Science.gov

Sample records for voyager space probes

  1. Voyager.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of the Voyager Expanded Learning programs. Initially begun with hands-on, activity-based learning experiences centered around academic themes designed to pique children's interest and motivate them to learn, Voyager has expanded from elementary after- and summer-school programs to include K-8 programs designed for

  2. A voyage to Mars: space radiation, aging, and nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On exploratory class missions, such as a voyage to Mars, astronauts will be exposed to doses and types of radiation that are not experienced in low earth orbit where the space shuttle and International Space Station operate. Astronauts who participate in exploratory class missions outside the magne...

  3. Einstein's Symphony: A Gravitational Wave Voyage Through Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro Key, Joey; Yunes, Nico; Grimberg, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Einstein's Symphony: A Gravitational Wave Voyage Through Space and Time is a gravitational wave astronomy planetarium show in production by a collaboration of scientists, filmmakers, and artisits from the Center for Gravitational Wave Astonomy (CGWA) at the University of Texas at Brownsville (UTB) and Montana State University (MSU). The project builds on the success of the interdisciplinary Celebrating Einstein collaboration. The artists and scientists who created the A Shout Across Time original film and the Black (W)hole immersive art installation for Celebrating Einstein are teaming with the Museum of the Rockies Taylor Planetarium staff and students to create a new full dome Digistar planetarium show that will be freely and widely distributed to planetaria in the US and abroad. The show uses images and animations filmed and collected for A Shout Across Time and for Black (W)hole as well as new images and animations and a new soundtrack composed and produced by the MSU School of Music to use the full capability of planetarium sound systems. The planetarium show will be narrated with ideas drawn from the Celebrating Einstein danced lecture on gravitational waves that the collaboration produced. The combination of products, resources, and team members assembled for this project allows us to create an original planetarium show for a fraction of the cost of a typical show. In addition, STEM education materials for G6-12 students and teachers will be provided to complement and support the show. This project is supported by the Texas Space Grant Consortium (TSGC), Montana Space Grant Consortium (MSGC), and the American Physical Society (APS).

  4. The Challenge of Space Futures: Starcomber's Galactic Voyage to Xeranthemom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimonauff, Jacqueline

    1998-01-01

    Describes a curriculum enrichment activity for gifted middle school students. Students design a long-range space travel vehicle and plan for colonizing a discovered planet. Students contact people in science and industry and produce a handbook for space travel and colonization. (DB)

  5. Deep space observations of the east-west asymmetry of solar energetic storm particle events - Voyagers 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarris, E. T.; Decker, R. B.; Krimigis, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    It has been well established that solar flare shock waves, propagating through the interplanetary medium, accelerate ambient energetic particles, giving rise to the formation of energetic storm particle (ESP) intensity enhancements. However, the acceleration mechanism which is responsible for the generation of ESP events is still under investigation. In the present investigation, energetic proton observations during solar flare ESP events made with the aid of the Voyagers 1 and 2 deep space probes are employed as a basis to examine further the acceleration processes responsible for the generation of ESP events under different 'interplanetary magnetic field-shock front' configurations. It is found that large ESP proton intensity enhancements are superimposed on the ambient solar energetic particle population for solar flare sites to the east of the sun-spacecraft medidian.

  6. Nick Sagan Reflects on Voyager 1 and the Golden Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-10-01

    When scientists confirmed on 12 September that NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft had entered interstellar space (Eos, 94(39), 339, doi:10.1002/2013EO390003), the probe was acknowledged as the first human-made object to travel into that realm. The probe and its twin, Voyager 2, each carry a 12-inch gold-plated copper disk, known as the Golden Record.

  7. PROBING THE NATURE OF THE HELIOSHEATH WITH THE NEUTRAL ATOM SPECTRA MEASURED BY IBEX IN THE VOYAGER 1 DIRECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Opher, M.; Prested, C.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Drake, J. F.

    2013-10-20

    We are able to show by comparing modeled energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) spectra to those measured by Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) that the models along the Voyager 1 (V1) trajectory that best agree with the low energy IBEX data include extra heating due to ram and magnetic energy in the quasi-stagnation region or a kappa ion distribution (with κ = 2.0) in the outer heliosheath. The model explored is the multi-ion, multi-fluid (MI-MF) which treats the pick-up ions and the thermal ion fluids with separate Maxwellian distributions. These effects are included ad hoc in the modeled ENA since they are not present in the model. These results indicate that the low energy spectra of ENAs as measured by IBEX is sensitive to the physical nature of the heliosheath and to effects not traditionally present in current global models. Therefore, by comparing the low energy ENA spectra to models, we can potentially probe the heliosheath in locations beyond those probed by V1 and Voyager 2 (V2)

  8. Voyages Guided by the Skies: Ancient Concepts of Exploring and Domesticating Time and Space across Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappenglück, Michael A.

    2015-05-01

    Persistence and change are necessary for the stability and development of both the human individual and the human society, since the beginnings of human history. Man needs a static framework which, related to his self-awareness, defines a topocentric system of perception, evaluation, order, and meaning. He also requires a dynamic impetus, which allows exceeding the limits of special world views, shifting of perspectives and transformations of individual as well as social approaches to life. Travelling especially helped to broaden man's horizon and mind. Across cultures voyages guided by the skies are linked with practical concepts of exploring and domesticating time and space, but also figuratively with the life's journey and with other worlds, being expressed by mythic, ritual and later scientific language.

  9. Gravity Probe B Space Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The space vehicle for Gravity Probe B (GP-B) arrives at the launch site at Vandenburg Air Force Base. GP-B is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center, development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

  10. Voyager observations of ion phase space densities in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paonessa, M.

    1985-01-01

    Data from the Voyager low-energy charged particle experiment (LECP) were used to calculate ion phase space densities in Jupiter's magnetosphere. The calculation of F at constant mu and J(2) requires the determination of particle fluxes at specific pitch angles and energies. It is shown that the greatest uncertainties in the determination of F from LECP data arise from the fits to the measured pitch angle distributions and differential energy spectra. An estimate is provided of this uncertainty and of others arising from model radial diffusion coefficients and magnetic fields. The general nature of the curves is consistent with inward diffusion of these energetic ions from the outer magnetosphere combined with losses near but starting beyond the orbit of Io. These losses are not consistent with simple satellite sweeping by Io alone and are probably due to an Io-torus wave-particle interaction. The lifetime against loss deduced from the data is approximately 20,000 s near Io and is a value consistent with strong diffusion losses. The measured ion loss rate declines much more rapidly than the strong diffusion loss rate as L increases from 7 to 9, suggesting that the loss rate is well below the strong-diffusion rate beyond 7 Jupiter radii for ions observed by the LECP.

  11. Titan: Evidence for seasonal change - A comparison of Hubble Space Telescope and Voyager images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, John; Cunningham, Cindy C.; Anthony, David; White, H. P.; Groth, E. J.; Hasan, H.; Noll, K.; Smith, P. H.; Tomasko, M. G.; Weaver, H. A.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison of images of Titan obtained by the HST in August, 1990 with Voyager 1 and 2 images respectively obtained 10 and 9 years earlier has indicated a reversal of the seasonal hemispheric brightness asymmetry near 440 and 550 nm wavelengths; the northern hemisphere is in the more recent observations the brighter of the two, by about 10 percent. Titan's albedo pattern is therefore adequately explained by a seasonal model.

  12. Probing planetary pollution from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Jack

    1991-01-01

    The data sets obtained from instruments that have measured carbon monoxide and tropospheric ozone from space are reviewed. These instruments include a gas cell correlation radiometer named MAPS (Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites), the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment. Particular attention is given to differential absorption lidar technology which can determine the vertical distribution of aerosols and selected trace gases with considerably more resolution than passive remote sensing techniques. The current plans for monitoring pollution from spaceborne platforms are also discussed.

  13. Encounter with Jupiter. [Pioneer 10 space probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Pioneer 10 space probe's encounter with the Jupiter is discussed in detail. Tables are presented which include data on the distances during the encounter, times of crossing satellite orbits, important events in the flight near Jupiter, and time of experiments. Educational study projects are also included.

  14. Compression of Space for Low Visibility Probes

    PubMed Central

    Born, Sabine; Krüger, Hannah M.; Zimmermann, Eckart; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli briefly flashed just before a saccade are perceived closer to the saccade target, a phenomenon known as perisaccadic compression of space (Ross et al., 1997). More recently, we have demonstrated that brief probes are attracted towards a visual reference when followed by a mask, even in the absence of saccades (Zimmermann et al., 2014a). Here, we ask whether spatial compression depends on the transient disruptions of the visual input stream caused by either a mask or a saccade. Both of these degrade the probe visibility but we show that low probe visibility alone causes compression in the absence of any disruption. In a first experiment, we varied the regions of the screen covered by a transient mask, including areas where no stimulus was presented and a condition without masking. In all conditions, we adjusted probe contrast to make the probe equally hard to detect. Compression effects were found in all conditions. To obtain compression without a mask, the probe had to be presented at much lower contrasts than with masking. Comparing mislocalizations at different probe detection rates across masking, saccades and low contrast conditions without mask or saccade, Experiment 2 confirmed this observation and showed a strong influence of probe contrast on compression. Finally, in Experiment 3, we found that compression decreased as probe duration increased both for masks and saccades although here we did find some evidence that factors other than simply visibility as we measured it contribute to compression. Our experiments suggest that compression reflects how the visual system localizes weak targets in the context of highly visible stimuli. PMID:27013989

  15. NASA Facts, Voyager.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    This document is one of a series of publications of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on facts about the exploration of Jupiter and Saturn. This NASA mission consists of two unmanned Voyager spacecrafts launched in August and September of 1977, and due to arrive at Jupiter in 1979. An account of the scientific equipment…

  16. Voyager 2 Jupiter encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A NASA News Release is presented which contains the following: (1) general release; (2) two views of Voyager 2 flight past Jupiter; (3) Voyager mission summary; (4) Voyager 1 science results; (5) Jupiter science objectives; (6) Jupiter the planet and its satellites; (7) Voyager experiments; (8) planet comparison; (9) a list of Voyager science investigators and (10) the Voyager team.

  17. Gigapan Voyage for Robotic Recon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Susan Y.; Moorse, Theodore Fitzgerald; Park, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Gigapan Voyage (GV) is a self-contained remotely-operable Gigapan capturing system that is currently being developed by the Intelligent Robotics Group (IRG) at NASA Ames Research Center. Gigapan Voyage was primarily designed to be integrated onto Johnson Space Center s Lunar Electric Rovers (LER). While on LER, Gigapan Voyage was used by scientists and astronauts during the 2009 and 2010 Desert RATS field tests. The concept behind Gigapan Voyage is to merge all the sub-components of the commercial GigaPan system into an all-in-one system that can capture, stitch, and display Gigapans in an automated way via a simple web interface. The GV system enables NASA to quickly and easily add remote-controlled Gigapan capturing capability onto rovers with minimal integration effort. Key Words: Geology, NASA, Black Point Lava Flow, Robot, K10, LER, Gigapan Voyage, Desert RATS, Intelligent Robotics Group

  18. Voyager backgrounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Voyager spacecraft and experiments are described. The spacecraft description includes the structure and configuration, communications systems, power supplies, computer command subsystems, and the science platform. The experiments discussed are investigations of cosmic rays, low-energy charged particles, magnetic fields, and plasma waves, along with studies in radio astronomy photopolarimetry. The tracking and data acquisition procedures for the missions are presented.

  19. Employment of Asteroids for Movement Space Ship and Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    At present, rockets are used to change the trajectory of space ships and probes. This method is very expensive and requires a lot of fuel, which limits the feasibility of space stations, interplanetary space ships, and probes. Sometimes space probes use the gravity field of a planet. However, there are only 9 planets in our solar system and they are separated by great distances. There are tens of millions of asteroids in outer space. The author offers a revolutionary method for changing the trajectory of space probes. This method uses the kinetic or rotary energy of asteroids, meteorites or other space bodies (small planets, natural planet satellites, etc.). to increase (to decrease) ship (probe) speed up to 1000 m/sec (or more) and to get any new direction in outer space. The flight possibilities of space ships and probes are increased by a factor of millions.

  20. NASA Now Minute: Space Science: Voyager’s Grand Tour of the Solar System - Duration: 50 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Planetary scientist Lou Mayo discusses what we’re learning from theVoyager missions, where the two spacecraft are currently located andsome of the incredible discoveries made on the long journe...

  1. Voyager Cartography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Bridges, P. M.; Mullins, K. F.

    1985-01-01

    The Jovian and Saturnian satellites are being mapped at several scales from Voyager 1 and 2 data. The maps include specially formatted color mosaics, controlled photomosaics, and airbrush maps. More than 500 Voyager images of the Jovian and Saturnian satellites were radiometrically processed in preparation for cartographic processing. Of these images, 235 were geometrically transformed to map projections for base mosaic compilations. Special techniques for producing hybrid photomosaic/airbrush maps of Callisto are under investigation. The techniques involve making controlled computer mosaics of all available images with highest resolution images superimposed on lowest resolution images. The mosaics are then improved by airbrushing: seams and artifacts are removed, and image details enhanced that had been lost by saturation in some images. A controlled mosaic of the northern hemisphere of Rhea is complete, as is all processing for a similar mosaic of the equatorial region. Current plans and status of the various series are shown in a table.

  2. Voyager cartography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batson, R. M.; Bridges, P. M.; Mullins, K. F.

    1985-04-01

    The Jovian and Saturnian satellites are being mapped at several scales from Voyager 1 and 2 data. The maps include specially formatted color mosaics, controlled photomosaics, and airbrush maps. More than 500 Voyager images of the Jovian and Saturnian satellites were radiometrically processed in preparation for cartographic processing. Of these images, 235 were geometrically transformed to map projections for base mosaic compilations. Special techniques for producing hybrid photomosaic/airbrush maps of Callisto are under investigation. The techniques involve making controlled computer mosaics of all available images with highest resolution images superimposed on lowest resolution images. The mosaics are then improved by airbrushing: seams and artifacts are removed, and image details enhanced that had been lost by saturation in some images. A controlled mosaic of the northern hemisphere of Rhea is complete, as is all processing for a similar mosaic of the equatorial region. Current plans and status of the various series are shown in a table.

  3. Perspectives on More Than 3 Decades of the Voyager Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-05-01

    Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, twin NASA probes that were launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla., in the summer of 1977 during a once-every-175-year alignment of the solar system's giant outer planets, changed our understanding about those planets—Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune—as well as the 4 dozen moons the spacecraft have flown by and the shape of the solar system itself. Today these 722-kilogram probes, whose instruments mostly are still operating after almost 34 years in space, are helping to rewrite the textbooks about the outer edge of our solar system as they continue to race outward from Earth. Voyager 1, currently 17.4 billion kilometers from Earth, and Voyager 2, 14.2 billion kilometers from Earth, are on their way to becoming the first human-made objects to leave the solar system and enter interstellar space, the medium between stars. In exclusive interviews with Eos and during a 27 April news briefing at NASA headquarters in Washington, D. C., Voyager project scientist Ed Stone and several others who have worked on the project discussed mission highlights and the probes' journeys through the heliosheath. This is the final outer layer of a kind of bubble the Sun creates around itself called the heliosphere, a margin where the solar wind is slowed by the pressure of interstellar gas. All the while, the spacecraft, still responsive to ground commands, are sending back data about the solar wind, the magnetic field carried out by the wind, charged particles, and plasma waves.

  4. Voyager Tour Montage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This montage of images of the planets visited by Voyager 2 was prepared from an assemblage of images taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft. The Voyager Project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California.

  5. Voyager Tour Montage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This montage of images of the planets visited by Voyager 2was prepared from an assemblage of images taken by the 2 Voyager spacecraft. The Voyager Project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California.

  6. Thermodynamic considerations in the support of life for long space voyages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iberall, A. S.; Cardon, S. Z.

    1979-01-01

    The essential requirements for the maintenance of life, particularly human life, on isolated space missions of long duration were investigated through the study of extended irreversible thermodynamics. The characterization of a four trophic level system was developed. Questions of stability are discussed.

  7. Earth observations during Space Shuttle flight STS-29 - Discovery's voyage to the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh; Helfert, Michael; Whitehead, Victor; Amsbury, David; Coats, Michael; Blaha, John; Buchli, James; Springer, Robert; Bagian, James

    1989-01-01

    The environmental, geologic, meteorologic, and oceanographic phenomena documented by earth photography during the Space Shuttle STS-29 mission are reviewed. A map of the nadir point positions of earth-viewing photographs from the mission is given and color photographs of various regions are presented. The mission photographs include atmospheric dust and smoke over parts of Africa and Asia, Sahelian water sites, center pivot irrigation fields in the Middle East, urban smog over Mexico City, isolated burning in the Bolivian Amazon, and various ocean features and cloud formations.

  8. Wave Probe - New Instrument For Space Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, V.; Dudkin, F.

    2007-12-01

    The dispersion relations are very important for the wave activity study in space plasmas. One of the most efficient methods for their analysis is the simultaneous measurements of spatial current density and magnetic field fluctuations during such a wave process. Whereas the measurement of the magnetic field is a routine task realized onboard practically every spacecraft (SC), the direct measurement of spatial current density (SCD) still remains a complicated scientific and technological problem. First attempt to solve it was executed in late 60-ties by a group headed by F. Mozer. They proposed and launched in a rocket experiment the device named "Split Langmuir Probe" (SLP) - two conducting plates separated by a thin insulated split. Unfortunately this experiment failed what diverted the attention of experimenters in space branch from this instrument for many years, practically till now. But the importance to know the SCD stimulated the development of new principles and devices to measure it. A short review of known versions is discussed. The newly evoked interest to this problem caused next attempt to improve the SLP construction and methodology of its application for SCD measurements, which resulted in first successful attempt in 1985: the measured SCD onboard Prognos-10 SC in the bow shock region was in rather good agreement with the calculated value. This attempt was continued onboard Interball-Tail SC (1995-2000) where again a qualitatively good coincidence of measured and calculated values was observed. The obtained experience and further theoretical research allowed developing a new instrument - Wave Probe - which is a combination of induction magnetometer and SLP in one body. Both on-ground tests in plasma chamber and the spatial experiment executed onboard Ukrainian "Sich-1M" SC (2004) showed that the combined in-situ simultaneous measurements of SCD and magnetic field fluctuations allowed obtaining the wave number of the whistler wave. The same wave number was calculated theoretically from dispersion relations of whistler wave using known ionosphere model and the comparison of measured and calculated values of both wave number and SCD gave a good quantitative agreement. The details of theoretical and experimental study are discussed in the report. There is a pleasant duty of the authors to thank Prof. F. Mozer and Prof. S. Klimov for continuous attention and practical support of this work. It was also supported by NSAU contract No 1-02/03.

  9. Probing the Nature of the Heliosheath with the Heliospheric Neutral Atom Spectra Measured by IBEX in the Voyager 1 Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opher, M.; Prested, C. L.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Toth, G.

    2012-12-01

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) has been making detailed observations of neutrals from the boundaries of the heliosphere from 0.2-6 keV. Recent studies using the accumulated measurements of three years of observations extended the IBEX spectra down to lower energies (Fusielier et al. ApJ 2012). We compare the modeled ENA spectra to the ones measured by IBEX in order to explore the sensitivity to the heliosheath flows and temperatures along the Voyager 1 trajectory. The models explored are: (a) single-ion, multi-fluid (SI-MF) (Opher et al. 2009) that includes the ionized thermal plasma (solar wind plus pick-up ions (PUIs) plus the neutral H atoms) in a multi-fluid approximation; and our recent model (b) multi-ion, multi-fluid (MI-MF) that treats the PUIs and the thermal ions as separate fluids with maxwellian distributions (Prested et al. 2012). The use of a maxwellian distribution for the transmitted PUIs is supported by works such as Wu et al. (2010). Additionally, in the modeled ENA spectra we account for effects, not present in the models, from: a) the zero flows in the stagnation region (Decker et al. Nature 2012), as from our model that included the sector region (Opher et al. ApJ 2012) 15-20AU before the heliopause; b) extra heating in the stagnation region equivalent to the missing ram pressure; c) extra heating due to reconnection in the stagnation region (Drake et al. 2010; Opher et al. 2011); d) kappa ion distribution with power spectra (~ 1.5 - 2.0) in the heliosheath as produced by models such as Gloeckler and Fisk (2010); e) kappa ion distribution in the outer heliosheath. We find that the models that invoked extra heating in the stagnation region (as in case (b)-(c)) best agree with the low energy IBEX data. We evaluate model results in terms of the number of free parameters versus the level of agreement and comment on the implications of the models.

  10. NASA Facts: Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A news release on NASA's Voyager project is presented. The spacecraft, science instrumentation, experiments and a mission profile are described. A drawing identifying Voyager's major components and instrumentation was included along with diagrams showing the path of Voyager 1 (JST trajectory) past Jupiter, and the path of Voyager 2 (JXT trajectory) during its encounter with Jupiter. An exercise for student involvement was also provided.

  11. Voyager's decade of wonder

    SciTech Connect

    Mclaughlin, W.I. )

    1989-07-01

    The development and implementation of the Voyager missions are reviewed. The interplanetary missions preceding Voyager are discussed, focusing on the technological development leading up to the Voyager spacecraft. The main results from Voyager observations of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus are outlined. Also, consideration is given to the prospects for observations of Neptune.

  12. Maiden voyage.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Dario

    2011-01-01

    The scientific debate which developed during the eighteenth century, proposed and diffused new theories on the generation not only within the scientific community. Microscopic investigation and various experimental campaigns fostered daring models attempting to unveil the natural phenomena from which life originates. Besides the famous scientific and philosophical works that marked the age, in the second part of the century two pamphlets appeared that well represent the importance of the querelle about embryological systems defining the concept of generation as a voyage within the human body. Lucina sine concubitu and Juno abortans, respectively published in England and in Germany between 1750 and 1760, narrate the odd and imaginary adventures of two doctors who are trying to interrupt and modify the embryos' journey towards the body of the mother. PMID:21936203

  13. The Voyager Neptune travel guide.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlhase, C.

    1989-06-01

    This publication describes, with numerous illustrations, the Voyager mission to explore the giant outer planets of our solar system. Scientific highlights include interplanetary cruise, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and their vast satellite and ring systems. Detailed plans are provided for the August 1989 Neptune encounter and subsequent interstellar journey to reach the heliopause. As background, the elements of an unmanned space mission are explained, with emphasis on the capabilities of the spacecraft and the scientific sensors. Other topics include the Voyager Grand Tour trajectory design, deep-space navigation, and gravity-assist concepts. The Neptune flyby is animated through the use of computer-generated, flip-page movie frames. Useful historical information is also presented, including remarkable or gee-whiz facts associated with the Voyager mission. Finally, short summaries are provided to describe the major objectives and schedules for several exciting space missions planned for the remainder of the 20th century.

  14. The Voyager Neptune travel guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlhase, Charles (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The Voyager mission to the giant outer planets of our solar system is described. Scientific highlights include interplanetary cruise, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and their vast satellite and ring systems. Detailed plans are provided for the August 1989 Neptune encounter and subsequent interstellar journey to reach the heliopause. As background, the elements of an unmanned space mission are explained, with emphasis on the capabilities of the spacecraft and the scientific sensors. Other topics include the Voyager Grand Tour trajectory design, deep-space navigation, and gravity-assist concepts. The Neptune flyby is animated through the use of computer-generated, flip-page movie frames that appear in the corners of the publication. Useful historical information is also presented, including facts associated with the Voyager mission. Finally, short summaries are provided to describe the major objectives and schedules for several space missions planned for the remainder of the 20th century.

  15. The Voyager Interstellar Mission.

    PubMed

    Rudd, R P; Hall, J C; Spradlin, G L

    1997-01-01

    The Voyager Interstellar Mission began on January 1, 1990, with the primary objective being to characterize the interplanetary medium beyond Neptune and to search for the transition region between the interplanetary medium and the interstellar medium. At the start of this mission, the two Voyager spacecraft had already been in flight for over twelve years, having successfully returned a wealth of scientific information about the planetary systems of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and the interplanetary medium between Earth and Neptune. The two spacecraft have the potential to continue returning science data until around the year 2020. With this extended operating lifetime, there is a high likelihood of one of the two spacecraft penetrating the termination shock and possibly the heliopause boundary, and entering interstellar space before that time. This paper describes the Voyager Interstellar Mission--the mission objectives, the spacecraft and science payload, the mission operations system used to support operations, and the mission operations strategy being used to maximize science data return even in the event of certain potential spacecraft subsystem failures. The implementation of automated analysis tools to offset and enable reduced flight team staffing levels is also discussed. PMID:11540770

  16. Huygens space probe ready to leave Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-03-01

    Over the past year, the Huygens probe has been integrated and extensively tested at the facilities of Daimler Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme in Ottobrunn near Munich. It was designed and developed for ESA by a European industrial consortium led by Aerospatiale (F) as prime contractor. The European activities have been successfully completed and this is to be formalised by the Flight Acceptance Review which will release the probe for shipment to the USA. To mark this important milestone a press briefing is scheduled for Wednesday, 26 March at 10.00 hours at Daimler-Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme in Ottobrunn. The detailed programme of the press briefing is attached. If you wish to attend the press briefing, please complete the attached accreditation form and return it, preferably by fax, to : Daimler Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme Mr. Mathias Pikelj, Fax. + 49 7545 8 5589, Tel. + 49 7545 8 9123 NOTE FOR THE EDITORS: Background facts about the Cassini Huygens mission Huygens is a medium-sized mission of ESA's Horizons 2000 programme for space science, and a contribution to the joint NASA ESA Cassini mission. Christiaan Huygens discovered Saturn s moon Titan in 1655, and the mission named after him aims to land a 343 kilogram probe on Titan carrying a package of scientific instruments through the atmosphere. Six sets of instruments will analyse the chemical composition of the atmosphere, observe the weather and topography of Titan, and examine the nature of its surface. Titan is larger than the planet Mercury, and its unique atmosphere, rich in nitrogen and hydrocarbons, may resemble the atmosphere of the primitive Earth, before life began. Nominal dates for the Huygens mission are as follows: * launch, 6 October 1997 * arrival at Saturn, 1 July 2004 * release of Huygens, 6 November 2004 * entry into Titan's atmosphere, 27 November 2004. The Saturn Orbiter, the other element in the Cassini mission, will relay the signals from Huygens to the Earth, before settling down to prolonged observations of Saturn and its rings and moons. European and American scientists are partners in all the experiments, both in the Orbiter and in the Huygens Probe. Farthest out for Europe Huygens will travel to a greater distance from the Sun than any previous ESA mission, out to the orbit of Saturn at 1400 million kilometres, or nearly ten times the Sun Earth distance. For comparison, the farthest ranging mission at present is Ulysses, orbiting over the poles of the Sun and out to the orbit of Jupiter, 800 million kilometres from the Sun. As no other mission planned or contemplated by ESA at present will go as far as Saturn, Huygens is likely to hold the European record for many years. HUYGENS READY TO LEAVE EUROPE PRESS BRIEFING Wednesday 26 March, 10:00 hrs. Location : Daimler-Benz Aerospace/ Dornier Satellitensysteme Gate 2, Building 5.1 Ludwig-B>lkow-Allee Ottobrunn (Munich) Programme: 10h00 Registration of press 10h15 Huygens video introduction 10h20 Welcoming addresses: Klaus Ensslin, President, Dornier Satellitensysteme Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA Michel Delaye, President, Aerospatiale Espace & Defense 10h30 NASA News and Cassini status Wesly T. Huntress, Associate Administrator of Space Science, NASA Richard Spehalski, Head of Cassini Project, NASA/JPL 10h40 The Huygens Project: Hamid Hassan, Head of the Huygens Project, ESA/ESTEC Hans-Joachim Hoffman, Head of the Huygens Project, Dornier Satellitensysteme Gerard Huttin, Head of the Huygens Project, Aerospatiale 11h00 The Huygens Scientific Programme: Jean-Pierre Lebreton, Huygens Project Scientist, ESA supported by European and American scientists. 11h15 The ESA Science programme, current and future missions Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA 11h25 Question and Answer session 11h55 Visit to the Huygens spacecraft (access inside the clean room limited to photographers and TV teams only). 12h45 Buffet lunch 14h00 End of activties HUYGENS READY TO LEAVE EUROPE PRESS BRIEFING Wednesday 26 March, 10:00 hrs. Location : Daimler-Benz Aerospace/ Dornier Satellitensysteme Gate 2, Building 5.1 Ludwig-B>lkow-Allee Ottobrunn (Munich)

  17. Voyager cartography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batson, R. M.; Lee, E. M.; Mullins, K. F.

    1987-05-01

    The Jovian and Saturnian satellites are being mapped at several scales from Voyager 1 and 2 data. The maps are especially formatted color mosaics, controlled photomosaics, and airbrush maps. At 1:5,000,000 scale, mapping of Io, Europa, and Ganymede is complete. At 1:15,000,000 scale, mapping of Io and Europa is complete, and mapping of Ganymede is approximately complete. A controlled mosaic of Rhea has been compiled as a Digital Image Model (DIM) in the same format as is being used for Mars. The mosaic is being formatted for publication as a two-sheet set (Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area, Mercator, and Polar Stereographic projections). Magnetic tape copies of the DIM have been distributed to regional Planetary Image Facilities and other interested users. The DIM has a scale of 1/16 degree/pixel, corresponding to approximately 833 m/pixel on Rhea. Details of the status of the various map series are reported quarterly to Planetary Geology Principal Investigators.

  18. "Voyager": An Educational Card Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David Ryan

    2003-01-01

    "Voyager" is an educational card game involving scientific satellites, developed for use in schools with children aged 9 to 13 years. The idea of the game is to improve pupils' knowledge about the large number of scientific satellites there are in space in a fun way, while also practising numeracy skills. Several copies of the game were produced…

  19. "Voyager": An Educational Card Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David Ryan

    2003-01-01

    "Voyager" is an educational card game involving scientific satellites, developed for use in schools with children aged 9 to 13 years. The idea of the game is to improve pupils' knowledge about the large number of scientific satellites there are in space in a fun way, while also practising numeracy skills. Several copies of the game were produced

  20. Reacting to nuclear power systems in space: American public protests over outer planetary probes since the 1980s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launius, Roger D.

    2014-03-01

    The United States has pioneered the use of nuclear power systems for outer planetary space probes since the 1970s. These systems have enabled the Viking landings to reach the surface of Mars and both Pioneers 10 and 11 and Voyagers 1 and 2 to travel to the limits of the solar system. Although the American public has long been concerned about safety of these systems, in the 1980s a reaction to nuclear accidents - especially the Soviet Cosmos 954 spacecraft destruction and the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accidents - heightened awareness about the hazards of nuclear power and every spacecraft launch since that time has been contested by opponents of nuclear energy. This has led to a debate over the appropriateness of the use of nuclear power systems for spacecraft. It has also refocused attention on the need for strict systems of control and rigorous checks and balances to assure safety. This essay describes the history of space radioisotope power systems, the struggles to ensure safe operations, and the political confrontation over whether or not to allow the launch the Galileo and Cassini space probes to the outer planets. Effectively, these efforts have led to the successful flights of 12 deep space planetary probes, two-thirds of them operated since the accidents of Cosmos 954, Three Mile Island, and Chernobyl.

  1. Voyager program. Voyager 1 encounter at Jupiter, 5 March 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Highlights of Voyager 1 activity during the observatory and far-encounter phases are summarized. Daily sequence of events for the spacecraft during the period of greatest encounter activity (Feb. 26 through Mar. 7) the near-encounter phase is given. Times shown designate the time of signal reception at Deep Space Network stations. Events listed emphasize activities pertaining to the four remote sensing instruments on the scan platforms. However, the other 7 experiments will continuously collect data throughout the encounter period.

  2. Voyager-Jupiter radio science data papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, G. S.; Wood, G. E.

    1980-01-01

    The reduction and interpretation of the radio science data from the Voyager 1 and 2 encounters of the planet Jupiter and its satellites resulted in the preparation of several papers for publication in the special Voyager-Jupiter issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research. The radio science and tracking systems of the Deep Space Network provide the data which makes this research possible. This article lists submitted papers by title, with their authors and with abstracts of their contents.

  3. Mission to Jupiter. [Pioneer 10 and 11 space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 space probes and their missions to Jupiter are discussed along with the experiments and investigations which will be conducted onboard. Jupiter's atmosphere, its magnetic fields, radiation belts, the spacecraft instruments, and the Jovian system will be investigated. Educational study projects are also included.

  4. The Evolving Space Weather System—Van Allen Probes Contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanetti, L. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Fox, N. J.; Barnes, R. J.; Weiss, M.; Sotirelis, T. S.; Raouafi, N.-E.; Kessel, R. L.; Becker, H. N.

    2014-10-01

    The overarching goal and purpose of the study of space weather is clear—to understand and address the issues caused by solar disturbances on humans and technological systems. Space weather has evolved in the past few decades from a collection of concerned agencies and researchers to a critical function of the National Weather Service of NOAA. The general effects have also evolved from the well-known telegraph disruptions of the mid-1800s to modern day disturbances of the electric power grid, communications and navigation, human spaceflight and spacecraft systems. The last two items in this list, and specifically the effects of penetrating radiation, were the impetus for the space weather broadcast implemented on NASA's Van Allen Probes' twin pair of satellites, launched in August of 2012 and orbiting directly through Earth's severe radiation belts. The Van Allen Probes mission, formerly the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), was renamed soon after launch to honor the discoverer of Earth's radiation belts at the beginning of the space age, the late James Van Allen (the spacecraft themselves are still referred to as RBSP-A and RBSP-B). The Van Allen Probes are one part of NASA's Living With a Star program formulated to advance the scientific understanding of the connection between solar disturbances, the resulting heliospheric conditions, and their effects on the geospace and Earth environment.

  5. Features of the Gravity Probe B Space Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeve, William; Green, Gaylord

    2007-04-01

    Space vehicle performance enabled successful relativity data collection throughout the Gravity Probe B mission. Precision pointing and drag-free translation control was maintained using proportional helium micro-thrusters. Electrical power was provided by rigid, double sided solar arrays. The 1.8 kelvin science instrument temperature was maintained using the largest cryogenic liquid helium dewar ever flown in space. The flight software successfully performed autonomous operations and safemode protection. Features of the Gravity Probe B Space Vehicle mechanisms include: 1) sixteen helium micro-thrusters, the first proportional thrusters flown in space, and large-orifice thruster isolation valves, 2) seven precision and high-authority mass trim mechanisms, 3) four non-pyrotechnic, highly reliable solar array deployment and release mechanism sets. Early incremental prototyping was used extensively to reduce spacecraft development risk. All spacecraft systems were redundant and provided multiple failure tolerance in critical systems. Lockheed Martin performed the spacecraft design, systems engineering, hardware and software integration, environmental testing and launch base operations, as well as on-orbit operations support for the Gravity Probe B space science experiment.

  6. Voyage to Jupiter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David; Samz, Jane

    This publication illustrates the features of Jupiter and its family of satellites pictured by the Pioneer and the Voyager missions. Chapters included are: (1) "The Jovian System" (describing the history of astronomy); (2) "Pioneers to Jupiter" (outlining the Pioneer Mission); (3) "The Voyager Mission"; (4) "Science and Scientsts" (listing 11…

  7. Voyager at Uranus: 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The voyager 2 spacecraft begins its initial observations of Uranus November 4, 1985, and makes its final observation February 25, 1996. The data from the infrared interfermometer spectrometer, photopolarimeters, plasma wave, plasma detecter, and ultraviolet spectrometer will be processed to add a large block of infermation to the small amount already known. The trajectory of Voyager 2 is also discussed.

  8. The Voyager flights to Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The results of the mini-Grand Tour to Jupiter and Saturn by the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are highlighted. Features of the spacecraft are depicted including the 11 instruments designed to probe the planets and their magnetic environments, the rings of Saturn, the fleets of satellites escorting the planets, and the interplanetary medium. Major scientific discoveries relating to these phenomena are summarized.

  9. Solar System Voyage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunier, Serge

    2002-11-01

    In the last few decades, the exploration of our solar system has revealed fascinating details about the worlds that lie beyond our Earth. This lavishly illustrated book invites the reader on a journey through the solar system. After locating our planetary system in the Universe, Brunier describes the Sun and its planets, the large satellites, asteroids, and comets. Photographs and information taken from the latest space missions allow readers to experience spectacular scenes: the lunar plains scarred by asteroid impacts, the frozen deserts of Mars and Europa, the continuously erupting volcanoes of Io and the giant geysers of Triton, the rings of Saturn and the clouds of Venus and Titan, and the powerful crash of the comet Shoemaker-Levy into Jupiter. Inspired by the extraordinary photographs and incisive text, readers of Solar System Voyage will gain a greater appreciation of the hospitable planet we call home. Serge Brunier is chief editor of the journal Ciel et Espace, a photojournalist, and the author of many nonfiction books aimed at both specialists and the general public. His previous books include Space Odyssey (Cambridge, 2002), Glorious Eclipses with Jean-Pierre Luminet (Cambridge, 2000), and Majestic Universe (Cambridge, 1999).

  10. NASA Now: Space Science: Voyager’s Grand Tour of the Solar System - Duration: 6 minutes, 46 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Planetary scientist Lou Mayo discusses what we’re learning from the Voyager missions, where the two spacecraft currently are located, and some of the incredible discoveries made on the long journ...

  11. Van Allen Probes Science Gateway and Space Weather Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, G.; Barnes, R. J.; Weiss, M.; Fox, N. J.; Mauk, B.; Potter, M.; Kessel, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Van Allen Probes Science Gateway acts as a centralized interface to the instrument Science Operation Centers (SOCs), provides mission planning tools, and hosts a number of science related activities such as the mission bibliography. Most importantly, the Gateway acts as the primary site for processing and delivering the VAP Space Weather data to users. Over the past year, the web-site has been completely redesigned with the focus on easier navigation and improvements of the existing tools such as the orbit plotter, position calculator and magnetic footprint tool. In addition, a new data plotting facility has been added. Based on HTML5, which allows users to interactively plot Van Allen Probes summary and space weather data. The user can tailor the tool to display exactly the plot they wish to see and then share this with other users via either a URL or by QR code. Various types of plots can be created, including simple time series, data plotted as a function of orbital location, and time versus L-Shell. We discuss the new Van Allen Probes Science Gateway and the Space Weather Data Pipeline.

  12. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, R. L.; Fox, N. J.; Weiss, M.

    2013-11-01

    Following the launch and commissioning of NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) in 2012, space weather data will be generated and broadcast from the spacecraft in near real-time. The RBSP mission targets one part of the space weather chain: the very high energy electrons and ions magnetically trapped within Earth's radiation belts. The understanding gained by RBSP will enable us to better predict the response of the radiation belts to solar storms in the future, and thereby protect space assets in the near-Earth environment. This chapter details the presently planned RBSP capabilities for generating and broadcasting near real-time space weather data, discusses the data products, the ground stations collecting the data, and the users/models that will incorporate the data into test-beds for radiation belt nowcasting and forecasting.

  13. Voyager at Neptune: 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Voyager mission has taken advantage of a rare planetary alignment that occurs at intervals of about 175 years and affords an extraordinary opportunity: a grand tour by a single spacecraft of the outer planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Voyager 2 will fly past Nepture and its large moon Triton on August 24, 1989. The discovery of Neptune, along with its current history is discussed. The imaging challenges, tracking and data acquisition, and the Voyager spacecraft are explained. Data will be gathered on the ring arcs of Neptune, the atmosphere and surface of Neptune, Triton, and Nereid (the smaller moon).

  14. Pu-powered space probes face uncertain future

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    When fragments of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 crashed into the gas clouds of Jupiter in July, the only representatives of humankind with a good view were a trio of spacecraft, Voyager 2, Galileo, and Ulysses. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) supplied by the Department of Energy provided the power to run the observing instruments on these spacecraft, but now that source of power-and all deep-space missions-may be in jeopardy. Despite the fact that the recently passed congressional appropriations bill increased funding for the RTG program by nearly 20 percent, from $51 million in 1994 to $61 million in 1995, rumors persist that the program is in danger of being discontinued. Peter Ulrich, chief of the Flight Programs Branch of the Solar System Exploration Division of the Office of Space Science at NASA, was confident that the program would stay alive through NASA`s next mission. RTGs will be on board the Cassini spacecraft scheduled to blast off in 1997 for an exploration of Saturn and its rings and moons. RTG`s use the heat produced by the alpha decay of plutonium-238 to heat a thermocouple, which generates electricity. Cassini is designed to carry three RTGs, producing a total of 750 W of electricity initially, decreasing to about 600 W by the time it reaches Saturn seven years after launch. The RTGs on Cassini will carry a total of about 70 lb of plutonium oxide. RTGs have no moving parts. They are simple, rugged, and reliable. According to Ulrich, {open_quotes}It`s really a very well-matched power source for something like a remote mission.{close_quotes} The political situation is less clear, though. {open_quotes}What I hear unofficially is funding looks dime,{close_quotes} said the DOE spokesperson, {open_quotes}and the lights are being turned off for these missions.{close_quotes} If that happens, the lights will go out on NASA`s deep-space missions to other parts of our solar system.

  15. Voyager 1 Image of Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Voyager 1 took this picture of Ganymede from a distance of 1.6 million miles. Ganymede is Jupiter's largest satellite with a radius of approximately 2600 kilometers, about 1.5 times that of Earth's Moon. Ganymede is the seventh and largest of Jupiter's known satellites and is the third of the Galilean moons. Discovered in 1610 by Galileo and Marius, Ganymede is the largest satellite in the Solar System. It was named after the Greek mythical character, Ganymede, a handsome Trojan boy that Zeus took to Olympus to be a cupbearer for the gods (one of the only humans in Greek mythology who became immortal). Ganymede is larger than Mercury but has only half Mercury's mass. It has a bulk density of only two grams per cubic centimeter, almost half that of Earth's Moon. Ganymede is most likely composed of a mixture of rock and ice. The long white filaments resemble rays associated with impacts on the lunar surface. The various colors of different regions probably represent differing surface materials. Several dots of a single color (blue, green, and orange) on the picture are the result of markings on the camera used for pointing determinations and are not physical markings. Voyager scientists discovered that Ganymede has its own magnetosphere embedded inside Jupiter's large one. JPL manages and controls the Voyager Project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  16. Voyager 1 View of Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Voyager 1 took this picture of Callisto during Voyager's approach to Jupiter's outer large satellite in 1979. Both Galileo and Marius discovered Callisto in 1610. In Greek mythology, Callisto was a nymph loved by Zeus and thus hated by Hera. Hera turned her into a bear, which Zeus placed in the heavens as the constellation Ursa Major. Voyager was 350,000 kilometers from Callisto and took this picture that shows features about seven kilometers wide across the surface. Callisto is a little smaller than Ganymede (Callisto is about the size of Mercury) and it seems that it is composed of a mixture of ice and rock (about 40 percent ice and 60 percent rock and iron). The darker color of Callisto (about half as reflective as Ganymede but still twice as bright as the Moon) implies that the upper surface is 'dirty ice' or water- rich rock frozen on Callisto's cold surface (approximately -243 Fahrenheit degrees at the equator). Callisto's atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide. Far more craters appear on the surface of Callisto than on the surface of Ganymede, leading scientists to believe that Callisto is the oldest of the Galilean satellites. Callisto could date back as far as four billion years ago and has remained relatively unchanged in the history of space.

  17. Voyages to Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.

    1982-01-01

    The Voyager mission to Saturn is explained in detail. A history of Saturn observations from ancient times to the present is given. The Voyager spacecraft and their instruments are described. An overview of planetary astronomy is presented. The text is supplemented by numerous black and white and color photographs. The Saturn satellites are discussed in detail, and preliminary pictorial maps of the satellites are given.

  18. Future exploration of the asteroids. [by space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.; Niehoff, J.

    1979-01-01

    Future possibilities for the further study of the asteroids are reviewed, with particular attention paid to space missions for their direct exploration. The role of traditional ground-based and earth orbiting techniques is examined briefly, and it is concluded that although astronomical techniques are presently at their peak, and despite the opportunities provided by the Infrared Astronomical satellite, the Space Telescope and Spacelab Infrared Telescope Facility, the next major step will require direct exploration by space probes to obtain information on asteroid surface chemistry, geology and bulk properties. Various mission modes and propulsion systems for a first multi-target asteroid mission are discussed, including flyby, rendezvous, landing and sample return, and ion-drive propulsion systems. Science payloads for a basic rendezvous mission are considered, and target selection for multi-asteroid flyby tours and rendezvous tours is discussed. Consideration is also given to sample return missions for the evaluation of the asteroid as potential resources.

