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1

Voyager 1 Has Entered Interstellar Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"We made it," Voyager project scientist Ed Stone announced at a 12 September briefing at NASA headquarters in Washington, D. C. NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft, the most distant human-made object, is now the first such object to enter interstellar space, the space between the stars. "The 36-year-old probe is now sailing the uncharted waters of a new cosmic sea, and it has brought us along for the journey," Stone said.

Showstack, Randy

2013-09-01

2

Voyager support. [by the Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A continuation of the Deep Space Network report on tracking and data acquisition for Project Voyager is presented. The Jupiter encounter period for Voyager 1, from 1 January through March 1979 is covered.

Allen, J. E.; Nance, H. E.

1979-01-01

3

The Voyager Journey to Interstellar Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Launched in 1977 to explore Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, the two Voyager spacecraft continued their journeys beyond the planets as they searched for the heliopause, the boundary between the solar wind and the local interstellar medium. After traveling more than 23 billion kilometers, Voyager 1 left the heliosphere on August 25, 2012, and began returning the first in-situ observations of local interstellar space. Voyager 1 found a wall of interstellar plasma beyond the heliopause with a density forty times greater than inside and an interstellar magnetic field that is compressed and wrapped around the outside. Voyager 1 also observed the energy spectrum of low energy galactic cosmic ray protons that are excluded from the heliosphere by solar modulation, finding a peak intensity at ˜30 MeV. that is ten times the maximum intensity at 1 AU that occurs at ˜300 MeV. An overview of the journey and the new aspects of the interaction of the sun and the nearby region of the Milky Way will be discussed.

Stone, E. C.

4

Voyager 1 encounters new region of space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Voyager 1, which left Earth in 1977 and is now about 10 billion miles away, has entered a region of space with strange anomalies, according to project scientist Ed Stone, former director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The spacecraft has encountered magnetic potholes and bumps-areas where the magnetic field of the heliosheath either nearly vanishes or doubles, respectively. It also has encountered `anomalous cosmic rays' that are less energetic, and thus less dangerous, than galactic cosmic rays. In addition, the solar wind in the heliosheath has been slower than scientists had expected, only about 54,700 kilometers per hour compared with the predicted 322,000-483,000 kilometers per hour. Voyager 1 is expected to reach the edge of the heliosheath in about 10 years.

Zielinski, Sarah

2006-10-01

5

Space Science MO&DA Programs June 1999 -Page 1 Voyager Detects New Anomalous  

E-print Network

Space Science MO&DA Programs June 1999 - Page 1 SS Voyager Detects New Anomalous Component Species l The figure shows the energy spectra of C, Na, Mg, Si, and S detected by Voyagers 1 (triangles, Si, and S have been reported previously from both Voyager measurements and observations at 1 AU

Christian, Eric

6

Status of the Deep Space Network-Voyager flight project telecommunications compatibility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deep Space Network-Voyager telecommunications compatibility tests are described. A series of engineering level tests to determine the flight-ground interface compatibility and performance characteristics between the two systems were utilized. A summary and status of tests conducted on Voyager spacecraft are reported.

Bryan, A. I.; Kemp, R. P.; Madsen, B. D.

1977-01-01

7

Interstellar Probe: Impact of the Voyager and IBEX results on science and strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ongoing Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM) and recent observations from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) and Cassini missions are providing significant new information about the interaction of the heliosphere with the very local interstellar medium (VLISM). With new observations have come significant new puzzles for describing the interaction physics. Direct measurements of the shocked, solar-wind flow speed are now possible (from Voyager 2) and show the flow remains supersonic. This is one more piece of evidence supporting the idea that the bulk of the energy density in the plasma resides in a non-thermal component that extends to very high energies. There are both quantitative and qualitative implications for the overall heliospheric structure. Observations of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) by IBEX (in Earth orbit) from the interaction region(s) of the solar wind and the VLISM show unexpected structure on a variety of scales. In addition to the general “glow” of the sky in ENAs, IBEX data show a relatively narrow “ribbon” of atomic hydrogen emission from ˜200 to ˜6 keV, roughly circular, but asymmetric in intensity, and centered on an ecliptic longitude ˜221 degrees and ecliptic latitude of 39 degrees. The ribbon may be ordered by the interstellar magnetic field. It passes through, rather than being centered on, the “nose” from which the local, neutral interstellar wind enters the Heliosphere, indicating that the flow is not the primary driver of the system as had been thought previously. The neutrals from both the glow and ribbon are also characterized by non-thermal distribution functions. ENAs are observed at higher energies as well by the Ion and Neutral Camera (INCA) on Cassini (in orbit about Saturn). A “belt” of emission, broader than the ribbon but similar to it, is seen up to ˜50 keV. These observations emphasize the need for in situ measurements to understand the global nature of our local galactic environment, which is much more complex than previously thought. Only an interstellar probe with modern instruments and measurement requirements better defined by these recent observations can provide the new information required. Even more importantly, the broader scale of the interaction as revealed in these measurements suggests much greater flexibility in scientifically allowable, asymptotic trajectories from the heliosphere for the probe. This is a significant relaxation in the trajectory requirements that open up the trade space for Jupiter gravity assists to increase the flyout speeds.

McNutt, Ralph L.; Gruntman, Mike; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Roelof, Edmond C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

2011-11-01

8

Voyager mission support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission support provided by Deep Space Network for Project Voyager is discussed. Mission operations covered include for Voyager 1 the far encounter 2, Saturn near encounter, and the post encounter phase, and for Voyager 2 the Jupiter Saturn cruise phase.

Fanelli, N.; Nance, H. E.

1981-01-01

9

Helios-Voyager cooperation for the investigation of the interplanetary space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The planning of a joint mission involving the two Helios spacecraft and the two Voyager spacecraft is reported. During late fall 1977 the position of the four spacecraft facilitated correlation measurements as part of an investigation of interplanetary space in the vicinity of the earth. The spacecraft and their orbits are described, and the benefits that could result from future joint missions are considered.

Porsche, H.; Kehr, J.

1978-01-01

10

Space Math http://spacemath.gsfc.nasa.gov The Interplanetary Voyage of MSL 30  

E-print Network

from Earth's orbit around the sun to the orbit of Mars. A Hohmann Transfer Orbit to Mars hasSpace Math http://spacemath.gsfc.nasa.gov The Interplanetary Voyage of MSL 30 The Mars Science Laboratory was launched from Cape Canaveral on November 26, 2011 for a 251-day journey to Mars along

11

Sending a Probe to Alpha Centauri on a Voyage of Five to Ten Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents concrete, practical ideas for sending a probe to Alpha Centauri using laser propulsion or beamed-energy propulsion. Laser propulsion utilizes a powerful laser to propel a craft through space. A mission to Alpha Centauri, utilizing a probe having mass of ten grams, could be completed within five to ten years after launch, a dramatic reduction from past estimates.

D. Junker; W. D. Hobbs

2006-01-01

12

The Challenge of Space Futures: Starcomber's Galactic Voyage to Xeranthemom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a curriculum enrichment activity for gifted middle school students. Students design a long-range space travel vehicle and plan for colonizing a discovered planet. Students contact people in science and industry and produce a handbook for space travel and colonization. (DB)

Shimonauff, Jacqueline

1998-01-01

13

Sending a Probe to Alpha Centauri on a Voyage of Five to Ten Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents concrete, practical ideas for sending a probe to Alpha Centauri using laser propulsion or beamed-energy propulsion. Laser propulsion utilizes a powerful laser to propel a craft through space. A mission to Alpha Centauri, utilizing a probe having mass of ten grams, could be completed within five to ten years after launch, a dramatic reduction from past estimates. The paper further presents methods of detecting the probe as it approaches the object star. The paper addresses the ideal situation in which relativity does not affect trajectory calculations.

Junker, D.; Hobbs, W. D.

2006-05-01

14

Voyager 2 Launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voyager 2 was launched on August 20, 1977, from the NASA Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral in Florida, propelled into space on a Titan/Centaur rocket.

JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

1977-01-01

15

Gravity Probe B Space Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space vehicle for Gravity Probe B (GP-B) arrives at the launch site at Vandenburg Air Force Base. GP-B is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center, development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

2003-01-01

16

Modification of simulation conversion assembly for support of Voyager project and Pioneer-Venus 1978 project. [Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The simulation conversion assembly was upgraded to provide the additional capabilities of simulating Voyager and Pioneer-Venus 1978 telemetry data streams for verifying the integrity of the deep space stations while continuing to fulfill the DSN test and training support requirements. The requirements and the implementations are summarized.

Yee, S. H.

1977-01-01

17

Your Mission: Investigate the geographical features on Venus and map the locations of space missions to Venus using a computer mapping program called Jules Verne Voyager  

E-print Network

1 Your Mission: Investigate the geographical features on Venus and map the locations of space missions to Venus using a computer mapping program called Jules Verne Voyager Venus. Your Task: 1. Using the internet, navigate to the following webpage: http://jules.unavco.org/Voyager/Venus

Smith-Konter, Bridget

18

Voyager mission support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Deep Space Network Report on Tracking and Data Acquisition for Project Voyager is presented. Long time base observation and system scans are described. Results of adaptive tracking techniques on Voyager 2 are reported. The reporting period is December 1980 through March 1981.

Fanelli, N.; Nance, H. E.

1981-01-01

19

Voyager at Saturn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spacecraft design and operations and mission results of the Voyager Project are reviewed with particular emphasis on the results of the Saturn encounters. The mission was undertaken by two spacecraft: Voyager 2, launched first on August 20, 1977 on a lower energy trajectory to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune; and Voyager 1, launched on September 5, 1977 on a higher energy trajectory to closer flybys of Jupiter and Saturn. The Voyager spacecraft make use of earlier Mariner and Viking Orbiter design concepts, with additional capabilities for solar independent power, long-range communications and autonomy as well as equipment for the 11 science investigations. The Voyager operations system consists of a ground data system, missions operations system, and support by the Mission Control and Computer Center and Deep Space Network. Among the results of the Jupiter encounter are data concerning the magnetospheric structure and atmospheric dynamics of the planet and the surface features of the Galilean satellites. The encounters with Saturn produced scientific data concerning wind speeds, auroral emissions, and radio emissions from the planet, the fine structure of the previously known and newly discovered rings, the surface features of the satellites and the atmospheric composition and conditions of Titan. Voyager 1 is presently making field and particle measurements on its flight into interstellar space, while Voyager 2 is headed for an encounter with Uranus in January 1986 and Neptune in August 1989.

Heacock, R. L.

1981-01-01

20

Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM) are summarized. The general objectives of the VIM are to investigate the interplanetary and interstellar media and to continue the Voyager program of ultraviolet astronomy. The VIM will utilize both Voyager spacecraft for the period from January 1990 through December 2019. The mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, control and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

Rudd, R.; Textor, G.

1991-01-01

21

Titan: Evidence for seasonal change - A comparison of Hubble Space Telescope and Voyager images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of images of Titan obtained by the HST in August, 1990 with Voyager 1 and 2 images respectively obtained 10 and 9 years earlier has indicated a reversal of the seasonal hemispheric brightness asymmetry near 440 and 550 nm wavelengths; the northern hemisphere is in the more recent observations the brighter of the two, by about 10 percent.

John Caldwell; Cindy C. Cunningham; David Anthony; H. P. White; E. J. Groth; H. Hasan; K. Noll; P. H. Smith; M. G. Tomasko; H. A. Weaver

1992-01-01

22

Titan: Evidence for seasonal change - A comparison of Hubble Space Telescope and Voyager images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison of images of Titan obtained by the HST in August, 1990 with Voyager 1 and 2 images respectively obtained 10 and 9 years earlier has indicated a reversal of the seasonal hemispheric brightness asymmetry near 440 and 550 nm wavelengths; the northern hemisphere is in the more recent observations the brighter of the two, by about 10 percent. Titan's albedo pattern is therefore adequately explained by a seasonal model.

Caldwell, John; Cunningham, Cindy C.; Anthony, David; White, H. P.; Groth, E. J.; Hasan, H.; Noll, K.; Smith, P. H.; Tomasko, M. G.; Weaver, H. A.

1992-05-01

23

Encounter with Jupiter. [Pioneer 10 space probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pioneer 10 space probe's encounter with the Jupiter is discussed in detail. Tables are presented which include data on the distances during the encounter, times of crossing satellite orbits, important events in the flight near Jupiter, and time of experiments. Educational study projects are also included.

1975-01-01

24

Exploring the Galaxy using space probes  

E-print Network

This paper investigates the possible use of space probes to explore the Milky Way, as a means both of finding life elsewhere in the Galaxy and as finding an answer to the Fermi paradox. I simulate exploration of the Galaxy by first examining how long time it takes a given number of space probes to explore 40,000 stars in a box from -300 to 300 pc above the Galactic thin disk, as a function of Galactic radius. I then model the Galaxy to consist of $\\sim{}260,000$ of these 40,000 stellar systems all located in a defined Galactic Habitable Zone and show how long time it takes to explore this zone. The result is that with 8 probes, each with 8 subprobes $\\sim{}4%$ of the Galaxy can be explored in $2.92\\cdot{}10^{8}$ years. Increasing the number of probes to 200, still with 8 subprobes each, reduces the exploration time to $1.52\\cdot{}10^{7}$ years.

Rasmus Bjoerk

2007-01-09

25

Voyager Mission Description  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voyager Project, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, involves the lauching of two advanced spacecraft to explore the Jovian and Saturnian systems, as well as interplanetary space. The one-month lauch period opens on August 20, 1977, with arrivals at Jupiter in March and July of 1979, and at Saturn in November of 1980 and August of 1981. Gravity-assist swingbys

C. E. Kohlhase; P. A. Penzo

1977-01-01

26

Voyager mission support (2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Deep Space Network report on tracking and data acquisition for Voyager Project is continued. The period of August through October 1980 is covered. The use of beacons for interplanetary navigation, specifically for target related navigation, was shown to be of significant value.

N. Fanelli; H. E. Nance

1980-01-01

27

Voyager mission description  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voyager Project, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, involves the lauching of two advanced spacecraft to explore the Jovian and Saturnian systems, as well as interplanetary space. The one-month lauch period opens on August 20, 1977, with arrivals at Jupiter in March and July of 1979, and at Saturn in November of 1980 and August of 1981. Gravity-assist swingbys

C. E. Kohlhase; P. A. Penzo

1977-01-01

28

Voyager backgrounder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Voyager spacecraft and experiments are described. The spacecraft description includes the structure and configuration, communications systems, power supplies, computer command subsystems, and the science platform. The experiments discussed are investigations of cosmic rays, low-energy charged particles, magnetic fields, and plasma waves, along with studies in radio astronomy photopolarimetry. The tracking and data acquisition procedures for the missions are presented.

1981-01-01

29

Space Place: What is the Secret Code Used by the Voyager Spacecraft?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module from the Space Place Web site allows students to learn the secret code spacecraft use to send images back from space. It introduces the language of computers and spacecraft. Binary and hexadecimal notations are explained. The Space Place is an educational NASA site for children and adults with activities and facts related to the exploration of space â past, current and future. Some activities are computer-interactive and many are real-world-interactive.

2011-01-01

30

Perspectives on More Than 3 Decades of the Voyager Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, twin NASA probes that were launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla., in the summer of 1977 during a once-every-175-year alignment of the solar system's giant outer planets, changed our understanding about those planets—Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune—as well as the 4 dozen moons the spacecraft have flown by and the shape of the solar system itself. Today these 722-kilogram probes, whose instruments mostly are still operating after almost 34 years in space, are helping to rewrite the textbooks about the outer edge of our solar system as they continue to race outward from Earth. Voyager 1, currently 17.4 billion kilometers from Earth, and Voyager 2, 14.2 billion kilometers from Earth, are on their way to becoming the first human-made objects to leave the solar system and enter interstellar space, the medium between stars. In exclusive interviews with Eos and during a 27 April news briefing at NASA headquarters in Washington, D. C., Voyager project scientist Ed Stone and several others who have worked on the project discussed mission highlights and the probes' journeys through the heliosheath. This is the final outer layer of a kind of bubble the Sun creates around itself called the heliosphere, a margin where the solar wind is slowed by the pressure of interstellar gas. All the while, the spacecraft, still responsive to ground commands, are sending back data about the solar wind, the magnetic field carried out by the wind, charged particles, and plasma waves.

Showstack, Randy

2011-05-01

31

Voyager picture of Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Voyager 1 took this picture of the planet Jupiter on Saturday, Jan. 6, the first in its three-month-long, close-up investigation of the largest planet. The spacecraft, flying toward a March 5 closest approach, was 35.8 million miles (57.6 million kilometers) from Jupiter and 371.7 million miles (598.2 million kilometers) from Earth when the picture was taken. As the Voyager cameras begin their meteorological surveillance of Jupiter, they reveal a dynamic atmosphere with more convective structure than had previously been thought. While the smallest atmospheric features seen in this picture are still as large as 600 miles (1,000 kilometers) across, Voyager will be able to detect individual storm systems as small as 3 miles (5 kilometers) at closest approach. The Great Red Spot can be seen near the limb at the far right. Most of the other features are too small to be seen in terrestrial telescopes. This picture was transmitted to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory through the Deep Space Network's tracking station at Madrid, Spain. The Voyager Project is managed for NASA by Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

1998-01-01

32

Ocean Voyagers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean Voyagers is an educational outreach initiative consisting of an interdisciplinary curriculum program. It is designed to allow middle school teachers and students to gain real-world knowledge about oceanographic science, social science, maritime cultures, communication, literature, and the language arts. This site includes: integrated lesson plans on oceanographic science, maritime life and lore, technology and communications, and profiles of the Navy oceanographic survey fleet.

33

Voyager Tour Montage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This montage of images of the planets visited by Voyager 2was prepared from an assemblage of images taken by the 2 Voyager spacecraft. The Voyager Project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California.

1989-01-01

34

Voyager Tour Montage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This montage of images of the planets visited by Voyager 2 was prepared from an assemblage of images taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft. The Voyager Project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California.

1989-01-01

35

What do space voyagers value? a thematic analysis of the narratives of spaceflight veterans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Values are desired outcomes, differing in importance, that guide people's lives. Considerable anecdotal evidence suggests that astronauts and cosmonauts experience changes in values as a consequence of their experiences in space. Among the most frequently mentioned changes are a greater appreciation of the unity of Earth and humanity, and an increase in self-confidence. Two preliminary studies by the author have confirmed significant changes in values among (a) four Apollo-era American astronauts and (b) ten male astronauts from the Apollo, Mercury, and Gemini programs, three female veterans of the Shuttle-Mir, and two male high-ranking NASA administrators. The current study expanded the database to 104 space veterans from the US, Russia, and other nations, whose narratives (memoirs, media interviews, and oral histories) were subjected to thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value categories. Significant pre-flight differences were found related to nationality, space age era (through vs. later than 1975), and longest flight duration. Comparing references from the pre-flight period with those to the time of the mission and then to post-return from space, we found a U-shaped curve for the values of Achievement, Power, and Self-Direction, and steady increases across periods for Enjoyment and Universalism. Compared to multicultural norms, astronauts showed higher values placed on Achievement, Enjoyment (their two primary values), and Power (after the mission only), and lower values on Security, Self-Direction (after the mission), Universalism, and Tradition.

Suedfeld, Peter

36

Thermodynamic considerations in the support of life for long space voyages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The essential requirements for the maintenance of life, particularly human life, on isolated space missions of long duration were investigated through the study of extended irreversible thermodynamics. The characterization of a four trophic level system was developed. Questions of stability are discussed.

Iberall, A. S.; Cardon, S. Z.

1979-01-01

37

Earth observations during Space Shuttle flight STS-29 - Discovery's voyage to the earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The environmental, geologic, meteorologic, and oceanographic phenomena documented by earth photography during the Space Shuttle STS-29 mission are reviewed. A map of the nadir point positions of earth-viewing photographs from the mission is given and color photographs of various regions are presented. The mission photographs include atmospheric dust and smoke over parts of Africa and Asia, Sahelian water sites, center pivot irrigation fields in the Middle East, urban smog over Mexico City, isolated burning in the Bolivian Amazon, and various ocean features and cloud formations.

Lulla, Kamlesh; Helfert, Michael; Whitehead, Victor; Amsbury, David; Coats, Michael; Blaha, John; Buchli, James; Springer, Robert; Bagian, James

1989-01-01

38

The Voyager Neptune travel guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Voyager mission to the giant outer planets of our solar system is described. Scientific highlights include interplanetary cruise, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and their vast satellite and ring systems. Detailed plans are provided for the August 1989 Neptune encounter and subsequent interstellar journey to reach the heliopause. As background, the elements of an unmanned space mission are explained, with emphasis on the capabilities of the spacecraft and the scientific sensors. Other topics include the Voyager Grand Tour trajectory design, deep-space navigation, and gravity-assist concepts. The Neptune flyby is animated through the use of computer-generated, flip-page movie frames that appear in the corners of the publication. Useful historical information is also presented, including facts associated with the Voyager mission. Finally, short summaries are provided to describe the major objectives and schedules for several space missions planned for the remainder of the 20th century.

Kohlhase, Charles (editor)

1989-01-01

39

Summary of Voyager Design and Flight Loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Estimates of flight loads for Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 are summarized and compared to the Voyager design loads obtained from the shock spectra/impedance method and to the loads obtained using space vehicle transient loads analysis. These estimates were obtained by using the measured flight accelerations at the launch vehicle/spacecraft interface as forcing functions for the Voyager mathematical model. Based on these data, an assessment of the shock spectra/impedance loads method used for Voyager is presented. The following conclusions were reached: (1) the shock spectra approach provided reasonable conservative design loads for Voyager, (2) care has to be executed to insure that all critical events are accounted for in constructing shock spectra envelopes, (3) the selection of critical events is not always obvious, especially for those flight events wherein the spacecraft dynamic characteristics are important, and (4) the success of the method is strongly dependent on the analysts' experience and judgement.

Chen, J. C.; Garba, J. A.; Day, F. D., III

1978-01-01

40

Huygens space probe ready to leave Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past year, the Huygens probe has been integrated and extensively tested at the facilities of Daimler Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme in Ottobrunn near Munich. It was designed and developed for ESA by a European industrial consortium led by Aerospatiale (F) as prime contractor. The European activities have been successfully completed and this is to be formalised by the Flight Acceptance Review which will release the probe for shipment to the USA. To mark this important milestone a press briefing is scheduled for Wednesday, 26 March at 10.00 hours at Daimler-Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme in Ottobrunn. The detailed programme of the press briefing is attached. If you wish to attend the press briefing, please complete the attached accreditation form and return it, preferably by fax, to : Daimler Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme Mr. Mathias Pikelj, Fax. + 49 7545 8 5589, Tel. + 49 7545 8 9123 NOTE FOR THE EDITORS: Background facts about the Cassini Huygens mission Huygens is a medium-sized mission of ESA's Horizons 2000 programme for space science, and a contribution to the joint NASA ESA Cassini mission. Christiaan Huygens discovered Saturn s moon Titan in 1655, and the mission named after him aims to land a 343 kilogram probe on Titan carrying a package of scientific instruments through the atmosphere. Six sets of instruments will analyse the chemical composition of the atmosphere, observe the weather and topography of Titan, and examine the nature of its surface. Titan is larger than the planet Mercury, and its unique atmosphere, rich in nitrogen and hydrocarbons, may resemble the atmosphere of the primitive Earth, before life began. Nominal dates for the Huygens mission are as follows: * launch, 6 October 1997 * arrival at Saturn, 1 July 2004 * release of Huygens, 6 November 2004 * entry into Titan's atmosphere, 27 November 2004. The Saturn Orbiter, the other element in the Cassini mission, will relay the signals from Huygens to the Earth, before settling down to prolonged observations of Saturn and its rings and moons. European and American scientists are partners in all the experiments, both in the Orbiter and in the Huygens Probe. Farthest out for Europe Huygens will travel to a greater distance from the Sun than any previous ESA mission, out to the orbit of Saturn at 1400 million kilometres, or nearly ten times the Sun Earth distance. For comparison, the farthest ranging mission at present is Ulysses, orbiting over the poles of the Sun and out to the orbit of Jupiter, 800 million kilometres from the Sun. As no other mission planned or contemplated by ESA at present will go as far as Saturn, Huygens is likely to hold the European record for many years. HUYGENS READY TO LEAVE EUROPE PRESS BRIEFING Wednesday 26 March, 10:00 hrs. Location : Daimler-Benz Aerospace/ Dornier Satellitensysteme Gate 2, Building 5.1 Ludwig-B>lkow-Allee Ottobrunn (Munich) Programme: 10h00 Registration of press 10h15 Huygens video introduction 10h20 Welcoming addresses: Klaus Ensslin, President, Dornier Satellitensysteme Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA Michel Delaye, President, Aerospatiale Espace & Defense 10h30 NASA News and Cassini status Wesly T. Huntress, Associate Administrator of Space Science, NASA Richard Spehalski, Head of Cassini Project, NASA/JPL 10h40 The Huygens Project: Hamid Hassan, Head of the Huygens Project, ESA/ESTEC Hans-Joachim Hoffman, Head of the Huygens Project, Dornier Satellitensysteme Gerard Huttin, Head of the Huygens Project, Aerospatiale 11h00 The Huygens Scientific Programme: Jean-Pierre Lebreton, Huygens Project Scientist, ESA supported by European and American scientists. 11h15 The ESA Science programme, current and future missions Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA 11h25 Question and Answer session 11h55 Visit to the Huygens spacecraft (access inside the clean room limited to photographers and TV teams only). 12h45 Buffet lunch 14h00 End of activties HUYGENS READY TO LEAVE EUROPE PRESS BRIEFING Wednesday 26 March, 10:00 hrs. Location : Daimler-Benz Aerospace

1997-03-01

41

NASA Facts: Voyager  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A news release on NASA's Voyager project is presented. The spacecraft, science instrumentation, experiments and a mission profile are described. A drawing identifying Voyager's major components and instrumentation was included along with diagrams showing the path of Voyager 1 (JST trajectory) past Jupiter, and the path of Voyager 2 (JXT trajectory) during its encounter with Jupiter. An exercise for student involvement was also provided.

1977-01-01

42

Voyager's decade of wonder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and implementation of the Voyager missions are reviewed. The interplanetary missions preceding Voyager are discussed, focusing on the technological development leading up to the Voyager spacecraft. The main results from Voyager observations of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus are outlined. Also, consideration is given to the prospects for observations of Neptune.

Mclaughlin, William I.

1989-01-01

43

The Voyager Interstellar Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Voyager Interstellar Mission began on January 1, 1990, with the primary objective being to characterize the interplanetary medium beyond Neptune and to search for the transition region between the interplanetary medium and the interstellar medium. At the start of this mission, the two Voyager spacecraft had already been in flight for over twelve years, having successfully returned a wealth of scientific information about the planetary systems of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and the interplanetary medium between Earth and Neptune. The two spacecraft have the potential to continue returning science data until around the year 2020. With this extended operating lifetime, there is a high likelihood of one of the two spacecraft penetrating the termination shock and possibly the heliopause boundary, and entering interstellar space before that time. This paper describes the Voyager Interstellar Mission--the mission objectives, the spacecraft and science payload, the mission operations system used to support operations, and the mission operations strategy being used to maximize science data return even in the event of certain potential spacecraft subsystem failures. The implementation of automated analysis tools to offset and enable reduced flight team staffing levels is also discussed.

Rudd, R. P.; Hall, J. C.; Spradlin, G. L.

1997-01-01

44

Probing Relativity using Space-Based Experiments  

E-print Network

An overview of space tests searching for small deviations from special relativity arising at the Planck scale is given. Potential high-sensitivity space-based experiments include ones with atomic clocks, masers, and electromagnetic cavities. We show that a significant portion of the coefficient space in the Standard-Model Extension, a framework that covers the full spectrum of possible effects, can be accessed using space tests. Some remarks on Lorentz violation in the gravitational sector are also given.

Neil Russell

2006-08-07

45

Voyager mission description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Voyager project, which involves the 1977 launch of two advanced three-axis attitude stabilized spacecraft for the exploration of the Jovian and Saturnian systems, as well as interplanetary space, is discussed. The missions include investigation of the gravitational fields, atmospheric dynamics and magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, the atmospheres, surface composition and features of Titan, the Io flux tube, the Great Red Spot of Jupiter, and earth occultation by Saturn's rings. To reduce energy required to reach Saturn, gravity-assist swingbys of Jupiter will be employed; a continuation to Uranus by the second satellite may be implemented by reliance on gravity-assist at Saturn.

Kohlhase, C. E.; Penzo, P. A.

1977-01-01

46

Reacting to nuclear power systems in space: American public protests over outer planetary probes since the 1980s  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States has pioneered the use of nuclear power systems for outer planetary space probes since the 1970s. These systems have enabled the Viking landings to reach the surface of Mars and both Pioneers 10 and 11 and Voyagers 1 and 2 to travel to the limits of the solar system. Although the American public has long been concerned about safety of these systems, in the 1980s a reaction to nuclear accidents - especially the Soviet Cosmos 954 spacecraft destruction and the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accidents - heightened awareness about the hazards of nuclear power and every spacecraft launch since that time has been contested by opponents of nuclear energy. This has led to a debate over the appropriateness of the use of nuclear power systems for spacecraft. It has also refocused attention on the need for strict systems of control and rigorous checks and balances to assure safety. This essay describes the history of space radioisotope power systems, the struggles to ensure safe operations, and the political confrontation over whether or not to allow the launch the Galileo and Cassini space probes to the outer planets. Effectively, these efforts have led to the successful flights of 12 deep space planetary probes, two-thirds of them operated since the accidents of Cosmos 954, Three Mile Island, and Chernobyl.

Launius, Roger D.

2014-03-01

47

"Voyager": An Educational Card Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Voyager" is an educational card game involving scientific satellites, developed for use in schools with children aged 9 to 13 years. The idea of the game is to improve pupils' knowledge about the large number of scientific satellites there are in space in a fun way, while also practising numeracy skills. Several copies of the game were produced…

Smith, David Ryan

2003-01-01

48

INTERPLANETARY DUST PARTICLES DETECTED BY THE VOYAGER 1 AND 2 PLASMA WAVE INSTRUMENTS  

E-print Network

INTERPLANETARY DUST PARTICLES DETECTED BY THE VOYAGER 1 AND 2 PLASMA WAVE INSTRUMENTS by Zhenzhen wave instruments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. The Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft were launched, and Neptune, and to study the interplanetary medium. After traveling through space for 27 years, Voyager 1

Gurnett, Donald A.

49

Voyager - Humanity's Farthest Journey  

NASA Video Gallery

After 33 years, NASA's twin Voyager spacecraft are still going strong and still sending home information. This video features highlights of the Voyager journeys to the outer planets, and looks at t...

50

Black Hole Probes of Automorphic Space  

E-print Network

Over the past few years the arithmetic Langlands program has proven useful in addressing physical problems. In this paper it is shown how Langlands' reciprocity conjecture for automorphic forms, in combination with a representation theoretic notion of motives, suggests a framework in which the entropy of automorphic black holes can be viewed as a probe of spacetime that is sensitive to the geometry of the extra dimensions predicted by string theory. If it were possible to produce black holes with automorphic entropy in the laboratory their evaporation would provide us with information about the precise shape of the compact geometry.

Schimmrigk, Rolf

2012-01-01

51

Voyager mission support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tracking and data acquisition for Project Voyager are discussed for the period of April through June 1981. Voyager 1 was in the extended mission phase of operations. Voyager 2 completed the cruise phase of its operations and on 5 June entered the observatory phase of the Saturn encounter operations.

Fanelli, N.; Nance, H. E.

1981-01-01

52

Voyager at Saturn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spacecraft design and operations and mission results of the Voyager Project are reviewed with particular emphasis on the results of the Saturn encounters. The mission was undertaken by two spacecraft: Voyager 2, launched first on August 20, 1977 on a lower energy trajectory to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune; and Voyager 1, launched on September 5, 1977 on a

R. L. Heacock

1981-01-01

53

Putting Voyager together  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of the Voyager missions is reviewed. The development of the technology is described, and the various components of the Voyager spacecraft are depicted and their functions identified. The budget pressures and their effects on the missions are discussed, and the problems experienced by the Voyager 2 spacecraft on its mission, and the way those were solved, are summarized.

Mclaughlin, William I.

1989-01-01

54

How Do Probes Get To Space?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Investigate how force and thrust work to propel rockets into outer space. Build a rocket: a blown-up balloon taped to a drinking straw threaded through some string. The rocket follows Newton's Third Law of Motion: Every action produces an equal and opposite reaction.

Science, Jason

1999-01-01

55

The Voyager flights to Jupiter and Saturn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the mini-Grand Tour to Jupiter and Saturn by the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are highlighted. Features of the spacecraft are depicted including the 11 instruments designed to probe the planets and their magnetic environments, the rings of Saturn, the fleets of satellites escorting the planets, and the interplanetary medium. Major scientific discoveries relating to these phenomena are summarized.

1982-01-01

56

Voyage to Jupiter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication illustrates the features of Jupiter and its family of satellites pictured by the Pioneer and the Voyager missions. Chapters included are: (1) "The Jovian System" (describing the history of astronomy); (2) "Pioneers to Jupiter" (outlining the Pioneer Mission); (3) "The Voyager Mission"; (4) "Science and Scientsts" (listing 11…

Morrison, David; Samz, Jane

57

Voyager 1 Image of Ganymede  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voyager 1 took this picture of Ganymede from a distance of 1.6 million miles. Ganymede is Jupiter's largest satellite with a radius of approximately 2600 kilometers, about 1.5 times that of Earth's Moon. Ganymede is the seventh and largest of Jupiter's known satellites and is the third of the Galilean moons. Discovered in 1610 by Galileo and Marius, Ganymede is the largest satellite in the Solar System. It was named after the Greek mythical character, Ganymede, a handsome Trojan boy that Zeus took to Olympus to be a cupbearer for the gods (one of the only humans in Greek mythology who became immortal). Ganymede is larger than Mercury but has only half Mercury's mass. It has a bulk density of only two grams per cubic centimeter, almost half that of Earth's Moon. Ganymede is most likely composed of a mixture of rock and ice. The long white filaments resemble rays associated with impacts on the lunar surface. The various colors of different regions probably represent differing surface materials. Several dots of a single color (blue, green, and orange) on the picture are the result of markings on the camera used for pointing determinations and are not physical markings. Voyager scientists discovered that Ganymede has its own magnetosphere embedded inside Jupiter's large one. JPL manages and controls the Voyager Project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

1979-01-01

58

Voyager 1 View of Callisto  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voyager 1 took this picture of Callisto during Voyager's approach to Jupiter's outer large satellite in 1979. Both Galileo and Marius discovered Callisto in 1610. In Greek mythology, Callisto was a nymph loved by Zeus and thus hated by Hera. Hera turned her into a bear, which Zeus placed in the heavens as the constellation Ursa Major. Voyager was 350,000 kilometers from Callisto and took this picture that shows features about seven kilometers wide across the surface. Callisto is a little smaller than Ganymede (Callisto is about the size of Mercury) and it seems that it is composed of a mixture of ice and rock (about 40 percent ice and 60 percent rock and iron). The darker color of Callisto (about half as reflective as Ganymede but still twice as bright as the Moon) implies that the upper surface is 'dirty ice' or water- rich rock frozen on Callisto's cold surface (approximately -243 Fahrenheit degrees at the equator). Callisto's atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide. Far more craters appear on the surface of Callisto than on the surface of Ganymede, leading scientists to believe that Callisto is the oldest of the Galilean satellites. Callisto could date back as far as four billion years ago and has remained relatively unchanged in the history of space.

1979-01-01

59

Voyager at Neptune: 1989  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Voyager mission has taken advantage of a rare planetary alignment that occurs at intervals of about 175 years and affords an extraordinary opportunity: a grand tour by a single spacecraft of the outer planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Voyager 2 will fly past Nepture and its large moon Triton on August 24, 1989. The discovery of Neptune, along with its current history is discussed. The imaging challenges, tracking and data acquisition, and the Voyager spacecraft are explained. Data will be gathered on the ring arcs of Neptune, the atmosphere and surface of Neptune, Triton, and Nereid (the smaller moon).

1989-01-01

60

This view of Jupiter was taken by Voyager 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view of Jupiter was taken by Voyager 1. This image was taken through color filters and recombined to produce the color image. This photo was assembled from three black and white negatives by the Image Processing Lab at Jet Propulsion Laboratory. JPL manages and controls the VOyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

1998-01-01

61

The Voyager magnetometer boom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Voyager spacecraft magnetometer experiment utilizes two sensors on a deployable boom. The boom is an Astromast. The implementation of the Astromast into the Voyager design is described along with the hardware used to hold, latch, and deploy the mast and the tests to demonstrate damping, deployment, and alignments. Several problems encountered are discussed and their solutions are given. Flight deployment and preliminary alignment results are presented. Finally, the design is evaluated in retrospect.

Miller, D. C.

1979-01-01

62

Voyages to Saturn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Voyager mission to Saturn is explained in detail. A history of Saturn observations from ancient times to the present is given. The Voyager spacecraft and their instruments are described. An overview of planetary astronomy is presented. The text is supplemented by numerous black and white and color photographs. The Saturn satellites are discussed in detail, and preliminary pictorial maps of the satellites are given.

Morrison, D.

1982-01-01

63

Infrared spectrometer for Voyager  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voyager IR investigation is described, which uses a Michelson interferometer in the 180-2500\\/cm range, and a single-channel radiometer for the visible and near-IR, sharing a 50-cm diameter telescope. Emphasis is placed on the differences between the Voyager and the previous designs, including reductions in the field of view and in the noise equivalent spectral radiance of the instrument. Attention

R. Hanel; D. Crosby; L. Herath; D. Vanous; D. Collins; H. Creswick; C. Harris; M. Rhodes

1980-01-01

64

Artist's Concept of Voyager  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This artist's concept of the Voyager spacecraft with its antenna pointing to Earth. The identical Voyager spacecraft are three-axis stabilized systems that use celestial or gyro referenced attitude control to maintain pointing of the high-gain antennas toward Earth. The prime mission science payload consisted of 10 instruments (11 investigations including radio science). Only five investigator teams are still supported, though data are collected for two additional instruments.

2003-01-01

65

Stochastic voyages into uncharted chemical space produce a representative library of all possible drug-like compounds  

PubMed Central

The “small molecule universe” (SMU), the set of all synthetically feasible organic molecules of 500 Daltons molecular weight or less, is estimated to contain over 1060 structures, making exhaustive searches for structures of interest impractical. Here, we describe the construction of a “representative universal library” spanning the SMU that samples the full extent of feasible small molecule chemistries. This library was generated using the newly developed Algorithm for Chemical Space Exploration with Stochastic Search (ACSESS). ACSESS makes two important contributions to chemical space exploration: it allows the systematic search of the unexplored regions of the small molecule universe, and it facilitates the mining of chemical libraries that do not yet exist, providing a near-infinite source of diverse novel compounds. PMID:23548177

Virshup, Aaron M.; Contreras-Garcia, Julia; Wipf, Peter; Yang, Weitao; Beratan, David N.

2013-01-01

66

IEC Thrusters for Space Probe Applications and Propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earlier conceptual design studies (Bussard, 1990; Miley et al., 1998; Burton et al., 2003) have described Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion propulsion to provide a high-power density fusion propulsion system capable of aggressive deep space missions. However, this requires large multi-GW thrusters and a long term development program. As a first step towards this goal, a progression of near-term IEC thrusters, stating with a 1-10 kWe electrically-driven IEC jet thruster for satellites are considered here. The initial electrically-powered unit uses a novel multi-jet plasma thruster based on spherical IEC technology with electrical input power from a solar panel. In this spherical configuration, Xe ions are generated and accelerated towards the center of double concentric spherical grids. An electrostatic potential well structure is created in the central region, providing ion trapping. Several enlarged grid opening extract intense quasi-neutral plasma jets. A variable specific impulse in the range of 1000-4000 seconds is achieved by adjusting the grid potential. This design provides high maneuverability for satellite and small space probe operations. The multiple jets, combined with gimbaled auxiliary equipment, provide precision changes in thrust direction. The IEC electrical efficiency can match or exceed efficiencies of conventional Hall Current Thrusters (HCTs) while offering advantages such as reduced grid erosion (long life time), reduced propellant leakage losses (reduced fuel storage), and a very high power-to-weight ratio. The unit is ideally suited for probing missions. The primary propulsive jet enables delicate maneuvering close to an object. Then simply opening a second jet offset 180 degrees from the propulsion one provides a "plasma analytic probe" for interrogation of the object.

Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu; Wu, Linchun; Reilly, Michael P.; Teofilo, Vince L.; Burton, Rodney; Dell, Richard; Dell, Dick; Hargus, William A.

