during preferential infiltration events. These observations led to development of a Desiccation-Crack-Induced Salinization (DCIS) conceptual model. DCIS suggests that thermally driven convective air flow in the desiccation cracks induces evaporation and salinization in relatively deep sections of the subsurface. This conceptual model supports previous conceptual models on vadose zone and groundwater salinization in fractured rock in arid environments and extends its validity to clayey soils in semi-arid environments.

  1. Salinity effects on Atlantic sturgeon growth and osmoregulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus Mitchill, 1815) is an anadromous sturgeon species, yet little is known with regard to its osmoregulatory ability and habitat use at early life stages. In order to examine whether salinity poses a physiological challenge to juvenile Atlantic stur...

  2. Irrigation and Soil Salinization in Mediterranean agro-ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Angelo; Viola, Francesco; Valerio Noto, Leonardo; Mau, Yair; Porporato, Amilcare

    2015-04-01

    During the warm and dry growing season of Mediterranean climates, the availability of good quality water for primary production in agriculture tends to be limited. This aspect makes the use of saline and brackish water appealing, given the potential of natural flushing of the soils by deep percolation during the wet and colder dormant season. Thus the cyclic alternation between the two different phases in the cold and warm season gives rise to a delicate equilibrium that can lead to long term secondary salinization if the mean salt input from irrigation overpasses the average annual natural leakage amount. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the long term salt mass balance in the presence of irrigation and possible changes in seasonality. An elevated concentration of salt in the soil may in turn lead to both a decrease of its fertility and to osmotic stress reducing plant productivity. To this purpose, a stochastic soil and water balance salinity model is developed to quantify the balance between salt accumulation phases during the growing season and leaching phases during the wet season. We provide the numerical and the analytical representation of secondary long-term salinization process, highlighting the role of soil depth, plant and climate together with the impact of shifts in the seasonal vs. interannual rainfall fluctuations. An application to a test case in the Southern part of Sicily (ITALY) is also presented, highlighting the strong relationship between salt dynamics, water management and climatic conditions.

  3. Delta Hydrodynamics and Water Salinity with Future Conditions

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    Delta Hydrodynamics and Water Salinity with Future Conditions Technical Appendix C William E, Comparing Futures for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, prepared by a team of researchers from the Center of Water Quality across the Delta 9 2. NO EXPORTS AND UNIMPAIRED FLOWS 11 Water Quality with No Exports 11

  4. GROWTH OF FABA BEAN IRRIGATED WITH SALINE DRAINAGE WATER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Zayed; B. Mackey

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing trend in utilizing poor quality waters for irrigated agriculture due to growing municipal and environmental demands for good quality water. Suitability of poor quality water as a supplemental source for irrigation depends on the level of salinity and solute concentration in the water and the selected crop. This greenhouse study assessed the tolerance of faba beans

  5. Quality control of ocean temperature and salinity profile data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth P. Grembowicz; Betty S. Howell

    2002-01-01

    The objective of data quality control (QC) is to ensure consistency within a single data set or throughout a historical database. This is a vital step to be taken with any data set before scientific analysis can be proceed. A redesign of data quality procedures for temperature and salinity profile data undertaken by the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) during the

  6. Laser/Heterodyne Measurement of Temperature and Salinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, D. J.; Fales, C. L.; Katzberg, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed visible-light laser/heterodyne receiver would remotely measure temperature and salinity of subsurface water. Operation is based on acoustic/optical scattering of light by sound waves. Application of this concept is foreseen in current research on energy conversion from ocean currents produced by thermal gradients and on future marine remote-sensing program.

  7. Salinity–mineral nutrient relations in horticultural crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. r. Grattan; C. m. Grieve

    1998-01-01

    The relations between salinity and mineral nutrition of horticultural crops are extremely complex and a complete understanding of the intricate interactions involved would require the input from a multidisciplinary team of scientists. This review addresses the nutrient elements individually and we emphasise research directed towards the organ, whole-plant and field level. We have attempted to synthesise the literature and reconcile

  8. 19. The limnology of saline lakes in Western Victoria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Williams; S. Australia

    1981-01-01

    Although saline lakes are interesting to limnologists, most, unfortunately, are relatively inaccessible. The extent to which they have been studied compared with freshwater lakes is therefore limited. Though not restricted to warm arid regions, they are often numerous in such places, and Australia not surprizingly - has a large number. Most of these, too, are relatively inaccessible. However, west of

  9. Modern dolomite deposition in continental, saline lakes, western Victoria, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. de Deckker; William M. Last

    1988-01-01

    Microcrystalline dolomite forms a major constituent of Holocene sediments of numerous continental, saline playa lakes in southeastern Australia. The lake waters are highly supersaturated with respect to dolomite as well as other Mg carbonates, but undersaturated or near saturation with respect to calcite and aragonite. The dolomite shows no replacement textures and most likely formed by direct precipitation. Conditions in

  10. Regime changes in global sea surface salinity trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretxabaleta, A. L.; Smith, K. W.; Ballabrera-Poy, J.

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies have shown significant sea surface salinity (SSS) changes at scales ranging from regional to global. In this study, we estimate global salinity means and trends using historical (1950-2014) SSS data from the UK Met. Office Hadley Centre objectively analyzed monthly fields and recent data from the SMOS satellite (2010-2014). We separate the different components (regimes) of the global surface salinity by fitting a Gaussian Mixture Model to the data and using Expectation-Maximization to distinguish the means and trends of the data. The procedure uses a non-subjective method (Bayesian Information Criterion) to extract the optimal number of means and trends. The results show the presence of three separate regimes: Regime A (1950-1990) is characterized by small trend magnitudes; Regime B (1990-2009) exhibited enhanced trends; and Regime C (2009-2014) with significantly larger trend magnitudes. The salinity differences between regime means were around 0.01. The trend acceleration could be related to an enhanced global hydrological cycle or to a change in the sampling methodology.

  11. Effect of salinity and calcium on tomato fruit proteome.

    PubMed

    Manaa, Arafet; Faurobert, Mireille; Valot, Benoît; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Grasselly, Dominique; Causse, Mathilde; Ahmed, Hela Ben

    2013-06-01

    Salinity is a major abiotic stress that adversely affects plant growth and productivity. The physiology of the tomato in salty and nonsalty conditions has been extensively studied, providing an invaluable base to understand the responses of the plants to cultural practices. However few data are yet available at the proteomic level looking for the physiological basis of fruit development, under salt stress. Here, we report the effects of salinity and calcium on fruit proteome variations of two tomato genotypes (Cervil and Levovil). Tomato plants were irrigated with a control solution (3 dSm(-1)) or with saline solutions (Na or Ca+Na at 7.6 dSm(-1)). Tomato fruits were harvested at two ripening stages: green (14 days post-anthesis) and red ripe. Total proteins were extracted from pericarp tissue and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Among the 600 protein spots reproducibly detected, 53 spots exhibited significant abundance variations between samples and were submitted to mass spectrometry for identification. Most of the identified proteins were involved in carbon and energy metabolism, salt stress, oxidative stress, and proteins associated with ripening process. Overall, there was a large variation on proteins abundance between the two genotypes that can be correlated to salt treatment or/and fruit ripening stage. The results showed a protective effect of calcium that limited the impact of salinization on metabolism, ripening process, and induced plant salt tolerance. Collectively, this work has improved our knowledge about salt and calcium effect on tomato fruit proteome. PMID:23692365