  19. Voyager: Neptune Encounter Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Voyager encounter data are presented in computer animation (CA) and real (R) animation. The highlights include a view of 2 full rotations of Neptune. It shows spacecraft trajectory 'diving' over Neptune and intercepting Triton's orbit, depicting radiation and occulation zones. Also shown are a renegade orbit of Triton and Voyager's encounter with Neptune's Magnetopause. A model of the spacecraft's complex maneuvers during close encounters of Neptune and Triton is presented. A view from Earth of Neptune's occulation experiment is is shown as well as a recreation of Voyager's final pass. There is detail of Voyager's Image Compensation technique which produces Voyager images. Eighteen images were produced on June 22 - 23, 1989, from 57 million miles away. A 68 day sequence which provides a stroboscopic view - colorization approximates what is seen by the human eye. Real time images recorded live from Voyager on 8/24/89 are presented. Photoclinometry produced the topography of Triton. Three images are used to create a sequence of Neptune's rings. The globe of Neptune and 2 views of the south pole are shown as well as Neptune rotating. The rotation of a scooter is frozen in images showing differential motion. There is a view of rotation of the Great Dark Spot about its own axis. Photoclinometry provides a 3-dimensional perspective using a color mosaic of Triton images. The globe is used to indicate the orientation of Neptune's crescent. The east and west plumes on Triton are shown.

  20. Welded Titanium Case for Space-Probe Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brothers, A. J.; Boundy, R. A.; Martens, H. E.; Jaffe, L. D.

    1959-01-01

    The high strength-to-weight ratio of titanium alloys suggests their use for solid-propellant rocket-motor cases for high-performance orbiting or space-probe vehicles. The paper describes the fabrication of a 6-in.-diam., 0.025-in.-wall rocket-motor from the 6A1-4V titanium alloy. The rocket-motor case, used in the fourth stage of a successful JPL-NASA lunar-probe flight, was constructed using a design previously proven satisfactory for Type 410 stainless steel. The nature and scope of the problems peculiar to the use of the titanium alloy, which effected an average weight saving of 34%, are described.

  1. Stochastic voyages into uncharted chemical space produce a representative library of all possible drug-like compounds

    PubMed Central

    Virshup, Aaron M.; Contreras-García, Julia; Wipf, Peter; Yang, Weitao; Beratan, David N.

    2013-01-01

    The “small molecule universe” (SMU), the set of all synthetically feasible organic molecules of 500 Daltons molecular weight or less, is estimated to contain over 1060 structures, making exhaustive searches for structures of interest impractical. Here, we describe the construction of a “representative universal library” spanning the SMU that samples the full extent of feasible small molecule chemistries. This library was generated using the newly developed Algorithm for Chemical Space Exploration with Stochastic Search (ACSESS). ACSESS makes two important contributions to chemical space exploration: it allows the systematic search of the unexplored regions of the small molecule universe, and it facilitates the mining of chemical libraries that do not yet exist, providing a near-infinite source of diverse novel compounds. PMID:23548177

  2. Calibration of optical components for the DS-1 space probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zito, Richard R.

    1997-09-01

    The deep space one (DS-1) probe is a mini-tour photo reconnaissance mission of Earth-Mars space. Target bodies include an asteroid, a comet, and the planet Mars. Central to this mission is an accurate measurement of the reflectance of the primary mirror of the imaging system. Knowledge of this reflectance will allow calculation of the absolute albedos of the target bodies encountered. Scattering measurements were also made on the so-called 'diffuser plate' of the optical train. This component was intended to be used only for the solar occultation experiment which measures the solar intensity as a function of atmospheric depth as Mars comes between the Sun and the probes optical detectors. The diffuser plate was designed to reduce the solar intensity by scattering light in an isotropic fashion. However, it has been found that the diffuser plate is not an isotropic scatterer. This report describes the equipment used to make the reflectance and scattering measurements, as well as the results obtained from the measurement program.

  3. IEC Thrusters for Space Probe Applications and Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu; Wu, Linchun; Reilly, Michael P.; Teofilo, Vince L.; Burton, Rodney; Dell, Richard; Dell, Dick; Hargus, William A.

    2009-03-01

    Earlier conceptual design studies (Bussard, 1990; Miley et al., 1998; Burton et al., 2003) have described Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion propulsion to provide a high-power density fusion propulsion system capable of aggressive deep space missions. However, this requires large multi-GW thrusters and a long term development program. As a first step towards this goal, a progression of near-term IEC thrusters, stating with a 1-10 kWe electrically-driven IEC jet thruster for satellites are considered here. The initial electrically-powered unit uses a novel multi-jet plasma thruster based on spherical IEC technology with electrical input power from a solar panel. In this spherical configuration, Xe ions are generated and accelerated towards the center of double concentric spherical grids. An electrostatic potential well structure is created in the central region, providing ion trapping. Several enlarged grid opening extract intense quasi-neutral plasma jets. A variable specific impulse in the range of 1000-4000 seconds is achieved by adjusting the grid potential. This design provides high maneuverability for satellite and small space probe operations. The multiple jets, combined with gimbaled auxiliary equipment, provide precision changes in thrust direction. The IEC electrical efficiency can match or exceed efficiencies of conventional Hall Current Thrusters (HCTs) while offering advantages such as reduced grid erosion (long life time), reduced propellant leakage losses (reduced fuel storage), and a very high power-to-weight ratio. The unit is ideally suited for probing missions. The primary propulsive jet enables delicate maneuvering close to an object. Then simply opening a second jet offset 180 degrees from the propulsion one provides a "plasma analytic probe" for interrogation of the object.

  4. Has Voyager 1 left the heliosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-11-01

    In the past few years, scientists have vigorously debated the location of the Voyager 1 spacecraft: Has it left the Sun's vast heliosphere and reached interstellar space? Although the spacecraft has detected fewer and fewer accelerated particles, Gloeckler and Fisk note that magnetic field readings suggest it remains within the heliopause—a region that separates the heliosphere from the interstellar medium.

  5. Voyager electronic parts radiation program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Price, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    The Voyager spacecraft is subject to radiation from external natural space, from radioisotope thermoelectric generators and heater units, and from the internal environment where penetrating electrons generate surface ionization effects in semiconductor devices. Methods for radiation hardening and tests for radiation sensitivity are described. Results of characterization testing and sample screening of over 200 semiconductor devices in a radiation environment are summarized.

  6. Voyager Saturn encounter press briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The briefing reviewed the mission planning of the Voyager project. The near encounter trajectories of both Voyager spacecraft were examined. The Saturn system is discussed with particular emphasis on Saturn's moons.

  7. The third Chinese space science research mission in recent five years - Space Dust and Space Electromagnetic Background Probing Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yunlong; Cai, Jinrong; Du, Heng

    2001-10-01

    China has a development plan, which includes some projects in Space Science Research in recent five years. The Space Dust and Space Electromagnetic Background Probing is the third of them. In this project, Chinese scientists have reviewed the scientific objectives and the purpose of the spacecraft's and the payloads' concept designs, and will begin to manufacture the spacecraft soon. The main idea of the project is introduced in this paper. The background of space debris and space electromagnetic is focused among the Chinese scientists. Although China has built some ground-based observation capabilities, and has set-up some modelling to research and predict the space debris, like the same as the space electromagnetic, space-based observations are needed.

  8. Electric Field Double Probe Measurements for Ionospheric Space Plasma Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.

    1999-01-01

    Double probes represent a well-proven technique for gathering high quality DC and AC electric field measurements in a variety of space plasma regimes including the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and mesosphere. Such experiments have been successfully flown on a variety of spacecraft including sounding rockets and satellites. Typical instrument designs involve a series of trades, depending on the science objectives, type of platform (e.g., spinning or 3-axis stabilized), expected plasma regime where the measurements will be made, available telemetry, budget, etc. In general, ionospheric DC electric field instruments that achieve accuracies of 0.1 mV/m or better, place spherical sensors at large distances (10m or more) from the spacecraft body in order to extend well beyond the spacecraft wake and sheath and to achieve large signal-to-noise ratios for DC and long wavelength measurements. Additional sets of sensors inboard of the primary, outermost sensors provide useful additional information, both for diagnostics of the plasma contact potentials, which particularly enhance the DC electric field measurements on non-spinning spacecraft, and for wavelength and phase velocity measurements that use the spaced receiver or "interferometer" technique. Accurate attitude knowledge enables B times V contributions to be subtracted from the measured potentials, and permits the measured components to be rotated into meaningful geophysical reference frames. We review the measurement technique for both DC and wave electric field measurements in the ionosphere discussing recent advances involving high resolution burst memories, multiple baseline double probes, new sensor surface materials, biasing techniques, and other considerations.

  9. Voyager Outreach Compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This NASA JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) video presents a collection of the best videos that have been published of the Voyager mission. Computer animation/simulations comprise the largest portion of the video and include outer planetary magnetic fields, outer planetary lunar surfaces, and the Voyager spacecraft trajectory. Voyager visited the four outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The video contains some live shots of Jupiter (actual), the Earth's moon (from orbit), Saturn (actual), Neptune (actual) and Uranus (actual), but is mainly comprised of computer animations of these planets and their moons. Some of the individual short videos that are compiled are entitled: The Solar System; Voyage to the Outer Planets; A Tour of the Solar System; and the Neptune Encounter. Computerized simulations of Viewing Neptune from Triton, Diving over Neptune to Meet Triton, and Catching Triton in its Retrograde Orbit are included. Several animations of Neptune's atmosphere, rotation and weather features as well as significant discussion of the planet's natural satellites are also presented.

  10. VOYAGER OBSERVATIONS OF THE DIFFUSE FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, Jayant; Henry, Richard Conn; Holberg, Jay B.

    2012-03-01

    The two Voyager spacecraft have completed their planetary exploration mission and are now probing the outer realms of the heliosphere. The Voyager ultraviolet spectrometers continued to operate well after the Voyager 2 Neptune encounter in 1989. We present a complete database of diffuse radiation observations made by both Voyagers: a total of 1943 spectra (500-1600 A) scattered throughout the sky. These include observations of dust-scattered starlight, emission lines from the hot interstellar medium, and a number of locations where no diffuse radiation was detected, with the very low upper limit of about 25 photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} A{sup -1}. Many of these observations were from late in the mission when there was significantly less contribution from interplanetary emission lines and thus less contamination of the interstellar signal.

  11. Probing critical surfaces in momentum space using real-space entanglement entropy: Bose versus Fermi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hsin-Hua; Yang, Kun

    2016-03-01

    A codimension-one critical surface in momentum space can be either a familiar Fermi surface, which separates occupied states from empty ones in the noninteracting fermion case, or a novel Bose surface, where gapless bosonic excitations are anchored. The presence of such surfaces gives rise to logarithmic violation of entanglement entropy area law. When they are convex, we show that the shape of these critical surfaces can be determined by inspecting the leading logarithmic term of real-space entanglement entropy. The fundamental difference between a Fermi surface and a Bose surface is revealed by the fact that the logarithmic terms in entanglement entropies differ by a factor of 2: SlogBose=2 SlogFermi , even when they have identical geometry. Our method has remarkable similarity with determining Fermi surface shape using quantum oscillation. We also discuss possible probes of concave critical surfaces in momentum space.

  12. Triton - Voyager's finale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The investigation of the Neptunian satellite Triton by the Voyager 2 is described with interpretations of the object's nature and composition. The orbit, seasonal cycle, and southern-hemisphere solstice are described, and the composition of the satellite is discussed. Triton's mass and radius are known, and the objects is made up of about 70 percent rock and organics and 30 percent ice by mass. Triton's interior is warm and geologically active considering its distance from the sun, and large amounts of frozen methane and nitrogen are theorized to contribute to the object's high reflectivity. Also noted in the Voyager color images are creeping ice, cryogenic lava, and dark streaks on the south polar cap from nitrogen gas leaks driven by a type of greenhouse effect. Triton represents a class of satellite that has not been observed previously: a moon-sized body in a retrograde inclined orbit from the class of objects that coalesced to form Neptune.

  13. Voyager mission telecommunication firsts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posner, Edward C.; Madsen, Boyd D.; Rauch, Lawrence L.

    1990-09-01

    The communications breakthroughs achieved during the NASA Voyager mission are discussed. The dual-spacecraft mission to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and their moons and rings was launched in 1977 and completed interplanetary phase some 12 years later with the Voyager 2 Neptune encounter in August 1989. The radio telemetry, coding, and navigation equipment of the spacecraft are examined in detail. Firsts achieved in the radio science area are also discussed. These include the fact that it was the first mission specifically designed to obtain radio-science data. It had very exacting requirements for radio system stability, both at S- and X-bands, and for frequency and timing system stability, both flight and ground.

  14. Voyager mission telecommunication firsts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, Edward C.; Madsen, Boyd D.; Rauch, Lawrence L.

    1990-01-01

    The communications breakthroughs achieved during the NASA Voyager mission are discussed. The dual-spacecraft mission to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and their moons and rings was launched in 1977 and completed interplanetary phase some 12 years later with the Voyager 2 Neptune encounter in August 1989. The radio telemetry, coding, and navigation equipment of the spacecraft are examined in detail. Firsts achieved in the radio science area are also discussed. These include the fact that it was the first mission specifically designed to obtain radio-science data. It had very exacting requirements for radio system stability, both at S- and X-bands, and for frequency and timing system stability, both flight and ground.

  15. Voyages Through the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, Andrew; Morrison, David; Wolff, Sidney

    Written in friendly, accessible language, the Voyages books feature down-to-earth analogies, superb full-color diagrams and images, and even occasional touches of humor. This is a book people all around the country are turning to with pleasure. The book integrates recent results into the full story of astronomy. Authors include an award-winning astronomy educator and two distinguished research scientists.

  16. 46 CFR 185.503 - Voyage plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Voyage plan. 185.503 Section 185.503 Shipping COAST...) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.503 Voyage plan. (a) The master of the following vessels shall prepare a voyage plan: (1) A vessel making an oceans or coastwise voyage; (2) A vessel making a voyage...

  17. Aspects of Voyager photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sherman S. C.; Schafer, Francis J.; Jordan, Raymond; Howington, Annie-Elpis

    1987-01-01

    In January 1986, Voyager 2 took a series of pictures of Uranus and its satellites with the Imaging Science System (ISS) on board the spacecraft. Based on six stereo images from the ISS narrow-angle camera, a topographic map was compiled of the Southern Hemisphere of Miranda, one of Uranus' moons. Assuming a spherical figure, a 20-km surface relief is shown on the map. With three additional images from the ISS wide-angle camera, a control network of Miranda's Southern Hemisphere was established by analytical photogrammetry, producing 88 ground points for the control of multiple-model compilation on the AS-11AM analytical stereoplotter. Digital terrain data from the topographic map of Miranda have also been produced. By combining these data and the image data from the Voyager 2 mission, perspective views or even a movie of the mapped area can be made. The application of these newly developed techniques to Voyager 1 imagery, which includes a few overlapping pictures of Io and Ganymede, permits the compilation of contour maps or topographic profiles of these bodies on the analytical stereoplotters.

  18. Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  19. `Voyager': an educational card game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David Ryan

    2003-01-01

    `Voyager' is an educational card game involving scientific satellites, developed for use in schools with children aged 9 to 13 years. The idea of the game is to improve pupils' knowledge about the large number of scientific satellites there are in space in a fun way, while also practising numeracy skills. Several copies of the game were produced using funding obtained from the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) as a Public Understanding of Science (PUS) award. These initial `trial' versions of the game were taken to three different schools where feedback obtained from both pupils and staff was used to produce a final copy of the game that can be distributed to other schools along with a set of companion notes to form the basis of a science lesson. This article reports the findings of the school trials and indicates possible future developments of other scientific card games that could be beneficial to the classroom.

  20. The Voyager Cosmic Ray Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, D. E.; Davis, W. D.; Joyce, R. M.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Trainor, J. H.; Althouse, W. E.; Cummings, A. C.; Garrard, T. L.; Stone, E. C.; Vogt, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The Voyager Cosmic Ray Experiment includes seven dE/dx-E telescopes to measure the energy and charge of particles with atomic numbers from 1 to 26 in the energy range 1-500 MeV/nucleon and to measure electron energy in the range from 3 to 110 MeV. Isotopic composition of hydrogen through sulfur in the range up to 75 Mev/nucleon can also be resolved. The electronic systems include a dual-gain, charge sensitive preamplifier, 4096-channel pulse height analyzers for three parameter analysis of selected events, and an event type readout polling scheme to maximize the use of available telemetry space and to enhance the occurrence of rare events in the data. Details of the detector, electronic and mechanical design are presented.

  1. Planning the Voyager spacecraft's mission to Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plagemann, Stephen H.

    1987-01-01

    The application of the systems engineering process to the planning of the Voyager spacecraft mission is described. The Mission Planning Office prepared guidelines that controlled the use of the project and multimission resources and spacecraft consumables in order to obtain valuable scientific data at an acceptable risk level. Examples of mission planning which are concerned with the design of the Deep Space Network antenna, the uplink window for transmitting computer command subsystem loads, and the contingency and risk assessment functions are presented.

  2. Current collection by probes and electrodes in space magnetoplasmas - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laframboise, J. G.; Sonmor, L. J.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of predicting current collection by probes in space magnetoplasmas is addressed. Collisionless steady state theories are considered for the case of a spherical probe in a collisionless plasma containing a uniform magnetic field. The combined effects of space charge and collisions in space magnetoplasmas are examined, as are the effects of plasma turbulence. Particle trapping and the 'toroidal glow' region, the breakdown of magnetic insulation, and phenomena around large orbiting objects at high voltages are also discussed.

  3. Voyager 1 examines Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the Voyager mission to Jupiter, Saturn, and possibly Uranus is presented. Scientific instruments onboard the spacecraft are described as well as methods used for their calibration and evaluation during the cruise phase of the mission. Experiments to be performed cover the following areas: imaging science, radio science, cosmic rays, ultraviolet spectroscopy, photopolarimetry, planetary radio astronomy, magnetic fields, low-energy charged particles, plasma science, and infrared radiometry and spectroscopy. A list of the satellites of Jupiter and their diameters, distances, and periods is included.

  4. Erratum: Voyager Color Photometry of Saturn's Main Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estrada, Paul R.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Showalter, Mark R.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We correct a calibration error in our earlier analysis of Voyager color observations of Saturn's main rings at 14 deg phase angle and present thoroughly revised and reanalyzed radial profiles of the brightness of the main rings in Voyager G, V, and UV filters, and ratios of these brightnesses. These results are consistent with more recent HST results at 6 deg phase angle, once allowance is made for plausible phase reddening of the rings. Unfortunately, the Voyager camera calibration factors are simply not sufficiently well known for a combination of the Voyager and HST data to be used to constrain the phase reddening quantitatively. However, some interesting radial variations in reddening between 6-14 deg phase angles are hinted at. We update a ring-and-satellite color vs. albedo plot from Cuzzi and Estrada in several ways. The A and B rings are still found to be in a significantly redder part of color-albedo space than Saturn's icy satellites.

  5. Voyager 1: Encounter with Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the Voyager is presented along with samples of the nearly 19,000 photographs returned by Voyager 1 spacecraft at the midpoint of its 38-month mission to Jupiter and Saturn. Particular emphasis is given to color photographs of the Great Red Spot, and the surface features of the Gallilean satellites.

  6. Deep Space Network capabilities for receiving weak probe signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmar, Sami; Johnston, Doug; Preston, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This paper will describe the capability and highlight the cases of the critical communications for the Mars rovers and Saturn Orbit Insertion and preparation radio tracking of the Huygens probe at (non-DSN) radio telescopes.

  7. Voyager photometry of Io

    SciTech Connect

    Simonelli, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed disk-integrated and disk-resolved photometric studies of the Jovian moon Io were carried out using Voyager images. Disk-integrated properties derived from the Voyager data, such as phase curves, rotation curves, geometric albedos, phase integrals, and the Bond albedo, are generally consistent with earth-based estimates. Near-opposition limb-darkening behavior, as parameterized by the Minnaert photometric function, has been accurately measured for regions on the surface of Io in three distinct color classes: Bright (white), Average (orange), and Polar (brown). The limb-darkening results allow derivation of accurate near-opposition disk-resolved phase curves, revealing substantial differences in opposition surge among the color classes. Modeling of the phase curves using the Hapke photometric function supports the contention that the uppermost layer of the Ionian surface is on average extremely porous, and suggests that this layer is substantially more porous in Average and Polar areas than in the Bright regions, a difference consistent with models of Io's surface layer. Combination of limb-darkening and phase information leads to determination of accurate normal reflectance spectra for the color classes; careful comparison with laboratory data supports earlier claims that the spectra of Ionian materials can be explained by mixtures of sulfur and SO/sub 2/ frost, although this is not a unique diagnostic identification.

  8. Probing Critical Surfaces in Momentum Space Using Real-Space Entanglement Entropy: Bose versus Fermi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun; Lai, Hsin-Hua

    A co-dimension one critical surface in the momentum space can be either a familiar Fermi surface, which separates occupied states from empty ones in the non-interacting fermion case, or a novel Bose surface, where gapless bosonic excitations are anchored. Their presence gives rise to logarithmic violation of entanglement entropy area law. When they are convex, we show that the shape of these critical surfaces can be determined by inspecting the leading logarithmic term of real space entanglement entropy. The fundamental difference between a Fermi surface and a Bose surface is revealed by the fact that the logarithmic terms in entanglement entropies differ by a factor of two: SlogBose = 2SlogFermi , even when they have identical geometry. Our method has remarkable similarity with determining Fermi surface shape using quantum oscillation. We also discuss possible probes of concave critical surfaces in momentum space. HHL and KY acknowledge the National Science Foundation through Grants No. DMR-1004545, DMR-1157490, No. DMR-1442366, and State of Florida. HHL is also partially supported by NSF Grant No. DMR-1309531, and the Smalley Postdoctoral Fellowship in Quantum Ma.

  9. Positioning Reduction of Deep Space Probes Based on VLBI Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, S. B.

    2011-11-01

    In the background of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Project and the Yinghuo Project, through theoretical analysis, algorithm study, software development, data simulation, real data processing and so on, the positioning reductions of the European lunar satellite Smart-1 and Mars Express (MEX) satellite, as well as the Chinese Chang'e-1 (CE-1) and Chang'e-2 (CE-2) satellites are accomplished by using VLBI and USB tracking data in this dissertation. The progress is made in various aspects including the development of theoretical model, the construction of observation equation, the analysis of the condition of normal equation, the selection and determination of the constraint, the analysis of data simulation, the detection of outliers in observations, the maintenance of the stability of the solution of parameters, the development of the practical software system, the processing of the real tracking data and so on. The details of the research progress in this dissertation are written as follows: (1) The algorithm is analyzed concerning the positioning reduction of the deep spacecraft based on VLBI tracking data. Through data simulation, it is analyzed for the effects of the bias in predicted orbit, the white noises and systematic errors in VLBI delays, and USB ranges on the positioning reduction of spacecraft. Results show that it is preferable to suppress the dispersion of positioning data points by applying the constraint of geocentric distance of spacecraft when there are only VLBI tracking data. The positioning solution is a biased estimate via observations of three VLBI stations. For the case of four tracking stations, the uncertainty of the constraint should be in accordance with the bias in the predicted orbit. White noises in delays and ranges mainly result in dispersion of the sequence of positioning data points. If there is the systematic error of observations, the systematic offset of the positioning results is caused, and there are trend jumps in the shape of asymptotic line in the sequence of positioning points. When VLBI stations changed from three to four or vice versa, trend jumps could sometimes exist in the sequence of positioning points. The analysis could be as a reference to the follow-on Chinese Lunar Exploration Project and Yinghuo Project in the positioning reduction of spacecraft. (2) The tracking data of the MEX satellite by the Chinese VLBI Network (CVN) on 2007 May 30 are processed. The results show that using the delays in precision of nanoseconds in the satellite positioning reduction is more effective than the delay rates in precision of picoseconds per second, and the contribution of the delay rates to the positioning is very limited. If the delays and their rates are jointly used in the positioning reduction, the correction to the adopted velocity should also be solved simultaneously with the position parameters. Otherwise the error in the priori velocity would directly influence the positioning precision. In order to improve the positioning precision of Martian satellite, it is very necessary for CVN to actively practice differential VLBI, same beam VLBI and so on. Then the systematic errors and the noise level of observations are further reduced. (3) Through positioning reduction, the trajectory monitoring of pivotal arcs of the CE-1 satellite is accomplished, including the arcs of maneuvers in the approaching stage, lunar capturing stage, circumlunar stage and the stage of controlled landing on the Moon. Especially, based on the tracking observations of radio ranges and VLBI delays of the CE-1 satellite during the controlled landing on the Moon on 2009 March 1, the landing trajectory, the epoch of the landing, and the coordinates of the landing point are determined by positioning reduction. The three-dimensional positioning uncertainty is about 0.55 km. The trace determination of the rover on the lunar surface is made as planned in the follow-on Chinese lunar exploration project. To apply the constraint of geocentric distance is shown to be helpful to improve the positioning precision. It is worthy of paying close attention to the applications of the same beam VLBI technique, the digital lunar topographic model, and the detector-board observations between the lander and rover to the position/trace determination of the rover. (4) The trajectory evolution of the CE-2 satellite is precisely monitored in a realtime mode during pivotal arcs such as the maneuvers in the lunar approaching stage, near the perilune, in the adjustment of the circumlunar orbit, and in the experiment of the circumlunar orbit shift. Via positioning reduction, the successful capture of the CE-2 satellite by the Moon is quickly and accurately identified and concluded, and the precise monitoring of the 15 km orbit above the lunar surface is successfully realized. These laid the methods and software infrastructure, and accumulated practical experience in engineering and technology for the smooth and successful implementation of tasks in the follow-on Chinese lunar exploration projects. As shown in the following aspects, the researches in this dissertation are urgently expected to be improved and supplemented. (1) Do some further simulations on the check of software and algorithm as well as some extra comparisons with associated software (Geodyn, OCCAM, Calc/Solve) in order to disclose and improve shortcomings and limitations of the current software system. (2) Develop software modules for the correction of various observational errors related to the transmission medium, quasi-clock bias and gravitational retardation, in particular, the correction of the quasi-clock uncertainty based on observations of extragalactic radio sources with known coordinates, for the enhancement of the systematicness and integrity of the current software. (3) Improve the function of the existing software on the reduction of observations of differential, phase referencing and same beam VLBI with simulation and real data tests. (4) Investigate the application of Kalman filter to the positioning reduction of deep space probes and develop related software systems. In summary, the progress in this dissertation is made in the positioning reduction of deep space probes tracked by VLBI concerning the algorithm study, software development, real observation processing and so on, while a further study is still urgent and arduous.

  10. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... voyage No. 1 having the prefixed designation NSA and followed by the General Agents' abbreviated designation and voyage number, as NSA-1/ABC-1. (b) The continuity of NSA voyage numbers shall not change with... General Agent shall affix his abbreviated designation and initial voyage numbers, as NSA-13/XYZ-1....

  11. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... voyage No. 1 having the prefixed designation NSA and followed by the General Agents' abbreviated designation and voyage number, as NSA-1/ABC-1. (b) The continuity of NSA voyage numbers shall not change with... General Agent shall affix his abbreviated designation and initial voyage numbers, as NSA-13/XYZ-1....

  12. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... voyage No. 1 having the prefixed designation NSA and followed by the General Agents' abbreviated designation and voyage number, as NSA-1/ABC-1. (b) The continuity of NSA voyage numbers shall not change with... General Agent shall affix his abbreviated designation and initial voyage numbers, as NSA-13/XYZ-1....

  13. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... voyage No. 1 having the prefixed designation NSA and followed by the General Agents' abbreviated designation and voyage number, as NSA-1/ABC-1. (b) The continuity of NSA voyage numbers shall not change with... General Agent shall affix his abbreviated designation and initial voyage numbers, as NSA-13/XYZ-1....

  14. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... voyage No. 1 having the prefixed designation NSA and followed by the General Agents' abbreviated designation and voyage number, as NSA-1/ABC-1. (b) The continuity of NSA voyage numbers shall not change with... General Agent shall affix his abbreviated designation and initial voyage numbers, as NSA-13/XYZ-1....

  15. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Voyage commencements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Voyage commencements. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 3 Voyage commencements. (a) All voyages shall commence at 0001 hours of the date on which any of the following...

  16. 46 CFR Sec. 4 - Voyage terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Voyage terminations. Sec. 4 Section 4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 4 Voyage terminations. (a) All voyages shall terminate at a continental United States port at 2400 hours of the date...

  17. 46 CFR Sec. 4 - Voyage terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Voyage terminations. Sec. 4 Section 4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 4 Voyage terminations. (a) All voyages shall terminate at a continental United States port at 2400 hours of the date...

  18. 46 CFR Sec. 4 - Voyage terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Voyage terminations. Sec. 4 Section 4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 4 Voyage terminations. (a) All voyages shall terminate at a continental United States port at 2400 hours of the date...

  19. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Voyage commencements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Voyage commencements. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 3 Voyage commencements. (a) All voyages shall commence at 0001 hours of the date on which any of the following...

  20. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Voyage commencements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Voyage commencements. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 3 Voyage commencements. (a) All voyages shall commence at 0001 hours of the date on which any of the following...

  1. 46 CFR Sec. 4 - Voyage terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Voyage terminations. Sec. 4 Section 4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 4 Voyage terminations. (a) All voyages shall terminate at a continental United States port at 2400 hours of the date...

  2. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Voyage commencements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Voyage commencements. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 3 Voyage commencements. (a) All voyages shall commence at 0001 hours of the date on which any of the following...

  3. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Voyage commencements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Voyage commencements. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 3 Voyage commencements. (a) All voyages shall commence at 0001 hours of the date on which any of the following...

  4. 46 CFR Sec. 4 - Voyage terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Voyage terminations. Sec. 4 Section 4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 4 Voyage terminations. (a) All voyages shall terminate at a continental United States port at 2400 hours of the date...

  5. Amalthea - Voyager imaging results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.; Thomas, P.; Davies, M.; Morrison, D.

    1981-01-01

    Voyager images of Amalthea are presented, which reveal an irregular satellite in synchronous rotation relative to Jupiter with dimensions of 270 x 165 x 150 km. The surface appears scarred by large craters and sharp ridges to indicate a history of cosmic battering. Amalthea'a normal surface reflectance is 5-6% with a very red color and a mean opposition angle magnitude of +14. The phase coefficient between phase angles of 0.8 and 42 deg of 0.042 + or - 0.004 mag/deg indicates that the phase integral does not exceed 0.3 and the Bond Albedo is less than 0.02. Several prominent bright spots of 10-50 km across occur on local slopes and ridges, have albedos several times higher than the background, and have a greenish color where the spectrum bends down beyond 0.56 microns.

  6. Amalthea. [Voyager observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.

    1982-01-01

    Voyager images have revealed Amalthea to be an irregular object 270 x 165 x 150 km in size. The spin period is probably synchronous with the orbital period of 11.9 hr, with the long axis pointing toward Jupiter. The satellite's surface is heavily scarred by impact craters, the largest of which has a diameter of 90 km (comparable to the mean radius of the satellite). Amalthea is very dark (reflectance about 5-6%) and very red, but isolated bright spots (reflectance up to 20%) occur. The spectrum of these bright spots is less red and may show an absorption feature near 0.6 micron. It is likely that the surface of Amalthea has been severely altered by its environment and by contamination from Io (especially by sulfur). It may, therefore, be very difficult to obtain definitive information on the composition of the intrinsic Amalthea material from remote sensing measurements.

  7. Jupiter and the Voyager mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1980-01-01

    In 1977, the United States launched two unmanned Voyager spacecraft that were to take part in an extensive reconnaissance of the outer planets over a 12-year period visiting the environs of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Their first encounter was with the complex Jupiter planetary system 400 million miles away. Sweeping by Jupiter and its five moons in 1979, the two spacecraft have sent back to Earth an enormous amount of data that will prove to be vital in understanding our solar system. Voyager 1 is scheduled to fly past Saturn on November 13 of this year; Voyager 2, in August of the following year. 

  8. Voyager to the Seventh Planet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Michael

    1986-01-01

    Presents recent findings obtained by the Voyager 2 mission on Uranus. Updates information on the planet's moons, rings, atmosphere, and magnetic field. Illustrations and diagrams of selected aspects of Uranus are included. (ML)

  9. Voyager Encounters Saturn: Scientific Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Observations generated by Voyager 1's encounter with Saturn are disclosed. Atmospheric conditions, the rings, new moons and the five inner moons are described. Titan, Hyperion and Iapetus are discussed in detail, as is Saturn's magnetosphere.

  10. Planetary radio astronomy from Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    The technique of radio astronomy makes it possible for a remote observer to detect the presence of magnetic fields and plasmas in planetary environments. Prior to the flights of the Voyager spacecraft, radio astronomical studies of Jupiter from earth and from earth orbit had correctly predicted the strength and orientation of Jupiter's magnetic field and trapped radiation belts. The Voyager Planetary Radio Astronomy investigations have now provided measurements of the complete spectrum of low frequency radio emissions from both planets. Each Voyager instrument consists of a pair of orthogonal, 10-m, electric monopole antennas which are connected to a step-tuned, superheterodyne receiver operating over the frequency range from 1.2 kHz to 40.5 MHz. The Voyager trajectory provided observations from above both the sunlit and nightside hemispheres of Jupiter. Saturn's nonthermal radio emission has been observed at frequencies as low as 3 kHz and as high as 1.2 MHz.

  11. The Voyager 2 Neptune encounter

    SciTech Connect

    Tsurutani, B.T. )

    1989-10-01

    The findings made by the Voyager 2 Neptune encounter are reviewed. Data on the bowshock, magnetic field, magnetosphere, rings, plasma sheet, aurora, moons, and dust of Neptune are discussed. Findings made concerning Triton are summarized.

  12. Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and the curvature of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Kirchner, Ulrich; Ellis, George F. R.

    2003-10-01

    Inter alia, the high-precision Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data on cosmic background radiation marginally indicate that the Universe has positively curved (and hence spherical) spatial sections. In this Letter, we take this data seriously and consider some of the consequences for the background dynamics. In particular, we show that this implies a limit to the number of e-foldings that could have taken place in the inflationary epoch; however, this limit is consistent with some inflationary models that solve all the usual cosmological problems and that are consistent with standard structure formation theory.

  13. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  14. Probing chemical space with alkaloid-inspired libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Michael C.; Singh, Gurpreet; Plampin, James N.; Rane, Digamber; Wang, Jenna L.; Day, Victor W.; Aubé, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    Screening of small-molecule libraries is an important aspect of probe and drug discovery science. Numerous authors have suggested that bioactive natural products are attractive starting points for such libraries because of their structural complexity and sp3-rich character. Here, we describe the construction of a screening library based on representative members of four families of biologically active alkaloids (Stemonaceae, the structurally related cyclindricine and lepadiformine families, lupin and Amaryllidaceae). In each case, scaffolds were based on structures of the naturally occurring compounds or a close derivative. Scaffold preparation was pursued following the development of appropriate enabling chemical methods. Diversification provided 686 new compounds suitable for screening. The libraries thus prepared had structural characteristics, including sp3 content, comparable to a basis set of representative natural products and were highly rule-of-five compliant.

  15. Probing Planckian physics in de Sitter space with quantum correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jun; Zhang, Yao-Zhong; Gould, Mark D.; Fan, Heng; Sun, Cheng-Yi; Yang, Wen-Li

    2014-12-15

    We study the quantum correlation and quantum communication channel of both free scalar and fermionic fields in de Sitter space, while the Planckian modification presented by the choice of a particular α-vacuum has been considered. We show the occurrence of degradation of quantum entanglement between field modes for an inertial observer in curved space, due to the radiation associated with its cosmological horizon. Comparing with standard Bunch–Davies choice, the possible Planckian physics causes some extra decrement on the quantum correlation, which may provide the means to detect quantum gravitational effects via quantum information methodology in future. Beyond single-mode approximation, we construct proper Unruh modes admitting general α-vacua, and find a convergent feature of both bosonic and fermionic entanglements. In particular, we show that the convergent points of fermionic entanglement negativity are dependent on the choice of α. Moreover, an one-to-one correspondence between convergent points H{sub c} of negativity and zeros of quantum capacity of quantum channels in de Sitter space has been proved. - Highlights: • Quantum correlation and quantum channel in de Sitter space are studied. • Gibbons–Hawking effect causes entanglement degradation for static observer. • Planckian physics causes extra decrement on quantum correlation. • Convergent feature of negativity relies on the choice of alpha-vacua. • Link between negativity convergence and quantum channel capacity is given.

  16. Enabling interstellar probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Ralph L.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; International Interstellar Probe Team

    2011-04-01

    The scientific community has advocated a scientific probe to the interstellar medium for over 30 years. While the Voyager spacecraft have passed through the termination shock of the solar wind, they have limited lifetimes as their radioisotope power supplies decay. It remains unclear whether they can reach the heliopause, the boundary between shocked solar wind and interstellar plasmas, and, in any case, they will not reach the undisturbed interstellar medium. As with most exploratory space missions, their ongoing observations continue to raise even more questions about the nature of the interaction of our heliosphere and the interstellar medium. Scientific questions including: What is the nature of the nearby interstellar medium? How do the Sun and galaxy affect the dynamics of the heliosphere? What is the structure of the heliosphere? How did matter in the solar system and interstellar medium originate and evolve? can only be answered by an "interstellar precursor" probe. Such a mission is required to make in situ measurements in the interaction region and interstellar medium itself at distances far from the Sun, but in a finite mission lifetime. By launching a probe toward the incoming "interstellar wind," whose direction is known, the distance to be traveled can be minimized but is still large. The current consensus is that a scientifically compelling mission must function to at least a distance of 200 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun and return a reasonable stream of data during the voyage. The central problem is that of providing a means of propulsion to accelerate a probe from the Solar System. Even with a low-mass payload and spacecraft, achieving the high speeds needed, even with gravity assists, have remained problematic. Voyager 1, the fastest object ever to leave the system is now traveling ˜3.6 AU/yr, and a credible probe must reach at least 2-3 times this speed. The use of an Ares V is an approach for enabling a fast interstellar precursor mission. Maximum capability uses the combination of an Ares V, two-engine Centaur upper stage, close fly-by of Jupiter, and radioisotope electric propulsion (REP). Deletion of any of these pieces does not disable the mission, but does increase the flyout time to a given distance. This approach is more robust and provides a faster probe than an earlier alternative, designed for launch by a Delta IV 4050H plus twin Star 48A upper stages.

  17. The Future of NASA's Deep Space Network and Applications to Planetary Probe Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Leslie J.; Preston, Robert A.; Vrotsos, Peter

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) has been an invaluable tool in the world's exploration of space. It has served the space-faring community for more than 45 years. The DSN has provided a primary communication pathway for planetary probes, either through direct- to-Earth links or through intermediate radio relays. In addition, its radiometric systems are critical to probe navigation and delivery to target. Finally, the radio link can also be used for direct scientific measurement of the target body ('radio science'). This paper will examine the special challenges in supporting planetary probe missions, the future evolution of the DSN and related spacecraft technology, the advantages and disadvantages of radio relay spacecraft, and the use of the DSN radio links for navigation and scientific measurements.

  18. Space Weather data processing and Science Gateway for the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, G.; Barnes, R. J.; Weiss, M.; Fox, N. J.; Mauk, B.; Potter, M.; Kessel, R.

    2013-12-01

    A near real-time data processing pipeline for the Space Weather broadcast data from the Van Allen Probes is presented. The Van Allen Probes broadcasts a sub-set of the science data in real-time when not downlinking the principal science data. This broadcast is received by several ground stations and relayed to APL in near real time to be ingested into the space weather processing pipeline. This pipeline processes the available level zero space weather data into higher level science data products. These products are made available to the public via the Van Allen Probes Science Gateway website (http://athena.jhuapl.edu). The website acts as pivotal point though which all other instrument SOC's can be accessed. Several other data products (e.g KP/DST indices) and tools (e.g orbit calculator) are made also available to the general public.

  19. Probing the shape of atoms in real space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herz, M.; Giessibl, F. J.; Mannhart, J.

    2003-07-01

    The structure of single atoms in real space is investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy. Very high resolution can be obtained by a dramatic reduction of the tip-sample distance. The instabilities which are normally encountered while using small tip-sample distances are avoided by oscillating the tip of the scanning tunneling microscope vertically with respect to the sample. The surface atoms of Si(111)-(7×7) with their well-known electronic configuration are used to image individual samarium, cobalt, iron, and silicon atoms. The resulting images resemble the charge density corresponding to 4f, 3d, and 3p atomic orbitals.

  20. Space probe/satellite ejection apparatus for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyly, H. M.; Miller, C. D.; Cloyd, R. A.; Heller, C. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An ejection apparatus for spinning and propelling objects for ejection from a spacecraft at a desired velocity and rotational speed is discussed. The apparatus includes a launch cradle on which the space object to be ejected rests. The cradle is rotatably supported by a central hub secured to the upper end of the pneumatic cylinder piston shaft. Release mechanisms consisting of a retractable pin and locking lug is utilized to hold the cradle and object to be ejected. The release mechanism has a fixed barrier member which holds the retractable pin in engagement with the locking lug until release by upward movement of the launch cradle beyond the barrier height.

  1. Astrometric Gravitation Probe: a space mission concept for fundamental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchiato, Alberto; Fienga, Agnes; Gai, Mario; Lattanzi, Mario G.; Riva, Alberto; Busonero, Deborah

    2015-08-01

    Modern technological developments have pushed the accuracy of astrometric measurements in the visible band down to the micro-arcsec level. This allows to test theories of gravity in the weak field limit to unprecedented level, with possible consequences spanning from the validity of fundamental physics principles, to tests of theories describing cosmological and galactic dynamics without resorting to Dark Matter and Dark Energy.This is the main goal of Astrometric Gravitation Probe (AGP) mission, which will be achieved by highly accurate astrometric determination of light deflection (as a modern rendition of the Dyson, Eddington, and Robertson eclipse experiment of 1919), aberration, and of the orbits of selected Solar System objects, with specific reference to the excess shift of the pericentre effect.The AGP concept was recently proposed for the recent call for ESA M4 missions as a collaboration among several scientists coming from many different European and US institutions. Its payload is based on a 1.15 m diameter telescope fed through a coronagraphic system by four fields, two set in symmetric positions around the Sun, and two in the opposite direction, all imaged on a CCD detector. Large parts of the instrument are common mode to all fields. The baseline operation mode is the scan of the ±1.13 deg Ecliptic strip, repeated for a minimum of 3 years and up to an optimal duration of 5 years. Operations and calibrations are simultaneous, defined in order to ensure common mode instrumental effects, identified and removed in data reduction. The astrometric and coronagraphic technologies build on the heritage of Gaia and Solar Orbiter.We review the mission concept and its science case, and discuss how this measurement concepts can be scaled to different mission implementations.

  2. Welded Titanium Case for Space-Probe Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brothers, A. J.; Boundy, R. A.; Martens, H. E.; Jaffe, L. D.

    1959-01-01

    Early in 1958, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology was requested to participate in a lunar-probe mission code-named Juno II which would place a 15-lb Instrumented payload (Pioneer IV) in the vicinity of the moon. The vehicle was to use the same high-speed upper-stage assembly as flown on the successful Jupiter-C configuration; however, the first-stage booster was to be a Jupiter rather than a Redstone. An analysis of the intended flight and payload configuration Indicated that the feasibility of accomplishing the mission was questionable and that additional performance would have to be obtained if the mission was to be feasible. Since the most efficient way of Increasing the performance of a staged vehicle is to increase the performance of the last stage, a study of possible ways of doing this was made.. Because of the time schedule placed on this effort It was decided to reduce the weight of the fourth-stage rocket-motor case by substituting the annealed 6Al--4V titanium alloy for the Type 410 stainless steel. Although this introduced an unfamiliar material, It reduced the changes in design and fabrication techniques. This particular titanium alloy was chosen on the basis of previous tests which proved the suitability of the alloy as a pressure-vessel material when used at an annealed yield strength of about 120, 000 psi. The titanium-case fourth stage of Juno U is shown with the payload and on the missile in Fig. 1; the stainless-steel motor cases used in the Jupiter-C vehicle are shown in Fig. 2. The fourth-stage motor case has a diameter of 6 in., a length of approximately 38 in. center dot and a nominal cylindrical wall thickness of 0.025 in. As shown in Fig. 1, the case serves as the structural support of the payload and is aligned to the upper stage assembly through an alignment ring. The nozzle is threaded into the end of the motor case, and is of the ceramic-coated steel design. Figure 3 shows a comparison of the components used to make the stainless steel and the 6A1--4V titanium alloy cases. The forward dome and aft fitting for the stainless steel assembly were fabricated from a combination of forged, spun and machined parts.. In order to facilitate the fabrication of the titanium alloy motor ) these components were machined from a large-diameter billet.

  3. 46 CFR 80.15 - Ocean voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean voyage. 80.15 Section 80.15 Shipping COAST GUARD... REGISTRY § 80.15 Ocean voyage. An ocean voyage for the purposes of this part means: A voyage on any body of water seaward of the low water mark such as an ocean or arm thereof, other major bodies of water such...

  4. 46 CFR 80.15 - Ocean voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean voyage. 80.15 Section 80.15 Shipping COAST GUARD... REGISTRY § 80.15 Ocean voyage. An ocean voyage for the purposes of this part means: A voyage on any body of water seaward of the low water mark such as an ocean or arm thereof, other major bodies of water such...