2009-03-01

67

IEC Thrusters for Space Probe Applications and Propulsion  

SciTech Connect

Earlier conceptual design studies (Bussard, 1990; Miley et al., 1998; Burton et al., 2003) have described Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion propulsion to provide a high-power density fusion propulsion system capable of aggressive deep space missions. However, this requires large multi-GW thrusters and a long term development program. As a first step towards this goal, a progression of near-term IEC thrusters, stating with a 1-10 kWe electrically-driven IEC jet thruster for satellites are considered here. The initial electrically-powered unit uses a novel multi-jet plasma thruster based on spherical IEC technology with electrical input power from a solar panel. In this spherical configuration, Xe ions are generated and accelerated towards the center of double concentric spherical grids. An electrostatic potential well structure is created in the central region, providing ion trapping. Several enlarged grid opening extract intense quasi-neutral plasma jets. A variable specific impulse in the range of 1000-4000 seconds is achieved by adjusting the grid potential. This design provides high maneuverability for satellite and small space probe operations. The multiple jets, combined with gimbaled auxiliary equipment, provide precision changes in thrust direction. The IEC electrical efficiency can match or exceed efficiencies of conventional Hall Current Thrusters (HCTs) while offering advantages such as reduced grid erosion (long life time), reduced propellant leakage losses (reduced fuel storage), and a very high power-to-weight ratio. The unit is ideally suited for probing missions. The primary propulsive jet enables delicate maneuvering close to an object. Then simply opening a second jet offset 180 degrees from the propulsion one provides a 'plasma analytic probe' for interrogation of the object.

Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu; Wu Linchun; Reilly, Michael P. [Dept. of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Teofilo, Vince L. [Lockheed Martin Space Systems Co., Advanced Technology Center, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Burton, Rodney [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Dell, Richard; Dell, Dick [Advanced Aerospace Resource Center (AARC), Raleigh, NC (United States); Hargus, William A. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards AFB, CA 217-333-3772 (United States)

2009-03-16

68

Page 1 Frame-Dragging, Cryogenics & Space: The Gravity Probe B Experiment 7th Appleton Space Conference, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) 8 December 2011  

E-print Network

Page 1 Frame-Dragging, Cryogenics & Space: The Gravity Probe B Experiment 7th Appleton Space-Dragging, Cryogenics & Space Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) The Gravity Probe B Experiment 7th Appleton Space Conference #12;Page 2 Frame-Dragging, Cryogenics & Space: The Gravity Probe B Experiment 7th Appleton Space

69

Perspectives on more than 3 decades of the Voyager Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, twin NASA probes that were launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla., in the summer of 1977 during a once-every-175-year alignment of the solar system's giant outer planets, changed our understanding about those planets---Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune---as well as the 4 dozen moons the spacecraft have flown by and the shape of the solar system itself.

Randy Showstack

2011-01-01

70

The music of the voyager interstellar record  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment in applied communication at the margins, approximately 90 minutes of music was selected from cultures around the world by Carl Sagan and his associates and placed aboard the two Voyager spacecraft in 1977. Both spacecraft have now reached the outer edges of our solar system and are heading toward deep space. This gift of music and other information

Stephanie Nelson; Larry Polansky

1993-01-01

71

Imaging Narrow Angle The Voyager Spacecraft  

E-print Network

NASA's Deep Space Network. The Voyager spacecraft are on a unique exploratory mission. The two components of the observatory that are, for now and in the foresee- able future, making measurements. The CRS instrument mea- sures the energy spectrum of electrons and cosmic ray nuclei and uses three

Waliser, Duane E.

72

Voyager electronic parts radiation program, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Voyager spacecraft is subject to radiation from external natural space, from radioisotope thermoelectric generators and heater units, and from the internal environment where penetrating electrons generate surface ionization effects in semiconductor devices. Methods for radiation hardening and tests for radiation sensitivity are described. Results of characterization testing and sample screening of over 200 semiconductor devices in a radiation environment are summarized.

Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Price, W. E.

1977-01-01

73

Jovian magnetosphere: a post-Voyager view  

SciTech Connect

Results of observational and theoretical work presented at the Rice University Conference on the Physics of the Jovian Magnetosphere (February 27-29, 1980) are summarized and used to elucidate the post-Voyager status of the understanding of Jovian magnetosphere dynamics. Works considered treat earth-based and Voyager observations of the Io torus, decametric and kilometric radio emissions, corotation of magnetospheric plasma with the magnetic field, and theoretical studies of mechanisms of particle acceleration, diffusion and loss in the magnetosphere and interplanetary space. Issues remaining to be resolved by future research are also indicated, particularly questions of the discrepancy between plasma flow measurements obtained on the two plasma experiments on each Voyager spacecraft, and the localization of the source of torus plasma.

Hill, T.W.

1981-01-20

74

Voyager Encounter Highlights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following are presented: computer animation of trajectories for both Voyagers 1 and 2; view of Jupiter during one orbit of Ganymede; computer animation of Voyager 2's encounter with Jupiter and its satellites; time lapse of the planet's rotation and its satellites; stroboscopic sequence of selected frames; cloud motion; Jupiter's Great Red Spot (4/25 - 5/24, 1979) through a violet filter; and the Great Red Spot through a blue filter by Voyager 1. The dynamics of Jupiter's clouds are shown - the whole planet is shown first, then two closer looks are repeated several times. Also included are pans of stills of Jupiter's satellites and a computer simulation tour of Saturn system from POV just behind Voyager, made of 116 images of Saturn through a green filter and of 516 images taken by Voyager 1 (9/12 - 9/14, 1980). Frames are enhanced to show the motion of features in Saturn's rings. Pans of stills of Saturn's satellites are shown. There is computer animation of the planet's system, rings, and Sigma Sagittari. Images on January 14, 1986 are through an orange filter. Uranus's satellites are shown as is computer animation of an August 1989 encounter.

1989-01-01

75

Voyager Saturn encounter press briefing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The briefing reviewed the mission planning of the Voyager project. The near encounter trajectories of both Voyager spacecraft were examined. The Saturn system is discussed with particular emphasis on Saturn's moons.

1980-01-01

76

The Gulf Stream Voyage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gulf Stream Voyage is an online multidisciplinary project which utilizes both real time data and primary source materials to help guide students to discover the science and history of the Gulf Stream. Students will investigate this great ocean current, how it affects the Atlantic Ocean and some of mankind's experiences dealing with it. This voyage includes activities for marine science, earth science, chemistry, physics, biology, math, history and language arts. All may be easily used in today's technology enhanced classroom including access to real time ocean data, atmospheric data and historical primary source materials.

2000-01-01

77

Voyager Outreach Compilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) video presents a collection of the best videos that have been published of the Voyager mission. Computer animation/simulations comprise the largest portion of the video and include outer planetary magnetic fields, outer planetary lunar surfaces, and the Voyager spacecraft trajectory. Voyager visited the four outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The video contains some live shots of Jupiter (actual), the Earth's moon (from orbit), Saturn (actual), Neptune (actual) and Uranus (actual), but is mainly comprised of computer animations of these planets and their moons. Some of the individual short videos that are compiled are entitled: The Solar System; Voyage to the Outer Planets; A Tour of the Solar System; and the Neptune Encounter. Computerized simulations of Viewing Neptune from Triton, Diving over Neptune to Meet Triton, and Catching Triton in its Retrograde Orbit are included. Several animations of Neptune's atmosphere, rotation and weather features as well as significant discussion of the planet's natural satellites are also presented.

1998-01-01

78

Two Voyagers to Saturn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pages which follow may be taken as a celebration of the impending encounter of Voyager 2 with Saturn and are a pointer to the richness of data likely to be gathered in the next few days and weeks. Although there may be some to whom the work of these two remarkable spacecraft will be proof of how even more remarkable would have been the Grand Tour of the Solar System planned in the 1960s but executed only in the form of the two Voyagers, to most people the encounters with Jupiter and Saturn will seem exciting enough for the time being. Yet there are Uranus and Neptune to come. This group of scientific articles includes some of the first detailed attempts to make sense of last year's Voyager 1 observations of Saturn-and Nature acknowledges its debt to Dr G. E. Hunt of University College, London for having helped to recruit these articles and to give shape to the ground they cover. The scope is necessarily restricted, for there is hardly a branch of planetary astronomy which has not been changed in some way by the data from Voyager 1-and which is not about to be changed again.

1981-08-01

79

Voyager at Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The engineering changes that had to be made in the Voyager 2 spacecraft in order to enable it to fly beyond the originally planned encounters with Jupiter and Saturn and the underlying engineering strategy leading to the encounter with Uranus are discussed. Fixes of the azimuth actuator failure, receiver failure, and memory failure, and capability upgrades of Image Data Compression, aperture augmentation protective coding, smear reduction, Image Motion Compensation, power management, and contingency planning are summarized. The use of the Computer Command Subsystem in the extension of the voyage is described. The ways in which the strategic priorities, including spacecraft preservation, protection of the near-encounter load, development of new ground and spacecraft capabilities, and repair or circumvention of existing spacecraft faults, were accomplished are reviewed, and the accomplishment of additional tasks is also discussed.

Mclaughlin, W. I.; Wolff, D. M.

1986-01-01

80

'Voyager': an educational card game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

'Voyager' is an educational card game involving scientific satellites, developed for use in schools with children aged 9 to 13 years. The idea of the game is to improve pupils' knowledge about the large number of scientific satellites there are in space in a fun way, while also practicing numeracy skills. Several copies of the game were produced using funding obtained from the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) as a Public Understanding of Science (PUS) award. These initial 'trial' versions of the game were taken to three different schools where feedback obtained from both pupils and staff was used to produce a final copy of the game that can be distributed to other schools along with a set of companion notes to form the basis of a science lesson. This article reports the findings of the school trials and indicates possible future developments of other scientific card games that could be beneficial to the classroom.

Smith, David

2005-10-17

81

Voyager: Giant Kelp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Birch Aquarium at Scripps Institution of Oceanography offers this Web site as part of the Aquarium's online educational series, Voyager Science. Geared toward younger kids, this site introduces the kelp forest and related concepts with great photos, informative descriptions, and a few interactive activities. Giant Kelp focuses on the kelp plant itself, including the many (and often surprising) commercial uses of kelp products. Simple at-home experiments and online activities are also included.

Criqui, Nan

82

Voyager: The Sheltering Forest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Birch Aquarium at Scripps Institution of Oceanography offers this Web site as part of the Aquarium's online educational series, Voyager Science. Geared toward younger kids, this site introduces the kelp forest and related concepts with great photos, informative descriptions, and a few interactive activities. The Sheltering Forest focuses on the many animals that make their home in the kelp forest, emphasizing the interdependence of organisms in the kelp ecosystem. Simple at-home experiments and online activities are also included.

Criqui, Nan

83

Aspects of Voyager photogrammetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In January 1986, Voyager 2 took a series of pictures of Uranus and its satellites with the Imaging Science System (ISS) on board the spacecraft. Based on six stereo images from the ISS narrow-angle camera, a topographic map was compiled of the Southern Hemisphere of Miranda, one of Uranus' moons. Assuming a spherical figure, a 20-km surface relief is shown on the map. With three additional images from the ISS wide-angle camera, a control network of Miranda's Southern Hemisphere was established by analytical photogrammetry, producing 88 ground points for the control of multiple-model compilation on the AS-11AM analytical stereoplotter. Digital terrain data from the topographic map of Miranda have also been produced. By combining these data and the image data from the Voyager 2 mission, perspective views or even a movie of the mapped area can be made. The application of these newly developed techniques to Voyager 1 imagery, which includes a few overlapping pictures of Io and Ganymede, permits the compilation of contour maps or topographic profiles of these bodies on the analytical stereoplotters.

Wu, Sherman S. C.; Schafer, Francis J.; Jordan, Raymond; Howington, Annie-Elpis

1987-01-01

84

Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

2000-01-01

85

Voyager Approaches Final Frontier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artist's concept illustrates the positions of the Voyager spacecraft in relation to structures formed around our Sun by the solar wind. Also illustrated is the termination shock, a violent region the spacecraft must pass through before reaching the outer limits of the solar system. At the termination shock, the supersonic solar wind abruptly slows from an average speed of 400 kilometers per second to less than 100 kilometer per second (900,000 to less than 225,000 miles per hour). Beyond the termination shock is the solar system's final frontier, the heliosheath, a vast region where the turbulent and hot solar wind is compressed as it presses outward against the interstellar wind that is beyond the heliopause. A bow shock likely forms as the interstellar wind approaches and is deflected around the heliosphere, forcing it into a teardrop-shaped structure with a long, comet-like tail.

The exact location of the termination shock is unknown, and it originally was thought to be closer to the Sun than Voyager 1 currently is. As Voyager 1 cruised ever farther from the Sun, it confirmed that all the planets are inside an immense bubble blown by the solar wind and the termination shock was much more distant.

2003-01-01

86

GALILEO PROBE MEASUREMENTS OF D/H AND 3HE/4HE IN JUPITER'S ATMOSPHERE  

E-print Network

Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA Abstract. The Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer to the mass peak at 3 amu. The D/H ratio is consistent with Voyager and ground based data and recent for D/H when compared with that for hydrogen in the local interstellar medium 1:6 0:12 10,5 implies

Atreya, Sushil

87

Planning the Voyager spacecraft's mission to Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of the systems engineering process to the planning of the Voyager spacecraft mission is described. The Mission Planning Office prepared guidelines that controlled the use of the project and multimission resources and spacecraft consumables in order to obtain valuable scientific data at an acceptable risk level. Examples of mission planning which are concerned with the design of the Deep Space Network antenna, the uplink window for transmitting computer command subsystem loads, and the contingency and risk assessment functions are presented.

Plagemann, Stephen H.

1987-01-01

88

46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...with voyage No. 1 having the prefixed designation NSA and followed by the General Agents' abbreviated designation and voyage number, as NSA-1/ABC-1. (b) The continuity of NSA voyage numbers shall not change with berth...

2013-10-01

89

Space-Based Passing Time Estimation on a Freeway Using Cell Phones as Traffic Probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the usability of mobile cellular networks to obtain traffic information on a freeway. The question of whether a mobile station (cell phone) can play an acceptable role as a probe for collecting traffic information on a freeway is examined. A space-based approach, wherein the probe vehicles transmit information to roadside devices as they pass through reference points,

Keemin Sohn; Keeyeon Hwang

2008-01-01

90

TAU - The longest voyage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TAU, a concept for a voyage stretching a thousand astronomical units calls for an ion propulsion engine and two telescopes, one for communication and the other for astrometric measurements. After ten years of steady acceleration to 100 km/s, the scientific payload will continue the rest of its 50 years as a free-flying craft. TAU's main objective is to obtain direct measurements of distances, both stellar and galactic; it will offer a baseline that is 500 times longer than that of Hipparcos.

Spangenburg, R.; Moser, D.

1986-09-01

91

Voyager 1 examines Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the Voyager mission to Jupiter, Saturn, and possibly Uranus is presented. Scientific instruments onboard the spacecraft are described as well as methods used for their calibration and evaluation during the cruise phase of the mission. Experiments to be performed cover the following areas: imaging science, radio science, cosmic rays, ultraviolet spectroscopy, photopolarimetry, planetary radio astronomy, magnetic fields, low-energy charged particles, plasma science, and infrared radiometry and spectroscopy. A list of the satellites of Jupiter and their diameters, distances, and periods is included.

1979-01-01

92

Voyager orbit determination at Jupiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 orbit determination activity extending from encounter minus 60 days to the Jupiter encounter, and includes quantitative results and conclusions derived from mission experiences. The major topics covered include an identification and quantification of the major orbit determination error sources and a review of salient orbit determination results from encounter, with emphasis

J. K. Campbell; S. P. Synnott; G. J. Bierman

1983-01-01

93

Voyager orbit determination at Jupiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 orbit determination activity extending from encounter minus 60 days to the Jupiter encounter, and includes quantitative results and conclusions derived from mission experience. The major topics covered include an identifica- tion and quantification of the major orbit determination error sources and a review of salient orbit determination results from encounter, with

JAMES K. CAMPBELL; STEPHEN P. SYNNOTT; GERALD J. BIERMAN

1983-01-01

94

Voyager 1: Encounter with Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the Voyager is presented along with samples of the nearly 19,000 photographs returned by Voyager 1 spacecraft at the midpoint of its 38-month mission to Jupiter and Saturn. Particular emphasis is given to color photographs of the Great Red Spot, and the surface features of the Gallilean satellites.

1979-01-01

95

The Voyager encounters with Saturn  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1972, the Voyager Program was undertaken by NASA as a major step in the exploration of the outer solar system. Recently the objectives of this program have been extended to include an investigation of Uranus and possibly Neptune. In connection with the present investigation, a brief description of the Voyager spacecraft is presented and an overview of the scientific

E. C. Stone

1984-01-01

96

The Voyager encounters with Saturn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1972, the Voyager Program was undertaken by NASA as a major step in the exploration of the outer solar system. Recently the objectives of this program have been extended to include an investigation of Uranus and possibly Neptune. In connection with the present investigation, a brief description of the Voyager spacecraft is presented and an overview of the scientific results from the Saturn encounters is provided. Two essentially identical Voyager spacecraft were launched in 1977 toward encounters with the Jovian and Saturnian planetary systems. The Voyager 1 trajectory at Saturn was chosen to provide a close encounter with Titan, a planet-sized satellite with an atmosphere, and to provide an optimum geometry for dual-frequency radio occultation studies of Saturn's rings. The Voyager 2 trajectory provided improved viewing of the rings.

Stone, E. C.

1984-04-01

97

Voyager photometry of Io  

SciTech Connect

Detailed disk-integrated and disk-resolved photometric studies of the Jovian moon Io were carried out using Voyager images. Disk-integrated properties derived from the Voyager data, such as phase curves, rotation curves, geometric albedos, phase integrals, and the Bond albedo, are generally consistent with earth-based estimates. Near-opposition limb-darkening behavior, as parameterized by the Minnaert photometric function, has been accurately measured for regions on the surface of Io in three distinct color classes: Bright (white), Average (orange), and Polar (brown). The limb-darkening results allow derivation of accurate near-opposition disk-resolved phase curves, revealing substantial differences in opposition surge among the color classes. Modeling of the phase curves using the Hapke photometric function supports the contention that the uppermost layer of the Ionian surface is on average extremely porous, and suggests that this layer is substantially more porous in Average and Polar areas than in the Bright regions, a difference consistent with models of Io's surface layer. Combination of limb-darkening and phase information leads to determination of accurate normal reflectance spectra for the color classes; careful comparison with laboratory data supports earlier claims that the spectra of Ionian materials can be explained by mixtures of sulfur and SO/sub 2/ frost, although this is not a unique diagnostic identification.

Simonelli, D.P.

1987-01-01

98

Voyager Spacecraft Moves Towards Edge of Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Traveling at 334 million miles per year, the Voyager 1 Spacecraft continues to return vast amounts of important astronomical data to researchers back on Earth, and has done so since its initial launch on September 5, 1977. Most recently, Voyager 1 has been in the news because it is rapidly approaching the boundary of the solar system, and will shortly reach interstellar space. Using measurements of the solar wind sent back from the craft, scientists at the Applied Physics Lab at Johns Hopkins University suggest that Voyager 1 has in fact already passed the terminal shock boundary that demarcates the transition from the solar system to interstellar space. Another piece of research conducted by a team of scholars at the University of Maryland suggest that Voyager 1 is nearing the termination shock boundary, but has yet to hit it. It is now estimated that Voyager 1 will reach the star next door to our own in about 40,000 years, though the spacecraft is thought to only have enough power to continue transmitting data until the year 2020. The first link will take visitors to a November 6, 2003 article in the Washington Post about the recent realization that the Voyager 1 will soon reach the end of the solar system. The second link leads to a joint press release released November 5, 2003 from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California and the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland about the progress of the spacecraft. The third link leads to a rather comprehensive and intriguing website designed by NASA to provide the web-browsing public with material about the spacecraft. The site includes details about the technical specifications of the Voyager and a number of amazing images taken during its 26-year journey. The fourth link leads to an 8-page fact sheet provided by NASA that offers a nice overview of the spacecraft's mission and its observations of the other planets in the solar system, including Jupiter and Uranus. The fifth link will take visitors to the USGS Astrogeology homepage of the Voyager, which again provides yet another perspective on the important work of this spacecraft. The last link lets visitors learn about the Golden Record that is onboard the Voyager 1. Designed to convey a bit of information about the planet Earth to any other sentient life forms that the Voyager may encounter, the Record contains greetings from various political figures, such as Kurt Waldheim (the former secretary of the United Nations) and different samples of nature sounds and pieces of music.

Grinnell, Max

99

Voyager: Exploring through the Public Eye  

E-print Network

Voyager: Exploring through the Public Eye Giny Cheong George Mason University September 25 2012September 25, 2012 #12;#12;Voyager HeadlinesVoyager Headlines #12;#12;Galileo Word CloudGalileo Word Cloud pr jovian m halfatmospheric teaminstruments scientifi laboratory voyager resea signal gaseou tor

100

Ganymede - Comparison of Voyager and Galileo Resolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These images demonstrate the dramatic improvement in the resolution of pictures that NASA's Galileo spacecraft is returning compared to previous images of the Jupiter system. The frame at left was taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft when it flew by in 1979, with a resolution of about 1.3 kilometers (0.8 mile) per pixel. The frame at right showing the same area was captured by Galileo during its first flyby of Ganymede on June 27, 1996; it has a resolution of about 74 meters (243 feet) per pixel, more than 17 times better than that of the Voyager image. In the Voyager frame, line-like bright and dark bands can be seen but their detailed structure and origin are not clear. In the Galileo image, each band is now seen to be composed of many smaller ridges. The structure and shape of the ridges permit scientists to determine their origin and their relation to other terrains, helping to unravel the complex history of the planet-sized moon. In each of these frames, north is to the top, and the sun illuminates the surface from the lower left nearly overhead (about 77 degrees above the horizon). The area shown, at latitude 10 degrees north, 167 degrees west, is about 35 by 55 kilometers (25 by 34 miles). The image was taken June 27 when Galileo was 7,448 kilometers (4.628 miles) away from Ganymede. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science.

1996-01-01

101

Voyager at the seventh planet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The success of the Voyager 1 flyby of Titan permitted configuring the Voyager 2 trajectory for flybys of Uranus and Neptune. Satellite instruments will gather data on the Uranian atmosphere, rings, satellites and magnetosphere (if there is one). The observational sequences were coded for transmission to Voyager 2 in November 1985. Earlier commands have stabilized the spacecraft to avoid image smearing during the approach and have reduced the time of firing of the thrusters for course changes. Imaging data compression will economize on the degraded communications link to Voyager 2 and lower the demands on the slowly failing radiothermoelectric power supply. The encounter will take place in February 1986 and, should failure of the command link occur, be accompanied by carrying out of a preprogrammed set of observational and operational sequences lasting through a 1989 Neptune flyby.

Mclaughlin, W. I.; Wolff, D. M.

1985-01-01

102

Voyager encounters Saturn: Scientific highlights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations generated by Voyager 1's encounter with Saturn are disclosed. Atmospheric conditions, the rings, new moons and the five inner moons are described. Titan, Hyperion and Iapetus are discussed in detail, as is Saturn's magnetosphere.

1980-01-01

103

Probing Chemical Space with Alkaloid-Inspired Libraries  

PubMed Central

Screening of small molecule libraries is an important aspect of probe and drug discovery science. Numerous authors have suggested that bioactive natural products are attractive starting points for such libraries, due to their structural complexity and sp3-rich character. Here, we describe the construction of a screening library based on representative members of four families of biologically active alkaloids (Stemonaceae, the structurally related cyclindricine and lepadiformine families, lupin, and Amaryllidaceae). In each case, scaffolds were based on structures of the naturally occurring compounds or a close derivative. Scaffold preparation was pursued following the development of appropriate enabling chemical methods. Diversification provided 686 new compounds suitable for screening. The libraries thus prepared had structural characteristics, including sp3 content, comparable to a basis set of representative natural products and were highly rule-of-five compliant. PMID:24451589

McLeod, Michael C.; Singh, Gurpreet; Plampin, James N.; Rane, Digamber; Wang, Jenna L.; Day, Victor W.; Aube, Jeffrey

2014-01-01

104

Probing chemical space with alkaloid-inspired libraries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Screening of small-molecule libraries is an important aspect of probe and drug discovery science. Numerous authors have suggested that bioactive natural products are attractive starting points for such libraries because of their structural complexity and sp3-rich character. Here, we describe the construction of a screening library based on representative members of four families of biologically active alkaloids (Stemonaceae, the structurally related cyclindricine and lepadiformine families, lupin and Amaryllidaceae). In each case, scaffolds were based on structures of the naturally occurring compounds or a close derivative. Scaffold preparation was pursued following the development of appropriate enabling chemical methods. Diversification provided 686 new compounds suitable for screening. The libraries thus prepared had structural characteristics, including sp3 content, comparable to a basis set of representative natural products and were highly rule-of-five compliant.

McLeod, Michael C.; Singh, Gurpreet; Plampin, James N.; Rane, Digamber; Wang, Jenna L.; Day, Victor W.; Aubé, Jeffrey

2014-02-01

105

The Future of NASA's Deep Space Network and Applications to Planetary Probe Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) has been an invaluable tool in the world's exploration of space. It has served the space-faring community for more than 45 years. The DSN has provided a primary communication pathway for planetary probes, either through direct- to-Earth links or through intermediate radio relays. In addition, its radiometric systems are critical to probe navigation and delivery to target. Finally, the radio link can also be used for direct scientific measurement of the target body ('radio science'). This paper will examine the special challenges in supporting planetary probe missions, the future evolution of the DSN and related spacecraft technology, the advantages and disadvantages of radio relay spacecraft, and the use of the DSN radio links for navigation and scientific measurements.

Deutsch, Leslie J.; Preston, Robert A.; Vrotsos, Peter

2010-01-01

106

Space Weather data processing and Science Gateway for the Van Allen Probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A near real-time data processing pipeline for the Space Weather broadcast data from the Van Allen Probes is presented. The Van Allen Probes broadcasts a sub-set of the science data in real-time when not downlinking the principal science data. This broadcast is received by several ground stations and relayed to APL in near real time to be ingested into the space weather processing pipeline. This pipeline processes the available level zero space weather data into higher level science data products. These products are made available to the public via the Van Allen Probes Science Gateway website (http://athena.jhuapl.edu). The website acts as pivotal point though which all other instrument SOC's can be accessed. Several other data products (e.g KP/DST indices) and tools (e.g orbit calculator) are made also available to the general public.

Romeo, G.; Barnes, R. J.; Weiss, M.; Fox, N. J.; Mauk, B.; Potter, M.; Kessel, R.

2013-12-01

107

Probing Lorentz and CPT violation with space-based experiments  

E-print Network

Space-based experiments offer sensitivity to numerous unmeasured effects involving Lorentz and CPT violation. We provide a classification of clock sensitivities and present explicit expressions for time variations arising in such experiments from nonzero coefficients in the Lorentz- and CPT-violating Standard-Model Extension.

Robert Bluhm; Alan Kostelecky; Charles Lane; Neil Russell

2003-06-20

108

IEC Thrusters for Space Probe Applications and Propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier conceptual design studies (Bussard, 1990; Miley et al., 1998; Burton et al., 2003) have described Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion propulsion to provide a high-power density fusion propulsion system capable of aggressive deep space missions. However, this requires large multi-GW thrusters and a long term development program. As a first step towards this goal, a progression of near-term IEC

George H. Miley; Hiromu Momota; Linchun Wu; Michael P. Reilly; Vince L. Teofilo; Rodney Burton; Richard Dell; William A. Hargus

2009-01-01

109

Probing the face-space of individuals with prosopagnosia.  

PubMed

A useful framework for understanding the mental representation of facial identity is face-space (Valentine, 1991), a multi-dimensional cognitive map in which individual faces are coded relative to the average of previously encountered faces, and in which the distance among faces represents their perceived similarity. We examined whether individuals with prosopagnosia, a disorder characterized by an inability to recognize familiar faces despite normal visual acuity and intellectual abilities, evince behavior consistent with this underlying representational schema. To do so, we compared the performance of 6 individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP), with a group of age- and gender-matched control participants in a series of experiments involving judgments of facial identity. We used digital images of male and female faces and morphed them to varying degrees relative to an average face, to create caricatures, anti-caricatures, and anti-faces (i.e. faces of the opposite identity). Across 5 behavioral tasks, CP individuals' performance was similar to that of the control group and consistent with the face-space framework. As a test of the sensitivity of our measures in revealing face processing abnormalities, we also tested a single acquired prosopagnosic (AP) individual, whose performance on the same tasks deviated significantly from the control and CP groups. The findings suggest that, despite an inability to recognize individual identities, CPs perceive faces in a manner consistent with norm-based coding of facial identity, although their representation is likely supported by a feature-based strategy. We suggest that the apparently normal posterior cortical regions, including the fusiform face area, serve as the neural substrate for at least a coarse, feature-based face-space map in CP and that their face recognition impairment arises from the disconnection between these regions and more anterior cortical sites. PMID:20227431

Nishimura, Mayu; Doyle, Jaime; Humphreys, Kate; Behrmann, Marlene

2010-05-01

110

Space probe/satellite ejection apparatus for spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ejection apparatus for spinning and propelling objects for ejection from a spacecraft at a desired velocity and rotational speed is discussed. The apparatus includes a launch cradle on which the space object to be ejected rests. The cradle is rotatably supported by a central hub secured to the upper end of the pneumatic cylinder piston shaft. Release mechanisms consisting of a retractable pin and locking lug is utilized to hold the cradle and object to be ejected. The release mechanism has a fixed barrier member which holds the retractable pin in engagement with the locking lug until release by upward movement of the launch cradle beyond the barrier height.

Smyly, H. M.; Miller, C. D.; Cloyd, R. A.; Heller, C. (inventor)

1985-01-01

111

Space probe/satellite ejection apparatus for spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ejection apparatus for spinning and propelling objects for ejection from a spacecraft at a desired velocity and rotational speed is discussed. The apparatus includes a launch cradle on which the space object to be ejected rests. The cradle is rotatably supported by a central hub secured to the upper end of the pneumatic cylinder piston shaft. Release mechanisms consisting of a retractable pin and locking lug is utilized to hold the cradle and object to be ejected. The release mechanism has a fixed barrier member which holds the retractable pin in engagement with the locking lug until release by upward movement of the launch cradle beyond the barrier height.

Smyly, H. M.; Miller, C. D.; Cloyd, R. A.; Heller, C. (inventors)

1984-01-01

112

Magnetic field studies at Jupiter by Voyager 1: preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results obtained by the Goddard Space Flight Center magnetometers on Voyager 1 concerning the large scale configuration of the Jovian bow shock and magnetopause, and the magnetic field in both the inner and outer magnetosphere are highlighted. There is evidence that a magnetic tail extending away from the planet on the nightside is formed by the solar wind-Jovian field interaction.

N. F. Ness; M. H. Acuna; R. P. Lepping; L. F. Burlaga; K. W. Behannon; F. M. Neubauer

1979-01-01

113

New developments at Hunveyor and Husar space probe model constructions in Hungarian Universities and Colleges: status report of 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Hunveyor and Husar space probe models are the main school robotics program in Hungary in the last decade initiated by our Cosmic Materials Space research Group (CMSRG). As a new form of planetary science education in Hungary students build their lander and rover robots and test them on test tables, carry out simulations, and go with their instruments to field works of planetary geology analog sites. Recently 10 groups work in this program and here is a status report about the new results. Planetary robot construction and simulations steps We summarized in 10 steps the main "constructional and industrial research and technology" description of planetary material studying and collecting by space probes (landers, rovers). We focused on the activity we began and teach to carry out at those steps. (Main planets considered were the Moon and Mars): 1. Reconnaissance and survey of the surface of a planet by orbital space probes (i.e. Lunar Orbiter, MGS, MRO etc.) Our studies: photogeology, geomorphology, preparations to cartography. 2. Mapping of the surface of the selected planet with geographical and stratigraphical methods. We (CMSRG) prepared thematic maps on Moon, Mercury, Mars, Venus [1] and Atlas (3) in the series [2,3]. 3. Identification of various surface materials by albedo, spectroscopic [4], thermal IR, identification and selection of the target sites. (in terrestrial analog sites during field works) 4. Planning the space probe system lander and rover working together (MPF-Sojourner type assembly). Planning of the Hunveyor and Husar models. 5. Construction and manufacturing lander and rover units. All Hunveyor groups built their models [5]. 6. Launching and traveling the space probes to the planetary surface. (No rocket building, we simulate [6] some events during the voyage only). 7. Measuring the planetary surface environment on the surface of target planet [7]. (CMSRG) groups carry out test-table measurements [8] and simulations, and later they go to geological type planetary analog field works in terrestrial conditions [9]. 8. Transmitting data. At CMSRG groups at field observations to the "terrestrial control" receives data. 9. Studies on planetary material samples. We can study real NASA Lunar Sample, real Hungarian and NIPR meteorite samples. 10. Comparative planetology. CMSRG's outreach studies are summarized in the Concise atlas series notebooks. Husar-2 rover developments The Husar-2 developments of the Pécs University were focused on a rover type to use it in the MDRS program. After systematic developments of Husars from LEGO Husar till the Husar-2a, -2b, -2c variants the final version Husar-2d visited the MDRS crew 71. in Utah, USA in 2008. Two years ago H. Hargitai used Husar-2b in Utah, in the works of the MRDS crew 42. where dry badlands surface forms are excellent analogs to Martian landscape. Hunveyor-4 ice surface visitor The new developments in Hunveyor-4 focused on the winter Balaton surface measurements. The triangular arrangement for the measuring arrangement of the three sound frequency range sensors with a hanged on hydrophone was planned [7]. Husar-5 developments The Husar-5 developments focused on LEGO modelling, and one measurement is for soil vibrations, the other is for the conductivity of the soil. It is in construction at Széchenyi István High School, Sopron. Husar-6 developments The Husar-6 is another LEGO based modelling, built at Zsigmondy Vilmos High School, Dorog. Hunveyor-9 and Husar-9 It is one of the newest construction at the Eötvös József High School in Tata. The Hunveyor-9 have been built with camera and a telescopic arm instrumentation, and a magnetic carpet experiment. Magnetic carpet is a sensor of the magnetic components of a planetary dust mixture transported by the wind. The mixing ratio of the magnetic and nonmagnetic components were measured with various slope angles of the carpet unrolled from Hunveyor-9. Hunveyor-10 The Neumann János Computer Science Society developed the last Hunveyor system. It was a meteorological station w

Hegzi, S.; Bérczi, Sz.; Hudoba, Gy.; Magyar, I.; Lang, A.; Istenes, Z.; Weidinger, T.; Tepliczky, I.; Varga, T.; Hargitai, H.

2008-09-01

114

83Gravity Probe-B : Testing Einstein Again! Space Math http://spacemath.gsfc.nasa.gov  

E-print Network

predictions of Albert Einstein's relativistic theory of gravity called General Relativity. The pointing83Gravity Probe-B : Testing Einstein Again! Space Math http://spacemath.gsfc.nasa.gov Copyright's theory of gravity were correct, the pointing direction should stay absolutely the same. If Einstein

115

Launch summary for 1978 - 1982. [sounding rockets, space probes, and satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data pertinent to the launching of space probes, soundings rockets, and satellites presented in tables include launch date, time, and site; agency rocket identification; sponsoring country or countries; instruments carried for experiments; the peak altitude achieved by the rockets; and the apoapsis and periapsis for satellites. The experimenter or institution involved in the launching is also cited.

Hills, H. K.

1984-01-01

116

Voyager spacecraft images of Jupiter and Saturn.  

PubMed

The images of Jupiter and Saturn and their satellites taken by the Voyager spacecraft TV cameras are shown and described. The scientific findings of the Voyager mission instruments and experiments are summarized. PMID:20372434

Birnbaum, M M

1982-01-15

117

Voyager orbit determination at Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 orbit determination activity extending from encounter minus 60 days to the Jupiter encounter, and includes quantitative results and conclusions derived from mission experiences. The major topics covered include an identification and quantification of the major orbit determination error sources and a review of salient orbit determination results from encounter, with emphasis on the Jupiter approach phase orbit determination. Special attention is paid to the use of combined spacecraft-based optical observations and earth-based radiometric observations to achieve accurate orbit determination during the Jupiter encounter approach phase.

Campbell, J. K.; Synnott, S. P.; Bierman, G. J.

1983-01-01

118

Improved downlink frequency calculations for Voyager 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voyager 2 and her sister Voyager 1 were launched, respectively, in August and September 1977. The object of these spacecraft was to conduct exploratory investigations of the Jupiter and Saturn planetary systems and the interplanetary medium between Earth and Saturn. In April 1978 the Voyager 2 redundant receiver and the loop capacitor in the prime spacecraft receiver failed, leaving the

A. L. Ricardo

1982-01-01

119

Voyager flight engineering - Preparing for Uranus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Voyager spacecraft are currently engaged in exploration of the outer solar system with Voyager 2 scheduled to conduct the first close-up investigation of the planet Uranus during the period November 4, 1985 through March 3, 1986. Flight engineering for the Voyager project has the objectives of delivering a functioning spacecraft containing observing sequences to the right places at the

W. I. McLaughlin; D. M. Wolff

1985-01-01

120

VISITES ET VOYAGES Universit Ouverte Lyon 1  

E-print Network

1 PROGRAMME VISITES ET VOYAGES Université Ouverte Lyon 1 2011-2012 #12;2 CONDITIONS GENERALES DE été conçus par des professionnels du voyage et sont susceptibles de certaines modifications dues aux voyages touristiques, mais celle de faire connaître les plus grandes réalisations scientifiques et

Maume-Deschamps, Véronique

121

The Voyage of the Komagata Maru Launch  

E-print Network

The Voyage of the Komagata Maru Launch This event is sponsored by: THE SIKH CHALLENGE TO CANADA'S COLOUR BAR HUGH J.M. JOHNSTON THE VOYAGE OF THE KOMAGATA MARU EXPANDED AND FULLY REVISED EDITION School (professor emeritus of history at SFU), and his brand new book titled `TheVoyage of the Komagata Maru'. Join

122

Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This monograph contains brief descriptions of all robotic deep space missions attempted since the opening of the space age in 1957. The missions are listed strictly chronologically in order of launch date (not by planetary encounter).

Siddiqi, Asif A.; Launius, Roger (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

123

View of Callisto from Voyager and Galileo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

View of Callisto, most distant of the four large moons of Jupiter. This mosaic was prepared from images obtained by three spacecraft: Voyager 1 (left side), Galileo (middle), and Voyager 2 data (right side). The Voyager data were taken in 1979 but left a 'gap' centered at longitude 290 degrees in the trailing hemisphere of Callisto. The Galileo Solid-State Imaging system photographed this area on its second orbit around Jupiter on 9 September, 1996 Universal Time. The resolution of the Galileo data is 4.3 kilometers/pixel (2.7 miles), meaning that the smallest visible feature is about 12 kilometers (7 miles) across. North is to the top of the picture.

Features of interest in the new Galileo data include a dark, smooth area in the northern latitudes (upper third) which appears to mantle older terrain. This could be dark ejecta from a small impact crater. Also visible is a fresh, sharp-rimmed crater some 90 km (56 miles) across named Igaluk (center left third of picture), and a bright zone in the south polar area (bottom of image) which could be an impact scar.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

1996-01-01

124

Tracking and orbit determination of deep-space probes in ISAS mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) has launched three deep-space probes. They are Sakigake and Suisei for observation of Halley's comet, and Hiten for the lunar swing-by mission. Sakigake, which was launched on January 8, 1985, came back to the neighborhood of the Earth, after the successful encounter with the Halley's comet in March 1986 and several revolutions around the Sun. It approached to 90,000 km from the Earth on January 8, 1992. The communication link with this probe has been reestablished since July 1991 and the tracking and orbit determination have been successfully carried out using two-way range and range-rate data. Hiten, on the other hand, was launched on January, 1990 and lunar swing-by operations have been conducted, which was supported by the precise orbit determination (OD) using both S and X band signals. The integrated operations covering the Usuda Deep-Space Center (UDSC), having a 64 m antenna as well as the Sagamihara Space Operation Center (SSOC) will be described in this paper and numerical results of orbit determination of these probes will be presented in detail. Finally, the strategy leading to the injection of Hiten into an elliptical orbit around the Moon in February, 1992 and the requirement of OD precision in achieving this goal, as well as tracking results after injection, will be discussed.

Nishimura, T.; Ichikawa, T.; Katoh, T.; Kosaka, H.; Ushikoshi, A.; Shimizu, T.