  12. Development of saline ground water through transpiration of sea water.

    PubMed

    Fass, T; Cook, P G; Stieglitz, T; Herczeg, A L

    2007-01-01

    As vegetation usually excludes salt during water uptake, transpiration will increase the salinity of the residual water. If the source water is sea water, then the residual water may become highly saline. In the unconfined coastal aquifer of the tropical Burdekin River delta, northeastern Australia, areas of highly saline ground water with chloride concentrations up to almost three times that of sea water occur up to 15 km from the present coastline, and are attributed to transpiration by mangrove vegetation during periods of high sea level. Radiogenic ((14)C) carbon isotope analyses indicate that ground water with chloride concentrations between 15,000 and 35,000 mg/L is mostly between 4000 and 6000 years old, at which time sea level was 2 to 3 m higher than present. Stable isotope analyses of oxygen-18 and deuterium show no evidence for evaporative enrichment of this water. Oxygen-18, deuterium, and stable (delta(13)C) carbon isotope analyses of ground water and soil water point to a recharge environment beneath the mangrove forests during this postglacial sea level high stand. During that period, transpiration of the mangrove forests would have led to high chloride concentrations in the residual ground water, without inducing isotopic fractionation. Due to the higher density, this hypersaline water moved downward through the aquifer by gravity and has formed lenses of highly saline ground water at the bottom of the unconfined aquifer. PMID:17973748

  13. Visit to An Ocean Planet: Salinity and Deep Ocean Currents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource uses text, images, maps and a laboratory exercise to explain how differences in the temperature and salinity of ocean water cause the formation of deep-ocean currents. It is part of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's "Ocean Surface Topography from Space" website. This material is also available on the "Visit to An Ocean Planet" CD-ROM.

  14. Community assembly of a euryhaline fish microbiome during salinity acclimation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Victor T; Smith, Katherine F; Melvin, Donald W; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A

    2015-05-01

    Microbiomes play a critical role in promoting a range of host functions. Microbiome function, in turn, is dependent on its community composition. Yet, how microbiome taxa are assembled from their regional species pool remains unclear. Many possible drivers have been hypothesized, including deterministic processes of competition, stochastic processes of colonization and migration, and physiological 'host-effect' habitat filters. The contribution of each to assembly in nascent or perturbed microbiomes is important for understanding host-microbe interactions and host health. In this study, we characterized the bacterial communities in a euryhaline fish and the surrounding tank water during salinity acclimation. To assess the relative influence of stochastic versus deterministic processes in fish microbiome assembly, we manipulated the bacterial species pool around each fish by changing the salinity of aquarium water. Our results show a complete and repeatable turnover of dominant bacterial taxa in the microbiomes from individuals of the same species after acclimation to the same salinity. We show that changes in fish microbiomes are not correlated with corresponding changes to abundant taxa in tank water communities and that the dominant taxa in fish microbiomes are rare in the aquatic surroundings, and vice versa. Our results suggest that bacterial taxa best able to compete within the unique host environment at a given salinity appropriate the most niche space, independent of their relative abundance in tank water communities. In this experiment, deterministic processes appear to drive fish microbiome assembly, with little evidence for stochastic colonization. PMID:25819646

  15. Water use of grazed salt bush plantations with saline watertable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. Slavich; K. S. Smith; S. D. Tyerman; G. R. Walker

    1999-01-01

    Old man saltbush (Atriplex nummularia) has been widely planted on salt affected land in south-east Australia to provide a vegetative cover which can be used as a fodder reserve. Such plantations are also perceived as having the capacity to use saline groundwater and hence affect the extent of shallow watertables. This paper examines the water use characteristics of saltbush plantations

  16. A miniature, low cost CTD system for coastal salinity measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather A Broadbent; Stanislav Z Ivanov; David P Fries

    2007-01-01

    In this work we describe a small, low cost conductivity, temperature and depth (CTD) system for measurements of salinity in coastal waters. The system incorporates three low cost expendable sensors, a novel planar four-electrode conductivity cell, a planar resistive temperature device and a piezoelectric pressure sensor. The conductivity cell and the resistive temperature device were fabricated using novel printed circuit

  17. Sodium in foraminiferal calcite as a direct proxy for salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezger, E.; de Nooijer, L. J.; Dueñas-Bohórquez, A.; Reichart, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    Salinity is one of the most important parameters in paleo-oceanography, controlling -together with temperature- changes in sea-water density and ocean currents. An integrated understanding of past ocean functioning hence critically relies on accurate past density values. A recently developed direct proxy for salinity, based on incorporation of sodium (Na) into benthic foraminiferal shells, may circumvent inaccuracies associated with indirect salinity reconstructions, when combining for instance foraminiferal stable oxygen isotope values with independent temperature reconstructions. Here we present new results of culture experiments with planktonic foraminifera (e.g. Globigerinoides ruber) and of a field calibration covering a broad salinity range. The foraminiferal Na/Ca was determined by laser ablation-ICP-MS, allowing geochemical analysis on a single chamber. The obtained planktonic Na/Ca values show a similar sensitivity, albeit with slightly higher values as previously reported for benthic foraminifera. This offset indicates that albeit values are in line with what is expected from previous inorganic precipitation experiments, biological control on calcium carbonate precipitation must play a role.

  18. Adaptation to salinity at the plant cell level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Lerner

    1985-01-01

    Summary Various mechanisms of adaptation of plant cells to salinity are reviewed: (1) protection of enzymes and maintenance of turgor by organic solutes; (2) prevention of ion toxicity by compartmentation; and (3) energization of solute transport by the proton pump. All these mechanisms seem to play a role in adaptation. The particular advantages of using salt-adapted cells in suspension culture

  19. The effect of salinity on plant available water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Sheldon; Neal W. Menzies; H. Bing So; Ram Dalal

    Salinity acts to inhibit plant access to soil water by increasing the osmotic strength of the soil solution. As the soil dries, the soil solution becomes increasingly concentrated, further limiting plant access to soil water. An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of salt on plant available water in a heavy clay soil, using a relatively salt tolerant species,

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING MANUAL FOR SALINITY MANAGEMENT IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Environmental Planning Manual for Salinity Management in Irrigated Agriculture has been prepared. The primary focus of this manual is a delineation of the combinations of technological and institutional solutions, the various levels of planning effort, use of existing data and...