  5. 46 CFR 80.15 - Ocean voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean voyage. 80.15 Section 80.15 Shipping COAST GUARD... REGISTRY § 80.15 Ocean voyage. An ocean voyage for the purposes of this part means: A voyage on any body of water seaward of the low water mark such as an ocean or arm thereof, other major bodies of water such...

  6. 46 CFR 80.15 - Ocean voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean voyage. 80.15 Section 80.15 Shipping COAST GUARD... REGISTRY § 80.15 Ocean voyage. An ocean voyage for the purposes of this part means: A voyage on any body of water seaward of the low water mark such as an ocean or arm thereof, other major bodies of water such...

  7. Means to remove electrode contamination effect of Langmuir probe measurement in space

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, K.-I.; Lee, C. H.; Fang, H. K.; Cheng, C. Z.

    2012-05-15

    Precaution to remove the serious effect of electrode contamination in Langmuir probe experiments has not been taken in many space measurements because the effect is either not understood or ignored. We stress here that one should pay extra attention to the electrode contamination effect to get accurate and reliable plasma measurements so that the long time effort for sounding rocket/satellite missions does not end in vain or becomes less fruitful. In this paper, we describe two main features of voltage-current characteristic curves associated with the contaminated Langmuir probe, which are predicted from the equivalent circuit model, which we proposed in 1970's. We then show that fast sweeping dc Langmuir probes can give reliable results in the steady state regime. The fast sweeping probe can also give reliable results in transient situations such as satellite moves through plasma bubble in the ionosphere where the electron density drastically changes. This fact was first confirmed in our laboratory experiment.

  8. Jupiter - First stop on Voyager's grand tour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, David

    1989-01-01

    The findings concerning Jupiter that were made by the Voyager missions are briefly reviewed. The ring and three new moons around Jupiter, the live volcanoes on Io, and atmospheric phenomena on Jupiter which were observed by Voyager 1 are described. The discoveries regarding Callisto and Europa made by Voyager 2 are briefly summarized.

  9. Launch summary for 1978 - 1982. [sounding rockets, space probes, and satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hills, H. K.

    1984-01-01

    Data pertinent to the launching of space probes, soundings rockets, and satellites presented in tables include launch date, time, and site; agency rocket identification; sponsoring country or countries; instruments carried for experiments; the peak altitude achieved by the rockets; and the apoapsis and periapsis for satellites. The experimenter or institution involved in the launching is also cited.

  10. Voyager to Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Voyager mission to explore planets of the outer solar system is summarized. The mission schedule and profiles for encounters with Jupiter and Saturn, and possibly with Uranus and Pluto are included along with a description of the spacecraft and its trajectories. Scientific investigations to be made and the instruments carried are also discussed.

  11. Technology Brings Voyagers into Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inn, Kristina; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Three articles focus on many classroom activities and experiments inspired by the voyage of two canoes, built of traditional materials, from Hawaii's Hilo Harbor in 1995. Nationwide, students followed daily satellite tracking, accessed the Internet for updated accounts of the canoes, talked directly with navigators, and watched television…

  12. And Then There Was Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's legendary grand tour of the outer solar system from the mission conception in the early 1970's is described. The search for the heliopause is discussed. This presentation is told in the words of the key members of the Voyager team.

  13. The Voyage of the MIMI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Sam; Hooper, Kristina

    1986-01-01

    The Voyage of MIMI is a major educational project housed at Bank Street College (New York) which is directed toward the development of extensive television, computer software, videodisc, and print materials for use in science and mathematics education in grades 5-7. The first series has been completed, and includes a 13-part dramatic television…

  14. Technology Brings Voyagers into Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inn, Kristina; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Three articles focus on many classroom activities and experiments inspired by the voyage of two canoes, built of traditional materials, from Hawaii's Hilo Harbor in 1995. Nationwide, students followed daily satellite tracking, accessed the Internet for updated accounts of the canoes, talked directly with navigators, and watched television

  15. The Voyage of the MIMI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Sam; Hooper, Kristina

    1986-01-01

    The Voyage of MIMI is a major educational project housed at Bank Street College (New York) which is directed toward the development of extensive television, computer software, videodisc, and print materials for use in science and mathematics education in grades 5-7. The first series has been completed, and includes a 13-part dramatic television

  16. Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siddiqi, Asif A.; Launius, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This monograph contains brief descriptions of all robotic deep space missions attempted since the opening of the space age in 1957. The missions are listed strictly chronologically in order of launch date (not by planetary encounter).

  17. VLA telemetry performance with concatenated coding for Voyager at Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinar, S. J., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Current plans for supporting the Voyager encounter at Neptune include the arraying of the Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas at Goldstone, California, with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico. Not designed as a communications antenna, the VLA signal transmission facility suffers a disadvantage in that the received signal is subjected to a gap or blackout period of approximately 1.6 msec once every 5/96 sec control cycle. Previous analyses showed that the VLA data gaps could cause disastrous performance degradation in a VLA stand-alone system and modest degradation when the VLA is arrayed equally with Goldstone. New analysis indicates that the earlier predictions for concatenated code performance were overly pessimistic for most combinations of system parameters, including those of Voyager-VLA. The periodicity of the VLA gap cycle tends to guarantee that all Reed-Solomon codewords will receive an average share of erroneous symbols from the gaps. However, large deterministic fluctuations in the number of gapped symbols from codeword to codeword may occur for certain combinations of code parameters, gap cycle parameters, and data rates. Several mechanisms for causing these fluctuations are identified and analyzed. Even though graceful degradation is predicted for the Voyager-VLA parameters, catastrophic degradation greater than 2 dB can occur for a VLA stand-alone system at certain non-Voyager data rates inside the range of the actual Voyager rates. Thus, it is imperative that all of the Voyager-VLA parameters be very accurately known and precisely controlled.

  18. The RF Probe: providing space situational awareness through broad-spectrum detection and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenick, Raymond; Kohlhepp, Kimberly; Partch, Russell

    2004-09-01

    AeroAstro's patented RF Probe is a system designed to address the needs of spacecraft developers and operators interested in measuring and analyzing near-field RF emissions emanating from a nearby spacecraft of interest. The RF Probe consists of an intelligent spectrum analyzer with digital signal processing capabilities combined with a calibrated, wide-bandwidth antenna and RF front end that covers the 50 kHz to 18 GHz spectrum. It is capable of acquiring signal level and signal vector information, classifying signals, assessing the quality of a satellite"s transponders, and characterizing near-field electromagnetic emissions. The RF Probe is intended for either incorporation as part of a suite of spacecraft sensors, or as a stand-alone sensor on spacecraft or other platforms such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The RF Probe was initially conceived as a tool to detect and aid in diagnosis of malfunctions in a spacecraft of interest. However, the utility of the RF Probe goes far beyond this initial concept, spanning a wide range of military applications. Most importantly, the RF Probe can provide space situational awareness for critical on-orbit assets by detecting externally induced RF fields, aiding in protection against potentially devastating attacks.

  19. An Intergalactic Voyage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wethered, Peggy Ann

    1997-01-01

    Describes an event called Star Week that involved families joining in their children's projects, attending an educational presentation by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and participating in a schoolwide star party. Contains resources for both students and teachers. (JRH)

  20. The Deep Space Network. An instrument for radio navigation of deep space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.; Jordan, J. F.; Berman, A. L.; Wackley, J. A.; Yunck, T. P.

    1982-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) network configurations used to generate the navigation observables and the basic process of deep space spacecraft navigation, from data generation through flight path determination and correction are described. Special emphasis is placed on the DSN Systems which generate the navigation data: the DSN Tracking and VLBI Systems. In addition, auxiliary navigational support functions are described.

  1. Engineering challenges of in-flight spacecraft - Voyager: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. P.

    1985-01-01

    Some of the engineering problems encountered during the post-launch phase of interplanetary space missions are described, with emphasis given to the Voyager missions. The major in-flight modifications in Voyager spacecraft's operational capability with respect to communications, payload, and navigation systems are discussed. Attention is given to the instances of 'failure workaround' including: recovery from a failed receiver, recovery from a seized scan platform actuator, and modifications to the Attitude Articulation and Control Subsystem (AACS) software during the Saturn encounter. A detailed line drawing of the Voyager spacecraft is provided.

  2. The Voyager program at APL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauk, Barry H.; Keath, Edwin P.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented of the structure and function of the Applied Physics Laboratory's low-energy charged particle (LECP) instrument used in NASA's Voyager program. The LECP experiment was designed to measure the intensity, energy spectra, composition, angular distributions, and spatial and temporal characteristics of ions and electrons that are encountered by the spacecraft. Scientific findings of previous planetary encounters are noted, and color energy-time spectrograms that summarize the LECP results at each planet are presented and analyzed. Some details of the encounter by Voyager 2 of Neptune are provided, noting that the characteristics of the trajectory that was used provided for close observation of Triton, observations of particle structures, and exploration of Neptune's polar cap. A schematic of Neptune's magnetosphere is provided and analyzed.

  3. Physical limitations in sensors for a drag-free deep space probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juillerat, R.

    1971-01-01

    The inner perturbing forces acting on sensors were analyzed, taking into account the technological limitations imposed on the proof mass position pickup and proof mass acquisition system. The resulting perturbing accelerations are evaluated as a function of the drag-free sensor parameters. Perturbations included gravitational attraction, electrical action, magnetic action, pressure effects, radiation effects, and action of the position pickup. These data can be used to study the laws of guidance, providing an optimization of the space probe as a whole.

  4. Take a Voyage of Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2008-01-01

    On December 27, 1831, the "H.M.S. Beagle" left Plymouth Harbor for a round-the-world voyage. On board was would-be botanist Charles Darwin, the best tour guide biology has ever known. In 2009, we will celebrate Darwin's 200th birthday and the 150th anniversary of "The Origin of Species" publication. What better way to prepare for this celebration…

  5. Voyager 1: Encounter with Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panagakos, N.

    1980-01-01

    The history of the Voyager Project is reviewed as well as known facts about Saturn and its satellites. Important results of encounters with Jupiter are summarized. Scientific objectives of the flyby of Saturn involve the planet's atmosphere, rings, and magnetic field interactions with the solar wind and satellites. The search for additional satellites, and various aspects of Titan, Rhea, Dione, Mimas, Iapetus, Hyperion, and Enceladas are also of interest. The instruments developed to obtain these goals are described.

  6. Voyager: The grandest tour. The mission to the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A history and general accomplishments of the Voyager 1 and 2 missions to the outer planets are presented. Over the course of 12 years, these spacecraft drew back the curtain on nearly half the solar system. They brought into sharp focus the faces of the four giant outer planets - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune - and their families of disparate moons. The Voyagers showed us unimagined worlds: frozen beauty in the rings of Saturn, and molten violence in the explosive sulfur volcanoes on Jupiter's moon Io. They brought us close-ups of the florid and intricate storms of Jupiter itself. Voyager 2 went on to reveal the peculiarities of cockeyed Uranus and its equally skewed rings and moons. Then finally, Neptune, nearly invisible from earth, was unveiled in all its big, blue splendor, circled by shadowy rings and a bright pastel moon called Triton. Both Voyagers are headed toward the outer boundary of the solar system in search of the heliopause, the region where the sun's influence wanes and the beginning of interstellar space can be sensed.

  7. VOYAGER 1 NEAR THE HELIOPAUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Borovikov, S. N.; Pogorelov, N. V.

    2014-03-01

    Recent observations from the Voyager 1 spacecraft show that it is sampling the local interstellar medium (LISM). This is quite surprising because no realistic, steady-state model of the solar wind (SW) interaction with the LISM gives an inner heliosheath width as narrow as ∼30 AU. This includes models that assume a strong redistribution of the ion energy to the tails in the pickup ion distribution function. We show that the heliopause (HP), which separates the SW from the LISM, is not a smooth tangential discontinuity, but rather a surface subject to Rayleigh-Taylor-type instabilities which can result in LISM material penetration deep inside the SW. We also show that the HP flanks are always subject to a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The instabilities are considerably suppressed near the HP nose by the heliospheric magnetic field in steady-state models, but reveal themselves in the presence of solar cycle effects. We argue that Voyager 1 may be in one such instability region and is therefore observing plasma densities much higher than those in the pristine SW. These results may explain the early penetration of Voyager 1 into the LISM. They also show that there is a possibility that the spacecraft may start sampling the SW again before it finally leaves the heliosphere.

  8. New developments at Hunveyor and Husar space probe model constructions in Hungarian Universities and Colleges: status report of 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegzi, S.; Bérczi, Sz.; Hudoba, Gy.; Magyar, I.; Lang, A.; Istenes, Z.; Weidinger, T.; Tepliczky, I.; Varga, T.; Hargitai, H.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction Hunveyor and Husar space probe models are the main school robotics program in Hungary in the last decade initiated by our Cosmic Materials Space research Group (CMSRG). As a new form of planetary science education in Hungary students build their lander and rover robots and test them on test tables, carry out simulations, and go with their instruments to field works of planetary geology analog sites. Recently 10 groups work in this program and here is a status report about the new results. Planetary robot construction and simulations steps We summarized in 10 steps the main "constructional and industrial research and technology" description of planetary material studying and collecting by space probes (landers, rovers). We focused on the activity we began and teach to carry out at those steps. (Main planets considered were the Moon and Mars): 1. Reconnaissance and survey of the surface of a planet by orbital space probes (i.e. Lunar Orbiter, MGS, MRO etc.) Our studies: photogeology, geomorphology, preparations to cartography. 2. Mapping of the surface of the selected planet with geographical and stratigraphical methods. We (CMSRG) prepared thematic maps on Moon, Mercury, Mars, Venus [1] and Atlas (3) in the series [2,3]. 3. Identification of various surface materials by albedo, spectroscopic [4], thermal IR, identification and selection of the target sites. (in terrestrial analog sites during field works) 4. Planning the space probe system lander and rover working together (MPF-Sojourner type assembly). Planning of the Hunveyor and Husar models. 5. Construction and manufacturing lander and rover units. All Hunveyor groups built their models [5]. 6. Launching and traveling the space probes to the planetary surface. (No rocket building, we simulate [6] some events during the voyage only). 7. Measuring the planetary surface environment on the surface of target planet [7]. (CMSRG) groups carry out test-table measurements [8] and simulations, and later they go to geological type planetary analog field works in terrestrial conditions [9]. 8. Transmitting data. At CMSRG groups at field observations to the "terrestrial control" receives data. 9. Studies on planetary material samples. We can study real NASA Lunar Sample, real Hungarian and NIPR meteorite samples. 10. Comparative planetology. CMSRG's outreach studies are summarized in the Concise atlas series notebooks. Husar-2 rover developments The Husar-2 developments of the Pécs University were focused on a rover type to use it in the MDRS program. After systematic developments of Husars from LEGO Husar till the Husar-2a, -2b, -2c variants the final version Husar-2d visited the MDRS crew 71. in Utah, USA in 2008. Two years ago H. Hargitai used Husar-2b in Utah, in the works of the MRDS crew 42. where dry badlands surface forms are excellent analogs to Martian landscape. Hunveyor-4 ice surface visitor The new developments in Hunveyor-4 focused on the winter Balaton surface measurements. The triangular arrangement for the measuring arrangement of the three sound frequency range sensors with a hanged on hydrophone was planned [7]. Husar-5 developments The Husar-5 developments focused on LEGO modelling, and one measurement is for soil vibrations, the other is for the conductivity of the soil. It is in construction at Széchenyi István High School, Sopron. Husar-6 developments The Husar-6 is another LEGO based modelling, built at Zsigmondy Vilmos High School, Dorog. Hunveyor-9 and Husar-9 It is one of the newest construction at the Eötvös József High School in Tata. The Hunveyor-9 have been built with camera and a telescopic arm instrumentation, and a magnetic carpet experiment. Magnetic carpet is a sensor of the magnetic components of a planetary dust mixture transported by the wind. The mixing ratio of the magnetic and nonmagnetic components were measured with various slope angles of the carpet unrolled from Hunveyor-9. Hunveyor-10 The Neumann János Computer Science Society developed the last Hunveyor system. It was a meteorological station with 14 measurements. It represents a halfway Hunveyor, because of the building together of the instruments can be studied in this system. It was transported by the Crew 71 to the MDRS and two weeks of measurements were carried out in Utah, during 2008 April (with Husar-2d field work, too). Summary Several new developments of the Hunveyor-Husar university robot system were shown to mark the intensity of interest of students to the preparations to the field work research in planetary geology by building robotics and use them in field works. References: [1] Hargitai, H. (2004): 35th LPSC, #1078. LPI, Houston; [2] Bérczi, Sz.; Fabriczy, A.; Hargitai, H.; Hegyi, S.; Illés, E.; Kabai, S.; Kovács, Zs.; Kereszturi, A.; Opitz, A.; Sik, A.; 34th LPSC, #1305. LPI, Houston; [3] Bérczi Sz. Hargitai H., Kereszturi Á., Sik A. (2001, 2005): [4] Roskó, F.; Diósy, T.; Bérczi, Sz.; Fabriczy, A.; Cech, V.; Hegyi, S. (2000): 31st LPSC, #1572. LPI, Houston; [5] Bérczi Sz., Hegyi S., Kovács Zs., Fabriczy A., Földi T., Keresztesi M., Cech V., Drommer B., Gránicz K., Hevesi L., Borbola T., Tóth Sz., Németh I., Horváth Cs., Diósy T., Kovács B., Bordás F., Köllõ Z., Roskó F., Balogh Zs., Koris A., Imrek Gy. (2001, 2002): [6] Bérczi, Sz.; Diósy, T.; Tóth, Sz.; Hegyi, S.; Imrek, Gy.; Kovács, Zs.; Cech, V.; Müller-Bodó, E.; Roskó, F.; Szentpétery, L.; Hudoba, Gy. (2002): 33rd LPSC, #1496. LPI, Houston; [7] Hudoba, Gy.; Kovács, Zs. I.; Pintér, A.; Földi, T.; Hegyi, S.; Tóth, Sz.; Roskó, F.; Bérczi, Sz. (2004): 35th LPSC, #1572. LPI, Houston; [8] Gimesi, L.; Béres, Cs. Z.; Bérczi, Sz.; Hegyi, S.; Cech, V. (2004): 35th LPSC, #1140; [9] Hegyi, S.; Drommer, B.; Hegyi, A.; Biró, T.; Kókány, A.; Hudoba, Gy.; Bérczi, Sz. (2006): 37th LPSC, #1136. LPI, Houston; [10] Bérczi, Sz.; Gál-Sólymos, K.; Gucsik, A.; Hargitai, H.; Józsa, S.; Szakmány, Gy.; Kubovics, I.; Puskás, Z. (2006): 37th LPSC, #1298. LPI, Houston;

  9. The deep space network. [tracking and communication support for space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The objectives, functions, and organization of the deep space network are summarized. Progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations is reported. Interface support for the Mariner Venus Mercury 1973 flight and Pioneer 10 and 11 missions is included.

  10. Voyage of Discovery - Duration: 95 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    These animations show NASA's Voyager spacecraft encountering Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune on their grand tour through the solar system. The artist's renderings were made based on navigationa...

  11. Research of flexible beam impact dynamics based on space probe-cone docking mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang; Huang, Yiyong; Han, Wei; Chen, Xiaoqian

    2012-03-01

    The issue considered in this paper is the dynamic behavior of flexible probe based on space probe-cone docking mechanism in the docking process. The theoretical model of docking impact dynamics based on flexible beam is built according to the Lagrange Analytical Mechanics theory. The contact problem is solved by using Hertz point-surface contact model. Assumed Modes Method is introduced to describe the deformation of flexible beam. Runge-Kutta numerical method is used to solve this theoretical model. Results of the theoretical model show a good agreement with the experimental and MSC.Patran/Dytran simulation results. Moreover, the influence of flexible beam parameter on docking impact process is analyzed based on the theoretical model.

  12. Uruk Sulcus Mosaic - Galileo over Voyager Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A mosaic of four Galileo images of the Uruk Sulcus region on Ganymede (Latitude 11 N, Longitude: 170 W) is shown overlayed on the data obtained by the Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1979. North is to the top of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the lower left, nearly overhead. The area shown is about 120 by 110 kilometers (75 by 68 miles) in extent and the smallest features that can be discerned are 74 meters (243 feet) in size in the Galileo images and 1.3 kilometers (0.8 miles) in the Voyager data. The higher resolution Galileo images unveil the details of parallel ridges and troughs that are principal features in the brighter regions of Ganymede. High photometric activity (large light contrast at high spatial frequencies) of this ice-rich surface was such that the Galileo camera's hardware data compressor was pushed into truncating lines. The north-south running gap between the left and right halves of the mosaic is a result of line truncation from the normal 800 samples per line to about 540. The images were taken on 27 June, 1996 Universal Time at a range of 7,448 kilometers (4,628 miles) through the clear filter of the Galileo spacecraft's imaging system.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  13. Voyager 1 Saturn targeting strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cesarone, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A trajectory targeting strategy for the Voyager 1 Saturn encounter has been designed to accomodate predicted uncertainties in Titan's ephemeris while maximizing spacecraft safety and science return. The encounter is characterized by a close Titan flyby 18 hours prior to Saturn periapse. Retargeting of the nominal trajectory to account for late updates in Titan's estimated position can disperse the ascending node location, which is nominally situated at a radius of low expected particle density in Saturn's ring plane. The strategy utilizes a floating Titan impact vector magnitude to minimize this dispersion. Encounter trajectory characteristics and optimal tradeoffs are presented.

  14. Voyager at Neptune - A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, W.J. Illinois Univ., Urbana )

    1989-12-01

    Data obtained from the Voyager mission to Neptune are discussed. The atmosphere and magnetosphere of Neptune are described. Specific attention is given to Neptune's Great Dark Spot and its systems of thin, dark rings. The Voyager data regarding Neptune's satellites, in particular Triton and Nereid, are examined.

  15. Voyager Sails into Market for Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2006-01-01

    This article reports how the Voyager Universal Literacy core program, which is sailing successively into the market for reading programs, has been the target of several speculations over its secrets of success. Use of the Voyager Universal Literacy program has since spread to 1,000 districts throughout the country since its introduction into the…

  16. Voyager Sails into Market for Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2006-01-01

    This article reports how the Voyager Universal Literacy core program, which is sailing successively into the market for reading programs, has been the target of several speculations over its secrets of success. Use of the Voyager Universal Literacy program has since spread to 1,000 districts throughout the country since its introduction into the

  17. Voyager Briefing: Expectations of the Neptune Encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This NASA KSC video release presents a news briefing held Aug. 4, 1989 at NASA Headquarters three weeks after Voyager 2's official "encounter" with Neptune began. The video is comprised of two slide presentations followed by a short question and answer period. The press conference is moderated by Charles Redmond, (NASA Public Affairs), includes an introduction by Dr. Geoffrey A Briggs (Dir., Solar System Exploration Div.), and features Norman R. Haynes (Voyager Project Manager, JPL) and Dr. Edward C. Stone (Voyager Project Scientist, Cal Tech). Mr. Haynes' presentation centers on Voyager's history, engineering changes, and spacecraft trajectories while Dr. Stone presents the scientific aspects of Voyager, including the 11 scientific investigations planned for the mission, instruments used, and imaging techniques.

  18. Voyager II Encounter with Neptune: Voyager/Neptune Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The main focus of this lecture is to discuss the relative size of the planets, the formation of the solar system, details of atmospheric motion (atmospheric dynamics), the aspects of the magnetic fields, different ring systems, and the Triton satellite. The study evolves around the planets of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Their temperature and absorption properties of the ice are discussed. Two of the chemicals being absorbed by the ice are ammonia and methane. Also discussed are the belt and zonal circulation models, jet streams, plumes and clouds, magnetic fields, planetary rings, the pressure on Triton, the atmosphere of Titan, Callisto, Aria, Ganymede, Ariel, Miranda, Io, Europa, Amalthea, Rhea, Dione, Tethys, Enceladus, Mimas, Hyperion, Oberon, Titania, and Umbriel. The lecture also contained some computerized simulation and various images from Voyager.

  19. Van Allen Probes Mission Space Academy: Educating middle school students about Earth's mysterious radiation belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, L.; Turney, D.; Matiella Novak, A.; Smith, D.; Simon, M.

    2013-12-01

    How's the weather in space? Why on Earth did NASA send two satellites above Earth to study radiation belts and space weather? To learn the answer to questions about NASA's Van Allen Probes mission, 450 students and their teachers from Maryland middle schools attended Space Academy events highlighting the Van Allen Probes mission. Sponsored by the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and Discovery Education, the events are held at the APL campus in Laurel, MD. Space Academies take students and teachers on behind-the-scenes exploration of how spacecraft are built, what they are designed to study, and introduces them to the many professionals that work together to create some of NASA's most exciting projects. Moderated by a public relations representative in the format of an official NASA press conference, the daylong event includes a student press conference with students as reporters and mission experts as panelists. Lunch with mission team members gives students a chance to ask more questions. After lunch, students don souvenir clean room suits, enjoy interactive science demonstrations, and tour APL facilities where the Van Allen Probes were built and tested before launch. Students may even have an opportunity to peek inside a clean room to view spacecraft being assembled. Prior to the event, teachers are provided with classroom activities, lesson plans, and videos developed by APL and Discovery Education to help prepare students for the featured mission. The activities are aligned to National Science Education Standards and appropriate for use in the classroom. Following their visit, student journalists are encouraged to write a short article about their field trip; selections are posted on the Space Academy web site. Designed to engage, inspire, and influence attitudes about space science and STEM careers, Space Academies provide an opportunity to attract underserved populations and emphasize that space science is for everyone. Exposing students to a diverse group of scientists and engineers may alleviate some common stereotypes about these careers. When students engage with the scientists and engineers at APL, they see first-hand that successful science and engineering requires a diverse team with multi-disciplinary backgrounds. Activities throughout the day develop student understanding about science and technology, and address the fundamental concepts that fall under the National Science Education Content Standards. Students are immersed in a hands-on experience designed to facilitate understanding of the History and Nature of Science. Throughout the day students interact with people of diverse backgrounds and interests while hearing about the specific ways various individuals and teams of people contribute to the science and technology of the mission, addressing the concepts which fall under the headings of Science as a Human Endeavor, Nature of Science, and History of Science. Getting students outside the classroom to visit APL is an exclusive opportunity; evaluations have indicated that students became interested in learning more about space science and STEM careers after attending a Space Academy event.

  20. Space-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic measurements with an optical fiber probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Enbang; Qiu, Hialin

    2008-12-01

    By monitoring of the emitted signal from a sample while varying the excitation wavelength, emission wavelength or both of them, fluorescence spectroscopy has become a powerful diagnostic technology. Fluorescence spectrometers can be used to measure and record the fluorescence spectra of a given sample, and have been successfully applied in different areas including biology, biochemistry, chemistry, medicine, environmental science, material science, food industry, and pharmaceutical industry. In order to increase the flexibility and applicability of conventional fluorescence spectrometers, we design an optic fiber probe for conducting the UV/Vis excitation light to a sample under study, and for collecting the fluorescence produced by the sample. Different excitation/emission fiber bundle arrangements have been fabricated and their performances have been evaluated and compared. Fiber adaptors which can be used for different commercial fluorescence spectrometers are also developed. In order to achieve space-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic measurements, we connect the fiber probe to a microscope which is mounted on a 3D traverse stage. Experiments and measurement results using the space-resolved fiber optic fluorescence spectrometer are presented in this paper.

  1. In situ temperature measurements of reaction spaces under microwave irradiation using photoluminescent probes.

    PubMed

    Ano, Taishi; Kishimoto, Fuminao; Sasaki, Ryo; Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Maitani, Masato M; Suzuki, Eiichi; Wada, Yuji

    2016-05-11

    We demonstrate two novel methods for the measurement of the temperatures of reaction spaces locally heated by microwaves, which have been applied here to two example systems, i.e., BaTiO3 particles covered with a SiO2 shell (BaTiO3-SiO2) and layered tungstate particles. Photoluminescent (PL) probes showing the temperature-sensitivity in their PL lifetimes are located in the nanospaces of the above systems. In the case of BaTiO3-SiO2 core-shell particles, rhodamine B is loaded into the mesopores of the SiO2 shell covering the BaTiO3 core, which generates the heat through the dielectric loss of microwaves. The inner nanospace temperature of the SiO2 shell is determined to be 28 °C higher than the bulk temperature under microwave irradiation at 24 W. On the other hand, Eu(3+) is immobilized in the interlayer space of layered tungstate as the PL probe, showing that the nanospace temperature of the interlayer is only 4 °C higher than the bulk temperature. This method for temperature-measurement is powerful for controlling microwave heating and elucidates the ambiguous mechanisms of microwave special effects often observed in chemical reactions, contributing greatly to the practical application of microwaves in chemistry and materials sciences. PMID:27136754

  2. Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP) - Its Time Has Come!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, N.; Kasper, J. C.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Moebius, E.; Opher, M.; Spence, H. E.; Zurbuchen, T.

    2014-12-01

    Our piece of cosmic real-estate, the heliosphere, is the domain of all human existence -- an astrophysical case-history of the successful evolution of life in a habitable system. By exploring our global heliosphere and its myriad interactions, we develop key physical knowledge of the interstellar interactions that influence exoplanetary habitability as well as the distant history and destiny of our solar system and world. IBEX was the first mission to explore the global heliosphere and in concert with Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 is discovering a fundamentally new and uncharted physical domain of the outer heliosphere. The enigmatic IBEX ribbon is an unanticipated discovery demonstrating that much of what we know or think we understand about the outer heliosphere needs to be revised. The next quantum leap enabled by IMAP will open new windows on the frontier of Heliophysics at a time when the space environment is rapidly evolving. IMAP with 100 times the combined resolution and sensitivity of IBEX will discover the substructure of the IBEX ribbon and will reveal in unprecedented resolution global maps of our heliosphere. The remarkable synergy between IMAP, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 will remain for at least the next decade as Voyager 1 pushes further into the interstellar domain and Voyager 2 moves through the heliosheath. Voyager 2 moves outward in the vicinity of the IBEX ribbon and its plasma measurements will create singular opportunities for discovery in the context of IMAP's global measurements. IMAP, like ACE before it, will be a keystone of the Heliophysics System Observatory by providing comprehensive cosmic ray, energetic particle, pickup ion, suprathermal ion, neutral atom, solar wind, solar wind heavy ion, and magnetic field observations to diagnose the changing space environment and understand the fundamental origins of particle acceleration. Thus, IMAP is a mission whose time has come. IMAP is the highest ranked next Solar Terrestrial Probe in the Decadal Survey, is ready to be implemented and explores fundamental outstanding problems in Heliophysics concerning the outer boundaries of our solar system, the physics of interstellar interactions with the solar wind, the origin and physics of the IBEX ribbon, and the fundamental origins particle acceleration throughout the heliosphere.

  3. 46 CFR 42.05-45 - International voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false International voyage. 42.05-45 Section 42.05-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-45 International voyage. (a) The term international voyage as used in this part shall...

  4. Voyager 2 to make closest encounter with Saturn in August

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The planned Voyager 2 Saturn mission is described. Information about Saturn obtained from the Voyager 1 encounter is summarized. Data on the satellites and rings of Saturn are tabulated. The video programming schedule for the Voyager 2 Saturn encounter is given. The Voyager science team is listed.

  5. 46 CFR 42.05-45 - International voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International voyage. 42.05-45 Section 42.05-45 Shipping... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-45 International voyage. (a) The term international voyage as used in this part shall have the same meaning as the term international voyage in Article...

  6. Radio science experiment of Voyager-2 spacecraft occultation by Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, T.; Nishimura, T.; Takano, T.; Yamamoto, Z.; Yamada, M.; Shuto, K.; Saito, H.; Ichikawa, T.; Kawashima, N.; Mizuno, E.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-JPL and Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science collaborated at the Usuda Deep Space Center in the Voyager-2 Neptune occultation experiment. Phase information is extracted from the recorded data by means of a digital filter that can track the carrier frequency and narrow the filter bandwidth by up to 3 mHz. The results thus obtained can verify the phase-stability of the receiving system as a whole. Problems experienced by low-noise amplifiers were solved through the use of system redundancies.

  7. The Argonne Voyager multimedia server

    SciTech Connect

    Disz, T.; Judson, I.; Olson, R.; Stevens, R.

    1997-07-01

    With the growing presence of multimedia-enabled systems, one will see an integration of collaborative computing concepts into the everyday environments of future scientific and technical workplaces. Desktop teleconferencing is in common use today, while more complex desktop teleconferencing technology that relies on the availability of multipoint (greater than two nodes) enabled tools is now starting to become available on PCs. A critical problem when using these collaboration tools is the inability to easily archive multistream, multipoint meetings and make the content available to others. Ideally one would like the ability to capture, record, playback, index, annotate and distribute multimedia stream data as easily as one currently handles text or still image data. While the ultimate goal is still some years away, the Argonne Voyager project is aimed at exploring and developing media server technology needed to provide a flexible virtual multipoint recording/playback capability. In this article the authors describe the motivating requirements, architecture implementation, operation, performance, and related work.

  8. Voyager 1 Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows the portion of Jupiter around the Great Red Spot as it swirls through more than 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storm shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  9. Voyager 2 Jupiter Eruption Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie records an eruptive event in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter over a period of 8 Jupiter days. Prior to the event, an undistinguished oval cloud mass cruised through the turbulent atmosphere. The eruption occurs over avery short time at the very center of the cloud. The white eruptive material is swirled about by the internal wind patterns of the cloud. As a result of the eruption, the cloud then becomes a type of feature seen elsewhere on Jupiter known as 'spaghetti bowls'.

    As Voyager 2 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 8 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). These images were acquired in the Violet filter around May 6, 1979. The spacecraft was about 50 million kilometers from Jupiter at that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  10. Redshift-space distortions in deep redshift surveys as a probe of the invisible Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzo, Luigi; Le Fèvre, Olivier

    2010-06-01

    Massive redshift surveys of galaxies beyond the local Universe (i.e.z>0.3) provide an exhaustive probe of the observed acceleration of cosmic expansion. While they have the ability to measure the expansion history H(z) through Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations in the galaxy power spectrum, they can at the same time probe f(z) using the redshift-space distortions introduced in the observed clustering pattern by galaxy peculiar motions. Coupling these two measurements one can in principle distinguish whether cosmic acceleration is due to a new form of `dark energy' in the cosmic budget, or rather requires a modification of General Relativity. These two radically alternative scenarios are degenerate when considering H(z) alone, as yielded, e.g., by the Hubble diagram of Type Ia supernovae. We review our recent measurements of redshift distortions at z~ 1 based on the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey ``Wide'' data and discuss the revived interest on this technique in the context of dark energy. Current results are consistent with the simplest cosmological-constant scenario, but error bars are still too large to rule out alternative models. Forecasts based both on extensive simulations and Fisher-matrix computations, show that next-generation deep surveys optimizing the combination of large volumes and good galaxy sampling will be able to use redshift distortions as a key tool to understand the physical origin of cosmic acceleration. Among these, we introduce the newly started VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) at the ESO VLT, which is building at ~0.8 a sample comparable to current local redshift surveys (105 redshifts in a volume 5×107 h-1 Mpc3). Finally, we provide an example of the exquisite accuracy that could be reached on measurements of redshift-space distortions (among many others), with a massive 20,000 deg2 near-infrared spectroscopic survey from space, as foreseen by the EUCLID mission for the ESA `Cosmic Vision' program.

  11. Voyages Through Time: Everything Evolves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendleton, Y. J.; Tarter, J. C.; DeVore, E. K.; O'Sullivan, K. A.; Taylor, S. M.

    2001-12-01

    Evolutionary change is a powerful framework for studying our world and our place therein. It is a recurring theme in every realm of science: over time, the universe, the planet Earth, life, and human technologies all change, albeit on vastly different scales. Evolution offers scientific explanations for the age-old question, "Where did we come from?" In addition, historical perspectives of science show how our understanding has evolved over time. The complexities of all of these systems will never reveal a "finished" story. But it is a story of epic size, capable of inspiring awe and of expanding our sense of time and place, and eminently worthy of investigating. This story is the basis of Voyages Through Time. Voyages Through Time (VTT), provides teachers with not only background science content and pedagogy, but also with materials and resources for the teaching of evolution. The six modules, Cosmic Evolution, Planetary Evolution, Origin of Life, Evolution of Life, Hominid Evolution, and Evolution of Technology, emphasize student inquiry, and promote the nature of science, as recommended in the NSES and BSL. The modules are unified by the overarching theme of evolution and the meta questions: "What is changing?" "What is the rate of change?" and "What is the mechanism of change?" Determination of student outcomes for the project required effective collaboration of scientists, teachers, students and media specialists. The broadest curricula students outcomes are 1) an enjoyment of science, 2) an understanding of the nature of science, especially the understanding of evidence and re-evaluation, and 3) key science content. The curriculum is being developed by the SETI Institute, NASA Ames Research Center, California Academy of Sciences, and San Francisco State University, and is funded by the NSF (IMD 9730693), with support form Hewlett-Packard Company, The Foundation for Microbiology, Combined Federated Charities, NASA Astrobiology Institute, and NASA Fundamental Biology.

  12. Getting together in deep space - The Rosetta space probe's long trek to Comet 67/P Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-02-01

    The countdown to Rosetta’s rendezvous in space began on 1 March 1997. At the end of February 2004, seven years and not a few headaches later, the European Space Agency (ESA) probe will at last be setting off on its journey to meet Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The long-planned get-together will not however take place until the middle of 2014. A few months after arriving at the comet, Rosetta will release a small lander onto its surface. Then, for almost two years it will investigate Churyumov-Gerasimenko from close up. Dr Gerhard Schwehm, lead scientist for the Rosetta project, explains that, “With this mission we will be breaking new ground - this will be the first protracted cometary encounter.” The trip to the meeting place in space will certainly be a long one, located as it is some 4.5 astronomical units from the Sun, which translates into something like 675 million kilometres. Rosetta will be on the road for ten years, during which time it will clock up in excess of five billion kilometres. Launch in February 2004 Rosetta will be waved off on 26 February when it lifts off from the space centre in Kourou, French Guiana, aboard an Ariane 5 launcher. Shortly after the spacecraft’s release, its solar panels will be deployed and turned towards the Sun to build up the necessary power reserves. Its various systems and experiments will be gradually brought into operation and tested. Just three months into the mission the first active phase will be over, followed by final testing of the experiments in October 2004. Rosetta will then spend the following years flying a lonely path to the comet, passing by the Earth, Mars, the Earth and the Earth again. There is no alternative to this detour, for even Ariane 5, the most powerful launcher on the market today, lacks the power to hurl the probe on a direct route to the comet. To get the required momentum, it will rely on swing-by manœuvres, using the gravitation pull of Mars (in 2007) and the Earth (three times, in 2005, 2007 and 2008) to pick up speed. Asteroids for company A change is as good as a rest, and a meeting with at least one asteroid should help break the monotony for Rosetta. The spacecraft will come close to an asteroid at the end of 2008. Asteroids are, it will be remembered, rocky bodies, some as large as mountains, some even larger, that orbit the Sun in much the same way as planets. “These ‘brief encounters’ are a scientific opportunity and also a chance to test Rosetta’s instrument payload,” says Gerhard Schwehm. But asteroid exploration also serves an entirely practical purpose: “The more we find out about them, the better the prospect of being able one day to avert a possible collision.” Following a period of low-activity cruising, the probe’s course will be adjusted one last time in May 2011. From July 2011, a further two-and-a-half years' radio silence will be observed, and Rosetta, left entirely to its own resources, will fly close to the Jupiter orbit. Link-up in 2014 Finally, in January 2014, the probe will be reactivated and will, by October 2014, be only a few kilometres distant from Churyumov-Gerasimenko. This is where the dream of so many scientists becomes reality. Having deposited its precious lander cargo on the comet’s surface, Rosetta will continue to orbit Churyumov-Gerasimenko and together they will spend the next seventeen months flying towards the Sun. Rosetta was built by an international consortium led by Astrium. The lander probe was developed in Cologne under the aegis of the DLR, Germany’s space agency, with contributions from ESA and research centres in Austria, Finland, France, Hungary, Ireland, Italy and Great Britain. The comet explorer carries ten scientific instruments. Their job is to draw out the secrets of the comet’s chemical and physical composition and reveal its magnetic and electrical properties. Using a specially designed camera, the lander will take pictures in the macro and micro ranges and send all the data thus acquired back to Earth, via Rosetta. “This will be our first ever chance to be there, at first hand, so to speak, as a comet comes to life,” Schwehm goes on to explain. When Churyumov-Gerasimenko gets to within about 500 million kilometres of the Sun, the frozen gases that envelop it will evaporate and a trail of dust will be blown back over hundreds of thousands of kilometres. When illuminated by the Sun, this characteristic comet tail then becomes visible from Earth. In the course of the mission, the processes at work within the cometary nucleus will be studied and measured more precisely than has ever before been possible, for earlier probes simply flew past their targets. “As we will be accompanying Churyumov-Gerasimenko for two years, until the comet reaches the point closest to the Sun and travels away from it, we can at long last hope to acquire new knowledge about comets. We are confident we will come a step nearer to understanding the origins and formation of our solar system and the emergence of life on Earth.” More information on the Rosetta launch can be found on : http://www.esa.int/rosetta. More on ESA Science Programme at : http://www.esa.int/science

  13. The Atmosphere of Jupiter from Voyager's and Cassini's Infrared Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matcheva, K. I.; Gierasch, P. J.; Conrath, B. J.

    2005-08-01

    We perform a comparative study of the structure of Jupiter's troposphere and low stratosphere based on the analysis of the Voyager/IRIS and the Cassini/CIRS observations of the Jovian infrared emission. Our results show changes in the zonal mean properties of the atmosphere, which are probably related to seasonal effects. These changes are consistent with the changed appearance of the planet at visible wavelengths. We use the brightness temperature of Jupiter at 1392 cm-1 (7.18 μ m) to determine the depth of the top cloud layer in the Jovian troposphere and an ammonia ice indicator α =TB(ν =1040) -TB(ν =1060) (Wong et al. 2004) to look for correlations with the derived cloud structure. The results from the analysis of the Voyager/IRIS observations are compared with the atmospheric opacity of the atmosphere at 5 μ m and 45 μ m derived from the same data set (Conrath and Gierasch 1986). We perform a similar analysis for the structure of the Great Red Spot and map the cloud opacity, the temperature and the alpha parameter in the vicinity of the GRS. Conrath, B. J, and P. J. Gierasch 1986. Retrieval of ammonia abundances and cloud opacities on Jupiter from Voyager IRIS spectra. Icarus v. 67, p. 444-455. Wong, M. H, G. L. Bjoraker, M. D. Smith, F. M. Flasar, C. A. Nixon 2004. Identification of the 10-micron ammonia ice feature on Jupiter. Planetary and Space Science, v. 52, p. 385-395.

  14. Wall current probe: A non-invasive in situ plasma diagnostic for space and time resolved current density distribution measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Baude, R.; Gaboriau, F.; Hagelaar, G. J. M.

    2013-08-15

    In the context of low temperature plasma research, we propose a wall current probe to determine the local charged particle fluxes flowing to the chamber walls. This non-intrusive planar probe consists of an array of electrode elements which can be individually biased and for which the current can be measured separately. We detail the probe properties and present the ability of the diagnostic to be used as a space and time resolved measurement of the ion and electron current density at the chamber walls. This diagnostic will be relevant to study the electron transport in magnetized low-pressure plasmas.

  15. Wall current probe: a non-invasive in situ plasma diagnostic for space and time resolved current density distribution measurement.

    PubMed

    Baude, R; Gaboriau, F; Hagelaar, G J M

    2013-08-01

    In the context of low temperature plasma research, we propose a wall current probe to determine the local charged particle fluxes flowing to the chamber walls. This non-intrusive planar probe consists of an array of electrode elements which can be individually biased and for which the current can be measured separately. We detail the probe properties and present the ability of the diagnostic to be used as a space and time resolved measurement of the ion and electron current density at the chamber walls. This diagnostic will be relevant to study the electron transport in magnetized low-pressure plasmas. PMID:24007060

  16. Gradual Diffusion and Punctuated Phase Space Density Enhancements of Highly Relativistic Electrons: Van Allen Probes Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Li, X.; Henderson, M. G.; Kanekal, S. G.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.; Hudson, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    The dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission has provided a new window into mega electron volt (MeV) particle dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts. Observations (up to E (is) approximately 10MeV) show clearly the behavior of the outer electron radiation belt at different timescales: months-long periods of gradual inward radial diffusive transport and weak loss being punctuated by dramatic flux changes driven by strong solar wind transient events. We present analysis of multi-MeV electron flux and phase space density (PSD) changes during March 2013 in the context of the first year of Van Allen Probes operation. This March period demonstrates the classic signatures both of inward radial diffusive energization and abrupt localized acceleration deep within the outer Van Allen zone (L (is) approximately 4.0 +/- 0.5). This reveals graphically that both 'competing' mechanisms of multi-MeV electron energization are at play in the radiation belts, often acting almost concurrently or at least in rapid succession.

