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1

Barium Enema Examination  

MedlinePLUS

Barium Enema Examination What you need to know about… A barium enema examination dem- onstrates your large bowel (colon). ... a diagnostically useful image. Prior to performing your barium enema examination, the radiographer will give you a ...

2

Relationship Between the pH of Enema Solutions and Intestinal Damage in Rabbits.  

PubMed

Mechanical enemas can lead to intestinal mucosal injuries and bowel barrier damage, presenting as electrolyte disturbances and functional intestinal disorders. Most researchers believe that the mechanism of injury is related to osmolality, volume and temperature of the solution, infusion pressure, and the composition of the enema tube. We hypothesized that the pH of the enema solution may also contribute to intestinal damage. We administered enema solutions-normal saline, soapsuds, or vinegar (neutral, alkaline, or acidic solutions, respectively)-to three groups of rabbits (n = 20 per group). The solutions were standardized for volume and temperature and the soapsuds and vinegar solutions were adjusted to be isotonic with normal saline or deionized water. We also included a control group (n = 20) in which the enema tubes were inserted but no solution was administered. We biopsied 3 sites (rectum and distal and proximal colon). Damage to intestinal mucosa was observed by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In order to explore the detection of damage using noninvasive methods, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 gene expression was measured in the exfoliated cells gathered from postenema defecation. Epithelial loss, inflammatory reaction, and cellular microstructure damage was increased in the vinegar and soapsuds groups. Also, exfoliated cells in these groups had higher COX-2 expression than the normal saline group. The acidic and alkaline enema solutions thus caused more severe damage to the intestinal mucosa compared to the neutral liquid, supporting our hypothesis. Further, the detection of COX-2 expression shows promise as a noninvasive method for estimating enema-induced damage. PMID:25504953

Zhang, Feng; Li, Xia; Xu, Xujuan; Cai, Duanying; Zhang, Jianguo

2015-01-01

3

Barium enema (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A barium enema is performed to examine the walls of the colon. During the procedure, a well lubricated enema tube is inserted gently into the rectum. The barium, a radiopaque (shows up on X-ray) contrast ...

4

Retrograde spread of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with active ulcerative colitis  

SciTech Connect

In an attempt to know the exact retrograde spread of high-dosage 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas, we have studied eight patients with active left-sided colitis, by adding a small amount of barium sulfate to the enemas and by checking the spread radiologically after 15 minutes, 1 hour, and 6 hours. Four grams of 5-aminosalicylic acid in 100-ml enemas and 4 gm in 200-ml enemas were used. The same experiment was repeated in a subsequent attack, with enemas labeled with technetium-99m and checked by scintiscans in five of these patients. We always have observed a volume-dependent spread of enemas but, interestingly, in the patients studied with technetium-99m there was always a wider spread than that which was detected with barium enemas. In all five patients, 100-ml enemas reached the splenic flexure. In two patients with total colitis, a progression of 100-ml technetium-99m enemas was performed in the transverse colon, but the maximum opacity remained in the left side. We can conclude that 4 gm of 5-aminosalicylic acid in 100-ml enemas can be suitable for treating patients with left-sided colitis, and will represent a valid addition for patients with more extensive colitis.

Campieri, M.; Lanfranchi, G.A.; Brignola, C.; Bazzocchi, G.; Gionchetti, P.; Minguzzi, M.R.; Cappello, I.P.; Corbelli, C.; Boschi, S.

1986-02-01

5

The Malone Antegrade Continence Enema for Neurogenic and Structural Fecal Incontinence and Constipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of fecal elimination are commonly encountered by the pediatric urologist and surgeon. The Malone antegrade continence enema has been described as a means to administer a large volume enema via a continent catheterizable appendicocecostomy, resulting in reliable fecal elimination. Of 22 patients undergoing this procedure 16 reported total continence 4 months or longer after surgery. Complications are relatively minor

Martin A. Koyle; Devonna M. Kaji; Manuel Duque; Jodi Wild

1995-01-01

6

The malone antegrade continence enema  

Microsoft Academic Search

The previously reported Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) was used in 21 children for intractable fecal incontinence or constipation. Twelve are completely clean, and three are much improved (71% success rate). However, only four of the 21 have not had some type of complication, either minor or major. Five of the 21 now have a colostomy, and one has abandoned

D. M Griffiths; P. S Malone

1995-01-01

7

Antegrade continence enemas in the management of intractable faecal incontinence.  

PubMed Central

The introduction of the Malone procedure has improved the outlook for children with severe faecal incontinence. Phosphate and saline enemas are administered through the exteriorized appendix in antegrade fashion to achieve evacuation and ensure cleanliness. The appendix functions as a non-refluxing catheterizable channel: If it is not available for use, a tubularized caecal flap is a safe alternative. We have constructed Malone stomas using the appendix in 20 patients and another seven patients have undergone the caecal flap modification. The mean age was 8.6 years. Eleven of the patients were boys and 16 (59%) were girls. Six children required dilatation or revision of their stomas for stenosis. One developed small bowel obstruction and another has stopped using the stoma. The results of the continence enemas were considered to be very good by the vast majority of patients and their carers. Our recent experience suggests that bisacodyl may be a valuable adjunct to the antegrade enemas of phosphate and saline. We believe that this procedure may be extended with benefit to adults with serious faecal incontinence in whom standard measures have failed. PMID:7769583

Kiely, E M; Ade-Ajayi, N; Wheeler, R

1995-01-01

8

Non-laxative CT colonography with barium-based faecal tagging: is additional phosphate enema beneficial and well tolerated?  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerance of an additional phosphate enema prior to non-laxative CT colonography (CTC). Methods 71 patients (mean age 80 years, 28 male, 43 female) underwent non-laxative CTC following 4 oral doses of diluted 2% w/w barium sulphate. Patients were invited to self-administer a phosphate enema 2 h before CTC. An experienced observer graded the volume of retained stool (1 (nil) to 4 (>75% bowel circumference coated)), retained fluid ((1 (nil) to 4 (>50% circumference obscured)), retained stool tagging quality (1 (untagged) to 5 (?75% to 100%) tagged) and confidence a polyp ?6 mm could be excluded (yes/no) for each of six colonic segments. Tolerance of the enema was assessed via questionnaire. Data were analysed between those using and not using the enema by Mann–Whitney and Fisher's exact test. 18/71 patients declined the enema. Results There was no reduction in residual stool volume with enema use compared with non-use either overall (mean score 2.6 vs 2.7, p = 0.76) or in the left colon (mean 2.3 vs 2.4, p = 0.47). Overall tagging quality was no different (mean score 4.4 vs 4.3, p = 0.43). There was significantly more retained left colonic fluid post enema (mean score 1.9 vs 1.1, p<0.0001), and diagnostic confidence in excluding polyps was significantly reduced (exclusion not possible in 35% segments vs 21% without enema, p = 0.006). Of 53 patients, 30 (56%) found the enema straightforward to use, but 4 (8%) found it unpleasant. Conclusion Phosphate enema use prior to non-laxative CTC leads to greater retained fluid, reducing diagnostic confidence, and is not recommended. PMID:20959374

Davis, W; Nisbet, P; Hare, C; Cooke, P; Taylor, S A

2011-01-01

9

Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death  

PubMed Central

Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema. PMID:25436159

Peterson, Thomas; Rentmeester, Landen; Judge, Bryan S.; Cohle, Stephen D.; Jones, Jeffrey S.

2014-01-01

10

Comparison of water immersion and saline infusion as a means of inducing volume expansion in man  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study compares the natriuresis induced by head-out water immersion to that of a standard saline infusion and assesses the relative effectiveness of these two techniques as volume determinants of renal sodium and water handling in humans in a seated posture. The data obtained show that the volume stimulus of immersion is identical to that of standard saline-induced extracellular fluid volume expansion (ECVE) in normal seated subjects. The ability of head-out water immersion to induce a natriuresis without a concomitant increase in total blood volume and with a decrease in body weight suggests that water immersion may be preferred as an investigative tool for assessing the effects of ECVE in man.

Epstein, M.; Pins, D. S.; Arrington, R.; Denunzio, A. G.; Engstrom, R.

1975-01-01

11

Antegrade continence enema (ACE): current practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess current status of antegrade continence enema (ACE) procedure taking into account the\\u000a recent improvement in the technique and outcome. Reviewing our record of 48 patients with ACE procedure performed between\\u000a January 2002 and May 2007, we found that the underlying diagnoses were idiopathic constipation in 56%, anorectal malformation\\u000a in 31%, spina bifida

Chandrasen Kumar Sinha; Alka Grewal; Harry C. Ward

2008-01-01

12

Comparative study of enema retention and preference in ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Therapeutic enemas are often used to treat active colitis but their retention may be limited because of urgency to defecate. Some preparations may be better retained and tolerated than others because of their physical properties. Aim: To compare patient preference and retention of four therapeutic enemas, including a nicotine enema, in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: Twenty four patients with active UC received the four trial enemas—corticosteroid, 5-amino salicylate (5-ASA), and nicotine liquid enemas and a corticosteroid foam, in a randomised order, taking one enema on each of four successive nights. Patients scored them 1 to 4 for ease of administration and retention, degree of abdominal bloating, and for their overall preference. Results: Fifteen patients rated nicotine their overall favourite or second favourite, compared with 14 for corticosteroid foam and 11 for 5-ASA and corticosteroid liquids, but this was not significant (p = 0.302). Overall, there was no significant difference in overnight retention. However, the nicotine enema tended to be less well retained in patients with milder urgency but a higher proportion retained it overnight with more severe urgency (p = 0.031 compared with 5-ASA enema). Conclusion: There was no significant difference in patient preference or overall duration of retention for the four enemas. PMID:16143691

Ingram, J; Rhodes, J; Evans, B; Newcombe, R; Thomas, G

2005-01-01

13

Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas - Volume 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas - Volume 2 is a publication project in the framework of the study of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. It follows the publication of a first volume in 2011 (see Editors' websites: http://ccgm.free.fr & http://sgfr.free.fr) and aims to illustrate the seismic characteristics of the MSC markers over news study areas. The Messinian Salinity Crisis is a huge outstanding succession of events that deeply modified the Mediterranean area within a short time span at the geological scale. In 2011, a seismic atlas of the Messinian markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas has been published [1]. This collective work summarizes, in one publication with a common format, the most relevant seismic features related to this exceptional event in the offshore domain. It also proposes a new global and consistent terminology for the MSC markers in the entire offshore Mediterranean area in order to avoid nomenclatural problems. Throughout 13 study areas, the seismic facies, geometry and extend of the Messinian markers (bounding surfaces and depositional units) are described. The Atlas however does not provide a complete description of all what that is known about the MSC and about the geology of each study area. Accordingly, illustrations in the Atlas should be used for a global description of the offshore imprints of the MSC at a broad scale, or for local information or site-specific general interpretations. Interpreted seismic data were carefully selected according to their quality, position and significance. Raw and interpreted seismic profiles are available on CD-Rom. Volume 2 is currently under preparation with the objectives : (1) to image the Messinian seismic marker from margins and basins that have not been illustrated in the first volume and (2) to complete the extension map of the MSC markers in the offshore and onshore domains at the Mediterranean scale. As the first volume, Volume 2 will also aim to share the geological interpretation of seismic reflection data imaging Messinian markers, to make this information accessible to the non geophysician community and to be a reference work that can be used by teachers and future researchers working on the Messinian event. This publication project is still open to anybody from industry and academia willing to contribute. At the present time, 16 new sites have been identified. Publication of the Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas - Volume 2 is planned for Fall 2014. For more details, contact presenting author J. Lofi (atlas coordinator). This contribution has been funded by the Actions Marges French research program. [1] : Lofi J., Deverchère J., Gaullier V., Gillet H., Gorini C., Guennoc P., Loncke L., Maillard A., Sage F. and Thinon I., 2011. Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) / Mémoires de la Société Géologique de France, n.s., 179, 72 pp., 1 CD. Atlas contributors (first authors): A. Camerlenghi, A. Del Ben, D. Do Couto, F. Estrada, F. Gallais, M. Garcia, V. Gaullier, A. Maillard, A. Micallef, M. Rossi, F. Sage, U. Schattner, A. Tassy, R. Urgeles

Lofi, Johanna

2014-05-01

14

Psychrometric pressure-volume analysis of osmoregulation in roots, shoots, and whole sporophytes of salinized ceratopteris.  

PubMed

Osmotic and turgor adjustment in roots, shoots, and whole sporophytes of a NaCl-tolerant mutant and a NaCl-sensitive wild-type strain of the fern Ceratopteris richardii Brongn. were characterized following exposure to 60 millimolar NaCl, using a psychrometric approach to pressure-volume analysis. Water potential components of whole plants and shoots at full or ambient hydration were similar between strains. Roots of the mutant, however, had osmotic potentials at full turgor and water potentials at zero turgor which were lower (0.32 and 0.46 megapascal, respectively) than those in roots of the wild type after salinization. Although compromised in the absence of NaCl, sporophytes of the mutant strain were larger and much less necrotic in 60 millimolar NaCl after 17 days, compared to the wild type. Root growth in the mutant strain was unaffected by salinization and far exceeded root growth in the wild type. Correlation coefficients of the linear regression and the general consistency and precision of the pressure-volume data demonstrated the feasibility of using PV curves for estimating water potential components of roots. The technique should also provide a means of studying osmoregulation in a variety of other rapidly equilibrating plant tissues. PMID:16667019

Augé, R M; Hickok, L G; Stodola, A J

1989-09-01

15

Infarct Volume After Hyperacute Infusion of Hypertonic Saline in a Rat Model of Acute Embolic Stroke  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hypertonic saline (HS) can treat cerebral edema arising from a number of pathologic conditions. However, physicians are reluctant to use it during the first 24 h after stroke because of experimental evidence that it increases infarct volume when administered early after reperfusion. Here, we determined the effect of HS on infarct size in an embolic clot model without planned reperfusion. Methods A clot was injected into the internal carotid artery of male Wistar rats to reduce perfusion in the middle cerebral artery territory to less than 40 % of baseline, as monitored by laser-Doppler flowmetry. After 25 min, rats were randomized to receive 10 mL/kg of 7.5 % HS (50:50 chloride:acetate) or normal saline (NS) followed by a 0.5 mL/h infusion of the same solution for 22 h. Results Infarct volume was similar between NS and HS groups (in mm3: cortex 102 ± 65 mm3 vs. 93 ± 49 mm3, p = 0.72; caudoputamenal complex 15 ± 9 mm3 vs. 21 ± 14, p = 0.22; total hemisphere 119 ± 76 mm3 vs. 114 ± 62, p = 0.88, respectively). Percent water content was unchanged in the infarcted hemisphere (NS 81.6 ± 1.5 %; HS 80.7 ± 1.3 %, p = 0.16), whereas the HS-treated contralateral hemisphere was significantly dehydrated (NS 79.4 ± 0.8 %; HS 77.5 ± 0.8 %, p < 0.01). Conclusions HS reduced contralateral hemispheric water content but did not affect ipsilateral brain water content when compared to NS. Infarct volume was unaffected by HS administration at all evaluated locations. PMID:22886394

Toung, Thomas J. K.; Gottschalk, Allan; Mirski, Marek A.; Koehler, Raymond C.

2013-01-01

16

Small-volume hypertonic saline/pentastarch improves ileal mucosal microcirculation in experimental peritonitis  

PubMed Central

We compared the effects of hypertonic saline 7.2%/6% hydroxyethyl starch (HSS-HES) and isotonic saline 0.9%/6% hydroxyethyl starch (ISS-HES) on ileal microcirculatory blood flow (MBF) at the initial phase of septic shock. Pigs were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Catheters were inserted into right atrium, pulmonary artery, carotid artery, and portal vein for hemodynamic measurements and for blood sampling. Ileal mucosal and muscularis MBF was continuously measured by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Septic shock was obtained 240 min after induction of fecal peritonitis; then animals were randomized to receive 10 mL.kg?1 during 10 min of either HSS-HES or ISS-HES. Systemic and microcirculatory blood flow as well as systemic metabolism were assessed. Fecal peritonitis promoted a hypodynamic septic shock, with significant reduction of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac index (CI). Ileal mucosal MBF (?34%) and ileal muscularis MBF (?54%) significantly diminished from baseline. Contrary to ISS-HES group, mucosal MBF significantly augmented after HSS-HES (+192% at min 150 post-shock) despite low blood pressure. There was weak correlation with CI (r2= 0.2, P=0.01) . Muscularis MBF didn't change. HSS-HES-treated animals had a significantly higher osmolarity and sodium concentration than ISS-HES group. Other variables did not change. Small-volume resuscitation with HSS-HES, but not ISS-HES, improved ileal microcirculatory impairment in experimental peritonitis model of septic shock even when MAP was low. This beneficial microcirculatory effect could be valuable in the management of early severe sepsis. PMID:24470929

Assadi, Abdelnasser; Desebbe, Olivier; Rimmelé, Thomas; Florence, Arnal; Goudable, Joëlle; Chassard, Dominique; Allaouchiche, Bernard

2012-01-01

17

Double contrast enema and colonoscopy in polyp detection.  

PubMed Central

The diagnostic accuracy of double contrast enema was assessed by colonoscopy of 250 consecutive patients with polypoid lesions that were observed at double contrast enema. The enema method detected 90% of all existing polypoid lesions, and gave false positive results in less than 3.5% Colonoscopy revealed 91% of the lesions. Double contrast enema is suitable as a screening procedure and, when used in combination with colonoscopy, only very few polyps will escape detection. The large number of neoplastic polyps detected in this retrospective series emphasises the necessity for a careful radiographic technique combined with colonoscopy to disclose and treat these potentially malignant lesions of the colon. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7308852

Fork, F T

1981-01-01

18

Estimating Plume Volume for Geologic Storage of CO2 in Saline Aquifers  

SciTech Connect

Typically, when a new subsurface flow and transport problem is first being considered, very simple models with a minimal number of parameters are used to get a rough idea of how the system will evolve. For a hydrogeologist considering the spreading of a contaminant plume in an aquifer, the aquifer thickness, porosity, and permeability might be enough to get started. If the plume is buoyant, aquifer dip comes into play. If regional groundwater flow is significant or there are nearby wells pumping, these features need to be included. Generally, the required parameters tend to be known from pre-existing studies, are parameters that people working in the field are familiar with, and represent features that are easy to explain to potential funding agencies, regulators, stakeholders, and the public. The situation for geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in saline aquifers is quite different. It is certainly desirable to do preliminary modeling in advance of any field work since geologic storage of CO{sub 2} is a novel concept that few people have much experience with or intuition about. But the parameters that control CO{sub 2} plume behavior are a little more daunting to assemble and explain than those for a groundwater flow problem. Even the most basic question of how much volume a given mass of injected CO{sub 2} will occupy in the subsurface is non-trivial. However, with a number of simplifying assumptions, some preliminary estimates can be made, as described below. To make efficient use of the subsurface storage volume available, CO{sub 2} density should be large, which means choosing a storage formation at depths below about 800 m, where pressure and temperature conditions are above the critical point of CO{sub 2} (P = 73.8 bars, T = 31 C). Then CO{sub 2} will exist primarily as a free-phase supercritical fluid, while some CO{sub 2} will dissolve into the aqueous phase.

Doughty, Christine

2008-07-11

19

Routine colonic lavage is unnecessary for double-contrast barium enema in outpatients  

PubMed Central

Four different cleansing regimens were assessed in a prospective survey of 435 patients referred for barium enema. A regimen using simple dietary instructions and laxatives is as effective as a preliminary cleansing enema. It is suggested that routine cleansing enemas in outpatients represent an unnecessary and uncomfortable ritual that might usefully be abandoned. PMID:6802391

De Lacey, Gerald; Benson, Mark; Wilkins, Robert; Spencer, John; Cramer, Benvon

1982-01-01

20

21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

2013-04-01

21

21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

2012-04-01

22

21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

2014-04-01

23

21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

2010-04-01

24

21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

2011-04-01

25

Use of A Monti Channel For Administration of Antegrade Continence Enemas  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeSuccess with Malone antegrade continence enemas (MACE) requires reliable access to the colon and a customized enema regimen. Use of the appendix in situ provides a natural and well-vascularized conduit. When the appendix is absent or inadequate, alternative techniques are required. We report our experience using Monti channels to administer antegrade continence enemas.

Elizabeth B. Yerkes; Richard C. Rink; Mark P. Cain; Anthony J. Casale

2002-01-01

26

Psychrometric Pressure-Volume Analysis of Osmoregulation in Roots, Shoots, and Whole Sporophytes of Salinized Ceratopteris1  

PubMed Central

Osmotic and turgor adjustment in roots, shoots, and whole sporophytes of a NaCl-tolerant mutant and a NaCl-sensitive wild-type strain of the fern Ceratopteris richardii Brongn. were characterized following exposure to 60 millimolar NaCl, using a psychrometric approach to pressure-volume analysis. Water potential components of whole plants and shoots at full or ambient hydration were similar between strains. Roots of the mutant, however, had osmotic potentials at full turgor and water potentials at zero turgor which were lower (0.32 and 0.46 megapascal, respectively) than those in roots of the wild type after salinization. Although compromised in the absence of NaCl, sporophytes of the mutant strain were larger and much less necrotic in 60 millimolar NaCl after 17 days, compared to the wild type. Root growth in the mutant strain was unaffected by salinization and far exceeded root growth in the wild type. Correlation coefficients of the linear regression and the general consistency and precision of the pressure-volume data demonstrated the feasibility of using PV curves for estimating water potential components of roots. The technique should also provide a means of studying osmoregulation in a variety of other rapidly equilibrating plant tissues. PMID:16667019

Augé, Robert M.; Hickok, Leslie G.; Stodola, Ann J. W.

1989-01-01

27

Adequacy of preparation for barium enema among elderly outpatients.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether outpatients 75 years of age or older have a higher rate of inadequate bowel preparation for barium enema and of complications associated with the preparation and the test than patients aged 55 to 74 years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Radiology department in a teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Patients 55 years or older referred for a barium enema from March to August 1988. OUTCOME MEASURES: All films were reviewed independently by a study radiologist blind to the staff radiologist's report. Patients were interviewed by telephone within several days after the test to assess the occurrence of problems during the preparation or the test. MAIN RESULTS: Of the 213 patients assessed 72 were excluded: 43 refused to participate or could not be contacted, 16 had previously undergone colonic surgery, and 13 were excluded for other reasons. The remaining 141 patients were separated into three age groups: those 55 to 64 years (46 patients), those 65 to 74 (47) and those 75 or older (48). In 104 cases (74%) the bowel had been prepared adequately; there was no significant difference between the three groups with regard to the adequacy of preparation. The incidence of problems reported by the patients did not differ significantly between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Outpatients aged 75 years or more are no more likely than those aged 55 to 74 to have problems with bowel preparation or the barium enema itself. Age should not be a criterion for exclusion from barium enema. To try to lower the rate of poor bowel preparation clinicians and radiologists should consider counselling patients more carefully about the importance of proper preparation. Also, the current method of preparation could be examined to determine whether simple changes would significantly improve colon cleanliness. PMID:2025821

Grad, R M; Clarfield, A M; Rosenbloom, M; Perrone, M

1991-01-01

28

[Severe allergic reaction due to a rectal enema].  

PubMed

Allergic drug reactions must always be considered when prescribing treatment, even in frequent pediatric problems such as acute abdominal pain due to constipation. We describe an original case of anaphylactic shock due to the administration of hypertonic rectal enema in a child. A 9-year-old child admitted to the emergency department for an acute complaint of abdominal pain related to constipation received an administration of a hypertonic rectal enema to allow the passage of stools. Afterwards, the child presented a life-threatening episode, requiring emergency treatment with transfer to the pediatric intensive care unit, suggesting an anaphylactic shock. The absence of any other drug or food intake, the chronology of events, and favorable outcome after treatment led to the diagnosis of a probable allergy to methylparaben, sodium parahydroxybenzoate, present as the excipient in the rectal enema. Anaphylactic shock is a serious allergic reaction, setting in rapidly, which may lead to fatal outcome. Most reactions to parabens reported concern, almost exclusively, the cutaneous application of paraben-containing topical preparations. The present observation underscores the original and undescribed risk of an allergic general reaction following the rectal administration of parabens. The indications of any prescription must be carefully observed and potential drug contraindications, considering the patient's history of allergy, should be sought. PMID:24183833

Raulin-Gaignard, H; Berlengi, N; Gatin, A; Loeb, O; Borsa-Dorion, A; Monin, P

2013-12-01

29

Influence of Salinous Solutions in the Pressure and Volume Modulations of the Intracranial Cavity  

E-print Network

agents and skull removal. The mechanical properties of bone can be affected by the administration of different solutions. If the malleability of skull is influenced by the osmotic agents that are administered to the patient then the pressure and volume...

Ceballos, Mariana

2012-10-19

30

Salinization and Saline Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and

A. Vengosh

2003-01-01

31

Relative sensitivity of colonoscopy and barium enema for detection of colorectal cancer in clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The relative sensitivities of barium enema and colonoscopy for colorectal cancer are still debated. The aim of this study was to determine the relative sensitivity of barium enema and colonoscopy in general clinical practice. METHODS: Medical records of 2193 consecutive colorectal cancer cases identified in 20 central Indiana hospitals were reviewed. All procedures performed within 3 years

DK Rex; EY Rahmani; JH Haseman; GT Lemmel; S Kaster; JS Buckley

1997-01-01

32

Coffee Enema for Preparation for Small Bowel Video Capsule Endoscopy: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Coffee enemas are believed to cause dilatation of bile ducts and excretion of bile through the colon wall. Proponents of coffee enemas claim that the cafestol palmitate in coffee enhances the activity of glutathione S-transferase, an enzyme that stimulates bile excretion. During video capsule endoscopy (VCE), excreted bile is one of the causes of poor preparation of the small bowel. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effect of coffee enema for preparation of the small bowel during VCE. In this pilot study, 17 of 34 patients were assigned to the coffee enema plus polyethylene glycol (PEG) 2 L ingestion group, whereas the 17 remaining control patients received 2 L of PEG only. The quality of bowel preparation was evaluated in the two patient groups. Bowel preparations in the proximal segments of small bowel were not differ between two groups. In the mid and distal segments of the small intestine, bowel preparations tend to be better in patients who received coffee enemas plus PEG than in patients who received PEG only. The coffee enema group did not experience any complications or side effects. Coffee enemas may be a feasible option, and there were no clinically significant adverse events related to coffee enemas. More prospective randomized studies are warranted to improve small bowel preparation for VCE. PMID:25136541

Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang

2014-01-01

33

Optimum dosage of 5-aminosalicylic acid as rectal enemas in patients with active ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed Central

5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), the active moiety of sulphasalazine (SASP), was given as a rectal enema to patients with mild to moderate distal ulcerative colitis to determine the minimum effective dosage. A double blind study was carried out using enemas containing 1, 2, or 4 g or 5-ASA or placebo for a one month treatment period. One hundred and thirteen patients with ulcerative colitis attending our outpatient clinic volunteered to participate. Clinical, sigmoidoscopic, and histological assessments were carried out at the beginning of the study and after 15 and 30 days of treatment. All patients who received 5-ASA enemas showed significantly better results than those who received a placebo enema (p less than 0.001) but no difference was detected among the patients receiving differing concentrations of 5-ASA. This study suggests that 1 g 5-ASA (in a 100 ml enema) is a sufficient dosage for patients with a mild to moderate attack of ulcerative colitis. PMID:1885075

Campieri, M; Gionchetti, P; Belluzzi, A; Brignola, C; Tampieri, M; Iannone, P; Miglioli, M; Barbara, L

1991-01-01

34

Rectal perforations and fistulae secondary to a glycerin enema: Closure by over-the-scope-clip  

PubMed Central

Rectal perforations due to glycerin enemas (GE) typically occur when the patient is in a seated or lordotic standing position. Once the perforation occurs and peritonitis results, death is usually inevitable. We describe two cases of rectal perforation and fistula caused by a GE. An 88-year-old woman presented with a large rectal perforation and a fistula just after receiving a GE. Her case was further complicated by an abscess in the right rectal wall. The second patient was a 78-year-old woman who suffered from a rectovesical fistula after a GE. In both cases, we performed direct endoscopic abscess lavage with a saline solution and closed the fistula using an over-the-scope-clip (OTSC) procedure. These procedures resulted in dramatic improvement in both patients. Direct endoscopic lavage and OTSC closure are very useful for pararectal abscess lavage and fistula closure, respectively, in elderly patients who are in poor general condition. Our two cases are the first reports of the successful endoscopic closure of fistulae using double OTSCs after endoscopic lavage of the debris and an abscess of the rectum secondary to a GE. PMID:22791955

Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi; Masaki, Tsutomu; Izuishi, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

2012-01-01

35

The value of the preoperative barium-enema examination in the assessment of pelvic masses  

SciTech Connect

The value of the barium-enema examination in the assessment of pelvic masses was studied in 44 patients. Findings from those barium-enema examinations and from pathological specimens from 37 patients who had malignant tumors and seven patients who had endometriosis were retrospectively analyzed to determine if the barium-enema examination is useful in differentiating extrinsic lesions with and without invasion of the colon. None of the 12 patients who had extrinsic lesions had any of the criteria that indicated bowel-wall invasion. These criteria included fixation and serrations of the bowel wall in all patients with invasion, and ulceration and fistulizaton in those patients who had complete transmural invasion. In patients with pelvic masses, the preoperative barium-enema examination may be useful to the surgeon in planning surgery and in preparing the patient for the possibility of partial colectomy or colostomy.

Gedgaudas, R.K.; Kelvin, F.M.; Thompson, W.M.; Rice, R.P.

1983-03-01

36

The antegrade continence enema procedure and total anorectal reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Patients may present with anal incontinence (AI) following repair of a congenital anorectal anomaly years previously, or require total anorectal reconstruction (TAR) following radical rectal extirpation, most commonly for rectal cancer. Others may require removal of their colostomy following sphincter excision for Fournier's gangrene, or in cases of severe perineal trauma. Most of the data pertaining to antegrade continence enema (the ACE or Malone procedure) comes from the pediatric literature in the management of children with AI, but also with supervening chronic constipation, where the quality of life and compliance with this technique appears superior to retrograde colonic washouts. Total anorectal reconstruction requires an anatomical or physical supplement to the performance of a perineal colostomy, which may include an extrinsic muscle interposition (which may or may not be ‘dynamized'), construction of a neorectal reservoir, implantation of an incremental artificial bowel sphincter or creation of a terminal, smooth-muscle neosphincter. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and their outcome are presented here. PMID:24759342

Zbar, Andrew P.

2014-01-01

37

Infection of Aedes albopictus with chikungunya virus rectally administered by enema.  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in tropical areas of Africa, Asia, and the islands of the Indian Ocean. In 2007 and 2009, CHIKV was transmitted outside these tropical areas and caused geographically localized infections in people in Italy and France. To temporally and spatially characterize CHIKV infection of Ae. albopictus midguts, a comparison of viral distribution in mosquitoes infected per os or by enema was conducted. Ae. albopictus infected with CHIKV LR 5' green fluorescent protein (GFP) at a titer 10(6.95) tissue culture infective dose(50) (TCID(50))/mL, were collected and analyzed for virus dissemination by visualizing GFP expression and titration up to 14 days post inoculation (dpi). Additionally, midguts were dissected from the mosquitoes and imaged by fluorescence microscopy for comparison of midgut infection patterns between orally- and enema-infected mosquitoes. When virus was delivered via enema, the anterior midgut appeared more readily infected by 3 dpi, with increased GFP presentation observed in this same location of the midgut at 7 and 14 dpi when compared to orally-infected mosquitoes. This work demonstrates that enema delivery of virus is a viable technique for use of mosquito infection. Enema injection of mosquitoes may be an alternative to intrathoracic inoculation because the enema delivery more closely models natural infection and neither compromises midgut integrity nor involves a wound that can induce immune responses. Furthermore, unlike intrathoracic delivery, the enema does not bypass midgut barriers to infect tissues artificially in the hemocoel of the mosquito. PMID:23249139

Nuckols, John T; Ziegler, Sarah A; Huang, Yan-Jang Scott; McAuley, Alex J; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Klowden, Marc J; Spratt, Heidi; Davey, Robert A; Higgs, Stephen

2013-02-01

38

Infection of Aedes albopictus with Chikungunya Virus Rectally Administered by Enema  

PubMed Central

Abstract Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in tropical areas of Africa, Asia, and the islands of the Indian Ocean. In 2007 and 2009, CHIKV was transmitted outside these tropical areas and caused geographically localized infections in people in Italy and France. To temporally and spatially characterize CHIKV infection of Ae. albopictus midguts, a comparison of viral distribution in mosquitoes infected per os or by enema was conducted. Ae. albopictus infected with CHIKV LR 5? green fluorescent protein (GFP) at a titer 106.95 tissue culture infective dose50 (TCID50)/mL, were collected and analyzed for virus dissemination by visualizing GFP expression and titration up to 14 days post inoculation (dpi). Additionally, midguts were dissected from the mosquitoes and imaged by fluorescence microscopy for comparison of midgut infection patterns between orally- and enema-infected mosquitoes. When virus was delivered via enema, the anterior midgut appeared more readily infected by 3?dpi, with increased GFP presentation observed in this same location of the midgut at 7 and 14?dpi when compared to orally-infected mosquitoes. This work demonstrates that enema delivery of virus is a viable technique for use of mosquito infection. Enema injection of mosquitoes may be an alternative to intrathoracic inoculation because the enema delivery more closely models natural infection and neither compromises midgut integrity nor involves a wound that can induce immune responses. Furthermore, unlike intrathoracic delivery, the enema does not bypass midgut barriers to infect tissues artificially in the hemocoel of the mosquito. PMID:23249139

Ziegler, Sarah A.; Huang, Yan-Jang Scott; McAuley, Alex J.; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Klowden, Marc J.; Spratt, Heidi; Davey, Robert A.; Higgs, Stephen

2013-01-01

39

A randomised trial comparing mesalazine and prednisolone foam enemas in patients with acute distal ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed Central

Distal ulcerative colitis can be treated with oral or rectal mesalazine, or both. A foam enema preparation has been developed and its efficacy investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mesalazine foam enemas compared with prednisolone foam enemas in the treatment of patients with acute distal ulcerative colitis. Patients aged over 18 years presenting with a relapse of distal ulcerative colitis were randomly allocated treatment with mesalazine foam enema (n = 149 evaluable patients) and prednisolone foam enema (n = 146 evaluable patients) for four weeks. A randomised multicentre investigator blind parallel group trial was conducted. It was found that after four weeks of treatment, clinical remission was achieved by 52% of mesalazine treated patients and 31% of patients treated with prednisolone (p < 0.001). There was a trend in favour of more patients in the mesalazine group achieving sigmoidoscopic remission (40% v 31%, p = 0.10). Histological remission was achieved by 27% and 21% of patients receiving mesalazine and prednisolone respectively. Symptoms improved in both treatment groups. Significantly more mesalazine patients had no blood in their stools after four weeks of treatment (67% v 40%, p < 0.001). Prednisolone treated patients had significantly fewer days with liquid stools than mesalazine patients, with a median of 0 and 1 days respectively by week 4 (p = 0.001). In this study mesalazine foam enema was superior to prednisolone foam enema with regards to clinical remission, this was supported by favourable trends in sigmoidoscopic and histological remission rates. Both treatments were well tolerated. PMID:8801202

Lee, F I; Jewell, D P; Mani, V; Keighley, M R; Kingston, R D; Record, C O; Grace, R H; Daniels, S; Patterson, J; Smith, K

1996-01-01

40

Colonoscopy can miss diverticula of the left colon identified by barium enema  

PubMed Central

AIM: To identify the diagnostic value of colonoscopy for diverticulosis as determined by barium enema. METHODS: A total of 65 patients with hematochezia who underwent colonoscopy and barium enema were analyzed, and the diagnostic value of colonoscopy for diverticula was assessed. The receiver operating characteristic area under the curve was compared in relation to age (< 70 or ? 70 years), sex, and colon location. The number of diverticula was counted, and the detection ratio was calculated. RESULTS: Colonic diverticula were observed in 46 patients with barium enema. Colonoscopy had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 90%. No significant differences were found in the receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROC-AUC) for age group or sex. The ROC-AUC of the left colon was significantly lower than that of the right colon (0.81 vs 0.96, P = 0.02). Colonoscopy identified 486 colonic diverticula, while barium enema identified 1186. The detection ratio for the entire colon was therefore 0.41 (486/1186). The detection ratio in the left colon (0.32, 189/588) was significantly lower than that of the right colon (0.50, 297/598) (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Compared with barium enema, only half the number of colonic diverticula can be detected by colonoscopy in the entire colon and even less in the left colon. PMID:23613630

Niikura, Ryota; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Shimbo, Takuro; Akiyama, Junichi; Uemura, Naomi

2013-01-01

41

Therapeutic barium enema for bleeding colonic diverticula: four case series and review of the literature.  

PubMed

The prevalence of diverticular diseases of the colon, including severe and persistent bleeding in Eastern countries, has increased in the last decades. The bleeding from colonic diverticula is the most common cause of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Herein, we report four cases of severe and persistent bleeding of colonic diverticular disease that could be treated with a high concentration barium enema. These four cases showed a similar pattern of bleeding whose source could not be identified. Colonoscopy revealed fresh blood in the entire colon and many diverticula were noted throughout the colon. No active bleeding source was identified, but large adherent clots in some diverticula were noted. After endoscopic and angiographic therapies failed, therapeutic barium enema stopped the severe bleeding. These patients remained free of re-bleeding in the follow-up period (range 17-35 mo) after the therapy. We report the four case series of therapeutic barium enema and reviewed the literature pertinent to this procedure. PMID:19009662

Iwamoto, Jun-ichi; Mizokami, Yuji; Shimokobe, Koichi; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Yasushi

2008-11-01

42

Therapeutic barium enema for bleeding colonic diverticula: Four case series and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of diverticular diseases of the colon, including severe and persistent bleeding in Eastern countries, has increased in the last decades. The bleeding from colonic diverticula is the most common cause of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Herein, we report four cases of severe and persistent bleeding of colonic diverticular disease that could be treated with a high concentration barium enema. These four cases showed a similar pattern of bleeding whose source could not be identified. Colonoscopy revealed fresh blood in the entire colon and many diverticula were noted throughout the colon. No active bleeding source was identified, but large adherent clots in some diverticula were noted. After endoscopic and angiographic therapies failed, therapeutic barium enema stopped the severe bleeding. These patients remained free of re-bleeding in the follow-up period (range 17-35 mo) after the therapy. We report the four case series of therapeutic barium enema and reviewed the literature pertinent to this procedure. PMID:19009662

Iwamoto, Jun-ichi; Mizokami, Yuji; Shimokobe, Koichi; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Yasushi

2008-01-01

43

Development of In Situ Gelling and Bio Adhesive 5-Fluorouracil Enema  

PubMed Central

In this study, a novel 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) enema with good bio adhesion and temperature sensitivity was developed using in situ gelling technology. The preparation was formulated as a free-flowing liquid before use, while a layer of gel film was quickly formed when administered in the rectum, with a large contact surface area. It also demonstrated good biocompatibility, appropriate gel strength and bio adhesive force with excellent adhesion to rectal mucosa and prolonged action time, allowing more effective drug absorption and diffusion to surrounding tissues. Poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188 were applied to adjust the gelling temperature. With the addition of carbopol and polycarbophil (bio adhesive substances), the solubility of 5-FU and gel strength increased, the temperature of gelation and the surface area of drug contact on mucous epithelium decreased. Decreased adhesive force between the preparation and the mucous membrane of the rectum was demonstrated with improving carbopol and polycarbophil’s concentration. In vitro release demonstrated that 5-FU in situ gelling enema with different bases had a rapid and almost complete drug release. We used an optimized formulation of P407/P188/polycarbophil/5-FU (17/2.5/0.2/1.0) for animal experiments. The result showed that the drug evenly covered the surface of the rectum and there was no leakage in 6 hours. The in situ gelling enema showed significantly higher rectal tissue levels of 5-FU compared with suppository and intravenous administration, indicating that 5-FU could be well absorbed due to the enlarged releasing area, longer retention time and larger amount of dissolved active ingredients. Systemically, 5-FU levels in the enema group were similar to those in the suppository group and significantly lower than the intravenous group. The enema was not associated with morphological damage to rectal tissue. These results suggest that the bio adhesive and in situ gelling enema could be a more effective rectal delivery system of 5-FU. PMID:23976976

Wang, Lu-Lu; Zheng, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Shao-Hua; Fang, Xia-Qin

2013-01-01

44

Salinity Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to measure the salinity of the water at your hydrology site. Students use a hydrometer to measure the specific gravity of the water sample, and use a thermometer to measure the temperature. With these two values, students will use tables to determine the salinity.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

45

Predictions of long-term behavior of a large-volume pilot test for CO2 geological storage in a saline formation in the Central Valley, California  

SciTech Connect

The long-term behavior of a CO{sub 2} plume injected into a deep saline formation is investigated, focusing on mechanisms that lead to plume stabilization. Key measures are plume migration distance and the time evolution of CO{sub 2} phase-partitioning, which are examined by developing a numerical model of the subsurface at a proposed power plant with CO{sub 2} capture in the San Joaquin Valley, California, where a large-volume pilot test of CO{sub 2} injection will be conducted. The numerical model simulates a four-year CO{sub 2} injection period and the subsequent evolution of the CO{sub 2} plume until it stabilizes. Sensitivity studies are carried out to investigate the effect of poorly constrained model parameters permeability, permeability anisotropy, and residual gas saturation.

Doughty, Christine; Myer, Larry R.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

2008-11-01

46

IN SITU MALONE ANTEGRADE CONTINENCE ENEMA IN 127 PATIENTS: A 6YEAR EXPERIENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:The initial description of the Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) relied on a reversed, tunneled and reimplanted appendix. In 1999 we reported our in situ technique that uses windows developed in the appendiceal mesentery for imbrication. We present our long-term results.

C. D. ANTHONY HERNDON; RICHARD C. RINK; MARK P. CAIN; MICHELLE LERNER; MARTIN KAEFER; ELIZABETH YERKES; ANTHONY J. CASALE

2004-01-01

47

Perception errors with double-contrast enema after a positive guaiac test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 3 and 6 of 12 colorectal neoplasms larger than 1 cm in diameter were overlooked by each of 4 radiologists in 117 individuals investigated with double-contrast enema (DCE) after a positive guaiac test. Even when the individual results of 2, 3, or 4 experienced radiologists were combined, 2 small carcinomas were overlooked due to perception errors. One of these

Jan Kewenter; Jörn Jensen; Marianne Boijsen; Gerhard Lycke; Ulf Tylén

1987-01-01

48

Salinity Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are the costs of deriving energy from the earth's natural reserves of salt. Argues that, as fossil fuel supplies become more depleted in the future, the environmental advantages of salinity power may prove to warrant its exploitation. (TW)

Schmitt, Walter R.

1987-01-01

49

Use of chelating resins and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of trace and major elements in small volumes of saline water samples.  

PubMed

For some saline environments (e.g. deeply percolating groundwater, interstitial water in marine sediments, water sample collected after several steps of fractionation) the volume of water sample available is limited. A technique is presented which enables simultaneous determination of major and trace elements after preconcentration of only 60 mL sample on chelating resins. Chelex-100 and Chelamine were used for the preconcentration of trace elements (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Sc) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Yb) from saline water before their measurement by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Retention of the major elements (Na, Ca, Mg) by the Chelamine resin was lower than by Chelex; this enabled their direct measurement in the solution after passage through the resin column. For trace metal recoveries both resins yield the same mass balance. Only Chelex resin enabled the quantitative recovery of rare earth elements. The major elements, trace metals and rare earth elements cannot be measured after passage through one resin only. The protocol proposes the initial use of Chelamine for measurement of trace and major elements and then passage the same sample through the Chelex resin for determination of the rare earth elements. The detection limit ranged from 1 to 12 pg mL(-1). At concentrations of 1 ng mL(-1) of trace metals and REE spiked in coastal water the precision for 10 replicates was in the range of 0.3-3.4% (RSD). The accuracy of the method was demonstrated by analyzing two standard reference waters, SLRS-3 and CASS-3. PMID:11569874

Guéguen, C; Dominik, J; Perret, D

2001-08-01

50

Enema use among men who have sex with men: a behavioral epidemiologic study with implications for HIV/STI prevention.  