125

november 2009 Darwin Virtual Voyage  

E-print Network

. Darwin-inspired works-- almost all created specifically for the show--highlighted Darwin's theory on natural selection, species change and even conflict between religion and Darwin's theories. GusheeResearchUC november 2009 Darwin Virtual Voyage 4-D | Fashion Annual Report Edition #12;UC Wel

Papautsky, Ian

126

Voyager 1: Encounter with Saturn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of the Voyager Project is reviewed as well as known facts about Saturn and its satellites. Important results of encounters with Jupiter are summarized. Scientific objectives of the flyby of Saturn involve the planet's atmosphere, rings, and magnetic field interactions with the solar wind and satellites. The search for additional satellites, and various aspects of Titan, Rhea, Dione,

N. Panagakos

1980-01-01

127

Voyager to Jupiter and Saturn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Voyager mission to explore planets of the outer solar system is summarized. The mission schedule and profiles for encounters with Jupiter and Saturn, and possibly with Uranus and Pluto are included along with a description of the spacecraft and its trajectories. Scientific investigations to be made and the instruments carried are also discussed.

1977-01-01

128

The Voyager program at APL  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is presented of the structure and function of the Applied Physics Laboratory's low-energy charged particle (LECP) instrument used in NASA's Voyager program. The LECP experiment was designed to measure the intensity, energy spectra, composition, angular distributions, and spatial and temporal characteristics of ions and electrons that are encountered by the spacecraft. Scientific findings of previous planetary encounters are

Barry H. Mauk; Edwin P. Keath; Stamatios M. Krimigis

1990-01-01

129

Technology Brings Voyagers into Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three articles focus on many classroom activities and experiments inspired by the voyage of two canoes, built of traditional materials, from Hawaii's Hilo Harbor in 1995. Nationwide, students followed daily satellite tracking, accessed the Internet for updated accounts of the canoes, talked directly with navigators, and watched television…

Inn, Kristina; And Others

1995-01-01

130

The Deep Space Network. An instrument for radio navigation of deep space probes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Deep Space Network (DSN) network configurations used to generate the navigation observables and the basic process of deep space spacecraft navigation, from data generation through flight path determination and correction are described. Special emphasis is placed on the DSN Systems which generate the navigation data: the DSN Tracking and VLBI Systems. In addition, auxiliary navigational support functions are described.

Renzetti, N. A.; Jordan, J. F.; Berman, A. L.; Wackley, J. A.; Yunck, T. P.

1982-01-01

131

A Proposed Study of the Outer Planetary Systems Using the Pioneer and Voyager Extreme Ultraviolet Data (OPDAP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This entire project was made possible by the presence of four deep space spacecraft Pioneers 10 and 11 and Voyagers 1 and 2. These spacecraft were the first man made objects to fly by the giant outer planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. The UV photometers on board Pioneers 10 and 11 and the UV spectrometers (UVS) on board Voyagers

Darrell L. Judge

1996-01-01

132

Physical limitations in sensors for a drag-free deep space probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inner perturbing forces acting on sensors were analyzed, taking into account the technological limitations imposed on the proof mass position pickup and proof mass acquisition system. The resulting perturbing accelerations are evaluated as a function of the drag-free sensor parameters. Perturbations included gravitational attraction, electrical action, magnetic action, pressure effects, radiation effects, and action of the position pickup. These data can be used to study the laws of guidance, providing an optimization of the space probe as a whole.

Juillerat, R.

1971-01-01

133

Voyager: The grandest tour. The mission to the outer planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A history and general accomplishments of the Voyager 1 and 2 missions to the outer planets are presented. Over the course of 12 years, these spacecraft drew back the curtain on nearly half the solar system. They brought into sharp focus the faces of the four giant outer planets - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune - and their families of disparate moons. The Voyagers showed us unimagined worlds: frozen beauty in the rings of Saturn, and molten violence in the explosive sulfur volcanoes on Jupiter's moon Io. They brought us close-ups of the florid and intricate storms of Jupiter itself. Voyager 2 went on to reveal the peculiarities of cockeyed Uranus and its equally skewed rings and moons. Then finally, Neptune, nearly invisible from earth, was unveiled in all its big, blue splendor, circled by shadowy rings and a bright pastel moon called Triton. Both Voyagers are headed toward the outer boundary of the solar system in search of the heliopause, the region where the sun's influence wanes and the beginning of interstellar space can be sensed.

1991-01-01

134

First Close-up Image of Jupiter from Voyager 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA'S Voyager 1 took this picture of the planet Jupiter on Saturday, Jan. 6, the first in its three-month-long, close-up investigation of the largest planet. The spacecraft, flying toward a March 5 closest approach, was 35.8 million miles (57.6 million kilometers) from Jupiter and 371.7 million miles (598.2 million kilometers) from Earth when the picture was taken. As the Voyager cameras begin their meteorological surveillance of Jupiter, they reveal a dynamic atmosphere with more convective structure than had previously been thought. While the smallest atmospheric features seen in this picture are still as large as 600 miles (1,000 kilometers) across, Voyager will be able to detect individual storm systems as small as 3 miles (5 kilometers) at closest approach. The Great Red Spot can be seen near the limb at the far right. Most of the other features are too small to be seen in terrestrial telescopes. This picture is really a combination of three images taken through color filters, then transmitted to Jet Propulsion Laboratory through the Deep Space Network's antennas, and assembled by JPL's Image Processing Lab. The Voyager Project is managed for NASA by Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

1979-01-01

135

Changes around Marduk between Voyager, and Galileo's first two orbits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detail of changes around Marduk on Jupiter's moon Io as seen by Voyager 1 in 1979 (upper left) and NASA's Galileo spacecraft between June 1996 (lower left) and September 1996 (upper and lower right). The new dark red linear feature extending southeast from Marduk is about 250 kilometers long and may be a volcanic fissure. The flow-like feature at the bottom of the images is distinct in the Voyager data, indistinct in the June Galileo data, but distinct again in the September Galileo data. This may be due to the different lighting conditions rather than volcanic activity. The Voyager 1 image uses the green, blue, and violet filters. The upper right September 1996 image from Galileo uses the violet and green filters of the solid state imaging system aboard the Galileo spacecraft and a synthetic blue to simulate Voyager colors. The lower June and September, 1996 Galileo images use the imaging system's near-infrared (756 nm), green, and violet filters. North is to the top in all frames.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

1996-01-01

136

Ariel at Voyager Closest Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This picture is part of the highest-resolution Voyager 2 imaging sequence of Ariel, a moon of Uranus about 1,300 kilometers (800 miles) in diameter. The clear-filter, narrow-angle image was taken Jan. 24, 1986, from a distance of 130,000 km (80,000 mi). The complexity of Ariel's surface indicates that a variety of geologic processes have occurred. The numerous craters, for example, are indications of an old surface bombarded by meteoroids over a long period. Also conspicuous at this resolution, about 2.4 km (1.5 mi), are linear grooves (evidence of tectonic activity that has broken up the surface) and smooth patches (indicative of deposition of material). The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

1986-01-01

137

Saturn taken from Voyager 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This true color picture was assembled from Voyager 2 Saturn images obtained Aug. 4 from a distance of 21 million kilometers (13 million miles) on the spacecraft's approach trajectory. Three of Saturn's icy moons are evident at left. They are, in order of distance from the planet: Tethys, 1,050 km. (652 mi.) in diameter; Dione, 1,120 km. (696 mi.); and Rhea, 1,530 km. (951 mi.). The shadow of Tethys appears on Saturn's southern hemisphere. A fourth satellite, Mimas, is less evident, appearing as a bright spot a quarter-inch in from the planet's limb about half an inch above Tethys; the shadow of Mimas appears on the planet about three-quarters of an inch directly above that of Tethys. The pastel and yellow hues on the planet reveal many contrasting bright and darker bands in both hemispheres of Saturn's weather system. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

1981-01-01

138

Voyager 2 image of Saturn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this Voyager 2 image of Saturn, obtained Aug. 11, 1981, from a range of 14.7 million kilometers (9.1 million miles), north is at the upper right edge of the disc. Seen above the planet are the satellites Dione (right) and Enceladus. This false-color print shows a green spot at the south edge of a yellow band; in true color, the spot would appear brown and the band white. A bright yellow spot slightly above and to the left in this image moves eastward relative to the green spot at a rate that allows it to pass the green feature in about 50 days. The convective clouds that appear between the two spots are typical of the region. Here, the smallest visible structures measure about 270 kilometers (170 miles). The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

1981-01-01

139

Voyager 2 image of Saturn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Voyager 2 image, taken Aug. 18 from a distance of 6.8 million kilometers (4.2 million miles), shows the region extending from 20 north latitude to Saturn's polar region. Several small-scale spots evident at around 37 north move in an easterly jet at a speed approaching 15 meters-per-second (33 mph). Toward the boundary with the white cloud band are several cloud strands that mark part of the westerly flow of the atmosphere. This flow reaches a maximum in the 'ribbonlike' structure, with wind speeds of about 150 meters-per-second (330 mph). Further cloud bands and small-scale spots can be seen toward Saturn's north pole. The smallest features evident here measure about 65 km. (40 mi.) across. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

1981-01-01

140

The Voyager program at APL  

SciTech Connect

An overview is presented of the structure and function of the Applied Physics Laboratory's low-energy charged particle (LECP) instrument used in NASA's Voyager program. The LECP experiment was designed to measure the intensity, energy spectra, composition, angular distributions, and spatial and temporal characteristics of ions and electrons that are encountered by the spacecraft. Scientific findings of previous planetary encounters are noted, and color energy-time spectrograms that summarize the LECP results at each planet are presented and analyzed. Some details of the encounter by Voyager 2 of Neptune are provided, noting that the characteristics of the trajectory that was used provided for close observation of Triton, observations of particle structures, and exploration of Neptune's polar cap. A schematic of Neptune's magnetosphere is provided and analyzed. 11 refs.

Mauk, B.H.; Keath, E.P.; Krimigis, S.M. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (USA))

1990-06-01

141

The Voyager program at APL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview is presented of the structure and function of the Applied Physics Laboratory's low-energy charged particle (LECP) instrument used in NASA's Voyager program. The LECP experiment was designed to measure the intensity, energy spectra, composition, angular distributions, and spatial and temporal characteristics of ions and electrons that are encountered by the spacecraft. Scientific findings of previous planetary encounters are noted, and color energy-time spectrograms that summarize the LECP results at each planet are presented and analyzed. Some details of the encounter by Voyager 2 of Neptune are provided, noting that the characteristics of the trajectory that was used provided for close observation of Triton, observations of particle structures, and exploration of Neptune's polar cap. A schematic of Neptune's magnetosphere is provided and analyzed.

Mauk, Barry H.; Keath, Edwin P.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.

1990-06-01

142

The Voyager program at APL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is presented of the structure and function of the Applied Physics Laboratory's low-energy charged particle (LECP) instrument used in NASA's Voyager program. The LECP experiment was designed to measure the intensity, energy spectra, composition, angular distributions, and spatial and temporal characteristics of ions and electrons that are encountered by the spacecraft. Scientific findings of previous planetary encounters are noted, and color energy-time spectrograms that summarize the LECP results at each planet are presented and analyzed. Some details of the encounter by Voyager 2 of Neptune are provided, noting that the characteristics of the trajectory that was used provided for close observation of Triton, observations of particle structures, and exploration of Neptune's polar cap. A schematic of Neptune's magnetosphere is provided and analyzed.

Mauk, Barry H.; Keath, Edwin P.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.

1990-01-01

143

The deep space network. [tracking and communication support for space probes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives, functions, and organization of the deep space network are summarized. Progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations is reported. Interface support for the Mariner Venus Mercury 1973 flight and Pioneer 10 and 11 missions is included.

1974-01-01

144

Titania - Highest Resolution Voyager Picture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the highest-resolution picture of Titania returned by Voyager 2. The picture is a composite of two images taken Jan. 24, 1986, through the clear filter of Voyager's narrow-angle camera. At the time, the spacecraft was 369,000 kilometers (229,000 miles) from the Uranian moon; the resolution was 13 km (8 mi). Titania is the largest satellite of Uranus, with a diameter of a little more than 1,600 km (1,000 mi). Abundant impact craters of many sizes pockmark the ancient surface. The most prominent features are fault valleys that stretch across Titania. They are up to 1,500 km (nearly 1,000 mi) long and as much as 75 km (45 mi) wide. In valleys seen at right-center, the sunward-facing walls are very bright. While this is due partly to the lighting angle, the brightness also indicates the presence of a lighter material, possibly young frost deposits. An impact crater more than 200 km (125 mi) in diameter distinguishes the very bottom of the disk; the crater is cut by a younger fault valley more than 100 km (60 mi) wide. An even larger impact crater, perhaps 300 km (180 mi) across, is visible at top. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

1986-01-01

145

Farewell to the Voyagers: Measuring the Local ISM in the Immediate Path of the Two Voyager Spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical observations of the interstellar medium often struggle to measure fundamental physical properties of the gas on small scales because most observations are averaged along the line of sight, leading to difficulties in evaluating pressure equilibrium, turbulence, magnetic field structure, and volume density. The local ISM has helped in this regard by providing relatively simple ISM absorption profiles over short path lengths, with low column densities only detectable with strong transitions in the UV . On August 25, 2012, the first human-made object, the Voyager 1 spacecraft, crossed the heliosphere, effectively leaving the solar system and entering the galactic interstellar environment. Voyager 2 is expected to do the same in the coming years, and over the next decade both spacecraft will continue to make daily measurements of fundamental physical properties. We propose to make the first observations of nearby stars along the same line of sight as the current locations of the Voyager spacecraft in order to measure the same interstellar material. The proposed observations are of the very closest stars in these directions and will provide measurements of the kinematic structure, electron density, temperature and turbulence, elemental abundances and small scale structure by comparing two closely spaced sight lines. With both HST and the Voyager spacecraft approaching the end of long and fruitful missions, we have the opportunity to acquire a unique dataset which synthesizes the independent and complimentary in situ observations with the shortest possible line-of-sight observations, to provide an unprecedented study of the galactic ISM surrounding the Sun.

Redfield, Seth

2014-10-01

146

Temporal and spectral variations of anomalous oxygen nuclei measured by Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 in the outer heliosphere  

E-print Network

Temporal and spectral variations of anomalous oxygen nuclei measured by Voyager 1 and Voyager 2. [1] We have studied the temporal and spectral variations of anomalous oxygen nuclei at the Voyager 1 of anomalous oxygen nuclei measured by Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 in the outer heliosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 112

Jensen, Grant J.

147

Space Coronagraphy: Future Prospects from the Solar Orbiter and Probe Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESA Solar Orbiter and NASA Solar Probe missions proposed for flying in the next decade will provide unique platforms for space coronagraphy. I will review the possibilities offered by these two solar missions to the study of the physics of the corona. The payload of the Solar Orbiter is currently being selected and it will include a coronagraph. I will describe the unique observations that such an instrument would be able to carry out from the Orbiter. This spacecraft will offer a close-up (0.25 AU), out-of-the-ecliptic and co-rotating view of the Sun. The Solar Probe's trajectory would take the spacecraft through the innermost coronal layers. This would offer the unique opportunity for backward looking observations through the corona. I will review the exciting new science that this viewpoint would enable.

Fineschi, Silvano

148

46 CFR 42.05-45 - International voyage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of the 1966 Convention, an international voyage means a sea voyage...every territory for the international relations of which any specific Contracting...considered as being on an international voyage for the purpose...

2012-10-01

149

46 CFR 42.05-45 - International voyage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the 1966 Convention, an international voyage means a sea voyage...every territory for the international relations of which any specific Contracting...considered as being on an international voyage for the purpose...

2010-10-01

150

46 CFR 42.05-45 - International voyage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of the 1966 Convention, an international voyage means a sea voyage...every territory for the international relations of which any specific Contracting...considered as being on an international voyage for the purpose...

2011-10-01

151

46 CFR 42.05-45 - International voyage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of the 1966 Convention, an international voyage means a sea voyage...every territory for the international relations of which any specific Contracting...considered as being on an international voyage for the purpose...

2013-10-01

152

Les Voyages extraordinaires de Jules Verne Traductions en Hbreu  

E-print Network

Les Voyages extraordinaires de Jules Verne Traductions en Hébreu 1863 Cinq semaines en , , . , ," " .1985 , , , ," " .2001 , , , ," " .2002 , , ," " 1864 Voyage au centre de la Terre .1878 , , , ," " 1865 De la Terre à la Lune .1924 , , ," " .1962 , , . , = ," " 1866 Voyages et aventures du

HarÂ?El, Zvi

153

Time- and Space-Resolved Optical Probing of Femtosecond-Laser-Driven Shock Waves in Aluminum  

SciTech Connect

We present the first measurements of particle velocity histories at the interface between an aluminum sample shocked by a 120fs laser-driven pressure pulse and a fused silica window. Frequency-domain interferometry is used to provide space- and time-resolved measurements of the phase shift of a pair of probe pulses backscattered at the shocked interface. Pressures of 1{endash}3 Mbar are inferred from the simultaneous measurement of the particle and shock velocities along the aluminum Hugoniot curve for {approximately}10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} laser irradiances. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Evans, R.; Badger, A.D.; Fallies, F.; Mahdieh, M.; Hall, T.A. [Physics Department, University of Essex, Colchester, Essex (United Kingdom)] [Physics Department, University of Essex, Colchester, Essex (United Kingdom); Audebert, P.; Geindre, J.; Gauthier, J. [Laboratoire pour l`Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)] [Laboratoire pour l`Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Mysyrowicz, A.; Grillon, G.; Antonetti, A. [Laboratoire d`Optique Appliquee, Batterie de l`Yvette, 91120 Palaiseau (France)] [Laboratoire d`Optique Appliquee, Batterie de l`Yvette, 91120 Palaiseau (France)

1996-10-01

154

Uruk Sulcus Mosaic - Galileo over Voyager Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mosaic of four Galileo images of the Uruk Sulcus region on Ganymede (Latitude 11 N, Longitude: 170 W) is shown overlayed on the data obtained by the Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1979. North is to the top of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the lower left, nearly overhead. The area shown is about 120 by 110 kilometers (75 by 68 miles) in extent and the smallest features that can be discerned are 74 meters (243 feet) in size in the Galileo images and 1.3 kilometers (0.8 miles) in the Voyager data. The higher resolution Galileo images unveil the details of parallel ridges and troughs that are principal features in the brighter regions of Ganymede. High photometric activity (large light contrast at high spatial frequencies) of this ice-rich surface was such that the Galileo camera's hardware data compressor was pushed into truncating lines. The north-south running gap between the left and right halves of the mosaic is a result of line truncation from the normal 800 samples per line to about 540. The images were taken on 27 June, 1996 Universal Time at a range of 7,448 kilometers (4,628 miles) through the clear filter of the Galileo spacecraft's imaging system.

Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

1996-01-01

155

The Atmosphere of Jupiter: An Analysis of the Voyager Radio Occultation Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coherently related S (2.3 GHz) and X band (8.4 GHz) signals transmitted from Voyager 1 and 2 have been used to probe the Jovian atmosphere during occultations of the spacecraft by Jupiter. The observations have yielded profiles in height of the gas refractivity, molecular number density, pressure, temperature, and microwave absorption in the troposphere and stratosphere of Jupiter at latitudes

G. F. Lindal; G. E. Wood; G. S. Levy; J. D. Anderson; D. N. Sweetnam; H. B. Hotz; B. J. Buckles; D. P. Holmes; P. E. Doms; V. R. Eshleman; G. L. Tyler; T. A. Croft

1981-01-01

156

Jupiter/Voyager data analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extent to which the unusual spectral properties of Io and Alamathea can be accounted for by sulfur glass or at least by sulfur rich glasses was investigated. Whether or not the temperature dependence of the characteristic spectrum of pure sulfur can be used to set limits on the abundance of sulfur as a surface constituent of Io was also explored. Data from Voyager imaging observations of Saturn's small satellites, of the unusual retrograde satellite Phoebe, and of Hyperion were also reduced, analyzed, and interpreted.

Veverka, J.

1985-01-01

157

Space-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic measurements with an optical fiber probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By monitoring of the emitted signal from a sample while varying the excitation wavelength, emission wavelength or both of them, fluorescence spectroscopy has become a powerful diagnostic technology. Fluorescence spectrometers can be used to measure and record the fluorescence spectra of a given sample, and have been successfully applied in different areas including biology, biochemistry, chemistry, medicine, environmental science, material science, food industry, and pharmaceutical industry. In order to increase the flexibility and applicability of conventional fluorescence spectrometers, we design an optic fiber probe for conducting the UV/Vis excitation light to a sample under study, and for collecting the fluorescence produced by the sample. Different excitation/emission fiber bundle arrangements have been fabricated and their performances have been evaluated and compared. Fiber adaptors which can be used for different commercial fluorescence spectrometers are also developed. In order to achieve space-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic measurements, we connect the fiber probe to a microscope which is mounted on a 3D traverse stage. Experiments and measurement results using the space-resolved fiber optic fluorescence spectrometer are presented in this paper.

Li, Enbang; Qiu, Hialin

2008-12-01

158

Astrographic Observations of Pheobe from Voyager 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article provides the reduced astrographic observations of the ninth Saturnian satellite, Pheobe, derived from star-satellite imaging data acquired by the Voyager 2 spacecraft. The data set contains 8 pairs of spacecraft-centered right ascension and declination observations and includes all of the observations used in Voyager encounter operations.

Jacobson, R. A.

1996-01-01

159

Voyager Briefing: Expectations of the Neptune Encounter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA KSC video release presents a news briefing held Aug. 4, 1989 at NASA Headquarters three weeks after Voyager 2's official "encounter" with Neptune began. The video is comprised of two slide presentations followed by a short question and answer period. The press conference is moderated by Charles Redmond, (NASA Public Affairs), includes an introduction by Dr. Geoffrey A Briggs (Dir., Solar System Exploration Div.), and features Norman R. Haynes (Voyager Project Manager, JPL) and Dr. Edward C. Stone (Voyager Project Scientist, Cal Tech). Mr. Haynes' presentation centers on Voyager's history, engineering changes, and spacecraft trajectories while Dr. Stone presents the scientific aspects of Voyager, including the 11 scientific investigations planned for the mission, instruments used, and imaging techniques.

1989-01-01

160

Voyager 2 image of Saturn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Voyager 2 image of Saturn, obtained Aug. 21 from a distance of 5.4 million kilometers (3.4 million miles), shows further evidence of weather patterns at all latitudes. A stream of clouds is moving in the westward flow at about 15 meters-per-second (33 mph). The clouds are attached to a large spot about 3,000 km. (1,900 mi.) in diameter; the spot moves eastward at about 30 meters-per-second (65 mph) and shows the anti-cyclonic rotation of the combined features. Another spot is seen to the east of the larger cloud, with a similar anti-cyclonic rotation. This ribbonlike feature seen in the latitude band centered at 47 north marks a high-speed jet of about 150 meters-per-second (330 mph). Further small-scale clouds are evident toward the polar region (upper right). The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

1981-01-01

161

Oberon at Voyager Closest Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Voyager 2 picture of Oberon is the best the spacecraft acquired of Uranus' outermost moon. The picture was taken shortly after 3:30 a.m. PST on Jan. 24, 1986, from a distance of 660,000 kilometers (410,000 miles). The color was reconstructed from images taken through the narrow-angle camera's violet, clear and green filters. The picture shows features as small as 12 km (7 mi) on the moon's surface. Clearly visible are several large impact craters in Oberon's icy surface surrounded by bright rays similar to those seen on Jupiter's moon Callisto. Quite prominent near the center of Oberon's disk is a large crater with a bright central peak and a floor partially covered with very dark material. This may be icy, carbon-rich material erupted onto the crater floor sometime after the crater formed. Another striking topographic feature is a large mountain, about 6 km (4 mi) high, peeking out on the lower left limb. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

1986-01-01

162

Radio science experiment of Voyager-2 spacecraft occultation by Neptune  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA-JPL and Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science collaborated at the Usuda Deep Space Center in the Voyager-2 Neptune occultation experiment. Phase information is extracted from the recorded data by means of a digital filter that can track the carrier frequency and narrow the filter bandwidth by up to 3 mHz. The results thus obtained can verify the phase-stability of the receiving system as a whole. Problems experienced by low-noise amplifiers were solved through the use of system redundancies.

Hayashi, T.; Nishimura, T.; Takano, T.; Yamamoto, Z.; Yamada, M.; Shuto, K.; Saito, H.; Ichikawa, T.; Kawashima, N.; Mizuno, E.

1990-01-01

163

Comparison of Galileo Probe and Earth-Based Translation Rates of Jupiter's Equatorial Clouds  

PubMed

The Doppler wind speeds derived from Galileo probe data are comparable with the maximum translation speeds observed in the equatorial zone by Voyager 1 and the Hubble Space Telescope. Slower published values of east-west winds are based on measurements of larger features and should be interpreted as translation rates of large weather systems interacting with the wind. The nature of the hot-spot region that the Galileo probe entered is compatible with a high-speed jet at 6 degrees north. The hot spot is associated with an equatorial weather system that spans 5 degrees of latitude and translates at 103 meters per second. PMID:8662572

Beebe; Simon; Huber

1996-05-10

164

Wall current probe: A non-invasive in situ plasma diagnostic for space and time resolved current density distribution measurement  

SciTech Connect

In the context of low temperature plasma research, we propose a wall current probe to determine the local charged particle fluxes flowing to the chamber walls. This non-intrusive planar probe consists of an array of electrode elements which can be individually biased and for which the current can be measured separately. We detail the probe properties and present the ability of the diagnostic to be used as a space and time resolved measurement of the ion and electron current density at the chamber walls. This diagnostic will be relevant to study the electron transport in magnetized low-pressure plasmas.

Baude, R.; Gaboriau, F.; Hagelaar, G. J. M. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d’énergie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France and CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062, Toulouse (France)] [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d’énergie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France and CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062, Toulouse (France)

2013-08-15

165

Extensible Statistical Software: On a Voyage to Oberon Gnther Sawitzki  

E-print Network

examples how these challenges are met in Voyager. The Voyager project has been driven by the need to defineExtensible Statistical Software: On a Voyage to Oberon G�nther Sawitzki StatLab Heidelberg Im-safety across module boundaries, even at run time. We introduce Voyager, an extensible data analysis system

166

The Galilean satellites and Jupiter - Voyager 2 imaging science results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous global observations of Jupiter were made by Voyager 2 for a period of 63 days. Voyager 2 provided images that both complement and supplement the Voyager 1 images. The combined Voyager 1 and 2 observations of Jupiter provide an almost continuous record, over a 6-month period, of the behavior of the Jovian atmosphere at a resolution far better than

B. A. Smith; L. A. Soderblom; R. Beebe; J. Boyce; G. Briggs; M. Carr; S. A. Collins; T. V. Johnson; A. F. Cook II; G. E. Danielson; D. Morrison; A. INGERSOLL; H. MASURSKY; J. MCCAULEY; T. OWEN; C. SAGAN; E. M. SHOEMAKER; R. STROM; V. E. SUOMI; J. VEVERKA

1979-01-01

167

Le prix du Carnet de Voyage universitaire international Rglement  

E-print Network

Le prix du « Carnet de Voyage » universitaire international Règlement Article 1 Organisation Le concours universitaire international du Carnet de voyage est organisé par l'Université Blaise Vous de Carnet de Voyage (le vendredi à 17h) Article 4 : Que doiton réaliser ? Un carnet de voyage

Sart, Remi

168

Probing Real-Space and Time-Resolved Correlation Functions with Many-Body Ramsey Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to use Ramsey interferometry and single-site addressability, available in synthetic matter such as cold atoms or trapped ions, to measure real-space and time-resolved spin correlation functions. These correlation functions directly probe the excitations of the system, which makes it possible to characterize the underlying many-body states. Moreover, they contain valuable information about phase transitions where they exhibit scale invariance. We also discuss experimental imperfections and show that a spin-echo protocol can be used to cancel slow fluctuations in the magnetic field. We explicitly consider examples of the two-dimensional, antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model and the one-dimensional, long-range transverse field Ising model to illustrate the technique.

Knap, Michael; Kantian, Adrian; Giamarchi, Thierry; Bloch, Immanuel; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Demler, Eugene

2013-10-01

169

Voyager and Pioneer Missions to the boundaries of the heliosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction of the solar wind with the interstellar medium is expected to result in a complex, probably dynamic outer heliospheric boundary region. In increasing distance from the sun the boundary region includes the solar wind termination shock, the heliopause, and perhaps a heliobowshock. The continuing missions of Voyager 1 and 2 and Pioneer 10 and 11 provide a unique opportunity to make in situ particle and field observations of the boundaries of the heliosphere and associated phenomena. Observations already made by these spacecraft suggest that the termination shock may be located 60-100 AU from the sun. Voyager 1 will reach 60 AU in 1995 and 100 AU in 2006. NASA's Space Physics Division is planning with the Voyager and Pioneer Projects to ensure timely and maximum scientific return from spacecraft encounters with the solar wind termination region. Initial emphasis is on being able to reliably determine when an encounter is imminent, so that spacecraft tracking and spacecraft and instrument configurations can be changed to encounter modes. It is anticipated that multiple encounters with heliospheric boundaries will occur due to motion of the boundaries in response to large variations in the solar wind pressure.

Pesses, M. E.; Jones, W. V.; Forman, M.

1993-01-01

170

Voyager-to-Galileo Changes, Io's Anti-Jove Hemisphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shown here is a comparison of a Galileo color image (right) of Jupiter's moon Io, with a Voyager mosaic (left) reprojected to the same geometry as the Galileo image. The image on the right was obtained by the Galileo spacecraft's imaging camera on September 7th, 1996; the mosaic on the left was obtained by the Voyager spacecraft in 1979. Color is synthesized from green and violet filters only in both cases, as these are the only two filters that are reasonably similar between Voyager and Galileo. Many surface changes can be seen due to volcanic activity from 1979 to 1996. North is to the top of both frames. Galileo was about 487,000 kilometers (302,000 miles) from Io on September 7, 1996.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

1996-01-01

171

Voyager 1 Red Spot Movie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This movie shows the portion of Jupiter around the Great Red Spot as it swirls through more than 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storm shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

2000-01-01

172

Voyager 2 Jupiter Eruption Movie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This movie records an eruptive event in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter over a period of 8 Jupiter days. Prior to the event, an undistinguished oval cloud mass cruised through the turbulent atmosphere. The eruption occurs over avery short time at the very center of the cloud. The white eruptive material is swirled about by the internal wind patterns of the cloud. As a result of the eruption, the cloud then becomes a type of feature seen elsewhere on Jupiter known as 'spaghetti bowls'.

As Voyager 2 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 8 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). These images were acquired in the Violet filter around May 6, 1979. The spacecraft was about 50 million kilometers from Jupiter at that time.

This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

2000-01-01

173

Voyages Through Time: Everything Evolves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolutionary change is a powerful framework for studying our world and our place therein. It is a recurring theme in every realm of science: over time, the universe, the planet Earth, life, and human technologies all change, albeit on vastly different scales. Evolution offers scientific explanations for the age-old question, "Where did we come from?" In addition, historical perspectives of science show how our understanding has evolved over time. The complexities of all of these systems will never reveal a "finished" story. But it is a story of epic size, capable of inspiring awe and of expanding our sense of time and place, and eminently worthy of investigating. This story is the basis of Voyages Through Time. Voyages Through Time (VTT), provides teachers with not only background science content and pedagogy, but also with materials and resources for the teaching of evolution. The six modules, Cosmic Evolution, Planetary Evolution, Origin of Life, Evolution of Life, Hominid Evolution, and Evolution of Technology, emphasize student inquiry, and promote the nature of science, as recommended in the NSES and BSL. The modules are unified by the overarching theme of evolution and the meta questions: "What is changing?" "What is the rate of change?" and "What is the mechanism of change?" Determination of student outcomes for the project required effective collaboration of scientists, teachers, students and media specialists. The broadest curricula students outcomes are 1) an enjoyment of science, 2) an understanding of the nature of science, especially the understanding of evidence and re-evaluation, and 3) key science content. The curriculum is being developed by the SETI Institute, NASA Ames Research Center, California Academy of Sciences, and San Francisco State University, and is funded by the NSF (IMD 9730693), with support form Hewlett-Packard Company, The Foundation for Microbiology, Combined Federated Charities, NASA Astrobiology Institute, and NASA Fundamental Biology.

Pendleton, Y. J.; Tarter, J. C.; DeVore, E. K.; O'Sullivan, K. A.; Taylor, S. M.

2001-12-01

174

A 3D Radiative Transfer Simulation of Lyma-alpha Backscatter Intensity Reduced From Voyager’s Ultraviolet Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models of the heliosphere have evolved for the past few decades to fit observations made by a large number of spacecraft. Voyager missions have provided unique in-situ measurements that have proven to be essential for model testing. Lyman-alpha backscatter intensity has been reduced from measurements taken by the ultraviolet spectrometers on board both Voyager spacecraft. We have developed a 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code to simulate this backscatter intensity by generating millions of photons from the sun to scatter within a neutral hydrogen distribution resulting from a state-of-the-art 3D MHD-kinetic neutral heliospheric model, both of which have been developed within the Center for Space Physics and Aeronomic Research at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. While many have attempted to simulate the Voyager observations, we are the first to achieve agreement with our results. In this presentation, we will discuss the core mechanisms driving the radiative transfer code, the statistical quantities collected, and the interpretation of the results relative to the spacecraft data.

Fayock, Brian; Zank, Gary; Heerikhuisen, Jacob

2014-06-01

175

Voyager 1 Explores the "Magnetic Highway"  

NASA Video Gallery

This set of animations show NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft exploring a new region in our solar system called the "magnetic highway." In this region, the sun's magnetic field lines are connected to int...

176

WWW-mobiilikäyttöliittymän kehittäminen Voyager-kirjastojärjestelmään.  

E-print Network

??Tämän toiminnallisen opinnäytetyön aihe on WWW-mobiilikäyttöliittymän suunnittelu ja toteuttaminen Oulun seudun ammattikorkeakoulun kirjaston Voyager-kirjastojärjestelmään. WWWmobiilikäyttöliittymän tarkoituksena on mahdollistaa kirjaston asiakkaille Voyagerkirjastojärjestelmän WWW-käyttöliittymän perustoimintojen käyttö vaivattomasti… (more)

Hyväri, Antti

2013-01-01

177

Voyager 2 and the Uranian rings  

SciTech Connect

Voyager 2 data on the Uranian disk system are presented and examined. The disk system consists of nine narrow rings, ranging in width from a few km to about 100 km. The Uranian rings are eccentric, inclined to the planet's equatorial plane, and precessing. The Uranian ring characteristics detected in the Voyager data are described and compared with those of the Saturn rings. The origin and maintenance of the rings are discussed, and the particle distribution in the ring system is studied.

Porco, C.C.

1986-12-01

178

Probing the Solar Corona with Radio Ranging Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An asymmetry in the radial variation of electron density above the east and west limbs of the Sun was inferred from centimeter wavelength ranging measurements conducted by Voyager 2 during its 1985 solar conjunction. The Voyager 2 ranging measurements are compared with the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory white-light coronagraph measurements of the underlying corona. Corona probing abilities are summarized.

Woo, R.

1995-01-01

179

Miranda as seen by Voyager 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flying by in early 1986, Voyager 2 captured this picture of Miranda, which enabled scientists to study this moon of Uranus in much greater detail than ever before. Discovered in 1948 by Gerard Peter Kuiper, Miranda is named for the daughter of the wily Prospero in Shakespeare's 'The Tempest.' It is the eleventh known satellite of Uranus and the innermost large moon of Uranus It was necessary that Voyager 2 passed by Miranda, not for scientific reasons, but simply for the gravity assist it needed to go on to Neptune. Due to the position of the entire Solar System, Miranda provided the energy to throw Voyager 2 to Neptune. Before Voyager, Miranda was largely ignored as it is not the largest moon and did not seem to have any other outstanding qualities. Fortunately, however, Voyager passed close enough to Miranda to provide scientists with fascinating photographs that captivated astronomers. About half ice and half rock, Miranda's surface has terraced layers that indicate both older and new surfaces coexisting. Since the mixing of ancient and recent surfaces is rare in planetary geology, scientists have postulated two explanations for the different ages of the numerous valleys and cliffs on Miranda. One theory is that Miranda could have shattered as many as five times and was then reassembled. Another hypothesis is that partly melted ice upwells forced new surfaces to emerge.

1986-01-01

180

Spectrophotometric probe  

DOEpatents

A support structure bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe.

Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA); O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

1994-01-01

181

Flight Projects 2 Technology and Space Program Development 13  

E-print Network

#12;Flight Projects 2 Technology and Space Program Development 13 Tracking and Data Acquisition 22 obtained-was taken by Voyager 1 on September 1B, 19n. Because the earth Is brighter than the moon, computer are sunlit. Above: Voyager 2 launch at cape Kennedy. " Voyager 1achieves all of Its science goals at Saturn

Waliser, Duane E.

182

Electron density of local interstellar medium, based on the Voyager heliospheric-shock observations  

SciTech Connect

Some implications of a model for the solar wind-local-interstellar-medium (LISM) interaction, comprising a bow shock and a heliospheric shock with a contact interface in between, are compared against the Voyager probe data. A fit can be achieved if the LISM electron density is somewhat higher than indicated by pulsar dispersion measurements. The theory is compatible with the hydrogen densities inferred from Copernicus and from the scattering solar L-alpha radiation. 14 references.

Baranov, V.B.

1986-10-01

183

46 CFR 114.120 - Vessels on an international voyage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Vessels on an international voyage. 114.120 Section 114.120 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 114.120 Vessels on an international voyage. A...

2010-10-01

184

3D/4D geospatial visualization using Makai Voyager  

E-print Network

3D/4D geospatial visualization using Makai Voyager John C. Anderson Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. Abstract This talk will describe the development and main operational capabilities of Makai Voyager, a PC

Frandsen, Jannette B.

185

New SRDN-3 probes with a semi-conductor detector for measuring radon activity concentration in underground spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents new Polish probes SRDN-3, developed at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw, equipped\\u000a with a semi-conductor detector used for continuous measurements of 222Rn activity concentration. Due to a relatively high lower detection limit, the device is dedicated for use in underground\\u000a spaces—caves, adits, mines, tourist routes in strongholds, pyramids, etc. Its structure allows for

Tadeusz A. Przylibski; Jakub Bartak; El?bieta Kochowska; Lidia Fija?kowska-Lichwa; Krzysztof Kozak; Jadwiga Mazur

2010-01-01

186

What's new, Voyager: The discoveries continue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The twin Voyager spacecraft, launched nearly two decades ago, continue to operate and are now searching for the edge of our solar system, the heliopause. Voyager's giant-planet flybys of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune have provided data that are likely to remain the definitive data set for the foreseeable future and have led to many ongoing discoveries. As the spacecraft move toward the heliopause, they are also providing data on the structure of the heliosphere. This article discusses the discoveries resulting from the flyby and heliosphere data that have been made within the past five years.

Miner, Ellis D.

1995-01-01

187

Dynamic processes in the outer heliosphere: voyager observations and models  

E-print Network

Dynamic processes in the outer heliosphere: voyager observations and models C. Wang a,*,1 , J October 2004; accepted 22 October 2004 Abstract We review recent Voyager 2 observations in the vicinity wind at Voyager 2 increasedbetween early 2003andmid-2004, which we attributeto a return of fastcoronal

Richardson, John

188

Tsiganes et Voyageurs Identit, rapport au voyage, conomie,  

E-print Network

Tsiganes et Voyageurs Identité, rapport au voyage, économie, éducation et rapport à l'école dans le rapport au voyage : nomadisme et sédentarisation ............................................... 10 Le : identité, rapport au voyage, économie, éducation et rapport à l'école dans le contexte de la société

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

189

Voyager Observations of Diffuse Ultraviolet Light Shortward of Lyman Alpha  

E-print Network

Voyager Observations of Diffuse Ultraviolet Light Shortward of Lyman Alpha Richard Conn Henry latitudes, many of our 430 Voyager spectra of the diffuse cosmic ultraviolet background show only an upper-ray background discovered by Riccardo Giacconi. In this paper we discuss the Voyager ultraviolet background

190

La mmoire du voyage : souvenirs et objets des destinations touristiques  

E-print Network

La mémoire du voyage : souvenirs et objets des destinations touristiques ­ APPEL � TEXTES Rédacteur, elle, relève de motivations ancrées dans la culture commune des voyageurs. Or, voyager c'est se voyage, 1991). C'est à l'étude des rapports entre le souvenir et les destinations touristiques que se

Pouliot, Jacynthe

191

Voyager Photometry of Saturn's A Ring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saturn's A Ring samples a wide range of dynamical environments, from the relatively unperturbed, optically thick inner region to the outer part of the ring, which contains numerous density waves. We analyze Voyager images of the A Ring to determine how the reflectivity of different radial regions varies with lighting and viewing geometry. We model our data with a classical

Luke Dones; Jeffrey N. Cuzzi; Mark R. Showalter

1993-01-01

192

Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous - A Pictorial Voyage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers students an opportunity to participate in a pictorial voyage that follows the NEAR spacecraft from its inception through the cruise phase to asteroid 433 Eros. They will learn about the rationale for visiting an asteroid, the instruments and construction of the spacecraft, and follow its flyby of the asteroid Mathilde, swingby of Earth, and encounter with Eros.