  17. Probing theories of gravity with phase space-inferred potentials of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Alejo; Miller, Christopher J.; Kern, Nicholas; Gifford, Daniel; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Li, Baojiu; Koyama, Kazuya; Nichol, Robert C.

    2016-04-01

    Modified theories of gravity provide us with a unique opportunity to generate innovative tests of gravity. In Chameleon f (R ) gravity, the gravitational potential differs from the weak-field limit of general relativity (GR) in a mass dependent way. We develop a probe of gravity which compares high mass clusters, where Chameleon effects are weak, to low mass clusters, where the effects can be strong. We utilize the escape velocity edges in the radius/velocity phase space to infer the gravitational potential profiles on scales of 0.3-1 virial radii. We show that the escape edges of low mass clusters are enhanced compared to GR, where the magnitude of the difference depends on the background field value |fR 0 ¯ | . We validate our probe using N-body simulations and simulated light cone galaxy data. For a Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument Bright Galaxy Sample, including observational systematics, projection effects, and cosmic variance, our test can differentiate between GR and Chameleon f (R ) gravity models, |fR 0 ¯ |=4 ×10-6 (2 ×10-6) at >5 σ (>2 σ ), more than an order of magnitude better than current cluster-scale constraints.

  18. 46 CFR 80.15 - Ocean voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... water seaward of the low water mark such as an ocean or arm thereof, other major bodies of water such as seas, gulfs, and straits, except voyages exclusively within harbors and small coastal indentations....

  19. Real-space measurement of potential distribution in PECVD ONO electrets by Kelvin probe force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Emmerich, F; Thielemann, C

    2016-05-20

    Multilayers of silicon oxide/silicon nitride/silicon oxide (ONO) are known for their good electret properties due to deep energy traps near the material interfaces, facilitating charge storage. However, measurement of the space charge distribution in such multilayers is a challenge for conventional methods if layer thickness dimensions shrink below 1 μm. In this paper, we propose an atomic force microscope based method to determine charge distributions in ONO layers with spatial resolution below 100 nm. By applying Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) on freshly cleaved, corona-charged multilayers, the surface potential is measured directly along the z-axis and across the interfaces. This new method gives insights into charge distribution and charge movement in inorganic electrets with a high spatial resolution. PMID:27053633

  20. Gravity Probe B: final results of a space experiment to test general relativity.

    PubMed

    Everitt, C W F; DeBra, D B; Parkinson, B W; Turneaure, J P; Conklin, J W; Heifetz, M I; Keiser, G M; Silbergleit, A S; Holmes, T; Kolodziejczak, J; Al-Meshari, M; Mester, J C; Muhlfelder, B; Solomonik, V G; Stahl, K; Worden, P W; Bencze, W; Buchman, S; Clarke, B; Al-Jadaan, A; Al-Jibreen, H; Li, J; Lipa, J A; Lockhart, J M; Al-Suwaidan, B; Taber, M; Wang, S

    2011-06-01

    Gravity Probe B, launched 20 April 2004, is a space experiment testing two fundamental predictions of Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR), the geodetic and frame-dragging effects, by means of cryogenic gyroscopes in Earth orbit. Data collection started 28 August 2004 and ended 14 August 2005. Analysis of the data from all four gyroscopes results in a geodetic drift rate of -6601.8±18.3  mas/yr and a frame-dragging drift rate of -37.2±7.2  mas/yr, to be compared with the GR predictions of -6606.1  mas/yr and -39.2  mas/yr, respectively ("mas" is milliarcsecond; 1  mas=4.848×10(-9)  rad). PMID:21702590

  1. Real-space measurement of potential distribution in PECVD ONO electrets by Kelvin probe force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmerich, F.; Thielemann, C.

    2016-05-01

    Multilayers of silicon oxide/silicon nitride/silicon oxide (ONO) are known for their good electret properties due to deep energy traps near the material interfaces, facilitating charge storage. However, measurement of the space charge distribution in such multilayers is a challenge for conventional methods if layer thickness dimensions shrink below 1 μm. In this paper, we propose an atomic force microscope based method to determine charge distributions in ONO layers with spatial resolution below 100 nm. By applying Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) on freshly cleaved, corona-charged multilayers, the surface potential is measured directly along the z-axis and across the interfaces. This new method gives insights into charge distribution and charge movement in inorganic electrets with a high spatial resolution.

  2. Probing Real-Space and Time-Resolved Correlation Functions with Many-Body Ramsey Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knap, Michael; Kantian, Adrian; Giamarchi, Thierry; Bloch, Immanuel; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Demler, Eugene

    2013-10-01

    We propose to use Ramsey interferometry and single-site addressability, available in synthetic matter such as cold atoms or trapped ions, to measure real-space and time-resolved spin correlation functions. These correlation functions directly probe the excitations of the system, which makes it possible to characterize the underlying many-body states. Moreover, they contain valuable information about phase transitions where they exhibit scale invariance. We also discuss experimental imperfections and show that a spin-echo protocol can be used to cancel slow fluctuations in the magnetic field. We explicitly consider examples of the two-dimensional, antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model and the one-dimensional, long-range transverse field Ising model to illustrate the technique.

  3. Voyager 2 and the Uranian rings

    SciTech Connect

    Porco, C.C.

    1986-12-01

    Voyager 2 data on the Uranian disk system are presented and examined. The disk system consists of nine narrow rings, ranging in width from a few km to about 100 km. The Uranian rings are eccentric, inclined to the planet's equatorial plane, and precessing. The Uranian ring characteristics detected in the Voyager data are described and compared with those of the Saturn rings. The origin and maintenance of the rings are discussed, and the particle distribution in the ring system is studied.

  4. Probing the bioactivity-relevant chemical space of robust reactions and common molecular building blocks.

    PubMed

    Hartenfeller, Markus; Eberle, Martin; Meier, Peter; Nieto-Oberhuber, Cristina; Altmann, Karl-Heinz; Schneider, Gisbert; Jacoby, Edgar; Renner, Steffen

    2012-05-25

    In the search for new bioactive compounds, there is a trend toward increasingly complex compound libraries aiming to target the demanding targets of the future. In contrast, medicinal chemistry and traditional library design rely mainly on a small set of highly established and robust reactions. Here, we probe a set of 58 such reactions for their ability to sample the chemical space of known bioactive molecules, and the potential to create new scaffolds. Combined with ~26,000 common available building blocks, the reactions retrieve around 9% of a scaffold-diverse set of compounds active on human target proteins covering all major pharmaceutical target classes. Almost 80% of generated scaffolds from virtual one-step synthesis products are not present in a large set of known bioactive molecules for human targets, indicating potential for new discoveries. The results suggest that established synthesis resources are well suited to cover the known bioactivity-relevant chemical space and that there are plenty of unexplored regions accessible by these reactions, possibly providing valuable "low-hanging fruit" for hit discovery. PMID:22512717

  5. Application of high stability oscillators to radio science experiments using deep space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kursinski, Emil R.

    1990-01-01

    The microwave telecommunication links between the earth and deep space probes have long been used to conduct radio science experiments which take advantage of the phase coherency and stability of these links. These experiments measure changes in the phase delay of the signals to infer electrical, magnetic and gravitational properties of the solar system environment and beyond through which the spacecraft and radio signals pass. The precision oscillators, from which the phase of the microwave signals are derived, play a key role in the stability of these links and therefore the sensitivity of these measurements. These experiments have become a driving force behind recent and future improvements in the Deep Space Network and spacecraft oscillators and frequency and time distribution systems. Three such experiments which are key to these improvements are briefly discussed and relationship between their sensitivity and the signal phase stability is described. The first is the remote sensing of planetary atmospheres by occultation in which the radio signal passes through the atmosphere and is refracted causing the signal pathlength to change from which the pressure and the temperature of the atmosphere can be derived. The second experiment is determination of the opacity of planetary rings by passage of the radio signals through the rings. The third experiment is the research for very low frequency gravitational radiation. The fractional frequency variation of the signal is comparable to the spatial strain amplitude the system is capable of detecting. A summary of past results and future possibilities for these experiments are presented.

  6. Voyages Through Time: Everything Evolves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Jane; Tarter, Jill; Devore, Edna; Pendleton, Yvonne; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Burke, Meg

    2004-06-01

    The SETI Institute, the California Academy of Sciences, NASA Ames Research Center, and San Francisco State University have developed standards-based curriculum materials for a one-year high school integrated science course centered on the unifying theme of evolution. Scientists, teachers, curriculum writers, and media specialists are currently finalizing six modules that integrate astronomical, geological, and biological sciences as well as the history of science and technology. The sequence of lessons in each module is designed to promote students' understanding and skills as defined by the National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks for Science Literacy. The modules cover: Cosmic Evolution, Planetary Evolution, Origin of Life, Evolution of Life, Hominid Evolution, and the Evolution of Technology. The core lessons for all six modules are provided via CD-ROM, including instructional guidelines, science background information, and additional resources (print, audiovisual, software, WWW sites, and databases). These products will be published as a complete set for use as a yearlong science course and will also be available as individual modules for use in discipline-based courses. Evolutionary change is a powerful framework for studying our world and our place therein. It is a story of epic size, capable of inspiring awe and of expanding our sense of time and place. This story is the basis of Voyages Through Time.

  7. Voyages Through Time: Everything Evolves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarter, Jill; Pendleton, Y.; DeVore, E.; O'Sullivan, K.; Taylor, S.

    The SETI Institute, the California Academy of Sciences, and NASA Ames Research Center are developing standards-based curriculum materials for a one-year high school science course centered on the unifying theme of evolution. Scientists, teachers, curriculum writers, and media specialists are currently developing six modules that integrate astronomical, geological, and biological sciences as well as the history of science and technology. The sequence of lessons in each module will be designed to promote students' understanding and skills as defined by the National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks for Science Literacy. The modules cover: Cosmic Evolution, Planetary Evolution, Origin of Life, Diversification of Life, Hominid Evolution, and the Evolution of Technology. The core lessons for all six modules will be provided via CD-ROM, including instructional guidelines, science background information, and additional resources (print, audiovisual, software, WWW sites, databases, and telecommunications projects). These products will be published as a complete set for use as a year-long science course and will also be available as individual modules for use in discipline-based courses. Evolutionary change is a powerful framework for studying our world and our place therein. It is a story of epic size, capable of inspiring awe and of expanding our sense of time and place. This story is the basis of Voyages Through Time.

  8. Ancient Voyaging and Polynesian Origins

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Pedro; Rito, Teresa; Trejaut, Jean; Mormina, Maru; Hill, Catherine; Tinkler-Hundal, Emma; Braid, Michelle; Clarke, Douglas J.; Loo, Jun-Hun; Thomson, Noel; Denham, Tim; Donohue, Mark; Macaulay, Vincent; Lin, Marie; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Richards, Martin B.

    2011-01-01

    The “Polynesian motif” defines a lineage of human mtDNA that is restricted to Austronesian-speaking populations and is almost fixed in Polynesians. It is widely thought to support a rapid dispersal of maternal lineages from Taiwan ∼4000 years ago (4 ka), but the chronological resolution of existing control-region data is poor, and an East Indonesian origin has also been proposed. By analyzing 157 complete mtDNA genomes, we show that the motif itself most likely originated >6 ka in the vicinity of the Bismarck Archipelago, and its immediate ancestor is >8 ka old and virtually restricted to Near Oceania. This indicates that Polynesian maternal lineages from Island Southeast Asia gained a foothold in Near Oceania much earlier than dispersal from either Taiwan or Indonesia 3–4 ka would predict. However, we find evidence in minor lineages for more recent two-way maternal gene flow between Island Southeast Asia and Near Oceania, likely reflecting movements along a “voyaging corridor” between them, as previously proposed on archaeological grounds. Small-scale mid-Holocene movements from Island Southeast Asia likely transmitted Austronesian languages to the long-established Southeast Asian colonies in the Bismarcks carrying the Polynesian motif, perhaps also providing the impetus for the expansion into Polynesia. PMID:21295281

  9. DC Langmuir Probe for Measurement of Space Plasma: A Brief Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, Koichiro

    2015-09-01

    Herein, we discuss the in situ measurement of the electron temperature in the ionosphere/plasmasphere by means of DC Langmuir probes. Major instruments which have been reported are a conventional DC Langmuir probe, whose probe voltage is swept; a pulsed probe, which uses pulsed bias voltage; a rectification probe, which uses sinusoidal signal; and a resonance cone probe, which uses radio wave propagation. The content reviews past observations made with the instruments above. We also discuss technical factors that should be taken into account for reliable measurement, such as problems related to the contamination of electrodes and the satellite surface. Finally, we discuss research topics to be studied in the near future.

  10. Telecommunications and data acquisition systems support for Voyager missions to Jupiter and Saturn, 1972-1981, prelaunch through Saturn encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traxler, M. R.; Beauchamp, D. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Deep Space Network has supported the Voyager Project for approximately nine years, during which time implementation, testing, and operational support was provided. Four years of this time involved testing prior to launch; the final five years included network operations support and additional network implementation. Intensive and critical support intervals included launch and four planetary encounters. The telecommunications and data acquisition support for the Voyager Missions to Jupiter and Saturn are summarized.

  11. Interagency telemetry arraying for Voyager-Neptune encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. W.; Brundage, W. D.; Ulvestad, J. S.; Kent, S. S.; Bartos, K. P.

    1990-01-01

    The reception capability of the Deep Space Network (DSN) has been improved over the years by increasing both the size and number of antennas at each complex to meet spacecraft-support requirements. However, even more aperture was required for the final planetary encounters of the Voyager 2 spacecraft. This need was met by arraying one radio astronomy observatory with the DSN complex in the United States and another with the complex in Australia. Following a review of augmentation for the Uranus encounter, both the preparation at the National Radio Astronomy (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA) and the Neptune encounter results for the Parkes-Canberra and VLA-Goldstone arrays are presented.

  12. Probing gravity in interplanetary space: combined use of ISA accelerometer and next-generation tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peron, Roberto; Peron, R.; Bellettini, G.; Berardi, S.; Boni, A.; Cantone, C.; Coradini, A.; Currie, D. G.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Delle Monache, G. O.; Fiorenza, E.; Garattini, M.; Iafolla, V.; Intaglietta, N.; Lefevre, C.; Lops, C.; March, R.; Martini, M.; Nozzoli, S.; Patrizi, G.; Porcelli, L.; Reale, A.; Santoli, F.; Tauraso, R.; Vittori, R.

    The Solar System is a complex laboratory for testing gravitational physics. Indeed, its scale and hierarchical structure make possible a wide range of tests for gravitational theories, studying the motion of both natural and artificial objects and comparing the predictions of different theories with experimental data. Future exploration scenarios show the possibility of placing deep-space probes near the Sun or in outer Solar System, thereby extending the range of conditions in which to test directly the theories. In particular, the Sun-Earth-Moon is the most accurately known gravitational three-body laboratory, which is undergoing a new, strong wave of research and robotic exploration. In addition, the benefits of a synergetic study of planetary science and gravitational physics are of the greatest importance (as shown by the success of the Apollo program), especially in the Earth-Moon (for example with the proposed International Lunar Network, ILN), Mars-Phobos, Jovian and Saturnian sub-systems. The availability of high-quality tracking data, to be fitted by suitable dynamic models for the spacecraft dynamics, opens critical issues regarding the quality of these models, i.e. their capability of fitting data without an excessive number of empirical hypotheses. A typical case is represented by the non-gravitational phenomena, often relevant, which in general are difficult to model. More generally, gravitation tests with Lunar Laser Ranging, inner or outer Solar System probes and the appearance of the so-called "anomalies"(like the one indicated by the Pioneers), whatever their real origin (either instrumental effects or due to new physics), show the necessity of a coordinated improvement of tracking and modelization techniques. A number of steps in this directions will be discussed, employing the use of high-sensitivity accelerometers like ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) — in order to measure directly non-gravitational effects — and combined microwave and laser tracking, for an efficient tracking of deep-space test masses. A case study will be presented: a multi-spacecraft mission proposal for planetary exploration and fundamental physics.

  13. Voyager planetary radio astronomy studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, David H.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of nonthermal radio emission data obtained by the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) spectrometers on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft was performed. This PRA data provided unique insights into the radio emission characteristics of the outer planets because of PRA's unique spectral response below the terrestrial ionospheric plasma frequency and its unprecedented proximity to the source. Of those results which were documented or published, this final report surveys only the highlights and cites references for more complete discussions. Unpublished results for Uranus, Neptune, and theoretical Ionian current distributions are presented at greater length. The most important conclusion to be drawn from these observations is that banded spectral emission is common to the radio emission below 1-2 MHz observed from all four Jovian planets. In every case multiple spectral features evolve on time scales of seconds to minutes. To the extent these features drift in frequency, they appear never to cross one another. The Neptunian spectral features appear to drift little or not at all, their evolution consisting principally of waxing and waning. Since other evidence strongly suggests that most or all of this radio emission is occurring near the local magnetospheric electron cyclotron frequency, this implies that this emission preferentially occurs at certain continually changing planetary radii. It remains unknown why certain radii might be favored, unless radial electric field components or other means serve to differentiate radially the magnetospheric plasma density, particle energy vectors, or particle coherence. Calculation of the spatial distribution and intensity of the Io-generated magnetospheric currents are also presented; these currents may be limited principally by wave impedance and local field strengths.

  14. Miranda as seen by Voyager 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Flying by in early 1986, Voyager 2 captured this picture of Miranda, which enabled scientists to study this moon of Uranus in much greater detail than ever before. Discovered in 1948 by Gerard Peter Kuiper, Miranda is named for the daughter of the wily Prospero in Shakespeare's 'The Tempest.' It is the eleventh known satellite of Uranus and the innermost large moon of Uranus It was necessary that Voyager 2 passed by Miranda, not for scientific reasons, but simply for the gravity assist it needed to go on to Neptune. Due to the position of the entire Solar System, Miranda provided the energy to throw Voyager 2 to Neptune. Before Voyager, Miranda was largely ignored as it is not the largest moon and did not seem to have any other outstanding qualities. Fortunately, however, Voyager passed close enough to Miranda to provide scientists with fascinating photographs that captivated astronomers. About half ice and half rock, Miranda's surface has terraced layers that indicate both older and new surfaces coexisting. Since the mixing of ancient and recent surfaces is rare in planetary geology, scientists have postulated two explanations for the different ages of the numerous valleys and cliffs on Miranda. One theory is that Miranda could have shattered as many as five times and was then reassembled. Another hypothesis is that partly melted ice upwells forced new surfaces to emerge.

  15. Magnetically insulated baffled probe for real-time monitoring of equilibrium and fluctuating values of space potentials, electron and ion temperatures, and densities

    SciTech Connect

    Demidov, V. I.; Koepke, M. E.; Raitses, Y.

    2010-10-15

    By restricting the electron-collection area of a cold Langmuir probe compared to the ion-collection area, the probe floating potential can become equal to the space potential, and thus conveniently monitored, rather than to a value shifted from the space potential by an electron-temperature-dependent offset, i.e., the case with an equal-collection-area probe. This design goal is achieved by combining an ambient magnetic field in the plasma with baffles, or shields, on the probe, resulting in species-selective magnetic insulation of the probe collection area. This permits the elimination of electron current to the probe by further adjustment of magnetic insulation which results in an ion-temperature-dependent offset when the probe is electrically floating. Subtracting the floating potential of two magnetically insulated baffled probes, each with a different degree of magnetic insulation, enables the electron or ion temperature to be measured in real time.

  16. A Model Space Mission to probe Einstein's Equivalence Principle - The STE-QUEST Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heske, Astrid; Cacciapuoti, Luigi; Gehler, Martin

    Understanding General Relativity at all scales requires, in particular, understanding gravity at quantum level. To attempt this, tests of the most prominent aspect of General Relativity, the Einstein Equivalence Principle, can be performed with the next generation of atomic quantum sensors to significantly improved accuracy. To exploit the ultimate limits of atomic sensors a dedicated space platform is needed; the advantages space offers are, among others, unperturbed free-fall conditions, longer interaction times per measurement and large variations in velocity and gravitational field. In the frame of the third medium class launch opportunity of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015 - 2025 programme a study was conducted - STE-QUEST (Space-Time Explorer and QUantum Equivalence principle Test), one of the candidates for a medium class mission - and the feasibility of such a mission assessed. The spacecraft would carry two instruments probing the different aspects of the Einstein Equivalence Principle: begin{enumerate} A dual species ( (87) Rb and (85) Rb) atom interferometer to probe the universality of propagation of matter waves. A high-performance time and frequency link dedicated to comparison of atomic clocks on ground. The specific primary science objectives for STE-QUEST are: begin{enumerate} Universality of propagation of matter waves test begin{itemize} Test of the universality of free fall of matter waves to an uncertainty of the Etvs ratio lower than 2*10 (-15) . Gravitational redshift tests begin{itemize} Sun gravitational red-shift measurement to a fractional uncertainty of 2*10 (-6) , with an ultimate goal of 5*10 (-7) . Moon gravitational red-shift measurement to a fractional uncertainty of 4*10 (-4) , with an ultimate goal of 9*10 (-5) . Such a measurement has never been attempted before. The availability of an atomic clock on-board the spacecraft (optional) would additionally allow testing the Earth gravitational red-shift measurement to a fractional uncertainty of 2*10 (-7) . Assessment of the feasibility of reaching these target sensitivities through a space mission required extensive simulations and modeling. This involved determining and optimizing the orbit for such measurements by minimizing gravity gradients and non-gravitational disturbances (for both instruments), maximizing gravitational acceleration around perigee (for the interferometer measurements) and maximizing the common view with ground clocks and the variations of gravitational potential (for red-shift measurements). Numerical simulations have been performed where the computed measurement performance was fed back into the orbit optimization. In parallel, mission designs have been studied, to identify the drivers for accommodation on the spacecraft as well as for in-orbit operation and calibration. At the end of the study, viable mission designs have been established, fulfilling all science requirements and to the accuracy required. The flow-down starting from the science requirements and instrument needs to the mission definition will be presented, including details of spacecraft design and payload accommodation, in-orbit operations and instrument calibration aspects. Examples of trade-offs during the iterative process of maximizing the science return while optimizing the instrument and spacecraft design will be highlighted.

  17. Probing cosmology and gravity with redshift-space distortions around voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaus, Nico; Sutter, P. M.; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2015-11-01

    Cosmic voids in the large-scale structure of the Universe affect the peculiar motions of objects in their vicinity. Although these motions are difficult to observe directly, the clustering pattern of their surrounding tracers in redshift space is influenced in a unique way. This allows to investigate the interplay between densities and velocities around voids, which is solely dictated by the laws of gravity. With the help of N-body simulations and derived mock-galaxy catalogs we calculate the average density fluctuations around voids identified with a watershed algorithm in redshift space and compare the results with the expectation from general relativity and the ΛCDM model. We find linear theory to work remarkably well in describing the dynamics of voids. Adopting a Bayesian inference framework, we explore the full posterior of our model parameters and forecast the achievable accuracy on measurements of the growth rate of structure and the geometric distortion through the Alcock-Paczyński effect. Systematic errors in the latter are reduced from ~15% to ~5% when peculiar velocities are taken into account. The relative parameter uncertainties in galaxy surveys with number densities comparable to the SDSS MAIN (CMASS) sample probing a volume of 1h-3Gpc3 yield σf/b/(f/b).~2% (20%) and σDAH/DAH~0.2% (2%), respectively. At this level of precision the linear-theory model becomes systematics dominated, with parameter biases that fall beyond these values. Nevertheless, the presented method is highly model independent; its viability lies in the underlying assumption of statistical isotropy of the Universe.

  18. Voyager - Humanity's Farthest Journey - Duration: 3 minutes, 11 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    After 33 years, NASA's twin Voyager spacecraft are still going strong and still sending home information. This video features highlights of the Voyager journeys to the outer planets, and looks at t...

  19. Voyager 2 Observes Energetic Electrons - Duration: 15 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the Voyager 2 observations of energetic electrons. Voyager 2 detected a dramatic drop of the flux of electrons as it left the sector region. The intense flux came back as soon ...

  20. 15 CFR 970.2502 - Post voyage report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Pre-license Exploration § 970.2502 Post voyage report. Within 30 days of the conclusion of each exploration voyage, the United...

  1. 15 CFR 970.2502 - Post voyage report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Pre-license Exploration § 970.2502 Post voyage report. Within 30 days of the conclusion of each exploration voyage, the United...

  2. 15 CFR 970.2502 - Post voyage report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Pre-license Exploration § 970.2502 Post voyage report. Within 30 days of the conclusion of each exploration voyage, the United...

  3. 15 CFR 970.2502 - Post voyage report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Pre-license Exploration § 970.2502 Post voyage report. Within 30 days of the conclusion of each exploration voyage, the United...

  4. 15 CFR 970.2502 - Post voyage report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Pre-license Exploration § 970.2502 Post voyage report. Within 30 days of the conclusion of each exploration voyage, the United...

  5. Limiting vibration in space lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Midturi, S.

    1997-12-01

    Using finite-element analysis and other methods, engineers are evaluating ways to control the vibrations and extend the use of flexible, deployable structures in space. The exploration of the universe by the United States has led to many technological innovations for space travel. Among them are lightweight lattice structures and booms, which have been used on the Voyager probes to the outer planets, the Hubble space telescope,m and many other missions. Typical applications of lattice structures in space include instrument booms, antennae, and solar-array deployers and supports. Booms are designed for automatic deployment to a controlled length and retraction into a very compact stowage volume. Deployable solar booms are often subjected to severe vibration while in orbit, and vibration must be limited or completely eliminated for safe and satisfactory performance.

  6. 46 CFR 46.05-20 - Great Lakes voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Great Lakes voyage. 46.05-20 Section 46.05-20 Shipping... VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part § 46.05-20 Great Lakes voyage. A Great Lakes voyage is any voyage from a United States port or place on the Great Lakes to another United States port or place on...

  7. 46 CFR 46.05-20 - Great Lakes voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes voyage. 46.05-20 Section 46.05-20 Shipping... VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part § 46.05-20 Great Lakes voyage. A Great Lakes voyage is any voyage from a United States port or place on the Great Lakes to another United States port or place on...

  8. Acceleration and transport of anomalous cosmic rays: Investigating the spectral evolution at Voyager 1 beyond the termination shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senanayake, Udara K.

    Interstellar neutral atoms entering the heliosphere could become ionized by photo-ionization or charge exchange with solar-wind ions. These newly created ions are picked up by the solar wind and carried to the termination shock (TS) where they are believed to be accelerated by the diffusive shock acceleration process to high energies (˜1-100 MeV n-1). The accelerated ions are known as anomalous cosmic rays (ACRs). When NASA's space probe, Voyager 1 crossed the TS in 2004, the measured ACR spectra did not match the theoretical prediction of a continuous power law, and the source of the high-energy ACRs was not observed. However, over the next few years, in the declining phase of the solar cycle, the spectra began to evolve into the expected power-law profile. The model developed here is based on the suggestion that ACRs are still accelerated at the shock, but away from the Voyager crossing points. First, we study ACR acceleration using a three-dimensional, non-spherical model of the heliosphere that is axisymmetric with respect to the interstellar flow direction. A semi-analytic model of the plasma and magnetic field backgrounds is developed to permit an investigation over a wide range of parameters under controlled conditions. The model is applied to helium ACRs, whose phase-space trajectories are stochastically integrated backward in time until a pre-specified, low-energy boundary of 0.5 MeV n-1, is reached. Next, we propose that the solar cycle had an important effect on the evolving of the spectra in the heliosheath. To investigate this, a magnetohydrodynamic background model with stationary solar-wind inner boundary conditions was used to model the transport of helium and oxygen ions. In addition, we developed a charge consistent stochastic model to simulate multiply charged oxygen ACRs. It is shown that the spectral evolution of ACRs in the heliosheath at Voyager 1 could be explained by combining intermediate-energy particles arriving from the heliotail-facing part of the TS, an increase in the source strength, and an enhancement in diffusion as a result of a decrease of the turbulent correlation length in the declining phase of the solar cycle. Drift effects seem to have had a smaller effect on the evolution of the spectra. Additionally, we found that the spectrum of heavy ACRs ions, such as oxygen, may be dominated by multiply charged ions at some characteristic energy that depends on the diffusion coefficient.

  9. Voyager - 35 Years Later - Duration: 2 minutes, 30 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video drops in on mission control for NASA's Voyager spacecraft asVoyager 1 sends back data from the far reaches of our solar system.Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech    › Voyager's mission site

  10. Voyager Reading Programs. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Voyager Passport"[TM] is a supplemental reading intervention system for students in grades K-5. "Voyager Passport Reading Journeys"[TM] is a reading intervention program designed for adolescents who struggle with reading. The "Voyager Universal Literacy System"[R] is a K-3 reading program that includes a core reading curriculum; a progress…

  11. 46 CFR 44.01-12 - Voyage limits; special service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Voyage limits; special service. 44.01-12 Section 44.01-12 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES SPECIAL SERVICE LIMITED DOMESTIC VOYAGES Administration § 44.01-12 Voyage limits; special service. (a) Special...

  12. Enhancing Resilience in Youth through a 10-Day Developmental Voyage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayhurst, Jill; Hunter, John A.; Kafka, Sarah; Boyes, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The present study sought to examine the potential for resilience to be enhanced in a group of youth participating in a developmental voyage, and to identify the factors that contribute to increased resilience following the voyage. Two studies are reported. Study 1 revealed that voyage participants experienced increased resilience over the course…

  13. Enhancing Resilience in Youth through a 10-Day Developmental Voyage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayhurst, Jill; Hunter, John A.; Kafka, Sarah; Boyes, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The present study sought to examine the potential for resilience to be enhanced in a group of youth participating in a developmental voyage, and to identify the factors that contribute to increased resilience following the voyage. Two studies are reported. Study 1 revealed that voyage participants experienced increased resilience over the course

  14. Radio science with voyager at jupiter: initial voyager 2 results and a voyager 1 measure of the io torus.

    PubMed

    Eshleman, V R; Tyler, G L; Wood, G E; Lindal, G F; Anderson, J D; Levy, G S; Croft, T A

    1979-11-23

    Voyager 2 radio signals were observed essentially continuously during a grazing occultation of the spacecraft by the southern limb of Jupiter. Intensity data show a classic atmospheric occultation profile and the effects of turbulence and ionospheric focusing and defocusing. No reliable profile of the neutral atmosphere has yet been obtained, primarily because of a combination of large trajectory uncertainties and error multiplication effects associated with the grazing geometry of the Voyager 2 occultation. Analysis of the dispersive ionospheric refraction data yields preliminary profiles for the topside ionosphere at 66.7 degrees S (entry in the evening) and 50.1 degrees S (exit in the morning) that are reversed with respect to corresponding Voyager 1 profiles in terms of plasma concentration at a fixed altitude. Plasma scale heights and temperatures of 880 kilometers, 1200 K and 1040 kilometers, 1600 K were obtained for morning and evening conditions, respectively. Preliminary reduction of the pre-encounter occultation of Voyager 1 by the Io torus yields an average plasma density of about 1000 electrons per cubic centimeter. PMID:17733914

  15. Data Announcement Bulletin: Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 Jupiter Encounter Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Available data on imaging, infrared spectroscopy and radiometry, triaxial fluxgate magnetometers, the multifilter photopolarimeter, planetary radio astronomy, and radio science is described. The Voyager experiments are listed, and it is indicated on which experiments data is available.

  16. Group-galaxy correlations in redshift space as a probe of the growth of structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, F. G.; de la Torre, S.; Bianchi, D.; Guzzo, L.; Peacock, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the use of the cross-correlation between galaxies and galaxy groups to measure redshift-space distortions (RSD) and thus probe the growth rate of cosmological structure. This is compared to the classical approach based on using galaxy auto-correlation. We make use of realistic simulated galaxy catalogues that have been constructed by populating simulated dark matter haloes with galaxies through halo occupation prescriptions. We adapt the classical RSD Dispersion model to the case of the group-galaxy cross-correlation function and estimate the RSD parameter β by fitting both the full anisotropic correlation function ξs(rp, π) and its multipole moments. In addition, we define a modified version of the latter statistics by truncating the multipole moments to exclude strongly non-linear distortions at small transverse scales. We fit these three observable quantities in our set of simulated galaxy catalogues and estimate statistical and systematic errors on β for the case of galaxy-galaxy, group-group, and group-galaxy correlation functions. When ignoring off-diagonal elements of the covariance matrix in the fitting, the truncated multipole moments of the group-galaxy cross-correlation function provide the most accurate estimate, with systematic errors below 3% when fitting transverse scales larger than 10 h-1Mpc. Including the full data covariance enlarges statistical errors but keep unchanged the level of systematic error. Although statistical errors are generally larger for groups, the use of group-galaxy cross-correlation can potentially allow the reduction of systematics while using simple linear or Dispersion models.

  17. Group-galaxy correlations in redshift space as a probe of the growth of structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, F. G.; de la Torre, S.; Bianchi, D.; Guzzo, L.; Peacock, J. A.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the use of the cross-correlation between galaxies and galaxy groups to measure redshift-space distortions (RSD) and thus probe the growth rate of cosmological structure. This is compared to the classical approach based on using galaxy auto-correlation. We make use of realistic simulated galaxy catalogues that have been constructed by populating simulated dark matter haloes with galaxies through halo occupation prescriptions. We adapt the classical RSD dispersion model to the case of the group-galaxy cross-correlation function and estimate the RSD parameter β by fitting both the full anisotropic correlation function ξs(rp, π) and its multipole moments. In addition, we define a modified version of the latter statistics by truncating the multipole moments to exclude strongly non-linear distortions at small transverse scales. We fit these three observable quantities in our set of simulated galaxy catalogues and estimate statistical and systematic errors on β for the case of galaxy-galaxy, group-group, and group-galaxy correlation functions. When ignoring off-diagonal elements of the covariance matrix in the fitting, the truncated multipole moments of the group-galaxy cross-correlation function provide the most accurate estimate, with systematic errors below 3 per cent when fitting transverse scales larger than 10 h-1 Mpc. Including the full data covariance enlarges statistical errors but keep unchanged the level of systematic error. Although statistical errors are generally larger for groups, the use of group-galaxy cross-correlation can potentially allow the reduction of systematics while using simple linear or dispersion models.

  18. The Second Voyage of the Mimi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank Street Coll. of Education, New York, NY.

    This book includes 12 units that have been adapted from the television series "Voyage of the Mimi." Each unit includes the episode, an activity, and an expedition. The episodes introduce and accompany each episode of the television series. The activity is an extension of that episode which can be done in the classroom. Mapping skills, foreign…

  19. Voyager 2's encounter with Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, William I.

    1990-01-01

    The results of Voyager 2 observations of Neptune are reviewed. Observations of Neptune's Great Dark Spot, rotation atmosphere, magnetic field, rings, and satellites are discussed. Also, observations of Triton are considered, noting the presence of geyser activity on the satellite. Several photographs of features on both Neptune and Triton are presented.

  20. The Hemispheric Roots of the Columbian Voyages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Lynda N.

    1991-01-01

    Urges that the search for origins of European exploration extend to Africa and East Asia and their international trade. Cites contributions of India and the Arabs, Chinese, and Malaysians. Emphasizes the importance of mathematics, navigation, and sailing technology. Argues that without these contributions the European voyages would not have been…

  1. The Hemispheric Roots of the Columbian Voyages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Lynda N.

    1991-01-01

    Urges that the search for origins of European exploration extend to Africa and East Asia and their international trade. Cites contributions of India and the Arabs, Chinese, and Malaysians. Emphasizes the importance of mathematics, navigation, and sailing technology. Argues that without these contributions the European voyages would not have been

  2. Spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA); O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

    1994-01-01

    A support structure bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe.

  3. Spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    Prather, W.S.; O'Rourke, P.E.

    1994-08-02

    A support structure is described bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe. 3 figs.

  4. Rossi and Space Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Edward

    2012-03-01

    The beginning of the Space Age opened a new realm of exploration and Bruno Rossi immediately focused on devising an instrument for studying the interplanetary environment. The modulated Faraday cup that he and his colleagues developed was launched on Explorer X on March 21, 1961. Although the lifetime of the battery-powered spacecraft was only 60 hours, that was long enough for the MIT plasma probe to reveal a hot, supersonic solar wind flowing along the flank of the Earth's magnetosphere. The legacy of that first short flight now extends outward on a 34-year journey to 98 AU where the plasma probe on Voyager 2 measures the deflection of the subsonic wind as it approaches the outer frontier of the heliosphere and contact with the interstellar plasma outside. Over the coming decade that legacy will extend inward to within 0.05 AU of the Sun as the plasma probe on Solar Probe Plus explores the region near the inner frontier and the source of the supersonic solar wind. The exploration of the solar wind from near its beginning outward to its end will be a lasting tribute to Bruno Rossi's contributions to Space Physics.

  5. Probing the acid sites in confined spaces of microporous materials by vibrational spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zecchina, Adriano; Spoto, Giuseppe; Bordiga, Silvia

    2005-04-21

    The use of IR spectroscopy for the evaluation of the Lewis and Bronsted acidity of microporous systems is illustrated having recourse to examples concerning zeolites, heteropolyacids and sulfonated membranes (NAFION). Methods based on the perturbation of the OH modes by interaction with basic probe molecules are illustrated as well as on the perturbation of the internal modes of the probe itself. The use of H2 as probe is also debated by discussing new data specifically obtained for this review. The illustrated case examples are mainly obtained from the experience gained by the Turin group in 20 years. PMID:19787918

  6. Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager 2 near Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.; Riddle, A. C.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Thieman, J. R.; Carr, T. D.; Gulkis, S.; Boischot, A.

    1979-01-01

    The Voyager 2 Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment to Jupiter has confirmed and extended to higher zenomagnetic latitudes results from the identical experiment carried by Voyager 1. The kilometric emissions discovered by Voyager 1 often extended to 1 megahertz or higher on Voyager 2 and often consisted of negatively, or less frequently, positively drifting narrowband bursts. On the basis of tentative identification of plasma wave emissions similar to those detected by Voyager 1, the plasma torus associated with Io appeared somewhat denser to Voyager 2 than it did to Voyager 1. The paper reports on quasi-periodic sinusoidal or impulsive bursts in the broadcast band range of wavelengths (800 to 1800 kHz). A Faraday effect appears at decametric frequencies, which probably results from propagation of the radiation near its sources on Jupiter. Finally, the occurrence of decametric emission in homologous arc families is discussed.

  7. Space and time-resolved probing of heterogeneous catalysis reactions using lab-on-a-chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navin, Chelliah V.; Krishna, Katla Sai; Theegala, Chandra S.; Kumar, Challa S. S. R.

    2016-03-01

    Probing catalytic reactions on a catalyst surface in real time is a major challenge. Herein, we demonstrate the utility of a continuous flow millifluidic chip reactor coated with a nanostructured gold catalyst as an effective platform for in situ investigation of the kinetics of catalytic reactions by taking 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) conversion as a model reaction. The idea conceptualized in this paper can not only dramatically change the ability to probe the time-resolved kinetics of heterogeneous catalysis reactions but also used for investigating other chemical and biological catalytic processes, thereby making this a broad platform for probing reactions as they occur within continuous flow reactors.Probing catalytic reactions on a catalyst surface in real time is a major challenge. Herein, we demonstrate the utility of a continuous flow millifluidic chip reactor coated with a nanostructured gold catalyst as an effective platform for in situ investigation of the kinetics of catalytic reactions by taking 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) conversion as a model reaction. The idea conceptualized in this paper can not only dramatically change the ability to probe the time-resolved kinetics of heterogeneous catalysis reactions but also used for investigating other chemical and biological catalytic processes, thereby making this a broad platform for probing reactions as they occur within continuous flow reactors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06752a

  8. Galileo Regio Mosaic - Galileo over Voyager Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A mosaic of four Galileo images of the Galileo Regio region on Ganymede (Latitude 18 N, Longitude: 149 W) is shown overlayed on the data obtained by the Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1979. North is to the top of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the lower left, about 58 degrees above the horizon. The smallest features that can be discerned are about 80 meters (262 feet) in size in the Galileo images. These Galileo images show fine details of the dark terrain that makes up about half of the surface of the planet-sized moon. Ancient impact craters of various sizes and states of degradation testify to the great age of the terrain, dating back several billion years. The images reveal distinctive variations in albedo from the brighter rims, knobs, and furrow walls to a possible accumulation of dark material on the lower slopes, and crater floors. High photometric activity (large light contrast at high spatial frequencies) of this ice-rich surface was such that the Galileo camera's hardware data compressor was pushed into truncating lines. The north-south running gap between the left and right halves of the mosaic is a result of line truncation from the normal 800 samples per line to about 540. The images were taken on 27 June, 1996 Universal Time at a range of 7,580 kilometers (4,738 miles) through the clear filter of the Galileo spacecraft's imaging system. Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  9. New method for probing Kerr space-time based on imaging observation of in-falling gas blob

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, Kotaro; Mineshige, Shin

    2016-03-01

    We propose a new observational method to probe the black hole space-time described by Einstein's theory. We consider a gas blob with an arc shape falling from the marginally stable orbit onto a black hole, carrying a finite amount of angular momentum. Previously, we proposed measuring the black hole spin from the flux variation data of the in-falling blob, assuming the Kerr space-time. We demonstrate here that we can independently measure the black hole spin solely by using the imaging data of the in-falling blob. We then introduce a Kerr-like hole (with one additional parameter which describes a stronger or weaker frame-dragging effect than that of the Kerr hole) and apply the two different methods of spin measurement: one based on the flux variation data and the other based on the imaging data. We obtain different spin values by the different methods for the Kerr-like hole. This is because these methods are sensitive to different components of the metric. We can in this way probe the black hole space-time through the comparison of the estimated spin values; that is, if the black hole space-time is described by the Kerr metric, all of them should coincide.

  10. New method for probing Kerr space-time based on imaging observation of in-falling gas blob

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, Kotaro; Mineshige, Shin

    2016-06-01

    We propose a new observational method to probe the black hole space-time described by Einstein's theory. We consider a gas blob with an arc shape falling from the marginally stable orbit onto a black hole, carrying a finite amount of angular momentum. Previously, we proposed measuring the black hole spin from the flux variation data of the in-falling blob, assuming the Kerr space-time. We demonstrate here that we can independently measure the black hole spin solely by using the imaging data of the in-falling blob. We then introduce a Kerr-like hole (with one additional parameter which describes a stronger or weaker frame-dragging effect than that of the Kerr hole) and apply the two different methods of spin measurement: one based on the flux variation data and the other based on the imaging data. We obtain different spin values by the different methods for the Kerr-like hole. This is because these methods are sensitive to different components of the metric. We can in this way probe the black hole space-time through the comparison of the estimated spin values; that is, if the black hole space-time is described by the Kerr metric, all of them should coincide.

  11. Modulation of the Foreign Body Reaction for Implants in the Subcutaneous Space: Microdialysis Probes as Localized Drug Delivery/Sampling Devices

    PubMed Central

    Mou, Xiaodun; Lennartz, Michelle R; Loegering, Daniel J; Stenken, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    Modulation of the foreign body reaction is considered to be an important step toward creation of implanted sensors with reliable long-term performance. In this work, microdialysis probes were implanted into the subcutaneous space of Sprague-Dawley rats. The probe performance was evaluated by comparing collected endogenous glucose concentrations with internal standard calibration (2-deoxyglucose, antipyrine, and vitamin B12). Probes were tested until failure, which for this work was defined as loss of fluid flow. In order to determine the effect of fibrous capsule formation on probe function, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CC chemokine ligand 2 (MCP-1/CCL2) was delivered locally via the probe to increase capsule thickness and dexamethasone 21-phosphate was delivered to reduce capsule thickness. Probes delivering MCP-1 had a capsule that was twice the thickness (500–600 μm) of control probes (200–225 μm) and typically failed 2 days earlier than control probes. Probes delivering dexamethasone 21-phosphate had more fragile capsules and the probes typically failed 2 days later than controls. Unexpectedly, extraction efficiency and collected glucose concentrations exhibited minor differences between groups. This is an interesting result in that the foreign body capsule formation was related to the duration of probe function but did not consistently relate to probe calibration. PMID:21722577

  12. On whether or not voyager 1 has crossed the heliopause

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, L. A.; Gloeckler, G.

