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1

[A case of ischemic colitis presenting as bloody diarrhea after normal saline enema].  

PubMed

Ischemic colitis is a frequent disorder of large bowel in elderly persons or in debilitated patients with a variable underlying medical problems. Ischemic colitis may result from alterations in the systemic circulation or anatomic or functional changes in the local mesenteric vasculature. In most cases, no specific cause for the ischemic colitis is identified. Cases of ischemic colitis after enema for bowel cleansing have been rarely reported, but there has been no case report after normal saline enema. We report a case of ischemic colitis in a 72-year old patient with well-controlled hypertension, presenting as bloody diarrhea which developed after normal saline enema for preoperative bowel cleansing. PMID:17928757

Park, Ji Eun; Moon, Won; Nam, Ji Hyun; Kim, Nang Hee; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Moo In; Park, Seun Ja; Kim, Kyu Jong

2007-08-01

2

Barium enema  

MedlinePLUS

Barium enema is a special x-ray of the large intestine, which includes the colon and rectum. ... to a bag that holds a liquid containing barium sulfate. This is a contrast material that highlights ...

3

Barium enema (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A barium enema is performed to examine the walls of the colon. During the procedure, a well lubricated enema tube is inserted gently into the rectum. The barium, a radiopaque (shows up on X-ray) contrast ...

4

World Ocean Atlas 1994. Volume 3. Salinity  

SciTech Connect

This atlas contains maps of salinity at selected standard levels of the worlds ocean on a one-degree grid. Maps for all-data annual and seasonal compositing periods are presented. The fields used to generate these maps were computed by objective analysis of historical data. Data distribution maps are presented for various compositing periods. Basin zonal averages and basin volume averages are computed from these objectively analyzed fields and presented in the form of figures and tables.

Levitus, S.; Burgett, R.; Boyer, T.P.

1994-04-01

5

Retrograde spread of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with active ulcerative colitis  

SciTech Connect

In an attempt to know the exact retrograde spread of high-dosage 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas, we have studied eight patients with active left-sided colitis, by adding a small amount of barium sulfate to the enemas and by checking the spread radiologically after 15 minutes, 1 hour, and 6 hours. Four grams of 5-aminosalicylic acid in 100-ml enemas and 4 gm in 200-ml enemas were used. The same experiment was repeated in a subsequent attack, with enemas labeled with technetium-99m and checked by scintiscans in five of these patients. We always have observed a volume-dependent spread of enemas but, interestingly, in the patients studied with technetium-99m there was always a wider spread than that which was detected with barium enemas. In all five patients, 100-ml enemas reached the splenic flexure. In two patients with total colitis, a progression of 100-ml technetium-99m enemas was performed in the transverse colon, but the maximum opacity remained in the left side. We can conclude that 4 gm of 5-aminosalicylic acid in 100-ml enemas can be suitable for treating patients with left-sided colitis, and will represent a valid addition for patients with more extensive colitis.

Campieri, M.; Lanfranchi, G.A.; Brignola, C.; Bazzocchi, G.; Gionchetti, P.; Minguzzi, M.R.; Cappello, I.P.; Corbelli, C.; Boschi, S.

1986-02-01

6

The Malone Antegrade Continence Enema for Neurogenic and Structural Fecal Incontinence and Constipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of fecal elimination are commonly encountered by the pediatric urologist and surgeon. The Malone antegrade continence enema has been described as a means to administer a large volume enema via a continent catheterizable appendicocecostomy, resulting in reliable fecal elimination. Of 22 patients undergoing this procedure 16 reported total continence 4 months or longer after surgery. Complications are relatively minor

Martin A. Koyle; Devonna M. Kaji; Manuel Duque; Jodi Wild

1995-01-01

7

21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device...

2010-04-01

8

21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device...

2012-04-01

9

21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device...

2011-04-01

10

21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device...

2014-04-01

11

21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is a device...

2013-04-01

12

The malone antegrade continence enema  

Microsoft Academic Search

The previously reported Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) was used in 21 children for intractable fecal incontinence or constipation. Twelve are completely clean, and three are much improved (71% success rate). However, only four of the 21 have not had some type of complication, either minor or major. Five of the 21 now have a colostomy, and one has abandoned

D. M Griffiths; P. S Malone

1995-01-01

13

Antegrade continence enema (ACE): current practice.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess current status of antegrade continence enema (ACE) procedure taking into account the recent improvement in the technique and outcome. Reviewing our record of 48 patients with ACE procedure performed between January 2002 and May 2007, we found that the underlying diagnoses were idiopathic constipation in 56%, anorectal malformation in 31%, spina bifida in 8% and Hirschsprung's disease in 4%. Mean age of operation was 10.7 years. Appendix was used as stoma in 73% of cases. Stomal stenosis requiring revision was seen in 6% of cases and continence was achieved in 92% of cases. A systematic search of database was performed for the same period. Twenty-four studies describing 676 patients were found. The mean age was 10 years and various sites used for ACE were, right side of abdomen in 71%, umbilicus in 15% and left side of abdomen in 14%. The incidence of open and laparoscopic procedures were 87 and 13%, respectively. Appendix was used for stoma in 76% procedures. Other operative modalities were retubularised colon, retubularised ileum, caecal button and caecostomy tube, etc. The mean volume of enema fluid used was 516 ml. The mean evacuation time was 42 min. Stomal stenosis requiring revision was seen in 13% of cases. Continence was achieved in 93% of cases. There has been significant improvement in the outcome during last 5 years in comparison to the outcome published in late 1990s. Advancements in techniques, better-trained stoma care nurses and better stoma appliances could have played major role in this success. PMID:18408942

Sinha, Chandrasen Kumar; Grewal, Alka; Ward, Harry C

2008-06-01

14

Quantitative distribution of radiolabeled 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis  

SciTech Connect

Rectally administered suspensions of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) are topically effective in treating left-sided ulcerative colitis. The extent to which the contents of these enemas are distributed to inflamed mucosal linings has not previously been determined. This study was undertaken to validate a technique for labeling 5-ASA with 99mTc and to quantitate the distribution of (99mTc)5-ASA in eight patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis. Eight patients underwent three colonic scintigraphic exams within five days, receiving a 60-ml radiolabeled 5-ASA enema into the unprepared rectum for each study, with sequential anterior abdominal images obtained for 4 hr. Activity within the rectum, sigmoid, descending, transverse, and ascending colon was quantitated. Over 50% of the labeled enema had advanced beyond the rectum in five of eight patients and in six of eight patients by 30 min and 60 min, respectively. The distribution of (99mTc)5-ASA was quantitatively reproducible when repeated in the same patient on different days, despite apparent visual differences. By 2 hr, the amount of the enema present within the rectum decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) compared to the initial distribution. The amount of enema present within the descending colon was increased significantly at 0.5 hr (P less than 0.05) and at 2 hr (P less than 0.01). There were no significant changes in the distribution from initial values for the sigmoid, transverse, or ascending colon at any time. In each of these cases the spread of the enema to or beyond the extent of disease was documented. In patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis, small volume (99mTc)5-ASA enemas reliably reach the area of inflammation.

Vitti, R.A.; Meyers, F.; Knight, L.C.; Siegel, J.A.; Malmud, L.S.; Fisher, R.S. (Temple Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

1989-11-01

15

Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death  

PubMed Central

Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema. PMID:25436159

Peterson, Thomas; Rentmeester, Landen; Judge, Bryan S.; Cohle, Stephen D.; Jones, Jeffrey S.

2014-01-01

16

Comparison of water immersion and saline infusion as a means of inducing volume expansion in man  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study compares the natriuresis induced by head-out water immersion to that of a standard saline infusion and assesses the relative effectiveness of these two techniques as volume determinants of renal sodium and water handling in humans in a seated posture. The data obtained show that the volume stimulus of immersion is identical to that of standard saline-induced extracellular fluid volume expansion (ECVE) in normal seated subjects. The ability of head-out water immersion to induce a natriuresis without a concomitant increase in total blood volume and with a decrease in body weight suggests that water immersion may be preferred as an investigative tool for assessing the effects of ECVE in man.

Epstein, M.; Pins, D. S.; Arrington, R.; Denunzio, A. G.; Engstrom, R.

1975-01-01

17

Hydrogeology, distribution, and volume of saline groundwater in the southern midcontinent and adjacent areas of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hydrogeology, distribution, and volume of saline water in 22 aquifers in the southern midcontinent of the United States were evaluated to provide information about saline groundwater resources that may be used to reduce dependency on freshwater resources. Those aquifers underlie six States in the southern midcontinent—Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas—and adjacent areas including all or parts of Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Wyoming and some offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico. Saline waters of the aquifers were evaluated by defining salinity zones; digitizing data, primarily from the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program of the U.S. Geological Survey; and computing the volume of saline water in storage. The distribution of saline groundwater in the southern midcontinent is substantially affected by the hydrogeology and groundwater-flow systems of the aquifers. Many of the aquifers in the southern midcontinent are underlain by one or more aquifers, resulting in vertically stacked aquifers containing groundwaters of varying salinity. Saline groundwater is affected by past and present hydrogeologic conditions. Spatial variation of groundwater salinity in the southern midcontinent is controlled primarily by locations of recharge and discharge areas, groundwater-flow paths and residence time, mixing of freshwater and saline water, and interactions with aquifer rocks and sediments. The volume calculations made for the evaluated aquifers in the southern midcontinent indicate that about 39,900 million acre-feet (acre-ft) of saline water is in storage. About 21,600 million acre-ft of the water in storage is slightly to moderately saline (1,000–10,000 milligrams per liter [mg/L] dissolved solids), and about 18,300 million acre-ft is very saline (10,000–35,000 mg/L dissolved solids). The largest volumes of saline water are in the coastal lowlands (about 16,300 million acre-ft), Mississippi embayment and Texas coastal uplands (about 12,000 million acre-ft), and Great Plains (about 8,170 million acre-ft) aquifer systems. Of the 22 aquifers evaluated in this report, the Maha aquifer in the Great Plains aquifer system contains both the largest total volume of saline water (about 6,280 million acre-ft) and the largest volume of slightly to moderately saline water (about 5,150 million acre-ft).

Osborn, Noël I.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Seger, Christian H.

2013-01-01

18

Effect of prolonged LBNP and saline ingestion on plasma volume and orthostatic responses during bed rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic intolerance remains a significant problem following space flight despite frequent use of the saline fluid-loading countermeasure and volitional use of an anti-gravity suite during reentry and landing. The purpose of this project is to examine the plasma volume (PV), endocrine, and orthostatic responses of bedrested subjects following 2-hr and 4-hr treatments of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and saline ingestion. Ten healthy men were randomly assigned into 2 groups. Group A underwent a 4-hr LBNP/saline treatment on best rest day 5 and the 2-hr treatment on day 11. Group B underwent the 2-hr treatment on day 6 and the 4-hr treatment on day 10. Blood volume was determined before and after bed rest using radiolabelling. Changes in PV between measurements were calculated from changes in hematocrit and estimated red cell volume. Urinary excretion of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone (ALD) were measured each day during the study. Orthostatic responses were measured using a ramp LBNP protocol before bed rest, before each treatment, and 24 hours after each treatment. Both 2-hr and 4-hr treatments resulted in a restoration of PV to pre-bed rest levels which persisted at least 24 hours. This increase in PV was associated with significant increases in urinary excretion of ADH and ALD. Twenty-four hours after the 4-hr treatment, the heart rate and pulse pressure response to LBNP were significantly lower and stroke volumes during LBNP were increased. Twenty-four hours after the 2-hr treatment, there was no evidence of improvement in orthostatic responses. These results suggest that a countermeasure which simply restores PV during space flight may not be sufficient for restoring orthostatic responses.

Fortney, Suzanne M.; Dussack, Larry; Rehbein, Tracy; Wood, Margie; Steinmann, Laura

1991-01-01

19

Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas - Volume 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas - Volume 2 is a publication project in the framework of the study of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. It follows the publication of a first volume in 2011 (see Editors' websites: http://ccgm.free.fr & http://sgfr.free.fr) and aims to illustrate the seismic characteristics of the MSC markers over news study areas. The Messinian Salinity Crisis is a huge outstanding succession of events that deeply modified the Mediterranean area within a short time span at the geological scale. In 2011, a seismic atlas of the Messinian markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas has been published [1]. This collective work summarizes, in one publication with a common format, the most relevant seismic features related to this exceptional event in the offshore domain. It also proposes a new global and consistent terminology for the MSC markers in the entire offshore Mediterranean area in order to avoid nomenclatural problems. Throughout 13 study areas, the seismic facies, geometry and extend of the Messinian markers (bounding surfaces and depositional units) are described. The Atlas however does not provide a complete description of all what that is known about the MSC and about the geology of each study area. Accordingly, illustrations in the Atlas should be used for a global description of the offshore imprints of the MSC at a broad scale, or for local information or site-specific general interpretations. Interpreted seismic data were carefully selected according to their quality, position and significance. Raw and interpreted seismic profiles are available on CD-Rom. Volume 2 is currently under preparation with the objectives : (1) to image the Messinian seismic marker from margins and basins that have not been illustrated in the first volume and (2) to complete the extension map of the MSC markers in the offshore and onshore domains at the Mediterranean scale. As the first volume, Volume 2 will also aim to share the geological interpretation of seismic reflection data imaging Messinian markers, to make this information accessible to the non geophysician community and to be a reference work that can be used by teachers and future researchers working on the Messinian event. This publication project is still open to anybody from industry and academia willing to contribute. At the present time, 16 new sites have been identified. Publication of the Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas - Volume 2 is planned for Fall 2014. For more details, contact presenting author J. Lofi (atlas coordinator). This contribution has been funded by the Actions Marges French research program. [1] : Lofi J., Deverchère J., Gaullier V., Gillet H., Gorini C., Guennoc P., Loncke L., Maillard A., Sage F. and Thinon I., 2011. Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) / Mémoires de la Société Géologique de France, n.s., 179, 72 pp., 1 CD. Atlas contributors (first authors): A. Camerlenghi, A. Del Ben, D. Do Couto, F. Estrada, F. Gallais, M. Garcia, V. Gaullier, A. Maillard, A. Micallef, M. Rossi, F. Sage, U. Schattner, A. Tassy, R. Urgeles

Lofi, Johanna

2014-05-01

20

Improvement in neurogenic bladder after the antegrade continence enema procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A child with neurogenic bladder and bowel underwent an antegrade continence enema procedure for fecal incontinence and severe constipation. She subsequently demonstrated an improvement in her neurogenic bladder and urinary incontinence.

Jacqueline Gividen; John G Van Savage

2002-01-01

21

Tapered terminal ileum conduit for antegrade continence enemas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antegrade continence enemas can be used to control fecal incontinence caused by neurogenic bowel. Creating a conduit can become\\u000a a problem when the appendix is unsuitable for use. This paper describes a procedure using a tapered terminal ileum conduit\\u000a for use with antegrade continence enemas in place of the appendix. This procedure has been attempted and successfully completed\\u000a on two

Gregory A. Surfield; David A. Andrews

2005-01-01

22

Comparative trial of sodium cromoglycate enemas with prednisolone enemas in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed Central

A double blind multicentre study comparing sodium cromoglycate (600 mg/100 ml) by enema with prednisolone (20 mg/100 ml) by enema is reported. The study was conducted over a nine week period in the treatment of 70 patients with ulcerative colitis. Analysis of symptoms showed significant decreases in scores for patients in both groups, both at four and eight weeks; the only difference between the two groups was a significantly greater improvement in the reduction of rectal bleeding after four weeks in the prednisolone group. On sigmoidoscopy, both treatment groups showed a highly significant improvement after four and eight weeks with no significant differences being seen between the groups. Histology of the rectal biopsies showed a significant improvement in the inflammation of the mucosa for both treatment groups after four and eight weeks with no differences being observed between the groups. There were no significant changes in eosinophils from baseline and no difference between the groups at four and eight weeks. PMID:3102323

Grace, R H; Gent, A E; Hellier, M D

1987-01-01

23

Influence of plasma volume expansion with saline on the plasma levels of an ouabain-like factor  

SciTech Connect

Plasma volume expansion with saline activates the cardiopulmonary baroreflex and causes the release of natriuretic factors(s). One putative natriuretic factor has ouabain-like activity (OLA). To examine the relationship between this factor and plasma volume expansion, the OLA of plasma was examined in rats that were volume expanded with 0.9% saline at a rate of 150..mu..l/min/100 g of rat for 15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes. Plasma OLA was quantitated with a radioreceptor assay utilizing /sup 3/H-ouabain and erythrocytes ghosts. The OLA and hematocrit of control rats were 18.2 +/- 2.93 pmoles of OLA/ml of plasma and 43.7 +/- 0.65. After plasma volume expansion for 15 and 30 minutes, plasma OLA was not significantly altered (27.1 +/- 6.64 and 15.3 +/- 2.80, respectively). However, the hematocrit was reduced 13.9% (37.6 +/- 1.34, p < 0.05) and 33.6% (29.0 +/- 1.92, p < 0.01) for 15 and 30 minutes of volume expansion, respectively. After 60 minutes of volume expansion the hematocrit began to recover (33.7 +/- 2.16) although it was still significantly depressed (p < 0.01). At this time point the OLA was increased 248% to 63.4 +/- 22.7 pmoles of OLA/ml of plasma (p < 0.01). At 120 minutes of volume expansion the hematocrit was 38.3 +/- 1.24 and the OLA returned to control values (13.4 +/- 5.17). This data indicates that volume expansion causes an increase in plasma OLA and this increase in activity may contribute to the recovery of hematocrit that is seen with continued volume expansion.

Rauch, A.L.; Morris, M.; Buckalew, V.M. Jr.

1986-03-05

24

21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

2011-04-01

25

21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

2010-04-01

26

21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304 Section...Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has...practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray...

2014-04-01

27

21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304 Section...Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has...practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray...

2013-04-01

28

21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304 Section...Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has...practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray...

2012-04-01

29

[Treatment of severe chronic constipation through the antegrade continent enema procedure].  

PubMed

The antegrade continent enema procedure was first described in 1990 by Malone for the treatment of severe fecal neurogenic incontinence in children. Since then, this technique has been successfully carried out in adults, as well as in patients with refractory constipation. The procedure provides a continent and catheterizable channel, generally an appendicostomy, through which antegrade washouts are given to produce colonic emptying. We describe the case of a 23-year-old man with severe constipation and overflow fecal incontinence who underwent an appendicostomy. There were no immediate postoperative complications and saline washouts were started on the fourth day. Since then, the patient has had a bowel movement between 1 and 3 hours after each washout, has recovered continence, and no longer wears an absorbent pad. PMID:17192226

Pera, Miguel; Parés, David; Pascual, Marta; Pérez, Marta; Cañete, Nuria; Sánchez de la Blanca, M Isabel; Andréu, Montserrat; Grande, Luis

2006-12-01

30

Durability of the Malone antegrade continence enema in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) is a therapeutic option to treat chronic constipation and fecal incontinence in patients with neurogenic bowel. Previous reports have described the short-term success of this procedure, but no report has described the durability of the procedure during pregnancy. We present the case of a spinal cord injury patient who underwent an uncomplicated pregnancy after

Francis J Wren; Carl T Reese; Ross M Decter

2003-01-01

31

Acute mannitol and saline volume expansion in the rat: effect on transepithelial potential difference in proximal tubules.  

PubMed

1. Transepithelial potential difference (PDte) of proximal tubules was measured in rats under control conditions (C), and mannitol-saline and saline extracellular fluid volume expansion (MVE, SVE, respectively) under conditions of normal net lumen to basal sodium transport. 2. PDte was measured in kidneys bathed with Hartmann's solution or covered with mineral oil under both volume-expanded conditions together with their controls. 3. PDte was significantly lower in kidneys bathed with Hartmann's solution than those covered with oil. 4. In MVE rats, with mineral oil covering the kidneys, PDte (expressed as mean and s.e.m.) was for the control 2.20 +/- 0.05 (n = 45) mV and MVE 1.97 +/- 0.04 (n = 36) mV, lumen positive, a significant reduction of 10% (P less than 0.001). In SVE rats, with mineral oil covering the kidneys, PDte was for C = 2.42 +/- 0.05 (n = 74) mV and SVE = 1.93 +/- 0.03 (n = 67) mV, a significant reduction (P less than 0.001) of 20%. 5. According to thermodynamic considerations, neither of these changes is sufficient to explain the 50% inhibition of Na transport measured previously during MVE and SVE with autologous tubular fluid. The present results offer further evidence supporting the idea that the inhibition of Na transport during MVE and SVE is largely due to inhibition of the active Na transporting step. PMID:2112434

Sugo, E; Györy, A Z

1990-01-01

32

Effect of volume expansion with hypertonic- and isotonic saline and isotonic glucose on sodium and water transport in the principal cells in the kidney  

PubMed Central

Background The renal distal nephron plays an important role in the maintenance of sodium balance, extra cellular volume and blood pressure. The degree of water transport, via aquaporin2 water channels (AQP2), and sodium transport, via epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) in renal collecting duct principal cells are reflected by the level of urinary excretion of AQP2 (u-AQP2) and the ?-fraction of ENaC (u-ENaC?). The effects of an acute intravenous volume load with isotonic saline, hypertonic saline and glucose on u-AQP2, u-ENaC? and underlying mechanisms have never been studied in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in healthy humans. Methods We studied the effects of 0.9% saline (23 ml/kg), 3% saline (7 ml/kg) and 5% glucose (23 ml/kg) on u-AQP2 and u-ENaC?, fractional sodium excretion (FENa), free water clearance (CH2O), and plasma concentrations of vasopressin (AVP), renin (PRC), angiotensin II (ANG II) and aldosterone (Aldo) in a randomized, crossover study of 23 healthy subjects, who consumed a standardized diet, regarding calories, sodium and fluid for 4 days before each examination day. Results After isotonic saline infusion, u-AQP2 increased (27%). CH2O and u-ENaC? were unchanged, whereas FENa increased (123%). After hypertonic saline infusion, there was an increase in u-AQP2 (25%), u-ENaC? (19%) and FENa (96%), whereas CH2O decreased (-153%). After isotonic glucose infusion, there was a decrease in u-AQP2 (-16%), ENaC? (-10%) and FENa (-44%) whereas CH2O increased (164%). AVP remained unchanged after isotonic saline and glucose, but increased after hypertonic saline (139%). PRC, AngII and p-Aldo decreased after isotonic and hypertonic saline infusion, but not after glucose infusion. Conclusions Volume expansion with 3% and 0.9% saline increased u-AQP2, while isotonic glucose decreased u-AQP2. Infusion of hypertonic saline increased u-ENaC?, whereas u-ENaC? was not significantly changed after isotonic saline and tended to decrease after glucose. Thus, the transport of water and sodium is changed both via the aquaporin 2 water channels and the epithelial sodium channels during all three types of volume expansion to regulate and maintain water- and sodium homeostasis in the body. Trial registration Clinical Trial no: NCT01414088 PMID:24067081

2013-01-01

33

Small volume of hypertonic saline as the initial fluid replacement in experimental hypodynamic sepsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  We conducted the present study to examine the effects of hypertonic saline solution (7.5%) on cardiovascular function and\\u000a splanchnic perfusion in experimental sepsis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Anesthetized and mechanically ventilated mongrel dogs received an intravenous infusion of live Escherichia coli over 30 minutes. After 30 minutes, they were randomized to receive lactated Ringer's solution 32 ml\\/kg (LR; n = 7) over 30 minutes

del Pilar Gallardo Alejandra Garrido; Ruy Jorge Cruz; Francisco Poli Luiz de Figueiredo; Maurício Rocha e Silva

2006-01-01

34

Salinization and Saline Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and

A. Vengosh

2003-01-01

35

Coffee Enema for Preparation for Small Bowel Video Capsule Endoscopy: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Coffee enemas are believed to cause dilatation of bile ducts and excretion of bile through the colon wall. Proponents of coffee enemas claim that the cafestol palmitate in coffee enhances the activity of glutathione S-transferase, an enzyme that stimulates bile excretion. During video capsule endoscopy (VCE), excreted bile is one of the causes of poor preparation of the small bowel. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effect of coffee enema for preparation of the small bowel during VCE. In this pilot study, 17 of 34 patients were assigned to the coffee enema plus polyethylene glycol (PEG) 2 L ingestion group, whereas the 17 remaining control patients received 2 L of PEG only. The quality of bowel preparation was evaluated in the two patient groups. Bowel preparations in the proximal segments of small bowel were not differ between two groups. In the mid and distal segments of the small intestine, bowel preparations tend to be better in patients who received coffee enemas plus PEG than in patients who received PEG only. The coffee enema group did not experience any complications or side effects. Coffee enemas may be a feasible option, and there were no clinically significant adverse events related to coffee enemas. More prospective randomized studies are warranted to improve small bowel preparation for VCE. PMID:25136541

Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang

2014-01-01

36

Relative sensitivity of colonoscopy and barium enema for detection of colorectal cancer in clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The relative sensitivities of barium enema and colonoscopy for colorectal cancer are still debated. The aim of this study was to determine the relative sensitivity of barium enema and colonoscopy in general clinical practice. METHODS: Medical records of 2193 consecutive colorectal cancer cases identified in 20 central Indiana hospitals were reviewed. All procedures performed within 3 years

DK Rex; EY Rahmani; JH Haseman; GT Lemmel; S Kaster; JS Buckley

1997-01-01

37

Salinization and Saline Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g L-1), although the chloride comprises only a fraction of the total dissolved salts in water. The Cl/TDS ratio varies from 0.1 in nonmarine saline waters to ˜0.5 in marine-associated saline waters. Water salinity is also defined by electrical conductivity (EC). In soil studies, the electrical conductivity and the ratio of Na/?(Ca+Mg) (SAR) are often used as an indirect measure of soil salinity. In addition to chloride, high levels of other dissolved constituents may limit the use of water for domestic, agriculture, and industrial applications. In some parts of Africa, China, and India, for example, high fluoride content is associated with saline groundwater and causes severe dental and skeletal fluorosis (Shiklomanov, 1997). Hence, the "salinity" problem is only the "tip of the iceberg," as high levels of salinity are associated with high concentrations of other inorganic pollutants (e.g., sodium, sulfate, boron, fluoride), and bioaccumulated elements (e.g., selenium, and arsenic) (see Chapter 9.03).The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the chloride concentration of the water supply for human consumption should not exceed 250 mg L-1. Agriculture applications also depend upon the salinity level of the supplied water. Many crops, such as citrus, avocado, and mango, are sensitive to chloride concentration in irrigation water (an upper limit of 250 mg L-1). In addition, long-term irrigation with water enriched with sodium results in a significant reduction in the hydraulic conductivity and hence the fertility of the irrigated soil. Similarly, the industrial sector demands water of high quality. For example, the high-tech industry requires a large amount of water with low levels of dissolved salts. Hence, the salinity level of groundwater is one of the limiting factors that determine the suitability of water for a variety of applications.The salinity problem is a global phenomenon but it is more severe in water-scarce areas, such as arid and semi-arid zones. The increasing demand for water has created tremendous pressur

Vengosh, A.

2003-12-01

38

The use of water-soluble contrast enemas in the diagnosis of acute lower left quadrant peritonitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional work-up of patients with lower left quadrant peritonitis often includes the eventual use of barium-enema radiography.\\u000a Diagnosis is usually delayed until adequate patient stabilization allows diagnostic contrast enemas. Delay of accurate diagnosis\\u000a may, at times, have serious clinical sequelae. The use of barium enema in acute lower left quadrant peritonitis has both theoretic\\u000a and actual disadvantages. These include

L. Gottesman; S. J. Zevon; G. W. Brabbee; T. Dailey; W. A. Wichern

1984-01-01

39

The antegrade continence enema procedure and total anorectal reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Patients may present with anal incontinence (AI) following repair of a congenital anorectal anomaly years previously, or require total anorectal reconstruction (TAR) following radical rectal extirpation, most commonly for rectal cancer. Others may require removal of their colostomy following sphincter excision for Fournier's gangrene, or in cases of severe perineal trauma. Most of the data pertaining to antegrade continence enema (the ACE or Malone procedure) comes from the pediatric literature in the management of children with AI, but also with supervening chronic constipation, where the quality of life and compliance with this technique appears superior to retrograde colonic washouts. Total anorectal reconstruction requires an anatomical or physical supplement to the performance of a perineal colostomy, which may include an extrinsic muscle interposition (which may or may not be ‘dynamized'), construction of a neorectal reservoir, implantation of an incremental artificial bowel sphincter or creation of a terminal, smooth-muscle neosphincter. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and their outcome are presented here. PMID:24759342

Zbar, Andrew P.

2014-01-01

40

Bile acid absorption from ileoanal pouches using enema scintigraphy.  

PubMed

It is unclear whether bile acid absorption is affected by ileoanal pouch construction. Bile acid absorption was measured in the abdomen of 16 patients with pouches (nine with good and seven with poor pouch function based on a clinical score) and in six patients with an end ileostomy using a radiolabelled synthetic bile acid (75SeHCAT) enema and dynamic scintigraphy. The median (interquartile range) 75SeHCAT absorption was 81 (79-87) per cent in patients with ileostomy, 46 (43-53) per cent in patients having well functioning pouches, and 24 (18-38) per cent in the group with poor pouch function (P < 0.01). Log transformation of the absorption curves revealed a two-component uptake (fast component t1/2 = 1.4-7.2 min; slow component t1/2 = 16-144 min) in all patients with ileostomy, in eight of nine patients with pouches with good function, and in one of seven patients with a poorly functioning pouch (P < 0.05); in the other six patients with poorly functioning pouches, only the slow component of absorption was present. This test showed significantly reduced bile acid absorption in patients with an ileoanal pouch and gave an objective discrimination between well and poorly functioning pouches. PMID:7613929

Bain, I M; Mostafa, A B; Harding, L K; Neoptolemos, J P; Keighley, M R

1995-05-01

41

DETECTION OF SMALL LESIONS OF THE LARGE BOWEL—Barium Enema Versus Double Contrast  

PubMed Central

Roentgen study with the so-called opaque barium enema with some modifications is superior to double contrast study as the primary means of demonstrating polyps in the colon as well as other lesions. The method described combines fluoroscopy, high kilovoltage radiography, fluoroscopically aimed “spot films” taken with compression, suction and evacuation studies. In this way unsuspected as well as suspected polyps can be demonstrated, particularly if attention is directed to the region where polyps are most likely to be found—namely, the distal third of the large bowel. Double contrast study is quite valuable as a supplement to the modified “single contrast” barium enema, but it has not been sufficiently perfected to replace the modified opaque barium enema as a primary procedure. In many instances a combination of methods will, of course, be required. PMID:13209360

Robinson, J. Maurice

1954-01-01

42

Development of In Situ Gelling and Bio Adhesive 5-Fluorouracil Enema  

PubMed Central

In this study, a novel 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) enema with good bio adhesion and temperature sensitivity was developed using in situ gelling technology. The preparation was formulated as a free-flowing liquid before use, while a layer of gel film was quickly formed when administered in the rectum, with a large contact surface area. It also demonstrated good biocompatibility, appropriate gel strength and bio adhesive force with excellent adhesion to rectal mucosa and prolonged action time, allowing more effective drug absorption and diffusion to surrounding tissues. Poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188 were applied to adjust the gelling temperature. With the addition of carbopol and polycarbophil (bio adhesive substances), the solubility of 5-FU and gel strength increased, the temperature of gelation and the surface area of drug contact on mucous epithelium decreased. Decreased adhesive force between the preparation and the mucous membrane of the rectum was demonstrated with improving carbopol and polycarbophil’s concentration. In vitro release demonstrated that 5-FU in situ gelling enema with different bases had a rapid and almost complete drug release. We used an optimized formulation of P407/P188/polycarbophil/5-FU (17/2.5/0.2/1.0) for animal experiments. The result showed that the drug evenly covered the surface of the rectum and there was no leakage in 6 hours. The in situ gelling enema showed significantly higher rectal tissue levels of 5-FU compared with suppository and intravenous administration, indicating that 5-FU could be well absorbed due to the enlarged releasing area, longer retention time and larger amount of dissolved active ingredients. Systemically, 5-FU levels in the enema group were similar to those in the suppository group and significantly lower than the intravenous group. The enema was not associated with morphological damage to rectal tissue. These results suggest that the bio adhesive and in situ gelling enema could be a more effective rectal delivery system of 5-FU. PMID:23976976

Wang, Lu-Lu; Zheng, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Shao-Hua; Fang, Xia-Qin

2013-01-01

43

Salinity Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to measure the salinity of the water at your hydrology site. Students use a hydrometer to measure the specific gravity of the water sample, and use a thermometer to measure the temperature. With these two values, students will use tables to determine the salinity.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

44

The Malone antegrade continence enema combined with urinary diversion in adult neurogenic patients: early results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Patients with neurogenic voiding dysfunction often have coexisting neurogenic bowel problems. Impaired bowel evacuation is a cause of major morbidity and impaired lifestyle for these patients. The Malone antegrade continence enema (ACE) performed synchronously with a urinary continence procedure has been successful in pediatric patients. We report early experience combining the ACE with a urinary continence procedure in adult

Joel M. H. Teichman; Vince J. Rogenes; Douglas B. Barber

1997-01-01

45

Use of Malone Antegrade Continence Enema in Patients With Perineal Colostomy After Rectal Resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE  Abdominoperineal resection, with iliac colostomy, remains the gold standard treatment for very low-lying rectal cancer, but it alters patients quality of life. Alternatives to iliac colostomy need to be experimented. Antegrade enemas via a cecal access (Malone operation) obtains a colonic emptying and improves continence for incontinent patients. Continence and quality of life after abdominoperineal resection and perineal colostomy associated

Guillaume Portier; Nicolas Bonhomme; Ivan Platonoff; Frank Lazorthes

2005-01-01

46

Comparison of bismuth citrate and 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in distal ulcerative colitis: a controlled trial.  

PubMed Central

An enema that contained a complex of bismuth citrate and polyacrylate was compared with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) enemas for treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. The multicentre trial involving 63 patients was randomised and double blind with enemas given over four weeks; clinical, sigmoidoscopic, and histological assessments were made. Improvements were seen in both treatment groups. Clinical remission was seen in 18 of 32 patients treated with 5-ASA and 12 of 31 patients treated with bismuth citrate-carbomer (chi 2 1.94; p = 0.16). Sigmoidoscopic remission occurred in 20 of 32 patients in the 5-ASA group and 15 of 31 patients given bismuth (chi 2 1.27; p = 0.26). Improvement of rectal biopsy histology by at least one grade was seen in 16 of 32 patients in the 5-ASA group and 14 of 31 patients with bismuth (chi 2 0.15; p = 0.70). Analysis of covariance gave no significant difference between groups, although there was a trend favouring 5-ASA. There was no evidence of bismuth accumulation during the trial. Bismuth enemas may offer a new therapeutic option in distal ulcerative colitis. PMID:8504970

Pullan, R D; Ganesh, S; Mani, V; Morris, J; Evans, B K; Williams, G T; Rhodes, J

1993-01-01

47

Predictions of long-term behavior of a large-volume pilot test for CO2 geological storage in a saline formation in the Central Valley, California  

SciTech Connect

The long-term behavior of a CO{sub 2} plume injected into a deep saline formation is investigated, focusing on mechanisms that lead to plume stabilization. Key measures are plume migration distance and the time evolution of CO{sub 2} phase-partitioning, which are examined by developing a numerical model of the subsurface at a proposed power plant with CO{sub 2} capture in the San Joaquin Valley, California, where a large-volume pilot test of CO{sub 2} injection will be conducted. The numerical model simulates a four-year CO{sub 2} injection period and the subsequent evolution of the CO{sub 2} plume until it stabilizes. Sensitivity studies are carried out to investigate the effect of poorly constrained model parameters permeability, permeability anisotropy, and residual gas saturation.

Doughty, Christine; Myer, Larry R.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

2008-11-01

48

Salinity Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are the costs of deriving energy from the earth's natural reserves of salt. Argues that, as fossil fuel supplies become more depleted in the future, the environmental advantages of salinity power may prove to warrant its exploitation. (TW)

Schmitt, Walter R.

1987-01-01

49

[A case of hepatic encephalopathy successfully treated by antegrade glycerin enema through percutaneous endoscopic cecostomy].  

PubMed

A 76-year-old man with liver cirrhosis, a chronic defecation disorder and a refractory hepatic encephalopathy was hospitalized for the hepatic encephalopathy. The encephalopathy quickly improved upon treatment, but a high level of serum ammonia persisted. We inserted a percutaneous endoscopic cecostomy at the cecum and an antegrade glycerin enema through it to treat the chronic defecation disorder, which was a deteriorative factor of the hepatic encephalopathy. After the aforementioned procedure, the chronic defecation disorder improved and the serum ammonia level dramatically decreased. The patient continued the antegrade glycerin enema at home, and serum ammonia values remained low in comparison to levels measured prior to the administration of treatment. The subject has not experienced a recurrence of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:18176043

Tomikashi, Koichi; Nomura, Yuh; Miyawaki, Kiichiro; Shimada, Ayumi; Kanemitsu, Daisuke; Takashima, Hidetaka; Abe, Mitsumasa

2008-01-01

50

Failure of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas to improve chronic radiation proctitis  

SciTech Connect

Radiation proctitis is a well-known complication of abdominal and pelvic radiation. Conventional medical and surgical treatment often is disappointing. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is the active component in sulfasalazine and is effective in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. Four patients with radiation proctitis were treated with 4 g 5-ASA by enema nightly for two to six months. Patients were seen monthly, interviewed, and a sigmoidoscopic exam performed. No change was seen in the degree of mucosal inflammation on follow-up sigmoidoscopic exams. Three patients noted no change in their symptoms of bleeding, pain, or tenesmus. One patient noted initial improvement, but this was not sustained. 5-ASA enemas do not appear to be effective in the treatment of radiation proctitis.

Baum, C.A.; Biddle, W.L.; Miner, P.B. Jr.

1989-05-01

51

Mucosal colonic tube fistula with antireflux wrap for antegrade colonic enema.  

PubMed

Antegrade enemas can provide children with excellent faecal continence in situations where adequate control has been compromised because of underlying congential anomaly or poor surgical outcome in their treatment. The enema is often delivered through an appendicostomy. If the appendix is absent or utilized for another purpose, then placement of a chait tube or caecostomy button can provide access to the colon for the enema. However, these devices may be associated with breakages, accidental removal and leakage and replacement may require another operative procedure under a general anaesthetic. Full thickness colonic tubes can also be constructed at any point along the colon but in the author's experience, they can be associated with significant leakage of both gas and faecal material. The construction of a mucosal colonic tube with anti-reflux wrap is a technique that avoids the above problems and offers a distinctive advantage in selected situations. The technique relies on tabularising mucosa alone to create a continent fistula. Six children with severe soiling underwent the technique. The outcomes were evaluated using a modified quality of life score (QOLI). The score included assessment of soiling, staining, odour, self-esteem and socialization measure. Technical evaluation included analysis of the ease of catheterization and continence of the mucosal fistula site. All six patients had dramatic improvement in their faecal continence with complete resolution of soiling in all six. Follow up median is 42 months and the range is 6-48 months. QOLI scores improved from a total of 4.75 to 18.5. Possible range is 0-21. All the six fistula sites catheterize easily and no stenosis or faecal leakage has occurred. Two patients required treatment of minor granulations at the entry site of the fistula during the early healing phase. PMID:19455343

Bowkett, Brendon Douglas; Kelly, E W

2009-06-01

52

Spiral CT of the abdomen after distention of small bowel loops with transparent enema in patients with Crohn's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To evaluate the capability of a computed tomographic (CT) technique that combines distention of the small bowel loops with\\u000a a transparent enema with contrast-enhanced spiral CT of the abdomen in patients with Crohn's disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: We evaluated the abdomen with spiral CT after distention of the small bowel loops with a transparent enema of methylcellulose\\u000a in 40 patients consecutively

G. A. Rollandi; P. F. Curone; E. Biscaldi; F. Nardi; E. Bonifacino; R. Conzi; L. E. Derchi

1999-01-01

53

Saline Valley  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Figure 2

These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000 and cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the complementary nature of surface compositional information available as a function of wavelength. This image displays visible and near infrared bands 3, 2, and 1 in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. Figure 1 displays short wavelength infrared bands 4, 6, and 8 as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have diagnostic absorption features, resulting in distinct colors on the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich. Figure 2 displays thermal infrared bands 13, 12 and 10 as RGB. In this wavelength region, variations in quartz content appear as more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple. The image is located at 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2001-01-01

54

Salinity Patterns in the Ocean Lynne D Talley  

E-print Network

Salinity Patterns in the Ocean Lynne D Talley Volume 1, The Earth system: physical and chemical, Ltd, Chichester, 2002 #12;Salinity Patterns in the Ocean Lynne D Talley Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, La Jolla, CA, USA Ocean salinity varies geographically and with time

Talley, Lynne D.

55

Double contrast barium enema: technique, indications, results and limitations of a conventional imaging methodology in the MDCT virtual endoscopy era.  

PubMed

The double contrast barium enema of the colon continues to be a diffused conventional radiological technique and allows for the diagnosis of neoplastic and inflammatory pathology. After the '70s, a massive initiative is undertaken to simplify, perfect and encode the method of the double contrast barium enema: Altaras from Germany, Miller from USA and Cittadini from Italy are responsible for the perfection of this technique in the last 30 years. The tailored patient preparation, a perfect technique of execution and a precise radiological documentation are essentials steps to obtain a reliable examination. The main limit of double contrast enema is that it considers the pathology only from the mucosal surface. In neoplastic pathology evaluation the main limit is the "T" parameter staging, but more limited are the "N" and "M" parameters evaluation. Today the double contrast technique continues to be a refined, sensitive and specific diagnostic method, moreover, diagnostic results cannot compete with the new CT multislice techniques (CT-enteroclysis and virtual colonoscopy) which can examine both the lumen and the wall of the colon. The double contrast is a cheap and simple examination but in the next future is predictably a progressive substitution of conventional radiology from new multislice techniques, because the cross sectional imaging is more frequently able to detect causes of the symptoms whether resulting both from colonic or non colonic origin. PMID:17161931

Rollandi, Gian Andrea; Biscaldi, Ennio; DeCicco, Enzo

2007-03-01

56

Measuring Salinity by Conductivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines procedures for constructing an instrument which uses an electrode and calibration methods to measure the salinity of waters in environments close to and affected by a saline estuary. (Author/DC)

Lapworth, C. J.

1981-01-01

57

Mechanisms of Salinity Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological and molecular mechanisms of tolerance to os- motic and ionic components of salinity stress are reviewed at the cel- lular, organ, and whole-plant level. Plant growth responds to salinity in two phases: a rapid, osmotic phase that inhibits growth of young leaves, and a slower, ionic phase that accelerates senescence of ma- ture leaves. Plant adaptations to salinity

Rana Munns; Mark Tester

2008-01-01

58

Ileoanal pouches: Comparison of CT, scintigraphy, and contrast enemas for diagnosing postsurgical complications  

SciTech Connect

The value of CT of the pelvis, 111In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy, and contrast enema (pouchography) for detecting postsurgical complications was assessed in 44 patients with total colectomy, rectal mucosectomy, and ileoanal pouches. Ileoanal pouches were created as reservoirs from an ileal loop that was anastomosed to the dentate line of the anus and stayed connected to the remainder of the ileum. This pouch preserves the normal defecatory pathway and eliminates disease-producing mucosa. A total of 57 sets of examinations revealed 22 cases of normal postoperative findings, 22 of pouchitis, 13 of abscess, and three of fistula. Overall sensitivity for detecting complications with pouchography was 60% (18 of 30 findings); with CT, 78% (28 of 36 findings); and with scintigraphy, 79% (23 of 29 findings). Pouchitis was best diagnosed by scintigraphy (sensitivity, 80%), followed by CT (sensitivity, 71%) and pouchography (sensitivity, 53%). Only CT correctly diagnosed all cases of abscess. Fistulas were frequently missed by all three methods. If tests were combined, the overall sensitivity rose to 93% for the combination CT/scintigraphy and to 86% for CT/pouchography, but did not improve for pouchography/scintigraphy (78%). For evaluation of complications in patients with ileoanal pouches, CT should be the initial test. If an abscess is found, no further tests are needed. If CT findings are negative, a scintigram should be obtained. Our data did not establish a clear role for pouchography.

Thoeni, R.F.; Fell, S.C.; Engelstad, B.; Schrock, T.B. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

1990-01-01

59

A clinical study comparing BIVAP saline vaporization of the prostate with bipolar TURP in patients with prostate volume 30 to 80 mL: Early complications, physiological changes and postoperative follow-up outcomes  

PubMed Central

Introduction: We compare BIVAP saline vaporization of the prostate with bipolar transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Methods: In total, we included 86 patients treated with BIVAP (n = 44) and bipolar TURP (n = 42). The inclusion criteria were maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) ?10 mL/s, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) ?16, and prostate volume measured with transrectal ultrasound scan between 30 and 80 mL. Serum electrolyte, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels were determined preoperatively and postoperatively. All patients were evaluated at the postoperative first and third months and the IPSS score, post-void residual urinary volume (PVR), Qmax, and average urinary flow rate (Qave) were compared. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 16.0 program and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Preoperative demographic characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. The mean operation time was significantly higher (p = 0.02) and hospitalization time was significantly lower (p = 0.04) in the BIVAP group when compared to the bipolar TURP group. There was no significant difference between 2 groups in terms of preoperative and postoperative serum electrolyte, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Postoperative complication rates were similar in the 2 groups. The only exception was the rate of severe dysuria, which was significantly higher in the BIVAP group. No statistical difference was noted between the groups in terms of postoperative follow-up results. Conclusion: Bipolar TURP is a safe and highly effective technique which can be used in the surgical treatment of benign prostatic obstruction with minimal side effects. BIVAP saline vaporization of the prostate seems to be a potential alternative to bipolar TURP with shorter hospitalization time. PMID:25132894

Aydogdu, Ozgu; Karakose, Ayhan; Atesci, Yusuf Ziya

2014-01-01

60

Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

2013-01-01

61

Observing Salinity Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part 1: Students measure the salinity of samples using a refractometer, and consider the units and density of these values. Part 2: Students apply concepts and reinforce what they've learned about salinity and the water cycle to interpret a salinity contour map of a transect of the Pacific Ocean using WOCE data. Another goal is to familiarize students with using contour graphs of ocean data, in general.

Stephanie Jaeger

62

Phased surgical treatment of barium enema-induced rectal injury and retention of barium in the pelvic floor space  

PubMed Central

Iatrogenic injuries caused by barium enema are rarely reported. Following a phased surgical protocol for up to one year, we have successfully treated a patient with rectal injury and severe infection of the pelvic floor space complicated with retention of large amounts of barium and vaginal fistula. In this article, the phased surgery planning for the treatment of rectal injury complicated with vaginal fistula is discussed in terms of the pros and cons, and the observed effect and evolution of barium retained in the pelvic floor space are described. PMID:25405155

Yang, Xuefei; Xia, Ligang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Jianping

2014-01-01

63

Re-epithelialization of squamous epithelium for a radiation-induced rectal ulcer while giving an ecabet sodium enema.  