193

Satellite ephemerides for the Voyager Uranus encounter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranian satellite ephemerides are needed by the Voyager project to support both navigation and acquisition of scientific data. This paper presents the approach being taken to develop the ephemerides and details the initial phase of the development. That phase involves the analytical modeling of the satellites' motion and the adjustment of the model to fit astronomical observations. The paper describes

R. A. Jacobson; E. M. Standish

1984-01-01

194

Voyager 2's encounter with Neptune  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of Voyager 2 observations of Neptune are reviewed. Observations of Neptune's Great Dark Spot, rotation atmosphere, magnetic field, rings, and satellites are discussed. Also, observations of Triton are considered, noting the presence of geyser activity on the satellite. Several photographs of features on both Neptune and Triton are presented.

Mclaughlin, William I.

1990-01-01

195

Voyager flight engineering - Preparing for Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two Voyager spacecraft are currently engaged in exploration of the outer solar system with Voyager 2 scheduled to conduct the first close-up investigation of the planet Uranus during the period November 4, 1985 through March 3, 1986. Flight engineering for the Voyager project has the objectives of delivering a functioning spacecraft containing observing sequences to the right places at the right times. Due to the changing environment as the mission has progressed outward from Jupiter to Saturn to Uranus (and on to Neptune), this engineering task has included the development of significant new capabilities. The paper utilizes the case-study method to examine some new spacecraft capabilities in three subsystems: data, attitude and articulation control, and power. The implementation of a new navigational data-type, delta DOR, is also reviewed. An overview is given of the Voyager sequencing process for the cruise and encounter phases with a case study focusing on late updating of part of the near encounter sequence. The prospective mission to Neptune is previewed.

Mclaughlin, W. I.; Wolff, D. M.

1985-01-01

196

The Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The instruments and science investigations of the Voyager 2 payload are listed in tables and illustrated with a drawing, and a general overview of the encounter with Uranus in January 1986 is given. The spacecraft approached to within 107,100 km of the center of Uranus, and to within 29,000 km of the Uranian satellite Miranda before continuing on for an

E. C. Stone

1987-01-01

197

The Hemispheric Roots of the Columbian Voyages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urges that the search for origins of European exploration extend to Africa and East Asia and their international trade. Cites contributions of India and the Arabs, Chinese, and Malaysians. Emphasizes the importance of mathematics, navigation, and sailing technology. Argues that without these contributions the European voyages would not have been…

Shaffer, Lynda N.

1991-01-01

198

VLA feedhorn for Voyager encounter of Neptune  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high gain, low noise corrugated feedhorn was designed and developed by JPL for use in Very Large Array (VLA) antennas, near Soccoro, New Mexico. The new feedhorn will enable the VLA to support the Voyager encounter of Neptune in August of 1989. This will significantly enhance the receiving capability of the United States for that historic event.

Manshadi, F.; Bathker, D. A.; Marlin, H. W.

1986-01-01

199

Babylon to Voyager and Beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Introduction; 1. The ancients; 2. Copernicus and the new cosmology; 3. Kepler and Galileo - the fall of epicycles and the start of telescopic astronomy; 4. The mid and late seventeenth century; 5. Consolidation; 6. The solar system expands; 7. The inner solar system in the nineteenth century; 8. The outer solar system in the nineteenth century; 9. Quiet interlude - the twentieth century prior to the space age; 10. The space age - terrestrial planets; 11. The space age - the outer planets; Glossary; Bibliography; Units; Name index; Subject index.

Leverington, David

2007-07-01

200

Chemistry Experiments — For Comparative Analyses for Demonstrating Environmental Differences on Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan, — Built on Educational Space Probes Hunveyor and Husar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compared chemical environments of Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan by experiments planned for selection to realize them on educational space probe landers and rovers (Hunveyor and Husar) built by Hungarian universities and high schools.

Bérczi, Sz.; Róka, A.; Nyíri, Z.; Varga, T.; Fabriczy, A. Sz.; Peták, Cs.; Hudoba, Gy.; Hegyi, S.; Lang, A.; Gyollai, I.; Gucsik, A.

2014-11-01

201

Galileo Regio Mosaic - Galileo over Voyager Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mosaic of four Galileo images of the Galileo Regio region on Ganymede (Latitude 18 N, Longitude: 149 W) is shown overlayed on the data obtained by the Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1979. North is to the top of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the lower left, about 58 degrees above the horizon. The smallest features that can be discerned are about 80 meters (262 feet) in size in the Galileo images. These Galileo images show fine details of the dark terrain that makes up about half of the surface of the planet-sized moon. Ancient impact craters of various sizes and states of degradation testify to the great age of the terrain, dating back several billion years. The images reveal distinctive variations in albedo from the brighter rims, knobs, and furrow walls to a possible accumulation of dark material on the lower slopes, and crater floors. High photometric activity (large light contrast at high spatial frequencies) of this ice-rich surface was such that the Galileo camera's hardware data compressor was pushed into truncating lines. The north-south running gap between the left and right halves of the mosaic is a result of line truncation from the normal 800 samples per line to about 540. The images were taken on 27 June, 1996 Universal Time at a range of 7,580 kilometers (4,738 miles) through the clear filter of the Galileo spacecraft's imaging system. Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

1996-01-01

202

New Access and Analysis Tools for Voyager LECP Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) instruments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft have been returning unique scientific measurements since launching in 1977, most notably observations from the historic tour of the giant planets. As these spacecraft continue on their exit trajectories from the Solar system they have become an interstellar mission and have begun to probe the boundary between the heliosphere and the interstellar cloud and continue to make exciting discoveries. As the mission changed from one focused on discrete encounters to an open ended search for heliospheric boundaries and transitory disturbances, the positions and timing of which are not known, the data processing needs have changed. Open data policies and the push to draw data under the umbrella of emerging Virtual Observatories have added a data sharing component that was not a part of the original mission plans. We present our work in utilizing new, reusable software analysis tools to access legacy data in a way that leverages pre-existing data analysis techniques. We took an existing Applied Physics Laboratory application, Mission Independent Data Layer (MIDL) -- developed originally under a NASA Applied Information Research Program (AISRP) and subsequently used with data from Geotail, Cassini, IMP-8, ACE, Messenger, and New Horizons -- and applied it to Voyager data. We use the MIDL codebase to automatically generate standard data products such as daily summary plots and associated tabulated data that increase our ability to monitor the heliospheric environment on a regular basis. These data products will be publicly available and updated automatically and can be analyzed by the community using the ultra portable MIDL software launched from the data distribution website. The currently available LECP data will also be described with SPASE metadata and incorporated into the emerging Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO).

Brown, L. E.; Hill, M. E.; Decker, R. B.; Cooper, J. F.; Krimigis, S. M.; Vandegriff, J. D.

2008-12-01

203

Gravity Probe B: Examining Einstein's Spacetime with Gyroscopes. An Educator's Guide with Activities in Space Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching guide introduces a relativity gyroscope experiment aiming to test two unverified predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. An introduction to the theory includes the following sections: (1) "Spacetime, Curved Spacetime, and Frame-Dragging"; (2) "'Seeing' Spacetime with Gyroscopes"; (3) "The Gravity Probe B…

Range, Shannon K'doah; Mullins, Jennifer

204

Analysis of Clumps in Saturn's F Ring from Voyager and Cassini  

E-print Network

Saturn's F ring is subject to dynamic structural changes over short periods. Among the observed phenomena are diffuse extended bright clumps (ECs) ~ 3-40 degrees in longitudinal extent. These ECs appear, evolve, and disappear over a span of days to months. ECs have been seen by the two Voyager spacecraft, the Cassini orbiter, and various ground- and space-based telescopes. Showalter (2004, Icarus, 171, 356-371) analyzed all Voyager images of the F ring and found that there were 2-3 major and 20-40 minor ECs present in the ring at any given time. We expand upon these results by comparing the ECs seen by Voyager to those seen by Cassini in 2004-2010. We find that the number of minor ECs has stayed roughly constant and the ECs have similar distributions of angular width, absolute brightness, and semimajor axis. However, the common exceptionally bright ECs seen by Voyager are now exceedingly rare, with only two instances seen by Cassini in the six years, and they are now also much dimmer relative to the mean ring...

French, Robert S; Showalter, Mark R; Antonsen, Adrienne K; Packard, Douglas R

2014-01-01

205

Analysis of clumps in Saturn’s F ring from Voyager and Cassini  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saturn’s F ring is subject to dynamic structural changes over short periods. Among the observed phenomena are diffuse extended bright clumps (ECs) ?3-40° in longitudinal extent. These ECs appear, evolve, and disappear over a span of days to months. ECs have been seen by the two Voyager spacecraft, the Cassini Orbiter, and various ground- and space-based telescopes. Showalter (Showalter, M.R. [2004]. Icarus 171, 356-371) analyzed all Voyager images of the F ring and found that there were 2-3 major and 20-40 minor ECs present in the ring at any given time. We expand upon these results by comparing the ECs seen by Voyager to those seen by Cassini in 2004-2010. We find that the number of minor ECs has stayed roughly constant and the ECs have similar distributions of angular width, absolute brightness, and semimajor axis. However, the common exceptionally bright ECs seen by Voyager are now exceedingly rare, with only two instances seen by Cassini in the 6 years, and they are now also much dimmer relative to the mean ring background. We hypothesize that these bright ECs are caused by the repeated impacts of small moonlets with the F ring core, and that these moonlets have decreased in number in the 25 years between missions.

French, Robert S.; Hicks, Shannon K.; Showalter, Mark R.; Antonsen, Adrienne K.; Packard, Douglas R.

2014-10-01

206

Magnetic field studies at jupiter by voyager 1: preliminary results.  

PubMed

Results obtained by the Goddard Space Flight Center magnetometers on Voyager 1 are described. These results concern the large-scale configuration of the Jovian bow shock and magnetopause, and the magnetic field in both the inner and outer magnetosphere. There is evidence that a magnetic tail extending away from the planet on the nightside is formed by the solar wind-Jovian field interaction. This is much like Earth's magnetosphere but is a new configuration for Jupiter's magnetosphere not previously considered from earlier Pioneer data. We report on the analysis and interpretation of magnetic field perturbations associated with intense electrical currents (approximately 5 x 10(6) amperes) flowing near or in the magnetic flux tube linking Jupiter with the satellite Jo and induced by the relative motion between Io and the corotating Jovian magnetosphere. These currents may be an important source of heating the ionosphere and interior of Io through Joule dissipation. PMID:17800435

Ness, N F; Acuna, M H; Lepping, R P; Burlaga, L F; Behannon, K W; Neubauer, F M

1979-06-01

207

Studies of the interplanetary magnetic field: IMP's to Voyager  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the last two decades, spacecraft projects and individual experiments for which Frank McDonald was a leader have contributed very significantly to the current understanding of the structure of interplanetary space and the correlation between solar and interplanetary disturbances. Studies on the IMP, HELIOS, and Pioneer spin-stabilized spacecraft and the larger attitude-stabilized Voyager spacecraft have provided data sets from which the modern view of the heliosphere has evolved. That concept in which the inner solar system is shown to be dominated by individual streams associated with specific source regions on the Sun is illustrated. As these high-speed streams overtake the preexisting solar plasma, they coalesce and modify the characteristics so that at larger heliocentric distances, these disturbances appear as radially propagating concentric shells of compressed magnetic fields and enhanced fluctuations

Ness, Norman F.

1987-01-01

208

Satellite ephemerides for the Voyager Uranus encounter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uranian satellite ephemerides are needed by the Voyager project to support both navigation and acquisition of scientific data. This paper presents the approach being taken to develop the ephemerides and details the initial phase of the development. That phase involves the analytical modeling of the satellites' motion and the adjustment of the model to fit astronomical observations. The paper describes the model and gives the result of a fit to 71 years of observations.

Jacobson, R. A.; Standish, E. M.

1984-01-01

209

The StarT-Voyager Parallel System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the communication architecture of the START-VOYAGER system, a parallel machine composed of a cluster of unmodified IBM 604e-based SMP's connected via a high speed interconnection network. A custom network interface unit (NIU) plugs into a processor card slot of each SMP, providing a high-performance message passing sub- strate that supports both fast user-level message passing and cache-line

Boon Seong Ang; Derek Chiou; Larry Rudolph; Arvind

1998-01-01

210

Satellite ephemerides for the Voyager Neptune encounter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of the latest fits of both analytical theory and numerically integrated Neptunian satellite orbits to Earth-based astrometric observations. Ephemerides based on the integrated orbits will be used by the Voyager project for pre-encounter planning and analysis until late 1988 when the final pre-encounter ephemerides will be produced. As a by-product of the orbit fits, new

Robert A. Jacobson

1988-01-01

211

Voyager 2: More puzzles, more applause  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinked rings, a hamburger-shaped satellite, and swirling equatorial,storms on Saturn added up to a Voyager 2 encounter dubbed `a 200% success' by project scientist Edward C. Stone. Despite problems with the spacecraft's scan platform, the mission sent scientists scurrying back to their laboratories to sort through a plethora of data, including more than 17,000 photographs, which streamed back to earth

Barbara T. Richman

1981-01-01

212

Ultimate Challenge Voyage for Fremantle medicine students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight 1st year medicine students from The University of Notre Dame Australia’s Fremantle Campus participated in a five day voyage on the STS Leeuwin II in late November as part of the social justice component of their studies. Their role was to assist and support 28 participants with special physical or intellectual limitations.\\u000aAs part of their experience they were

Michelle Ebbs

2008-01-01

213

Voyager 2 plasma wave observations at Uranus  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Uranus, the Voyager 2 plasma wave investigation observed very significant phenomena related to radio emissions, dust impacts, and magnetospheric wave-particle interactions. On January 19, 1986 (R = 270 R-sub U) the plasma wave investigation detected an intense radio burst at 31 and 56 kHz, and this provided the first indication that Uranus had a magnetosphere. During the encounter, more

F. L. Scarf; D. A. Gurnett; W. S. Kurth; R. L. Poynter

1987-01-01

214

Voyager 2 plasma wave observations at Saturn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first inbound Voyager 2 crossing of Saturn's bow shock (at 31.7 Saturn radii near local noon) and the last outbound crossing (at 87.4 Saturn radii near local dawn) had similar plasma wave signatures. However, many other aspects of the plasma wave measurements differed considerably during the inbound and outbound passes, suggesting the presence of effects associated with significant north-south

F. L. Scarf; D. A. Gurnett; W. S. Kurth; R. L. Poynter

1982-01-01

215

Ultrahigh-Energy Photons as Probes of Lorentz Symmetry Violations in Stringy Space-Time Foam Models  

SciTech Connect

The time delays between {gamma} rays of different energies from extragalactic sources have often been used to probe quantum gravity models in which Lorentz symmetry is violated. It has been claimed that these time delays can be explained by or at least put the strongest available constraints on quantum gravity scenarios that cannot be cast within an effective field theory framework, such as the space-time foam, D-brane model. Here we show that this model would predict too many photons in the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray flux to be consistent with observations. The resulting constraints on the space-time foam model are much stronger than limits from time delays and allow for Lorentz violation effects way too small for explaining the observed time delays.

Maccione, Luca [DESY, Theory Group, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Liberati, Stefano [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio, 2, I-34127, Trieste (Italy); Sigl, Guenter [II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany)

2010-07-09

216

Ultrahigh-energy photons as probes of Lorentz symmetry violations in stringy space-time foam models.  

PubMed

The time delays between ? rays of different energies from extragalactic sources have often been used to probe quantum gravity models in which Lorentz symmetry is violated. It has been claimed that these time delays can be explained by or at least put the strongest available constraints on quantum gravity scenarios that cannot be cast within an effective field theory framework, such as the space-time foam, D-brane model. Here we show that this model would predict too many photons in the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray flux to be consistent with observations. The resulting constraints on the space-time foam model are much stronger than limits from time delays and allow for Lorentz violation effects way too small for explaining the observed time delays. PMID:20867696

Maccione, Luca; Liberati, Stefano; Sigl, Günter

2010-07-01

217

Voyager 2 Movie of Saturn's Moon: Phoebe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voyager 2 took this photo sequence of Saturn's outer satellite, Phoebe, on Sept. 4, 1981, from 2.2 million kilometers (1.36 million miles) away. The top image is the normal version and the bottom is an enhanced version to increase resolution. This sequence lasts 23.4 hours and contains 35 images. The early images were taken about 43 minutes apart, while the later ones are about 29 minutes apart. There are two significant gaps in the sequence: images 7 and 8 are separated by 2.3 hours and images 19 and 20 are separated by 2.8 hours.

Because the sunlight is coming from the left, mountains and ridges can best be seen as they reflect the sunlight near the terminator (right side of Phoebe). Other intrinsically bright spots can be seen rotating across the whole disk. In this time-lapse sequence, Phoebe appears to be a lumpy spheroid with possible large mountains sometimes showing on the limb (left side of Phoebe). The photos show that Phoebe is about 220 kilometers (132 miles) in diameter. Its rotation period (length of day) was determined from this set of images to be 9.4 hours (see Thomas, P., et al, 'Phoebe: Voyager 2 Observations', Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 88, p. 8736, 1 November 1983).

These images were processed by the Multimission Image Processing Laboratory of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Voyager Project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

2000-01-01

218

Fiber-Optic Imaging Probe Developed for Space Used to Detect Diabetes Through the Eye  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximately 16 million Americans have diabetes mellitus, which can severely impair eyesight by causing cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Cataracts are 1.6 times more common in people with diabetes than in those without diabetes, and cataract extraction is the only surgical treatment. In many cases, diabetes-related ocular pathologies go undiagnosed until visual function is compromised. This ongoing pilot project seeks to study the progression of diabetes in a unique animal model by monitoring changes in the lens with a safe, sensitive, dynamic light-scattering probe. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), has the potential to diagnose cataracts at the molecular level. Recently, a new DLS fiber-optic probe was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field for noncontact, accurate, and extremely sensitive particle-sizing measurements in fluid dispersions and suspensions (ref. 1). This compact, portable, and rugged probe is free of optical alignment, offers point-and-shoot operation for various online field applications and challenging environments, and yet is extremely flexible in regards to sample container sizes, materials, and shapes. No external vibration isolation and no index matching are required. It can measure particles as small as 1 nm and as large as few micrometers in a wide concentration range from very dilute (waterlike) dispersions to very turbid (milklike) suspensions. It is safe and fast to use, since it only requires very low laser power (10 nW to 3 mW) with very short data acquisition times (2 to 10 sec).

Ansari, Rafat R.; Chenault, Michelle V.; Datiles, Manuel B., III; Sebag, J.; Suh, Kwang I.

2000-01-01

219

Un voyage dans l'Itinraire. Lamartine contradicteur de Chateaubriand  

E-print Network

1 Un voyage dans l'Itinéraire. Lamartine contradicteur de Chateaubriand Lamartine part en été 1832 amis, dont le médecin Delaroière, qui publiera également un récit de voyage. Les grandes étapes de ce voyage correspondent en partie à celles de Chateaubriand (la Grèce, la Palestine, Constantinople), mais

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

220

Un voyage dans l'Itinraire. Lamartine contradicteur de Chateaubriand  

E-print Network

Un voyage dans l'Itinéraire. Lamartine contradicteur de Chateaubriand Lamartine part en été 1832 amis, dont le médecin Delaroière, qui publiera également un récit de voyage. Les grandes étapes de ce voyage correspondent en partie à celles de Chateaubriand (la Grèce, la Palestine, Constantinople), mais

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

221

Critique du voyage. L'exemple de la correspondance de  

E-print Network

Critique du voyage. L'exemple de la correspondance de Flaubert en Orient Flaubert a longtemps rêvé posthume : « Aujourd'hui mes idées de grand voyage m'ont repris plus que jamais c'est l'Orient toujours. J'étais né pour y vivre1 . » Lorsqu'il s'embarque à Marseille, en octobre 1849, pour un voyage d'une année et

Boyer, Edmond

222

The Voyager ultraviolet spectrometers - Astrophysical observations from the outer solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main characteristics of the ultraviolet spectrometers on board the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft and the astrophysical experiments being currently conducted are reviewed. The spectrometers are sensitive over the wavelength range of 50 to 170 nm, which is observable only from space. The experiments include a program of stellar and nonstellar observations, monitoring of the ultraviolet flux from the sun, and studies of the interstellar wind entering the solar system. Several specific observations of particular interest are discussed.

Linick, S. H.; Holberg, J. B.

1991-01-01

223

Development and flight experience of the Voyager propulsion system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary Voyager Project objective is to extend the exploration of the solar system to the neighborhood of Jupiter and Saturn with a spacecraft that can conduct scientific experiments at both planetary systems and pave the way for later missions to the outer planets. The development and in-flight performance of the Voyager propulsion system are described. Emphasis is placed on the unique features of this system and on the solution to several problems encountered in its development. Over the past 20-month flight, the propulsion systems on Voyager I and Voyager II have exhibited excellent performance without failures.

Schatz, W. J.; Cannova, R. D.; Cowley, R. T.; Evans, D. D.

1979-01-01

224

Is Voyager 1 Inside an Interstellar Flux Transfer Event?  

E-print Network

Plasma wave observations from Voyager 1 have recently shown large increases in plasma density, to about 0.1 cm^{-3}, consistent with the density of the local interstellar medium. However, corresponding magnetic field observations continue to show the spiral magnetic field direction observed throughout the inner heliosheath. These apparently contradictory observations may be reconciled if Voyager 1 is inside an interstellar flux transfer event - similar to flux transfer events routinely seen at the Earth's magnetopause. If this were the case, Voyager 1 remains inside the heliopause and based on the Voyager 1 observations we can determine the polarity of the interstellar magnetic field for the first time.

Schwadron, N A

2013-01-01

225

The vanishing voyager and the emerging outsider, 1818-1930.  

E-print Network

??While some contemporary scholars have examined the nineteenth-century evolution of voyage and exploration literature, the cultural critic Joseph Roach has shown how surrogation, or reinventive… (more)

Nesvet, Rebecca.

2014-01-01

226

Modeling gradual diffusion changes in radiation belt electron phase space density for the March 2013 Van Allen Probes case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

March 2013 provided the first equinoctial period when all of the instruments on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft were fully operational. This interval was characterized by disturbances of outer zone electrons with two time scales of variation, diffusive and rapid dropout and restoration. A radial diffusion model was applied to the monthlong interval to confirm that electron phase space density is well described by radial diffusion for the whole month at low first invariant ? 400 MeV/G but peaks in phase space density observed by the Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma (ECT) instrument suite at higher first invariant are not reproduced by radial transport from a source at higher L. The model does well for much of the monthlong interval, capturing three of four enhancements in phase space density which emerge from the outer boundary, while the strong enhancement following dropout on 17-18 March requires local acceleration at higher first invariant (M=1000 MeV/G versus 200 MeV/G) not included in our model. We have incorporated phase space density from ECT measurement at the outer boundary and plasmapause determination from the Electric Field and Waves (EFW) instrument to separate hiss and chorus loss models.

Li, Zhao; Hudson, Mary; Jaynes, Allison; Boyd, Alexander; Malaspina, David; Thaller, Scott; Wygant, John; Henderson, Michael

2014-10-01

227

Organic Molecules in the Interstellar Medium, Comets, and Meteorites: A Voyage from Dark Clouds to the Early Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding of the evolution of organic molecules, and their voyage from molecular clouds to the early solar system and Earth, has changed dramatically. Incorporating recent observational results from the ground and space, as well as laboratory simulation experiments and new methods for theoretical modeling, this review recapitulates the inventory and distribution of organic molecules in different environments. The evolution,

Pascale Ehrenfreund; Steven B. Charnley

2000-01-01

228

Probing Galaxy Formation and Evolution with Space Born Sub-Millimeter Telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major unresolved question in cosmology is how the complex system of galaxies we see in the present universe evolved from an almost perfectly smooth beginning. Multiwavelength observations of galaxies have revealed that a significant fraction of their UV-visible starlight is absorbed and reradiated by dust at infrared JR) and submillimeter wavelengths. The cumulative IR-submm. emission from galaxies since the epoch of recombination, the cosmic IR background, has recently been recorded by the COBE satellite. The COBE observations in combination with recent submm surveys conducted with the SCUBA on the 15 m JCMT have shown that most of the radiation from star formation that has taken place in the early stages of galaxy evolution is reradiated by dust at submm wavelengths. Therefore, submm telescopes offer a unique probe of the early stages of galaxy formation and evolution. This talk will: (1) consider the impact of telescope diameter on the depth of the survey (what redshift can be probed) at different wavelengths; (2) discuss the relative scientific merits of high-resolution narrow-field surveys versus lower resolution deep surveys; and (3) show how both strategies offer complementary information crucial to our understanding of the structure and evolution of galaxies in the universe.

Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.; Moseley, Harvey; Benford, Dominic; Shafer, Richard; Mather, John; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

229

Probing phase-space noncommutativity through quantum mechanics and thermodynamics of free particles and quantum rotors  

E-print Network

Novel quantization properties related to the state vectors and the energy spectrum of a two-dimensional system of free particles are obtained in the framework of noncommutative (NC) quantum mechanics (QM) supported by the Weyl-Wigner formalism. Besides reproducing the magnetic field aspect of the Zeeman effect, the momentum space NC parameter introduces mutual information properties quantified by the linear entropy related to the relevant Hilbert space coordinates. Supported by the QM in the phase-space, the thermodynamic limit is obtained, and the results are extended to three-dimensional systems. The noncommutativity imprints on the thermodynamic variables related to free particles are identified and, after introducing some suitable constraints to fix an axial symmetry, the analysis is extended to two- and- three dimensional quantum rotor systems, for which the quantization aspects and the deviation from standard QM results are verified.

Bastos, Catarina; Santos, Jonas F G

2014-01-01

230

Photons with sub-Planckian energy cannot efficiently probe space-time foam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extra-galactic sources of photons have been used to constrain space-time quantum fluctuations in the Universe. In these proposals, the fundamental "fuzziness" of distance caused by space-time quantum fluctuations has been directly identified with fluctuations in optical paths. Phase-front corrugations deduced from these optical-path fluctuations are then applied to light from extra-galactic point sources, and used to constrain various models of quantum gravity. However, when a photon propagates in three spatial dimensions, it does not follow a specific ray, but rather samples a finite, three-dimensional region around that ray—thereby averaging over space-time quantum fluctuations all through that region. We use a simple, random-walk type model to demonstrate that, once the appropriate wave optics is applied, the averaging of neighboring space-time fluctuations will cause much less distortion to the phase front. In our model, the extra suppression factor due to diffraction is the wave length in units of the Planck length, which is at least 1029 for astronomical observations.

Chen, Yanbei; Wen, Linqing; Ma, Yiqiu

2014-09-01

231

Satellite ephemerides for the Voyager Neptune encounter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the results of the latest fits of both analytical theory and numerically integrated Neptunian satellite orbits to Earth-based astrometric observations. Ephemerides based on the integrated orbits will be used by the Voyager project for pre-encounter planning and analysis until late 1988 when the final pre-encounter ephemerides will be produced. As a by-product of the orbit fits, new estimates of the Neptune mass, the second zonal harmonic of Neptune, and the pole orientation of Neptune are obtained. The theory and integrated orbits are compared with each other and with orbits obtained by previous investigators.

Jacobson, Robert A.

1988-01-01

232

Voyager imaging of Triton's clouds and hazes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented from a detailed analysis of Voyager images of Triton obtained at the highest solar phase angles; these have been fit to Mie scattering models in order to obtain the mean particle sizes, number densities, and the vertical extent of the two different scattering components of the Triton atmosphere. The 0.001-0.01 optical depths of about 0.17 micron particles are vertically distributed with scale heights of about 10 km throughout Triton. A number of properties of the haze particles in question suggest that they are composed of photochemically produced gases which have condensed in the cold lower atmosphere of Triton.

Rages, Kathy; Pollack, James B.

1992-01-01

233

Expedition on the Bay Virtual Voyage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Don Reed of San Jose State University is a virtual research cruise that takes viewers on a virtual expedition to acquire and interpret a survey of the San Francisco Bay floor using high resolution seafloor mapping data. The site includes interviews, articles, maps, images, definitions, data acquisition methods, explanations and a site evaluation as the "voyage" proceeds. A student worksheet accompanies the tour of the website. There are also links available for more in-depth study of San Francisco Bay.

Reed, Don; University, San J.

234

Command and control of the Voyager spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Voyager Mission was designed to be conducted using reprogrammable onboard computers. This decision was based on the need for highly reliable semi-autonomous operations of the spacecraft and the lengthy two-way communication times envisioned during the mission. Command and control of the spacecraft is effected by the process through which the programs for these computers are developed. While this results in a relatively passive real-time command and control function, provisions exist for intervention to occur in order to modify or augment the programs or respond to spacecraft anomalies.

Adamski, Terrence P.

1987-01-01

235

Engineering Voyager 2's encounter with Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes made by radio control from the ground in the Voyager 2 spacecraft as it approached Uranus are described. Reduced power required that subsystems and heaters had to be switched on and off in carefully synchronized fashion. Low light levels required increased exposure times, so the jiggling of the spacecraft had to be minimized. Coding changes were made and image data were compressed to cope with the reduced bit rate at larger distances. Successful efforts to cope with failures in the primary radio receiver and in the computer instructions for image compression are described, as are changes made on the ground in the spacecraft navigation.

Laeser, Richard P.; Mclaughlin, William I.; Wolff, Donna M.

1986-01-01

236

The Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The instruments and science investigations of the Voyager 2 payload are listed in tables and illustrated with a drawing, and a general overview of the encounter with Uranus in January 1986 is given. The spacecraft approached to within 107,100 km of the center of Uranus, and to within 29,000 km of the Uranian satellite Miranda before continuing on for an encounter with Neptune in 1989; the trajectory also permitted radio occultation studies of the Uranian rings and radio and UV occultation studies of the planet's atmosphere. Diagrams of the trajectory are provided.

Stone, E. C.

1987-12-01

237

The Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The instruments and science investigations of the Voyager 2 payload are listed in tables and illustrated with a drawing, and a general overview of the encounter with Uranus in January 1986 is given. The spacecraft approached to within 107,100 km of the center of Uranus, and to within 29,000 km of the Uranian satellite Miranda before continuing on for an encounter with Neptune in 1989; the trajectory also permitted radio occultation studies of the Uranian rings and radio and UV occultation studies of the planet's atmosphere. Diagrams of the trajectory are provided.

Stone, E. C.

1987-01-01

238

Voyager flight engineering preparations for Neptune encounter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voyager 2 will make the first close observations of the planet Neptune, during the period from June 1 to October 1,1989. A number of flight engineering activities are being conducted in preparation for the encounter. This paper discusses the most significant of these activities: new image motion compensation techniques, attitude control system changes, new exposure capabilities, new data handling capabilities, radiation protection measures, and new navigation methods. In addition, the process of performing late sequence updates is discussed. An overview of the Neptune mission is also presented.

Miller, L. J.; Savary, K. E.

1988-01-01

239

Reciprocal space XRD mapping with varied incident angle as a probe of structure variation within surface depth  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we used a differential-depth X-Ray diffraction Reciprocal Spacing Mapping (XRD RSM) technique to investigate the crystal quality of a variety of SRF-relevant Nb film and bulk materials. By choosing different X-ray probing depths, the RSM study successfully revealed evolution the of materials? microstructure after different materials processes, such as energetic condensation or surface polishing. The RSM data clearly measured the materials? crystal quality at different thickness. Through a novel differential-depth RSM technique, this study found: I. for a heteroepitaxy Nb film Nb(100)/MgO(100), the film thickening process, via a cathodic arc-discharge Nb ion deposition, created a near-perfect single crystal Nb on the surface?s top-layer; II. for a mechanically polished single-crystal bulk Nb material, the microstructure on the top surface layer is more disordered than that in-grain.

Yang, Qiguang [Norfolk State University; Williams, Frances [Norfolk State University; Zhao, Xin [JLAB; Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Krishnan, Mahadevan [AASC, San Leandro, California

2013-09-01

240

Voyager uplink planning in the interstellar mission era  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voyager Project has entered its last phase of discovery--the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM). Because of the reduced scope of the project and a lower budget, new ways had to be developed to program two spacecraft with fewer people and to allow for some sequence development flexibility without additional risk. In the previous cruise era, it took a seven-person sequence

Susan H. Linick; Kathryn R. Weld

1993-01-01

241

Microwave Communications from the Outer Planets: The Voyager Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the late 1970s, there is a rare alignment of the outer planets which allows a single spacecraft to fly a multip1anet mission. The Voyager Project, which will fly two spacecraft past Jupiter and Saturn, is such a mission. In the late summer of 1977, two Voyager spacecraft were launched from the Air Force Eastern Test Range at Cape Kennedy,

Albert G. Brejcha

1979-01-01

242

The Voyager spacecraft \\/James Watt International Gold Medal Lecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voyager Project background is reviewed with emphasis on selected features of the Voyager spacecraft. Investigations by the Thermo-electric Outer Planets Spacecraft Project are discussed, including trajectories, design requirements, and the development of a Self Test and Repair computer, and a Computer Accessed Telemetry System. The design and configuration of the spacecraft are described, including long range communications, attitude control,

R. L. Heacock

1980-01-01

243

Eclipses of Interacting Binaries: An IUE\\/Voyager Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose to study circumstellar accretion structures in non-degenerate interacting binaries by combining IUE and Voyager observations as follows: (1) Combining high-dispersiori IUE spectra with Voyager scans of alpha Lyrae at its two eclipses and an additional phase. This will determine the flux distributions of both components between 900 and 3200 A. Repeating the same simultaneous observations 3 months later

Mirek J. Plavec

1985-01-01

244

Titan's atmospheric structure from Voyager 2 infrared spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voyager 2 flew by Titan 9 months after Voyager 1 at a distance from its centre 100 times greater at closest approach (27 August 1981). A total of 115 infrared spectra are analysed here (taken mainly between 15 deg S and 60 deg N of latitude at emission angles less than 50 deg). The projected field of view of IRIS

B. Letourneur; A. Coustenis

1993-01-01

245

Voyage of discovery The iconic Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts  

E-print Network

Voyage of discovery The iconic Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts (SCVA) re-opens on May 21 in Polynesia 1760­1860 features many objects from around the world collected during the 18th-century voyages the world's first sustainable city. The Dongtan Sustainable Technologies and Renewables (STAR) project

Feigon, Brooke

246

CONCOURS BOURSES DE VOYAGE 1) CIRCULAIRE D'APPEL  

E-print Network

CONCOURS BOURSES DE VOYAGE APPEL 2012 1) CIRCULAIRE D'APPEL : CIRCULAIRE ADRESSEE A MESSIEURS LES RECTEURS Objet : Concours bourses de voyage - appel 2012 1. OBJET DU CONCOURS : Octroyer des bourses DUREE de DEUX MOIS MINIMUM et de SIX MOIS MAXIMUM. Les montants des bourses accordées pourront ainsi

Cerf, Nicolas

247

The Voyager encounters with Saturn (Dryden Lectureship in Research)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1972, the Voyager Program was undertaken by NASA as a major step in the exploration of the outer solar system. Recently the objectives of this program have been extended to include an investigation of Uranus and possibly Neptune. In connection with the present investigation, a brief description of the Voyager spacecraft is presented and an overview of the scientific

E. C. Stone

1983-01-01

248

VOYAGE DE GROUPE Le Prou et son gnie  

E-print Network

VOYAGE DE GROUPE Le Pérou et son génie Du 26 octobre au 6 novembre 2011 FORMULAIRE DE R�SERVATION rempli au plus tard le mardi 6 septembre 2011 Un agent de Club voyages communiquera avec vous par la

Québec, Université du

249

The VOYAGER speech understanding system: preliminary development and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early experience with the development of the MIT VOYAGER spoken language system is described, and its current performance is documented. The three components of VOYAGER, the speech recognition component, the natural language component, and the application back-end, are described

Victor Zue; James Glass; David Goodine; Hong Leung; Michael Phillips; Joseph Polifroni; Stephanie Seneff

1990-01-01

250

Plasma observations near Jupiter: initial results from Voyager 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive measurements of low-energy positive ions and electrons were made throughout the Jupiter encounter of Voyager 1. The bow shock and magnetopause were crossed several times at distances consistent with variations in the upstream solar wind pressure measured on Voyager 2. During the inbound pass, the number density increased by six orders of magnitude between the innermost magnetopause crossing at

H. S. Bridge; J. W. Belcher; A. J. Lazarus; J. D. SULLIVAN; R. L. MCNUTT; F. BAGENAL; J. D. SCUDDER; E. C. SITTLER; G. L. SISCOE; V. M. VASYLIUNAS; C. K. GOERTZ; C. M. YEATES

1979-01-01

251

The near real time image navigation of pictures returned by Voyager 2 at Neptune  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a process for performing image navigation in near real time is described. The process was used to accurately determine the camera pointing for pictures returned by the Voyager 2 spacecraft at Neptune Encounter. Image navigation improves knowledge of the pointing of an imaging instrument at a particular epoch by correlating the spacecraft-relative locations of target bodies in inertial space with the locations of their images in a picture taken at that epoch. More than 8,500 pictures returned by Voyager 2 at Neptune were processed in near real time. The results were used in several applications, including improving pointing knowledge for nonimaging instruments ('C-smithing'), making 'Neptune, the Movie', and providing immediate access to geometrical quantities similar to those traditionally supplied in the Supplementary Experiment Data Record.

Underwood, Ian M.; Bachman, Nathaniel J.; Taber, William L.; Wang, Tseng-Chan; Acton, Charles H.

1990-01-01

252

Voyager 1 observes low-energy galactic cosmic rays in a region depleted of heliospheric ions.  

PubMed

On 25 August 2012, Voyager 1 was at 122 astronomical units when the steady intensity of low-energy ions it had observed for the previous 6 years suddenly dropped for a third time and soon completely disappeared as the ions streamed away into interstellar space. Although the magnetic field observations indicate that Voyager 1 remained inside the heliosphere, the intensity of cosmic ray nuclei from outside the heliosphere abruptly increased. We report the spectra of galactic cosmic rays down to ~3 × 10(6) electron volts per nucleon, revealing H and He energy spectra with broad peaks from 10 × 10(6) to 40 × 10(6) electron volts per nucleon and an increasing galactic cosmic-ray electron intensity down to ~10 × 10(6) electron volts. PMID:23811227

Stone, E C; Cummings, A C; McDonald, F B; Heikkila, B C; Lal, N; Webber, W R

2013-07-12

253

Probing space-time structure of new physics with polarized beams at the ILC  

E-print Network

At the International Linear Collider large beam polarization of both the electron and positron beams will enhance the signature of physics due to interactions that are beyond the Standard Model. Here we review our recently obtained results on a general model independent method of determining for an arbitary one-particle inclusive state the space-time structure of such new physics through the beam polarization dependence and angular distribution of the final state particle.

B. Ananthanarayan

2006-07-03

254

The Voyager encounters with Saturn (Dryden Lectureship in Research)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1972, the Voyager Program was undertaken by NASA as a major step in the exploration of the outer solar system. Recently the objectives of this program have been extended to include an investigation of Uranus and possibly Neptune. In connection with the present investigation, a brief description of the Voyager spacecraft is presented and an overview of the scientific results from the Saturn encounters is provided. Two essentially identical Voyager spacecraft were launched in 1977 toward encounters with the Jovian and Saturnian planetary systems. The Voyager 1 trajectory at Saturn was chosen to provide a close encounter with Titan, a planet-sized satellite with an atmosphere, and to provide an optimum geometry for dual-frequency radio occultation studies of Saturn's rings. The Voyager 2 trajectory provided improved viewing of the rings.

Stone, E. C.

1983-01-01

255

Probing the Allende meteorite with a miniature laser-ablation mass analyser for space application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the elemental composition on a sample of Allende meteorite with a miniature laser ablation mass spectrometer. This laser mass spectrometer (LMS) has been designed and built at the University of Bern in the Department of Space Research and Planetary Sciences with the objective of using such an instrument on a space mission. Utilising the meteorite Allende as the test sample in this study, it is demonstrated that the instrument allows the in situ determination of the elemental composition and thus mineralogy and petrology of untreated rocky samples, particularly on planetary surfaces. In total, 138 measurements of elemental compositions have been carried out on an Allende sample. The mass spectrometric data are evaluated and correlated with an optical image. It is demonstrated that by illustrating the measured elements in the form of mineralogical maps, LMS can serve as an element imaging instrument with a very high spatial resolution of ?m scale. The detailed analysis also includes a mineralogical evaluation and an investigation of the volatile element content of Allende. All findings are in good agreement with published data and underline the high sensitivity, accuracy and capability of LMS as a mass analyser for space exploration.

Neuland, M. B.; Meyer, S.; Mezger, K.; Riedo, A.; Tulej, M.; Wurz, P.