    2014-07-01

    The Voyager 1 spacecraft is currently in the vicinity of the heliopause, which separates the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium. There has been a precipitous decrease in particles accelerated in the heliosphere, and a substantial increase in galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), suggesting easy escape of the former across the heliopause, and entry of the latter. The question is, has Voyager 1 actually crossed the heliopause and is it now in the interstellar medium? We contend that the evidence is inconclusive. The direction of the magnetic field observed by Voyager 1 is unchanged from the direction of the heliospheric magnetic field, and different from the expected direction of the interstellar magnetic field. However, the plasma density, which is measured from observations of plasma waves, is similar to the expected interstellar density and much larger than the solar wind plasma density observed by Voyager 2 (which has a working plasma detector) at smaller heliocentric distances than Voyager 1. In this paper, an analytic model is presented that is based upon and is consistent with all Voyager observations, and in which the higher plasma densities measured by Voyager 1 are due simply to compressed solar wind. Thus both the magnetic field and the plasma density observations are consistent with Voyager 1 still remaining well within the heliosheath. The model has a simple test: Voyager 1 should encounter a magnetic sector boundary crossing, where the behavior of particles accelerated in the heliosphere and the GCRs will be different from what Voyager 1 is now observing.

  13. New Access and Analysis Tools for Voyager LECP Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. E.; Hill, M. E.; Decker, R. B.; Cooper, J. F.; Krimigis, S. M.; Vandegriff, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    The Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) instruments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft have been returning unique scientific measurements since launching in 1977, most notably observations from the historic tour of the giant planets. As these spacecraft continue on their exit trajectories from the Solar system they have become an interstellar mission and have begun to probe the boundary between the heliosphere and the interstellar cloud and continue to make exciting discoveries. As the mission changed from one focused on discrete encounters to an open ended search for heliospheric boundaries and transitory disturbances, the positions and timing of which are not known, the data processing needs have changed. Open data policies and the push to draw data under the umbrella of emerging Virtual Observatories have added a data sharing component that was not a part of the original mission plans. We present our work in utilizing new, reusable software analysis tools to access legacy data in a way that leverages pre-existing data analysis techniques. We took an existing Applied Physics Laboratory application, Mission Independent Data Layer (MIDL) -- developed originally under a NASA Applied Information Research Program (AISRP) and subsequently used with data from Geotail, Cassini, IMP-8, ACE, Messenger, and New Horizons -- and applied it to Voyager data. We use the MIDL codebase to automatically generate standard data products such as daily summary plots and associated tabulated data that increase our ability to monitor the heliospheric environment on a regular basis. These data products will be publicly available and updated automatically and can be analyzed by the community using the ultra portable MIDL software launched from the data distribution website. The currently available LECP data will also be described with SPASE metadata and incorporated into the emerging Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO).

  14. Sealing scientific probes against deep space and the Venusian environment A tough job

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pokras, J.; Reinert, R. P.; Switz, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus mission evolved from studies conducted during the late 1960s and early 1970s. It was found that a need existed for low cost orbiters and landers to explore the planet. The considered mission was to be accomplished with six separate vehicles arriving at Venus nearly simultaneously in mid-December 1978. The probes are designed to survive entry and descent into the atmosphere. A description is presented of the approaches used to maintain sealing integrity for the large and small probes under the constraints imposed by the harsh Venusian environment. Attention is given to probe vehicle configuration, pressure vessel sealing requirements, material and configuration considerations, permanent seals, separable seals, development problems, and aspects of seal testing.

  15. Space and time-resolved probing of heterogeneous catalysis reactions using lab-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Navin, Chelliah V; Krishna, Katla Sai; Theegala, Chandra S; Kumar, Challa S S R

    2016-03-01

    Probing catalytic reactions on a catalyst surface in real time is a major challenge. Herein, we demonstrate the utility of a continuous flow millifluidic chip reactor coated with a nanostructured gold catalyst as an effective platform for in situ investigation of the kinetics of catalytic reactions by taking 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) conversion as a model reaction. The idea conceptualized in this paper can not only dramatically change the ability to probe the time-resolved kinetics of heterogeneous catalysis reactions but also used for investigating other chemical and biological catalytic processes, thereby making this a broad platform for probing reactions as they occur within continuous flow reactors. PMID:26888331

  16. Voyager 2 plasma wave observations at Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Poynter, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The first inbound Voyager 2 crossing of Saturn's bow shock (at 31.7 Saturn radii near local noon) and the last outbound crossing (at 87.4 Saturn radii near local dawn) had similar plasma wave signatures. However, many other aspects of the plasma wave measurements differed considerably during the inbound and outbound passes, suggesting the presence of effects associated with significant north-south or noon-dawn asymmetries, or temporal variations. Within Saturn's magnetosphere, the plasma wave instrument detected electron plasma oscillations, upper hybrid resonance emissions, half-gyrofrequency harmonics, hiss and chorus, narrowband electromagnetic emissions and broadband Saturn radio noise, and noise bursts with characteristics of static. At the ring plane crossing, the plasma wave instrument also detected a large number of intense impulses that were interpreted in terms of ring particle impacts on Voyager 2.

  17. Satellite ephemerides for the Voyager Uranus encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, R. A.; Standish, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    Uranian satellite ephemerides are needed by the Voyager project to support both navigation and acquisition of scientific data. This paper presents the approach being taken to develop the ephemerides and details the initial phase of the development. That phase involves the analytical modeling of the satellites' motion and the adjustment of the model to fit astronomical observations. The paper describes the model and gives the result of a fit to 71 years of observations.

  18. Early Voyager 1 Images of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    These Jupiter photographs are part of a set taken by Voyager 1 on December 10 and 11, 1978 from a distance of 83 million km (52 million miles) or more than half the distance from the Earth to the sun. At this range, Voyager 1 is able to record more detail on the giant planet than the very best ground-based telescopes. The highest resolution ever obtained on the Jovian disk was recorded by Pioneer 11 four years ago. Voyager, however, has longer focal-length optics than Pioneer, and while nearly three months from encounter ( March 1979) was able to achieve higher resolution than that obtained by Pioneer only 24 hours from its encounter on 3 December 1974.

    Jupiter's colorful and turbulent atmosphere is evident in these photographs. The entire visible surface of the planet is made up of multiple layers of clouds, composed primarily of ammonia ice crystals colored by small amounts of materials of unknown composition. The Great Red Spot, seen to the lower left of 2 and lower right of 3, is now recovering from a period of relative inconspicuousness. An atmospheric system larger than the Earth and more than 100 years old, the Great Red Spot remains a mystery and a challenge to Voyager instruments. A bright convective cloud (center of and right of center in 4) displays a plume which has been swept westward (to the left) by local currents in the planet's equatorial wind system.

    Below and to the left and right of the Great Red Spot are a pair of white oval clouds; a third can be seen in 1. All three were formed almost 40 years ago and are the second oldest class of discrete features identified in the Jovian atmosphere.

    Each of the pictures was produced from blue, green, and orange originals in JPL's Image Processing Laboratory.

  19. New local interstellar spectra for protons, helium and carbon derived from PAMELA and Voyager 1 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisschoff, D.; Potgieter, M. S.

    2016-02-01

    With the cosmic ray observations made by the Voyager 1 spacecraft outside the dominant modulating influence of the heliosphere, the comparison of computed galactic spectra with experimental data at lower energies is finally possible. Spectra for specifically protons, helium and carbon nuclei, computed by galactic propagation models, can now be compared with observations at low energies from Voyager 1 and at high energies from the PAMELA space detector at Earth. We set out to reproduce the Voyager 1 observations in the energy range of 6 MeV/nuc to 60 MeV/nuc, and the PAMELA spectrum above 50 GeV/nuc, using the GALPROP code, similarly to our previous study for Voyager 1 electrons. By varying the galactic diffusion parameters in the GALPROP plain diffusion model, specifically the rigidity dependence of spatial diffusion, and then including reacceleration, we compute spectra simultaneously for galactic protons, helium and carbon. We present new local interstellar spectra, with expressions for the energy range of 3 MeV/nuc to 100 GeV/nuc, which should be of value for solar modulation modeling.

  20. Voyager 2 Movie of Saturn's Moon: Phoebe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Voyager 2 took this photo sequence of Saturn's outer satellite, Phoebe, on Sept. 4, 1981, from 2.2 million kilometers (1.36 million miles) away. The top image is the normal version and the bottom is an enhanced version to increase resolution. This sequence lasts 23.4 hours and contains 35 images. The early images were taken about 43 minutes apart, while the later ones are about 29 minutes apart. There are two significant gaps in the sequence: images 7 and 8 are separated by 2.3 hours and images 19 and 20 are separated by 2.8 hours.

    Because the sunlight is coming from the left, mountains and ridges can best be seen as they reflect the sunlight near the terminator (right side of Phoebe). Other intrinsically bright spots can be seen rotating across the whole disk. In this time-lapse sequence, Phoebe appears to be a lumpy spheroid with possible large mountains sometimes showing on the limb (left side of Phoebe). The photos show that Phoebe is about 220 kilometers (132 miles) in diameter. Its rotation period (length of day) was determined from this set of images to be 9.4 hours (see Thomas, P., et al, 'Phoebe: Voyager 2 Observations', Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 88, p. 8736, 1 November 1983).

    These images were processed by the Multimission Image Processing Laboratory of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Voyager Project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  1. Magnetic field studies at Jupiter by Voyager 1 - Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, N. F.; Acuna, M. H.; Lepping, R. P.; Burlaga, L. F.; Behannon, K. W.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1979-01-01

    Results obtained by the Goddard Space Flight Center magnetometers on Voyager 1 are described. These results concern the large-scale configuration of the Jovian bow shock and magnetopause, and the magnetic field in both the inner and outer magnetosphere. There is evidence that a magnetic tail extending away from the planet on the nightside is formed by the solar wind-Jovian field interaction. This is much like earth's magnetosphere but is a new configuration for Jupiter's magnetosphere not previously considered from earlier Pioneer data. The analysis and interpretation of magnetic field perturbations associated with intense electrical currents (approximately 5 million amperes) flowing near or in the magnetic flux tube linking Jupiter with the satellite Io and induced by the relative motion between Io and the corotating Jovian magnetosphere are reported. These currents may be an important source of heating the ionosphere and interior of Io through Joule dissipation.

  2. Magnetic field studies at Jupiter by Voyager 1: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, N. F.; Acuna, M. H.; Lepping, R. P.; Burlaga, L. F.; Behannon, K. W.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1979-01-01

    Results obtained by the Goddard Space Flight Center magnetometers on Voyager 1 concerning the large scale configuration of the Jovian bow shock and magnetopause, and the magnetic field in both the inner and outer magnetosphere are highlighted. There is evidence that a magnetic tail extending away from the planet on the nightside is formed by the solar wind-Jovian field interaction. This is much like Earth's magnetosphere but is a new configuration for Jupiter's magnetosphere not previously considered from earlier Pioneer data. Magnetic field perturbations associated with intense electrical currents (approximately 5 x 10 to the 6th power amps) flowing near or in the magnetic flux tube linking Jupiter with the satellite Io and induced by the relative motion between Io and the co-rotating Jovian magnetosphere are analyzed and interpreted. These currents may be an important source of heating the ionosphere and interior of Io through Joule dissipation.

  3. Energetic charged particles in Saturn's magnetosphere - Voyager 1 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, R. E.; Chenette, D. L.; Cummings, A. C.; Garrard, T. L.; Stone, E. C.; Schardt, A. W.; Trainor, J. H.; Lail, N.; Mcdonald, F. B.

    1981-01-01

    Voyager 1 provided the first look at Saturn's magnetotail and magnetosphere during relatively quiet interplanetary conditions. This report discusses the energetic particle populations of the outer magnetosphere of Saturn and absorption features associated with Titan and Rhea, and compares these observations with Pioneer 11 data of a year earlier. The trapped proton fluxes had soft spectra, represented by power laws in kinetic energy with an exponent of 7 in the outer magnetosphere and 9 in the magnetotail. Structure associated with the magnetotail was observed as close as 10 Saturn radii on the outbound trajectory. The proton and electron fluxes in the outer magnetosphere and in the magnetotail were variable and appeared to respond to changes in interplanetary conditions. Protons with energies greater than or approximately equal to 2 MeV had free access to the magnetosphere from interplanetary space and were not stably trapped outside about 7.5 Saturn radii.

  4. Plasma observations near Uranus - Initial results from Voyager 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridge, H. S.; Belcher, J. W.; Coppi, B.; Lazarus, A. J.; Mcnutt, R. L., Jr.; Olbert, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Wolfe, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    The results of observations of the spatial distribution and physical properties of the space plasma near Uranus with instrumentation on board Voyager 2 are described. The data revealed the existence of a magnetosphere that held a warm component with a temperature of 4-50 eV and a peak density of 2 protons/cu cm and a hot component with a temperature of a few electron volts and a density of about 0.1 proton/cu cm. Only the warm component was observed within the L shell. The numerous crossings made of the plasma sheet in the magnetotail were at locations which suggested that the magnetotail has a geometric structure similar to that of the earth magnetotail. Finally, possible sources of the magnetospheric plasma particles are discussed.

  5. 1958 NASA/USAF Space Probes (ABLE-1). Volume 3; Vehicles, Trajectories, and Flight Histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    The three NASA/USAF lunar probes of August 17, October 13, and November 8, 1958 are described. Details of the program, the vehicles, the payloads, the firings, the tracking, and the results are presented. Principal result was the first experimental verification of a confined radiation zone of the type postulated by Van Allen and others.

  6. Gravity Probe B: Examining Einstein's Spacetime with Gyroscopes. An Educator's Guide with Activities in Space Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Range, Shannon K'doah; Mullins, Jennifer

    This teaching guide introduces a relativity gyroscope experiment aiming to test two unverified predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. An introduction to the theory includes the following sections: (1) "Spacetime, Curved Spacetime, and Frame-Dragging"; (2) "'Seeing' Spacetime with Gyroscopes"; (3) "The Gravity Probe B…

  7. 1958 NASA/USAF Space Probes (ABLE-1). Volume 2; Payload and Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    The three NASA/USAF lunar probes of August 17, October 13, and November 8, 1958 are described. Details of the program, the vehicles, the payloads, the firings, the tracking, and the results are presented. Principal result was the first experimental verification of a confined radiation zone of the type postulated by Van Allen and others.

  8. Accurate shape description of flexible beam undergoing oblique impact based on space probe-cone docking mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang; Huang, Yiyong; Han, Wei; Chen, Xiaoqian

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to do some researches on the accurate shape description of flexible beam undergoing oblique impact based on space probe-cone docking mechanism. The docking dynamics model is built based on Lagrange analytical method. Accurate modal equations of rigid-flexible coupling system, which include modified modal equations and modal frequencies, are derived. The MSC.Patran/Dytran is introduced to be the simulation tool. Third models with different parameters are built by both theoretical method and finite element method to verify the correctness of the new modal equations of rigid-flexible coupling system.

  9. Fiber-Optic Imaging Probe Developed for Space Used to Detect Diabetes Through the Eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Chenault, Michelle V.; Datiles, Manuel B., III; Sebag, J.; Suh, Kwang I.

    2000-01-01

    Approximately 16 million Americans have diabetes mellitus, which can severely impair eyesight by causing cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Cataracts are 1.6 times more common in people with diabetes than in those without diabetes, and cataract extraction is the only surgical treatment. In many cases, diabetes-related ocular pathologies go undiagnosed until visual function is compromised. This ongoing pilot project seeks to study the progression of diabetes in a unique animal model by monitoring changes in the lens with a safe, sensitive, dynamic light-scattering probe. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), has the potential to diagnose cataracts at the molecular level. Recently, a new DLS fiber-optic probe was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field for noncontact, accurate, and extremely sensitive particle-sizing measurements in fluid dispersions and suspensions (ref. 1). This compact, portable, and rugged probe is free of optical alignment, offers point-and-shoot operation for various online field applications and challenging environments, and yet is extremely flexible in regards to sample container sizes, materials, and shapes. No external vibration isolation and no index matching are required. It can measure particles as small as 1 nm and as large as few micrometers in a wide concentration range from very dilute (waterlike) dispersions to very turbid (milklike) suspensions. It is safe and fast to use, since it only requires very low laser power (10 nW to 3 mW) with very short data acquisition times (2 to 10 sec).

  10. The Use of Langmuir Probes in Non-Maxwellian Space Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoegy, Walter R.; Brace, Larry H.

    1998-01-01

    Disturbance of the Maxwellian plasma may occur in the vicinity of a spacecraft due to photoemission, interactions between the spacecraft and thermospheric gases, or electron emissions from other devices on the spacecraft. Significant non-maxwellian plasma distributions may also occur in nature as a mixture of ionospheric and magnetospheric plasmas or secondaries produced by photoionization in the thermosphere or auroral precipitation. The general formulas for current collection (volt-ampere curves) by planar, cylindrical, and spherical Langmuir probes in isotropic and anisotropic non-maxwellian plasmas are examined. Examples are given of how one may identify and remove the non-maxwellian components in the Langmuir probe current to permit the ionospheric parameters to be determined. Theoretical volt-ampere curves presented for typical examples of non-maxwellian distributions include: two-temperature plasmas and a thermal plasma with an energetic electron beam. If the non-ionospheric electrons are Maxwellian at a temperature distinct from that of the ionosphere electrons, the volt-ampere curves can be fitted directly to obtain the temperatures and densities of both electron components without resorting to differenting the current. For an arbitrary isotropic distribution, the current for retarded particles is shown to be identical for the three geometries. For anisotropic distributions, the three probe geometries are not equally suited for measuring the ionospheric electron temperature and density or for determining the distribution function in the presence of non-maxwellian back-round electrons.

  11. Ultrahigh-energy photons as probes of Lorentz symmetry violations in stringy space-time foam models.

    PubMed

    Maccione, Luca; Liberati, Stefano; Sigl, Günter

    2010-07-01

    The time delays between γ rays of different energies from extragalactic sources have often been used to probe quantum gravity models in which Lorentz symmetry is violated. It has been claimed that these time delays can be explained by or at least put the strongest available constraints on quantum gravity scenarios that cannot be cast within an effective field theory framework, such as the space-time foam, D-brane model. Here we show that this model would predict too many photons in the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray flux to be consistent with observations. The resulting constraints on the space-time foam model are much stronger than limits from time delays and allow for Lorentz violation effects way too small for explaining the observed time delays. PMID:20867696

  12. Radial space potential measurements in the central cell of the tandem mirror experiment with a heavy-ion-beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Hallock, G.A.

    1983-04-11

    Spatial and temporal profiles of the space potential in the central-cell midplane of TMX have been obtained with a heavy-ion-beam probe. The absolute accuracy of measurements is +- 25 volts (with respect to the machine vacuum walls) with a resolution of approx. 2 volts. During moderate fueling with the gas boxes (i/sub gas/ approx. = 1200 Atom-Amperes D/sub 2/), the plasma potential is parabolic to at least 25 cm radius, with phi/sub e/ approx. = phi/sub max/(1-(r/32)/sup 2/) and 300 < phi/sub max/ <450 volts. With puffer-valve fueling, the space potential is relatively flat to at least 27 cm radius, with 250 < phi/sub e/ < 350 volts.

  13. The Global Positioning System constellation as a space weather monitor: Comparison of electron measurements with Van Allen Probes data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, Steven K.; Sullivan, John P.; Henderson, Michael G.; Blake, J. Bernard; Baker, Daniel N.

    2016-02-01

    Energetic electron observations in Earth's radiation belts are typically sparse, and multipoint studies often rely on serendipitous conjunctions. This paper establishes the scientific utility of the Combined X-ray Dosimeter (CXD), currently flown on 19 satellites in the Global Positioning System (GPS) constellation, by cross-calibrating energetic electron measurements against data from the Van Allen Probes. By breaking our cross calibration into two parts—one that removes any spectral assumptions from the CXD flux calculation and one that compares the energy spectra—we first validate the modeled instrument response functions, then the calculated electron fluxes. Unlike previous forward modeling of energetic electron spectra, we use a combination of four distributions that together capture a wide range of observed spectral shapes. Our two-step approach allowed us to identify, and correct for, small systematic offsets between block IIR and IIF satellites. Using the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer and Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope on Van Allen Probes as a "gold standard," we demonstrate that the CXD instruments are well understood. A robust statistical analysis shows that CXD and Van Allen Probes fluxes are similar and the measured fluxes from CXD are typically within a factor of 2 of Van Allen Probes at energies ≲4 MeV. We present data from 17 CXD-equipped GPS satellites covering the 2015 "St. Patrick's Day" geomagnetic storm to illustrate the scientific applications of such a high data density satellite constellation and therefore demonstrate that the GPS constellation is positioned to enable new insights in inner magnetospheric physics and space weather forecasting.

  14. The Global Positioning System constellation as a space weather monitor. Comparison of electron measurements with Van Allen Probes data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Morley, Steven K.; Sullivan, John P.; Henderson, Michael G.; Blake, J. Bernard; Baker, Daniel N.

    2016-02-06

    Energetic electron observations in Earth's radiation belts are typically sparse, and multipoint studies often rely on serendipitous conjunctions. This paper establishes the scientific utility of the Combined X-ray Dosimeter (CXD), currently flown on 19 satellites in the Global Positioning System (GPS) constellation, by cross-calibrating energetic electron measurements against data from the Van Allen Probes. By breaking our cross calibration into two parts—one that removes any spectral assumptions from the CXD flux calculation and one that compares the energy spectra—we first validate the modeled instrument response functions, then the calculated electron fluxes. Unlike previous forward modeling of energetic electron spectra, wemore » use a combination of four distributions that together capture a wide range of observed spectral shapes. Moreover, our two-step approach allowed us to identify, and correct for, small systematic offsets between block IIR and IIF satellites. Using the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer and Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope on Van Allen Probes as a “gold standard,” here we demonstrate that the CXD instruments are well understood. A robust statistical analysis shows that CXD and Van Allen Probes fluxes are similar and the measured fluxes from CXD are typically within a factor of 2 of Van Allen Probes at energies inline image4 MeV. Our team present data from 17 CXD-equipped GPS satellites covering the 2015 “St. Patrick's Day” geomagnetic storm to illustrate the scientific applications of such a high data density satellite constellation and therefore demonstrate that the GPS constellation is positioned to enable new insights in inner magnetospheric physics and space weather forecasting.« less

  15. Improvements in Electron-Probe Microanalysis: Applications to Terrestrial, Extraterrestrial, and Space-Grown Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Paul; Armstrong, John

    2004-01-01

    Improvement in the accuracy of electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) has been accomplished by critical assessment of standards, correction algorithms, and mass absorption coefficient data sets. Experimental measurement of relative x-ray intensities at multiple accelerating potential highlights errors in the absorption coefficient. The factor method has been applied to the evaluation of systematic errors in the analysis of semiconductor and silicate minds. Accurate EPMA of Martian soil stimulant is necessary in studies that build on Martian rover data in anticipation of missions to Mars.

  16. Study of sensor positioning in the space for probe abdominal echographics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taleb-Ahmed, Abdelmalik; Duquenoy, Eric; Frere, Philippe; Beral, Y.

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes an ultrasonic spatial localization system for a sonometric probe, to build 3D images of a fetus. The main objective of such a system is a medical diagnostic help. A method to improve accuracy of ultrasonic telemeter is developed and gives us encouraging results. We arrive to measure a distance with accuracy around 0.6 mm for 1.5 meters ranging. To aim a localization accuracy less than 0.1 mm, we work on this system with better techniques like programmable analogic device and numerical systems.

  17. Voyages to the Planets + 2001 Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, Andrew; Morrison, David; Wolff, Sidney

    Includes introductory material on the sky, radiation, & telescopes then covers just our solar system and planets elsewhere. This book is written in friendly, accessible language. The Voyages books feature down-to-earth analogies, superb full-color diagrams and images, and even occasional touches of humor. This is a book people all around the country are turning to with pleasure. The book integrates recent results into the full story of astronomy. Authors include an award-winning astronomy educator and two distinguished research scientists.

  18. Sequencing Voyager II for the Uranus encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    The process of developing the programmed sequence of events necessary for the Voyager 2 spacecraft to return desired data from its Uranus encounter is discussed. The major steps in the sequence process are reviewed, and the elements of the Mission Sequence Software are described. The design phase and the implementation phase of the sequence process are discussed, and the Computer Command Subsystem architecture is examined in detail. The software's role in constructing the sequences and converting them into onboard programs is elucidated, and the problems unique to the Uranus encounter sequences are considered.

  19. Voyager flight engineering preparations for Neptune encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, L. J.; Savary, K. E.

    1988-01-01

    Voyager 2 will make the first close observations of the planet Neptune, during the period from June 1 to October 1,1989. A number of flight engineering activities are being conducted in preparation for the encounter. This paper discusses the most significant of these activities: new image motion compensation techniques, attitude control system changes, new exposure capabilities, new data handling capabilities, radiation protection measures, and new navigation methods. In addition, the process of performing late sequence updates is discussed. An overview of the Neptune mission is also presented.

  20. Voyager imaging of Triton's clouds and hazes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rages, Kathy; Pollack, James B.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from a detailed analysis of Voyager images of Triton obtained at the highest solar phase angles; these have been fit to Mie scattering models in order to obtain the mean particle sizes, number densities, and the vertical extent of the two different scattering components of the Triton atmosphere. The 0.001-0.01 optical depths of about 0.17 micron particles are vertically distributed with scale heights of about 10 km throughout Triton. A number of properties of the haze particles in question suggest that they are composed of photochemically produced gases which have condensed in the cold lower atmosphere of Triton.

  1. Satellite ephemerides for the Voyager Neptune encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the latest fits of both analytical theory and numerically integrated Neptunian satellite orbits to Earth-based astrometric observations. Ephemerides based on the integrated orbits will be used by the Voyager project for pre-encounter planning and analysis until late 1988 when the final pre-encounter ephemerides will be produced. As a by-product of the orbit fits, new estimates of the Neptune mass, the second zonal harmonic of Neptune, and the pole orientation of Neptune are obtained. The theory and integrated orbits are compared with each other and with orbits obtained by previous investigators.

  2. Spectrophotometry of Io - Preliminary Voyager 1 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, L.; Johnson, T.; Kupferman, P.; Pieri, D.; Morrison, D.; Danielson, E.; Smith, B.; Veverka, J.; Sagan, C.; Cook, A.

    1980-01-01

    Multispectral images of Io acquired with the Voyager 1 narrow-angle camera agree with earth-based spectrophotometry to better than 10%. Although the surface materials have general spectral properties similar to various allotropes of sulfur, their ultraviolet (UV) reflectances are much higher. It is likely that varying amounts of SO2 frost mixed with or absorbed on sulfur-rich materials raises the UV reflectance. The possible association with large amounts of SO2 with low temperature forms of sulfur in the white patches on Io is consistent with Io surface models in which SO2 and S exist in thermally stable stratified zones.

  3. The Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.

    1987-01-01

    The instruments and science investigations of the Voyager 2 payload are listed in tables and illustrated with a drawing, and a general overview of the encounter with Uranus in January 1986 is given. The spacecraft approached to within 107,100 km of the center of Uranus, and to within 29,000 km of the Uranian satellite Miranda before continuing on for an encounter with Neptune in 1989; the trajectory also permitted radio occultation studies of the Uranian rings and radio and UV occultation studies of the planet's atmosphere. Diagrams of the trajectory are provided.

  4. Probing Galaxy Formation and Evolution with Space Born Sub-Millimeter Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.; Moseley, Harvey; Benford, Dominic; Shafer, Richard; Mather, John; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A major unresolved question in cosmology is how the complex system of galaxies we see in the present universe evolved from an almost perfectly smooth beginning. Multiwavelength observations of galaxies have revealed that a significant fraction of their UV-visible starlight is absorbed and reradiated by dust at infrared JR) and submillimeter wavelengths. The cumulative IR-submm. emission from galaxies since the epoch of recombination, the cosmic IR background, has recently been recorded by the COBE satellite. The COBE observations in combination with recent submm surveys conducted with the SCUBA on the 15 m JCMT have shown that most of the radiation from star formation that has taken place in the early stages of galaxy evolution is reradiated by dust at submm wavelengths. Therefore, submm telescopes offer a unique probe of the early stages of galaxy formation and evolution. This talk will: (1) consider the impact of telescope diameter on the depth of the survey (what redshift can be probed) at different wavelengths; (2) discuss the relative scientific merits of high-resolution narrow-field surveys versus lower resolution deep surveys; and (3) show how both strategies offer complementary information crucial to our understanding of the structure and evolution of galaxies in the universe.

  5. Amateur Radio Communications with a Deep Space Probe (Yes, It's Possible)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudnik, Brian; Rahman, Mahmudur; Saganti, Seth; Erickson, Gary M.; Saganti, Premkumar

    2015-05-01

    Prairie View A&M University through the collaboration with NASA-Johnson Space Center has partnered with the Kyushu Institute of Technology (KIT), Japan and developed a payload for the Shinen-2 spacecraft that was launched from Japan on December 3, 2014 as part of the Hayabusa2 mission. The main purpose of the Shinen-2 spacecraft is deep space communication experiment to test the feasibility of deep-space radio communications from the spacecraft to Earth without the need of the Deep Space Network (DSN) of NASA. This presents an opportunity to the wider community of amateur astronomers, ham radio operators, and other research personnel in that they will have the opportunity to work with deep space communication such as Shinen-2 spacecraft. It should be possible to detect a signal as an increased strength from Shinen-2 spacecraft at a rest frequency of 437.385 MHz, using commercially available equipment procured at low-cost, when the spacecraft approaches to within 3,000,000 km of the Earth during December 2015.

  6. 33 CFR 164.80 - Tests, inspections, and voyage planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests, inspections, and voyage planning. 164.80 Section 164.80 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.80 Tests, inspections, and voyage planning. (a) The owner,...

  7. 46 CFR 188.10-35 - International voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, i.e., International voyage means a voyage from a country to which the present convention applies to a port outside such country, or conversely. (c) The International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, does not apply to vessels solely navigating the...

  8. 46 CFR 188.10-35 - International voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, i.e., International voyage means a voyage from a country to which the present convention applies to a port outside such country, or conversely. (c) The International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, does not apply to vessels solely navigating the...

  9. 46 CFR 188.10-35 - International voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, i.e., International voyage means a voyage from a country to which the present convention applies to a port outside such country, or conversely. (c) The International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, does not apply to vessels solely navigating the...

  10. 46 CFR 42.05-45 - International voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... such country, or conversely. For this purpose, every territory for the international relations of which... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International voyage. 42.05-45 Section 42.05-45 Shipping... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-45 International voyage. (a) The term...

  11. 46 CFR 42.05-45 - International voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... such country, or conversely. For this purpose, every territory for the international relations of which... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International voyage. 42.05-45 Section 42.05-45 Shipping... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-45 International voyage. (a) The term...

  12. 46 CFR 42.05-45 - International voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... such country, or conversely. For this purpose, every territory for the international relations of which... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International voyage. 42.05-45 Section 42.05-45 Shipping... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-45 International voyage. (a) The term...

  13. Probing phase-space noncommutativity through quantum mechanics and thermodynamics of free particles and quantum rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Jonas F. G.; Bernardini, Alex E.; Bastos, Catarina

    2015-11-01

    Novel quantization properties related to the state vectors and the energy spectrum of a two-dimensional system of free particles are obtained in the framework of noncommutative (NC) quantum mechanics (QM) supported by the Weyl-Wigner formalism. Besides reproducing the magnetic field aspect of a Zeeman-like effect, the momentum space NC parameter introduces mutual information properties quantified by the quantum purity related to the relevant coordinates of the corresponding Hilbert space. Supported by the QM in the phase-space, the thermodynamic limit is obtained, and the results are extended to three-dimensional systems. The noncommutativity imprints on the thermodynamic variables related to free particles are identified and, after introducing some suitable constraints to fix an axial symmetry, the analysis is extended to two- and- three dimensional quantum rotor systems, for which the quantization aspects and the deviation from standard QM results are verified.

  14. Considerations Affecting Satellite and Space Probe Research with Emphasis on the "Scout" as a Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, Jack (Editor)

    1961-01-01

    This report reviews a number of the factors which influence space flight experiments. Included are discussions of payload considerations, payload design and packaging, environmental tests, launch facilities, tracking and telemetry requirements, data acquisition, processing and analysis procedures, communication of information, and project management. Particular emphasis is placed on the "Scout" as a launching vehicle. The document includes a description of the geometry of the "Scout" as well as its flight capabilities and limitations. Although oriented toward the "Scout" vehicle and its payload capabilities, the information presented is sufficiently general to be equally applicable to most space vehicle systems.

  15. Real-Space Imaging of Molecular Structure by Single-Molecule Inelastic Tunneling Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhumin; Chiang, Chi-Lun; Xu, Chen; Ho, Wilson

    2014-03-01

    The scanning tunneling microscope is one of the most powerful tools to perform real space imaging of the electronic, magnetic, optical, and vibrational signatures of a single molecule. However, the spatial distributions of these signatures do not always relate directly to the geometric structures of the molecules. In this study, a CO molecule is transferred from the surface to a STM tip. The energy and intensity of the hindered translational mode of the CO vary when the tip is scanned across an adsorbed molecule (such as cobalt phthalocyanine). By monitoring these variations in space, we are able to resolve the geometric structure of the molecule and even subtle intramolecular and intermolecular interactions.

  16. Probing the interstellar medium in early-type galaxies with Infrared Space Oberservatory observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malhotra, S.; Hollenbach, D.; Helou, D.; Silbermann, N.; Valjavec, E.; Rubin, R.; Dale, D.; Hunter, D.; Lu, N.; Lord, S.; Dinerstein, H.; Thronson, H.

    2000-01-01

    Four IRAS-detected early-type galaxies were observed with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). With the exception of the 15 mu m image of NGC 1052, the mid-IR images of NGC 1052, NGC 1155, NGC 5866, and NGC 6958 at 4.5, 7, and 15 mu m show extended emission.

  17. Photons with sub-Planckian energy cannot efficiently probe space-time foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanbei; Wen, Linqing; Ma, Yiqiu

    2014-09-01

    Extra-galactic sources of photons have been used to constrain space-time quantum fluctuations in the Universe. In these proposals, the fundamental "fuzziness" of distance caused by space-time quantum fluctuations has been directly identified with fluctuations in optical paths. Phase-front corrugations deduced from these optical-path fluctuations are then applied to light from extra-galactic point sources, and used to constrain various models of quantum gravity. However, when a photon propagates in three spatial dimensions, it does not follow a specific ray, but rather samples a finite, three-dimensional region around that ray—thereby averaging over space-time quantum fluctuations all through that region. We use a simple, random-walk type model to demonstrate that, once the appropriate wave optics is applied, the averaging of neighboring space-time fluctuations will cause much less distortion to the phase front. In our model, the extra suppression factor due to diffraction is the wave length in units of the Planck length, which is at least 1029 for astronomical observations.

  18. The Role Played by Space-based Probes in our Understanding of the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchetto, Ferdinando Duccio

    Over the last fifteen years a growing fleet of modern space-based astronomical telescopes has changed drastically our view of the universe. Most of these accomplishments build upon the work of ground-based astronomers over many decades, or even centuries. The combination of telescopes observing the universe at many different wavelengths has converted many prior hypotheses, for which supporting empirical data were scant, ambiguous and painfully difficult to obtain, into clearly and decisively demonstrated truth. But space observatories have gone well beyond that. In particular the Hubble Space Telescope with its combination of sharp images and deep dynamic range, has provided a detailed view of the unimagined complexity and diversity of the universe, as well as its startling beauty. It has yielded numerous surprises and raised new fundamental questions on the basic structure and laws that govern the universe. To answer these questions will require the efforts of ground-based and new space-based observatories working in combined programs over many years. In my talk I will illustrate some of the key discoveries that these space-based observatories have made such as: the deep imaging the distant universe; the calibration of the distance scale and the determination of the age of the universe; the discovery of the acceleration of the expansion rate of the universe, which requires a "dark energy" or new physics to explain it; the detection and measurement of supermassive black holes and the solution to the long standing problem of the nature of Quasars; the solution to the problem of whether Gamma Ray sources originated in our galaxy or at cosmological distances; the renewed interest in the problem of the birth of Stars and the formation of Planetary Systems; the death of Stars and the formation of supernovae, black holes and neutron stars and last but not least the exciting studies of the planets and satellites in our own dynamic solar system

  19. The near real time image navigation of pictures returned by Voyager 2 at Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Ian M.; Bachman, Nathaniel J.; Taber, William L.; Wang, Tseng-Chan; Acton, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a process for performing image navigation in near real time is described. The process was used to accurately determine the camera pointing for pictures returned by the Voyager 2 spacecraft at Neptune Encounter. Image navigation improves knowledge of the pointing of an imaging instrument at a particular epoch by correlating the spacecraft-relative locations of target bodies in inertial space with the locations of their images in a picture taken at that epoch. More than 8,500 pictures returned by Voyager 2 at Neptune were processed in near real time. The results were used in several applications, including improving pointing knowledge for nonimaging instruments ('C-smithing'), making 'Neptune, the Movie', and providing immediate access to geometrical quantities similar to those traditionally supplied in the Supplementary Experiment Data Record.

  20. Voyager 1 evidence for ion-cyclotron instability in the vicinity of the Io plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, R. M.; Scarf, F. L.

    1984-01-01

    The Voyager 1 traversal of the Io plasma torus was marked by pronounced enhancement in low frequency wave activity with especially strong wave intensification below the proton gyrofrequency, suggesting the excitation of ion-cyclotron waves over the same radial range in which the energetic ring current ions exhibit phase space density depletion due to strong pitch angle scattering loss to the atmosphere. If the more intense emissions observed intermittently by Voyager 1 are representative of waves in the high latitude source region, the resulting pitch angle scattering would be sufficiently rapid to explain the observed energetic ion losses and the excitation of intense Jovian auroral emissions of field lines passing through the torus.

  1. A comment on "the far future of exoplanet direct characterization"--the case for interstellar space probes.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Ian A

    2010-10-01

    Following on from ideas presented in a recent paper by Schneider et al. on "The Far Future of Exoplanet Direct Characterization," I argue that they have exaggerated the technical obstacles to performing such "direct characterization" by means of fast (order 0.1c) interstellar space probes. A brief summary of rapid interstellar spaceflight concepts that may be found in the literature is presented. I argue that the presence of interstellar dust grains, while certainly something that will need to be allowed for in interstellar vehicle design, is unlikely to be the kind of showstopper suggested by Schneider et al. Astrobiology as a discipline would be a major beneficiary of developing an interstellar spaceflight capability, albeit in the longer term, and I argue that astrobiologists should keep an open mind to the possibilities. PMID:21087164

  2. Reciprocal space XRD mapping with varied incident angle as a probe of structure variation within surface depth

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qiguang; Williams, Frances; Zhao, Xin; Reece, Charles E.; Krishnan, Mahadevan

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we used a differential-depth X-Ray diffraction Reciprocal Spacing Mapping (XRD RSM) technique to investigate the crystal quality of a variety of SRF-relevant Nb film and bulk materials. By choosing different X-ray probing depths, the RSM study successfully revealed evolution the of materials’ microstructure after different materials processes, such as energetic condensation or surface polishing. The RSM data clearly measured the materials’ crystal quality at different thickness. Through a novel differential-depth RSM technique, this study found: I. for a heteroepitaxy Nb film Nb(100)/MgO(100), the film thickening process, via a cathodic arc-discharge Nb ion deposition, created a near-perfect single crystal Nb on the surface’s top-layer; II. for a mechanically polished single-crystal bulk Nb material, the microstructure on the top surface layer is more disordered than that in-grain.

  3. Probing space charge and resolving overlimiting current mechanisms at the microchannel-nanochannel interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffbauer, Jarrod; Liel, Uri; Leibowitz, Neta; Park, Sinwook; Yossifon, Gilad

    2015-07-01

    We present results demonstrating the space charge-mediated transition between classical, diffusion-limited current and surface-conduction dominant over-limiting current in a shallow microchannel-nanochannel device. The extended space charge layer develops at the depleted microchannel-nanochannel entrance at high current and is correlated with a distinctive maximum in the dc resistance. Experimental results for a shallow surface-conduction dominated system are compared with theoretical models, allowing estimates of the effective surface charge at high voltage to be obtained. In comparison to an equilibrium estimate of the surface charge obtained from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, it is further observed that the effective surface charge appears to change under applied voltage.

  4. Probing the Allende meteorite with a miniature laser-ablation mass analyser for space application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuland, M. B.; Meyer, S.; Mezger, K.; Riedo, A.; Tulej, M.; Wurz, P.

    2014-10-01

    We measured the elemental composition on a sample of Allende meteorite with a miniature laser ablation mass spectrometer. This laser mass spectrometer (LMS) has been designed and built at the University of Bern in the Department of Space Research and Planetary Sciences with the objective of using such an instrument on a space mission. Utilising the meteorite Allende as the test sample in this study, it is demonstrated that the instrument allows the in situ determination of the elemental composition and thus mineralogy and petrology of untreated rocky samples, particularly on planetary surfaces. In total, 138 measurements of elemental compositions have been carried out on an Allende sample. The mass spectrometric data are evaluated and correlated with an optical image. It is demonstrated that by illustrating the measured elements in the form of mineralogical maps, LMS can serve as an element imaging instrument with a very high spatial resolution of μm scale. The detailed analysis also includes a mineralogical evaluation and an investigation of the volatile element content of Allende. All findings are in good agreement with published data and underline the high sensitivity, accuracy and capability of LMS as a mass analyser for space exploration.

  5. Probing the Depths of Space Weathering: A Cross-sectional View of Lunar Rock 76015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah K.; Keller, L. P.; Stroud, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    The term "space weathering" refers to the cumulative effects of several processes operating at the surface of any solar system body not protected by a thick atmosphere. These processes include cosmic and solar ray irradiation, solar wind implantation and sputtering, as well as melting and vaporization due to micrometeorite bombardment. Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. Rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain and thus record a longer history of exposure. By studying the weathering products which have built up on a rock surface, we can gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative importance of various weathering components. The weathered coating, or patina, of the lunar rock 76015 has been previously studied using SEM and TEM. It is a noritic breccia with both "glazed" (smooth glassy) and "classic" (microcratered and pancake-bearing) patina coatings. Previous TEM work on 76015 relied on ultramicrotomy to prepare cross sections of the patina coating, but these sections were limited by the "chatter" and loss of material in these brittle samples. Here we have used a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument to prepare cross sections in which the delicate stratigraphy of the patina coating is beautifully preserved.

  6. DSN radio science system design and testing for Voyager-Neptune encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, N. C.; Rebold, T. A.; Weese, J. F.

    1989-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) Radio Science System presently implemented within the Deep Space Network was designed to meet stringent requirements imposed by the demands of the Voyager-Neptune encounter and future missions. One of the initial parameters related to frequency stability is discussed. The requirement, specification, design, and methodology for measuring this parameter are described. A description of special instrumentation that was developed for the test measurements and initial test data resulting from the system tests performed at Canberra, Australia and Usuda, Japan are given.

  7. A voyage to Mars: A challenge to collaboration between man and machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C.

    1991-01-01

    A speech addressing the design of man machine systems for exploration of space beyond Earth orbit from the human factors perspective is presented. Concerns relative to the design of automated and intelligent systems for the NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions are largely based on experiences with integrating humans and comparable systems in aviation. The history, present status, and future prospect, of human factors in machine design are discussed in relation to a manned voyage to Mars. Three different cases for design philosophy are presented. The use of simulation is discussed. Recommendations for required research are given.

  8. Voyager 2 radio observations of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Evans, D. R.; Romig, J. H.; Sawyer, C. B.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Alexander, J. K.; Gulkis, S.; Poynter, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    Voyager 2 detected continuous radio signals in the 40-100 kHz interval starting from 5 days before passage of Uranus. The radio signals reached 800 kHz within 4 days of closest approach and continued throughout the outward bound phase of flight. The signals were modulated with a period close to 17.24 days, the same period calculated for the rotation of the Uranus magnetosphere with other spacecraft data. The planet was also found to have an off-center magnetic field, and radio signals were strongest when the dipole center was on the nightside of Uranus. Dynamic spectral and burst events which were recorded indicated that Uranus, like the earth, has a strongly defined plasmasphere. It moves under the control of magnetic force tubes that interact with the magnetosphere boundary, producing a variety of MHD phenomena.

  9. Color Voyager 2 Image Showing Crescent Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This image shows a crescent Uranus, a view that Earthlings never witnessed until Voyager 2 flew near and then beyond Uranus on January 24, 1986. This planet's natural blue-green color is due to the absorption of redder wavelengths in the atmosphere by traces of methane gas. Uranus' diameter is 32,500 miles, a little over four times that of Earth. The hazy blue-green atmosphere probably extends to a depth of around 5,400 miles, where it rests above what is believed to be an icy or liquid mixture (an 'ocean') of water, ammonia, methane, and other volatiles, which in turn surrounds a rocky core perhaps a little smaller than Earth.