PubMed

Enema use or douching is a risk factor for HIV/STI in men who have sex with men (MSM). However, few studies have explored enema use practices. We examined the frequency of enema use, type of products used, and reasons to use and not to use before and after receptive anal sex in a large sample of MSM (N = 4,992) recruited from 16 U.S. cities. Through online surveys, we examined personal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with enema use. Most (52 %) participants reported having douched at least once and 35 % reported douching within the last 3 months. While most (88 %) reported enema use before receptive anal sex, 28 % douched after receptive anal sex. Most participants (65 %) used water to douche, 24 % added salt, soap, and/or antibacterial products to water, and 30 % reported using commercially available products. Being a man of color, HIV-positive, diagnosed with an STI, identifying as "versatile" in sex, and having more than two unprotected sex partners were significantly associated with recent enema use. Douching behavior appears closely associated with HIV/STI risk. Douching with water may be a concern since it may increase HIV/STI infection by damaging the epithelium. Development and promotion of a non-damaging, non-water based enema specifically for use in anal sex are recommended. In addition, the seemingly contradictory recommendations that water-based lubricant is recommended for anal sex but water-based enemas are dangerous need to be reconciled into a single consistent message. PMID:24346864

Noor, Syed W; Rosser, B R Simon

2014-05-01

51

Topical administration of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with ulcerative colitis. Studies on rectal absorption and excretion.  

PubMed Central

5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is a new treatment for patients suffering from ulcerative colitis but only limited information is available about its rectal absorption. We therefore studied seven patients with ulcerative colitis in remission, and five with active disease to determine acetylated and free 5-ASA plasma concentrations and urinary acetyl 5-ASA after the administration of three different types of enemas: (2 g 5-ASA/100 ml, 4 g/100 ml, and 200 ml). In patients in remission urinary acetyl 5-ASA excretion was dose and volume dependent (p less than 0.01; p less than 0.05) but this correlation was absent in active disease. Because aminosalicylates are usually eliminated through the kidney, these low values (10% in active disease and 19% in those in remission) suggest that the beneficial action may be local. Urinary recovery was significantly lower in patients with active disease (p less than 0.01; p less than 0.02). No accumulation of 5-ASA was found in plasma after repeated daily administration. PMID:3979912

Campieri, M; Lanfranchi, G A; Boschi, S; Brignola, C; Bazzocchi, G; Gionchetti, P; Minguzzi, M R; Belluzzi, A; Labò, G

1985-01-01

52

Assessment of water enema computed tomography: an effective imaging technique for the diagnosis of colon cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of water enema computed tomography (WECT) for the diagnosis of colon cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 191 patients referred for clinically suspected colon cancer were prospectively evaluated by WECT in a multicenter\\u000a trial. Examination was contrast enhanced helical CT after colon filling through a rectal tube. For all the cases, final

Catherine Ridereau-Zins; Christophe Aubé; Dominique Luet; Bruno Vielle; Franck Pilleul; Jérôme Dumortier; Yves Gandon; Denis Heresbach; Christophe Beziat; François Bailly; Marjolaine DeBilly; Franck Carbonnel; Marie Ange Pierredon-Foulongne; Mickaël Bismuth; Jean-Marie Chretien; Jérôme Lebigot; Patrick Pessaux; Pierre-Jean Valette

2010-01-01

53

Comparison of results of laparoscopic and open antegrade continence enema procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several modifications of the Malone antegrade continence enema (ACE) procedure have now been reported. In this study we have\\u000a compared the results of our experience with the laparoscopic appendicostomy (LACE procedure) with the published results of\\u000a previously described open ACE procedures. Children who had the LACE procedure at our institutions were reviewed. Intra- and\\u000a postoperative problems were identified by review

A. C. Lynch; S. W. Beasley; R. W. Robertson; P. N. Morreau

1999-01-01

54

Sensitivity of double contrast barium enema and colonoscopy for the detection of colorectal neoplasms  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Background: Double contrast barium enema (DCBE) is the examination carried out most frequently for investigation of patients\\u000a with large bowel symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity of DCBE and colonoscopy for the detection\\u000a of colorectal cancer and neoplastic polyps ?1 cm. Methods: All patients undergoing DCBE (1389) or colonoscopy (1081) as the\\u000a primary investigation for

G. A. Smith; P. J. O'Dwyer

2001-01-01

55

Accidental embryo irradiation during barium enema examinations: An estimation of absorbed dose  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to investigate the possibility of an embryo to receive a dose of more than 10 cGy, the threshold of malformation induction in embryos reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, during barium enema examinations. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were place in a phantom to calculate the depth-to-skin conversion coefficient needed for dose estimation at the average embryo depth in patients. Barium enema examinations were performed in 20 women of childbearing age with diagnostic problems demanding longer fluoroscopy times. Doses at 6 cm, the average embryo depth, were determined by measurements at the patients` skin followed by dose calculation at the site of interest. The range of doses estimated at embryo depth for patients was 1.9 to 8.2 cGy. The dose always exceeded 5 cGy when fluoroscopy time was longer than 7 minutes. The dose at the embryo depth never exceeded 10 cGy. This study indicates that fluoroscopy time should not exceed 7 minutes in childbearing-age female patients undergoing barium enema examinations. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Damilakis, J.; Perisinakis, K.; Grammatikakis, J. [Univ. Hospital of Iraklion, Crete (Greece)] [and others] [Univ. Hospital of Iraklion, Crete (Greece); and others

1996-04-01

56

Comparison of different volumes of saline flush in the assessment of perivenous artefacts in the subclavian vein during cervical CT angiography  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to examine attenuation values in the central vein and perivenous artefacts at the subclavian vein in cervical CT angiography (CTA) when using 40 ml contrast material (CM) followed by different volumes (25 ml vs 40 ml) of saline flush (SF). Methods 61 patients underwent CTA between the aortic arch (AA) and distal to the circle of Willis (cW). After calculating test-bolus time to peak enhancement at the cW (Tc), scanning delay was represented as [(Tc + 4) – scan duration between AA and cW] s. 28 patients (Group A) received 40 ml of 370 mg iodine (I) ml–1 CM followed by 25 ml of SF, and 33 patients (Group B) received the same CM followed by 40 ml of SF, both administered through the right antecubital vein. Arterial attenuation was measured at seven points in the aorto-carotid artery and at three points in the vertebrobasilar artery. Venous attenuation in the central vein was measured at four points. Mean attenuation values were analysed quantitatively. Axial and post-processing three-dimensional images were assessed qualitatively. Results When Groups A and B were compared, there were no differences in the mean attenuation values in either the aorto-carotid artery (p=0.78) or the vertebrobasilar artery (p=0.82). Mean venous attenuation values were lower (p=0.002) in Group B than in Group A. Although the qualitative assessment of arterial images showed no differences between the two groups overall, perivenous artefacts at the subclavian vein were assessed as less prominent (p<0.01) in Group B. Conclusions When compared with CTA followed by 25 ml of SF, CTA followed by 40 ml of SF can reduce venous attenuation values and perivenous artefacts at the subclavian vein. PMID:21045067

Takeyama, N; Ohgiya, Y; Hayashi, T; Takahashi, T; Takasu, D; Nakashima, J; Kato, K; Kinebuchi, Y; Hashimoto, T; Gokan, T

2011-01-01

57

A therapeutic barium enema is a practical option to control bleeding from the appendix  

PubMed Central

Background Acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage originating from the appendix is rare and often intractable, because it is almost impossible to approach the bleeding point by endoscopy. We herein describe the first case of bleeding from the appendix, which was successively controlled by a therapeutic barium enema administered into the appendix. Case presentation A 71-year-old male visited our hospital because of melena. He has been receiving an anti-coagulation drug, ticlopidine hydrochloride, for 10 years. By an emergency colonoscopy, a hemorrhage was detected in the appendix, and the lesion responsible for the bleeding was regarded to exist in the appendix. Two hundred milliliters of 50 W/V% barium was sprayed into the orifice of the appendix using a spraying tube. The bleeding could thus be immediately stopped, and a radiological examination revealed the accumulation of barium at the cecum and the orifice of the appendix. The barium accumulation disappeared by the next day, and no obvious anal bleeding was observed. Two weeks after stopping the bleeding from the appendix, an appendectomy was performed to prevent any further refractory hemorrhaging. The patient has had no complaints of any abdominal symptoms or anal bleeding for 10 months. Conclusions A therapeutic barium enema is a useful procedure to control bleeding from the appendix and to avoid emergency surgery, such as partial cecectomy and hemicolectomy. PMID:24156777

2013-01-01

58

Barium enema  

MedlinePLUS

... be done in a doctor's office or hospital radiology department. It is done after your colon is ... Grainger RG, et al., eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 5th ed. Philadelphia, ...

59

Forensic application of ESEM and XRF-EDS techniques to a fatal case of sodium phosphate enema intoxication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium phosphate enemas and laxatives are widely used for the treatment of constipation, even if a number of cases of significant toxicity due to alterations of the fluid and electrolyte equilibria (hypernatremia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia) have been reported. We present the case of an 83-year-old man who died of fecal and chemical peritonitis secondary to an iatrogenic colon perforation (produced

G.a Viel; G. a Cecchetto; L. D. a Fabbri; C. b Furlan; S. D. a Ferrara; M. a Montisci

2009-01-01

60

Salinity Patterns in the Ocean Lynne D Talley  

E-print Network

Salinity Patterns in the Ocean Lynne D Talley Volume 1, The Earth system: physical and chemical, Ltd, Chichester, 2002 #12;Salinity Patterns in the Ocean Lynne D Talley Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, La Jolla, CA, USA Ocean salinity varies geographically and with time

Talley, Lynne D.

61

The double contrast barium enema: improvements to lateral decubitus views including the use of a wedge filter.  

PubMed

The prognostic importance of early detection of colonic carcinoma is emphasised and the contribution of an accurate barium enema technique is stressed. Horizontal beam lateral decubitus films are routine in double contrast barium enemas, and it is still common practice in many departments to support the cassette for these views either in the bucky tray or with sandbags. The lateral decubitus views of 100 patients using these methods of cassette support were reviewed. A large number of the films (67%) were technically so unsatisfactory due to unilateral under- or over-penetration that they did not provide acceptable visualisation of the colon. The cause of these technical faults, and the methods by which they may be overcome, are described. In addition, a wedge filter was designed to reduce the absorption by dependent soft tissues in obese patients. PMID:639459

De Lacey, G; Wignall, B; Ambrose, J; Baylis, K; Bridges, C

1978-03-01

62

Measuring Salinity by Conductivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines procedures for constructing an instrument which uses an electrode and calibration methods to measure the salinity of waters in environments close to and affected by a saline estuary. (Author/DC)

Lapworth, C. J.

1981-01-01

63

Mechanisms of Salinity Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological and molecular mechanisms of tolerance to os- motic and ionic components of salinity stress are reviewed at the cel- lular, organ, and whole-plant level. Plant growth responds to salinity in two phases: a rapid, osmotic phase that inhibits growth of young leaves, and a slower, ionic phase that accelerates senescence of ma- ture leaves. Plant adaptations to salinity

Rana Munns; Mark Tester

2008-01-01

64

Paracellular phosphate absorption in rat colon: a mechanism for enema-induced hyperphosphatemia.  

PubMed

The mechanism of colonic phosphate absorption is not well defined. We measured unidirectional phosphate fluxes across rat distal colon epithelium in the absence of transepithelial electrochemical gradients. Steady-state mucosal-to-serosal flux (Jms) was not different from the serosal-to-mucosal flux (Jsm), generating no net flux (Jnet = Jms - Jsm, was not different from "0'). Simultaneous fluxes of mannitol, a paracellular probe, exhibited an identical flux pattern, suggesting that phosphate flux across the colonic epithelium may be mediated through the paracellular pathway. Tight junction permeability was increased with mucosal addition of taurodeoxycholate (TDC, 2 mM) which caused a prompt increase in transepithelial conductance from 7.03 +/- 0.35 to 13.88 +/- 0.35 mS/cm2 (p < 0.001). This was associated with an increase in Jsm, but no change in Jms, for mannitol, resulting in a net flux in the secretary direction. Identical TDC-induced changes were observed in phosphate fluxes, again suggesting phosphate permeation through the intercellular, mannitol pathway. A significant correlation was observed between the permeability of phosphate and the permeability of mannitol, measured both in the mucosal-to-serosal and the serosal-to-mucosal directions and under both control and experimental (mucosal TDC) conditions. Thus, colonic phosphate transport is mediated through the paracellular pathway and enema with high phosphate concentrations (1,760 times blood concentration), can trigger rapid and massive phosphate absorption through this diffusive pathway. PMID:9058363

Hu, M S; Kayne, L H; Jamgotchian, N; Ward, H J; Lee, D B

1997-01-01

65

Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

2013-01-01

66

Volume  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive applet demonstrates volume as the number of unit cubes needed to fill a rectangular solid. The learner sees an animation and answers questions about the capacity of a box. The student can then ask for other problems where just the 3D dimensions are given and the volume is requested.

2011-01-01

67

A review of anaerobic treatment of saline wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large volumes of saline (>2% w\\/v NaCl) wastewaters are discharged from many industries; e.g. seafood processing, textile dyeing, oil and gas production, tanneries and drinking water treatment processes. Although anaerobic treatment would be the most cost?effective and sustainable technology for the treatment of many of these saline wastewaters, the salinity is considered to be inhibitory to anaerobic biological treatment processes.

Yeyuan Xiao; Deborah J. Roberts

2010-01-01

68

Observing Salinity Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part 1: Students measure the salinity of samples using a refractometer, and consider the units and density of these values. Part 2: Students apply concepts and reinforce what they've learned about salinity and the water cycle to interpret a salinity contour map of a transect of the Pacific Ocean using WOCE data. Another goal is to familiarize students with using contour graphs of ocean data, in general.

Jaeger, Stephanie

69

Water Body Salinities I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate the different salinity levels of oceans, rivers and estuaries. Learners then use experimentation to determine which sample is the best model of each type of natural water source. The first test, for conductivity, shows learners that a water sample with the right salinity can even be used to light a bulb or ring an electric buzzer. The second test, for evaporation, shows how rate of evaporation is affected by salinity level. This activity can be followed by Water Body Salinities II from the same resource. Includes background material.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

70

Phased surgical treatment of barium enema-induced rectal injury and retention of barium in the pelvic floor space  

PubMed Central

Iatrogenic injuries caused by barium enema are rarely reported. Following a phased surgical protocol for up to one year, we have successfully treated a patient with rectal injury and severe infection of the pelvic floor space complicated with retention of large amounts of barium and vaginal fistula. In this article, the phased surgery planning for the treatment of rectal injury complicated with vaginal fistula is discussed in terms of the pros and cons, and the observed effect and evolution of barium retained in the pelvic floor space are described. PMID:25405155

Yang, Xuefei; Xia, Ligang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Jianping

2014-01-01

71

Tomato and salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of salinity on tomato plant growth and fruit production, the cultural techniques which can be applied to alleviate the deleterious effects of salt, and the possibilities of breeding salt- tolerant tomatoes are reviewed. Salinity reduces tomato seed germination and lengthens the time needed for germination to such an extent that the establishment of a competitive crop by direct

Jesus Cuartero; Rafael Fernandez-Munoz; Estacion Experimental La Mayora

1999-01-01

72

Salinity Management in Agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Existing guidelines and standards for reclamation of saline soils and management to control salinity exist but have not been updated for over 25 years. In the past few years a looming water scarcity has resulted in questioning of the long term future of irrigation projects in arid and semi arid regi...

73

Measuring soil salinity.  

PubMed

Soil salinity is a form of land degradation in which salts accumulate in the soil profile to an extent that plant growth or infrastructure are negatively affected. A range of both field and laboratory procedures exist for measuring soil salinity. In the field, soil salinity is usually inferred from apparent electrical conductivity (EC(a)) using a range of devices, depending on the required depth of analysis, or size of the survey area. Field measurements of EC(a) require calibration to the actual salt content by laboratory analysis. In the laboratory, soil salinity is usually assessed by determining either the total soluble salts by evaporation of a soil water extract (TSS), or by determining the electrical conductivity (EC) of either a 1:5 distilled water:soil dilution, or a saturated paste extract. Although procedures for measuring soil salinity appear relatively straightforward, differences in methodology have considerable influence on measured values and interpretation of results. PMID:22895776

Hardie, Marcus; Doyle, Richard

2012-01-01

74

Steric sea level variations during 19571994: Importance of salinity John I. Antonov  

E-print Network

Steric sea level variations during 1957­1994: Importance of salinity John I. Antonov National; published 23 November 2002. [1] Spatially averaged (50°S­65°N) temperature and salinity changes in the 0 year. About 10% of this rate is due to a decrease of the volume mean salinity. The magnitude of total

75

Flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy and double-contrast barium-enema examination in the identification of adenomas and carcinoma of the colon.  

PubMed

To assess the accuracy of the flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscope, 227 consecutive patients (mean age 61.8 +/- 13 years) requiring investigation of colonic symptoms were evaluated using rigid and flexible sigmoidoscopy (PAF and KDV) and double-contrast barium enema (SSA). Patients with equivocal findings or adenomatous polyps underwent colonoscopy (TWB). Thirty-four patients had carcinoma and 50 patients had one or more adenomatous polyps (greater than 5mm). The neoplastic yield from rigid sigmoidoscopy was 12 per cent, flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy 90 per cent, and double-contrast barium enema only 76 per cent. Barium enema failed to identify eight carcinomas and 13 adenomatous polyps; seven of the eight carcinomas were polypoid Dukes' Stage A lesions, and associated diverticular disease was present in 62.5 per cent of cases. Flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy failed to identify seven carcinomas and one adenomatous polyp. Five of the carcinomas were beyond range of the instrument; in one patient, a stricture was seen that was caused by the carcinoma; and in the seventh patient, the examination was terminated because of angulation spasm. Double-contrast barium enema is inaccurate in detecting lesions in the sigmoid colon, with flexible sigmoidoscopy being superior. PMID:6628146

Farrands, P A; Vellacott, K D; Amar, S S; Balfour, T W; Hardcastle, J D

1983-11-01

76

Avg.salinity(ppt) Femalecrabnumber  

E-print Network

0 5 10 15 20 25 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Avg.salinity(ppt) Femalecrabnumber > 25 ppt 15-25 ppt ppt Salinity 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Avg.salinity(ppt) Malecrabnumber > 25 ppt 15-25 ppt Salinity In South Carolina, blue crab commercial landings have decreased more than 30

Childress, Michael J.

77

Metabolomics for salinity research.  

PubMed

Soil salinity devastates agriculture. It reduces crop yields and makes arable land unsuitable for later use. Many species have evolved highly efficient strategies to sense, transduce, and build up tolerance to high salinity and even sensitive species have endogenous mechanism for coping with this stress. These underlying physiological and metabolic mechanisms can be unraveled using metabolomics. Here we describe detailed protocols of how to extract polar metabolites for analysis using GC-MS and LC-MS. We also touch briefly on considerations that should be taken into account when designing the experiment and how the resulting data may be analyzed and visualized in a biological context. PMID:22895761

Roessner, Ute; Beckles, Diane M

2012-01-01

78

Hypertonic Saline in Treatment of Pulmonary Disease in Cystic Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration. PMID:22645424

Reeves, Emer P.; Molloy, Kevin; Pohl, Kerstin; McElvaney, Noel G.

2012-01-01

79

Saline Systems highlights for 2006  

PubMed Central

Saline Systems is a journal devoted to both basic and applied studies of saline and hypersaline environments and their biodiversity. Here, I review the reports and commentaries published in the journal in 2006, including some exploring the geochemistry of saline estuaries, lakes, and ponds, others on the ecology and molecular biology of the indigenous halophilic organisms, and still others addressing the environmental challenges facing saline environments. Several studies are relevant to applications in biotechnology and aquaculture. PMID:17244355

DasSarma, Shiladitya

2007-01-01

80

Patient satisfaction and quality of care at four diagnostic imaging procedures: mammography, double-contrast barium enema, abdominal ultrasonography and vaginal ultrasonography  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The objective of this study was to measure patient satisfaction and to investigate the practical implications of monitoring\\u000a the quality of care at four radiology procedures. A survey was conducted immediately after the examinations in eight radiology\\u000a departments: 550 patients attending for mammography, 110 for double-contrast barium enema (DCBE), 97 for abdominal ultrasonography\\u000a and 90 for vaginal ultrasonography. Outcome

K. Løken; S. Steine; E. Lærum

1999-01-01

81

Irrigation Water Quality Salinity Management  

E-print Network

Irrigation Water Quality Standards and Salinity Management Strategies B-1667 4-03 #12;Nearly all concern is salinity levels, since salts can affect both the soil struc- ture and crop yield. However and are commonly found in Texas waters (Table 1). Most salinity problems in agricul- ture result directly from

82

3, 16611680, 2006 DSOW salinity  

E-print Network

OSD 3, 1661­1680, 2006 DSOW salinity forcing J. Holfort and T. Albrecht Title Page Abstract Atmospheric forcing of DSOW salinity J. Holfort 1,* and T. Albrecht 2 1 Institut f¨ur Meereskunde der 2006 Correspondence to: J. Holfort (juergen@holfort.org) 1661 #12;OSD 3, 1661­1680, 2006 DSOW salinity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

83

Water Body Salinities II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discuss the different salinities of oceans, rivers and estuaries. Learners then use experimentation to determine which sample is the best model of each type of natural water source. For the first test, learners make a hydrometer and use it to measure the density of the liquid samples. In the second test, learners freeze the water samples and examine them at certain time intervals to check degree of freezing, texture of the frozen samples, and other specifics that vary according to the amount of salt in the water. This activity can follow the Water Salinities I activity and/or be used in conjunction with the Estuaries activity, both of which can be found on SMILE.

New Jersey

2006-01-01

84

Chloride and Salinity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-07-15

85

Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online in 2009, the Aquarius instrument will measure sea surface salinity. Site provides background information about salinity, salinity lesson plans, and salinity data and tools. Activities include relating salt to density, conductivity, buoyancy, and understanding the effect of the water cycle on salinity. View figures of sea surface salinity and temperature as they change from month to month and more.

86

Dryland salinity in Western Australia: managing a changing water cycle.  

PubMed

Clearing of agricultural land has resulted in significant changes to the surface and groundwater hydrology. Currently about 10% of agricultural land in Western Australia is affected by dryland salinity and between a quarter and a third of the area is predicted to be lost to salinity before a new hydrological equilibrium is reached. This paper develops a general statement describing the changes to the surface and groundwater hydrology of the wheatbelt of Western Australia between preclearing, the year 2000 and into the future. For typical catchments in the wheatbelt it is estimated that average groundwater recharge and surface runoff have increased about tenfold when comparing the current hydrology to that preclearing. Saline groundwater discharge and flood volumes have also increased significantly. Saline groundwater discharge and associated salt load will probably double in the future in line with the predicted increase in the area of dryland salinity. In addition, future increases in the area of dryland salinity/permanent waterlogging will probably double the volumes in flood events and further increase surface runoff in average years. The outcomes of surface and groundwater management trials have been briefly described to estimate how the hydrology would be modified if the trials were implemented at a catchment scale. These results have been used to formulate possible integrated revegetation and drainage management strategies. The future hydrology and impacts with and without integrated management strategies have been compared. PMID:12793681

Taylor, R J; Hoxley, G

2003-01-01

87

Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling  

DOEpatents

The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water that is cold, nutrient rich and relatively fresh in comparison to the surface water which is relatively warm, relatively nutrient deficient and relatively saline. A plurality of elongated flow segregating tubes are disposed in the main duct and extend from the upper cover plate beyond the lower cover plate into a lower manifold plate. The lower manifold plate is spaced from the lower cover plate to define a deep water fluid flow path to the interior space of the main duct. Spacer tubes extend from the upper cover plate and communicate with the interior space of the main duct. The spacer tubes are received in an upper manifold plate spaced from the upper cover plate to define a surface water fluid flow path into the flow segregating tubes. A surface water-deep water counterflow is thus established with deep water flowing upwardly through the main duct interior for discharge beyond the upper manifold plate while surface water flows downwardly through the flow segregating tubes for discharge below the lower manifold plate. During such counterflow heat is transferred from the downflowing warm water to the upflowing cold water. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep water and the surface water due to their differences in salinity. The upwelling of nutrient rich deep water is used for marifarming by fertilizing the nutrient deficient surface water.

Johnson, David H. (Lakewood, CO)

1986-01-01

88

geothermal salinity control system  

SciTech Connect

Highly saline geothermal brine, such as that produced from the lower geothermal reserve of the Salton Sea geothermal field, is diluted with non-geothermal water of much lower salinity in a mixing zone proximate the high temperature end of a geothermal power plant, and preferably down in the production well just above the production zone, so as to reduce the chloride salt content of the production brine to a level that is at or below the saturated level at reinjection temperatures, thereby preventing any material chloride salt scaling at any location in the plant through reinjection. The permanent cemented-in production casing in the well is protected against the corrosive effects of the hot production brine by means of a removable production liner that is generally coextensive with the casing. Said mixing zone is provided in the lower portion of the liner, and the liner establishes an annulus between it and the casing through which said non-geothermal water flows downwardly to the mixing zone so as to exclude the production brine from contact with the casing.

McCabe, B.C.; Zajac, E.

1985-01-08

89

THE NATIONAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL INLAND SALINE AQUACULTURE: A VIEW FROM AFAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing dryland salinity is among Australia's most pressing environmental problems, and a recent two-volume publication—Developing Commercial Inland Saline Aquaculture in Australia (Allan, Dignam & Fielder 2002; Allan, Banens & Fielder 2002) has identified inland aquaculture as an alternative productive use for salinised land and water resources. Part 1 of the report (the R & D Plan) has sought to determine

Robert Doupé; Alan Lymbery; Gavin Sarre; Greg Jenkins; Gavin Partridge; Fremantle WA; Richard George

90

The Mechanism of Suppression of Proximal Tubular Reabsorption by Saline Infusions*  

PubMed Central

The mechanism by which expansion of extracellular fluid volume with isotonic saline suppresses reabsorption in the proximal tubule was studied in rats by examining the relations among glomerular filtration rate (GFR), absolute and fractional reabsorption of filtrate, intrinsic reabsorptive capacity (rate of reabsorption per unit tubular volume), transit time, and tubular volume. Saline infusions reduced the per cent of the glomerular filtrate reabsorbed in the proximal tubule from 50% during antidiuresis to 25% during saline diuresis. The suppression of proximal reabsorption was the result of two factors: 1) a 30% reduction of intrinsic reabsorptive capacity, and 2) a 26% reduction of tubular volume per unit GFR. GFR invariably rose during saline diuresis. However, prevention of the rise in GFR by aortic clamping had no effect on either the inhibition of intrinsic reabsorptive capacity or the reduction in tubular volume per unit GFR produced by saline infusions. Expansion of extracellular fluid volume with isotonic saline, therefore, depressed intrinsic reabsorptive capacity and tubular volume per unit GFR by some mechanism completely independent of GFR. The effects of furosemide administration were contrasted with those of saline infusions. Furosemide inhibited intrinsic reabsorptive capacity by 40% but had no significant effect on proximal fractional reabsorption. The failure to suppress fractional reabsorption was the consequence of a disproportionate rise in tubular volume (relative to GFR) that was sufficient to completely overcome the inhibition of intrinsic reabsorptive capacity. Inhibition of intrinsic reabsorptive capacity alone, therefore, will not result in a net suppression of reabsorption of filtrate in the proximal tubule. We concluded that, although intrinsic reabsorptive capacity was inhibited during saline diuresis, the critical factor responsible for translating this inhibition into effective net suppression of proximal reabsorption was the observed reduction in tubular volume per unit GFR. PMID:6018749

Rector, Floyd C.; Sellman, Jack C.; Martinez-Maldonado, Manuel; Seldin, Donald W.

1967-01-01

91

Management of dryland saline seeps  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Discussed is the identification, diagnosis, control, and reclamation of dryland saline seep problems as found in the North American Great Plains. Saline seeps develop because of geologic stratifications within the soil profile and insufficient use of precipitation by crops used in dryland farming s...

92

Selecting salinities in micellar flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the displacement of crude oil through a subterranean reservoir with an aqueous displacement fluid, improved oil recovery is obtained by providing a salinity contrast between the displacement fluid and aqueous formation fluid. The salinity of the displacement fluid is selected such that at least one mixture of the aqueous displacement and the aqueous formation fluid will have the minimum

Trushenski

1984-01-01

93

Stochastic Modeling of Soil Salinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large areas of cultivated land worldwide are affected by soil salinity. Estimates report that 10% of arable land in over 100 countries, and nine million km2 are salt affected, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. High salinity causes both ion specific and osmotic stress effects, with important consequences for plant production and quality. Salt accumulation in the root zone may be due to natural factors (primary salinization) or due to irrigation (secondary salinization). Simple (e.g., vertically averaged over the soil depth) coupled soil moisture and salt balance equations have been used in the past. Despite their approximations, these models have the advantage of parsimony, thus allowing a direct analysis of the interplay of the main processes. They also provide the ideal starting point to include external, random hydro-climatic fluctuations in the analysis of long-term salinization trends. We propose a minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equation to a stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. The novel analytical solutions provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long-term soil salinization. In fact, soil salinity statistics are obtained as a function of climate, soil and vegetation parameters. These, in turn, can be combined with soil moisture statistics to obtain a full characterization of soil salt concentrations and the ensuing risk of primary salinization. In particular, the solutions show the existence of two quite distinct regimes, the first one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant with increasing rainfall frequency, and the second one where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in long-term soil salinization trends, with significant consequences e.g. for climate change impacts on rain-fed agriculture. The analytical nature of the solution allows direct estimation of the impact of changes in the climatic drivers on soil salinity and makes it suitable for computations of salinity risk at the global scale as a function of simple parameters. Moreover it facilitates their coupling with other models of long-term soil-plant biogeochemistry.

Suweis, Samir; Rinaldo, Andrea; van der Zee, Sjoerd E. A. T. M.; Maritan, Amos; Porporato, Amilcare

2010-05-01

94

40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.  

...25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230.25 ...Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity gradients form where salt water from the...

2014-07-01

95

40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230.25 ...Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity gradients form where salt water from the...

2013-07-01

96

40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230.25 ...Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity gradients form where salt water from the...

2012-07-01

97

40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230.25 ...Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity gradients form where salt water from the...

2011-07-01

98

40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the salinity gradient can occur, displacing the maximum sedimentation zone and requiring salinity-dependent aquatic biota...migration of the salinity gradient displacing the maximim sedimentation zone. This migration may affect those organisms that...

2010-07-01

99

ConcepTest: Ocean Salinity #2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How would salinity of the oceans vary if the oceans were twice as deep as present and held approximately twice as much water? a. Salinity would be less than present b. Salinity would be greater than present c. ...

100

The Mediterranean salinity crisis  

SciTech Connect

That the Mediterranean Sea underwent a salinity crisis during the Miocene (Messinian) is proven by the 1970 JOIDES deep sea drilling expedition. Subsequent work by ocean drilling and by studies on land have recorded the history of this crisis. Based upon the deep desiccated-basin model, the use of event-stratigraphy, calibrated by strontium-isotope dating and magnetostratigraphy, has enabled them to decipher the following events between 6.0 and 5.1 Ma: (1) deposition of marine diatom-rich sediments in a partially restricted basin, (2) first desiccation of the Mediterranean when Calcare di base was deposited at a time of isolation from the Atlantic because of a glacial eustatic drop of sea level, (3) influx of marine waters through southern Spanish basins to furnish brines for the deposition of the main salt, (4) Intra-Messinian desiccation, as evidenced by the erosional unconformity above the lower evaporite, (5) Intra-Messinian denudation, when reefs grew on Cyprus and marine sediments were deposited in basins, (6) frequency isolations due to oscillating sea level, when the upper evaporite was deposited, (7) Lago mare, formation of freshwater and brackish lakes due to influx of Paratethys water, (8) opening of the Gibraltar and Pliocene inundation of the Mediterranean.

Hsue, K.J.

1988-08-01

101

Stochastic Modeling of Soil Salinity  

E-print Network

A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equation to a single stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. The novel analytical solutions provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long-term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in long-term soil salinization trend...

Suweis, S; Van der Zee, S E A T M; Daly, E; Maritan, A; Porporato, A; 10.1029/2010GL042495

2012-01-01

102

A double-blind randomised, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the influence of oral long-acting muscle relaxant (Mebeverine MR), and insufflation with CO(2) on pain associated with barium enema.  

PubMed

Previous investigators have shown significant benefit using CO(2) for bowel insufflation. Others have suggested that the long-acting smooth muscle relaxant, Mebeverine, may be of benefit. We subjected this to a randomised double-blind trial. A total of 181 outpatients were randomised to receive either Mebeverine or placebo as pre-medication, and either air or CO(2) for bowel insufflation, thus creating four treatment groups. Visual-analogue lines were used to record pain scores before, during, and up to 8 h following the enema. All groups showed increased pain scores during the enema, with peak pain scores at the end of the examination, falling to baseline scores by 8 h. Patients receiving the combination of C0(2) and placebo had significantly lower pain scores at 1 and 4 h ( P=0.00 and P=0.014, respectively; Kruskal-Wallis test) compared with all other groups. Having Mebeverine as a pre-medication did not significantly lower pain scores compared with placebo, and decreased the amount of benefit received from the CO(2). We confirm that CO(2) is of benefit in decreasing pain during barium enema, and we recommend its routine use to improve the comfort of patients. Mebeverine is not of benefit, and its use as a pre-medication for enemas is not recommended. PMID:12835983

Lowe, A S; Chapman, A H; Wilson, D; Culpan, A G

2003-07-01

103

Measurement of salinity of paleoformation waters in sedimentary basins for better evaluation of oil migration and reserve estimation  

SciTech Connect

Irreducible water salinity is important in determining hydrocarbon reserves since relative hydrocarbon saturation is determined indirectly as the difference between reservoir porosity and the water volume determined from its electrical conductivity. Formation water salinity may range from 0-300,000 ppm, corresponding to electrical conductivities of 0-200 mmho/cm. This range in conductivities indicates the potential errors in determining hydrocarbon volume that might arise from using inappropriate salinity estimates. Current formation waters in Mesozoic basins from Australia and Papua New Guinea generally have low salinities. Further, these Mesozoic sections typically contain siliciclastic sediments deposited when the plate was at high latitudes, and connate waters are expected to have low salinities. Irreducible water is therefore usually assigned low salinity.

Eadington, P.; Lisk, M.; Kreiger, F.; Hamilton, J.; Das, M. (CSIRO Division of Petroleum Resources and APCRC, North Ride (Australia)); Person, M. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States))

1994-07-01

104

Origin of salinity in a multilayered aquifer with high salinization vulnerability  

E-print Network

Origin of salinity in a multilayered aquifer with high salinization vulnerability Nathalie Gassama1 to salinization due to potential seawater intrusion, and our aim was to determine the source of salinity recorded intensity. There was no evidence of seawater intrusion. The range of recorded salinity originated mainly

Boyer, Edmond

105

Osmotic adjustment of sugar beets in response to soil salinity and its influence on stomatal conductance, growth and yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar beets were grown in tanks filled with loam and clay, and were irrigated with waters of three different levels of salinity. Osmotic adjustment was determined by analyzing the pressure-volume curves at three growth stages. Sugar beets showed osmotic adjustment in two ways: with their phenological development and towards salinity. Owing to the latter adjustment sugar beets are able to

N. Katerji; J. W. van Hoorn; A. Hamdy; M. Mastrorilli; E. Mou Karzel

1997-01-01

106

Temperature/Salinity/Density activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an in-class activity. I used it relatively early in the semester, after covering the basic water properties portion of the class. I use the relationship between temperature/salinity/density to begin discussing vertical movement of water. The first purpose of this activity is to reinforce the concepts that have just been explained about the relationship between temperature and density and salinity and density. The second purpose is to bring these ideas back to what they have learned about density differences. Finally, the activity is also designed to help them learn how to read graphs.

Dekens, Petra

107

Determining Salinity by Simple Means.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the construction and use of a simple salinometer. The salinometer is composed, mainly, of a milliammeter and a battery and uses the measurement of current flow to determine the salinity of water. A complete list of materials is given, as are details of construction and operation of the equipment. The use of the salinometer in…

Schlenker, Richard M.

108

REVEGETATION OF SALINE PLAYA MARGINS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New shrub recruitment in saline playa margins is limited by extremely high osmotic potentials of the seedbed. In the Eagle Valley playa near Fernley NV, recruitment is rare and occurs mostly in recently deposited eolian and flood-deposited sediments of low osmotic potential. In most instances, howev...

109

Revegetation of Saline Playa Margins  

Microsoft Academic Search

New shrub recruitment in saline playa margins is limited by extremely high osmotic potentials of the seedbed. In the Eagle Valley playa near Fernley, NV, recruitment is rare and occurs mostly in recently deposited eolian and flood-deposited sediments of low osmotic potential. In most instances, however, sediment is of insufficient thickness to support long-term growth. In 1990, as part of

Robert R. Blank; James A. Young

110

Stochastic modeling of soil salinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equation to a single stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. The novel analytical solutions provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long-term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in long-term soil salinization trends, with significant consequences e.g. for climate change impacts on rain-fed agriculture.

Suweis, S.; Rinaldo, A.; Van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Daly, E.; Maritan, A.; Porporato, A.

2010-04-01

111

INTEGRATING DESALINATION AND AGRICULTURAL SALINITY CONTROL ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The cost-effectiveness relationships for various agricultural and desalination alternatives for controlling salinity in irrigation return flows are developed. Selection of optimal salinity management strategies on a river basin scale is described as a problem of integrating optim...

112

ConcepTest: Ocean Salinity #1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How would the salinity of the oceans vary if the continents and oceans each covered 50% of Earth's surface and precipitation and evaporation were similar to present? a. salinity would be lower than today b. ...

113

HYDROCLIMATOLOGY Exploring the Mystery of Salinity  

E-print Network

ALPINE HYDROCLIMATOLOGY Exploring the Mystery of Salinity Change in Portions of the StanislausLeo #12;#12;ALPINE HYDROCLIMATOLOGY Exploring the Mystery of Salinity Change in Portions of the Stanislaus 1. Distribution of precipitation and soil salinity, Western United States. 1 INTRODUCTION

114

4, 139, 2007 Estimate of salinity  

E-print Network

OSD 4, 1­39, 2007 Estimate of salinity from temperature profiles F. Reseghetti Title Page Abstract reconstruction of salinity from temperature profiles with phenomenological constraints F. Reseghetti ENEA@santateresa.enea.it) 1 #12;OSD 4, 1­39, 2007 Estimate of salinity from temperature profiles F. Reseghetti Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

115

Students measuring salinity at Pier 45, Manhattan  

E-print Network

Students measuring salinity at Pier 45, Manhattan Atlantic silversides, a marker of salty conditions, at Englewood Seining at Englewood A Day in the Life of the Hudson River 2010: Salinity Changes Year to Year Your site _________________If measured, your salinity on Oct. 14__________ 2010

Khatiwala, Samar

116

Plant physiology Interaction of salinity and temperature  

E-print Network

Plant physiology Interaction of salinity and temperature on the germination of alfalfa cv CUF 101 problem. A laboratory experiment was initiated to evaluate the effect of salinity - tempera- ture interactions on the germination of alfalfa cv CUF 101. The alfalfa seeds were sown in Petri dishes with saline

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

117

WATER QUALITY STANDARDS FOR SALINITY NUMERIC CRITERIA AND PLAN OF IMPLEMENTATION FOR SALINITY CONTROL  

E-print Network

PROPOSED WATER QUALITY STANDARDS FOR SALINITY INCLUDING NUMERIC CRITERIA AND PLAN OF IMPLEMENTATION FOR SALINITY CONTROL COLORADO RIVER SYSTEM I ' Prepared by Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Forum June 1975 #12;MEMBERS OF COLORADO RIVER BASIN SALINITY CONTROL FORUM ARIZONA: CALIFORNIA

118

Swart and Price Salinity Variations in Florida Bay Origin of Salinity Variations in Florida Bay  

E-print Network

Swart and Price Salinity Variations in Florida Bay 1 Origin of Salinity Variations in Florida Bay causes reductions in salinity in the coastal environment of South Florida. This technique, which uses the major source of fresh waters causing depressions in the salinity in the western portion of Florida Bay

Swart, Peter K.

119

Salinity and organic amendment effects on methane emission from a rain-fed saline paddy field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic amendment is a traditional practice for rehabilitating saline patches in north-east Thailand, but organic matter is known to enhance methane emission. However, a high degree of salinity might mitigate methane emission. The objective of the present study was to quantify the effects of salinity and organic amendments on methane emission from rain-fed paddy fields exposed to increasing salinity. A

Sakulrat Supparattanapan; Patcharee Saenjan; Cécile Quantin; Jean Luc Maeght; Olivier Grünberger

2009-01-01

120

Containment of Saline Intrusion by Air Injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of air injection on flow through porous media were explored in a series of 1 m and 2 m laboratory flow cells. Our motivation was to examine air barriers as an alternative to hydraulic barriers to retard saline intrusion in coastal areas. Steady flow conditions were created in homogeneous and heterogeneous unconsolidated sand systems. Dry air was injected at progressively higher flow rates through a well in the center of each flow cell. Discharge and NaCl-tracer concentration breakthrough data were measured at the outflow reservoir of each cell. In addition, a dye tracer was used to visualize the flow patterns. In all cases, air injection was found to produce stable, low conductivity barriers that reduced discharge by an order of magnitude or more. Effective hydraulic conductivity values determined from discharge and hydraulic head data showed exponential declines with increased air-injection rates in all cases. Numerical simulation was used to quantify hydraulic conductivity and effective porosity values in the saturated and aerated regions created by air injection, and to study advective flow behavior. Pore-filling cement formed in the air-injection region, and was analyzed to determine its composition, mass, and volume. Approximately 60% of the cement consisted of soluble minerals and 40% were less soluble carbonates. Evaporation to dryness and increase in solution pH due to stripping of CO2 by the injected air were responsible for creating the cement. The cement occupied <10% of the pore space in the sand-cement aggregate. Both the trapped air and pore-fillings dissolved when air injection ceased, indicating that both barriers are temporary. These results serve as a preliminary proof-of-concept that air-injection barriers might effectively retard undesired subsurface flow, such as saline intrusion or contaminated groundwater.

Dror, I.; Berkowitz, B.; Gorelick, S. M.

2003-12-01

121

Stochastic modeling of soil salinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The equations for the probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equations to a single stochastic differential equation (generalized Langevin equation) driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. Generalized Langevin equations with multiplicative white Poisson noise pose the usual Ito (I) or Stratonovich (S) prescription dilemma. Different interpretations lead to different results and then choosing between the I and S prescriptions is crucial to describe correctly the dynamics of the model systems. We show how this choice can be determined by physical information about the timescales involved in the process. We also show that when the multiplicative noise is at most linear in the random variable one prescription can be made equivalent to the other by a suitable transformation in the jump probability distribution. We then apply these results to the generalized Langevin equation that drives the salt mass dynamics. The stationary analytical solutions for the probability density functions of salt mass and concentration provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in longterm soil salinization trends, with significant consequences, e.g. for climate change impacts on rain fed agriculture.

Suweis, S.; Porporato, A. M.; Daly, E.; van der Zee, S.; Maritan, A.; Rinaldo, A.

2010-12-01

122

The Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first part of this presentation gives an overview over the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The instrument calibration [2] converts Aquarius radiometer counts into antenna temperatures (TA). The salinity retrieval algorithm converts those TA into brightness temperatures (TB) at a flat ocean surface. As a first step, contributions arising from the intrusion of solar, lunar and galactic radiation are subtracted. The antenna pattern correction (APC) removes the effects of cross-polarization contamination and spillover. The Aquarius radiometer measures the 3rd Stokes parameter in addition to vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations, which allows for an easy removal of ionospheric Faraday rotation. The atmospheric absorption at L-band is almost entirely due to molecular oxygen, which can be calculated based on auxiliary input fields from numerical weather prediction models and then successively removed from the TB. The final step in the TA to TB conversion is the correction for the roughness of the sea surface due to wind, which is addressed in more detail in section 3. The TB of the flat ocean surface can now be matched to a salinity value using a surface emission model that is based on a model for the dielectric constant of sea water [3], [4] and an auxiliary field for the sea surface temperature. In the current processing only v-pol TB are used for this last step.

Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank; Hilburn, Kyle; Lagerloef, Gary; Le Vine, David

2012-01-01

123

[Is there any place for hypertonic saline for fluid resuscitation in septic shock].  

PubMed

Fluid loading is the first step, necessary to care for severe sepsis. Two main classes of solutions are currently available: crystalloids and colloids. The concept of small volume resuscitation with hypertonic saline has emerged these last years in the care of traumatic haemorrhagic shock. The main benefits are the restoration of intravascular volume, improvement of cardiac output and improvement of regional circulations. Many experiments highlight modulation of immune and inflammatory cascades. We report the mechanisms of action of hypertonic saline based on experimental human and animal studies, which advocate its use in septic shock. PMID:20096535

Libert, N; de Rudnicki, S; Cirodde, A; Thépenier, C; Mion, G

2010-01-01

124

Salinization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students work as a team to determine the effect salt has on plant germination. They then use their lab data to create a report on how the increasing salt concentrations affected the germination of the seeds and at what salt concentration no seeds will germinate. Students will discover that salt buildup is an existing or potential hazard on almost all of the 42 million acres of irrigated farmland in the United States. Much of the world's unused land is in arid and semiarid regions where irrigation will be necessary. Water contains a small amount of salt and over time this salt accumulates in the soil. This activity has an accompanying teacher site with hints and more information.