  1. MAPPING SURFACE SYMPTOMS OF DRYLAND SALINITY WITH HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Dutkiewicz; Megan Lewisa; Bertram Ostendorf; WG VII

    2006-01-01

    Hyperspectral images from three sensors were compared for their ability to discriminate and map selected symptoms of salinity in a dryland agricultural area in southern Australia. The symptoms mapped are widespread in this environment: the perennial halophytic shrub samphire (Halosarcia pergranulata), a salt tolerant grass, sea barley grass (Hordeum marinum) and salt encrusted pans. Airborne HyMap and satellite Hyperion imagery

  2. Modelling of chloride ingress into concrete from a saline environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Wang; Long-yuan Li; C. L. Page

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model previously developed for the simulation of electrochemical chloride removal (ECR) process is utilised to predict the ionic mass transport associated with chloride ingress into concrete or hydrated cement paste from a saline environment by incorporating the convection of pore solution. Compared to the existing models, the present model has advantages in the aspect of numerical calculations as

  3. Root halotropism: Salinity effects on Bassia indica root

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Shelef; N. Lazarovitch; B. Rewald; S. Rachmilevitch

    2010-01-01

    Plant roots are responsible for the acquisition of nutrients and water from the soil and have an important role in plant response to soil stress conditions. The direction of root growth is gravitropic in general. Gravitropic responses have been widely studied; however, studies about other root tropisms are scarce. Soil salinity is a major environmental response factor for plants, sensed

  4. Food Production in Arid Regions as Related to Salinity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arid and semi arid regions of the world are generally associated with high population density and lower than average per capita incomes and living standards. These regions are vulnerable to food shortages due to current, unsustainable use of fresh water for irrigation and soil salinization. This pa...

  5. Phytoplankton dynamics in a coastal saline lake (SE-Portugal)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Morais; Maria Alexandra Chícharo; Ana Barbosa

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise phytoplankton dynamics in a coastal saline lake, pinpointing putative biotic and abiotic regulatory variables of its succession and productivity. Between February and September 1998, samples for the analysis of physical, chemical and biological variables were taken fortnightly (except in February and April). The phytoplankton community showed three distinct periods of evolution. The

  6. Some Limnological Features of a Shallow Saline Meromictic Lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seasonal variations of some physical, chemical, and biological features were studied from I~cccmbcr 1954 to October 1956 in Hot Lake, a shallow saline body of water occupying a former epsom salt excavation in north central Washington. The lake is meromictic and (luring the period of study had an average salt gradient of approximately 100 g\\/liter at the surface to 400

  7. Seasonal characteristics of two saline lakes in Washington

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. ANDERSON

    1958-01-01

    The limnology of two highly saline lakes in Washington was studied in relation to the physical and chemical conditions which influence the growth and distribution of phyto- plankton. The lakes wcrc sampled at frequent intervals for a period of more than a year in 1950 and 1951. Morphomctric conditions were determined, and routine sampling in- cluded measurements of temperature, transparency,

  8. Nonuniform sympathetic nerve responses to intravenous hypertonic saline infusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark L. Weiss; Dale E. Claassen; Tadakazu Hirai; Michael J. Kenney

    1996-01-01

    Peripheral hyperosmolality produced by the intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline (HTS) increases mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) in experimental animals. The mechanisms mediating the pressor response have not been fully ascertained, but likely involve vasopressin and\\/or activation of the sympathetic nervous system. The primary aim of this study was to determine if HTS infusion produces regionally uniform or nonuniform changes

  9. Influence of Tributaries on Salinity of Amistad International Reservoir 

    E-print Network

    Miyamoto, S.; Yuan, Fasong; Anand, Shilpa

    2006-01-01

    .0 billion m3 for much of 1986 through 1992, then depleted to as low as 1.5 billion m3 during the last decade, following the drought which started in 1994. Salinity of the Rio Grande at Amistad prior to reservoir construction averaged 560 mg L-1 (Fig. 2a...

  10. Home Brew Salinity Measuring Devices: Their Construction and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper discusses several inexpensive methods of evaluating the salinity of seawater. One method is presented in some detail. This method has several attractive features. First, it can be used to provide instruction, not only in marine chemistry, but also in studying the mathematics of the point slope formula, and as an aid in teaching students…

  11. Endometrial ablation by hysteroscopic instillation of hot saline solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milton H. Goldrath; Marcelo Barrionuevo; Mujtaba Husain

    1997-01-01

    Current methods of endometrial ablation to treat excessive uterine bleeding use laser or electrosurgical energy sources. These procedures are highly skill dependent, and numerous cases of fluid overload as well as other complications have been reported. A new method of endometrial ablation instills heated 0.9% normal saline at 80 to 90°C. The fluid is recirculated and therefore, it is possible

  12. Comparison of reduced volume versus four-liter electrolyte lavage solutions for colon cleansing.

    PubMed

    Ker, Tim S

    2006-10-01

    In an attempt to improve patient tolerance for colon cleaning, a reduced-volume regimen with a 2-liter electrolyte lavage solution plus 20 mg of oral bisacodyl was compared with the standard 4-liter lavage for efficacy and safety. Three hundred patients were prospectively randomized into two study groups. One group of 150 patients was given four tablets of 5 mg bisacodyl at 12:00 PM the day before their colonoscopy, followed by 2 liters of electrolyte lavage by mouth at 6:00 PM the evening before their colonoscopy. Another group of 150 patients were given 4 liters of electrolyte lavage at 6:00 PM the evening before their colonoscopy. All patients were on a clear liquid diet the day before their colonoscopy. No enema was given in either groups. The bowel cleanliness was accessed by one colonoscopist. One registered nurse accessed the comfort of patient. In the 2-liter group, only one (0.6%) patient could not finish the laxative. Colon cleanliness was 80 per cent to 100 per cent, with an average of 95.9 per cent. In the 4-liter group, 11 (7.3%) patients could not finish the laxative preparation. Colon cleanliness was 78 per cent to 100 per cent, with an average of 95.3 per cent. The study that found the 2-liter electrolyte lavage solution with four tablets of bisacodyl can achieve equally good results in bowel preparation and favorable acceptance by patients compared with the 4-liter lavage. PMID:17058733

  13. The Aquarius Mission: Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koblinsky, Chester; Chao, Y.; deCharon, A.; Edelstein, W.; Hildebrand, P.; Lagerloef, G.; LeVine, D.; Pellerano, F.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.; Ruf, C.