PubMed

The present patient developed a severe rectal ulcer more than 1 month after having received external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Surveillance endoscopy every 3 months demonstrated healing of this rectal ulcer using a novel therapy. He was given enemas with ecabet sodium, which provides physical protection and promotes healing by increasing prostaglandin E(2), and this process induced squamous metaplasia that halted the progression of the ulcer of radiation proctitis as a late-phase reaction. Intrapapillary capillary loops were visualized with magnified narrow band imaging at the healing ulcer site as seen via the esophagus and, moreover, demonstrated histologically. PMID:19691805

Chino, Akiko; Kishihara, Teruhito; Uragami, Naoyuki; Ishiyama, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Taishi; Hoshino, Etsuo; Igarashi, Masahiro; Fujita, Rikiya

2009-01-01

64

Effect of Majja Basti (therapeutic enema) and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) in the management of Osteoporosis (Asthi-Majjakshaya).  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder that affects entire skeleton, which is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of the skeleton, leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk. In Ayurveda, it can be correlated with Asthi-Majjakshaya. Basti (therapeutic enema) is the prime therapy for Asthi related diseases and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) is the drug which is being used for strengthening of bone by traditional Vaidya since long. It has been selected for oral administration. In clinical trial, 12 patients treated with Majja Basti along with Asthi Shrinkhala pulp capsules and results are very encouraging. PMID:23049194

Gupta, Ajay K; Shah, Nehal; Thakar, A B

2012-01-01

65

The microbial food web along salinity gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbial food web was studied along a gradient of salinity in two solar salterns used for the commercial production of salt. The different ponds in the salterns provide a wide range of ecosystems with food webs of different complexities. Abundance of prokaryotes, cell volume, prokaryotic heterotrophic production, chlorophyll a, abundance of heterotrophic flagellates, ciliates and phytoplankton were determined in

Carlos Pedrós-Alió; Juan I Calderón-Paz; Marlie H MacLean; Glòria Medina; Cèlia Marrasé; Josep M Gasol; Núria Guixa-Boixereu

2000-01-01

66

Salinity Management in Agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Existing guidelines and standards for reclamation of saline soils and management to control salinity exist but have not been updated for over 25 years. In the past few years a looming water scarcity has resulted in questioning of the long term future of irrigation projects in arid and semi arid regi...

67

USDA SALINITY CONTROL ENVIRONMENTALASSESSMENT  

E-print Network

n Ri ver Uni t Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program Prepared by Soil Conservati on Servi ce ted States Departrrent of Agri culture Prepared under Title II of the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act, Public Law 93-320 April 1981 #12;CONTENTS Page FOREWORD

68

Citrus and salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus is a major horticultural crop worldwide and is relatively salt sensitive. Salt damage usually manifests as leaf burn and defoliation, and is associated with accumulation of toxic levels of Na+ and\\/or Cl? in leaf cells. Factors affecting tree response to salinity are documented, including salinity levels for onset and rate of yield decline in mature trees. The review is

R Storey; R. R Walker

1998-01-01

69

Steric sea level variations during 19571994: Importance of salinity John I. Antonov  

E-print Network

Steric sea level variations during 1957­1994: Importance of salinity John I. Antonov National; published 23 November 2002. [1] Spatially averaged (50°S­65°N) temperature and salinity changes in the 0 year. About 10% of this rate is due to a decrease of the volume mean salinity. The magnitude of total

70

Avg.salinity(ppt) Femalecrabnumber  

E-print Network

0 5 10 15 20 25 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Avg.salinity(ppt) Femalecrabnumber > 25 ppt 15-25 ppt ppt Salinity 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Avg.salinity(ppt) Malecrabnumber > 25 ppt 15-25 ppt Salinity In South Carolina, blue crab commercial landings have decreased more than 30

Childress, Michael J.

71

A novel alternative for renal replacement therapy: 2-year successful colonic dialysis via a Malone antegrade continent enema stoma.  

PubMed

This study is a case report of home-based colonic dialysis (CD) for treating end-stage renal disease in a 20-year-old woman. She had a history of Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) for treating neuropathic bowel at the age of 11 years. The patient refused any type of renal replacement therapy. However, she agreed to CD through the MACE stoma by changing the colonic irrigation solution to the peritoneal dialysis solution. The patient was discharged with a plasma creatinine (Cr) level of 1.7 mg/dL and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level of 8 mg/dL. She has continued CD on a regular basis at home. The patient's serum Cr and BUN has remained in the steady low state during 24 months of follow-up (mean Cr level = 2.8 mg/dL and mean BUN level = 10.7 mg/dL). PMID:24345419

Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Zeinoddini, Atefeh; Heidari, Reza; NaserHodjjati, Haleh; Tourchi, Ali

2014-06-01

72

The microbial food web along salinity gradients.  

PubMed

The microbial food web was studied along a gradient of salinity in two solar salterns used for the commercial production of salt. The different ponds in the salterns provide a wide range of ecosystems with food webs of different complexities. Abundance of prokaryotes, cell volume, prokaryotic heterotrophic production, chlorophyll a, abundance of heterotrophic flagellates, ciliates and phytoplankton were determined in several ponds in each saltern. Increases in salinity resulted in a progressive reduction in the abundance and number of different groups of eukaryotic microorganisms present, but an increase in biomass of prokaryotes. Maximal activity of both phyto- and bacterioplankton was found at a salinity of around 100 per thousand, where there was also a maximum in chlorophyll a concentration. Growth rates of heterotrophic prokaryotes decreased with increasing salinity. Bacterivory disappeared above 250 per thousand salinity, whereas other loss factors such as viral lysis appeared to be of minor importance throughout the gradient [Guixa-Boixereu et al. (1996) Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 11, 215-227]. PMID:10817867

Pedrós-Alió; Calderón-Paz; MacLean; Medina; Marrasé; Gasol; Guixa-Boixereu

2000-04-01

73

Hypertonic Saline in Treatment of Pulmonary Disease in Cystic Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration. PMID:22645424

Reeves, Emer P.; Molloy, Kevin; Pohl, Kerstin; McElvaney, Noel G.

2012-01-01

74

Does large-bowel enema reduce septic complications in acute pancreatitis? 1 1 This study was performed in the Experimental Medical Research Center of Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The source of septic complications in acute pancreatitis was unknown until recent years. The pathogenesis of bacterial translocation from the gut has been accepted as the main source of pancreatic or peripancreatic infection. This study was designed to investigate the role of large bowel enema during acute pancreatitis in preventing bacterial translocation.MATERIALS AND METHODS:Twenty-four Spraque-Dawley rats were used in

Serdar Yol; Mahmut Baykan; ?ükrü Özer; Mehmet Aköz; Osman Yilmaz; Cüneyt Kuru

1998-01-01

75

3, 16611680, 2006 DSOW salinity  

E-print Network

OSD 3, 1661­1680, 2006 DSOW salinity forcing J. Holfort and T. Albrecht Title Page Abstract Atmospheric forcing of DSOW salinity J. Holfort 1,* and T. Albrecht 2 1 Institut f¨ur Meereskunde der 2006 Correspondence to: J. Holfort (juergen@holfort.org) 1661 #12;OSD 3, 1661­1680, 2006 DSOW salinity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

76

Chloride and Salinity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-07-15

77

Evaporites and the Salinity of the Ocean During the Phanerozoic: Implications for Climate, Ocean Circulation and Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compilation of data on volumes and masses of evaporite deposits is used as the basis for reconstruction of the salinity of the ocean in the past. Chloride is tracked as the only ion essentially restricted to the ocean, and past salinities are calculated from reconstructed chlorine content of the ocean. Models for ocean salinity through the Phanerozoic are developed

S. Floegel; W. W. Hay; A. Migdisov; A. N. Balukhovsky; C. N. Wold; E. Soeding

2005-01-01

78

Evaporites and the salinity of the ocean during the Phanerozoic: Implications for climate, ocean circulation and life  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compilation of data on volumes and masses of evaporite deposits is used as the basis for reconstruction of the salinity of the ocean in the past. Chloride is tracked as the only ion essentially restricted to the ocean, and past salinities are calculated from reconstructed chlorine content of the ocean. Models for ocean salinity through the Phanerozoic are developed

William W. Hay; Areg Migdisov; Alexander N. Balukhovsky; Christopher N. Wold; Sascha Flögel; Emanuel Söding

2006-01-01

79

Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online in 2009, the Aquarius instrument will measure sea surface salinity. Site provides background information about salinity, salinity lesson plans, and salinity data and tools. Activities include relating salt to density, conductivity, buoyancy, and understanding the effect of the water cycle on salinity. View figures of sea surface salinity and temperature as they change from month to month and more.

80

Salinity Budget and WRAP Salinity Simulation Studies of the Brazos River/Reservoir System  

E-print Network

Institute Lake Whitney Comprehensive Assessment Conducted by Baylor University Sponsored through the U.S. Department of Energy Operations Management Model Project Sponsored by the Brazos River Authority Technical Report No. 352 Texas... Possum Kingdom, Granbury, and Whitney and (2) to improve salinity simulation capabilities of the Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP) modeling system. Water volume and TDS load budgets are presented for five river reaches covering about 500 miles...

Wurbs, Ralph; Lee, Chihun

81

Dryland salinity in Western Australia: managing a changing water cycle.  

PubMed

Clearing of agricultural land has resulted in significant changes to the surface and groundwater hydrology. Currently about 10% of agricultural land in Western Australia is affected by dryland salinity and between a quarter and a third of the area is predicted to be lost to salinity before a new hydrological equilibrium is reached. This paper develops a general statement describing the changes to the surface and groundwater hydrology of the wheatbelt of Western Australia between preclearing, the year 2000 and into the future. For typical catchments in the wheatbelt it is estimated that average groundwater recharge and surface runoff have increased about tenfold when comparing the current hydrology to that preclearing. Saline groundwater discharge and flood volumes have also increased significantly. Saline groundwater discharge and associated salt load will probably double in the future in line with the predicted increase in the area of dryland salinity. In addition, future increases in the area of dryland salinity/permanent waterlogging will probably double the volumes in flood events and further increase surface runoff in average years. The outcomes of surface and groundwater management trials have been briefly described to estimate how the hydrology would be modified if the trials were implemented at a catchment scale. These results have been used to formulate possible integrated revegetation and drainage management strategies. The future hydrology and impacts with and without integrated management strategies have been compared. PMID:12793681

Taylor, R J; Hoxley, G

2003-01-01

82

Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling  

DOEpatents

The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water that is cold, nutrient rich and relatively fresh in comparison to the surface water which is relatively warm, relatively nutrient deficient and relatively saline. A plurality of elongated flow segregating tubes are disposed in the main duct and extend from the upper cover plate beyond the lower cover plate into a lower manifold plate. The lower manifold plate is spaced from the lower cover plate to define a deep water fluid flow path to the interior space of the main duct. Spacer tubes extend from the upper cover plate and communicate with the interior space of the main duct. The spacer tubes are received in an upper manifold plate spaced from the upper cover plate to define a surface water fluid flow path into the flow segregating tubes. A surface water-deep water counterflow is thus established with deep water flowing upwardly through the main duct interior for discharge beyond the upper manifold plate while surface water flows downwardly through the flow segregating tubes for discharge below the lower manifold plate. During such counterflow heat is transferred from the downflowing warm water to the upflowing cold water. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep water and the surface water due to their differences in salinity. The upwelling of nutrient rich deep water is used for marifarming by fertilizing the nutrient deficient surface water.

Johnson, David H. (Lakewood, CO)

1986-01-01

83

Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling  

DOEpatents

The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water that is cold, nutrient rich and relatively fresh in comparison to the surface water which is relatively warm, relatively nutrient deficient and relatively saline. A plurality of elongated flow segregating tubes are disposed in the main duct and extend from the upper cover plate beyond the lower cover plate into a lower manifold plate. The lower manifold plate is spaced from the lower cover plate to define a deep water fluid flow path to the interior space of the main duct. Spacer tubes extend from the upper cover plate and communicate with the interior space of the main duct. The spacer tubes are received in an upper manifold plate spaced from the upper cover plate to define a surface water fluid flow path into the flow segregating tubes. A surface water-deep water counterflow is thus established with deep water flowing upwardly through the main duct interior for discharge beyond the upper manifold plate while surface water flows downwardly through the flow segregating tubes for discharge below the lower manifold plate. During such counterflow heat is transferred from the downflowing warm water to the upflowing cold water. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep water and the surface water due to their differences in salinity. The upwelling of nutrient rich deep water is used for marifarming by fertilizing the nutrient deficient surface water. 1 fig.

Johnson, D.H.

1984-08-30

84

Salinization processes of continental aquifers during marine transgression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saline fluids with moderate concentrations have been sampled in basement aquifers at the regional scale in the Armorican shield (northwestern France). The horizontal and vertical distributions of high chloride concentrations (60-1400mg/L) are in good agreement with altitudinal and spatial limits of three major marine transgressions between the Mio-Pliocene and Pleistocene ages. The current distribution of fresh and "saline" groundwater at depth is the result mostly of processes occurring at geological timescales - seawater intrusion processes followed by fresh groundwater flushing -, and slightly of recent anthropogenic activities. In this abstract, we focus on seawater intrusion mechanisms in continental aquifers to investigate how saline fluids are irreversibly introduced into aquifers after a full transgression cycle. We first show that most of salt water that remains after the end of a marine transgression comes from a destabilization of the salt water wedge. This mainly occurs by gravity instabilities, which develop from salinized rivers or estuaries that penetrate inland on top of fresh groundwater. This downward diapirism is an efficient mechanism to feed deep aquifers with highly saline water at relatively high rates. Series of numerical model (time-dependent, variable-density flow and transport) of free convection have been performed with a permeability model typical of the continental crust (i.e. exponentially decreasing with depth). Salinization has been quantified according to the width of the stream, the properties of the initial perturbation (amplitude and wavelength), the stream salinity and the regional groundwater flow. Simulations allow us to identify the conditions necessary to develop gravity instabilities, and if it does, the rates at which basement aquifers are salinized. We then identify the continental zones, where these conditions are fulfilled and make an estimate of the total volume of salt that can remain in aquifers after a transgression. Eventually we discuss how saline fluids are flushed out by fresh groundwater flows.

Armandine Les Landes, Antoine; Davy, Philippe; Aquilina, Luc

2014-05-01

85

Simulating root water uptake from a shallow saline groundwater resource  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Disposal of saline drainage water is a significant problem for irrigated agriculture. One proposal to deal with this problem is sequential biological concentration (SBC), which is the process of recycling drainage water on increasingly more salt tolerant crops until the volume of drainage water has ...

86

CAN BROCCOLI TOLERATE HIGHER CONCENTRATIONS OF BORON UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reuse of saline drainage water is a management option that is necessary for reducing the volume of drainage water produced on the west side of California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV). A potential limitation in implementing a drainage water reuse system is determining the extent by which boron, a natur...

87

A novel colonoscopic approach for the management of a Malone antegrade continence enema channel, which cannot be catheterized in the immediate postoperative period: a case report.  

PubMed

Early Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) complications are rare, but can be devastating, particularly if they involve loss of the channel. Management of these complications is not well described. We report on a patient who had her MACE channel successfully salvaged in the immediate postoperative period using a colonoscopic retrograde wire and catheter placement after failing antegrade percutaneous endoscopic management. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a novel, colonoscopic, minimally invasive technique of managing select MACE channels, which cannot be otherwise recatheterized. We also review the management of postoperative MACE complications. PMID:25306482

Szymanski, Konrad M; Keenan, Alison; Cain, Mark P; Waseem, Shamaila; Kaefer, Martin

2014-12-01

88

Management of dryland saline seeps  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Discussed is the identification, diagnosis, control, and reclamation of dryland saline seep problems as found in the North American Great Plains. Saline seeps develop because of geologic stratifications within the soil profile and insufficient use of precipitation by crops used in dryland farming s...

89

Salinity in the Colorado River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1922 Colorado River Compact's failure to address salinity is responsible for many of the regional conflicts over users of Colorado River water. Salinity was again omitted in a 1944 treaty with Mexico. This was not a problem until water quality began deteriorating in the early 1960s. Negotiations between the Colorado Basin states and Mexico included the construction of a

Kneese

1982-01-01

90

Salinity forum: what, how, why  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, salinity in the Colorado River System has increased significantly due to export of high-quality water from the upper reaches and salt pickup from irrigation return flow. Actions in any part of the basin (including parts of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming) affect the problem, and basinwide approach is highly desirable. Although damages due to salinity

D. F. Lawrence; B. C. Saunders

1981-01-01

91

The long-term salinity field in San Francisco Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data are presented on long-term salinity behaviour in San Francisco Bay, California. A two-level, width averaged model of the tidally averaged salinity and circulation has been written in order to interpret the long-term (days to decades) salinity variability. The model has been used to simulate daily averaged salinity in the upper and lower levels of a 51 segment discretization of the Bay over the 22-yr period 1967-1988. Monthly averaged surface salinity from observations and monthly-averaged simulated salinity are in reasonable agreement. Good agreement is obtained from comparison with daily averaged salinity measured in the upper reaches of North Bay. The salinity variability is driven primarily by freshwater inflow with relatively minor oceanic influence. All stations exhibit a marked seasonal cycle in accordance with the Mediterranean climate, as well as a rich spectrum of variability due to extreme inflow events and extended periods of drought. Monthly averaged salinity intrusion positions have a pronounced seasonal variability and show an approximately linear response to the logarithm of monthly averaged Delta inflow. Although few observed data are available for studies of long-term salinity stratification, modelled stratification is found to be strongly dependent on freshwater inflow; the nature of that dependence varies throughout the Bay. Near the Golden Gate, stratification tends to increase up to very high inflows. In the central reaches of North Bay, modelled stratification maximizes as a function of inflow and further inflow reduces stratification. Near the head of North Bay, lowest summer inflows are associated with the greatest modelled stratification. Observations from the central reaches of North Bay show marked spring-neap variations in stratification and gravitational circulation, both being stronger at neap tides. This spring-neap variation is simulated by the model. A feature of the modelled stratification is a hysteresis in which, for a given spring-neap tidal range and fairly steady inflows, the stratification is higher progressing from neaps to springs than from springs to neaps. The simulated responses of the Bay to perturbations in coastal sea salinity and Delta inflow have been used to further delineate the time-scales of salinity variability. Simulations have been performed about low inflow, steady-state conditions for both salinity and Delta inflow perturbations. For salinity perturbations a small, sinusoidal salinity signal with a period of 1 yr has been applied at the coastal boundary as well as a pulse of salinity with a duration of one day. For Delta inflow perturbations a small, sinusoidally varying inflow signal with a period of 1 yr has been superimposed on an otherwise constant Delta inflow, as well as a pulse of inflow with a duration of one day. Perturbations in coastal salinity dissipate as they move through the Bay. Seasonal perturbations require about 40-45 days to propagate from the coastal ocean to the Delta and to the head of South Bay. The response times of the model to perturbations in freshwater inflow are faster than this in North Bay and comparable in South Bay. In North Bay, time-scales are consistent with advection due to lower level, up-estuary transport of coastal salinity perturbations; for inflow perturbations, faster response times arise from both upper level, down-estuary advection and much faster, down-estuary migration of isohalines in response to inflow volume continuity. In South Bay, the dominant time-scales are governed by tidal dispersion.

Uncles, R. J.; Peterson, D. H.

92

ConcepTest: Ocean Salinity #2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How would salinity of the oceans vary if the oceans were twice as deep as present and held approximately twice as much water? a. Salinity would be less than present b. Salinity would be greater than present c. ...

93

The Mediterranean salinity crisis  

SciTech Connect

That the Mediterranean Sea underwent a salinity crisis during the Miocene (Messinian) is proven by the 1970 JOIDES deep sea drilling expedition. Subsequent work by ocean drilling and by studies on land have recorded the history of this crisis. Based upon the deep desiccated-basin model, the use of event-stratigraphy, calibrated by strontium-isotope dating and magnetostratigraphy, has enabled them to decipher the following events between 6.0 and 5.1 Ma: (1) deposition of marine diatom-rich sediments in a partially restricted basin, (2) first desiccation of the Mediterranean when Calcare di base was deposited at a time of isolation from the Atlantic because of a glacial eustatic drop of sea level, (3) influx of marine waters through southern Spanish basins to furnish brines for the deposition of the main salt, (4) Intra-Messinian desiccation, as evidenced by the erosional unconformity above the lower evaporite, (5) Intra-Messinian denudation, when reefs grew on Cyprus and marine sediments were deposited in basins, (6) frequency isolations due to oscillating sea level, when the upper evaporite was deposited, (7) Lago mare, formation of freshwater and brackish lakes due to influx of Paratethys water, (8) opening of the Gibraltar and Pliocene inundation of the Mediterranean.

Hsue, K.J.

1988-08-01

94

Planar saline bath phantom of the Rush head model.  

PubMed

The Rush head model is an approximation of the volume conducting properties of the human head. A planar saline bath phantom was developed to simulate the key properties of the Rush head model while creating a testing platform for implantable neural devices. The phantom closely mimics electrical properties of human tissue such as increased resistivity through the skull region and current flow that wraps around the head. Preliminary testing shows good agreement of the saline bath phantom to predictions from a computer model. PMID:22256016

Shephard, Clarissa; Jochum, Thomas; Abzug, Zachary; Wolf, Patrick

2011-01-01

95

Stochastic Modeling of Soil Salinity  

E-print Network

A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equation to a single stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. The novel analytical solutions provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long-term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in long-term soil salinization trend...

Suweis, S; Van der Zee, S E A T M; Daly, E; Maritan, A; Porporato, A; 10.1029/2010GL042495

2012-01-01

96

Comparison of Normal Saline, Hypertonic Saline Albumin and Terlipressin plus Hypertonic Saline Albumin in an Infant Animal Model of Hypovolemic Shock  

PubMed Central

Introduction In series of cases and animal models suffering hemorrhagic shock, the use of vasopressors has shown potential benefits regarding hemodynamics and tissue perfusion. Terlipressin is an analogue of vasopressin with a longer half-life that can be administered by bolus injection. We have previously observed that hypertonic albumin improves resuscitation following controlled hemorrhage in piglets. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether the treatment with the combination of terlipressin and hypertonic albumin can produce better hemodynamic and tissular perfusion parameters than normal saline or hypertonic albumin alone at early stages of hemorrhagic shock in an infant animal model. Methods Experimental, randomized animal study including 39 2-to-3-month-old piglets. Thirty minutes after controlled 30 ml/kg bleed, pigs were randomized to receive either normal saline (NS) 30 ml/kg (n = 13), 5% albumin plus 3% hypertonic saline (AHS) 15 ml/kg (n = 13) or single bolus of terlipressin 15 ?g/kg i.v. plus 5% albumin plus 3% hypertonic saline 15 ml/kg (TAHS) (n = 13) over 30 minutes. Global hemodynamic and tissular perfusion parameters were compared. Results After controlled bleed a significant decrease of blood pressure, cardiac index, central venous saturation, carotid and peripheral blood flow, brain saturation and an increase of heart rate, gastric PCO2 and lactate was observed. After treatment no significant differences in most hemodynamic (cardiac index, mean arterial pressure) and perfusion parameters (lactate, gastric PCO2, brain saturation, cutaneous blood flow) were observed between the three therapeutic groups. AHS and TAHS produced higher increase in stroke volume index and carotid blood flow than NS. Conclusions In this pediatric animal model of hypovolemic shock, albumin plus hypertonic saline with or without terlipressin achieved similar hemodynamics and perfusion parameters than twice the volume of NS. Addition of terlipressin did not produce better results than AHS. PMID:25794276

2015-01-01

97

Hypoaigic influences on groundwater flux to a seasonally saline river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryHypoaigic zones are aquifer volumes close to and beneath the shores of saline surface water bodies, and are characterized by the presence of time-dependent natural convection and chemical stratification. When transient and cyclic processes are involved there is significant potential for complex flow and reaction in the near-shore aquifer, presenting a unique challenge to pollutant risk assessment methodologies. This work considers the nature of some hypoaigic processes generated by the seasonally saline Canning River of Western Australia near a site contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. A dissolved hydrocarbon plume migrates within the shallow superficial aquifer to the nearby bank of the Canning River. Beneath the river bank a zone of complex fluid mixing is established by seasonal and tidal influences. Understanding this complexity and the subsequent ramifications for local biogeochemical conditions is critical to inferring the potential for degradation of advecting contaminants. A range of modelling approaches throws light on the overall topographic controls of discharge to the river, on the saline convection processes operating under the river bank, on the potential for fluid mixing, and on the various important time scales in the system. Saline distributions simulated within the aquifer hypoaigic zone are in at least qualitative agreement with previous field measurements at the site and are strongly affected by seasonal influences. Groundwater seepage velocities at the shoreline are found to be positively correlated with river salinity. Calculations of fluid age distributions throughout the system show sensitivity to dispersivity values; however, maximum fluid ages under the river appear to be diffusion limited to a few decades. The saline convection cell in the aquifer defines a zone of strong dispersive dilution of aged (many decades) deep aquifer fluids with relatively young (several months) riverine fluids. Seasonal recharge and river salinity cycles induce regular perturbations to the convection cell, yielding intra-annual variations of 50% in seepage velocity and almost 30% in wedge penetration distance at the plume location.

Trefry, M. G.; Svensson, T. J. A.; Davis, G. B.

2007-03-01

98

Origin of salinity in a multilayered aquifer with high salinization vulnerability  

E-print Network

Origin of salinity in a multilayered aquifer with high salinization vulnerability Nathalie Gassama1 to salinization due to potential seawater intrusion, and our aim was to determine the source of salinity recorded intensity. There was no evidence of seawater intrusion. The range of recorded salinity originated mainly

Boyer, Edmond

99

Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

2005-01-01

100

Temperature/Salinity/Density activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an in-class activity. I used it relatively early in the semester, after covering the basic water properties portion of the class. I use the relationship between temperature/salinity/density to begin discussing vertical movement of water. The first purpose of this activity is to reinforce the concepts that have just been explained about the relationship between temperature and density and salinity and density. The second purpose is to bring these ideas back to what they have learned about density differences. Finally, the activity is also designed to help them learn how to read graphs.

Petra Dekens

101

Diagenetic saline formation waters: Their role in crustal processes  

SciTech Connect

Formation waters typical of most sedimentary basins are Bi-rich, Na-Ca-Cl brines. High Cl content is due to halite dissolution and high Ca content to albitization of metastable detrital plagioclase deposited in both sands and shales. High Br content is due to halite recrystallization, especially during deformation, and to the conversion of carnallite to sylvite. Minor elements and isotopes are all controlled by mineral/water reactions. Saline formation waters are thus a normal diagenetic product formed during burial. Diagenetic formation waters constitute a previously unrecognized loop in crustal cycling. Transfer of Li, B, S, Cl, Ca, and Br from sediments to brines, and then discharge of brines back to the ocean, explains why these six elements are depleted in the average igneous crust relative to the average sedimentary crust. Diagenetic saline formation waters are limited in volume only by the availability of sedimentary halite and detrital plagioclase. Thus, the volume of fluids available for MVT-type mineralization and late stage sediment diagenesis is much larger than would be true if formation waters were modified surficial brines. Discharge of saline formation waters from sedimentary basins accounts for efficient chloride cycling (225 Ma residence time in the ocean), and for most of the chloride content of the world's rivers not due to aerosols. Expulsion of large volumes of diagenetic formation waters during tectonism can account for rapid excursions in oceanic chemistry, as in the case of [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr.

Land, L.S. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. Geology)

1992-01-01

102

Revegetation of Saline Playa Margins  

Microsoft Academic Search

New shrub recruitment in saline playa margins is limited by extremely high osmotic potentials of the seedbed. In the Eagle Valley playa near Fernley, NV, recruitment is rare and occurs mostly in recently deposited eolian and flood-deposited sediments of low osmotic potential. In most instances, however, sediment is of insufficient thickness to support long-term growth. In 1990, as part of

Robert R. Blank; James A. Young

103

REVEGETATION OF SALINE PLAYA MARGINS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New shrub recruitment in saline playa margins is limited by extremely high osmotic potentials of the seedbed. In the Eagle Valley playa near Fernley NV, recruitment is rare and occurs mostly in recently deposited eolian and flood-deposited sediments of low osmotic potential. In most instances, howev...

104

Determining Salinity by Simple Means.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the construction and use of a simple salinometer. The salinometer is composed, mainly, of a milliammeter and a battery and uses the measurement of current flow to determine the salinity of water. A complete list of materials is given, as are details of construction and operation of the equipment. The use of the salinometer in…

Schlenker, Richard M.

105

Mycelial bacteria of saline soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The actinomycetal complexes of saline soils comprise the representatives of the Streptomyces and Micromonospora genera, the number of which are hundreds and thousands of CFU/g soil. Complexes of mycelial bacteria in saline soils are poorer in terms of number (by 1-3 orders of magnitude) and taxonomic composition than the complexes of the zonal soil types. A specific feature of the actinomycetal complexes of saline soils is the predominance of halophilic, alkaliphilic, and haloalkaliphilic streptomycetes that well grow at pH 8-9 and concentrations of NaCl close to 5%. Actinomycetes in saline soils grow actively, and the length of their mycelium reaches 140 m in 1 gram of soil. The haloalkaliphilic streptomycetes grow fast and inhibit the formation of spores at pH 9 and high concentrations of salts (Na2SO4 and MgCl2, 5%) as compared to their behavior on a neutral medium with a salt concentration of 0.02%. They are characterized by the maximal radial growth rate of colonies on an alkaline medium with 5% NaCl.

Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Zenova, G. M.; Oborotov, G. V.

2008-10-01

106

Cumulative soil chemistry changes from land application of saline-sodic waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of large volumes (60,000 ha-m) of co-production water associated with coal bed natural gas (CBNG) water extraction is a potential concern in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana due to elevated water salinity and sodicity levels. Land application of saline-sodic CBNG water is a common water management method being practiced in the PRB, which can result

Girisha K. Ganjegunte; Lyle A. King; George F. Vance

2008-01-01

107

INTEGRATING DESALINATION AND AGRICULTURAL SALINITY CONTROL ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The cost-effectiveness relationships for various agricultural and desalination alternatives for controlling salinity in irrigation return flows are developed. Selection of optimal salinity management strategies on a river basin scale is described as a problem of integrating optim...

108

ConcepTest: Ocean Salinity #1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How would the salinity of the oceans vary if the continents and oceans each covered 50% of Earth's surface and precipitation and evaporation were similar to present? a. salinity would be lower than today b. ...

109

USDA SALINITY CONTROL ENVI RONMENTAL ASSESSMENT .  

E-print Network

of Agriculture Prepared under the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act, Public Law 93-320s Title II February, Nevada Of The Virgin River Unit Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Prepared By Soil Conservation

110

40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity gradients form where salt water from the ocean meets and mixes with...

2013-07-01

111

40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity gradients form where salt water from the ocean meets and mixes with...

2010-07-01

112

40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity gradients form where salt water from the ocean meets and mixes with...

2014-07-01

113

40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity gradients form where salt water from the ocean meets and mixes with...

2011-07-01

114

40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity gradients form where salt water from the ocean meets and mixes with...

2012-07-01

115

Salinity impact assessment of lower Murray horticulture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salinity of the Lower Murray is episodically high. Following the adoption of efficient irrigation practices, irrigators in the Lower Murray region have noticed high salinity levels in the root zone, despite the relatively low salinity irrigation water in recent years. Highly efficient irrigation in this semiarid climate results in elevated levels of salt in the root zone due to

Geoff McLean; Tapas Biswas; Gerrit Schrale

116

Plant physiology Interaction of salinity and temperature  

E-print Network

Plant physiology Interaction of salinity and temperature on the germination of alfalfa cv CUF 101 problem. A laboratory experiment was initiated to evaluate the effect of salinity - tempera- ture interactions on the germination of alfalfa cv CUF 101. The alfalfa seeds were sown in Petri dishes with saline

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

117

Students measuring salinity at Pier 45, Manhattan  

E-print Network

Students measuring salinity at Pier 45, Manhattan Atlantic silversides, a marker of salty conditions, at Englewood Seining at Englewood A Day in the Life of the Hudson River 2010: Salinity Changes Year to Year Your site _________________If measured, your salinity on Oct. 14__________ 2010

Khatiwala, Samar

118

4, 139, 2007 Estimate of salinity  

E-print Network

OSD 4, 1­39, 2007 Estimate of salinity from temperature profiles F. Reseghetti Title Page Abstract reconstruction of salinity from temperature profiles with phenomenological constraints F. Reseghetti ENEA@santateresa.enea.it) 1 #12;OSD 4, 1­39, 2007 Estimate of salinity from temperature profiles F. Reseghetti Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

119

HYDROCLIMATOLOGY Exploring the Mystery of Salinity  

E-print Network

ALPINE HYDROCLIMATOLOGY Exploring the Mystery of Salinity Change in Portions of the StanislausLeo #12;#12;ALPINE HYDROCLIMATOLOGY Exploring the Mystery of Salinity Change in Portions of the Stanislaus 1. Distribution of precipitation and soil salinity, Western United States. 1 INTRODUCTION

120

Swart and Price Salinity Variations in Florida Bay Origin of Salinity Variations in Florida Bay  

E-print Network

Swart and Price Salinity Variations in Florida Bay 1 Origin of Salinity Variations in Florida Bay causes reductions in salinity in the coastal environment of South Florida. This technique, which uses the major source of fresh waters causing depressions in the salinity in the western portion of Florida Bay

Swart, Peter K.

121

WATER QUALITY STANDARDS FOR SALINITY NUMERIC CRITERIA AND PLAN OF IMPLEMENTATION FOR SALINITY CONTROL  

E-print Network

PROPOSED WATER QUALITY STANDARDS FOR SALINITY INCLUDING NUMERIC CRITERIA AND PLAN OF IMPLEMENTATION FOR SALINITY CONTROL COLORADO RIVER SYSTEM I ' Prepared by Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Forum June 1975 #12;MEMBERS OF COLORADO RIVER BASIN SALINITY CONTROL FORUM ARIZONA: CALIFORNIA

122

Storm-damaged saline-contaminated boreholes as a means of aquifer contamination  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Saline water from a storm surge can flow down storm-damaged submerged water supply wells and contaminate boreholes and surrounding aquifers. Using data from conventional purging techniques, aquifer test response analysis, chemical analysis, and regression analysis of chloride/silica (Cl/Si) ratio, equations were derived to estimate the volume of saline water intrusion into a well and a porous media aquifer, the volume of water needed to purge a well shortly following an intrusion event, and the volume of water needed after delay of several or more months, when the saline plume has expanded. Purging time required is a function of volume of water and pumping rate. The study site well is located within a shoreline community of Lake Pontchartrain, St. Tammany Parish, in southeastern Louisiana, United States, which was impacted by two hurricane storm surges and had neither been rehabilitated nor chlorinated prior to our study. Chemical analysis of water samples in fall 2005 and purging of well and aquifer in June 6, 2006, indicated saline water had intruded the well in 2005 and the well and aquifer in 2006. The volume of water needed to purge the study well was approximately 200 casing volumes, which is significantly greater than conventionally used during collection of water samples for water quality analyses. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

Carlson, D.A.; Van Biersel, T. P.; Milner, L.R.

2008-01-01

123

Salinity Control in Irrigation Agriculture.  

E-print Network

, Texas SUMMARY CONTENTS Both the quality of water available and the soil management practices influence the results ob- tained with salty irrigation waters . For most suc- cessful use of saline waters. apply the following principles: Test water... and soil periodically and use these analyses as a basis for planning management prac- tices . TEST-DON'T GUESS . Apply water uniformly by using a properly de- signed irrigation system and by leveling where necessary . Apply enough water for the crop...

Longenecker, Donald E.; Lyerly, Paul J.

1962-01-01

124

Salinity effects on leaf anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing salinity led to substantially higher ratios of mesophyll surface area to leaf area (A\\/sup mes\\/\\/A) for Phaseolus vulgaris and Gossypium hirsutum and a smaller increase for Atriplex patula, a salt-tolerant species. The increase in internal surface for COâ absorption did not lead to higher COâ uptake rates, since the COâ resistance expressed on the basis of mesophyll cell wall

D. J. Longstreth; P. S. Nobel

1979-01-01

125

The Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first part of this presentation gives an overview over the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The instrument calibration [2] converts Aquarius radiometer counts into antenna temperatures (TA). The salinity retrieval algorithm converts those TA into brightness temperatures (TB) at a flat ocean surface. As a first step, contributions arising from the intrusion of solar, lunar and galactic radiation are subtracted. The antenna pattern correction (APC) removes the effects of cross-polarization contamination and spillover. The Aquarius radiometer measures the 3rd Stokes parameter in addition to vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations, which allows for an easy removal of ionospheric Faraday rotation. The atmospheric absorption at L-band is almost entirely due to molecular oxygen, which can be calculated based on auxiliary input fields from numerical weather prediction models and then successively removed from the TB. The final step in the TA to TB conversion is the correction for the roughness of the sea surface due to wind, which is addressed in more detail in section 3. The TB of the flat ocean surface can now be matched to a salinity value using a surface emission model that is based on a model for the dielectric constant of sea water [3], [4] and an auxiliary field for the sea surface temperature. In the current processing only v-pol TB are used for this last step.

Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank; Hilburn, Kyle; Lagerloef, Gary; Le Vine, David

2012-01-01

126

Salinization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students work as a team to determine the effect salt has on plant germination. They then use their lab data to create a report on how the increasing salt concentrations affected the germination of the seeds and at what salt concentration no seeds will germinate. Students will discover that salt buildup is an existing or potential hazard on almost all of the 42 million acres of irrigated farmland in the United States. Much of the world's unused land is in arid and semiarid regions where irrigation will be necessary. Water contains a small amount of salt and over time this salt accumulates in the soil. This activity has an accompanying teacher site with hints and more information.

Lonnie Miller

127

The value of colonoscopy and double-contrast barium-enema examinations in the evaluation of patients with subacute and chronic lower intestinal bleeding  

SciTech Connect

One hundred thirty six consecutive patients were examined with histories of guaiac positive stool examinations, bright red blood per rectum, or hematochezia to determine the value of the double-contrast barium-enema (DC-BE) examination and colonoscopy/proctoscopy in establishing bleeding sites. If examination findings were analyzed in conjunction with findings of visual examination of the anal area, the difference in the respective sensitivities of the two examinations was not statistically significant. If findings at the visual inspection were excluded, the DC-BE examination missed 45 of 155 proved bleeding sites (sensitivity, 71%) and 13 of 35 nonbleeding lesions (sensitivity for all lesions 70%), while colonoscopy missed 13 of 155 bleeding sites (sensitivity, 92%) and seven of 35 nonbleeding lesions (sensitivity for all lesions, 90%). The sensitivity of both methods was similar if all rectal and anal lesions were excluded. We conclude that colonoscopy is superior to the DC-BE examination in the detection of bleeding sites but similar in results to the DC-BE examination if lesions in the anal canal and rectum are excluded. The routine use of the DC-BE examination in patients with superficial lesions in the anal canal should be discouraged unless the patient has persistent bleeding or is 50 years old or older.

Thoeni, R.F. (Univ. of California, San Francisco); Venbrux, A.C.

1983-03-01

128

Runoff quality impacts of dust suppression using saline water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In mining and gas operations, dust generation from unsealed roads is a major problem. Commonly, road watering is used to suppress dust, with the lowest water quality available generally being selected for that purpose. Whilst minimising water usage for the site, that practice does create concerns with respect to potential environmental impacts if runoff from the treated roads has significantly elevated salinity. For coal seam gas operations, the water extracted concurrently with the gas contains predominantly sodium bicarbonate. Therefore, where coal seam gas water is sprayed onto roads, there is potential for elevated sodium in runoff to impact on soil adjoining the roads, but there is no information on the rates of dissolution and mobilisation of soluble salt from the surface of roads that have been sprayed with low quality water to reduce dust. Therefore a rainfall simulator study was carried out to investigate rates of mobilisation of sodium bicarbonate from compacted soil surfaces simulating an unsealed road. The study considered effects of the amount of precipitated sodium bicarbonate on the soil surface and variations in rainfall intensity. Because the soil surfaces were compacted, runoff commenced almost immediately following application of rain. For all treatments with applied surface salt, runoff quality data showed a peak in salt concentration in the first flush of runoff, and relatively rapid reduction through time in those initial concentrations. The magnitude and duration of peak concentrations depended on both rainfall rate and the quantity of salt present on the soil surface. The flush of salts in run-off from the roads occurred very early in the run-off event, when none of the surrounding area would have commenced to run off. Consequently, the relatively small volume of run-off produced directly by the road could be expected to predominantly infiltrate in the table drain adjoining the road. The initial flush of saline water would then be leached to depth or diluted by the less saline runoff generated from the road in the latter part of the run-off event, or by non- saline runoff from the surrounding catchment. Particularly for mine sites, the data indicate that the use of saline water in dust suppression on unsealed roads is unlikely to impact significantly on the wider surrounding environment. It is recognised that watering for dust suppression on mine sites typically salinises the road area, and that eventual rehabilitation has to deal with those saline areas. Therefore, additional salinity in the soil adjoining the road is not considered to be of concern.

Loch, Rob J.; Squires, Helen

2010-05-01

129

Salinity Control in Irrigation Agriculture.  

E-print Network

substances I chemically as salts. Ocean water contains rimately 3 percent salts, or 40 tons of salts .-foot of water. Waters used for irriga- ~erally contain .1 to 5 tons of salt per acre- water. . -er acrf +ion gen 'pot of ,.. ,enera1 terms, salt... period. With such water, enough salt is added to the soil each year to approximate 0.4 percent of the soil weight to a depth of 18 inches. This is enough salt to create a severe salinity problem under many con- ditions-enough to inhibit germination...

Longenecker, Donald E.; Lyerly, Paul J.

1957-01-01

130

Comparative study of the effects of air or saline to identify the extradural space.  

PubMed

Fifty women in labour were allocated randomly to receive either air or saline to assist in the identification of the extradural space by the loss of resistance technique. A study volume of 4 ml of air or saline was used before 0.5% bupivacaine 8 ml and the spread of analgesia was followed for 30 min. The first segment blocked, time of onset, number of blocked segments and height of block were comparable in the two groups. At 30 min, there were eight patients with an unblocked segment in the air group, compared with two in the saline group (P less than 0.01). All unblocked segments were blocked subsequently by further doses of bupivacaine. We conclude that air is more likely than saline to produce unblocked segments in the initiation of extradural analgesia in labour. PMID:1817625

Valentine, S J; Jarvis, A P; Shutt, L E

1991-02-01

131

“Great Salinity Anomalies” in the North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We revisited the “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1970s (GSA'70s; Dickson et al., 1988) and documented the newly identified “Great Salinity Anomaly” of the 1980s (hence termed GSA'80s), both propagated around the North Atlantic in a similar fashion. The advective mechanism, initially proposed to explain the observed sequence of low-salinity, low-temperature events during the GSA'70s, apparently holds also for the

Igor M. Belkin; Sydney Levitus; John Antonov; Svend-Aage Malmberg

1998-01-01

132

Use of saline–sodic waters through phytoremediation of calcareous saline–sodic soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of poor-quality groundwater has become inevitable for irrigation to compensate rapidly increasing water demands in many arid and semiarid regions. Salinity and sodicity are the principal soil and water quality concerns in such areas. Many saline–sodic and sodic soils have saline or saline–sodic subsurface drainage waters. Amelioration of these soils needs a source of calcium (Ca2+) that can replace

M. Qadir; A. Ghafoor; G. Murtaza

2001-01-01

133

Factors associated with successful decrease and discontinuation of antegrade continence enemas (ACE) in children with defecation disorders: a study evaluating the effect of ACE on colon motility  

PubMed Central

Background Antegrade continence enemas (ACE) have been used in the treatment of defecation disorders in children; little is known on their effect on colon motility and the utility of the colon manometry (CM) predicting long term ACE outcomes. Methods Retrospective review of children with constipation undergoing CM before and after ACE to evaluate CM changes and their utility on predicting ACE outcome. Results 40 patients (mean age 8.8 SD 3y and 53% female) were included; 39/40 responded to the ACE. Of these 39, 14 (36%) were dependent and 25 (64%) had decreased it (11 of those or 28% discontinued it). On repeat CM we found a significant increase in the fasting (p<0.01) and post-prandial (p=0.03) motility index, number of bisacodyl-induced high amplitude propagating contractions (HAPC’s) (p=0.03) and total HAPC’s (p=0.02). Gastrocolonic response to a meal, propagation and normalization of HAPC’s improved in 28%, 58% and 33%, respectively with CM normalizing in 33% of patients. The baseline CM did not predict ACE outcome. The presence of normal HAPC’s on the repeat CM was associated with ACE decrease. Progression and normalization of HAPC’s (p=0.01 and 0.02 respectively) and CM normalization (p=0.01) on repeat CM were individually associated with ACE decrease. No CM change was associated with ACE discontinuation. Multivariate analysis showed that older age and HAPC normalization on CM predict ACE decrease and older age is the only predictor for ACE discontinuation. Conclusions Colon motility improves after ACE and the changes on the repeat CM may assist in predicting ACE outcome. PMID:23035840

Rodriguez, Leonel; Nurko, Samuel; Flores, Alejandro

2012-01-01

134

Effect of crude oil ageing on low salinity and low salinity surfactant flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injection of brine with lower salinity than the connate brine has proven to give a moderate increase in oil recovery in sandstones. Recent research has shown that this process will significantly benefit from introducing surfactant optimised for low salinity environment.The mechanisms underlying increased recovery by low salinity brine injection are not yet fully understood. However, research to date suggests that

Edin Alagic; Kristine Spildo; Arne Skauge; Jonas Solbakken

2011-01-01

135

Sodium-calcium interactions under salinity stress 205 SODIUM-CALCIUM INTERACTIONS UNDER SALINITY STRESS  

E-print Network

Sodium-calcium interactions under salinity stress 205 CHAPTER 10 SODIUM-CALCIUM INTERACTIONS UNDER SALINITY STRESS G.R. CRAMER Department of Biochemistry, Mail Stop 200 University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 USA cramer@unr.edu Abstract There are a wide range of responses of plants to salinity which involve

Cramer, Grant R.

136

Aquarius Instrument and Salinity Retrieval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius has been designed to map the surface salinity field of the global ocean from space a parameter important for understanding ocean circulation and its relationship to climate and the global water cycle. Salinity is measured remotely from space by measuring the thermal emission from the ocean surface. This is done at the low frequency end of the microwave spectrum (e.g. 1.4 GHz) where the emission is sufficiently sensitive to changes in salinity to be detected with sophisticated radiometers. The goal is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean by providing maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. These are challenging requirements that have led to some unique features of the instrument. These include: a) The addition of a co-located scatterometer to help provide a correction for roughness; b) The addition of a polarimetric channel (third Stokes parameter) to the radiometer to help correct for Faraday rotation; c) Asun-synchronous orbit with a 6 pm ascending equatorial crossing to minimize Faraday rotation and with the antennas looking away from the sun toward the nighttime side to minimize contamination by radiation from the sun; and d) An antenna designed to limit side lobes in the direction of rays from the sun. In addition, achieving the accuracy goal of 0.2 psu requires averaging over one month and to do this requires a highly stable radiometer. Aquarius has three separate radiometers that image in pushbroom fashion with the three antenna beams looking across track. The antenna is a 2.5-m diameter, offset parabolic reflector with three feed horns and the three beams are arranged to image with the boresight aligned to look across track, roughly perpendicular to the spacecraft heading and pointing away from the Sun. The three beams point at angles of theta = 25.8 deg., 33.8 deg. and 40.3 deg. with respect to the spacecraft nadir which correspond to local incidence angles at the surface of 28.7 deg., 37.8 deg. and 45.6 deg., respectively. The resolution of the three radiometer beams (axes of the 3dB ellipse) is: 76 x 94 km for the inner beam, 84 x 120 km for the middle beam to 96 x 156 km for the outer beam. Together they cover a swath of about 390 km. Aquarius will map the global ice-free ocean every 7-days from which monthly average composites will be derived. This will provide a snapshot of the mean field, as well as resolving the seasonal to interannual variations over the three-year baseline of the mission.