2014-10-01

256

Probing space charge and resolving overlimiting current mechanisms at the micro-nanochannel interface  

E-print Network

We present experimental results demonstrating that a primary mechanism for the over-limiting conductance in micro-nanochannel devices is the structure of the extended space charge developing at the depleted interface under high currents. This is correlated with a distinctive maximum in the differential dc resistance. At high voltage, a local minimum is observed in some cases. Based on numerical simulations, this minimum appears to result from surface conduction. Lastly, anomalously sharp resistance minima are observed in devices with shorter nanochannels. These results indicate electroconvective instability plays a minimal role in driving the over-limiting current in these devices.

Schiffbauer, Jarrod; Liel, Uri; Park, Sinwook; Yossifon, Gilad

2014-01-01

257

Probing the Depths of Space Weathering: A Cross-sectional View of Lunar Rock 76015  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The term "space weathering" refers to the cumulative effects of several processes operating at the surface of any solar system body not protected by a thick atmosphere. These processes include cosmic and solar ray irradiation, solar wind implantation and sputtering, as well as melting and vaporization due to micrometeorite bombardment. Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. Rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain and thus record a longer history of exposure. By studying the weathering products which have built up on a rock surface, we can gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative importance of various weathering components. The weathered coating, or patina, of the lunar rock 76015 has been previously studied using SEM and TEM. It is a noritic breccia with both "glazed" (smooth glassy) and "classic" (microcratered and pancake-bearing) patina coatings. Previous TEM work on 76015 relied on ultramicrotomy to prepare cross sections of the patina coating, but these sections were limited by the "chatter" and loss of material in these brittle samples. Here we have used a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument to prepare cross sections in which the delicate stratigraphy of the patina coating is beautifully preserved.

Noble, Sarah K.; Keller, L. P.; Stroud, Rhonda

2007-01-01

258

DSN radio science system design and testing for Voyager-Neptune encounter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Deep Space Network (DSN) Radio Science System presently implemented within the Deep Space Network was designed to meet stringent requirements imposed by the demands of the Voyager-Neptune encounter and future missions. One of the initial parameters related to frequency stability is discussed. The requirement, specification, design, and methodology for measuring this parameter are described. A description of special instrumentation that was developed for the test measurements and initial test data resulting from the system tests performed at Canberra, Australia and Usuda, Japan are given.

Ham, N. C.; Rebold, T. A.; Weese, J. F.

1989-01-01

259

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory space exploration - Past, present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention is given to the most recent scientific results from space exploration carried out by JPL. A brief background of JPL's history is presented, and the Deep Space Network, JPL's system of antennas which communicates with spacecraft, is described. Results from the missions of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 are discussed. Consideration is given to the atmosphere, rings, satellites, and

Josette Bellan

1993-01-01

260

Narrowing the conformational space sampled by two-domain proteins with paramagnetic probes in both domains.  

PubMed

Calmodulin is a two-domain protein which in solution can adopt a variety of conformations upon reorientation of its domains. The maximum occurrence (MO) of a set of calmodulin conformations that are representative of the overall conformational space possibly sampled by the protein, has been calculated from the paramagnetism-based restraints. These restraints were measured after inclusion of a lanthanide binding tag in the C-terminal domain to supplement the data obtained by substitution of three paramagnetic lanthanide ions to the calcium ion in the second calcium binding loop of the N-terminal domain. The analysis shows that the availability of paramagnetic restraints arising from metal ions placed on both domains, reduces the MO of the conformations to different extents, thereby helping to identify those conformations that can be mostly sampled by the protein. PMID:21826520

Dasgupta, Soumyasri; Hu, Xiaoyu; Keizers, Peter H J; Liu, Wei-Min; Luchinat, Claudio; Nagulapalli, Malini; Overhand, Mark; Parigi, Giacomo; Sgheri, Luca; Ubbink, Marcellus

2011-11-01

261

Voyager Observations of Interplanetary Shocks John D. Richardson and Chi Wangy  

E-print Network

Voyager Observations of Interplanetary Shocks John D. Richardson and Chi Wangy Kavli Institute. Data from Voyager 2 are used to compile a shock catalogue covering the 27 years of Voyager 2 solar wind PACS: 96.50.Fm, 96.50.Ci, 96.50.Pw INTRODUCTION The Voyager spacecraft were launched in 1977

Richardson, John

262

Voyager Interstellar Mission Proposal to Senior Review 2008 of the Mission Operations and Data Analysis  

E-print Network

Voyager Interstellar Mission Proposal to Senior Review 2008 of the Mission Operations and Data. Richardson, Proposal Editor Ed B. Massey, Project Manager February 2008 #12;EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Voyager). Voyager 1 (V1) crossed the termina- tion shock (TS) of the solar wind in December 2004 and Voyager 2 (V2

Christian, Eric

263

The University of Arizona Voyager Card Guidelines Created September 2010 1  

E-print Network

The University of Arizona Voyager Card Guidelines Created September 2010 1 Use of the University of Arizona Voyager Card and Requesting a Card The University of Arizona Voyager Fleet card day/cycle, etc. The Voyager card cannot be utilized for privately owned vehicles. If a privately

Arizona, University of

264

Gravity field estimation from future space missions - TOPEX/POSEIDON, Gravity Probe B, and ARISTOTELES  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate knowledge of the gravity field is a firm requirement in any study of Planet Earth. Space techniques have so far demonstrated their superiority in the global mapping of the gravity field based on ground tracking and altimeter data mostly. Numerical and analytical simulation studies of the upcoming geophysically relevant missions that will most likely carry GPS receivers, indicate significant improvements in the accuracy as well as the resolution of the gravity field. TOPEX will improve by some two orders of magnitude the long wavelength part (to degree about 20), while GP-B will contribute in the long as well as medium wavelength part of the spectrum (up to degree about 60). The gradiometer measurements on ARISTOTELES will contribute in the medium and short wavelength regions (from degree 30 up); GPS tracking of the spacecraft though will provide additional information for the long wavelength gravity and will help resolve it to accuracies comparable to those obtained from GP-B. With the mean rms coefficient error per degree kept below 10 exp -10, geophysical signals such as the post-glacial rebound, tidal variations, and secular and periodic variations of the zonal field rise above the noise level and become readily observable processes.

Pavlis, Erricos C.

1992-01-01

265

A VLA experiment: Planning for Voyager at Neptune  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A very large array (VLA) engineering experiment was conducted on the night of July 22, 1983 to explore one aspect of the potential for the VLA to support Voyager at its Neptune encounter in August of 1989. Specifically, the experiment tested the abiliy of the VLA to self-calibrate on a natural radio source whose effective signal strength is the same as Voyager's will be at its Neptune encounter. The experiment was successful and supported the belief that the VLA would be able to be self-calibrated with Voyager's signal.

Layland, J. W.; Napier, P. J.; Thompson, A. R.

1985-01-01

266

Magnetopause surface fluctuations observed by Voyager 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moving out of the dawnside of the earth's magnetosphere, Voyager 1 crossed the magnetopause apparently seven times, despite the high spacecraft speed of 11 km/sec. Normals to the magnetopause and their associated error cones were estimated for each of the crossings using a minimum variance analysis of the internal magnetic field. The oscillating nature of the ecliptic plane component of these normals indicates that most of the multiple crossings were due to a wave-like surface disturbance moving tailward along the magnetopause. The wave, which was aperiodic, was modeled as a sequence of sine waves. The amplitude, wavelength, and speed were determined for two pairs of intervals from the measured slopes, occurrence times, and relative positions of six magnetopause crossings. The magnetopause thickness was estimated to lie in the range 300 to 700 km with higher values possible. The estimated amplitude of these waves was obviously small compared to their wavelengths.

Lepping, R. P.; Burlaga, L. F.

1979-01-01

267

Voyager 1 Jupiter Southern Hemisphere Movie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This movie shows a portion of Jupiter in the southern hemisphere over 17Jupiter days. Above the white belt, notice the series of atmospheric vortices headed west. Even these early approach frames show wild dynamics in the roiling environment south of the white belt. Notice the small tumbling white cloud near the center.

As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 17 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). These images were acquired in the Blue filter around Feb. 1, 1979. The spacecraft was about 37 million kilometers from Jupiter at that time.

This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

2000-01-01

268

Ultraviolet spectrometer experiment for the Voyager mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An objective grating spectrometer covering the wavelength range of 500 to 1700 A with a 10-A resolution is employed for the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometer experiment. In determining the composition and structure of the atmospheres of Saturn, Jupiter and several satellites, the ultraviolet spectrometer will rely on airglow mode observations to measure radiation from the atmospheres due to resonant scattering of solar flux, and the occultation mode for assessments of the atmospheric extinction of solar or stellar radiation as the spacecraft enters shadow zones. Since it is capable of prolonged stellar observations in the 500 to 1000 A wavelength range, the spectrometer is expected to make important contributions to exploratory studies of UV sources.

Broadfoot, A. L.; Sandel, B. R.; Shemansky, D. E.; Atreya, S. K.; Donahue, T. M.; Moos, H. W.; Bertaux, J. L.; Blamont, J. E.; Ajello, J. M.; Strobel, D. F.

1977-01-01

269

EarthScope Voyager: Did You Know?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this site will learn about some of the most geologically active areas in North America, such as the Long Valley Caldera of California and the Basin and Range province of the Western United States. Each study area features information on its tectonic and volcanic history as well as its geologic hazards. For example, users learn that thousands of people every year ski on an active volcano in the Long Valley Caldera, and that toxic gases generated by this volcano are seeping out of the ground. The 'Explore!' section for each study area has questions for users to explore in the EarthScope Voyager interactive map tool. A final section describes the scientific problems that the EarthScope Project is investigating in the area. EarthScope is a bold undertaking to apply modern observational, analytical, and telecommunications technologies to investigate the structure and evolution of the North American continent and the physical processes controlling earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

270

Voyages and Travels: Ancient and Modern  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sir Walter Raleigh was a man who liked to travel the globe. He was in good company, as persons stretching all the way back to Herodotus (and before) had a certain wanderlust that could only be quenched by seeking out new lands and experiences. Some of their musings on the places they explored can be found within the electronic pages of the volume presented here by Bartleby.com. The Voyages and Travels work was originally part of the Harvard Classics series, and it contains seven accounts of travel and exploration. These accounts include "An Account of Egypt" by Herodotus, Sir Walter Raleigh's "The Discovery of Guiana", and a narrative of Sir Humphrey Gilbert's trip to Newfoundland in the 16th century.

271

Implications of Voyager 1 Observations beyond the Heliopause for the Local Interstellar Electron Spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic-ray observations made by the Voyager 1 spacecraft outside the dominant modulating influence of the heliosphere finally allow the comparison of computed galactic spectra with experimental data at lower energies. These computed spectra, based on galactic propagation models, can now be compared with observations at low energies by Voyager 1 and at high energies by the PAMELA space detector at Earth. This improves understanding of basic propagation effects and also provides solar modulation studies with reliable input spectra from 1 MeV to 100 GeV. We set out to reproduce the Voyager 1 electron observations in the energy range of 6-60 MeV, as well as the PAMELA electron spectrum above 10 GeV, using the GALPROP code. By varying the source spectrum and galactic diffusion parameters, specifically the rigidity dependence of spatial diffusion, we find local interstellar spectra that agree with both power-law spectra observed by Voyager 1 beyond the heliopause. The local interstellar spectrum between ~1 MeV and 100 GeV indicates that it is the combination of two power laws, with E –(1.45 ± 0.15) below ~100 MeV and E –(3.15 ± 0.05) above ~100 MeV. A gradual turn in the spectral shape matching the power laws is found, between 2.0 ± 0.5) GeV and (100 ± 10) MeV. According to our simplified modeling, this transition is caused primarily by galactic propagation effects. We find that the intensity beyond the heliopause at 10 MeV is (350 ± 50) electrons m–2 s–1 sr–1 MeV–1, decreasing to (50 ± 5) electrons m–2 s–1 sr–1 MeV–1 at 100 MeV.

Bisschoff, D.; Potgieter, M. S.

2014-10-01

272

33 CFR 164.80 - Tests, inspections, and voyage planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...towing pendant, if applicable; of chafing gear; and of the winch brake, if installed. (6) Propulsion systems. Visual...towing pendant, if applicable; of chafing gear; and of the winch brake, if installed. (c)(1) The voyage-planning...

2010-07-01

273

Voyager's discoveries mount on final rush to Neptune  

SciTech Connect

On its final approach to Neptune, Voyager 2 detected not only two new moons, designated 1989N5 and 1989N6, but shadows cast by high cyrrus-type clouds on a lower cloud deck in the planet's south polar region. Voyager scientists have also been carefully watching for massive features in Neptune's unexpectedly dynamic atmosphere; such similarities were noted between Jupiter's Great Red Spot and Neptune's Great Dark Spot, a feature comparable to the earth in size, as a 20-22 deg south latitude location. Voyager is programmed to fly about 25,000 miles above Triton on its way out of the plane of the ecliptic. Voyager will be imaging Triton during the end of a 100-year cycle in which its south pole has been subjected to increased solar heating.

Smith, B.A.

1989-08-01

274

LA DESCRIPTION DANS LE RCIT DE VOYAGE Prcisons d'emble que l'appellation de rcit de voyage en tant que groupe gnrique reste  

E-print Network

LA DESCRIPTION DANS LE R�CIT DE VOYAGE Précisons d'emblée que l'appellation de « récit de voyage ensemble de textes qu'on rassemble sous le terme de «récit de voyage» et dont les critiques ont bien du mal trois textes, Voyage en Orient de Lamartine, (1835, OEuvres Complètes, Paris, 1861, V.O.), Le Nil

Boyer, Edmond

275

ArcVoyager Makes ArcView Easy!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from ESRI features ArcVoyager. The program is a 50-mb package of carefully selected data, ArcView projects, and help files in a tiered format, available as free downloads in both Windows and Macintosh formats. The goal of ArcVoyager is to give students and teachers a ramped approach for developing their spatial thinking and learning how to employ ArcView tools.

Esri

276

Voyager flight project: DSN Telecommunications Compatibility Test Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Voyager Flight Project - DSN Telecommunications Compatibility Test Program consisted of three phases: Subsystem Design, System Design, and System Verification Tests. Subsystem Design Tests were performed during mid 1976. System Design Tests were performed during late 1976 and early 1977. System Verification Tests were performed during the spring and summer of 1977. This article describes the System Design Tests and test results that provided the basis for establishment of telecommunications design between the DSN and the Voyager Flight Project.

Bryan, A. I.; Kemp, R. P.; Madsen, B. D.

1977-01-01

277

Shock evolution in the outer heliosphere - Voyager and Pioneer observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations are reported of 35 interplanetary shocks detected at heliocentric distances between 6.5 and 9.4 AU in mid-1980 by the Voyager 1, Voyager 2, and Pioneer 11 spacecraft. These shocks were all evidently generated by the interaction of corotating streams. Measurements of the pre- and postshock plasma parameters are used to determine the shock normals and speeds for each shock.

P. R. Gazis; A. J. Lazarus; K. Hester

1985-01-01

278

Performance model of the Argonne Voyager multimedia server  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Argonne Voyager Multimedia Server is beingdeveloped in the Futures Lab of the Mathematics andComputer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory.As a network-based service for recording andplaying multimedia streams, it is important that theVoyager system be capable of sustaining certain minimallevels of performance in order for it to be a viablesystem. In this article, we examine the performancecharacteristics of the

Terrence Disz; Robert Olson; Rick L. Stevens

1997-01-01

279

Parkes radio science system design and testing for Voyager Neptune encounter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Radio Science System installed at Parkes, Australia for the Voyager Neptune encounter was specified to meet the same stringent requirements that were imposed upon the Deep Space Network Radio Science System. The system design and test methodology employed to meet these requirements at Parkes are described, and data showing the measured performance of the system are presented. The results indicate that the system operates with a comfortable margin on the requirements. There was a minor problem with frequency-dependent spurious signals which could not be fixed before the encounter. Test results characterizing these spurious signals are included.

Rebold, T. A.; Weese, J. F.

1989-01-01

280

16 Engineering & Science/Summer 1989 The Voyager space-  

E-print Network

. Imagine "Star Trek.' An alien starship ex- ploring our portion of the Milky Way trains high- powered where we live, dream, and die. The starship aliens (or, more likely, their robotic surrogates) might a moist surface, and because of that moisture life has evolved on it. In ancient and medieval times

Faraon, Andrei

281

Observed Coupling Between the International Space Station PCU Plasma and a FPMU Langmuir Probe Facilitated by the Geomagnetic Field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical charging of the International Space Station (ISS) is a matter of serious concern resulting from the possibility of vehicle arcing and electrical shock hazard to crew during extravehicular activity (EVA). A Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU) was developed and integrated into ISS in order to control the ISS floating potential, thereby, minimize vehicle charging and associated hazards. One of the principle factors affecting ISS electrical charging is the ionosphere plasma state (i.e., electron temperature and density). To support ISS electrical charging studies a Floating Potential Monitoring Unit (FPMU) is also integrated into ISS in order to measure the ionosphere properties using Langmuir probes (LP). The FPMU was located on the Starboard side of ISS. The PCU is located near the center of ISS with its plasma exhaust pointed to port. From its integration on ISS in 2006 through November of 2009, the FPMU data exhibited nominal characteristics during PCU operation. On November 21, 2009 the FPMU was relocated from the Starboard location to a new Port location. After relocation significant enhanced noise was observed in both the LP current-voltage sweeps and the derived electron temperature data. The enhanced noise only occurred when the PCU was in discharge and at unique and repeatable locations of the ISS orbit. The cause of this enhanced noise was investigated. It was found that there is coupling occurring between the PCU plasma and the FPMU LP. In this paper we shall 1) present the on-orbit data and the presence of enhanced noise, 2) demonstrate that the coupling of the PCU plasma and the FPMU measurements is geomagnetically organized, 3) show that coupling of the PCU plasma and the FPMU is primarily due to and driven by particle-wave interaction and 4) show that the ionosphere conditions are adequate for Alfven waves to be generated by the PCU plasma.

Hartman, William; Koontz, Steven L.

2010-01-01

282

Voyager spacecraft images of Jupiter and Saturn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Voyager imaging system is described, noting that it is made up of a narrow-angle and a wide-angle TV camera, each in turn consisting of optics, a filter wheel and shutter assembly, a vidicon tube, and an electronics subsystem. The narrow-angle camera has a focal length of 1500 mm; its field of view is 0.42 deg and its focal ratio is f/8.5. For the wide-angle camera, the focal length is 200 mm, the field of view 3.2 deg, and the focal ratio of f/3.5. Images are exposed by each camera through one of eight filters in the filter wheel on the photoconductive surface of a magnetically focused and deflected vidicon having a diameter of 25 mm. The vidicon storage surface (target) is a selenium-sulfur film having an active area of 11.14 x 11.14 mm; it holds a frame consisting of 800 lines with 800 picture elements per line. Pictures of Jupiter, Saturn, and their moons are presented, with short descriptions given of the area being viewed.

Birnbaum, M. M.

1982-01-01

283

Voyager observations of Jovian millisecond radio bursts  

SciTech Connect

Voyager Planetary Radio Astronomy data collected over 30-day intervals centered on the two close encounters with Jupiter were utilized to study the characteristics of millisecond-duration radio bursts (s-bursts) at frequencies between 5 and 15 MHz. In this frequency range, s-bursts are found to occur almost independently of Central Meridian Longitude and to depend entirely on the phase of Io with respect to the observer's planetocentric line of sight. Individual bursts typically cover a total frequency range of about 1.5 to 3 MHz, and they are usually strongly circularly polarized. Most bursts in a particular s-burst storm will exhibit the same polarization sense (either right-hand or left-hand), and there is some evidence for a systematic pattern in which one polarizations sense is preferred over the other as a function of Io phase and Central Meridian Longitude. These data are all suggestive of a radio source that is located along the instantaneous Io flux tube and that extends over a linear dimension of 5000 km along the field lines in both the northern and southern Hemispheres.

Alexander, J.K.; Desch, M.D.

1984-01-01

284

New Voyager radio spectrograms of Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New, high-resolution spectrograms of the Voyager-2 radio observations at Uranus were produced from the original, six-second Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) data and these show a number of new features which were not obvious in previous versions. Among these new features are the detailed structure of the so-called broadband-bursty (b-bursty) emissions, unexpected sloping striations in the smooth high-frequency (SHF) component, and the overlap of these two components during the first rotation after closest approach. In addition, a slightly different planetary rotation rate from the b-bursty emissions, was found, and at the initial onset of the SHF component, what appears to be the shadow of a Uranian plasmasphere. These new spectrograms were prepared using a special dithering algorithm to show signal strengths as gray shadings, and the data were also manually cleaned to suppress noise and interference. This produced spectrograms of exceptional quality and certain details of their production on a stand-alone personal computer are also discussed.

Calvert, W.; Tsintikidis, D.

1990-01-01

285

Designing the United States' initial 'Deep-Space Networks' - Choices for the Pioneer lunar-probe attempts of 1958-59  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes two separate networks for ground-support stations, designed, respectively, by the Space Technology Laboratories (STL) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), to support the series of early Pioneer lunar-probe attempts. Particular attention is given to the characteristics of an ideal ground-support station and to the criteria used for the selection of the antenna, the antenna station site, and the frequency for the STL and JPL networks.

Waff, Craig B.

1993-01-01

286

Preliminary results of a gamma-ray burst study in the Konus experiment on the Venera-11 and Venera-12 space probes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Twenty-one gamma-ray bursts and 68 solar flares in the hard X-ray range were detected on Venera-11 and Venera-12 space probes during the initial 50-day observation period. Major characteristics of the equipment used and preliminary data on the temporal structure and energy spectra of the gamma-ray bursts are considered. The pattern of gamma-ray burst frequency distribution vs. intensity, N(S), is established.

Mazets, Y. P.; Golentskiy, S. V.; Ilinskiy, V. N.; Panov, V. N.; Aptekar, R. L.; Guryan, Y. A.; Sokolov, I. A.; Sokolova, Z. Y.; Kharitonova, T. V.

1979-01-01

287

On-board estimation technology for space station - Current status and future developments.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design considerations and projected solutions to on-board automated estimation techniques for advanced technology controls on a space station are described, with emphasis on the state estimator. The space station is modelled as a collection of rigid and flexible bodies connected at a finite number of hinges. The systems dynamics are characterized by angular velocities of the base body, gimbal angles, and deflections of the flexible appendages. The state estimator evolution is projected to occur in four generations, with the first being control logic in the Viking and Voyager spacecraft, the second in the Shuttle and Galileo probe, the third being large antennas and the prototype space station, the last, around the year 2000, for the actual space station. Considerations for attitude, ephemeris, shape determination, and position estimation through each generation are discussed.

Rodriguez, G.; Lin, Y. H.; Cameron, J. M.; Szirmay, S. Z.

1983-01-01

288

Jupiter's Stratospheric Hydrocarbons: From Voyager to Cassini  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photolysis of methane gas in Jupiter's atmosphere by solar UV creates short-lived radical species, which subsequently recombine to form stable higher-mass hydrocarbons including acetylene (C2H2) and ethane (C2H6). With dramatically different photochemical lifetimes (3x107 s and 3x1010 s respectively at 5 mbar), these gases may be used as tracers of atmospheric circulation. For example, while ethane's lifetime greatly exceeds the predicted dynamical timescale for meridional mixing inferred from comet SL-9 debris (5-50 x108 s), the lifetime of acetylene is much less, and therefore different latitude distributions of these species are expected. In a recent paper (Nixon et al. 2007), infrared spectra acquired by the Cassini CIRS instrument during the Jupiter encounter of December 2000 were modeled to recover the meridional variations of both gases in the stratosphere (5 mbar) and upper troposphere (200 mbar). In this work, we have applied the same analysis to spectra acquired by Voyager IRIS 21 years earlier (1.75 Jupiter years), recovering the stratospheric variation. Some striking similarities and differences are evident: while the acetylene distribution in 1979 does not show the strong North-South hemispheric asymmetry seen in 2000, ethane on the other hand shows qualitatively a similar picture in the two epochs. In this presentation we show the meridional abundance variations from both of these important spacecraft datasets and discuss how the interplay of photochemistry and dynamics may explain the results. We also discuss how these findings relate to the current understanding of Jupiter's atmosphere, and suggest directions of future research. We acknowledge the support of the Cassini-Huygens Project and NASA Grant 07-OPR07-0048. References: C. A. Nixon et al., Icarus, 188, pp. 47-71, 2007.

Nixon, Conor A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Allen, M.; Maguire, W. C.; Flasar, F. M.; Teanby, N. A.; Irwin, P. G. J.

2009-09-01

289

Voyager 2 at neptune: imaging science results.  

PubMed

Voyager 2 images of Neptune reveal a windy planet characterized by bright clouds of methane ice suspended in an exceptionally clear atmosphere above a lower deck of hydrogen sulfide or ammonia ices. Neptune's atmosphere is dominated by a large anticyclonic storm system that has been named the Great Dark Spot (GDS). About the same size as Earth in extent, the GDS bears both many similarities and some differences to the Great Red Spot of Jupiter. Neptune's zonal wind profile is remarkably similar to that of Uranus. Neptune has three major rings at radii of 42,000, 53,000, and 63,000 kilometers. The outer ring contains three higher density arc-like segments that were apparently responsible for most of the ground-based occultation events observed during the current decade. Like the rings of Uranus, the Neptune rings are composed of very dark material; unlike that of Uranus, the Neptune system is very dusty. Six new regular satellites were found, with dark surfaces and radii ranging from 200 to 25 kilometers. All lie inside the orbit of Triton and the inner four are located within the ring system. Triton is seen to be a differentiated body, with a radius of 1350 kilometers and a density of 2.1 grams per cubic centimeter; it exhibits clear evidence of early episodes of surface melting. A now rigid crust of what is probably water ice is overlain with a brilliant coating of nitrogen frost, slightly darkened and reddened with organic polymer material. Streaks of organic polymer suggest seasonal winds strong enough to move particles of micrometer size or larger, once they become airborne. At least two active plumes were seen, carrying dark material 8 kilometers above the surface before being transported downstream by high level winds. The plumes may be driven by solar heating and the subsequent violent vaporization of subsurface nitrogen. PMID:17755997

Smith, B A; Soderblom, L A; Banfield, D; Barnet, C; Basilevsky, A T; Beebe, R F; Bollinger, K; Boyce, J M; Brahic, A; Briggs, G A; Brown, R H; Chyba, C; Collins, S A; Colvin, T; Cook, A F; Crisp, D; Croft, S K; Cruikshank, D; Cuzzi, J N; Danielson, G E; Davies, M E; De Jong, E; Dones, L; Godfrey, D; Goguen, J; Grenier, I; Haemmerle, V R; Hammel, H; Hansen, C J; Helfenstein, C P; Howell, C; Hunt, G E; Ingersoll, A P; Johnson, T V; Kargel, J; Kirk, R; Kuehn, D I; Limaye, S; Masursky, H; McEwen, A; Morrison, D; Owen, T; Owen, W; Pollack, J B; Porco, C C; Rages, K; Rogers, P; Rudy, D; Sagan, C; Schwartz, J; Shoemaker, E M; Showalter, M; Sicardy, B; Simonelli, D; Spencer, J; Sromovsky, L A; Stoker, C; Strom, R G; Suomi, V E; Synott, S P; Terrile, R J; Thomas, P; Thompson, W R; Verbiscer, A; Veverka, J

1989-12-15

290

Space Mission to the Moon with a Low Cost Moon Probe Nanosatellite: University Project Feasibility Analysis and Design Concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the possibility of launching a 10 kg nanosatellite moon probe with a joint university effort along with industrial partners for a low cost mission to the moon. It will allow for vital experiments to take place.

Guven, U. G.; Velidi, G. V.; Datta, L. D.

2014-10-01

291

Grant Proposal for the Continuation of the Voyager Interstellar Mission: LECP Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This proposal documents the plans of the Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) investigation team for participation in NASA's Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM) as the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft explore the outer reaches of the heliosphere and search for the...

S. M. Krimigis, T. P. Armstrong, L. J. Lanzerotti, W. H. Ip R. B. Decker, E. P. Keath, B. H. Mauk, R. L. McNutt, G. Gloeckler, D. C. Hamilton

1996-01-01

292

46 CFR 14.203 - Voyages upon which shipping articles are not required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...not required. Although they may be used for the voyage; shipping articles are not required for any voyage by— (a) A yacht; (b) A vessel engaged exclusively in fishing or whaling; (c) A vessel aboard which the merchant mariners are...

2012-10-01

293

46 CFR 14.203 - Voyages upon which shipping articles are not required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...not required. Although they may be used for the voyage; shipping articles are not required for any voyage by— (a) A yacht; (b) A vessel engaged exclusively in fishing or whaling; (c) A vessel aboard which the merchant mariners are...

2013-10-01

294

Voyager observations of the interaction of the heliosphere with the interstellar medium  

E-print Network

This paper provides a brief review and update on the Voyager observations of the interaction of the heliosphere with the interstellar medium. Voyager has found many surprises: (1) a new energetic particle component which ...

Richardson, John D.

295

33 CFR 169.210 - Where during its international voyage must a ship transmit position reports?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Where during its international voyage must a ship transmit position reports? 169.210...CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY SHIP REPORTING SYSTEMS Transmission of Long...Where during its international voyage must a ship transmit position reports? The...

2013-07-01

296

33 CFR 169.210 - Where during its international voyage must a ship transmit position reports?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Where during its international voyage must a ship transmit position reports? 169.210...CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY SHIP REPORTING SYSTEMS Transmission of Long...Where during its international voyage must a ship transmit position reports? The...

2010-07-01

297

33 CFR 169.210 - Where during its international voyage must a ship transmit position reports?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Where during its international voyage must a ship transmit position reports? 169.210...CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY SHIP REPORTING SYSTEMS Transmission of Long...Where during its international voyage must a ship transmit position reports? The...

2011-07-01

298

33 CFR 169.210 - Where during its international voyage must a ship transmit position reports?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Where during its international voyage must a ship transmit position reports? 169.210...CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY SHIP REPORTING SYSTEMS Transmission of Long...Where during its international voyage must a ship transmit position reports? The...

2012-07-01

299

Radio science ground data system for the Voyager-Neptune encounter, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Voyager radio science experiments at Neptune required the creation of a ground data system array that includes a Deep Space Network complex, the Parkes Radio Observatory, and the Usuda deep space tracking station. The performance requirements were based on experience with the previous Voyager encounters, as well as the scientific goals at Neptune. The requirements were stricter than those of the Uranus encounter because of the need to avoid the phase-stability problems experienced during that encounter and because the spacecraft flyby was faster and closer to the planet than previous encounters. The primary requirement on the instrument was to recover the phase and amplitude of the S- and X-band (2.3 and 8.4 GHz) signals under the dynamic conditions encountered during the occultations. The primary receiver type for the measurements was open loop with high phase-noise and frequency stability performance. The receiver filter bandwidth was predetermined based on the spacecraft's trajectory and frequency uncertainties.

Kursinski, E. R.; Asmar, S. W.

1991-01-01

300

Are you there, Planet X? It's me, Voyager 1  

E-print Network

We propose to use the navigation data of Voyager 1 collected during the latest three decades to put on the test the recently proposed hypothesis that one (or more) still unseen super-Earth(s) may lurk at about $200-250$ Astronomical Units. Such a hypothetical body would perturb the range of Voyager 1 up to several hundreds of km over 30 years. Even if two-way coherent range and Doppler tracking were discontinued for Voyager 1 after the planetary flybys era due to cost reasons, it does not seems unrealistic to assume a ranging accuracy still better than 1 km. It would be fully adequate to put new, severe constraints on the existence of a hypothetical perturber with the physical and orbital characteristic recently suggested in the literature.

Iorio, Lorenzo

2014-01-01

301

Gautier et les guides de voyage : l'exemple de Constantinople  

E-print Network

Gautier et les guides de voyage : l'exemple de Constantinople La question des guides de voyage peut, le désir de voyager selon son bon plaisir, en n'ayant pour règle que le refus de la ligne droite et, une sorte de voyage en Orient qui renvoie à l'Itinéraire de Chateaubriand, la Terre Sainte en moins

Boyer, Edmond

302

Un voyage au centre de la terre dans Le Chteau des Carpathes  

E-print Network

1 Un voyage au centre de la terre dans Le Château des Carpathes LIONEL DUPUY Université de Pau et tout premiers romans des Voyages Extraordinaires est Voyage au centre halshs-00476083,version1-23Apr ces deux aventures mettent en scène un même voyage dans le temps, celui au centre de la terre. Dans

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

303

The Voyager spacecraft /James Watt International Gold Medal Lecture/  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Voyager Project background is reviewed with emphasis on selected features of the Voyager spacecraft. Investigations by the Thermo-electric Outer Planets Spacecraft Project are discussed, including trajectories, design requirements, and the development of a Self Test and Repair computer, and a Computer Accessed Telemetry System. The design and configuration of the spacecraft are described, including long range communications, attitude control, solar independent power, sequencing and control data handling, and spacecraft propulsion. The development program, maintained by JPL, experienced a variety of problems such as design deficiencies, and process control and manufacturing problems. Finally, the spacecraft encounter with Jupiter is discussed, and expectations for the Saturn encounter are expressed.

Heacock, R. L.

1980-01-01

304

Performance model of the Argonne Voyager multimedia server  

SciTech Connect

The Argonne Voyager Multimedia Server is being developed in the Futures Lab of the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory. As a network-based service for recording and playing multimedia streams, it is important that the Voyager system be capable of sustaining certain minimal levels of performance in order for it to be a viable system. In this article, the authors examine the performance characteristics of the server. As they examine the architecture of the system, they try to determine where bottlenecks lie, show actual vs potential performance, and recommend areas for improvement through custom architectures and system tuning.

Disz, T.; Olson, R.; Stevens, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.

1997-07-01

305

n a press conference on September 12, NASA announced that Voyager  

E-print Network

got there!" exulted Ed Stone, the Voyager mission's project scientist, principal investigatorTHE OTHER SIDE I n a press conference on September 12, NASA announced that Voyager the stars for the Voyager Cosmic Ray Experiment, and Caltech's David Morrisroe Professor of Physics. "We all hoped, when we

306

46 CFR 281.3 - Method of commencing and terminating voyages and of determining idle status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...discharged and loaded at each port of the inward voyage; and that where, in the opinion of the operator, voyages as a general practice should terminate at the home or terminal port rather than at the last port of discharge, or a voyage...

2011-10-01

307

LE VOYAGE AUX AMRIQUES ET LES REVUES SAVANTES FRANAISES AU XIXE  

E-print Network

LE VOYAGE AUX AM�RIQUES ET LES REVUES SAVANTES FRAN�AISES AU XIXE SI�CLE Mona HUERTA* Pouvait Nouveau Monde, mais c'est aussi s'attarder sur la question de la médiatisation de ces voyages au cours du scientifiques à travailler sur les terres américaines ; rappelons en particulier le voyage de Pierre Bourguer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

308

Aide aux utilisateurs Nouveaux marchs Voyages et hbergement 2012 AIDE AUX UTILISATEURS  

E-print Network

1 Aide aux utilisateurs Nouveaux marchés Voyages et hébergement 2012 14/11/2012 AIDE AUX UTILISATEURS DANS LE CADRE DES NOVEAUX MARCHES « VOYAGES ET HEBERGEMENT » 2012 Ce document vous permettra de. Comment valider un voyage ? ........................................................................ 9 9

van Tiggelen, Bart

309

Preliminary results on Saturn's inner plasmasphere as observed by Cassini: Comparison with Voyager  

E-print Network

Preliminary results on Saturn's inner plasmasphere as observed by Cassini: Comparison with Voyager. The electron and proton temperatures, which could not be measured in this region by Voyager, are T $ 2 eV at L plasmasphere as observed by Cassini: Comparison with Voyager, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L14S07, doi:10

Johnson, Robert E.

310

Voyager 2 Observations of Helium Abundance Enhancements from 1-60 AU  

E-print Network

1 Voyager 2 Observations of Helium Abundance Enhancements from 1-60 AU C. Wang and J. D. Richardson HELIUM ENHANCEMENTS FROM 1-60 AU #12;2 Abstract. The Plasma Science experiment on the Voyager 2 analyze the high resolution spectra for the whole Voyager 2 mission (from 1977 to present) and nd that HAE

Richardson, John

311

DOTSS Voyage 2001, Nutrient data reprocessing. Rebecca Cowley, Susan Wijffels, December, 2008.  

E-print Network

DOTSS Voyage 2001, Nutrient data reprocessing. Rebecca Cowley, Susan Wijffels, December, 2008 Ocean along P15S during 2001. The nutrient data from the voyage was known to have large errors-processed, comparing it to the DISCO 1996 voyage along the same section. This report discusses the reprocessing method

312

Massachusetts Institute of Technology StarT-Voyager: A Flexible Platform for  

E-print Network

CSAIL Massachusetts Institute of Technology StarT-Voyager: A Flexible Platform for Exploring Intelligence Laboratory #12;#12;StarT-Voyager: A Flexible Platform for Exploring Scalable SMP Issues Research contract N00014-92-J-1310 and Ft Huachuca contract DABT63-95-C-0150. #12;StarT-Voyager: A Flexible

Gummadi, Ramakrishna

313

Relation between the solar wind dynamic pressure at Voyager 2 and the energetic  

E-print Network

Relation between the solar wind dynamic pressure at Voyager 2 and the energetic particle events at Voyager 1 J. D. Richardson,1,2 F. B. McDonald,3 E. C. Stone,4 C. Wang,1,2 and J. Ashmall1 Received 29 in 2001, Voyager 1 observed three events characterized by enhanced fluxes of energetic particles

Richardson, John

314

Prix universitaire international du Carnet de Voyage tudiant Rglement du concours  

E-print Network

Prix universitaire international du Carnet de Voyage �tudiant R�glement du concours Article 1 : Organisation Le Prix universitaire international du Carnet de voyage �tudiant est organis du Rendez Vous de Carnet de Voyage, lors de la c�r�monie de remise du prix du vendredi) Article 4

Sart, Remi

315

Properties of the termination shock observed by Voyager 2 and J. D. Richardson3  

E-print Network

Properties of the termination shock observed by Voyager 2 H. Li,1,2 C. Wang,1 and J. D. Richardson3] In August 2007, Voyager 2 reached the termination shock and entered the heliosheath at a distance of about, the termination shock moved back and forth, and Voyager 2 crossed the termination shock multiple times. We use

Richardson, John

316

Massachusetts Institute of Technology The StarT-Voyager Parallel System  

E-print Network

CSAIL Massachusetts Institute of Technology The StarT-Voyager Parallel System Derek Chiou, Boon S;#12;The START-VOYAGER Parallel System Computation Structures Group Memo 416 December 8, 1998 Boon S. Ang N00014-92-J-1310 and Ft Huachuca contract DABT63-95-C-0150. #12;The START-VOYAGER Parallel System

Gummadi, Ramakrishna

317

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Message Passing Support on StarT-Voyager  

E-print Network

CSAIL Massachusetts Institute of Technology Message Passing Support on StarT-Voyager Derek Chiou;#12;Message Passing Support on StarT-Voyager Computation Structures Group Memo 417 December 8, 1998 Boon S Huachuca contract DABT63-95-C-0150. #12;Message Passing Support on StarT-Voyager Boon S. Ang Derek Chiou

Gummadi, Ramakrishna

318

46 CFR 108.209 - Hospital spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...more persons on a voyage of more than three days must have a hospital space. (b) Each hospital space must be suitably separated from other spaces. (c) No hospital space may be used for any other purpose, when used for care of the...

2010-10-01

319

46 CFR 108.209 - Hospital spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...more persons on a voyage of more than three days must have a hospital space. (b) Each hospital space must be suitably separated from other spaces. (c) No hospital space may be used for any other purpose, when used for care of the...