    2001-01-01

    Aquarius is a new satellite mission concept to study the impact of the global water cycle on the ocean, including the response of the ocean to buoyancy forcing and the subsequent feedback of the ocean on the climate. The measurement objective of Aquarius is sea surface salinity, which reflects the concentration of freshwater at the ocean surface. Salinity affects the dielectric constant of sea water and, consequently, the radiometric emission of the sea surface to space. Rudimentary space observations with an L-band radiometer were first made from Skylab in the mid-70s and numerous aircraft missions of increasing quality and improved technology have been conducted since then. Technology is now available to carry out a global mission, which includes both an accurate L band (1.413 Ghz) radiometer and radar system in space and a global array of in situ observations for calibration and validation, in order to address key NASA Earth Science Enterprise questions about the global cycling of water and the response of the ocean circulation to climate change. The key scientific objectives of Aquarius examine the cycling of water at the ocean's surface, the response of the ocean circulation to buoyancy forcing, and the impact of buoyancy forcing on the ocean's thermal feedback to the climate. Global surface salinity will also improve our ability to model the surface solubility chemistry needed to estimate the air-sea exchange of CO2. In order to meet these science objectives, the NASA Salinity Sea Ice Working Group over the past three years has concluded that the mission measurement goals should be better than 0.2 practical salinity units (psu) accuracy, 100 km resolution, and weekly to revisits. The Aquarius mission proposes to meet these measurement requirements through a real aperture dual-polarized L band radiometer and radar system. This system can achieve the less than 0.1 K radiometric temperature measurement accuracy that is required. A 3 m antenna at approx. 600km altitude in a sun-synchronous orbit and 300 km swath can provide the desired 100 km resolution global coverage every week. Within this decade, it may be possible to combine satellite sea surface salinity measurements with ongoing satellite observations of temperature, surface height, air-sea fluxes; vertical profiles of temperature and salinity from the Argo program; and modern ocean/atmosphere modeling and data assimilation tools, in order to finally address the complex influence of buoyancy on the ocean circulation and climate.

  14. ENSO signature in the SMOS sea surface salinity maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballabrera, J.; Umbert, M.; Hoareau, N.; Turiel, A.; Font, J.

    2012-12-01

    Until recently, the role of salinity observations in the operational simulation and prediction of ENSO was neglected because of the historical lack of observations and because leading intermediate coupled models had significant predictive skill without directly accounting for salinity effects. In Ballabrera-Poy et al., (2002), the potential role of sea surface salinity (SSS) observations on the statistical predictions of ENSO was investigated. It was shown that, although SSS observations would play little role in statistical nowcasts of ENSO, they would provide a significant role in the 6-12 month predictions. The European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Earth Explorer opportunity mission was launched on November 2, 2009, becoming the first satellite mission addressing the challenge of measuring SSS from space with the help of MIRAS (Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis), a novel two-dimensional interferometer operating at L-band (1.4 GHz). Although the L-band frequency is the optimal for ocean salinity measurements, the retrieval of SSS information requires special care because of the low sensitivity of the brightness temperature to SSS: from 0.2-0.8 K per salinity unit. Maps of 10-day averages of SSS in 1x1 degree boxes are distributed by the SMOS Barcelona Expert Centre on Radiometric Calibration and Ocean Salinity (SMOS-BEC, http://www.smos-bec.icm.csic.es). These maps are derived from the SMOS reprocessing campaign released to the SMOS user community in March 2011, and span the period from January 2010 through December 2011. The current accuracy of these SSS maps ranges from 0.2-0.4, depending on the ocean region being considered (Umbert et al., 2012). During the period of the reprocessing campaign, the equatorial Pacific has been in a quasi-continuous La Niña state. During the cold phases of ENSO, positive anomalies of SSS are expected with a largest anomalous values in the western warm-fresh pool. The anomalies derived from the SMOS data do indeed display a positive anomaly. The persistence of the feature, its geographical pattern, and the time modulation of the anomaly amplitude indicate that the SSS fields provided by the SMOS mission do actually contain an ENSO-related signal, despite the shortness of the data gathered by the mission. Although the SMOS time span is still too short to allow any study about the factual impact of these data in the prediction of ENSO (either through data assimilation or statistical predictions), these results provide a clear indication that the novel observational technology that SMOS represents for the observation of the Earth is currently able to capture seasonal and interannual signatures of climate interest.

  15. Volumetrics of CO{sub 2} Storage in Deep Saline Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Capobianco, Ryan M.; Dilmore, Robert; Goodman, Angela; Guthrie, George; Rimstidt, J. Donald; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Concern about the role of greenhouse gases in global climate change has generated interest in sequestering CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion in deep saline formations. Pore space in these formations is initially filled with brine, and space to accommodate injected CO{sub 2} must be generated by displacing brine, and to a lesser extent by compression of brine and rock. The formation volume required to store a given mass of CO{sub 2} depends on the storage mechanism. We compare the equilibrium volumetric requirements of three end-member processes: CO{sub 2} stored as a supercritical fluid (structural or stratigraphic trapping); CO{sub 2} dissolved in pre-existing brine (solubility trapping); and CO{sub 2} solubility enhanced by dissolution of calcite. For typical storage conditions, storing CO{sub 2} by solubility trapping reduces the volume required to store the same amount of CO{sub 2} by structural or stratigraphic trapping by about 50%. Accessibility of CO{sub 2} to brine determines which storage mechanism (structural/stratigraphic versus solubility) dominates at a given time, which is a critical factor in evaluating CO{sub 2} volumetric requirements and long-term storage security.

  16. Temperature and Salinity Effects on the Growth and Survival of Juvenile Penaeid Shrimps: Implications for the Influence of River

    E-print Network

    Temperature and Salinity Effects on the Growth and Survival of Juvenile Penaeid Shrimps estuaries for wetland restoration. These freshwater flows directly alter the temperature and salinity temperature and salinity) affected by freshwater inflows. We also will test the validity

  17. Volume optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-03-01

    A new method for designing aperiodic volume optical elements will offer researchers more degrees of freedom in the design of optical devices. Rafael Piestun explained to Nature Photonics how this method may lead to a myriad of applications in beam-shaping and imaging.

  18. Validate Aquarius satellite measured sea surface salinity with in situ data from SPURS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Yi

    2014-05-01

    The Aquarius satellite measured sea surface salinity is validated against in situ measurements collected from the SPURS (Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study) field experiment during September 2012 and October 2013. A variety of in situ platforms were deployed during the one-year long field experiment. The wave glider measures salinity at 0.2 m and 6 m, respectively. Surface drifters measure salinity at 0.6 m. While conventional profiling floats measure salinity at a depth range from 5 to 10 m, the newly developed STS (Surface Temperature/Salinity) floats measure salinity all the way to the skin layer close to the surface. Results using these in situ data to validate the Aquarius satellite retrieved sea surface salinity will be presented.

  19. Modeling as a tool for management of saline soils and irrigation waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal management of saline soils and irrigation waters requires consideration of many interrelated factors including, climate, water applications and timing, water flow, plant water uptake, soil chemical reactions, plant response to salinity and solution composition, soil hydraulic properties and ...

  20. The influence of salinity on the mechanical behavior of high plasticity soils

    E-print Network

    Fahy, Brian Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates the influence of salinity on the mechanical behavior of smectitic rich high plasticity soils resedimented with pore fluid salinities ranging from 0 to 256 g/L. An extensive laboratory testing program ...