Le Vine, D. M.

2011-01-01

137

Low salinity intrusions in the western English Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low salinity (<35) surface waters (LSSW) at the southern entrance to the western English Channel (48.5°N, 5.1°W, near Ushant) were observed in late winter (March-April) in three successive years (2002-04) during near continuous ship of opportunity operations. The source of the LSSW is the northward spreading plumes from the Loire (47.5°N, 2.5°W) and Gironde (45.6°N, 1.2°W) along the French Atlantic coast. Fastest plume travel times were associated with northeasterly winds, consistent with Ekman theory. Differences between years in the mean winter (January-March) combined river discharges ( D) was consistent with the minimum salinities ( Smin) of the LSSW (2004: D=4211 m 3 s -1, Smin=33.68; 2003: D=3630 m 3 s -1, Smin=33.90; 2002: D=1579 m 3 s -1, Smin=34.53). Winter mean (1905-74) salinity is otherwise 35.33 near Ushant. The LSSW intruded into the western English Channel in each year, suggesting a common phenomenon. The low salinity intrusion was freshest (mean=35.11±0.21) and most penetrative (reaching 50.7°N, 1.0°W by the end of the year) in 2003 on account of (1) entering on a spring tide giving greater tidal excursion into the western English Channel and (2) intrusion favourable winds (southwesterly/southeasterly) acting on the longer term residual flow. Less penetration occurred in 2004 when the arrival of the LSSW coincided with a neap tide followed by intrusion-resistant northwesterly winds, resulting in a less saline (mean=35.20±0.23) intrusion. In 2004, transport tended to be offshore to at least 100 km from the French Atlantic coast (47°N, 4.8°W-48°N, 4.7°W). In 2002, the lower volume of plume water relative to the other years produced a more saline intrusion (mean=35.25±0.12). Prevailing westerly winds may have pushed this intrusion northwards beyond the route of the ferry, making it difficult to assess the true extent of the intrusion in 2002. A link of the LSSW to phases of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index from a literature search of the last 84 years was inconclusive.

Kelly-Gerreyn, B. A.; Hydes, D. J.; Jégou, A. M.; Lazure, P.; Fernand, L. J.; Puillat, I.; Garcia-Soto, C.

2006-08-01

138

Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a science activity in which the student investigates methods of calibration of a simple conductivity meter via a hands-on inquiry technique. Conductivity is mathematically compared to salinity using a point slope formula and graphical techniques. Sample solutions of unknown salinity are provided so that the students can sharpen their…

Schlenker, Richard M.

139

Sea Surface Salinity Influence on Earth's Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short NASA video focuses on the Aquarius satellite, launched on June 10, 2011 to observe how variations in ocean salinity relate to climatic changes. By measuring salinity globally, Aquarius shows the ocean's role in climate change and climate's effects on ocean circulation.

Brooke Harris

140

Developing Pedotransfer Functions for Saline and Saline-Alkali Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture curve is one of the soil hydraulic properities which its direct measurement is time consuming and expensive. Therefore, indirect methods such as developing pedotransfer functions have been used to predict this characteristic from soil readily available or easily measurable data. In this study, multiple linear regression method was used to develop point pedotransfer functions (PTFs) for saline and saline-alkali soils of Iran. For this purpose, 68 soil samples which their EC values were greater than 4 ds/m, and more than half of them had ESP values greater than 15% were selected. Using Jackknife method, the random splitting of data into the development and validation subsets was repeated 10 times. A ratio of 3:1 was used to split data into development and validation sets in each replication. In the SPSS software, parameters such as geometric standard deviation (?g), geometric mean diameter (dg), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), electrical conductivity (EC), carbonate calcium (CaCO3), bulk density (BD), organic matter (OM), and clay and silt content were applied as the independent variables, and volumetric water content was determined at matric potentials of -10, -33, -100 , -300, -500, -1000, -1500 kPa. The derived PTFs were compared with the H3 model of Rosetta software for 10 splits of validation data set. Comparison of the mean RMSE and R2 values showed that the developed PTFs resulted in more accurate estimation than the Rosetta software at matric potentials of -100 , -300, -500, -1000, -1500 kPa. Whereas, Rosetta model resulted in slightly better estimation than derived PTFs at matric potentials of -10, -33 kPa. For the PTFs developed in this study, the RMSE and R2 values ranged from 0.12 to 0.35 (cm3.cm-3) and 0.64 to 0.83, respectively. While for the Rosetta model, RMSE and R2 values ranged from 0.22 to 0.33 (cm3.cm-3) and 0.37 to 0.74, respectively.

Ramezani, Meysam; Ghanbarian-Alavijeh, Behzad; Liaghat, Abdolmajid

2010-05-01

141

Weight Loss, Saline Loading, and the Natriuretic Peptide System  

PubMed Central

Background In epidemiologic studies, obesity has been associated with reduced natriuretic peptide (NP) concentrations. Reduced NP production could impair the ability of obese individuals to respond to salt loads, increasing the risk of hypertension and other disorders. We hypothesized that weight loss enhances NP production before and after salt loading. Methods and Results We enrolled 15 obese individuals (mean BMI 45±5.4 kg/m2) undergoing gastric bypass surgery. Before and 6 months after surgery, subjects were admitted to the clinical research center and administered a large?volume intravenous saline challenge. Echocardiography and serial blood sampling were performed. From the pre?operative visit to 6 months after surgery, subjects had a mean BMI decrease of 27%. At the 6?month visit, N?terminal pro?atrial NP (Nt?proANP) levels were 40% higher before, during, and after the saline infusion, compared with levels measured at the same time points during the pre?operative visit (P<0.001). The rise in Nt?pro?ANP induced by the saline infusion (?50%) was similar both before and after surgery (saline, P<0.001; interaction, P=0.2). Similar results were obtained for BNP and Nt?proBNP; resting concentrations increased by 50% and 31%, respectively, after gastric bypass surgery. The increase in NP concentrations after surgery was accompanied by significant decreases in mean arterial pressure (P=0.004) and heart rate (P<0.001), and an increase in mitral annular diastolic velocity (P=0.02). Conclusion In obese individuals, weight loss is associated with a substantial increase in the “setpoint” of circulating NP concentrations. Higher NP concentrations could contribute to an enhanced ability to handle salt loads after weight loss. PMID:25595796

Arora, Pankaj; Reingold, Jason; Baggish, Aaron; Guanaga, Derek P.; Wu, Connie; Ghorbani, Anahita; Song, Yanna; Chen?Tournaux, Annabel; Khan, Abigail May; Tainsh, Laurel T.; Buys, Emmanuel S.; Williams, Jonathan S.; Heublein, Denise M.; Burnett, John C.; Semigran, Marc J.; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Scherrer?Crosbie, Marielle; Newton?Cheh, Christopher; Kaplan, Lee M.; Wang, Thomas J.

2015-01-01

142

Reconstructing Past Ocean Salinity ((delta)18Owater)  

SciTech Connect

Temperature and salinity are two of the key properties of ocean water masses. The distribution of these two independent but related characteristics reflects the interplay of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the uneven distribution of heat loss and gain by the ocean, with that of precipitation, evaporation, and the freezing and melting of ice. Temperature and salinity to a large extent, determine the density of a parcel of water. Small differences in temperature and salinity can increase or decrease the density of a water parcel, which can lead to convection. Once removed from the surface of the ocean where 'local' changes in temperature and salinity can occur, the water parcel retains its distinct relationship between (potential) temperature and salinity. We can take advantage of this 'conservative' behavior where changes only occur as a result of mixing processes, to track the movement of water in the deep ocean (Figure 1). The distribution of density in the ocean is directly related to horizontal pressure gradients and thus (geostrophic) ocean currents. During the Quaternary when we have had systematic growth and decay of large land based ice sheets, salinity has had to change. A quick scaling argument following that of Broecker and Peng [1982] is: the modern ocean has a mean salinity of 34.7 psu and is on average 3500m deep. During glacial maxima sea level was on the order of {approx}120m lower than present. Simply scaling the loss of freshwater (3-4%) requires an average increase in salinity a similar percentage or to {approx}35.9psu. Because much of the deep ocean is of similar temperature, small changes in salinity have a large impact on density, yielding a potentially different distribution of water masses and control of the density driven (thermohaline) ocean circulation. It is partly for this reason that reconstructions of past salinity are of interest to paleoceanographers.

Guilderson, T P; Pak, D K

2005-11-23

143

Modelling capillary rise and soil salinity for shallow saline water table under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinization of soil is a major problem in arid and semi-arid regions with saline shallow water table. This is influenced by climate, soil type, crop, irrigation water quality and management practice, depth to water table, and salinity of the water table. Modelling can be used for estimating capillary rise and salinity of soil profile with saline shallow water table. The

M. H. Jorenush; A. R. Sepaskhah

2003-01-01

144

Determining salinization extent, identifying salinity sources, and estimating chloride mass using surface, borehole, and airborne electromagnetic induction methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Using an example from an oil field in the semiarid Red River basin in Texas, we show that electromagnetic (EM) methods are useful in locating salinized soil and water, determining salinization extent, identifying likely salinity sources, and estimating the total mass of chloride within a saline-water plume. Each of these aspects assists in managing salinization and assessing its impact.

Jeffrey G. Paine

2003-01-01

145

78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Public Law...

2013-04-22

146

76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2011-10-04

147

77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2012-04-19

148

75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2010-10-28

149

76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council...INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council was...

2011-05-02

150

75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2010-05-14

151

78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...REG0000, RR04084000] Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

2013-11-26

152

77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub. L....

2012-10-11

153

75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau...SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control [[Page 25878

2010-05-10

154

Mark your Calendars Water Supply, Agriculture and Salinity Management Workshop  

E-print Network

Mark your Calendars Water Supply, Agriculture and Salinity Management Workshop September 29 supply, agriculture and salinity manage- ment an opportunity to network with their colleagues. Topics, desalination of agricultural drainage water, salinity management options based on irrigation methods

Johnson, Eric E.

155

ORIGINAL PAPER Implication of nutrient and salinity interaction  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Implication of nutrient and salinity interaction on the productivity of Spartina nutrient availability and reduced salinity. Although studies have documented nutrient limitation and salinity stress in coastal marshes, interpreting the effects of freshwater rein- troduction on plant

156

Time Series of Suspended-Solids Concentration, Salinity, Temperature, and  

E-print Network

Time Series of Suspended-Solids Concentration, Salinity, Temperature, and Total Mercury .......................................................................................................................... 3 Salinity................................................................................................................................... 15 #12;3 San Francisco Estuary Institute Time Series of Suspended-Solids Concentration, Salinity

157

[Ecophysiological adaptability of tropical water organisms to salinity changes].  

PubMed

Physiological response of tropical organisms to salinity changes was studied for some marine, estuarine and freshwater fishes (Astyanax bimaculatus, Petenia karussii, Cyprinodon dearborni, and Oreochromis mossambicus), marine and freshwater crustaceans (Penaeus brasiliensis, Penaeus schmitti and Macrobrachium carcinus), and marine bivalves (Perna perna, Crassostrea rhizophorae, and Arca zebra) collected from Northeast Venezuela. They were acclimated for four weeks at various salinities, and (1) placed at high salinities to determine mean lethal salinity, (2) tested by increasing salinity 5@1000 per day to define upper lethal salinity tolerance limit, or (3) observed in a saline gradient tank to determine salinity preference. Acclimation level was the most significant factor. This phenomenon is important for tropical aquatic organisms in shallow waters, where they can adapt to high salinity during the dry season and cannot lose their acclimation level at low salinity during abrupt rain. For saline adaptation of tropical organisms, this behavior will contribute to their proliferation and distribution in fluctuating salinity environments. PMID:11795174

Chung, K S

2001-03-01

158

Salinity changes in the World Ocean since 1950 in relation to changing surface freshwater fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global hydrographic and air-sea freshwater flux datasets are used to investigate ocean salinity changes over 1950-2010 in relation to surface freshwater flux. On multi-decadal timescales, surface salinity increases (decreases) in evaporation (precipitation) dominated regions, the Atlantic-Pacific salinity contrast increases, and the upper thermocline salinity maximum increases while the salinity minimum of intermediate waters decreases. Potential trends in E-P are examined for 1950-2010 (using two reanalyses) and 1979-2010 (using four reanalyses and two blended products). Large differences in the 1950-2010 E-P trend patterns are evident in several regions, particularly the North Atlantic. For 1979-2010 some coherency in the spatial change patterns is evident but there is still a large spread in trend magnitude and sign between the six E-P products. However, a robust pattern of increased E-P in the southern hemisphere subtropical gyres is seen in all products. There is also some evidence in the tropical Pacific for a link between the spatial change patterns of salinity and E-P associated with ENSO. The water cycle amplification rate over specific regions is subsequently inferred from the observed 3-D salinity change field using a salt conservation equation in variable isopycnal volumes, implicitly accounting for the migration of isopycnal surfaces. Inferred global changes of E-P over 1950-2010 amount to an increase of 1 ± 0.6 % in net evaporation across the subtropics and an increase of 4.2 ± 2 % in net precipitation across subpolar latitudes. Amplification rates are approximately doubled over 1979-2010, consistent with accelerated broad-scale warming but also coincident with much improved salinity sampling over the latter period.

Skliris, Nikolaos; Marsh, Robert; Josey, Simon A.; Good, Simon A.; Liu, Chunlei; Allan, Richard P.

2014-08-01

159

Water salination: a source of energy.  

PubMed

The thermodynamically reversible mixing of freshwater and seawater at constant temperature releases free energy. Salination power as a resource is comparable with hydroelectric power in magnitude; U.S. freshwater runoff could yield over 10(10) watts. The energy flux available for natural salination is equivalent to each river in the world ending at its mouth in a waterfall 225 meters high. An osmotic salination converter could possibly operate at 25 percent efficiency. This energy source is renewable and nonpolluting. Although its full utilization would destroy estuarine environments, it might be practical for specialized purposes. PMID:17839865

Norman, R S

1974-10-25

160

Sampling Irrigated Soils for Salinity Appraisal.  

E-print Network

. 1986a). The salinity at the soil surface can reach that of sea water in a matter of several weeks, and this surface salt crust can 3 become the cause for hypocotyl and seedling mortality (Miyamoto et al. 1985, Miyamoto et al. 1986a). The pat tern... moisture, crusting, bed cultivation practice, and salinity of water need to be examined. Sampling Tools and Sample Handling Most sampling tools and equipment used for general soil sampling purposes are adaptable to saline and/or sodic soils. Tube...

Miyamoto, S.

1988-01-01

161

ConcepTest: Ocean Salinity #3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Predict what would happen to the salinity of the world's oceans if the Indian Ocean was blocked off and all of its water evaporated. a. World's oceans would become more salty b. World's oceans would ...

162

Sea Surface Salinity - Duration: 1:01.  

NASA Video Gallery

The heat of the sun also forces evaporation at the ocean's surface, which puts water vapor into the atmosphere but leaves minerals and salts behind, keeping the ocean salty. The salinity of the oce...

163

SMOS salinity in the subtropical North Atlantic salinity maximum: 2. Two-dimensional horizontal thermohaline variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The horizontal thermohaline seasonal variability of the surface ocean is investigated in the subtropical North Atlantic Surface Salinity Maximum (SSSmax) region. Satellite sea surface temperature and salinity are used, along with high-resolution thermosalinograph data, and Argo interpolated products, to study the horizontal two-dimensional field of density and thermohaline variability. During late winter, compensated temperature and salinity gradients at large and mesoscale are observed northeast of the SSSmax, in the Azores Front Current region. In spite of the large and sharp surface thermohaline fronts, satellite measurements reveal a rather weak surface horizontal density gradient. During summer, the front is dominated by salinity gradients. South of the SSSmax, at large scales, the density ratio is controlled by the salinity gradient and the horizontal density gradient is enhanced by a constructive contribution of opposite salinity and temperature gradients.

Kolodziejczyk, Nicolas; Hernandez, Olga; Boutin, Jacqueline; Reverdin, Gilles

2015-02-01

164

Sea Surface Salinity : Research Challenges and Opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sea surface salinity (SSS) can be important in regulating sea surface temperature (SST). Two technological breakthrough satellite SSS missions, Aquarius and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), are currently producing high-quality SSS data. This paper provides an overview of the importance of SSS for weather and climate applications and describes the Aquarius and SMOS missions. The newness of adequately sampled SSS data prompted a first-time at-sea field campaign devoted to improved understanding of SSS variations.

Halpern, David; Lagerloef, Gary; Font, Jordi

2012-01-01

165

Saline-alkali soils of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diagnostics, methods of evaluation, and geography of saline-alkali (soda) soils are discussed. The saline-alkali soils include soils of different genetic types with the following chemical properties: the pH of the water suspensions equal to or higher than 8.5; the total alkalinity exceeding 1.4 meq/100 g of soil and the sum of water-soluble calcium and magnesium; and the presence of soluble “alkaline” salts in the soil profiles, the hydrolysis of which results in the alkaline reaction of the soils. The chemical properties of the saline-alkali soils are largely related to the presence of soda (Na2CO3, NaHCO3) in the soils. According to their morphological properties, saline-alkali soils are divided into two groups: alkaline soils with an undiferentiated profile and without a morphologically pronounced solonetzic (natric) horizon, and alkaline soils with a pronounced natric horizon (solonetzes). Solonetzes, in turn, are divided into (a) alkaline solonetzes (with soda or with soda and neutral salts), (b) solonetzes salinized with neutral salts (saline soils) with increased alkalinity in the solonetzic and lower lying horizons, (c) saline solonetzes throughout the profile, and (d) leached solonetzes containing no soluble salts in the profile and almost no exchangeable sodium in the soil exchange complex (SEC) (“dead” solonetzes). The latter two groups of solonetzes cannot be ranked among the alkaline soils. The alkalinity of the saline-alkali soils under study is due to carbonate and bicarbonate ions (carbonate alkalinity), organic acid anions (organic alkalinity), and borate ions (borate alkalinity). The carbonate alkalinity is due to both soda (Na2CO3, NaHCO3) and CaCO3.

Vorob'eva, L. A.; Pankova, E. I.

2008-05-01

166

Saline water management for irrigation in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much (32–84%) of the ground water surveyed in different Indian States is rated either saline or alkali. Because of the continental monsoonal climate, the basic principles of saline water management need some adaptation, e.g. providing for a leaching requirement is not appropriate when the growing season for post-monsoon winter crops starts with a surface-leached soil profile, because it would increase

P. S. Minhas

1996-01-01

167

Proteomic response of barley leaves to salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought and salinity stresses are adverse environmental factors that affect crop growth and yield. Proteomic analysis offers\\u000a a new approach to identify a broad spectrum of genes that are expressed in living system. We applied this technique to investigate\\u000a protein changes that were induced by salinity in barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.), Afzal, as a salt-tolerant genotype and L-527, as

Abdolrahman Rasoulnia; Mohammad Reza Bihamta; Seyed Ali Peyghambari; Houshang Alizadeh; Afrasyab Rahnama

168

Incorporating salinity considerations in water availability modeling  

E-print Network

at Possum Kingdom under Salinity Constraints.. 81 Table 6.4 Reliability Indices for Whitney under Salinity Constraints............... 82 Table 6.5 Concentration-Duration Curves at Possum Kingdom (constant lag).. 86 Table 6.6 Concentration... 15 8092600 Brazos River at Whitney Dam Near Whitney 16 8093360 Aquilla Creek Above Aquilla 17 8093500 Aquilla Creek Near Aquilla 18 8098290 Brazos River Near Highbank 19 8104500 little River Near Little River 20 8106500 Little River at Cameron...

Krishnamurthy, Ganesh

2006-08-16

169

Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones  

DOEpatents

A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

Vinegar, Harold J

2013-06-11

170

EXPERIMENTAL MESOCOSM STUDIES OF SALINITY EFFECTS ON THE BENTHIC ALGAL COMMUNITY OF A SALINE LAKE1  

Microsoft Academic Search

As closed-basin systems, saline lakes are prone to fluc- tuate in level and salinity with climate change and hydro- logic alterations. Loss of many Great Basin lakes has re- sulted from the diversion of tributary streams for agricul- tural or municipal uses. At Mono Lake, an alkaline salt lake in eastern California, salinities have risen from 50 to 100 g·L21

David B. Herbst; Dean W. Blinn

171

Polymer tensiometers in a saline environment.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is estimated that 20% of all cultivated land and nearly half of the irrigated land is salt-affected, which pose major economic and environmental problems. Salinity may be the result of two processes; dryland and irrigation salinity. Dryland salinity is caused by a rise in the groundwater table, which occurs as a result of the replacement of deep-rooted, perennial native vegetation by shallow-rooted annual species meant for production. Irrigation salinity may occur as a result of poor water quality, poor drainage, or inefficient use of water. Consequently, new strategies to enhance crop yield stability on saline soils represent a major research priority (Botella et al. 2005). At the same time, native vegetation is capable of thriving under saline and/or dry conditions. The plant physiology of such vegetation has been investigated thoroughly, but the relation with in situ soil properties (soil moisture and salinity) may be more difficult to unravel as soil moisture sensors are less sensitive in dry soil, and the signal of most soil moisture content sensors is strongly attenuated by soil salinity. Recently, polymer tensiometer were developed that are able to measure matric potentials (closely related to a soil's moisture status) in dry soils. Polymer tensiometers consist of a solid ceramic, a stainless steel cup and a pressure transducer. The ceramic consist of a support layer and a membrane with 2 nm pore-size to prevent polymer leakage. Between the ceramic membrane and the pressure transducer a tiny chamber is located, which contains the polymer solution. The polymer's osmotic potential strongly reduces the total water potential inside the polymer tensiometer, which causes build-up of osmotic pressure. Polymer tensiometers would thus be an ideal instrument to measure in dry soil, if the polymer inside the tensiometer is not affected by the salts in the soil solution. We will address some key issues regarding the use of POTs in saline environments by showing results from a field experiment conducted in a very saline soil. This research was funded by the Dutch Technology Foundation (STW).

van der Ploeg, Martine; Gooren, H. P. A.; Bakker, G.; Russell, W.; Hoogendam, C. W.; Huiskes, C.; Shouse, P.; de Rooij, G. H.

2010-05-01

172

Salinity Measurements During the Gulf Stream Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The salinity of the open ocean is important for understanding ocean circulation, for understanding energy exchange with the atmosphere and for improving models to predict weather and climate. Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (1 psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approx. 0.1 psu) required to be scientifically viable. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of a compliment of airborne microwave instruments (radiometers and scatterometer) and ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the compliment of instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer. A GPS backscatter experiment was also part of the package. These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Surface salinity measurements were provided by the RN Cape Henlopen and MN Oleander (thermosalinographs) plus salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the RN Cape Henopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made with the airborne sensors on August 28 and 29 and on September 2 flights were made over the surface drifters to look for effects due to a change in surface roughness resulting from the passage of Hurricane Dennis. Preliminary results show a good agreement between the microwave measurements and ship measurements of salinity. The features of the brightness temperature maps correspond well with the features of the salinity field measured by the ship and drifters and a preliminary retrieval of salinity compares well with the ship data.

LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Howden, S.; Goodberlet, M.

2000-01-01

173

Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)  

MedlinePLUS

... Application success rates, funding priorities, and trends Funding Process Tips for applicants; human subjects research information; grant review and management resources; and commonly used funding mechanisms, including diversity ...

174

Salinity Transport in the Florida Straits ZOLTAN B. SZUTS  

E-print Network

Salinity Transport in the Florida Straits ZOLTAN B. SZUTS Max Planck Institute for Meteorology calibrations, and here a calibration is defined for salinity transport using data not yet compared to the cable/LADCP data are consistent with previous studies. A salinity calibration is obtained by regressing salinity

175

Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a wealth of published research on salinity tolerance of plants, neither the metabolic sites at which salt stress damages plants nor the adaptive mechanisms utilized by plants to survive under saline conditions are well understood. As a result, there are no well-defined indicators for salinity tolerance available to assist plant breeders in the improvement of salinity tolerance of important

M. Ashraf; P. J. C. Harris

2004-01-01

176

Anorectal contractility under basal conditions and during rectal infusion of saline in ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed Central

Pressure activity in the rectum and anal canal was measured with a multilumen probe in 29 patients with ulcerative colitis (12 active, 11 quiescent, six studied during both phases) and 18 normal controls under resting conditions and during rectal infusion of saline. Resting motor activity was significantly decreased in patients with active colitis compared with quiescent colitis (p less than 0.005) and normal controls (p less than 0.001). Forty per cent of active colitics showed a featureless record compared with only one patient with quiescent colitis and one normal subject. The volume of saline infused before leakage occurred, and the total volume retained were significantly lower (p less than 0.001) in patients with active and quiescent colitis compared with normal controls. Rectal infusion of saline provoked regular rectal contractions, of significantly higher (p less than 0.05) amplitude in patients with active colitis, than in quiescent colitis or controls. These rectal contractions were associated with simultaneous anal relaxations. During saline infusion, peak and pressures were lower in patients with ulcerative colitis than in normal subjects, but there were no significant differences in relaxation pressures. In normal subjects, the rectal pressures remained below the anal pressures throughout the saline infusion. Peak rectal pressures exceeded the anal relaxation pressures during the last five minutes of saline infusion in patients with ulcerative colitis and throughout the infusion in those patients who complained of incontinence. Results suggest that although the resting rectal motor activity is diminished in patients with ulcerative colitis, luminal distension causes the inflamed rectum to generate abnormally strong contractions that may threaten continence. PMID:3384361

Rao, S S; Read, N W; Stobart, J A; Haynes, W G; Benjamin, S; Holdsworth, C D

1988-01-01

177

Oxygation enhances growth, gas exchange and salt tolerance of vegetable soybean and cotton in a saline vertisol.  

PubMed

Impacts of salinity become severe when the soil is deficient in oxygen. Oxygation (using aerated water for subsurface drip irrigation of crop) could minimize the impact of salinity on plants under oxygen-limiting soil environments. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of oxygation (12% air volume/volume of water) on vegetable soybean (moderately salt tolerant) and cotton (salt tolerant) in a salinized vertisol at 2, 8, 14, 20 dS/m EC(e). In vegetable soybean, oxygation increased above ground biomass yield and water use efficiency (WUE) by 13% and 22%, respectively, compared with the control. Higher yield with oxygation was accompanied by greater plant height and stem diameter and reduced specific leaf area and leaf Na+ and Cl- concentrations. In cotton, oxygation increased lint yield and WUE by 18% and 16%, respectively, compared with the control, and was accompanied by greater canopy light interception, plant height and stem diameter. Oxygation also led to a greater rate of photosynthesis, higher relative water content in the leaf, reduced crop water stress index and lower leaf water potential. It did not, however, affect leaf Na+ or Cl- concentration. Oxygation invariably increased, whereas salinity reduced the K+ : Na+ ratio in the leaves of both species. Oxygation improved yield and WUE performance of salt tolerant and moderately tolerant crops under saline soil environments, and this may have a significant impact for irrigated agriculture where saline soils pose constraints to crop production. PMID:19566646

Bhattarai, Surya P; Midmore, David J

2009-07-01

178

The effects of thermochemical sulfate reduction upon formation water salinity and oxygen isotopes in carbonate gas reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) is a well known process that can lead to sour (H 2S-rich) petroleum accumulations. Most studies of TSR have concentrated upon gas chemistry. In this study we have investigated palaeoformation water characteristics in a deep, anhydrite-bearing dolomite, sour-gas reservoir of Permian age in Abu Dhabi using fluid inclusion, stable isotope, petrographic, and gas chemical data. The data show that low salinity, isotopically-distinct water was generated within the reservoir by reaction between anhydrite and methane. The amount of water added to the reservoir from TSR, indicated by reduced fluid inclusion salinity and water ?18O values, varied systematically with the extent of anhydrite reaction with methane. Water salinity and isotope data show that the original formation water was diluted by between four and five times by water from TSR. Thus, we have shown that large volumes of very low salinity water were generated within the gas reservoirs during diagenesis following gas emplacement. The salinity of formation water in evaporite lithologies is, therefore, not necessarily high. Modelling, based upon a typical Khuff gas reservoir rock volume, suggests that initial formation water volumes can only be increased by about three times as a result of TSR. The extreme local dilution shown by the water salinity and ?18O data must, therefore, reflect transiently imperfect mixing between TSR water and original formation water. The creation of large volumes of water has important implications for the mechanism and rate of thermochemical sulphate reduction and the interpretation of gas volumes using petrophysical logging tools.

Worden, R. H.; Smalley, P. C.; Oxtoby, N. H.

1996-10-01

179

Hemodynamic responses elicited by systemic injections of isotonic and hypertonic saline in hemorrhaged rats  

PubMed Central

Purpose The objectives of this study were (i) to characterize the hemodynamic responses caused by controlled hemorrhage (HEM) in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, and (ii) to determine the responses elicited by systemic bolus injections of isotonic saline (0.15 M) or hypertonic saline (3 M) given 5 min after completion of HEM. Results Controlled HEM (4.3 ± 0.2 ml/rat at 1.5 ml/ min) resulted in a pronounced and sustained fall in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) to about 40 mmHg. The fall in MAP was associated with a reduction in hindquarter vascular resistance (HQR) but no changes in renal (RR) or mesenteric (MR) vascular resistances. Systemic injections of isotonic saline (96–212 µmol/kg iv, in 250–550 µl) did not produce immediate responses but promoted the recovery of MAP to levels below pre-HEM values. Systemic injections of hypertonic saline (750–3000 µmol/kg, i.v., in 250–550 µl) produced immediate and pronounced falls in MAP, RR, MR and especially HQR of 30–120 sec in duration. However, hypertonic saline prompted a full recovery of MAP, HQR and RR to pre-HEM levels and an increase in MR to levels above pre-HEM values. Conclusions This study demonstrates that (i) HEM induced a pronounced fall in MAP which likely involved a fall in cardiac output and HQR, (ii) isotonic saline did not fully normalize MAP, and (iii) hypertonic saline produced dramatic initial responses, and promoted normalization of MAP probably by restoring blood volume and cardiac output through sequestration of fluid from intracellular compartments. PMID:24246569

Whalen, Erin J.; Johnson, Alan Kim; Lewis, Stephen J.

2015-01-01

180

Redistribution of extracellular water and sodium may contribute to saline tolerance in wild ducks.  

PubMed

The compartmentalization of body fluids was measured in three species of ducks that differ in saline tolerance. Half of the birds of each species drank freshwater, while the other half drank saline (300 mM NaCl). Among ducks that drank freshwater, total body water (TBW) was similar among all species, but Barrow's goldeneyes (Bucephala islandica), the most marine species, had larger extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) than freshwater mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) or estuarine canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria). When acclimated to saline, only goldeneyes shifted extracellular water and Na+ into the intracellular compartment. ECFV was correlated with plasma aldosterone concentration in goldeneyes, but not in canvasbacks (aldosterone was not measured in mallards). Data summarized from the literature showed that TBW does not differ among terrestrial, freshwater, or marine species, but marine species have a larger part of their TBW in the extracellular compartment. Saline induced movement of extracellular water and Na+ into the cells only in goldeneyes. ECFV and redistribution of extracellular water and Na+ into the cells may be important components in saline tolerance of marine birds. PMID:15887091

Bennett, Darin C; Gray, David A; Sharp, Peter J; Hughes, Maryanne R

2005-01-01

181

Using discriminant analysis to determine sources of salinity in shallow groundwater prior to hydraulic fracturing.  

PubMed

High-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) gas-drilling operations in the Marcellus Play have raised environmental concerns, including the risk of groundwater contamination. Fingerprinting water impacted by gas-drilling operations is not trivial given other potential sources of contamination. We present a multivariate statistical modeling framework for developing a quantitative, geochemical fingerprinting tool to distinguish sources of high salinity in shallow groundwater. The model was developed using new geochemical data for 204 wells in New York State (NYS), which has a HVHF moratorium and published data for additional wells in NYS and several salinity sources (Appalachian Basin brines, road salt, septic effluent, and animal waste). The model incorporates a stochastic simulation to predict the geochemistry of high salinity (>20 mg/L Cl) groundwater impacted by different salinity sources and then employs linear discriminant analysis to classify samples from different populations. Model results indicate Appalachian Basin brines are the primary source of salinity in 35% of sampled NYS groundwater wells with >20 mg/L Cl. The model provides an effective means for differentiating groundwater impacted by basin brines versus other contaminants. Using this framework, similar discriminatory tools can be derived for other regions from background water quality data. PMID:25062431

Lautz, Laura K; Hoke, Gregory D; Lu, Zunli; Siegel, Donald I; Christian, Kayla; Kessler, John Daniel; Teale, Natalie G

2014-08-19

182

Effects of Varying Salinity on Phytoplankton Growth in a Low-Salinity Coastal Pond Under Two Nutrient Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal ponds are highly susceptible to negative effects from nu- trient loading (1). The usual approach for managing such systems is to reduce nutrient input. Another possibility for some low-salinity sys- tems may be to control salinity if salinity has a pronounced infl uence on phytoplankton growth. Freshwater species generally compose the phytoplankton of low-salinity systems. One might expect growth

Stacy Barron; Carolyn Weber; Roxanne Marino; Eric Davidson; Gabrielle Tomasky

183

Mineral resources and mineral resource potential of the Saline Valley and Lower Saline Wilderness Study Areas, Inyo County, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area and the Lower Saline Wilderness Study Area, California Desert Conservation Area, Inyo County, California. The Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area and the Lower Saline Wilderness Study Area were studied in 1981-83 using geologic, geochemical, remote sensing, and geophysical surveys and the examination of mines

C. T. Wrucke; S. P. Marsh; G. L. Raines; R. S. Werschky; R. J. Blakely; D. B. Hoover; E. L. McHugh; C. M. Rumsey; R. S. Gaps; J. D. Causey

1984-01-01

184

Naturally Saline Boreal Communities as Models for Reclamation of Saline Oil Sand Tailings  

E-print Network

Naturally Saline Boreal Communities as Models for Reclamation of Saline Oil Sand Tailings Brett G. Purdy,1,2 S. Ellen Macdonald,1 and Victor J. Lieffers1 Abstract Reclaimed landscapes after oil sands found on the predisturbance land- scape can be established on all reclaimed landscapes after oil sands

Macdonald, Ellen

185

Modeling skin-layer salinity with an extended surface-salinity layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to near-surface salinity stratification, it is problematic to compare satellite-measured surface salinity within the first few centimeters (skin-layer) of the ocean with Argo-measured top-level salinity at about 5 m or with ocean models that do not resolve the skin layer. Although an instrument can be designed to measure the surface salinity, a global scale measurement is currently not available. A regional model can be configured to have a vertical grid in centimeters but it would be computationally prohibited on a global scale due to time step constraints. Here we propose an extended surface-salinity layer (ESSL) within a global ocean circulation model to diagnose skin SSS without increasing the computational cost, while allowing comparable solutions with both satellite and Argo salinity at the respective depths. Using a quarter-degree global ocean model, we show that the ESSL improves near-surface salinity significantly in comparisons with the Aquarius SSS and Argo salinity at 5 and 10 m, respectively. Comparing with data-assimilated HYCOM results reveal that the ESSL provides much stronger seasonal variability of SSS, similar to the Aquarius observations. We also demonstrate that the ESSL solution can be used to constrain the global mean SSS in Aquarius SSS retrieval.

Song, Y. Tony; Lee, Tong; Moon, Jae-Hong; Qu, Tangdong; Yueh, Simon

2015-02-01

186

Biomarker-based salinity reconstruction immediately prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (Sorbas Basin, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The salinity crisis which occurred in the Mediterranean at the end of the Miocene (5.97 to 5.33 Ma) was a time of large-scale environmental change and thick evaporite deposits formed both in the deep basins and on the surrounding margins. Late Miocene successions in the Sorbas Basin, south east Spain preserve sediments that were deposited immediately prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and during the initial phase of gypsum precipitation (Sierro et al., 2001). Salinity changes are indicated by evaporite formation and fluctuations in faunal assemblages, but these provide threshold measurements only e.g. gypsum forms at a salinity of 130 psu. By analysing the lipid biomarker composition by GC and HPLC-MS after Soxhlet extraction of pre-MSC sediments we aim to reconstruct granular changes in salinity leading up to initial gypsum precipitation. The pre-MSC sediments comprise regular alternations of marine marls and terrigenous clays with interspersed diatomites. This lithological cyclicity is climatically forced by orbitally-driven changes in insolation (Krijgsman et al., 1999) such that specific lithologies are thought to accumulate during precession minima (homogeneous marls) and maxima (laminated marls). By targeting these lithologies for salinity reconstruction we can evaluate the orbital control on quantified environmental change. The reconstruction of the salinity is predominantly based on the ACE proxy introduced by Turich and Freeman (2011). The GDGT-based proxy can show differences over a wide range of salinity, because Archaea can survive over a much larger salinity range than haptophyte algae or other plankton and can therefore also record the salinity signal over a wider range. This makes it suitable for the broad salinity ranges leading up to the MSC e.g. ~35 to 130 psu. Turich et al. (2011) already have published 10 low resolution salinity values for pre-MSC sediments from Torrente Vaccarizzo and Serra Pirciata on Sicily. Our high resolution preliminary data already suggests differences in salinity between insolation maxima's and minima's, which is not expressed in this low resolution signal. In addition we are backing up the ACE proxy data by deuterium values as an independent comparison. Krijgsman, W., Hilgen, F.J., Raffi, I., Sierro, F.J., Wilson, D.S., 1999. Chronology, causes and progression of the Messinian salinity crisis. Nature 400, 652-655. Sierro, F.J., Hilgen, F.J., Krijgsman, W., Flores, J.A., 2001. The Abad composite (SE Spain): a Messinian reference section for the Mediterranean and the APTS. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 168, 141-169. Turich, C., Freeman, K.H., 2011. Archaeal lipids record paleosalinity in hypersaline systems. Organic Geochemistry 42, 1147-1157.

Mayser, Jan Peter; Martins, Cesar; Flecker, Rachel; Pancost, Rich D.

2014-05-01

187

"SPURS" in the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Atlantic Salinity Maximum is the world's saltiest open ocean salinity maximum and was the focus of the recent Salinity Processes Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS) program. SPURS was a joint venture between US, French, Irish, and Spanish investigators. Three US and two EU cruises were involved from August, 1012 - October, 2013 as well as surface moorings, glider, drifter and float deployments. Shipboard operations included underway meteorological and oceanic data, hydrographic surveys and turbulence profiling. The goal is to improve our understanding of how the salinity maximum is maintained and how it may be changing. It is formed by an excess of evaporation over precipitation and the wind-driven convergence of the subtropical gyre. Such salty areas are getting saltier with global warming (a record high SSS was observed in SPURS) and it is imperative to determine the relative roles of surface water fluxes and oceanic processes in such trends. The combination of accurate surface flux estimates with new assessments of vertical and horizontal mixing in the ocean will help elucidate the utility of ocean salinity in quantifying the changing global water cycle.

Schmitt, Raymond

2014-05-01

188

Reversal of bedrest-induced orthostatic intolerance by lower body negative pressure and saline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six healthy male volunteers underwent two 1-week periods of bedrest, each preceded and followed by 2-week control and recovery periods. The daily metabolic diet contained 150 mEq of sodium. Following one 7-day bedrest period, each man was subjected to LBNP at a level of -30 mm Hg for 4 hr while consuming 1000 ml of beef bouillon containing 154 mEq of sodium. After the other bedrest period, each man simply consumed the bouillon without LBNP treatment during 4 hr of continued bedrest. Measurements of plasma volume and orthostatic tolerance were made before and after each treatment period. After combined LBNP and saline therapy, plasma volume and response to LBNP testing showed a return to pre-bedrest levels. Saline consumption alone had a lesser effect. With continuation of bedrest in three subjects, the beneficial effects of these measures appeared to be largely gone after 18 hr.

Hyatt, K. H.; West, D. A.

1977-01-01

189

Large-scale impact of CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers: A sensitivity study on pressure response in stratified systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large volumes of COâ captured from carbon emitters (such as coal-fired power plants) may be stored in deep saline aquifers as a means of mitigating climate change. Storing these additional fluids may cause pressure changes and displacement of native brines, affecting subsurface volumes that can be significantly larger than the COâ plume itself. This study aimed at determining the three-dimensional

J. T. Birkholzer; Q. Zhou; C.-F. Tsang

2008-01-01

190

Sequestration of CO2 in Mixtures of Bauxite Residue and Saline Robert Dilmore, Peng Lu, Douglas Allen, Yee Soong,*, Sheila Hedges, Jaw K. Fu,4  

E-print Network

Sequestration of CO2 in Mixtures of Bauxite Residue and Saline Wastewater Robert Dilmore, Peng Lu% increments by volume. A bauxite residue/brine mixture of 90/10 by volume exhibited a CO2 sequestration. It is demonstrated that CO2 sequestration is augmented by adding bauxite residue as a caustic agent to acidic brine

Zhu, Chen

191

Reconstructing sea surface temperature and salinity using delta18O and alkenone records  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE oxygen isotope (delta18O) composition of foraminiferal tests from deep-sea sediments is widely used as a palaeoclimate proxy, but it includes contributions from sea surface temperature, global ice volume and local salinity, which are difficult to separate. Recently a new technique for deriving palaeotemperatures has been developed which is based on the abundance ratios of unsaturated alkenones in phytoplankton algae1,2.

Frauke Rostek; Götz Ruhlandt; Franck C. Bassinot; Peter J. Muller; Laurent D. Labeyrie; Yves Lancelot; Edouard Bard

1993-01-01

192

Bronchial hyperreactivity in response to inhalation of ultrasonically nebulised solutions of distilled water and saline  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess non-specific bronchial reactivity the effect of inhaling ultrasonically nebulised solutions of distilled water and hypotonic (0.3%), isotonic (0.9%), and hypertonic (2.7%, 3.6%) saline was investigated in 10 asthmatic patients and nine normal subjects. Expired ventilation and the maximum percentage fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were recorded. The sensitivity to the inhaled solutions was determined

R E Schoeffel; S D Anderson; R E Altounyan

1981-01-01

193

INHALED HYPERTONIC SALINE IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN LESS THAN SIX YEARS OF AGE WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS: THE ISIS RANDOMIZED TRIAL  

PubMed Central

Context Inhaled hypertonic saline is recommended as therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients 6 years of age and older, but its efficacy has never been evaluated in CF patients <6 years of age. Objective To determine if hypertonic saline reduces the rate of protocol-defined pulmonary exacerbations in CF patients <6 years of age. Design and Setting A multicenter, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted from April 2009 to October 2011 at 30 CF care centers in the United States and Canada. Participants Participants had an established diagnosis of CF and were 4 to 60 months of age. A total of 344 patients were assessed for eligibility; 321 participants were randomized; 29 (9%) withdrew prematurely. Intervention The active group (n=158) received 7% hypertonic saline and the control group (n=163) received 0.9% isotonic saline nebulized twice daily for 48 weeks. Both groups received albuterol or levalbuterol prior to each study drug dose. Main Outcome Measures the rate of protocol-defined pulmonary exacerbations during the 48 week treatment period treated with oral, inhaled or intravenous antibiotics. Results The mean pulmonary exacerbation rate (events/person-year) was 2.3 (95% CI, 2.0, 2.5) in the hypertonic saline group and 2.3 (95% CI, 2.1, 2.6) in the isotonic saline group; the rate ratio was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.84, 1.14)). Among participants with pulmonary exacerbations, the mean number of total antibiotic treatment days for a pulmonary exacerbation was 60 (95% CI 49, 70) in the hypertonic saline group and 52 (95% CI 43, 61) in the isotonic saline group. There was no significant difference in secondary endpoints including height, weight, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, cough or respiratory symptom scores. Infant pulmonary function testing performed as an exploratory outcome in a subgroup (N=73, with acceptable measurements at 2 visits in 45) did not demonstrate significant differences between groups except for the mean change in forced expiratory volume in 0.5 seconds which was 38 ml greater (95% CI 1, 76) in the hypertonic saline group. Adherence by returned study drug ampoules was at least 75% in each group. Adverse event profiles were also similar, with the most common adverse event of moderate or severe severity in each group being cough (39% of hypertonic saline group, 38% of isotonic saline group). Conclusions Among infants and children with cystic fibrosis less than 6 years old, the use of inhaled hypertonic saline compared with isotonic saline did not reduce the rate of pulmonary exacerbations over 48 weeks of treatment. Trial Registration www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00709280 PMID:22610452

Rosenfeld, Margaret; Ratjen, Felix; Brumback, Lyndia; Daniel, Stephen; Rowbotham, Ron; McNamara, Sharon; Johnson, Robin; Kronmal, Richard; Davis, Stephanie D

2013-01-01

194

The Salinity, Heat, and Buoyancy Budgets of a Coastal Current in a Marginal Sea A. K. WA HLIN  

E-print Network

The Salinity, Heat, and Buoyancy Budgets of a Coastal Current in a Marginal Sea A. K. WA° HLIN-coast volume transport is assumed to be constant and inde- pendent of buoyancy; it is set, for example as well as temperature is included in the buoyancy forcing, the outflow from the basin can

Johnson, Helen

195

Pre-Exercise Ingestion of Pickle Juice, Hypertonic Saline, or Water and Aerobic Performance and Thermoregulation  

PubMed Central

Context: Ingesting high-sodium drinks pre-exercise can improve thermoregulation and performance. Athletic trainers (19%) give athletes pickle juice (PJ) prophylactically for cramping. No data exist on whether this practice affects aerobic performance or thermoregulation. Objective: To determine if drinking 2 mL/kg body mass of PJ, hypertonic saline, or deionized water (DIW) pre-exercise affects aerobic performance or thermoregulation. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Controlled laboratory study. Patients or Other Participants: Nine euhydrated men (age = 22 ± 3 years, height = 184.0 ± 8.2 cm, mass = 82.6 ± 16.0 kg) completed testing. Intervention(s): Participants rested for 65 minutes. During this period, they ingested 2 mL/kg of PJ, hypertonic saline, or DIW. Next, they drank 5 mL/kg of DIW. Blood was collected before and after ingestion of all fluids. Participants were weighed and ran in the heat (temperature = 38.3°C ± 1°C, relative humidity = 21.1% ± 4.7%) at increasing increments of maximal heart rate (50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%) until exhaustion or until rectal temperature exceeded 39.5°C. Participants were weighed postexercise so we could calculate sweat volume. Main Outcome Measure(s): Time to exhaustion, rectal temperature, changes in plasma volume, and sweat volume. Results: Time to exhaustion did not differ among drinks (PJ = 77.4 ± 5.9 minutes, hypertonic saline = 77.4 ± 4.0 minutes, DIW = 75.7 ± 3.2 minutes; F2,16 = 1.1, P = .40). Core temperature of participants was similar among drinks (PJ = 38.7°C ± 0.3°C, hypertonic saline = 38.7°C ± 0.4°C, DIW = 38.8°C ± 0.4°C; P = .74) but increased from pre-exercise (36.7°C ± 0.2°C) to postexercise (38.7°C ± 0.4°C) (P < .05). No differences were observed for changes in plasma volume or sweat volume among drinks (P > .05). Conclusions: Ingesting small amounts of PJ or hypertonic saline with water did not affect performance or select thermoregulatory measures. Drinking larger volumes of PJ and water may be more effective at expanding the extracellular space. PMID:24568225

Peikert, Jarett; Miller, Kevin C.; Albrecht, Jay; Tucker, Jared; Deal, James

2014-01-01

196

Probability analysis of the relation of salinity to freshwater discharge in the St. Sebastian River, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The St. Sebastian River lies in the southern part of the Indian River basin on the east coast of Florida. Increases in freshwater discharge due to urbanization and changes in land use have reduced salinity in the St. Sebastian River and, consequently, salinity in the Indian River, affecting the commercial fishing industry. Wind, water temperature, tidal flux, freshwater discharge, and downstream salinity all affect salinity in the St. Sebastian River estuary, but freshwater discharge is the only one of these hydrologic factors which might be affected by water-management practices. A probability analysis of salinity conditions in the St. Sebastian River estuary, taking into account the effects of freshwater discharge over a period from May 1992 to March 1996, was used to determine the likelihood (probability) that salinities, as represented by daily mean specific- conductance values, will fall below a given threshold. The effects of freshwater discharge on salinities were evaluated with a simple volumetric model fitted to time series of measured specific conductance, by using nonlinear optimization techniques. Specific-conductance values for two depths at monitored sites represent stratified flow which results from differences in salt concentration between freshwater and saltwater. Layering of freshwater and saltwater is assumed, and the model is applied independently to each layer with the assumption that the water within the layer is well mixed. The model of specific conductance as a function of discharge (a salinity response model) was combined with a model of residual variation to produce a total probability model. Flow distributions and model residuals were integrated to produce a salinity distribution and determine differences in salinity probabilities as a result of changes in water-management practices. Two possible management alternatives were analyzed: stormwater detention (reducing the peak rate of discharge but not reducing the overall flow volume) and stormwater retention (reducing peak discharges without later release). Detention of freshwater discharges increased the probability of specific- conductance values falling below a given limit (20,000 microsiemens per centimeter) for all sites but one. The retention of freshwater input to the system decreased the likelihood of falling below a selected limit of specific conductance at all sites. For limits of specific conductance (1,000 microsiemens per centimeter or 20,000 microsiemens per centimeter, depending on the site), the predicted days of occurrence below a limit decreased ranging from 17 to 68 percent of the predicted days of occurrence for unregulated flow. The primary finding to be drawn from the discharge-salinity analysis is that an empirical-response model alone does not provide adequate information to assess the response of the system to changes in flow regime. Whether a given level of discharge can produce a given response on a given day is not as important as the probability of that response on a given day and over a period of many days. A deterministic model of the St. Sebastian River estuary based only on discharge would predict that retention of discharge peaks should increase the average salinity conditions in the St. Sebastian River estuary. The probabilistic model produces a very different response indicating that salinity can decrease by a power of three as discharges increase, and that random factors can predominate and control salinity until discharges increase sufficiently to flush the entire system of saltwater.