2011-10-01

320

The Polar Sea Voyage and the Northwest Passage Dispute  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the Northwest Passage controversy between the United States and Canada beginning with the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Polar Sea voyage through the passage without permission from the Canadian Government in August 1985 to the signing of the executive agreement on Arctic cooperation in January 1988. Particular focus is placed upon U.S. national interests in the Arctic region,

Philip J. Briggs

1990-01-01

321

Voyager flight project: DSN Telecommunications Compatibility Test Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voyager Flight Project - DSN Telecommunications Compatibility Test Program consisted of three phases: Subsystem Design, System Design, and System Verification Tests. Subsystem Design Tests were performed during mid 1976. System Design Tests were performed during late 1976 and early 1977. System Verification Tests were performed during the spring and summer of 1977. This article describes the System Design Tests

A. I. Bryan; R. P. Kemp; B. D. Madsen

1977-01-01

322

Archival Voyager Observations of the Diffuse UV Background  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have completed the first stage of a project designed to study the diffuse far ultraviolet background radiation field using the entire archival voyager database. Our primary goal is to obtain a map of the dust scattered starlight from which we will be able to derive the optical constants of the interstellar dust grains and the effects of environment on

M. Earl; J. Murthy; D. T. Hall; R. C. Henry; J. B. Holberg

1994-01-01

323

The plasma experiment on the 1977 Voyager mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Faraday cup plasma detectors, one pointing along and one at right angles to the earth-spacecraft line, are employed in the Voyager project plasma experiment. The earth-pointing detector, consisting of three differently oriented Faraday cups, is expected to provide data on plasma conditions between 1 and 20 AU, with coverage of proton and electron energy ranges from 10 to 5950

H. S. Bridge; J. W. Belcher; R. J. Butler; A. J. Lazarus; A. M. Mavretic; J. D. Sullivan; G. L. Siscoe; V. M. Vasyliunas

1977-01-01

324

Microwave communications from outer planets - The Voyager Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper summarizes the Voyager Project, the mission objectives, and the spacecraft communications system required to meet the mission objectives. The primary emphasis of the mission is on comparative studies of the Jupiter and Saturn systems in the areas of: (1) the environment, atmosphere and body characteristics of the planets, and one or more of the satellites, (2) the nature

A. G. Brejcha

1980-01-01

325

Voyager Interactive Web Interface to EarthScope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualization of data is essential in helping scientists and students develop a conceptual understanding of relationships among many complex types of data and keep track of large amounts of information. Developed initially by UNAVCO for study of global-scale geodynamic processes, the Voyager map visualization tools have evolved into interactive, web-based map utilities that can make scientific results accessible to a

S. C. Eriksson; C. M. Meertens; L. Estey; M. Weingroff; M. W. Hamburger; W. E. Holt; G. A. Richard

2004-01-01

326

Voyager 2 in the Uranian system - Imaging science results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Details of the characteristics of the Uranian atmosphere and the surface features and projected formation processes of the Uranian moons are surveyed on the basis of 7000 images obtained by Voyager 2. Brightness distribution curves are provided for the CH4 Uranian atmosphere, and various anomalies, e.g., banding, that are apparent are discussed. Attention is given to the detectable cloud structure,

B. A. Smith; L. A. Soderblom; R. Beebe; D. Bliss; R. H. Brown; S. A. Collins; J. M. Boyce; G. A. Briggs; A. Brahic; J. N. Cuzzi; D. Morrison; G. E. DANIELSON; M. E. DAVIES; T. E. DOWLING; D. GODFREY; C. J. HANSEN; C. HARRIS; G. E. HUNT; A. P. INGERSOLL; T. V. JOHNSON; R. J. KRAUSS; H. MASURSKY; T. OWEN; J. B. PLESCIA; J. B. POLLACK; C. C. PORCO; K. RAGES; C. SAGAN; E. M. SHOEMAKER; L. A. SROMOVSKY; C. STOKER; R. G. STROM; V. E. SUOMI; S. P. SYNNOTT; R. J. TERRILE; P. THOMAS; W. R. THOMPSON; J. VEVERKA

1986-01-01

327

Technology '90: the main event [Voyager 2 project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voyager 2's flyby past the planet Neptune in August 1989 is recounted, focusing on its engineering achievements. The failure of its prime receiver only seven months after launch was followed by the failure of a tracking-loop capacitor in its backup receiver. Through clever engineering, that outage proved no more than an inconvenience. Its cameras were meant to work only in

T. E. Bell

1990-01-01

328

A brief history of the Voyager Project. III  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data collected by Voyager 1, during a Jupiter flyby, March 3-6, 1979, are presented. The imaging experiment included a study of global atmospheric circulation and the vertical structure of the upper atmospheric levels, vertical and horizontal cloud structure and coloration, specific features such as the Great Red Spot, white ovals, plumes, and hot spots, the geology and atmospheres of the

J. K. Davies

1981-01-01

329

Mission applications of the dual spacecraft tracking technique. [Voyager Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential application of the dual spacecraft tracking technique to the Voyager mission is discussed. The concept and technology status is reviewed and results pertaining to the JSX-Uranus option Saturn encounter, where potential navigation benefits are greatest, are presented. Results for a Jupiter encounter demonstration also are given and, finally, software modifications and tracking requirements are examined.

Chao, C. C.; Mcdanell, J. P.

1978-01-01

330

A Planetary Orbiting Relay Communication Link for Project Voyager  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning in the late 1960's Voyager spacecraft will be launched to Venus and Mars. These spacecraft may contain both orbiting and landing modules. One of the first questions which arises in such a system is whether to transmit the data originating in the lander directly back to earth or to relay through the orbiter. This paper discusses the theoretical, operational

Donald L. Hagen

1963-01-01

331

Voyager and Pioneer Missions to the boundaries of the heliosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of the solar wind with the interstellar medium is expected to result in a complex, probably dynamic outer heliospheric boundary region. In increasing distance from the sun the boundary region includes the solar wind termination shock, the heliopause, and perhaps a heliobowshock. The continuing missions of Voyager 1 and 2 and Pioneer 10 and 11 provide a unique

M. E. Pesses; W. V. Jones; M. Forman

1993-01-01

332

Voyager 1 and 2 Atlas of Six Saturnian Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maps, compiled with data gathered primarily by Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft, are presented which show the diversity among six of the Saturnian moons. Mimas and Enceladus are mapped in detail. Prelimary maps are given for the other four satellites. Diameter, density, albedo, and distance from mother planet, among much more data, is given for each moon.

Batson, R. M.

1984-01-01

333

On reliving the Wanderjahr : The many voyages of the Beagle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a study of constancy and change in the development of one adult's system of beliefs and way of thought. It compares two documents, two versions of Charles Darwin's account of the voyage of theBeagle, one written at an early stage in the development of his evolutionary thought, the other much later but still long before he wrote theOrigin

Howard E. Gruber

1994-01-01

334

The Jupiter system through the eyes of Voyager 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cameras aboard Voyager 1 have provided a closeup view of the Jupiter system, revealing heretofore unknown characteristics and phenomena associated with the planet's atmosphere and the surfaces of its five major satellites. On Jupiter itself, atmospheric motions - the interaction of cloud systems - display complex vorticity. On its dark side, lightening and auroras are observed. A ring was

B. A. Smith; L. A. Soderblom; T. V. Johnson; A. P. Ingersoll; S. A. Collins; E. M. Shoemaker; G. E. Hunt; H. Masursky; M. H. Carr; M. E. Davies; A. F. Cook; J. M. Boyce; T. Owen; G. E. Danielson; C. Sagan; R. F. Beebe; J. Veverka; J. F. McCauley; R. G. Strom; D. Morrison; G. A. Briggs; V. E. Suomi

1979-01-01

335

Whistlers observed by Voyager 1: Detection of lightning on Jupiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Voyager 1 encounter with Jupiter a number of discrete signals were identified in the wideband plasma wave data with characteristics similar to whistlers generated by lightning. In this paper we show that the calculated whistler-mode travel times from Jupiter to the spacecraft are in good agreement with the measured dispersion characteristics, thereby confirming that the signals are caused

D. A. Gurnett; R. R. Shaw; R. R. Anderson; W. S. Kurth; F.L. Scarf

1979-01-01

336

Overview of the Voyager Ultraviolet Spectrometry Results Through Jupiter Encounter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voyager ultraviolet spectrometers (UVS) have been making almost continuous observations, in the 500-A to 1700-A wavelength range, of sources in the solar system and galaxy since launch in 1977. Due to their sensitivity, stability, and dynamic range, the spectrometers have made a remarkable number of discoveries pertaining to the Jupiter system, the interstellar medium, astronomical, and astrophysical sources. The

A. L. Broadfoot; B. R. Sandel; D. E. SHEMANSKY; J. C. McConnell; G. R. Smith; J. B. Holberg; S. K. Atreya; T. M. Donahue; D. F. Strobel; J. L. Bertaux

1981-01-01

337

Extensible Statistical Software: On a Voyage to Oberon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent changes in software technology have opened new possibilities for statistical computing. Conditions for creating efficient and reliable extensible systems have been largely improved by programming languages and systems that provide dynamic loading and type-safety across module boundaries, even at run time. We introduce Voyager, an extensible data analysis system based on Oberon, which tries to exploit some of these

Günther Sawitzki

1996-01-01

338

Extensible Statistical Software: On a Voyage to Oberon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent changes in software technology have opened new possibilities for statistical computing. Conditions for creating efficient and reliable extensible systems have been largely improved by programming languages and systems which provide dynamic loading and type-safety across module boundaries, even at run time. We introduce Voyager, an extensible data analysis system based on Oberon, which tries to exploit some of these

Günther Sawitzki; StatLab Heidelberg

1995-01-01

339

Titan interaction with Saturn's magnetosphere: Voyager 1 results revisited  

E-print Network

Titan interaction with Saturn's magnetosphere: Voyager 1 results revisited E. C. Sittler Jr., R. E March 2005; published 10 September 2005. [1] We investigate the details of Titan's interaction in the outermost region with respect to Titan's ``ionopause,'' followed by CH4 + at intermediate distances and N2

Johnson, Robert E.

340

Overview of the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometry results through Jupiter encounter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observations of a number of objects by the Voyager EUV instruments are summarized. The summary is considered to demonstrate the wide ranging application of the EUV spectroscopy. It also marks an important step forward in spectrography and emphasizes the continuing importance of the search and discovery nature of spectroscopic techniques.

Broadfoot, A. L.; Sandel, B. R.; Shemansky, D. E.; McConnell, J. C.; Smith, G. R.; Holberg, J. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Donahue, T. M.; Strobel, D. F.; Bertaux, J. L.

1981-09-01

341

The Voyager 2 encounter with the Neptunian system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune is presented, including a brief discussion of the trajectory, the planned observations, and highlights of the results described in the 11 companion papers. Neptune's blue atmosphere has storm systems reminiscent of those in Jupiter's atmosphere. An optically thin methane ice cloud exists near the 1.5-bar pressure level, and an optically thick

E. C. Stone; E. D. Miner

1989-01-01

342

Empirical model of the Io plasma torus: Voyager measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a description of plasma conditions in the Io plasma torus, between 5 and 10 RJ, based on Voyager 1 observations obtained in March 1979. The model includes updated analyses of Plasma Science (PLS) data obtained along the spacecraft trajectory as well as Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) observations of composition made remotely from Jupiter. The plasma characteristics observed along the

Fran Bagenal

1994-01-01

343

Too Many Notes: Computers, Complexity and Culture in Voyager  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author discusses his computer music composition, Voyager, which employs a computer-driven, interactive & virtual improvising orchestra that analyzes an improvisor's performance in real time, generating both complex responses to the musician's playing and independent behavior arising from the program's own internal processes. The author contends that notions about the nature and function of music are embedded in the structure

George E. Lewis

2000-01-01

344

Jupiter plasma wave observations: an initial Voyager 1 overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument detected low-frequency radio emissions, ion acoustic waves, and electron plasma oscillations for a period of months before encountering Jupiter's bow shock. In the outer magnetosphere, measurements of trapped radio waves were used to derive an electron density profile. Near and within the Io plasma torus the instrument detected high-frequency electrostatic waves, strong whistler mode

F. L. Scarf; D. A. Gurnett; W. S. Kurth

1979-01-01

345

Plasma waves near Saturn - Initial results from Voyager 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument detected many familiar types of plasma waves during the encounter with Saturn, including ion-acoustic waves and electron plasma oscillations upstream of the bow shock, an intense burst of electrostatic noise at the shock, and chorus, hiss, electrostatic electron cyclotron waves, and upper hybrid resonance emissions in the inner magnetosphere. A clocklike Saturn rotational control

D. A. Gurnett; W. S. Kurth; F. L. Scarf

1981-01-01

346

Jupiter plasma wave observations - an initial Voyager 1 overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument detected low-frequency radio emissions, ion acoustic waves, and electron plasma oscillations for a period of months before encountering Jupiter's bow shock. In the outer magnetosphere, measurements of trapped radio waves were used to derive an electron density profile. Near and within the Io plasma torus the instrument detected high-frequency electrostatic waves, strong whistler mode

F. L. Scarf; D. A. Gurnett; W. S. Kurth

1979-01-01

347

A plasma wave investigation for the Voyager Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voyager Plasma Wave System (PWS) will provide the first direct information on wave-particle interactions and their effects at the outer planets. The data will give answers to fundamental questions on the dynamics of the Jupiter and Saturn magnetospheres and the properties of the distant interplanetary medium. Basic planetary dynamical processes are known to be associated with wave-particle interactions (for

Frederick L. Scarf; Donald A. Gurnett

1977-01-01

348

ET LE VOYAGE Il ne s'agit pas ici de se demander une nouvelle fois si Corinne est plutt un guide de voyage  

E-print Network

CORINNE1 ET LE VOYAGE Il ne s'agit pas ici de se demander une nouvelle fois si Corinne est plutôt un guide de voyage ou un récit de voyage ou plutôt un roman. Les critères génériques flous du premier genre et les emprunts mutuels d'une catégorie à l'autre confinent à l'aporie. Le récit de voyage

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

349

Determination of the position of Jupiter from radio metric tracking of Voyager 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Voyager 1 spacecraft flew by Jupiter on March 5, 1979. Spacecraft navigation was performed with radio tracking data from NASA's Deep Space Network. In the years since then, there has been a great deal of progress in the definition of celestial reference frames and in determining the orbit and orientation of the Earth. Using these improvements, the radio metric range and Doppler data acquired from the Voyager 1 spacecraft near its encounter with Jupiter have been reanalyzed to determine the plane-of-sky position of Jupiter with much greater accuracy than was possible at the time of the encounter. The position of Jupiter at the time of encounter has been determined with an accuracy of 40 nrad in right ascension and 140 nrad in declination with respect to the celestial reference frame defined by the International Earth Rotation Service. This position estimate has been done to improve the ephemeris of Jupiter prior to the upcoming encounter of the Galileo spacecraft with Jupiter.

Folkner, W. M.; Haw, R. J.

1995-01-01

350

Ganymede - Galileo Mosaic Overlayed on Voyager Data in Uruk Sulcus Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mosaic of four Galileo high-resolution images of the Uruk Sulcus region of Jupiter's moon Ganymede is shown within the context of an image of the region taken by Voyager 2 in 1979. The image shows details of parallel ridges and troughs that are the principal features in the brighter regions of Ganymede. The Galileo frames unveil the fine-scale topography of Ganymede's ice-rich surface, permitting scientists to develop a detailed understanding of the processes that have shaped Ganymede. Resolution of the Galileo images is 74 meters (243 feet) per pixel, while resolution of the Voyager image is 1.3 kilometers (0.8 mile) per pixel. In this view, north is to the top, and the sun illuminates the surface from the lower left nearly overhead. The area shown, at latitude 10 degrees north, longitude 168 degrees west, is about 120 by 110 kilometers (75 by 68 miles) in extent. The image was taken June 27 at a range of 7,448 kilometers (4,628 miles). The Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science.

1996-01-01

351

COMPARISON OF PIONEER 10, VOYAGER 1, AND VOYAGER 2 ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS WITH ANTI-SOLAR LYMAN-ALPHA BACKSCATTER SIMULATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Observations made by ultraviolet (UV) detectors on board Pioneer 10, Voyager 1, and Voyager 2 can be used to analyze the distribution of neutral hydrogen throughout the heliosphere, including the interaction regions of the solar wind and local interstellar medium. Previous studies of the long-term trend of decreasing intensity with increasing heliocentric distance established the need for more sophisticated heliospheric models. Here we use state-of-the-art three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) neutral models to simulate Lyman-alpha backscatter as would be seen by the three spacecrafts, exploiting a new 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code under solar minimum conditions. Both observations and simulations of the UV backscatter intensity are normalized for each spacecraft flight path at {approx}15 AU, and we focus on the slope of decreasing intensity over an increasing heliocentric distance. Comparisons of simulations with Voyager 1 Lyman-alpha data results in a very close match, while the Pioneer 10 comparison is similar due to normalization, but not considered to be in agreement. The deviations may be influenced by a low resolution of photoionization in the 3D MHD-neutral model, a lack of solar cycle activity in our simulations, and possibly issues with instrumental sensitivity. Comparing the slope of Voyager 2 and the simulated intensities yields an almost identical match. Our results predict a large increase in the Lyman-alpha intensity as the hydrogen wall is approached, which would signal an imminent crossing of the heliopause.

Fayock, B.; Zank, G. P.; Heerikhuisen, J., E-mail: brian.fayock@gmail.com, E-mail: garyp.zank@gmail.com, E-mail: jacob.heerikhuisen@uah.edu [Department of Physics and Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

2013-09-20

352

Construction of the Hunveyor-Husar space probe model system for planetary science education and analog studies and simulations in universities and colleges of Hungary.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several teachers and students had the possibility to visit International Space Camp in the vicinity of the MSFC NASA in Huntsville Alabama USA where they learned the success of simulators in space science education To apply these results in universities and colleges in Hungary we began a unified complex modelling in planetary geology robotics electronics and complex environmental analysis by constructing an experimental space probe model system First a university experimental lander HUNVEYOR Hungarian UNiversity surVEYOR then a rover named HUSAR Hungarian University Surface Analyser Rover has been built For Hunveyor the idea and example was the historical Surveyor program of NASA in the 1960-ies for the Husar the idea and example was the Pathfinder s rover Sojouner rover The first step was the construction of the lander a year later the rover followed The main goals are 1 to build the lander structure and basic electronics from cheap everyday PC compatible elements 2 to construct basic experiments and their instruments 3 to use the system as a space activity simulator 4 this simulator contains lander with on board computer for works on a test planetary surface and a terrestrial control computer 5 to harmonize the assemblage of the electronic system and instruments in various levels of autonomy from the power and communication circuits 6 to use the complex system in education for in situ understanding complex planetary environmental problems 7 to build various planetary environments for application of the

Bérczi, Sz.; Hegyi, S.; Hudoba, Gy.; Hargitai, H.; Kokiny, A.; Drommer, B.; Gucsik, A.; Pintér, A.; Kovács, Zs.

353

Periodontal Examination and Probing  

MedlinePLUS

... and floss your teeth. The depth of the space between your tooth and gum — This space is known as the sulcus. It is the ... or periodontitis (more advanced disease). To measure these spaces, the dentist uses a periodontal probe. This is ...

354

Voyages of Discovery through a Backpack Exchange  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Backpacks are commonplace in American schools. Each day students transport them to and from the classroom as they manage to carve out a little oasis of space to gather their treasures, homework and books. In Fair Lawn's recently launched Chinese classes, backpacks take on new responsibility, becoming culture bearers that connect middle school…

Syz, Tracy Hong

2008-01-01

355

LISBONNE: LA DECOUVERTE D'UNE VILLE Du 26 au 30 mars a lieu le voyage d'tudes 2012 pour les tudiants en gographie. Ce voyage porte  

E-print Network

LISBONNE: LA DECOUVERTE D'UNE VILLE Du 26 au 30 mars a lieu le voyage d'études 2012 pour les étudiants en géographie. Ce voyage porte sur la découverte d'une ville et s'articule sur 8 thématiques

Schibler, Ueli

356

Voyager uplink planning in the interstellar mission era  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Voyager Project has entered its last phase of discovery--the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM). Because of the reduced scope of the project and a lower budget, new ways had to be developed to program two spacecraft with fewer people and to allow for some sequence development flexibility without additional risk. In the previous cruise era, it took a seven-person sequence team 12 weeks to develop a nominal eight week cruise sequence. Today it takes a three-person team six weeks to develop a 13 week sequence load. This paper will describe in detail the sequencing strategy which reduces the volume and frequency of sequence loads, and the new tools and processes developed which reduce the manual effort required to generate these sequences without adding risk.

Linick, Susan H.; Weld, Kathryn R.

1993-01-01

357

The galilean satellites and jupiter: voyager 2 imaging science results.  

PubMed

Voyager 2, during its encounter with the Jupiter system, provided images that both complement and supplement in important ways the Voyager 1 images. While many changes have been observed in Jupiter's visual appearance, few, yet significant, changes have been detected in the principal atmospheric currents. Jupiter's ring system is strongly forward scattering at visual wavelengths and consists of a narrow annulus of highest particle density, within which is a broader region in which the density is lower. On Io, changes are observed in eruptive activity, plume structure, and surface albedo patterns. Europa's surface retains little or no record of intense meteorite bombardment, but does reveal a complex and, as yet, little-understood system of overlapping bright and dark linear features. Ganymede is found to have at least one unit of heavily cratered terrain on a surface that otherwise suggests widespread tectonism. Except for two large ringed basins, Callisto's entire surface is heavily cratered. PMID:17733910

Smith, B A; Soderblom, L A; Beebe, R; Boyce, J; Briggs, G; Carr, M; Collins, S A; Cook, A F; Danielson, G E; Davies, M E; Hunt, G E; Ingersoll, A; Johnson, T V; Masursky, H; McCauley, J; Morrison, D; Owen, T; Sagan, C; Shoemaker, E M; Strom, R; Suomi, V E; Veverka, J

1979-11-23

358

The European Voyages of Exploration: The Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This richly illustrated (yet quickly loading) tutorial from the Applied History Research Group at the University of Calgary guides users through the European voyages of exploration and conquest in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Focusing on Spain and Portugal, the site explores the economic, political, and cultural factors that sustained and advanced exploration. Users will find brief histories of the two kingdoms and overviews of their voyages to the Atlantic, Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and the Americas. The tutorial includes numerous maps, in addition to discussions of issues such as cartography, navigation, warfare, religion, slavery, and communication, in the Knowledge & Power section. Secondary School or freshman-level university instructors teaching courses on exploration or Early Modern Europe may find this a useful resource for students.

Chastko, Paul.; Lalonde, Vicki.

359

Voyager 1 Planetary Radio Astronomy Observations Near Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are reported from the first low frequency radio receiver to be transported into the Jupiter magnetosphere. Dramatic new information was obtained both because Voyager was near or in Jupiter's radio emission sources and also because it was outside the relatively dense solar wind plasma of the inner solar system. Extensive radio arcs, from above 30 MHz to about 1 MHz, occurred in patterns correlated with planetary longitude. A newly discovered kilometric wavelength radio source may relate to the plasma torus near Io's orbit. In situ wave resonances near closest approach define an electron density profile along the Voyager trajectory and form the basis for a map of the torus. Studies in progress are outlined briefly.

Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.; Riddle, A. C.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Thieman, J. R.; Carr, T. B.; Gulkis, S.; Boischot, A.

1979-01-01

360

VOYAGER 2 OBSERVES A LARGE DENSITY INCREASE IN THE HELIOSHEATH  

SciTech Connect

Voyager 2 (V2) entered the heliosheath in 2007 August at roughly the same time solar minimum conditions were reaching the outer heliosphere. Soon after crossing the termination shock the solar wind density at Voyager decreased by a factor of two and the temperature decreased by a factor of three. At the beginning of 2011 the plasma density in the heliosheath began to increase and in mid-2012 it was up by more than a factor of two. The temperature rose by about 50% and the speed remained constant, although the flow direction continues to turn tailward. These changes may signal the end of solar minimum conditions at V2 in the heliosheath, although we do not understand why the speed did not decrease. The increased dynamic pressure has lead to an outward movement of the termination shock from its very compressed state at solar minimum.

Richardson, J. D. [Kavli Center for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wang, C., E-mail: jdr@space.mit.edu, E-mail: cw@spaceweather.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory for Space Weather, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

2012-11-01

361

Detail of Ganymede's Uruk Sulcus Region as Viewed by Galileo and Voyager  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

View of the region of Ganymede's Uruk Sulcus placed on a lower resolution Voyager view taken 17 years earlier. North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from almost overhead in the Galileo view. The finest details that can be discerned in the Galileo picture are about 80 meters across. The four boxes outlined in white show the extent of Galileo's initial look at this area. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

1996-01-01

362

Changes on Io between Voyager 1 and Galileo's second orbit around an unnamed vent North of  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detail of changes around a probable vent about 650 kilometers north of Prometheus on Jupiter's moon Io as seen in images obtained by the Voyager 1 spacecraft in April 1979 (left) and the imaging system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on September 7th, 1996 (right). The re-arranging of dark and light radial surface patterns may be a result of plume fallout. North is to the top of both images which are approximately 400 kilometers square.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

1996-01-01

363

Analysis of Voyager images of Europa - plasma bombardment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voyager-derived data on the albedos of Europa are presently photometrically corrected and converted into average, single-scattering form, in order to analyze them as a function of angular distance from the apex of orbital motion. A hypothesized magnetospheric modification of the Europa surface is confirmed by the UV absorption found in the 0.35-micron filter data; this absorption directly correlates with the

R. E. Johnson; M. L. Nelson; T. B. Nccord; J. C. Gradie

1988-01-01

364

Message passing support on StarT-Voyager  

Microsoft Academic Search

No single message passing mechanism can efficiently support all types of communication that commonly occur in most parallel or distributed programs. MIT's StarT-Voyager, a hybrid message passing\\/shared memory parallel machine, provides four message passing mechanisms to achieve high performance over a wide spectrum of communication types and sizes. Hardware and address translation enforced protection allows direct user-level access to message

Boon S. Ang; Derek Chiou; Larry Rudolph; Arvind

1998-01-01

365

Voyager spacecraft radio observations of Jupiter: Initial cruise results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jupiter's low-frequency radio emission were detected by the planetary radio astronomy instruments onboard the two Voyager spacecraft. The emission is surprisingly similar in morphology but opposite in polarization to the high-frequency Jovian radio noise that were observed with ground-based telescopes for more than two decades. Several possible explanations for the behavior of the low-frequency emission are examined, but none of them is completely satisfactory.

Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Riddle, A. C.; Lecacheux, A.; Pearce, J. B.; Alexander, J. K.; Warwick, J. W.; Thieman, J. R.

1979-01-01

366

Mapping the Galilean satellites of Jupiter with Voyager data.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The four Galilean satellites of Jupiter are being mapped using image data from the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. The maps are published at several scales and in several versions. Preliminary maps at 1:25,000,000-required for mission planning and preliminary science reports-were compiled within three weeks of data acquisition and have been published. Later maps incorporate Rand Corporation photogrammetric triangulations. - from Authors

Batson, R. M.

1980-01-01

367

Extreme ultraviolet observations from Voyager 1 encounter with Jupiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the optical extreme ultraviolet spectrum of the Jupiter planetary system during the Voyager 1 encounter have revealed previously undetected physical processes of significant proportions. Bright emission lines of S(+2), S(+3), O(+2) indicating an electron temperature of 100,000 K have been identified in preliminary analyses of the Io plasma torus spectrum. Strong auroral atomic and molecular hydrogen emissions have

A. L. Broadfoot; M. J. Belton; P. Z. Takacs; B. R. Sandel; D. E. Shemansky; J. B. Holberg; J. M. Ajello; H. W. Moos; S. K. Atreya; T. M. Donahue; J. L. Bertaux; J. E. Blamont; D. F. Strobel; J. C. McConnell; R. Goody; A. Dalgarno; M. B. McElroy

1979-01-01

368

Titan's Thermal Emission Spectrum: Reanalysis of the Voyager Infrared Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have modeled the far-infrared spectrum of Titan between 200 and 600 cm-1, including the fine structure of the H2-N2 and H2-CH4 dimers around 355 and 585 cm-1 respectively. A selection of 373 Voyager IRIS spectra recorded at low and mid-latitudes provides the observational basis for our analysis. The opacity model is significantly improved over previous work by taking into

Régis Courtin; Daniel Gautier; Christopher P. McKay

1995-01-01

369

The Orbit of Pheobe from Earthbased and Voyager Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article presents the results of a fit of a numerically integrated orbit for the Saturnian satellite Pheobe to Earthbased astrometric observations (from 1904 to 1996) and imaging data acquired by the Voyager 2 spacecraft during its encounter with Saturn. The primary results are the epoch state vector used in the integration and a set of mean elements which provide a geometrical representation of the orbit. We also assess the quality of the fit and the accuracy of the orbit.

Jacobson, R. A.

1996-01-01

370

Plasma wave observations at Uranus from Voyager 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio emissions from Uranus were detected by the Voyager 2 plasma wave instrument about 5 days before closest approach at frequencies of 31.1 and 56.2 khz. The bow shock was identified by an abrupt broadband burst of electrostatic turbulence about 10 hours before closest approach at a radial distance of 23.5 ru. Once inside of the magnetosphere strong whistler mode

D. A. Gurnett; W. S. Kurth; F. L. Scarf; R. L. Poynter

1986-01-01

371

Voyager radio science observations of neptune and triton.  

PubMed

The Voyager 2 encounter with the Neptune system included radio science investigations of the masses and densities of Neptune and Triton, the low-order gravitational harmonics of Neptune, the vertical structures of the atmospheres and ionospheres of Neptune and Triton, the composition of the atmosphere of Neptune, and characteristics of ring material. Demanding experimental requirements were met successfully, and study of the large store of collected data has begun. The initial search of the data revealed no detectable effects of ring material with optical depth tau [unknown] 0.01. Preliminary representative results include the following: 1.0243 x 10(26) and 2.141 x 10(22) kilograms for the masses of Neptune and Triton; 1640 and 2054 kilograms per cubic meter for their respective densities; 1355 +/- 7 kilometers, provisionally, for the radius of Triton; and J(2) = 3411 +/- 10(x 10(-6)) and J(4) = -26(+12)(-20)(x10(-6)) for Neptune's gravity field (J>(2) and J(4) are harmonic coefficients of the gravity field). The equatorial and polar radii of Neptune are 24,764 +/- 20 and 24,340 +/- 30 kllometers, respectively, at the 10(5)-pascal (1 bar) pressure level. Neptune's atmosphere was probed to a pressure level of about 5 x 10(5) pascals, and effects of a methane cloud region and probable ammonia absorption below the cloud are evident in the data. Results for the mixing ratios of helium and ammonia are still being investigated; the methane abundance below the clouds is at least 1 percent by volume. Derived temperature-pressure profiles to 1.2 x 10(5) pascals and 78 kelvins (K) show a lapse rate corresponding to "frozen" equilibrium of the para- and ortho-hydrogen states. Neptune's ionosphere exhibits an extended topside at a temperature of 950 +/- 160 K if H(+) is the dominant ion, and narrow ionization layers of the type previously seen at the other three giant planets. Triton has a dense ionosphere with a peak electron concentration of 46 x 10(9) per cubic meter at an altitude of 340 kilometers measured during occultation egress. Its topside plasma temperature is about 80 +/- 16 K if N(2)(+) is the principal ion. The tenuous neutral atmosphere of Triton produced distinct signatures in the occultation data; however, the accuracy of the measurements is limited by uncertainties in the frequency of the spacecraft reference oscillator. Preliminary values for the surface pressure of 1.6 +/- 0.3 pascals and an equivalent isothermal temperature of 48 +/- 5 K are suggested, on the assumption that molecular nitrogen dominates the atmosphere. The radio data may be showing the effects of a thermal inversion near the surface; this and other evidence imply that the Triton atmosphere is controlled by vapor-pressure equilibrium with surface ices, at a temperature of 38 K and a methane mixing ratio of about 10(-4). PMID:17756001

Tyler, G L; Sweetnam, D N; Anderson, J D; Borutzki, S E; Campbell, J K; Eshleman, V R; Gresh, D L; Gurrola, E M; Hinson, D P; Kawashima, N; Kursinski, E R; Levy, G S; Lindal, G F; Lyons, J R; Marouf, E A; Rosen, P A; Simpson, R A; Wood, G E

1989-12-15

372

Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager-2 near Saturn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voyager-2 planetry radio astronomy measurements obtained near Saturn are discussed. They indicate that Saturnian kilometric radiation is emitted by a strong, dayside source at auroral latitudes in the northern hemisphere and by a weaker (by more than an order of magnitude) source at complementary latitudes in the southern hemisphere. These emissions are variable both due to Saturn's rotation and, on longer time scales, probably due to influences of the solar wind and the satellite Dione. The Saturn electrostatic discharge bursts first discovered by Voyager-1 and attributed to emissions from the B-ring were again observed with the same broadband spectral properties and a 10(h)11(m) + or - 5(m) episodic recurrence period but with an occurrence frequency of only of about 30 percent of that detected with Voyager-1. During the crossing of the ring plane at a distance of 2.88 R sub S, an intense noise event is interpreted to be consequence of the impact/vaporization/ionization of charged micron-size G-ring particles distributed over a total vertical thickness of about 1500 km.

Warwick, J. W.; Evans, D. R.; Romig, J. H.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Aubier, M.; Leblanc, Y.; Lecacheux, A.; Pedersen, B. M.

1981-01-01

373

Abundances of Jupiter's Trace Hydrocarbons from Voyager and Cassini  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flybys of Jupiter by the Voyager spacecraft in 1979, and over two decades later by Cassini in 2000, have provided us with unique datasets from two different epochs, allowing the investigation of seasonal change in the atmosphere. In this paper we model zonal averages of thermal infrared spectra from the two instruments, Voyager 1 IRIS and Cassini CIRS, to retrieve the vertical and meridional profiles of temperature, and the abundances of the two minor hydrocarbons, acetylene (C2H2) and ethane (C2H6). The spatial variation of these gases is controlled by both chemistry and dynamics, and therefore their observed distribution gives us an insight into both processes, We find that the two gases paint quite different pictures of seasonal change. Whilst the 2-D cross-section of C2H6 abundance is slightly increased and more symmetric in 2000 (northern summer solstice) compared to 1979 (northern fall equinox), the major trend of equator to pole increase remains. For C2H2 on tile other hand, the Voyager epoch exhibits almost no latitudinal variation, whilst the Cassini era shows a marked decrease polewards in both hemispheres. At the present time, these experimental findings are in advance of interpretation, as there are no published models of 2-D Jovian seasonal chemical variation available for comparison.

Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Romani, P. N.; Allen, M.; Zhang, X.; Teanby, N. A.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.

2010-01-01

374

A test for whether or not Voyager 1 has crossed the heliopause  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Voyager 1 spacecraft is currently in the vicinity of the heliopause, which separates the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium. There has been a precipitous decrease in particles accelerated in the heliosphere and a substantial increase in galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The evidence is unclear, however, as to whether Voyager 1 has crossed the heliopause into the local interstellar medium or remains within the heliosheath. In this Letter we propose a test that will determine whether Voyager 1 has crossed the heliopause: If Voyager 1 remains in the heliosheath, the high densities observed must be due to compressed solar wind, with the consequence that Voyager 1 will encounter another current sheet, where the polarity of the magnetic field reverses. Voyager 1 observations can be used to predict that the next current sheet crossing is likely to occur during 2015.

Gloeckler, G.; Fisk, L. A.

2014-08-01

375

De la correspondance The Voyage Out : Portrait de Virginia Woolf en jeune femme de lettres  

E-print Network

De la correspondance à The Voyage Out : Portrait de Virginia Woolf en jeune femme de lettres fiction The Voyage Out. Seul exutoire aux sentiments de la jeune écrivaine, la correspondance se fait l mimétique des plus fertile. La lecture croisée des lettres et de The Voyage Out révèle les affinités entre

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

376

L'utopie otatienne de Diderot dans le Supplment au Voyage de Bougainville,  

E-print Network

1 L'utopie otaïtienne de Diderot dans le Supplément au Voyage de Bougainville, ou la possibilité d public très restreint, le Supplément au Voyage de Bougainville est aujourd'hui l'une des oeuvres les sur le Voyage qu'il a publié en 1771. L'escale otaïtienne attire plus particulièrement leur attention

Boyer, Edmond

377

Aux sources de la civilisation : Les jeunes lites brsiliennes et le voyage en Europe dans la  

E-print Network

1 Aux sources de la civilisation : Les jeunes élites brésiliennes et le voyage en Europe dans la...) fait que le voyage de formation en Europe devient le passage obligé de tout jeune membre de l séjour que ces élites trouvent leur légitimité ; mais pour accéder à ce voyage, il faut être à même de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

378

JEUX D'ADRESSE DANS LA LETTRE DE VOYAGE Le Nil, gypte et Nubie  

E-print Network

JEUX D'ADRESSE DANS LA LETTRE DE VOYAGE Le Nil, �gypte et Nubie 1 de Maxime Du Camp ainsi que Un �té dans le Sahara 2 d'Eugène Fromentin sont des récits de voyage qui adoptent la forme épistolaire ; ils sont constitués d'une suite chronologique de lettres de voyage adressées à deux amis, Théophile

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

379

26 Octobre -2 Novembre 2012 VOYAGE D'ETUDE AU MAROC  

E-print Network

26 Octobre - 2 Novembre 2012 VOYAGE D'ETUDE AU MAROC Master Géologie des Réservoirs Promotion 2012-2013 VOYAGE D'ETUDE AU MAROC Master Géologie des Réservoirs Promotion 2012-2013 Grâce à nos partenaires : #12;Carnet de voyage Notre trajet Montpellier Kasbah Azimounda Dades Imiter BouSkour #12;Le groupe Debouts

Demouchy, Sylvie

380

PRIX DU CARNET DE VOYAGE TUDIANT dition, octobre-novembre 2013  

E-print Network

PRIX DU CARNET DE VOYAGE �TUDIANT 1ère édition, octobre-novembre 2013 COMPOSITION DU JURY · Membres, spécialiste du récit de voyage à l'époque romantique Catherine MORGAN-PROUX, Maître de conférences spécialiste des littératures de voyage, chargée de mission Communication de l'Université Barbara PETIT, Service

Sart, Remi

381

Ubiquit temporelle et imaginaire gographique1 Voyage au centre de la terre de Jules Verne.  

E-print Network

1 Ubiquité temporelle et imaginaire géographique1 . Voyage au centre de la terre de Jules Verne. A mi-chemin entre le scientifique et l'imaginaire, Voyage au centre de la terre de Jules Verne (1864/ou involontaires de la part de l'auteur, qui tendent à renforcer le caractère dual de ce voyage -à la fois dans l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

382

ROMS , GENS DU VOYAGE ET EXCLUS SOCIAUX . LES DESTINEES CATEGORIELLES DES TSIGANES NOMADES AU  

E-print Network

», « GENS DU VOYAGE » ET « EXCLUS SOCIAUX ». LES DESTINEES CATEGORIELLES DES « TSIGANES NOMADES » AU COURS-80-86311-24-1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pour citer cet article : Mathieu Plésiat, « `Roms', `Gens du voyage' et `exclus sociaux'. Les destinées-88. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- #12;71 « Roms », « Gens du voyage » et « exclus sociaux » : les destinées catégorielles des « Tsiganes

Boyer, Edmond

383

Voyager electronic parts radiation program. Volume 2: Test requirements and procedures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Documents are presented outlining the conditions and requirements of the test program. The Appendixes are as follows: appendix A -- Electron Simulation Radiation Test Specification for Voyager Electronic Parts and Devices, appendix B -- Electronic Piece-Part Testing Program for Voyager, appendix C -- Test Procedure for Radiation Screening of Voyager Piece Parts, appendix D -- Boeing In Situ Test Fixture, and appendix E -- Irradiate - Anneal (IRAN) Screening Documents.

Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Price, W. E.

1978-01-01

384

Jules Verne Voyager: A Web Interactive Tool for Comparative Planetology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Web interactive map tool called "Jules Verne Voyager" was originally developed in 1999 by UNAVCO and continues to evolve. The Voyager tool can easily be used for comparative planetology studies by grades 8-14. Thematic mapping datasets, now totaling about 70 Gb, can be accessed by the tool and include global-scale maps of the inner solar system planets and moons, plus Jupiter and the Galilean moons. The map images are viewed on a Web browser created on demand by the server system. On the client-side, only a Java-enabled browser is required, and the Voyager Java applet runs well with common browsers like Netscape, Mozilla, Opera, and Internet Explorer. The applet sends a key-value pair URL to the http://jules.unavco.org server which queues incoming requests and sends them to a bank of computers dedicated to map image creation. The engine for map image creation makes use of the "Generic Mapping Tools" (GMT) software of Paul Wessel and Walter Smith, followed by image conversion of the GMT-created PostScript to GIF for raster image export and display back on the client browser. Because of the GMT-based engine on the server system, the student user can easily create the same type of images from real planetary data that researchers create. The tool also gives a student the ability to switch background datasets and overlay certain other thematic datasets, thus providing a minimal GIS capability. To our knowledge, the map tool has not yet formally been used in a 8-14 classroom environment, though informal use by students and teachers in these grades suggest that it would be well received. The server system is currently capable of handing a moderate level of requests that would result from classroom use; for example, as a system benchmark, over 800 Voyager images were created and served in about an hour during a DLESE 2003 annual meeting workshop. The Voyager map tool is being used by instructors in earth science and comparative planetology as a means to create customized images for classroom use, minimizing the need for Web searches to find equivalent material. We also welcome collaboration which would augment our current planetary thematic mapping datasets.

Estey, L.; Pappalardo, R.; Meertens, C.