Miller, Lonnie

125

Saline Infusion Markedly Reduces Impedance and Improves Efficacy of Pulmonary Radiofrequency Ablation  

SciTech Connect

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a relatively new technique that has been investigated for the treatment of lung tumors. We evaluated for the first time the in vivo use of saline infusion during radiofrequency ablation of sheep lung. We performed RFA on 5 sheep using open and closed chest RFA and the RITA starburst XL and Xli probes using saline infusion with the Xli probe. The impedance and volume of ablation were compared. A total of 16 ablations were produced, 5 percutaneously and 11 open. The impedance during percutaneous and open RFA without saline infusion was 110 {+-} 16.2 and 183.3 {+-} 105.8 O, respectively. With the saline infusion the impedance was 71.3 {+-} 22O and 103.6 {+-} 37.5O. The effect of this was a significantly larger volume of ablation using the saline infusion during percutaneous RFA (90.6 {+-} 23 cm{sup 3} vs 10.47 {+-} 2.9 cm{sup 3}, p = 0.01) and open RFA (107.8 {+-} 25.8 cm{sup 3} vs 24.9 {+-} 19.3 cm{sup 3}, p = 0.0002). Saline infusion during RFA is associated with lower impedance, higher power delivery and larger lesion size.

Gananadha, Sivakumar, E-mail: david.morris@unsw.edu.au; Morris, David Lawson [Pitney Clinical Sciences Building, Level 3, UNSW Department of Surgery (Australia)

2004-08-15

126

Caribbean Salinity Variation During the Last Glacial Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation exceeds precipitation in the tropical Atlantic, resulting in a net freshwater removal across the Central American Isthmus. Because most of the north Atlantic's subtropical gyre water circulates through the Caribbean before flowing north to sub-polar regions via the Gulf Stream, changes in tropical atmospheric circulation have the potential to affect the salinity and density structure of the entire north Atlantic, thereby influencing glacial-interglacial oscillations in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation. Here, we combine Mg/Ca measurements (a proxy for the temperature of calcification) and ? 18O analyses of shells from the surface-dwelling foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber s.s. (white var.) from the western Caribbean Colombian Basin at ODP Site 999A (2827m; 4cm/ka sed. rate) and VM28-122 (3623m; 4-10cm/ka sed. rate) to produce the first continuous record of western tropical Atlantic ? 18OSEAWATER (? 18OSW) during the last 130ka. In order to generate a record for sea surface salinity (SSS) due to regional hydrological change, we removed the ? 18OSW signal due to glacial ice volume variation and normalized the residual to the modern ? 18OSW value for the Colombian Basin (0.8‰ ). The resulting ice volume-free (? ? 18OIVF-SW) record shows that Caribbean ? ? 18OIVF-SW increased by ˜0.5‰ during the Last Glacial Maximum and Marine Isotope Stage 4. Using a modern western Caribbean ? 18OSW:SSS relationship, these enriched ? 18OSW values suggest glacial Caribbean salinities were 2.3 - 2.8‰ higher than modern after removing the influence of ice-volume. Our data supports the hypothesis that the tropics might have been in a state more similar to the modern El Nino mode, characterized by a more southerly position of the ITCZ, during cold phases of the last glacial cycle. Within the resolution of our ? ? 18OIVF-SW record from VM28-122, elevated glacial Caribbean salinity decreased to modern levels at the onset of the Bolling-Allerod (B/A) interstadial event (14.6 cal ka) as NADW formation reinitiated and the ITCZ migrated northward. We hypothesize that the transport of salty tropical waters into the North Atlantic during the early deglaciation, in combination with a reorganization of ocean circulation, may have served to increase subpolar surface water density and amplify the overturning circulation that produced the warm B/A. The B/A salinity reduction occurs simultaneously with previous evidence for wetter conditions in the Cariaco Basin, suggesting a northward shift in the ITCZ to a wetter, more La Nina-like state in the tropics.

Schmidt, M. W.; Spero, H. J.; Lea, D. W.

2003-12-01

127

Comparative study of the effects of air or saline to identify the extradural space.  

PubMed

Fifty women in labour were allocated randomly to receive either air or saline to assist in the identification of the extradural space by the loss of resistance technique. A study volume of 4 ml of air or saline was used before 0.5% bupivacaine 8 ml and the spread of analgesia was followed for 30 min. The first segment blocked, time of onset, number of blocked segments and height of block were comparable in the two groups. At 30 min, there were eight patients with an unblocked segment in the air group, compared with two in the saline group (P less than 0.01). All unblocked segments were blocked subsequently by further doses of bupivacaine. We conclude that air is more likely than saline to produce unblocked segments in the initiation of extradural analgesia in labour. PMID:1817625

Valentine, S J; Jarvis, A P; Shutt, L E

1991-02-01

128

“Great Salinity Anomalies” in the North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We revisited the “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1970s (GSA'70s; Dickson et al., 1988) and documented the newly identified “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1980s (hence termed GSA'80s), both propagated around the North Atlantic in a similar fashion. The advective mechanism, initially proposed to explain the observed sequence of low-salinity, low-temperature events during the GSA'70s, apparently holds also for the

Igor M. Belkin; Sydney Levitus; John Antonov; Svend-Aage Malmberg

1998-01-01

129

Use of saline–sodic waters through phytoremediation of calcareous saline–sodic soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of poor-quality groundwater has become inevitable for irrigation to compensate rapidly increasing water demands in many arid and semiarid regions. Salinity and sodicity are the principal soil and water quality concerns in such areas. Many saline–sodic and sodic soils have saline or saline–sodic subsurface drainage waters. Amelioration of these soils needs a source of calcium (Ca2+) that can replace

M. Qadir; A. Ghafoor; G. Murtaza

2001-01-01

130

Sodium-calcium interactions under salinity stress 205 SODIUM-CALCIUM INTERACTIONS UNDER SALINITY STRESS  

E-print Network

Sodium-calcium interactions under salinity stress 205 CHAPTER 10 SODIUM-CALCIUM INTERACTIONS UNDER SALINITY STRESS G.R. CRAMER Department of Biochemistry, Mail Stop 200 University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 USA cramer@unr.edu Abstract There are a wide range of responses of plants to salinity which involve

Cramer, Grant R.

131

Effects of saline water irrigation on soil salinity, Pecan tree growth and nut production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigated cultivation of pecans (Carya illinoensis K.) has increased dramatically in the Southwestern USA, yet their tolerance to salinity remains largely unknown. The first part of this study was conducted to assess if stunted tree growth reported in clayey soils is related to salinity, and the second part was to evaluate changes in soil salinity and the performance of 11

S. Miyamoto; T. Riley; G. Gobran; J. Petticrew

1986-01-01

132

Aquarius Instrument and Salinity Retrieval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius has been designed to map the surface salinity field of the global ocean from space a parameter important for understanding ocean circulation and its relationship to climate and the global water cycle. Salinity is measured remotely from space by measuring the thermal emission from the ocean surface. This is done at the low frequency end of the microwave spectrum (e.g. 1.4 GHz) where the emission is sufficiently sensitive to changes in salinity to be detected with sophisticated radiometers. The goal is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean by providing maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. These are challenging requirements that have led to some unique features of the instrument. These include: a) The addition of a co-located scatterometer to help provide a correction for roughness; b) The addition of a polarimetric channel (third Stokes parameter) to the radiometer to help correct for Faraday rotation; c) Asun-synchronous orbit with a 6 pm ascending equatorial crossing to minimize Faraday rotation and with the antennas looking away from the sun toward the nighttime side to minimize contamination by radiation from the sun; and d) An antenna designed to limit side lobes in the direction of rays from the sun. In addition, achieving the accuracy goal of 0.2 psu requires averaging over one month and to do this requires a highly stable radiometer. Aquarius has three separate radiometers that image in pushbroom fashion with the three antenna beams looking across track. The antenna is a 2.5-m diameter, offset parabolic reflector with three feed horns and the three beams are arranged to image with the boresight aligned to look across track, roughly perpendicular to the spacecraft heading and pointing away from the Sun. The three beams point at angles of theta = 25.8 deg., 33.8 deg. and 40.3 deg. with respect to the spacecraft nadir which correspond to local incidence angles at the surface of 28.7 deg., 37.8 deg. and 45.6 deg., respectively. The resolution of the three radiometer beams (axes of the 3dB ellipse) is: 76 x 94 km for the inner beam, 84 x 120 km for the middle beam to 96 x 156 km for the outer beam. Together they cover a swath of about 390 km. Aquarius will map the global ice-free ocean every 7-days from which monthly average composites will be derived. This will provide a snapshot of the mean field, as well as resolving the seasonal to interannual variations over the three-year baseline of the mission.

Le Vine, D. M.

2011-01-01

133

Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a science activity in which the student investigates methods of calibration of a simple conductivity meter via a hands-on inquiry technique. Conductivity is mathematically compared to salinity using a point slope formula and graphical techniques. Sample solutions of unknown salinity are provided so that the students can sharpen their…

Schlenker, Richard M.

134

Groundwater use and salinization with grassland afforestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation changes, particularly transitions between tree- and grass-dominated states, can alter ecosystem water balances and soluble salt fluxes. Here we outline a general predictive framework for understanding salinization of afforested grasslands based on biophysical, hydrologic, and edaphic factors. We tested this framework in 20 paired grassland and adjacent afforested plots across ten sites in the Argentine Pampas. Rapid salinization of

ESTEBAN G. J OBBAGY; R OBERT B. J ACKSON

135

A risk framework for preventing salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity is an insidious soil conservation issue. Its expression can be greatly removed in time and space from its causes, so a focus on prevention is preferred. To avoid over or under-investment, a communication strategy for salinity needs to be a staged approach, the risks defined and the assets at risk identified.This paper describes a risk assessment schema and associated

Michael J. Grundy; D. Mark Silburn; Tessa Chamberlain

2007-01-01

136

Environmental geophysics mapping salinity and water resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity and fresh water are two sides of the same coin, most conveniently measured by electrical conductivity; they can now be mapped rapidly in three dimensions using airborne electromagnetics (AEM). Recent developments in the calibration of airborne data against in-field measurements and additional information from radiometrics, magnetics and digital elevation models lend new insights into salinity, groundwater flow systems and

David Dent

2007-01-01

137

Characterizing Salinity Tolerance in Greenhouse Roses  

E-print Network

, to determine the ameliorative properties of supplemental Ca2+ on the response to salt stress, and to establish the influence of Na+- and Cl--counter ions on the detrimental effects caused by these salinizing elements. The NaCl or NaCl-CaCl2-salinity tolerance...

Solis Perez, Alma R.

2011-08-08

138

Sea Surface Salinity Influence on Earth's Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short NASA video focuses on the Aquarius satellite, launched on June 10, 2011 to observe how variations in ocean salinity relate to climatic changes. By measuring salinity globally, Aquarius shows the ocean's role in climate change and climate's effects on ocean circulation.

Harris, Brooke; Center, Nasa/goddard S.

139

Reconstructing Past Ocean Salinity ((delta)18Owater)  

SciTech Connect

Temperature and salinity are two of the key properties of ocean water masses. The distribution of these two independent but related characteristics reflects the interplay of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the uneven distribution of heat loss and gain by the ocean, with that of precipitation, evaporation, and the freezing and melting of ice. Temperature and salinity to a large extent, determine the density of a parcel of water. Small differences in temperature and salinity can increase or decrease the density of a water parcel, which can lead to convection. Once removed from the surface of the ocean where 'local' changes in temperature and salinity can occur, the water parcel retains its distinct relationship between (potential) temperature and salinity. We can take advantage of this 'conservative' behavior where changes only occur as a result of mixing processes, to track the movement of water in the deep ocean (Figure 1). The distribution of density in the ocean is directly related to horizontal pressure gradients and thus (geostrophic) ocean currents. During the Quaternary when we have had systematic growth and decay of large land based ice sheets, salinity has had to change. A quick scaling argument following that of Broecker and Peng [1982] is: the modern ocean has a mean salinity of 34.7 psu and is on average 3500m deep. During glacial maxima sea level was on the order of {approx}120m lower than present. Simply scaling the loss of freshwater (3-4%) requires an average increase in salinity a similar percentage or to {approx}35.9psu. Because much of the deep ocean is of similar temperature, small changes in salinity have a large impact on density, yielding a potentially different distribution of water masses and control of the density driven (thermohaline) ocean circulation. It is partly for this reason that reconstructions of past salinity are of interest to paleoceanographers.

Guilderson, T P; Pak, D K

2005-11-23

140

Determining salinization extent, identifying salinity sources, and estimating chloride mass using surface, borehole, and airborne electromagnetic induction methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Using an example from an oil field in the semiarid Red River basin in Texas, we show that electromagnetic (EM) methods are useful in locating salinized soil and water, determining salinization extent, identifying likely salinity sources, and estimating the total mass of chloride within a saline-water plume. Each of these aspects assists in managing salinization and assessing its impact.

Jeffrey G. Paine

2003-01-01

141

Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt.  

PubMed

Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds. PMID:18762321

Novotny, Eric V; Murphy, Dan; Stefan, Heinz G

2008-11-15

142

Aggregation dynamics along a salinity gradient in the Bach Dang estuary, North Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations of the sticking properties of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) were investigated by studying the interactions between latex beads and TEP precursors collected along a salinity gradient in the Bach Dang estuary, North Vietnam. For each sampling station, a suspension of TEP and beads was prepared and the formation of mixed aggregates was monitored in the laboratory under controlled turbulence intensity. The number of beads attached to TEP per volume of TEP increased from 0.22 × 10 -3 ± 0.15 × 10 -3 ?m -3 to 5.33 × 10 -3 ± 1.61 × 10 -3 ?m -3, from low (<1) to high (>28) salinities, respectively. The sudden increase in TEP sticking properties from salinity 10 to 15 suggests the occurrence of an "aggregation web" resulting from the stimulation of aggregation processes. For a given turbulence level, the formation of large aggregates should be enhanced seaward. The presence of a higher fraction of large aggregates seaward is supported by the increase of the slope of the particle size spectra measured in situ. The observed increase in TEP sticking properties toward high salinities may affect the vertical export pump in estuaries. This study suggests that the transition from a low to a high physico-chemical reactivity of TEP along estuaries may result in a succession from recycling for salinity <10 to enhanced aggregation/sedimentation processes and export dominated systems for salinity >10.

Mari, Xavier; Torréton, Jean-Pascal; Bich-Thuy Trinh, Claire; Bouvier, Thierry; Van Thuoc, Chu; Lefebvre, Jean-Pierre; Ouillon, Sylvain

2012-01-01

143

Mark your Calendars Water Supply, Agriculture and Salinity Management Workshop  

E-print Network

Mark your Calendars Water Supply, Agriculture and Salinity Management Workshop September 29 supply, agriculture and salinity manage- ment an opportunity to network with their colleagues. Topics, desalination of agricultural drainage water, salinity management options based on irrigation methods

Johnson, Eric E.

144

ORIGINAL PAPER Implication of nutrient and salinity interaction  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Implication of nutrient and salinity interaction on the productivity of Spartina nutrient availability and reduced salinity. Although studies have documented nutrient limitation and salinity stress in coastal marshes, interpreting the effects of freshwater rein- troduction on plant

145

Time Series of Suspended-Solids Concentration, Salinity, Temperature, and  

E-print Network

Time Series of Suspended-Solids Concentration, Salinity, Temperature, and Total Mercury .......................................................................................................................... 3 Salinity................................................................................................................................... 15 #12;3 San Francisco Estuary Institute Time Series of Suspended-Solids Concentration, Salinity

146

77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2012-10-11

147

78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...REG0000, RR04084000] Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

2013-11-26

148

76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2011-10-04

149

76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council...INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council was...

2011-05-02

150

75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control [[Page 25878

2010-05-10

151

75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2010-05-14

152

75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2010-10-28

153

77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2012-04-19

154

78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Public Law...

2013-04-22

155

Inhalation of hypertonic saline aerosol enhances mucociliary clearance in asthmatic and healthy subjects.  

PubMed

Hyperosmolarity of the airway surface liquid (ASL) has been proposed as the stimulus for hyperpnoea-induced asthma. We found previously that mucociliary clearance (MCC) was increased after isocapnic hyperventilation (ISH) with dry air, and we proposed that the increase related to transient hyperosmolarity of the ASL. We investigated the effect of increasing the osmolarity of the ASL on MCC, by administering an aerosol of concentrated salt solution. MCC was measured using 99mTc-sulphur colloid, gamma camera and computer analysis in 12 asthmatic and 10 healthy subjects on three separate days, involving administration of each of the following: 1) ultrasonically nebulized 14.4% saline; 2) ultrasonically nebulized 0.9% saline; and 3) no aerosol intervention (control). The (mean +/- SD) volume of nebulized 14.4% saline was 2.2 +/- 1.2 mL for asthmatics and 3.2 +/- 0.7 mL for healthy subjects. This volume was delivered over a period of 5.4 +/- 1.3 and 6.4 +/- 0.7 min for asthmatic and healthy subjects, respectively. The airway response to 14.4% saline was assessed on a separate visit and the fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was 22 +/- 4% in the asthmatic and 3 +/- 2% in the healthy subjects. Compared to the MCC with the 0.9% saline and control, the hypertonic aerosol increased MCC in both groups. In asthmatic subjects, MCC of the whole right lung in 1 h was 68 +/- 10% with 14.4% saline vs 44 +/- 14% with 0.9% saline and 39 +/- 13% with control. In healthy subjects, MCC of the whole right lung in 1 h was 53 +/- 12% with 14.4% saline vs 41 +/- 15% with 0.9% saline and 36 +/- 13% with control. We conclude that an increase in osmolarity of the airway surface liquid increases mucociliary clearance both in asthmatic and healthy subjects. These findings are in keeping with our previous suggestion that the increase in mucociliary clearance after isotonic hyperventilation with dry air is due to a transient hyperosmolarity of the airway surface liquid. PMID:8726937

Daviskas, E; Anderson, S D; Gonda, I; Eberl, S; Meikle, S; Seale, J P; Bautovich, G

1996-04-01

156

Salinity changes in the World Ocean since 1950 in relation to changing surface freshwater fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global hydrographic and air-sea freshwater flux datasets are used to investigate ocean salinity changes over 1950-2010 in relation to surface freshwater flux. On multi-decadal timescales, surface salinity increases (decreases) in evaporation (precipitation) dominated regions, the Atlantic-Pacific salinity contrast increases, and the upper thermocline salinity maximum increases while the salinity minimum of intermediate waters decreases. Potential trends in E-P are examined for 1950-2010 (using two reanalyses) and 1979-2010 (using four reanalyses and two blended products). Large differences in the 1950-2010 E-P trend patterns are evident in several regions, particularly the North Atlantic. For 1979-2010 some coherency in the spatial change patterns is evident but there is still a large spread in trend magnitude and sign between the six E-P products. However, a robust pattern of increased E-P in the southern hemisphere subtropical gyres is seen in all products. There is also some evidence in the tropical Pacific for a link between the spatial change patterns of salinity and E-P associated with ENSO. The water cycle amplification rate over specific regions is subsequently inferred from the observed 3-D salinity change field using a salt conservation equation in variable isopycnal volumes, implicitly accounting for the migration of isopycnal surfaces. Inferred global changes of E-P over 1950-2010 amount to an increase of 1 ± 0.6 % in net evaporation across the subtropics and an increase of 4.2 ± 2 % in net precipitation across subpolar latitudes. Amplification rates are approximately doubled over 1979-2010, consistent with accelerated broad-scale warming but also coincident with much improved salinity sampling over the latter period.

Skliris, Nikolaos; Marsh, Robert; Josey, Simon A.; Good, Simon A.; Liu, Chunlei; Allan, Richard P.

2014-08-01

157

World salinization with emphasis on Australia.  

PubMed

Salinization is the accumulation of water-soluble salts in the soil solum or regolith to a level that impacts on agricultural production, environmental health, and economic welfare. Salt-affected soils occur in more than 100 countries of the world with a variety of extents, nature, and properties. No climatic zone in the world is free from salinization, although the general perception is focused on arid and semi-arid regions. Salinization is a complex process involving the movement of salts and water in soils during seasonal cycles and interactions with groundwater. While rainfall, aeolian deposits, mineral weathering, and stored salts are the sources of salts, surface and groundwaters can redistribute the accumulated salts and may also provide additional sources. Sodium salts dominate in many saline soils of the world, but salts of other cations such as calcium, magnesium, and iron are also found in specific locations. Different types of salinization with a prevalence of sodium salts affect about 30% of the land area in Australia. While more attention is given to groundwater-associated salinity and irrigation salinity, which affects about 16% of the agricultural area, recent investigations suggest that 67% of the agricultural area has a potential for "transient salinity", a type of non-groundwater-associated salinity. Agricultural soils in Australia, being predominantly sodic, accumulate salts under seasonal fluctuations and have multiple subsoil constraints such as alkalinity, acidity, sodicity, and toxic ions. This paper examines soil processes that dictate the exact edaphic environment upon which root functions depend and can help in research on plant improvement. PMID:16510516

Rengasamy, Pichu

2006-01-01

158

Environmental geophysics mapping salinity and water resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinity and fresh water are two sides of the same coin, most conveniently measured by electrical conductivity; they can now be mapped rapidly in three dimensions using airborne electromagnetics (AEM). Recent developments in the calibration of airborne data against in-field measurements and additional information from radiometrics, magnetics and digital elevation models lend new insights into salinity, groundwater flow systems and water resources. Freshwater resources can be mapped, and salinity risk and the outcome of management interventions may be forecast, on the basis of the specific architecture of complete groundwater flow systems-enabling practical, cost-effective protection and development of water resources.

Dent, David

2007-05-01

159

Hemodynamic Responses to Rapid Saline Loading: The Impact of Age, Sex, and Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background Hemodynamic assessment after volume challenge has been proposed as a way to identify heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). However, the normal hemodynamic response to a volume challenge and how age and sex affect this relationship remains unknown. Methods and Results Sixty healthy subjects underwent right heart catheterization to measure age- and sex-related normative responses of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) to volume loading with rapid saline infusion (100-200 ml/min). Hemodynamic responses to saline infusion in HFpEF (n=11) were then compared to healthy young (<50yrs) and older-aged (?50yrs) subjects. In healthy subjects, PCWP increased from 10±2 to 16±3 mmHg after ~1L and to 20±3 mmHg after ~2L of saline infusion. Older women displayed a steeper increase in PCWP relative to volume infused (16±4mmHg·L?1·m2) than the other 3 groups (p?0.019). Saline infusion resulted in a greater increase in MPAP relative to cardiac output in women compared to men, irrespective of age. Subjects with HFpEF exhibited a steeper increase in PCWP relative to infused volume (25±12 mmHg·L?1·m2) than healthy young and older subjects (p?0.005). Conclusions Filling pressures rise significantly with volume loading, even in normal volunteers. Older women and patients with HFpEF exhibit the largest increases in PCWP and MPAP. PMID:23172838

Fujimoto, Naoki; Borlaug, Barry A.; Lewis, Gregory D.; Hastings, Jeffrey L.; Shafer, Keri M.; Bhella, Paul S.; Carrick-Ranson, Graeme; Levine, Benjamin D.

2012-01-01

160

Effect of seawater salinity on pore-size distribution on a poly(styrene)-based HP20 resin and its adsorption of diarrhetic shellfish toxins.  

PubMed

In the present study, okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) were spiked into artificial seawater at low, medium and high estuarine salinities (9‰, 13.5‰ and 27‰). Passive samplers (HP20 resin) used for solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) technology were exposed in these seawaters for 12-h periods. Adsorption curves well fitted a pseudo-secondary kinetics model. The highest initial sorption rates of both toxins occurred in the seawater of medium salinity, followed by seawater of low and high estuarine salinity. Pore volumes of micropores (<2nm) and small mesopores (2nmsalinity but not in seawater at medium salinity, which demonstrated that the toxin molecules entered into micropores and mesopores (below 10nm in size) in seawaters of high and low salinity. More toxin or other matrix agglomerates were displayed on the surface of resin deployed in the seawater of medium salinity. Taking into consideration the pore-size distribution and surface images, it appears that intra-particle diffusion governs toxin adsorption in seawater at high salinity while film diffusion mainly controls the adsorption process in seawater at medium salinity. This is the first study to confirm that molecules of OA and DTX1 are able to enter into micropores (<2nm) and small mesopores (2-10nm) of HP20 resin in estuarine seawater with high salinity (?27‰). PMID:25464996

Fan, Lin; Sun, Geng; Qiu, Jiangbing; Ma, Qimin; Hess, Philipp; Li, Aifeng

2014-12-19

161

Sea Surface Salinity - Duration: 1:01.  

NASA Video Gallery

The heat of the sun also forces evaporation at the ocean's surface, which puts water vapor into the atmosphere but leaves minerals and salts behind, keeping the ocean salty. The salinity of the oce...

162

ConcepTest: Ocean Salinity #3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Predict what would happen to the salinity of the world's oceans if the Indian Ocean was blocked off and all of its water evaporated. a. World's oceans would become more salty b. World's oceans would ...

163

Decomposition of maize straw in saline soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactive effects of salinity and water on organic matter decomposition in soil are poorly known. A loamy topsoil adjusted\\u000a to five concentrations of salinity (0, 31, 62, 93 and 124 mmol Na kg?1 soil) using either NaCl or Na2SO4 was incubated at a water content of either 17 or 25% (w\\/w) in the dark at 28.5°C for 47 days, with

Xiaogang Li; Fengmin Li; Bhupinderpal-Singh; Zhijun Cui; Zed Rengel

2006-01-01

164

Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones  

DOEpatents

A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

Vinegar, Harold J

2013-06-11

165

Shoot growth and fruit development of muskmelon under saline and non-saline soil water deficit  

Microsoft Academic Search

In irrigated agriculture, the production of biomass and marketable yield depend largely on the quantity and salinity of the irrigation water. The sensitivity of field-grown muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cv. “Galia”) to water deficit was compared, using non-saline (ECi= 1.2 dS m-1) and saline (ECi=6.3 dS m-1) water. Drip irrigation was applied at 2-day intervals at seven different water application

A. Meiri; D. J. Lauter; N. Sharabani

1995-01-01

166

Salinity Measurements During the Gulf Stream Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The salinity of the open ocean is important for understanding ocean circulation, for understanding energy exchange with the atmosphere and for improving models to predict weather and climate. Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (1 psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approx. 0.1 psu) required to be scientifically viable. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of a compliment of airborne microwave instruments (radiometers and scatterometer) and ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the compliment of instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer. A GPS backscatter experiment was also part of the package. These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Surface salinity measurements were provided by the RN Cape Henlopen and MN Oleander (thermosalinographs) plus salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the RN Cape Henopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made with the airborne sensors on August 28 and 29 and on September 2 flights were made over the surface drifters to look for effects due to a change in surface roughness resulting from the passage of Hurricane Dennis. Preliminary results show a good agreement between the microwave measurements and ship measurements of salinity. The features of the brightness temperature maps correspond well with the features of the salinity field measured by the ship and drifters and a preliminary retrieval of salinity compares well with the ship data.

LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Howden, S.; Goodberlet, M.

2000-01-01

167

Oxygation enhances growth, gas exchange and salt tolerance of vegetable soybean and cotton in a saline vertisol.  

PubMed

Impacts of salinity become severe when the soil is deficient in oxygen. Oxygation (using aerated water for subsurface drip irrigation of crop) could minimize the impact of salinity on plants under oxygen-limiting soil environments. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of oxygation (12% air volume/volume of water) on vegetable soybean (moderately salt tolerant) and cotton (salt tolerant) in a salinized vertisol at 2, 8, 14, 20 dS/m EC(e). In vegetable soybean, oxygation increased above ground biomass yield and water use efficiency (WUE) by 13% and 22%, respectively, compared with the control. Higher yield with oxygation was accompanied by greater plant height and stem diameter and reduced specific leaf area and leaf Na+ and Cl- concentrations. In cotton, oxygation increased lint yield and WUE by 18% and 16%, respectively, compared with the control, and was accompanied by greater canopy light interception, plant height and stem diameter. Oxygation also led to a greater rate of photosynthesis, higher relative water content in the leaf, reduced crop water stress index and lower leaf water potential. It did not, however, affect leaf Na+ or Cl- concentration. Oxygation invariably increased, whereas salinity reduced the K+ : Na+ ratio in the leaves of both species. Oxygation improved yield and WUE performance of salt tolerant and moderately tolerant crops under saline soil environments, and this may have a significant impact for irrigated agriculture where saline soils pose constraints to crop production. PMID:19566646

Bhattarai, Surya P; Midmore, David J

2009-07-01

168

Salinity Transport in the Florida Straits ZOLTAN B. SZUTS  

E-print Network

Salinity Transport in the Florida Straits ZOLTAN B. SZUTS Max Planck Institute for Meteorology calibrations, and here a calibration is defined for salinity transport using data not yet compared to the cable/LADCP data are consistent with previous studies. A salinity calibration is obtained by regressing salinity

169

Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a wealth of published research on salinity tolerance of plants, neither the metabolic sites at which salt stress damages plants nor the adaptive mechanisms utilized by plants to survive under saline conditions are well understood. As a result, there are no well-defined indicators for salinity tolerance available to assist plant breeders in the improvement of salinity tolerance of important

M. Ashraf; P. J. C. Harris

2004-01-01

170

Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)  

MedlinePLUS

... series by talking with a health care provider cleansing the bowel Talking with a health care provider. ... he or she may suggest a different procedure. Cleansing the bowel. The health care provider will give ...

171

Using discriminant analysis to determine sources of salinity in shallow groundwater prior to hydraulic fracturing.  

PubMed

High-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) gas-drilling operations in the Marcellus Play have raised environmental concerns, including the risk of groundwater contamination. Fingerprinting water impacted by gas-drilling operations is not trivial given other potential sources of contamination. We present a multivariate statistical modeling framework for developing a quantitative, geochemical fingerprinting tool to distinguish sources of high salinity in shallow groundwater. The model was developed using new geochemical data for 204 wells in New York State (NYS), which has a HVHF moratorium and published data for additional wells in NYS and several salinity sources (Appalachian Basin brines, road salt, septic effluent, and animal waste). The model incorporates a stochastic simulation to predict the geochemistry of high salinity (>20 mg/L Cl) groundwater impacted by different salinity sources and then employs linear discriminant analysis to classify samples from different populations. Model results indicate Appalachian Basin brines are the primary source of salinity in 35% of sampled NYS groundwater wells with >20 mg/L Cl. The model provides an effective means for differentiating groundwater impacted by basin brines versus other contaminants. Using this framework, similar discriminatory tools can be derived for other regions from background water quality data. PMID:25062431

Lautz, Laura K; Hoke, Gregory D; Lu, Zunli; Siegel, Donald I; Christian, Kayla; Kessler, John Daniel; Teale, Natalie G

2014-08-19

172

Interactive effects of salinity and irradiance on growth: implications for mangrove forest structure along salinity gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early growth of Ceriops australis and C. decandra was studied in response to salinity and irradiance under laboratory conditions. These results provided a basis for interpretation of growth patterns during seedling establishment by seven species of Rhizophoraceae with variation in irradiance under natural low and high salinity regimes in a tropical mangrove forest. Survival declined with decrease in irradiance, except

Marilyn C. Ball

2002-01-01

173

Hydrology, Salinity, and Salinity Control Possibilities of the Middle Pecos River: A Reconnaissance Report  

E-print Network

The Middle Pecos River between Malaga, New Mexico, and Girvin, Texas, is known for high salinity. Streamflow salinity during the last decade (1991-2000), for example, averaged 3,500 and 6,150 mg L-1 at Malaga and at the Red Bluff release...

Miyamoto, S.; Anand, Shilpa; Hatler, Will

174

"SPURS" in the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Atlantic Salinity Maximum is the world's saltiest open ocean salinity maximum and was the focus of the recent Salinity Processes Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS) program. SPURS was a joint venture between US, French, Irish, and Spanish investigators. Three US and two EU cruises were involved from August, 1012 - October, 2013 as well as surface moorings, glider, drifter and float deployments. Shipboard operations included underway meteorological and oceanic data, hydrographic surveys and turbulence profiling. The goal is to improve our understanding of how the salinity maximum is maintained and how it may be changing. It is formed by an excess of evaporation over precipitation and the wind-driven convergence of the subtropical gyre. Such salty areas are getting saltier with global warming (a record high SSS was observed in SPURS) and it is imperative to determine the relative roles of surface water fluxes and oceanic processes in such trends. The combination of accurate surface flux estimates with new assessments of vertical and horizontal mixing in the ocean will help elucidate the utility of ocean salinity in quantifying the changing global water cycle.

Schmitt, Raymond

2014-05-01

175

Lessons from crop plants struggling with salinity.  

PubMed

Salinity is a persistent problem, causing important losses in irrigated agriculture. According to global climate change prediction models, salinity is expected to expand in the near future. Although intensive studies have been conducted on the mechanisms by which plants cope with saline conditions, the multi-component nature of salt stress tolerance has rendered most plant breeding efforts to improve the plant's response to salinity unsuccessful. This occurs despite the extensive genetic diversity shown by higher plants for salt tolerance and the similar mechanisms found in salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant genotypes in response to the presence of excess of salts in the growth media. On the other hand, there is an urge to increase crop yield to the maximum to cope with the growing world population demands for food and fuel. Here, we examine some major elements and signaling mechanisms involved in the plant's response to salinity following the pathway of salt-footprints from the soil environment to leaf. Some of the possible contrasting determinants for a better-balanced resource allocation between salt tolerance and plant growth and yield are considered. PMID:25113445

Cabot, Catalina; Sibole, John V; Barceló, Juan; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

2014-09-01

176

Advantages and disadvantages of fludrocortisone or saline load in preventing post-spaceflight orthostatic hypotension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of saline load to fludrocortisone (florinef) as countermeasures for reduced plasma volume and orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight. Eleven males (ages 30-50 yr) underwent a 3-day ambulatory baseline period followed by 7 days of 6° head-down bedrest, during which cardiopulmonary and arterial baroreflex sensitivity and plasma volume (PV) were determined. During pre-bedrest and 2.5 h after treatment on day 8, PV was also measured and subjects underwent a 15-min unsupported stand test. Treatments consisted of 8 salt tablets (1 g NaCl per tablet) and 960 ml of water in 5 subjects and 0.6 mg (0.2 mg × 3) over 24 h in the other 6 subjects. PV decreased by 12% on day 7 of bedrest. This was restored on day 8 by florinef but not by saline load. The effect of florinef on PV was paralleled by decreases in urine volume and the urinary sodium/potassium ratio. Reduced PV was associated with greater vascular resistance for the same drop in central venous pressure, suggesting less vasoconstriction reserve after bedrest. Carotid baroreflex control of heart rate was attenuated after 7 days of bedrest. Both baroreflex functions were restored by florinef but not saline load. Only 1 of 6 subjects showed syncopal symptoms in the florinef-treated group, whereas 4 of 5 subjects did so in the saline-load group. Acute florinef treatment appears to have distinct advantages as a protective measure for post-bedrest orthostatic intolerance, not only through its salt retaining, volume-expanding mineralcorticoid effect, but possibly through its actions on baroreflex and sympathetic functions.

Vernikos, Joan; Convertino, Victor A.

177

INHALED HYPERTONIC SALINE IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN LESS THAN SIX YEARS OF AGE WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS: THE ISIS RANDOMIZED TRIAL  

PubMed Central

Context Inhaled hypertonic saline is recommended as therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients 6 years of age and older, but its efficacy has never been evaluated in CF patients <6 years of age. Objective To determine if hypertonic saline reduces the rate of protocol-defined pulmonary exacerbations in CF patients <6 years of age. Design and Setting A multicenter, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted from April 2009 to October 2011 at 30 CF care centers in the United States and Canada. Participants Participants had an established diagnosis of CF and were 4 to 60 months of age. A total of 344 patients were assessed for eligibility; 321 participants were randomized; 29 (9%) withdrew prematurely. Intervention The active group (n=158) received 7% hypertonic saline and the control group (n=163) received 0.9% isotonic saline nebulized twice daily for 48 weeks. Both groups received albuterol or levalbuterol prior to each study drug dose. Main Outcome Measures the rate of protocol-defined pulmonary exacerbations during the 48 week treatment period treated with oral, inhaled or intravenous antibiotics. Results The mean pulmonary exacerbation rate (events/person-year) was 2.3 (95% CI, 2.0, 2.5) in the hypertonic saline group and 2.3 (95% CI, 2.1, 2.6) in the isotonic saline group; the rate ratio was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.84, 1.14)). Among participants with pulmonary exacerbations, the mean number of total antibiotic treatment days for a pulmonary exacerbation was 60 (95% CI 49, 70) in the hypertonic saline group and 52 (95% CI 43, 61) in the isotonic saline group. There was no significant difference in secondary endpoints including height, weight, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, cough or respiratory symptom scores. Infant pulmonary function testing performed as an exploratory outcome in a subgroup (N=73, with acceptable measurements at 2 visits in 45) did not demonstrate significant differences between groups except for the mean change in forced expiratory volume in 0.5 seconds which was 38 ml greater (95% CI 1, 76) in the hypertonic saline group. Adherence by returned study drug ampoules was at least 75% in each group. Adverse event profiles were also similar, with the most common adverse event of moderate or severe severity in each group being cough (39% of hypertonic saline group, 38% of isotonic saline group). Conclusions Among infants and children with cystic fibrosis less than 6 years old, the use of inhaled hypertonic saline compared with isotonic saline did not reduce the rate of pulmonary exacerbations over 48 weeks of treatment. Trial Registration www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00709280 PMID:22610452

Rosenfeld, Margaret; Ratjen, Felix; Brumback, Lyndia; Daniel, Stephen; Rowbotham, Ron; McNamara, Sharon; Johnson, Robin; Kronmal, Richard; Davis, Stephanie D

2013-01-01

178

Evaporation over fresh and saline water surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation over large water bodies has a crucial role in the global hydrological cycle. Evaporation occurs whenever there is a vapor pressure deficit between a water surface and the atmosphere, and the available energy is sufficient. Salinity affects the density and latent heat of vaporization of the water body, which reflects on the evaporation rate. Different models have been developed to estimate the evaporation process over water surfaces using earth observation data. Most of these models are concerned with the atmospheric parameters. However these models do not take into account the influence of salinity on the evaporation rate; they do not consider the difference in the energy needed for vaporization. For this purpose an energy balance model is required. Several energy balance models that calculate daily evapotranspiration exist, such as the surface energy balance system (SEBS). They estimate the heat fluxes by integration of satellite data and hydro-meteorological field data. SEBS has the advantage that it can be applied over a large scale because it incorporates the physical state of the surface and the aerodynamic resistances in the daily evapotranspiration estimation. Nevertheless this model has not used over water surfaces. The goal of this research is to adapt SEBS to estimate the daily evaporation over fresh and saline water bodies. In particular, 1) water heat flux and roughness of momentum and heat transfer estimation need to be updated, 2) upscaling to daily evaporation needs to be investigated and finally 3) integration of the salinity factor to estimate the evaporation over saline water needs to be performed. Eddy covariance measurements over the Ijsselmeer Lake (The Netherlands) were used to estimate the roughness of momentum and heat transfer at respectively 0.0002 and 0.0001 m. Application of these values over Tana Lake (freshwater), in Ethiopia showed latent heat to be in a good agreement with the measurements, with RMSE of 35.5 Wm-2and rRMSE of 4.7 %. Afterwards the validity of salinity adapted model was tested over different study areas using ECMWF data. It was found that for the original SEBS model and salinity-adapted model over Great Salt Lake, the RMSE were 0.62 and 0.24 mm respectively and the rRMSE 19% and 24%. The evaporation reduction of the Great Salt Lake and the oceans are 27% and 1 %, respectively. In conclusion, SEBS model is adapted to calculate the daily evaporation over fresh water and salt water by integration the salinity factor in the model.

Abdelrady, Ahmed; Timmermans, Joris; Vekerdy, Zoltan

2013-04-01

179

BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF FORAGES IRRIGATED WITH SALINE-SODIC DRAINAGE WATER IN A GREENHOUSE STUDY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reuse of saline drainage waters is a management option that has been suggested for the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California in order to reduce both the area affected by shallow water tables and the volume of drainage effluent requiring disposal. Salt tolerant forages may plan an important role in...

180

Sea ice salinity and structure: A winter time series of salinity and its distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a winter time series of Antarctic sea ice salinity from eastern McMurdo Sound, an area close to an ice shelf where a subice platelet layer forms below the sea ice late in winter. This dramatically changes the sea ice structure as the sea ice grows into the subice platelet layer. Every 2 weeks during the 5 months of sea ice formation, salinity profiles were measured, along with detailed measurements of ice structure and growth rates. Once the influence of growth rate on sea ice bulk salinity is removed, the data from 69 cores and the results of a basic parameterization demonstrate that bulk salinity for platelet ice is higher than that for columnar sea ice. We also present measurements of the salinity profile close to the ice-water interface and use these to investigate the expected regime of fluid flow within the permeable portions of the sea ice, with particular reference to mushy layer and percolation theory. Finally, we provide a new distribution of sea ice salinity from 740 measurements, which can be interpreted as the sum of two spatial fields that we attribute to sea ice samples with and without brine channels and which should be reproduced by any realistic sea ice models. This distribution suggests that two measurements of quantities linearly linked to sea ice salinity must differ by 29% if they are to be considered different with 90% confidence.

Gough, A. J.; Mahoney, A. R.; Langhorne, P. J.; Williams, M. J. M.; Haskell, T. G.

2012-03-01

181

Metagenomes from the Saline Desert of Kutch  

PubMed Central

We provide the first report on the metagenomic approach for unveiling the microbial diversity in the saline desert of Kutch. High-throughput metagenomic sequencing of environmental DNA isolated from soil collected from seven locations in Kutch was performed on an Ion Torrent platform. PMID:24831151

Pandit, A. S.; Joshi, M. N.; Bhargava, P.; Ayachit, G. N.; Shaikh, I. M.; Saiyed, Z. M.; Saxena, A. K.

2014-01-01

182

Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a unit designed for curriculum infusion and which relies on the hands-on discovery method as an instructive device. The student is introduced to the theory of a functioning salt water conductivity meter. The student explores the resistance of salt water as salinity increases and he treats the data which he has gathered,…

Schlenker, Richard M.

183

Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas and soil salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses the growth and activity of vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi in saline conditions. The review includes examination of the effects of high concentrations of salts on the occurrence of VA mycorrhizal fungi in field soils, and on spore germination, growth of hyphae, establishment of the symbiosis and production of spores in controlled conditions. Information on the growth and

S. Juniper; L. Abbott

1993-01-01

184

Salinity Tolerance Turfgrass: History and Prospects  

PubMed Central

Land and water resources are becoming scarce and are insufficient to sustain the burgeoning population. Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses affecting agricultural productions across the world. Cultivation of salt-tolerant turfgrass species may be promising option under such conditions where poor quality water can also be used for these crops. Coastal lands in developing countries can be used to grow such crops, and seawater can be used for irrigation of purposes. These plants can be grown using land and water unsuitable for conventional crops and can provide food, fuel, fodder, fibber, resin, essential oils, and pharmaceutical products and can be used for landscape reintegration. There are a number of potential turfgrass species that may be appropriate at various salinity levels of seawater. The goal of this review is to create greater awareness of salt-tolerant turfgrasses, their current and potential uses, and their potential use in developing countries. The future for irrigating turf may rely on the use of moderate- to high-salinity water and, in order to ensure that the turf system is sustainable, will rely on the use of salt-tolerant grasses and an improved knowledge of the effects of salinity on turfgrasses. PMID:24222734

Uddin, Md. Kamal; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor

2013-01-01

185

Potassium-salinity interactions in irrigated corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potassium uptake by plants can be affected by high salinity and the Na concentration in the soil solution. There is abundant evidence that Na and the Na\\/Ca ratio affects K uptake and accumulation within plant cells and organs and that salt tolerance is correlated with selectivity for K uptake over Na. This provides the basis for hypothesis which exists in

A. Bar-Tal; S. Feigenbaum; D. L. Sparks

1991-01-01

186

Soil Salinity Abatement Following Hurricane Ike  

E-print Network

tsunami or a hurricane storm surge, salinity would affect the topsoil more than the subsoil (McLeod et al., 2009). Storm surges have not been found to permanently change or eliminate vegetation in an area, but have been found to temporarily raise...