  1. SMOS: Improvements in CP34 sea surface salinity maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballabrera, J.; Font, J.; Gabarró, C.; González, V.; Gourrion, J.; Guimbard, S.; Martínez, J.; Portabella, M.; Turiel, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission (SMOS) from the European Space Agency (ESA), launched in November 2009, has initiated the era of satellite-based sea surface salinity observations. The Microwave Interferometric Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) instrument has been designed to exploit the correlation between the measurements of its 72 antennas. However, because of the instrument complexity, the impossibility of having two perfectly identical antennas, the numerous geophysical contamination sources and the retrieval complexity, salinity products have a low signal-to-noise ratio at Level 2 (satellite swath-based SSS retrievals). Today, averaging data in space and time allows a reduction of the observational error down to a few tenths of psu at Level 3 (global maps with regular distribution) but still far from mission requirements (0.1 psu). To meet such requirements, it is crucial to improve the overall quality of reconstructed and modelled brightness temperatures (Level 1). The SMOS Barcelona Expert Centre (BEC) is a joint initiative of the Spanish Research Council (CSIC) and the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) to contribute to the ground segment of the SMOS mission. Its main objectives are to contribute to the improvement of lower level (Levels 1 and 2) algorithms and to develop, and validate, algorithms for the Spanish SMOS Level 3 and 4 Data Processing Centre (CP34). To better perform these tasks, the BEC has acquired the capacity to chain-process data from the raw SMOS Level 0 data up to Level 3 salinity maps. This capacity allows us to validate, and characterize, the impact of the various proposed, and novel, improvements at any processing level upon the final salinity map retrieval.

  2. Geologic effects on groundwater salinity and discharge into an estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russonielloa, Christopher J.; Fernandeza, Cristina; Brattonb, John F.; Banaszakc, Joel F.; Krantzc, David E.; Andresd, Scott; Konikowe, Leonard F.; Michaela, Holly A.

    2013-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) can be an important pathway for transport of nutrients and contaminants to estuaries. A better understanding of the geologic and hydrologic controls on these fluxes is critical for their estimation and management. We examined geologic features, porewater salinity, and SGD rates and patterns at an estuarine study site. Seismic data showed the existence of paleovalleys infilled with estuarine mud and peat that extend hundreds of meters offshore. A low-salinity groundwater plume beneath this low-permeability fill was mapped with continuous resistivity profiling. Extensive direct SGD measurements with seepage meters (n = 551) showed fresh groundwater discharge patterns that correlated well with shallow porewater salinity and the hydrogeophysical framework. Small-scale variability in fresh and saline discharge indicates influence of meter-scale geologic heterogeneity, while site-scale discharge patterns are evidence of the influence of the paleovalley feature. Beneath the paleovalley fill, fresh groundwater flows offshore and mixes with saltwater before discharging along paleovalley flanks. On the adjacent drowned interfluve where low-permeability fill is absent, fresh groundwater discharge is focused at the shoreline. Shallow saltwater exchange was greatest across sandy sediments and where fresh SGD was low. The geologic control of groundwater flowpaths and discharge salinity demonstrated in this work are likely to affect geochemical reactions and the chemical loads delivered by SGD to coastal surface waters. Because similar processes are likely to exist in other estuaries where drowned paleovalleys commonly cross modern shorelines, the existence and implications of complex hydrogeology are important considerations for studies of groundwater fluxes and related management decisions.

  3. Effects of temperature and salinity on thermal death in postlarval brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus 

    E-print Network

    Wiesepape, Larry Milton

    1970-01-01

    62 Acclimation salinity ? test salinity interactions 75 DISCUSSION 76 Temperature Fffects Acclimation . 76 78 Salinity Effects . Mariculture Implications Ecological Implications 79 81 82 LITERATURE CITED . VITA LIST OF TABLES No. Pacae.... . . . 31 6 Results of statistical analysis of data from the temperature salinity experiment LIST OF FIGURES No. Pacae 1 Acclimation tank with two aquaria in place 15 2 Lethal-test tank with 10 cages inside. . . 15 3 Map showing the locations...

  4. Salinity and Bacterial Diversity: To What Extent Does the Concentration of Salt Affect the Bacterial Community in a Saline Soil?

    PubMed Central

    Canfora, Loredana; Bacci, Giovanni; Pinzari, Flavia; Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Dazzi, Carmelo; Benedetti, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the evaluation of soil characteristics was coupled with a pyrosequencing analysis of the V2-V3 16S rRNA gene region in order to investigate the bacterial community structure and diversity in the A horizon of a natural saline soil located in Sicily (Italy). The main aim of the research was to assess the organisation and diversity of microbial taxa using a spatial scale that revealed physical and chemical heterogeneity of the habitat under investigation. The results provided information on the type of distribution of different bacterial groups as a function of spatial gradients of soil salinity and pH. The analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA showed differences in bacterial composition and diversity due to a variable salt concentration in the soil. The bacterial community showed a statistically significant spatial variability. Some bacterial phyla appeared spread in the whole area, whatever the salinity gradient. It emerged therefore that a patchy saline soil can not contain just a single microbial community selected to withstand extreme osmotic phenomena, but many communities that can be variously correlated to one or more environmental parameters. Sequences have been deposited to the SRA database and can be accessed on ID Project PRJNA241061. PMID:25188357

  5. DIGESTIVE TUBULE ATROPHY IN EASTERN OYSTERS, CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA (GMELI, 1791), EXPOSED TO SALINITY AND STARVATION STRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oysters sampled in February 1992, from a low salinity site (3 ppt) in Apalachicola Bay, Florida, showed digestive tubule atrophy when salinity site (18 ppt) 16 kilometers away. xperiments designed to induce tubule atrophy in the and two salinity stress tests. o quantify tubule co...

  6. COMPARATIVE TRANSCRIPTIONAL PROFILING OF BARLEY CULTIVAR MAYTHORPE AND ITS DERIVED MUTANT GOLDEN PROMISE UNDER SALINITY STRESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salinity is a major environmental constraint limiting crop yields in semi-arid and arid regions. The improvement of salt tolerance is one approach to utilize saline soils or abundant saline water supplies. In Triticeae plants, salt tolerance is believed to be associated with sodium ion exclusion (G...

  7. Dynamic prediction of soil salinization in an irrigation district based on the support vector machine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoyan Guan; Shaoli Wang; Zhanyi Gao; Ye Lv

    Soil salinization has random characteristics because of the influences of natural and anthropogenic factors. Therefore, a study on the dynamic prediction model of soil salinity is important for irrigation water management in salinization irrigation districts. In the present paper, the theory of supporting vector machine was introduced in the dynamic prediction of soil electrical conductivity (EC) values. Based on groundwater

  8. Experiment and feasibility study on saline water purification by using natural cold resource

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Congshuang Luo

    2011-01-01

    In order to explore an economic, rational, practical method of saline water desalination, this paper mainly uses freeze saline water purification method of experimental study for the exploitation and utilization of natural cold resource. According to the freezing points of water condensate theory, the authors have made cryogenic pilot studies for saline water. we carried out the freezing experiment under

  9. Salinity tolerance and mycorrhizal responsiveness of native xeroriparian plants in semi-arid western USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa B. Beauchamp; Courtney Walz; Patrick B. Shafroth

    2009-01-01

    Restoration of salt-affected soils is a global concern. In the western United States, restoration of salinized land, particularly in river valleys, often involves control of Tamarix, an introduced species with high salinity tolerance. Revegetation of hydrologically disconnected floodplains and terraces after Tamarix removal is often difficult because of limited knowledge regarding the salinity tolerance of candidate native species for revegetation.