  10. Voyager 1 Jupiter Southern Hemisphere Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows a portion of Jupiter in the southern hemisphere over 17Jupiter days. Above the white belt, notice the series of atmospheric vortices headed west. Even these early approach frames show wild dynamics in the roiling environment south of the white belt. Notice the small tumbling white cloud near the center.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 17 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). These images were acquired in the Blue filter around Feb. 1, 1979. The spacecraft was about 37 million kilometers from Jupiter at that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  11. Voyager Photometry of Saturn's A Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dones, Luke; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Showalter, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Saturn's A Ring samples a wide range of dynamical environments, from the relatively unperturbed, optically thick inner region to the outer part of the ring, which contains numerous density waves. We analyze Voyager images of the A Ring to determine how the reflectivity of different radial regions varies with lighting and viewing geometry. We model our data with a classical radiative transfer code that includes the illumination of the rings by the Sun and Saturn. The particles in the inner and mid-A Ring have Bond albedos near 0.5 and are more backscattering than satellites of comparable albedo. The region outside the Encke Gap becomes progressively less backscattering with increasing radius. Particle properties change abruptly outside the Keeler Gap; particles here have an albedo near 0.6 and a Lambert-like phase function. In contrast with previous suggestions, the abundance of free, submicrometer "dust" is small throughout the entire A Ring; this conclusion holds even in the outermost A Ring, which is strongly perturbed by density waves. Models derived from low-phase data, assuming only macroscopic particles, correctly predict the highphase reflectivity of the outer A Ring and individual strong density waves in the mid-A Ring. However, the inner and mid-A Ring are typically darker at high phase by a factor of two than our models predict. This discrepancy may be due to the reduced multiple scattering from a layer in which the particles are more closely packed. We have also studied the quadrupole azimuthal brightness asymmetry of the A Ring. The asymmetry has a full amplitude of 35% in the mid-A Ring in low-phase Voyager 2 images. We present results on its behavior and possible implications for the structure of the rings. Finally, we compare our results with studies using other data sets to synthesize our current understanding of the nature of the A Ring.

  12. The Atmospheric Circulation of a Nine-hot-Jupiter Sample: Probing Circulation and Chemistry over a Wide Phase Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataria, Tiffany; Sing, David K.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Visscher, Channon; Showman, Adam P.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Marley, Mark S.

    2016-04-01

    We present results from an atmospheric circulation study of nine hot Jupiters that compose a large transmission spectral survey using the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. These observations exhibit a range of spectral behavior over optical and infrared wavelengths, suggesting diverse cloud and haze properties in their atmospheres. By utilizing the specific system parameters for each planet, we naturally probe a wide phase space in planet radius, gravity, orbital period, and equilibrium temperature. First, we show that our model “grid” recovers trends shown in traditional parametric studies of hot Jupiters, particularly equatorial superrotation and increased day-night temperature contrast with increasing equilibrium temperature. We show how spatial temperature variations, particularly between the dayside and nightside and west and east terminators, can vary by hundreds of kelvin, which could imply large variations in Na, K, CO and {{{CH}}}4 abundances in those regions. These chemical variations can be large enough to be observed in transmission with high-resolution spectrographs, such as ESPRESSO on VLT, METIS on the E-ELT, or MIRI and NIRSpec aboard JWST. We also compare theoretical emission spectra generated from our models to available Spitzer eclipse depths for each planet and find that the outputs from our solar-metallicity, cloud-free models generally provide a good match to many of the data sets, even without additional model tuning. Although these models are cloud-free, we can use their results to understand the chemistry and dynamics that drive cloud formation in their atmospheres.

  13. k-space image correlation to probe the intracellular dynamics of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzin, M.; Sironi, L.; Chirico, G.; D'Alfonso, L.; Inverso, D.; Pallavicini, P.; Collini, M.

    2016-04-01

    The collective action of dynein, kinesin and myosin molecular motors is responsible for the intracellular active transport of cargoes, vesicles and organelles along the semi-flexible oriented filaments of the cytoskeleton. The overall mobility of the cargoes upon binding and unbinding to motor proteins can be modeled as an intermittency between Brownian diffusion in the cell cytoplasm and active ballistic excursions along actin filaments or microtubules. Such an intermittent intracellular active transport, exhibited by star-shaped gold nanoparticles (GNSs, Gold Nanostars) upon internalization in HeLa cancer cells, is investigated here by combining live-cell time-lapse confocal reflectance microscopy and the spatio-temporal correlation, in the reciprocal Fourier space, of the acquired image sequences. At first, the analytical theoretical framework for the investigation of a two-state intermittent dynamics is presented for Fourier-space Image Correlation Spectroscopy (kICS). Then simulated kICS correlation functions are employed to evaluate the influence of, and sensitivity to, all the kinetic and dynamic parameters the model involves (the transition rates between the diffusive and the active transport states, the diffusion coefficient and drift velocity of the imaged particles). The optimal procedure for the analysis of the experimental data is outlined and finally exploited to derive whole-cell maps for the parameters underlying the GNSs super-diffusive dynamics. Applied here to the GNSs subcellular trafficking, the proposed kICS analysis can be adopted for the characterization of the intracellular (super-) diffusive dynamics of any fluorescent or scattering biological macromolecule.

  14. Electron distributions in the inner Jovian magnetosphere: Voyager 1 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, G.; Armstrong, T. P.

    1993-12-01

    Using several improvements in the analysis of the observations of the Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) experiment on Voyager 1, electron phase space densities in the inner Jovian magnetosphere (5 - 10 RJ were first calculated at constant first and second invariants (represented by mu and K, respectively), based on the LECP measurements. The calculated electron phase space density profiles show that in the inner Jovian magnetosphere there exist evident time and longitude variations, energetic electron injections, and present radial transport and distributed losses. To study the radial and pitch angle diffusions of Jovian electrons, we have calculated the phase space densities in the K-L space. It is found that the electron population in the inner Jovian magnetosphere seems to consist of two components: electrons radially diffusing from a main external source and electrons generated from local sources. The radially diffusing electrons have a relatively time stationary and isotropic distribution, while the locally created electrons mainly concentrate around the equatorial plane and have relatively lower energies, in comparison with the inward diffusing electrons. Consequently, the sources of precipitation losses to the ionosphere must be primarily electrons transported from outer sources, and the major precipitations occur in the inner magnetosphere (L less than 7.5 RJ. In the inner Jovian magnetosphere (L = 5 to approximately 10 RJ) it is estimated that for electrons with magnetic moment mu = 300 MeV/G, the diffusion coefficient D is roughly 10-8 to approximately 10-6 R2J/s, and the lifetime against the diffusion losses is of the order of 104 to approximately 106 s.

  15. Tone-Based Command of Deep Space Probes using Ground Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokulic, Robert S.; Jensen, J. Robert

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses a technique for enabling the reception of spacecraft commands at received signal levels as much as three orders of magnitude below those of current deep space systems. Tone-based commanding deals with the reception of commands that are sent in the form of precise frequency offsets using an open-loop receiver. The key elements of this technique are an ultrastable oscillator and open-loop receiver onboard the spacecraft, both of which are part of the existing New Horizons (Pluto flyby) communications system design. This enables possible flight experimentation for tone-based commanding during the long cruise of the spacecraft to Pluto. In this technique, it is also necessary to accurately remove Doppler shift from the uplink signal presented to the spacecraft. A signal processor in the spacecraft performs a discrete Fourier transform on the received signal to determine the frequency of the received signal. Due to the long-term drift in the oscillators and orbit prediction model, the system is likely to be implemented differentially, where changes in the uplink frequency convey the command information.

  16. Gravity field estimation from future space missions - TOPEX/POSEIDON, Gravity Probe B, and ARISTOTELES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, Erricos C.

    Accurate knowledge of the gravity field is a firm requirement in any study of Planet Earth. Space techniques have so far demonstrated their superiority in the global mapping of the gravity field based on ground tracking and altimeter data mostly. Numerical and analytical simulation studies of the upcoming geophysically relevant missions that will most likely carry GPS receivers, indicate significant improvements in the accuracy as well as the resolution of the gravity field. TOPEX will improve by some two orders of magnitude the long wavelength part (to degree about 20), while GP-B will contribute in the long as well as medium wavelength part of the spectrum (up to degree about 60). The gradiometer measurements on ARISTOTELES will contribute in the medium and short wavelength regions (from degree 30 up); GPS tracking of the spacecraft though will provide additional information for the long wavelength gravity and will help resolve it to accuracies comparable to those obtained from GP-B. With the mean rms coefficient error per degree kept below 10 exp -10, geophysical signals such as the post-glacial rebound, tidal variations, and secular and periodic variations of the zonal field rise above the noise level and become readily observable processes.

  17. Gravity field estimation from future space missions - TOPEX/POSEIDON, Gravity Probe B, and ARISTOTELES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlis, Erricos C.

    1992-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the gravity field is a firm requirement in any study of Planet Earth. Space techniques have so far demonstrated their superiority in the global mapping of the gravity field based on ground tracking and altimeter data mostly. Numerical and analytical simulation studies of the upcoming geophysically relevant missions that will most likely carry GPS receivers, indicate significant improvements in the accuracy as well as the resolution of the gravity field. TOPEX will improve by some two orders of magnitude the long wavelength part (to degree about 20), while GP-B will contribute in the long as well as medium wavelength part of the spectrum (up to degree about 60). The gradiometer measurements on ARISTOTELES will contribute in the medium and short wavelength regions (from degree 30 up); GPS tracking of the spacecraft though will provide additional information for the long wavelength gravity and will help resolve it to accuracies comparable to those obtained from GP-B. With the mean rms coefficient error per degree kept below 10 exp -10, geophysical signals such as the post-glacial rebound, tidal variations, and secular and periodic variations of the zonal field rise above the noise level and become readily observable processes.

  18. IS VOYAGER 1 INSIDE AN INTERSTELLAR FLUX TRANSFER EVENT?

    SciTech Connect

    Schwadron, N. A.; McComas, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Plasma wave observations from Voyager 1 have recently shown large increases in plasma density, to about 0.1 cm{sup –3}, consistent with the density of the local interstellar medium. However, corresponding magnetic field observations continue to show the spiral magnetic field direction observed throughout the inner heliosheath. These apparently contradictory observations may be reconciled if Voyager 1 is inside an interstellar flux transfer event—similar to flux transfer events routinely seen at the Earth's magnetopause. If this were the case, Voyager 1 remains inside the heliopause and based on the Voyager 1 observations we can determine the polarity of the interstellar magnetic field for the first time.

  19. NASA Facts: Images of Saturn from Voyager 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Six color images of Saturn and four of her moons, acquired by Voyager 2, are presented. A brief narrative and explanatory captions, including explanations of the planet's atmosphere and rings, are presented.

  20. Voyager: Exploratory Analysis via Faceted Browsing of Visualization Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wongsuphasawat, Kanit; Moritz, Dominik; Anand, Anushka; Mackinlay, Jock; Howe, Bill; Heer, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    General visualization tools typically require manual specification of views: analysts must select data variables and then choose which transformations and visual encodings to apply. These decisions often involve both domain and visualization design expertise, and may impose a tedious specification process that impedes exploration. In this paper, we seek to complement manual chart construction with interactive navigation of a gallery of automatically-generated visualizations. We contribute Voyager, a mixed-initiative system that supports faceted browsing of recommended charts chosen according to statistical and perceptual measures. We describe Voyager's architecture, motivating design principles, and methods for generating and interacting with visualization recommendations. In a study comparing Voyager to a manual visualization specification tool, we find that Voyager facilitates exploration of previously unseen data and leads to increased data variable coverage. We then distill design implications for visualization tools, in particular the need to balance rapid exploration and targeted question-answering. PMID:26390469

  1. Saturn radio emission and the solar wind - Voyager-2 studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.; Rucker, H. O.

    1985-01-01

    Voyager 2 data from the Plasma Science experiment, the Magnetometer experiment and the Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment were used to analyze the relationship between parameters of the solar wind/interplanetary medium and the nonthermal Saturn radiation. Solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field properties were combined to form quantities known to be important in controlling terrestrial magnetospheric processes. The Voyager 2 data set used in this investigation consists of 237 days of Saturn preencounter measurements. However, due to the immersion of Saturn and the Voyager 2 spacecraft into the extended Jupiter magnetic tail, substantial periods of the time series were lacking solar wind data. To cope with this problem a superposed epoch method (CHREE analysis) was used. The results indicate the superiority of the quantities containing the solar wind density in stimulating the radio emission of Saturn - a result found earlier using Voyager 1 data - and the minor importance of quantities incorporating the interplanetary magnetic field.

  2. Voyager 1 Explores the "Magnetic Highway" - Duration: 47 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This set of animations show NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft exploring a new region in our solar system called the "magnetic highway." In this region, the sun's magnetic field lines are connected to int...

  3. Triton and Nereid astrographic observations from Voyager 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the reduced astrographic observations of Triton and Nereid derived from Voyager 2 imaging data. The data set contains 496 sets of spacecraft-centered fight ascension and declination observations and includes all of the observations used in Voyager encounter operations. The details of the conversion process from imaging to astrographic observations are given. The effect of using the astrographic rather than imaging form in ephemeris improvement is evaluated.

  4. The Voyager Spacecraft. [Jupiter-Saturn mission investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The configuration of the Voyager spacecraft is described as well as the subsystems for power, temperature control, attitude control, and propulsion. Major features of Jupiter and Saturn including their atmospheres, surfaces, and natural satellites are discussed. The 13 onboard experiments and their scientific objectives are explained. Other aspects covered include tracking, data acquisition, and the mission control and computing center. Members of the Voyager team and subcontractors are listed.

  5. Standing Alfven wave current system at Io - Voyager 1 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    The enigmatic control of the occurrence frequency of Jupiter's decametric emissions by the satellite Io has been explained theoretically on the basis of its strong electrodynamic interaction with the corotating Jovian magnetosphere leading to field-aligned currents connecting Io with the Jovian ionosphere. Direct measurements of the perturbation magnetic fields due to this current system were obtained by the Goddard Space Flight Center magnetic field experiment on Voyager 1 on March 5, 1979, when it passed within 20,500 km south of Io. An interpretation in the framework of Alfven waves radiated by Io leads to current estimates of 2.8 x 10 to the 6th A. A mass density of 7400-13,600 proton mass units/cu cm is derived, which compares very favorably with independent observations of the torus composition characterized by 7-9 proton mass units per electron for a local electron density of 1050-1500/cu cm. The power dissipated in the current system may be important for heating the Io heavy ion torus, inner magnetosphere, Jovian ionosphere, and possibly the ionosphere or even the interior of Io.

  6. In-situ exploration of planetary upper atmospheres with balloons ejected from sounding rockets and space probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielides, Michael; Griebel, Hannes; Bayler, Klaus; Herholz, J.

    Balloon missions have been used extensively on Earth to study a large variety of atmospheric characteristics and phenomena. Of primary interest are in situ temperature, pressure and density profiles and wind velocities. The first planetary balloons were flown in the mid 1980s with the Vega 1 and 2 missions to Venus. Since then, balloons have been further developed and planed for, e.g., Mars and Titan. Testing those technologies first on Earth made sense because Earths upper (neutral) atmosphere provides many similarities to Mars atmosphere. The aim of this presentation is to provide a brief overview of the current state in scientific ballooning, and in particular report on the expertise obtained through the MIRIAM (Main Inflated Re-entry Into the Atmosphere Mission Test) Mars balloon near space deployment experiments. The test ballute MIRIAM was flown on board a REXUS 4 sounding rocket from ESRANGE in northern Sweden on October 22nd, 2008. The balloon was deployed at about 140 km altitude. On board were optical instruments, magnetometers, temperature sensors and barometers for atmospheric studies. The data gathered during decent was used to validate inflation, deployment concepts and planetary balloon technologies. Based on those results a new ballute probe MIRIAM-2 is under construction. Its aim is the recording atmospheric parameters which will be then compared to Earth upper atmospheric models. Finally, we address and discuss future prospects for balloon in situ exploration of Mars atmosphere.

  7. Space and time-resolved measurements of plasma density by a lithium neutral beam probe in NBT-1M

    SciTech Connect

    Iguchi, H.; Kadota, K.; Takasugi, K.; Shoji, T.; Hosokawa, M.; Fujiwara, M.; Ikegami, H.

    1985-05-01

    A lithium neutral beam probe has been improved for space and time-resolved measurements of plasma density in NBT-1M. A lithium neutral beam (4 keV, 10--30 ..mu..A) is injected into the plasma and photon flux emitted from the injected lithium atoms by electron impact excitation is detected. This cross section is not sensitive to the electron temperature in a wide range (10 eV1 keV), where the attenuation through charge-exchange process becomes dominant. This method is not influenced by the magnetic field and can be applied to plasmas in any magnetic field configuration.

  8. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Power Systems: Enabling Technology for European Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, H. R.; Ambrosi, R. M.; Bannister, N. P.; Samara-Ratna, P.; Tinsley, T. P.; Rice, T.; Sarsfield, M. J.; Cordingley, L.; Slade, R.; Deacon, T.; Jorden, A.; Johnson, W.; Stephenson, K.

    2012-09-01

    Radioisotope power systems (RPS) have proved critical enablers for many of the most demanding space and planetary science missions. US systems, fuelled by 238Pu, have returned extraordinary science from missions such as the Pioneer and Voyager probes, Galileo (Jupiter) and Cassini (Saturn). At the time of writing, New Horizons and Mars Science Laboratory are en route to Pluto and Mars respectively and are equipped with Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). RPSs can provide electrical power to spacecraft systems independently of solar energy, permitting more capable and productive spacecraft and missions. Europe is focused on developing 241Am powered RPSs.

  9. Voyager observations of Jovian millisecond radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Voyager Planetary Radio Astronomy data collected over 30-day intervals centered on the two close encounters with Jupiter were utilized to study the characteristics of millisecond-duration radio bursts (s-bursts) at frequencies between 5 and 15 MHz. In this frequency range, s-bursts are found to occur almost independently of Central Meridian Longitude and to depend entirely on the phase of Io with respect to the observer's planetocentric line of sight. Individual bursts typically cover a total frequency range of about 1.5 to 3 MHz, and they are usually strongly circularly polarized. Most bursts in a particular s-burst storm will exhibit the same polarization sense (either right-hand or left-hand), and there is some evidence for a systematic pattern in which one polarizations sense is preferred over the other as a function of Io phase and Central Meridian Longitude. These data are all suggestive of a radio source that is located along the instantaneous Io flux tube and that extends over a linear dimension of 5000 km along the field lines in both the northern and southern Hemispheres.

  10. Voyager observations of Jovian millisecond radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Voyager Planetary Radio Astronomy data collected over 30-day intervals centered on the two close encounters with Jupiter were utilized to study the characteristics of millisecond-duration radio bursts (s-bursts) at frequencies between 5 and 15 MHz. In this frequency range, s-bursts are found to occur almost independently of Central Meridian Longitude and to depend entirely on the phase of Io with respect to the observer's planetocentric line of sight. Individual bursts typically cover a total frequency range of about 1.5 to 3 MHz, and they are usually strongly circularly polarized. Most bursts in a particular s-burst storm will exhibit the same polarization sense (either right-hand or left-hand), and there is some evidence for a systematic pattern in which one polarizations sense is preferred over the other as a function of Io phase and Central Meridian Longitude. These data are all suggestive of a radio source that is located along the instantaneous Io flux tube and that extends over a linear dimension of 5000 km along the field lines in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Previously announced in STAR as N84-17109

  11. Voyager spacecraft images of Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnbaum, M. M.

    1982-01-01

    The Voyager imaging system is described, noting that it is made up of a narrow-angle and a wide-angle TV camera, each in turn consisting of optics, a filter wheel and shutter assembly, a vidicon tube, and an electronics subsystem. The narrow-angle camera has a focal length of 1500 mm; its field of view is 0.42 deg and its focal ratio is f/8.5. For the wide-angle camera, the focal length is 200 mm, the field of view 3.2 deg, and the focal ratio of f/3.5. Images are exposed by each camera through one of eight filters in the filter wheel on the photoconductive surface of a magnetically focused and deflected vidicon having a diameter of 25 mm. The vidicon storage surface (target) is a selenium-sulfur film having an active area of 11.14 x 11.14 mm; it holds a frame consisting of 800 lines with 800 picture elements per line. Pictures of Jupiter, Saturn, and their moons are presented, with short descriptions given of the area being viewed.

  12. New Voyager radio spectrograms of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.; Tsintikidis, D.

    1990-01-01

    New, high-resolution spectrograms of the Voyager-2 radio observations at Uranus were produced from the original, six-second Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) data and these show a number of new features which were not obvious in previous versions. Among these new features are the detailed structure of the so-called broadband-bursty (b-bursty) emissions, unexpected sloping striations in the smooth high-frequency (SHF) component, and the overlap of these two components during the first rotation after closest approach. In addition, a slightly different planetary rotation rate from the b-bursty emissions, was found, and at the initial onset of the SHF component, what appears to be the shadow of a Uranian plasmasphere. These new spectrograms were prepared using a special dithering algorithm to show signal strengths as gray shadings, and the data were also manually cleaned to suppress noise and interference. This produced spectrograms of exceptional quality and certain details of their production on a stand-alone personal computer are also discussed.

  13. Plasma electron analysis: Voyager plasma science experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The Plasma Science Experiment (PLS) on the Voyager spacecraft provide data on the plasma ions and electrons in the interplanetary medium and the magnetospheres of the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn. A description of the analysis used to obtain electron parameters (density, temperature, etc.) from the plasma science experiment PLS electron measurements which cover the energy range from 10 eV to 5950 eV is presented. The electron sensor (D cup) and its transmission characteristics are described. A derivation of the fundamental analytical expression of the reduced distribution function F(e) is given. The electron distribution function F(e), used in the moment integrations, can be derived from F(e). Positive ions produce a correction current (ion feedthrough) to the measured electron current, which can be important to the measurements of the suprathermal electron component. In the case of Saturn, this correction current, which can either add to or subtract from the measured electron current, is less than 20% of the measured signal at all times. Comments about the corrections introduced by spacecraft charging to the Saturn encounter data, which can be important in regions of high density and shadow when the spacecraft can become negatively charged are introduced.

  14. Parkes radio science system design and testing for Voyager Neptune encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebold, T. A.; Weese, J. F.

    1989-01-01

    The Radio Science System installed at Parkes, Australia for the Voyager Neptune encounter was specified to meet the same stringent requirements that were imposed upon the Deep Space Network Radio Science System. The system design and test methodology employed to meet these requirements at Parkes are described, and data showing the measured performance of the system are presented. The results indicate that the system operates with a comfortable margin on the requirements. There was a minor problem with frequency-dependent spurious signals which could not be fixed before the encounter. Test results characterizing these spurious signals are included.

  15. Voyager investigation of the cosmic diffuse background: Observations of rocket-studied locations with Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Richard C.

    1994-01-01

    Attachments to this final report include 2 papers connected with the Voyager work: 'Voyager Observations of Dust Scattering Near the Coalsack Nebula' and 'Search for the Intergalactic Medium'. An appendix of 12 one-page write-ups prepared in connection with another program, UVISI, is also included. The one-page write-ups are: (1) Sky survey of UV point sources to 600 times fainter than previous (TD-1) survey; (2) Diffuse galactic light: starlight scattered from dust at high galactic latitude; (3) Optical properties of interstellar grains; (4) Fluorescence of molecular hydrogen in the interstellar medium; (5) Line emission from hot interstellar medium and/or hot halo of galaxy; (6) Integrated light of distant galaxies in the ultraviolet; (7) Intergalactic far-ultraviolet radiation field; (8) Radiation from recombining intergalactic medium; (9) Radiation from re-heating of intergalactic medium following recombination; (10) Radiation from radiative decay of dark matter candidates (neutrino, etc.); (11) Reflectivity of the asteroids in the Ultraviolet; and (12) Zodiacal light.

  16. Observed Coupling Between the International Space Station PCU Plasma and a FPMU Langmuir Probe Facilitated by the Geomagnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, William; Koontz, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical charging of the International Space Station (ISS) is a matter of serious concern resulting from the possibility of vehicle arcing and electrical shock hazard to crew during extravehicular activity (EVA). A Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU) was developed and integrated into ISS in order to control the ISS floating potential, thereby, minimize vehicle charging and associated hazards. One of the principle factors affecting ISS electrical charging is the ionosphere plasma state (i.e., electron temperature and density). To support ISS electrical charging studies a Floating Potential Monitoring Unit (FPMU) is also integrated into ISS in order to measure the ionosphere properties using Langmuir probes (LP). The FPMU was located on the Starboard side of ISS. The PCU is located near the center of ISS with its plasma exhaust pointed to port. From its integration on ISS in 2006 through November of 2009, the FPMU data exhibited nominal characteristics during PCU operation. On November 21, 2009 the FPMU was relocated from the Starboard location to a new Port location. After relocation significant enhanced noise was observed in both the LP current-voltage sweeps and the derived electron temperature data. The enhanced noise only occurred when the PCU was in discharge and at unique and repeatable locations of the ISS orbit. The cause of this enhanced noise was investigated. It was found that there is coupling occurring between the PCU plasma and the FPMU LP. In this paper we shall 1) present the on-orbit data and the presence of enhanced noise, 2) demonstrate that the coupling of the PCU plasma and the FPMU measurements is geomagnetically organized, 3) show that coupling of the PCU plasma and the FPMU is primarily due to and driven by particle-wave interaction and 4) show that the ionosphere conditions are adequate for Alfven waves to be generated by the PCU plasma.

  17. Disturbances observed near Ganymede by Voyager 2

    SciTech Connect

    Burlaga, L.F.; Belcher, J.W.; Ness, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    We investigated disturbances in the field and particle environment observed by Voyager 2 as it passed near the Jovian moon Ganymede in Jupiter's magnetosphere. The plasma analyzer observed at least a dozen sharply bounded depressions in density (cavities). We estimated that they probably extended at least 20 RGAMMA along the ambient magnetic field lines (R/sub G/=2635 km is the radius of Ganymede) and between 2--50 R/sub G/ in the directions transverse to B. Depressions in the magnetic field strength of the order of 5% of the ambient field strength (60nT to 135nT) were observed at the boundaries of the cavities in more than half of the cases; they were probably produced by currents flowing transverse to B on the boundaries. In some cases, the magnetic field strength inside the cavities was a few percent higher than the ambient value. This gives an upper limit on ..beta..=nkT/(B/sup 2//8..pi..) outside the cavities, viz. Beta<0.2; inmost cases ..beta.. was appreciably smaller than this. The flux of >2.5 MeV protons was strongly anti-correlated with the plasma density, the flux being higher inside the cavities than outside. One possible mechanism for the production of these flux enhancements and the cavities themselves is a local, magnetic field-aligned electric field, E. It is possible that Ganymede is responsible for the energetic protons in the cavities, in which case vertical-bar E vertical-barapprox.50 mV/m. Such a localized source implies radial motions of the magnetospheric plasma with speeds of the order of a few hundred km/s. Such motions could be produced by long-wavelength, small-amplitude Alfven waves in Jupiter's magnetosphere.

  18. Jupiter's Stratospheric Hydrocarbons: From Voyager to Cassini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Conor A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Allen, M.; Maguire, W. C.; Flasar, F. M.; Teanby, N. A.; Irwin, P. G. J.

    2009-09-01

    Photolysis of methane gas in Jupiter's atmosphere by solar UV creates short-lived radical species, which subsequently recombine to form stable higher-mass hydrocarbons including acetylene (C2H2) and ethane (C2H6). With dramatically different photochemical lifetimes (3x107 s and 3x1010 s respectively at 5 mbar), these gases may be used as tracers of atmospheric circulation. For example, while ethane's lifetime greatly exceeds the predicted dynamical timescale for meridional mixing inferred from comet SL-9 debris (5-50 x108 s), the lifetime of acetylene is much less, and therefore different latitude distributions of these species are expected. In a recent paper (Nixon et al. 2007), infrared spectra acquired by the Cassini CIRS instrument during the Jupiter encounter of December 2000 were modeled to recover the meridional variations of both gases in the stratosphere (5 mbar) and upper troposphere (200 mbar). In this work, we have applied the same analysis to spectra acquired by Voyager IRIS 21 years earlier (1.75 Jupiter years), recovering the stratospheric variation. Some striking similarities and differences are evident: while the acetylene distribution in 1979 does not show the strong North-South hemispheric asymmetry seen in 2000, ethane on the other hand shows qualitatively a similar picture in the two epochs. In this presentation we show the meridional abundance variations from both of these important spacecraft datasets and discuss how the interplay of photochemistry and dynamics may explain the results. We also discuss how these findings relate to the current understanding of Jupiter's atmosphere, and suggest directions of future research. We acknowledge the support of the Cassini-Huygens Project and NASA Grant 07-OPR07-0048. References: C. A. Nixon et al., Icarus, 188, pp. 47-71, 2007.

  19. Voyager 2 at neptune: imaging science results.

    PubMed

    Smith, B A; Soderblom, L A; Banfield, D; Barnet, C; Basilevsky, A T; Beebe, R F; Bollinger, K; Boyce, J M; Brahic, A; Briggs, G A; Brown, R H; Chyba, C; Collins, S A; Colvin, T; Cook, A F; Crisp, D; Croft, S K; Cruikshank, D; Cuzzi, J N; Danielson, G E; Davies, M E; De Jong, E; Dones, L; Godfrey, D; Goguen, J; Grenier, I; Haemmerle, V R; Hammel, H; Hansen, C J; Helfenstein, C P; Howell, C; Hunt, G E; Ingersoll, A P; Johnson, T V; Kargel, J; Kirk, R; Kuehn, D I; Limaye, S; Masursky, H; McEwen, A; Morrison, D; Owen, T; Owen, W; Pollack, J B; Porco, C C; Rages, K; Rogers, P; Rudy, D; Sagan, C; Schwartz, J; Shoemaker, E M; Showalter, M; Sicardy, B; Simonelli, D; Spencer, J; Sromovsky, L A; Stoker, C; Strom, R G; Suomi, V E; Synott, S P; Terrile, R J; Thomas, P; Thompson, W R; Verbiscer, A; Veverka, J

    1989-12-15

    Voyager 2 images of Neptune reveal a windy planet characterized by bright clouds of methane ice suspended in an exceptionally clear atmosphere above a lower deck of hydrogen sulfide or ammonia ices. Neptune's atmosphere is dominated by a large anticyclonic storm system that has been named the Great Dark Spot (GDS). About the same size as Earth in extent, the GDS bears both many similarities and some differences to the Great Red Spot of Jupiter. Neptune's zonal wind profile is remarkably similar to that of Uranus. Neptune has three major rings at radii of 42,000, 53,000, and 63,000 kilometers. The outer ring contains three higher density arc-like segments that were apparently responsible for most of the ground-based occultation events observed during the current decade. Like the rings of Uranus, the Neptune rings are composed of very dark material; unlike that of Uranus, the Neptune system is very dusty. Six new regular satellites were found, with dark surfaces and radii ranging from 200 to 25 kilometers. All lie inside the orbit of Triton and the inner four are located within the ring system. Triton is seen to be a differentiated body, with a radius of 1350 kilometers and a density of 2.1 grams per cubic centimeter; it exhibits clear evidence of early episodes of surface melting. A now rigid crust of what is probably water ice is overlain with a brilliant coating of nitrogen frost, slightly darkened and reddened with organic polymer material. Streaks of organic polymer suggest seasonal winds strong enough to move particles of micrometer size or larger, once they become airborne. At least two active plumes were seen, carrying dark material 8 kilometers above the surface before being transported downstream by high level winds. The plumes may be driven by solar heating and the subsequent violent vaporization of subsurface nitrogen. PMID:17755997

  20. Infrared observations of the saturnian system from voyager 2.

    PubMed

    Hanel, R; Conrath, B; Flasar, F M; Kunde, V; Maguire, W; Pearl, J; Pirraglia, J; Samuelson, R; Cruikshank, D; Gautier, D; Gierasch, P; Horn, L; Ponnamperuma, C

    1982-01-29

    During the passage of Voyager 2 through the Saturn system, infrared spectral and radiometric data were obtained for Saturn, Titan, Enceladus, Tethys, Iapetus, and the rings. Combined Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 observations of temperatures in the upper troposphere of Saturn indicate a seasonal asymmetry between the northern and southern hemispheres, with superposed small-scale meridional gradients. Comparison of high spatial resolution data from the two hemispheres poleward of 60 degrees latitude suggests an approximate symmetry in the small-scale structure, consistent with the extension of a symmetric system of zonal jets into the polar regions. Longitudinal variations of 1 to 2 K are observed. Disk- averaged infrared spectra of Titan show little change over the 9-month interval between Voyager encounters. By combining Voyager 2 temperature measurements with ground-based geometric albedo determinations, phase integrals of 0.91 +/- 0.13 and 0.89 +/- 0.09 were derived for Tethys and Enceladus, respectively. The subsolar point temperature of dark material on Iapetus must exceed 110 K. Temperatures (and infrared optical depths) for the A and C rings and for the Cassini division are 69 +/- 1 K (0.40 +/- 0.05), 85 +/- 1 K (0.10 +/- 0.03), and 85 +/- 2 K (0.07 +/- 0.04), respectively. PMID:17771275

  1. Solar-Heliospheric-Interstellar Cosmic Ray Tour with the NASA Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory and the Space Physics Data Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John F.; Papitashvili, Natalia E.; Johnson, Rita C.; Lal, Nand; McGuire, Robert E.

    2015-04-01

    NASA now has a large collection of solar, heliospheric, and local interstellar (Voyager 1) cosmic ray particle data sets that can be accessed through the data system services of the NASA Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO) in collaboration with the NASA Space Physics Data Facility SPDF), respectively led by the first and last authors. The VEPO services were developed to enhance the long-existing OMNIWeb solar wind and energetic particle services of SPDF for on-line browse, correlative, and statistical analysis of NASA and ESA mission fields, plasma, and energetic particle data. In this presentation we take of tour through VEPO and SPDF of SEP reservoir events, the outer heliosphere earlier surveyed by the Pioneer, Voyager, and Ulysses spacecraft and now being probed by New Horizons, and the heliosheath-heliopause-interstellar regions now being explored by the Voyagers and IBEX. Implications of the latter measurements are also considered for the flux spectra of low to high energy cosmic rays in interstellar space.

  2. Preliminary results of a gamma-ray burst study in the Konus experiment on the Venera-11 and Venera-12 space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazets, Y. P.; Golentskiy, S. V.; Ilinskiy, V. N.; Panov, V. N.; Aptekar, R. L.; Guryan, Y. A.; Sokolov, I. A.; Sokolova, Z. Y.; Kharitonova, T. V.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-one gamma-ray bursts and 68 solar flares in the hard X-ray range were detected on Venera-11 and Venera-12 space probes during the initial 50-day observation period. Major characteristics of the equipment used and preliminary data on the temporal structure and energy spectra of the gamma-ray bursts are considered. The pattern of gamma-ray burst frequency distribution vs. intensity, N(S), is established.

  3. Reconstruction of the Voyager 2 Neptune Encounter in the ICRF System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The Neptunian system was visited by the Voyager 2 spacecraft in August of 1989. We have re-examined the Voyager mission taking advantage of improvements made in dynamical and observational modelling and data processing.

  4. Magnetic field studies at Jupiter by Voyager 2 - Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, N. F.; Acuna, M. H.; Lepping, R. P.; Burlaga, L. F.; Behannon, K. W.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1979-01-01

    The Voyager 2 magnetic field experiment, for which the instrumentation is identical to that on Voyager 1, operated flawlessly throughout the second Jupiter encounter. The paper presents a brief overview of the results obtained to date on the Jovian magnetosphere, the bow shock, the magnetopause, and the extended magnetic tail. The results and the magnetic field geometry confirm the earlier conclusion from Voyager 1 that Jupiter has an enormous magnetic tail, approximately 300-400 Jupiter radii in diameter, trailing behind the planet with respect to the supersonic flow of the solar wind. Additional observations of the distortion of the inner magnetosphere by a concentrated plasma show a spatial merging of the equatorial magnetodisk current with the current sheet in the magnetic tail. Disturbances near Ganymede are discussed.

  5. Characteristics of the Termination Shock: Insights from Voyager

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, A.C.; Stone, E.C.

    2005-08-01

    We examine the energy spectra obtained from the cosmic ray instrument on the Voyager 1 spacecraft during 2002/215 through 2005/60. We find that the energy spectra of protons below {approx}20 MeV often resemble two power laws with a relatively hard index at low energies and a softer index at higher energies. The point of intersection of the two power laws is {approx}3 MeV. Beginning in 2005, the low-energy index is typically -1.5, corresponding to a shock strength (compression ratio) of 2.5. We attribute these characteristics to a restricted region of the solar wind termination shock that is sporadically connected to the Voyager 1 spacecraft by the interplanetary magnetic field. The absence of significant spectral variability in 2005 suggests that Voyager 1 entered a region with minimal spatial gradients of the lowest energy ions.

  6. Plasma observations near Jupiter - Initial results from Voyager 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridge, H. S.; Belcher, J. W.; Lazarus, A. J.; Sullivan, J. D.; Bagenal, F.; Mcnutt, R. L., Jr.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Scudder, J. D.; Sittler, E. D.; Vasyliunas, V. M.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary report is presented of the results obtained by the Voyager 2 plasma experiment during the encounter of Voyager 2 with Jupiter from about 100 Jupiter radii before periapsis to about 300 Jupiter radii after periapsis, the instrument being identical to that on Voyager 1. The discussion covers the following: (1) the crossings of the bow shock and magnetopause observed on the inbound and outbound passes; (2) the radial variation of plasma properties in the magnetosphere; (3) variations in plasma properties near Ganymede; (4) corotation and composition of the plasma in the dayside magnetosphere; and (5) plasma sheet crossings observed on the inbound and outbound passes. From the planetary spin modulation of the plasma-electron intensity it is inferred that the plasma sheet is centered at the dipole magnetic equator out to a distance of 40-50 Jupiter radii and deviates from it toward the rotational equator at larger distances.

  7. Plasma observations near saturn: initial results from voyager 2.

    PubMed

    Bridge, H S; Bagenal, F; Belcher, J W; Lazarus, A J; McNutt, R L; Sullivan, J D; Gazis, P R; Hartle, R E; Ogilvie, K W; Scudder, J D; Sittler, E C; Eviatar, A; Siscoe, G L; Goertz, C K; Vasyliunas, V M

    1982-01-29

    Results of measurements of plasma electrons and poitive ions made during the Voyager 2 encounter with Saturn have been combined with measurements from Voyager 1 and Pioneer 11 to define more clearly the configuration of plasma in the Saturnian magnetosphere. The general morphology is well represented by four regions: (i) the shocked solar wind plasma in the magnetosheath, observed between about 30 and 22 Saturn radii (RS) near the noon meridian; (ii) a variable density region between approximately 17 RS and the magnetopause; (iii) an extended thick plasma sheet between approximately 17 and approximately 7 RS symmetrical with respect to Saturn's equatorial plane and rotation axis; and (iv) an inner plasma torus that probably originates from local sources and extends inward from L approximately 7 to less than L approximately 2.7 (L is the magnetic shell parameter). In general, the heavy ions, probably O(+), are more closely confined to the equatorial plane than H(+), so that the ratio of heavy to light ions varies along the trajectory according to the distance of the spacecraft from the equatorial plane. The general configuration of the plasma sheet at Saturn found by Voyager 1 is confirmed, with some notable differences and additions. The "extended plasma sheet," observed between L approximately 7 and L approximately 15 by Voyager 1 is considerably thicker as observed by Voyager 2. Inward of L approximately 4, the plasma sheet collapses to a thin region about the equatorial plane. At the ring plane crossing, L approximately 2.7, the observations are consistent with a density of O(+) of approximately 100 per cubic centimeter, with a temperature of approximately 10 electron volts. The location of the bow shock and magnetopause crossings were consistent with those previously observed. The entire magnetosphere was larger during the outbound passage of Voyager 2 than had been previously observed; however, a magnetosphere of this size or larger is expected approximately 3 percent of the time. PMID:17771279

  8. Space Mission to the Moon with a Low Cost Moon Probe Nanosatellite: University Project Feasibility Analysis and Design Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guven, U. G.; Velidi, G. V.; Datta, L. D.

    2014-10-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of launching a 10 kg nanosatellite moon probe with a joint university effort along with industrial partners for a low cost mission to the moon. It will allow for vital experiments to take place.

  9. Radio science ground data system for the Voyager-Neptune encounter, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Asmar, S. W.

    1991-01-01

    The Voyager radio science experiments at Neptune required the creation of a ground data system array that includes a Deep Space Network complex, the Parkes Radio Observatory, and the Usuda deep space tracking station. The performance requirements were based on experience with the previous Voyager encounters, as well as the scientific goals at Neptune. The requirements were stricter than those of the Uranus encounter because of the need to avoid the phase-stability problems experienced during that encounter and because the spacecraft flyby was faster and closer to the planet than previous encounters. The primary requirement on the instrument was to recover the phase and amplitude of the S- and X-band (2.3 and 8.4 GHz) signals under the dynamic conditions encountered during the occultations. The primary receiver type for the measurements was open loop with high phase-noise and frequency stability performance. The receiver filter bandwidth was predetermined based on the spacecraft's trajectory and frequency uncertainties.

  10. Performance of differenced range data types in Voyager navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, T. H.; Campbell, J. K.; Jacobson, R. A.; Moultrie, B.; Nichols, R. A., Jr.; Riedel, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Voyager radio navigation made use of differenced range data type for both Saturn encounters because of the low declination singularity of Doppler data. Nearly simultaneous two-way range from two-station baselines was explicitly differenced to produce this data type. Concurrently, a differential VLBI data type (DDOR), utilizing doubly differenced quasar-spacecraft delays, with potentially higher precision was demonstrated. Performance of these data types is investigated on the Jupiter to Saturn leg of Voyager 2. The statistics of performance are presented in terms of actual data noise comparisons and sample orbit estimates. Use of DDOR as a primary data type for navigation to Uranus is discussed.

  11. Magnetic field studies at Jupiter by Voyager 2: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, N. F.; Acuna, M. H.; Lepping, R. P.; Burlaga, L. F.; Behannon, K. W.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1979-01-01

    The Voyager 2 magnetic field experiment is described and compared to the Voyager 1 experiment and data. The magnetosphere, the bow shock, the magnetopause, and the extended magnetic tail of Jupiter are discussed. Two crossings of the near equatorial current sheet were observed in the magnetosphere and its tail every 10 hour rotation period of the planet. A definitive mapping of the geometry and character of these enhanced plasma and depressed magnetic field regions is discussed. The interaction of the satellite Ganymede with the Jovian magnetosphere, which leads to disturbances as the Jovian magnetosphere corotates with the planet past the satellite is analyzed.

  12. Voyager observations of the azimuthal brightness variations in Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, F. A.; Cook, A. F., II; Barrey, R. T. F.; Roff, C. A.; Hunt, G. E.; De Rueda, H. B.

    1987-01-01

    The present Voyagers I and II measurements of Saturn A ring azimuthal brightness variations in reflected light are noted to be in general agreement with earth-based measurements. Voyager images of the rings in light transmitted through them also indicate the presence of these brightness variations, but with greater amplitude and an about 65-deg phase discrepancy with those seen in reflection. These differences in photometric behavior are qualitatively accounted for in terms of the widespread presence of particle wakes in the A ring.

  13. Performance model of the Argonne Voyager multimedia server

    SciTech Connect

    Disz, T.; Olson, R.; Stevens, R.

    1997-07-01

    The Argonne Voyager Multimedia Server is being developed in the Futures Lab of the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory. As a network-based service for recording and playing multimedia streams, it is important that the Voyager system be capable of sustaining certain minimal levels of performance in order for it to be a viable system. In this article, the authors examine the performance characteristics of the server. As they examine the architecture of the system, they try to determine where bottlenecks lie, show actual vs potential performance, and recommend areas for improvement through custom architectures and system tuning.

  14. The Voyager spacecraft /James Watt International Gold Medal Lecture/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heacock, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Voyager Project background is reviewed with emphasis on selected features of the Voyager spacecraft. Investigations by the Thermo-electric Outer Planets Spacecraft Project are discussed, including trajectories, design requirements, and the development of a Self Test and Repair computer, and a Computer Accessed Telemetry System. The design and configuration of the spacecraft are described, including long range communications, attitude control, solar independent power, sequencing and control data handling, and spacecraft propulsion. The development program, maintained by JPL, experienced a variety of problems such as design deficiencies, and process control and manufacturing problems. Finally, the spacecraft encounter with Jupiter is discussed, and expectations for the Saturn encounter are expressed.