2004-12-01

385

La double vue. Sur le voyage en gypte (1869) de Thophile Gautier  

E-print Network

La double vue. Sur le voyage en �gypte (1869) de Théophile Gautier On connaît l'importance de la peinture dans les récits de voyage de Théophile Gautier1 . Ce dernier a beaucoup voyagé, dans les musées voyage (Un Tour en Belgique), en 1836 : il a beau assurer, dès la première page, qu'« il n'y aura

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

386

Net current measurements and secondary electron emission characteristics of the Voyager plasma science experiment and their impact on data interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Voyager Plasma Science (PLS) instrument is capable of returning integral (DC) current measurements, similar in some respects to measurements made with a Langmuir probe or a retarding potential analyzer, although there are significant differences. The integral measurements were made during a calibration sequence in the solar wind, during Cruise Science Maneuvers, and within the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn by Voyager 1. After the failure of the PLS experiment following the Saturn encounter, that instrument was placed in the DC return mode returning possibly usable data from early 1981 through early 1985. The DC return measurements are difficult to interpret and are above threshold values only for relatively large fluxes; the determination of the measured current level is dependent on the operating temperature of the preamplifiers which further complicates the interpretation. Nevertheless, these measurements can be used to determine the efficiency of the suppressor grid at preventing the loss of secondary electrons off the collector plate. Some DC return measurements have been invaluable in aiding in the interpretation of some electron plasma measurements not previously understood. It is found that electron spectra can be significantly modified by the presence of second generation secondary electrons produced by either first generation secondaries or photoelectrons on the support ring of the negative high voltage modulator grid within the instrument housing.

Mcnutt, Ralph L., Jr.

1988-01-01

387

THE LOCAL INTERSTELLAR SPECTRUM BEYOND THE HELIOPAUSE: WHAT CAN BE LEARNED FROM VOYAGER IN THE INNER HELIOSHEATH?  

SciTech Connect

The local interstellar spectrum (LIS) is one of the most important but unknown parameters used in all modeling efforts to describe the modulation of Galactic cosmic rays on their way from the galaxy through a possible bow shock, heliosheath, and heliosphere toward the Earth. Because it has not been measured thus far, several LIS models derived from numerical simulations or data on Earth were developed. A new method to determine the LIS was introduced when the Voyager spacecraft crossed the termination shock and entered the heliosheath. Webber and Higbie derived a new LIS, which is lower than all previous LIS models over the entire energy range, on the basis of these measurements. Numerical simulations by Scherer et al. showed that particles already in the outer heliosheath (OHS) are modulated, suggesting that the LIS by Webber and Higbie is a heliopause spectrum (HPS) rather than the ''true'' LIS. By using the same simplified simulation model, we estimate the diffusion coefficient in the OHS to be consistent with several 10{sup 26} to 10{sup 27} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} for all LIS models under consideration by mapping them to this HPS and conclude that the Voyager measurements will not be able to determine the LIS in the near future. We then discuss the circumstances under which the terrestrial archive can be used to at least exclude LIS models, unless one awaits a dedicated mission like e.g., the Interstellar Probe.

Herbst, K.; Heber, B.; Kopp, A.; Sternal, O. [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Leibnizstrasse 11, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Steinhilber, F., E-mail: herbst@physik.uni-kiel.de [Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Eawag, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

2012-12-10

388

Abundances of Jupiter's Trace Hydrocarbons from Voyager and Cassini. Data Tables: Voyager IRIS Observations Planetary and Space Science, Forthcoming 2010  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following six tables give the retrieved temperatures and volume mixing ratios of C2H2 and C2H6 and the formal errors on these results from the retrieval, as described in the manuscript. These are in the form of two-dimensional tables, specified on a latitudinal and vertical grid. The first column is the pressure in bar, and the second column gives the altitude in kilometers calculated from hydrostatic equilibrium, and applies to the equatorial profile only. The top row of the table specifies the planetographic latitude.

Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Romani, P. N.; Allen, M.; Zhang, X.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.

2010-01-01

389

Probing planar defects in nanoparticle superlattices by 3D small-angle electron diffraction tomography and real space imaging.  

PubMed

We demonstrate how the acquisition and processing of 3D electron diffraction data can be extended to characterize structural features on the mesoscale, and show how lattice distortions in superlattices of self-assembled spherical Pd nanoparticles can be quantified by three-dimensional small-angle electron diffraction tomography (3D SA-EDT). Transmission electron microscopy real space imaging and 3D SA-EDT reveal a high density of stacking faults that was related to a competition between fcc and hcp arrangements during assembly. Information on the orientation of the stacking faults was used to make analogies between planar defects in the superlattices and Shockley partial dislocations in metallic systems. PMID:25292411

Mayence, Arnaud; Wang, Dong; Salazar-Alvarez, German; Oleynikov, Peter; Bergström, Lennart

2014-10-24

390

Voyager Interactive Web Interface to EarthScope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visualization of data is essential in helping scientists and students develop a conceptual understanding of relationships among many complex types of data and keep track of large amounts of information. Developed initially by UNAVCO for study of global-scale geodynamic processes, the Voyager map visualization tools have evolved into interactive, web-based map utilities that can make scientific results accessible to a large number and variety of educators and students as well as the originally targeted scientists. A portal to these map tools can be found at: http://jules.unavco.org. The Voyager tools provide on-line interactive data visualization through pre-determined map regions via a simple HTML/JavaScript interface (for large numbers of students using the tools simultaneously) or through student-selectable areas using a Java interface to a Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) engine. Students can access a variety of maps, satellite images, and geophysical data at a range of spatial scales for the earth and other planets of the solar system. Students can also choose from a variety of base maps (satellite mosaics, global topography, geoid, sea-floor age, strain rate and seismic hazard maps, and others) and can then add a number of geographic and geophysical overlays, for example coastlines, political boundaries, rivers and lakes, earthquake and volcano locations, stress axes, and observed and model plate motion, as well as deformation velocity vectors representing a compilation of over 5000 geodetic measurements from around the world. The related educational website, "Exploring our Dynamic Planet", (http://www.dpc.ucar.edu/VoyagerJr/jvvjrtool.html) incorporates background materials and curricular activities that encourage students to explore Earth processes. One of the present curricular modules is designed for high school students or introductory-level undergraduate non-science majors. The purpose of the module is for students to examine real data to investigate how plate tectonic processes are reflected in observed geophysical phenomena. Constructing maps by controlling map parameters and answering open-ended questions which describe, compare relationships, and work with both observed and model data, promote conceptual understanding of plate tectonics and related processes. The goals of curricular development emphasize inquiry, development of critical thinking skills, and student-centered interests. Custom editions of the map utility have been made as the "Jules Verne Voyager" and "Voyager Junior", for the International Lithosphere Project's "Global Strain Rate Map", and for EarthScope Education and Outreach as "EarthScope Voyager Jr.". For the latter, a number of EarthScope-specific features have been added, including locations of proposed USArray (seismic), Plate Boundary Observatory (geodetic), and San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth sites, plus detailed maps and geographically referenced examples of EarthScope-related scientific investigations. As EarthScope develops, maps will be updated in `real time' so that students of all ages can use the data in formal and informal educational settings.

Eriksson, S. C.; Meertens, C. M.; Estey, L.; Weingroff, M.; Hamburger, M. W.; Holt, W. E.; Richard, G. A.

2004-12-01

391

Probing the space-time geometry around black hole candidates with the resonance models for high-frequency QPOs and comparison with the continuum-fitting method  

SciTech Connect

Astrophysical black hole candidates are thought to be the Kerr black hole predicted by General Relativity. However, in order to confirm the Kerr-nature of these objects, we need to probe the geometry of the space-time around them and check that observations are consistent with the predictions of the Kerr metric. That can be achieved, for instance, by studying the properties of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the gas in the accretion disk. The high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations observed in the X-ray flux of some stellar-mass black hole candidates might do the job. As the frequencies of these oscillations depend only very weakly on the observed X-ray flux, it is thought they are mainly determined by the metric of the space-time. In this paper, I consider the resonance models proposed by Abramowicz and Kluzniak and I extend previous results to the case of non-Kerr space-times. The emerging picture is more complicated than the one around a Kerr black hole and there is a larger number of possible combinations between different modes. I then compare the bounds inferred from the twin peak high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations observed in three micro-quasars (GRO J1655-40, XTE J1550-564, and GRS 1915+105) with the measurements from the continuum-fitting method of the same objects. For Kerr black holes, the two approaches do not provide consistent results. In a non-Kerr geometry, this conflict may be solved if the observed quasi-periodic oscillations are produced by the resonance ?{sub ?}:?{sub r} = 3:1, where ?{sub ?} and ?{sub r} are the two epicyclic frequencies. It is at least worth mentioning that the deformation from the Kerr solution required by observations would be consistent with the one suggested in another recent work discussing the possibility that steady jets are powered by the spin of these compact objects.

Bambi, Cosimo, E-mail: Cosimo.Bambi@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Theresienstraße 37, D-80333 Munich (Germany)

2012-09-01

392

Educating the next generation of SETI scientists: Voyages through time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) could succeed tomorrow, or not for many generations, or never. SETI scientists are very cognizant of the need to train the next generation of researchers who can carry on this vast scientific exploration. Previously, the SETI Institute has met this challenge by developing supplementary teacher's guides for elementary and middle schools called "Life In the Universe" and published by Teacher Ideas Press. Currently, we are engaged in a far more challenging project that is funded primarily by the National Science Foundation (NSF). The SETI Institute is creating a year long, interdisciplinary, high school science curriculum called "Voyages Through Time: Everything Evolves". We are using the theme of evolution to weave a panoramic vista for students that begins with the origin of the universe, encompasses our own origin and evolution, and looks at the evolution of technology and our possible future. By integrating different scientific and technical disciplines to explore how we answer fundamentally important questions, we hope to excite and motivate high school students with the opportunities offered by the way science is practiced today. We invite them to plan a future in which they help to enrich the answers to the big questions: Where did I come from? Where am I going? is anybody else out there? Voyages Through Time consists of six modules on CD-ROMs for teachers and students that have been extensively tested both regionally and nationally. Publication is expected in 2003. The partners in the development of this curriculum are the SETI Institute, NASA Ames Research Center, California Academy of Sciences, and San Francisco State University. Voyages Through Time is funded by the NSF (IMD # 9730693) with additional support from NASA, Hewlett Packard Company, The Foundation for Microbiology, and the Federated Charitable Campaign. For further information, visit: http://www.seti.org/education/Welcome.html.

DeVore, Edna; Tarter, Jill; Fisher, Jane; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Pendleton, Yvonne; Taylor, Sam; Burke, Margaret

2003-08-01

393

Educating the Next Generation of SETI Scientists: Voyages Through Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) could succeed tomorrow, or not for many generations, or never. SETI scientists are very cognizant of the need to train the next generation of researchers who can carry on this vast scientific exploration. Previously, the SETI Institute has met this challenge by developing supplementary teachers' guides for elementary and middle schools called "Life In The Universe" and published by Teacher Ideas Press. Currently, we are engaged in a far more challenging project that is funded primarily by the National Science Foundation (NSF). The SETI Institute is creating a year long, interdisciplinary, high school science curriculum called "Voyages Through Time: Everything Evolves". We are using the theme of evolution to weave a panoramic vista for students that begins with the origin of the universe, encompasses our own origin and evolution, and looks at the evolution of technology and our possible future. By integrating different scientific and technical disciplines to explore how we answer fundamentally important questions, we hope to excite and motivate high school students with the opportunities offered by the way science is practiced today. We invite them to plan a future in which they help to enrich the answers to the big questions: Where did I come from? Where am I going? Is anybody else out there? "Voyages Through Time" consists of six modules on CD-ROMs for teachers and students that have been extensively tested both regionally and nationally. Publication is expected in 2003. The partners in the development of this curriculum are the SETI Institute, NASA Ames Research Center, California Academy of Sciences, and San Francisco State University. "Voyages Through Time" is funded by the NSF (IMD # 9730693) with additional support from NASA, Hewlett Packard Company, The Foundation for Microbiology, and the FederatedCharitableCampaign.Forfurtherinformation,visit: http://www.seti.org/education/Welcome.html.

Devore, Edna

2002-01-01

394

Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit begins by introducing students to the historical motivation for space exploration. They learn about the International Space Station, including current and futuristic ideas that engineers are designing to propel space research. Then they learn about the physical properties of the Moon, and think about what types of products engineers would need to design in order for humans to live on the Moon. Lastly, students learn some descriptive facts about asteroids, such as their sizes and how that relates to the potential danger of an asteroid colliding with the Earth.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

395

The Jupiter system through the eyes of Voyager 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cameras aboard Voyager 1 have provided a closeup view of the Jupiter system, revealing heretofore unknown characteristics and phenomena associated with the planet's atmosphere and the surfaces of its five major satellites. On Jupiter itself, atmospheric motions - the interaction of cloud systems - display complex vorticity. On its dark side, lightening and auroras are observed. A ring was discovered surrounding Jupiter. The satellite surfaces display dramatic differences including extensive active volcanism on Io, complex tectonism on Ganymede and possibly Europa, and flattened remnants of enormous impact features on Callisto.

Smith, B. A.; Soderblom, L. A.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Masursky, H.; Johnson, T. V.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Collins, S. A.; Hunt, G. E.; Carr, M. H.; Davies, M. E.; Morrison, D.

1979-01-01

396

The Jupiter system through the eyes of Voyager 1  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The cameras aboard Voyager I have provided a closeup view of the Jupiter system, revealing heretofore unknown characteristics and phenomena associated with the planet's atmosphere and the surfaces of its five major satellites. On Jupiter itself, atmospheric motions-the interaction of cloud systems-display complex vorticity. On its dark side, lightning and auroras are observed. A ring was discovered surrounding Jupiter. The satellite surfaces display dramatic differences including extensive active volcanismn on Io, complex tectonism on Ganymnede and possibly Europa, and flattened remnants of enormous impact features on Callisto. Copyright ?? 1979 AAAS.

Smith, B.A.; Soderblom, L.A.; Johnson, T.V.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Collins, S.A.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Hunt, G.E.; Masursky, H.; Carr, M.H.; Davies, M.E.; Cook, A.F., II; Boyce, J.; Danielson, G.E.; Owen, T.; Sagan, C.; Beebe, R.F.; Veverka, J.; Strom, R.G.; McCauley, J.F.; Morrison, D.; Briggs, G.A.; Suomi, V.E.

1979-01-01

397

Microwave communications from outer planets - The Voyager Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper summarizes the Voyager Project, the mission objectives, and the spacecraft communications system required to meet the mission objectives. The primary emphasis of the mission is on comparative studies of the Jupiter and Saturn systems in the areas of: (1) the environment, atmosphere and body characteristics of the planets, and one or more of the satellites, (2) the nature of the recently discovered Jovian ring and the rings of Saturn, and (3) the interplanetary medium at increasing distances from the sun. The complexities and problems, such as power consumption, weight, and antenna pointing constraints are presented, along with a detailed description of the radio frequency and S/X-band antenna subsystems.

Brejcha, A. G.

1980-01-01

398

Analysis of Voyager images of Europa - plasma bombardment  

SciTech Connect

Voyager-derived data on the albedos of Europa are presently photometrically corrected and converted into average, single-scattering form, in order to analyze them as a function of angular distance from the apex of orbital motion. A hypothesized magnetospheric modification of the Europa surface is confirmed by the UV absorption found in the 0.35-micron filter data; this absorption directly correlates with the longitudinal ion implantation distribution in both terrain types. A red spectrum is found in both terrain types as well, and is found to be constant across the surface. A uniform increase is noted in the dark terrain absorption over that in the bright terrain. 43 references.

Johnson, R.E.; Nelson, M.L.; Nccord, T.B.; Gradie, J.C.

1988-09-01

399

Preliminary science results of Voyager 1 Saturn encounter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary science results of the Voyager 1 encounter of the planet Saturn are reported. On August 22, 1980, the spacecraft was 109 million km (68 million mi) from Saturn. Closest approach to Saturn took place on November 12, at 3:46 p.m. (PDT), when the spacecraft passed 126,000 km (78,000 mi) from the cloud tops. Measurements of the atmosphere, wind speed, radiation, six surrounding rings, and the planet's old and newly found satellites were recorded. The encounter ended December 15, 1980. The spacecraft took more than 17,500 photographs of Saturn and its satellites.

Bane, D.

1981-01-01

400

The abundances of constituents of Titan's atmosphere from the GCMS instrument on the Huygens probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saturn's largest moon, Titan, remains an enigma, explored only by remote sensing from Earth, and by the Voyager and Cassini spacecraft. The most puzzling aspects include the origin of the molecular nitrogen and methane in its atmosphere, and the mechanism(s) by which methane is maintained in the face of rapid destruction by photolysis. The Huygens probe, launched from the Cassini

H. B. Niemann; S. K. Atreya; S. J. Bauer; G. R. Carignan; J. E. Demick; R. L. Frost; D. Gautier; J. A. Haberman; D. N. Harpold; D. M. Hunten; G. Israel; J. I. Lunine; W. T. Kasprzak; T. C. Owen; M. Paulkovich; F. Raulin; E. Raaen

2005-01-01

401

Voyager Interstellar Mission Proposal to Senior Review 2010 of the Mission Operations and Data Analysis  

E-print Network

. Richardson, Proposal Editor Ed B. Massey, Project Manager March 2010 #12;EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The VoyagerVoyager Interstellar Mission Proposal to Senior Review 2010 of the Mission Operations and Data Analysis Program for the Heliophysics Operating Missions Edward C. Stone, Project Scientist John D

402

Ephemerides of the major Neptunian satellites determined from earth-based astrometric and Voyager imaging observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voyager project used Neptunian satellite ephemerides to support both navigation and acquisition of scientific data. The development of postencounter ephemerides for the satellites Triton, Nereid, and 1989N1 is discussed. Primary results are the final set of model parameters which generate orbits that best fit both the earth-based satellite observations and data acquired by Voyager. The ephemerides are compared with

R. A. Jacobson; G. D. Lewis; W. M. Owen; J. E. Riedel; D. C. Roth; S. P. Synnott; A. H. Taylor

1990-01-01

403

Ephemerides of the Uranian satellites determined from earth-based astrometric and Voyager imaging observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranian satellite ephemerides were needed by the Voyager project to support both navigation and acquisition of scientific data. This paper outlines the mathematical modeling approach taken to generate those ephemerides and discusses their pre-encounter development, real time updating, and post-encounter refinement. The results presented include the final set of model parameters which generate the ephemerides that best fit the Voyager

R. A. Jacobson; G. D. Lewis; J. E. Riedel; D. C. Roth; S. P. Synnott

1986-01-01

404

Project VOYAGER: a grand tour to the giant planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the cruise periods between planetary encounters, VOYAGER-1 and VOYAGER-2 collected significant data on the energetic particles (cosmic rays), solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic fields (IMF) which fill the heliosphere. The spacecraft are exiting the solar system and expect to encounter the boundary with the interstellar medium. The present paper surveys certain of the results relevant to magnetized plasmas

N. F. Ness

1992-01-01

405

46 CFR 14.201 - Voyages upon which shipping articles are required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (iii) The West Indies. (2) Of 75 gross tons or more on a voyage between a port of the United States on the Atlantic Ocean and a port of the United States on the Pacific Coast; or (3) Of 50 gross tons or more on a voyage between a...

2010-10-01

406

46 CFR 14.201 - Voyages upon which shipping articles are required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (iii) The West Indies. (2) Of 75 gross tons or more on a voyage between a port of the United States on the Atlantic Ocean and a port of the United States on the Pacific Coast; or (3) Of 50 gross tons or more on a voyage between a...

2012-10-01

407

46 CFR 14.201 - Voyages upon which shipping articles are required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (iii) The West Indies. (2) Of 75 gross tons or more on a voyage between a port of the United States on the Atlantic Ocean and a port of the United States on the Pacific Coast; or (3) Of 50 gross tons or more on a voyage between a...

2011-10-01

408

Life in the Fast Lane Voyage through Time: Walks of Life  

E-print Network

Life in the Fast Lane Voyage through Time: Walks of Life to the Nobel Prize. By Ahmed A. Zewail, it underlies a certain philosophy of life in his voyage as a scientist and a humanist. The 1950s were a period

Zewail, Ahmed

409

Electron densities in Jupiter's outer magnetosphere determined from Voyager 1 and 2 plasma wave spectra  

E-print Network

Wave Receiver [Scarf et al., 1979; Gurnett et al., 1979]. These emissions have been used to inferElectron densities in Jupiter's outer magnetosphere determined from Voyager 1 and 2 plasma wave-resolution wideband measurements of low-frequency radio and plasma waves obtained by Voyagers 1 and 2 during

Santolik, Ondrej

410

Probing dense granular materials by space-time dependent perturbations Department of Mathematical Sciences and Center for Applied Mathematics and Statistics, New Jersey Institute of Technology,  

E-print Network

are the relevant time and length scales? The natural domain for probing these questions is sound propagation, which will be manifested by a sensitivity to length and time scales for sound propagation. In order to probe both time and simulations use spatially uni- form perturbations to probe pressure dependence of sound speed and the role

Kondic, Lou

411

Magnetic field measurements at Jupiter by Voyagers 1 and 2: Daily plots of 48 second averages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of 24 hour summary plots of the magnetic field, in 48-s average form, measured in the vicinity of Jupiter by the magnetometers onboard Voyagers 1 and 2 are presented. The Voyager 1 data cover the period from 27 February 1979 (day = 58) to 23 March (day = 82) inclusive, and the Voyager 2 data cover the period from 2 July 1979 (day = 183) to 14 August (day = 226) inclusive. Closest approach to the planet occurred on days 64 (AT 1205 UT) and 190 (AT 2230 UT) for Voyagers 1 and 2, respectively. Also included are: a description of the characteristics of the magnetometers, a brief description of the near-planet trajectories of the two spacecraft, a listing of the bow shock and magnetopause crossing times, and a bibliography containing Voyager-Jupiter related papers and reports.

Lepping, R. P.; Silverstein, M. J.; Ness, N. F.

1981-01-01

412

Preliminary interpretation of Titan plasma interaction as observed by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer: Comparisons with Voyager 1  

E-print Network

Spectrometer: Comparisons with Voyager 1 R. E. Hartle,1 E. C. Sittler Jr.,1 F. M. Neubauer,2 R. E. Johnson,3 H orbiter's TA encounter on October 26, 2004. Titan was in Saturn's magnetosphere during the Voyager 1 flyby by the Voyager 1 Plasma Science Instrument (PLS). The comparisons focus on the composition and nature of ambient

Johnson, Robert E.

413

came to the museum after his death.The Galapagos finches,collected on the Beagle voyage by Harry Fuller,  

E-print Network

came to the museum after his death.The Galapagos finches,collected on the Beagle voyage by Harry beetles, a diverse collection of invertebrates collected on the Beagle voyage, and the barnacle material Voyage Round the World: Charles Darwin and the Beagle Collections in the University of Cambridge', edited

414

Multifractal Structures Detected by Voyager 1 at the Heliospheric Boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better understand the dynamics of turbulent systems, we have proposed a phenomenological model based on a generalized Cantor set with two rescaling and one weight parameters. In this Letter, using recent Voyager 1 magnetic field data, we extend our two-scale multifractal analysis further in the heliosheath beyond the heliospheric termination shock, and even now near the heliopause, when entering the interstellar medium for the first time in human history. We have identified the scaling inertial region for magnetized heliospheric plasma between the termination shock and the heliopause. We also show that the degree of multifractality decreases with the heliocentric distance and is still modulated by the phases of the solar cycle in the entire heliosphere including the heliosheath. Moreover, we observe the change of scaling toward a nonintermittent (nonmultifractal) behavior in the nearby interstellar medium, just beyond the heliopause. We argue that this loss of multifractal behavior could be a signature of the expected crossing of the heliopause by Voyager 2 in the near future. The results obtained demonstrate that our phenomenological multifractal model exhibits some properties of intermittent turbulence in the solar system plasmas, and we hope that it could shed light on universal characteristics of turbulence.

Macek, W. M.; Wawrzaszek, A.; Burlaga, L. F.

2014-10-01

415

Encounter with saturn: voyager 1 imaging science results.  

PubMed

As Voyager 1 flew through the Saturn system it returned photographs revealing many new and surprising characteristics of this complicated community of bodies. Saturn's atmosphere has numerous, low-contrast, discrete cloud features and a pattern of circulation significantly different from that of Jupiter. Titan is shrouded in a haze layer that varies in thickness and appearance. Among the icy satellites there is considerable variety in density, albedo, and surface morphology and substantial evidence for endogenic surface modification. Trends in density and crater characteristics are quite unlike those of the Galilean satellites. Small inner satellites, three of which were discovered in Voyager images, interact gravitationally with one another and with the ring particles in ways not observed elsewhere in the solar system. Saturn's broad A, B, and C rings contain hundreds of "ringlets," and in the densest portion of the B ring there are numerous nonaxisymmetric features. The narrow F ring has three components which, in at least one instance, are kinked and crisscrossed. Two rings are observed beyond the F ring, and material is seen between the C ring and the planet. PMID:17783827

Smith, B A; Soderblom, L; Beebe, R; Boyce, J; Briggs, G; Bunker, A; Collins, S A; Hansen, C J; Johnson, T V; Mitchell, J L; Terrile, R J; Carr, M; Cook, A F; Cuzzi, J; Pollack, J B; Danielson, G E; Ingersoll, A; Davies, M E; Hunt, G E; Masursky, H; Shoemaker, E; Morrison, D; Owen, T; Sagan, C; Veverka, J; Strom, R; Suomi, V E

1981-04-10

416

Radiation burdens for humans on prolonged exomagnetospheric voyages.  

PubMed

The severity of radiation exposure for astronauts outside the magnetosphere poses a critical unanswered question bearing on the use of manned vehicles in extended exploration of the solar system (moon, Mars). Such prolonged exomagnetospheric voyages (1-3 years) enter a radiologic environment more severe than that of low earth orbit, an annual dose equivalent in the range of 0.3-0.5 Sv (30-50 rem), and a lifetime excess cancer fatality risk of 3-5% due to low linear-energy-transfer components of galactic cosmic radiation alone. To this calculus must be added estimates for high-atomic-number, high-energy particles, the probability of solar particle events, and the limited effectiveness of shielding. For a 3-year Mars voyage these could elevate the dose equivalent to 1.5-2.25 Sv (150-225 rem) total (0.5-0.75 Sv [50-75 rem] annual) and risks to 5-9% excess cancer fatality. Both the mission (civilian scientific research) and the alternatives (unmanned robotic devices) enter the policy decision here. This paper presents a brief review of pertinent physical and biological data and of research urgently needed before reaching a decision on this question. PMID:1544543

Moore, F D

1992-03-01

417

Shared Voyage: Learning and Unlearning from Remarkable Projects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shared Voyage is about four remarkable projects: the Advanced Composition Explorer (NASA), the Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (U.S. Air Force), the Pathfinder Solar-Powered Airplane (NASA), and the Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (U.S.Air Force). Each project is presented as a case study comprised of stories collected from key members of the project teams. The stories found in the book are included with the purpose of providing an effective learning source for project management, encouraging the unlearning of outdated project management concepts, and enhancing awareness of the contexts surrounding different projects. Significantly different from project concepts found in most project management literature, Shared Voyage highlights concepts like a will to win, a results-oriented focus, and collaboration through trust. All four project teams researched in this study applied similar concepts; however, they applied them differently, tailoring them to fit the context of their own particular projects. It is clear that the one best way approach which is still the prevailing paradigm in project management literature should be replaced by a new paradigm: Even though general project management principles exist, their successful application depends on the specifics of the situation.

Laufer, Alexander; Post, Todd; Hoffman, Edward J.

2005-01-01

418

Shock evolution in the outer heliosphere - Voyager and Pioneer observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations are reported of 35 interplanetary shocks detected at heliocentric distances between 6.5 and 9.4 AU in mid-1980 by the Voyager 1, Voyager 2, and Pioneer 11 spacecraft. These shocks were all evidently generated by the interaction of corotating streams. Measurements of the pre- and postshock plasma parameters are used to determine the shock normals and speeds for each shock. Twelve of these 35 events are observed at all three spacecraft. The shock parameters at each spacecraft are compared to determine the time history for the 12 shocks. The single-spacecraft determinations of shock normal and speed are compared wih the results of several techniques for determining shock velocities using all three spacecraft. It is found that shocks undergo significant evolution as they travel past the three spacecraft. Every shock seen by both end spacecraft was also seen by the middle spacecraft. Shock formation possibly may be occurring at a heliocentric distance as great as 7 AU. It appears that the shock surfaces have a complex three-dimensional structure with 'ripples' on a scale of 0.001-1.0 AU.

Gazis, P. R.; Lazarus, A. J.; Hester, K.

1985-01-01

419

Inflatable traversing probe seal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An inflatable seal acts as a pressure-tight zipper to provide traversing capability for instrumentation rakes and probes. A specially designed probe segment with a teardrop cross-section in the vicinity of the inflatable seal minimizes leakage at the interface. The probe is able to travel through a lengthwise slot in a pressure vessel or wind tunnel section, while still maintaining pressure integrity. The design uses two commercially available inflatable seals, opposing each other, to cover the probe slot in a wind tunnel wall. Proof-of-concept tests were conducted at vessel pressures up to 30 psig, with seals inflated to 50 psig, showing no measurable leakage along the seal's length or around the probe teardrop cross-section. This seal concept can replace the existing technology of sliding face plate/O-ring systems in applications where lengthwise space is limited.

Trimarchi, Paul A.

1991-01-01

420

Monitor and Control of the Deep-Space network via Secure Web  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(view graph) NASA lead center for robotic space exploration. Operating division of Caltech/Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Current missions, Voyagers, Galileo, Pathfinder, Global Surveyor. Upcoming missions, Cassini, Mars and New Millennium.

Lamarra, N.

1997-01-01

421

LE RCIT DE VOYAGE OU LES RUSES D'UN SIMULACRE Genre versatile s'il en est, le rcit de voyage ne se laisse pas dfinir aisment. Ce n'est qu'en  

E-print Network

LE R�CIT DE VOYAGE OU LES RUSES D'UN SIMULACRE Genre versatile s'il en est, le récit de voyage ne siècles, du XVIIe au XXe siècle, et plus particulièrement au sous-ensemble générique du « récit de voyage, Voyage en Orient, Du Camp, Le Nil, �gypte et Nubie, Fromentin, Un �té dans le Sahara et Voyage en �gypte

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

422

Probing the steric space at the floor of the D1 dopamine receptor orthosteric binding domain: 7?-, 7?-, 8?-, and 8?-methyl substituted dihydrexidine analogues  

PubMed Central

To probe the space at the floor of the orthosteric ligand binding site in the dopamine D1 receptor, four methylated analogs of dihydrexidine (DHX) were synthesized with substitutions at the 7 and 8 positions. The 8?-axial, 8?-equatorial and 7?-equatorial were synthesized by photochemical cyclization of appropriately substituted N-benzoyl enamines, the 7?-axial analog was prepared by an intramolecular Henry reaction. All of the methylated analogs displayed losses in affinity when compared to DHX (20 nM): 8?-Meax-DHX (270 nM), 8?-Meeq-DHX (920 nM), 7?-Meeq-DHX (6540 nM), and 7?-Meax-DHX (>10000 nM). Molecular modeling studies suggest that although the disruption of an aromatic interaction between Phe2035.47 and Phe2886.51 is the cause for the 14-fold loss in affinity associated with 8?-axial substitution, unfavorable steric interactions with Ser1073.36 result in the more dramatic decreases in binding affinity suffered by the rest of the analogs. PMID:21714510

Cueva, Juan Pablo; Gallardo-Godoy, Alejandra; Juncosa, Jose I.; Vidi, Pierre A.; Lill, Markus A.; Watts, Val J.; Nichols, David E.

2011-01-01

423

Molecular Probes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supported commercially by Molecular Probes, this site provides an overview of molecular probe technology as well as a searchable bibliography, a list of related literature, and an outstanding photo gallery with examples of probe applications. The Gallery contains 22 different categories, from Actin and Tubulin Probes to Yeast and Other Fungi Stains, with several images provided for each category. A help link provides tips on using some of the probes and stains, a list of FAQs, and a list of more general technical questions related to probe technology.

1998-01-01

424

Sea & Space - A Successful Educational Project for Europe's Secondary Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many links between the Sea and the Space surrounding us. Indeed, Space itself is often likened with a new and uncharted Ocean on which we now continue the great voyages of discovery of the past. Space-based satellites allow us to study the processes in the Earth's oceans in unprecedented detail and at the same time to verify complex

C. Madsen

1998-01-01

425

Voyager 2 Fine-Scale Velocity Oscillations at 48 AU K. I. Paularena, J. W. Belcher, J. D. Richardson, G. S. Gordon, Jr., and A. J.  

E-print Network

Voyager 2 Fine-Scale Velocity Oscillations at 48 AU K. I. Paularena, J. W. Belcher, J. D of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 Abstract Voyager 2 solar wind speeds show unusual variations beginning on day;eld data from Voyager 2. 1 #12;Introduction In March of 1996, the Voyager 2 spacecraft was located

Richardson, John

426

In Situ Observations of Interstellar Plasma With Voyager 1 (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During two separate events, the plasma wave instrument on Voyager 1 has recently detected local electron plasma oscillations at frequencies consistent with those expected in the local interstellar plasma. The first event occurred at about 122 AU from Oct. 23 to Nov. 27, 2012, and had an oscillation frequency of about 2.2 kHz, corresponding to an electron density of about 0.06 cm-3. Associated magnetic field perturbations strongly suggest that these oscillations were upstream waves driven by an electron beam from a shock propagating outward from a solar disturbance. The second event occurred at about 124 AU from April 9 to May 22, 2013, and had an oscillation frequency of about 2.6 kHz, corresponding to an electron density of about 0.08 cm-3. No measureable magnetic field perturbations were observed during this event, suggesting that the oscillations were driven by an electron beam arriving along field lines that connected to a distant but locally undetected shock. The electron densities in both cases are comparable to those inferred from remote sensing measurements of the local interstellar plasma, and are much larger than those expected between the termination shock and the heliopause. The increasing plasma density, which was also measured locally within the two events, indicates the spacecraft is moving outward through a smooth nearly linear 'density ramp' with a radial gradient of about 19% per AU. This density ramp is consistent with previous (1992-93) observations of heliospheric 2-3 kHz radio emissions which consistently show an upward frequency drift caused by radio emission from an interplanetary shock propagating through a ramp of increasing plasma density just beyond the heliopause. The density ramp was originally attributed to a 'pile-up' of the incoming interstellar plasma just beyond the heliopause, but is now recognized to be more likely related to an interaction with the 'hydrogen wall' that forms in this same region. Detailed comparisons of the plasma density profile with the 1992-93 heliospheric radio emission event, which originated from that same general region where Voyager 1 is now located, provides strong support for the view that Voyager 1 crossed into the local interstellar plasma on or about August 25, 2012.

Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.

2013-12-01

427

Plasma waves near saturn: initial results from voyager 1.  

PubMed

The Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument detected many familiar types of plasma waves during the encounter with Saturn, including ion-acoustic waves and electron plasma oscillations upstream of the bow shock, an intense burst of electrostatic noise at the shock, and chorus, hiss, electrostatic electron cyclotron waves, and upper hybrid resonance emissions in the inner magnetosphere. A clocklike Saturn rotational control of low-frequency radio emissions was observed, and evidence was obtained of possible control by the moon Dione. Strong plasma wave emissions were detected at the Titan encounter indicating the presence of a turbulent sheath extending around Titan, and upper hybrid resonance measurements of the electron density show the existence of a dense plume of plasma being carried downstream of Titan by the interaction with the rapidly rotating magnetosphere of Saturn. PMID:17783836

Gurnett, D A; Kurth, W S; Scarf, F L

1981-04-10

428

Plasma waves near Saturn - Initial results from Voyager 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument detected many familiar types of plasma waves during the encounter with Saturn, including ion-acoustic waves and electron plasma oscillations upstream of the bow shock, an intense burst of electrostatic noise at the shock, and chorus, hiss, electrostatic electron cyclotron waves, and upper hybrid resonance emissions in the inner magnetosphere. A clocklike Saturn rotational control of low-frequency radio emissions was observed, and evidence was obtained of possible control by the moon Dione. Strong plasma wave emissions were detected at the Titan encounter indicating the presence of a turbulent sheath extending around Titan, and upper hybrid resonance measurements of the electron density show the existence of a dense plume of plasma being carried downstream of Titan by the interaction with the rapidly rotating magnetosphere of Saturn.

Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Scarf, F. L.

1981-01-01

429

The voyager 2 encounter with the neptunian system.  

PubMed

An overview of the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune is presented, including a brief discussion of the trajectory, the planned observations, and highlights of the results described in the 11 companion papers. Neptune's blue atmosphere has storm systems reminiscent of those in Jupiter's atmosphere. An optically thin methane ice cloud exists near the 1.5-bar pressure level, and an optically thick cloud exists below 3 bars. Neptune's magnetic field is highly tilted and offset from the planet's center; it rotates with a period of 16.11 hours. Two narrow and two broad rings circle the planet; the outermost of these rings has three optically thicker arc segments. Six new moons were discovered in circular prograde orbits, all well inside Triton's retrograde orbit. Triton has a highly reflective and geologically young surface, a thin nitrogen atmosphere, and at least two active geyser-like plumes. PMID:17755996

Stone, E C; Miner, E D

1989-12-15

430

The Voyager 2 encounter with the Neptunian system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune is presented, including a brief discussion of the trajectory, the planned observations, and highlights of the results described in the 11 companion papers. Neptune's blue atmosphere has storm systems reminiscent of those in Jupiter's atmosphere. An optically thin methane ice cloud exists near the 1.5-bar pressure level, and an optically thick cloud exists below 3 bars. Neptune's magnetic field is highly tilted and offset from the planet's center; it rotates with a period of 16.11 hours. Two narrow and two broad rings circle the planet; the outermost of these rings has three optically thicker arc segments. Six new moons were discovered in circular prograde orbits, all well inside Triton's retrograde orbit. Triton has a highly reflective and geologically young surface, a thin nitrogen atmosphere, and at least two active geyser-like plumes.

Stone, E. C.; Miner, E. D.

1989-01-01

431

The Voyager 2 encounter with the Neptunian system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune is presented, including a brief discussion of the trajectory, the planned observations, and highlights of the results described in the 11 companion papers. Neptune's blue atmosphere has storm systems reminiscent of those in Jupiter's atmosphere. An optically thin methane ice cloud exists near the 1.5-bar pressure level, and an optically thick cloud exists below 3 bars. Neptune's magnetic field is highly tilted and offset from the planet's center; it rotates with a period of 16.11 hours. Two narrow and two broad rings circle the planet; the outermost of these rings has three optically thicker arc segments. Six new moons were discovered in circular prograde orbits, all well inside Triton's retrograde orbit. Triton has a highly reflective and geologically young surface, a thin nitrogen atmosphere, and at least two active geyser-like plumes.

Stone, E. C.; Miner, E. D.

1989-12-01

432

The Voyager 2 encounter with the Neptunian system  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune is presented, including a brief discussion of the trajectory, the planned observations, and highlights of the results described in the 11 companion papers. Neptune's blue atmosphere has storm systems reminiscent of those in Jupiter's atmosphere. An optically thin methane ice cloud exists near the 1.5-bar pressure level, and an optically thick cloud exists below 3 bars. Neptune's magnetic field is highly tilted and offset from the planet's center; it rotates with a period of 16.11 hours. Two narrow and two broad rings circle the planet; the outermost of these rings has three optically thicker arc segments. Six moons were discovered in circular prograde orbits, all well inside Triton's retrograde orbit. Triton has a highly reflective and geologically young surface, a thin nitrogen atmosphere, and at least two active geyser-like plumes.

Stone, E.C.; Miner, E.D. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA))

1989-12-15

433

Voyager observations of dust scattering near the Coalsack nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the results of four observations of the sky in the direction of the Coalsack nebula. These observations were made using the ultraviolet spectrometers aboard the two Voyager spacecraft in the spectral range between 912 and 1600 A. Intense diffuse emission with a spectrum characteristic of an early B star was observed in all four targets, which we interpret as starlight forward scattered by interstellar dust in the foreground of the main mass of the Coalsack. While more detailed modeling is necessary to derive values for the optical constants of the dust grains, our data indicate that there is no decrease in the albedo toward shorter wavelengths, arguing that the far-ultraviolet rise in the interstellar extinction curve is due to an increasing number density of small particles rather than to a new population of low albedo grains.

Murthy, Jayant; Henry, R. C.; Holberg, J. B.

1994-01-01

434

Upper limits on O VI Emission From Voyager  

E-print Network

We have examined 426 {\\it Voyager} fields distributed across the sky for \\ion{O}{6} ($\\lambda \\lambda$ 1032/1038 \\AA) emission from the Galactic diffuse interstellar medium. No such emission was detected in any of our observed fields. Our most constraining limit was a 90% confidence upper limit of 2600 \\phunit on the doublet emission in the direction (l, b) = (117\\fdegree3, 50\\fdegree6). Combining this with an absorption line measurement in nearly the same direction allows us to place an upper limit of 0.01 cm$^{-3}$ on the electron density of the hot gas in this direction. We have placed 90% confidence upper limits of less than or equal to 10,000 \\phunit on the \\ion{O}{6} emission in 16 of our 426 observations.