Wicklein, S.M.; Gain, W.S.

1999-01-01

197

Testing SMOS Salinity Retrievals against surface salinity observations in the North Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since January 2010 the ESA Soil moisture and ocean salinity mission (SMOS) provides salinity data of the sea surface (SSS). Those measurements offer the possibility to better observe and understand SSS variations over the global ocean. However, an important step for any new measurement technology is to test and improve those measurements through comparisons against in situ measurements. For space based SSS measurements this is particularly important in high latitudes where uncertainties are highest due to the reduced sensitivity of the emissivity (brightness temperature) to surface salinity variations. In this paper we test SMOS salinities against surface salinity observations obtained during a series of cruises of German research vessels in the Nordic Seas. We analyze the differences of SMOS and TSG data with respect to the distance to the coast, temporal variability, as well as to the surface temperature and to the water depth. Although absolute SMOS salinities show biases, the spatial structures of the salinity variations are very similar in both data sets. SMOS data are most of the time too fresh with respect to in situ data. Especially in areas of higher SSS the average bias is ?2 -g kg. This too fresh bias could be caused by a remaining land contamination in the SMOS data.However, some local differences- particularly around the front of freshwater from the Greenland shelf- can clearly be attributed to temporal variability of the position of this front. Within the frontal zone, the SMOS salinities are higher than the TSG salinities, and the SSS gradient in the TSG data is more distinct. This is due to the monthly and spatially averaging of the SMOS product.

Köhler, Julia; Stammer, Detlef; Sena Martins, Meike; Quadfasel, Detlef

2013-04-01

198

Characterizing Salinity Tolerance in Greenhouse Roses  

E-print Network

, and accumulated less Cl- and Na+ in leaves of flowering shoots than those grafted on ?Natal Briar?, confirming the greater ability of the former rootstock to tolerate salt stress. Supplementing the saline solution with 0-10 mmol.L-1 Ca2+ (as CaSO4) did...

Solis Perez, Alma R.

2011-08-08

199

Mapping dryland salinity with hyperspectral imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperspectral imagery is used to map the various indicators of dryland salinity at Dicks Creek, a site in the Yass River catchment of New South Wales. These indicators include salt-source debris-flow deposits, degraded soil profiles, halophytic grasses and a closely associated drainage line community of grasses and reeds. No diagnostic evaporite minerals can be recognized but the high spectral resolution

G. R. Taylorl; P. Hemphill; D. Currie; T. Broadfoot; R. L. Dehaan

2001-01-01

200

Groundwater use and salinization with grassland afforestation  

E-print Network

Groundwater use and salinization with grassland afforestation E S T E B A N G . J O B B A´ G Y *w of afforested grasslands based on biophysical, hydrologic, and edaphic factors. We tested this framework in 20 paired grassland and adjacent afforested plots across ten sites in the Argentine Pampas. Rapid

Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

201

Salinity tolerance turfgrass: history and prospects.  

PubMed

Land and water resources are becoming scarce and are insufficient to sustain the burgeoning population. Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses affecting agricultural productions across the world. Cultivation of salt-tolerant turfgrass species may be promising option under such conditions where poor quality water can also be used for these crops. Coastal lands in developing countries can be used to grow such crops, and seawater can be used for irrigation of purposes. These plants can be grown using land and water unsuitable for conventional crops and can provide food, fuel, fodder, fibber, resin, essential oils, and pharmaceutical products and can be used for landscape reintegration. There are a number of potential turfgrass species that may be appropriate at various salinity levels of seawater. The goal of this review is to create greater awareness of salt-tolerant turfgrasses, their current and potential uses, and their potential use in developing countries. The future for irrigating turf may rely on the use of moderate- to high-salinity water and, in order to ensure that the turf system is sustainable, will rely on the use of salt-tolerant grasses and an improved knowledge of the effects of salinity on turfgrasses. PMID:24222734

Uddin, Md Kamal; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor

2013-01-01

202

Evaporation and Soil Salinization Vishal Jambhekar1  

E-print Network

Evaporation and Soil Salinization Vishal Jambhekar1 , Karen Schmid1 , Rainer Helmig1 , Nima Shokri2 Abandoned land Model concept advection, convection conduction, diffusion gas phase free flow porous media gas phase liquid phase advection, convection conduction, diffusion air water water air air water salt

Cirpka, Olaf Arie

203

Salinity Tolerance Turfgrass: History and Prospects  

PubMed Central

Land and water resources are becoming scarce and are insufficient to sustain the burgeoning population. Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses affecting agricultural productions across the world. Cultivation of salt-tolerant turfgrass species may be promising option under such conditions where poor quality water can also be used for these crops. Coastal lands in developing countries can be used to grow such crops, and seawater can be used for irrigation of purposes. These plants can be grown using land and water unsuitable for conventional crops and can provide food, fuel, fodder, fibber, resin, essential oils, and pharmaceutical products and can be used for landscape reintegration. There are a number of potential turfgrass species that may be appropriate at various salinity levels of seawater. The goal of this review is to create greater awareness of salt-tolerant turfgrasses, their current and potential uses, and their potential use in developing countries. The future for irrigating turf may rely on the use of moderate- to high-salinity water and, in order to ensure that the turf system is sustainable, will rely on the use of salt-tolerant grasses and an improved knowledge of the effects of salinity on turfgrasses. PMID:24222734

Uddin, Md. Kamal; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor

2013-01-01

204

Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a unit designed for curriculum infusion and which relies on the hands-on discovery method as an instructive device. The student is introduced to the theory of a functioning salt water conductivity meter. The student explores the resistance of salt water as salinity increases and he treats the data which he has gathered,…

Schlenker, Richard M.

205

FUEL PROPERTIES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SALINE BIOMASS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Integrated farm drainage management (IFDM) systems employ sequential reuse of water with biomass production to help control saline groundwater and improve the sustainability of arid land irrigated agriculture. Currently operating near Five Points, CA is a 640 acre IFDM demonstration project. Subsu...

206

Morphological and physiological responses of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants to salinity.  

PubMed

Salinization usually plays a primary role in soil degradation, which consequently reduces agricultural productivity. In this study, the effects of salinity on growth parameters, ion, chlorophyll, and proline content, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation of two cotton cultivars, [CCRI-79 (salt tolerant) and Simian 3 (salt sensitive)], were evaluated. Salinity was investigated at 0 mM, 80 mM, 160 mM, and 240 mM NaCl for 7 days. Salinity induced morphological and physiological changes, including a reduction in the dry weight of leaves and roots, root length, root volume, average root diameter, chlorophyll and proline contents, net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. In addition, salinity caused ion imbalance in plants as shown by higher Na+ and Cl- contents and lower K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ concentrations. Ion imbalance was more pronounced in CCRI-79 than in Simian3. In the leaves and roots of the salt-tolerant cultivar CCRI-79, increasing levels of salinity increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR), but reduced catalase (CAT) activity. The activities of SOD, CAT, APX, and GR in the leaves and roots of CCRI-79 were higher than those in Simian 3. CAT and APX showed the greatest H2O2 scavenging activity in both leaves and roots. Moreover, CAT and APX activities in conjunction with SOD seem to play an essential protective role in the scavenging process. These results indicate that CCRI-79 has a more effective protection mechanism and mitigated oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation by maintaining higher antioxidant activities than those in Simian 3. Overall, the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and Chl (a+b) contents, net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, SOD, CAT, APX, and GR activities showed the most significant variation between the two cotton cultivars. PMID:25391141

Zhang, Lei; Ma, Huijuan; Chen, Tingting; Pen, Jun; Yu, Shuxun; Zhao, Xinhua

2014-01-01

207

Morphological and Physiological Responses of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Plants to Salinity  

PubMed Central

Salinization usually plays a primary role in soil degradation, which consequently reduces agricultural productivity. In this study, the effects of salinity on growth parameters, ion, chlorophyll, and proline content, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation of two cotton cultivars, [CCRI-79 (salt tolerant) and Simian 3 (salt sensitive)], were evaluated. Salinity was investigated at 0 mM, 80 mM, 160 mM, and 240 mM NaCl for 7 days. Salinity induced morphological and physiological changes, including a reduction in the dry weight of leaves and roots, root length, root volume, average root diameter, chlorophyll and proline contents, net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. In addition, salinity caused ion imbalance in plants as shown by higher Na+ and Cl? contents and lower K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ concentrations. Ion imbalance was more pronounced in CCRI-79 than in Simian3. In the leaves and roots of the salt-tolerant cultivar CCRI-79, increasing levels of salinity increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR), but reduced catalase (CAT) activity. The activities of SOD, CAT, APX, and GR in the leaves and roots of CCRI-79 were higher than those in Simian 3. CAT and APX showed the greatest H2O2 scavenging activity in both leaves and roots. Moreover, CAT and APX activities in conjunction with SOD seem to play an essential protective role in the scavenging process. These results indicate that CCRI-79 has a more effective protection mechanism and mitigated oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation by maintaining higher antioxidant activities than those in Simian 3. Overall, the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and Chl (a+b) contents, net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, SOD, CAT, APX, and GR activities showed the most significant variation between the two cotton cultivars. PMID:25391141

Zhang, Lei; Ma, Huijuan; Chen, Tingting; Pen, Jun; Yu, Shuxun; Zhao, Xinhua

2014-01-01

208

Hydrology, Salinity, and Salinity Control Possibilities of the Middle Pecos River: A Reconnaissance Report  

E-print Network

. According to Wauer (1973) and Wuerthner (1989), the native riparian vegetation included cottonwood (Populus sp.) and willows (Salix sp.). Today, none of these species can be found anywhere between Red Bluff and Girvin. A regional concern over salinity...

Miyamoto, S.; Anand, Shilpa; Hatler, Will

209

FIELD SURVEYING TECHNIQUES/ASSESSMENT AND DIAGNOSIS OF SALINITY PROBLEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter reviews and describes the collection and analysis of soil conductivity survey data for the purpose of agricultural salinity assessment. Current salinity assessment technologies are reviewed; including (i) the operation and calibration of typical electromagnetic induction meters, (...

210

Equations for Calculating the Dielectric Constant of Saline Water (Correspondence)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectric constant of saline water may be represented by an equation of the Debye form. Equations for the parameters in the Debye expression are given as functions of the water temperature and salinity.

A. Stogryn

1971-01-01

211

Salinity thresholds of Acropora spp. on the Great Barrier Reef  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinity tolerances of reef corals have been experimentally investigated since the early twentieth century. Yet, nearly 100 years later, we are no closer to having a threshold that can be applied in studies of the impacts of freshwater runoff on coral communities. We present an empirically derived salinity threshold for sensitive Acropora species from the Keppel Islands in the southern inshore Great Barrier Reef (GBR), based on in situ salinity exposure and coral responses during a major flood event in 2010-2011. This threshold is presented as a dose-time response for a salinity-sensitive range of 22-28 PSU and an exposure time of 3-16 days at the lowest and highest salinities, respectively. The robustness of the salinity threshold was confirmed by comparison with responses of corals to low salinity ~600 km north in the central GBR, which were exposed to substantially different turbidity and chlorophyll levels during the period of hypo-salinity.

Berkelmans, R.; Jones, A. M.; Schaffelke, B.

2012-12-01

212

Behavior and Movements of Largemouth Bass in Response to Salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity preferences of adult and young-of-the-year largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides from a freshwater lake and a brackish marsh in south-central Louisiana were tested at 22°C in salinity-gradient chambers (0, 3, 6, 9, and 12‰ salinity) under a photoperiod of 12 h light 12 h dark. Young largemouth bass from both collection sites preferred 0‰ salinity. Although adult marsh and freshwater

Michael R. Meador; William E. Kelso

1989-01-01

213

Does Soil Salinity Affect Yield and Composition of Cottonseed Oil?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in the yield and composition of oil of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seed collected from two different sites (saline and non-saline) of Pakistan was examined. Hexane-extracted oil content of\\u000a cottonseed from saline and non-saline areas was found to be 17.7 and 18.6%, respectively. No significant (P > 0.05) differences in the refractive index (40 °C), color, specific gravity (24 °C), iodine, free fatty acid,

Sajjad Ahmad; Farooq Anwar; Abdullah Ijaz Hussain; Muhammad Ashraf; Abdul Rasul Awan

2007-01-01

214

Sea Surface Salinity: The Next Remote Sensing Challenge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief history of salinity remote sensing is presented. The role of sea surface salinity (SSS) in the far north Atlantic and the influence of salinity variations on upper ocean dynamics in the tropics are described. An assessment of the present state of the technology of the SSS satellite remote sensing is given.

Lagerloef, Gary S. E.; Swift, Calvin T.; LeVine, David M.

1995-01-01

215

Solar potable water recovery and power generation from salinous water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for recovering potable water from a source of salinous water. Certain modifications afford the generation of power. A portion of salinous water and an air stream are introduced into a solar radiation heat sink, with the air stream flowing over the salinous water. Heated, water-containing air is withdrawn from the heat sink and reduced in temperature

Spears; J. F. Jr

1978-01-01

216

Fertilization management of crops irrigated with saline water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Available data concerning nutrition and fertilization effects on crops irrigated with saline water are presented and discussed. Published data on the salinity-fertility relationship are, at least to some extent, contradictory; both positive and negative effects as well as no effect of fertilization on salinity tolerance have been recorded. However, a great deal of the experimental work supports the view

A. Feigin

1985-01-01

217

Aquatic macrophytes in saline lakes of the Canadian prairies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular macrophyte species richness decreases with increasing salinity. Only three species of submerged plants (Potamogeton pectinatus, Ruppia maritima, R. occidentalis) tolerate hypersaline waters (>50 g l-1, total of ionic constituents). Eight emergent species occur in more saline habitats but only five (Scirpus maritimus var. paludosus, Distichlisstricta, Puccinellia nuttalliana, Scirpus americanus, Triglochin maritima) occur commonly over a range of saline lakes

U. Theodore Hammer; J. Michael Heseltine

1988-01-01

218

Biochemical and Antioxidant Responses of Borage Seedlings in Saline Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although borage (Borago officinalis L.) is a valuable medicinal plant, no information is available on the responses of this plant to salinity. For this reason, it is necessary to determine responses of this plant to salinity. Objective: Since germination and early growth stage is one of the most critical phases of plant life under salinity condition; this experiment was

Ghalavand A; Rezazadeh Sh

2009-01-01

219

IMPLEMENTATION OF AGRICULTURAL SALINITY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY IN GRAND VALLEY  

EPA Science Inventory

A summary of the results of applied research on salinity control of irrigation return flows in the Grand Valley of Colorado is presented for the period of 1969 to 1976. Salinity and economic impacts are described for the Grand Valley Salinity Control Demonstration Project which c...

220

Estimating salinity to complement observed temperature: 2.Northwestern Atlantic  

E-print Network

Estimating salinity to complement observed temperature: 2.Northwestern Atlantic W.C. Thacker a,, L This paper addresses the problem of estimating salinity for a large region in the Atlantic Ocean containing salinity to complement observed temperature: 1. Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Marine Systems. doi:10.1016/j

221

Estimating salinity to complement observed temperature: 1. Gulf of Mexico  

E-print Network

Estimating salinity to complement observed temperature: 1. Gulf of Mexico W.C. Thacker Atlantic companion [Thacker, W.C., Sindlinger, L., 2007-this issue. Estimating salinity to complement observed initial efforts in a project with the goal of developing capability for estimating salinity on a region

222

Original article Response of eight Cucumis melo cultivars to salinity  

E-print Network

Original article Response of eight Cucumis melo cultivars to salinity during germination and early- opment. Salinity induced a decrease in the concentrations of Ca2+, K+ and Mg2+ in the shoots, but only/Elsevier, Paris.) mineral composition / muskmelon / salinity / tolerance Résumé - Réaction de huit cultivars de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

223

Frequency, temperature and salinity variation of the permittivity of Seawater  

E-print Network

Frequency, temperature and salinity variation of the permittivity of Seawater Ram Somaraju for the permittivity of saline water are empirical ones that best fit experimental data. We propose a physically of water with varying frequencies and salinities. Our model is in excellent agreement with existing

Trumpf, Jochen

224

ORIGINAL PAPER The effect of pulsed versus gradual salinity reduction  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER The effect of pulsed versus gradual salinity reduction on the physiology, in mesocosms, to either pulsed hyposalinity treatments of 30, 15, 10, and 8 or gradual salinity reduc- tions of two every 2 days. When salinity was pulsed, sur- vivorship ([80 %) and maximum quantum yields ([0

Durako, Michael J.

225

DISTRIBUTION OF FISH EGGS AND LARVAE, TEMPERATURE, AND SALINITY  

E-print Network

411 DISTRIBUTION OF FISH EGGS AND LARVAE, TEMPERATURE, AND SALINITY IN THE GEORGES BANKKernan, Director DISTRIBUTION OF FISH EGGS AND LARVAE, TEMPERATURE, AND SALINITY IN THE GEORGES BANK-GULF OF MAINE Recorder 2 Temperature and salinity 2 Drift bottles 2 Literature cited 2 FIGURES 1. Distribution

226

Original article Effects of sodium chloride salinity on root growth  

E-print Network

Original article Effects of sodium chloride salinity on root growth and respiration in oak either 50 or 250 mM NaCl. Both moderate and high salinity treatment strongly altered root elongation. In contrast, specific respiration of roots was unaffected by the moderate salinity treatment while

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

227

Salinity-buffered methane hydrate formation and dissociation in gas-rich systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane hydrate formation and dissociation are buffered by salinity in a closed system. During hydrate formation, salt excluded from hydrate increases salinity, drives the system to three-phase (gas, water, and hydrate phases) equilibrium, and limits further hydrate formation and dissociation. We developed a zero-dimensional local thermodynamic equilibrium-based model to explain this concept. We demonstrated this concept by forming and melting methane hydrate from a partially brine-saturated sand sample in a controlled laboratory experiment by holding pressure constant (6.94 MPa) and changing temperature stepwise. The modeled methane gas consumptions and hydrate saturations agreed well with the experimental measurements after hydrate nucleation. Hydrate dissociation occurred synchronously with temperature increase. The exception to this behavior is that substantial subcooling (6.4°C in this study) was observed for hydrate nucleation. X-ray computed tomography scanning images showed that core-scale hydrate distribution was heterogeneous. This implied core-scale water and salt transport induced by hydrate formation. Bulk resistivity increased sharply with initial hydrate formation and then decreased as the hydrate ripened. This study reproduced the salinity-buffered hydrate behavior interpreted for natural gas-rich hydrate systems by allowing methane gas to freely enter/leave the sample in response to volume changes associated with hydrate formation and dissociation. It provides insights into observations made at the core scale and log scale of salinity elevation to three-phase equilibrium in natural hydrate systems.

You, Kehua; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Flemings, Peter B.; Polito, Peter; Bryant, Steven L.

2015-02-01

228

Water Use of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on Highly? Saline and Non-Saline Soils in Yang Talad, Kalasin Province, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat- pulse velocity technique was used to monitor water use by Eucalyptus camaldulensis trees from Petford, Queensland, Australia. The trees were planted on recharge (non-saline soil) and discharge (highly saline soil) areas for ecological studies in Yang Talad, Kalasin province, Thailand. Watertables were over at 7.6 m depth on non-saline and 1.5 m on highly saline soil areas during

Jesada Luangjame; Rungruang Lertsirivorakul

229

Changes in Salinity Due to Glacier Movement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity requires construction of a simple salinity tester. Students will create their own calibration scale during this experiment, and look at the change in salinity that would arise if freshwater was suddenly dumped into the ocean. Materials needed for this investigation include a DC mill ampere meter, 2 D-cell batteries and holder, bronze sheeting, #18 solid wire, salt, deionized water, and a stream table or pan apparatus to create a hydrologic model of ice-ocean interaction. Included is a student worksheet to guide interpretation of data. The resource is supported by teacher background information, assessment suggestions, and a scoring rubric. This is Activity 3 of the learning module, Water: Here, There, and Everywhere, part of the lesson series, The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change.

2012-08-03

230

Effect of salinity on methylation of mercury  

SciTech Connect

Monomethyl and dimethylmercury are potent neurotoxins subject to biomagnification in food webs. This fact was tragically demonstrated by the Minamata and Niigata poisoning incidents in Japan in which 168 persons who ate seafood from mercury polluted waters were poisoned, 52 fatally. Shortly after these two incidents, work conducted in freshwater environments demonstrated the microbial conversion of inorganic and phenylmercury compounds to mono- and di-methylmercury. Consideration of some fragmentary evidence from the literature, however, indicates that the rate and the significance of microbial methylation of mercury in freshwater and saltwater environments may not be the same. A demonstrated relationship between mercury methylation rates and water salinity would greatly influence our thinking about mercury pollution effects in marine versus freshwater environments. Since we were unable to locate published reports on this subject, we are investigating the influence of salinity on the rate of mercury methylation in an estuarine sediment.

Blum, J.E.; Bartha, R.

1980-09-01

231

Evaporites and the Salinity of the Ocean During the Phanerozoic: Implications for Climate, Ocean Circulation and Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compilation of data on volumes and masses of evaporite deposits is used as the basis for reconstruction of the salinity of the ocean in the past. Chloride is tracked as the only ion essentially restricted to the ocean, and past salinities are calculated from reconstructed chlorine content of the ocean. Models for ocean salinity through the Phanerozoic are developed using maximal and minimal estimates of the volumes of existing evaporite deposits, and constant and declining volumes of ocean water through the Phanerozoic. We conclude that there have been significant changes in the mean salinity of the ocean accompanying a general decline throughout the Phanerozoic. The greatest changes are related to major extractions of salt into the ocean basins which developed during the Mesozoic as Pangaea broke apart. Unfortunately, the sizes of these salt deposits are also the least well known. The last major extractions of salt from the ocean occurred during the Miocene, shortly after the large scale extraction of water from the ocean to form the ice cap of Antarctica. However, these two modifications of the masses of H2O and salt in the ocean followed in sequence and did not cancel each other out. Accordingly, salinities during the Early Miocene were reconstructed to be between 37‰ and 39‰. The Mesozoic was a time of generally declining salinity associated with the deep sea salt extractions of the North Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico (Middle to Late Jurassic) and South Atlantic (Early Cretaceous). The earliest of the major extractions of the Phanerozoic occurred during the Permian. There were few large extractions of salt during the earlier Paleozoic. The models suggest that this was a time of relatively stable but slowly increasing salinities ranging through the upper 40‰'s into the lower 50‰'s. Higher salinities for the world ocean had profound consequences for the thermohaline circulation of the ocean in the past. In the modern ocean, with an average salinity of about 34.7‰, the density of water is only slightly affected by cooling as it approaches the freezing point. Consequently, salinization through sea-ice formation or evaporation is usually required to make water dense enough to sink into the ocean interior. At salinities above about 40‰ water continues to become more dense as it approaches the freezing point, and salinization is not required. The energy-consuming phase changes involved in sea-ice formation and evaporation would not be required for vertical circulation in the ocean. The hypothesized major declines in salinity correspond closely to the evolution of both planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannoplankton. Both groups were restricted to shelf regions in the Jurassic and early Cretaceous, but spread into the open ocean in the mid Cretaceous. The modeling also suggests that there was a major salinity decline in from the late Precambrian to the Cambrian, and it is tempting to speculate that this may have been a factor in the Cambrian explosion of life.

Floegel, S.; Hay, W. W.; Migdisov, A.; Balukhovsky, A. N.; Wold, C. N.; Soeding, E.

2005-12-01

232

Predicting diffusion in aquifers beneath saline ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThis paper examines the contribution of diffusion to salt contamination of groundwater from leaky saline ponds. A hybrid analytical solution for diffusion from a region of constant concentration is developed using the series solutions method. This is used to predict when and where diffusion becomes the dominant transport process over advection (using existing knowledge of the advection process). A simple method is established to find when contamination will occur at any point in the aquifer, given knowledge of its physical parameters.

Verrall, D. P.; Read, W. W.

2012-12-01

233

[Characteristics of soil salinity profiles and their electromagnetic response under various vegetation types in coastal saline area].  

PubMed

Aiming at the intrinsic relationships between vegetation type and soil salinity in coastal saline area, and by using electromagnetic induction EM38 and field sampling method, the characteristics of soil salinity profiles under various vegetation types in typical coastal saline region of the Yellow River Delta were analyzed, and the electromagnetic response characters of the salinity profiles were compared. The results showed that across the study area, soil salinity exhibited the characteristics of top enrichment and strong spatial variation. The horizontal electromagnetic conductivity EM(h) responded well to soil salinity at upper layers, and the response of vertical electromagnetic conductivity EM(v) to soil salinity at deeper layers was superior to that of EM(h). Soil salinity profiles were classified into inverted, normal, and uniform types. The vegetation types of inverted salinity profiles were mainly bare land and Suaeda salsa, while those of normal and uniform salinity profiles were cotton and weed, respectively. The sequence of top enrichment intensity was bare land > S. salsa land > weed land > cotton land. With the change of vegetation type of cotton-weed-S. salsa-bare land, the EM(v)/EM(h) value of salinity profiles decreased gradually. Nonparametric test results showed that there was a significant correlation between vegetation type and electromagnetic response characters, and the distribution characters of EM(v)/EM(h) under various vegetation types varied significantly. PMID:19123343

Yang, Jing-Song; Yao, Rong-Jiang; Zou, Ping; Liu, Guang-Ming

2008-10-01

234

Effects of salinity on baldcypress seedlings: Physiological responses and their relation to salinity tolerance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Growth and physiological responses of 15 open-pollinated families of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum var. distichum) subjected to flooding with saline water were evaluated in this study. Ten of the families were from coastal sites in Louisiana and Alabama, USA that have elevated levels of soil-water salinity. The other five families were from inland, freshwater sites in Louisiana. Seedlings from all families tolerated flooding with water of low (2 g l-1) salinity. Differences in biomass among families became most apparent at the highest salinity levels (6 and 8 g l-1). Overall, increasing salinity reduced leaf biomass more than root biomass, which in turn was reduced more than stem biomass. A subset of seedlings from the main greenhouse experiment was periodically placed indoors under artificial light, and measurements were made of gas exchange and leaf water potential. Also, tissue concentrations of Cl-, Na+, K+, and Ca2+ were determined at the end of the greenhouse experiment. Significant intraspecific variation was found for nearly all the physiological parameters evaluated, but only leaf concentrations of Na+ and Cl- were correlated with an index of family-level differences in salt tolerance.

Allen, J.A.; Chambers, J.L.; Pezeshki, S.R.

1997-01-01

235

Mapping Salinity Tolerance during Arabidopsis thaliana Germination and Seedling Growth  

PubMed Central

To characterize and dissect genetic variation for salinity tolerance, we assessed variation in salinity tolerance during germination and seedling growth for a worldwide sample of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. By combining QTL mapping, association mapping and expression data, we identified genomic regions involved in salinity response. Among the worldwide sample, we found germination ability within a moderately saline environment (150 mM NaCl) varied considerable, from >90% among the most tolerant lines to complete inability to germinate among the most susceptible. Our results also demonstrated wide variation in salinity tolerance within A. thaliana RIL populations and identified multiple genomic regions that contribute to this variation. These regions contain known candidate genes, but at least four of the regions contain loci not yet associated with salinity tolerance response phenotypes. Our observations suggest A. thaliana natural variation may be an underutilized resource for investigating salinity stress response. PMID:21857956

DeRose-Wilson, Leah; Gaut, Brandon S.

2011-01-01

236

The effects of salinity and temperature on the transparency of the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio.  

PubMed

Transparency is an effective form of camouflage, but it must be present throughout the entire volume of an animal to succeed. Certain environmental stressors may cause physiological responses that increase internal light scattering, making tissue less transparent and more conspicuous to predators. We tested this in the transparent grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, which is found in shallow estuaries where both salinity and temperature change rapidly because of tidal cycles, evaporation and runoff. Animals originally kept at a salinity of 15 p.p.t. and a temperature of 20°C were placed into solutions with salinities of 0, 15, 25 or 30 p.p.t. and temperatures of 13, 20 or 27°C for 12 h (N=26 for each of 12 treatments). Under the control conditions of 15 p.p.t. at 20°C, the transparency of grass shrimp tails was 54±3% (mean ± s.e.). At higher salinities and at both higher and lower temperatures, transparency dropped significantly (P<0.001, two-way ANOVA), reaching 0.04±0.01% at 30 p.p.t. at 27°C. Confocal microscopy of P. pugio's tail suggested that the observed loss of transparency was due to the pooling of low refractive index hemolymph between the high index muscle fibers, creating many index boundaries that increased light scattering. Analysis of a year-long salinity and temperature record from a North Carolina estuary showed that changes of the order of those found in this study are relatively common, suggesting that P. pugio may undergo periods of reduced crypsis, potentially leading to increased predation. PMID:21307056

Bhandiwad, Ashwin; Johnsen, Sönke

2011-03-01

237

Impacts of climate variability on wetland salinization in the North American prairies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The glaciated plains of the North American continent, also known as the "prairies", are a complex hydrological system characterized by hummocky terrain, where wetlands, containing seasonal or semi-permanent ponds, occupy the numerous topographic depressions. The prairie subsoil and many of its water bodies contain high salt concentrations, in particular sulfate salts, which are continuously cycled within the closed drainage basins. The period between 2000 and 2012 was characterized by an unusual degree of climatic variability, including severe floods and droughts, and this had a marked effect on the spatial distribution, water levels and chemical composition of wetland ponds. Understanding the geochemical and hydrological processes under changing environmental conditions is needed in order to better understand the risk and mitigate the impacts of future soil and water salinization. Here we explore salt dynamics in the prairies using field observations from St. Denis, Saskatchewan, taken mostly over the last 20 years. Measurements include meteorological data, soil moisture, soil salinity, groundwater levels and pond water volume, salinity, and chemical composition. The record includes periods of exceptional snow (1997, 2007) and periods of exception rainfall (2010, 2012), both of which resulted in unusually high pond water levels. Measurements indicated that severe pond salinization only occurred in response to extreme summer rainfall. It is hypothesized that since rainfall water infiltrates through the soil towards the depressions, while snowmelt water flows mainly as surface water over frozen soils, they have markedly different impacts on salt transport and pond salinization. Whilst this hypothesis is consistent with our conceptual understanding of the system, it needs to be tested further at a range of field sites in the prairies.

Nachshon, U.; Ireson, A.; van der Kamp, G.; Davies, S. R.; Wheater, H. S.

2014-04-01

238

Linear Crop Response Functions to Soil Salinity With a Threshold Salinity Level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response function of a crop yield to soil salinity level is essential in decision-making in regard to irrigation with saline water. A switching regression approach to estimate the piecewise linear response function with critical threshold level is presented, and the asymptotical stochastic properties of the estimates are described. The empirical estimates, based on grapefruit yield data, are compared with those of a recent published study by Maas and Hoffman (1977) and the statistical significance of the differences is discussed. Finally, the threshold hypothesis is tested empirically against some alternative formulations. It turns out that the `threshold hypothesis' is confirmed.

Feinerman, E.; Yaron, D.; Bielorai, H.

1982-02-01

239

The effects of temperature, stress and salinity on the creep of frozen saline soil  

SciTech Connect

Gravel of the Prudhoe Bay area of Alaska used in the construction of artificial islands has been examined in constant load creep experiments to determine the effects of temperature, stress, and salinity on its creep behavior in unconfined compression. Over the range of conditions studied, it is found that the creep behavior is strongly dependent on each of these variables. In addition, the ice content of the specimen, itself a strong function of temperature and salinity, is found to be an important strength-determining parameter.

Nixon, M.S.; Pharr, G.M.

1984-09-01

240

Diatom Cell Size, Coloniality and Motility: Trade-Offs between Temperature, Salinity and Nutrient Supply with Climate Change  

PubMed Central

Reduction in body size has been proposed as a universal response of organisms, both to warming and to decreased salinity. However, it is still controversial if size reduction is caused by temperature or salinity on their own, or if other factors interfere as well. We used natural benthic diatom communities to explore how “body size” (cells and colonies) and motility change along temperature (2–26°C) and salinity (0.5–7.8) gradients in the brackish Baltic Sea. Fourth-corner analysis confirmed that small cell and colony sizes were associated with high temperature in summer. Average community cell volume decreased linearly with 2.2% per °C. However, cells were larger with artificial warming when nutrient concentrations were high in the cold season. Average community cell volume increased by 5.2% per °C of artificial warming from 0 to 8.5°C and simultaneously there was a selection for motility, which probably helped to optimize growth rates by trade-offs between nutrient supply and irradiation. Along the Baltic Sea salinity gradient cell size decreased with decreasing salinity, apparently mediated by nutrient stoichiometry. Altogether, our results suggest that climate change in this century may polarize seasonality by creating two new niches, with elevated temperature at high nutrient concentrations in the cold season (increasing cell size) and elevated temperature at low nutrient concentrations in the warm season (decreasing cell size). Higher temperature in summer and lower salinity by increased land-runoff are expected to decrease the average cell size of primary producers, which is likely to affect the transfer of energy to higher trophic levels. PMID:25279720

Svensson, Filip; Norberg, Jon; Snoeijs, Pauline

2014-01-01

241

The Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm: Early Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aquarius L-band radiometer/scatterometer system is designed to provide monthly salinity maps at 150 km spatial scale to a 0.2 psu accuracy. The sensor was launched on June 10, 2011, aboard the Argentine CONAE SAC-D spacecraft. The L-band radiometers and the scatterometer have been taking science data observations since August 25, 2011. The first part of this presentation gives an overview over the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The instrument calibration converts Aquarius radiometer counts into antenna temperatures (TA). The salinity retrieval algorithm converts those TA into brightness temperatures (TB) at a flat ocean surface. As a first step, contributions arising from the intrusion of solar, lunar and galactic radiation are subtracted. The antenna pattern correction (APC) removes the effects of cross-polarization contamination and spillover. The Aquarius radiometer measures the 3rd Stokes parameter in addition to vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations, which allows for an easy removal of ionospheric Faraday rotation. The atmospheric absorption at L-band is almost entirely due to O2, which can be calculated based on auxiliary input fields from numerical weather prediction models and then successively removed from the TB. The final step in the TA to TB conversion is the correction for the roughness of the sea surface due to wind. This is based on the radar backscatter measurements by the scatterometer. The TB of the flat ocean surface can now be matched to a salinity value using a surface emission model that is based on a model for the dielectric constant of sea water and an auxiliary field for the sea surface temperature. In the current processing (as of writing this abstract) only v-pol TB are used for this last process and NCEP winds are used for the roughness correction. Before the salinity algorithm can be operationally implemented and its accuracy assessed by comparing versus in situ measurements, an extensive calibration and validation (cal/val) activity needs to be completed. This is necessary in order to tune the inputs to the algorithm and remove biases that arise due to the instrument calibration, foremost the values of the noise diode injection temperatures and the losses that occur in the feedhorns. This is the subject of the second part of our presentation. The basic tool is to analyze the observed difference between the Aquarius measured TA and an expected TA that is computed from a reference salinity field. It is also necessary to derive a relation between the scatterometer backscatter measurements and the radiometer emissivity that is induced by surface winds. In order to do this we collocate Aquarius radiometer and scatterometer measurements with wind speed retrievals from the WindSat and SSMIS F17 microwave radiometers. Both of these satellites fly in orbits that have the same equatorial ascending crossing time (6 pm) as the Aquarius/SAC-D observatory. Rain retrievals from WindSat and SSMIS F 17 can be used to remove Aquarius observations that are rain contaminated. A byproduct of this analysis is a prediction for the wind-induced sea surface emissivity at L-band.

Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank J.; Lagerloef, Gary; LeVine, David

2012-01-01

242

Salinity fronts in the tropical Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study delineates the salinity fronts (SF) across the tropical Pacific, and describes their variability and regional dynamical significance using Aquarius satellite observations. From the monthly maps of the SF, we find that the SF in the tropical Pacific are (1) usually observed around the boundaries of the fresh pool under the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), (2) stronger in boreal autumn than in other seasons, and (3) usually stronger in the eastern Pacific than in the western Pacific. The relationship between the SF and the precipitation and the surface velocity are also discussed. We further present detailed analysis of the SF in three key tropical Pacific regions. Extending zonally around the ITCZ, where the temperature is nearly homogeneous, we find the strong SF of 1.2 psu from 7° to 11°N to be the main contributor of the horizontal density difference of 0.8 kg/m3. In the eastern Pacific, we observe a southward extension of the SF in the boreal spring that could be driven by both precipitation and horizontal advection. In the western Pacific, the importance of these newly resolved SF associated with the western Pacific warm/fresh pool and El Niño southern oscillations are also discussed in the context of prior literature. The main conclusions of this study are that (a) Aquarius satellite salinity measurements reveal the heretofore unknown proliferation, structure, and variability of surface salinity fronts, and that (b) the fine-scale structures of the SF in the tropical Pacific yield important new information on the regional air-sea interaction and the upper ocean dynamics.

Kao, Hsun-Ying; Lagerloef, Gary S. E.

2015-02-01

243

Detection of salinity by the lobster, Homarus americanus.  

PubMed

Changes in the heart rates of lobsters (Homarus americanus) were used as an indicator that the animals were capable of sensing a reduction in the salinity of the ambient seawater. The typical response to a gradual (1 to 2 ppt/min) reduction in salinity consisted of a rapid increase in heart rate at a mean threshold of 26.6 +/- 0.7 ppt, followed by a reduction in heart rate when the salinity reached 22.1 +/- 0.5 ppt. Animals with lesioned cardioregulatory nerves did not exhibit a cardiac response to changes in salinity. A cardiac response was elicited from lobsters exposed to isotonic chloride-free salines but not to isotonic sodium-, magnesium- or calcium-free salines. There was little change in the blood osmolarity of lobsters when bradycardia occurred, suggesting that the receptors involved are external. Furthermore, lobsters without antennae, antennules, or legs showed typical cardiac responses to low salinity, indicating the receptors are not located in these areas. Lobsters exposed to reductions in the salinity of the ambient seawater while both branchial chambers were perfused with full-strength seawater did not display a cardiac response until the external salinity reached 21.6 +/- 1.8 ppt. In contrast, when their branchial chambers were exposed to reductions in salinity while the external salinity was maintained at normal levels, changes in heart rate were rapidly elicited in response to very small reductions in salinity (down to 29.5 +/- 0.9 ppt in the branchial chamber and 31.5 +/- 0.3 ppt externally). We conclude that the primary receptors responsible for detecting reductions in salinity in H. americanus are located within or near the branchial chambers and are primarily sensitive to chloride ions. PMID:11751254

Dufort, C G; Jury, S H; Newcomb, J M; O'Grady, D F; Watson, W H

2001-12-01

244

Tolerance of Venerupis philippinarum to salinity: osmotic and metabolic aspects.  

PubMed

In the last few decades, attention has been focused on the impacts of contamination in marine benthic populations, while the responses of aquatic organisms to natural alterations, namely changes in salinity, have received little attention. In fact, salinity is one of the dominant environmental factors affecting marine bivalves. The ebb and flood of the tide, combined with fresh water inputs from rivers or heavy rainy events, and with extremely dry and hot seasons, can dramatically alter water salinity. Therefore, the salinity of a certain environment can restrict the spatial distribution of a given population, which is especially important when assessing the spread of an invasive species into a new environment. In the present study, the main objective was to understand how clam Venerupis philippinarum copes with salinity changes and, hence biochemical and metabolomic alterations, taking place in individuals submitted to a wide range of salinities were investigated. The results showed that V. philippinarum presented high mortality at lower salinities (0 and 7 g/L) but tolerated high salinities (35 and 42 g/L). The quantification of ionic content revealed that, clams had the capacity to maintain ionic homeostasis along the salinity gradient, mainly changing the concentration of Na, but also with the influence of Mg and Ca. The results showed a decrease in protein content at lower salinities (0 to 21 g/L). Glycogen and glucose increased with increasing salinity gradient. (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra of clam aqueous extracts revealed different metabolite profiles at 7, 28 and 42 g/L salinities, thus enabling metabolite changes to be measured in relation to salinity. PMID:24556070

Carregosa, Vanessa; Figueira, Etelvina; Gil, Ana M; Pereira, Sara; Pinto, Joana; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Freitas, Rosa

2014-05-01

245

Salinity sources of Kefar Uriya wells in the Judea Group aquifer of Israel. Part 1—conceptual hydrogeological model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Yarkon-Taninim groundwater basin, the karstic Judea Group aquifer contains groundwater of high quality. However, in the western wells of the Kefar Uriya area located in the foothills of the Judea Mountains, brackish groundwater was locally encountered. The salinity of this water is caused presumably by two end members designated as the 'Hazerim' and 'Lakhish' water types. The Hazerim type represents surface water percolating through a highly fractured thin chalky limestone formation overlying the Judea Group aquifer. The salinity of the water derives conjointly from several sources such as leachates from rendzina and grumosols, dissolution of caliche crusts which contain evaporites and of rock debris from the surrounding formations. This surface water percolates downwards into the aquifer through a funnel- or chimney-like mechanism. This local salinization mechanism supercedes another regional process caused by the Lakhish waters. These are essentially diluted brines originating from deep formations in the western parts of the Coastal Plain. The study results show that salinization is not caused by the thick chalky beds of the Senonian Mt Scopus Group overlying the Judea Group aquifer, as traditionally considered but prevalently by aqueous leachates from soils and rock debris. The conceptual qualitative hydrogeological model of the salinization as demonstrated in this study, is supported by a quantitative hydrological model presented in another paper in this volume.

Avisar, D.; Rosenthal, E.; Flexer, A.; Shulman, H.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Guttman, J.

2003-01-01

246

The role of mean ocean salinity in climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe numerical simulations designed to help elucidate the role of ocean salinity in climate. Using a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, we study a 100-year sensitivity experiment in which the global-mean salinity is approximately doubled from its present observed value, by adding 35 psu everywhere. The salinity increase produces a rapid global-mean sea-surface warming of 0.8oC within a few

P. D. Williams; Eric Guilyardi; Gurvan Madec; Silvio Gualdi; E. Scoccimarro

2009-01-01

247

Phytoremediation of Saline Soils for Sustainable Agricultural Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Salinization of soils is one of the major factors which severely affect the agricultural productivity worldwide. Due to salinity,\\u000a more than half a billion hectares of land are not being properly used for crop production. Thus, there is a need to search\\u000a means to improve saline soils so that such soils could support highly productive and meaningful land-use systems to

M. Yasin Ashraf; Khalid Mahmood; Javed Akhter; F. Hussain; M. Arshad

248

Bio-reclamation of secondary salinized soils using halophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil salinity has become one of the major determinants of global crop productivity. Consequently reclamation of such soils\\u000a is a most urgent requirement for world food production and for sustainable development. Out of an estimated area of 173 million\\u000a hectares of totally degraded land in India, approximately 7 million hectares are affected by salinity. Besides naturally occurring\\u000a saline soils, the

Vijendra P. S. Shekhawat; Ashwani Kumar; Karl-Hermann Neumann

249

Salinity tolerance of Gyrodactylus salaris (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea): laboratory studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salinity tolerance of the freshwater monogenean Gyrodactylus salaris, infecting Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr, was studied experimentally. Following direct transfer of infected fish from fresh water to 5.0‰ salinity, parasite population growth increased at the same rate as in fresh water and was positively correlated with temperature (1.4, 6.0, and 12.0°C). In 7.5‰ salinity the populations declined and became

Arnulf Soleng; Tor A. Bakke

1997-01-01

250

Integrated geophysical and chemical study of saline water intrusion.  

PubMed

Surface geophysical surveys provide an effective way to image the subsurface and the ground water zone without a large number of observation wells. DC resistivity sounding generally identifies the subsurface formations-the aquifer zone as well as the formations saturated with saline/brackish water. However, the method has serious ambiguities in distinguishing the geological formations of similar resistivities such as saline sand and saline clay, or water quality such as fresh or saline, in a low resistivity formation. In order to minimize the ambiguity and ascertain the efficacy of data integration techniques in ground water and saline contamination studies, a combined geophysical survey and periodic chemical analysis of ground water were carried out employing DC resistivity profiling, resistivity sounding, and shallow seismic refraction methods. By constraining resistivity interpretation with inputs from seismic refraction and chemical analysis, the data integration study proved to be a powerful method for identification of the subsurface formations, ground water zones, the subsurface saline/brackish water zones, and the probable mode and cause of saline water intrusion in an inland aquifer. A case study presented here illustrates these principles. Resistivity sounding alone had earlier failed to identify the different formations in the saline environment. Data integration and resistivity interpretation constrained by water quality analysis led to a new concept of minimum resistivity for ground water-bearing zones, which is the optimum value of resistivity of a subsurface formation in an area below which ground water contained in it is saline/brackish and unsuitable for drinking. PMID:15457790

Choudhury, Kalpan; Saha, D K

2004-01-01

251

Planting six tree species on soda-saline-alkali soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populus simonigra, Salix matsudana, Ulmus pumila, Populus nigra, Acer negundo, Fraxinus mandshurica. Tamarix chinensis, Hippophae\\u000a rhammoldes, Syriga onlata were planted on the soda-saline-alkali. The soil had pH 8.5–9.6, salinity 0.1%–0.3%, sodiumionized\\u000a ratio 16%–51% and normality ratio of saline base Na+\\/(Ca+++Mg++)>4. Populus simonigra grows very well on the all kinds of soda-saline-alkali soils except on the alkali sport with the worst

Zhang Yujiang; Liu Peng; Yang Dewei; Ma Chenghui; Liu Gang

1998-01-01

252

Soil salinity decreases global soil organic carbon stocks.  