  10. Physiological responses to hyper-saline waters in sailfin mollies ( Poecilia latipinna)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Gonzalez; J. Cooper; D. Head

    2005-01-01

    We examined the ionoregulatory physiology and biochemistry of the teleost sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna), an inhabitant of salt marshes along the gulf coast, during exposure to hyper-saline waters (salinity range 35–95 ppt). Mollies were able to tightly control plasma Na+ and Cl? concentrations and tissue water levels up to 65 ppt, but at higher salinities plasma ion levels began to

  11. 2 An assessment of the seasonal mixed layer salinity budget 3 in the Southern Ocean

    E-print Network

    2 An assessment of the seasonal mixed layer salinity budget 3 in the Southern Ocean 4 Shenfu Dong,1 the mixed layer salinity budget in the Southern Ocean. 25 Citation: Dong, S., S. L. Garzoli, and M. Baringer (2009), An assessment of the seasonal mixed layer salinity budget in the Southern 26 Ocean, J. Geophys

  12. Harmonic analysis of climatological sea surface salinity Tim P. Boyer and Sydney Levitus

    E-print Network

    Harmonic analysis of climatological sea surface salinity Tim P. Boyer and Sydney Levitus Ocean decomposition of the World Ocean Atlas 1998 (WOA98) fields of climatological monthly mean salinity is used salinity scale (PSS). Areas with an annual cycle larger than 0.3 include the northern Indian Ocean

  13. The role of ocean cooling in setting glacial southern source bottom water salinity

    E-print Network

    Adkins, Jess F.

    The role of ocean cooling in setting glacial southern source bottom water salinity M. D. Miller,1 J of the experiments indicate that reduced ocean temperature can explain up to 30% of the salinity difference between] Paleo reconstructions of deep ocean salinity and tem- perature at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; see

  14. Observations of decadal time scale salinity changes in the subtropical thermocline of the North Pacific Ocean

    E-print Network

    Riser, Stephen C.

    Observations of decadal time scale salinity changes in the subtropical thermocline of the North Mixed layer Hydrological cycle a b s t r a c t Data from Argo floats indicate that significant salinity decades, including observations obtained as part of the WOCE hydrographic program. Such a salinity

  15. Shoot Na+ Exclusion and Increased Salinity Tolerance Engineered by Cell TypeSpecific Alteration of

    E-print Network

    Haseloff, Jim

    Shoot Na+ Exclusion and Increased Salinity Tolerance Engineered by Cell Type­Specific Alteration, University of Adelaide, SA 5064, Australia Soil salinity affects large areas of cultivated land, causing of root-to-shoot transfer of Na+. Plants with reduced shoot Na+ also have increased salinity tolerance

  16. A REEVALUATION OF THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF

    E-print Network

    A REEVALUATION OF THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON SURVIVAL AND GROWTH of temperature and salinity on larval survival and growth of Crassostrea virginica, Mercenaria mercenaria. The late veliger larvae generally have a greater tolerance to both temperature and salinity than

  17. Thermo-compositional convection in Europa's icy shell with salinity Lijie Han1,2

    E-print Network

    Thermo-compositional convection in Europa's icy shell with salinity Lijie Han1,2 and Adam P the hypothesis that the combined buoyancy from both thermal and salinity contrasts in Europa's ice shell can's icy shell with salinity, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L20201, doi:10.1029/2005GL023979. 1. Introduction [2

  18. C in Mytilus edulis shells: relation to salinity, DIC, phytoplankton and DAVID PAUL GILLIKIN*

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    13 C in Mytilus edulis shells: relation to salinity, DIC, phytoplankton and metabolism DAVID PAUL as well as provide an indication of salinity. First, the 13 C values of respired CO2 (13 CR.87), which in turn was linearly related to salinity (r2 = 0.94). The mussels were highly selective

  19. Stress tolerance of a subtropical Crassostrea virginica population to the combined effects of temperature and salinity

    E-print Network

    Qian, Lianfen

    of temperature and salinity Olaf Heilmayer a,*,3 , Julian Digialleonardo a,2,3 , Lianfen Qian b , Guritno t The combination of salinity and temperature has synergistic effects on virtually all aspects of the biology, Crassostrea virginica, from the St. Lucie River Estuary to the interactive effects of temperature and salinity

  20. A statistical model for variability of the Arctic Ocean surface layer salinity1 Ekaterina Chernyavskaya1

    E-print Network

    A statistical model for variability of the Arctic Ocean surface layer salinity1 2 Ekaterina email: sudakov@math.utah.edu12 13 Abstract14 Significant salinity anomalies were observed in the Arctic Ocean surface layer during the last15 decade. On the base of gridded data of winter salinity

  1. Short-term fluctuation in salinity promotes rapid larval development and metamorphosis in Dendraster excentricus

    E-print Network

    George, Sophie B.

    Short-term fluctuation in salinity promotes rapid larval development and metamorphosis; accepted 10 May 2007 Abstract The effect of constant and fluctuating salinity on larval development at different stages of development were kept either at 32 (controls), exposed to constant low salinity (22

  2. MODELING SALINITY BALANCE IN PROPOSED SALTON SEA RESTORATION USING A DIKED IMPOUNDMENT

    E-print Network

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    MODELING SALINITY BALANCE IN PROPOSED SALTON SEA RESTORATION USING A DIKED IMPOUNDMENT Victor M into main lake and diked impoundment. It is expected that this will eventually reduce the salinity of the main lake, while increasing the salinity of the diked impoundment to that of a concentrated brine

  3. Estimating Salinity between 25 and 45S in the Atlantic Ocean Using Local Regression

    E-print Network

    Estimating Salinity between 25° and 45°S in the Atlantic Ocean Using Local Regression W. C. THACKER September 2006, in final form 29 January 2007) ABSTRACT The empirical relationship between salinity­temperature­depth (CTD) probes, are sufficient to provide an empirical basis for estimating salinity from measurements

  4. PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Is salinity tolerance the key to success for the invasive water

    E-print Network

    Green, Andy J.

    PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Is salinity tolerance the key to success for the invasive water bug) that occurs in brackish and saline aquatic systems. Recently, it has been found invading three continents compared both the realized and standardized salinity niche of invasive T. verticalis and native Corixidae

  5. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON FERTILIZATION, EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT, AND HATCHING

    E-print Network

    EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON FERTILIZATION, EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT, AND HATCHING IN BAIRDIELLA ICISTIA (PISCES: SCIAENIDAE), AND THE EFFECT OF PARENTAL SALINITY ACCLIMATION ON EMBRYONIC AND LARVAL SALINITY TOLERANCEl ROBERT C. MAy2 ABSTRACT Eggs and larvae of the sciaenid fish bairdiella

  6. EFFECT OF SALINITY ON THE DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF GEOLOGICAL MATERIALS : IMPLICATION FOR SOIL

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EFFECT OF SALINITY ON THE DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF GEOLOGICAL MATERIALS : IMPLICATION FOR SOIL of saline deposits for the detection and mapping of moisture in arid regions on both Earth and Mars. We then present a simulation and experimental study in order to assess the effect of salinity on the permittivity

  7. Capacitive mixing power production from salinity gradient energy enhanced through exoelectrogen-

    E-print Network

    Capacitive mixing power production from salinity gradient energy enhanced through exoelectrogen to generate electrical power directly from salinity gradient energy using capacitive electrodes have recently thermolytic solutions that can be used to capture waste heat energy as salinity gradient energy. Forced

  8. Salinity and Temperature Effects on Physiological Responses of Vibrio fischeri from Diverse Ecological Niches

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    Salinity and Temperature Effects on Physiological Responses of Vibrio fischeri from Diverse isolates possessed the least variation in growth throughout the entire salinity gradient, whereas isolates. fischeri strains were also measured under a range of salinity and temperature combinations. Symbiotic V

  9. GEOLOGY, December 2007 1063 Semi-arid and arid rivers typically exhibit increasing salinity levels

    E-print Network

    Asmerom, Yemane

    salinity levels downstream, a trend often attributed to irrigated agriculture, primarily due to evapotranspiration. In contrast, the results of our investigations in one salinized river suggest that geological irrigated agricul- ture, and identified a series of salinity increases localized at the distal ends

  10. Surface salinity variability in the northern North Atlantic during recent decades

    E-print Network

    Surface salinity variability in the northern North Atlantic during recent decades Sirpa Ha 2002; accepted 15 March 2002; published 18 September 2002. [1] The sea surface salinity (SSS surface salinity variability is prominent with the maximum standard deviation (SD) occurring in the summer

  11. Effects of Salinity on Spawning and Early Development of the Tube-Building Polychaete

    E-print Network

    Effects of Salinity on Spawning and Early Development of the Tube-Building Polychaete Hydroides. Ambient salinities drop dramatically during monsoon season in Hong Kong coastal waters, posing a number- tigated (1) whether adults would retain their gametes when external salinity dropped to levels too low

  12. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF GRASS SHRIMP,

    E-print Network

    EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF GRASS SHRIMP, PALAEMONETES VULGARIS in the laboratory in a factorial experiment employing three temperatures (20°,25°, and 30°C) and six salinities (5,10,15,20,25, and 30%.). Temperature and salinity exerted significant effects at the 1% level on sur- vival of larvae

  13. Sea Surface Salinity Understanding the Interactions Between the Global Water Cycle, Ocean Circulation and Climate

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    Sea Surface Salinity Understanding the Interactions Between the Global Water Cycle, Ocean Circulation and Climate Aquarius will provide unprecedented global maps of surface sea water salinity?" Sea surface salinity is the primary surface tracer of freshwater input and output to the ocean

  14. Effects of correcting salinity with altimeter measurements in an equatorial Pacific ocean model

    E-print Network

    van Leeuwen, Peter Jan

    Effects of correcting salinity with altimeter measurements in an equatorial Pacific ocean model; published 18 September 2002. [1] In this paper, we study the consequences of making salinity corrections in a tropical Pacific ocean model run for the period 1993­1997. Salinity and temperature corrections

  15. Acclimation and growth response of the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis to fluctuating salinity.

    E-print Network

    Russell, Michael P.

    to fluctuating salinity. J. Campbell M. P. Russell (author for correspondence) Villanova University, Villanova, is often found in areas periodically exposed to low salinity, e.g., near the mouths of rivers in the Gulf salinity and growth and performance were quantified. Performance was defined as the ability to hold

  16. Characterizing the Saltol Quantitative Trait Locus for Salinity Tolerance in Rice

    E-print Network

    Blumwald, Eduardo

    Characterizing the Saltol Quantitative Trait Locus for Salinity Tolerance in Rice Michael J) for seedling stage salinity tolerance in preparation for use in marker-assisted breeding. An analysis of 100 of the high sensitivity of modern rice varieties. Salinity is particularly a major problem in coastal regions

  17. Salinity change in the subtropical Atlantic: Secular increase and teleconnections to the North Atlantic Oscillation

    E-print Network

    Swart, Peter K.

    Salinity change in the subtropical Atlantic: Secular increase and teleconnections to the North shown significant, heterogeneous adjustments of the temperature-salinity structure of the N. Atlantic Ocean. Here, we present proxy records of temperature and salinity from aragonite sclerosponge skeletons

  18. In vitro effects of temperature and salinity on fatty acid synthesis in the oyster protozoan parasite

    E-print Network

    Hartley, Troy W.

    In vitro effects of temperature and salinity on fatty acid synthesis in the oyster protozoan in revised form 15 January 2004; accepted 2 February 2004 Abstract The effects of temperature and salinity in vitro at 10, 18 and 28 jC in a salinity of 28 psu and 14, 20 and 28 psu at a temperature of 28 jC using

  19. ARTICLE IN PRESS The effect of low salinity on phenoloxidase activity in the

    E-print Network

    Raftos, David

    ARTICLE IN PRESS = The effect of low salinity on phenoloxidase activity in the Sydney rock oyster; accepted 30 May 2005 Abstract This study tested the effects of low salinity on phenoloxidase activity inhibition was evident when oysters were held in oceanic water with artificially lowered salinities

  20. Polyphasic origin of salinity in the Senegal delta and middle valley

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - 1 - Polyphasic origin of salinity in the Senegal delta and middle valley Laurent Barbiéroa Cedex 3, France Abstract: Saline areas are a major obstacle to the development of sustainable irrigated of salinity and its distribution in the soil suggest that it arises from more than one source. Comparison

  1. Designing, testing and implementing a trial dryland salinity credit trade scheme

    E-print Network

    ANALYSIS Designing, testing and implementing a trial dryland salinity credit trade scheme Jeffery D focussed on dryland salinity in Victoria, Australia. In lieu of extant specified property rights are outlined. The BCA accounted for salinity damage reduction, forgone river flow, carbon sequestration

  2. Sea surface salinity measurements in the historical database Frederick M. Bingham

    E-print Network

    Bingham, Frederick M.

    Sea surface salinity measurements in the historical database Frederick M. Bingham Center for Marine distributions of sea surface salinity (SSS) observations in a data set consisting of a combination of the World Ocean Database 1998 (WOD98) and a thermosalinograph and bucket salinity database collected from

  3. Salinity change impairs pipefish immune defence Simone C. Birrer a,b

    E-print Network

    DeWitt, Thomas J.

    Salinity change impairs pipefish immune defence Simone C. Birrer a,b , Thorsten B.H. Reusch with fast and severe alterations of environmental conditions. Superimposed onto existing salinity variations in a semi-enclosed brackish water body such as the Baltic Sea, a decrease in salinity is predicted due

  4. Root Growth and Yield of Differing Alfalfa Rooting Populations under Increasing Salinity and Zero Leaching

    E-print Network

    Smith, Steven E.