Mueller, Ryan

2012-10-19

187

Rare charophytes in Scotland's coastal saline lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently collected data comparing the distribution and performance of the rare lagoonal charophyte Lamprothamnium papulosum across a number of UK coastal lagoon sites, including nine sites in the Western Isles, is presented. The surveys revealed that the species occurred over a wide range of salinities but was absent from sites with high phosphorus concentrations. The sites in the Western Isles

Ainsley Martin; Laurence Carvalho; Alexander J. Downie

2002-01-01

188

Salinity tolerance turfgrass: history and prospects.  

PubMed

Land and water resources are becoming scarce and are insufficient to sustain the burgeoning population. Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses affecting agricultural productions across the world. Cultivation of salt-tolerant turfgrass species may be promising option under such conditions where poor quality water can also be used for these crops. Coastal lands in developing countries can be used to grow such crops, and seawater can be used for irrigation of purposes. These plants can be grown using land and water unsuitable for conventional crops and can provide food, fuel, fodder, fibber, resin, essential oils, and pharmaceutical products and can be used for landscape reintegration. There are a number of potential turfgrass species that may be appropriate at various salinity levels of seawater. The goal of this review is to create greater awareness of salt-tolerant turfgrasses, their current and potential uses, and their potential use in developing countries. The future for irrigating turf may rely on the use of moderate- to high-salinity water and, in order to ensure that the turf system is sustainable, will rely on the use of salt-tolerant grasses and an improved knowledge of the effects of salinity on turfgrasses. PMID:24222734

Uddin, Md Kamal; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor

2013-01-01

189

Impacts of climate variability on wetland salinization in the North American Prairies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The glaciated plains of the North American continent, also known as the "prairies", are a complex hydrological system characterized by hummocky terrain, where wetlands, containing seasonal or semi-permanent ponds, occupy the numerous topographic depressions. The prairie subsoil and many of its water bodies contain high salt concentrations, in particular sulfate salts, which are continuously cycled within the closed drainage basins. The period between 2000 and 2012 was characterized by an unusual degree of climatic variability, including severe floods and droughts, and this had a marked effect on the spatial distribution, water levels and chemical composition of wetland ponds. Understanding the geochemical and hydrological processes under changing environmental conditions is needed in order to better understand the risk and mitigate the impacts of future soil and water salinization. Here we explore salt dynamics in the prairies using field observations from St. Denis, Saskatchewan, taken over the last 40 yr. Measurements include meteorological data, soil salinity, groundwater levels and pond water volume, salinity, and chemical composition. The record includes periods of exceptional snow (1997, 2007) and periods of exception rainfall (2010, 2012), both of which resulted in unusually high pond water levels. However, severe salinization only occurred in response to extreme summer rainfall. We hypothesize that since rainfall and snowmelt activate different hydrological pathways, they have markedly different impacts on salinization. We propose that a wet condition associated with high snowmelt conditions does not pose a strong threat to salinization, which has important implications for agricultural planning. Whilst this hypothesis is consistent with our conceptual understanding of the system, it needs to be tested further at a range of field sites in the prairies.

Nachshon, U.; Ireson, A.; van der Kamp, G.; Davies, S. R.; Wheater, H. S.

2013-11-01

190

Effect of salinity on acute copper and zinc toxicity to Tigriopus japonicus: the difference between metal ions and nanoparticles.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of salinity (5‰, 15‰, 25‰ and 35‰) on metal ion (Cu and Zn) and nanoparticle (NP) CuO and ZnO toxicity to Tigriopus japonicus. Increasing the test media volume without renewal increased the 96-h LC50 for Cu (32.75 mg L(-1)) compared to the reported value (3.9 mg L(-1)). There was no significant difference in acute toxicity at different salinities between acclimated and unacclimated T. japonicus (p>0.05). Increasing salinity decreased the dissolved concentrations of Cu and Zn ions due to the precipitation of the metal ions, consequently reducing the acute toxicity to T. japonicus. The effect of salinity on acute CuO and ZnO NP toxicity was similar to that on metal ion toxicity. Since the aggregation of NPs generally enhanced at higher salinities, both the dissolution and aggregation of CuO and ZnO NPs may control the effect of salinity on acute toxicity to T. japonicus. PMID:24837323

Park, Junbeom; Kim, Soyoun; Yoo, Jisu; Lee, Jae-Seong; Park, June-Woo; Jung, Jinho

2014-08-30

191

Equations for Calculating the Dielectric Constant of Saline Water (Correspondence)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectric constant of saline water may be represented by an equation of the Debye form. Equations for the parameters in the Debye expression are given as functions of the water temperature and salinity.

A. Stogryn

1971-01-01

192

Salinity thresholds of Acropora spp. on the Great Barrier Reef  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinity tolerances of reef corals have been experimentally investigated since the early twentieth century. Yet, nearly 100 years later, we are no closer to having a threshold that can be applied in studies of the impacts of freshwater runoff on coral communities. We present an empirically derived salinity threshold for sensitive Acropora species from the Keppel Islands in the southern inshore Great Barrier Reef (GBR), based on in situ salinity exposure and coral responses during a major flood event in 2010-2011. This threshold is presented as a dose-time response for a salinity-sensitive range of 22-28 PSU and an exposure time of 3-16 days at the lowest and highest salinities, respectively. The robustness of the salinity threshold was confirmed by comparison with responses of corals to low salinity ~600 km north in the central GBR, which were exposed to substantially different turbidity and chlorophyll levels during the period of hypo-salinity.

Berkelmans, R.; Jones, A. M.; Schaffelke, B.

2012-12-01

193

FIELD SURVEYING TECHNIQUES/ASSESSMENT AND DIAGNOSIS OF SALINITY PROBLEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter reviews and describes the collection and analysis of soil conductivity survey data for the purpose of agricultural salinity assessment. Current salinity assessment technologies are reviewed; including (i) the operation and calibration of typical electromagnetic induction meters, (...

194

Development of New Technological Approach to Mitigate Salinization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Salinization of land has threatened civilization from ancient to modern times. To mitigate salinization, efforts have been\\u000a made in the aspects of management and reclamation including using salt tolerant crops. Soybean is one of the major food and\\u000a oil crops in most of the countries where salinity problems exist or are likely to be developed. Reducing the spread of salinization

Maybelle Gaballah; Mostafa Rady; Abu-Bakr Mahmoud Gomaa; Magdi T. Abdelhamid

195

DISTRIBUTION OF FISH EGGS AND LARVAE, TEMPERATURE, AND SALINITY  

E-print Network

411 DISTRIBUTION OF FISH EGGS AND LARVAE, TEMPERATURE, AND SALINITY IN THE GEORGES BANKKernan, Director DISTRIBUTION OF FISH EGGS AND LARVAE, TEMPERATURE, AND SALINITY IN THE GEORGES BANK-GULF OF MAINE Recorder 2 Temperature and salinity 2 Drift bottles 2 Literature cited 2 FIGURES 1. Distribution

196

REVIEW PAPER Salinity stress alleviation using arbuscular mycorrhizal  

E-print Network

REVIEW PAPER Salinity stress alleviation using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. A review Rosa Porcel and Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011 Abstract Salinity is one of the most severe environmental stress salt-tolerant crops. Understanding the mechanisms that enable plant growth under saline conditions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

197

Original article Response of eight Cucumis melo cultivars to salinity  

E-print Network

Original article Response of eight Cucumis melo cultivars to salinity during germination and early- opment. Salinity induced a decrease in the concentrations of Ca2+, K+ and Mg2+ in the shoots, but only/Elsevier, Paris.) mineral composition / muskmelon / salinity / tolerance Résumé - Réaction de huit cultivars de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

198

The Salinity, Temperature, and O of the Glacial Deep Ocean  

E-print Network

The Salinity, Temperature, and 18 O of the Glacial Deep Ocean Jess F. Adkins,1 * Katherine Mc isotopic composition from Ocean Drilling Program cores to reconstruct salinity and temperature of the deep was dominated by salinity variations, in contrast with the modern ocean, for which temperature plays a primary

Schrag, Daniel

199

Miscible displacement of salinity fronts: Implications for colloid mobilization  

E-print Network

Miscible displacement of salinity fronts: Implications for colloid mobilization Markus Flury, James on the hydrodynamic stability of the salinity displacement front. A series of experiments was conducted in packed were determined at the column outflow. Results show that for downward flow of a salinity front

Flury, Markus

200

Estimating salinity to complement observed temperature: 2.Northwestern Atlantic  

E-print Network

Estimating salinity to complement observed temperature: 2.Northwestern Atlantic W.C. Thacker a,, L This paper addresses the problem of estimating salinity for a large region in the Atlantic Ocean containing salinity to complement observed temperature: 1. Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Marine Systems. doi:10.1016/j

201

ORIGINAL PAPER The effect of pulsed versus gradual salinity reduction  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER The effect of pulsed versus gradual salinity reduction on the physiology, in mesocosms, to either pulsed hyposalinity treatments of 30, 15, 10, and 8 or gradual salinity reduc- tions of two every 2 days. When salinity was pulsed, sur- vivorship ([80 %) and maximum quantum yields ([0

Durako, Michael J.

202

USDA Planning Process for Colorado River Basin Salinity Control  

E-print Network

7 USDA Planning Process for Colorado River Basin Salinity Control John D. Hedlund Soil Conservation been underway since 1973 to reduce salinity problems in the Colorado River Basin. The experience gained in planning and implementing onfarm salinity control measures will prove valuable in other parts

203

Frequency, temperature and salinity variation of the permittivity of Seawater  

E-print Network

Frequency, temperature and salinity variation of the permittivity of Seawater Ram Somaraju for the permittivity of saline water are empirical ones that best fit experimental data. We propose a physically of water with varying frequencies and salinities. Our model is in excellent agreement with existing

Trumpf, Jochen

204

Original article Effects of sodium chloride salinity on root growth  

E-print Network

Original article Effects of sodium chloride salinity on root growth and respiration in oak either 50 or 250 mM NaCl. Both moderate and high salinity treatment strongly altered root elongation. In contrast, specific respiration of roots was unaffected by the moderate salinity treatment while

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

205

Estimating salinity to complement observed temperature: 1. Gulf of Mexico  

E-print Network

Estimating salinity to complement observed temperature: 1. Gulf of Mexico W.C. Thacker Atlantic companion [Thacker, W.C., Sindlinger, L., 2007-this issue. Estimating salinity to complement observed initial efforts in a project with the goal of developing capability for estimating salinity on a region

206

Original article Genotypic variability for tolerance to salinity  

E-print Network

Original article Genotypic variability for tolerance to salinity of N2-fixing common bean of these constraints is salinity which is a major limitation for grain legumes yield, especially when the plant growth depends upon N2 fixation. In order to confirm the variability of the response to moderate salinity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

207

Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinization is the process whereby the concentration of dissolved salts in water and soil is increased due to natural or human-induced processes. Water is lost through one or any combination of four main mechanisms: evaporation, evapotranspiration, hydrolysis, and leakage between aquifers. Salinity increases from catchment divides to the valley floors and in the direction of groundwater flow. Salinization is explained

Ramsis B. Salama; Claus J. Otto; Robert W. Fitzpatrick

1999-01-01

208

Sea Surface Salinity: The Next Remote Sensing Challenge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief history of salinity remote sensing is presented. The role of sea surface salinity (SSS) in the far north Atlantic and the influence of salinity variations on upper ocean dynamics in the tropics are described. An assessment of the present state of the technology of the SSS satellite remote sensing is given.

Lagerloef, Gary S. E.; Swift, Calvin T.; LeVine, David M.

1995-01-01

209

DOES SALINITY REDUCE BORON’S TOXIC EFFECT IN BROCCOLI?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High salinity and boron often occur together in irrigation water in arid climates, but very little research has been done to study the interaction of the two. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the U.S. Salinity Laboratory in sand tanks to evaluate the interactions between B and saline draina...

210

EFFECTS OF SALINITY AND MACRONUTRIENT LEVELS ON MICRONUTRIENTS IN WHEAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is unclear how salinity and macronutrients affect the micronutrient composition of plants. The objective of this study was to investigate interactive effects of salinity and macronutrients on micronutrient concentration in leaves, stems, and grain of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Lona) grown in hydroponics in growth chambers. Eight salinity levels from 0 to 150 mM NaCl, and 1,

Y. Hu; U. Schmidhalter

2001-01-01

211

Technical note Use of microwave remote sensing in salinity estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil-moisture interaction and the consequent liberation of ions causes the salinity of waters. The salinity of river, lake, ocean and ground water changes due to seepage and surface runoff. We have studied the feasibility of using microwave remote sensing for the estimation of salinity by carrying out numerical calculations to study the microwave remote sensing responses of various models representative

R. P. SINGH; V. KUMAR; S. K. SRIVASTAV

1990-01-01

212

Remarkable Salinity Tolerance of Seven Species of Naked Amoebae (gymnamoebae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salinity tolerance of naked amoebae collected from sites ranging from ca. 0‰ to 160‰ were compared in laboratory experiments. Amoebae were collected from hypersaline ponds around the perimeter of the Salton Sea, California, where salinities averaged 160‰, and directly from the shoreline waters of the Sea where salinities were generally between 44 and 48‰. Naked amoebae were also collected

Gwen Hauer; Andrew Rogerson

2005-01-01

213

GEOSCIENCE, WATER AND SALINITY IN WA RURAL TOWNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western Australia has serious salinity problems both in the agricultural lands of the WA Wheatbelt and also in the Rural Towns which serve the Wheatbelt. A major multi-disciplinary, multi-agency project: Rural Towns - Liquid Assets began in mid 2005 to address salinity and water issues in sixteen of the most salt affected towns. Salinity affects the infrastructure (roads, railways, buildings)

P. G. Wilkes; B. D. Harris

2006-01-01

214

Field-derived spectra of salinized soils and vegetation as indicators of irrigation-induced soil salinization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinization is a major cause of soil degradation in the Murray–Darling Basin of Australia. The objective of this research is to evaluate the utility of field-derived spectra of saline soils and related vegetation for characterizing and mapping the spatial distribution of irrigation-induced soil salinization. A FieldSpec FR hand-held spectrometer was used to measure the spectra of a range of salinized

R. l. Dehaan; G. r. Taylor

2002-01-01

215

Saline Nasal Irrigation for Upper Respiratory Conditions  

PubMed Central

Acute and chronic upper respiratory conditions are common and expensive disorders with enormous impact on patient quality of life and society at large. Saline nasal irrigation (SNI), a therapy with roots in Ayurvedic medicine that bathes the nasal mucosa with in spray or liquid saline, has been used as adjunctive care for upper respiratory conditions. In liquid form, SNI has been found to be effective adjunctive care by the Cochrane Collaboration for symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive clinical trial evidence supports its use in spray and liquid forms as adjunctive treatment for mild-to-moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory infections. Consensus or expert opinion recommendations exist for SNI as a treatment for a variety of other conditions including rhinitis of pregnancy. SNI appears safe; side effects are minimal and transient. It can be recommended by clinicians to interested patients with a range of upper respiratory conditions in the context of patient education and printed instructional handouts. PMID:19904896

2009-01-01

216

Changes in Salinity Due to Glacier Movement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity requires construction of a simple salinity tester. Students will create their own calibration scale during this experiment, and look at the change in salinity that would arise if freshwater was suddenly dumped into the ocean. Materials needed for this investigation include a DC mill ampere meter, 2 D-cell batteries and holder, bronze sheeting, #18 solid wire, salt, deionized water, and a stream table or pan apparatus to create a hydrologic model of ice-ocean interaction. Included is a student worksheet to guide interpretation of data. The resource is supported by teacher background information, assessment suggestions, and a scoring rubric. This is Activity 3 of the learning module, Water: Here, There, and Everywhere, part of the lesson series, The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change.

217

Salinization of Mirror Lake by Road Salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salinization of Mirror Lake in the White Mountains of New Hampshire has been ongoing steadily since Interstate 93 (I-93)\\u000a was built through the NE subcatchment of the lake in the fall and winter of 1969–1970. Salt added to I-93 during winter as\\u000a a deicer has been transported to the lake by different quantified, hydrologic pathways, but primarily from the

Gene E. Likens; Donald C. Buso

2010-01-01

218

Microbial amelioration of crop salinity stress.  

PubMed

The use of soil and irrigation water with a high content of soluble salts is a major limiting factor for crop productivity in the semi-arid areas of the world. While important physiological insights about the mechanisms of salt tolerance in plants have been gained, the transfer of such knowledge into crop improvement has been limited. The identification and exploitation of soil microorganisms (especially rhizosphere bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi) that interact with plants by alleviating stress opens new alternatives for a pyramiding strategy against salinity, as well as new approaches to discover new mechanisms involved in stress tolerance. Although these mechanisms are not always well understood, beneficial physiological effects include improved nutrient and water uptake, growth promotion, and alteration of plant hormonal status and metabolism. This review aims to evaluate the beneficial effects of soil biota on the plant response to saline stress, with special reference to phytohormonal signalling mechanisms that interact with key physiological processes to improve plant tolerance to the osmotic and toxic components of salinity. Improved plant nutrition is a quite general beneficial effect and may contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis of toxic ions under saline stress. Furthermore, alteration of crop hormonal status to decrease evolution of the growth-retarding and senescence-inducing hormone ethylene (or its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid), or to maintain source-sink relations, photosynthesis, and biomass production and allocation (by altering indole-3-acetic acid and cytokinin biosynthesis) seem to be promising target processes for soil biota-improved crop salt tolerance. PMID:22403432

Dodd, Ian C; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco

2012-05-01

219

Salination of rivers by refinery effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The refineries which receive undesalted crudes are sources of salination of the country's rivers. Many industrial enterprises which use river water for production purposes are obliged to incur additional expenditure to desalt this water.2.No over-all studies have yet been conducted in order to determine the loss to the national economy as a whole and to the individual industries due to

Ya. G. Sorkin

1969-01-01

220

Anti-inflammation effects of hydrogen saline in LPS activated macrophages and carrageenan induced paw oedema  

PubMed Central

Background Oxidative stress is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammation. Recent studies have found that hydrogen gas has the effect of eliminating free radicals. Whether hydrogen saline (more convenient to be used than hydrogen gas) has the anti-inflammation effect or not is still unknown. Methods Carrageenan-induced paw oedema and LPS-activated macrophages are studied in this article. Injection of carrageenan into the foot of a mouse elicited an acute inflammatory response characterized by increase of foot volume and infiltration of neutrophils. While tumor necrosis factor?(TNF-?) secreted by activated macrophages was determined by ELISA and real-time PCR. Results All parameters of inflammation (foot volume, infiltration of neutrophils, amount of TNF-? and the level of TNF-?'s mRNA) were attenuated by the hydrogen saline treatment. Conclusion As a more convenient way than inhaling H2, hydrogen saline exhibits a protective effect against inflammation and it might provide a novel therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases. PMID:22296736

2012-01-01

221

Effects of salinity on baldcypress seedlings: Physiological responses and their relation to salinity tolerance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Growth and physiological responses of 15 open-pollinated families of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum var. distichum) subjected to flooding with saline water were evaluated in this study. Ten of the families were from coastal sites in Louisiana and Alabama, USA that have elevated levels of soil-water salinity. The other five families were from inland, freshwater sites in Louisiana. Seedlings from all families tolerated flooding with water of low (2 g l-1) salinity. Differences in biomass among families became most apparent at the highest salinity levels (6 and 8 g l-1). Overall, increasing salinity reduced leaf biomass more than root biomass, which in turn was reduced more than stem biomass. A subset of seedlings from the main greenhouse experiment was periodically placed indoors under artificial light, and measurements were made of gas exchange and leaf water potential. Also, tissue concentrations of Cl-, Na+, K+, and Ca2+ were determined at the end of the greenhouse experiment. Significant intraspecific variation was found for nearly all the physiological parameters evaluated, but only leaf concentrations of Na+ and Cl- were correlated with an index of family-level differences in salt tolerance.

Allen, J.A.; Chambers, J.L.; Pezeshki, S.R.

1997-01-01

222

Mapping Salinity Tolerance during Arabidopsis thaliana Germination and Seedling Growth  

PubMed Central

To characterize and dissect genetic variation for salinity tolerance, we assessed variation in salinity tolerance during germination and seedling growth for a worldwide sample of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. By combining QTL mapping, association mapping and expression data, we identified genomic regions involved in salinity response. Among the worldwide sample, we found germination ability within a moderately saline environment (150 mM NaCl) varied considerable, from >90% among the most tolerant lines to complete inability to germinate among the most susceptible. Our results also demonstrated wide variation in salinity tolerance within A. thaliana RIL populations and identified multiple genomic regions that contribute to this variation. These regions contain known candidate genes, but at least four of the regions contain loci not yet associated with salinity tolerance response phenotypes. Our observations suggest A. thaliana natural variation may be an underutilized resource for investigating salinity stress response. PMID:21857956

DeRose-Wilson, Leah; Gaut, Brandon S.

2011-01-01

223

Impacts of climate variability on wetland salinization in the North American prairies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The glaciated plains of the North American continent, also known as the "prairies", are a complex hydrological system characterized by hummocky terrain, where wetlands, containing seasonal or semi-permanent ponds, occupy the numerous topographic depressions. The prairie subsoil and many of its water bodies contain high salt concentrations, in particular sulfate salts, which are continuously cycled within the closed drainage basins. The period between 2000 and 2012 was characterized by an unusual degree of climatic variability, including severe floods and droughts, and this had a marked effect on the spatial distribution, water levels and chemical composition of wetland ponds. Understanding the geochemical and hydrological processes under changing environmental conditions is needed in order to better understand the risk and mitigate the impacts of future soil and water salinization. Here we explore salt dynamics in the prairies using field observations from St. Denis, Saskatchewan, taken mostly over the last 20 years. Measurements include meteorological data, soil moisture, soil salinity, groundwater levels and pond water volume, salinity, and chemical composition. The record includes periods of exceptional snow (1997, 2007) and periods of exception rainfall (2010, 2012), both of which resulted in unusually high pond water levels. Measurements indicated that severe pond salinization only occurred in response to extreme summer rainfall. It is hypothesized that since rainfall water infiltrates through the soil towards the depressions, while snowmelt water flows mainly as surface water over frozen soils, they have markedly different impacts on salt transport and pond salinization. Whilst this hypothesis is consistent with our conceptual understanding of the system, it needs to be tested further at a range of field sites in the prairies.

Nachshon, U.; Ireson, A.; van der Kamp, G.; Davies, S. R.; Wheater, H. S.

2014-04-01

224

Feasibility of irrigating pickleweed (Salicornia bigelovii. Torr) with hyper-saline drainage water.  

PubMed

Reuse of drainage water (DW) for irrigation reduces the volume of DW requiring treatment or disposal. We conducted a greenhouse study to evaluate the performance of the halophyte Salicornia bigelovii Torr. when irrigated with hyper-saline DW and seawater (SW) treatments, ranging from 1/3 strength to full strength (18-49 dS m(-1)), in a sand-culture system. Results indicate that Salicornia grows well over the entire range of iso-osmotic SW and DW salinity treatments. Moreover, when boron (B) was added to SW treatments to concentrations equivalent to that of corresponding 1/3- and 2/3-strength DW treatments (i.e., 9 and 17 mg L(-1)), growth was not affected, and tissue B concentrations were <150 mg kg(-1) dry wt. However, when plants were irrigated with synthetic DW where B was reduced to solution culture levels (0.5-1.0 mg L(-1)), plants generally performed worse than when irrigated with actual DW high in B at the same salinity level. Evapotranspiration (ET) rates exceeded that lost from an evaporation pan from 1.5 to 2.5 times. Using a method accounting for changes in the isotopic signature of water in the reservoir due to evaporation, we estimated that high ET rates were due primarily to high transpiration rates (>78% of ET). The salt content in the tissue was very high (ash content 43-52%), but ionic composition in the shoot tissue reflected that of the treatment water used to irrigate the plants. These data indicate that hyper-saline DW, characteristic of California's San Joaquin Valley, can be used to irrigate Salicornia and substantially reduce drainage volumes. PMID:18765761

Grattan, S R; Benes, S E; Peters, D W; Diaz, F

2008-01-01

225

Diatom Cell Size, Coloniality and Motility: Trade-Offs between Temperature, Salinity and Nutrient Supply with Climate Change  

PubMed Central

Reduction in body size has been proposed as a universal response of organisms, both to warming and to decreased salinity. However, it is still controversial if size reduction is caused by temperature or salinity on their own, or if other factors interfere as well. We used natural benthic diatom communities to explore how “body size” (cells and colonies) and motility change along temperature (2–26°C) and salinity (0.5–7.8) gradients in the brackish Baltic Sea. Fourth-corner analysis confirmed that small cell and colony sizes were associated with high temperature in summer. Average community cell volume decreased linearly with 2.2% per °C. However, cells were larger with artificial warming when nutrient concentrations were high in the cold season. Average community cell volume increased by 5.2% per °C of artificial warming from 0 to 8.5°C and simultaneously there was a selection for motility, which probably helped to optimize growth rates by trade-offs between nutrient supply and irradiation. Along the Baltic Sea salinity gradient cell size decreased with decreasing salinity, apparently mediated by nutrient stoichiometry. Altogether, our results suggest that climate change in this century may polarize seasonality by creating two new niches, with elevated temperature at high nutrient concentrations in the cold season (increasing cell size) and elevated temperature at low nutrient concentrations in the warm season (decreasing cell size). Higher temperature in summer and lower salinity by increased land-runoff are expected to decrease the average cell size of primary producers, which is likely to affect the transfer of energy to higher trophic levels. PMID:25279720

Svensson, Filip; Norberg, Jon; Snoeijs, Pauline

2014-01-01

226

The Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm: Early Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aquarius L-band radiometer/scatterometer system is designed to provide monthly salinity maps at 150 km spatial scale to a 0.2 psu accuracy. The sensor was launched on June 10, 2011, aboard the Argentine CONAE SAC-D spacecraft. The L-band radiometers and the scatterometer have been taking science data observations since August 25, 2011. The first part of this presentation gives an overview over the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The instrument calibration converts Aquarius radiometer counts into antenna temperatures (TA). The salinity retrieval algorithm converts those TA into brightness temperatures (TB) at a flat ocean surface. As a first step, contributions arising from the intrusion of solar, lunar and galactic radiation are subtracted. The antenna pattern correction (APC) removes the effects of cross-polarization contamination and spillover. The Aquarius radiometer measures the 3rd Stokes parameter in addition to vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations, which allows for an easy removal of ionospheric Faraday rotation. The atmospheric absorption at L-band is almost entirely due to O2, which can be calculated based on auxiliary input fields from numerical weather prediction models and then successively removed from the TB. The final step in the TA to TB conversion is the correction for the roughness of the sea surface due to wind. This is based on the radar backscatter measurements by the scatterometer. The TB of the flat ocean surface can now be matched to a salinity value using a surface emission model that is based on a model for the dielectric constant of sea water and an auxiliary field for the sea surface temperature. In the current processing (as of writing this abstract) only v-pol TB are used for this last process and NCEP winds are used for the roughness correction. Before the salinity algorithm can be operationally implemented and its accuracy assessed by comparing versus in situ measurements, an extensive calibration and validation (cal/val) activity needs to be completed. This is necessary in order to tune the inputs to the algorithm and remove biases that arise due to the instrument calibration, foremost the values of the noise diode injection temperatures and the losses that occur in the feedhorns. This is the subject of the second part of our presentation. The basic tool is to analyze the observed difference between the Aquarius measured TA and an expected TA that is computed from a reference salinity field. It is also necessary to derive a relation between the scatterometer backscatter measurements and the radiometer emissivity that is induced by surface winds. In order to do this we collocate Aquarius radiometer and scatterometer measurements with wind speed retrievals from the WindSat and SSMIS F17 microwave radiometers. Both of these satellites fly in orbits that have the same equatorial ascending crossing time (6 pm) as the Aquarius/SAC-D observatory. Rain retrievals from WindSat and SSMIS F 17 can be used to remove Aquarius observations that are rain contaminated. A byproduct of this analysis is a prediction for the wind-induced sea surface emissivity at L-band.

Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank J.; Lagerloef, Gary; LeVine, David

2012-01-01

227

Volume graphics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volume graphics, which employs a volume buffer of voxels for 3D scene representation, is discussed. Volume graphics offers advantages over surface graphics: it is viewpoint independent, insensitive to scene and object complexity, and suitable for the representation of sampled and simulated data sets. Moreover, geometric objects can be mixed with these data sets. Volume graphics supports the visualization of internal

Arie E. Kaufman; Daniel Cohen-Or; Roni Yagel

1993-01-01

228

Effects of Salinity and Nutrient Addition on Mangrove Excoecaria agallocha  

PubMed Central

Effects of salinity on seed germination and growth of young (1 month old) and old (2-year old) seedlings of Excoecaria agallocha were investigated. Combined effects of salinity and nutrient level were also examined on old seedlings. Seed germination was best at 0 and 5 psu salinity. 15 psu salinity significantly delayed root initiation and decreased final establishment rate. All seeds failed to establish at 25 psu salinity. Young seedlings performed best at 0 and 5 psu, but growth was stunned at 15 psu, and all seedlings died within 90 days at 25 psu. Old seedlings grew best at salinities below 5 psu and they survived the whole cultivation at 25 psu. This indicated that E. agallocha increased salt tolerance over time. Gas exchange was significantly compromised by salinities above 15 psu but evidently promoted by high nutrient. Proline accumulated considerably at high nutrient, and its contents increased from 0 to 15 psu but decreased at 25 psu salinity. Lipid peroxidation was aggravated by increasing salinity beyond 15 psu but markedly alleviated by nutrient addition. These responses indicated that E. agallocha was intolerant to high salinity but it can be greatly enhanced by nutrient addition. PMID:24691495

Chen, Yaping; Ye, Yong

2014-01-01

229

The mechanism of Lake Kinneret salinization as a linear reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The salinity of Lake Kinneret, Israel, is significantly higher than the salinity of the water from surface streams that flow to the lake. The relatively high salinity is a result of the activity of saline springs located at the bottom of the lake. The purpose of this work is to establish a general model for the salinization mechanism of Lake Kinneret. The model is based on the main components of the annual water and solute balance. Changes in time of the solute mass of the lake were described as a differential equation of a linear reservoir on an annual time scale. The model assumes that under any long-term operation policy of the lake, the components of the annual solute and water balance stay nearly constant in time. The model was tested for both steady-state conditions, and during changes in time, against measured lake salinity over the years 1968-2000. It was found that the major changes of lake salinity throughout the years were described well, despite the variety of rainfall amounts. Predictions of the expected lake salinity changes were proposed for the cases of controlled increase or decrease of saline springs discharge to the lake; for the changes of water quantity allowed to flow into or pumped out of the lake; and for various initial salinities. Predictions agree well with previous predictions made by statistical models.

Rimmer, Alon

2003-10-01

230

Tolerance of Venerupis philippinarum to salinity: osmotic and metabolic aspects.  

PubMed

In the last few decades, attention has been focused on the impacts of contamination in marine benthic populations, while the responses of aquatic organisms to natural alterations, namely changes in salinity, have received little attention. In fact, salinity is one of the dominant environmental factors affecting marine bivalves. The ebb and flood of the tide, combined with fresh water inputs from rivers or heavy rainy events, and with extremely dry and hot seasons, can dramatically alter water salinity. Therefore, the salinity of a certain environment can restrict the spatial distribution of a given population, which is especially important when assessing the spread of an invasive species into a new environment. In the present study, the main objective was to understand how clam Venerupis philippinarum copes with salinity changes and, hence biochemical and metabolomic alterations, taking place in individuals submitted to a wide range of salinities were investigated. The results showed that V. philippinarum presented high mortality at lower salinities (0 and 7 g/L) but tolerated high salinities (35 and 42 g/L). The quantification of ionic content revealed that, clams had the capacity to maintain ionic homeostasis along the salinity gradient, mainly changing the concentration of Na, but also with the influence of Mg and Ca. The results showed a decrease in protein content at lower salinities (0 to 21 g/L). Glycogen and glucose increased with increasing salinity gradient. (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra of clam aqueous extracts revealed different metabolite profiles at 7, 28 and 42 g/L salinities, thus enabling metabolite changes to be measured in relation to salinity. PMID:24556070

Carregosa, Vanessa; Figueira, Etelvina; Gil, Ana M; Pereira, Sara; Pinto, Joana; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Freitas, Rosa

2014-05-01

231

Responses of freshwater biota to rising salinity levels and implications for saline water management: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

All of the plants and animals that make up freshwater aquatic communities are affected by salinity. Many taxa possess morphological, physiological and life-history characteristics that provide some capacity for tolerance, acclimatisation or avoidance. These characteristics impart a level of resilience to freshwater communities. To maintain biodiversity in aquatic systems it is important to manage the rate, timing, pattern, frequency and

Kimberley R. JamesA; Tom RyanB

232

Quaternary soil salinity events and Australian vegetation history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A late Quaternary history of Australian soil salinization is produced by comparing Chenopodiaceae and Casuarina pollen curves. Although salinity development varied between sites, its occurrence was generally associated with arid phases and when high rainfall or high sea level caused regionally high groundwater tables. Soil salinization contributed to the shift from Casuarina- to Eucalyptus-dominance of interglacial sclerophyll vegetation. The deposition of saline sediments deflated from the Murray Basin seems more likely than Aboriginal burning to have caused the decline of Casuarina at Lake George. Soil salinization probably resulted in other vegetation changes and must be taken into account in environmental reconstructions. The renewed increase in soil salinity caused by European land-use practices and an associated decline in Casuarina are evident in the pollen records of many sites.

Crowley, G. M.

233

[Physiological and molecular principles of plant salinity stress].  

PubMed

Due to the rising problem of salinity in modern agriculture, climate changes and global food crisis, the study of salinity stress is gaining the primary importance. The mechanism of plant response to salinity includes various processes that have to be coordinated. The high salinity leads to large accumulation of toxic ions (Na+, Cl-) in plant tissues, ion disequilibrium and hyperosmolarity. Salinity stress has a negative impact on plant nutrition and mineral homeostasis, particularly for Ca2+ and K+. The recent progress in trascriptomics, genomics and molecular biology has facilitated discoveries of new salt stress-related gene families. In this review the major fundamental principles of plant salt tolerance are described. Detailed analysis of main ion transport systems and their potential role in salinity stress is presented. The future perspective gene determinants, biotechnological and genetic strategies for enhancing salt tolerance in plants are discussed. PMID:23342649

Isaienkov, S V

2012-01-01

234

SPOT5 imagery for soil salinity assessment in Iraq  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil salinization is a form of topsoil degradation due to the formation of soluble salts at deleterious levels. This phenomenon can seriously compromise vegetation health and agricultural productivity, and represents a worldwide environmental problem. Remote sensing is a very useful tool for soil salinization monitoring and assessment. In this work we show some results of a study aimed to define a methodology for soil salinity assessment in Iraq based on SPOT 5 imagery. This methodology allows the identification of salinized soils primarily on bare soils. Subsequently some soil salinity assessment can be done on vegetated soils. On bare soil the identification of salt is based on spectral analysis, using the Minimum Noise Fraction transformation and several indexes found in literature. In case of densely vegetated soils the methodology for the discrimination of salinized soils has been integrated with the results obtained from the classification of vegetation coverage.

Teggi, S.; Costanzini, S.; Despini, F.; Chiodi, P.; Immordino, F.

2012-10-01

235

Onset of Natural Convection in Saline Aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sequestration of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers has emerged as the preferred method of permanently storing CO2 in the subsurface. In order to be successful over geologic time scales, sequestration in saline aquifers relies upon enhanced dissolution of CO2 in brine by natural convection. In this talk we review the progress made thus far towards the modeling and prediction of the onset time for natural convection that occurs due to an unstable stratification of aqueous CO2. We show how the onset of natural convection is connected to a preceding event of the onset of instability with respect to small amplitude perturbations that originate within the aqueous boundary layer. Our analysis indicates that the onset time for instability is uncertain within an initial transient period where perturbation growth depends on the specific form of the initial condition. A constrained adjoint based optimization is employed to determine the upper bound and the mean of perturbation growth. With the help of a weakly nonlinear analysis, we show that the time at which convection initiates is associated with fixed perturbation amplitude. The influence of permeability heterogeneity is studied with this approach. For certain permeability structures, the marginal stability curve bifurcates to form multiple stable and unstable zones in the space of the perturbation wavenumber and time. The transition toward bifurcation governs the behavior of the most dangerous mode in the linear regime and determines the route to the onset of natural convection.

Riaz, A.

2013-05-01

236

Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinization is the process whereby the concentration of dissolved salts in water and soil is increased due to natural or\\u000a human-induced processes. Water is lost through one or any combination of four main mechanisms: evaporation, evapotranspiration,\\u000a hydrolysis, and leakage between aquifers. Salinity increases from catchment divides to the valley floors and in the direction\\u000a of groundwater flow. Salinization is explained

Ramsis B. Salama; Claus J. Otto; Robert W. Fitzpatrick

1999-01-01

237

Salinity tolerance of Gyrodactylus salaris (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea): laboratory studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salinity tolerance of the freshwater monogenean Gyrodactylus salaris, infecting Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr, was studied experimentally. Following direct transfer of infected fish from fresh water to 5.0‰ salinity, parasite population growth increased at the same rate as in fresh water and was positively correlated with temperature (1.4, 6.0, and 12.0°C). In 7.5‰ salinity the populations declined and became

Arnulf Soleng; Tor A. Bakke

1997-01-01

238

The effects of salinity on the growth and survival of the postlarval stages of Gambusia affinis  

E-print Network

of MASTER OP SCIBNCB january l963 Ma Jor Subject: Biological Oceanography THE EFFECTS OF SALINIIY ON THE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF THE POSI'LARVAL STAGES OF GAMBUSIA AFFINIS A Thesis Glenn Erwln Omundson h aved as to style and content by: Irman of Com... on the growth of the poetlarval stages of Gambusia affinis, This was accomplished by controlling all environmental factors other than salinity, l. e. , temperature, food, light, pH and fish per unit volume of water. CHAPTER II MATERIALS AND METHODS...

Omundson, Glenn Erwin

2012-06-07

239

Impact of water quality and irrigation management on soil salinization in the Drâa valley of Morocco.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the arid climatic conditions of the Drâa valley in southern Morocco, irrigation is essential for crop production. Two sources of water are available to farmers: (1) moderate salinity water from the Oued Drâa (classified as C3-S1 in the USDA irrigation water classification diagram) which is available only a few times per year following discrete releases from the Mansour Eddahbi dam, and (2) high salinity water from wells (C4-S2). Soil salinization is frequently observed, principally on plots irrigated with well water. As Oued water is available in insufficient amounts, strategies must be devised to use well and Oued water judiciously, without inducing severe salinization. The salinization risk under wheat production was evaluated using the HP1 program (Jacques and Šim?nek, 2005) for different combinations of the two main water sources, different irrigation frequencies and irrigation volumes. The soil was a sandy clay loam (topsoil) to sandy loam (40 cm depth). Soil hydrodynamic properties were derived from in situ measurements and lab measurements on undisturbed soil samples. The HP1 model was parameterized for wheat growth and 12 scenarios were run for 10 year periods using local climatic data. Water quality was measured or estimated on the basis of water samples in wells and various Oueds, and the soil chemical properties were determined. Depending on the scenario, soil salinity in the mean root zone increased from less than 1 meq/100g of soil to more than 5 meq/100g of soil over a ten year period. Salt accumulation was more pronounced at 45 cm soil depth, which is half of the maximum rooting depth, and when well water was preferentially used. Maximum crop yield (water transpired / potential water transpired) was achieved for five scenarios but this implied the use of well water to satisfy the crop water requirements. The usual Drâa Valley irrigation scenario, with five, 84 mm dam water applications per year, lead to a 25% yield loss. Adding the amount of well water needed to satisfy the crop water requirements as well as the leaching requirement had the lowest impact on soil salinization but resulted in a very low water use efficiency of 0.2 (water transpired / water added). This demonstrates the importance of using larger amounts of water than plant water requirements in this region in order to leach out salt of the root zone. However, in arid region, water is often limited and thus farmers can not afford to waste it. In that case, it is necessary to find a compromise between salinization, sodification and saving water. References: Jacques D., Šim?nek J. (2005). User Manual of the Multicomponent Variably-Saturated Flow and Transport Model HP1. Waste and Disposal Department, Mol, Belgium. USDA, United States Department of Agriculture (1969). Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils. United States Salinity Laboratory Staff, Agriculture Handbook No. 60, 160p.

Beff, L.; Descamps, C.; Dufey, J.; Bielders, C.

2009-04-01

240

Soil salinity decreases global soil organic carbon stocks.  

PubMed

Saline soils cover 3.1% (397 million hectare) of the total land area of the world. The stock of soil organic carbon (SOC) reflects the balance between carbon (C) inputs from plants, and losses through decomposition, leaching and erosion. Soil salinity decreases plant productivity and hence C inputs to the soil, but also microbial activity and therefore SOC decomposition rates. Using a modified Rothamsted Carbon model (RothC) with a newly introduced salinity decomposition rate modifier and a plant input modifier we estimate that, historically, world soils that are currently saline have lost an average of 3.47 tSOC ha(-1) since they became saline. With the extent of saline soils predicted to increase in the future, our modelling suggests that world soils may lose 6.8 Pg SOC due to salinity by the year 2100. Our findings suggest that current models overestimate future global SOC stocks and underestimate net CO2 emissions from the soil-plant system by not taking salinity effects into account. From the perspective of enhancing soil C stocks, however, given the lower SOC decomposition rate in saline soils, salt tolerant plants could be used to sequester C in salt-affected areas. PMID:22959898

Setia, Raj; Gottschalk, Pia; Smith, Pete; Marschner, Petra; Baldock, Jeff; Setia, Deepika; Smith, Jo

2013-11-01

241

Planting six tree species on soda-saline-alkali soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populus simonigra, Salix matsudana, Ulmus pumila, Populus nigra, Acer negundo, Fraxinus mandshurica. Tamarix chinensis, Hippophae\\u000a rhammoldes, Syriga onlata were planted on the soda-saline-alkali. The soil had pH 8.5–9.6, salinity 0.1%–0.3%, sodiumionized\\u000a ratio 16%–51% and normality ratio of saline base Na+\\/(Ca+++Mg++)>4. Populus simonigra grows very well on the all kinds of soda-saline-alkali soils except on the alkali sport with the worst

Zhang Yujiang; Liu Peng; Yang Dewei; Ma Chenghui; Liu Gang

1998-01-01

242

Effects of saline water irrigation on soil salinity and yield of winter wheat–maize in North China Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought and fresh water shortage are in the way of sustainable agriculture development in the North China Plain. The scarcity\\u000a of fresh water forces farmers to use shallow saline ground water, which helps to overcome drought and increase crop yields\\u000a but also increases the risk of soil salinization. This paper describes salt regimes and crop responses to saline irrigation\\u000a water

Wenjun Ma; Zhenqiang Mao; Zhenrong Yu; M. E. F. van Mensvoort; P. M. Driessen

2008-01-01

243

Space Radar Image of Saline Valley, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Saline Valley, about 30 km (19 miles) east of the town of Independence, California created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this one are helpful to scientists because they clarify the relationships of the different types of surfaces detected by the radar and the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. The view is looking southwest across Saline Valley. The high peaks in the background are the Inyo Mountains, which rise more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above the valley floor. The dark blue patch near the center of the image is an area of sand dunes. The brighter patches to the left of the dunes are the dry, salty lake beds of Saline Valley. The brown and orange areas are deposits of boulders, gravel and sand known as alluvial fans. The image was constructed by overlaying a color composite radar image on top of a digital elevation map. The radar image was taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-bandSynthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttleEndeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was producedusing radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The elevation data were derived from a 1,500-km-long (930-mile) digital topographic map processed at JPL. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vetically received; and blue is the ratio of C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received to L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This image is centered near 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

1999-01-01

244

How Much Sterile Saline Should be Used for Efficient Lavage During Total Knee Arthroplasty? Effects of Pulse Lavage Irrigation on Removal of Bone and Cement Debris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) debris particles generated during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) reportedly cause third-body wear. The present study investigated the volume of pulse lavage sufficient for removal of intraoperative PMMA and bone particles. Subjects comprised 8 patients who underwent cemented TKA. Pulse lavage with 8 L of sterile saline was performed using a pulsatile irrigator. During pulse lavage,

Yasuo Niki; Hideo Matsumoto; Toshiro Otani; Taisuke Tomatsu; Yoshiaki Toyama

2007-01-01

245

Salinity and spectral reflectance of soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic spectral response related to the salt content of soils in the visible and reflective IR wavelengths is analyzed in order to explore remote sensing applications for monitoring processes of the earth system. The bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) was determined at 10 nm of increments over the 520-2320-nm spectral range. The effect of salts on reflectance was analyzed on the basis of 162 spectral measurements. MSS and TM bands were simulated within the measured spectral region. A strong relationship was found in variations of reflectance and soil characteristics pertaining to salinization and desalinization. Although the individual MSS bands had high R-squared values and 75-79 percent of soil/treatment combinations were separable, there was a large number of soil/treatment combinations not distinguished by any of the four highly correlated MSS bands under consideration.