PubMed

Saline soils cover 3.1% (397 million hectare) of the total land area of the world. The stock of soil organic carbon (SOC) reflects the balance between carbon (C) inputs from plants, and losses through decomposition, leaching and erosion. Soil salinity decreases plant productivity and hence C inputs to the soil, but also microbial activity and therefore SOC decomposition rates. Using a modified Rothamsted Carbon model (RothC) with a newly introduced salinity decomposition rate modifier and a plant input modifier we estimate that, historically, world soils that are currently saline have lost an average of 3.47 tSOC ha(-1) since they became saline. With the extent of saline soils predicted to increase in the future, our modelling suggests that world soils may lose 6.8 Pg SOC due to salinity by the year 2100. Our findings suggest that current models overestimate future global SOC stocks and underestimate net CO2 emissions from the soil-plant system by not taking salinity effects into account. From the perspective of enhancing soil C stocks, however, given the lower SOC decomposition rate in saline soils, salt tolerant plants could be used to sequester C in salt-affected areas. PMID:22959898

Setia, Raj; Gottschalk, Pia; Smith, Pete; Marschner, Petra; Baldock, Jeff; Setia, Deepika; Smith, Jo

2013-11-01

253

Effect of salinity on oxygen consumption in fishes: a review.  

PubMed

The effect of salinity on resting oxygen uptake was measured in the perch Perca fluviatilis and available information on oxygen uptake in teleost species at a variety of salinities was reviewed. Trans-epithelial ion transport against a concentration gradient requires energy and exposure to salinities osmotically different from the body fluids therefore imposes an energetic demand that is expected to be lowest in brackish water compared to fresh and sea water. Across species, there is no clear trend between oxygen uptake and salinity, and estimates of cost of osmotic and ionic regulation vary from a few per cent to >30% of standard metabolism. PMID:24665828

Ern, R; Huong, D T T; Cong, N V; Bayley, M; Wang, T

2014-04-01

254

Impact of water quality and irrigation management on soil salinization in the Drâa valley of Morocco.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the arid climatic conditions of the Drâa valley in southern Morocco, irrigation is essential for crop production. Two sources of water are available to farmers: (1) moderate salinity water from the Oued Drâa (classified as C3-S1 in the USDA irrigation water classification diagram) which is available only a few times per year following discrete releases from the Mansour Eddahbi dam, and (2) high salinity water from wells (C4-S2). Soil salinization is frequently observed, principally on plots irrigated with well water. As Oued water is available in insufficient amounts, strategies must be devised to use well and Oued water judiciously, without inducing severe salinization. The salinization risk under wheat production was evaluated using the HP1 program (Jacques and Šim?nek, 2005) for different combinations of the two main water sources, different irrigation frequencies and irrigation volumes. The soil was a sandy clay loam (topsoil) to sandy loam (40 cm depth). Soil hydrodynamic properties were derived from in situ measurements and lab measurements on undisturbed soil samples. The HP1 model was parameterized for wheat growth and 12 scenarios were run for 10 year periods using local climatic data. Water quality was measured or estimated on the basis of water samples in wells and various Oueds, and the soil chemical properties were determined. Depending on the scenario, soil salinity in the mean root zone increased from less than 1 meq/100g of soil to more than 5 meq/100g of soil over a ten year period. Salt accumulation was more pronounced at 45 cm soil depth, which is half of the maximum rooting depth, and when well water was preferentially used. Maximum crop yield (water transpired / potential water transpired) was achieved for five scenarios but this implied the use of well water to satisfy the crop water requirements. The usual Drâa Valley irrigation scenario, with five, 84 mm dam water applications per year, lead to a 25% yield loss. Adding the amount of well water needed to satisfy the crop water requirements as well as the leaching requirement had the lowest impact on soil salinization but resulted in a very low water use efficiency of 0.2 (water transpired / water added). This demonstrates the importance of using larger amounts of water than plant water requirements in this region in order to leach out salt of the root zone. However, in arid region, water is often limited and thus farmers can not afford to waste it. In that case, it is necessary to find a compromise between salinization, sodification and saving water. References: Jacques D., Šim?nek J. (2005). User Manual of the Multicomponent Variably-Saturated Flow and Transport Model HP1. Waste and Disposal Department, Mol, Belgium. USDA, United States Department of Agriculture (1969). Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils. United States Salinity Laboratory Staff, Agriculture Handbook No. 60, 160p.

Beff, L.; Descamps, C.; Dufey, J.; Bielders, C.

2009-04-01

255

SMOS salinity in the subtropical North Atlantic salinity maximum: 1. Comparison with Aquarius and in situ salinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea surface salinity (SSS) measured from space by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission is validated in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. 39 transects of ships of opportunity equipped with thermosalinographs (TSG) crossed that region from 2010 to 2012, providing a large database of ground truth SSS. SMOS SSS is also compared to Aquarius SSS. Large seasonal biases remain in SMOS and Aquarius SSS. In order to look at the capability of satellite SSS to monitor spatial variability, especially at scales less than 300 km (not monitored with the Argo network), we first apply a monthly bias correction derived from satellite SSS and In Situ Analysis System (ISAS) SSS differences averaged over the studied region. Ship SSS averaged over 25 km is compared with satellite and ISAS SSS. Similar statistics are obtained for SMOS, Aquarius, and ISAS products (root mean square error of about 0.15 and global correlation coefficient r of about 0.92). However, in the above statistics, SSS varies due to both large-scale and mesoscale (here for scales around 100 km) variability. In order to focus on mesoscale variability, we consider SSS anomalies with respect to a monthly climatology. SMOS SSS and Aquarius SSS anomalies are more significantly correlated (r > 0.5) to TSG SSS anomaly than ISAS. We show the effective gain of resolution and coverage provided by the satellite products over the interpolated in situ data. We also show the advantage of SMOS (r = 0.57) over Aquarius (r = 0.52) to reproduce SSS mesoscale features.

Hernandez, O.; Boutin, J.; Kolodziejczyk, N.; Reverdin, G.; Martin, N.; Gaillard, F.; Reul, N.; Vergely, J. L.

2014-12-01

256

Diatom–salinity relationships in wetlands: assessing the influence of salinity variability on the development of inference models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diatoms are among the most widely used indicators of human and climate induced wetland salinity history in the world. This\\u000a is particularly as a result of the development of diatom-based models for inferring past salinity. These models have primarily\\u000a been developed from relationships between diatoms and salinity measured at the time of sampling or during the preceding year.\\u000a Although within

John Tibby; Peter A. Gell; Jennie Fluin; Ian R. K. Sluiter

2007-01-01

257

Groundwater table and salinity: Spatial and temporal distribution and influence on soil salinization in Khorezm region (Uzbekistan, Aral Sea Basin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater (GW) management is an essential element in irrigated agriculture. This paper analyzes the temporal dynamics of\\u000a GW table and salinity in Khorezm, a region of Uzbekistan which is situated on the lower Amu Darya River in the Aral Sea Basin\\u000a and suffering from severe soil salinization. We furthermore identify the critical areas for potential soil salinization by\\u000a examining GW

M. Ibrakhimov; A. Khamzina; I. Forkutsa; G. Paluasheva; J. P. A. Lamers; B. Tischbein; P. L. G. Vlek; C. Martius

2007-01-01

258

Space Radar Image of Saline Valley, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Saline Valley, about 30 km (19 miles) east of the town of Independence, California created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this one are helpful to scientists because they clarify the relationships of the different types of surfaces detected by the radar and the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. The view is looking southwest across Saline Valley. The high peaks in the background are the Inyo Mountains, which rise more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above the valley floor. The dark blue patch near the center of the image is an area of sand dunes. The brighter patches to the left of the dunes are the dry, salty lake beds of Saline Valley. The brown and orange areas are deposits of boulders, gravel and sand known as alluvial fans. The image was constructed by overlaying a color composite radar image on top of a digital elevation map. The radar image was taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-bandSynthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttleEndeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was producedusing radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The elevation data were derived from a 1,500-km-long (930-mile) digital topographic map processed at JPL. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vetically received; and blue is the ratio of C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received to L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This image is centered near 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

1999-01-01

259

Volume graphics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volume graphics, which employs a volume buffer of voxels for 3D scene representation, is discussed. Volume graphics offers advantages over surface graphics: it is viewpoint independent, insensitive to scene and object complexity, and suitable for the representation of sampled and simulated data sets. Moreover, geometric objects can be mixed with these data sets. Volume graphics supports the visualization of internal

Arie E. Kaufman; Daniel Cohen-Or; Roni Yagel

1993-01-01

260

Salinity changes in the Agulhas leakage area recorded by stable hydrogen isotopes of C37 alkenones during Termination I and II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the southern tip of Africa, the Agulhas Current reflects back into the Indian Ocean causing so-called "Agulhas rings" to spin off and release relatively warm and saline water into the South Atlantic Ocean. Previous reconstructions of the dynamics of the Agulhas Current, based on paleo-sea surface temperature and sea surface salinity proxies, inferred that Agulhas leakage from the Indian Ocean to the South Atlantic was reduced during glacial stages as a consequence of shifted wind fields and a northwards migration of the subtropical front. Subsequently, this might have led to a buildup of warm saline water in the southern Indian Ocean. To investigate this latter hypothesis, we reconstructed sea surface salinity changes using alkenone ?D, and paleo-sea surface temperature using TEXH86 and UK'37, from two sediment cores (MD02-2594, MD96-2080) located in the Agulhas leakage area during Termination I and II. Both UK'37 and TEXH86 temperature reconstructions indicate an abrupt warming during the glacial terminations, while a shift to more negative ?Dalkenone values of approximately 14‰ during glacial Termination I and II is also observed. Approximately half of the isotopic shift can be attributed to the change in global ice volume, while the residual isotopic shift is attributed to changes in salinity, suggesting relatively high salinities at the core sites during glacials, with subsequent freshening during glacial terminations. Approximate estimations suggest that ?Dalkenone represents a salinity change of ca. 1.7-1.9 during Termination I and Termination II. These estimations are in good agreement with the proposed changes in salinity derived from previously reported combined planktonic Foraminifera ?18O values and Mg/Ca-based temperature reconstructions. Our results confirm that the ?D of alkenones is a potentially suitable tool to reconstruct salinity changes independent of planktonic Foraminifera ?18O.

Kasper, S.; van der Meer, M. T. J.; Mets, A.; Zahn, R.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Schouten, S.

2014-02-01

261

Large-scale impact of CO 2 storage in deep saline aquifers: A sensitivity study on pressure response in stratified systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large volumes of CO2 captured from carbon emitters (such as coal-fired power plants) may be stored in deep saline aquifers as a means of mitigating climate change. Storing these additional fluids may cause pressure changes and displacement of native brines, affecting subsurface volumes that can be significantly larger than the CO2 plume itself. This study aimed at determining the three-dimensional

Jens T. Birkholzer; Quanlin Zhou; Chin-Fu Tsang

2009-01-01

262

Reclamation of highly calcareous saline-sodic soil using low quality water and phosphogypsum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency of two amendments in reclaiming saline sodic soil using moderately saline (EC) and moderate sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) canal water was investigated. Phosphogypsum (PG) and reagent grade calcium chloride were applied to packed sandy loam soil columns and leached with canal water (SAR = 4, and EC = 2.16 dS m-1). Phosphogypsum was mixed with top soil prior to leaching at application rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 35, 40 Mg ha-1, whereas calcium chloride was dissolved directly in water at equivalent rates of 4.25, 8.5, 12.75, 17.0, 21.25, 29.75, and 34 Mg ha-1, respectively. Both amendments efficiently reduced soil salinity and sodicity. Calcium chloride removed 90 % of the total Na and soluble salts whereas PG removed 79 and 60 %, respectively. Exchangeable sodium percentage was reduced by 90 % in both amendments. Results indicated that during cation exchange reactions most of the sodium was removed when effluent SAR was at maximum. Phosphogypsum has lower total costs than calcium chloride and as an efficient amendment an application of 30 Mg ha-1 and leaching with 4 pore volume (PV) of canal water could be recommended to reclaim the studied soil.

Gharaibeh, M. A.; Rusan, M. J.; Eltaif, N. I.; Shunnar, O. F.

2014-09-01

263

Freshwater phytoplankton in the low salinity region of the River Tamar estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation was made into the fate of freshwater algae in the Tamar estuary, south-west England, to examine the hypothesis that oxygen minima, observed at the freshwater-brackish water interface, were a consequence of mass mortality of freshwater algae and the subsequent oxidative degradation of the lysed cells by bacteria. The quantity and species composition of algae in the river and estuary were determined by measurements of chlorophyll and cell numbers. Phytoplankton numbers were transformed into biomass by measuring the volume of the cells and calculating the carbon content. Salinity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, pH and temperature were also recorded. The size of the upper estuarine community was inversely related to freshwater input. During the summer months, very large populations of freshwater algae (up to 8 mg carbon l -1) were observed between 0 and 8‰ salinity, after long periods of low freshwater input. This population was completely dominated by the diatom Cyclotella atomus and was very stable with respect to changing tides, remaining in the estuary until river flow increased. Death of these algae only occurred at salinities greater than 8‰ and oxygen minima were not observed. The oxygen minima were more closely associated with the turbidity maxima than with algal mortality. There is some evidence that the oxygen depletion may be due to decreased photosynthesis as a result of the reduced light availability at the turbidity maxima.

Jackson, Roselyn H.; Williams, P. J. le B.; Joint, I. R.

1987-09-01

264

Rheology of Cystic Fibrosis Sputum after in vitro Treatment with Hypertonic Saline Alone and in Combination with Recombinant Human Deoxyribonuclease I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment with recombinant human deoxyribonuclease I (rhDNase) is currently used as therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Hypertonic saline (HS) acts as an expectorant promoting mucus se- cretion and augmenting the volume of sputum. We evaluated the individual and combined effects of HS and rhDNase in vitro on the viscoelasticity of CF sputum. Sputum samples were collected from nine

MALCOLM KING; BONNIE DASGUPTA; ROBERT P. TOMKIEWICZ; NEIL E. BROWN

265

Salinity and spectral reflectance of soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic spectral response related to the salt content of soils in the visible and reflective IR wavelengths is analyzed in order to explore remote sensing applications for monitoring processes of the earth system. The bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) was determined at 10 nm of increments over the 520-2320-nm spectral range. The effect of salts on reflectance was analyzed on the basis of 162 spectral measurements. MSS and TM bands were simulated within the measured spectral region. A strong relationship was found in variations of reflectance and soil characteristics pertaining to salinization and desalinization. Although the individual MSS bands had high R-squared values and 75-79 percent of soil/treatment combinations were separable, there was a large number of soil/treatment combinations not distinguished by any of the four highly correlated MSS bands under consideration.

Szilagyi, A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

1991-01-01

266

Factors affecting the hydrogen isotopic composition of dissolved organic matter along a salinity gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) in regulating estuarine ecosystem processes is poorly understood, in part due to difficulties in tracking terrestrial DOM in marine environments. Analysis of multiple stable isotopes (C, N, S) is often required due to poor separation of the carbon isotope signatures of marine and terrestrial sources. However, hydrogen isotopes exhibit greater fractionation. Marine DOM sources have a hydrogen isotope signature of 0‰ while terrestrial DOM can have signatures of up to -270‰ at the poles. Some challenges must be addressed before hydrogen isotopes can be used to track terrestrial DOM in aquatic environments. Hydrogen isotopes may undergo exchange between water and organic matter, obscuring terrestrial signatures. Riverine discharge into marine environments introduces terrestrial DOM to water of different chemical and isotopic compositions which could influence the isotopic composition of the terrestrial DOM. We investigate the effects of changes in water isotopic composition on DOM by introducing terrestrial DOM to freshwaters of isotopic compositions up to +1000‰ for up to two months. We also use surface water samples along a salinity transect at the Salmonier Arm, Newfoundland, Canada to investigate the effects of changes in water mass conditions (pH, salinity and water isotopes) on terrestrial DOM. In addition to changes in water mass conditions, methods for isolating estuarine DOM may regulate affect its isotopic composition. Ultrafiltration (UF), a size-exclusion technique, has been shown to isolate and concentrate the largest proportion of DOM in estuarine environments. UF separates DOM into low molecular weight (LMW, <1kDa) and high molecular weight (HMW, >1kDa) fractions. However, under certain processing conditions, some LMW DOM can be retained. During desalting (diafiltration), LMW DOM continues to be removed from the concentrate, whereas HMW DOM is retained. The proportion of LMW DOM retained becomes important when UF is used in environments requiring a range of diafiltration volumes, such as along a salinity transect in an estuary. As ~70% of marine DOM is LMW, UF-processed estuarine samples likely show a bias toward the terrestrial DOM component which will likely impact its isotopic composition. We examine the effects of DOM recovery following ultrafiltration and diafiltration on its bulk stable isotopic signatures along a salinity transect at the Salmonier Arm. Freshwater, high and intermediate salinity samples are diafiltered using a range of volumes, resulting in differences in recovery. DOM recovery, and isotopic signatures are compared across each treatment and along the transect. Results from these experimental and field samples are expected to provide key insight into the utility of hydrogen isotopes for understanding the transport and fate of terrestrial DOM in the marine environment.

Debond, A. A.; Ziegler, S. E.; Fogel, M. L.; Morrill, P. L.; Bowden, R.

2010-12-01

267

The Amazon River Plume during AMASSEDS: Spatial characteristics and salinity variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Amazon River discharge forms a plume of low-salinity water that extends offshore and northwestward over the north Brazilian shelf. Observations acquired as part of A Multidisciplinary Amazon Shelf SEDiment Study (AMASSEDS) are used to characterize the spatial structure and temporal variability of the Amazon Plume. Four shipboard conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) surveys spanning the shelf from 1°S to 5°N during rising (March 1990), maximum (May 1990), falling (August 1989), and minimum (November 1991) discharge show the Amazon Plume is typically 3 to 10 m thick and 80 to over 200 km wide. Northwest of the river mouth, the plume is often characterized by a wedge of low-salinity water adjacent to the coast and a separate tongue of low-salinity water extending offshore over the middle to outer shelf. A bottom front separating the low-salinity plume water from oceanic water is consistently located between the 10- and 20-m isobaths. A moored array deployed about 300 km northwest of the river mouth from February to June 1990 included inner and midshelf moorings in 18 and 65 m of water on which temperature-conductivity measurements were made. The moored observations reveal salinity variations within the Amazon Plume of over 10 psu on timescales of days to weeks. This variability includes intermittent events in which plume water pools up in the vicinity of the river mouth and the plume width can exceed 200 km. These accumulation events are apparently due to wind events with a southeastward component which impede or block the normally northwestward freshwater transport. The resulting bulges in the plume are then released northwestward when the wind reverses. Volume budgets indicate the Amazon Plume entrains roughly twice the river discharge between the river mouth at the equator and 3°N. Estimates of gradient Richardson numbers from the moorings suggest entrainment, due to the strong semidiurnal tidal currents, occurs where the plume intersects the bottom and over the outer portion of the plume, where salinities approach oceanic values.

Lentz, Steven J.; Limeburner, Richard

1995-02-01

268

The role of phase transformations as a softening mechanism in saline ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gain insight into the behavior of saline ice relative to non-saline ice, single crystals of saline and non-saline ice were loaded in compression. Responses from these experiments indicate that single crystals of saline ice are significantly more compliant during the initial load response. Analyses presented in this dissertation indicate that phase transformations in brine cells have the potential to

Ladean Robert McKittrick

1997-01-01

269

Factors influencing species diversity in saline waters of Death Valley, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity is a major factor influencing the distributions and abundances of aquatic macroinvertebrates of saline waters in Death Valley, California, USA. A general pattern of declining numbers of species with increasing salinity is seen in Death Valley waters. Some species are restricted to low salinities, others are found only in highly saline pools, and still others are widely distributed over

Elizabeth A. Colburn

1988-01-01

270

Respiratory Failure Caused by Intratracheal Saline: Additive Effect of Xanthine Oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administration of physiological saline or drugs together with saline into the airways is becoming common clinical practice. However, there are few studies on possible side effects. We have studied the effects of saline, saline plus xanthine oxidase, and saline plus xanthine oxidase plus superoxidase dismutase on lung-thorax compliance and on arterial blood gases in anesthetized, paralyzed guinea pigs, ventilated for

Ola Didrik Saugstad; Mikko Hallman; Günther Becher; Arno Oddoy; Björn Lium; Burkhard Lachmann

1988-01-01

271

Cyclic and blending strategies for using nonsaline and saline waters for irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large quantities of saline water frequently exist in irrigated areas of the world. Various strategies have been proposed to use these saline waters. Blending involves mixing saline water with good quality water to an acceptable salinity and then using this water to irrigate crops. The cyclic strategy uses waters of various salinities separately either during one season or in a

S. Bradford; J. Letey

1992-01-01

272

Seed germination and salinity tolerance in plant species growing on saline wastelands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven plant species including three chenopods:Suaeda fruticosa, Kochia indica, Atriplex crassifolia and four grasses:Sporobolus arabicus, Cynodon dactylon, Polypogon monspeliensis, Desmostachya bipinnata, varied greatly in their seed germination and growth responses to soil moisture or salinity. The germination percentage of\\u000a each species was significantly lower at soil moisture level of 25 % of water holding capacity than at the levels ranging

K. Mahmood; K. A. Malik; M. A. K. Lodhi; K. H. Sheikh

1996-01-01

273

Ocean water salinity and colour herald El Nio events  

E-print Network

N° 380 July 2011 Ocean water salinity and colour herald El Niño events Scientific news Actualidad of the ocean layers, an indicator of the salinity barrier layer located at a few tens of metres' depth showed that this barrier is a dominant para- meter in the warm pool's ocean-atmosphere interac- tions

274

The Salinity, Temperature, and O of the Glacial Deep Ocean  

E-print Network

The Salinity, Temperature, and 18 O of the Glacial Deep Ocean Jess F. Adkins,1 * Katherine Mc isotopic composition from Ocean Drilling Program cores to reconstruct salinity and temperature of the deep ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Our data show that the temperatures of the deep Pacific

Schrag, Daniel

275

Expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) during salinity stress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a salt-tolerant crop species with considerable economic importance in salinity-affected arid and semiarid regions of the world. In this work, barley cultivar Morex was used for transcriptional profiling during salinity stress using a microarray containing ~22,750 prob...

276

Power generation and potable water recovery from salinous water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for simultaneously generating power and recovering potable water from a source of salinous water - e.g. sea water, is described. Salinous water which is proximate to the surface and at a relatively high temperature - about 85°F - is increased in temperature via indirect contact with a vaporous phase, derived from the surface water at an elevated temperature

1978-01-01

277

Physical Properties of Medium density Particleboard Made from Saline Eucalyptus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eucalyptus tree, Eucalyptus cinerea, has the potential to be used as a biomass crop to help manage saline subsurface drainage water in arid land where irrigated agriculture is practiced. In this research, saline eucalyptus was used to manufacture medium-density particleboard in an attempt to develo...

278

Deep Ocean Temperature and Salinity at the Last Glacial Maximum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment pore fluids from the deep ocean contain a record of the bottom water salinity and delta 18O due to the last glaciation. Storage of water on land as glacial ice imparts a global signal of increased salinity and enriched oxygen isotopic values in the abyssal ocean and changes in deep circulation patterns can impart an additional local signal. In

J. F. Adkins; D. P. Schrag

2004-01-01

279

Surface temperature and salinity variations between Tasmania and Antarctica, 19931999  

E-print Network

Surface temperature and salinity variations between Tasmania and Antarctica, 1993­1999 Alexis ship between Tasmania and Dumont D'Urville, Antarctica, as part of the SURVOSTRAL program (Surveillance: Chaigneau, A., and R. Morrow, Surface temperature and salinity variations between Tasmania and Antarctica

280

EVALUATION OF IRRIGATION METHODS FOR SALINITY CONTROL IN GRAND VALLEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Irrigation return flows in the Upper Colorado River Basin carry large salt loads as a result of contact with the saline soils and the marine derived geologic substratum. The Grand Valley of western Colorado is a major contributor to the salinity problems of the basin and is, ther...

281

Irrigation with saline water: benefits and environmental impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shortage of water resources of good quality is becoming an important issue in the arid and semi-arid zones. For this reason the availability of water resources of marginal quality such as drainage water, saline groundwater and treated wastewater has become an important consideration. Nevertheless, the use of these waters in irrigated lands requires the control of soil salinity by

Julián Mart??nez Beltrán

1999-01-01

282

Assessing salinity-control programs on the Colorado River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a large financial commitment to desalinization of the Colorado River water, considerable hydrologic uncertainty surrounds salinity control itself. Both the relative contributions to salinity by various sources and the amount of salt that must be removed from the river to achieve a given reduction remain uncertain. A changing view of the severity of the problem and the previously unconsidered

2009-01-01

283

USDA Planning Process for Colorado River Basin Salinity Control  

E-print Network

been underway since 1973 to reduce salinity problems in the Colorado River Basin. The experience gained the magnitude of the problem. Salinity problems are not;ust a concern for those in the Colorado River Basin been recognized as one of the ma.;or problems of the Colorado River, but in the early 1Q60's the amount

284

Engineering Salinity and Water-Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abiotic stress is the primary cause of crop plant yield losses worldwide. Drought and salinity stress are the major environmental challenges faced by agriculture. Improving yield production and stability under stressful environments is needed to fulfil the food demand of the ever-growing world population. Numerous genes associated to plant response(s) to drought and salinity stress have been identified and characterized,

Zvi Peleg; Maris P. Apse; Eduardo Blumwald

2011-01-01

285

Coumarin pretreatment alleviates salinity stress in wheat seedlings.  

PubMed

The potentiality of COU to improve plant tolerance to salinity was investigated. Wheat grains were primed with COU (50 ppm) and then grown under different levels of NaCl (50, 100, 150 mM) for two weeks. COU pretreatment improved the growth of wheat seedling under salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings, due to the accumulation of osmolytes such as soluble sugars and proline. Moreover, COU treatment significantly improved K(+)/Na(+) ratio in the shoots of both salt stressed and un-stressed seedlings. However, in the roots, this ratio increased only under non-salinity. In consistent with phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), phenolics and flavonoids were accumulated in COU-pretreated seedlings under the higher doses of salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings. COU primed seedlings showed higher content of the coumarin derivative, scopoletin, and salicylic, chlorogenic, syringic, vanillic, gallic and ferulic acids, under both salinity and non-salinity conditions. Salinity stress significantly improved the activity of peroxidase (POD) in COU-pretreated seedlings. However, the effect of COU on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was only obtained at the highest dose of NaCl (150 mM). The present results suggest that COU pretreatment could alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on the growth of wheat seedlings through enhancing, at least partly, the osmoregulation process and antioxidant defense system. PMID:25634803

Saleh, Ahmed Mahmoud; Madany, M M Y

2015-03-01

286

Alternate interpretation of the Messinian salinity crisis: Controversy resolved?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-resolution chronology of the Mediterranean Messinian salinity crisis is proposed. Two types of evaporite deposition may be distinguished: those in marginal areas vs. those in basinal ones. Their diachroneity is deduced from the stratigraphic relationships linking these evaporites to a major Messinian erosional surface. A two-step model is proposed for the evolution of the salinity crisis through time. During

Georges Clauzon; Jean-Pierre Suc; François Gautier; André Berger; Marie-France Loutre

1996-01-01

287

Hurricane-induced failure of low salinity wetlands  

PubMed Central

During the 2005 hurricane season, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527 km2 of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained robust and largely unchanged. Here we highlight geotechnical differences between the soil profiles of high and low salinity regimes, which are controlled by vegetation and result in differential erosion. In low salinity wetlands, a weak zone (shear strength 500–1450 Pa) was observed ?30 cm below the marsh surface, coinciding with the base of rooting. High salinity wetlands had no such zone (shear strengths > 4500 Pa) and contained deeper rooting. Storm waves during Hurricane Katrina produced shear stresses between 425–3600 Pa, sufficient to cause widespread erosion of the low salinity wetlands. Vegetation in low salinity marshes is subject to shallower rooting and is susceptible to erosion during large magnitude storms; these conditions may be exacerbated by low inorganic sediment content and high nutrient inputs. The dramatic difference in resiliency of fresh versus more saline marshes suggests that the introduction of freshwater to marshes as part of restoration efforts may therefore weaken existing wetlands rendering them vulnerable to hurricanes. PMID:20660777

Howes, Nick C.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Hughes, Zoe J.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kulp, Mark A.; Miner, Michael D.; Smith, Jane M.; Barras, John A.

2010-01-01

288

High-latitude salinity effects and interhemispheric thermohaline circulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general circulation model for the ocean is used to investigate the interaction between the global-scale thermohaline circulation and the salinity distribution. It is shown that an equatorially asymmetric circulation can be maintained even under equatorially symmetric basin geometry and surface forcing. Multiple equilibrium solutions are obtained for the same forcing by perturbing the high-latitude salinity field in an otherwise

Frank Bryan

1986-01-01

289

Osmotic adaptation in Ulva lactuca under fluctuating salinity regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been made of the osmotic responses of the green intertidal alga, Ulva lactuca, under two fluctuating salinity regimes; sinusoidal and square-wave fluctuations between 30 and 100% sea water in a 12 h cycle. These regimes closely resemble the tidal fluctuation of salinity encountered by the alga in its natural estuarine habitat. Data on changes in the inorganic

D. M. J. Dickson; R. G. Wyn Jones; J. Davenport

1982-01-01

290

SALINITY-HEAVY METAL INTERACTIONS IN FOUR SALTTOLERANT PLANT SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concurrent effect of NaCl salinity and heavy metals [cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni)] on growth, sodium (Na), and heavy metal accumulation was assessed in four salt tolerant plant species. These were: barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.), Inula crithmoides L., and Plantago coronopus L., all of which have documented potential for use in saline agriculture.

R. A. Zurayk; N. F. Khoury; S. N. Talhouk; R. Z. Baalbaki

2001-01-01

291

Salinity effects on the microwave emission of soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Controlled plot experiments were conducted to collect L and C band passive microwave data concurrent with ground observations of salinity and soil moisture. Two dielectric mixing models were used with an emission model to predict the emissivity from a bare smooth uniform profile. The models produce nearly identical results when near zero salinity is involved and reproduce the observed data at L band extremely well. Discrepancies at C band are attributed to sampling depth problems. Comparisons of predicted emissivities at various salinities with observed values indicate that the dynamic range of the emissivities can be explained using either of the dielectric mixing models. Evaluation of the entire data set, which included four salinity levels, indicates that for general application the effects of soil salinity can be ignored in interpreting microwave data for estimating soil moisture under most agricultural conditions.

Jackson, Thomas J.; Oneill, Peggy E.

1987-01-01

292

Effects of salinity on the microwave emission of soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Controlled plot experiments were conducted to collect L and C band passive microwave data concurrent with ground observations of salinity and soil moisture. Two dielectric mixing models were used with an emission model to predict the emissivity from a bare smooth uniform profile. The models produce nearly identical results when near zero salinity is involved and reproduce the observed data at L band extremely well. Discrepancies at C band are attributed to sampling depth problems. Comparisons of predicted emissivities at various salinities with observed values indicate that the dynamic range of the emissivities can be explained using either of the dielectric mixing models. Evaluation of the entire data set, which included four salinity levels, indicates that for general application the effects of soil salinity can be ignored in interpreting microwave data for estimating soil moisture under most agricultural conditions.

Jackson, T. J.; Oneill, P. E.

1986-01-01

293

NASA Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space Education Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The educational resources and activities on this Web site teach fundamental concepts about salinity variations and the role these changes play in controlling global ocean circulation and Earth’s climate. The modules augment existing El Nino/La Nina materials with salinity-based content, provide on-line interactive tools demonstrating environmental change through data sets and in situ time-series analysis, and engage students in activities designed to demonstrate salt-water interactions. Launched in June 2011, NASA’s Aquarius will provide the first global map of sea surface salinity with unprecedented accuracy, resolution and coverage. The importance of salinity measurements in understanding coastal ocean processes is critical as salinity is a key factor in understanding and predicting biological and physical processes and their interactions with the food web, climate, and global water cycle.

2007-01-01

294

A sensitivity analysis of low salinity habitats simulated by a hydrodynamic model in the Manatee River estuary in Florida, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a sensitivity study of simulated availability of low salinity habitats by a hydrodynamic model for the Manatee River estuary located in the southwest portion of the Florida peninsula. The purpose of the modeling study was to establish a regulatory minimum freshwater flow rate required to prevent the estuarine ecosystem from significant harm. The model used in the study was a multi-block model that dynamically couples a three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic model with a laterally averaged (2DV) hydrodynamic model. The model was calibrated and verified against measured real-time data of surface elevation and salinity at five stations during March 2005-July 2006. The calibrated model was then used to conduct a series of scenario runs to investigate effects of the flow reduction on salinity distributions in the Manatee River estuary. Based on simulated salinity distribution in the estuary, water volumes, bottom areas and shoreline lengths for salinity less than certain predefined values were calculated and analyzed to help establish the minimum freshwater flow rate for the estuarine system. The sensitivity analysis conducted during the modeling study for the Manatee River estuary examined effects of the bottom roughness, ambient vertical eddy viscosity/diffusivity, horizontal eddy viscosity/diffusivity, and ungauged flow on the model results and identified the relative importance of these model parameters (input data) to the outcome of the availability of low salinity habitats. It is found that the ambient vertical eddy viscosity/diffusivity is the most influential factor controlling the model outcome, while the horizontal eddy viscosity/diffusivity is the least influential one.

Chen, XinJian

2012-06-01

295

Flow cytometric characterization of hemocytes of the sunray venus clam Macrocallista nimbosa and influence of salinity variation.  

PubMed

Sunray venus clam Macrocallista nimbosa is a native bivalve mollusc of Florida, USA, currently evaluated as a potential new aquaculture species. Very little is known about the physiology and hemocyte characteristics of this species. Bivalve hemocytes are generally involved in various physiological functions including nutrition, tissue repair, detoxification and immune defense. Understanding hemocytes of M. nimbosa and their response to environmental variations is crucial. In estuarine Florida areas, salinity is probably the most important factor potentially affecting clams physiology since wide variations can occur within few days. In the present work, using flow cytometry, hemocyte types and cellular parameters (oxidative activity, lysosomal content, phagocytosis capacity) were first characterized in sunray venus clams, in relation with endogenous variables (i.e., size, body weight, gender). Clams were then transferred from salinity 30 psu to 18, 21, 25, 30, 35 and 38 psu. After 7 days, impact of salinity variations was determined on hemocyte parameters, along with estimation of physiological status of clams (mortality, valve closure, filtration activity). Hemocytes of sunray venus clam appeared as a unique population, both in terms of morphology (FSC vs. SSC) and intracellular parameters, but displayed high inter-individual variability. Allometric relationship was only described for intracellular oxidative activity. Transfer of clams to 18 psu and, at lower extent, 21 psu resulted in valve closure, mortality and decreased filtration activity. Low salinities resulted in reduction of the number of circulating hemocytes, potentially reflecting infiltration in tissues as part of an inflammatory response or to optimize nutrient distribution. Low salinities also highly impacted hemocytes as depicted by increased cell and lysosomal compartment volumes, decreased phagocytosis capacity as well as increased oxidative stress and mortality. Salinity drops depress physiology and immune defense capacities of sunray venus clams, potentially threatening survival in case of concomitant pathogen encounter or secondary stress. PMID:23765118

Jauzein, Cécile; Donaghy, Ludovic; Volety, Aswani K

2013-09-01

296

Genetic variation and plasticity of Plantago coronopus under saline conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenotypic plasticity may allow organisms to cope with variation in the environmental conditions they encounter in their natural habitats. Salt adaptation appears to be an excellent example of such a plastic response. Many plant species accumulate organic solutes in response to saline conditions. Comparative and molecular studies suggest that this is an adaptation to osmotic stress. However, evidence relating the physiological responses to fitness parameters is rare and requires assessing the potential costs and benefits of plasticity. We studied the response of thirty families derived from plants collected in three populations of Plantago coronopus in a greenhouse experiment under saline and non-saline conditions. We indeed found a positive selection gradient for the sorbitol percentage under saline conditions: plant families with a higher proportion of sorbitol produced more spikes. No effects of sorbitol on fitness parameters were found under non-saline conditions. Populations also differed genetically in leaf number, spike number, sorbitol concentration and percentages of different soluble sugars. Salt treatment led to a reduction of vegetative biomass and spike production but increased leaf dry matter percentage and leaf thickness. Both under saline and non-saline conditions there was a negative trade-off between vegetative growth and reproduction. Families with a high plasticity in leaf thickness had a lower total spike length under non-saline conditions. This would imply that natural selection under predominantly non-saline conditions would lead to a decrease in the ability to change leaf morphology in response to exposure to salt. All other tests revealed no indication for any costs of plasticity to saline conditions.

Smekens, Marret J.; van Tienderen, Peter H.

2001-08-01

297

Long-Term Reuse of Drainage Waters of Varying Salinities for Crop Irrigation in a Cotton-Safflower Rotation System in the San Joaquin Valley of California—A Nine Year Study: I. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of saline drainage water for crop irrigation was evaluated as a means of decreasing its volume. Results of a nine-year crop rotation (cotton-cotton-safflower, × 3) in which only the cotton was irrigated with drainage water of 400, 1,500, 3,000, 4,500, 6,000, and 9,000 ppm total dissolved salts are presented. The different salinity levels of irrigation waters were achieved by

Sham S. Goyal; Surinder K. Sharma; Donald W. Rains; André Läuchli

2000-01-01

298

[Spatial variability of soil nutrients and salinity in coastal saline-alkali land based on belt transect method].  

PubMed

A north-south transect was established in the saline-alkali land of Yellow River old course at Diaokou of northern Yellow River Delta, Shandong Province of East China to analyze the spatial distribution characteristics of soil nutrients and salinity and related affecting factors by using geostatistics method. In the study area, the nugget/still of soil organic matter, total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorus (AP), and available potassium (AK) contents and soil salinity were 0.38, 0.40, 0.50, 0.32, and 0.34, respectively, which demonstrated that these five parameters were moderately spatial dependence. The soil organic matter and TN contents in this transect had a similar distribution pattern, soil AK content was highly correlated to soil salinity, while soil AP content presented a fluctuated distribution. According to the comprehensive analysis of soil organic matter content and salinity, this transect was classified into three types, i.e., high salinity and low fertility, high salinity and high fertility, and low salinity and high fertility. The spatial distribution pattern of the five soil parameters was closed related to the soil parental material, land use pattern, distance to sea, and road block. PMID:22937640

Wang, Na-Na; Qi, Wei; Wang, Dan; Qin, Tian-Tian; Lu, Chao

2012-06-01

299

FIELD CROP PRODUCTION IN AREAS WITH SALINE SOILS AND SHALLOW SALINE GROUND WATER IN THE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY OF CALIFORNIA.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salinity in soil and water is irrevocably associated with irrigated agriculture throughout the world and as a result requires that salt management becomes an integral part of the production system. With careful water management it is possible to sustain irrigated agriculture in areas with saline so...

300

Salinity’s influence on boron toxicity in broccoli: II. Impacts on boron uptake, uptake mechanisms and tissue ion relations.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Limited research has been conducted on the interactive effects of salinity and boron stresses on plants despite their common occurrence in natural systems. The purpose of this research was to determine and quantify the interactive effects of salinity, salt composition and boron on broccoli (Brassica...

301

Seasonal variability of subsurface high salinity water in the northern South China Sea and its relationship with the northwestern Pacific currents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Pacific Tropical Water (NPTW), characterized by the subsurface high salinity (> 34.68 PSU), is observed in the South China Sea (SCS) and often used as an indicator of the water intrusion from the northwestern Pacific into the SCS. Based on the assimilation product from a global high-resolution Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), this study investigates the seasonal variability of subsurface high salinity water (SHSW) in the northern SCS and the influence from the northwestern Pacific. Results show that there exists obvious seasonal variability in the SHSW at about 100-200 m depth. It extends as far west as 111° E in the northern SCS, reaching its volume maximum (minimum) in January (May). Further analysis shows that the seasonal change of the high salinity water is strongly affected by the seasonal variability of large-scale circulations in the low-latitude northwestern Pacific. The changes of high salinity water volume are highly correlated with the shift of the North Equatorial Current (NEC) bifurcation latitude (NECBL), which reaches the northernmost in December and the southernmost in May. Due to the large-scale wind changes in the Pacific, the Luzon Strait transport weakens (strengthens) when the NECBL shifts to the south (north) during summer (winter), which results in the reduced (enhanced) SHSW intrusion from the northwestern Pacific into the northern SCS. The velocity and salinity distribution in the Luzon Strait show that the intrusion of the SHSW mainly occurs at around 20-21.3° N.

Wang, A.; Du, Y.; Zhuang, W.; Qi, Y.

2014-10-01

302

Volume Correction Method Full Character Volume Preservation  

E-print Network

Volume Correction Method Full Character Volume Preservation Results Local Volume Preservation Pacific Graphics 2008, Tokyo, Japan D. Rohmer, S. Hahmann, M.-P. Cani Local Volume Preservation for Skinned Characters #12;Volume Correction Method Full Character Volume Preservation Results Motivations

Hahmann, Stefanie

303

A geochemical transport model for thermo-hydro-chemical (THC) coupled processes with saline water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anhydrous MgSO4 is considered as a potential sealing material for the isolation of high-level-waste repositories in salt rock. When an aqueous solution, usually a brine type, penetrates the sealing, different MgSO4 hydrates along with other mineral phases form, removing free water from the solution. The uptake of water leads to an overall increase of solid phase volume. If deformation is constrained, the pore volume decreases and permeability is reduced. In order to simulate such processes, especially for conditions without free water, a coupling between OpenGeoSys and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were implemented on the basis of the commercially available thermodynamic simulator ChemApp and the object-oriented programming finite-element method simulator OpenGeoSys. ChemApp uses the Gibbs energy minimization approach for the geochemical reaction simulation. Based on this method, the thermodynamic equilibrium of geochemical reactions can be calculated by giving the amount of each system component and the molar Gibbs energy of formation for all the possible phases and phase constituents. Activity coefficients in high-saline solutions were calculated using the Pitzer formalism. This model has the potential to handle 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D saturated and nonsaturated thermo-hydro-chemical coupled processes even with highly saline solutions under complex conditions. The model was verified by numerical comparison with other simulators and applied for the modeling of SVV experimental data.

Xie, Mingliang; Kolditz, Olaf; Moog, Helge C.

2011-02-01

304

Messinian Salinity Crisis and basin fluid flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Syn- and post-depositional movement of fluids through sediments is one of the least understood aspects in the evolution of a basin. The conventional hydrostratigraphic view on marine sedimentary basins assumes that compactional and meteoric groundwater fluid circulation drives fluid movement and defines its timing. However, in the past few years, several examples of instantaneous and catastrophic release of fluids have been observed even through low-permeability sediments. A particularly complex case-study involves the presence of giant salt bodies in the depocentres of marine basins. Evaporites dramatically change the hydrostratigraphy and fluid-dynamics of the basin, and influence the P/T regimes, e.g. through changes in the geothermal gradient and in the compaction of underlying sediments. Our paper reviews the impact of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and evaporites on fluid flow in the Mediterranean sub-basins. The analysis of geological and geophysical sub-surface data provides examples from this basin, and the comparison with analogues in other well-known evaporitic provinces. During the MSC, massive sea-level changes occurred in a relatively limited time interval, and affected the balance of fluid dynamics, e.g. with sudden release or unusual trapping of fluids. Fluid expulsion events are here analysed and classified in relation to the long and short-term effects of the MSC. Our main aim is to build a framework for the correct identification of the fluid flow-related events, and their genetic mechanisms. On basin margins, where evaporites are thin or absent, the sea-level changes associated with the MSC force a rapid basinward shift of the mixing zone of meteoric/gravity flow and saline/compactional flow, 100s-km away from its pre-MSC position. This phenomenon changes the geometry of converging flows, creates hydraulic traps for fluids, and triggers specific diagenetic reactions in pre-MSC deep marine sediments. In basin-centre settings, unloading and re-loading of water associated to the sea-level changes leads to the sudden release of focused fluids, enhancing pockmark formation, evaporite dissolution, gas-hydrate dissociation and methane venting. After the MSC, and in the long-term basin evolution, the aquitard effect of the thick evaporites also created favourable condition for the development of overpressures in the pre-MSC sediments. However, the traditional view of saline giants as impermeable barriers to fluid flow has been challenged in recent years, by the documented evidence of fluid migration pathways through thick evaporites. Ultimately, these events can lead not only to fluid, but also to sediment remobilisation. The review here presented has applications as a tool for identifying, quantifying and understanding controls and timing of fluid dynamics in marine basins hosting extensive evaporitic series.

Bertoni, Claudia; Cartwight, Joe

2014-05-01

305

Optimal Surface Salinity Perturbations Influencing the Thermohaline Circulation FLORIAN SVELLEC, MAHDI BEN JELLOUL, AND THIERRY HUCK  

E-print Network

Optimal Surface Salinity Perturbations Influencing the Thermohaline Circulation FLORIAN SÃ?VELLEC surface salinity perturbations influencing the meridional overturning circulation maximum are exhibited initial sea surface salinity perturbation involves a transient growth mechanism leading to a maximum

Huck, Thierry

306

A Mechanism of Improved Oil Recovery by Low-Salinity Waterflooding in Sandstone Rock  

E-print Network

Injection of low-salinity water showed high potentials in improving oil recovery when compared to high-salinity water. However, the optimum water salinity and conditions are uncertain, due to the lack of understanding the mechanisms of fluid...

Nasralla, Ramez

2013-05-02

307

Volume haptization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe haptic representation of volume data. Volume visualization is a powerful tool in the field of scientific visualization. However, visual representation of full three-dimensional volume is hard to comprehend because of occlusion. Higher-dimensional and multi-parameter data sets are also difficult to present by visual image. The authors propose methods for presentation of volume data by force sensation. A

H. Iwata; Haruo NOMA

1993-01-01

308

Responses of Atriplex spongiosa and Suaeda monoica to Salinity  

PubMed Central

The growth and tissue water, K+, Na+, Cl?, proline and glycinebetaine contents of the shoots and roots of two Chenopodiaceae, Atriplex spongiosa and Suaeda monoica have been measured over a range of external NaCl salinities. Both species showed some fresh weight response to low salinity mainly due to increased succulence. S. monoica showed both a greater increase in succulence (at low salinities) and tolerance of high salinities than A. spongiosa. Both species had high affinities for Na+ and maintained constant but low shoot K+ contents with increasing salinity. These trends were more marked with S. monoica in which Na+ stimulated the accumulation of K+ in roots. An association between high leaf Na+ accumulation, high osmotic pressure, succulence, and a positive growth response at low salinities was noted. Proline accumulation was observed in shoot tissues with suboptimal water contents. High glycinebetaine contents were found in the shoots of both species. These correlated closely with the sap osmotic pressure and it is suggested that glycinebetaine is the major cytoplasmic osmoticum (with K+ salts) in these species at high salinities. Na+ salts may be preferentially utilized as vacuolar osmotica. PMID:16660671

Storey, Richard; Jones, R. Gareth Wyn

1979-01-01

309

Salinity anomaly as a trigger for ENSO events  

PubMed Central

According to the classical theories of ENSO, subsurface anomalies in ocean thermal structure are precursors for ENSO events and their initial specification is essential for skillful ENSO forecast. Although ocean salinity in the tropical Pacific (particularly in the western Pacific warm pool) can vary in response to El Niño events, its effect on ENSO evolution and forecasts of ENSO has been less explored. Here we present evidence that, in addition to the passive response, salinity variability may also play an active role in ENSO evolution, and thus important in forecasting El Niño events. By comparing two forecast experiments in which the interannually variability of salinity in the ocean initial states is either included or excluded, the salinity variability is shown to be essential to correctly forecast the 2007/08 La Niña starting from April 2007. With realistic salinity initial states, the tendency to decay of the subsurface cold condition during the spring and early summer 2007 was interrupted by positive salinity anomalies in the upper central Pacific, which working together with the Bjerknes positive feedback, contributed to the development of the La Niña event. Our study suggests that ENSO forecasts will benefit from more accurate salinity observations with large-scale spatial coverage. PMID:25352285

Zhu, Jieshun; Huang, Bohua; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Balmaseda, Magdalena A.; Marx, Lawrence; Kinter III, James L.