    Root Growth and Yield of Differing Alfalfa Rooting Populations under Increasing Salinity and Zero-rootedAccumulation of salinity in the root zone can be detrimental to crops such as alfalfa to exploit the lower average salinitysustained crop production. Irrigation, even with moderately saline water, pushes accumulated salts deeper

  5. Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes for Salinity Gradient Energy

    E-print Network

    Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes for Salinity Gradient Energy Geoffrey M 16802, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Many salinity gradient energy technologies recovery using AmB thermolytic solutions in RED. Recent interest in salinity gradient energy technologies

  6. BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER Salinity mediates the competitive interactions between invasive

    E-print Network

    García-Berthou, Emili

    BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY - ORIGINAL PAPER Salinity mediates the competitive interactions between invasive there are very few studies on the interaction of salinity and competition in fish. Mosquitofish (Gambusia observations, that salinity limits the invasive success of mosquitofish and provides a competitive refuge

  7. Characterizing the Saltol Quantitative Trait Locus for Salinity Tolerance in Rice

    E-print Network

    Blumwald, Eduardo

    Characterizing the Saltol Quantitative Trait Locus for Salinity Tolerance in Rice Michael J-derived quanti- tative trait loci (QTLs) for seedling stage salinity tolerance in preparation for use in marker because of the high sensitivity of modern rice varieties. Salinity is particularly a major problem

  8. Lago Mare and the Messinian Salinity Crisis: Evidence from the Alboran Sea (S. Spain)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Lago Mare and the Messinian Salinity Crisis: Evidence from the Alboran Sea (S. Spain) Damien Do Alboran region and clarifies their chronologic location with respect to the Messinian Salinity Crisis. We near Níjar) follows the marine reflooding of the Mediterranean Basin which ended the Messinian Salinity

  9. Physics and Dynamics of Density-Compensated Temperature and Salinity Anomalies. Part I: Theory

    E-print Network

    Tailleux, Remi

    Physics and Dynamics of Density-Compensated Temperature and Salinity Anomalies. Part I: Theory RÉMI regions sufficiently undamped. In the oceans, the amplitude of propagating temperature (and salinity seeks to understand the amplitude variations of density-compensated temperature and salinity anomalies

  10. Thalassia testudinum seedling responses to changes in salinity and nitrogen levels

    E-print Network

    Durako, Michael J.

    Thalassia testudinum seedling responses to changes in salinity and nitrogen levels Amanda E. Kahn marine salinity (30­40PSU). Previous studies have examined the responses of mature short shoots of T to hypo- and hyper-salinity conditions, as well as possible synergistic effects of depleted and elevated

  11. SALINITY AND TEMPERATURE IN SOUTH SAN FRANCISCO BAY, CALIFORNIA, AT DUMBARTON BRIDGE

    E-print Network

    SALINITY AND TEMPERATURE IN SOUTH SAN FRANCISCO BAY, CALIFORNIA, AT DUMBARTON BRIDGE: RESULTS FROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Fig. 10. Time-series plots of daily mean salinity at Dumbarton Bridge for 1990WY-1993WY, 1994WY-2001WY . . 29 Fig. 14. Time-series plots showing surface salinity, tide height, stream discharge

  12. Limits to tolerance of temperature and salinity in the quagga mussel

    E-print Network

    May, Bernie

    Limits to tolerance of temperature and salinity in the quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis levels of salinity and temperature in the laboratory to compare the tolerance of each species concentrations of NaCl (5, 10, and 20%~)to test salinity tolerance. No individuals of either species survived

  13. Salinity patterns of Florida Bay Christopher R. Kelble a,*, Elizabeth M. Johns b

    E-print Network

    Salinity patterns of Florida Bay Christopher R. Kelble a,*, Elizabeth M. Johns b , William K November 2005; accepted 5 August 2006 Available online 26 September 2006 Abstract The salinity of Florida Bay has undergone dramatic changes over the past century. Salinity values reached their most extreme

  14. Short-term effects of salinity declines on juvenile hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria.

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Short-term effects of salinity declines on juvenile hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria. Final report to Florida Sea Grant, for a Program Development Award Project title: Short-term effects of rapid salinity@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu Project Duration: 10-20-00 to 09-30-01. Budget: $3,515 Summary Sudden salinity drops in clam growing areas

  15. Effects of Salinity on Early Life Stages of the Gulf Coast Toad, Incilius nebulifer (Anura: Bufonidae)

    E-print Network

    Lailvaux, Simon

    Effects of Salinity on Early Life Stages of the Gulf Coast Toad, Incilius nebulifer (Anura a laboratory trial with Incilius nebulifer (synonym: Bufo nebulifer) to determine at what level salinity negatively affects hatching and metamorphosis, and how exposure to salinity during development affects

  16. Impacts of salinity and simulated herbivory on survival and reproduction of the threatened Gulf

    E-print Network

    Heard, Stephen B.

    Impacts of salinity and simulated herbivory on survival and reproduction of the threatened Gulf Abstract: Halophytic plants may experience joint, and potentially interacting, effects of salinity and herbivory on their survival and reproduction. We investigated the impacts of salinity and (simulated

  17. Estimating Sea Surface Salinity in the Chesapeake Bay From Ocean Color Radiometry Measurements

    E-print Network

    Estimating Sea Surface Salinity in the Chesapeake Bay From Ocean Color Radiometry Measurements OCR-derived Sea-Surface Salinity RMSE and bias for coincident match-ups of OCR-SSS and SSS measured and Stingray Point, starting in late 2011 (Fig. 6). Comparison of Satellite OCR- and CBOFS Sea-Surface Salinity

  18. Primary Research Paper The role of salinity in structuring fish assemblages in a prairie

    E-print Network

    Wilde, Gene

    Primary Research Paper The role of salinity in structuring fish assemblages in a prairie stream 19 May 2005; accepted 24 May 2005 Key words: salinity, prairie streams, fish assemblage structure Abstract We used fishery surveys from 1954 to 1957 to determine the relationship between salinity

  19. The temperature-salinity relationship in the mixed layer Raffaele Ferrari

    E-print Network

    Ferrari, Raffaele

    The temperature-salinity relationship in the mixed layer Raffaele Ferrari 1 Introduction and salinity gradients. The goals of this project are (1) to investi- gate if these correlations are the result-scale ocean models. Observations show abundant examples of horizontal fronts with temperature and salinity

  20. A Journal of Integrative Biology Short-Term Low-Salinity Tolerance by the Longhorn

    E-print Network

    Evans, David H.

    A Journal of Integrative Biology Short-Term Low-Salinity Tolerance by the Longhorn Sculpin. Little is known about the salinity tolerance of the longhorn sculpin; thus, the purposes of these experiments were to explore the effects of low environmental salinity on ion transporter expression