Szilagyi, A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

1991-01-01

246

Factors influencing species diversity in saline waters of Death Valley, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity is a major factor influencing the distributions and abundances of aquatic macroinvertebrates of saline waters in Death Valley, California, USA. A general pattern of declining numbers of species with increasing salinity is seen in Death Valley waters. Some species are restricted to low salinities, others are found only in highly saline pools, and still others are widely distributed over

Elizabeth A. Colburn

1988-01-01

247

Saline activation of pseudoepileptic seizures: clinical EEG and neuropsychiatric observations.  

PubMed

Twenty patients with suspected pseudoseizures underwent saline infusion during prolonged sleep deprived EEG with video monitoring and nasopharyngeal electrodes. No patients had definite clinical evidence of epilepsy, but 35% had abnormal EEGs, 10% with epileptiform activity. Patients with epileptiform discharges did not experience pseudoseizures with saline infusion. Patients with generalized EEG slowing responded to saline infusion with characteristic seizures. Three groups of patients were differentiated. Eight patients had characteristic attacks with saline infusion, and in these patients females predominated, mean age was lower, and somatoform disorder was common. Six patients each either failed to respond to saline or had episodes different from their characteristic spells. These patients were more often male and more often had diagnoses of personality disorders. The findings suggest that, although saline infusion may identify pseudoseizures and confirm their non-epileptic nature, some patients may not be sufficiently suggestible to respond to saline infusion, while others may have non-epileptic attacks which are different from the spells under evaluation. Psychiatric and neuropsychological features suggestive of pseudoseizures may be more readily identified by psychiatric interview or psychometric testing. Ethical issues regarding saline infusion in the guise of a potent convulsant should also be considered. PMID:4042386

Drake, M E

1985-07-01

248

Alternate interpretation of the Messinian salinity crisis: Controversy resolved?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-resolution chronology of the Mediterranean Messinian salinity crisis is proposed. Two types of evaporite deposition may be distinguished: those in marginal areas vs. those in basinal ones. Their diachroneity is deduced from the stratigraphic relationships linking these evaporites to a major Messinian erosional surface. A two-step model is proposed for the evolution of the salinity crisis through time. During

Georges Clauzon; Jean-Pierre Suc; François Gautier; André Berger; Marie-France Loutre

1996-01-01

249

Diagnosis and Management of Salinity Problems In Irrigated Pecan Productions  

E-print Network

TR- 287 2006 Diagnosis and Management of Salinity Problems In Irrigated Pecan Productions by S. Miyamoto Agricultural Research and Extension Center at El Paso Texas Agricultural Experiment Station The Texas A...&M University System Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University Diagnosis and Management of Salinity Problems In Irrigated Pecan Production S. Miyamoto...

Miyamoto, S.

250

The effects of salinity and sodicity on soil carbon turnover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing salinity and sodicity affects soil carbon dynamics, with soil carbon levels dependent on a balance between inputs and losses. Since inputs are largely related to biomass production, with soil conditions affecting microbial activity, increasing salinity and sodicity levels can potentially alter carbon (C) stocks and fluxes in the landscape. These processes can lead to a decline in vegetation health

Vanessa N. L. Wong; Richard S. B. Greene; Brian Murphy; Ram Dalal

2004-01-01

251

Methanotrophic communities in Australian woodland soils of varying salinity.  

PubMed

Despite their large areas and potential importance as methane sinks, the role of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in native woodland soils is poorly understood. These environments are increasingly being altered by anthropogenic disturbances, which potentially alter ecosystem service provision. Dryland salinity is one such disturbance and is becoming increasingly prevalent in Australian soils. We used microarrays and analysis of soil physicochemical variables to investigate the methane-oxidizing communities of several Australian natural woodland soils affected to varying degrees by dryland salinity. Soils varied in terms of salinity, gravitational water content, NO(3)-N, SO(4)-S and Mg, all of which explained to a significant degree MOB community composition. Analysis of the relative abundance and diversity of the MOB communities also revealed significant differences between soils of different salinities. Type II and type Ib methanotrophs dominated the soils and differences in methanotroph communities existed between salinity groups. The low salinity soils possessed less diverse MOB communities, including most conspicuously, the low numbers or absence of type II Methylocystis phylotypes. The differences in MOB communities suggest niche separation of MOB across varying salinities, as has been observed in the closely related ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and that anthropogenic disturbance, such as dryland salinity, has the potential to alter MOB community and therefore the methane uptake rates in soils in which disturbance occurs. PMID:22375901

Bissett, Andrew; Abell, Guy C J; Bodrossy, Levente; Richardson, Alan E; Thrall, Peter H

2012-06-01

252

ACID AND ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF SALINE BIOMASS FOR SUGAR PRODUCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Saline crops were evaluated for their potential to be used as feedstock for fermentable sugar production via dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The saline crops included two woods, Athel (Tamarix aphylla L) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), and two grasses, Jose Tall Wheatgr...

253

High-latitude salinity effects and interhemispheric thermohaline circulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general circulation model for the ocean is used to investigate the interaction between the global-scale thermohaline circulation and the salinity distribution. It is shown that an equatorially asymmetric circulation can be maintained even under equatorially symmetric basin geometry and surface forcing. Multiple equilibrium solutions are obtained for the same forcing by perturbing the high-latitude salinity field in an otherwise

Frank Bryan

1986-01-01

254

EVALUATION OF IRRIGATION METHODS FOR SALINITY CONTROL IN GRAND VALLEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Irrigation return flows in the Upper Colorado River Basin carry large salt loads as a result of contact with the saline soils and the marine derived geologic substratum. The Grand Valley of western Colorado is a major contributor to the salinity problems of the basin and is, ther...

255

Hurricane-induced failure of low salinity wetlands  

PubMed Central

During the 2005 hurricane season, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527 km2 of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained robust and largely unchanged. Here we highlight geotechnical differences between the soil profiles of high and low salinity regimes, which are controlled by vegetation and result in differential erosion. In low salinity wetlands, a weak zone (shear strength 500–1450 Pa) was observed ?30 cm below the marsh surface, coinciding with the base of rooting. High salinity wetlands had no such zone (shear strengths > 4500 Pa) and contained deeper rooting. Storm waves during Hurricane Katrina produced shear stresses between 425–3600 Pa, sufficient to cause widespread erosion of the low salinity wetlands. Vegetation in low salinity marshes is subject to shallower rooting and is susceptible to erosion during large magnitude storms; these conditions may be exacerbated by low inorganic sediment content and high nutrient inputs. The dramatic difference in resiliency of fresh versus more saline marshes suggests that the introduction of freshwater to marshes as part of restoration efforts may therefore weaken existing wetlands rendering them vulnerable to hurricanes. PMID:20660777

Howes, Nick C.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Hughes, Zoe J.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kulp, Mark A.; Miner, Michael D.; Smith, Jane M.; Barras, John A.

2010-01-01

256

Aquarius and Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Salinity from Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquarius is an L-band radiometer and scatterometer instrument combination designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The instrument is designed to provide global salinity maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. The science objective is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation

David M. Le Vine; Gary S. E. Lagerloef; Sandra E. Torrusio

2010-01-01

257

Reagents and Solutions Albumin-Dextrose-Saline (ADS)  

E-print Network

-Dextrose-Saline (ADS) or Oleic Acid-Dextrose-Catalase (OADC) 10 ml 50% glycerol 2.5 ml 20% Tween-80 Dissolve with stirring for 30 min. Add 100 ml Albumin-Dextrose-Saline (ADS) or Oleic Acid-Albumin-Dextrose-Catalase (OADC

258

Analysis of Production-Water-Salinity of Index Crops in  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One method to investigate the advantages of irrigation in cultivation is to evaluate the amount of increase in productions as a result of irrigation. Such relations which usually characterized by mathematics formulas or curves are called production to water function. In the agricultural analysis like pattern optimization and culture accumulation, we need some function like agricultural crops production, water and salinity. The amount of water used and salinity has influence on crops function, so that by increase in both components in various stages of plant growth, crop function decreases. Many researches have been performed on production-water and production-salinity function, therefore less researches on production-water-salinity components. The equation provided by Letey and Dinar (1986) is a sample of these researches. Their model is a quadratics equation from independent variables of water salinity in irrigation (ECi) and dimensionless proportion of the amount of water used to evaporation in class A (AW/EP) in plant growth stage. Therefore, by using this model and parameters like evaporation, rainfall and also quantity and quality water potential in Golestan farmlands, we obtained production-water-salinity components for each product in three different areas across Golestan province (moisture to dry areas). These products include sunflower, cotton, wheat, barely, potato, tomato, corn, sorgom, water melon, soybean and rice. Finally, these equations were compared by results of previous experiments, some results correspond and others were different. Key Word: production-water, production-salinity and production-water-salinity function, Letey and Dinar, Golestan.

Sharifan, H.; Ghahreman, B.

2009-04-01

259

Sedimentology and geochemistry of saline lakes of the Great Plains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern Saskatchewan and portions of adjacent Alberta, North Dakota and Montana are occupied by hundreds of saline and hypersaline lakes ranging in size from small prairie potholes (less than 1 km2) to relatively large bodies of water (greater than 300 km2). From a sedimentological perspective, distinction must be made between two basic types of saline lakes: playas and perennial lakes.

W. M. Last; T. H. Schweyen

1983-01-01

260

Seed germination and salinity tolerance in plant species growing on saline wastelands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven plant species including three chenopods:Suaeda fruticosa, Kochia indica, Atriplex crassifolia and four grasses:Sporobolus arabicus, Cynodon dactylon, Polypogon monspeliensis, Desmostachya bipinnata, varied greatly in their seed germination and growth responses to soil moisture or salinity. The germination percentage of\\u000a each species was significantly lower at soil moisture level of 25 % of water holding capacity than at the levels ranging

K. Mahmood; K. A. Malik; M. A. K. Lodhi; K. H. Sheikh

1996-01-01

261

Investigation of Lake Water Salinity by Using Four-Band Salinity Algorithm on WorldView-2 Satellite Image for a Saline Industrial Lake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinity of a lake is an important characteristic since, these are potentially industrial lakes and the degree of salinity can significantly be used for determination of mineral resources and for the production management. In the literature, there are many studies of using satellite data for salinity related lake studies such as determination of salinity distribution and detection of potential freshwater sources in less salt concentrated regions. As the study area Lake Acigol, located in Denizli (Turkey) was selected. With it's saline environment, it's the major sodium sulphate production resource of Turkey. In this study, remote sensing data and data from a field study was used and correlated. Remote sensing is an efficient tool to monitor and analyze lake properties by using it complementary to field data. Worldview-2 satellite data was used in this study which consists of 8 bands. At the same time with the satellite data acquisition, a field study was conducted to collect the salinity values in 17 points of the laker with using YSI 556 Multiparametre for measurements. The values were measured as salinity amount in grams per kilogram solution and obtained as ppt unit. It was observed that the values vary from 34 ppt - 40.1 ppt and the average is 38.056 ppt. In Thalassic serie, the lake was in mixoeuhaline state in the time of issue. As a first step, ATCOR correction was performed on satellite image for atmospheric correction. There were some clouds on the lake field, hence it was decided to continue the study by using the 12 sampling points which were clear on the image. Then, for each sampling point, a spectral value was obtained by calculating the average at a 11*11 neighborhood. The relation between the spectral reflectance values and the salinity was investigated. The 4-band algorithm, which was used for determination of chlorophyll-a distribution in highly turbid coastal environment by Wei (2012) was applied. Salinity ? (?i-1 / ?j-1) * (?k-1 / ?m-1) (i,j,k,m=1..8) (i? j? k? m) By using each band of WV-2 and possible combinationsfor 4-band algorithm, 1680 band combinations were used to get the correlation with the in-situ measured salinity values. As a result the highest correlation (R=0.926) was found. The correlation coefficient of the 4-band algorithm indices (?Coastal-1 / ?NIR2-1) * (?Red-1 / ?Green-1) and the salinity values was R2=0.86.

Budako?lu, Murat; Karaman, Muhittin; Damla Uça Avc?, Z.; Kumral, Mustafa; Geredeli (Y?lmaz), Serpil

2014-05-01

262

Pleistocene recharge to midcontinent basins: effects on salinity structure and microbial gas generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrogeochemistry of saline-meteoric water interface zones in sedimentary basins is important in constraining the fluid migration history, chemical evolution of basinal brines, and physical stability of saline formation waters during episodes of freshwater recharge. This is especially germane for interior cratonic basins, such as the Michigan and Illinois basins. Although there are large differences in formation water salinity and hydrostratigraphy in these basins, both are relatively quiescent tectonically and have experienced repeated cycles of glaciation during the Pleistocene. Exploration for unconventional microbial gas deposits, which began in the upper Devonian-age Antrim Shale at the northern margin of the Michigan Basin, has recently extended into the age-equivalent New Albany Shale of the neighboring Illinois Basin, providing access to heretofore unavailable fluid samples. These reveal an extensive regional recharge system that has profoundly changed the salinity structure and induced significant biogeochemical modification of formation water elemental and isotope geochemistry. New-formation water and gas samples were obtained from Devonian-Mississippian strata in the Illinois Basin. These included exploration wells in the New Albany Shale, an organic-rich black shale of upper Devonian age, and formation waters from over- and underlying regional aquifer systems (Siluro-Devonian and Mississippian age). The hydrostratigraphic relations of major aquifers and aquitards along the eastern margin of the Illinois Basin critically influenced fluid migration into the New Albany Shale. The New Albany Shale formation water chemistry indicates significant invasion of meteoric water, with ?D values as low as -46.05‰, into the shale. The carbon stable isotope system (? 13C values as high as 29.4‰), coupled with ? 18O, ?D, and alkalinity of formation waters (alkalinity ?24.08 meq/kg), identifies the presence of microbial gas associated with meteoric recharge. Regional geochemical patterns identify the underlying Siluro-Devonian carbonate aquifer system as the major conduit for freshwater recharge into the fractured New Albany Shale reservoirs. Recharge from overlying Mississippian carbonates is only significant in the southernmost portion of the basin margin where carbonates directly overlie the New Albany Shale. Recharge of dilute waters (Cl - <1000 mM) into the Siluro-Devonian section has suppressed formation water salinity to depths as great as 1 km across the entire eastern Illinois Basin margin. Taken together with salinity and stable isotope patterns in age-equivalent Michigan Basin formation waters, they suggest a regional impact of recharge of ? 18O- and ?D-depleted fluids related to Pleistocene glaciation. Devonian black shales at both basin margins have been affected by recharge and produced significant volumes of microbial methane. This recharge is also manifested in different salinity gradients in the two basins because of their large differences in original formation water salinity. Given the relatively quiet tectonic history and subdued current topography in the midcontinent region, it is likely that repeated cycles of glacial meltwater invasion across this region have induced a strong disequilibrium pattern in fluid salinity and produced a unique class of unconventional shale-hosted gas deposits.

McIntosh, J. C.; Walter, L. M.; Martini, A. M.

2002-05-01

263

Effects of salinity on the microwave emission of soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Controlled plot experiments were conducted to collect L and C band passive microwave data concurrent with ground observations of salinity and soil moisture. Two dielectric mixing models were used with an emission model to predict the emissivity from a bare smooth uniform profile. The models produce nearly identical results when near zero salinity is involved and reproduce the observed data at L band extremely well. Discrepancies at C band are attributed to sampling depth problems. Comparisons of predicted emissivities at various salinities with observed values indicate that the dynamic range of the emissivities can be explained using either of the dielectric mixing models. Evaluation of the entire data set, which included four salinity levels, indicates that for general application the effects of soil salinity can be ignored in interpreting microwave data for estimating soil moisture under most agricultural conditions.

Jackson, T. J.; Oneill, P. E.

1986-01-01

264

Salinity effects on the microwave emission of soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Controlled plot experiments were conducted to collect L and C band passive microwave data concurrent with ground observations of salinity and soil moisture. Two dielectric mixing models were used with an emission model to predict the emissivity from a bare smooth uniform profile. The models produce nearly identical results when near zero salinity is involved and reproduce the observed data at L band extremely well. Discrepancies at C band are attributed to sampling depth problems. Comparisons of predicted emissivities at various salinities with observed values indicate that the dynamic range of the emissivities can be explained using either of the dielectric mixing models. Evaluation of the entire data set, which included four salinity levels, indicates that for general application the effects of soil salinity can be ignored in interpreting microwave data for estimating soil moisture under most agricultural conditions.

Jackson, Thomas J.; Oneill, Peggy E.

1987-01-01

265

Recharge and salination processes in the carbonate aquifers in Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limestone and dolostone aquifers play a major role in the water supply system of Israel. In many cases, there are brackish to saline springs at their outlets. The source of the saline water and the mechanism of salinization differ from place to place. In some cases, it is due to mixing with seawater (Mediterranean or Dead Sea) at the fresh-saline water interface, while in other cases deepseated brines emerge along regional faults. The general policy for reclaiming the fresh component of the water before mixing with the saline component is to try to catch the fresh water as far as possible upstream from the outlet. In most cases, this is the area where the mixing takes place. The main case histories in Israel are discussed in this paper.

Issar, A. S.

1993-06-01

266

The salinity effect in a mixed layer ocean model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model of the thermally mixed layer in the upper ocean as developed by Kraus and Turner and extended by Denman is further extended to investigate the effects of salinity. In the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean rapid increases in salinity occur at the bottom of a uniformly mixed surface layer. The most significant effects produced by the inclusion of salinity are the reduction of the deepening rate and the corresponding change in the heating characteristics of the mixed layer. If the net surface heating is positive, but small, salinity effects must be included to determine whether the mixed layer temperature will increase or decrease. Precipitation over tropical oceans leads to the development of a shallow stable layer accompanied by a decrease in the temperature and salinity at the sea surface.

Miller, J. R.

1976-01-01

267

NASA Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space Education Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The educational resources and activities on this Web site teach fundamental concepts about salinity variations and the role these changes play in controlling global ocean circulation and Earthâs climate. The modules augment existing El Nino/La Nina materials with salinity-based content, provide on-line interactive tools demonstrating environmental change through data sets and in situ time-series analysis, and engage students in activities designed to demonstrate salt-water interactions. Launched in June 2011, NASAâs Aquarius will provide the first global map of sea surface salinity with unprecedented accuracy, resolution and coverage. The importance of salinity measurements in understanding coastal ocean processes is critical as salinity is a key factor in understanding and predicting biological and physical processes and their interactions with the food web, climate, and global water cycle.

2007-01-01

268

salinity Budget analysis of of Western Pacific Warm Pool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Western pacific warm pool plays an important role in governing global climate variability. In particular, the unique salinity structures of warm pool, barrier layer and salinity front, have significant impacts on the heat content accumulation and zonal migration of warm pool surface water, which further modulate the formation and development of tropical climate phenomenon, such as El Niño, MJO and EAM. In order to have better understanding of how warm pool salinity contributes to climate change the salinity budget of warm pool are investigated using results from a model of the Consortium for Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO). The results show that the salinity budget of warm pool and its components have significant seasonal and annual variability. The surface freshwater flux is the dominant element of salinity budget, which is well balanced by the other ocean dynamic terms. However among all the terms of ocean dynamics, mixing is most significant, whereas advection and entrainment are not dominant, unlike most other region. The further analysis of lagged correlation coefficient between the salinity budget, salinity budget components and NIÑO 3.4 reveals that the salinity budget is highly related to El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The results indicate that the annual variability of warm pool salinity budget has a notable correlation coefficient with NIÑO 3.4 (0.7); Mealwhile,variabilities of each components of Ocean dynamics,including diffusion, advection and mixing are found to be highly correlated to ENSO.The local barrier layer is believed to be a major reason.

Gao, Shan; nie, xunwei; Qu, Tangdong

2013-04-01

269

Geochemical tracers to evaluate hydrogeologic controls on river salinization.  

PubMed

The salinization of rivers, as indicated by salinity increases in the downstream direction, is characteristic of arid and semiarid regions throughout the world. Historically, salinity increases have been attributed to various mechanisms, including (1) evaporation and concentration during reservoir storage, irrigation, and subsequent reuse; (2) displacement of shallow saline ground water during irrigation; (3) erosion and dissolution of natural deposits; and/or (4) inflow of deep saline and/or geothermal ground water (ground water with elevated water temperature). In this study, investigation of salinity issues focused on identification of relative salinity contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources in the Lower Rio Grande in the New Mexico-Texas border region. Based on the conceptual model of the system, the various sources of water and, therefore, salinity to the Lower Rio Grande were identified, and a sampling plan was designed to characterize these sources. Analysis results for boron (delta(11)B), sulfur (delta(34)S), oxygen (delta(18)O), hydrogen (delta(2)H), and strontium ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) isotopes, as well as basic chemical data, confirmed the hypothesis that the dominant salinity contributions are from deep ground water inflow to the Rio Grande. The stable isotopic ratios identified the deep ground water inflow as distinctive, with characteristic isotopic signatures. These analyses indicate that it is not possible to reproduce the observed salinization by evapotranspiration and agricultural processes alone. This investigation further confirms that proper application of multiple isotopic and geochemical tracers can be used to identify and constrain multiple sources of solutes in complex river systems. PMID:18266732

Moore, Stephanie J; Bassett, R L; Liu, Beiling; Wolf, Christopher P; Doremus, Dale

2008-01-01

270

Lake Kinneret (The Sea of Galilee): the effects of diversion of external salinity sources and the probable chemical composition of the internal salinity sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the chemical variations and evolution of Lake Kinneret (LK), the Sea of Galilee after the diversion of onshore saline springs through the Salinity Diversion Channel (SDC) which reduced the salinity of the lake water. The mass-balance approach enables to determine the average chemical composition of the unknown internal lake sources of salinity that in addition to other

A Nishri; M Stiller; A Rimmer; Y Geifman; M Krom

1999-01-01

271

Hypertonic saline therapy in cystic fibrosis: Evidence against the proposed mechanism involving aquaporins.  

PubMed

Recent data indicate the clinical benefit of nebulized hypertonic saline in cystic fibrosis lung disease, with a proposed mechanism involving sustained increase in airway surface liquid volume. To account for the paradoxical observation that amiloride suppresses the beneficial effect of hypertonic saline, it has been previously concluded (Donaldson, S. H., Bennett, W. D., Zeman, K. L., Knowles, M. R., Tarran, R., and Boucher, R. C. (2006) N. Engl. J. Med. 354, 241-250) that amiloride-inhibitable aquaporin (AQP) water channels in airway epithelia modulate airway surface liquid volume. Here, we have characterized water permeability and amiloride effects in well differentiated, primary cultures of human airway epithelial cells, stably transfected Fisher rat thyroid epithelial cells expressing individual airway/lung AQPs, and perfused mouse lung. We found high transepithelial water permeability (P(f), 54 +/- 5 microm/s) in airway epithelial cells that was weakly temperature-dependent and inhibited by >90% by reduced pH in the basal membrane-facing solution. Reverse transcription-PCR and immunofluorescence suggested the involvement of AQPs 3, 4, and 5 in high airway water permeability. Experiments using several sensitive measurement methods indicated that amiloride does not inhibit water permeability in non-cystic fibrosis (non-CF) or CF airway epithelia, AQP-transfected Fisher rat thyroid cells, or intact lung. Our data provide evidence against the mechanism proposed by Donaldson et al. to account for the effects of amiloride and hypertonic saline in CF lung disease, indicating the need to identify alternate mechanisms. PMID:16829520

Levin, Marc H; Sullivan, Shannon; Nielson, Dennis; Yang, Baoxue; Finkbeiner, Walter E; Verkman, A S

2006-09-01

272

FIELD CROP PRODUCTION IN AREAS WITH SALINE SOILS AND SHALLOW SALINE GROUND WATER IN THE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY OF CALIFORNIA.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salinity in soil and water is irrevocably associated with irrigated agriculture throughout the world and as a result requires that salt management becomes an integral part of the production system. With careful water management it is possible to sustain irrigated agriculture in areas with saline so...

273

Messinian Salinity Crisis and basin fluid flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Syn- and post-depositional movement of fluids through sediments is one of the least understood aspects in the evolution of a basin. The conventional hydrostratigraphic view on marine sedimentary basins assumes that compactional and meteoric groundwater fluid circulation drives fluid movement and defines its timing. However, in the past few years, several examples of instantaneous and catastrophic release of fluids have been observed even through low-permeability sediments. A particularly complex case-study involves the presence of giant salt bodies in the depocentres of marine basins. Evaporites dramatically change the hydrostratigraphy and fluid-dynamics of the basin, and influence the P/T regimes, e.g. through changes in the geothermal gradient and in the compaction of underlying sediments. Our paper reviews the impact of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and evaporites on fluid flow in the Mediterranean sub-basins. The analysis of geological and geophysical sub-surface data provides examples from this basin, and the comparison with analogues in other well-known evaporitic provinces. During the MSC, massive sea-level changes occurred in a relatively limited time interval, and affected the balance of fluid dynamics, e.g. with sudden release or unusual trapping of fluids. Fluid expulsion events are here analysed and classified in relation to the long and short-term effects of the MSC. Our main aim is to build a framework for the correct identification of the fluid flow-related events, and their genetic mechanisms. On basin margins, where evaporites are thin or absent, the sea-level changes associated with the MSC force a rapid basinward shift of the mixing zone of meteoric/gravity flow and saline/compactional flow, 100s-km away from its pre-MSC position. This phenomenon changes the geometry of converging flows, creates hydraulic traps for fluids, and triggers specific diagenetic reactions in pre-MSC deep marine sediments. In basin-centre settings, unloading and re-loading of water associated to the sea-level changes leads to the sudden release of focused fluids, enhancing pockmark formation, evaporite dissolution, gas-hydrate dissociation and methane venting. After the MSC, and in the long-term basin evolution, the aquitard effect of the thick evaporites also created favourable condition for the development of overpressures in the pre-MSC sediments. However, the traditional view of saline giants as impermeable barriers to fluid flow has been challenged in recent years, by the documented evidence of fluid migration pathways through thick evaporites. Ultimately, these events can lead not only to fluid, but also to sediment remobilisation. The review here presented has applications as a tool for identifying, quantifying and understanding controls and timing of fluid dynamics in marine basins hosting extensive evaporitic series.

Bertoni, Claudia; Cartwight, Joe

2014-05-01

274

40 CFR 436.120 - Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. 436.120 Section 436...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salines From Brine Lakes Subcategory § 436.120 Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. The provisions of...

2010-07-01

275

40 CFR 436.120 - Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory.  

...description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. 436.120 Section 436...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salines From Brine Lakes Subcategory § 436.120 Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. The provisions of...

2014-07-01

276

40 CFR 436.120 - Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. 436.120 Section 436...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salines From Brine Lakes Subcategory § 436.120 Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. The provisions of...

2012-07-01

277

40 CFR 436.120 - Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. 436.120 Section 436...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salines From Brine Lakes Subcategory § 436.120 Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. The provisions of...

2011-07-01

278

40 CFR 436.120 - Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. 436.120 Section 436...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salines From Brine Lakes Subcategory § 436.120 Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. The provisions of...

2013-07-01

279

The influence of salinity on D/H fractionation in dinosterol and brassicasterol from globally distributed saline and hypersaline lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinity, growth rate, growth stage, nutrient limitation and temperature have all been shown to influence the magnitude of D/H fractionation in algal lipids through laboratory and field studies. Of these factors, salinity has been studied most extensively in the field, but to date all such investigations have focused on transect studies within specific and isolated environments. Here we test the relationship between salinity and the magnitude of D/H fractionation in algal lipids through paired analyses of sedimentary and particulate lipid and water hydrogen isotope values at a wide range of continental and coastal lake sites spanning salinities from 0 to 117 ppt. Our results demonstrate broad consistency between D/H fractionations in dinosterol and brassicasterol with those obtained from previous work, with salinity changes of 1 ppt resulting in lipid ?D changes of 0.7-1‰. Although our results also show variability in D/H fractionation between sites that is not related to salinity, the fact that any relationship emerges above the influences of other factors suggests that the salinity effect is dominant for some lipids in the majority of saline to hypersaline environments. This improved understanding of D/H fractionation in dinosterol and brassicasterol synthesis supports the use of these compounds as paleohydrologic indicators. When combined with D/H measurements from a second lipid or oxygen isotope measurements from carbonate, quantitative reconstructions of salinity and lake water isotope changes are possible. Extending the number of algal lipids within which a consistent relationship between D/H fractionation and salinity has been identified also supports the notion that the relationship is widespread among unicellular photoautotrophs.

Nelson, Daniel B.; Sachs, Julian P.

2014-05-01

280

A fluctuating salinity regime mitigates the negative effects of reduced salinity on the estuarine macroalga, Enteromorpha intestinalis (L.) link.  

PubMed

We tested the response of Enteromorpha intestinalis to fluctuating reduced salinity regimes which may occur in coastal estuaries due to both natural and anthropogenic influences. In a fully crossed two factor experiment, we subjected E. intestinalis to 0, 5, 15 and 25 psu water enriched with nutrients for 1-, 5-, 11- and 23-day periods. Each period was followed by 24 h of exposure to 25 psu (ambient) water that was not nutrient enriched. Following 24 h in ambient salinity water, algae were returned to reduced salinity conditions for the appropriate period and the cycle continued over the 24 days for which all treatments were maintained. Exposure to 0 psu for 5 days or longer resulted in loss of pigmentation, decreased wet and dry biomass, increased wet wt:dry wt ratios, decreased removal of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the water column and an accumulation of NH(4) in the water column. More frequent exposure to ambient salinity in the 1-day treatment mitigated these effects. Across all salinity levels tested, biomass increased as frequency of exposure to ambient salinity increased. At all durations of exposure to low salinity tested, biomass increased as salinity level increased. We conclude that growth of E. intestinalis is decreased by reduced salinity. E. intestinalis is able to withstand exposure to 0 psu but there is a temporal limit to this tolerance that is somewhere between 1 and 5 days. Populations of E. intestinalis in coastal estuaries may suffer from freshwater inputs if salinity conditions are persistently reduced. PMID:11058726

Kamer; Fong

2000-11-01

281

Influence of suspended particulate matter on salinity measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinity is a very important parameter in marine science, which is normally measured via the electrical conductivity of sea water. Suspended Particular Matter (SPM) can influence salinity measurements but so far there had been no experimental studies to test this. In this paper a new laboratory study about the influence of SPM on conductivity based salinity measurements is presented. Different sensor types were deployed to investigate the influence of the conductivity sensor design on the observed salinity deviations. The role of clay minerals was additionally analysed. Two natural mud samples of different origins were used to set up various SPM concentrations. The results have shown that high suspended sediment concentrations (up to 300 g l-1) can distort salinity measurements up to 30%. On average only 22% of the observed salinity deviation could be explained by the adsorption of ions by clay minerals. The CTD cell geometry had no verifiable effect, in the resolution limits of the instruments. The observed salinity deviations were caused by a “blinding effect” of the sensor due to the dissolved particles.

Held, Philipp; Kegler, Philip; Schrottke, Kerstin

2014-08-01

282

Salinity anomaly as a trigger for ENSO events  

PubMed Central

According to the classical theories of ENSO, subsurface anomalies in ocean thermal structure are precursors for ENSO events and their initial specification is essential for skillful ENSO forecast. Although ocean salinity in the tropical Pacific (particularly in the western Pacific warm pool) can vary in response to El Niño events, its effect on ENSO evolution and forecasts of ENSO has been less explored. Here we present evidence that, in addition to the passive response, salinity variability may also play an active role in ENSO evolution, and thus important in forecasting El Niño events. By comparing two forecast experiments in which the interannually variability of salinity in the ocean initial states is either included or excluded, the salinity variability is shown to be essential to correctly forecast the 2007/08 La Niña starting from April 2007. With realistic salinity initial states, the tendency to decay of the subsurface cold condition during the spring and early summer 2007 was interrupted by positive salinity anomalies in the upper central Pacific, which working together with the Bjerknes positive feedback, contributed to the development of the La Niña event. Our study suggests that ENSO forecasts will benefit from more accurate salinity observations with large-scale spatial coverage. PMID:25352285

Zhu, Jieshun; Huang, Bohua; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Balmaseda, Magdalena A.; Marx, Lawrence; Kinter III, James L.

2014-01-01

283

Salinity anomaly as a trigger for ENSO events.  

PubMed

According to the classical theories of ENSO, subsurface anomalies in ocean thermal structure are precursors for ENSO events and their initial specification is essential for skillful ENSO forecast. Although ocean salinity in the tropical Pacific (particularly in the western Pacific warm pool) can vary in response to El Niño events, its effect on ENSO evolution and forecasts of ENSO has been less explored. Here we present evidence that, in addition to the passive response, salinity variability may also play an active role in ENSO evolution, and thus important in forecasting El Niño events. By comparing two forecast experiments in which the interannually variability of salinity in the ocean initial states is either included or excluded, the salinity variability is shown to be essential to correctly forecast the 2007/08 La Niña starting from April 2007. With realistic salinity initial states, the tendency to decay of the subsurface cold condition during the spring and early summer 2007 was interrupted by positive salinity anomalies in the upper central Pacific, which working together with the Bjerknes positive feedback, contributed to the development of the La Niña event. Our study suggests that ENSO forecasts will benefit from more accurate salinity observations with large-scale spatial coverage. PMID:25352285

Zhu, Jieshun; Huang, Bohua; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Balmaseda, Magdalena A; Marx, Lawrence; Kinter, James L

2014-01-01

284

Responses of Atriplex spongiosa and Suaeda monoica to Salinity  

PubMed Central

The growth and tissue water, K+, Na+, Cl?, proline and glycinebetaine contents of the shoots and roots of two Chenopodiaceae, Atriplex spongiosa and Suaeda monoica have been measured over a range of external NaCl salinities. Both species showed some fresh weight response to low salinity mainly due to increased succulence. S. monoica showed both a greater increase in succulence (at low salinities) and tolerance of high salinities than A. spongiosa. Both species had high affinities for Na+ and maintained constant but low shoot K+ contents with increasing salinity. These trends were more marked with S. monoica in which Na+ stimulated the accumulation of K+ in roots. An association between high leaf Na+ accumulation, high osmotic pressure, succulence, and a positive growth response at low salinities was noted. Proline accumulation was observed in shoot tissues with suboptimal water contents. High glycinebetaine contents were found in the shoots of both species. These correlated closely with the sap osmotic pressure and it is suggested that glycinebetaine is the major cytoplasmic osmoticum (with K+ salts) in these species at high salinities. Na+ salts may be preferentially utilized as vacuolar osmotica. PMID:16660671

Storey, Richard; Jones, R. Gareth Wyn

1979-01-01

285

Salinity anomaly as a trigger for ENSO events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the classical theories of ENSO, subsurface anomalies in ocean thermal structure are precursors for ENSO events and their initial specification is essential for skillful ENSO forecast. Although ocean salinity in the tropical Pacific (particularly in the western Pacific warm pool) can vary in response to El Niño events, its effect on ENSO evolution and forecasts of ENSO has been less explored. Here we present evidence that, in addition to the passive response, salinity variability may also play an active role in ENSO evolution, and thus important in forecasting El Niño events. By comparing two forecast experiments in which the interannually variability of salinity in the ocean initial states is either included or excluded, the salinity variability is shown to be essential to correctly forecast the 2007/08 La Niña starting from April 2007. With realistic salinity initial states, the tendency to decay of the subsurface cold condition during the spring and early summer 2007 was interrupted by positive salinity anomalies in the upper central Pacific, which working together with the Bjerknes positive feedback, contributed to the development of the La Niña event. Our study suggests that ENSO forecasts will benefit from more accurate salinity observations with large-scale spatial coverage.

Zhu, Jieshun; Huang, Bohua; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Balmaseda, Magdalena A.; Marx, Lawrence; Kinter, James L., III

2014-10-01

286

In situ bioremediation under high saline conditions  

SciTech Connect

An in situ bioremediation treatability study is in progress at the Salton Sea Test Base (SSTB) under the NAVY CLEAN 2 contract. The site is located in the vicinity of the Salon Sea with expected groundwater saline levels of up to 50,000 ppm. The site is contaminated with diesel, gasoline and fuel oils. The treatability study is assessing the use of indigenous heterotrophic bacteria to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons. Low levels of significant macro nutrients indicate that nutrient addition of metabolic nitrogen and Orthophosphate are necessary to promote the process, requiring unique nutrient addition schemes. Groundwater major ion chemistry indicates that precipitation of calcium phosphorus compounds may be stimulated by air-sparging operations and nutrient addition, which has mandated the remedial system to include pneumatic fracturing as an option. This presentation is tailored at an introductory level to in situ bioremediation technologies, with some emphasize on innovations in sparge air delivery, dissolved oxygen uptake rates, nutrient delivery, and pneumatic fracturing that should keep the expert`s interest.

Bosshard, B.; Raumin, J.; Saurohan, B.

1995-12-31

287

Slope destabilization during the Messinian Salinity Crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Messinian Salinity Crisis, ~ 6 Myr ago, deep canyons were incised when a huge sea-level drawdown of ~ 1.5 km affected the Mediterranean Sea. Nearly contemporaneously, more than 2 km of evaporites accumulated in the basin. This event was the consequence of a complex interaction of tectonic movements and global sea-level variation associated with climatic evolution. This unusual event ended with the reflooding of the Mediterranean area. In this paper, using seismic line interpretation, we show that several landslides occurred in various parts of the Mediterranean Basin during this crisis. Three of these landslides are well preserved, and their dynamics were analyzed. Modeling of the slope stability demonstrates that these landslides may have been due to (i) the relief created by the deep erosion, and/or (ii) the reflooding, which triggered a pore pressure increase. The relatively small run-out distances of the three landslides suggest propagation in a submarine environment and triggering by sea-level rise.

Gargani, Julien; Bache, François; Jouannic, Gwenael; Gorini, Christian

2014-05-01

288

Salinity and Temperature Tolerance Experiments on Selected Florida Bay Mollusks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ultimate goal of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) is to restore and preserve the unique ecosystems of South Florida, including the estuaries. Understanding the effect of salinity and temperature changes, beyond typical oscillations, on the biota of South Florida's estuaries is a necessary component of achieving the goal of restoring the estuaries. The U.S. Geological Survey has been actively involved in researching the history of the South Florida Ecosystem, to provide targets, performance measures, and baseline data for restoration managers. These experiments addressed two aspects of ecosystem history research: 1) determining the utility of using molluscan shells as recorders of change in water chemistry parameters, primarily salinity, and 2) enhancing our in situ observations on modern assemblages by exceeding typically observed aquatic conditions. This set of experiments expanded our understanding of the effects of salinity, temperature and other water chemistry parameters on the reproduction, growth and overall survivability of key species of mollusks used in interpreting sediment core data. Observations on mollusks, plants and microbes made as part of these experiments have further refined our knowledge and understanding of the effects of ecosystem feedback and the role salinity and temperature play in ecosystem stability. The results have demonstrated the viability of several molluscan species as indicators of atypical salinity, and possibly temperature, modulations. For example Cerithium muscarum and Bulla striata demonstrated an ability to withstand a broad salinity and temperature range, with reproduction occurring in atypically high salinities and temperatures. These experiments also provided calibration data for the shell biogeochemistry of Chione cancellata and the possible use of this species as a water chemistry recorder. Observations made in the mesocosms, on a scale not normally observable in the field, have led to new questions about the influence of salinity on the localized ecosystem. The next phase of these experiments; to calibrate growth rate and reproductive viability in atypical salinities is currently underway.

Murray, James B.; Wingard, G. Lynn

2006-01-01

289

Influence of net freshwater supply on salinity in Florida Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An annual water budget for Florida Bay, the large, seasonally hypersaline estuary in the Everglades National Park, was constructed using physically based models and long-term (31 years) data on salinity, hydrology, and climate. Effects of seasonal and interannual variations of the net freshwater supply (runoff plus rainfall minus evaporation) on salinity variation within the bay were also examined. Particular attention was paid to the effects of runoff, which are the focus of ambitious plans to restore and conserve the Florida Bay ecosystem. From 1965 to 1995 the annual runoff from the Everglades into the bay was less than one tenth of the annual direct rainfall onto the bay, while estimated annual evaporation slightly exceeded annual rainfall. The average net freshwater supply to the bay over a year was thus approximately zero, and interannual variations in salinity appeared to be affected primarily by interannual fluctuations in rainfall. At the annual scale, runoff apparently had little effect on the bay as a whole during this period. On a seasonal basis, variations in rainfall, evaporation, and runoff were not in phase, and the net freshwater supply to the bay varied between positive and negative values, contributing to a strong seasonal pattern in salinity, especially in regions of the bay relatively isolated from exchanges with the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. Changes in runoff could have a greater effect on salinity in the bay if the seasonal patterns of rainfall and evaporation and the timing of the runoff are considered. One model was also used to simulate spatial and temporal patterns of salinity responses expected to result from changes in net freshwater supply. Simulations in which runoff was increased by a factor of 2 (but with no change in spatial pattern) indicated that increased runoff will lower salinity values in eastern Florida Bay, increase the variability of salinity in the South Region, but have little effect on salinity in the Central and West Regions.

Nuttle, W.K.; Fourqurean, J.W.; Cosby, B.J.; Zieman, J.C.; Robblee, M.B.

2000-01-01

290

Remote sensing of salinity in the San Francisco Bay Delta  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat multispectral scanner data and color and color infrared photographs acquired from a U-2 aircraft are combined with surface measurements for salinity mapping of the San Fransisco Bay Delta. A regression model is developed between the surface truth data and Landsat digital data for 29 sample sites, and is then extended over the entire study area. Results are in general agreement with reported salinity distribution values. It appears to be impossible to establish any quantitative judgement regarding the salinity values by visual interpretation of the imagery within the test site.

Khorram, S.

1982-01-01

291

Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm: Final Pre-Launch Version  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document provides the theoretical basis for the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The inputs to the algorithm are the Aquarius antenna temperature (T(sub A)) measurements along with a number of NCEP operational products and pre-computed tables of space radiation coming from the galaxy and sun. The output is sea-surface salinity and many intermediate variables required for the salinity calculation. This revision of the Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) is intended to be the final pre-launch version.

Wentz, Frank J.; Le Vine, David M.

2011-01-01

292

Aquarius and Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Salinity from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius is an L-band radiometer and scatterometer instrument combination designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The instrument is designed to provide global salinity maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. The science objective is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This data will promote understanding of ocean circulation and its role in the global water cycle and climate.

LeVine, David M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Torrusio, S.

2012-01-01

293

Remote Sensing of Salinity: The Dielectric Constant of Sea Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global monitoring of sea surface salinity from space requires an accurate model for the dielectric constant of sea water as a function of salinity and temperature to characterize the emissivity of the surface. Measurements are being made at 1.413 GHz, the center frequency of the Aquarius radiometers, using a resonant cavity and the perturbation method. The cavity is operated in a transmission mode and immersed in a liquid bath to control temperature. Multiple measurements are made at each temperature and salinity. Error budgets indicate a relative accuracy for both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of about 1%.

LeVine, David M.; Lang, R.; Utku, C.; Tarkocin, Y.

2011-01-01

294

GLOBE Videos: Hydrology Protocols-Salinity (11:52 min)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The video is a procedural guide to sampling salinity measurements in water bodies in the field. It provides a step-by-step explanation of field procedures and features students conducting the investigation and asking questions about what changes in salinity could indicate in rivers, lakes, and estuaries. The resource includes a video, transcript, and is supported by the Salinity Protocol in the GLOBE Teacher's Guide. This is one of seven videos on hydrology in the 24-part instructional video series describing scientific protocols used by GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment), a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

295

Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) salinity data validation over Malaysia coastal water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of sea surface salinity (SSS) plays an important role in the marine ecosystem, estimation of global ocean circulation and observation of fisheries, aquaculture, coral reef and sea grass habitats. The new challenge of SSS estimation is to exploit the ocean surface brightness temperature (Tb) observed by the Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) onboard the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite that is specifically designed to provide the best retrieval of ocean salinity and soil moisture using the L band of 1.4 GHz radiometer. Tb observed by radiometer is basically a function of the dielectric constant, sea surface temperature (SST), wind speed (U), incidence angle, polarization and SSS. Though, the SSS estimation is an ill-posed inversion problem as the relationship between the Tb and SSS is non-linear function. Objective of this study is to validate the SMOS SSS estimates with the ground-truth over the Malaysia coastal water. The LM iteratively determines the SSS of SMOS by the reduction of the sum of squared errors between Tb SMOS and Tb simulation (using in-situ) based on the updated geophysical triplet in the direction of the minimum of the cost function. The minimum cost function is compared to the desired threshold at each iteration and this recursive least square process updates the SST, U and SSS until the cost function converged. The designed LM's non-linear inversion algorithm simultaneously estimates SST, U and SSS and thus, map of SSS over Malaysia coastal water is produced from the regression model and accuracy assessment between the SMOS and in-situ retrieved SSS. This study found a good agreement in the validation with R square of 0.9 and the RMSE of 0.4. It is concluded that the non-linear inversion method is effective and practical to extract SMOS SSS, U and SST simultaneously.