2014-01-01

310

Salinity anomaly as a trigger for ENSO events.  

PubMed

According to the classical theories of ENSO, subsurface anomalies in ocean thermal structure are precursors for ENSO events and their initial specification is essential for skillful ENSO forecast. Although ocean salinity in the tropical Pacific (particularly in the western Pacific warm pool) can vary in response to El Niño events, its effect on ENSO evolution and forecasts of ENSO has been less explored. Here we present evidence that, in addition to the passive response, salinity variability may also play an active role in ENSO evolution, and thus important in forecasting El Niño events. By comparing two forecast experiments in which the interannually variability of salinity in the ocean initial states is either included or excluded, the salinity variability is shown to be essential to correctly forecast the 2007/08 La Niña starting from April 2007. With realistic salinity initial states, the tendency to decay of the subsurface cold condition during the spring and early summer 2007 was interrupted by positive salinity anomalies in the upper central Pacific, which working together with the Bjerknes positive feedback, contributed to the development of the La Niña event. Our study suggests that ENSO forecasts will benefit from more accurate salinity observations with large-scale spatial coverage. PMID:25352285

Zhu, Jieshun; Huang, Bohua; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Balmaseda, Magdalena A; Marx, Lawrence; Kinter, James L

2014-01-01

311

Photochemical Chlorine Activation From Artificial Saline Snowpacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Halogen activation on snow and ice substrates has a profound influence on the oxidative capacity of the polar boundary layer. The release of reactive chlorine species is of particular interest since chlorine atoms can participate in both ozone depletion and organic oxidation. However, the mechanisms by which halides in sea ice substrates are converted into reactive halogen species are not well understood. In this study we investigated the photochemical activation of chlorine from artificial saline snow. Gas phase Cl2, BrCl and Br2 were detected using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. We observe the dark release of Br2 in the presence of ozone; BrCl and Cl2 are only observed in the presence of both ozone and light. Interestingly, the release of reactive chlorine species persists when a 320 nm or a 380 nm long-pass filter is placed in the light path. Results suggest that smaller snow grains, which present a larger total snow surface area, enhance chlorine production to a greater extent than BrCl or Br2 production. Here we also present the effect of temperature (above and below the NaCl euctectic), acidity, chloride concentration, and ozone concentration on the production of Br2, BrCl and Cl2. Overall the results indicate that a mechanism involving UV-A light and ozone leads to chlorine activation, which may be particularly important in bromide-depleted snow.

Wren, S. N.; Abbatt, J.; Donaldson, J.

2012-12-01

312

Differential effects of water and saline intake on water deprivation-induced c-Fos staining in the rat.  

PubMed

We studied c-Fos staining in adult male rats after 48 h of water deprivation and after 46 h of water deprivation with 2 h of access to water or physiological saline. Controls were allowed ad libitum access to water and physiological saline. For immunocytochemistry, anesthetized rats were perfused with a commercially available antibody for c-Fos. Dehydration significantly increased plasma vasopressin (AVP), osmolality, plasma renin activity (PRA), hematocrit, and sodium concentration and decreased urinary volume. Fos staining was significantly increased in the median preoptic nucleus, organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, supraoptic nucleus (SON), and magnocellular and parvocellular paraventricular nucleus (PVN), as well as the area postrema, nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL). Rehydration with water significantly decreased AVP levels and Fos staining in the SON, PVN, and RVL and significantly increased Fos expression in the perinuclear zone of the SON, NTS, and parabrachial nucleus. Rehydration with water was associated with decreased urinary sodium concentration and hypotonicity, and hematocrit and PRA were comparable to levels seen after dehydration. After rehydration with saline, plasma osmolality, hematocrit, and PRA were not different from control, but plasma AVP and urinary sodium concentration were increased. In the SON, Fos staining was significantly increased, with a great percentage of the Fos cells also stained for oxytocin compared with water deprivation. Changes in Fos staining were also observed in the NTS, RVL, parabrachial nucleus, and PVN. Rehydration with water or saline produces differential effects on plasma AVP, Fos staining, and sodium concentration. PMID:16306162

Gottlieb, Helmut B; Ji, Lisa L; Jones, Heath; Penny, Maurice L; Fleming, Tiffany; Cunningham, J Thomas

2006-05-01

313

The individual response of saline lakes to a severe drought.  

PubMed

A severe protracted drought between 1997 and 2009 has altered the physical and chemical hydrology of a series of lakes in the Corangamite Basin of southeast Australia. Leading up to the drying out of most lakes (many for the first time on record), we document the changes in lakes' water quantity (water levels and inundation), salinity (Cl concentrations), salinity processes (Cl/Br ratios), nutrient concentrations and ratios (ammonia, phosphate and NOx (nitrate and nitrite)) and algae (as chlorophyll-a) for six lakes. All lakes show record declines in inundated areas and increases in salinity from pre-drought (<1997) to drought conditions. However, the magnitude of change in salinity varies for different lakes, and there is no systematic change in the controls on lake salinity processes. Four lakes show no change in salinity processes, one lake shows the beginnings of change; where halite dissolution reactions increased closer to the time of the lake drying up, and another lake shows a marked shift from predominantly evaporation to the cyclic dissolution and precipitation of halite. Changes in filterable reactive phosphorus (FRP) values and lake N and P limitation predictions also showed little systematic correlation with changes in lake salinity, and nutrient values varied between lakes and over time. The decline in NO(x) concentrations in lakes where electrical conductivity (EC) values were above 100 mS/cm indicates some correlation with changes in salinity. Largely, these lakes exhibit individual changes in water quality parameters and salinity processes in response to the drought, indicating that while the stress of drought is regional, the hydrochemical response is local. In future changing climates, these results suggest that the catchment adaption strategies will require comprehensive plans for individual lake systems. PMID:21752428

Tweed, Sarah; Grace, Mike; Leblanc, Marc; Cartwright, Ian; Smithyman, Donna

2011-09-01

314

Ocean Salinities Reveal AN Intensified Global Water Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using new observed estimates of ocean surface salinity changes from 1950-2000, a comparison to results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3) is made, with an aim to diagnose explicit rates of water cycle change expressed by this model suite. Examining 20C3M simulations (which most closely resemble the observed 20th century climate system), explicitly dealing with model drift, and using a technique to extract the broad-scale, zonal change patterns, a strong relationship is found between changes in the global surface water flux (evaporation minus precipitation; E-P) over the oceans (where 75-90% of global surface water exchange occurs) and changes to surface salinity. New observed surface salinity estimates suggest a surface salinity spatial pattern intensification of 16±7% K-1 has occurred since 1950, a marker of change to the oceanic water cycle. Using the CMIP3 modelled relationship between E-P and ocean salinity change, which suggests salinity responds at twice the rate of E-P to warming, allows a new estimate of observed E-P changes to be ascertained, yielding 4% (8±5% K-1) for 1950-2000, closely following Clausius-Clapeyron. The model ensemble mean, a frequently-used metric to express future projected changes, greatly underestimates the observed rate of ocean salinity change. Global average rainfall is confirmed to weakly change with surface warming (2-4% K-1), agreeing with past results, however the modelled pattern amplification of both E-P and ocean salinity fields indicate larger responses.The rate of observed 20th century salinity change is also underestimated in future projections under the IPCC SRES scenarios for 2050-2099, which express similar rates (% K-1) to their corresponding 20C3M simulations. This suggests CMIP3 provides conservative estimates of observed 20th century change - their rate of change around half that of new observational estimates.

Durack, P. J.; Wijffels, S. A.; Matear, R. J.

2011-12-01

315

Differences in salinity tolerance of genetically distinct Phragmites australis clones  

PubMed Central

Different clones of the wetland grass Phragmites australis differ in their morphology and physiology, and hence in their ability to cope with environmental stress. We analysed the responses of 15 P. australis clones with distinct ploidy levels (PLs) (4n, 6n, 8n, 10n, 12n) and geographic origins (Romania, Russia, Japan, Czech Republic, Australia) to step-wise increased salinity (8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 56 and 72 ppt). Shoot elongation rate, photosynthesis and plant part-specific ion accumulation were studied in order to assess if traits associated with salinity tolerance can be related to the genetic background and the geographic origin of the clones. Salt stress affected all clones, but at different rates. The maximum height was reduced from 1860 mm in control plants to 660 mm at 40 ppt salinity. The shoot elongation rate of salt-exposed plants varied significantly between clones until 40 ppt salinity. The light-saturated photosynthesis rate (Pmax) was stimulated by a salinity of 8 ppt, but decreased significantly at higher salinities. The stomatal conductance (gs) and the transpiration rate (E) decreased with increasing salinity. Only three clones survived at 72 ppt salinity, although their rates of photosynthesis were strongly inhibited. The roots and basal leaves of the salt-exposed plants accumulated high concentrations of water-extractable Na+ (1646 and 1004 µmol g?1 dry mass (DM), respectively) and Cl? (1876 and 1400 µmol g?1 DM, respectively). The concentrations of water-extractable Mg2+ and Ca2+ were reduced in salt-exposed plants compared with controls. The variation of all the measured parameters was higher among clones than among PLs. We conclude that the salinity tolerance of distinct P. australis clones varies widely and can be partially attributed to their longitudinal geographic origin, but not to PL. Further investigation will help in improving the understanding of this species' salt tolerance mechanisms and their connection to genetic factors.

Achenbach, Luciana; Eller, Franziska; Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Brix, Hans

2013-01-01

316

Influence of net freshwater supply on salinity in Florida Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An annual water budget for Florida Bay, the large, seasonally hypersaline estuary in the Everglades National Park, was constructed using physically based models and long-term (31 years) data on salinity, hydrology, and climate. Effects of seasonal and interannual variations of the net freshwater supply (runoff plus rainfall minus evaporation) on salinity variation within the bay were also examined. Particular attention was paid to the effects of runoff, which are the focus of ambitious plans to restore and conserve the Florida Bay ecosystem. From 1965 to 1995 the annual runoff from the Everglades into the bay was less than one tenth of the annual direct rainfall onto the bay, while estimated annual evaporation slightly exceeded annual rainfall. The average net freshwater supply to the bay over a year was thus approximately zero, and interannual variations in salinity appeared to be affected primarily by interannual fluctuations in rainfall. At the annual scale, runoff apparently had little effect on the bay as a whole during this period. On a seasonal basis, variations in rainfall, evaporation, and runoff were not in phase, and the net freshwater supply to the bay varied between positive and negative values, contributing to a strong seasonal pattern in salinity, especially in regions of the bay relatively isolated from exchanges with the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. Changes in runoff could have a greater effect on salinity in the bay if the seasonal patterns of rainfall and evaporation and the timing of the runoff are considered. One model was also used to simulate spatial and temporal patterns of salinity responses expected to result from changes in net freshwater supply. Simulations in which runoff was increased by a factor of 2 (but with no change in spatial pattern) indicated that increased runoff will lower salinity values in eastern Florida Bay, increase the variability of salinity in the South Region, but have little effect on salinity in the Central and West Regions.

Nuttle, W.K.; Fourqurean, J.W.; Cosby, B.J.; Zieman, J.C.; Robblee, M.B.

2000-01-01

317

Simultaneous removal of organic matter and salt ions from saline wastewater in bioelectrochemical systems  

E-print Network

, including food processing plants, leather or tannery industries, and petroleum refineries [1]. Saline processes, with organic contaminants removed in a biological process [1,2], and salinities reduced

318

Hypertonic saline for cystic fibrosis: worth its salt?  

PubMed

Airway dehydration in cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to chronic inflammation, ongoing infection and progressive lung disease. Restoration of airway hydration by inhalation of an osmotic agent (hypertonic saline) has been shown to be safe, effective and well-tolerated in adults with CF. Although the safety of hypertonic saline in infants and young children with CF has also been established, recent studies have reported inconclusive evidence about its efficacy. In this editorial, we discuss the evidence behind hypertonic saline use for adults, children and infants with CF. PMID:24666113

Goralski, Jennifer L; Donaldson, Scott H

2014-06-01

319

Aquarius and Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Salinity from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius is an L-band radiometer and scatterometer instrument combination designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The instrument is designed to provide global salinity maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. The science objective is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This data will promote understanding of ocean circulation and its role in the global water cycle and climate.

LeVine, David M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Torrusio, S.

2012-01-01

320

GLOBE Videos: Hydrology Protocols-Salinity (11:52 min)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The video is a procedural guide to sampling salinity measurements in water bodies in the field. It provides a step-by-step explanation of field procedures and features students conducting the investigation and asking questions about what changes in salinity could indicate in rivers, lakes, and estuaries. The resource includes a video, transcript, and is supported by the Salinity Protocol in the GLOBE Teacher's Guide. This is one of seven videos on hydrology in the 24-part instructional video series describing scientific protocols used by GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment), a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

2012-08-03

321

Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm: Final Pre-Launch Version  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document provides the theoretical basis for the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The inputs to the algorithm are the Aquarius antenna temperature (T(sub A)) measurements along with a number of NCEP operational products and pre-computed tables of space radiation coming from the galaxy and sun. The output is sea-surface salinity and many intermediate variables required for the salinity calculation. This revision of the Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) is intended to be the final pre-launch version.

Wentz, Frank J.; Le Vine, David M.

2011-01-01

322

Remote Sensing of Salinity: The Dielectric Constant of Sea Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global monitoring of sea surface salinity from space requires an accurate model for the dielectric constant of sea water as a function of salinity and temperature to characterize the emissivity of the surface. Measurements are being made at 1.413 GHz, the center frequency of the Aquarius radiometers, using a resonant cavity and the perturbation method. The cavity is operated in a transmission mode and immersed in a liquid bath to control temperature. Multiple measurements are made at each temperature and salinity. Error budgets indicate a relative accuracy for both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of about 1%.

LeVine, David M.; Lang, R.; Utku, C.; Tarkocin, Y.

2011-01-01

323

Remote sensing of salinity in the San Francisco Bay Delta  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat multispectral scanner data and color and color infrared photographs acquired from a U-2 aircraft are combined with surface measurements for salinity mapping of the San Fransisco Bay Delta. A regression model is developed between the surface truth data and Landsat digital data for 29 sample sites, and is then extended over the entire study area. Results are in general agreement with reported salinity distribution values. It appears to be impossible to establish any quantitative judgement regarding the salinity values by visual interpretation of the imagery within the test site.

Khorram, S.

1982-01-01

324

Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) salinity data validation over Malaysia coastal water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of sea surface salinity (SSS) plays an important role in the marine ecosystem, estimation of global ocean circulation and observation of fisheries, aquaculture, coral reef and sea grass habitats. The new challenge of SSS estimation is to exploit the ocean surface brightness temperature (Tb) observed by the Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) onboard the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite that is specifically designed to provide the best retrieval of ocean salinity and soil moisture using the L band of 1.4 GHz radiometer. Tb observed by radiometer is basically a function of the dielectric constant, sea surface temperature (SST), wind speed (U), incidence angle, polarization and SSS. Though, the SSS estimation is an ill-posed inversion problem as the relationship between the Tb and SSS is non-linear function. Objective of this study is to validate the SMOS SSS estimates with the ground-truth over the Malaysia coastal water. The LM iteratively determines the SSS of SMOS by the reduction of the sum of squared errors between Tb SMOS and Tb simulation (using in-situ) based on the updated geophysical triplet in the direction of the minimum of the cost function. The minimum cost function is compared to the desired threshold at each iteration and this recursive least square process updates the SST, U and SSS until the cost function converged. The designed LM's non-linear inversion algorithm simultaneously estimates SST, U and SSS and thus, map of SSS over Malaysia coastal water is produced from the regression model and accuracy assessment between the SMOS and in-situ retrieved SSS. This study found a good agreement in the validation with R square of 0.9 and the RMSE of 0.4. It is concluded that the non-linear inversion method is effective and practical to extract SMOS SSS, U and SST simultaneously.

Reba, M. N. M.; Rosli, A. Z.; Rahim, N. A.

2014-02-01

325

Influence of seasonal variability of lower Mississippi River discharge, temperature, suspended sediments, and salinity on oil-mineral aggregate formation.  

PubMed

Under certain conditions, oil droplets that have separated from the main oil slick may become coated by suspended sediments forming oil-mineral aggregates (OMAs). The formation of these aggregates depends on suspended particulate characteristics, temperature, salinity, mixing energy, droplet size and number, and oil properties. The OMAs do not re-coalesce with the slick and tend not to adhere to surfaces, potentially evading surface cleanup measures, enhancing opportunity for biodegradation and reducing shoreline oiling. Potential OMA formation was quantified during four distinct states of the Lower Mississippi River during a typical year using empirical relationships from laboratory and field studies for three common oils and different combinations of discharge, temperature, suspended sediments, and salinity. The largest potential OMA formation for the two lighter oils, up to 36% of the total release volume, was in the winter and spring, when high sediment availability promotes formation. For the denser, high-viscosity oil, the peak potential OMA formation, 9% of the release volume, occurred in the summer, when the salinity was higher. These results provide some evidence that, depending on environmental and spill characteristics, the formation of OMAs could be an important, but unaccounted for, process in the fate and transport of oils released in the Lower Mississippi River and should be included in oil spill dispersion models and post-spill site assessment and remediation actions. PMID:21790075

Danchuk, Samantha; Willson, Clinton S

2011-07-01

326

Mechanisms of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Reduction for Saline (NaCl) and Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3)  

PubMed Central

Nephropathy following contrast media (CM) exposure is reduced by administration before, during, and after the contrast procedure of either isotonic sodium chloride solution (Saline) or isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution (IsoBicarb). The reasons for this reduction are not well established for either sodium salt; probable mechanisms are discussed in this paper. For Saline, the mechanism for the decrease in CIN is likely related primarily to the increased tubular flow rates produced by volume expansion and therefore a decreased concentration of the filtered CM during transit through the kidney tubules. Furthermore, increased tubular flow rates produce a slight increase in tubular pH resulting from a fixed acid excretion in an increased tubular volume. The mechanism for the decreased CIN associated with sodium bicarbonate includes the same mechanisms listed for Saline in addition to a renal pH effect. Increased filtered bicarbonate anion raises both tubular pH and tubular bicarbonate anion levels toward blood physiologic levels, thus providing increased buffer for reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed in the tubules as a result of exposure to CM in renal tubular fluid. PMID:24826379

Burgess, W. Patrick; Walker, Phillip J.

2014-01-01

327

Mechanisms of contrast-induced nephropathy reduction for saline (NaCl) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3).  

PubMed

Nephropathy following contrast media (CM) exposure is reduced by administration before, during, and after the contrast procedure of either isotonic sodium chloride solution (Saline) or isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution (IsoBicarb). The reasons for this reduction are not well established for either sodium salt; probable mechanisms are discussed in this paper. For Saline, the mechanism for the decrease in CIN is likely related primarily to the increased tubular flow rates produced by volume expansion and therefore a decreased concentration of the filtered CM during transit through the kidney tubules. Furthermore, increased tubular flow rates produce a slight increase in tubular pH resulting from a fixed acid excretion in an increased tubular volume. The mechanism for the decreased CIN associated with sodium bicarbonate includes the same mechanisms listed for Saline in addition to a renal pH effect. Increased filtered bicarbonate anion raises both tubular pH and tubular bicarbonate anion levels toward blood physiologic levels, thus providing increased buffer for reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed in the tubules as a result of exposure to CM in renal tubular fluid. PMID:24826379

Burgess, W Patrick; Walker, Phillip J

2014-01-01

328

Photochemical chlorine activation from artificial saline snowpacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Halogen activation on snow and ice substrates has a profound influence on the oxidative capacity of the polar boundary layer. The release of reactive chlorine species is of particular interest since chlorine atoms can participate in both ozone depletion and hydrocarbon oxidation. However, the mechanisms by which halides in sea ice substrates are converted into reactive halogen species are not well understood. In this study we investigated the activation of halogens from artificial saline snow in the presence of light and ozone. Gas phase Cl2, BrCl and Br2 were detected using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. We observe the dark release of Br2 in the presence of ozone; BrCl and Cl2 are only observed in the presence of both ozone and light. Interestingly, photo-induced release of halogens is still seen when a 320 nm or a 380 nm long-pass filter is placed in the light path. The observed halogen release is consistent with the chemistry occurring in a concentrated brine located at the surface of the snow grains. Results suggest that smaller snow grains, which present a larger total snow surface area, enhance chlorine production to a greater extent than BrCl or Br2 production. Chlorine production is shown to be strongly pH dependent, with higher chlorine yields under acidic conditions. Overall the results indicate that a mechanism involving UV-A light and ozone leads to accelerated halogen activation, which may be particularly important for releasing chlorine from bromide-depleted snow.

Wren, Sumi; Donaldson, James; Abbatt, Jon

2013-04-01

329

Saline water irrigation effects on soil salinity distribution and some physiological responses of field grown Chemlali olive.  

PubMed

The shortage of water resources of good quality is becoming an issue in arid and semi arid regions. Per consequent, the use of water resources of marginal quality is becoming an important consideration, particularly in arid regions in Tunisia, where large quantities of saline water are used for irrigation. Nevertheless, the use of these waters in irrigated lands requires the control of soil salinity and a comprehensive analysis even beyond the area where water is applied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of saline water irrigation on soil salinity distribution and some physiological traits of field-grown adult olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) under contrasting environmental conditions of the arid region in the south of Tunisia. The plants were subjected, over two growing seasons, to two drip irrigated treatments: fresh water (ECe=1.2 dS m(-1), FW) and saline water (ECe=7.5 dS m(-1), SW). Saline water irrigation (SW) has led to a significant increase in soil salinity. Furthermore, these results showed that soil salinity and soil moisture variations are not only dependent on water salinity level but are also controlled by a multitude of factors particularly the soil texture, the distance from the irrigation source and climatic conditions (rainfall pattern, temperature average, …). On the other hand, salt treatment reduced leaf midday water potential (LMWP), relative water content and photosynthetic activity and increased the leaf proline content, and this increase was season-dependent. Indeed, LMWP in SW plants decreased to -3.71 MPa. Furthermore, the highest level of proline in SW plants was registered during summer period (2.19 ?mol/mg Fw). The proline accumulation recorded in stressed plants has allowed them to preserve appropriate leaf water status and photosynthetic activity. More to the point, this olive cultivar seems to be more sensible to soil salinity during the intense growth phase. Such tendencies would help to better manage water resources for irrigation, particularly under actual climatic conditions of water scarcity. For example, in the case of the availability of different water qualities, it would be better to preserve those of high quality for olive irrigation during the intense vegetative growth phase, in coincidence with high salt sensitive period, and those of low quality for irrigation during partial growth and plant rest phases. What's more, the urgent use of saline water for irrigation should not be applied without taking into consideration the different surroundings conditions where it is used, particularly the water salinity level, the soil type, the adopted irrigation system, the degree of the crop salt tolerance, the plant growth phase and the climatic conditions of the experimental site. PMID:22572465

Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Magdich, Salwa; Ben Rouina, Bechir; Boukhris, Makki; Ben Abdullah, Ferjani

2012-12-30

330

Migration and trapping of CO? in saline aquifers  

E-print Network

Mitigation of climate change requires a reduction in atmospheric carbon dioxide (C0 2) emissions. One promising tool for achieving this is the large-scale injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers. After injection, upward ...

MacMinn, Christopher William

2012-01-01

331

ConcepTest: Ocean Salinity During an Ice Age  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One million years ago ice sheets covered much of the Earth's land surface during an ice age. How did this affect the salinity of the oceans? a. Oceans were saltier than today. b. Oceans were less salty than ...

332

Urea-prostaglandin versus hypertonic saline for instillation abortion.  

PubMed

Authorities have suggested use of a combination of hyperosmolar urea and low-dose prostaglandin F2 alpha as a second-trimester intra-amniotic abortifacient to avoid the disadvantages of hypertonic saline solution. To examine the safety and efficacy of urea-prostaglandin compared with the instillation of saline solution, we analyzed data from a prospective multicenter study conducted in the United States between 1975 and 1978. Both agents were highly effective in producing an abortion. However, urea-prostaglandin had a significantly lower rate of serious complications when compared with saline solution (1.03 versus 2.18 per 100 abortions; p less than 0.001). Urea-prostaglandin also had a significantly shorter induction-to-abortion time (14.2 versus 25.6 hours; p less than 0.001). Urea-prostaglandin, therefore, appears to be superior to hypertonic saline solution as an abortifacient. PMID:6576633

Binkin, N J; Schulz, K F; Grimes, D A; Cates, W

1983-08-15

333

Aquarius Observations of Sea Surface Salinity - Duration: 0:31.  

NASA Video Gallery

This visualization shows changes in global sea surface salinity, as measured by NASAâ??s Aquarius instrument aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft, from December 2011 through December 2012. Red repr...

334

Heparin versus saline flushing solutions in a small community hospital.  

PubMed

Since no nursing policy on flushing procedures existed in their small community hospital, the authors thought it would be useful to clarify recent reports of the equivalency of saline to heparin flushes in their patient group before establishment of such a policy. They conducted a 2 month double-blinded, cross-over study of catheter failures when using either saline or heparin 10 units/mL flushing solutions. All medical and surgical floor patients were included in the study. Floor nurses were used as observers and characterized catheter failures as either loss of patency or phlebitis. Heparin was shown to cause more phlebitis than saline (p less than .025), but no difference was found between the two flushing solutions in loss of patency. Data revealed a statistically significant advantage to using saline flushes when both loss of patency and phlebitis were combined (p less than .05). They recommended adoption of a flushing procedure which did not contain heparin. PMID:10103699

Barrett, P J; Lester, R L

1990-02-01

335

Highlights of the First 15 Months of Aquarius Salinity Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius satellite salinity measurements are resolving the major global and regional spatial patterns, and temporal variations, since the start of routine data collection on 25 August 2011. This description includes the principal seasonal variations over the first annual cycle as observed by the mission. In particular, we identify the evolution of low salinity anomalies associated with the Atlantic and Pacific intertropical convergence zones (ITCZ), major river outflows such as the Amazon, a seasonal low salinity anomaly in the Panama bight, and other features. We also explore the links that the salinity variations have with precipitation and surface currents. We then will describe the variations related to the presently evolving 2012 El Nino, now evident, as it progresses through the summer and fall 2012. We conclude with a brief summary of the Aquarius data products and validation

Lagerloef, Gary S. E.; Kao, Hsun-Ying; Wentz, Frank; LeVine, David M.; Yueh, Simon H.; Feldman, Gene C.

2012-01-01

336

Protein Contribution to Plant Salinity Response and Tolerance Acquisition  

PubMed Central

The review is focused on plant proteome response to salinity with respect to physiological aspects of plant salt stress response. The attention is paid to both osmotic and ionic effects of salinity stress on plants with respect to several protein functional groups. Therefore, the role of individual proteins involved in signalling, changes in gene expression, protein biosynthesis and degradation and the resulting changes in protein relative abundance in proteins involved in energy metabolism, redox metabolism, stressand defence-related proteins, osmolyte metabolism, phytohormone, lipid and secondary metabolism, mechanical stress-related proteins as well as protein posttranslational modifications are discussed. Differences between salt-sensitive (glycophytes) and salt-tolerant (halophytes) plants are analysed with respect to differential salinity tolerance. In conclusion, contribution of proteomic studies to understanding plant salinity tolerance is summarised and discussed. PMID:23531537

Kosová, Klára; Prášil, Ilja T.; Vítámvás, Pavel

2013-01-01

337

Geosynthetics in a salinity-gradient solar pond environment  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the latest in salinity-gradient solar pond lining systems. The high-temperature, high-salinity environment unique to a salinity-gradient solar pond resulted in failure of the geomembrane liner at the El Paso Solar Pond Test Facility after only eight years of operation. Research involved in pond reconstruction led to the selection of a lining system consisting of a flexible polypropylene (PP) geomembrane for the sidewalls and a specially formulated geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) on the bottom of the pond. The two liners have been installed and a comprehensive test program is being conducted to measure their performance. The environment encountered in a salinity-gradient solar pond will be discussed as well as material selection criteria and the design of the two liners. Preliminary results of the GCL performance monitoring will also be presented.

Lichwardt, M.A.; Comer, A.I.

1997-11-01

338

Temperature and salinity variability in thermohaline staircase layers  

E-print Network

A moored profiler record from the western tropical North Atlantic provides the first continuous time series of temperature, salinity and velocity profiles in a thermohaline staircase. Variations in the intensity of layering ...

Stuebe, David Allen

2005-01-01

339

Salinity's Role in Tropical Atlantic Instability Waves: new knowledge from salinity remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical Atlantic instability waves (TIWs) play important roles in the dynamics of the tropical Atlantic Ocean and related climate variability. Previous studies based on satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data and mooring observations suggest that these waves are the most energetic in the eastern equatorial Atlantic and during late (boreal) spring and early summer. Satellite remote sensing of sea surface salinity (SSS) from SMOS and Aquarius provides a unique vantage point to identify new features of these waves in terms of zonal and seasonal variability. Aquarius SSS data reveal that the TIWs remain energetic in the western equatorial Atlantic despite a much weaker SST signature. Surface perturbation potential energy (PPE), the source of the downward potential energy propagation associated with the TIWs, has a larger contribution by SST (than by SSS) in the east but is primarily due to SSS in the west. The co-variability between SSS and SST also has significant contribution to surface PPE across the basin. While surface PPE is large in late spring and early summer in the east, it is also large during late summer and early fall in the west. The latter is associated with the retroflection of the North Brazil Current into the North Equatorial Countercurrent in the west during these times, carrying with it the fresh water from the Amazon River outflow to set up a large meridional salinity (and thus density) gradient.

(Tony) Lee, Tong; Lagerloef, Gary; Kao, Hsun-Ying; McPhaden, Michael; Willis, Joshua; Gierach, Michelle

2014-05-01

340

A new operational paradigm for small-scale ASR in saline aquifers.  

PubMed

A new operational paradigm is presented for small-scale aquifer storage and recovery systems (ASR) in saline aquifers. Regular ASR is often not feasible for small-scale storage in saline aquifers because fresh water floats to the top of the aquifer where it is unrecoverable. In the new paradigm, fresh water storage is combined with salt water extraction from below the fresh water cone. The salt water extraction counteracts the buoyancy due to the density difference between fresh water and salt water, thus preventing the fresh water from floating up. The proposed approach is applied to assess the feasibility of ASR for the seasonal storage of fresh water produced by desalination plants in tourist resorts along the Egyptian Red Sea coast. In these situations, the continuous extraction of salt water can be used for desalination purposes. An analytical Dupuit solution is presented for the steady flow of salt water toward a well with a volume of fresh water floating on top of the cone of depression. The required salt water discharge for the storage of a given volume of fresh water can be computed with the analytical solution. Numerical modeling is applied to determine how the stored fresh water can be recovered. Three recovery approaches are examined. Fresh water recovery rates on the order of 70% are achievable when salt water is extracted in high volumes, subsurface impermeable barriers are constructed at a distance from the well, or several fresh water recovery drains are used. The effect of ambient flow and interruptions of salt water pumping on the recovery efficiency are reported. PMID:24102236

van Ginkel, Marloes; Olsthoorn, Theo N; Bakker, Mark

2014-01-01

341

Salinities and sediment transport in the Bolivian highlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guyot, J.L., Roche, M.A., Noriega, L., Calle, H. and Quintanilla, J., 1990. Salinities and sediment transport in the Bolivian highlands. J. Hydrol., 113: 147-162. Salinities and sediment loads of the rivers of the entire interior drainage basin of the Lake Titicaca, Rio Desaguadero, Lake Poopo and salars, as well as their evolution from upstream to downstream, have been characterized on

J. L. GUYOT; M. A. ROCHE; H. CALLE; J. QUINTANILLA

1990-01-01

342

Mapping irrigation-induced salinity with hyperspectral imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperspectral imagery from the HyMap airborne scanner was used to recognize and map indicators of incipient salinization at a site in the Murray-Darling Basin, Victoria, Australia. Field-derived spectra and XRD analyses confirm the presence of halite, gypsum, bassanite and polyhalite in soils. Vegetation indicators of salinity include halophytes comprising of samphire, sea blite and several species of native grasses comprising

R. L. Dehaan; G. R. Taylor

2001-01-01

343

Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Salinity Laboratory has made available this Web version (.pdf format) of Agriculture handbook number 60, covering a broad range of topics relating to soils and salinity, including: "Improvement and Management of soils in arid and semiarid regions; Plant Response and Crop Selection; Quality of Irrigation Water; Methods for Soil Characterization; Methods of Plant Culture and Analysis; and Methods of Analysis of Irrigation Waters." Chapters may be downloaded separately, and include a literature cited section and a glossary.

344

Salinity-induced calcium deficiencies in wheat and barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity-calcium interactions, which have been shown to be important in plants grown in dryland saline soils of the Canadian prairies, were studied in two species differing in salt tolerance. In solution culture, wheat showed a greater reduction in growth and a higher incidence of foliar Ca deficiency symptoms than barley when grown under MgSO4 or Na2SO4 plus MgSO4 salt stress.

D. L. Ehret; R. E. Redmann; B. L. Harvey; A. Cipywnyk

1990-01-01

345

Nitrogen mineralization rates in saline vs. salt-amended soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted to compare N mineralization rates in salt-amended nonsaline soils to naturally-occurring saline soils.\\u000a NaCl, CaCl2, and Na2SO4 were added to nonsaline soils at rates that produced electrical conductivities of the saturation extracts (ECe) of 5, 10, 15, and 20 dS m?1. Saline soils with similar properties were leached to the same ECc levels. N mineralization in the

G. McClung; W. T. Frankenberger

1987-01-01

346

Desertification, salinization, and biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem.  

PubMed

This study determined long-term changes in fish assemblages, river discharge, salinity, and local precipitation, and examined hydrological drivers of biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem, the Trans-Pecos region of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (USA/Mexico). Historical (1977-1989) and current (2010-2011) fish assemblages were analyzed by rarefaction analysis (species richness), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (composition/variability), multiresponse permutation procedures (composition), and paired t-test (variability). Trends in hydrological conditions (1970s-2010s) were examined by Kendall tau and quantile regression, and associations between streamflow and specific conductance (salinity) by generalized linear models. Since the 1970s, species richness and variability of fish assemblages decreased in the Rio Grande below the confluence with the Rio Conchos (Mexico), a major tributary, but not above it. There was increased representation of lower-flow/higher-salinity tolerant species, thus making fish communities below the confluence taxonomically and functionally more homogeneous to those above it. Unlike findings elsewhere, this biotic homogenization was due primarily to changes in the relative abundances of native species. While Rio Conchos discharge was>2-fold higher than Rio Grande discharge above their confluence, Rio Conchos discharge decreased during the study period causing Rio Grande discharge below the confluence to also decrease. Rio Conchos salinity is lower than Rio Grande salinity above their confluence and, as Rio Conchos discharge decreased, it caused Rio Grande salinity below the confluence to increase (reduced dilution). Trends in discharge did not correspond to trends in precipitation except at extreme-high (90th quantile) levels. In conclusion, decreasing discharge from the Rio Conchos has led to decreasing flow and increasing salinity in the Rio Grande below the confluence. This spatially uneven desertification and salinization of the Rio Grande has in turn led to a region-wide homogenization of hydrological conditions and of taxonomic and functional attributes of fish assemblages. PMID:25569580

Miyazono, Seiji; Patiño, Reynaldo; Taylor, Christopher M

2015-04-01

347

Long term use of saline water for irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of saline drainage water in irrigated agriculture, as a means of its disposal, was evaluated on a 60 ha site on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley. In the drip irrigation treatments, 50 to 59% of the irrigation water applied during the six-year rotation was saline with an ECw ranging from 7 to 8 dS\\/m, and containing

J. E. Ayars; R. B. Hutmacher; R. A. Schoneman; S. S. Vail; T. Pflaum

1993-01-01

348

Paleohydrologic controls on methanogenesis in organic-rich saline aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freshwater recharge into the margins of sedimentary basins, during periods of continental glaciation, stimulated microbial methane generation in organic-rich shales and coal beds, by significantly diluting the ambient formation water salinity. Subglacial recharge may have also transported microorganisms and nutrients into the subsurface environment. Methane is generated by a diverse consortium of both acetoclastic and CO2-reducing methanogenic Archaea, and adsorbed onto the organic matter. These shallow methane accumulations account for ~20% of the total U.S. natural gas production. Anaerobic microbial metabolism of shales and coals is in part controlled by the volume of pore waters and fluid composition, amount of extractable organic matter and intermediary substrates, reservoir temperature, and mass transport processes that provide essential rock-derived nutrients and organic acids. Methanogens are most active in low salinity environments (<2.5 mol/L Cl) with no SO4, and at the interfaces between confining units and adjacent aquifers where diffusion dominates. Microbial degradation of organic matter generates high alkalinity concentrations, which may induce calcite precipitation in shale fractures and coal cleats, which can in turn modify the subsurface hydrology. Microbial methanogenesis also imparts a strong control on the cycling of carbon, H2, and other elements in the subsurface environment. This presentation will focus on the timing of recharge and establishment of microbial communities within the Upper Devonian black shales, Pennsylvanian coal beds, and overlying glacial drift in the Illinois Basin, and the importance of continued groundwater flow on active methane generation and accumulation. There is an approximately 65-70 per mil depletion in 13C of CH4, relative to the precursor CO2 in the Upper Devonian shales, Pennsylvanian coals, and glacial drift. In addition, there is a linear correlation between the dD values of co- produced formation waters and CH4. Isotope mass-balance modeling results confirm that these isotopic shifts can be produced by coupled acetate fermentation and CO2-reduction. The lowest d13C values for CO2 and CH4 are found in the shallow glacial drift (-14 to 8 per mil, -80 to -68 per mil, respectively), where the permeable aquifers are a relatively open system, rapidly flushed by modern recharge. In contrast, the deep Upper Devonian shales have relatively positive d13C values for CO2 and CH4 (6 to 20 per mil, -56 to -50 per mil, respectively), indicating that methane has been generated over relatively long time scales (at least since the Late Pleistocene) in a closed system. The Pennsylvanian coal beds have intermediary d13C values for CO2 and CH4 (-8 to 11 per mil, -66 to -56 per mil, respectively), and contain Holocene groundwaters. Understanding the hydrobiogeochemical processes active within fractured shales and coal beds is important for energy resources, as well as CO2 sequestration.

McIntosh, J.; Petsch, S.; Schlegel, M.; Osborn, S.

2007-12-01

349

Interaction of flooding and salinity stress on baldcypress (Taxodium distichum)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coastal wetlands of the Southeastern United States are threatened by increases in flooding and salinity as a result of both natural processes and man-induced hydrolic alterations. Furthermore, global climate change scenarios suggest that, as a consequence of rising sea levels, much larger areas of coastal wetlands may be affected by flooding and salinity in the next 50 to 100 years. In this paper, we review studies designed to improve our ability to predict and ameliorate the impacts of increased flooding and salinity stress on baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.), which is a dominant species of of many coastal forested wetlands. Specifically, we review studies on species-level responses to flooding and salinity stress, alone and in combination, we summarize two studies on intraspecific variation in response to flooding and salinity stress, we analyze the physiological mechanisms thought to be responsible for the interaction between flooding and salinity stress, and we discuss the implications for coastal wetland loss and the prospects for developing salt-tolerant lines of baldcypress.

Allen, J.A.; Pezeshki, S.R.; Chambers, J.L.

1996-01-01

350

Physiological and molecular changes in barley and wheat under salinity.  

PubMed

In this study, it was aimed to compare salinity-induced changes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Bornova-92) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Gerek-79). Seeds were germinated under saline conditions (0, 50, 100, 250, and 500 mM NaCl) for 2 days and recovered under non-saline conditions for 2 days. At the end of the salt treatment, germination, water content (WC), total soluble protein content, and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity were affected in both species, while superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity was affected in barley. Salinity affected WC, protein content, and CAT activity in both species, while it affected germination in barley and affected fresh weight and SOD activity in wheat after recovery. Physiological responses of both species were correlated. Expression of ?-tubulin, Atls1, and Lls1 genes was down-regulated in barley after 250 mM NaCl treatment. HVA1 gene was highly (more than 50-fold) stimulated by salinity in barley. However, ?-tubulin and Atls1 genes were down-regulated, and Lls1 gene was up-regulated in wheat after recovery from 250-mM NaCl treatment. Increase in HVA1 expression was not significant in wheat. The expression profiles of barley and wheat under salinity are different, and barley tended to regulate gene expression faster than wheat. PMID:25578157

Temel, Aslihan; Gozukirmizi, Nermin

2015-03-01

351

Soil salinity detection. [Starr and Cameron Counties, Texas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Growth forms and herbage biomass production varied considerably among saline and nonsaline soil range sites in Starr County. Grasses on saline soil sites were shallow-rooted and short whereas on nonsaline sites there was an intermixture of short and midgrass species. Differentiation between primarily undisturbed saline and nonsaline rangelands, in Starr County, is partially possible using film optical density readings from Skylab imagery. Differentiation among eight saline and nonsaline soil sites in Cameron County, using black and white and color film was not possible according to statistical results from both DMRT and correlation analysis. Linear analysis showed that Bendix 24-band MSS data (aircraft) collected at 1700 m and 4800 m, as well as Skylab and LANDSAT-1 MSS data, were significantly correlated to electrical conductivity readings. In Starr County, the best spectral band for detection of saline soil levels, using black and white SO-022 film, was in the 0.6 to 0.7 micron spectral region. In Cameron County, the best spectral bands for detection of saline soil levels were the 2.3 to 2.43 micron, 0.72 to 0.76 micron, 0.69 to 1.75 micron, and 0.7 to 1.1 micron spectral regions.

Wiegand, C. L.; Richardson, A. J.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Everitt, J. H.; Cuellar, J. A. (principal investigators)

1975-01-01

352

NASA Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space Education & Public Outreach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aquarius is a focused satellite mission to measure global sea surface salinity. Launching in 2009, this mission will provide the first global map of sea surface salinity with unprecedented accuracy, resolution and coverage. The importance of salinity measurements in understanding coastal ocean processes is critical. Because of its dynamic range in the coastal oceans, salinity is a critical factor in understanding and predicting biological and physical processes and their interactions with the food Web, climate, and global water cycle. Aquariusâ??s pioneering efforts to deliver the â??missing pieces of the climate puzzleâ? will undoubtedly intrigue informal audiences via the activities and information contained in this Website. Moreover, climate and its influence on humankind is an integral part of K-16 formal education and common to national learning standards. The goal of the Education and Outreach component of Aquarius is to teach fundamental concepts about salinity variations and the role these changes play in controlling global ocean circulation and Earthâ??s climate. Education products will appear as modules addressing the missionâ??s goals and purpose, augment existing El Nino/La Nina materials with salinity based content, provide on-line interactive tools demonstrating environmental change through data sets and in situ time-series analysis, and engage students in activities designed to demonstrate salt-water interactions.

deCharon, Annette

353

Groundwater-saline lakes interaction - The contribution of saline groundwater circulation to solute budget of saline lakes: a lesson from the Dead Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saline lakes act as base level for both surface water and groundwater. Thus, a change in lake levels is expected to result in changes in the hydrogeological system in its vicinity, exhibited in groundwater levels, location of the fresh-saline water interface, sub-lacustrine groundwater discharge (SGD) and saline water circulation. All these processes were observed in the declining Dead Sea system, whose water level dropped by ~35 meters in the last 50 years. This work focuses mainly on the effect of circulation of Dead Sea water in the aquifer, which continues even in this very rapid base level drop. In general, seawater circulation in coastal aquifers is now recognized as a major process affecting trace element mass balances in coastal areas. Estimates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) vary over several orders of magnitude (1-1000000 m3/yr per meter shoreline). These estimates are sensitive to fresh-saline SGD ratios and to the temporal and spatial scales of the circulation. The Dead Sea system is an excellent natural field lab for studying seawater-groundwater interaction and large-scale circulation due to the absence of tides and to the minor role played by waves. During Dead Sea water circulation in the aquifer several geochemical reactions occur, ranging from short-term adsorption-desorption reactions and up to long-term precipitation and dissolution reactions. These processes affect the trace element distribution in the saline groundwater. Barite and celestine, which are supersaturated in the lake water, precipitate during circulation in the aquifer, reducing barium (from 5 to 1.5 mg/L), strontium (from 350 to 300 mg/L) and the long-lived 226Ra (from 145 to 60 dpm/L) in the saline groundwater. Redox-controlled reactions cause a decrease in uranium from 2.4 to 0.1 ?g/L, and an increase in iron from 1 to 13 mg/L. 228Ra (t1/2=5.75 yr) activity in the Dead Sea is ~1 dpm/L and increase gradually as the saline water flows further inland until reaching steady-state activities (~27 dpm/L) with the aquifer sediments. The decrease in 226Ra and increase in 228Ra in the circulation process provide a robust method for calculating the amount of Dead Sea water circulating in the aquifer. This process can affect trace element concentrations in the Dead Sea and emphasize the potential of long-term seawater circulation in mass balances of saline water bodies.

Kiro, Yael; Weinstein, Yishai; Starinsky, Abraham; Yechieli, Yoseph

2013-04-01

354

Evidence for 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene melanin in three halophilic black yeasts grown under saline and non-saline conditions.  

PubMed

The ascomycetous black yeasts Hortaea werneckii, Phaeotheca triangularis, and Trimmatostroma salinum are halophilic fungi that inhabit hypersaline water of solar salterns. They are characterized by slow, meristematic growth and very thick, darkly pigmented cell walls. The dark pigment, generally thought to be melanin, is consistently present in their cell walls when they grow under saline and non-saline conditions. We used the inhibitor tricyclazole to test the fungi in this study for the presence of 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin biosynthesis, since fungal melanins reportedly are derived either from DHN, tyrosine via 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, gamma-glutaminyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzene, or catechol. Tricyclazole-treated cultures of the fungi were reddish-brown in color and contained typical intermediates of the DHN-melanin pathway, as demonstrated by high-performance liquid chromatography. This investigation showed that the three fungi synthesized DHN-melanin under saline and non-saline growth conditions. PMID:15033240

Kogej, Tina; Wheeler, Michael H; Lanisnik Rizner, Tea; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

2004-03-19

355

Ground-penetrating-radar response to fracture-fluid salinity: Why lower frequencies are favorable for resolving salinity changes  

E-print Network

Time-lapse ground-penetrating-radar (GPR) surveys exploit signal-amplitude changes to monitor saline tracers in fractures and to identify groundwater flow paths. However, the relationships between GPR signal amplitude, phase, and frequency...