  15. The atmospheric structure of Titan from Voyager to Cassini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.

    2007-05-01

    Titan's stratosphere has been studied in the past from the Earth and also from space with Voyager, ISO (Coustenis et al., 1998; 2003) and more recently Cassini observations. In particular, spectra recorded by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard the Cassini spacecraft became available during the Titan flybys spanning two years now since SOI (Flasar et al., 2005; Teanby et al., 2006, Vinatier et al., 2006; Nixon et al., 2006; Coustenis et al., 2007). The spectra characterize various regions on Titan from 85°S to 80°N with a variety of emission angles. We have studied the emission observed in the CIRS detector arrays (covering the 10-1500 cm-1 spectral range with apodized resolutions of 2.54 or 0.53 cm-1). We have used temperature profiles retrieved from the inversion of the emission observed in the methane _4 band at 1304 cm-1 and a line-by-line radiative transfer code to infer the abundances of the trace constituents and some of their isotopes in Titan's stratosphere (Coustenis et al., 2007). The composite spectra show several signatures of previously identified molecules: hydrocarbons, nitriles, H2O and CO2. Besides these well-known trace species, a firm detection of benzene (C6H6) is provided by CIRS at 674 cm-1 and allows for the study of its latitudinal variations. No longitudinal variations were found for any of the gases. Information is retrieved on the meridional variations of the trace constituents and tied to predictions by dynamical-photochemical models (Hourdin et al., 2004; Lavvas et al., 2007). Molecules showing a significant enhancement at northern latitudes are the nitriles (HC3N, HCN) and the complex hydrocarbons (C4H2, C3H4). The D/H ratio on Titan was also determined from the CH3D band at 8.6 micron and found to be about 1.2 ± 0.2 10-4. We have also identified the presence of C2HD at 678 cm-1 (Coustenis et al., 2006). Constraints are also set on the vertical distribution of C2H2. We will describe the most relevant results from ground or space regarding Titan's atmospheric structure. References : Coustenis et al., 1998, A&A 336, L85; Coustenis et al., 2003, Icarus 161, 383; Coustenis et al., 2006, BAAS 38; Coustenis et al., 2007, Icarus, in press; Flasar et al., 2005, Science 308, 975 ; Hourdin et al., 2004, J. Geophys. Res. 109, E1205; Nixon et al., 2006, BAAS 38; Lavvas et al., 2007, Plan. Space Sci., submitted; Teanby et al., 2006, Icarus 181, 243; Vinatier et al., 2006, Icarus, in press.

  16. SEAC 2011 Stars and Stones: Voyages in Archaeoastronomy and Cultural Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimenta, F.; Ribeiro, N.; Silva, F.; Campion, N.; Joaquinito, A.; Tirapicos, L.

    2015-05-01

    Since Prehistory the sky has always been integrated as part of the cosmovision of human societies. The sky played a fundamental role not only in the orientation in space, time organization, ritual practices or celestial divination but also as an element of power. Migrations and voyages are intrinsic to humankind, they opened the routes for cultural diffusion and trade, but also for power dominance. Following these routes is also to follow cultural diversity and how human societies met or clashed. The sky and astronomical phenomena provided the tools for time reckoning, calendar organization and celestial navigation that supported those voyages. Astronomy gives us today the capacity to reproduce the sky, opening a window through which we can glimpse how those societies perceived, integrated and manipulated the sky into their world-views and their myths and, ultimately, into their social organization. A voyage is always a meeting of different worlds and eventually a process to accept diversity and thus we challenged the participants of the 19th meeting of the European Society for Astronomy in Culture to present their papers in the form of a voyage or an encounter for the following topics: - Techniques of celestial navigation and orientation of the past. Astronomical navigation and nautical instruments in the XIVth, XVth and XVIth centuries; - Expressions of astronomical knowledge in architecture and monuments, rock art, archaeology and landscape. People migration, a meeting between different cultures; - History of astronomy. An encounter between different conceptions; - Astronomy and the Jesuits. A meeting between different worlds; - Astronomy in antiquity. A meeting between different knowledge; - Ethno-astronomy, Cultural Astronomy and myths, voyages in space and in time through different cultures; - To where is Archaeoastronomy voyaging? A round table about Archaeoastronomy, Cultural Astronomy and Education. The 19th meeting of the European Society for Astronomy in Culture was held in Évora, Portugal, from September 19th to 23th, 2011, and was attended by 85 participants from 29 countries. A total number of 71 talks and 4 posters were presented. Among them 20 invited lectures given by Michael Rappenglüück, José Manuel Malhão Pereira, Jarita Holbrook, Giulio Magli, Nicholas Campion, J. Kim Malville, David Pankenier, Alejandro Martín López, Ivan Sprajc, Mariusz Ziólkowski, Marciano da Silva, Lionel Sims, Emilia Pasztor, Frank Prendergast, Fernando Pimenta, A. César González-Garcia, Henrique Leitão, Shi Yunli and Stanislaw Iwaniszewski and 3 public lectures given by Luísa Pereira, Juan Belmonte Avilés and Clive Ruggles. Most of the contributions were submitted for publication and went through a peer-review process. The present volume is the result of this process, arranged in the same thematic sections as the Conference was organised.

  17. The atmosphere of Titan - an analysis of the Voyager 1 radio occultation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindal, G. F.; Wood, G. E.; Hotz, H. B.; Sweetnam, D. N.; Eshleman, V. R.; Tyler, G. L.

    1983-02-01

    The equatorial atmosphere of Titan was probed by means of two coherently related radio signals transmitted from Voyager 1 at 13.0 and 3.6 cm wavelengths during the November 12, 1980 occultation of the spacecraft by the Saturn satellite. An analysis of the differential dispersive frequency measurements did not reveal any ionization layers in the upper atmosphere of Titan. The gas refractivity data, which extend from the surface to about 200 km altitude, were interpreted in two different ways. In the first, it is assumed that N2 makes up virtually all of the atmosphere, with small amounts of CH4 and other hydrocarbons present. In the second interpretation of the refractivity data, it is assumed that the 3.5 km altitude level corresponds to the bottom of a CH4 cloud layer and that N2 and CH4 were perfectly mixed below this level.

  18. Temperature and aerosol structure of the nightside Uranian stratosphere from Voyager 2 photopolarimeter stellar occultation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R. A.; Lane, A. L.; Nelson, R. M.; Wallis, B. D.; Hord, C. W.; Esposito, L. W.; Simmons, K. E.

    1987-01-01

    Voyager 2 UV-photopolarimeter occultation observations toward Gamma Peg, obtained on the nightside of Uranus at planetocentric latitude 68.9 deg N on January 24, 1986, are used to probe the structure of the Uranian atmosphere. The data are presented graphically and compared with the predictions of model atmospheres. The temperature profile for an aerosol-free atmosphere ranges from 85 + or - 2.3 K at 2.7 mbar to 96 + or - 13 K at 370 microbar, and the 1-mbar radius is found to be 25,219 + or - 6.3 km. The extinction coefficient for an aerosol haze layer at 1 mbar or higher is shown to be less than or equal to about 0.0001/km, but it is suggested that a well-mixed haze layer consisting of meteor or ring dust and/or photochemical condensates may well be present below 3 mbar.

  19. 46 CFR 30.01-6 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application to vessels on an international voyage. 30.01... PROVISIONS Administration § 30.01-6 Application to vessels on an international voyage. (a) Except as provided... vessel on an international voyage apply to a vessel that: (1) Is mechanically propelled and of at...

  20. IBEX Observations provide strong Evidence that Voyager 1 is still in the Heliosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Fisk, L. A.

    2015-09-01

    After plasma wave measurements by Voyager 1 (V1) revealed a surprisingly high value for the plasma electron density, a value close to that expected in the local interstellar medium, all principal investigators of the Voyager mission currently exploring the heliosheath suddenly reversed their position on the location of V1. They concluded unanimously, and NASA announced that V1 has crossed the heliopause and is now in local interstellar space. We have disputed this conclusion, pointing out that to account for all the V1 observations, particularly of the magnetic field direction together with the density, it is necessary to conclude that the higher densities observed by V1 are due to compressed solar wind. In this paper we show that our model for the nose region of the heliosheath can account in detail for the spectral shapes and intensities of Energetic Neutral Hydrogen (ENH) observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) looking in the directions of V1 and Voyager 2 (V2). A key feature of our model is the existence of a region, the hot heliosheath, where the outward-moving solar wind is gradually compressed and thus heated, followed by a region, the cold heliosheath, where the solar wind is still compressed but now cold. It is the existence of this cold heliosheath, the region of cold but high-density solar wind, which provides a unique and simple explanation for the low-energy IBEX ENH differential intensities. Finally, since this cold heliosheath is the region where V1 must now reside, the low-energy IBEX observations provide strong evidence that V1 is still in the heliosphere.

  1. Spectral Evolution of Anomalous Cosmic Rays at Voyager 1 beyond the Termination Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senanayake, U. K.; Florinski, V.; Cummings, A. C.; Stone, E. C.

    2015-05-01

    When the Voyager 1 spacecraft crossed the termination shock (TS) on 2004 December 16, the energy spectra of anomalous cosmic rays (ACRs) could not have been produced by steady-state diffusive shock acceleration. However, over the next few years, in the declining phase of the solar cycle, the spectra began to evolve into the expected power-law profile. Observations at the shock led to a broad range of alternative theories for ACR acceleration. In spite of that, in this work we show that the observations could be explained by assuming ACRs are accelerated at the TS. In this paper, we propose that the solar cycle had an important effect on the unrolling of the spectra in the heliosheath. To investigate the spectral evolution of ACRs, a magnetohydrodynamic background model with stationary solar-wind inner boundary conditions was used to model the transport of helium and oxygen ions. We used a backward-in-time stochastic integration technique where phase-space trajectories are integrated until the so-called “injection energy” is reached. Our simulation results were compared with Voyager 1 observations using three different diffusion models. It is shown that the spectral evolution of ACRs in the heliosheath at Voyager 1 could be explained by an increase in the source strength and an enhancement in diffusion as a result of a decrease of the turbulent correlation length in the declining phase of the solar cycle. At the same time, drift effects seem to have had a smaller effect on the evolution of the spectra.

  2. Heat stress: a major contributor to poor animal welfare associated with long-haul live export voyages.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Malcolm P; Cambridge, Heather; Foster, Susan F; McGreevy, Paul D

    2014-02-01

    Recent investigations by the Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry into high mortalities on live export voyages from Australia to the Middle East during the Northern hemisphere summer suggest that animal welfare may be compromised by heat stress. The live export industry has generated a computer model that aims to assess the risk of heat stress and to contain mortality levels on live export ships below certain arbitrary limits. Although the model must be complied with under Australian law, it is not currently available for independent scientific scrutiny, and there is concern that model and the mandated space allowances are inadequate. This review appraises the relevant literature on heat stress in sheep and cattle, including laboratory studies aimed at mimicking the ambient temperatures and humidity levels likely to be encountered on live export voyages. Animal welfare is likely to be very poor as a result of heat stress in some shipments. PMID:24157340

  3. Grant Proposal for the Continuation of the Voyager Interstellar Mission: LECP Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Armstrong, Thomas P.; Lanzerotti, Louis J.; Ip, Wing-H.; Decker, Robert B.; Keath, Edwin P.; Mauk, Barry H.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Gloeckler, George; Hamilton, Douglas C.

    1996-01-01

    This proposal documents the plans of the Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) investigation team for participation in NASA's Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM) as the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft explore the outer reaches of the heliosphere and search for the termination shock and the heliopause. The proposal covers the four year period from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2000. The LECP instruments on Voyager 1 and 2 measure in situ intensities of charged particles with energies from about 30 keV to 100 MeV for ions, and about 20 keV to greater than 10 MeV for electrons. The instruments provide detailed spectral, angular, and compositional information about the particles. Composition is available for greater than 200 keV/nuc using multi-parameter measurements. Angular information is obtained by a mechanically scanned platform that rotates at various commanded rates. Measurements of low energy ion and electron intensities versus time and spatial location within the heliosphere contain an abundance of information regarding various transport and acceleration processes on both local (approx. 1 hr, approx. 0.01 AU) and global (approx. 11 yrs, approx. 100 AU) scales. The LECP instruments provide unique observations of such dynamical processes, and we anticipate that it will return critical information regarding the boundaries of the heliosphere. Several recent and exciting discoveries based on LECP measurements emphasize the important role that low energy charged particle distributions play in physical processes in the interplanetary medium. Yet, at the same time, these discoveries also underscore the fact that our understanding of processes in the outer heliosphere is, in most cases, incomplete, and in others, only rudimentary at best. Among the discoveries referred to above are the following: (1) Shocks: Examination of greater than 30 keV ion intensities have revealed: (a) a total absence of acceleration beyond only -100-200 keV at a strong transient shock in May 1991 at 35 AU, despite an enhanced level of seed particles; (b) a large transient shock in September 1991 of global scale, with intensities of shock-accelerated ions greater than or equal to 30 keV to approx. 30 MeV showing complex, highly energy-dependent spatial evolution, and small-scale (approx. few gyroradii), often anisotropic, micro-structures; (c) recurrent intensity increases in greater than or equal to 30 keV to -few MeV ions, with structures that, in some cases, show no correlation with the associated corotating shock. (2) Superthermal ion pressure: A global merged interaction region with a leading shock, downstream of which the superthermal ion (greater than or equal to 30 keV to approx. 4 MeV) pressure is comparable to that of the thermal plasma, and the total particle pressure yields a plasma beta of order unity. (3) Pickup ions: Measurements of the C/O ratio within transient structures at 35-45 AU showing the first clear evidence that transient shocks can pre-accelerate interstellar pickup ions from approx. 1 keV/nuc to at least 1 MeV/nuc. (4) Seed particles: Injection of ions for acceleration to high energies at the termination shock is unlikely to be a problem, since interplanetary transient and recurrent shocks are continually accelerating ions, of solar wind or interstellar origin, to highly superthermal energies. (5) Precursor electrons: Ambient solar electrons (greater than or equal to few tens of keV) that exist in the outer heliosphere ca form a broad precursor, several days wide, that is upstream of the termination shock and potentially observable a few months prior to the shock crossing. (6) Solar wind velocity at Voyager 1: We can use LECP ion data to obtain the solar wind velocity at Voyager 1, enabling us to provide critical measurement of the plasma flow as we approach and encounter the termination shock and other regions (necessary due to the partial failure of the Voyager 1 PLS experiment). The work of the LECP investigator team during the VIM will include: (1) Continuing operations with regard to the receipt, processing, verification, cataloging, display, and distribution of the data from the LECP instruments on Voyager 1 and 2, (2) Monitoring the health and performance of the LECP instruments, and evaluating and characterizing the response of the LECP instruments to various energetic particle and plasma environments, (3) Participating in, and supporting Voyager Project planning exercises and other coordinated activities relevant to exploration of the outer heliosphere, (4) Developing analysis techniques and operational procedures suitable for searching for and characterizing the boundaries and unique regions of the outher heliosphere, (5) Continuing the preparation of data sets appropriate for submission to the National Space Sciences Data Center (NSSDC) and, where appropriate, the Planetary Data System (PDS), (6) Maintaining direct Web access to online LECP data through the JHU/APL Voyager LECP home page, (7) Performing scientific evaluations of the Voyager 1 and 2 LECP data sets in conjunction with other data sets and other investigators, with particular focus on the outer regions of the heliosphere, and (8) Publishing the results of these evaluations in the scientific literature and presenting the results in scientific conferences.

  4. A Curriculum Review: The Voyage of the Mimi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Kenneth W.

    1988-01-01

    The curriculum package, "The Voyage of the Mimi," uses computer, videocassette, student text, and workbook for integrated study of the great whales and the impact of social actions on society and the environment. This review suggests that the package also offers many ancillary teaching opportunities. (CB)

  5. Voyages Through Time: Integrated science for high schools, Pamela Harman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, Pamela; Devore, Edna

    Investigating the origin and evolution of the universe and life is a compelling theme for teaching science. It engages students in the key questions about change and the evidence for change over time, and offers a unifying theme for integrated science. "Voyages Through Time" is a high school integrated science curriculum on the theme of evolution. Six modules comprise the year-long course: Cosmic Evolution, Planetary Evolution, Origin of Life, Evolution of Life, and Evolution of Technology. A brief overview of the curriculum is presented. Participants conduct one or two activities representative of the six modules. Each workshop participant receives a sampler CD-ROM with a comprehensive overview of the curriculum, standards, and resources including complete lessons for use in the classroom. "Voyages Through Time" is being developed by a US team of scientists, educators, writers, and classroom teachers and students led by the SETI Institute partnered with NASA Ames Research Center, California Academy of Sciences and San Francisco State University. In 2000-2001 school year, "Voyages Through Time" was pilot tested (trialed) in high school classrooms in the San Francisco Bay Area, California. Following revisions, the curriculum was field tested (trialed) in 28 US states in more than 90 schools August 2001-June 2002. The final version is expected to be ready for publication by the beginning of 2003. "Voyages Through Time" is funded by the National Science Foundation (IMD # 9730693), NASA Astrobiology Institute, NASA Fundamental Biology, The Foundation for Microbiology, Educate America, and the Hewlett-Packard Company.

  6. The Voyages of Columbus: A Turning Point in World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Alfred W.; Nader, Helen

    The far-reaching and transforming interactions of the Old World and the New are known today as "the Columbian Exchange." Part 1 of this booklet is an introduction by John J. Patrick dealing with teaching about the voyages of Christopher Columbus. Part 2, "Columbus and Ecological Imperialism," by Alfred W. Crosby, provides an ecological perspective…

  7. Introducing Students to Darwin via the Voyage of HMS "Beagle"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swab, Janice C.

    2010-01-01

    I use the diary that Darwin wrote during the voyage of HMS Beagle and recent images of a few of the places he visited to illustrate some comparisons between Darwin's world and ours. For today's students, increasingly committed to environmental issues, this may be an especially promising way to introduce Darwin.

  8. Voyager 1 and 2 Atlas of Six Saturnian Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Maps, compiled with data gathered primarily by Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft, are presented which show the diversity among six of the Saturnian moons. Mimas and Enceladus are mapped in detail. Prelimary maps are given for the other four satellites. Diameter, density, albedo, and distance from mother planet, among much more data, is given for each moon.

  9. 33 CFR 151.2055 - Deviation from planned voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2055 Deviation from planned voyage. As long as ballast water exchange (BWE) is...

  10. 33 CFR 151.2055 - Deviation from planned voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2055 Deviation from planned voyage. As long as ballast water exchange (BWE) is...

  11. Overview of the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometry results through Jupiter encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broadfoot, A. L.; Sandel, B. R.; Shemansky, D. E.; Smith, G. R.; Holberg, J. B.; Mcconnell, J. C.; Atreya, S. K.; Donahue, T. M.; Strobel, D. F.; Bertaux, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The observations of a number of objects by the Voyager EUV instruments are summarized. The summary is considered to demonstrate the wide ranging application of the EUV spectroscopy. It also marks an important step forward in spectrography and emphasizes the continuing importance of the search and discovery nature of spectroscopic techniques.

  12. Voyages Home: "The Wanderer"&"The Odyssey." Thematic Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekula, Diane

    Sophie and Cody in "The Wanderer" (Sharon Creech) share the duties of recording their journey to an ancestor's birth land. The strong bond of family and accomplishments through the voyage home personified the embodiment of an adventurer. For Sophie and Cody, close family bonds were forged and washed clean by the sea. Odysseus, the protagonist in…

  13. The Voyager 2 Encounter with the Uranian System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, E. C.; Miner, E. D.

    1986-01-01

    A series of 12 reports on the Voyager Two experiments in the Uranian system. Reports are included on: (1) imaging science; (2) photometry; (3) infrared; (4) ultraviolet; (5) radio science; (6) magnetic fields; (7) plasma; (8) charged particles; (9) magnetosphere (hot plasma and radiation); (10) radion observations; and (11) plasma waves. An…

  14. Plasma observations near Neptune - Initial results from Voyager 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, J. W.; Bridge, H. S.; Coppi, B.; Gordon, G. S., Jr.; Lazarus, A. J.; Mcnutt, R. L., Jr.; Bagenal, F.; Divers, O.; Eviatar, A.; Ogilvie, K. W.

    1989-01-01

    The plasma science experiment on Voyager 2 made observations of the plasma environment in Neptune's magnetosphere and in the surrounding solar wind. Because of the large tilt of the magnetic dipole and fortuitous timing, Voyager entered Neptune's magnetosphere through the cusp region, the first cusp observations at an outer planet. Thus the transition from the magnetosheath to the magnetosphere observed by Voyager 2 was not sharp but rather appeared as a gradual decrease in plasma density and temperature. The maximum plasma density observed in the magnetosphere is inferred to be 1.4 per cubic centimeter (the exact value depends on the composition), the smallest observed by Voyager in any magnetosphere. The plasma has at least two components; light ions (mass, 1 to 5) and heavy ions (mass, 10 to 40), but more precise species identification is not yet available. Most of the plasma is concentrated in a plasma sheet or plasma torus and near closest approach to the planet. A likely source of the heavy ions is Triton's atmosphere or ionosphere, whereas the light ions probably escape from Neptune. The large tilt of Neptune's magnetic dipole produces a dynamic magnetosphere that changes configuration every 16 hours as the planet rotates.

  15. Voyager observations of jupiter's distant magnetotail. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kurth, W.S.; Gurnett, D.A.; Scarf, F.L.; Poynter, R.L.; Sullivan, J.D.

    1980-08-01

    Observations of nonthermal continuum radiation by Voyager 1 and 2 at large distances from Jupiter have led to the identification of brief encounters with the Jovian magnetosphere at distances greater than 700 RJ and in directions substantially far from the Jupiter-Sun line. In addition, a number of examples of continuum radiation apparently trapped in local density depressions in the solar wind are observed. Simultaneous measurements by the Voyager plasma instrument have verified the distant magnetotail crossings and are used to correlate the occurrence of trapped continuum radiation events within solar wind density rarefractions. The Voyager observations of the distant Jovian magnetotail are compared with observations in the distant terrestrial magnetosphere and also with observations of the plasma tails of comets. One variable explanation of the observations is that the Jovian tail consists of filamentary structures, some of which extend to large distances in the pre-dawn direction. The observations of continuum radiation trapped in low-density regions of the solar wind suggest that Voyager may at times be connected to the distant tail by a low-density trough which acts as a wave guide and allows radiation from the tail to reach the spacecraft. This may provide an indirect method of detecting the tail extending more than 2 AU downstream from Jupiter.

  16. The Voyager 2 Encounter with the Uranian System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, E. C.; Miner, E. D.

    1986-01-01

    A series of 12 reports on the Voyager Two experiments in the Uranian system. Reports are included on: (1) imaging science; (2) photometry; (3) infrared; (4) ultraviolet; (5) radio science; (6) magnetic fields; (7) plasma; (8) charged particles; (9) magnetosphere (hot plasma and radiation); (10) radion observations; and (11) plasma waves. An

  17. Formation of relief on Europa's surface and analysis of a melting probe movement through the ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erokhina, O. S.; Chumachenko, E. N.; Dunham, D. W.; Aksenov, S. A.; Logashina, I. V.

    2013-12-01

    These days, studies of planetary bodies' are of great interest. And of special interest are the icy moons of the giant planets like Jupiter and Saturn. Analysis of 'Voyager 1', 'Voyager 2', 'Galileo' and 'Cassini' spacecraft data showed that icy covers were observed on Jupiter's moons Ganymede, Europa and Calisto, and Saturn's moons Titan and Enceladus. Of particular interest is the relatively smooth surface of Europa. The entire surface is covered by a system of bands, valleys, and ridges. These structures are explained by the mobility of surface ice, and the impact of stress and large-scale tectonic processes. Also conditions on these moons allow speculation about possible life, considering these moons from an astrobiological point of view. To study the planetary icy body in future space missions, one of the problems to solve is the problem of design of a special device capable of penetrating through the ice, as well as the choice of the landing site of this probe. To select a possible landing site, analysis of Europa's surface relief formation is studied. This analysis showed that compression, extention, shearing, and bending can influence some arbitrarily separated section of Europe's icy surface. The computer simulation with the finite element method (FEM) was performed to see what types of defects could arise from such effects. The analysis showed that fractures and cracks could have various forms depending on the stress-strained state arising in their vicinity. Also the problem of a melting probe's movement through the ice is considered: How the probe will move in low gravity and low atmospheric pressure; whether the hole formed in the ice will be closed when the probe penetrates far enough or not; what is the influence of the probe's characteristics on the melting process; what would be the order of magnitude of the penetration velocity. This study explores the technique based on elasto-plastic theory and so-called 'solid water' theory to estimate the melting velocity and to study the melting process. Based on this technique, several cases of melting probe motion are considered, the velocity of the melting probe is estimated, the influence of different factors are studied and discussed, and an easy way to optimize the parameters of the probe is proposed.

  18. Implications of Voyager 1 observations beyond the heliopause for the local interstellar electron spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Bisschoff, D.; Potgieter, M. S.

    2014-10-20

    Cosmic-ray observations made by the Voyager 1 spacecraft outside the dominant modulating influence of the heliosphere finally allow the comparison of computed galactic spectra with experimental data at lower energies. These computed spectra, based on galactic propagation models, can now be compared with observations at low energies by Voyager 1 and at high energies by the PAMELA space detector at Earth. This improves understanding of basic propagation effects and also provides solar modulation studies with reliable input spectra from 1 MeV to 100 GeV. We set out to reproduce the Voyager 1 electron observations in the energy range of 6-60 MeV, as well as the PAMELA electron spectrum above 10 GeV, using the GALPROP code. By varying the source spectrum and galactic diffusion parameters, specifically the rigidity dependence of spatial diffusion, we find local interstellar spectra that agree with both power-law spectra observed by Voyager 1 beyond the heliopause. The local interstellar spectrum between ∼1 MeV and 100 GeV indicates that it is the combination of two power laws, with E {sup –(1.45} {sup ±} {sup 0.15)} below ∼100 MeV and E {sup –(3.15} {sup ±} {sup 0.05)} above ∼100 MeV. A gradual turn in the spectral shape matching the power laws is found, between 2.0 ± 0.5) GeV and (100 ± 10) MeV. According to our simplified modeling, this transition is caused primarily by galactic propagation effects. We find that the intensity beyond the heliopause at 10 MeV is (350 ± 50) electrons m{sup –2} s{sup –1} sr{sup –1} MeV{sup –1}, decreasing to (50 ± 5) electrons m{sup –2} s{sup –1} sr{sup –1} MeV{sup –1} at 100 MeV.

  19. Meteorological Implications of the First Voyage of Christopher Columbus.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerveny, Randall S.; Hobgood, Jay S.

    1992-02-01

    The log of the first voyage of Christopher Columbus to the New World provides valuable information on the meteorological conditions of September 1492. Comparison and analysis of the descriptive accounts of weather made by Columbus and his pilots to other available Columbian and modern data leads to two distinct perspectives on the Columbian voyage: an examination of the frequency of "calm" events, and an analysis of the lack of tropical storm activity. The major conclusions of the first portion of the study include: 1) The Columbian pilots' descriptions of "cairns" related to travel slower than travel occurring during other portions of the voyage. That rate of travel compares favorably to calm winds and an oceanic current of 0.4 knots, a value close to modern-day values; 2) The frequency of "calm" events experienced by Christopher Columbus in 1492 is significantly higher than the most liberal estimates of calms in the North Atlantic over the last 100 years; and 3) The locations of the Columbian calms are generally in the same region currently experiencing the highest frequency of calms. The main finding of the second portion of the study is that, based on historical hurricane records from 1886 to 1989, the center of a hurricane would have passed within 100 km of Columbus only once in the past 104 years. Inclusion of tropical storms increases this number to four out of 104 years. Therefore, while Columbus may indeed have been fortunate to have avoided severe weather during his voyage, the odds decidedly were in his favor. This Columbian "weather luck" was due to a combination of 1) encountering abnormally strong anticyclonic flow over the eastern North Atlantic, 2) starting late enough in the hurricane season to significantly decrease the probability of experiencing a hurricane, and 3) taking a north and easterly voyage, thereby avoiding the area of maximum hurricane occurrence.

  20. Probing in Space and Time the Nuclear Motion Driven by Nonequilibrium Electronic Dynamics in Ultrafast Pumped N2.

    PubMed

    Ajay, J; Šmydke, J; Remacle, F; Levine, R D

    2016-05-19

    An ultrafast electronic excitation of N2 in the vacuum ultraviolet creates a nonstationary coherent linear superposition of interacting valence and Rydberg states resulting in a net oscillating dipole moment. There is therefore a linear response to an electrical field that can be queried by varying the time delay between the pump and a second optical probe pulse. Both the pump and probe pulses are included in our computation as part of the Hamiltonian, and the time-dependent wave function for both electronic and nuclear dynamics is computed using a grid representation for the internuclear coordinate. Even on an ultrafast time scale there are several processes that can be discerned beyond the expected coherence oscillations. In particular, the coupling between the excited valence and Rydberg states of the same symmetry is very evident and can be directly probed by varying the delay between pulse and probe. For quite a number of vibrations the nuclear motion does not dephase the electronic disequilibrium. However, the nuclear motion does modulate the dipolar response by taking the wave packet in and out of the Franck-Condon region and by its strong influence on the coupling of the Rydberg and valence states. A distinct isotope effect arises from the dependence of the interstate coupling on the nuclear mass. PMID:26937745

  1. Heavy Neutral Beam Probe Space Potential Measurements of the Helimak Experiment (Te ˜ 10 eV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia de Gorordo, Alvaro; Hallock, Gary A.; Gentle, Kenneth W.

    2012-10-01

    The Heavy Neutral Beam Probe (HNBP) for the Helimak low temperature plasma experiment has been developed at the University of Texas at Austin (UT-Austin). The HNBP is based on the highly successful Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP), but is engineered to work in the low temperature plasma regime (Te< 40 eV). The greatest difficutly to operation at low electron temperatures is that the measurement signal is enabled by electron-impact ionization events, which become increasingly rare when the temperature dips to ˜10 eV. This problem is overcome by probing the plasma with a neutral alkali metal (Na) and by modulating the probing beaming with a square wave (chopping) and recovering the signal with phase sensitive detection. The Helimak experiment at UT-Austin approximates the infinite cylindrical slab with open field lines1. The geometry is like a torus, but with a rectangular cross-section and with vertical field coils, that combined with the toroidal field coils, give rise to a helical magnetic field inside the device. Because of the curved, sheared magnetic field, and its gradient, the Helimak simulates the scrape off layer (SOL) of a tokamak.

  2. 46 CFR 108.209 - Hospital spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hospital spaces. 108.209 Section 108.209 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.209 Hospital spaces. (a) Each unit carrying twelve or more persons on a voyage of more than three days must have a hospital space. (b) Each hospital...

  3. 46 CFR 108.209 - Hospital spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hospital spaces. 108.209 Section 108.209 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.209 Hospital spaces. (a) Each unit carrying twelve or more persons on a voyage of more than three days must have a hospital space. (b) Each hospital...

  4. 46 CFR 108.209 - Hospital spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hospital spaces. 108.209 Section 108.209 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.209 Hospital spaces. (a) Each unit carrying twelve or more persons on a voyage of more than three days must have a hospital space. (b) Each hospital...

  5. 46 CFR 108.209 - Hospital spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hospital spaces. 108.209 Section 108.209 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.209 Hospital spaces. (a) Each unit carrying twelve or more persons on a voyage of more than three days must have a hospital space. (b) Each hospital...

  6. Turbulence in the solar wind: spectra from Voyager 2 data at 5 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraternale, F.; Gallana, L.; Iovieno, M.; Opher, M.; Richardson, J. D.; Tordella, D.

    2016-02-01

    Fluctuations in the flow velocity and magnetic fields are ubiquitous in the Solar System. These fluctuations are turbulent, in the sense that they are disordered and span a broad range of scales in both space and time. The study of solar wind turbulence is motivated by a number of factors all keys to the understanding of the Solar Wind origin and thermodynamics. The solar wind spectral properties are far from uniformity and evolve with the increasing distance from the sun. Most of the available spectra of solar wind turbulence were computed at 1 astronomical unit, while accurate spectra on wide frequency ranges at larger distances are still few. In this paper we consider solar wind spectra derived from the data recorded by the Voyager 2 mission during 1979 at about 5 AU from the sun. Voyager 2 data are an incomplete time series with a voids/signal ratio that typically increases as the spacecraft moves away from the sun (45% missing data in 1979), making the analysis challenging. In order to estimate the uncertainty of the spectral slopes, different methods are tested on synthetic turbulence signals with the same gap distribution as V2 data. Spectra of all variables show a power law scaling with exponents between -2.1 and -1.1, depending on frequency subranges. Probability density functions (PDFs) and correlations indicate that the flow has a significant intermittency.

  7. From convicts to colonists: the health of prisoners and the voyage to Australia, 1823-53.

    PubMed

    Foxhall, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    From 1815, naval surgeons accompanied all convict voyages from Britain and Ireland to the Australian colonies. As their authority grew, naval surgeons on convict ships increasingly used their medical observations about the health of convicts to make pointed and sustained criticisms of British penal reforms. Beyond their authority at sea, surgeons' journals and correspondence brought debates about penal reform in Britain into direct conversation with debates about colonial transportation. In the 1830s, naval surgeons' claims brought them into conflict with their medical colleagues on land, as well as with the colonial governor, George Arthur. As the surgeons continued their attempts to combat scurvy, their rhetoric changed. By the late 1840s, as convicts' bodies betrayed the disturbing effects of separate confinement as they boarded the convict ships, surgeons could argue convincingly that the voyage itself was a space that could medically, physically and spiritually reform convicts. By the mid-1840s, surgeons took the role of key arbiters of convicts' potential contribution to the Australian colonies. PMID:21584986

  8. Multifrequency analysis of a decametric storm observed at Voyager 1 and ground-based observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maeda, K.; Carr, T. D.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of a Jovian decametric non-Io-A noise storm made from Voyager 1, the University of Florida Radio Observatory, the University of Texas Radio Astronomy Observatory, and the Jupiter station at Goddard Space Flight Center at frequencies of 26.3, 22.2, 20.0, and 18.0 MHz were found to be correlated. The activity observed at the ground stations occurred 68 min after the corresponding activity at Voyager 1. After correction is made for propagation time differences, this delay is reduced to 34 min. It is demonstrated that at each frequency the envelope of the individual-event beams occurring during the storm (some or all of which are associated with dynamic spectral arcs) is a quasi-constant structure that corotates with the inner Jovian magnetosphere, and that the width of this envelope beam is frequency dependent. The width increases as frequency is decreased, mainly because of the change in position of the trailing-edge beam boundary. Evidence for a relatively slow temporal change in beam geometry is also presented.

  9. From Convicts to Colonists: the Health of Prisoners and the Voyage to Australia, 1823 – 1853

    PubMed Central

    Foxhall, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    From 1815, naval surgeons accompanied all convict voyages from Britain and Ireland to the Australian colonies. As their authority grew, naval surgeons on convict ships increasingly used their medical observations about the health of convicts to make pointed and sustained criticisms of British penal reforms. Beyond their authority at sea, surgeons’ journals and correspondence brought debates about penal reform in Britain into direct conversation with debates about colonial transportation. In the 1830s, naval surgeons’ claims brought them into direct conflict with their medical colleagues on land, as well as with the colonial governor, George Arthur. As the surgeons continued their attempts to combat scurvy, their rhetoric changed. By the late 1840s, as convicts’ bodies betrayed the disturbing effects of separate confinement as they boarded the convict ships, surgeons could argue convincingly that the voyage itself was a space that could medically, physically, and spiritually reform convicts. By the mid 1840s, surgeons took the role of key arbiters of convicts’ potential contribution to the Australian colonies. PMID:21584986

  10. Voyager 1 Observations of Galactic Cosmic Rays in the Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Alan; Stone, Edward C.; Heikkila, Bryant; Lal, Nand; Webber, William R.

    2014-08-01

    The twin Voyager spacecraft were launched in 1977 and continue to be on a remarkable journey of exploration. Both spacecraft have crossed the termination shock of the solar wind and Voyager 1 (V1) crossed into interstellar space in ~mid-2012. At that crossing of the heliopause, the particles of heliospheric origin that had dominated the energy spectrum of most cosmic ray nuclei below approximately 50 MeV/nucleon disappeared, revealing for the first time the energy spectra of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) down to about 3 MeV/nucleon. The intensity of GCRs has not shown any significant long-term gradient since the crossing, suggesting that V1 is observing the energy spectra of GCRs in the local interstellar medium unaffected by solar modulation. The energy spectra of H, He, C, and O have rather broad peaks in the ~20-100 MeV/nucleon energy range. The H/He ratio in this energy range is ~12 and that of C/O is ~1. We are also observing the local interstellar electron spectrum and find that a power-law energy dependence with spectral index approximately -1.5 from ~5-70 MeV is consistent with the data. We will report on the latest observations at the meeting. This work was supported by NASA under contract NNN12AA012.

  11. Voyager 1 Observations of Galactic Cosmic Rays in the Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, A. C.; Stone, E. C.; Heikkila, B. C.; Lal, N.; Webber, W. R.

    2014-12-01

    The twin Voyager spacecraft were launched in 1977 and continue to be on a remarkable journey of exploration. Both spacecraft have crossed the termination shock of the solar wind and Voyager 1 (V1) crossed into interstellar space in ~mid-2012. At that crossing of the heliopause, the particles of heliospheric origin that had dominated the energy spectrum of most cosmic ray nuclei below approximately 50 MeV/nucleon disappeared, revealing for the first time the energy spectra of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) down to about 3 MeV/nucleon. The intensity of GCRs has not shown any significant long-term gradient since the crossing, suggesting that V1 is observing the energy spectra of GCRs in the local interstellar medium unaffected by solar modulation. The energy spectra of H, He, C, and O have rather broad peaks in the ~20-100 MeV/nucleon energy range. The H/He ratio in this energy range is ~12 and that of C/O is ~1. We are also observing the local interstellar electron spectrum and find that a power-law energy dependence with spectral index approximately -1.5 from ~5-70 MeV is consistent with the data. We will report on the latest observations at the meeting. This work was supported by NASA under contract NNN12AA012.

  12. Spectra and correlations in the solar wind from Voyager 2 around 5 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallana, Luca; Fraternale, Federico; Iovieno, Michele; Magli, Enrico; Fosson, Sophie; Opher, Merav; Richardson, John; Tordella, Daniela

    2014-11-01

    Solar wind spectra deduced from the data recorded by the Voyager 2 mission during 1979 at about 5 astronomical units from the sun are considered. The data are time series which contain voids that typically become larger and irregularly sparse as the craft moves away from the sun (45% missing data in 1979). By extracting complete subsets and filling gaps with different techniques (polynomial interpolation, Rybicki (AJ 1992) and compressed sensing (e.g. Candes et al. CPAM 2006) reconstruction methods, global DFT for irregularly spaced data) we obtain velocity and magnetic field fluctuations between 10-5 and 10-2 Hz in the MHD inertial range of solar wind. Spectra of all variables show a power law scaling with exponents in between -1.5 and -1.8. PDFs and correlations indicate that the flow has a significant intermittency. The reliability of the reconstruction methods used is analyzed by introducing the same sequence of gaps observed in the Voyager data into a reference dataset extracted from direct numerical simulations of incompressible Navier-Stokes turbulence as well as from synthetic turbulence, and then by comparing the statistics obtained with those of the complete reference dataset.

  13. COMPARISON OF PIONEER 10, VOYAGER 1, AND VOYAGER 2 ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS WITH ANTI-SOLAR LYMAN-ALPHA BACKSCATTER SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Fayock, B.; Zank, G. P.; Heerikhuisen, J. E-mail: garyp.zank@gmail.com

    2013-09-20

    Observations made by ultraviolet (UV) detectors on board Pioneer 10, Voyager 1, and Voyager 2 can be used to analyze the distribution of neutral hydrogen throughout the heliosphere, including the interaction regions of the solar wind and local interstellar medium. Previous studies of the long-term trend of decreasing intensity with increasing heliocentric distance established the need for more sophisticated heliospheric models. Here we use state-of-the-art three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) neutral models to simulate Lyman-alpha backscatter as would be seen by the three spacecrafts, exploiting a new 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code under solar minimum conditions. Both observations and simulations of the UV backscatter intensity are normalized for each spacecraft flight path at {approx}15 AU, and we focus on the slope of decreasing intensity over an increasing heliocentric distance. Comparisons of simulations with Voyager 1 Lyman-alpha data results in a very close match, while the Pioneer 10 comparison is similar due to normalization, but not considered to be in agreement. The deviations may be influenced by a low resolution of photoionization in the 3D MHD-neutral model, a lack of solar cycle activity in our simulations, and possibly issues with instrumental sensitivity. Comparing the slope of Voyager 2 and the simulated intensities yields an almost identical match. Our results predict a large increase in the Lyman-alpha intensity as the hydrogen wall is approached, which would signal an imminent crossing of the heliopause.

  14. Radio science with Voyager 2 at Uranus - Results on masses and densities of the planet and five principal satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Campbell, J. K.; Jacobson, R. A.; Sweetnam, D. N.; Taylor, A. H.

    1987-01-01

    Phase-coherent Doppler data generated by the Deep Space Network with the radio communication system during the Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus in January 1986, optical navigation data generated by the Voyager Navigation Team with the Voyager 2 imaging system, and ground-based astrometric data obtained over an 8-yr period are compiled and analyzed to determine the masses and densities of Uranus and its principal satellites. The data-analysis procedures are explained in detail, and the results are presented in tables and graphs. The mean density of Uranus is found to be 1.285 + or - 0.001 g/cu cm, whereas the mean uncompressed mass of all five satellites is 1.48 + or - 0.06 g/cu cm, or 0.10 g/cu cm above the density expected for a homogeneous solar mix of rock, H2O and NH3 ice, and CH4 as clathrate hydrate. This difference is tentatively attributed to the presence of 15 mass percent of pure graphite, which would provide the thermal conductivity required to keep the satellites cold and undifferentiated.

  15. The Phase Space of z~1.2 SpARCS Clusters: Using Herschel to Probe Dust Temperature as a Function of Environment and Accretion History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, A. G.; Webb, T. M. A.; Yee, H. K. C.; Muzzin, A.; Wilson, G.; van der Burg, R. F. J.; Balogh, M. L.; Shupe, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    We present a five-band Herschel study (100-500 μm) of three galaxy clusters at z˜ 1.2 from the Spitzer Adaptation of the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey. With a sample of 120 spectroscopically confirmed cluster members, we investigate the role of environment on galaxy properties utilizing the projected cluster phase space (line-of-sight velocity versus clustercentric radius), which probes the time-averaged galaxy density to which a galaxy has been exposed. We divide cluster galaxies into phase-space bins of (r/{r}200)× ({{Δ }}v/{σ }v), tracing a sequence of accretion histories in phase space. Stacking optically star-forming cluster members on the Herschel maps, we measure average infrared star formation rates, and, for the first time in high-redshift galaxy clusters, dust temperatures for dynamically distinct galaxy populations—namely, recent infalls and those that were accreted onto the cluster at an earlier epoch. Proceeding from the infalling to virialized (central) regions of phase space, we find a steady decrease in the specific star formation rate and increase in the stellar age of star-forming cluster galaxies. We perform a probability analysis to investigate all acceptable infrared spectral energy distributions within the full parameter space and measure a ˜ 4σ drop in the average dust temperature of cluster galaxies in an intermediate phase-space bin, compared to an otherwise flat trend with phase space. We suggest one plausible quenching mechanism which may be consistent with these trends, invoking ram-pressure stripping of the warmer dust for galaxies within this intermediate accretion phase. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  16. Voyages of Discovery through a Backpack Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syz, Tracy Hong

    2008-01-01

    Backpacks are commonplace in American schools. Each day students transport them to and from the classroom as they manage to carve out a little oasis of space to gather their treasures, homework and books. In Fair Lawn's recently launched Chinese classes, backpacks take on new responsibility, becoming culture bearers that connect middle school

  17. Voyages of Discovery through a Backpack Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syz, Tracy Hong

    2008-01-01

    Backpacks are commonplace in American schools. Each day students transport them to and from the classroom as they manage to carve out a little oasis of space to gather their treasures, homework and books. In Fair Lawn's recently launched Chinese classes, backpacks take on new responsibility, becoming culture bearers that connect middle school…

  18. Measuring the Thickness and Potential Profiles of the Space-Charge Layer at Organic/Organic Interfaces under Illumination and in the Dark by Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Geoffrey A; Wu, Yanfei; Haugstad, Greg; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy was used to measure band-bending at the model donor/acceptor heterojunction poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/fullerene (C60). Specifically, we measured the variation in the surface potential of C60 films with increasing thicknesses grown on P3HT to produce a surface potential profile normal to the substrate both in the dark and under illumination. The results confirm a space-charge carrier region with a thickness of 10 nm, consistent with previous observations. We discuss the possibility that the domain size in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, which is comparable to the space-charge layer thickness, is actually partly responsible for less than expected electron/hole recombination rates. PMID:26890658

  19. The galilean satellites and Jupiter: Voyager 2 imaging science results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, B.A.; Soderblom, L.A.; Beebe, R.; Boyce, J.; Briggs, G.; Carr, M.; Collins, S.A.; Cook, A.F., II; Danielson, G.E.; Davies, M.E.; Hunt, G.E.; Ingersoll, A.; Johnson, T.V.; Masursky, H.; McCauley, J.; Morrison, D.; Owen, editors, Timothy W.; Sagan, C.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Strom, R.; Suomi, V.E.; Veverka, J.