Reba, M. N. M.; Rosli, A. Z.; Rahim, N. A.

2014-02-01

296

Mechanisms of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Reduction for Saline (NaCl) and Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3)  

PubMed Central

Nephropathy following contrast media (CM) exposure is reduced by administration before, during, and after the contrast procedure of either isotonic sodium chloride solution (Saline) or isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution (IsoBicarb). The reasons for this reduction are not well established for either sodium salt; probable mechanisms are discussed in this paper. For Saline, the mechanism for the decrease in CIN is likely related primarily to the increased tubular flow rates produced by volume expansion and therefore a decreased concentration of the filtered CM during transit through the kidney tubules. Furthermore, increased tubular flow rates produce a slight increase in tubular pH resulting from a fixed acid excretion in an increased tubular volume. The mechanism for the decreased CIN associated with sodium bicarbonate includes the same mechanisms listed for Saline in addition to a renal pH effect. Increased filtered bicarbonate anion raises both tubular pH and tubular bicarbonate anion levels toward blood physiologic levels, thus providing increased buffer for reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed in the tubules as a result of exposure to CM in renal tubular fluid. PMID:24826379

Burgess, W. Patrick; Walker, Phillip J.

2014-01-01

297

Saline water irrigation effects on soil salinity distribution and some physiological responses of field grown Chemlali olive.  

PubMed

The shortage of water resources of good quality is becoming an issue in arid and semi arid regions. Per consequent, the use of water resources of marginal quality is becoming an important consideration, particularly in arid regions in Tunisia, where large quantities of saline water are used for irrigation. Nevertheless, the use of these waters in irrigated lands requires the control of soil salinity and a comprehensive analysis even beyond the area where water is applied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of saline water irrigation on soil salinity distribution and some physiological traits of field-grown adult olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) under contrasting environmental conditions of the arid region in the south of Tunisia. The plants were subjected, over two growing seasons, to two drip irrigated treatments: fresh water (ECe=1.2 dS m(-1), FW) and saline water (ECe=7.5 dS m(-1), SW). Saline water irrigation (SW) has led to a significant increase in soil salinity. Furthermore, these results showed that soil salinity and soil moisture variations are not only dependent on water salinity level but are also controlled by a multitude of factors particularly the soil texture, the distance from the irrigation source and climatic conditions (rainfall pattern, temperature average, …). On the other hand, salt treatment reduced leaf midday water potential (LMWP), relative water content and photosynthetic activity and increased the leaf proline content, and this increase was season-dependent. Indeed, LMWP in SW plants decreased to -3.71 MPa. Furthermore, the highest level of proline in SW plants was registered during summer period (2.19 ?mol/mg Fw). The proline accumulation recorded in stressed plants has allowed them to preserve appropriate leaf water status and photosynthetic activity. More to the point, this olive cultivar seems to be more sensible to soil salinity during the intense growth phase. Such tendencies would help to better manage water resources for irrigation, particularly under actual climatic conditions of water scarcity. For example, in the case of the availability of different water qualities, it would be better to preserve those of high quality for olive irrigation during the intense vegetative growth phase, in coincidence with high salt sensitive period, and those of low quality for irrigation during partial growth and plant rest phases. What's more, the urgent use of saline water for irrigation should not be applied without taking into consideration the different surroundings conditions where it is used, particularly the water salinity level, the soil type, the adopted irrigation system, the degree of the crop salt tolerance, the plant growth phase and the climatic conditions of the experimental site. PMID:22572465

Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Magdich, Salwa; Ben Rouina, Bechir; Boukhris, Makki; Ben Abdullah, Ferjani

2012-12-30

298

Protocols for Mapping Soil Salinity at Field Scale  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Characterizing the spatial variability of soil salinity is an important spatial property that provides crucial information for crop and irrigation management strategies, particularly for site-specific management purposes. Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) is a quick, reliable measurement ...

299

Aquarius Observations of Sea Surface Salinity - Duration: 0:31.  

NASA Video Gallery

This visualization shows changes in global sea surface salinity, as measured by NASAâ??s Aquarius instrument aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft, from December 2011 through December 2012. Red repr...

300

Protein Contribution to Plant Salinity Response and Tolerance Acquisition  

PubMed Central

The review is focused on plant proteome response to salinity with respect to physiological aspects of plant salt stress response. The attention is paid to both osmotic and ionic effects of salinity stress on plants with respect to several protein functional groups. Therefore, the role of individual proteins involved in signalling, changes in gene expression, protein biosynthesis and degradation and the resulting changes in protein relative abundance in proteins involved in energy metabolism, redox metabolism, stressand defence-related proteins, osmolyte metabolism, phytohormone, lipid and secondary metabolism, mechanical stress-related proteins as well as protein posttranslational modifications are discussed. Differences between salt-sensitive (glycophytes) and salt-tolerant (halophytes) plants are analysed with respect to differential salinity tolerance. In conclusion, contribution of proteomic studies to understanding plant salinity tolerance is summarised and discussed. PMID:23531537

Kosová, Klára; Prášil, Ilja T.; Vítámvás, Pavel

2013-01-01

301

Salinity tolerance and avoidance in juvenile paddlefish, Polyodon spathula  

E-print Network

Laboratory studies of salinity tolerance and avoidance in juvenile paddlefish Polyodon spathula were motivated by concern that stocked individuals of this freshwater species might disperse via coastal marine waders. The tolerance study consisted...

Vignali, Carl R

2012-06-07

302

Protein contribution to plant salinity response and tolerance acquisition.  

PubMed

The review is focused on plant proteome response to salinity with respect to physiological aspects of plant salt stress response. The attention is paid to both osmotic and ionic effects of salinity stress on plants with respect to several protein functional groups. Therefore, the role of individual proteins involved in signalling, changes in gene expression, protein biosynthesis and degradation and the resulting changes in protein relative abundance in proteins involved in energy metabolism, redox metabolism, stress- and defence-related proteins, osmolyte metabolism, phytohormone, lipid and secondary metabolism, mechanical stress-related proteins as well as protein posttranslational modifications are discussed. Differences between salt-sensitive (glycophytes) and salt-tolerant (halophytes) plants are analysed with respect to differential salinity tolerance. In conclusion, contribution of proteomic studies to understanding plant salinity tolerance is summarised and discussed. PMID:23531537

Kosová, Klára; Práil, Ilja T; Vítámvás, Pavel

2013-01-01

303

ConcepTest: Ocean Salinity During an Ice Age  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One million years ago ice sheets covered much of the Earth's land surface during an ice age. How did this affect the salinity of the oceans? a. Oceans were saltier than today. b. Oceans were less salty than ...

304

Highlights of the First 15 Months of Aquarius Salinity Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius satellite salinity measurements are resolving the major global and regional spatial patterns, and temporal variations, since the start of routine data collection on 25 August 2011. This description includes the principal seasonal variations over the first annual cycle as observed by the mission. In particular, we identify the evolution of low salinity anomalies associated with the Atlantic and Pacific intertropical convergence zones (ITCZ), major river outflows such as the Amazon, a seasonal low salinity anomaly in the Panama bight, and other features. We also explore the links that the salinity variations have with precipitation and surface currents. We then will describe the variations related to the presently evolving 2012 El Nino, now evident, as it progresses through the summer and fall 2012. We conclude with a brief summary of the Aquarius data products and validation

Lagerloef, Gary S. E.; Kao, Hsun-Ying; Wentz, Frank; LeVine, David M.; Yueh, Simon H.; Feldman, Gene C.

2012-01-01

305

Salinity's Role in Tropical Atlantic Instability Waves: new knowledge from salinity remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical Atlantic instability waves (TIWs) play important roles in the dynamics of the tropical Atlantic Ocean and related climate variability. Previous studies based on satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data and mooring observations suggest that these waves are the most energetic in the eastern equatorial Atlantic and during late (boreal) spring and early summer. Satellite remote sensing of sea surface salinity (SSS) from SMOS and Aquarius provides a unique vantage point to identify new features of these waves in terms of zonal and seasonal variability. Aquarius SSS data reveal that the TIWs remain energetic in the western equatorial Atlantic despite a much weaker SST signature. Surface perturbation potential energy (PPE), the source of the downward potential energy propagation associated with the TIWs, has a larger contribution by SST (than by SSS) in the east but is primarily due to SSS in the west. The co-variability between SSS and SST also has significant contribution to surface PPE across the basin. While surface PPE is large in late spring and early summer in the east, it is also large during late summer and early fall in the west. The latter is associated with the retroflection of the North Brazil Current into the North Equatorial Countercurrent in the west during these times, carrying with it the fresh water from the Amazon River outflow to set up a large meridional salinity (and thus density) gradient.

(Tony) Lee, Tong; Lagerloef, Gary; Kao, Hsun-Ying; McPhaden, Michael; Willis, Joshua; Gierach, Michelle

2014-05-01

306

Rapid immobilization of applied nitrogen in saline–alkaline soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of inorganic N are important in soil, and this applies particularly to the saline–alkaline soils of the former lake Texcoco in Mexico with high pH and salinity where a forestation program was started in the 1970s. In soils of lake Texcoco, in Mexico, more than 50% of applied N could not be accounted for one day after application

C. Vega-Jarquin; M. Garcia-Mendoza; N. Jablonowski; M. Luna-Guido; L. Dendooven

2003-01-01

307

ALTERATION OF THE CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL UNDER THE SALINE ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaching experiment of ordinary and fly ash mixed cement were carried out by using the artificial sea water and deionized water as leachates. The pH values of saline leachates were decreased at the lower solid\\/liquid ratio in comparison with the case of deionized leachates. Mg(OH)2 and ettringite were observed only in the case of saline water. The results of the

H. OWADA; H. ASANO; Y. KUNO; H. SAKAMOTO; S. SHIMODA

308

Dryland Salinity and Ecosystem Distress Syndrome: Human Health Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clearing of native vegetation for agriculture has left 1.047 million hectares of southwest Western Australia affected by dryland\\u000a salinity, and this area may expand up to a further 1.7–3.4 million hectares if trends continue. Ecosystems in saline-affected\\u000a regions display many of the classic characteristics of Ecosystem Distress Syndrome, one outcome of which has not yet been\\u000a investigated in relation to

Andrew Jardine; Peter Speldewinde; Scott Carver; Philip Weinstein

2007-01-01

309

Mapping irrigation-induced salinity with hyperspectral imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperspectral imagery from the HyMap airborne scanner was used to recognize and map indicators of incipient salinization at a site in the Murray-Darling Basin, Victoria, Australia. Field-derived spectra and XRD analyses confirm the presence of halite, gypsum, bassanite and polyhalite in soils. Vegetation indicators of salinity include halophytes comprising of samphire, sea blite and several species of native grasses comprising

R. L. Dehaan; G. R. Taylor

2001-01-01

310

ENSO impacts on salinity in Tampa Bay, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estuarine salinity distributions reflect a dynamic balance between the processes that control estuarine circulation. At seasonal\\u000a and longer time scales, freshwater inputs into estuaries represent the primary control on salinity distribution and estuarine\\u000a circulation. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) conditions influence seasonal rainfall and stream discharge patterns in the\\u000a Tampa Bay, Florida region. The resulting variability in freshwater input to Tampa

Nancy Schmidt; Mark E. Luther

2002-01-01

311

Sensitivity analysis of CO 2 sequestration in saline aquifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology has been considered as an important method for reducing greenhouse gas emissions\\u000a and for mitigating global climate change. Three primary options are being considered for large-scale storage of CO2 in subsurface formations: oil and gas reservoirs, deep saline aquifers, and coal beds. There are very many large saline aquifers\\u000a around the world, which could

Hongjun Zhao; Xinwei Liao; Yanfang Chen; Xiaoliang Zhao

2010-01-01

312

Desertification, salinization, and biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem.  

PubMed

This study determined long-term changes in fish assemblages, river discharge, salinity, and local precipitation, and examined hydrological drivers of biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem, the Trans-Pecos region of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (USA/Mexico). Historical (1977-1989) and current (2010-2011) fish assemblages were analyzed by rarefaction analysis (species richness), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (composition/variability), multiresponse permutation procedures (composition), and paired t-test (variability). Trends in hydrological conditions (1970s-2010s) were examined by Kendall tau and quantile regression, and associations between streamflow and specific conductance (salinity) by generalized linear models. Since the 1970s, species richness and variability of fish assemblages decreased in the Rio Grande below the confluence with the Rio Conchos (Mexico), a major tributary, but not above it. There was increased representation of lower-flow/higher-salinity tolerant species, thus making fish communities below the confluence taxonomically and functionally more homogeneous to those above it. Unlike findings elsewhere, this biotic homogenization was due primarily to changes in the relative abundances of native species. While Rio Conchos discharge was>2-fold higher than Rio Grande discharge above their confluence, Rio Conchos discharge decreased during the study period causing Rio Grande discharge below the confluence to also decrease. Rio Conchos salinity is lower than Rio Grande salinity above their confluence and, as Rio Conchos discharge decreased, it caused Rio Grande salinity below the confluence to increase (reduced dilution). Trends in discharge did not correspond to trends in precipitation except at extreme-high (90th quantile) levels. In conclusion, decreasing discharge from the Rio Conchos has led to decreasing flow and increasing salinity in the Rio Grande below the confluence. This spatially uneven desertification and salinization of the Rio Grande has in turn led to a region-wide homogenization of hydrological conditions and of taxonomic and functional attributes of fish assemblages. PMID:25569580

Miyazono, Seiji; Patiño, Reynaldo; Taylor, Christopher M

2015-04-01

313

Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Salinity Laboratory has made available this Web version (.pdf format) of Agriculture handbook number 60, covering a broad range of topics relating to soils and salinity, including: "Improvement and Management of soils in arid and semiarid regions; Plant Response and Crop Selection; Quality of Irrigation Water; Methods for Soil Characterization; Methods of Plant Culture and Analysis; and Methods of Analysis of Irrigation Waters." Chapters may be downloaded separately, and include a literature cited section and a glossary.

314

Paleohydrologic controls on methanogenesis in organic-rich saline aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freshwater recharge into the margins of sedimentary basins, during periods of continental glaciation, stimulated microbial methane generation in organic-rich shales and coal beds, by significantly diluting the ambient formation water salinity. Subglacial recharge may have also transported microorganisms and nutrients into the subsurface environment. Methane is generated by a diverse consortium of both acetoclastic and CO2-reducing methanogenic Archaea, and adsorbed onto the organic matter. These shallow methane accumulations account for ~20% of the total U.S. natural gas production. Anaerobic microbial metabolism of shales and coals is in part controlled by the volume of pore waters and fluid composition, amount of extractable organic matter and intermediary substrates, reservoir temperature, and mass transport processes that provide essential rock-derived nutrients and organic acids. Methanogens are most active in low salinity environments (<2.5 mol/L Cl) with no SO4, and at the interfaces between confining units and adjacent aquifers where diffusion dominates. Microbial degradation of organic matter generates high alkalinity concentrations, which may induce calcite precipitation in shale fractures and coal cleats, which can in turn modify the subsurface hydrology. Microbial methanogenesis also imparts a strong control on the cycling of carbon, H2, and other elements in the subsurface environment. This presentation will focus on the timing of recharge and establishment of microbial communities within the Upper Devonian black shales, Pennsylvanian coal beds, and overlying glacial drift in the Illinois Basin, and the importance of continued groundwater flow on active methane generation and accumulation. There is an approximately 65-70 per mil depletion in 13C of CH4, relative to the precursor CO2 in the Upper Devonian shales, Pennsylvanian coals, and glacial drift. In addition, there is a linear correlation between the dD values of co- produced formation waters and CH4. Isotope mass-balance modeling results confirm that these isotopic shifts can be produced by coupled acetate fermentation and CO2-reduction. The lowest d13C values for CO2 and CH4 are found in the shallow glacial drift (-14 to 8 per mil, -80 to -68 per mil, respectively), where the permeable aquifers are a relatively open system, rapidly flushed by modern recharge. In contrast, the deep Upper Devonian shales have relatively positive d13C values for CO2 and CH4 (6 to 20 per mil, -56 to -50 per mil, respectively), indicating that methane has been generated over relatively long time scales (at least since the Late Pleistocene) in a closed system. The Pennsylvanian coal beds have intermediary d13C values for CO2 and CH4 (-8 to 11 per mil, -66 to -56 per mil, respectively), and contain Holocene groundwaters. Understanding the hydrobiogeochemical processes active within fractured shales and coal beds is important for energy resources, as well as CO2 sequestration.

McIntosh, J.; Petsch, S.; Schlegel, M.; Osborn, S.

2007-12-01

315

Soil salinity detection. [Starr and Cameron Counties, Texas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Growth forms and herbage biomass production varied considerably among saline and nonsaline soil range sites in Starr County. Grasses on saline soil sites were shallow-rooted and short whereas on nonsaline sites there was an intermixture of short and midgrass species. Differentiation between primarily undisturbed saline and nonsaline rangelands, in Starr County, is partially possible using film optical density readings from Skylab imagery. Differentiation among eight saline and nonsaline soil sites in Cameron County, using black and white and color film was not possible according to statistical results from both DMRT and correlation analysis. Linear analysis showed that Bendix 24-band MSS data (aircraft) collected at 1700 m and 4800 m, as well as Skylab and LANDSAT-1 MSS data, were significantly correlated to electrical conductivity readings. In Starr County, the best spectral band for detection of saline soil levels, using black and white SO-022 film, was in the 0.6 to 0.7 micron spectral region. In Cameron County, the best spectral bands for detection of saline soil levels were the 2.3 to 2.43 micron, 0.72 to 0.76 micron, 0.69 to 1.75 micron, and 0.7 to 1.1 micron spectral regions.

Wiegand, C. L.; Richardson, A. J.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Everitt, J. H.; Cuellar, J. A. (principal investigators)

1975-01-01

316

Interaction of flooding and salinity stress on baldcypress (Taxodium distichum)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coastal wetlands of the Southeastern United States are threatened by increases in flooding and salinity as a result of both natural processes and man-induced hydrolic alterations. Furthermore, global climate change scenarios suggest that, as a consequence of rising sea levels, much larger areas of coastal wetlands may be affected by flooding and salinity in the next 50 to 100 years. In this paper, we review studies designed to improve our ability to predict and ameliorate the impacts of increased flooding and salinity stress on baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.), which is a dominant species of of many coastal forested wetlands. Specifically, we review studies on species-level responses to flooding and salinity stress, alone and in combination, we summarize two studies on intraspecific variation in response to flooding and salinity stress, we analyze the physiological mechanisms thought to be responsible for the interaction between flooding and salinity stress, and we discuss the implications for coastal wetland loss and the prospects for developing salt-tolerant lines of baldcypress.

Allen, J.A.; Pezeshki, S.R.; Chambers, J.L.

1996-01-01

317

NASA Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space Education & Public Outreach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aquarius is a focused satellite mission to measure global sea surface salinity. Launching in 2009, this mission will provide the first global map of sea surface salinity with unprecedented accuracy, resolution and coverage. The importance of salinity measurements in understanding coastal ocean processes is critical. Because of its dynamic range in the coastal oceans, salinity is a critical factor in understanding and predicting biological and physical processes and their interactions with the food Web, climate, and global water cycle. AquariusâÂÂs pioneering efforts to deliver the âÂÂmissing pieces of the climate puzzleâ will undoubtedly intrigue informal audiences via the activities and information contained in this Website. Moreover, climate and its influence on humankind is an integral part of K-16 formal education and common to national learning standards. The goal of the Education and Outreach component of Aquarius is to teach fundamental concepts about salinity variations and the role these changes play in controlling global ocean circulation and EarthâÂÂs climate. Education products will appear as modules addressing the missionâÂÂs goals and purpose, augment existing El Nino/La Nina materials with salinity based content, provide on-line interactive tools demonstrating environmental change through data sets and in situ time-series analysis, and engage students in activities designed to demonstrate salt-water interactions.

Decharon, Annette

2010-10-04

318

Effects of oceanic salinity on body condition in sea snakes.  

PubMed

Since the transition from terrestrial to marine environments poses strong osmoregulatory and energetic challenges, temporal and spatial fluctuations in oceanic salinity might influence salt and water balance (and hence, body condition) in marine tetrapods. We assessed the effects of salinity on three species of sea snakes studied by mark-recapture in coral-reef habitats in the Neo-Caledonian Lagoon. These three species include one fully aquatic hydrophiine (Emydocephalus annulatus), one primarily aquatic laticaudine (Laticauda laticaudata), and one frequently terrestrial laticaudine (Laticauda saintgironsi). We explored how oceanic salinity affected the snakes' body condition across various temporal and spatial scales relevant to each species' ecology, using linear mixed models and multimodel inference. Mean annual salinity exerted a consistent and negative effect on the body condition of all three snake species. The most terrestrial taxon (L. saintgironsi) was sensitive to salinity over a short temporal scale, corresponding to the duration of a typical marine foraging trip for this species. In contrast, links between oceanic salinity and body condition in the fully aquatic E. annulatus and the highly aquatic L. laticaudata were strongest at a long-term (annual) scale. The sophisticated salt-excreting systems of sea snakes allow them to exploit marine environments, but do not completely overcome the osmoregulatory challenges posed by oceanic conditions. Future studies could usefully explore such effects in other secondarily marine taxa such as seabirds, turtles, and marine mammals. PMID:22710931

Brischoux, François; Rolland, Virginie; Bonnet, Xavier; Caillaud, Matthieu; Shine, Richard

2012-08-01

319

Effect of saline water on soil salinity and on water stress, growth, and yield of wheat and potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Wheat and potatoes were grown,in tanks filled with loam and clay and irrigated with water of three different levels of salinity and, for the wheat, with two irrigation regimes. A combination of soil water,sampling ,and ,salt balance ,was ,used ,to study ,the development,of soil salinity and the composition,of the,soil water. This revealed an increase in adsorbed sodium, a decrease

J. W. van Hoorn; N. Katerji; A. Hamdy; M. Mastrorilli

1993-01-01

320

Continuous salinity and temperature data from san francisco estuary, 19822002: Trends and the salinity-freshwater inflow relationship  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey and other federal and state agencies have been collecting continuous temperature and salinity data, two critical estuarine habitat variables, throughout San Francisco estuary for over two decades. Although this dynamic, highly variable system has been well studied, many questions remain relating to the effects of freshwater inflow and other physical and biological linkages. This study examines up to 20 years of publically available, continuous temperature and salinity data from 10 different San Francisco Bay stations to identify trends in temperature and salinity and quantify the salinityfreshwater inflow relationship. Several trends in the salinity and temperature records were identified, although the high degree of daily and interannual variability confounds the analysis. In addition, freshwater inflow to the estuary has a range of effects on salinity from -0.0020 to -0.0096 (m3 s-1) -1 discharge, depending on location in the estuary and the timescale of analyzed data. Finally, we documented that changes in freshwater inflow to the estuary that are within the range of typical management actions can affect bay-wide salinities by 0.61.4. This study reinforces the idea that multidecadal records are needed to identify trends from decadal changes in water management and climate and, therefore, are extremely valuable. ?? 2011 Coastal Education & Research Foundation.

Shellenbarger, G.G.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

2011-01-01

321

Assessing the impact of soil salinity on manganese distribution in sierozem soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant availability of heavy metals from soil depends on factors such as soil type, organic matter, base saturation, texture, and salinity. Plant availability of mobile manganese (Mn) was accessed from various horizons of non-saline, medium saline, and highly saline sieriozem soils and a pasture. Man...

322

American Journal of Botany 89(11): 18471851. 2002. DELAYED AND CARRYOVER EFFECTS OF SALINITY ON  

E-print Network

1847 American Journal of Botany 89(11): 1847­1851. 2002. DELAYED AND CARRYOVER EFFECTS OF SALINITY that exhibits intraspecific variation in salinity tolerance. To investigate the effect of salinity on flowering. Experimental salinity additions strongly delayed flowering phenology, but the effect was not apparent until

Van Zandt, Peter

323

The effects of maternal salinity and seed environment on germination and growth in Iris hexagona  

E-print Network

The effects of maternal salinity and seed environment on germination and growth in Iris hexagona hexagona occupy saline habitats and plant performance is strongly impacted by salinity stress. We examined. hexagona by (1) growing plants in three different maternal salinity levels in a common garden, (2

Van Zandt, Peter

324

Re-evaluating the 238 U-salinity relationship in seawater: Implications for the  

E-print Network

Re-evaluating the 238 U-salinity relationship in seawater: Implications for the 238 U­234 Th form 13 July 2011 Accepted 14 July 2011 Available online 23 July 2011 Keywords: Uranium Salinity and salinity in the open ocean. The new 238 U-salinity relationship determined here is based on a larger sample

Buesseler, Ken

325

Surface salinity fields in the Arctic Ocean and statistical approaches to predicting anomalies and patterns  

E-print Network

1 Surface salinity fields in the Arctic Ocean and statistical approaches to predicting anomalies to analyzing the Arctic Ocean salinity were developed. Six kinds of typical patterns in the surface salinity fields were identified. Abrupt changes in the Arctic Ocean surface layer salinity were found. Abstract

Golden, Kenneth M.

326

THE EFFECT OF SALINITY ON EXPERIMENTAL INFECTIONS OF A HEMATODINIUM SP. IN BLUE CRABS, CALLINECTES SAPIDUS  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF SALINITY ON EXPERIMENTAL INFECTIONS OF A HEMATODINIUM SP. IN BLUE CRABS, CALLINECTES have only been reported from waters where salinity is .11 practical salinity units (psu). Blue crabs maintain a hyperosmotic internal concentration at low salinities (0­5 psu), roughly comparable to 24 psu

327

The effects of salinity and nutrient limitation on microbial processes in coastal sediments  

E-print Network

The effects of salinity and nutrient limitation on microbial processes in coastal sediments Emily the relationship between salinity, nutrient limitation, and microbial activity, I collected high and low salinity in the low salinity water and sediment samples, however significantly higher phosphatase activity than

Vallino, Joseph J.

328

EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON THE SURVIVAL OF WINTER FLOUNDER EMBRYOS  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON THE SURVIVAL OF WINTER FLOUNDER EMBRYOS CAROLYN A. ROGERS1 ABSTRACT A series of experiments was perfonned to detennine the optimum temperature and salinity to a 0.5 to 45%0 salinity range and a 3° to 14°C temperature range in a total of 67 salinity- temperature

329

Effect of salinity on the ultrasonic absorption and flow birefringence of microemulsions  

E-print Network

257 Effect of salinity on the ultrasonic absorption and flow birefringence of microemulsions E of salinity by means of ultrasonic absorption and flow birefringence techniques. As the salinity is increased = 8 g NaCl/100 g water respectively. At both S1 and S2 salinities, the flow birefringence exhibits

Boyer, Edmond

330

Fault detection for salinity sensors in the Columbia estuary Cynthia Archer  

E-print Network

Fault detection for salinity sensors in the Columbia estuary Cynthia Archer Department of Computer, salinity measurement Citation: Archer, C., A. Baptista, and T. K. Leen, Fault detection for salinity [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2001]. [3] CORIE salinity sensors deployed in the harsh estuary

Leen, Todd K.

331

The erosion of a salinity step by a localized heat source  

E-print Network

The erosion of a salinity step by a localized heat source D.M. Leppinen and S.B. Dalziel Department compare the erosion a salinity step by a localized heat source with the erosion of the same salinity step layers and it is shown that a localized heat source is more e cient at eroding a salinity step than

Dalziel, Stuart

332

Salinity Spiking The temperature and conductivity sensors used on CTDs generally have  

E-print Network

Salinity Spiking The temperature and conductivity sensors used on CTDs generally have different in spikes in calculated salinity. A variety of methods have been used to eliminate this spiking and eliminating salinity spiking. The first thing to do is to plot profiles of temperature, salinity and density

Gille, Sarah T.

333

Salinity as a determinant of salt lake fauna: a question of scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

High and often variable salinity is an obvious feature of salt lakes. Correspondingly, salinity is usually assumed to be an important ecological determinant in such lakes. An investigation of the macroinvertebrate fauna of 79 lakes (salinities from 0.3 to 343 g 1-1) in the Western District of Victoria, Australia, examined this assumption. Over the total range of salinity, species richness

W. D. Williams; A. J. Boulton; R. G. Taaffe

1990-01-01

334

IMPLICATIONS FOR TOXICITY TESTS WITH AMPHIPOD GAMMARUS AEQUICAUDA: EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON LIFE CYCLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the effect of temperature and salinity on the life cycle of Gammarus aequicauda in order to establish temperature and salinity ranges advantageous for chronic toxicity testing. A broad range of salinity?temperature conditions (salinities of 10, 20 and 36‰ and temperatures of 10, 18 and 24°C combined in nine different treatments) significantly influenced various reproductive aspects of G.

E. Prato; F. Biandolino; C. Scardicchio

2008-01-01

335

Cumulative soil chemistry changes from land application of saline-sodic waters  

SciTech Connect

Management of large volumes (60,000 ha-m) of co-production water associated with coal bed natural gas (CBNG) water extraction is a potential concern in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana due to elevated water salinity and sodicity levels. Land application of saline-sodic CBNG water is a common water management method being practiced in the PRB, which can result in deterioration in soil quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects from 1 to 4 yr of land application with CBNG water on soil chemical properties at six study sites (fine to loamy, mixed to smectitic, mesic, Ustic Ardisols and Entisols) in the Wyoming PRB region. Changes in chemistry of soils collected from six depths irrigated with CBNG water were compared with representative non-irrigated soils. Applications of CBNG water significantly increased soil EC, SAR, and ESP values (up to 21, 74, and 24 times, respectively) compared with non-irrigated soils. Differences in soil chemical properties between an irrigated and non-irrigated coarse-textured soil were less than that of fine-textured soils, emphasizing texture as an important factor for salinity buildup. Pretreatment of CBNG water using a sulfur burner and application of gypsum and elemental S soil amendments reduced soil pH but did not prevent the build-up of salts and sodium. Study results suggest that current CBNG water management strategies are not as effective as projected. Additional research is needed to develop management strategies appropriate for mitigating adverse effects of CBNG water irrigation.

Ganjegunte, G.K.; King, L.A.; Vance, G.F. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Department for Renewable Resources

2008-09-15

336

Climatic causes and consequences of the Mediterranean Messinian Salinity Crisis (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean gateways play a critical role in modulating ocean circulation and global climate. When the gateway links to a mid-latitude, semi-enclosed basin, an inflated response to climate is recorded in the basin and this can lead to a high amplitude feedback to the ocean via gateway exchange. In the Mediterranean the restricted gateway results in environmental variability on orbital timescales and this in turn impacts the volume and density of Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) reaching the Atlantic. Even today, there is a lithological response to this variability in the Mediterranean, but in the Late Miocene when the gateway was much more restricted, salinity fluctuations evolved to such extreme levels that a salt giant formed and ~5% of the global ocean's salt was precipitated on the Mediterranean sea floor. This event is known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange during the Late Miocene to early Pliocene is the focus of a new EU-funded project, MEDGATE. The project draws together a multidisciplinary team of geochemists, structural geologists, sedimentologists, palaeontologists and numerical modellers to work on sediments preserved in and around two fossil corridors that linked the Mediterranean with the Atlantic ~8 million years ago, one in southern Spain, the other in northern Morocco. These exceptional successions, which record the Mediterranean's sensitivity to subtle changes in climate, have been astronomically tuned to precession allowing correlation of individual beds throughout the corridors and into the Mediterranean itself. Consequently, we now have an unprecedented opportunity to reconstruct Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange during the Late Miocene-Pliocene and evaluate the impact of the Messinian Salinity Crisis on North Atlantic circulation and global climate.

Flecker, R.

2013-12-01

337

Modeling the variations of salinity and temperature in the large Gulfs of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modeling of salinity and temperature in Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, and Gulf of Riga is investigated by using a coupled sea ice-ocean Baltic Sea model. 18 years, from late 1980 to the end of 1998, have been investigated. The forcing data extracted taken from a gridded meteorological data base, sea level data from the Kattegat, and river runoff data to the different subbasins of the Baltic Sea from a hydrological data base. To improve the gridded meteorological data base a statistical model for the reduction of geostrophic winds to surface winds was developed. In the analysis it was shown that the calculated long-term salinity and temperature structures were stable and in good agreement with observations. This was made possible by using three different strait-flow models connecting the subbasins of the Baltic Sea. The seasonal and interannual variations of temperature and salinity were also well simulated by the model, implying that the coupling between the atmosphere and the Baltic Sea as well as the diapycnal mixing are reasonably well understood. The water cycle and the surface heat balance were calculated using the 18-year simulation. In the water-balance calculations it was shown that the volume flows from the large gulfs of the Baltic Sea were mainly due to baroclinic transports and that net precipitation added freshwater during the studied period, particularly to the large gulfs. From the heat-balance calculation it is concluded that the Baltic Sea is almost in local balance with the atmosphere. The Bothnian Bay, Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga loose heat, whereas the Bothnian Sea gains heat, calculated as long-term means.

Omstedt, A.; Axell, L. B.

2003-03-01

338

Cumulative soil chemistry changes from land application of saline-sodic waters.  

PubMed

Management of large volumes (60,000 ha-m) of co-production water associated with coal bed natural gas (CBNG) water extraction is a potential concern in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana due to elevated water salinity and sodicity levels. Land application of saline-sodic CBNG water is a common water management method being practiced in the PRB, which can result in deterioration in soil quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects from 1 to 4 yr of land application with CBNG water on soil chemical properties at six study sites (fine to loamy, mixed to smectitic, mesic, Ustic Ardisols and Entisols) in the Wyoming PRB region. Changes in chemistry of soils collected from six depths irrigated with CBNG water were compared with representative nonirrigated soils. Applications of CBNG water significantly increased soil EC, SAR, and ESP values (up to 21, 74, and 24 times, respectively) compared with nonirrigated soils. Differences in soil chemical properties between an irrigated and nonirrigated coarse-textured soil were less than that of fine-textured soils, emphasizing texture as an important factor for salinity buildup. Pretreatment of CBNG water using a sulfur burner and application of gypsum and elemental S soil amendments reduced soil pH but did not prevent the build-up of salts and sodium. Study results suggest that current CBNG water management strategies are not as effective as projected. Additional research is needed to develop management strategies appropriate for mitigating adverse effects of CBNG water irrigation. PMID:18765759

Ganjegunte, Girisha K; King, Lyle A; Vance, George F

2008-01-01

339

Comparing Volumes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lab is to investigate volume (capacity). Using multiplicative comparisons, students will try to predict how many times the amount of water of one container will fit in another container.

2011-01-01

340

Hydrologic factors controlling groundwater salinity in northwestern coastal zone, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this article is to assess the main factors influencing salinity of groundwater in the coastal area between El Dabaa and Sidi Barani, Egypt. The types and ages of the main aquifers in this area are the fractured limestone of Middle Miocene, the calcareous sandstone of Pliocene and the Oolitic Limestone of Pleistocene age. The aquifers in the area are recharged by seasonal rainfall of the order of 150 mm/year. The relationship of groundwater salinity against the absolute water level, the well drilling depth, and the ability of aquifer to recharge has been discussed in the present work. The ability of aquifer to locally recharge by direct rainfall is a measure of the vertical permeability due to lithological and structural factors that control groundwater salinity in the investigated aquifers. On the other hand, the fracturing system as well as the attitude of the surface water divide has a prime role in changing both the mode of occurrence and the salinity of groundwater in the area. Directly to the west of Matrouh, where the coastal plain is the narrowest, and east of Barrani, where the coastal plain is the widest, are good examples of this concept, where the water salinity attains its maximum and minimum limits respectively. Accordingly, well drilling in the Miocene aquifer, in the area between El Negila and Barrani to get groundwater of salinities less than 5000 mg/l is recommended in this area, at flow rate less than 10 m3/hr/well. In other words, one can expect that the brackish water is probably found where the surface water divide is far from the shore line, where the Wadi fill deposits dominate (Quaternary aquifer), acting as a possible water salinity by direct rainfall and runoff.

Morad, Nahla A.; Masoud, M. H.; Moghith, S. M. Abdel

2014-10-01

341

Assessment of salinity intrusion in the James and Chickahominy Rivers as a result of simulated sea-level rise in Chesapeake Bay, East Coast, USA.  

PubMed

Global sea level is rising, and the relative rate in the Chesapeake Bay region of the East Coast of the United States is greater than the worldwide rate. Sea-level rise can cause saline water to migrate upstream in estuaries and rivers, threatening freshwater habitat and drinking-water supplies. The effects of future sea-level rise on two tributaries of Chesapeake Bay, the James and Chickahominy (CHK) Rivers, were evaluated in order to quantify the salinity change with respect to the magnitude of sea-level rise. Such changes are critical to: 1) local floral and faunal habitats that have limited tolerance ranges to salinity; and 2) a drinking-water supply for the City of Newport News, Virginia. By using the three-dimensional Hydrodynamic-Eutrophication Model (HEM-3D), sea-level rise scenarios of 30, 50, and 100 cm, based on the U.S. Climate Change Science Program for the mid-Atlantic region for the 21st century, were evaluated. The model results indicate that salinity increases in the entire river as sea level rises and that the salinity increase in a dry year is greater than that in a typical year. In the James River, the salinity increase in the middle-to-upper river (from 25 to 50 km upstream of the mouth) is larger than that in the lower and upper parts of the river. The maximum mean salinity increase would be 2 and 4 ppt for a sea-level rise of 50 and 100 cm, respectively. The upstream movement of the 10 ppt isohaline is much larger than the 5 and 20 ppt isohalines. The volume of water with salinity between 10 and 20 ppt would increase greatly if sea level rises 100 cm. In the CHK River, with a sea-level rise of 100 cm, the mean salinity at the drinking-water intake 34 km upstream of the mouth would be about 3 ppt in a typical year and greater than 5 ppt in a dry year, both far in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's secondary standard for total dissolved solids for drinking water. At the drinking-water intake, the number of days of salinity greater than 0.1 ppt increases with increasing sea-level rise; during a dry year, 0.1 ppt would be exceeded for more than 100 days with as small a rise as 30 cm. PMID:22820747

Rice, Karen C; Hong, Bo; Shen, Jian

2012-11-30

342

The salinity signature of the cross-shelf exchanges in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: Numerical simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

high-resolution model is used to characterize the dominant patterns of sea surface salinity (SSS) variability generated by the freshwater discharges of the Rio de la Plata (RdlP) and the Patos/Mirim Lagoon in the southwestern Atlantic region. We identify three dominant modes of SSS variability. The first two, which have been discussed in previous studies, represent the seasonal and the interannual variations of the freshwater plumes over the continental shelf. The third mode of SSS variability, which has not been discussed hitherto, represents the salinity exchanges between the shelf and the deep ocean. A diagnostic study using floats and passive tracers identifies the pathways taken by the freshwater plumes. During the austral winter (JJA), the plumes leave the shelf region north of the BMC. During the austral summer (DJF), the plumes are entrained more directly into the BMC. A sensitivity study indicates that the high-frequency component of the wind stress forcing controls the vertical structure of the plumes while the low-frequency component of the wind stress forcing and the interannual variations of the RdlP discharge controls the horizontal structure of the plumes. Dynamical analysis reveals that the cross-shelf flow has a dominant barotropic structure and, therefore, the SSS anomalies detected by Aquarius represent net mass exchanges between the shelf and the deep ocean. The net cross-shelf volume flux is 1.21 Sv. This outflow is largely compensated by an inflow from the Patagonian shelf.

Matano, Ricardo P.; Combes, Vincent; Piola, Alberto R.; Guerrero, Raul; Palma, Elbio D.; Ted Strub, P.; James, Corinne; Fenco, Harold; Chao, Yi; Saraceno, Martin

2014-11-01

343

Influence of temperature and salinity fluctuations on propagation behaviour of partially coherent beams in oceanic turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical study of the behaviour of partially coherent beams propagating through oceanic turbulence has been performed. Based on the previously developed knowledge of beam spreading of a partially coherent beam in the atmosphere and the spatial power spectrum of the refractive index of ocean water, we study the normalized root-mean-square width of a partially coherent beam on propagation through oceanic turbulence and its turbulence distance which may be a measure of turbulence resistance. Our analysis indicates that the behaviour of partially coherent beams on propagation may be described by the rate of dissipation of the mean-squared temperature ?T and that of salinity ?S. In terms of a quantity w that defines the contributions of the temperature and salinity distributions to the distribution of the refractive index, ?S could be written as a function of ?T and w. Therefore, the behaviour of partially coherent beams on propagation can be characterized only by ?T for a given w. The results are shown for curved surfaces, from which one can see that partially coherent beams exhibit robust turbulence resistance when the water volume has a smaller ?T.

Lu, Wei; Liu, Liren; Sun, Jianfeng

2006-12-01

344

Formation of soluble microbial products (SMP) by activated sludge at various salinities.  

PubMed

Soluble microbial products (SMP) present a significant component of effluent organic matter from biological wastewater treatment reactors, and can affect the membrane fouling and formation of disinfection by-products. Thus, SMP have attracted increasing concerns in wastewater treatment and reclamation. In this work, the formation of SMP by activated sludge at various NaCl concentrations is investigated by using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and fluorescence regional integration (FRI). The results show that a high level of salinity decreases substrate removal efficiency and leads to an accumulation of SMP, especially proteins. Three components of SMP, one protein-like and two humic-acid-like components, are identified by PARAFAC, which exhibit different trends with the variation of NaCl concentration. FRI analysis reveals that the majority of protein fluorescence is attributed to tryptophan and tryptophan-like proteins, rather than tyrosine and tyrosine-like proteins. With an increase in NaCl concentration, the normalized volume percentages of tyrosine and tryptophan region increase, while those of humic- and fulvic-acid-like region decrease significantly. This work demonstrates that salinity affects the formation of SMP, and that EEM with PARAFAC in combination with FRI analysis is a useful tool to get insight into the formation of SMP by activated sludge. PMID:22622691

Li, Yan; Li, Ai-Min; Xu, Juan; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing

2013-02-01

345

Diversity, adaptation and activity of the bacterial flora in saline environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saline environments have a natural bacterial flora, which may play a significant role in the economy of these habitats. The\\u000a natural saline environments (usually containing salinity equivalent to 4–30% NaCl) are aquatic (e.g. salt marshes) or terrestrial\\u000a (e.g. saline lands). Saline environments include an increasing area of salt-affected cultivated soils throughout the world.\\u000a These environments contain various ions which may

H. H. Zahran

1997-01-01

346

Salinity tolerance in plants: attempts to manipulate ion transport  

E-print Network

Ion transport is the major determining factor of salinity tolerance in plants. A simple scheme of a plant cell with ion fluxes provides basic understanding of ion transport and the corresponding changes of ion concentrations under salinity. The review describes in detail basic principles of ion transport for a plant cell, introduces set of transporters essential for sodium and potassium uptake and efflux, analyses driving forces of ion transport and compares ion fluxes measured by several techniques. Study of differences in ion transport between salt tolerant halophytes and salt-sensitive plants with an emphasis on transport of potassium and sodium via plasma membranes offers knowledge for increasing salinity tolerance. Effects of salt stress on ion transport properties of membranes show huge opportunities for manipulating ion transport. Several attempts to overexpress or knockout ion transporters for changing salinity tolerance are described. Future perspectives are questioned with more attention given to potential candidate ion channels and transporters for altered expression. The potential direction of increasing salinity tolerance by modifying ion channels and transporters is discussed and questioned. An alternative approach from synthetic biology is to modify the existing membrane transport proteins or create new ones with desired properties for transforming agricultural crops. The approach had not been widely used earlier and leads also to theoretical and pure scientific aspects of protein chemistry, structure-function relations of membrane proteins, systems biology and physiology of stress and ion homeostasis.