Tsoflias, Georgios P.; Becker, Matthew W.

2008-08-26

356

Identifying Salinity Sources and Quantifying Salinity Loads Along Two Texas Streams Using Stream-axis Airborne EM and Focused Hydrochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We delineated natural and oil-field salinity sources that degrade water quality in the upper Colorado River (west Texas) and Petronila Creek (Texas coast) by combining multi-frequency airborne EM measurements of apparent ground conductivity with chemical analyses of surface water at key stream locations. To reduce the cost of high-resolution airborne surveying over such large areas, we first flew along the stream axes and then examined preliminary results in the field to identify likely salinized stream segments. We then flew more detailed surveys over these areas rather than over the entire basin. Stream-axis EM data also helped identify water-sampling locations upstream and downstream from each salinized segment. We used these data to calculate salinity loads and discriminate among possible natural and oil-field salinity sources. We acquired stream-axis airborne EM data along 437 km of the upper Colorado River and its major tributaries using a Geophex GEM-2A instrument operating at five frequencies between 450 Hz and 39 kHz. Increases in chloride, sulfate, and total salinity loading in the upper Colorado River basin between Lake Thomas and Ivie Reservoir occur along eleven segments of elevated apparent conductivity identified from airborne EM data. Each segment encompasses areas of baseflow salinity contributions to the stream from natural dissolution of evaporite minerals in the Permian basin, from oil-field produced water, or both. Analyses of surface water confirm increases salinity loading associated with each segment. Airborne EM data acquired on the coast along Petronila Creek and within a corridor centered on it revealed three stream segments with elevated ground conductivity. Increases in chloride, sulfate, and total salinity loading are attributed to shallow baseflow contributions along the three segments. Using airborne EM and hydrochemistry data, we interpret the dominant salinization mechanism within the two upstream segments to be historic discharge of produced water into unlined drainage ditches and pits, infiltration into sandy Pleistocene channel deposits, lateral migration as far as several kilometers, and discharge into the stream. Airborne EM and hydrochemical data suggest a combination of oil-field and seawater salinity contributions at the most downstream Petronila Creek segment.

Paine, J. G.; Collins, E. W.; Nance, H. S.; Niemann, K.

2005-12-01

357

Validation of Aquarius sea surface salinity with Argo: Analysis of error due to depth of measurement and vertical salinity stratification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We validate Aquarius sea surface salinities against Argo 1-7 m salinities for the period 27 August 2011 through 1 October 2013, a period of ˜25 months. The validation consists of comparison of 20,149 collocated Argo/Aquarius data pairs. The global mean of the difference between Aquarius and Argo salinities is +0.018 PSU, with latitudinal variations of approximately ±0.2 PSU. The standard deviation of this difference ranges from about 0.3 PSU in the tropics to 0.7 PSU at high latitudes. We discuss errors due to geographic and temporal displacement and depth of measurement and show that these are insignificant for global validation of Aquarius. In particular, we use NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42 product to analyze the contribution of vertical salinity stratification in the ocean to validation error. This salinity stratification is important for understanding the hydrological cycle of the oceans and has been cited as a potential source of error in validation of satellite-based sea surface salinity because of the ˜1-7 m minimum depth of most Argo profiles. We show evidence of heavy precipitation events causing stratification greater than 0.1 PSU and lasting ˜2-8 h, but note that these events occur infrequently and contribute less than 0.03 PSU bias in the tropics and 0.025 PSU globally. It is demonstrated that the existing global Argo array provides sufficient data for large-scale validation of Aquarius sea surface salinity. We also discuss the potential to exploit large salinity gradients in the upper mixed layer as a signature of rain in the tropical ocean.

Drucker, Robert; Riser, Stephen C.

2014-07-01

358

Salinity Tolerance of Picochlorum atomus and the Use of Salinity for Contamination Control by the Freshwater Cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena limnetica  

PubMed Central

Microalgae are ideal candidates for waste-gas and –water remediation. However, salinity often varies between different sites. A cosmopolitan microalga with large salinity tolerance and consistent biochemical profiles would be ideal for standardised cultivation across various remediation sites. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of salinity on Picochlorum atomus growth, biomass productivity, nutrient uptake and biochemical profiles. To determine if target end-products could be manipulated, the effects of 4-day nutrient limitation were also determined. Culture salinity had no effect on growth, biomass productivity, phosphate, nitrate and total nitrogen uptake at 2, 8, 18, 28 and 36 ppt. 11 ppt, however, initiated a significantly higher total nitrogen uptake. While salinity had only minor effects on biochemical composition, nutrient depletion was a major driver for changes in biomass quality, leading to significant increases in total lipid, fatty acid and carbohydrate quantities. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by nutrient depletion, with an increased proportion of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. Having established that P. atomus is a euryhaline microalga, the effects of culture salinity on the development of the freshwater cyanobacterial contaminant Pseudanabaena limnetica were determined. Salinity at 28 and 36 ppt significantly inhibited establishment of P. limnetica in P. atomus cultures. In conclusion, P. atomus can be deployed for bioremediation at sites with highly variable salinities without effects on end-product potential. Nutrient status critically affected biochemical profiles – an important consideration for end-product development by microalgal industries. 28 and 36 ppt slow the establishment of the freshwater cyanobacterium P. limnetica, allowing for harvest of low contaminant containing biomass. PMID:23667639

von Alvensleben, Nicolas; Stookey, Katherine; Magnusson, Marie; Heimann, Kirsten

2013-01-01

359

Salinity Effects on Photosynthesis, Carbon Allocation, and Nitrogen Assimilation in the Red Alga, Gelidium coulteri.  

PubMed

The long-term effects of altered salinities on the physiology of the intertidal red alga Gelidium coulteri Harv. were assessed. Plants were transfered from 30 grams per liter salinity to media with salinities from 0 to 50 grams per liter. Growth rate, agar, photosynthesis, respiration, and various metabolites were quantified after 5 days and 5 weeks adaptation. After 5 days, growth rates were lower for plants at all altered salinities. Growth rates recovered from these values with 5 weeks adaptation, except for salinities of 10 grams per liter and below, where tissues bleached and died. Photosynthetic O(2) evolution was lower than control values at both higher and lower salinities after 5 days and did not change over time. Carbon fixation at the altered salinities was unchanged after 5 days, but decreased below 25 grams per liter and above 40 grams per liter after 5 weeks. Respiration increased at lower salinities. Phycobili-protein and chlorophyll were lower for all altered salinities after 5 days. These decreases continued at lower salinities, then were stable after 5 weeks. Chlorophyll recovered over time at higher salinities. Decreases in protein at lower salinities were quantitatively attributable to phycobili-protein loss. Total N levels and C:N ratios were nearly constant across all salinities tested. Carbon flow into glutamate and aspartate decreased with both decreasing and increasing salinities. Glycine, serine, and glycolate levels increased with both increasing and decreasing salinity, indicating a stimulation of photorespiration. The cell wall component agar increased with decreasing salinity, although biosynthesis was inhibited at both higher and lower salinities. The storage compound floridoside increased with increasing salinity. The evidence suggests stress responses to altered salinities that directly affected photosynthesis, respiration, and nitrogen assimilation and indirectly affected photosynthate flow. At low salinities, respiration and photorespiration exceeded photosynthesis with lethal results. At higher salinities, although photosynthesis was inhibited, respiration was low and carbon fixation adequate to offset increased photorespiration. PMID:16666369

Macler, B A

1988-11-01

360

Salinity Effects on Photosynthesis, Carbon Allocation, and Nitrogen Assimilation in the Red Alga, Gelidium coulteri1  

PubMed Central

The long-term effects of altered salinities on the physiology of the intertidal red alga Gelidium coulteri Harv. were assessed. Plants were transfered from 30 grams per liter salinity to media with salinities from 0 to 50 grams per liter. Growth rate, agar, photosynthesis, respiration, and various metabolites were quantified after 5 days and 5 weeks adaptation. After 5 days, growth rates were lower for plants at all altered salinities. Growth rates recovered from these values with 5 weeks adaptation, except for salinities of 10 grams per liter and below, where tissues bleached and died. Photosynthetic O2 evolution was lower than control values at both higher and lower salinities after 5 days and did not change over time. Carbon fixation at the altered salinities was unchanged after 5 days, but decreased below 25 grams per liter and above 40 grams per liter after 5 weeks. Respiration increased at lower salinities. Phycobili-protein and chlorophyll were lower for all altered salinities after 5 days. These decreases continued at lower salinities, then were stable after 5 weeks. Chlorophyll recovered over time at higher salinities. Decreases in protein at lower salinities were quantitatively attributable to phycobili-protein loss. Total N levels and C:N ratios were nearly constant across all salinities tested. Carbon flow into glutamate and aspartate decreased with both decreasing and increasing salinities. Glycine, serine, and glycolate levels increased with both increasing and decreasing salinity, indicating a stimulation of photorespiration. The cell wall component agar increased with decreasing salinity, although biosynthesis was inhibited at both higher and lower salinities. The storage compound floridoside increased with increasing salinity. The evidence suggests stress responses to altered salinities that directly affected photosynthesis, respiration, and nitrogen assimilation and indirectly affected photosynthate flow. At low salinities, respiration and photorespiration exceeded photosynthesis with lethal results. At higher salinities, although photosynthesis was inhibited, respiration was low and carbon fixation adequate to offset increased photorespiration. PMID:16666369

Macler, Bruce A.

1988-01-01

361

Continuous salinity and temperature data from san francisco estuary, 19822002: Trends and the salinity-freshwater inflow relationship  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey and other federal and state agencies have been collecting continuous temperature and salinity data, two critical estuarine habitat variables, throughout San Francisco estuary for over two decades. Although this dynamic, highly variable system has been well studied, many questions remain relating to the effects of freshwater inflow and other physical and biological linkages. This study examines up to 20 years of publically available, continuous temperature and salinity data from 10 different San Francisco Bay stations to identify trends in temperature and salinity and quantify the salinityfreshwater inflow relationship. Several trends in the salinity and temperature records were identified, although the high degree of daily and interannual variability confounds the analysis. In addition, freshwater inflow to the estuary has a range of effects on salinity from -0.0020 to -0.0096 (m3 s-1) -1 discharge, depending on location in the estuary and the timescale of analyzed data. Finally, we documented that changes in freshwater inflow to the estuary that are within the range of typical management actions can affect bay-wide salinities by 0.61.4. This study reinforces the idea that multidecadal records are needed to identify trends from decadal changes in water management and climate and, therefore, are extremely valuable. ?? 2011 Coastal Education & Research Foundation.

Shellenbarger, G.G.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

2011-01-01

362

Impacts of salinity fluctuations on the productivity of coastal mangrove fish populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An empirical study examined the influence of salinity fluctuations on the key population demographic characteristics (i.e., survivorship, growth, and reproduction) of two types of mangrove fish populations (i.e., Poeciliidae and Cyprinodontidae). Livebearers (Family Poeciliidae) exhibited significant mortality following large, instantaneous salinity increases, while large instantaneous salinity decreases had no significant effect on mortality rate. Instantaneous salinity changes had no significant

Robert J. Robbins

2005-01-01

363

Assessing the impact of soil salinity on manganese distribution in sierozem soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant availability of heavy metals from soil depends on factors such as soil type, organic matter, base saturation, texture, and salinity. Plant availability of mobile manganese (Mn) was accessed from various horizons of non-saline, medium saline, and highly saline sieriozem soils and a pasture. Man...

364

The Distribution of Salinity and Temperature in the Connecticut River Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of near-surface salinity and temperature were made over a period of 16 months in the Connecticut River estuary, an estuary basically of the salt wedge type. Theemperature distribution was found to be Very highly correlated with the salinity distribution. The horizontal salinity distribution oc- curred primarily in two modes, a riverinc mode and a plume mode, corresponding to salinity

Richard W. Garvine

1975-01-01

365

Surface salinity fields in the Arctic Ocean and statistical approaches to predicting anomalies and patterns  

E-print Network

1 Surface salinity fields in the Arctic Ocean and statistical approaches to predicting anomalies to analyzing the Arctic Ocean salinity were developed. Six kinds of typical patterns in the surface salinity fields were identified. Abrupt changes in the Arctic Ocean surface layer salinity were found. Abstract

Golden, Kenneth M.

366

Salinity as a determinant of salt lake fauna: a question of scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

High and often variable salinity is an obvious feature of salt lakes. Correspondingly, salinity is usually assumed to be an important ecological determinant in such lakes. An investigation of the macroinvertebrate fauna of 79 lakes (salinities from 0.3 to 343 g 1-1) in the Western District of Victoria, Australia, examined this assumption. Over the total range of salinity, species richness

W. D. Williams; A. J. Boulton; R. G. Taaffe

1990-01-01

367

THE EFFECT OF SALINITY ON EXPERIMENTAL INFECTIONS OF A HEMATODINIUM SP. IN BLUE CRABS, CALLINECTES SAPIDUS  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF SALINITY ON EXPERIMENTAL INFECTIONS OF A HEMATODINIUM SP. IN BLUE CRABS, CALLINECTES have only been reported from waters where salinity is .11 practical salinity units (psu). Blue crabs maintain a hyperosmotic internal concentration at low salinities (0­5 psu), roughly comparable to 24 psu

368

Fault detection for salinity sensors in the Columbia estuary Cynthia Archer  

E-print Network

Fault detection for salinity sensors in the Columbia estuary Cynthia Archer Department of Computer, salinity measurement Citation: Archer, C., A. Baptista, and T. K. Leen, Fault detection for salinity [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2001]. [3] CORIE salinity sensors deployed in the harsh estuary

Leen, Todd K.

369

Re-evaluating the 238 U-salinity relationship in seawater: Implications for the  

E-print Network

Re-evaluating the 238 U-salinity relationship in seawater: Implications for the 238 U­234 Th form 13 July 2011 Accepted 14 July 2011 Available online 23 July 2011 Keywords: Uranium Salinity and salinity in the open ocean. The new 238 U-salinity relationship determined here is based on a larger sample

Buesseler, Ken

370

The effects of salinity and nutrient limitation on microbial processes in coastal sediments  

E-print Network

The effects of salinity and nutrient limitation on microbial processes in coastal sediments Emily the relationship between salinity, nutrient limitation, and microbial activity, I collected high and low salinity in the low salinity water and sediment samples, however significantly higher phosphatase activity than

Vallino, Joseph J.

371

The effects of maternal salinity and seed environment on germination and growth in Iris hexagona  

E-print Network

The effects of maternal salinity and seed environment on germination and growth in Iris hexagona hexagona occupy saline habitats and plant performance is strongly impacted by salinity stress. We examined. hexagona by (1) growing plants in three different maternal salinity levels in a common garden, (2

Van Zandt, Peter

372

The erosion of a salinity step by a localized heat source  

E-print Network

The erosion of a salinity step by a localized heat source D.M. Leppinen and S.B. Dalziel Department compare the erosion a salinity step by a localized heat source with the erosion of the same salinity step layers and it is shown that a localized heat source is more e cient at eroding a salinity step than

Dalziel, Stuart

373

American Journal of Botany 89(11): 18471851. 2002. DELAYED AND CARRYOVER EFFECTS OF SALINITY ON  

E-print Network

1847 American Journal of Botany 89(11): 1847­1851. 2002. DELAYED AND CARRYOVER EFFECTS OF SALINITY that exhibits intraspecific variation in salinity tolerance. To investigate the effect of salinity on flowering. Experimental salinity additions strongly delayed flowering phenology, but the effect was not apparent until

Van Zandt, Peter

374

EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON THE SURVIVAL OF WINTER FLOUNDER EMBRYOS  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON THE SURVIVAL OF WINTER FLOUNDER EMBRYOS CAROLYN A. ROGERS1 ABSTRACT A series of experiments was perfonned to detennine the optimum temperature and salinity to a 0.5 to 45%0 salinity range and a 3° to 14°C temperature range in a total of 67 salinity- temperature

375

Effect of salinity on the ultrasonic absorption and flow birefringence of microemulsions  

E-print Network

257 Effect of salinity on the ultrasonic absorption and flow birefringence of microemulsions E of salinity by means of ultrasonic absorption and flow birefringence techniques. As the salinity is increased = 8 g NaCl/100 g water respectively. At both S1 and S2 salinities, the flow birefringence exhibits

Boyer, Edmond

376

Cumulative soil chemistry changes from land application of saline-sodic waters  

SciTech Connect

Management of large volumes (60,000 ha-m) of co-production water associated with coal bed natural gas (CBNG) water extraction is a potential concern in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana due to elevated water salinity and sodicity levels. Land application of saline-sodic CBNG water is a common water management method being practiced in the PRB, which can result in deterioration in soil quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects from 1 to 4 yr of land application with CBNG water on soil chemical properties at six study sites (fine to loamy, mixed to smectitic, mesic, Ustic Ardisols and Entisols) in the Wyoming PRB region. Changes in chemistry of soils collected from six depths irrigated with CBNG water were compared with representative non-irrigated soils. Applications of CBNG water significantly increased soil EC, SAR, and ESP values (up to 21, 74, and 24 times, respectively) compared with non-irrigated soils. Differences in soil chemical properties between an irrigated and non-irrigated coarse-textured soil were less than that of fine-textured soils, emphasizing texture as an important factor for salinity buildup. Pretreatment of CBNG water using a sulfur burner and application of gypsum and elemental S soil amendments reduced soil pH but did not prevent the build-up of salts and sodium. Study results suggest that current CBNG water management strategies are not as effective as projected. Additional research is needed to develop management strategies appropriate for mitigating adverse effects of CBNG water irrigation.

Ganjegunte, G.K.; King, L.A.; Vance, G.F. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Department for Renewable Resources

2008-09-15

377

Modeling the variations of salinity and temperature in the large Gulfs of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modeling of salinity and temperature in Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, and Gulf of Riga is investigated by using a coupled sea ice-ocean Baltic Sea model. 18 years, from late 1980 to the end of 1998, have been investigated. The forcing data extracted taken from a gridded meteorological data base, sea level data from the Kattegat, and river runoff data to the different subbasins of the Baltic Sea from a hydrological data base. To improve the gridded meteorological data base a statistical model for the reduction of geostrophic winds to surface winds was developed. In the analysis it was shown that the calculated long-term salinity and temperature structures were stable and in good agreement with observations. This was made possible by using three different strait-flow models connecting the subbasins of the Baltic Sea. The seasonal and interannual variations of temperature and salinity were also well simulated by the model, implying that the coupling between the atmosphere and the Baltic Sea as well as the diapycnal mixing are reasonably well understood. The water cycle and the surface heat balance were calculated using the 18-year simulation. In the water-balance calculations it was shown that the volume flows from the large gulfs of the Baltic Sea were mainly due to baroclinic transports and that net precipitation added freshwater during the studied period, particularly to the large gulfs. From the heat-balance calculation it is concluded that the Baltic Sea is almost in local balance with the atmosphere. The Bothnian Bay, Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga loose heat, whereas the Bothnian Sea gains heat, calculated as long-term means.

Omstedt, A.; Axell, L. B.

2003-03-01

378

Cumulative soil chemistry changes from land application of saline-sodic waters.  

PubMed

Management of large volumes (60,000 ha-m) of co-production water associated with coal bed natural gas (CBNG) water extraction is a potential concern in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana due to elevated water salinity and sodicity levels. Land application of saline-sodic CBNG water is a common water management method being practiced in the PRB, which can result in deterioration in soil quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects from 1 to 4 yr of land application with CBNG water on soil chemical properties at six study sites (fine to loamy, mixed to smectitic, mesic, Ustic Ardisols and Entisols) in the Wyoming PRB region. Changes in chemistry of soils collected from six depths irrigated with CBNG water were compared with representative nonirrigated soils. Applications of CBNG water significantly increased soil EC, SAR, and ESP values (up to 21, 74, and 24 times, respectively) compared with nonirrigated soils. Differences in soil chemical properties between an irrigated and nonirrigated coarse-textured soil were less than that of fine-textured soils, emphasizing texture as an important factor for salinity buildup. Pretreatment of CBNG water using a sulfur burner and application of gypsum and elemental S soil amendments reduced soil pH but did not prevent the build-up of salts and sodium. Study results suggest that current CBNG water management strategies are not as effective as projected. Additional research is needed to develop management strategies appropriate for mitigating adverse effects of CBNG water irrigation. PMID:18765759

Ganjegunte, Girisha K; King, Lyle A; Vance, George F

2008-01-01

379

Studies on the exaggerated natriuretic response to a saline infusion in the hypothyroid rat  

PubMed Central

The exaggerated natriuresis of hypothyroid rats receiving a 5% saline infusion was studied to determine the mechanism and the site within the nephron responsible for this increase in sodium excretion. Sodium clearance (CNa) and fractional sodium excretion were both demonstrated to be greater in hypothyroid rats for any amount of sodium infused. The rate of increase in fractional sodium excretion in response to saline loading was 3.4 times greater in hypothyroid animals. At the conclusion of the diuresis some of the hypothyroid animals excreted greater than 45% of the filtered sodium load, while no control animal excreted more than 12% of the filtered sodium load. The mean clearance of insulin during the saline diuresis was 36.6% lower (P < 0.001) in the hypothyroid rats. D-Aldosterone given to hypothyroid animals 3 hr before the experiment did not alter the magnitude or rate of increase in fractional sodium excretion. Inulin space determinations in nephrectomized rats revealed that extracellular fluid volume was contracted by 17.1% in the hypothyroid rats (P < 0.01). Plasma sodium was not significantly different in hypothyroid and control animals. A limit on solute free water reabsorption (TeH2O) per osmolar clearance (COsm) was demonstrated in the hypothyroid rats when these animals excreted greater than 12% of the filtered osmotic load. The limit on TeH2O formation was associated with an acceleration in the rate of sodium excretion and a decline in the rate of potassium excretion. Early in the diuresis when COsm, CNa, and TeH2O were comparable in hypothyroid and control rats, the filtered sodium load was 31% lower (P < 0.01) in the hypothyroid animals. These findings indicate that diminished thyroid hormone activity decreases renal sodium reabsorptive capacity. Indirect evidence suggests that the distal and possibly the proximal tubules are the sites of this diminished sodium reabsorption in hypothyroid animals. PMID:5422024

Holmes, Edward W.; DiScala, Vincent A.

1970-01-01

380

Geomorphic Characterization of the Middle Fork Saline River: Garland, Perry, and Saline Counties, Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report was prepared to help address concerns raised by local residents, State, and Federal agencies about the current geomorphic conditions of the Middle Fork Saline River. Over the past 30 years the Middle Fork Saline River Basin has experienced a marked increase in urbanization. The report summarizes the Middle Fork?s current (2003) channel characteristics at nine stream reaches in the upper 91 square miles of the basin. Assessments at each study reach included comparing measured stream geometry dimensions (cross-sectional area, top width, and mean depth) at bankfull stage to regional hydraulic geometry curves for the Ouachita Mountains Physiographic Province of Arkansas and Oklahoma, evaluations of streambed materials and sinuosity, and classification of individual stream reach types. When compared to the Ouachita Mountains? regional hydraulic geometry curves for natural, stable, stream reaches, five of the nine study reaches had slightly smaller crosssectional areas, longer top widths, and shallower depths. Streambed material analysis indicates that the Middle Fork is a bedrock influenced, gravel dominated stream with lesser amounts of sand and cobbles. Slight increases in sinuosity from 1992 to 2002 at seven of the nine study reaches indicate a slight decrease in stream channel slope. Analyses of the Middle Fork?s hydraulic geometry and sinuosity indicate that the Middle Fork is currently overly wide and shallow, but is slowly adjusting towards a deeper, narrower hydraulic geometry. Using the Rosgen system of channel classification, the two upstream study reaches classified as B4c/1 stream types; which were moderately entrenched, riffle dominated channels, with infrequently spaced pools. The downstream seven study reaches classified as C4/1 stream types; which were slightly entrenched, meandering, gravel-dominated, riffle/ pool channels with well developed flood plains. Analyses of stream reach types suggest that the downstream reaches of the Middle Fork are more vulnerable to streambank failure than the upstream reaches of the stream.

Pugh, Aaron L.; Garday, Thomas J.; Redman, Ronald

2008-01-01

381

Hydrologic factors controlling groundwater salinity in northwestern coastal zone, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this article is to assess the main factors influencing salinity of groundwater in the coastal area between El Dabaa and Sidi Barani, Egypt. The types and ages of the main aquifers in this area are the fractured limestone of Middle Miocene, the calcareous sandstone of Pliocene and the Oolitic Limestone of Pleistocene age. The aquifers in the area are recharged by seasonal rainfall of the order of 150 mm/year. The relationship of groundwater salinity against the absolute water level, the well drilling depth, and the ability of aquifer to recharge has been discussed in the present work. The ability of aquifer to locally recharge by direct rainfall is a measure of the vertical permeability due to lithological and structural factors that control groundwater salinity in the investigated aquifers. On the other hand, the fracturing system as well as the attitude of the surface water divide has a prime role in changing both the mode of occurrence and the salinity of groundwater in the area. Directly to the west of Matrouh, where the coastal plain is the narrowest, and east of Barrani, where the coastal plain is the widest, are good examples of this concept, where the water salinity attains its maximum and minimum limits respectively. Accordingly, well drilling in the Miocene aquifer, in the area between El Negila and Barrani to get groundwater of salinities less than 5000 mg/l is recommended in this area, at flow rate less than 10 m3/hr/well. In other words, one can expect that the brackish water is probably found where the surface water divide is far from the shore line, where the Wadi fill deposits dominate (Quaternary aquifer), acting as a possible water salinity by direct rainfall and runoff.

Morad, Nahla A.; Masoud, M. H.; Moghith, S. M. Abdel

2014-10-01

382

The salinity signature of the cross-shelf exchanges in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: Numerical simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution model is used to characterize the dominant patterns of sea surface salinity (SSS) variability generated by the freshwater discharges of the Rio de la Plata (RdlP) and the Patos/Mirim Lagoon in the southwestern Atlantic region. We identify three dominant modes of SSS variability. The first two, which have been discussed in previous studies, represent the seasonal and the interannual variations of the freshwater plumes over the continental shelf. The third mode of SSS variability, which has not been discussed hitherto, represents the salinity exchanges between the shelf and the deep ocean. A diagnostic study using floats and passive tracers identifies the pathways taken by the freshwater plumes. During the austral winter (JJA), the plumes leave the shelf region north of the BMC. During the austral summer (DJF), the plumes are entrained more directly into the BMC. A sensitivity study indicates that the high-frequency component of the wind stress forcing controls the vertical structure of the plumes while the low-frequency component of the wind stress forcing and the interannual variations of the RdlP discharge controls the horizontal structure of the plumes. Dynamical analysis reveals that the cross-shelf flow has a dominant barotropic structure and, therefore, the SSS anomalies detected by Aquarius represent net mass exchanges between the shelf and the deep ocean. The net cross-shelf volume flux is 1.21 Sv. This outflow is largely compensated by an inflow from the Patagonian shelf.

Matano, Ricardo P.; Combes, Vincent; Piola, Alberto R.; Guerrero, Raul; Palma, Elbio D.; Ted Strub, P.; James, Corinne; Fenco, Harold; Chao, Yi; Saraceno, Martin

2014-11-01

383

Microstrip Antenna for Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture and Sea Surface Salinity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This compact, lightweight, dual-frequency antenna feed developed for future soil moisture and sea surface salinity (SSS) missions can benefit future soil and ocean studies by lowering mass, volume, and cost of the antenna system. It also allows for airborne soil moisture and salinity remote sensors operating on small aircraft. While microstrip antenna technology has been developed for radio communications, it has yet to be applied to combined radar and radiometer for Earth remote sensing. The antenna feed provides a key instrument element enabling high-resolution radiometric observations with large, deployable antennas. The design is based on the microstrip stacked-patch array (MSPA) used to feed a large, lightweight, deployable, rotating mesh antenna for spaceborne L-band (approximately equal to 1 GHz) passive and active sensing systems. The array consists of stacked patches to provide dual-frequency capability and suitable radiation patterns. The stacked-patch microstrip element was designed to cover the required L-band center frequencies at 1.26 GHz (lower patch) and 1.413 GHz (upper patch), with dual-linear polarization capabilities. The dimension of patches produces the required frequencies. To achieve excellent polarization isolation and control of antenna sidelobes for the MSPA, the orientation of each stacked-patch element within the array is optimized to reduce the cross-polarization. A specialized feed-distribution network was designed to achieve the required excitation amplitude and phase for each stacked-patch element.

Ramhat-Samii, Yahya; Kona, Keerti; Manteghi, Majid; Dinardo, Steven; Hunter, Don; Njoku, Eni; Wilson, Wiliam; Yueh, Simon

2009-01-01

384

Nitrogen sources and sinks in a wastewater impacted saline aquifer beneath the Florida Keys, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater wells surrounding a high volume advance treatment wastewater (ATW) disposal well in the Florida Keys were monitored for nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium concentrations over a 14 month period. Nutrient concentrations in the shallow subsurface (9 m) show a bimodal distribution between the low salinity wastewater plume and the ambient brackish to saline groundwaters. High NO 3- concentrations are found within the ATW plume while the highest NH 4+ concentrations are found in shallow wells outside of the plume. Evidence suggests that the overlying mud layer unique to this study site contributes the bulk of the NH 4+ observed in these wells. NO 3- concentrations at 9 m wells varied by a factor of four in response to concurrent variations in ATW NO 3- loads over the coarse of the study. Estimated NO 3- uptake rates varied from 32 ± 29 to 98 ± 69 and did not directly correlate with ATW NO 3- loading as we hypothesized. We estimate that 70 ± 34% of the NO 3- from the treatment plant is removed from solution in the subsurface of the study site. Considerable decreases in NO 3- concentration and enrichment of 15NO 3- was observed in many wells, indicating significant denitrification or anaerobic ammonium oxidation is occurring in the subsurface. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations, distributions, and 15N compositions indicate that denitrification is likely the dominant mechanism for N removal in the ATW plume at Key Colony Beach, Florida.

Dillon, Kevin S.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Smith, Leslie K.

2007-06-01

385

Physical and economic potential of geological CO2 storage in saline aquifers.  

PubMed

Carbon sequestration in sandstone saline reservoirs holds great potential for mitigating climate change, but its storage potential and cost per ton of avoided CO2 emissions are uncertain. We develop a general model to determine the maximum theoretical constraints on both storage potential and injection rate and use it to characterize the economic viability of geosequestration in sandstone saline aquifers. When applied to a representative set of aquifer characteristics, the model yields results that compare favorably with pilot projects currently underway. Over a range of reservoir properties, maximum effective storage peaks at an optimal depth of 1600 m, at which point 0.18-0.31 metric tons can be stored per cubic meter of bulk volume of reservoir. Maximum modeled injection rates predict minima for storage costs in a typical basin in the range of $2-7/ ton CO2 (2005 U.S.$) depending on depth and basin characteristics in our base-case scenario. Because the properties of natural reservoirs in the United States vary substantially, storage costs could in some cases be lower or higher by orders of magnitude. We conclude that available geosequestration capacity exhibits a wide range of technological and economic attractiveness. Like traditional projects in the extractive industries, geosequestration capacity should be exploited starting with the low-cost storage options first then moving gradually up the supply curve. PMID:19368199

Eccles, Jordan K; Pratson, Lincoln; Newell, Richard G; Jackson, Robert B

2009-03-15

386

[Effects of salinity on spawning and larval development of Exopalaemon carinicauda].  

PubMed

Female Exopalaemon carinicauda at ovarian maturation stage II rearing by artificial propagation in the laboratory were chosen as test material. The shrimps were gradually acclimated to the experimental salinity levels of 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 to determine the effects of salinity on spawning, embryonic development and larval growth of E. carinicauda. The results showed that the ovaries of female E. carinicauda could mature at all test salinity levels. However, it failed to spawn at salinity 2. Salinity levels from 10 to 20 were the most favorable for female E. carinicauda spawning. Although larval development was most successful in eggs incubated at salinity levels of 5 to 30, embryonic development were significantly affected by salinity, and the egg incubation period was shorter at salinities of 15, 20 and 25 than at the other salinities. There were no significant effects of salinity on the rates of larval metamorphosis and survival, but the dry mass of individuals was significantly affected by salinity. The dry mass of shrimps reared at salinities of 15 and 20 were significantly higher than at the other salinities. The growth of 20-day old shrimps was significantly affected by salinity. The specific growth rate increased with the increasing salinity level from 5 to 20, and then decreased at the salinity above 20. The mRNA level of gill Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase was high at high and low salinities, and the lowest at the theoretical salinity 17.5, which might be equal to the hemolymph osmotic pressure of E. carinicauda. It was implied that female parent E. carinicauda could reproduce in a wide range of salinities, while 20-day old shrimps presented higher growth rates at salinities near its theoretical isosmotic point. PMID:25345065

Liang, Jun-Ping; Li, Jian; Li, Ji-Tao; Liu, Ping; Zhao, Fa-Zhen; Nie, Guo-Xing; Li, Xue-Jun; Kong, Xiang-Hui

2014-07-01

387

Passive Microwave Measurements of Salinity: The Gulf Stream Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (I psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approximately 0.2 psu) required of global maps to be scientifically viable. The development of a satellite microwave instrument to make global measurements of SSS (Sea Surface Salinity) is the focus of a joint JPL/GSFC/NASA ocean research program called Aquarius. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of airborne microwave instruments together with ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer (for surface temperature). These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Sea surface measurements consisted of thermosalinograph data provided by the R/V Cape Henlopen and the MN Oleander, and data from salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the R/V Cape Henlopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made with the airborne sensors on August 28 and 29 and on September 2 flights were made over the surface drifters to look for effects due to a change in surface roughness resulting from the passage of Hurricane Dennis. Results show a good agreement between the microwave measurements and ship measurements of salinity. The features of the brightness temperature maps correspond well with the features of the salinity field measured by the ship and drifters and a preliminary retrieval of salinity compares well with the ship data.

LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Haken, M.; Howden, S.; Bingham, F.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

388

Remote sensing of drought and salinity stressed turfgrass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to detect early signs of stress in turfgrass stands using a rapid, inexpensive, and nondestructive method would be a valuable management tool. Studies were conducted to determine if digital image analysis and spectroradiometric readings obtained from drought- and salinity-stressed turfgrasses accurately reflected the varying degrees of stress and correlated strongly with visual ratings, relative water content (RWC) and leaf osmolality, standard methods for measuring stress in plants. Greenhouse drought and salinity experiments were conducted on hybrid bluegrass [Poa arachnifera (Torn.) x pratensis (L.)] cv. Reveille and bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.)] cv. Princess 77. Increasing drought and salinity stress led to decreased RWC, increased leaf osmolality, and decreased visual ratings for both species. Percent green cover and hue values obtained from digital image analysis, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), calculated from spectroradiometric readings, were moderately to highly correlated with visual ratings, RWC, and leaf osmolality. Similarly, in a field validation study conducted on hybrid bluegrass, spectral reflectance ratios were moderately to highly correlated with visual ratings. In addition, percent green cover obtained from digital image analysis was strongly correlated with most of the spectral ratios, particularly the ratio of fluorescence peaks (r = -0.88 to -0.99), modified triangular vegetation index (MTVI) (r = 0.82 to 0.98), and NDVI (r = 0.84 to 0.99), suggesting that spectral reflectance and digital image analysis are equally effective at detecting changes in color brought on by stress. The two methods differed in their ability to distinguish between drought salinity stress. Hue values obtained from digital image analysis responded differently to increasing drought stress than to increasing salinity stress. Whereas the onset of drought stress was reflected by increased hue values followed by a decrease in values as drought stress increased, there was no increase in hue values at the onset of salinity stress. Thus, changes in hue could be a key to distinguish drought and salinity stress. Both digital image analysis and spectroradiometry effectively detected drought and salinity stress and may have applications in turfgrass management as rapid and quantitative methods to determine drought and salinity stress in turf.

Ikemura, Yoshiaki

389

Seasonal/Yearly Salinity Variations in San Francisco Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ability of resource agencies to manage fish, wildlife and freshwater supplies of San Francisco Bay estuary requires an integrated knowledge of the relations between the biota and their physical environment. A key factor in these relations is the role of salinity in determining both the physical and the biological character of the estuary. The saltiness of the water, and particularly its seasonal and interannual patterns of variability, affects which aquatic species live where within the estuary. Salinity also determines where water can and cannot be diverted for human consumption and irrigated agriculture, and plays a role in determining the capacity of the estuary to cleanse itself of wastes. In short, salinity is a fundamental property of estuarine physics and chemistry that, in turn, determines the biological characteristics of each estuary. Freshwater is a major control on estuarine salinity. Most freshwater supplied to the Bay is from river flow through the Delta, which is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada. Most contaminants in San Francisco Bay are from the Sacramento/San Joaquin Valley and the local watershed around the Bay rather than the sea or atmosphere. Land is the primary source of freshwater and freshwater serves as a tracer of land-derived substances such as the trace metals (copper, lead and selenium), pesticides and plant nutrients (nitrate and phosphate). The U.S. Geological Survey is collaborating with other agencies and institutions in studying San Francisco Bay salinity using field observations and numerical simulations to define the physical processes that control salinity. The issues that arise from salinity fluctuations, however, differ in the northern and southern parts of the bay. In North Bay we need to know how salinity responds to freshwater flow through the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta; this knowledge will benefit water managers who determine how much delta flow is needed a) to protect freshwater supplies for municipal water use and b) modulate salinity for a healthy estuary. In South Bay we need to know where the freshwater comes from (the distant Delta or local streams) to sort out the sources of a) contamination or b) dilution.

Peterson, David H.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Dettinger, Michael D.; DiLeo, Jeanne Sandra; Hager, Stephen E.; Knowles, Noah; Nichols, Frederic H.; Schemel, Laurence E.; Smith, Richard E.; Uncles, Reginald J.

1995-01-01

390

Potential Use of Halophytes to Remediate Saline Soils  

PubMed Central

Salinity is one of the rising problems causing tremendous yield losses in many regions of the world especially in arid and semiarid regions. To maximize crop productivity, these areas should be brought under utilization where there are options for removing salinity or using the salt-tolerant crops. Use of salt-tolerant crops does not remove the salt and hence halophytes that have capacity to accumulate and exclude the salt can be an effective way. Methods for salt removal include agronomic practices or phytoremediation. The first is cost- and labor-intensive and needs some developmental strategies for implication; on the contrary, the phytoremediation by halophyte is more suitable as it can be executed very easily without those problems. Several halophyte species including grasses, shrubs, and trees can remove the salt from different kinds of salt-affected problematic soils through salt excluding, excreting, or accumulating by their morphological, anatomical, physiological adaptation in their organelle level and cellular level. Exploiting halophytes for reducing salinity can be good sources for meeting the basic needs of people in salt-affected areas as well. This review focuses on the special adaptive features of halophytic plants under saline condition and the possible ways to utilize these plants to remediate salinity. PMID:25110683

Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Bhowmik, Prasanta C.; Hossain, Md. Amzad; Rahman, Motior M.; Prasad, Majeti Narasimha Vara; Ozturk, Munir; Fujita, Masayuki

2014-01-01

391

GPR study of pore water content and salinity in sand  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution studies of hydrological problems of the near-surface zone can be better accomplished by applying ground-probing radar (GPR) and geoelectrical techniques. The authors report on GPR measurements (500 and 900 MHz antennae) which were carried out on a sorted, clean sand, both in the laboratory and at outdoor experimental sites. The outdoor sites include a full-scale model measuring 5 x 3 x 2.4 m{sup 3} with three buried sand bodies saturated with water of various salinities. Studies investigate the capability of GPR to determine the pore water content and to estimate the salinity. These parameters are important for quantifying and evaluating the water quality of vadose zones and aquifers. The radar technique is increasingly applied in quantifying soil moisture but is still rarely used in studying the problems of water salinity and quality. The reflection coefficient at interfaces is obtained from the amplitude spectrum in the frequency and time domains and is confirmed by 1D wavelet modelling. In addition, the GPR velocity to a target at a known depth is determined using techniques of two-way traveltime, CMP semblance analysis and fitting an asymptotic diffraction curve. The results demonstrate that the reflection coefficient increases with increasing salinity of the moisture. These results may open up a new approach for applications in environmental problems and groundwater prospecting, e.g., mapping and monitoring of contamination and evaluation of aquifer salinity, especially in coastal areas with a time-varying fresh-water lens.

Hagrey, S.A.; Mueller, C.

2000-01-01

392

Potential use of halophytes to remediate saline soils.  

PubMed

Salinity is one of the rising problems causing tremendous yield losses in many regions of the world especially in arid and semiarid regions. To maximize crop productivity, these areas should be brought under utilization where there are options for removing salinity or using the salt-tolerant crops. Use of salt-tolerant crops does not remove the salt and hence halophytes that have capacity to accumulate and exclude the salt can be an effective way. Methods for salt removal include agronomic practices or phytoremediation. The first is cost- and labor-intensive and needs some developmental strategies for implication; on the contrary, the phytoremediation by halophyte is more suitable as it can be executed very easily without those problems. Several halophyte species including grasses, shrubs, and trees can remove the salt from different kinds of salt-affected problematic soils through salt excluding, excreting, or accumulating by their morphological, anatomical, physiological adaptation in their organelle level and cellular level. Exploiting halophytes for reducing salinity can be good sources for meeting the basic needs of people in salt-affected areas as well. This review focuses on the special adaptive features of halophytic plants under saline condition and the possible ways to utilize these plants to remediate salinity. PMID:25110683

Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Alam, Md Mahabub; Bhowmik, Prasanta C; Hossain, Md Amzad; Rahman, Motior M; Prasad, Majeti Narasimha Vara; Ozturk, Munir; Fujita, Masayuki

2014-01-01

393

Optimal management of a regional aquifer under salinization conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinization of an aquifer results from the movement and dispersion of saline water bodies within it and/or from inflow of saline waters across boundaries, including through recharge. Salinity does not exceed a few thousand parts per million, so the effects of density on the flow can be neglected. The objective of management is to maximize the net benefit from the water extracted subject to constraints on the amount of salt taken out with the water. The management model presented in this paper contains simulation of flow and transport of salinity, developed for a two-dimensional essentially horizontal confined aquifer, linked to a nonsmooth optimization algorithm. The simulator is based on a finite element formulation, in which the convective term is treated by the streamlineupwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) method. SUPG is shown to reduce substantially the oscillations present in conventional finite element solutions of the transport equation, especially when the advective term dominates. The derivatives of the dependent variables, heads and concentrations at points in the field, with respect to the decision variables, the pumping rates, are computed in the simulator, using analytical expressions based on sensitivity theory. These derivatives are transmitted to the optimization algorithm, which uses the bundle-trust method for nonsmooth optimization. Application to a synthetic aquifer is demonstrated and analyzed.

Gordon, Ekaterina; Shamir, Uri; Bensabat, Jacob

2000-11-01

394

Physiological and proteomic analysis of salinity tolerance in Puccinellia tenuiflora.  

PubMed

Soil salinity poses a serious threat to agriculture productivity throughout the world. Studying mechanisms of salinity tolerance in halophytic plants will provide valuable information for engineering plants for enhanced salt tolerance. Monocotyledonous Puccinellia tenuiflora is a halophytic species that widely distributed in the saline-alkali soil of the Songnen plain in northeastern China. Here we investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying moderate salt tolerance of P. tenuiflora using a combined physiological and proteomic approach. The changes in biomass, inorganic ion content, osmolytes, photosynthesis, defense-related enzyme activities, and metabolites in the course of salt treatment were analyzed in the leaves. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 107 identities (representing 93 unique proteins) differentially expressed in P. tenuiflora leaves under saline conditions. These proteins were mainly involved in photosynthesis, stress and defense, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signaling, membrane, and transport. Our results showed that reduction of photosynthesis under salt treatment was attributed to the down-regulation of the light-harvesting complex (LHC) and Calvin cycle enzymes. Selective uptake of inorganic ions, high K(+)/Na(+) ratio, Ca(2+) concentration changes, and an accumulation of osmolytes contributed to ion balance and osmotic adjustment in leaf cells. Importantly, P. tenuiflora plants developed diverse reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging mechanisms in their leaves to cope with moderate salinity, including enhancement of the photorespiration pathway and thermal dissipation, synthesis of the low-molecular-weight antioxidant ?-tocopherol, and an accumulation of compatible solutes. This study provides important information toward improving salt tolerance of cereals. PMID:21732589

Yu, Juanjuan; Chen, Sixue; Zhao, Qi; Wang, Tai; Yang, Chuanping; Diaz, Carolyn; Sun, Guorong; Dai, Shaojun

2011-09-01

395

Salinity tolerance in plants: attempts to manipulate ion transport  

E-print Network

Ion transport is the major determining factor of salinity tolerance in plants. A simple scheme of a plant cell with ion fluxes provides basic understanding of ion transport and the corresponding changes of ion concentrations under salinity. The review describes in detail basic principles of ion transport for a plant cell, introduces set of transporters essential for sodium and potassium uptake and efflux, analyses driving forces of ion transport and compares ion fluxes measured by several techniques. Study of differences in ion transport between salt tolerant halophytes and salt-sensitive plants with an emphasis on transport of potassium and sodium via plasma membranes offers knowledge for increasing salinity tolerance. Effects of salt stress on ion transport properties of membranes show huge opportunities for manipulating ion transport. Several attempts to overexpress or knockout ion transporters for changing salinity tolerance are described. Future perspectives are questioned with more attention given to potential candidate ion channels and transporters for altered expression. The potential direction of increasing salinity tolerance by modifying ion channels and transporters is discussed and questioned. An alternative approach from synthetic biology is to modify the existing membrane transport proteins or create new ones with desired properties for transforming agricultural crops. The approach had not been widely used earlier and leads also to theoretical and pure scientific aspects of protein chemistry, structure-function relations of membrane proteins, systems biology and physiology of stress and ion homeostasis.

Vadim Volkov

2014-11-06

396

Effects of saline drinking water on early gosling development  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Relatively high levels of saline drinking water may adversely affect the growth, development, and survival of young waterfowl. Saline drinking water was suspect in the low survival rate of Canada goose (Branta canadensis) goslings at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (FSNWR) in western Utah. Hence, we investigated the effects of saline drinking water on the survival and growth of captive, wild-strain goslings from day 1-28 following hatch. We compared survival and growth (as measured by body mass, wing length, and culmen length) between a control group on tap water with a mean specific conductivity of 650 ??S/cm, and 2 saline water treatments: (1) intermediate level (12,000 ??S/cm), and (2) high level (18,000 ??S/cm). Gosling mortality occurred only in the 18,000 ??S/cm treatment group (33%; n = 9). Slopes of regressions of mean body mass, wing length, and culmen length on age were different from each other (P < 0.05), except for culmen length for the intermediate and high treatment levels. We predict that free-ranging wild goslings will experience mortality at even lower salinity levels than captive goslings because of the combined effects of depressed growth and environmental stresses, including hot desert temperatures and variable food quality over summer.

Stolley, D.S.; Bissonette, J.A.; Kadlec, J.A.; Coster, D.

1999-01-01

397

Technical Note: The determination of enclosed water volume in large flexible-wall mesocosms "KOSMOS"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volume of water enclosed inside flexible-wall mesocosm bags is hard to estimate using geometrical calculations and can be strongly variable among bags of the same dimensions. Here we present a method for precise water volume determination in mesocosms using salinity as a tracer. Knowledge of the precise volume of water enclosed allows establishment of exactly planned treatment concentrations and calculation of elemental budgets.

Czerny, J.; Schulz, K. G.; Krug, S. A.; Ludwig, A.; Riebesell, U.