Jayant Murthy; R. C. Henry; R. L. Shelton; J. B. Holberg

2001-05-14

435

Voyager 2 in the uranian system: imaging science results.  

PubMed

Voyager 2 images of the southern hemisphere of Uranus indicate that submicrometersize haze particles and particles of a methane condensation cloud produce faint patterns in the atmosphere. The alignment of the cloud bands is similar to that of bands on Jupiter and Saturn, but the zonal winds are nearly opposite. At mid-latitudes (-70 degrees to -27 degrees ), where winds were measured, the atmosphere rotates faster than the magnetic field; however, the rotation rate of the atmosphere decreases toward the equator, so that the two probably corotate at about -20 degrees . Voyager images confirm the extremely low albedo of the ring particles. High phase angle images reveal on the order of 10(2) new ringlike features of very low optical depth and relatively high dust abundance interspersed within the main rings, as well as a broad, diffuse, low optical depth ring just inside the main rings system. Nine of the newly discovered small satellites (40 to 165 kilometers in diameter) orbit between the rings and Miranda; the tenth is within the ring system. Two of these small objects may gravitationally confine the e ring. Oberon and Umbriel have heavily cratered surfaces resembling the ancient cratered highlands of Earth's moon, although Umbriel is almost completely covered with uniform dark material, which perhaps indicates some ongoing process. Titania and Ariel show crater populations different from those on Oberon and Umbriel; these were probably generated by collisions with debris confined to their orbits. Titania and Ariel also show many extensional fault systems; Ariel shows strong evidence for the presence of extrusive material. About halfof Miranda's surface is relatively bland, old, cratered terrain. The remainder comprises three large regions of younger terrain, each rectangular to ovoid in plan, that display complex sets of parallel and intersecting scarps and ridges as well as numerous outcrops of bright and dark materials, perhaps suggesting some exotic composition. PMID:17812889

Smith, B A; Soderblom, L A; Beebe, R; Bliss, D; Boyce, J M; Brahic, A; Briggs, G A; Brown, R H; Collins, S A; Cook, A F; Croft, S K; Cuzzi, J N; Danielson, G E; Davies, M E; Dowling, T E; Godfrey, D; Hansen, C J; Harris, C; Hunt, G E; Ingersoll, A P; Johnson, T V; Krauss, R J; Masursky, H; Morrison, D; Owen, T; Plescia, J B; Pollack, J B; Porco, C C; Rages, K; Sagan, C; Shoemaker, E M; Sromovsky, L A; Stoker, C; Strom, R G; Suomi, V E; Synnott, S P; Terrile, R J; Thomas, P; Thompson, W R; Veverka, J

1986-07-01

436

EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROBING EVOLUTION AND REIONIZATION SPECTROSCOPICALLY (PEARS) GRISM SURVEY. II. THE COMPLETE SAMPLE  

SciTech Connect

We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitess grism spectroscopic data obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board Hubble Space Telescope. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random survey of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations complemented by the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data, we are able to identify star-forming galaxies (SFGs) within the redshift volume 0 < z < 1.5. Star-forming regions in the PEARS survey are pinpointed independently of the host galaxy. This method allows us to detect the presence of multiple emission-line regions (ELRs) within a single galaxy. We identified a total of 1162 H{alpha}, [O III], and/or [O II] emission lines in the PEARS sample of 906 galaxies to a limiting flux of {approx}10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}. The ELRs have also been compared to the properties of the host galaxy, including morphology, luminosity, and mass. From this analysis, we find three key results: (1) the computed line luminosities show evidence of a flattening in the luminosity function with increasing redshift; (2) the star-forming systems show evidence of complex morphologies with star formation occurring predominantly within one effective (half-light) radius. However, the morphologies show no correlation with host stellar mass. (3) Also, the number density of SFGs with M{sub *} {>=} 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} decreases by an order of magnitude at z {<=} 0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9, supporting the argument of galaxy downsizing.

Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Noeske, Kai G.; Bellini, Andrea [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States); Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Cohen, Seth H.; Mechtley, Matthew; Windhorst, Rogier A. [School of Earth And Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Meurer, Gerhardt R. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Walsh, Jeremy R. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hathi, Nimish P. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Holwerda, Benne W. [ESA-ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Straughn, Amber N. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2013-07-20

437

A solution methodology for exact design space exploration in a three-dimensional design space  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an exact solution methodology, implemented in Rensselaer's Voyager design space exploration system, for solving the scheduling problem in a three-dimensional (3-D) design space: the usual two-dimensional (2-D) design space (which trades off area and schedule length), plus a third dimension representing clock length. Unlike design space exploration methodologies which rely on bounds or estimates, this methodology is

Samit Chaudhuri; S. A. Blthye; Robert A. Walker

1997-01-01

438

33 CFR 104.297 - Additional requirements-vessels on international voyages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01...voyages. 104.297 Section 104.297 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...inspection must be completed and the initial ISSC must be issued on or before...

2013-07-01

439

33 CFR 104.297 - Additional requirements-vessels on international voyages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01...voyages. 104.297 Section 104.297 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...inspection must be completed and the initial ISSC must be issued on or before...

2012-07-01

440

33 CFR 104.297 - Additional requirements-vessels on international voyages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01...voyages. 104.297 Section 104.297 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...inspection must be completed and the initial ISSC must be issued on or before...

2010-07-01

441

The fate of the bird specimens from Cook's voyages possessed by Sir Joseph Banks.  

PubMed

Joseph Banks possessed the greater part of the zoological specimens collected on James Cook's three voyages round the world (1768-1780). In early 1792, Banks divided his zoological collection between John Hunter and the British Museum. It is probable that those donations together comprised most of the zoological specimens then in the possession of Banks, including such bird specimens as remained of those that had been collected by himself and Daniel Solander on Cook's first voyage, and those that had been presented to him from Cook's second and third voyages. The bird specimens included in the Banks donations of 1792 became part of a series of transactions during the succeeding 53 years which involved the British Museum, the Royal College of Surgeons of England, and William Bullock. It is a great pity that, of the extensive collection of bird specimens from Cook's voyages once possessed by Banks, only two are known with any certainty to survive. PMID:20014506

Medway, David G

2009-10-01

442

15 CFR 970.2501 - Notice of pre-license exploration voyages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Notice of pre-license exploration voyages. 970.2501 Section 970.2501...SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Pre-license Exploration § 970.2501 Notice of...

2010-01-01

443

46 CFR 196.07-1 - Notice and reporting of casualty and voyage records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 196.07-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Notice and Reporting of Casualty and Voyage Records § 196.07-1 Notice and reporting of...

2010-10-01

444

46 CFR 90.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...From a country to which the International Convention for Safety of...protectorate or mandate, whose international relations are the responsibility...apply to a vessel on an “international voyage” in this...

2012-10-01

445

46 CFR 30.01-6 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...From a country to which the International Convention for Safety of...protectorate or mandate, whose international relations are the responsibility of...that apply to a vessel on an international voyage in this...

2011-10-01

446

46 CFR 70.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...From a country to which the International Convention for Safety of...protectorate or mandate, whose international relations are the responsibility...apply to a vessel on an “international voyage” in this...

2010-10-01

447

46 CFR 30.01-6 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...From a country to which the International Convention for Safety of...protectorate or mandate, whose international relations are the responsibility of...that apply to a vessel on an international voyage in this...

2012-10-01

448

46 CFR 30.01-6 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...From a country to which the International Convention for Safety of...protectorate or mandate, whose international relations are the responsibility of...that apply to a vessel on an international voyage in this...

2013-10-01

449

46 CFR 188.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...From a country to which the International Convention for Safety of...protectorate or mandate, whose international relations are the responsibility...apply to a vessel on an “international voyage” in this...

2011-10-01

450

46 CFR 70.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...From a country to which the International Convention for Safety of...protectorate or mandate, whose international relations are the responsibility...apply to a vessel on an “international voyage” in this...

2012-10-01

451

46 CFR 70.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...From a country to which the International Convention for Safety of...protectorate or mandate, whose international relations are the responsibility...apply to a vessel on an “international voyage” in this...

2011-10-01

452

46 CFR 70.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...From a country to which the International Convention for Safety of...protectorate or mandate, whose international relations are the responsibility...apply to a vessel on an “international voyage” in this...

2013-10-01

453

46 CFR 90.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...From a country to which the International Convention for Safety of...protectorate or mandate, whose international relations are the responsibility...apply to a vessel on an “international voyage” in this...

2010-10-01

454

46 CFR 30.01-6 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...From a country to which the International Convention for Safety of...protectorate or mandate, whose international relations are the responsibility of...that apply to a vessel on an international voyage in this...

2010-10-01

455

46 CFR 90.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...From a country to which the International Convention for Safety of...protectorate or mandate, whose international relations are the responsibility...apply to a vessel on an “international voyage” in this...

2013-10-01

456

46 CFR 188.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...From a country to which the International Convention for Safety of...protectorate or mandate, whose international relations are the responsibility...apply to a vessel on an “international voyage” in this...

2012-10-01

457

46 CFR 90.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...From a country to which the International Convention for Safety of...protectorate or mandate, whose international relations are the responsibility...apply to a vessel on an “international voyage” in this...

2011-10-01

458

46 CFR 188.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...From a country to which the International Convention for Safety of...protectorate or mandate, whose international relations are the responsibility...apply to a vessel on an “international voyage” in this...

2010-10-01

459

46 CFR 188.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...From a country to which the International Convention for Safety of...protectorate or mandate, whose international relations are the responsibility...apply to a vessel on an “international voyage” in this...

2013-10-01

460

Effects of a Local Interstellar Magnetic Field on Voyager 1 and 2 Observations  

E-print Network

We show that that an interstellar magnetic field can produce a north/south asymmetry in solar wind termination shock. Using Voyager 1 and 2 measurements, we suggest that the angle $\\alpha$ between the interstellar wind velocity and magnetic field is $30^{\\circ} Voyager 1 to the shock when the spacecraft was within $\\sim 2~AU$ of the shock. The shock distortion is larger in the southern hemisphere, and Voyager 2 could be connected to the shock when it is within $\\sim 5~AU$ of the shock, but with particles from the shock streaming inward along the field. Tighter constraints on the interstellar magnetic field should be possible when Voyager 2 crosses the shock in the next several years.

Merav Opher; Edward C. Stone; Paulett C. Liewer

2006-03-13

461

Dialectics of vision : the voyages of Louis I. Kahn, 1950-59  

E-print Network

Kahn's genre of travel sketches offers us a visual basis to map his philosophical meandering. This thesis addresses the sketches produced from Kahn's voyages around the Mediterranean in 1950-51 and 1959 with an aim to ...

Morshed, Adnan Zillur

1995-01-01

462

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory space exploration - Past, present and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attention is given to the most recent scientific results from space exploration carried out by JPL. A brief background of JPL's history is presented, and the Deep Space Network, JPL's system of antennas which communicates with spacecraft, is described. Results from the missions of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 are discussed. Consideration is given to the atmosphere, rings, satellites, and magnetospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The impact of spray research on space exploration is briefly discussed. An overview of future missions and new NASA policies is also presented.

Bellan, Josette

1993-04-01

463

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory space exploration - Past, present and future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention is given to the most recent scientific results from space exploration carried out by JPL. A brief background of JPL's history is presented, and the Deep Space Network, JPL's system of antennas which communicates with spacecraft, is described. Results from the missions of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 are discussed. Consideration is given to the atmosphere, rings, satellites, and magnetospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The impact of spray research on space exploration is briefly discussed. An overview of future missions and new NASA policies is also presented.

Bellan, Josette

1993-01-01

464

Jovian modulation of interplanetary electrons as observed with Voyagers 1 and 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The release of magnetospheric electrons from Jupiter into interplanetary space is modulated by the Jovian rotation period. The Voyager 1 and 2 observations showed that the modulation period agrees on the average with the synodic period of Jupiter (9h 55m 33.12s), but over intervals of weeks it can differ from the synodic period by several minutes. The lack of exact synchronization is attributed to changes of the plasma population in the Jovian magnetosphere. The Jovian modulation appears to be a persistent feature of the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere and the disappearance of the modulation away from Jupiter is attributed to interplanetary propagation conditions. This leads to the following limits on the diffuse coefficient for interplanetary electrons: kappa perpendicular is or = 8 x 10 to the 19th power sq cm/s and kappa parallel is or = 10 to the 21st power sq cm/s. Modulation was still detectable at 3.8 A.U. behind Jupiter in the far magnetotail. This requires a mean free path in the tail 0.75 A.U. and good field connection along the tail to Jupiter.

Schardt, A. W.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Trainor, J. H.

1982-01-01

465

Changes on Io around Volund between Voyager 1 and Galileo's second orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detail of changes on Jupiter's moon Io in the region around Volund as seen by the Voyager 1 spacecraft in April 1979 (left frame) and NASA's Galileo spacecraft in September 1996 (right frame). North is to the top of both frames which are approximately 600 kilometers by 600 kilometers. Note the new linear feature, which may be a volcanic fissure, trending east from the southern end of Volund. Dark diffuse material lies to the west and a ring of bright material which may be SO2- rich plume deposits appears to be centered near the middle of the new linear feature.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

1996-01-01

466

Changes on Io around Maui and Amirani between Voyager 1 and Galileo's second orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detail of changes on Jupiter's moon Io in the region around Maui and Amirani as seen by the Voyager 1 spacecraft in April 1979 (left frame) and NASA's Galileo spacecraft in September 1996 (right frame). North is to the top of both frames. The dark, north - south running linear feature, Amirani, is approximately 350 km long. Maui is the large circular feature immediately west of the southern end of Amirani. Note the brightening of the west side of Maui and the bright patch on the west side of Amirani.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

1996-01-01

467

In ecliptic observations of Jovian radio emissions by Ulysses - Comparison with Voyager results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Ulysses inbound cruise to Jupiter the Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment observed a variety of the planet's radio components in the frequency range below 1 MHz. Most of these emissions were already detected by the Voyager Radio Astronomy and Plasma Wave experiments, however, with much less sensitivity and different spectral coverage. These different radio components within the URAP dynamic spectra are identified, and their appearance with the previous Voyager observations are compared.

Lecacheux, A.; Pedersen, B. M.; Zarka, PH.; Aubier, M. G.; Desch, M. D.; Farrell, W. M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Macdowall, R. J.; Stone, R. G.

1992-01-01

468

Ephemerides of the Uranian satellites determined from earth-based astrometric and Voyager imaging observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uranian satellite ephemerides were needed by the Voyager project to support both navigation and acquisition of scientific data. This paper outlines the mathematical modeling approach taken to generate those ephemerides and discusses their pre-encounter development, real time updating, and post-encounter refinement. The results presented include the final set of model parameters which generate the ephemerides that best fit the Voyager optical data as well as the earth based observations of the satellites.

Jacobson, R. A.; Lewis, G. D.; Riedel, J. E.; Roth, D. C.; Synnot, S. P.

1986-01-01

469

Probes, Exploration and Application  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson examines some of the benefits of the space program to our life on Earth. The activities introduce students to what probes are, how they are designed, what they do, and how they provide information about surfaces without allowing us to actually see it (remote sensing).

470

DSS 43 antenna gain analysis for Voyager Uranus encounter: 8.45-GHz radio science data correction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A malfunction of the Deep Space Network (DSN) 64-meter antenna in Australia forced the antenna to operate with a mispositioned subreflector during the Voyager Uranus encounter period (January 24, 1986). Because of changing main reflector shape and quadripod position as a function of elevation angle, the antenna gain and pointing were not as expected, and the 8.45 GHz received signal level changed during the pass. The study described here used the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) analysis to determine actual antenna gain and pointing during that period in an attempt to reconstruct the radio science data. It is found that the 1.4 dB of signal variation can be accounted for by antenna geometry changes and pointing error. Suggested modifications to the values measured during the pass are presented. Additionally, an extremely useful tool for the analysis of gravity deformed reflectors was developed for use in future antenna design and analysis projects.

Slobin, S. D.; Imbriale, W. A.

1987-01-01

471

Synthetic Micro/Nanomachines and Their Applications: Towards 'Fantastic Voyage'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1966 movie Fantastic Voyage captured the world's imagination, portraying a tiny submarine navigating through the human bloodstream and treating life-threatening medical conditions. My PhD research focuses on the synthetic nano/microscale machines to realize the Fantastic Voyage vision. Various biomedical and environmental areas would benefit from the developments of efficient fuel-free and fuel-driven nano/microscale machines. The polymer-based catalytic tubular microengine is synthesized using a template based electrodeposition method. The oxygen bubble propelled microengine harvests the energy from chemical fuels (such as H2O2) and displays very efficient propulsion. It can serve as an ideal platform for diverse biomedical and environmental applications. For example, lectin modified polyaniline based microengines can be used for selective bacteria (E. Coli) isolation from food, clinical and environmental samples; poly(3-aminophenylboronic acid)/Ni/Pt microengine itself provides the 'built in' glucose recognition capability for 'on-the-fly' capture, transport and release of yeast cells. A series of micromotors which can be self-propelled in natural environments without additional chemical fuels are developed, holding great promise for in vivo biomedical applications: the polyaniline/zinc microrockets display effective autonomous motion in extreme acidic environments (such as human stomach); the Al-Ga/Ti based Janus micromotor can be propelled by the hydrogen bubbles generated from the rapid aluminum and water reaction; alkanethiols modified seawater-driven Mg Janus micromotors, which utilize macrogalvanic corrosion and chloride pitting corrosion processes, can be used for environmental oil remediation. Magnetically powered nanoswimmers have attracted considerable attention due to their great biocompatibility. A high-speed magnetically-propelled nanowire swimmer which mimics swimming microorganisms by exploiting the flexible nanowire as artificial flagella under rotating magnetic field is illustrated. New bioinspired microswimmers can also be prepared directly from isolated spiral vessels of plants, harnessing the intrinsic biological structures of nature. Potential applications of these cargo-towing nanoswimmers are demonstrated by the directed delivery of drug-loaded microparticles to HeLa cancer cells in biological media. With such innovations and developments, along with careful attention to key challenges and requirements, nano/microscale motors are expected to have tremendous impact on diverse biomedical and environmental applications, providing unlimited opportunities limited only by one's imagination.

Gao, Wei

472

Stormtime Relativistic Electron Phase Space Density Profiles Measured by the Van Allen Probes Using L* Computed From the Rice Convection Model-Equilibrium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relativistic radiation belt electrons during geomagnetic storms are often analyzed using phase space density (PSD) radial profiles in coordinates derived from the three adiabatic invariants of particle motion in the magnetosphere. The radial coordinate in these profiles is L*, which is equivalent to the third adiabatic invariant defined as the magnetic flux enclosed by the drift of the particle around the Earth. L* is a global quantity and cannot be easily measured, so its values are highly model dependent. Previous work has used L* derived from empirical geomagnetic field models. These models represent an average field for a given set of solar wind and activity levels, and only rarely reproduce the measured field values during storms. Typically, the investigators compare the results from several such models to assess the possible level of error in their PSD results. The self-consistent ring current model Rice Convection Model-Equilibrium (RCM-E) has been shown previously to perform better at reproducing spacecraft magnetic field measurements during storms. We analyze a recent moderate storm event to assess the difference in the electron PSD analysis with the L* computed with the two methods. The first method uses L* computed from the empirical geomagnetic field models of Tsganenko-Sitnov and Olsen-Pfitzer. We compare those results with a similar analysis including L* calculated from the RCM-E simulation of the storm. The storm on June 1, 2013 had a main phase of 8-hour duration and a minimum Dst of -118 nT. The energetic electrons in the energy range from 30 keV to 4 MeV were measured by the Magnetic Electron and Ion Spectrometers onboard the Van Allen Probes. These measurements display the classic profile with a pronounced drop in flux during the main phase and a slow rise in flux during the recovery phase. The observations show that by June 5th, the flux had not yet recovered fully to the measured pre-storm levels, especially above 1 MeV. We discuss the implications of the PSD analysis on our ability to diagnose accurately the radiation belts for the effects of wave-particle interactions.

Roeder, J. L.; Lemon, C. L.; Chen, M.; Fennell, J. F.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Mulligan, T. L.; Blake, J. B.; Clemmons, J. H.; Spence, H.

2013-12-01

473

Educational space probe model system of lander (Hunveyor), rover (Husar) and test-terrain for planetary science education and analog studies in universities and colleges of Hungary.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1997 we began a complex modelling program in planetary geology unifying field work robotics, electronics and complex environmental analysis by constructing an experimental space probe model system. It consists of an experimental lander HUNVEYOR (Hungarian UNiversity surVEYOR), a rover named HUSAR (Hungarian University Surface Analyser Rover) and a test terrain. For Hunveyor the idea and example was the historical Surveyor program of NASA in the 1960-ies, for the Husar the idea and example was the Pathfinder's rover Sojouner rover. The main goals of this program are: 1) to teach the complex work of planetary science according to the main operations of the procedure of the large scientific and technology system, 2) to build the lander structure and basic electronics from cheap everyday PC compatible elements, 3) to construct basic experiments and their instruments, 4) to use the system as a space activity simulator, 5) to form the electronics of this simulator system which contains lander (with on board computer) for works on a test planetary surface, and a "terrestrial control" computer, "talking" with each other, 6) to harmonize the assemblage of the electronic system and instruments in various levels of autonomy from the power and communication circuits, 7) to use the complex system in education for in situ understanding of the complex planetary environmental problems, 8) to build various planetary environments on the test terrain in order to apply the instrument assemblages in various testing conditions, 9) to use the model system with special internet connections capable of communicating in the web in field trip conditions for users, and 10) to use the model system in real planetary analog field trip simulations, first in Hungary and later in some planetary analog site in the world. We report some of these visits in Hungary and Utah, USA. REFERENCES: [1] Bérczi Sz., Cech V., Hegyi S., Borbola T., Diósy T., Köll? Z., o 1 Tóth Sz. (1998): LPSC XXIX, #1267; [2] Drommer B., Blénessy G., Hanczár G., Gránicz K., Diósy T., Tóth Sz., Bodó E. (1999): LPSC XXX, #1606; [3] Bérczi Sz., Drommer B., Cech V., Hegyi S., Herbert J., Tóth Sz., Diósy T., Roskó F., Borbola T. (1999): LPSC XXX. #1332 [4] Bérczi Sz., Kabai S., Hegyi S., Cech V., Drommer B., Földi T., Fröhlich A., Gévay G. (1999): LPSC XXX, #1037; [5] S. Hegyi, B. Kovács, M. Keresztesi, I. Béres, Gimesi, Imrek, Lengyel, J. Herbert (2000): LPSC XXXI, #1103, Houston, [6] T. Diósy, F. Roskó, K. Gránicz, B. Drommer, S. Hegyi, J. Herbert, M. Keresztesi, B. Kovács, A. Fabriczy, Sz. Bérczi (2000): LPSC XXXI, #1153, Houston, [7] F. Roskó, T. Diósy, Sz. Bérczi, A. Fabriczy, V. Cech, S. Hegyi (2000): LPSC XXXI, #1572, Houston, [8] Balogh, Zs., Bordás, F., Bérczi, Sz., Diósy, T., Hegyi, S., Imrek, Gy., Kabai, S., Keresztesi, M. (2002): LPSC XXXIII, Abstract #1085, LPI, Houston (CD-ROM), [9] Hegyi, S., Horváth, Cs., Németh, I., Keresztesi, M., Hegyi, Á., Kovács, Zs., Diósy, T., Kabai, S., Bérczi, Sz. (2002): LPSC XXXIII, Abstract #1124, LPI, Houston (CD-ROM), [10] Sz. Bérczi, T. Diósy, Sz. Tóth, S. Hegyi, Gy. Imrek, Zs. Kovács, V. Cech, E. Müller-Bodó, F. Roskó, L. Szentpétery, Gy. Hudoba (2002): LPSC XXXIII, Abstract #1496, LPI, Houston (CD-ROM). 2

Berczi, Sz.; Hegyi, S.; Hudoba, Gy.; Hargitai, H.; Kokany, A.; Drommer, B.; Biro, T.; Gucsik, A.; Pinter, A.; Kovacs, Zs.

474

UN DYNAMIC TRIP AU PROFIT DU TELETHON Handicap moteur de naissance, Christophe Riti prpare un voyage, un Dynamic Trip de  

E-print Network

voyage, un « Dynamic Trip » de 380 km en autonomie, de Rennes à Pen Bé en Assérac. Sportif, il fera remorque autonome attelée à son fauteuil électrique lui permettant de concrétiser son voyage en toute de Mécanique de l'INSA de Rennes. Jeudi 1er juillet 2010 Le jour J, départ d'un voyage en autonomie

Rennes, Université de

475

Diplme Universitaire de Technologie Carrires Sociales option Gestion Urbaine Les voyages d'tudes : retour d'exprience  

E-print Network

Diplôme Universitaire de Technologie Carrières Sociales option Gestion Urbaine Les voyages d Marseille en 2012. Ces voyages d'études permettent aux étudiants de se rendre compte concrètement des enjeux évoqués en cours de façon plus théorique. Ces voyages ont également été l'occasion de rencontrer et d

Jeanjean, Louis

476

Le voyage en gypte de Jean-Jacques Ampre1 Historien et philologue, auteur de plusieurs ouvrages de mythologie  

E-print Network

Le voyage en �gypte de Jean-Jacques Ampère1 Historien et philologue, auteur de plusieurs ouvrages de mythologie comparée et de récits de voyage (en Italie, en Orient, en Amérique...), Jean France. La même année, il publie Littérature et voyages : Allemagne et Scandinavie, qui fait de lui, avec

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

477

Voyager Observations of the Color of Saturn's Ring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previously unreduced high resolution Voyager 2 images of Saturn's main rings are used to generate reflectivity (I/F) profiles as a function of radius. Ratios of profiles taken from green, violet, orange, and UV filter images are then produced. The I/F ratios are diagnostic of composition, and provide us with information on the rings' present state of compositional evolution. The rings are extremely reddish in color which suggests that they could not be pure water ice. The most likely candidates for the non-icy components are silicates and organics. The sources of these pollutants are of extreme importance in determining the compositional history of the rings. The radial profiles of ring color ratio exhibit several very interesting properties: (a) broad-scale, fairly smooth, color variations which are only weakly correlated with underlying ring structure (optical depth variations) across the outer C ring and inner B ring as well as the Cassini division region. These variations are probably consistent with ballistic transport; (b) fine-scale, noise-Like (but unquestionably real) color variations across at least the outer two-thirds of the B ring. Not only the "redness" but the spectral shape varies. These variations are currently unexplained. Groundbased spectroscopic observations should be pursued to study the implied compositional heterogeneities on at least the larger scales. This data set will be used for modeling of the color and composition of the main rings using ballistic transport and radiative transfer theories.

Estrada, Paul R.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

478

The Voyage of the Slave Ship Sally: 1764-1765  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1764, a one hundred ton ship called the Sally set sail from Providence, Rhode Island to West Africa on a slaving voyage. The vessel was owned by Nicholas Brown and Company, which was a local merchant firm run by four brothers. The records of this particular venture are preserved in the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University and this remarkable website offers all of the records that remain from this journey. First-time visitors should peruse the "History" area to read a few thematic essays on different aspects of the Sally's journey, which cover topics like "On the African Coast", "The Middle Passage", and "Fitting out the Sally". After that, they should visit "The Documents" area. Here they will find letters, invoices, legal documents, and trade books that tell the story of how the ship was outfitted, who sailed aboard here, and what cargo she carried. This project is another well-done endeavor created by the Center for Digital Initiatives, and it merits several visits.

479

Jupiter's Atmospheric Temperatures: From Voyager IRIS to Cassini CIRS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Retrievals run on Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer data obtained during the distant Jupiter flyby have been used to generate global temperature maps of the planet in the troposphere and stratosphere. Similar retrievals were performed on Voyager 1 IRIS data and have provided the first detailed IRIS map of the stratosphere. In both data sets, high latitude troposphere temperatures are presented for the first time, and the meridional gradients indicate the presence of circumpolar jets. Thermal winds were calculated for each data set and show strong vertical shears in the zonal winds at low latitudes. The temperatures retrieved from the two spacecraft were also compared with yearly ground-based data obtained over the intervening two decades. Tropospheric temperatures reveal gradual changes at low latitudes, with little obvious seasonal or short-term variation (Orton et al. 1994). Stratospheric temperatures show much more complicated behavior over short timescales, consistent with quasi-quadrennial oscillations at low latitudes, as suggested in prior analyses of shorter intervals of ground- based data (Orton et al. 1991, Friedson 1999). A scaling analysis indicates that meridional motions, mechanically forced by wave or eddy convergence, play an important role in modulating the temperatures and winds in the upper troposphere and stratosphere on seasonal and shorter time scales. At latitudes away from the equator, the mechanical forcing can be derived simply from a temporal record of temperature and its vertical derivative. Ground-based observations with improved vertical resolution and/or long-term monitoring from spacecraft are required for this purpose.

Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Conrath, Barney J.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Orton, Glenn S.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Flasar, F. Michael; Fisher, Brendan

2004-01-01

480

Current Sheets in the Heliosheath: Voyager 1, 2009  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We identified all of the current sheets for which we have relatively complete and accurate magnetic field (B) data from Voyager 1 (V1) from days of year (DOYs) 1 to 331, 2009, which were obtained deep in the heliosheath between 108.5 and 111.8 AU. Three types of current sheets were found: (1) 15 proton boundary layers (PBLs), (2) 10 and 3 magnetic holes and magnetic humps, respectively, and (3) 3 sector boundaries. The magnetic field strength changes across PBL, and the profile B(t) is linearly related to the hyperbolic tangent function, but the direction of B does not change. For each of the three sector boundaries, B rotated in a plane normal to the minimum variance direction, and the component of B along the minimum variance direction was zero within the uncertainties, indicating that the sector boundaries were tangential discontinuities. The structure of the sector boundaries was not as simple as that for PBLs. The average thickness of magnetic holes and humps (approx.30 RL) was twice that of the PBLs (approx.15 RL). The average thickness of the current sheets associated with sector boundaries was close to the thickness of the PBLs. Our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that magnetic holes and humps are solitons, which are initiated by the mirror mode instability, and evolve by nonlinear kinetic plasma processes to pressure balanced structures maintained by magnetization currents and proton drift currents in the gradients of B.

Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.

2011-01-01

481

Standing Alfven wave current system at Io: Voyager 1 observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The enigmatic control of the occurrence frequency of Jupiter's decametric emissions by the satellite Io is explained theoretically on the basis of its strong electrodynamic interaction with the corotating Jovian magnetosphere leading to field aligned currents connecting Io with the Jovian ionosphere. Direct measurements of the perturbation magnetic fields due to this current system were obtained by the magnetic field experiment on Voyager 1 on 5 March 1979 when it passed within 20,500 km south of Io. An interpretation in the framework of Alfven waves radiated by Io leads to current estimates of 2.8 million amps. A mass density of 7400 to 13600 proton mass units per Cu cm is derived which compares very favorably with independent observations of the torus composition characterized by 7-9 proton mass units per electron for a local electron density of 1050 to 1500 per cu cm. The power dissipated in the current system may be important for heating the Io heavy ion torus, inner magnetosphere, Jovian ionosphere, and possibly the ionosphere or even the interior of Io.

Acuna, M. H.; Neubauer, F. M.; Ness, N. F.

1980-01-01

482

The source of Jovian auroral hiss observed by Voyager 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of auroral hiss obtained from the Voyager 1 encounter with Jupiter have been reanalyzed. The Jovian auroral hiss was observed near the inner boundary of the warm Io torus and has a low-frequency cutoff caused by propagation near the resonance cone. A simple ray tracing procedure using an offset tilted dipole of the Jovian magnetic field is used to determine possible source locations. The results obtained are consistent with two sources located symmetrically with respect to the centrifugal equator along an L shell (L approximately = 5.59) that is coincident with the boundary between the hot and cold regions of the Io torus and is located just inward of the ribbon feature observed from Earth. The distance of the sources from the centrifugal equator is approximately 0.58 +/- 0.01 R(sub J). Based on the similarity to terrestrial auroral hiss, the Jovian is auroral hiss is believed to be generated by beams of low energy (approximately tens to thousands of eV) electrons. The low-frequency cutoff of the auroral hiss suggests that the electrons are accelerated near the inferred source region, possibly by parallel electric fields similar to those existing in the terrestrial auroral regions. A field-aligned current is inferred to exist at L shells just inward of the plasma ribbon. A possible mechanism for driving this current is discussed.

Morgan, D. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Bagenal, F.

1994-01-01

483

Space Missions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides in formation on past and current exploration ideas and achievements. The advances science has made in the space exploration area, such as having a permanent space station in space and the hundreds of probes, satellite, and space shuttles that have been launched. Advanced telescopes have given scientists the opportunity to see far beyond we ever imagined, and new explorations are found every day. Also featured are details about the International space station and what kinds of experiments scientists do in outer space.

Russell, Randy

2004-05-10

484

Gravity Probe B Inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space vehicle Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. In this photograph, engineer Gary Reynolds is inspecting the inside of the probe neck during probe thermal repairs. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Gravity Probe B, Stanford University)

2000-01-01

485

Multispectral imaging probe  

DOEpatents

A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector.

Sandison, David R. (Moriarty, NM); Platzbecker, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Descour, Michael R. (Tucson, AZ); Armour, David L. (Albuquerque, NM); Craig, Marcus J. (Albuquerque, NM); Richards-Kortum, Rebecca (Austin, TX)

1999-01-01

486

Climate windows for Polynesian voyaging to New Zealand and Easter Island.  

PubMed

Debate about initial human migration across the immense area of East Polynesia has focused upon seafaring technology, both of navigation and canoe capabilities, while temporal variation in sailing conditions, notably through climate change, has received less attention. One model of Polynesian voyaging observes that as tradewind easterlies are currently dominant in the central Pacific, prehistoric colonization canoes voyaging eastward to and through central East Polynesia (CEP: Society, Tuamotu, Marquesas, Gambier, Southern Cook, and Austral Islands) and to Easter Island probably had a windward capacity. Similar arguments have been applied to voyaging from CEP to New Zealand against prevailing westerlies. An alternative view is that migration required reliable off-wind sailing routes. We investigate the marine climate and potential voyaging routes during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), A.D. 800-1300, when the initial colonization of CEP and New Zealand occurred. Paleoclimate data assimilation is used to reconstruct Pacific sea level pressure and wind field patterns at bidecadal resolution during the MCA. We argue here that changing wind field patterns associated with the MCA provided conditions in which voyaging to and from the most isolated East Polynesian islands, New Zealand, and Easter Island was readily possible by off-wind sailing. The intensification and poleward expansion of the Pacific subtropical anticyclone culminating in A.D. 1140-1260 opened an anomalous climate window for off-wind sailing routes to New Zealand from the Southern Austral Islands, the Southern Cook Islands, and Tonga/Fiji Islands. PMID:25267611

Goodwin, Ian D; Browning, Stuart A; Anderson, Atholl J

2014-10-14

487

Observation of the multifractal spectrum in the heliosphere and the heliosheath by Voyager 1 and 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present first results of the multifractal scaling of the fluctuations of the interplanetary magnetic field strength as measured onboard Voyager 2 in the very distant heliosphere and even in the heliosheath. More specifically, the spectra observed by Voyager 2 in a wide range of heliospheric distances from 6 to 90 astronomical units (AU) are compared with those of Voyager 1 already analyzed between 7 and 107 AU. We focus on the singularity multifractal spectrum before and after crossing the termination heliospheric shock by Voyager 1 at 94 AU and Voyager 2 at 84 AU from the Sun. It is worth noting that the spectrum is prevalently right-skewed inside the whole heliosphere. Moreover, we have observed a change of the asymmetry of the spectrum at the termination shock, where the spectrum changes from (left-) right-skewed in the very distant heliosphere to the (right-) left-skewed or possibly symmetric spectrum in the heliosheath. We confirm that the degree of multifractality falls steadily with the distance from the Sun. In addition, the multifractal structure is apparently modulated by the solar activity, with a time shift of several years, corresponding to a distance of about 10 AU, resulting from the evolution of the whole heliosphere. Hence this basic result also brings significant additional support to some earlier claims suggesting that the solar wind termination shock is asymmetric.

Macek, W. M.; Wawrzaszek, A.; Carbone, V.

2012-12-01

488

Time-dependent cosmic ray modulation along Voyager 1 and 2 trajectories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional, time-dependent transport model is used to compute cosmic ray modulation in the inner and outer heliosphere. Results in the inner heliosphere (1 AU) are compared to IMP-8 and Ulysses observations, while for the outer heliosphere results are compared to the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 observations. Time-dependence for the assumed transport parameters are achieved by incorporating recent theoretical advances in transport parameters by Teufel and Schlickeiser (2002), Shalchi et.al (2004) and Minnie et.al (2007). This new approach to cosmic ray modulation leads to results which are compatible to spacecraft observations in both the inner and outer heliosphere. The computations along the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 trajectories suggest: (1) A possible asymmetry in the heliosphere since the observations cannot be fitted with the same set of transport parameters. (2) Alternatively, a symmetric heliosphere but with different transport parameters in the northern and southern hemispheres. A range of different but plausible local interstellar spectra and heliopause position are investigated, considering that recent Voyager 1 observations suggest that this spacecraft is about to enter the interstellar medium, and perhaps crossing the heliospheric modulation boundary.

Manuel, Rex; Potgieter, Marius; Ferreira, Stefan

2012-07-01

489

Interstellar Magnetic Fields Observed by Voyager 1 beyond the Heliopause  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Voyager 1 (V1) was beyond the heliopause between 2013.00 and 2014.41, where it was making in situ observations of the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF). The average azimuthal angle and elevation angle of the magnetic field B were lang?rang = 292.°5 ± 1.°4 and lang?rang = 22.°1 ± 1.°2, respectively. The angles ? and ? varied linearly at (1.°4 ± 0.°1) yr–1 and (–1.°1 ± 0.°1) yr–1, respectively, suggesting that V1 was measuring the draped ISMF around the heliopause. The distributions of hourly averages of ? and ? were Gaussian distributions, with most probable values 292.°5 and 22.°1, and standard deviations (SDs) 1.°3 and 1.°1, respectively. The small SD indicates little or no turbulence transverse to B . An abrupt decrease in B from 0.50 nT on 2013/129.9 to 0.46 nT on 2013/130.6 was observed, possibly associated with a weak reverse shock or magnetoacoustic pressure wave following a burst of electron plasma oscillations. Between 2013/130.6 and 2013/365.3, langBrang = 0.464 ± 0.009 nT, lang?rang = 292.°6 ± 0.°8, and lang?rang = 22.°1 ± 1.°1. The corresponding distribution of hourly averages of B was Gaussian with the most probable value 0.464 nT and ? = 0.009 nT. Since the uncertainty ? corresponds to the instrument and digitization noise, these observations provided an upper limit to the turbulence in the ISMF. The distributions of the hourly increments of B were Gaussian distributions with ? = 0.05 nT, 0.°4, and 0.°4, respectively, indicating that the V1 did not detect evidence of "intermittent bursts" of interstellar turbulence.

Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.

2014-11-01

490

COMPRESSIBLE 'TURBULENCE' OBSERVED IN THE HELIOSHEATH BY VOYAGER 2  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the multiscale structure of the compressible 'turbulence' observed in the high-resolution (48 s) observations of the magnetic field strength B made by Voyager 2 (V2) in the heliosheath behind the termination shock from 2007 DOY 245.0-300.8 and in a unipolar region from 2008 DOY 2.9-75.6. The magnetic field strength is highly variable on scales from 48 s to several hours in both intervals. The distributions of daily averages and 48 s averages of B are lognormal in the post-termination shock (TS) region and Gaussian in the unipolar region, respectively. The amplitudes of the fluctuations were greater in the post-TS region than in the unipolar region, at scales less than several hours. The multiscale structure of the increments of B is described by the q-Gaussian distribution of nonextensive statistical mechanics on all scales from 48 s to 3.4 hr in the unipolar region and from 48 s to 6.8 hr in the post-TS region, respectively. The amplitudes of the fluctuations of increments of B are larger in the post-TS region than in the unipolar region at all scales. The probability density functions of the increments of B are non-Gaussian at all scales in the unipolar region, but they are Gaussian at the largest scales in the post-TS region. Time series of the magnitude and direction of B show that the fluctuations are highly compressive. The small-scale fluctuations are a mixture of coherent structures (semi-deterministic structures) and random structures, which vary significantly from day to day. Several types of coherent structures were identified in both regions.

Burlaga, L. F. [Geospace Physics Laboratory, Code 673, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ness, N. F., E-mail: Leonard.F.Burlaga@NASA.go, E-mail: nfnudel@yahoo.co [Institute for Astrophysics and Computational Sciences, Catholic University of America, Washington DC 20064 (United States)

2009-09-20</