Vadim Volkov

2014-11-06

347

Optimal management of a regional aquifer under salinization conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinization of an aquifer results from the movement and dispersion of saline water bodies within it and/or from inflow of saline waters across boundaries, including through recharge. Salinity does not exceed a few thousand parts per million, so the effects of density on the flow can be neglected. The objective of management is to maximize the net benefit from the water extracted subject to constraints on the amount of salt taken out with the water. The management model presented in this paper contains simulation of flow and transport of salinity, developed for a two-dimensional essentially horizontal confined aquifer, linked to a nonsmooth optimization algorithm. The simulator is based on a finite element formulation, in which the convective term is treated by the streamlineupwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) method. SUPG is shown to reduce substantially the oscillations present in conventional finite element solutions of the transport equation, especially when the advective term dominates. The derivatives of the dependent variables, heads and concentrations at points in the field, with respect to the decision variables, the pumping rates, are computed in the simulator, using analytical expressions based on sensitivity theory. These derivatives are transmitted to the optimization algorithm, which uses the bundle-trust method for nonsmooth optimization. Application to a synthetic aquifer is demonstrated and analyzed.

Gordon, Ekaterina; Shamir, Uri; Bensabat, Jacob

2000-11-01

348

Effects of saline drinking water on early gosling development  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Relatively high levels of saline drinking water may adversely affect the growth, development, and survival of young waterfowl. Saline drinking water was suspect in the low survival rate of Canada goose (Branta canadensis) goslings at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (FSNWR) in western Utah. Hence, we investigated the effects of saline drinking water on the survival and growth of captive, wild-strain goslings from day 1-28 following hatch. We compared survival and growth (as measured by body mass, wing length, and culmen length) between a control group on tap water with a mean specific conductivity of 650 ??S/cm, and 2 saline water treatments: (1) intermediate level (12,000 ??S/cm), and (2) high level (18,000 ??S/cm). Gosling mortality occurred only in the 18,000 ??S/cm treatment group (33%; n = 9). Slopes of regressions of mean body mass, wing length, and culmen length on age were different from each other (P < 0.05), except for culmen length for the intermediate and high treatment levels. We predict that free-ranging wild goslings will experience mortality at even lower salinity levels than captive goslings because of the combined effects of depressed growth and environmental stresses, including hot desert temperatures and variable food quality over summer.

Stolley, D.S.; Bissonette, J.A.; Kadlec, J.A.; Coster, D.

1999-01-01

349

Variable change in renal function by hypertonic saline  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of hypertonic saline in the neurocritical care population. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our hospital’s use of hypertonic saline (HS) since March of 2005, and prospectively since October 2010. Comparisons were made between admission diagnoses, creatinine change (Cr), and HS formulation (3% NaCl, 3% NaCl/sodium acetate mix, and 23.4% NaCl) to patients receiving normal saline or lactated ringers. The patients (n = 1329) of the retrospective portion were identified. The data presented represents the first 230 patients with data. RESULTS: Significant differences in Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores and Glasgow Coma Scale scores occurred between different saline formulations. No significant correlation of Cl- or Na+ with Cr, nor with saline types, occurred. When dichotomized by diagnosis, significant correlations appear. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients demonstrated moderate correlation between Na+ and Cr of 0.45. Stroke patients demonstrated weak correlations between Na+ and Cr, and Cl- and Cr (0.19 for both). Patients receiving HS and not diagnosed with intracerebral hemorrhage, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or TBI demonstrated a weak but significant correlation between Cl- and Cr at 0.29. CONCLUSION: Cr directly correlates with Na+ or Cl- in stroke, Na+ in TBI, and Cl- in other populations. Prospective comparison of HS and renal function is needed. PMID:24892021

Corry, Jesse J; Varelas, Panayiotis; Abdelhak, Tamer; Morris, Stacey; Hawley, Marlisa; Hawkins, Allison; Jankowski, Michelle

2014-01-01

350

Potential use of halophytes to remediate saline soils.  

PubMed

Salinity is one of the rising problems causing tremendous yield losses in many regions of the world especially in arid and semiarid regions. To maximize crop productivity, these areas should be brought under utilization where there are options for removing salinity or using the salt-tolerant crops. Use of salt-tolerant crops does not remove the salt and hence halophytes that have capacity to accumulate and exclude the salt can be an effective way. Methods for salt removal include agronomic practices or phytoremediation. The first is cost- and labor-intensive and needs some developmental strategies for implication; on the contrary, the phytoremediation by halophyte is more suitable as it can be executed very easily without those problems. Several halophyte species including grasses, shrubs, and trees can remove the salt from different kinds of salt-affected problematic soils through salt excluding, excreting, or accumulating by their morphological, anatomical, physiological adaptation in their organelle level and cellular level. Exploiting halophytes for reducing salinity can be good sources for meeting the basic needs of people in salt-affected areas as well. This review focuses on the special adaptive features of halophytic plants under saline condition and the possible ways to utilize these plants to remediate salinity. PMID:25110683

Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Alam, Md Mahabub; Bhowmik, Prasanta C; Hossain, Md Amzad; Rahman, Motior M; Prasad, Majeti Narasimha Vara; Ozturk, Munir; Fujita, Masayuki

2014-01-01

351

The plasma membrane transport systems and adaptation to salinity.  

PubMed

Salt stress represents one of the environmental challenges that drastically affect plant growth and yield. Evidence suggests that glycophytes and halophytes have a salt tolerance mechanisms working at the cellular level, and the plasma membrane (PM) is believed to be one facet of the cellular mechanisms. The responses of the PM transport proteins to salinity in contrasting species/cultivars were discussed. The review provides a comprehensive overview of the recent advances describing the crucial roles that the PM transport systems have in plant adaptation to salt. Several lines of evidence were presented to demonstrate the correlation between the PM transport proteins and adaptation of plants to high salinity. How alterations in these transport systems of the PM allow plants to cope with the salt stress was also addressed. Although inconsistencies exist in some of the information related to the responses of the PM transport proteins to salinity in different species/cultivars, their key roles in adaptation of plants to high salinity is obvious and evident, and cannot be precluded. Despite the promising results, detailed investigations at the cellular/molecular level are needed in some issues of the PM transport systems in response to salinity to further evaluate their implication in salt tolerance. PMID:25262536

Mansour, Mohamed Magdy F

2014-11-15

352

21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...via tubing. This device does not include the colonic irrigation system (§ 876.5220). (b) Classification. Class...good manufacturing practice requirements of the quality system regulation in part 820 of this chapter, with the...

2010-04-01

353

For inclusion in Proceedings from the Salinity Economics Workshop, hosted by NSW Agriculture in Orange, 22-23 August 2001 PLANT BASED SOLUTIONS FOR DRYLAND SALINITY MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant based options for the prevention and management of dryland salinity, particularly within recharge areas, are examined. The use of deep-rooted perennial vegetation (trees and pastures) can increase water use within the landscape, helping to control the spread of dryland salinity. However, catchment characteristics can strongly influence the effectiveness of plant based options for controlling salinity, especially in the short

Laura Kuginis; Joanne Daly

354

Silicon Improves Maize Photosynthesis in Saline-Alkaline Soils  

PubMed Central

The research aimed to determine the effects of Si application on photosynthetic characteristics of maize on saline-alkaline soil, including photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E), and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) of maize in the field with five levels (0, 45, 90, 150, and 225?kg·ha?1) of Si supplying. Experimental results showed that the values of Pn, gs, and Ci of maize were significantly enhanced while the values of E of maize were dramatically decreased by certain doses of silicon fertilizers, which meant that Si application with proper doses significantly increased photosynthetic efficiency of maize in different growth stages under stressing environment of saline-alkaline soil. The optimal dose of Si application in this experiment was 150?kg·ha?1?Si. It indicated that increase in maize photosynthesis under saline-alkaline stress took place by Si application with proper doses, which is helpful to improve growth and yield of maize.

Xie, Zhiming; Song, Ri; Shao, Hongbo; Song, Fengbin; Xu, Hongwen; Lu, Yan

2015-01-01

355

Effects of low-flow diversions from the South Wichita River on downstream salinity of the South Wichita River, Lake Kemp, and the Wichita River, North Texas, October 1982-September 1992  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In parts of the upper reaches of the Red River Basin in Texas, streamflow is characterized by levels of salinity that limit its usefulness for most purposes. Large dissolved solids and dissolved chloride concentrations are caused primarily by flow from natural salt springs in tributaries to the Red River. To reduce downstream salinity in the Wichita River, a dam in the South Wichita River downstream of an area of salt springs (designated salinity source area VIII) diverts low flows (which are the most saline) to a manmade brine lake for evaporation. Statistical tests on salinity data for the South Wichita River, Lake Kemp, and the Wichita River for the period October 1982-September 1992 were done to determine the effects on downstream salinity of low-flow diversions from the South Wichita River that began in May 1987. Salinity in the South Wichita River downstream of the low-flow diversion structure was (statistically) significantly less during the 65-month period of record after diversion than during the 55-month period of record before diversion. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests yielded strong evidence that discharge-weighted dissolved solids and discharge-weighted dissolved chloride concentrations, as well as discharge-weighted specific conductance, were significantly less after diversion. Whether salinity in Lake Kemp had a significant downward trend during the period of record August 1989--August 1992 could not be determined conclusively from observed salinity data. Mann-Kendall trend tests yielded weak evidence that volume-weighted dissolved solids and dissolved chloride concentrations in Lake Kemp tended to decrease with time. However, serial correlation in the time series of salinity data could have adversely affected the test results. The significant effects of low-flow diversions on salinity in the South Wichita River are not discernible in the Wichita River downstream from Lake Kemp. Although salinity was significantly less downstream from Lake Kemp after diversion, the decrease probably is mostly a result of dilution of Lake Kemp by large inflows of (assumed) low-salinity water that occurred in the spring of 1989 rather than an effect of diversion.

Baldys, Stanley; Bush, Peter W.; Kidwell, Charles C.

1996-01-01

356

Evaluation of sea-surface salinity observed by Aquarius  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

salinity (SSS) observed by Aquarius was compared with global observations from Argo floats and offshore moored buoys to evaluate the quality of satellite SSS data and to assess error structures. Aquarius products retrieved by different algorithms (Aquarius Official Release version 3.0 [V3.0], Combined Active-Passive [CAP] algorithm version 3.0, and Remote Sensing Systems test bed algorithm version 3) were compared. The Aquarius SSS was in good agreement with in situ salinity measurements for all three products. Root-mean-square (rms) differences of the salinity residual, with respect to Argo salinity, ranged from 0.41 to 0.52 psu. These three Aquarius products exhibit high SSS deviation from Argo salinity under lower sea-surface temperature conditions (<10°C) due to lower sensitivity of microwave emissivity to SSS. The CAP product deviates under strong wind conditions (>10 m s-1), probably due to model bias and uncertainty associated with sea-surface roughness. Furthermore, significant SSS differences between ascending (south-to-north) and descending (north-to-south) paths were detected. The monthly averaged Aquarius SSS (1° × 1° grid) was also compared with outputs from the ocean data optimal interpolation (OI) system operated by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science Technology (JAMSTEC) and the ocean data assimilation system used by the Meteorological Research Institute, Japan Meteorological Agency (MRI/JMA). Negative bias, attributed to near-surface salinity stratification by precipitation, was detected in tropical regions. For 40°S-40°N, rms difference, with respect to JAMSTEC OI, is 0.27 psu for the V3.0, while the CAP product rms difference is only 0.22 psu, which is close to the Aquarius mission goal.

Abe, Hiroto; Ebuchi, Naoto

2014-11-01

357

Relative salinity tolerance of warm season turfgrass species.  

PubMed

Fresh water, coupled with soil salinization in many areas has resulted in an increased need forscreening of salt tolerant turf grasses. Relative salinity tolerance of eightwarm season turfgrass species were examined in this study in sand culture. Grasses were grown in a glasshouse, irrigated with either distilled water or saline sea water adjusted to 24, 48 or 72 dSm-1. Salt tolerances of the grasses were assessed on the basis of their shoot and root growth, leaf firing and turf quality. Regression analysis indicated that Zoysiajaponica (Japanese lawn grass) (JG), Stenotaphrum secundatum (St. Augustine) (SA), Cynodon dactylon (satiri) (BS), Zoysia teneuifolia (Korean grass) (KG), Digitaria didactyla (Serangoon grass) (SG), Cynodon dactylon (Tifdwarf) (TD), Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass) (BG) and Axonopus compressus(Pearl blue) (PB) suffered a 50% shoot growth reduction at 36.0, 31.8, 30.9, 28.4, 26.4, 25.7, 20.0 and 18.6 dSm1 of salinity, respectively and a root growth reduction at44.9, 43.7, 33.4, 31.0, 29.5 27.5, 21.5 and 21.4 dSm- of salinity, respectively. Leaf firing and turf quality of the selected species, as a whole, were also found to be affected harmoniously with the change in root and shoot growth. On the basis of the experimental results the selected species were ranked for salinity tolerance as JG>SA>BS>KG>SG >TD>BG>PB. PMID:22167942

Uddin, Kamal M; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Othman, Radziah; Rahim, Anuar Abdul

2011-05-01

358

Groundwater salinity in a floodplain forest impacted by saltwater intrusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal wetlands occupy a delicate position at the intersection of fresh and saline waters. Changing climate and watershed hydrology can lead to saltwater intrusion into historically freshwater systems, causing plant mortality and loss of freshwater habitat. Understanding the hydrological functioning of tidally influenced floodplain forests is essential for advancing ecosystem protection and restoration goals, however finding direct relationships between hydrological inputs and floodplain hydrology is complicated by interactions between surface water, groundwater, and atmospheric fluxes in variably saturated soils with heterogeneous vegetation and topography. Thus, an alternative method for identifying common trends and causal factors is required. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a time series dimension reduction technique, models temporal variation in observed data as linear combinations of common trends, which represent unexplained common variability, and explanatory variables. DFA was applied to model shallow groundwater salinity in the forested floodplain wetlands of the Loxahatchee River (Florida, USA), where altered watershed hydrology has led to changing hydroperiod and salinity regimes and undesired vegetative changes. Long-term, high-resolution groundwater salinity datasets revealed dynamics over seasonal and yearly time periods as well as over tidal cycles and storm events. DFA identified shared trends among salinity time series and a full dynamic factor model simulated observed series well (overall coefficient of efficiency, Ceff = 0.85; 0.52 ? Ceff ? 0.99). A reduced multilinear model based solely on explanatory variables identified in the DFA had fair to good results (Ceff = 0.58; 0.38 ? Ceff ? 0.75) and may be used to assess the effects of restoration and management scenarios on shallow groundwater salinity in the Loxahatchee River floodplain.

Kaplan, David A.; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael

2014-11-01

359

Passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in coastal zones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theory of measuring coastal-zone salinity from airborne microwave radiometers is developed. The theory, as presented, shows that precision measurements of salinity favor the lower microwave frequencies. To this end, L- and S-Band systems were built, and the flight results have shown that accuracies of at least one part per thousand were achieved.The aircraft results focus on flights conducted over the Chesapeake Bay and the mouth of the Savanna River off the Georgia Coast. This paper presents no new work, but rather summarizes the capabilities of the remote sensing technique.

Swift, Calvin T.; Blume, Hans-Juergen C.; Kendall, Bruce M.

1987-01-01

360

Influence of Tributaries on Salinity of Amistad International Reservoir  

E-print Network

characteristics of Amistad Reservoir (IBWC data for 1969-2000). (billion m 3 ) (thousand ha) (million m 3 /y) (years) 5 increased to nearly 1,000 mg L -1 during 1988 when storage was above the average. The second salinity peak appeared in 1996, when both... in this reach might be a result of saline water intrusion, resulting from dissolution of geological salts (Miyamoto et al., 2005). Soil Depth No Overflow Overflow Difference Conductivity of the saturation extract (dS m -1 ) 0 - 1 (cm) 200 10 190 0 - 5 (cm...

Miyamoto, S.; Yuan, Fasong; Anand, Shilpa

361

Removal of phenol from saline water by polyamine chelating resin.  

PubMed

Removal of phenol from saline water was carried out with chelating resin. A polyamine chelating resin, Diaion CR-20, removed phenol compounds selectively from industrial wastewater containing 2% salt. From saline water containing 20 mg/L phenol, 70% of the phenol was removed. After treatment, phenol was eluted from the resin by aqueous NaOH, and the resin could also be regenerated by heating in air. Diaion CR-20 adsorbed phenol even in the presence of FeCl3, indicating that treatment with this resin of wastewater containing metal can remove phenol and metal cations in a single step. PMID:24185065

Yamada, Arisa; Matsui, Akihiro; Tsuji, Hideyuki

2013-01-01

362

Global monitoring of Sea Surface Salinity with Aquarius  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius is a microwave remote sensing system designed to obtain global maps of the surface salinity field of the oceans from space. It will be flown on the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA (NASA) and Argentina (CONAE) with launch scheduled for late in 2008. The objective of Aquarius is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This will provide data to address scientific questions associated with ocean circulation and its impact on climate. For example, salinity is needed to understand the large scale thermohaline circulation, driven by buoyancy, which moves large masses of water and heat around the globe. Of the two variables that determine buoyancy (salinity and temperature), temperature is already being monitored. Salinity is the missing variable needed to understand this circulation. Salinity also has an important role in energy exchange between the ocean and atmosphere, for example in the development of fresh water lenses (buoyant water that forms stable layers and insulates water below from the atmosphere) which alter the air-sea coupling. Aquarius is a combination radiometer and scatterometer (radar) operating at L-band (1.413 GHz for the radiometer and 1.26 GHz for the scatterometer). The primary instrument,for measuring salinity is the radiometer which is able to detect salinity because of the modulation salinity produces on the thermal emission from sea water. This change is detectable at the long wavelength end of the microwave spectrum. The scatterometer will provide a correction for surface roughness (waves) which is one of the greatest unknowns in the retrieval. The sensor will be in a sun-synchronous orbit at about 650 km with equatorial crossings of 6am/6pm. The antenna for these two instruments is a 3 meter offset fed reflector with three feeds arranged in pushbroom fashion looking away from the sun toward the shadow side of the orbit to minimize sunglint. The mission goal is to produce maps of the salinity field globally once each month with an accuracy of 0.2 psu and a spatial resolution of 100 km. This will be adequate to address l&ge scale features of the salinity field of the open ocean. The temporal resolution is sufficient to address seasonal changes and a three year mission is planned to-collect sufficient data to look for interannual variation. Aquarius is being developed by NASA as part of the Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. The SAC-D mission is being developed by CONAE and will include the space craft and several additional instruments, including visible and infrared cameras and a microwave radiometer to monitor rain and wind velocity over the oceans, and sea ice.

Lagerloef, G. S. E.; LeVine, D. M.; Chao, Yi; Colomb, R.; Nollmann, I.

2005-01-01

363

Volume rendering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for rendering images of volumes containing mixtures of materials is presented. The shading model allows both the interior of a material and the boundary between materials to be colored. Image projection is performed by simulating the absorption of light along the ray path to the eye. The algorithms used are designed to avoid artifacts caused by aliasing and

Robert A. Drebin; Loren C. Carpenter; Pat Hanrahan

1988-01-01

364

Volume Illustration: Nonphotorealistic Rendering of Volume Models  

E-print Network

Volume Illustration: Nonphotorealistic Rendering of Volume Models Penny Rheingans, Member, IEEE conveying the structure of a volume model is a problem not fully solved by existing volume rendering approaches. Physics-based volume rendering approaches create images which may match the appearance

Rheingans, Penny

365

Development of saline ground water through transpiration of sea water.  

PubMed

As vegetation usually excludes salt during water uptake, transpiration will increase the salinity of the residual water. If the source water is sea water, then the residual water may become highly saline. In the unconfined coastal aquifer of the tropical Burdekin River delta, northeastern Australia, areas of highly saline ground water with chloride concentrations up to almost three times that of sea water occur up to 15 km from the present coastline, and are attributed to transpiration by mangrove vegetation during periods of high sea level. Radiogenic ((14)C) carbon isotope analyses indicate that ground water with chloride concentrations between 15,000 and 35,000 mg/L is mostly between 4000 and 6000 years old, at which time sea level was 2 to 3 m higher than present. Stable isotope analyses of oxygen-18 and deuterium show no evidence for evaporative enrichment of this water. Oxygen-18, deuterium, and stable (delta(13)C) carbon isotope analyses of ground water and soil water point to a recharge environment beneath the mangrove forests during this postglacial sea level high stand. During that period, transpiration of the mangrove forests would have led to high chloride concentrations in the residual ground water, without inducing isotopic fractionation. Due to the higher density, this hypersaline water moved downward through the aquifer by gravity and has formed lenses of highly saline ground water at the bottom of the unconfined aquifer. PMID:17973748

Fass, T; Cook, P G; Stieglitz, T; Herczeg, A L

2007-01-01

366

Home Brew Salinity Measuring Devices: Their Construction and Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses several inexpensive methods of evaluating the salinity of seawater. One method is presented in some detail. This method has several attractive features. First, it can be used to provide instruction, not only in marine chemistry, but also in studying the mathematics of the point slope formula, and as an aid in teaching students…

Schlenker, Richard M.

367

Laser/Heterodyne Measurement of Temperature and Salinity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed visible-light laser/heterodyne receiver would remotely measure temperature and salinity of subsurface water. Operation is based on acoustic/optical scattering of light by sound waves. Application of this concept is foreseen in current research on energy conversion from ocean currents produced by thermal gradients and on future marine remote-sensing program.

Jobson, D. J.; Fales, C. L.; Katzberg, S. J.

1982-01-01

368

RICE IS MORE SENSITIVE TO SALINITY THAN PREVIOUSLY THOUGHT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies conducted in the field by the University of California and controlled greenhouse conditions by the USDA-ARS indicate that rice is more sensitive to salinity than current guidelines suggest. This information is particularly important to a number of rice growers in Colusa and Glenn counties wh...

369

Considerations for Microwave Remote Sensing of Ocean-Surface Salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parametric calculations of the microwave emission from the ocean surface are presented to determine the optimum electromagnetic wavelength for measuring salinity. At 800 MHz, a target accuracy of 240 parts per million is within the state of the art provided that emission due to surface roughness is negligible, or correctable, and that the error resulting from galactic radiation can be

Calvin T. Swift; Robert E. Mcintosh

1983-01-01

370

Salinity–mineral nutrient relations in horticultural crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relations between salinity and mineral nutrition of horticultural crops are extremely complex and a complete understanding of the intricate interactions involved would require the input from a multidisciplinary team of scientists. This review addresses the nutrient elements individually and we emphasise research directed towards the organ, whole-plant and field level. We have attempted to synthesise the literature and reconcile

S. r. Grattan; C. m. Grieve

1998-01-01

371

Nonisothermal multiphase flow of brine and gas through saline media  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a general formulation for nonisothermal multiphase flow of brine and gas through saline media. The balance equations include mass balance (three species), equilibrium of stresses and energy balance (total internal energy). Salt, water and air mass balance equations are established. The balance of salt allows the establishment of the equation for porosity evolution due to solid skeleton deformation,

S. Olivella; J. Carrera; A. Gens; E. E. Alonso

1994-01-01

372

19. The limnology of saline lakes in Western Victoria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although saline lakes are interesting to limnologists, most, unfortunately, are relatively inaccessible. The extent to which they have been studied compared with freshwater lakes is therefore limited. Though not restricted to warm arid regions, they are often numerous in such places, and Australia not surprizingly - has a large number. Most of these, too, are relatively inaccessible. However, west of

W. D. Williams; S. Australia

1981-01-01

373

Principal processes within the estuarine salinity gradient: a review.  

PubMed

The salinity gradient is one of the main features characteristic of any estuarine ecosystem. Within this gradient in a critical salinity range of 5-8 PSU the major biotic and abiotic processes demonstrate non-linear dynamics of change in rates and directions. In estuaries, this salinity range acts as both external ecological factor and physiological characteristics of internal environment of aquatic organisms; it divides living conditions appropriate for freshwater and marine faunas, separates invertebrate communities with different osmotic regulation types, and defines the distribution range of high taxa. In this paper, the non-linearity of biotic processes within the estuarine salinity gradient is illustrated by the data on zooplankton from the Baltic estuaries. The non-tidal Baltic Sea provides a good demonstration of the above phenomena due to gradual changes of environmental factors and relatively stable isohalines. The non-linearity concept coupled with the ecosystem approach served the basis for a new definition of an estuary proposed by the authors. PMID:20304437

Telesh, Irena V; Khlebovich, Vladislav V

2010-01-01

374

DEVELOPMENT OF A STRATEGIC SYSTEM DYNAMICS MODEL OF DRYLAND SALINITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dryland salinity is an insidious problem which progressively degrades arable or marginally productive farming land often to the point that such land becomes incapable of sustaining agriculture in the long term. In Australia, this problem has been exacerbated by the removal of millions of trees to make way for cultivation. This paper explains how founding research focusing on identification of

Naeem U Khan; Alan C McLucas

2006-01-01

375

THE VIABILITY OF A PHASE ROTATION IN SALINITY CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil salinity is one of the most serious issues currently facing agriculture and the environment in Australia. It is due to an imbalance between groundwater recharge and discharge, caused by large-scale clearing of native perennial vegetation. The incorporation of perennial vegetation such as lucerne or trees into current farming systems has been proposed as a possible means to try to

P. R. Ward; Wembley WA; S. Asseng

376

Irrigation management strategies for improved salinity and sodicity control  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated approach is developed to assess a priori the effects of irrigation management interventions on soil salinity, sodicity and transpiration. The approach is tested for a 75,000 ha irrigation system in Pakistan, where canal and groundwater are used conjunctively. The main hypothesis is that by reallocating good quality canal water, the use of poor quality groundwater can be restricted,

M. Kuper

1997-01-01

377

METABOLIC RESPONSES TO ENVIRONMENTAL SALINITY IN THE CLAM CORBULA AMURENSIS  

E-print Network

METABOLIC RESPONSES TO ENVIRONMENTAL SALINITY IN THE CLAM CORBULA AMURENSIS By: Adam Paganini. Tanner USING HOMOLOGY TO DETECT COPY NUMBER VARIATION ASSOCIATED WITH BREAST CANCER RECURRENCE By: Daniel and Computer Engineering Faculty Advisor: Dr. Hamid Mahmoodi EXIT STRATEGIES FOR STARTUP COMPANIES: A GAME

378

Delta Hydrodynamics and Water Salinity with Future Conditions  

E-print Network

Delta Hydrodynamics and Water Salinity with Future Conditions Technical Appendix C William E, Comparing Futures for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, prepared by a team of researchers from the Center of Water Quality across the Delta 9 2. NO EXPORTS AND UNIMPAIRED FLOWS 11 Water Quality with No Exports 11

Pasternack, Gregory B.

379

Effect of salinity on lipid composition of Cladophora vagabunda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main lipid classes and their fatty acid composition were investigated in Cladophora vagabunda inhabiting waters with different salinities or subjected to salt-stress. Most of the observed changes probably have adaptive value. Differences between adaptation and stress, and also the effects of the degree of the stress are discussed.

Ivaylo Elenkov; Kamen Stefanov; Stefka Dimitrova-Konaklieva; Simeon Popov

1996-01-01

380

Incomplete turgor adjustment in Cladophora rupestrisunder fluctuating salinity regimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turgor pressure fluctuates strongly in Cladophora rupestrissubjected to low salinities and shows only a small tendency to readjust to the normal value in full seawater (incomplete turgor adjustment). This was revealed by direct turgor pressure measurements and by chemical analyses of osmotic solutes after exposure of upper and lower shore Cladophorato the different salinity regimes occurring in the intertidal zone or representing steady state osmotic acclimation. The main internal osmotic solutes were K +, Cl -, amino acids, NO 3-and glycine betaine. Na +, SO 42-and PO 43-were of less importance. The sum of the charges on the cations was similar to that for the anions. K +, Cl -and, to a lesser extent, amino acids were responsible for limited turgor pressure adjustment which did occur. The concentrations of the major osmotic solutes were influenced not only by salinity but also by light: those of amino acids and NO 3-were increased while those of K +and Cl -were decreased under illumination. Cladophorapopulations from the upper and lower shore differed in their ability to restore internal K +and Cl -levels on transfer to full seawater after long term exposure to low salinity. This may indicate ecotypic variation.

Wiencke, Christian; Gorham, John; Tomos, Deri; Davenport, John

1992-04-01

381

DISTRIBUTION AND MOVEMENT OF TOXAPHENE IN ANAEROBIC SALINE MARSH SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

The distribution and method of movement of a hydrophobic pesticide through anaerobic saline marsh soils profiles was investigated. In the study are the flooding tidal water containing low concentrations of toxaphene. The compound accumulated only slightly in the marsh soils not f...

382

Aerobic biodegradation of amines in industrial saline wastewaters.  

PubMed

The treatment of hypersaline wastewaters represents a challenge since high salt concentrations disrupt bacteria present in normal biological treatments. This study was conducted to determine the fate of amines in two hypersaline wastewaters obtained from an industrial treatment plant processing influents with 3% and 7% of NaCl. The compounds were aniline (ANL), 4,4'-methylenedianiline (4,4'-MDA), cyclohexylamine (CHA), N-(2-aminoethyl)ethanolamine (AEA), N,N-diethylethanolamine (DEA), N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methylamine (MDEA), and tris(2-hydroxyethyl)amine (TEA). Mixtures of these chemicals with a mixed liquor suspended solids concentration of 1000 mg L(-1) were prepared at two salinities (3% and 7% NaCl). Ethanolamines were readily biodegraded at both salinities, following first-order kinetics with half-lives ranging between 10 and 58 h. Hydroxyl groups present in the ethanolamines had a positive impact on the biodegradation. Salinity did not affect the biodegradation rate of TEA and MDEA, whereas AEA and DEA degraded faster in 3% NaCl. After 48h, CHA was metabolized within a 24-h period in 3% NaCl, while no degradation was observed in 7% NaCl. ANL exhibited lag phases in both salinities and, in the following 24-h period, ANL concentrations dropped 40% and disappeared after 48 h. 4,4'-MDA degraded in 3% NaCl (half-life of 123 h) and remained unaltered after 120 h in 7% NaCl. PMID:21925703

Campo, Pablo; Platten, William; Suidan, Makram T; Chai, Yunzhou; Davis, John W

2011-11-01

383

Modern dolomite deposition in continental, saline lakes, western Victoria, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcrystalline dolomite forms a major constituent of Holocene sediments of numerous continental, saline playa lakes in southeastern Australia. The lake waters are highly supersaturated with respect to dolomite as well as other Mg carbonates, but undersaturated or near saturation with respect to calcite and aragonite. The dolomite shows no replacement textures and most likely formed by direct precipitation. Conditions in

P. de Deckker; William M. Last

1988-01-01

384

TOLERANCE OF PLANTS TO SALINITY AND TO SPECIFIC IONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In many communities where recycled water is available, the salinity of the water is noticeably higher than in municipal drinking waters. Landscapes designed for the successful use of recycled waters will, therefore, benefit from the inclusion of salt-tolerant trees, shrubs, vines, groundcovers, gra...

385

Assessment of salt tolerant plants to remediate saline soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil salinity has intensified in the James River valley in east central South Dakota in the past 20 years. Surface evaporation on poorly drained and subirrigated soils leaves salts on the soil surface. Replacing evaporation from the soil surface with transpiration through deep-rooted salt-tolerant...

386

Salinity and seed germination patterns in coastal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seed germination behaviour of a number of coastal species suggests that they can be separated into three categories, whose response to salinity shows some correlation with habitat. All but two germinated well in fresh water. After immersion for several days in 1\\/2, full, and 1 1\\/2 strength seawater all recover at least partly. Dune species are more adversely affected

S. R. J. Woodell

1985-01-01

387

Dielectric response of polyimide to thermal and saline degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyimide (PI) is a widely used wiring insulation material for aircraft. Given the harsh environment of its employment, wiring insulation material for aircraft suffers from various degradation processes which may cause failure of electrical insulation. In this paper, the dielectric response of PI to thermal degradation and to saline exposure is investigated. To investigate the effect of thermal exposure, PI

Li Li; N. Bowler; P. R. Hondred; M. R. Kessler

2010-01-01

388

Potential of Unicellular Cyanobacteria from Saline Environments as Exopolysaccharide Producers  

PubMed Central

Fifteen Cyanothece strains isolated from saline environments have been characterized with regard to exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. The polymers contained six to eight monosaccharides, with one or two acidic sugars. In some EPS samples, the additional presence of acetyl, pyruvyl, and/or sulfate groups was also detected. PMID:16349518

De Philippis, Roberto; Margheri, Maria Cristina; Materassi, Riccardo; Vincenzini, Massimo

1998-01-01

389

Discharge performance of printed circuit board under saline fog environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of leading to surface breakdown on the epoxy-based printed circuit board (PCB) in artificial saline fogs was investigated by using a measurement system, with particular attention on the inception discharge. Presented in this paper is the observation of the discharge performance on PCB during the experiment under the fog environments with the conductance in the range of 1.0

B. X. Du; Yong Liu

2005-01-01

390

OPTIMIZING SALINITY CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN  

EPA Science Inventory

A simple multi-level nonlinear optimization procedure was utilized to formulate the most cost-effective array of salinity control strategies for the Upper Colorado River Basin. The incremental cost-effectiveness methodology qualitatively indicates the location and general type of...

391

Salinity and temperature influence in rotifer life history characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of temperature and salinity effects on rotifer population dynamics is presented together with original data of these effects for three clones of Brachionus plicatilis. There is a clear relationship between temperature and the intrinsic rate of increase, r: an increase of temperature — within the natural environmental range — produces an exponential increase of r, and the slope

María R. Miracle; Manuel Serra

1989-01-01

392

Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinization is the process whereby the concentration of dissolved salts in water and soil is increased due to natural or human-induced processes. Water is lost through one or any combination of four main mechanisms: evaporation, evapotranspiration, hydrolysis, and leakage between aquifers. Salinity increases from catchment divides to the valley floors and in the direction of groundwater flow. Salinization is explained by two main chemical models developed by the authors: weathering and deposition. These models are in agreement with the weathering and depositional geological processes that have formed soils and overburden in the catchments. Five soil-change processes in arid and semi-arid climates are associated with waterlogging and water. In all represented cases, groundwater is the main geological agent for transmitting, accumulating, and discharging salt. At a small catchment scale in South and Western Australia, water is lost through evapotranspiration and hydrolysis. Saline groundwater flows along the beds of the streams and is accumulated in paleochannels, which act as a salt repository, and finally discharges in lakes, where most of the saline groundwater is concentrated. In the hummocky terrains of the Northern Great Plains Region, Canada and USA, the localized recharge and discharge scenarios cause salinization to occur mainly in depressions, in conjunction with the formation of saline soils and seepages. On a regional scale within closed basins, this process can create playas or saline lakes. In the continental aquifers of the rift basins of Sudan, salinity increases along the groundwater flow path and forms a saline zone at the distal end. The saline zone in each rift forms a closed ridge, which coincides with the closed trough of the groundwater-level map. The saline body or bodies were formed by evaporation coupled with alkaline-earth carbonate precipitation and dissolution of capillary salts. Résumé La salinisation est le processus par lequel la concentration des sels dissous dans l'eau et les sols s'accroît sous l'effet de processus naturels ou anthropiques. L'eau est perdue par l'une ou l'autre combinaison de quatre principaux mécanismes : l'évaporation, l'évapotranspiration, l'hydrolyse et la drainance entre aquifères. La salinité augmente depuis les limites des bassins jusqu'au fond des vallées et le long des axes d'écoulement souterrain. La salinisation est expliquée au moyen de deux principaux modèles chimiques développés par les auteurs : l'altération et le dépôt. Ces modèles sont en accord avec les processus géologiques d'altération et de dépôt qui ont formé les sols et qui recouvrent les bassins versants. Cinq processus d'évolution de sols sous climats aride et semi-aride sont associés à l'eau et à des formations aquifères. Dans tous les cas présentés, l'eau souterraine est le principal agent géologique qui transporte, accumule et dépose les sels. A l'échelle de petits bassins versants dans le sud et dans l'ouest de l'Australie, l'eau est consommée par évapotranspiration et par hydrolyse. L'eau souterraine salée coule le long des berges de rivières et s'accumule dans des paléochenaux, qui fonctionnent comme des zones de stockage de sels, et finalement s'écoule dans des lacs, où la plupart des eaux salées se concentrent. Dans les formations bosselées des grandes plaines du nord du Canada et des États-Unis, des scénarios d'alimentation et de décharge localisées conduisent la salinisation à se produire surtout dans les dépressions, en association avec la formation de sols et d'infiltrations salins. A l'échelle régionale dans les bassins fermés, ce processus peut être à l'origine de playas ou de lacs salés. Dans les aquifères continentaux des bassins de rift du Soudan, la salinité augmente le long des axes d'écoulement souterrain et forme ainsi une zone saline à leur extrémité. La zone saline de chaque rift constitue une crête, qui coïncide avec le creux piézométrique. Le ou les ensembles salins se sont formés par évaporation couplée

Salama, Ramsis B.; Otto, Claus J.; Fitzpatrick, Robert W.

393

Mid-trimester abortion by extraamniotic Emcredil versus normal saline.  

PubMed

Data is presented for 40 mid-trimester abortions, induced by 0.1% Emcredil (Group 1--20 cases) and normal saline (Group 2--20 cases) by instillation in the extraamniotic space. It was observed that the 2 groups were comparable for age, parity and period of gestation. The mean induction-abortion interval was 18 hours 9 minutes in Group 1 and 19 hours 19 minutes in Group 2. Abortion was complete in 45% and 65% in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. With a cutoff time of 30 hours, there were 3 failures, 1 in Group 1 and 2 in Group 2. The induction-abortion interval was significantly less in the more advanced pregnancies in the saline group. There was no complication in either of the 2 groups. It is hypothesized that normal saline also acts by damage of the decidual cells with liberation of prostaglandins locally. Also since normal saline is a cheap and easily available commodity with no contraindication for its use and no side-effects, it seems to hold a lot of promise for induction of mid-trimester abortion. PMID:2515847

Zauva, B L; Gupta, I; Dhall, G I

1989-08-01

394

Caribbean Salinity Variation During the Last Glacial Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaporation exceeds precipitation in the tropical Atlantic, resulting in a net freshwater removal across the Central American Isthmus. Because most of the north Atlantic's subtropical gyre water circulates through the Caribbean before flowing north to sub-polar regions via the Gulf Stream, changes in tropical atmospheric circulation have the potential to affect the salinity and density structure of the entire north

M. W. Schmidt; H. J. Spero; D. W. Lea

2003-01-01

395

Interactive effects of salinity and iron deficiency in Medicago ciliaris.  

PubMed

In calcareous salt-affected soils, iron availability to plants is subjected to the effects of both sodium and bicarbonate ions. Our aim was to study interactive effects of salinity and iron deficiency on iron acquisition and root acidification induced by iron deficiency in Medicago ciliaris L., a species commonly found in saline ecosystems. Four treatments were used: C, control treatment, complete medium (CM) containing 30 microM Fe; S, salt treatment, CM with 75 mM NaCl; D, deficient treatment, CM containing only 1 microM Fe; DS, interactive treatment, CM containing 1 microM Fe with 75 mM NaCl. Our study showed that plant growth and chlorophyll content were much more affected by the interactive treatment than by iron deficiency or by the salt treatment, indicating an additive effect of these constraints in DS plants. These results could be partially explained by Na accumulation in shoots as well as a limitation of nutrient uptake such as Fe and K under salt stress, under iron deficiency, and especially under their combined effect. The study also showed that root acidification was deeply diminished when iron deficiency was associated with salinity. This probably explained the decrease of Fe uptake and suggested that root proton pump activity would be inhibited by salinity. PMID:17923371

Rabhi, Mokded; Barhoumi, Zouhaier; Ksouri, Riadh; Abdelly, Chedly; Gharsalli, Mohamed

2007-11-01

396

Visit to An Ocean Planet: Salinity and Deep Ocean Currents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource uses text, images, maps and a laboratory exercise to explain how differences in the temperature and salinity of ocean water cause the formation of deep-ocean currents. It is part of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's "Ocean Surface Topography from Space" website. This material is also available on the "Visit to An Ocean Planet" CD-ROM.

397

Phytoplankton dynamics in a coastal saline lake (SE-Portugal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to characterise phytoplankton dynamics in a coastal saline lake, pinpointing putative biotic and abiotic regulatory variables of its succession and productivity. Between February and September 1998, samples for the analysis of physical, chemical and biological variables were taken fortnightly (except in February and April). The phytoplankton community showed three distinct periods of evolution. The

Pedro Morais; Maria Alexandra Chícharo; Ana Barbosa

2003-01-01

398

The temperature-salinity relationship of the mixed layer  

E-print Network

that the thermohaline structure of the surface mixed layer (ML) of the ocean is largely compensated. In other words, temperature and salin- ity fronts coincide so that the resulting density contrasts are small relative to the individual contributions of heat and salt. This phenomenon has been known for some time for certain fronts

Cambridge, University of

399

SAFETY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF A NEW SALINE FILLED TESTICULAR PROSTHESIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTesticular prostheses have been used for 50 years to replace missing or removed testes. In 1995 the manufacture of the silicone gel filled testis prosthesis in the United States was discontinued because of concern about the safety profiles of other implants. We assessed the safety and effectiveness of a new, saline filled implant for testicular replacement.

PAUL J. TUREK; VIRAJ A. MASTER

2004-01-01

400

The Aquarius Mission: Sea Surface Salinity from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius is a new satellite mission concept to study the impact of the global water cycle on the ocean, including the response of the ocean to buoyancy forcing and the subsequent feedback of the ocean on the climate. The measurement objective of Aquarius is sea surface salinity, which reflects the concentration of freshwater at the ocean surface. Salinity affects the dielectric constant of sea water and, consequently, the radiometric emission of the sea surface to space. Rudimentary space observations with an L-band radiometer were first made from Skylab in the mid-70s and numerous aircraft missions of increasing quality and improved technology have been conducted since then. Technology is now available to carry out a global mission, which includes both an accurate L band (1.413 Ghz) radiometer and radar system in space and a global array of in situ observations for calibration and validation, in order to address key NASA Earth Science Enterprise questions about the global cycling of water and the response of the ocean circulation to climate change. The key scientific objectives of Aquarius examine the cycling of water at the ocean's surface, the response of the ocean circulation to buoyancy forcing, and the impact of buoyancy forcing on the ocean's thermal feedback to the climate. Global surface salinity will also improve our ability to model the surface solubility chemistry needed to estimate the air-sea exchange of CO2. In order to meet these science objectives, the NASA Salinity Sea Ice Working Group over the past three years has concluded that the mission measurement goals should be better than 0.2 practical salinity units (psu) accuracy, 100 km resolution, and weekly to revisits. The Aquarius mission proposes to meet these measurement requirements through a real aperture dual-polarized L band radiometer and radar system. This system can achieve the less than 0.1 K radiometric temperature measurement accuracy that is required. A 3 m antenna at approx. 600km altitude in a sun-synchronous orbit and 300 km swath can provide the desired 100 km resolution global coverage every week. Within this decade, it may be possible to combine satellite sea surface salinity measurements with ongoing satellite observations of temperature, surface height, air-sea fluxes; vertical profiles of temperature and salinity from the Argo program; and modern ocean/atmosphere modeling and data assimilation tools, in order to finally address the complex influence of buoyancy on the ocean circulation and climate.

Koblinsky, Chester; Chao, Y.; deCharon, A.; Edelstein, W.; Hildebrand, P.; Lagerloef, G.; LeVine, D.; Pellerano, F.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.; Ruf, C.

2001-01-01

401

ENSO signature in the SMOS sea surface salinity maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently, the role of salinity observations in the operational simulation and prediction of ENSO was neglected because of the historical lack of observations and because leading intermediate coupled models had significant predictive skill without directly accounting for salinity effects. In Ballabrera-Poy et al., (2002), the potential role of sea surface salinity (SSS) observations on the statistical predictions of ENSO was investigated. It was shown that, although SSS observations would play little role in statistical nowcasts of ENSO, they would provide a significant role in the 6-12 month predictions. The European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Earth Explorer opportunity mission was launched on November 2, 2009, becoming the first satellite mission addressing the challenge of measuring SSS from space with the help of MIRAS (Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis), a novel two-dimensional interferometer operating at L-band (1.4 GHz). Although the L-band frequency is the optimal for ocean salinity measurements, the retrieval of SSS information requires special care because of the low sensitivity of the brightness temperature to SSS: from 0.2-0.8 K per salinity unit. Maps of 10-day averages of SSS in 1x1 degree boxes are distributed by the SMOS Barcelona Expert Centre on Radiometric Calibration and Ocean Salinity (SMOS-BEC, http://www.smos-bec.icm.csic.es). These maps are derived from the SMOS reprocessing campaign released to the SMOS user community in March 2011, and span the period from January 2010 through December 2011. The current accuracy of these SSS maps ranges from 0.2-0.4, depending on the ocean region being considered (Umbert et al., 2012). During the period of the reprocessing campaign, the equatorial Pacific has been in a quasi-continuous La Niña state. During the cold phases of ENSO, positive anomalies of SSS are expected with a largest anomalous values in the western warm-fresh pool. The anomalies derived from the SMOS data do indeed display a positive anomaly. The persistence of the feature, its geographical pattern, and the time modulation of the anomaly amplitude indicate that the SSS fields provided by the SMOS mission do actually contain an ENSO-related signal, despite the shortness of the data gathered by the mission. Although the SMOS time span is still too short to allow any study about the factual impact of these data in the prediction of ENSO (either through data assimilation or statistical predictions), these results provide a clear indication that the novel observational technology that SMOS represents for the observation of the Earth is currently able to capture seasonal and interannual signatures of climate interest.