2013-03-01

398

Technical Note: On the determination of enclosed water volume in large flexible-wall mesocosms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volume of water enclosed inside flexible-wall mesocosm bags is hard to estimate using geometrical calculations and can be strongly variable among bags of the same dimensions. Here we present a method for precise water volume determination in mesocosms using salinity as a tracer. Knowledge of the precise volume of water enclosed allows establishment of exactly planed treatment concentrations and calculation of elemental budgets.

Czerny, J.; Schulz, K. G.; Krug, S. A.; Ludwig, A.; Riebesell, U.

2012-09-01

399

Blood flow and blood volume determinations in aorta and in coronary circulation by density dilution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Continuous blood mass-density measurements were performed in anesthetized dogs and injections of 0.7–1.4 ml\\/kg isotonic saline solution were applied. The resulting density dilution curves were used to compute blood volume, total flow in the aorta and local flow in the coronary circulation. Blood volume calculations were compared with blood volume determined by Evans blue injections and a close agreement

M. Moser; T. Kenner

1988-01-01

400

Silicon Improves Maize Photosynthesis in Saline-Alkaline Soils  

PubMed Central

The research aimed to determine the effects of Si application on photosynthetic characteristics of maize on saline-alkaline soil, including photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E), and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) of maize in the field with five levels (0, 45, 90, 150, and 225?kg·ha?1) of Si supplying. Experimental results showed that the values of Pn, gs, and Ci of maize were significantly enhanced while the values of E of maize were dramatically decreased by certain doses of silicon fertilizers, which meant that Si application with proper doses significantly increased photosynthetic efficiency of maize in different growth stages under stressing environment of saline-alkaline soil. The optimal dose of Si application in this experiment was 150?kg·ha?1?Si. It indicated that increase in maize photosynthesis under saline-alkaline stress took place by Si application with proper doses, which is helpful to improve growth and yield of maize. PMID:25629083

Xie, Zhiming; Song, Ri; Shao, Hongbo; Song, Fengbin; Xu, Hongwen; Lu, Yan

2015-01-01

401

Climate change impacts on water salinity and health.  

PubMed

It is estimated that 884 million people do not have access to clean drinking water in the world. Increasing salinity of natural drinking water sources has been reported as one of the many problems that affect low-income countries, but one which has not been fully explored. This problem is exacerbated by rising sea-levels, owing to climate change, and other contributing factors, like changes in fresh water flow from rivers and increased shrimp farming along the coastal areas. In some countries, desalination plants are used to partly remove salt and other minerals from water sources, but this is unlikely to be a sustainable option for low-income countries affected by high salinity. Using the example of Bangladesh as a model country, the following research indicates that the problem of salinity can have serious implications with regard to rising rates of hypertension and other public health problems among large sectors of the worldwide population. PMID:23856370

Vineis, Paolo; Chan, Queenie; Khan, Aneire

2011-12-01

402

Charophytes, indicators for low salinity phases in North African sebkhet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among water plants of lakes and ponds, the charophytes are useful for palaeolimnology because they provide autochthonous fossils in the form of their calcified fructifications, termed gyrogonites. Particular species of the Characeae are adapted to brackish water and serve as a modern analogue to infer the salinity of salt lake sediments. Here we focus on Lamprothamnium papulosum whose significance in terms of palaeo-salinity is reviewed with particular attention to the ecological requirements for calcification. New data describe the finding of L. papulosum from Holocene sediments at Sebkha Mellala, Algeria. Previous Quaternary records of this species from North Africa (Mauritania, Libya (Fezzan), Sudan, Mali and Morocco) are discussed in terms of their significance for palaeolimnology. The present paper highlights the potential of fossil charophyte gyrogonites as indicators of former low salinity phases in present-day hypersaline environments.

Soulié-Märsche, Ingeborg

2008-05-01

403

Effects of Hypotonic Saline Loading in Hydrated Dog: Evidence for a Saline-induced Limit on Distal Tubular Sodium Transport*  

PubMed Central

We performed studies on dogs under hydrated conditions, utilizing the rate of free water formation (CH2O) as an index of the rate of distal tubular sodium transport. Since CH2O could be progressively increased with no evidence of a maximal rate during loading with hypotonic (2.5%) mannitol, it was concluded that there is no limit on distal tubular sodium transport during mannitol loading. In contrast, during hypotonic (0.45%) saline loading CH2O rose initially, but as urine flow (V) exceeded 25% of the filtered load CH2O attained maximal levels (up to 20% of the filtered load) and remained stable as V increased to 50% of the filtered load. It was concluded that saline loading progressively inhibits proximal sodium reabsorption. Initially, the distal tubule absorbes a large fraction of the proximal rejectate and sodium excretion rises slightly. Eventually, an alteration in distal sodium transport appears which culminates in a maximal rate or transport limit. This distal transport limit provoked by saline loading could not be characterized by a classical Tm as seen with glucose and does not seem to be consequent to high rates of flow through the distal tubule. Regardless of the precise nature of this limit, the major increment in sodium excretion develops during saline loading only after saline alters the capacity of the distal tubule to transport sodium. PMID:6027084

Stein, Richard M.; Abramson, Ruth G.; Kahn, Thomas; Levitt, Marvin F.

1967-01-01

404

Groundwater salinity in a floodplain forest impacted by saltwater intrusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal wetlands occupy a delicate position at the intersection of fresh and saline waters. Changing climate and watershed hydrology can lead to saltwater intrusion into historically freshwater systems, causing plant mortality and loss of freshwater habitat. Understanding the hydrological functioning of tidally influenced floodplain forests is essential for advancing ecosystem protection and restoration goals, however finding direct relationships between hydrological inputs and floodplain hydrology is complicated by interactions between surface water, groundwater, and atmospheric fluxes in variably saturated soils with heterogeneous vegetation and topography. Thus, an alternative method for identifying common trends and causal factors is required. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a time series dimension reduction technique, models temporal variation in observed data as linear combinations of common trends, which represent unexplained common variability, and explanatory variables. DFA was applied to model shallow groundwater salinity in the forested floodplain wetlands of the Loxahatchee River (Florida, USA), where altered watershed hydrology has led to changing hydroperiod and salinity regimes and undesired vegetative changes. Long-term, high-resolution groundwater salinity datasets revealed dynamics over seasonal and yearly time periods as well as over tidal cycles and storm events. DFA identified shared trends among salinity time series and a full dynamic factor model simulated observed series well (overall coefficient of efficiency, Ceff = 0.85; 0.52 ? Ceff ? 0.99). A reduced multilinear model based solely on explanatory variables identified in the DFA had fair to good results (Ceff = 0.58; 0.38 ? Ceff ? 0.75) and may be used to assess the effects of restoration and management scenarios on shallow groundwater salinity in the Loxahatchee River floodplain.

Kaplan, David A.; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael

2014-11-01

405

Evaluation of sea-surface salinity observed by Aquarius  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea-surface salinity (SSS) observed by Aquarius was compared with global observations from Argo floats and offshore moored buoys to evaluate the quality of satellite SSS data and to assess error structures. Aquarius products retrieved by different algorithms (Aquarius Official Release version 3.0 [V3.0], Combined Active-Passive [CAP] algorithm version 3.0, and Remote Sensing Systems test bed algorithm version 3) were compared. The Aquarius SSS was in good agreement with in situ salinity measurements for all three products. Root-mean-square (rms) differences of the salinity residual, with respect to Argo salinity, ranged from 0.41 to 0.52 psu. These three Aquarius products exhibit high SSS deviation from Argo salinity under lower sea-surface temperature conditions (<10°C) due to lower sensitivity of microwave emissivity to SSS. The CAP product deviates under strong wind conditions (>10 m s-1), probably due to model bias and uncertainty associated with sea-surface roughness. Furthermore, significant SSS differences between ascending (south-to-north) and descending (north-to-south) paths were detected. The monthly averaged Aquarius SSS (1° × 1° grid) was also compared with outputs from the ocean data optimal interpolation (OI) system operated by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science Technology (JAMSTEC) and the ocean data assimilation system used by the Meteorological Research Institute, Japan Meteorological Agency (MRI/JMA). Negative bias, attributed to near-surface salinity stratification by precipitation, was detected in tropical regions. For 40°S-40°N, rms difference, with respect to JAMSTEC OI, is 0.27 psu for the V3.0, while the CAP product rms difference is only 0.22 psu, which is close to the Aquarius mission goal.

Abe, Hiroto; Ebuchi, Naoto

2014-11-01

406

Estimating salinity to complement observed temperature: 2.Northwestern Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the problem of estimating salinity for a large region in the Atlantic Ocean containing the Gulf Stream and its recirculation. Together with Part 1 [Thacker, W.C., 2007-this issue. Estimating salinity to complement observed temperature: 1. Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Marine Systems. doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2005.06.008.] dealing with the Gulf of Mexico, this reports on the first efforts of a project for developing world-wide capability for estimating salinity to complement expendable-bathythermograph (XBT) data. Such estimates are particularly important for this region, where the strong frontal contrasts render the task of assimilating XBT data into numerical models more sensitive to the treatment of salinity. Differences in salinity's co-variability with temperature and with longitude, latitude, and day-of-year from the northwestern part of the region with the Gulf Stream to the southeastern part more characteristic of the Sargasso sea suggested that the region be partitioned to achieve more accurate salinity estimates. In general, accuracies were better in the southeastern sub-region than in the more highly variable northwestern sub-region with root-mean-square estimation errors of 0.15 psu at 25 dbar and 0.02 psu at 300 dbar as compared with 0.35 psu and 0.50 psu, respectively, but in the southeast there was an unexpected error maximum around 1000 dbar where estimates were slightly less accurate than in the northwest. For pressures greater than 1400 dbar root-mean-square errors in both sub-regions were less than 0.02 psu.

Thacker, W. C.; Sindlinger, L.

2007-03-01

407

Interannual Caribbean salinity in satellite data and model simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquarius sea surface salinity (SSS) reveals the presence of interannual variations in the Caribbean with about 0.5 psu change between salty and fresh events, which propagate westward across that basin at an average speed of 11 cm/s and are preceded by corresponding SSS anomalies east of the Lesser Antilles. These upstream SSS anomalies are produced by interannual changes in the Amazon plume. Their presence is verified using in situ measurements from the northwest tropical Atlantic station. In contrast to SSS, which displays westward propagation, SST changes almost immediately across the Caribbean, suggesting large-scale atmospheric processes have a primary role in regulating interannual SST in contrast to SSS. A global 1/10° mesoscale ocean model is used to quantify possible origination mechanisms of the Caribbean salinity anomalies and their fate. Simulations confirm that they are produced by anomalous horizontal salt advection, which conveys these salinity anomalies from an area east of the Lesser Antilles across the Caribbean. Anomalous horizontal advection is dominated by mean currents acting on anomalous salinity. The model suggests that interannual Caribbean salinity anomalies eventually enter the Florida Current and reach the Gulf Stream 6-12 months after crossing the central Caribbean. Previous studies link the origin of salinity anomalies in the Amazon plume to variations in the annual freshwater discharge from the continent. In this model interannual discharge variations are absent while simulated SSS variability is in line with observations. This suggests that interannually forced ocean dynamics plays a key role in river plume variability and its spatial dispersion.

Grodsky, Semyon A.; Johnson, Benjamin K.; Carton, James A.; Bryan, Frank O.

2015-02-01

408

Changes in meridional temperature and salinity gradients in the North Atlantic Ocean (30°-72°N) during the last interglacial period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight deep-sea sediment cores from the North Atlantic Ocean ranging from 31° to 72°N are studied to reconstruct the meridional gradients in surface hydrographic conditions during the interval of minimum ice volume within the last interglacial period. Using benthic foraminiferal delta18O measurements and estimates of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Sea Surface Salinity (SSS), we show that summer SSTs and

Elsa Cortijo; Scott Lehman; Lloyd Keigwin; Mark Chapman; Didier Paillard; Laurent Labeyrie

1999-01-01

409

Effects of low-flow diversions from the South Wichita River on downstream salinity of the South Wichita River, Lake Kemp, and the Wichita River, North Texas, October 1982-September 1992  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In parts of the upper reaches of the Red River Basin in Texas, streamflow is characterized by levels of salinity that limit its usefulness for most purposes. Large dissolved solids and dissolved chloride concentrations are caused primarily by flow from natural salt springs in tributaries to the Red River. To reduce downstream salinity in the Wichita River, a dam in the South Wichita River downstream of an area of salt springs (designated salinity source area VIII) diverts low flows (which are the most saline) to a manmade brine lake for evaporation. Statistical tests on salinity data for the South Wichita River, Lake Kemp, and the Wichita River for the period October 1982-September 1992 were done to determine the effects on downstream salinity of low-flow diversions from the South Wichita River that began in May 1987. Salinity in the South Wichita River downstream of the low-flow diversion structure was (statistically) significantly less during the 65-month period of record after diversion than during the 55-month period of record before diversion. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests yielded strong evidence that discharge-weighted dissolved solids and discharge-weighted dissolved chloride concentrations, as well as discharge-weighted specific conductance, were significantly less after diversion. Whether salinity in Lake Kemp had a significant downward trend during the period of record August 1989--August 1992 could not be determined conclusively from observed salinity data. Mann-Kendall trend tests yielded weak evidence that volume-weighted dissolved solids and dissolved chloride concentrations in Lake Kemp tended to decrease with time. However, serial correlation in the time series of salinity data could have adversely affected the test results. The significant effects of low-flow diversions on salinity in the South Wichita River are not discernible in the Wichita River downstream from Lake Kemp. Although salinity was significantly less downstream from Lake Kemp after diversion, the decrease probably is mostly a result of dilution of Lake Kemp by large inflows of (assumed) low-salinity water that occurred in the spring of 1989 rather than an effect of diversion.

Baldys, Stanley; Bush, Peter W.; Kidwell, Charles C.

1996-01-01

410

Modern dolomite deposition in continental, saline lakes, western Victoria, Australia  

SciTech Connect

Microcrystalline dolomite forms a major constituent of Holocene sediments of numerous continental, saline playa lakes in southeastern Australia. The lake waters are highly supersaturated with respect to dolomite as well as other Mg carbonates, but undersaturated or near saturation with respect to calcite and aragonite. The dolomite shows no replacement textures and most likely formed by direct precipitation. Conditions in these lakes that appear conducive to the precipitation of dolomite are (1) high salinity, (2) high Mg/Ca ratios, and (3) high alkalinity. The moderate sulfate levels of the brines do not seem to be inhibiting carbonate precipitation.

De Deckker, P.; Last, W.M.

1988-01-01

411

Passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in coastal zones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theory of measuring coastal-zone salinity from airborne microwave radiometers is developed. The theory, as presented, shows that precision measurements of salinity favor the lower microwave frequencies. To this end, L- and S-Band systems were built, and the flight results have shown that accuracies of at least one part per thousand were achieved.The aircraft results focus on flights conducted over the Chesapeake Bay and the mouth of the Savanna River off the Georgia Coast. This paper presents no new work, but rather summarizes the capabilities of the remote sensing technique.

Swift, Calvin T.; Blume, Hans-Juergen C.; Kendall, Bruce M.

1987-01-01

412

CO2 storage potential of deep saline aquifers: the case of Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Together with the improvement of energy efficiency and a wider use of renewable sources, the CO2 Capture and Storage techniques (CCS) represent a key instrument for the reduction of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere. Deep saline aquifers offer the largest storage potential of all the geological CO2 storage options and are widely distributed throughout the Earth. In order to verify the location of geological formations having the characteristics suitable for CCS in the Italian subsurface, a comprehensive analysis of about 55000 km of 2-D multichannel seismic profiles and about 1650 well data has been performed. This dataset has been acquired since 1957 by several oil companies for hydrocarbon exploration and has been made available by the Ministry of the Economic Development in the framework of the project "Visibility of Petroleum Exploration Data in Italy (VI.D.E.P.I.; www.videpi.com)". Most of the selected sites lie in the major Italian sedimentary basins, i.e the Apennine foredeep and the Adriatic foreland, characterized by thick accumulations of sediments. The potential reservoirs are mostly represented by permeable, terrigenous deep saline formations, whose capacity ranges from 30 to more than 1300 Mt. In the evaluation of the CO2 storage potential in the Italian deep saline aquifers, we have adopted the method used in the EU GeoCapacity project (Vangkilde et al., 2008). The same procedure has been also utilized for estimating the CO2 storage potential of saline formations in the United States and Canada (U.S. Department of Energy, 2008). This method provides a regional estimate based on bulk volume of the aquifers referred to as the "effective storage capacity" (i.e. the reservoir capacity evaluated considering technical cutoff limits and technically viable estimate) (Bachu et al., 2007). CO2 emissions from the major stationary point sources (i.e. power plants) amount to about 220 Mt, placing Italy in the fifth position among the major emitting European countries (www.geocapacity.eu). The 14 saline reservoirs we have identified could potentially store Italy's annual CO2 emissions for the next 50 years. This value represents a very conservative estimate of the Italian potential for the CO2 geological storage in deep saline aquifers because other potential promising reservoirs could lie in areas where data are not available at present. Moreover, carbonate formations have not been included in the overall estimate. In our capacity estimation some uncertainties arise from the unavailability of specific data, such as the occurrence of local heterogeneities, that can affect CO2 distribution and migration within the reservoir, although, at this stage, no evidence of relevant leakage features are detected. However, additional, site-specific investigations accompanied by further data are needed to a more detailed evaluation of the potential CO2 storage sites. Despite these uncertainties, this study highlights that CO2 geological storage is a viable option in Italy and provides the first systematic evaluation of the storage capacity of the potential reservoirs identified in the country. Acknowledgments This work has been funded by the EU GeoCapacity project within FP6 - the 6th Framework Programme of the European Community for Research, Technological Development.

Donda, Federica; Volpi, Valentina; Persoglia, Sergio; Vellico, Michela; Parushev, Dobromir; Civile, Dario

2010-05-01

413

Global monitoring of Sea Surface Salinity with Aquarius  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquarius is a microwave remote sensing system designed to obtain global maps of the surface salinity field of the oceans from space. It will be flown on the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA (NASA) and Argentina (CONAE) with launch scheduled for late in 2008. The objective of Aquarius is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This will provide data to address scientific questions associated with ocean circulation and its impact on climate. For example, salinity is needed to understand the large scale thermohaline circulation, driven by buoyancy, which moves large masses of water and heat around the globe. Of the two variables that determine buoyancy (salinity and temperature), temperature is already being monitored. Salinity is the missing variable needed to understand this circulation. Salinity also has an important role in energy exchange between the ocean and atmosphere, for example in the development of fresh water lenses (buoyant water that forms stable layers and insulates water below from the atmosphere) which alter the air-sea coupling. Aquarius is a combination radiometer and scatterometer (radar) operating at L-band (1.413 GHz for the radiometer and 1.26 GHz for the scatterometer). The primary instrument,for measuring salinity is the radiometer which is able to detect salinity because of the modulation salinity produces on the thermal emission from sea water. This change is detectable at the long wavelength end of the microwave spectrum. The scatterometer will provide a correction for surface roughness (waves) which is one of the greatest unknowns in the retrieval. The sensor will be in a sun-synchronous orbit at about 650 km with equatorial crossings of 6am/6pm. The antenna for these two instruments is a 3 meter offset fed reflector with three feeds arranged in pushbroom fashion looking away from the sun toward the shadow side of the orbit to minimize sunglint. The mission goal is to produce maps of the salinity field globally once each month with an accuracy of 0.2 psu and a spatial resolution of 100 km. This will be adequate to address l&ge scale features of the salinity field of the open ocean. The temporal resolution is sufficient to address seasonal changes and a three year mission is planned to-collect sufficient data to look for interannual variation. Aquarius is being developed by NASA as part of the Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. The SAC-D mission is being developed by CONAE and will include the space craft and several additional instruments, including visible and infrared cameras and a microwave radiometer to monitor rain and wind velocity over the oceans, and sea ice.

Lagerloef, G. S. E.; LeVine, D. M.; Chao, Yi; Colomb, R.; Nollmann, I.

2005-01-01

414

Hemolymph chemistry and histopathological changes in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in response to low salinity stress.  

PubMed

This study described seasonal differences in the histopathological and hemolymph chemistry changes in different family lines of Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, in response to the stress of an abrupt change to low salinity, and mechanical grading. The most significant changes in pallial cavity salinity, hemolymph chemistry and histopathological findings occurred in summer at low salinity. In summer (water temperature 18°C) at low salinity, 9 (25.7% of full salinity), the mean pallial cavity salinity in oysters at day 3 was 19.8±1.6 (SE) and day 10 was 22.8±1.6 (SE) lower than oysters at salinity 35. Associated with this fall in pallial cavity salinity, mean hemolymph sodium for oysters at salinity 9 on day 3 and 10 were 297.2mmol/L±20(SE) and 350.4mmol/L±21.3(SE) lower than oysters at salinity 35. Similarly mean hemolymph potassium in oysters held at salinity 9 at day 3 and 10 were 5.6mmol/L±0.6(SE) and 7.9mmol/L±0.6 (SE) lower than oysters at salinity 35. These oysters at low salinity had expanded intercellular spaces and significant intracytoplasmic vacuolation distending the cytoplasm of epithelial cells in the alimentary tract and kidney and hemocyte infiltrate (diapedesis) within the alimentary tract wall. In contrast, in winter (water temperature 8°C) oyster mean pallial cavity salinity only fell at day 10 and this was by 6.0±0.6 (SE) compared to that of oysters at salinity 35. There were limited histopathological changes (expanded intercellular spaces and moderate intracytoplasmic vacuolation of renal epithelial cells) in these oysters at day 10 in low salinity. Mechanical grading and family line did not influence the oyster response to sudden low salinity. These findings provide additional information for interpretation of non-lethal, histopathological changes associated with temperature and salinity variation. PMID:25016160

Knowles, Graeme; Handlinger, Judith; Jones, Brian; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie

2014-09-01

415

Salinity changes in the Agulhas leakage area recorded by stable hydrogen isotopes of C37 alkenones during Termination I and II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the southern tip of the African shelf, the Agulhas Current reflects back into the Indian Ocean causing so called "Agulhas rings" to spin off and release relatively warm and saline water into the South Atlantic Ocean. Previous reconstructions of the dynamics of the Agulhas current, based on paleo sea surface temperature and sea surface salinity proxies, inferred that Agulhas leakage from the Indian Ocean to the South Atlantic is reduced as a consequence of changes in wind fields related to a northwards migration of ice masses and the subtropical front during glacial stages. Subsequently, this might have led to a build-up of warm saline water in the southern Indian Ocean. To investigate this latter hypothesis, we reconstructed sea surface salinity changes using alkenone ? D, and paleo sea surface temperature using TEXH86 and UK'37, from two sediment cores (MD02-2594, MD96-2080) located in the Agulhas leakage area during Termination I and II. Both UK'37 and TEXH86 temperature reconstructions infer an abrupt warming during the glacial terminations, which is different from the gradual warming trend previously reconstructed based on Mg/Ca ratios of Globigerina bulloides. These differences in temperature reconstructions might be related to differences in the growth season or depth habitat between organisms. A shift to more negative ? Dalkenone values of approximately 14‰ during glacial Termination I and approximately 13‰ during Termination II is also observed. Approximately half of these shifts can be attributed to the change in global ice volume, while the residual isotopic shift is attributed to changes in salinity, suggesting relatively high salinities at the core sites during glacials, with subsequent freshening during glacial terminations. Approximate estimations suggest that ? Dalkenone represents a salinity change of ca. 1.7-2 during Termination I and ca. 1.5-1.7 during Termination II. These estimations are in good agreement with the proposed changes in salinity derived from previously reported combined planktonic foraminifera ?18O values and Mg/Ca-based temperature reconstructions. Our results show that the ? D of alkenones is a potentially suitable tool to reconstruct salinity changes independent of planktonic foraminifera ?18O.

Kasper, S.; van der Meer, M. T. J.; Mets, A.; Zahn, R.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Schouten, S.

2013-06-01

416

Endometrial ablation by hysteroscopic instillation of hot saline solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current methods of endometrial ablation to treat excessive uterine bleeding use laser or electrosurgical energy sources. These procedures are highly skill dependent, and numerous cases of fluid overload as well as other complications have been reported. A new method of endometrial ablation instills heated 0.9% normal saline at 80 to 90°C. The fluid is recirculated and therefore, it is possible

Milton H. Goldrath; Marcelo Barrionuevo; Mujtaba Husain

1997-01-01

417

Ethanol vapor detection in saline solution using piezoresistive microcantilevers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report detection of ethanol in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution using a low-power piezoresistive microcantilever-based system that has the potential to be used in the human body. PBS was used to simulate interstitial fluid and a permeable hydrophobic membrane was employed to transport ethanol vapor to the sensor while blocking the liquid and ions of the PBS. Commercial

C. Parks Cheney; A. Wig; D. L. Hedden; A. Gehl; A. L. Lereu; R. H. Farahi; S. R. Hunter; T. L. Ferrell

2006-01-01

418

Visit to An Ocean Planet: Salinity and Deep Ocean Currents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource uses text, images, maps and a laboratory exercise to explain how differences in the temperature and salinity of ocean water cause the formation of deep-ocean currents. It is part of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's "Ocean Surface Topography from Space" website. This material is also available on the "Visit to An Ocean Planet" CD-ROM.

419

Desiccation-crack-induced salinization in deep clay sediment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study on water infiltration and solute transport in a clayey vadose zone underlying a dairy farm waste source was conducted to assess the impact of desiccation cracks on subsurface evaporation and salinization. The study is based on five years of continuous measurements of the temporal variation in the vadose zone water content and on the chemical and isotopic composition of the sediment and pore water in it. The isotopic composition of water stable isotopes (?18O and ?2H) in water and sediment samples, from the area where desiccation crack networks prevail, indicated subsurface evaporation down to ~ 3.5 m below land surface, and vertical and lateral preferential transport of water, following erratic preferential infiltration events. Chloride (Cl-) concentrations in the vadose zone pore water substantially increased with depth, evidence of deep subsurface evaporation and down flushing of concentrated solutions from the evaporation zones during preferential infiltration events. These observations led to development of a desiccation-crack-induced salinization (DCIS) conceptual model. DCIS suggests that thermally driven convective air flow in the desiccation cracks induces evaporation and salinization in relatively deep sections of the subsurface. This conceptual model supports previous conceptual models on vadose zone and groundwater salinization in fractured rock in arid environments and extends its validity to clayey soils in semi-arid environments.

Baram, S.; Ronen, Z.; Kurtzman, D.; Külls, C.; Dahan, O.

2013-04-01

420

Desiccation-crack-induced salinization in deep clay sediment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study on water infiltration and solute transport in a clayey vadose zone underlying a dairy farm waste source was conducted to assess the impact of desiccation cracks on subsurface evaporation and salinization. The study is based on five years of continuous measurements of the temporal variation in the vadose zone water-content and on the chemical and isotopic composition of the sediment and pore-water in it. The isotopic composition of water stable isotopes (?18O and ?2H) in water and sediment samples, from the area where desiccation crack networks prevail, indicated subsurface evaporation down to ∼3.5 m below land surface, and vertical and lateral preferential transport of water, following erratic preferential infiltration events. Chloride (Cl-) concentrations in the vadose zone pore water substantially increased with depth, evidence of deep subsurface evaporation and down flushing of concentrated solutions from the evaporation zones during preferential infiltration events. These observations led to development of a Desiccation-Crack-Induced Salinization (DCIS) conceptual model. DCIS suggests that thermally driven convective air flow in the desiccation cracks induces evaporation and salinization in relatively deep sections of the subsurface. This conceptual model supports previous conceptual models on vadose zone and groundwater salinization in fractured rock in arid environments and extends its validity to clayey soils in semi-arid environments.

Baram, S.; Ronen, Z.; Kurtzman, D.; Küells, C.; Dahan, O.

2012-11-01

421

Saline absorption in calcium silicate brick observed by NMR scanning  

E-print Network

Saline absorption in calcium silicate brick observed by NMR scanning L. Pel #3; , K. Kopinga #3 in calcium-silicate brick was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance scanning. This method hasCl solution in a calcium silicate brick will be discussed. 2 Theory If gravity is neglected, the isothermal

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

422

Delta Hydrodynamics and Water Salinity with Future Conditions  

E-print Network

Delta Hydrodynamics and Water Salinity with Future Conditions Technical Appendix C William E, Comparing Futures for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, prepared by a team of researchers from the Center of Water Quality across the Delta 9 2. NO EXPORTS AND UNIMPAIRED FLOWS 11 Water Quality with No Exports 11

Pasternack, Gregory B.

423

Author's personal copy Enhanced hydrogen generation using a saline catholyte  

E-print Network

microbial electrolysis cell Joo-Youn Nam, Bruce E. Logan* Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering 2011 Keywords: Buffer Carbon dioxide addition Catholyte pH Hydrogen Microbial electrolysis cells Sodium electrolysis cell (MEC) without a catholyte phosphate buffer by using a saline catholyte solution and a cathode

424

Indian Ocean Rossby waves detected in HYCOM sea surface salinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rossby waves have been well identified in satellite derived sea surface height (SSH), sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean color observations. Studies of Rossby waves have yet to include sea surface salinity (SSS) as a parameter, largely because presently available in situ measurements of salinity lack sufficient spatial and temporal coverage, and as of now no methods are available for measuring salinity from a satellite. In this paper, we demonstrate that Rossby waves can be observed in SSS in the Indian Ocean by using simulations of the 1/12° global Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). HYCOM results compared favorably to SSS data provided by Argo floats and the World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) in selected grid boxes in the Indian Ocean. Hovmöller diagrams of HYCOM SSS anomalies and gradient show the distinct westward propagating signature of Rossby waves, with a steeper slope in longitude/time plots further from the equator. The propagation speeds, calculated from a 2D Radon Transform are comparable with new theoretical speeds for Rossby waves. Annual westward propagating signals in the SSS simulations at most of the latitudes in the Indian Ocean coincide with previous studies. We hope that future studies of Rossby waves in SSS using model results and eventually satellite measurements of salinity data will allow a better understanding of Rossby wave dynamics.

Heffner, David M.; Subrahmanyam, Bulusu; Shriver, Jay F.

2008-02-01

425

ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING MANUAL FOR SALINITY MANAGEMENT IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

An Environmental Planning Manual for Salinity Management in Irrigated Agriculture has been prepared. The primary focus of this manual is a delineation of the combinations of technological and institutional solutions, the various levels of planning effort, use of existing data and...

426

MEDIUM-DENSITY PARTICLEBOARDS FROM SALINE JOSE TALL WHEATGRASS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Jose Tall Wheatgrass (JTW), Agropyron elongatum, is a salt resistant crop currently produced in California to help manage saline subsurface drainage water. There is a need to find high value uses for such material. The objective of this study was to characterize the mechanical properties and water...

427

ACID AND ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF SALINE BIOMASS FOR SUGAR PRODUCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biomass can be a good renewable source for sugar production. Saline crops, including two woods, Athel tree (Tamarix aphylla L) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), and two grasses, Jose Tall Wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum) (JTW) and Creeping Wild Rye (Leymus triticoides) (CWR), were produced...

428

DEVELOPMENT OF A STRATEGIC SYSTEM DYNAMICS MODEL OF DRYLAND SALINITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dryland salinity is an insidious problem which progressively degrades arable or marginally productive farming land often to the point that such land becomes incapable of sustaining agriculture in the long term. In Australia, this problem has been exacerbated by the removal of millions of trees to make way for cultivation. This paper explains how founding research focusing on identification of

Naeem U Khan; Alan C McLucas

2006-01-01

429

TOLERANCE OF PLANTS TO SALINITY AND TO SPECIFIC IONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In many communities where recycled water is available, the salinity of the water is noticeably higher than in municipal drinking waters. Landscapes designed for the successful use of recycled waters will, therefore, benefit from the inclusion of salt-tolerant trees, shrubs, vines, groundcovers, gra...

430

Aerobic biodegradation of amines in industrial saline wastewaters.  

PubMed

The treatment of hypersaline wastewaters represents a challenge since high salt concentrations disrupt bacteria present in normal biological treatments. This study was conducted to determine the fate of amines in two hypersaline wastewaters obtained from an industrial treatment plant processing influents with 3% and 7% of NaCl. The compounds were aniline (ANL), 4,4'-methylenedianiline (4,4'-MDA), cyclohexylamine (CHA), N-(2-aminoethyl)ethanolamine (AEA), N,N-diethylethanolamine (DEA), N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methylamine (MDEA), and tris(2-hydroxyethyl)amine (TEA). Mixtures of these chemicals with a mixed liquor suspended solids concentration of 1000 mg L(-1) were prepared at two salinities (3% and 7% NaCl). Ethanolamines were readily biodegraded at both salinities, following first-order kinetics with half-lives ranging between 10 and 58 h. Hydroxyl groups present in the ethanolamines had a positive impact on the biodegradation. Salinity did not affect the biodegradation rate of TEA and MDEA, whereas AEA and DEA degraded faster in 3% NaCl. After 48h, CHA was metabolized within a 24-h period in 3% NaCl, while no degradation was observed in 7% NaCl. ANL exhibited lag phases in both salinities and, in the following 24-h period, ANL concentrations dropped 40% and disappeared after 48 h. 4,4'-MDA degraded in 3% NaCl (half-life of 123 h) and remained unaltered after 120 h in 7% NaCl. PMID:21925703

Campo, Pablo; Platten, William; Suidan, Makram T; Chai, Yunzhou; Davis, John W

2011-11-01

431

The salinity normalization of marine inorganic carbon chemistry data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normalization to a constant salinity (S) is widely used for the adjustment of marine inorganic carbon chemistry data such as total alkalinity (AT) and total dissolved inorganic carbon (CT). This procedure traces back to the earliest studies in marine chemistry, but ignores the influence of riverine input of alkalinity and of dissolution of biogenic carbonates in the ocean. We tested

K. Friis; A. Körtzinger; D. W. R. Wallace

2003-01-01

432

Oral hypertonic saline causes transient fall of vasopressin in humans  

SciTech Connect

After dehydration, oral rehydration causes a fall in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) that precedes changes in plasma osmolality. To investigate further the stimulus for this effect, its specificity, and association with thirst, six volunteers were deprived of water for 24 h and given a salt load on two separate occasions. On each study day they then drank rapidly 10 ml/kg of either tap water or hypertonic saline (360 mosmol/kg). There was a significant fall in plasma AVP from 2.0 +/- 0.3 to 1.2 +/- 0.4 pmol/l 5 min after drinking water and from 1.8 +/- 0.3 to 0.9 +/- 0.2 pmol/l after hypertonic saline. Plasma osmolality fell 30-60 min after water and was unchanged after saline. Plasma renin activity, oxytocin, and total protein all remained unchanged. All subjects reported diminished thirst after hypertonic saline. Gargling with water reduced thirst but did not affect plasma AVP. There appears to be a drinking-mediated neuroendocrine reflex that decreases plasma AVP irrespective of the osmolality of the liquid consumed. The sensation of thirst did not correlate with plasma osmolality and was not always related to plasma AVP concentration. AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay.

Seckl, J.R.; Williams, D.M.; Lightman, S.L.

1986-08-01

433

New total electron content retrieval improves SMOS sea surface salinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Space Agency (ESA)-led SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission aims at monitoring both soil moisture (SM) and ocean surface salinity (OS) on a global scale. The SMOS instrument is a microwave interferometric radiometer, which provides visibilities, from which brightness temperatures (TB) maps are reconstructed in the spacecraft' antenna reference frame. In this study, we investigate how to improve the retrieval of salinity thanks to a better knowledge of the ionospheric total electron content (TEC). We show how both the SMOS bias correction (the so-called Ocean Target Transformation, OTT) and the half orbit TEC profile can be obtained from SMOS third Stokes parameter A3 using a location on the SMOS field of view (FOV) where the sensitivity of TB to TEC is highest. The resulting TEC global maps compare favorably with those built from the International Global navigation satellite system Service observations. TEC values obtained from A3 are next used to optimize the OTT estimation for every polarization, and proved to provide more stable values. Finally, improvements achieved in the salinity retrieved from SMOS data are reported.

Vergely, Jean-Luc; Waldteufel, Philippe; Boutin, Jacqueline; Yin, Xiaobin; Spurgeon, Paul; Delwart, Steven

2014-10-01

434

Microbial diversity of rizosphere in two saline chenopodiaceaes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Saline environments can be found on all continents and in most countries. They consist in two primary types: those that arose from seawater and those which come from nonseawater sources. The latter contain different ion ratios where the dominant anion is typically carbonate. Plants native to sali...

435

THE COLORADO RIVER SALINITY PROBLEM: DIRECT ECONOMIC DAMAGES IN MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colorado River winds for over fourteen hundred miles from its headwaters in the Rocky Mountains before it discharges into the Gulf of California in Mexico. In common with most rivers in arid lands, the Colorado accumulates dis- solved salts (salinity) in its course to the sea. These salts are picked up from both natural sources (dis- solved in surface

Francisco Oyarzabal-Tamargo; Robert A. Young

1977-01-01

436

OPTIMIZING SALINITY CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR THE UPPER COLORADO RIVER BASIN  

EPA Science Inventory

A simple multi-level nonlinear optimization procedure was utilized to formulate the most cost-effective array of salinity control strategies for the Upper Colorado River Basin. The incremental cost-effectiveness methodology qualitatively indicates the location and general type of...

437

Development of saline ground water through transpiration of sea water.  

PubMed

As vegetation usually excludes salt during water uptake, transpiration will increase the salinity of the residual water. If the source water is sea water, then the residual water may become highly saline. In the unconfined coastal aquifer of the tropical Burdekin River delta, northeastern Australia, areas of highly saline ground water with chloride concentrations up to almost three times that of sea water occur up to 15 km from the present coastline, and are attributed to transpiration by mangrove vegetation during periods of high sea level. Radiogenic ((14)C) carbon isotope analyses indicate that ground water with chloride concentrations between 15,000 and 35,000 mg/L is mostly between 4000 and 6000 years old, at which time sea level was 2 to 3 m higher than present. Stable isotope analyses of oxygen-18 and deuterium show no evidence for evaporative enrichment of this water. Oxygen-18, deuterium, and stable (delta(13)C) carbon isotope analyses of ground water and soil water point to a recharge environment beneath the mangrove forests during this postglacial sea level high stand. During that period, transpiration of the mangrove forests would have led to high chloride concentrations in the residual ground water, without inducing isotopic fractionation. Due to the higher density, this hypersaline water moved downward through the aquifer by gravity and has formed lenses of highly saline ground water at the bottom of the unconfined aquifer. PMID:17973748

Fass, T; Cook, P G; Stieglitz, T; Herczeg, A L

2007-01-01

438

Seasonal cycles of surface layer salinity in the Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seasonal variability of surface layer salinity (SLS) is examined in the Pacific Ocean between 40° S and 60° N using a variety of data sources. Significant seasonal cycles were found in 5 regions: 1) The western North Pacific, 2) The northeastern North Pacific and Alaska gyre, 3) the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), 4) an area of the central North

F. M. Bingham; G. R. Foltz; M. J. McPhaden

2010-01-01

439

Survival of Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio salmonicida at different salinities.  

PubMed Central

The fish pathogenic bacteria Vibrio anguillarum and V. salmonicida showed the capacity to survive for more than 50 and 14 months, respectively, in seawater microcosms. A salinity of 5% proved lethal to V. anguillarum harvested in the late-exponential growth phase, whereas a salinity of 9% was lethal to the bacterium after it had been starved at a salinity of 30% for 67 days. The lethal salinity for V. salmonicida harvested in the late-exponential growth phase was probably in the vicinity of 10%. V. anguillarum and V. salmonicida were very sensitive to nalidixic acid. Direct determination of viable cells after incubation with nalidixic acid was not possible, since the cells did not elongate. Samples of V. salmonicida were double stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled antibodies and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. After 3 or 4 days of starvation, there was a discrepancy between the total numbers of cells as determined by immunofluorescence versus by staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. The immunofluorescence counts remained high, which indicated the presence of intact cell envelopes but leakage of DNA and other cytoplasm components. After 2 weeks of starvation, for some of the cells, the region stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (i.e., DNA) was markedly smaller than the cell envelope. I attributed this to a shrinkage of the cytoplasm or a confined nucleoid or both. V. anguillarum lost its exoproteolytic activity before 11 days of starvation. PMID:2475069

Hoff, K A

1989-01-01

440

Modern dolomite deposition in continental, saline lakes, western Victoria, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcrystalline dolomite forms a major constituent of Holocene sediments of numerous continental, saline playa lakes in southeastern Australia. The lake waters are highly supersaturated with respect to dolomite as well as other Mg carbonates, but undersaturated or near saturation with respect to calcite and aragonite. The dolomite shows no replacement textures and most likely formed by direct precipitation. Conditions in

P. de Deckker; William M. Last

1988-01-01

441

DISTRIBUTION AND MOVEMENT OF TOXAPHENE IN ANAEROBIC SALINE MARSH SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

The distribution and method of movement of a hydrophobic pesticide through anaerobic saline marsh soils profiles was investigated. In the study are the flooding tidal water containing low concentrations of toxaphene. The compound accumulated only slightly in the marsh soils not f...

442

REVIEW PAPER Salinity stress alleviation using arbuscular mycorrhizal  

E-print Network

REVIEW PAPER Salinity stress alleviation using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. A review Rosa Porcel to stress-adaptative mechanisms developed by plants, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have been shown to improve the significance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviation of salt stress and their beneficial effects on plant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

443

Miscible displacement of salinity fronts: Implications for colloid mobilization  

E-print Network

Miscible displacement of salinity fronts: Implications for colloid mobilization Markus Flury, James October 2003; accepted 5 November 2003; published 31 December 2003. [1] Colloids can be mobilized in saturated porous media, where such a change in ionic strength was used to mobilize colloids, have been

Flury, Markus

444

Laser measure of sea salinity, temperature and turbidity in depth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described in which a pulsed laser is used to probe the sea. Backscattered light is analyzed in time, intensity and wavelength. Tyndall, Raman and Brillouin scattering are used to obtain the backscatter turbidity, sound velocity, salinity, and the temperature as a function of depth.

Hirschberg, J. G.; Wouters, A. W.; Byrne, J. D.

1974-01-01

445

Nonisothermal multiphase flow of brine and gas through saline media  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a general formulation for nonisothermal multiphase flow of brine and gas through saline media. The balance equations include mass balance (three species), equilibrium of stresses and energy balance (total internal energy). Salt, water and air mass balance equations are established. The balance of salt allows the establishment of the equation for porosity evolution due to solid skeleton deformation,

S. Olivella; J. Carrera; A. Gens; E. E. Alonso

1994-01-01

446

Laser/Heterodyne Measurement of Temperature and Salinity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed visible-light laser/heterodyne receiver would remotely measure temperature and salinity of subsurface water. Operation is based on acoustic/optical scattering of light by sound waves. Application of this concept is foreseen in current research on energy conversion from ocean currents produced by thermal gradients and on future marine remote-sensing program.

Jobson, D. J.; Fales, C. L.; Katzberg, S. J.

1982-01-01

447

Home Brew Salinity Measuring Devices: Their Construction and Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses several inexpensive methods of evaluating the salinity of seawater. One method is presented in some detail. This method has several attractive features. First, it can be used to provide instruction, not only in marine chemistry, but also in studying the mathematics of the point slope formula, and as an aid in teaching students…

Schlenker, Richard M.

448

EFFECTS OF SALINITY AND DROUGHT STRESSES ON ROOT WATER UPTAKE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In vadose zone numerical simulation models, root water extraction is typically accounted for by introducing a sink term into the Richards equation. Various forms of the sink term have been proposed to simulate the reduction in water extraction that occurs when soil salinity and/or drought condition...

449

Considerations for Microwave Remote Sensing of Ocean-Surface Salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parametric calculations of the microwave emission from the ocean surface are presented to determine the optimum electromagnetic wavelength for measuring salinity. At 800 MHz, a target accuracy of 240 parts per million is within the state of the art provided that emission due to surface roughness is negligible, or correctable, and that the error resulting from galactic radiation can be

Calvin T. Swift; Robert E. Mcintosh

1983-01-01

450

Salinity–mineral nutrient relations in horticultural crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relations between salinity and mineral nutrition of horticultural crops are extremely complex and a complete understanding of the intricate interactions involved would require the input from a multidisciplinary team of scientists. This review addresses the nutrient elements individually and we emphasise research directed towards the organ, whole-plant and field level. We have attempted to synthesise the literature and reconcile

S. r. Grattan; C. m. Grieve

1998-01-01

451

Effects of drainage salinity evolution on irrigation management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A soil physics theory of solute movement through a drained saturated zone underlying agricultural land is introduced into a long-term economic analysis of farm-level irrigation management; this is an alternative to the immediate, homogeneous blending assumption employed in previous studies as a base for calculating changes in drainage salinity over time. Using data from California, the effect of drainage salinity evolution is analyzed through a year-by-year profit optimization under the requirement of on-farm drainage disposal. Paths of optimal land allocation among crop production with fresh surface water, saline drainage reuse and evaporation ponds appear to depend on the relative profitability of the first two; that of reuse is affected by the trend of drainage salinity. Tile spacing and environmental regulations associated with evaporation ponds affect the timing of evaporation pond construction. The system converges into a solution involving both drainage-disposal activities; this solution includes an outlet for salts and is therefore sustainable. Following this strategy, the system is asymptotically approaching a steady state that possesses both hydrological and salt balances. Economic implications associated with land retirement programs in California are discussed.

Kan, Iddo

2003-12-01

452

Comparison of normal saline with tap water for wound irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared irrigation with tap water versus saline for removing bacteria from simple skin lacerations. The study was conducted in an animal model with a randomized, nonblinded crossover design using 10 500-g laboratory rats. Two full-thickness skin lacerations were made on each animal and inoculated with standardized concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus broth. Tissue specimens were removed before and after

Ronald Moscati; James Mayrose; Lisa Fincher; Dietrich Jehle

1998-01-01

453

19. The limnology of saline lakes in Western Victoria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although saline lakes are interesting to limnologists, most, unfortunately, are relatively inaccessible. The extent to which they have been studied compared with freshwater lakes is therefore limited. Though not restricted to warm arid regions, they are often numerous in such places, and Australia not surprizingly - has a large number. Most of these, too, are relatively inaccessible. However, west of

W. D. Williams; S. Australia

1981-01-01

454

Effects of Salinity and Drought Stresses on Root Water Uptake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vadose zone numerical simulation models, root water extraction is typically accounted for by introducing a sink term into the Richards equation. Various forms of the sink term have been proposed to simulate the reduction in water extraction that occurs when soil salinity and/or drought conditions exist in the root zone. While this representation of root water uptake is a fixture of modern simulation models, there has been relatively little work demonstrating agreement between the models and measured water uptake data. In this work, we compare HYDURS-1D model simulations with drainage and root water uptake data collected for forage crops grown in lysimeters using a range of salinity and drought treatments. We found good agreement between the model and the data using a single set of salinity and water stress parameters, a noteworthy result given the broad range of experimental conditions considered (irrigation waters with electrical conductivities as high as 28 dS/m). On the other hand, the required salinity and water stress parameters did not correspond to published salt tolerance data for these crops, suggesting that the near term prospects for using this model in a purely predictive capacity (i.e., without detailed crop- and site-specific calibration) are limited.

Skaggs, T. H.; Poss, J. A.; Shouse, P. J.

2004-12-01

455

Soil salinity effects on germination of native and introduced grasses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing salinity of formerly productive soil in the James River valley in east central South Dakota is an increasing concern for crop producers. This problem arises when water evaporates from poorly drained and subirrigated soils and leaves salts on the soil surface. Replacing evaporation from ...