Ballabrera, J.; Umbert, M.; Hoareau, N.; Turiel, A.; Font, J.

2012-12-01

402

Effects of salinity on embryonic development, survival, and growth of Crassostrea hongkongensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the effects of salinity on embryonic development, survival, and growth of the Hong Kong oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis. The embryos, larvae, and juveniles of C. hongkongensis were held in artificial seawater at three different salinities (low, 15; medium, 23; and high, 30) to determine the optimum hatchery and nursery conditions for mass production of the seeds. Results showed that the percentage production of straight-hinged larvae from fertilized eggs was significantly lower at the high salinity than at the low- and medium-salinities ( P < 0.05). The survival rates of larvae and juveniles differed significantly among the three salinity trials, with the highest survival rate observed at the low salinity ( P < 0.05). The shell height of larvae was significantly larger at the low salinity than at the high and medium salinities from days 9 to 15 ( P < 0.05), whereas that of juveniles was significantly larger at the low salinity than at the high and medium salinities on day 70 ( P < 0.05). These results indicate that the larvae and juveniles of C. hongkongensis are tolerant to a wide range of salinities (15 to 30), but show better growth and survival at relatively low salinities. Thus, it is recommended to use relatively low salinities in hatchery and nursery systems for improved yields of C. hongkongensis.

Huo, Zhongming; Wang, Zhaoping; Liang, Jian; Zhang, Yuehuan; Shen, Jianping; Yao, Tuo; Su, Jiaqi; Yu, Ruihai

2014-08-01

403

SMOS: Improvements in CP34 sea surface salinity maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission (SMOS) from the European Space Agency (ESA), launched in November 2009, has initiated the era of satellite-based sea surface salinity observations. The Microwave Interferometric Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) instrument has been designed to exploit the correlation between the measurements of its 72 antennas. However, because of the instrument complexity, the impossibility of having two perfectly identical antennas, the numerous geophysical contamination sources and the retrieval complexity, salinity products have a low signal-to-noise ratio at Level 2 (satellite swath-based SSS retrievals). Today, averaging data in space and time allows a reduction of the observational error down to a few tenths of psu at Level 3 (global maps with regular distribution) but still far from mission requirements (0.1 psu). To meet such requirements, it is crucial to improve the overall quality of reconstructed and modelled brightness temperatures (Level 1). The SMOS Barcelona Expert Centre (BEC) is a joint initiative of the Spanish Research Council (CSIC) and the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) to contribute to the ground segment of the SMOS mission. Its main objectives are to contribute to the improvement of lower level (Levels 1 and 2) algorithms and to develop, and validate, algorithms for the Spanish SMOS Level 3 and 4 Data Processing Centre (CP34). To better perform these tasks, the BEC has acquired the capacity to chain-process data from the raw SMOS Level 0 data up to Level 3 salinity maps. This capacity allows us to validate, and characterize, the impact of the various proposed, and novel, improvements at any processing level upon the final salinity map retrieval.

Ballabrera, J.; Font, J.; Gabarró, C.; González, V.; Gourrion, J.; Guimbard, S.; Martínez, J.; Portabella, M.; Turiel, A.

2011-12-01

404

Geologic effects on groundwater salinity and discharge into an estuary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) can be an important pathway for transport of nutrients and contaminants to estuaries. A better understanding of the geologic and hydrologic controls on these fluxes is critical for their estimation and management. We examined geologic features, porewater salinity, and SGD rates and patterns at an estuarine study site. Seismic data showed the existence of paleovalleys infilled with estuarine mud and peat that extend hundreds of meters offshore. A low-salinity groundwater plume beneath this low-permeability fill was mapped with continuous resistivity profiling. Extensive direct SGD measurements with seepage meters (n = 551) showed fresh groundwater discharge patterns that correlated well with shallow porewater salinity and the hydrogeophysical framework. Small-scale variability in fresh and saline discharge indicates influence of meter-scale geologic heterogeneity, while site-scale discharge patterns are evidence of the influence of the paleovalley feature. Beneath the paleovalley fill, fresh groundwater flows offshore and mixes with saltwater before discharging along paleovalley flanks. On the adjacent drowned interfluve where low-permeability fill is absent, fresh groundwater discharge is focused at the shoreline. Shallow saltwater exchange was greatest across sandy sediments and where fresh SGD was low. The geologic control of groundwater flowpaths and discharge salinity demonstrated in this work are likely to affect geochemical reactions and the chemical loads delivered by SGD to coastal surface waters. Because similar processes are likely to exist in other estuaries where drowned paleovalleys commonly cross modern shorelines, the existence and implications of complex hydrogeology are important considerations for studies of groundwater fluxes and related management decisions.

Russonielloa, Christopher J.; Fernandeza, Cristina; Brattonb, John F.; Banaszakc, Joel F.; Krantzc, David E.; Andresd, Scott; Konikowe, Leonard F.; Michaela, Holly A.

2013-01-01

405

Influence of a multiyear event of low salinity on the zooplankton from Mexican eco-regions of the California Current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data are presented from the southern part of the California Current System (CCS) for the period 1997-2007, derived from the IMECOCAL monitoring program. Apart from El Niño 1997 to 1998, and La Niña 1998-1999 the strongest perturbation occurred in 2002 due to an intrusion of subarctic water affecting all the CCS. The response of zooplankton biomass to the strong cooling and freshening of the upper layer was an immediate drop followed by a progressive recovery between 2003 and 2007. Though the low salinity influence ended in 2006, the increased zooplankton trend continued, reinforced by increased upwelling activity beginning 2005 off north Baja California region (30-32°N) and beginning 2006 off central Baja California (24-30°N). Multiple regression analysis was done between regional variables and Upwelling Index (UI) and two basin-scale proxies: the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The significant influence of the NPGO on surface salinity, salinity stratification, zooplankton volume and secondary consumers (zooplankton carnivores) suggests a basin scale control on these variables more than local mechanisms. The signature of the NPGO was also evident in the base of the trophic web, but more related to the group of crustacean herbivores in the north eco-region, and the tunicates in central Baja California. In this last region, the effect from NPGO on the zooplankton volume and tunicates was antagonist with UI indicative of similar importance of basin and local processes. However, when the time interval is limited to the post-subarctic intrusion (2003-2007) the significance of multiple regression models and physical variables was lost. Therefore, though data and bio-physical coupling analysis off Baja California suggest a better relation with NPGO compared to PDO, it is still not sufficient to explain the magnitude of the perturbation observed in 2002.

Lavaniegos, Bertha E.

2009-12-01

406

Volumetrics of CO{sub 2} Storage in Deep Saline Formations  

SciTech Connect

Concern about the role of greenhouse gases in global climate change has generated interest in sequestering CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion in deep saline formations. Pore space in these formations is initially filled with brine, and space to accommodate injected CO{sub 2} must be generated by displacing brine, and to a lesser extent by compression of brine and rock. The formation volume required to store a given mass of CO{sub 2} depends on the storage mechanism. We compare the equilibrium volumetric requirements of three end-member processes: CO{sub 2} stored as a supercritical fluid (structural or stratigraphic trapping); CO{sub 2} dissolved in pre-existing brine (solubility trapping); and CO{sub 2} solubility enhanced by dissolution of calcite. For typical storage conditions, storing CO{sub 2} by solubility trapping reduces the volume required to store the same amount of CO{sub 2} by structural or stratigraphic trapping by about 50%. Accessibility of CO{sub 2} to brine determines which storage mechanism (structural/stratigraphic versus solubility) dominates at a given time, which is a critical factor in evaluating CO{sub 2} volumetric requirements and long-term storage security.

Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Capobianco, Ryan M.; Dilmore, Robert; Goodman, Angela; Guthrie, George; Rimstidt, J. Donald; Bodnar, Robert J.

2013-01-01

407

Salinity and Bacterial Diversity: To What Extent Does the Concentration of Salt Affect the Bacterial Community in a Saline Soil?  

PubMed Central

In this study, the evaluation of soil characteristics was coupled with a pyrosequencing analysis of the V2-V3 16S rRNA gene region in order to investigate the bacterial community structure and diversity in the A horizon of a natural saline soil located in Sicily (Italy). The main aim of the research was to assess the organisation and diversity of microbial taxa using a spatial scale that revealed physical and chemical heterogeneity of the habitat under investigation. The results provided information on the type of distribution of different bacterial groups as a function of spatial gradients of soil salinity and pH. The analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA showed differences in bacterial composition and diversity due to a variable salt concentration in the soil. The bacterial community showed a statistically significant spatial variability. Some bacterial phyla appeared spread in the whole area, whatever the salinity gradient. It emerged therefore that a patchy saline soil can not contain just a single microbial community selected to withstand extreme osmotic phenomena, but many communities that can be variously correlated to one or more environmental parameters. Sequences have been deposited to the SRA database and can be accessed on ID Project PRJNA241061. PMID:25188357

Canfora, Loredana; Bacci, Giovanni; Pinzari, Flavia; Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Dazzi, Carmelo; Benedetti, Anna

2014-01-01

408

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi native from a Mediterranean saline area enhance maize tolerance to salinity through improved ion homeostasis.  

PubMed

Soil salinity restricts plant growth and productivity. Na(+) represents the major ion causing toxicity because it competes with K(+) for binding sites at the plasma membrane. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can alleviate salt stress in the host plant through several mechanisms. These may include ion selection during the fungal uptake of nutrients from the soil or during transfer to the host plant. AM benefits could be enhanced when native AMF isolates are used. Thus, we investigated whether native AMF isolated from an area with problems of salinity and desertification can help maize plants to overcome the negative effects of salinity stress better than non-AM plants or plants inoculated with non-native AMF. Results showed that plants inoculated with two out the three native AMF had the highest shoot dry biomass at all salinity levels. Plants inoculated with the three native AMF showed significant increase of K(+) and reduced Na(+) accumulation as compared to non-mycorrhizal plants, concomitantly with higher K(+) /Na(+) ratios in their tissues. For the first time, these effects have been correlated with regulation of ZmAKT2, ZmSOS1 and ZmSKOR genes expression in the roots of maize, contributing to K(+) and Na(+) homeostasis in plants colonized by native AMF. PMID:23421735

Estrada, Beatriz; Aroca, Ricardo; Maathuis, Frans J M; Barea, José Miguel; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

2013-10-01

409

Salinity and bacterial diversity: to what extent does the concentration of salt affect the bacterial community in a saline soil?  

PubMed

In this study, the evaluation of soil characteristics was coupled with a pyrosequencing analysis of the V2-V3 16S rRNA gene region in order to investigate the bacterial community structure and diversity in the A horizon of a natural saline soil located in Sicily (Italy). The main aim of the research was to assess the organisation and diversity of microbial taxa using a spatial scale that revealed physical and chemical heterogeneity of the habitat under investigation. The results provided information on the type of distribution of different bacterial groups as a function of spatial gradients of soil salinity and pH. The analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA showed differences in bacterial composition and diversity due to a variable salt concentration in the soil. The bacterial community showed a statistically significant spatial variability. Some bacterial phyla appeared spread in the whole area, whatever the salinity gradient. It emerged therefore that a patchy saline soil can not contain just a single microbial community selected to withstand extreme osmotic phenomena, but many communities that can be variously correlated to one or more environmental parameters. Sequences have been deposited to the SRA database and can be accessed on ID Project PRJNA241061. PMID:25188357

Canfora, Loredana; Bacci, Giovanni; Pinzari, Flavia; Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Dazzi, Carmelo; Benedetti, Anna

2014-01-01

410

Case study on combined CO? sequestration and low-salinity water production potential in a shallow saline aquifer in Qatar.  

PubMed

CO? is one of the byproducts of natural gas production in Qatar. The high rate of natural gas production from Qatar's North Field (world's largest non-associated gas field) has led to the production of significant amounts of CO?. The release of CO? into the atmosphere may be harmful from the perspective of global warming. In this work, we study the CO? sequestration potential in Qatar's Aruma aquifer. The Aruma aquifer is a saline aquifer in the southwest of Qatar. It occupies an area of approximately 1985 km? on land (16% of Qatar's total area). We have developed a compositional model for CO? sequestration in the Aruma aquifer on the basis of available log and flow test data. We suggest water production at some distance from the CO? injection wells as a possible way to control the pore pressure. This method increases the potential for safe sequestration of CO? in the aquifer without losing integrity of the caprock and without any CO? leakage. The water produced from this aquifer is considerably less saline than seawater and could be a good water source for the desalination process, which is currently the main source of water in Qatar. The outcome of the desalination process is water with higher salinity than the seawater that is currently discharged into the sea. This discharge can have negative long-term environmental effects. The water produced from the Aruma aquifer is considerably less saline than seawater and can be a partial solution to this problem. PMID:22672956

Ahmed, Tausif Khizar; Nasrabadi, Hadi

2012-10-30

411

The influence of salinity on the mechanical behavior of high plasticity soils  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates the influence of salinity on the mechanical behavior of smectitic rich high plasticity soils resedimented with pore fluid salinities ranging from 0 to 256 g/L. An extensive laboratory testing program ...

Fahy, Brian Patrick

2014-01-01

412

Temperature and Salinity Effects on the Growth and Survival of Juvenile Penaeid Shrimps: Implications for the Influence of River  

E-print Network

Temperature and Salinity Effects on the Growth and Survival of Juvenile Penaeid Shrimps estuaries for wetland restoration. These freshwater flows directly alter the temperature and salinity temperature and salinity) affected by freshwater inflows. We also will test the validity

413

76 FR 50171 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Henrys Fork Salinity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Impact Statement for the Henrys Fork Salinity Control Project Plan, Sweetwater and...Statement (EIS) for the Henrys Fork Salinity Control Project Plan (SCPP). The NRCS...Improvements'' alternative assumes a salinity control project will be...

2011-08-12

414

Mineral resources and mineral resource potential of the Saline Valley and Lower Saline Wilderness Study Areas, Inyo County, California  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area and the Lower Saline Wilderness Study Area, California Desert Conservation Area, Inyo County, California. The Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area and the Lower Saline Wilderness Study Area were studied in 1981-83 using geologic, geochemical, remote sensing, and geophysical surveys and the examination of mines and prospects to evaluate mineral resources and the potential for mineral resources. The Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area has a high potential for the occurrence of gold resources in two areas. One area, largely outside the study area, is in the vicinity of the Crater mine in the Last Chance Range, and it has potential for the occurrence of gold in a disseminated deposit in an epithermal environment. The other area is in Marble Canyon in the western part of the study area, and it has high potential for the occurrence of gold placer deposits. Marble Canyon also has a moderate potential for gold in placer deposits downstream from the area of high potential. Seven areas, scattered from the Inyo Mountains to the Last Chance Range, have a low potential for the occurrence of gold in disseminated deposits, and one area that lies astride the border of Death Valley National Monument has a low potential for the occurrence of gold in vein deposits. The southern end of Eureka Valley has a low potential for the occurrence of lithium and uranium resources in buried sedimentary deposits for the occurrence of lithium and uranium resources in buried sedimentary deposits beneath the valley floor. Demonstrated resources of native sulfur exist at the Crater mine but no resource potential was identified nearby in adtacent parts of the study area. 3 figs. (ACR)

Wrucke, C.T.; Marsh, S.P.; Raines, G.L.; Werschky, R.S.; Blakely, R.J.; Hoover, D.B.; McHugh, E.L.; Rumsey, C.M.; Gaps, R.S.; Causey, J.D.

1984-01-01

415

Can the nitrogenous composition of xylem sap be used to assess salinity stress in Casuarina glauca?  

PubMed

It is predicted that dryland salinity will affect up to 17 Mha of the Australian landscape by 2050, and therefore, monitoring the health of tree plantings and remnant native vegetation in saline areas is increasingly important. Casuarina glauca Sieber ex Spreng. has considerable salinity tolerance and is commonly planted in areas with a shallow, saline water table. To evaluate the potential of using the nitrogenous composition of xylem sap to assess salinity stress in C. glauca, the responses of trees grown with various soil salinities in a greenhouse were compared with those of trees growing in field plots with different water table depths and groundwater salinities. In the greenhouse, increasing soil salinity led to increased allocation of nitrogen (N) to proline and arginine in both stem and root xylem sap, with coincident decreases in citrulline and asparagine. Although the field plots were ranked as increasingly saline-based on ground water salinity and depth-only the allocation of N to citrulline differed significantly between the field plots. Within each plot, temporal variation in the composition of the xylem sap was related to rainfall, rainfall infiltration and soil salinity. Periods of low rainfall and infiltration and higher soil salinity corresponded with increased allocation of N to proline and arginine in the xylem sap. The allocation of N to citrulline and asparagine increased following rainfall events where rain was calculated to have infiltrated sufficiently to decrease soil salinity. The relationship between nitrogenous composition of the xylem sap of C. glauca and soil salinity indicates that the analysis of xylem sap is an effective method for assessing changes in salinity stress in trees at a particular site over time. However, the composition of the xylem sap proved less useful as a comparative index of salinity stress in trees growing at different sites. PMID:12359529

Cramer, Viki A; Schmidt, Susanne; Stewart, George R; Thorburn, Peter J

2002-10-01

416

Salinity and the discharge of salts from catchments in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discharge of soluble salts from catchments following clearing of native vegetation for dryland agriculture is a serious environmental and economic problem affecting soil and water resources in Australia. The fundamental challenges are: To identify areas of soil at risk of becoming saline. To relate soil and water salinity risk to options for management of land in the area that contributes to the risk, and thereby contribute to the evaluation of management options. These challenges are faced in an environment where native vegetation has roots that extend to depths of order 10 m in soil profiles that are formed by in situ weathering of granitic rocks and dolerite dykes to depths of about 20 m. The profiles typically contain 1-100 kg m -2 of salt (primarily sodium chloride) in solution in the pore water. The distribution of soluble salts, and the movement of water within most of the unsaturated zone of these soils results from a combination of matrix flow and flow through remnant root channels and larger-scale structures with geologic origins. Recognized options for management of salinity risk, or to reduce existing areas of saline soil, are revegetation of part of the cleared land with alternative species, pumping to lower the watertable in selected areas, and construction of ditch drains for control of surface water and shallow groundwater. All options are constrained by the economics of dryland farming, and pumping or drainage is further constrained by possible environmental impacts of disposal of saline water. Application of soil physics/hydrology to salinity in Australia has contributed to understanding, but generally it has proven to be inadequate to aid the development of effective management strategies. A classic approach to soil water movement at the primary catchment scale (areas of order 10 6 m 2 or more) will always be limited by errors of measurement at each site within the catchment, those arising from the method of estimation of soil characteristics between measurement sites, and those arising from the method of integration to predict whole-catchment behaviour. The cost and effort of such an approach, and the errors that must eventuate, should be compared with the costs and errors of alternatives for characterization at a whole catchment scale.

Peck, A. J.; Hatton, Tom

2003-03-01

417

Salinity change impairs pipefish immune defence Simone C. Birrer a,b  

E-print Network

Salinity change impairs pipefish immune defence Simone C. Birrer a,b , Thorsten B.H. Reusch with fast and severe alterations of environmental conditions. Superimposed onto existing salinity variations in a semi-enclosed brackish water body such as the Baltic Sea, a decrease in salinity is predicted due

DeWitt, Thomas J.

418

Sea surface salinity measurements in the historical database Frederick M. Bingham  

E-print Network

Sea surface salinity measurements in the historical database Frederick M. Bingham Center for Marine distributions of sea surface salinity (SSS) observations in a data set consisting of a combination of the World Ocean Database 1998 (WOD98) and a thermosalinograph and bucket salinity database collected from

Bingham, Frederick M.

419

Effects of Salinity on Early Life Stages of the Gulf Coast Toad, Incilius nebulifer (Anura: Bufonidae)  

E-print Network

Effects of Salinity on Early Life Stages of the Gulf Coast Toad, Incilius nebulifer (Anura a laboratory trial with Incilius nebulifer (synonym: Bufo nebulifer) to determine at what level salinity negatively affects hatching and metamorphosis, and how exposure to salinity during development affects

Lailvaux, Simon

420

EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF GRASS SHRIMP,  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF GRASS SHRIMP, PALAEMONETES VULGARIS in the laboratory in a factorial experiment employing three temperatures (20°,25°, and 30°C) and six salinities (5,10,15,20,25, and 30%.). Temperature and salinity exerted significant effects at the 1% level on sur- vival of larvae

421

Salinity change in the subtropical Atlantic: Secular increase and teleconnections to the North Atlantic Oscillation  

E-print Network

Salinity change in the subtropical Atlantic: Secular increase and teleconnections to the North shown significant, heterogeneous adjustments of the temperature-salinity structure of the N. Atlantic Ocean. Here, we present proxy records of temperature and salinity from aragonite sclerosponge skeletons

Swart, Peter K.

422

Sea Surface Salinity Understanding the Interactions Between the Global Water Cycle, Ocean Circulation and Climate  

E-print Network

Sea Surface Salinity Understanding the Interactions Between the Global Water Cycle, Ocean Circulation and Climate Aquarius will provide unprecedented global maps of surface sea water salinity?" Sea surface salinity is the primary surface tracer of freshwater input and output to the ocean

Waliser, Duane E.

423

Short-term effects of salinity declines on juvenile hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria.  

E-print Network

Short-term effects of salinity declines on juvenile hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria. Final report to Florida Sea Grant, for a Program Development Award Project title: Short-term effects of rapid salinity@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu Project Duration: 10-20-00 to 09-30-01. Budget: $3,515 Summary Sudden salinity drops in clam growing areas

Florida, University of

424

Stress tolerance of a subtropical Crassostrea virginica population to the combined effects of temperature and salinity  

E-print Network

of temperature and salinity Olaf Heilmayer a,*,3 , Julian Digialleonardo a,2,3 , Lianfen Qian b , Guritno t The combination of salinity and temperature has synergistic effects on virtually all aspects of the biology, Crassostrea virginica, from the St. Lucie River Estuary to the interactive effects of temperature and salinity

Qian, Lianfen

425

BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER Salinity mediates the competitive interactions between invasive  

E-print Network

BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY - ORIGINAL PAPER Salinity mediates the competitive interactions between invasive there are very few studies on the interaction of salinity and competition in fish. Mosquitofish (Gambusia observations, that salinity limits the invasive success of mosquitofish and provides a competitive refuge

García-Berthou, Emili

426

Observations of decadal time scale salinity changes in the subtropical thermocline of the North Pacific Ocean  

E-print Network

Observations of decadal time scale salinity changes in the subtropical thermocline of the North Mixed layer Hydrological cycle a b s t r a c t Data from Argo floats indicate that significant salinity decades, including observations obtained as part of the WOCE hydrographic program. Such a salinity

Riser, Stephen C.

427

In vitro effects of temperature and salinity on fatty acid synthesis in the oyster protozoan parasite  

E-print Network

In vitro effects of temperature and salinity on fatty acid synthesis in the oyster protozoan in revised form 15 January 2004; accepted 2 February 2004 Abstract The effects of temperature and salinity in vitro at 10, 18 and 28 jC in a salinity of 28 psu and 14, 20 and 28 psu at a temperature of 28 jC using

Hartley, Troy W.

428

Impacts of salinity and simulated herbivory on survival and reproduction of the threatened Gulf  

E-print Network

Impacts of salinity and simulated herbivory on survival and reproduction of the threatened Gulf Abstract: Halophytic plants may experience joint, and potentially interacting, effects of salinity and herbivory on their survival and reproduction. We investigated the impacts of salinity and (simulated

Heard, Stephen B.

429

GEOLOGY, December 2007 1063 Semi-arid and arid rivers typically exhibit increasing salinity levels  

E-print Network

salinity levels downstream, a trend often attributed to irrigated agriculture, primarily due to evapotranspiration. In contrast, the results of our investigations in one salinized river suggest that geological irrigated agricul- ture, and identified a series of salinity increases localized at the distal ends

Asmerom, Yemane

430

Surface salinity variability in the northern North Atlantic during recent decades  

E-print Network

Surface salinity variability in the northern North Atlantic during recent decades Sirpa Ha 2002; accepted 15 March 2002; published 18 September 2002. [1] The sea surface salinity (SSS surface salinity variability is prominent with the maximum standard deviation (SD) occurring in the summer

431

Characterizing the Saltol Quantitative Trait Locus for Salinity Tolerance in Rice  

E-print Network

Characterizing the Saltol Quantitative Trait Locus for Salinity Tolerance in Rice Michael J) for seedling stage salinity tolerance in preparation for use in marker-assisted breeding. An analysis of 100 of the high sensitivity of modern rice varieties. Salinity is particularly a major problem in coastal regions

Blumwald, Eduardo

432

Designing, testing and implementing a trial dryland salinity credit trade scheme  

E-print Network

ANALYSIS Designing, testing and implementing a trial dryland salinity credit trade scheme Jeffery D focussed on dryland salinity in Victoria, Australia. In lieu of extant specified property rights are outlined. The BCA accounted for salinity damage reduction, forgone river flow, carbon sequestration

433

Short-term fluctuation in salinity promotes rapid larval development and metamorphosis in Dendraster excentricus  

E-print Network

Short-term fluctuation in salinity promotes rapid larval development and metamorphosis; accepted 10 May 2007 Abstract The effect of constant and fluctuating salinity on larval development at different stages of development were kept either at 32 (controls), exposed to constant low salinity (22

George, Sophie B.

434

Impact of salinity on cathode catalyst performance in microbial fuel cells (MFCs)  

E-print Network

Impact of salinity on cathode catalyst performance in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) Xi Wang April 2011 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Salinity Chloride Cathode a b s t r a c t Several alternative cathode catalysts have been proposed for microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but effects of salinity (sodium

435

Characterizing the Saltol Quantitative Trait Locus for Salinity Tolerance in Rice  

E-print Network

Characterizing the Saltol Quantitative Trait Locus for Salinity Tolerance in Rice Michael J-derived quanti- tative trait loci (QTLs) for seedling stage salinity tolerance in preparation for use in marker because of the high sensitivity of modern rice varieties. Salinity is particularly a major problem

Blumwald, Eduardo

436

Lago Mare and the Messinian Salinity Crisis: Evidence from the Alboran Sea (S. Spain)  

E-print Network

1 Lago Mare and the Messinian Salinity Crisis: Evidence from the Alboran Sea (S. Spain) Damien Do Alboran region and clarifies their chronologic location with respect to the Messinian Salinity Crisis. We near Níjar) follows the marine reflooding of the Mediterranean Basin which ended the Messinian Salinity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

437

Instruments and Methods A non-destructive method for measuring the salinity and solid  

E-print Network

Instruments and Methods A non-destructive method for measuring the salinity and solid fraction developed to make in situ measurements of salinity and solid- fraction profiles in growing sea ice with theoretical predictions. In a field test in the Arctic, the bulk salinity of growing sea ice has been measured

Worster, M. Grae

438

THE EFFECTS OF NON-CONDENSIBLE GAS AND SALINITY ON STEAM ADSORPTION  

E-print Network

THE EFFECTS OF NON-CONDENSIBLE GAS AND SALINITY ON STEAM ADSORPTION A REPORT SUBMITTED% by weight of saline solution was added to the rock sample. Addition of salt to the sample enabled.1 Effects of GO2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2 Effects of Salinity

Stanford University

439

Estimating Sea Surface Salinity in the Chesapeake Bay From Ocean Color Radiometry Measurements  

E-print Network

Estimating Sea Surface Salinity in the Chesapeake Bay From Ocean Color Radiometry Measurements OCR-derived Sea-Surface Salinity RMSE and bias for coincident match-ups of OCR-SSS and SSS measured and Stingray Point, starting in late 2011 (Fig. 6). Comparison of Satellite OCR- and CBOFS Sea-Surface Salinity

440

Predicting the surface tension of aqueous 1-1 electrolyte solutions at high salinity  

E-print Network

Predicting the surface tension of aqueous 1-1 electrolyte solutions at high salinity Philippe Leroy salinity. These theories enable the determination of the electrical potential at the air/water interface of the structure-making and structure-breaking ions that influence the surface tension at high salinity are taken

Boyer, Edmond

441

Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes for Salinity Gradient Energy  

E-print Network

Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes for Salinity Gradient Energy Geoffrey M 16802, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Many salinity gradient energy technologies recovery using AmB thermolytic solutions in RED. Recent interest in salinity gradient energy technologies

442

Dilute iota-and kappa-Carrageenan solutions with high viscosities in high salinity brines  

E-print Network

Dilute iota- and kappa-Carrageenan solutions with high viscosities in high salinity brines Stefan 2010 Available online 9 December 2010 Keywords: - and -Carrageenan Polymer solution High salinity increased with increasing polymer concentration or salinity. Monovalent Na+ cations were more effective

Goddard III, William A.

443

MODELING SALINITY BALANCE IN PROPOSED SALTON SEA RESTORATION USING A DIKED IMPOUNDMENT  

E-print Network

MODELING SALINITY BALANCE IN PROPOSED SALTON SEA RESTORATION USING A DIKED IMPOUNDMENT Victor M into main lake and diked impoundment. It is expected that this will eventually reduce the salinity of the main lake, while increasing the salinity of the diked impoundment to that of a concentrated brine

Ponce, V. Miguel

444

Spatial delineation of groundwater salinity using deep time domain electromagnetic geophysical measurements: A feasibility study  

E-print Network

Spatial delineation of groundwater salinity using deep time domain electromagnetic geophysical of this study was to delineate the spatial distribution of fresh, brackish, and saline groundwater bodies springs. In deeper aquifers, brackish and saline groundwater bodies exist, which originated from lakes

Gvirtzman, Haim

445

Estimating Salinity between 25 and 45S in the Atlantic Ocean Using Local Regression  

E-print Network

Estimating Salinity between 25° and 45°S in the Atlantic Ocean Using Local Regression W. C. THACKER September 2006, in final form 29 January 2007) ABSTRACT The empirical relationship between salinity­temperature­depth (CTD) probes, are sufficient to provide an empirical basis for estimating salinity from measurements

446

Effects of salinity on an intertidal hostparasite system: Is the parasite more sensitive than its host?  

E-print Network

Effects of salinity on an intertidal host­parasite system: Is the parasite more sensitive than its Host­parasite interaction Parasitism Salinity Transmission Trematoda Intertidal habitats are characterised by highly fluctuating environmental conditions including varying salinity regimes. Changes

Poulin, Robert

447

The temperature-salinity relationship in the mixed layer Raffaele Ferrari  

E-print Network

The temperature-salinity relationship in the mixed layer Raffaele Ferrari 1 Introduction and salinity gradients. The goals of this project are (1) to investi- gate if these correlations are the result-scale ocean models. Observations show abundant examples of horizontal fronts with temperature and salinity

Ferrari, Raffaele

448

The influence of salinity variation on Hematodinium sp. infection of blue crabs in the ACE Basin  

E-print Network

The influence of salinity variation on Hematodinium sp. infection of blue crabs in the ACE Basin measured salinity, crab abundance, fishing effort, and Hematodinium sp. prevalence at 27 locations and by river. High salinity in September leads to high infection in December, but variation in infection among

Childress, Michael J.

449

Effects of Salinity on Spawning and Early Development of the Tube-Building Polychaete  

E-print Network

Effects of Salinity on Spawning and Early Development of the Tube-Building Polychaete Hydroides. Ambient salinities drop dramatically during monsoon season in Hong Kong coastal waters, posing a number- tigated (1) whether adults would retain their gametes when external salinity dropped to levels too low

450

Seasonal dynamics of sea surface salinity off Panama: The far Eastern Pacific Fresh Pool  

E-print Network

Seasonal dynamics of sea surface salinity off Panama: The far Eastern Pacific Fresh Pool Gaël Alory-permanent presence of a far eastern Pacific fresh pool with sea surface salinity (SSS) lower than 33, which of sea surface salinity off Panama: The far Eastern Pacific Fresh Pool, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C04028

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

451

Root Growth and Yield of Differing Alfalfa Rooting Populations under Increasing Salinity and Zero Leaching  

E-print Network

Root Growth and Yield of Differing Alfalfa Rooting Populations under Increasing Salinity and Zero-rootedAccumulation of salinity in the root zone can be detrimental to crops such as alfalfa to exploit the lower average salinitysustained crop production. Irrigation, even with moderately saline water, pushes accumulated salts deeper

Smith, Steven E.

452

Salinity and Temperature Effects on Physiological Responses of Vibrio fischeri from Diverse Ecological Niches  

E-print Network

Salinity and Temperature Effects on Physiological Responses of Vibrio fischeri from Diverse isolates possessed the least variation in growth throughout the entire salinity gradient, whereas isolates. fischeri strains were also measured under a range of salinity and temperature combinations. Symbiotic V

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

453

Effects of correcting salinity with altimeter measurements in an equatorial Pacific ocean model  

E-print Network

Effects of correcting salinity with altimeter measurements in an equatorial Pacific ocean model; published 18 September 2002. [1] In this paper, we study the consequences of making salinity corrections in a tropical Pacific ocean model run for the period 1993­1997. Salinity and temperature corrections

van Leeuwen, Peter Jan

454

SALINITY AND TEMPERATURE IN SOUTH SAN FRANCISCO BAY, CALIFORNIA, AT DUMBARTON BRIDGE  

E-print Network

SALINITY AND TEMPERATURE IN SOUTH SAN FRANCISCO BAY, CALIFORNIA, AT DUMBARTON BRIDGE: RESULTS FROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Fig. 10. Time-series plots of daily mean salinity at Dumbarton Bridge for 1990WY-1993WY, 1994WY-2001WY . . 29 Fig. 14. Time-series plots showing surface salinity, tide height, stream discharge

455

Thermo-compositional convection in Europa's icy shell with salinity Lijie Han1,2  

E-print Network

Thermo-compositional convection in Europa's icy shell with salinity Lijie Han1,2 and Adam P the hypothesis that the combined buoyancy from both thermal and salinity contrasts in Europa's ice shell can's icy shell with salinity, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L20201, doi:10.1029/2005GL023979. 1. Introduction [2

456

EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON FERTILIZATION, EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT, AND HATCHING  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON FERTILIZATION, EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT, AND HATCHING IN BAIRDIELLA ICISTIA (PISCES: SCIAENIDAE), AND THE EFFECT OF PARENTAL SALINITY ACCLIMATION ON EMBRYONIC AND LARVAL SALINITY TOLERANCEl ROBERT C. MAy2 ABSTRACT Eggs and larvae of the sciaenid fish bairdiella

457

EFFECT OF SALINITY ON THE DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF GEOLOGICAL MATERIALS : IMPLICATION FOR SOIL  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF SALINITY ON THE DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF GEOLOGICAL MATERIALS : IMPLICATION FOR SOIL of saline deposits for the detection and mapping of moisture in arid regions on both Earth and Mars. We then present a simulation and experimental study in order to assess the effect of salinity on the permittivity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

458

Aquatic Botany 75 (2003) 293309 Physiological effects of short-term salinity  

E-print Network

Aquatic Botany 75 (2003) 293­309 Physiological effects of short-term salinity changes on Ruppia-term changes in salinity were investi- gated. Plants cultured at 20 S were exposed to 0 S, 10 S (half-ambient), 20 S (ambient), and 40 S (twice-ambient) salinities. Total and non-vacuolar leaf osmolality

Durako, Michael J.

459

Evidence of multidecadal salinity variability in the eastern tropical North Atlantic  

E-print Network

Evidence of multidecadal salinity variability in the eastern tropical North Atlantic Christopher S influenced by seawater density, which is itself controlled by salinity and temperature. Although adequate­150 years, records of salinity really only exist for the last 40­ 50 years. Here we show that longer proxy

Swart, Peter K.

460

Limits to tolerance of temperature and salinity in the quagga mussel  

E-print Network

Limits to tolerance of temperature and salinity in the quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis levels of salinity and temperature in the laboratory to compare the tolerance of each species concentrations of NaCl (5, 10, and 20%~)to test salinity tolerance. No individuals of either species survived

May, Bernie

461

Shoot Na+ Exclusion and Increased Salinity Tolerance Engineered by Cell TypeSpecific Alteration of  

E-print Network

Shoot Na+ Exclusion and Increased Salinity Tolerance Engineered by Cell Type­Specific Alteration, University of Adelaide, SA 5064, Australia Soil salinity affects large areas of cultivated land, causing of root-to-shoot transfer of Na+. Plants with reduced shoot Na+ also have increased salinity tolerance

Haseloff, Jim

462

Salinity patterns of Florida Bay Christopher R. Kelble a,*, Elizabeth M. Johns b  

E-print Network

Salinity patterns of Florida Bay Christopher R. Kelble a,*, Elizabeth M. Johns b , William K November 2005; accepted 5 August 2006 Available online 26 September 2006 Abstract The salinity of Florida Bay has undergone dramatic changes over the past century. Salinity values reached their most extreme

463

PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Is salinity tolerance the key to success for the invasive water  

E-print Network

PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Is salinity tolerance the key to success for the invasive water bug) that occurs in brackish and saline aquatic systems. Recently, it has been found invading three continents compared both the realized and standardized salinity niche of invasive T. verticalis and native Corixidae

Green, Andy J.

464

Thalassia testudinum seedling responses to changes in salinity and nitrogen levels  

E-print Network

Thalassia testudinum seedling responses to changes in salinity and nitrogen levels Amanda E. Kahn marine salinity (30­40PSU). Previous studies have examined the responses of mature short shoots of T to hypo- and hyper-salinity conditions, as well as possible synergistic effects of depleted and elevated

Durako, Michael J.

465

Polyphasic origin of salinity in the Senegal delta and middle valley  

E-print Network

- 1 - Polyphasic origin of salinity in the Senegal delta and middle valley Laurent Barbiéroa Cedex 3, France Abstract: Saline areas are a major obstacle to the development of sustainable irrigated of salinity and its distribution in the soil suggest that it arises from more than one source. Comparison

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

466

Origin and properties of inland and tidal saline acid sulphate soils in South Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a general overview of the transformation of two inland Alfisols to saline sulfidic marsh soils due to rising saline ground waters in a Mediterranean climate in South Australia. A summary of field and laboratory observations relating to the formation of two inland saline sulfidic marsh soils is presented and compared in terms of probable genesis and soil

Glen Osmond

467

Interactive Effects of Salinity and Certain Vitamins on Gene Expression and Cell Division  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Sids 1, Sakha 69 and Gemmiza 5) were selected to study the interactive effects of salinity, vitamin B6 and ascorbic acid on protein synthesis. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used for the characterization of differential expression of proteins of these cultivars in response to salinity. Salinity induced a considerable variation in

HODA BARAKAT

468

Pleistocene recharge to midcontinent basins: effects on salinity structure and microbial gas generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrogeochemistry of saline-meteoric water interface zones in sedimentary basins is important in constraining the fluid migration history, chemical evolution of basinal brines, and physical stability of saline formation waters during episodes of freshwater recharge. This is especially germane for interior cratonic basins, such as the Michigan and Illinois basins. Although there are large differences in formation water salinity and

J. C. McIntosh; L. M. Walter; A. M. Martini

2002-01-01

469

Influence of Nitrogen and Saline Water on the Growth and Partitioning of Mineral Content in Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saline irrigation water has a tremendous impact on the yield potential of crops. Distribution of mineral elements in the parts of maize plant in response to saline water and nitrogen (N) nutrition was studied in a pot experiment for six weeks. Plants were irrigated either with tap water or saline water (ECw: 3.2 dSm). Nitrogen was applied at the rate

Muhammad Irshad; A. Egrinya Eneji; Riaz A. Khattak; Abdullah Khan

2009-01-01

470

Saline soils under dryland agriculture in southeastern Saskatchewan (Canada) and possibilities for their improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Two experiments to study the effects of organic matter applications on saline soils and crop yields were carried out in a growth room and in the field, respectively. In the growth room experiment peat incorporations improved the yields of barley (fresh weight) over the full range from non-saline to highly saline soils, providing the peat-induced moisture stresses in the

H. Lüken

1962-01-01

471

Convective stability analysis of the long-term storage of carbon dioxide in deep saline aquifers  

E-print Network

Convective stability analysis of the long-term storage of carbon dioxide in deep saline aquifers Received 5 December 2004; accepted 16 May 2005 Available online 19 July 2005 Abstract Deep saline aquifers analysis of the time-dependent density-driven convection in deep saline aquifers is presented for long

Zhang, Dongxiao

472

Physicochemical conditions for plankton in Lake Timsah, a saline lake on the Suez Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Timsah receives high salinity water from the Suez Canal, mainly from the south, and freshwater from a Nile canal and other sources, producing a salinity stratification with surface salinities of 20 400\\/00 and over 400\\/00 in deeper water. Water temperature at a depth of 50 70 cm fell to below 20 °C in winter and rose to above 30

H. A. H. El-Serehy; M. A. Sleigh

1992-01-01

473

Salinity dependence of sexual and asexual reproduction in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A salinity dependent mictic response was observed in a clone of Brachionus plicatilis cultured in the 2 to 4‰ salinity range. This response was related to asexual exponential reproduction rates (G) and could be divided into three categories: (a) no mixis occurred at a salinity of 35‰ S and above, where G values were lower than 0.30 d-1, (b) low

E. Lubzens; G. Minkoff; S. Marom

1985-01-01

474

ARTICLE IN PRESS 1Effect of salinity variation and pesticide exposure on  

E-print Network

U N C O R R EC TED PR O O F ARTICLE IN PRESS 1Effect of salinity variation and pesticide exposure for interaction effects 18between salinity change and acute pesticide exposure on the survival and genotypic the lowest survival. There was significant statistical interaction between salinity and pesticide 25exposure

Schizas, Nikolaos

475

The Influence of Salinity on the Growth of Juvenile Shortnose Sturgeon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum is a promising aquaculture candidate, but optimal culture conditions remain to be defined. Given that salinity is known to affect the growth performance of fish, we examined the effect of salinity on the growth of juvenile shortnose sturgeon in aquaculture. Because the behavior and consequently the salinity exposure of juveniles in the wild is largely

Peter L. Jarvis; James S. Ballantyne; William E. Hogans

2001-01-01

476

Plant responses to drought, salinity and extreme temperatures: towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity, extreme temperatures, chemical toxicity and oxidative stress are serious threats to agriculture and the natural status of the environment. Increased salinization of arable land is expected to have devastating global effects, resulting in 30% land loss within the next 25 years, and up to 50% by the year 2050. Therefore, breeding for drought and salinity

Wangxia Wang; Basia Vinocur; Arie Altman

2003-01-01

477

Numerical Simulation of Ground-Water Salinization in the Arkansas River Corridor, Southwest Kansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salinity of ground water in the High Plains aquifer underlying the upper Arkansas River corridor in southwest Kansas has greatly increased during the last few decades. The source of the salinization is infiltration of Arkansas River water along the river channel and in areas irrigated with diverted river water. The saline river water is derived from southeastern Colorado where

D. O. Whittemore; S. Perkins; M. Tsou; C. D. McElwee; X. Zhan; D. P. Young

2001-01-01

478

EFFECT OF SALINITY ON COTTON N UPTAKE AND ASSIMILATION OF UREA APPLIED WITH NBPT AND DCD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salinity is an abiotic stress factor that can cause significant crop yield losses. It is usually common in irrigated areas with arid climates. Cotton is classified as a moderately salt-tolerant species with a salinity threshold level of 7.7 dS m-1. However cultivation of cotton in high salinity soil...

479

Salinity changes in the central Baltic Sea (NW Europe) over the last 10000 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

We attempt a reconstruction of salinity levels of the central Baltic Sea based on diatom assemblages, the isotopic composition of organic matter and sedimentological expression of anoxia over the last 10 000 years. We use the data to investigate the dependence of salinity levels on climate evolution and isostasy. Changes in salinity of surface and deep waters were most pronounced

Kay-Christian Emeis; Ulrich Struck; Thomas Blanz; Alexander Kohly

2003-01-01

480

Ecosystem Restoration and Subtropical Seagrass Fishes: Insights into Salinity Effects from Habitat Selection and Preference Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work of this Master of Science thesis project is an analysis of salinity effects on nearshore epifauna along the western shore of Biscayne Bay in southeast Florida, USA. Field collection surveys have found a high probability of occurrence of bigeye mojarra (Eucinostomus havana) in salinities near 25 ppt. In a salinity gradient observation experiment test subjects of the same

Eric L. Buck

2011-01-01