    1979-01-01

    Voyager 2, during its encounter with the Jupiter system, provided images that both complement and supplement in important ways the Voyager 1 images. While many changes have been observed in Jupiter's visual appearance, few, yet significant, changes have been detected in the principal atmospheric currents. Jupiter's ring system is strongly forward scattering at visual wavelengths and consists of a narrow annulus of highest particle density, within which is a broader region in which the density is lower. On Io, changes are observed in eruptive activity, plume structure, and surface albedo patterns. Europa's surface retains little or no record of intense meteorite bombardment, but does reveal a complex and, as yet, little-understood system of overlapping bright and dark linear features. Ganymede is found to have at least one unit of heavily cratered terrain on a surface that otherwise suggests widespread tectonism. Except for two large ringed basins, Callisto's entire surface is heavily cratered. Copyright ?? 1979 AAAS.

  20. Analysis of Voyager 2 images of Jovian lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; Magalhaes, Julio A.

    1992-01-01

    Magalhaes and Borucki (1991) reported that Voyager-2 images of Jupiter contained bright spots due to lightning activity that was confined to two narrow altitude bands centered at 49 deg N and 13.5 deg N latitude and to a single region near 60 deg N latitude. This paper describes the Voyager 2 imaging observations in detail and associates the positions of the lightning features in the images with particular cloud features. The energetics of the lightning storms on Jupiter is examined. It is found that the ratio of the energy dissipated by Jovian lightning to the thermal flux available to drive convection motions is about 3 decades larger than the terrestrial ratio.

  1. The body voyage as visual representation and art performance.

    PubMed

    Olsén, Jan Eric

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the notion of the body as an interior landscape that is made intelligible through visual representation. It discerns the key figure of the inner corporeal voyage, identifies its main elements and examines how contemporary artists working with performances and installations deal with it. A further aim with the paper is to discuss what kind of image of the body that is conveyed through medical visual technologies, such as endoscopy, and relate it to contemporary discussions on embodiment, embodied vision and bodily presence. The paper concludes with a recent exhibition by the French artist Christian Boltanski, which gives a somewhat different meaning to the idea of the body voyage. PMID:21936211

  2. Voyager uplink planning in the interstellar mission era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linick, Susan H.; Weld, Kathryn R.

    1993-01-01

    The Voyager Project has entered its last phase of discovery--the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM). Because of the reduced scope of the project and a lower budget, new ways had to be developed to program two spacecraft with fewer people and to allow for some sequence development flexibility without additional risk. In the previous cruise era, it took a seven-person sequence team 12 weeks to develop a nominal eight week cruise sequence. Today it takes a three-person team six weeks to develop a 13 week sequence load. This paper will describe in detail the sequencing strategy which reduces the volume and frequency of sequence loads, and the new tools and processes developed which reduce the manual effort required to generate these sequences without adding risk.

  3. Voyager 1 assessment of Jupiter's planetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1981-01-01

    An estimate of Jupiter's planetary magnetic field is obtained from the Voyager 1 observations of the Jovian magnetosphere. An explicit model for the magnetodisc current system is combined with a spherical harmonic model of the planetary field with both sets of parameters determined simultaneously using a nonlinear generalized inverse methodology. The resulting model fits the observations extremely well throughout the analysis interval (r 20 Jovian radii). The Jovian internal field model obtained from the Voyager 1 data is very similar to the octopole Pioneer 11 models. The best fitting magnetodisc lies in the centrifugal equator, 2/3 of the way between the rotational and magnetic equators, as appropriate for centrifugal loading of the magnetosphere by a cold plasma.

  4. Voyager 1 Planetary Radio Astronomy Observations Near Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.; Riddle, A. C.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Thieman, J. R.; Carr, T. B.; Gulkis, S.; Boischot, A.

    1979-01-01

    Results are reported from the first low frequency radio receiver to be transported into the Jupiter magnetosphere. Dramatic new information was obtained both because Voyager was near or in Jupiter's radio emission sources and also because it was outside the relatively dense solar wind plasma of the inner solar system. Extensive radio arcs, from above 30 MHz to about 1 MHz, occurred in patterns correlated with planetary longitude. A newly discovered kilometric wavelength radio source may relate to the plasma torus near Io's orbit. In situ wave resonances near closest approach define an electron density profile along the Voyager trajectory and form the basis for a map of the torus. Studies in progress are outlined briefly.

  5. Voyager 1 planetary radio astronomy observations near Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.; Riddle, A. C.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Thieman, J. R.; Carr, T. D.; Gulkis, S.; Boischot, A.

    1979-01-01

    Results from the first low-frequency radio receiver to be transported into the Jupiter magnetosphere are reported. Dramatic new information was obtained, both because Voyager was near or in Jupiter's radio emission sources and because it was outside the relatively dense solar wind plasma of the inner solar system. Extensive radio spectral arcs, from above 30 to about 1 MHz, occurred in patterns correlated with planetary longitude. A newly discovered kilometric wavelength radio source may relate to the plasma torus near Io's orbit. In situ wave resonances near closest approach define an electron density profile along the Voyager trajectory and form the basis for a map of the torus. Detailed studies are in progress and are outlined briefly.

  6. Voyager 2 - Energetic ions and electrons in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, R. E.; Cummings, A. C.; Garrard, T. L.; Gehrels, N.; Stone, E. C.; Trainor, J. H.; Schardt, A. W.; Conlon, T. F.; Mcdonald, F. B.

    1979-01-01

    The passage of Voyager 2 through the Jovian magnetosphere demonstrated that this magnetosphere is highly variable, even as close as 10 Jupiter radii from the planet. The cosmic-ray subsystem measured the flux, elemental composition, and anisotropy of energetic particles. Its high sensitivity was particularly valuable during the long passage through the magnetotail, where particle fluxes were orders of magnitude less than in the inner magnetosphere and approached interplanetary values. The new data confirm earlier observations that the Jovian magnetosphere is a giant accelerator of particles - electrons, protons, and heavy ions, including sulfur. Both spatial and temporal changes are observed in the magnetosphere as compared to prior observations with Pioneer 10 and 11 and Voyager 1. It is suggested that the 10-hr modulation of interplanetary Jovian electrons may be associated with the arrival at the dawn magnetopause of a rarefaction region each planetary rotation.

  7. Plasma observations near Jupiter - Initial results from Voyager 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridge, H. S.; Belcher, J. W.; Lazarus, A. J.; Sullivan, J. D.; Mcnutt, R. L.; Bagenal, F.; Scudder, J. D.; Sittler, E. C.; Siscoe, G. L.; Vasyliunas, V. M.

    1979-01-01

    Extensive measurements of low-energy positive ions and electrons were made throughout the Jupiter encounter of Voyager 1. The bow shock and magnetopause were crossed several times at distances consistent with variations in the upstream solar wind pressure measured on Voyager 2. During the inbound pass, the number density increased by six orders of magnitude between the innermost magnetopause crossing at approximately 47 Jupiter radii and near closest approach at approximately 5 Jupiter radii; the plasma flow during this period was predominately in the direction of corotation. Marked increases in number density were observed twice per planetary rotation, near the magnetic equator. Jupiterward of the Io plasma torus, a cold, corotating plasma was observed and the energy/charge spectra show well-resolved, heavy-ion peaks at mass-to-charge ratios equal to 8, 16, 32, and 64.

  8. Voyager plasma wave observations near the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.

    1991-01-01

    With the completion of the reconnaissance of the magnetospheres of the outer planets by Voyager, a first-order view is obtained of the existence of plasma waves in a wide variety of settings with which to begin the task of intercomparison. Voyager carried the first plasma-wave receivers to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune and some very strong statements can be made about the likelihood of several types of plasma-wave modes and where in a planetary magnetosphere these emissions will occur. Further, the role of plasma waves can be understood, in general, in the physics of the magnetospheres and their effects on the energy budget, plasma energization and transport, and the generation of planetary radio emissions.

  9. Voyager radio occultation by Uranus' rings. I - Observational results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gresh, Donna L.; Marouf, Essam A.; Tyler, G. Leonard; Rosen, Paul A.; Simpson, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    The January 24, 1986 radio occultation of Voyager 2 by the Uranian rings yielded fine-resolution, 50- and 200-m optical depth profiles at a 3.6 cm wavelength for the nine pre-Voyager rings; these are found to be opaque, reaching optical depths as great as 6-8 in rings gamma and epsilon, which are the only two rings possessing extremely sharp inner and outer edges. Rings 6, 5, 4, and delta share a morphology characterized by a sharp outer-edge transition and a quasi-exponential inner edge one. In ring eta, this behavior is reversed, and ring beta exhibits both diffuse edges and the smallest of the observed opacities.

  10. Voyager 2 at Uranus - Grain impacts in the ring plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Vernet, N.; Aubier, M. G.; Pedersen, B. M.

    1986-07-01

    During the Uranus ring plane crossing at 4.57 Uranus radii, the Planetary Radio Astronomy instrument aboard Voyager 2 recorded a characteristic intense noise extending 10,000 km perpendicular to the ring plane. This is interpreted as due to impact ionization of dust grains striking the spacecraft. The noise level is smaller by a factor of about 170 than the same kind of event recorded during Voyager 2 Saturn encounter just outside the G-ring. The results indicate a maximum concentration of about 10 to the -9th/cu cm of grains larger than 1 micron with a scale height of about 150 km across the ring plane. The distribution is asymmetrical, extending farther on the sunlit side. The inferred geometric optical depth is of order 10 to the -8th.

  11. Heat pipe cooled probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, C. J. (Inventor); Couch, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    The basic heat pipe principle is employed to provide a self-contained passively cooled probe that may be placed into a high temperature environment. The probe consists of an evaporator region of a heat pipe and a sensing instrument. Heat is absorbed as the working fluid evaporates in the probe. The vapor is transported to the vapor space of the condenser region. Heat is dissipated from the condenser region and fins causing condensation of the working fluid, which returns to the probe by gravity and the capillary action of the wick. Working fluid, wick and condenser configurations and structure materials can be selected to maintain the probe within an acceptable temperature range.

  12. Voyages to the Stars and Galaxies + 2001 Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, Andrew; Morrison, David; Wolff, Sidney

    Includes introductory material on the sky, radiation, & telescopes then covers just the stars and beyond. This book is written in friendly, accessible language. The Voyages books feature down-to-earth analogies, superb full-color diagrams and images, and even occasional touches of humor. This is a book people all around the country are turning to with pleasure. The book integrates recent results into the full story of astronomy. Authors include an award-winning astronomy educator and two distinguished research scientists.

  13. Winds of Neptune - Voyager observations of cloud motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Sanjay S.; Sromovsky, Lawrence A.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented on measurements of cloud motions in the atmosphere of Neptune, using high temporal and spatial resolution images acquired from Voyager cameras. The results obtained on cloud motions reveal a wide range of atmospheric periods between 12 and 21 hours, consistent with previous observations. The new results expand the latitudinal coverage, improve the determination of streak motions (especially near 30 deg N), and add statistical weight to altitudes already covered by previous measurements.

  14. Mapping the Galilean satellites of Jupiter with Voyager data.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batson, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    The four Galilean satellites of Jupiter are being mapped using image data from the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. The maps are published at several scales and in several versions. Preliminary maps at 1:25,000,000-required for mission planning and preliminary science reports-were compiled within three weeks of data acquisition and have been published. Later maps incorporate Rand Corporation photogrammetric triangulations. - from Authors

  15. Voyager spacecraft radio observations of Jupiter: Initial cruise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Riddle, A. C.; Lecacheux, A.; Pearce, J. B.; Alexander, J. K.; Warwick, J. W.; Thieman, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Jupiter's low-frequency radio emission were detected by the planetary radio astronomy instruments onboard the two Voyager spacecraft. The emission is surprisingly similar in morphology but opposite in polarization to the high-frequency Jovian radio noise that were observed with ground-based telescopes for more than two decades. Several possible explanations for the behavior of the low-frequency emission are examined, but none of them is completely satisfactory.

  16. Voyager detection of nonthermal radio emission from Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    The detection of bursts of nonthermal radio noise from Saturn by the planetary radio astonomy experiment onboard the Voyager spacecraft is discussed. The emissions occur near 200 kHz with a peak flux density comparable to higher frequency Jovian emissions. The radiation is right-hand polarized and is most likely emitted in the extraordinary magnetoionic mode from Saturn's northern hemisphere. Modulation is apparent in the data which is consistent with a planetary rotation period of 10 hr 39.9 min.

  17. Voyager detection of nonthermal radio emission from Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    The planetary radio astronomy experiment on board the Voyager spacecraft has detected bursts of nonthermal radio noise from Saturn occurring near 200 kilohertz, with a peak flux density comparable to higher frequency Jovian emissions. The radiation is right-hand polarized and is most likely emitted in the extraordinary magnetoionic mode from Saturn's northern hemisphere. Modulation that is consistent with a planetary rotation period of 10 hours 39.9 minutes is apparent in the data.

  18. Review of the NASA Voyager spacecraft polycarbonate capacitor failure incident

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, F. M.; Yen, S. P. S.; Somoano, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    The premission failure of a Voyager spacecraft capacitor has prompted an investigation into the use of polycarbonate capacitors in high impedance circuits, during which capacitor failures were induced by thermal cycling together with extended periods at high temperature. Measurement of leakage path temperature coefficients indicates that there are two distinct leakage types whose mechanisms are complicated by movement within the capacitor during temperature changes. A novel system for pulse detection during capacitor burn-in and ramp testing has proven to be beneficial.

  19. Construction of the Hunveyor-Husar space probe model system for planetary science education and analog studies and simulations in universities and colleges of Hungary.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérczi, Sz.; Hegyi, S.; Hudoba, Gy.; Hargitai, H.; Kokiny, A.; Drommer, B.; Gucsik, A.; Pintér, A.; Kovács, Zs.

    Several teachers and students had the possibility to visit International Space Camp in the vicinity of the MSFC NASA in Huntsville Alabama USA where they learned the success of simulators in space science education To apply these results in universities and colleges in Hungary we began a unified complex modelling in planetary geology robotics electronics and complex environmental analysis by constructing an experimental space probe model system First a university experimental lander HUNVEYOR Hungarian UNiversity surVEYOR then a rover named HUSAR Hungarian University Surface Analyser Rover has been built For Hunveyor the idea and example was the historical Surveyor program of NASA in the 1960-ies for the Husar the idea and example was the Pathfinder s rover Sojouner rover The first step was the construction of the lander a year later the rover followed The main goals are 1 to build the lander structure and basic electronics from cheap everyday PC compatible elements 2 to construct basic experiments and their instruments 3 to use the system as a space activity simulator 4 this simulator contains lander with on board computer for works on a test planetary surface and a terrestrial control computer 5 to harmonize the assemblage of the electronic system and instruments in various levels of autonomy from the power and communication circuits 6 to use the complex system in education for in situ understanding complex planetary environmental problems 7 to build various planetary environments for application of the

  20. Voyager observations in the outer heliosphere and interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, John D.

    2016-03-01

    The Voyager spacecraft are making the first direct plasma measurements of the heliosheath and interstellar medium. This paper discusses the differences in the heliosheath observations of Voyager 1 (V1) and Voyager 2 (V2), the V1 heliopause crossing, and observations of transient structures in the local interstellar medium (LISM). The heliosheath velocities at V1 are smaller than expected throughout the heliosheath and are zero in the stagnation region, which persists for 8 AU before the heliopause crossing. The V2 flow profile is very different from that at V1; the average speed stays constant at 145 km/s but the flow has turned over 60° from radial. The heliopause crossing region has numerous structures in cosmic rays, termination shock particles, and magnetic field so that the exact heliopause crossing point is still controversial. Solar transients drive shocks which propagate through the LISM, generate anisotropies and intensity changes in the galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and excite plasma and radio waves.

  1. Abundances of Jupiter's Trace Hydrocarbons from Voyager and Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Romani, P. N.; Allen, M.; Zhang, X.; Teanby, N. A.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.

    2010-01-01

    The flybys of Jupiter by the Voyager spacecraft in 1979, and over two decades later by Cassini in 2000, have provided us with unique datasets from two different epochs, allowing the investigation of seasonal change in the atmosphere. In this paper we model zonal averages of thermal infrared spectra from the two instruments, Voyager 1 IRIS and Cassini CIRS, to retrieve the vertical and meridional profiles of temperature, and the abundances of the two minor hydrocarbons, acetylene (C2H2) and ethane (C2H6). The spatial variation of these gases is controlled by both chemistry and dynamics, and therefore their observed distribution gives us an insight into both processes, We find that the two gases paint quite different pictures of seasonal change. Whilst the 2-D cross-section of C2H6 abundance is slightly increased and more symmetric in 2000 (northern summer solstice) compared to 1979 (northern fall equinox), the major trend of equator to pole increase remains. For C2H2 on tile other hand, the Voyager epoch exhibits almost no latitudinal variation, whilst the Cassini era shows a marked decrease polewards in both hemispheres. At the present time, these experimental findings are in advance of interpretation, as there are no published models of 2-D Jovian seasonal chemical variation available for comparison.

  2. More Evidence that Voyager 1 Is Still in the Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Fisk, L. A.

    2015-06-01

    The investigators of the Voyager mission currently exploring the heliosheath have concluded and announced that Voyager 1 (V1) has crossed the heliopause and is now in the interstellar medium. This conclusion is based primarily on the plasma wave observations of Gurnett et al., which reveal a plasma electron density that resembles the density expected in the local interstellar medium. Fisk & Gloeckler have disputed the conclusion that V1 has crossed the heliopause, pointing out that to account for all the V1 observations, particularly the magnetic field direction together with the density, it is necessary to conclude that the higher densities observed by Gurnett et al. are due to compressed solar wind. In this Letter it is shown that the model of Fisk & Gloeckler for the nose region of the heliosheath can account in detail for the intensity and spectral shape of Energetic Neutral Hydrogen observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) in the directions of V1 and Voyager 2 (V2). A key feature of the Fisk & Gloeckler model is the existence of a region in the heliosheath where the solar wind is compressed and heated, followed by a region where the solar wind is compressed but cold. The region of cold compressed solar wind provides a unique explanation for the low-energy IBEX observations, and since this is the region where V1 must now reside, the low-energy IBEX observations provide strong evidence that V1 is still in the heliosphere.

  3. Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager-2 near Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Evans, D. R.; Romig, J. H.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Aubier, M.; Leblanc, Y.; Lecacheux, A.; Pedersen, B. M.

    1981-01-01

    Voyager-2 planetry radio astronomy measurements obtained near Saturn are discussed. They indicate that Saturnian kilometric radiation is emitted by a strong, dayside source at auroral latitudes in the northern hemisphere and by a weaker (by more than an order of magnitude) source at complementary latitudes in the southern hemisphere. These emissions are variable both due to Saturn's rotation and, on longer time scales, probably due to influences of the solar wind and the satellite Dione. The Saturn electrostatic discharge bursts first discovered by Voyager-1 and attributed to emissions from the B-ring were again observed with the same broadband spectral properties and a 10(h)11(m) + or - 5(m) episodic recurrence period but with an occurrence frequency of only of about 30 percent of that detected with Voyager-1. During the crossing of the ring plane at a distance of 2.88 R sub S, an intense noise event is interpreted to be consequence of the impact/vaporization/ionization of charged micron-size G-ring particles distributed over a total vertical thickness of about 1500 km.

  4. Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager 2 near Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Evans, D. R.; Romig, J. H.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Aubier, M.; Leblanc, Y.; Lecacheux, A.; Pedersen, B. M.

    1982-01-01

    Planetary radio astronomy measurements obtained by Voyager 2 near Saturn have added further evidence that Saturnian kilometric radiation is emitted by a strong dayside source at auroral latitudes in the northern hemisphere and by a weaker source at complementary latitudes in the southern hemisphere. These emissions are variable because of Saturn's rotation and, on longer time scales, probably because of influences of the solar wind and Dione. The electrostatic discharge bursts first discovered by Voyager 1 and attributed to emissions from the B ring were again observed with the same broadband spectral properties and an episodic recurrence period of about 10 hours, but their occurrence frequency was only about 30 percent of that detected by Voyager 1. While crossing the ring plane at a distance of 2.88 Saturn radii, the spacecraft detected an intense noise event extending to above 1 megahertz and lasting about 150 seconds. The event is interpreted to be a consequence of the impact, vaporization, and ionization of charged, micrometer-size G ring particles distributed over a vertical thickness of about 1500 kilometers.

  5. Plasma observations near Saturn - Initial results from Voyager 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridge, H. S.; Bagenal, F.; Belcher, J. W.; Lazarus, A. J.; Mcnutt, R. L.; Sullivan, J. D.; Gazis, P. R.; Hartle, R. E.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Scudder, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    Results of plasma measurements made by Voyager 2 in the vicinity of Saturn are discussed and compared with those made by Pioneer 11 and Voyager 1 in a more limited range of latitudes. The initial bow shock crossing on the inbound trajectory closely agreed with the shock position inferred from the external ram pressure in the solar wind, although boundaries on the outbound pass were much further out than expected. Magnetospheric plasma observations reveal the presence of (1) shocked solar wind plasma in the magnetosheath between 30 and 22 Saturn radii; (2) a variable density region between 17 Saturn radii and the magnetopause; (3) an extended thick plasma sheet between 17 and 7 Saturn radii; and (4) an inner plasma torus probably originating from local sources. The ratio of heavy to light ions was observed to vary with distance to the equatorial plane in the dayside magnetosphere, with the heavy ions, probably O(+), more closely confined to the equatorial plane. The plasma data also account for the observed inner boundary of the neutral hydrogen torus discovered by Voyager 1.

  6. Jules Verne Voyager: A Web Interactive Tool for Comparative Planetology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estey, L.; Pappalardo, R.; Meertens, C.

    2004-12-01

    A Web interactive map tool called "Jules Verne Voyager" was originally developed in 1999 by UNAVCO and continues to evolve. The Voyager tool can easily be used for comparative planetology studies by grades 8-14. Thematic mapping datasets, now totaling about 70 Gb, can be accessed by the tool and include global-scale maps of the inner solar system planets and moons, plus Jupiter and the Galilean moons. The map images are viewed on a Web browser created on demand by the server system. On the client-side, only a Java-enabled browser is required, and the Voyager Java applet runs well with common browsers like Netscape, Mozilla, Opera, and Internet Explorer. The applet sends a key-value pair URL to the http://jules.unavco.org server which queues incoming requests and sends them to a bank of computers dedicated to map image creation. The engine for map image creation makes use of the "Generic Mapping Tools" (GMT) software of Paul Wessel and Walter Smith, followed by image conversion of the GMT-created PostScript to GIF for raster image export and display back on the client browser. Because of the GMT-based engine on the server system, the student user can easily create the same type of images from real planetary data that researchers create. The tool also gives a student the ability to switch background datasets and overlay certain other thematic datasets, thus providing a minimal GIS capability. To our knowledge, the map tool has not yet formally been used in a 8-14 classroom environment, though informal use by students and teachers in these grades suggest that it would be well received. The server system is currently capable of handing a moderate level of requests that would result from classroom use; for example, as a system benchmark, over 800 Voyager images were created and served in about an hour during a DLESE 2003 annual meeting workshop. The Voyager map tool is being used by instructors in earth science and comparative planetology as a means to create customized images for classroom use, minimizing the need for Web searches to find equivalent material. We also welcome collaboration which would augment our current planetary thematic mapping datasets.

  7. Voyager electronic parts radiation program. Volume 2: Test requirements and procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Price, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Documents are presented outlining the conditions and requirements of the test program. The Appendixes are as follows: appendix A -- Electron Simulation Radiation Test Specification for Voyager Electronic Parts and Devices, appendix B -- Electronic Piece-Part Testing Program for Voyager, appendix C -- Test Procedure for Radiation Screening of Voyager Piece Parts, appendix D -- Boeing In Situ Test Fixture, and appendix E -- Irradiate - Anneal (IRAN) Screening Documents.

  8. Measuring planetary field parameters by scattered cubes from the Husar-5 rover: educational space probe construction for a field work mission with great number of 5 cm sized sensorcube units launched from the rover.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, A.; Kocsis, A.; Gats, J.

    2015-10-01

    The Hunveyor-Husar project tries to keep step with the main trends in the space research, in our recent case with the so called MSSM (Micro Sized Space- Mothership) and NPSDR (Nano, Pico Space Devices and Robots). [1]Of course, we do not want to scatter the smaller probe-cubes from a mothership, but from the Husar rover, and to do it on the planetary surface after landing.

  9. Toward the fully capable AI space mission planner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenander, S.

    1985-01-01

    The necessity of expending numerous ground-side manhours to write extremely concise command codes for deep-space probes in-flight, which carry limited on-board processing capabilities, is encouraging the development of AI modules to perform the same task. An experimental automated sequence planner, Deviser, has proven successful enough, when used on a mainframe computer, to continue with the next generation of the concept, PLAN-IT, an expert scheduler for spacecraft observation targets. The new system will provide the ground-based user with interactive graphic displays for choosing targets and generates an expected time-line. An updated Deviser, using the new modules, will be tested after the Voyager Uranus encounter, and PLAN-IT will be employed to formulate Spacelab activity schedules.

  10. DSN 70-meter antenna X-band gain, phase, and pointing performance, with particular application for Voyager 2 Neptune encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slobin, S. D.; Bathker, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    The gain, phase, and pointing performance of the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70 m antennas are investigated using theoretical antenna analysis computer programs that consider the gravity induced deformation of the antenna surface and quadripod structure. The microwave effects are calculated for normal subreflector focusing motion and for special fixed-subreflector conditions that may be used during the Voyager 2 Neptune encounter. The frequency stability effects of stepwise lateral and axial subreflector motions are also described. Comparisons with recently measured antenna efficiency and subreflector motion tests are presented. A modification to the existing 70 m antenna pointing squint correction constant is proposed.

  11. Probing the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and

  12. Probing the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  13. Abundances of Jupiter's Trace Hydrocarbons from Voyager and Cassini. Data Tables: Voyager IRIS Observations Planetary and Space Science, Forthcoming 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Romani, P. N.; Allen, M.; Zhang, X.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.

    2010-01-01

    The following six tables give the retrieved temperatures and volume mixing ratios of C2H2 and C2H6 and the formal errors on these results from the retrieval, as described in the manuscript. These are in the form of two-dimensional tables, specified on a latitudinal and vertical grid. The first column is the pressure in bar, and the second column gives the altitude in kilometers calculated from hydrostatic equilibrium, and applies to the equatorial profile only. The top row of the table specifies the planetographic latitude.

  14. Electrical resistivity probes

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  15. Science with the space-based interferometer eLISA. III: probing the expansion of the universe using gravitational wave standard sirens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamanini, Nicola; Caprini, Chiara; Barausse, Enrico; Sesana, Alberto; Klein, Antoine; Petiteau, Antoine

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the capability of various configurations of the space interferometer eLISA to probe the late-time background expansion of the universe using gravitational wave standard sirens. We simulate catalogues of standard sirens composed by massive black hole binaries whose gravitational radiation is detectable by eLISA, and which are likely to produce an electromagnetic counterpart observable by future surveys. The main issue for the identification of a counterpart resides in the capability of obtaining an accurate enough sky localisation with eLISA. This seriously challenges the capability of four-link (2 arm) configurations to successfully constrain the cosmological parameters. Conversely, six-link (3 arm) configurations have the potential to provide a test of the expansion of the universe up to z ~ 8 which is complementary to other cosmological probes based on electromagnetic observations only. In particular, in the most favourable scenarios, they can provide a significant constraint on H0 at the level of 0.5%. Furthermore, (ΩM, ΩΛ) can be constrained to a level competitive with present SNIa results. On the other hand, the lack of massive black hole binary standard sirens at low redshift allows to constrain dark energy only at the level of few percent.

  16. PREFACE: 13th Annual International Astrophysics Conference: Voyager, IBEX, and the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zank, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    The 13th Annual International Astrophysics Conference was held in scenic Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, USA, during the week of 10-14 March 2014. The meeting drew nearly 80 participants from all over the world, representing a wide range of interests and expertise in the interplanetary medium, the solar wind, observations, and theory. The theme of the meeting was Voyager, IBEX, and the Interstellar Medium. This decade may one day be viewed as the golden age in the exploration of the large-scale heliosphere and the local interstellar medium (LISM). Voyager 1 and 2 and IBEX are yielding remarkable new discoveries about the boundaries of the solar wind - LISM region and the interstellar medium. Hitherto, our basic understanding of the interstellar medium has been provided by telescope observations across multiple wavelengths that are typically integrated over many parsecs. For the first time, with these three spacecraft, we are making detailed measurements of the interstellar plasma, energetic particles (charged and neutral), magnetic field, and plasma waves in situ or with very short integration distances. IBEX provides insight into the global characteristics of the very local interstellar medium and Voyager 1 has just crossed the heliopause and is now in the interstellar medium. Remarkable results can be anticipated as discoveries over the next decade are made and the physics of the interstellar medium unfolds. As described in the papers in this volume, the new observations are already challenging theoretical models. The 13th Annual International Conference focused on the physics of the solar wind - LISM boundaries and the emerging physics of the local interstellar medium. To address this, astrophysicists and space physicists assembled to share their combined expertise to address in a highly interdisciplinary fashion the physics of the interaction between the solar wind and the interstellar medium. We thank Adele Corona and ICNS for her continued excellent organization of the AIAC meetings and her help in providing the logistical support for this volume of papers. I should also like to thank Laxman Adhikari for his help with formatting a number of the submitted manuscripts.

  17. Small sensor probe for monitoring the space electromagnetic environments by the application of the miniaturized plasma wave receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Hirotsugu; Fukuhara, Hajime; Okada, Satoshi; Yagitani, Satoshi; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Miyake, Yohei; Usui, Hideyuki; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Ueda, Yoshikatsu

    2010-05-01

    Plasma waves act as the medium in the transport of kinetic energies through wave-particle interactions in space plasmas. Therefore, most of the space missions to investigate space plasmas carry the onboard plasma wave receivers, which is a kind of radio receivers with very high sensitivities. Recently, the downsized satellites in science missions such as formation flights and small satellites require the further reduction of power and mass budget for onboard instruments. We also face the similar requirement from the lack of the spacecraft resources in planetary missions. To meet the requirement, we developed the very small plasma wave receiver using the analogue ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) technology. Since the plasma wave receiver needs to receive very weak signals in the various frequency ranges, it accommodates filters with different frequency responses, low noise amplifiers with high gains and oscillators. This leads to the large occupation of the board by the analogue circuits. Therefore, the breakthrough to the extreme miniaturization of the plasma wave receiver does not occur without the miniaturization of the analogue electronic circuit. We have already confirmed the feasibility in realizing six channels (three for electric fields and three for magnetic fields) of waveform receivers inside the small chip with the size of 3mm x 3mm. The developed waveform receiver shows the good feature enough for the use in scientific missions. This success in the miniaturization of plasma wave receivers allow us to develop a new system measuring plasma waves in multiple points. Based on the technology of the miniaturization of plasma wave receivers, we propose a new system for monitoring the electromagnetic environment in space. We address it MSEE (Monitor System for space Electromagnetic Environments). The MSEE is a kind of the sensor network system in space. It consists of palm-sized sensor nodes, which are randomly distributed in the target area. The sensor node carries a compact plasma wave receiver as well as other necessary components such as communications and digital processing units. The MSEE system resolves the disadvantage of the single-point (or a few points) observation in space missions. This is a very new concept for measuring the space electromagnetic environments. The important issue in the development of the MSEE is the design and development of the small sensor node. We developed the first prototype of the sensor node system. It contains the analogue ASIC of plasma wave receiver with small electric and magnetic sensors, small digital processing unit using the one-chip computer, small fluxgate sensor for the attitude detection, and GPS receiver for the location estimation. The system is controlled by the software running on the onboard one-chip computer. In the present paper, we report our design of the MSEE sensor node system as well as the development of the miniaturized plasma wave receivers. We also show the performance of our first prototype of the sensor node.

  18. Real space tests of the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe cosmic microwave background data

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, Bartosz; Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602; Torun Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, ulica Gagarina 11, 87-100 Torun

    2008-08-15

    We introduce and analyze a method for testing statistical isotropy and Gaussianity and apply it to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) cosmic microwave background (CMB) foreground reduced temperature maps. We also test cross-channel difference maps to constrain levels of residual foreground contamination and systematic uncertainties. We divide the sky into regions of varying size and shape and measure the first four moments of the one-point distribution within these regions, and using their simulated spatial distributions we test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity hypotheses. By randomly varying orientations of these regions, we sample the underlying CMB field in a new manner, that offers a richer exploration of the data content, and avoids possible biasing due to a single choice of sky division. In our analysis we account for all two-point correlations between different regions and also show the impact on the results when these correlations are neglected. The statistical significance is assessed via comparison with realistic Monte Carlo simulations. We find the three-year WMAP maps to agree well with the isotropic, Gaussian random field simulations as probed by regions corresponding to the angular scales ranging from 6 Degree-Sign to 30 Degree-Sign at 68% confidence level (CL). We report a strong, anomalous (99.8% CL) dipole 'excess' in the V band of the three-year WMAP data and also in the V band of the WMAP five-year data (99.3% CL). Using our statistics, we notice large scale hemispherical power asymmetry, and find that it is not highly statistically significant in the WMAP three-year data ( Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 97%) at scales l{<=}40. The significance is even smaller if multipoles up to l=1024 are considered ({approx}90% CL). We give constraints on the amplitude of the previously proposed CMB dipole modulation field parameter. We find some hints of foreground contamination in the form of a locally strong, anomalous kurtosis excess in the Q+V +W co-added map, which however is not significant globally. We easily detect the residual foregrounds in cross-band difference maps at rms level {approx}<7 {mu}K (at scales {approx}>6{sup o}) and limit the systematical uncertainties to {approx}<1.7 {mu}K (at scales {approx}>30{sup o})

  19. TAU: a design for a thousand astronomical unit voyage

    SciTech Connect

    Eubanks, D.; Alvis, J.; Bechler, E.; Lyon, W. III; McFarlane, D.; Palmrose, D.; Schmitz, P.

    1987-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Lab. (JPL) has proposed a deep-space probe to travel to a distance of one thousand astronomical units -25 times further from the Sun than Pluto. In order to achieve this goal within the lifetime of the investigators, the mission time is set at a maximum of 50 yr. The JPL proposal postulates a design in which the probe is under powered thrust for the first 10 yr of the mission and coasts for the next 40 yr. A continuous high specific impulse, Isp (the ratio of thrust to propellant mass flow rate), low thrust propulsion system (either magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) or ion thrusters) is required in order to achieve this goal. This in turn necessitates electrical power in the megawatt range. The only power source that is practical for this situation is a nuclear reactor. It was a this point that the Nuclear Engineering Dept. at Texas A and M Univ. began its ongoing work, looking into several areas of the proposal in which a more detailed description was needed. These areas of interest were power, propulsion, heavy lift launch capabilities, and trajectory analysis. In addition to all of the boundaries previously outlined, the technology level is assumed to be that of 1995, 8 yr from now.

  20. Net current measurements and secondary electron emission characteristics of the Voyager plasma science experiment and their impact on data interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnutt, Ralph L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Voyager Plasma Science (PLS) instrument is capable of returning integral (DC) current measurements, similar in some respects to measurements made with a Langmuir probe or a retarding potential analyzer, although there are significant differences. The integral measurements were made during a calibration sequence in the solar wind, during Cruise Science Maneuvers, and within the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn by Voyager 1. After the failure of the PLS experiment following the Saturn encounter, that instrument was placed in the DC return mode returning possibly usable data from early 1981 through early 1985. The DC return measurements are difficult to interpret and are above threshold values only for relatively large fluxes; the determination of the measured current level is dependent on the operating temperature of the preamplifiers which further complicates the interpretation. Nevertheless, these measurements can be used to determine the efficiency of the suppressor grid at preventing the loss of secondary electrons off the collector plate. Some DC return measurements have been invaluable in aiding in the interpretation of some electron plasma measurements not previously understood. It is found that electron spectra can be significantly modified by the presence of second generation secondary electrons produced by either first generation secondaries or photoelectrons on the support ring of the negative high voltage modulator grid within the instrument housing.

  1. Probe assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Avera, C.J.

    1981-01-06

    A hand-held probe assembly, suitable for monitoring a radioactive fibrinogen tracer, is disclosed comprising a substantially cylindrically shaped probe handle having an open end. The probe handle is adapted to be interconnected with electrical circuitry for monitoring radioactivity that is sensed or detected by the probe assembly. Mounted within the probe handle is a probe body assembly that includes a cylindrically shaped probe body inserted through the open end of the probe handle. The probe body includes a photomultiplier tube that is electrically connected with a male connector positioned at the rearward end of the probe body. Mounted at the opposite end of the probe body is a probe head which supports an optical coupler therewithin. The probe head is interconnected with a probe cap which supports a detecting crystal. The probe body assembly, which consists of the probe body, the probe head, and the probe cap is supported within the probe handle by means of a pair of compressible o-rings which permit the probe assembly to be freely rotatable, preferably through 360*, within the probe handle and removable therefrom without requiring any disassembly.

  2. Titan's atmospheric composition: from Voyager to Cassini and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.

    2007-12-01

    Titan's atmosphere was revealed by the Voyager missions in the 80s. The trace composition was in particular inferred from infrared spectra by the V1/IRIS Spectrometer. ISO gave us an opportunity to further explore this exciting milieu in 1997 (Coustenis et al., 1998; 2003) and brought the discovery of new molecules : H2O and C6H6. Our understanding of Titan's atmospheric chemical composition has recently been enhanced by the data returned by the Cassini instruments. Spectra recorded by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard the Cassini spacecraft have been processed from the Titan flybys spanning three years now since SOI (Flasar et al., 2005; Teanby et al., 2006, Vinatier et al., 2006; Nixon et al., 2006; Coustenis et al., 2007). The spectra characterize various regions on Titan from 85°S to 80°N with a variety of emission angles. We have studied the emission observed in the CIRS detector arrays (covering the 10-1500 cm-1 spectral range with apodized resolutions of 2.54 or 0.53 cm-1). We have used temperature profiles retrieved from the inversion of the emission observed in the methane band at 1304 cm-1 and a line-by-line radiative transfer code to infer the abundances of the trace constituents and some of their isotopes in Titan's stratosphere (Coustenis et al., 2007a). The composite spectra show several signatures of previously identified molecules: hydrocarbons, nitriles, H2O and CO2. Besides these well-known trace species, a firm detection of benzene (C6H6) is provided by CIRS at 674 cm-1 and allows for the study of its latitudinal variations. No longitudinal variations were found for any of the gases. Information is retrieved on the meridional variations of the trace constituents and tied to predictions by dynamical-photochemical models (Hourdin et al., 2004; Lavvas et al., 2007). Molecules showing a significant enhancement at northern latitudes are the nitriles (HC3N, HCN) and the complex hydrocarbons (C4H2, C3H4). The D/H ratio on Titan was also determined from the CH3D band at 8.6 micron and found to be about 1.2 ± 0.2 × 10-4. We have also identified the presence of C2HD at 678 cm-1 for the first time (Coustenis et al., 2007b, in preparation). Constraints are also set on the vertical distribution of C2H2. However successful, the Cassini-Huygens mission has brought new enquiries that can only be answered by future missions to Titan. Such a mission, a collaboration between ESA and NASA in the spirit of Cassini, was recently proposed by the TANDEM Consortium in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision Call. References : Coustenis et al., 1989, Icarus 80, 54; Coustenis et al., 1998, A & A 336, L85-L89; Coustenis et al., 2003, Icarus 161, 383; Coustenis et al., 2007a, Icarus 1889, 35-62; Flasar et al., 2005, Science 308, 975 ; Hourdin et al., 2004, J. Geophys. Res. 109, E1205; Nixon et al., 2007, Icarus, in press; Lavvas et al., 2007, Plan. Space Sci., in press; Teanby et al., 2006, Icarus 181, 243; Vinatier et al., 2006, Icarus, 188, 120.

  3. Robots Explore the Farthest Reaches of Earth and Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    "We were the first that ever burst/Into that silent sea," the title character recounts in Samuel Taylor Coleridge s opus Rime of the Ancient Mariner. This famous couplet is equally applicable to undersea exploration today as surface voyages then, and has recently been applied to space travel in the title of a chronicle of the early years of human space flight ("Into That Silent Sea: Trailblazers of the Space Era, 1961-1965"), companion to the +n the Shadow of the Moon book and movie. The parallel is certainly fitting, considering both fields explore unknown, harsh, and tantalizingly inhospitable environments. For starters, exploring the Briny Deep and the Final Frontier requires special vehicles, and the most economical and safest means for each employ remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). ROVs have proven the tool of choice for exploring remote locations, allowing scientists to explore the deepest part of the sea and the furthest reaches of the solar system with the least weight penalty, the most flexibility and specialization of design, and without the need to provide for sustaining human life, or the risk of jeopardizing that life. Most NASA probes, including the historic Voyager I and II spacecraft and especially the Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, feature remote operation, but new missions and new planetary environments will demand new capabilities from the robotic explorers of the future. NASA has an acute interest in the development of specialized ROVs, as new lessons learned on Earth can be applied to new environments and increasingly complex missions in the future of space exploration.

  4. Voyager Interactive Web Interface to EarthScope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Meertens, C. M.; Estey, L.; Weingroff, M.; Hamburger, M. W.; Holt, W. E.; Richard, G. A.

    2004-12-01

    Visualization of data is essential in helping scientists and students develop a conceptual understanding of relationships among many complex types of data and keep track of large amounts of information. Developed initially by UNAVCO for study of global-scale geodynamic processes, the Voyager map visualization tools have evolved into interactive, web-based map utilities that can make scientific results accessible to a large number and variety of educators and students as well as the originally targeted scientists. A portal to these map tools can be found at: http://jules.unavco.org. The Voyager tools provide on-line interactive data visualization through pre-determined map regions via a simple HTML/JavaScript interface (for large numbers of students using the tools simultaneously) or through student-selectable areas using a Java interface to a Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) engine. Students can access a variety of maps, satellite images, and geophysical data at a range of spatial scales for the earth and other planets of the solar system. Students can also choose from a variety of base maps (satellite mosaics, global topography, geoid, sea-floor age, strain rate and seismic hazard maps, and others) and can then add a number of geographic and geophysical overlays, for example coastlines, political boundaries, rivers and lakes, earthquake and volcano locations, stress axes, and observed and model plate motion, as well as deformation velocity vectors representing a compilation of over 5000 geodetic measurements from around the world. The related educational website, "Exploring our Dynamic Planet", (http://www.dpc.ucar.edu/VoyagerJr/jvvjrtool.html) incorporates background materials and curricular activities that encourage students to explore Earth processes. One of the present curricular modules is designed for high school students or introductory-level undergraduate non-science majors. The purpose of the module is for students to examine real data to investigate how plate tectonic processes are reflected in observed geophysical phenomena. Constructing maps by controlling map parameters and answering open-ended questions which describe, compare relationships, and work with both observed and model data, promote conceptual understanding of plate tectonics and related processes. The goals of curricular development emphasize inquiry, development of critical thinking skills, and student-centered interests. Custom editions of the map utility have been made as the "Jules Verne Voyager" and "Voyager Junior", for the International Lithosphere Project's "Global Strain Rate Map", and for EarthScope Education and Outreach as "EarthScope Voyager Jr.". For the latter, a number of EarthScope-specific features have been added, including locations of proposed USArray (seismic), Plate Boundary Observatory (geodetic), and San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth sites, plus detailed maps and geographically referenced examples of EarthScope-related scientific investigations. As EarthScope develops, maps will be updated in `real time' so that students of all ages can use the data in formal and informal educational settings.

  5. Educating the next generation of SETI scientists: Voyages through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, Edna; Tarter, Jill; Fisher, Jane; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Pendleton, Yvonne; Taylor, Sam; Burke, Margaret

    2003-08-01

    The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) could succeed tomorrow, or not for many generations, or never. SETI scientists are very cognizant of the need to train the next generation of researchers who can carry on this vast scientific exploration. Previously, the SETI Institute has met this challenge by developing supplementary teacher's guides for elementary and middle schools called "Life In the Universe" and published by Teacher Ideas Press. Currently, we are engaged in a far more challenging project that is funded primarily by the National Science Foundation (NSF). The SETI Institute is creating a year long, interdisciplinary, high school science curriculum called "Voyages Through Time: Everything Evolves". We are using the theme of evolution to weave a panoramic vista for students that begins with the origin of the universe, encompasses our own origin and evolution, and looks at the evolution of technology and our possible future. By integrating different scientific and technical disciplines to explore how we answer fundamentally important questions, we hope to excite and motivate high school students with the opportunities offered by the way science is practiced today. We invite them to plan a future in which they help to enrich the answers to the big questions: Where did I come from? Where am I going? is anybody else out there? Voyages Through Time consists of six modules on CD-ROMs for teachers and students that have been extensively tested both regionally and nationally. Publication is expected in 2003. The partners in the development of this curriculum are the SETI Institute, NASA Ames Research Center, California Academy of Sciences, and San Francisco State University. Voyages Through Time is funded by the NSF (IMD # 9730693) with additional support from NASA, Hewlett Packard Company, The Foundation for Microbiology, and the Federated Charitable Campaign. For further information, visit: http://www.seti.org/education/Welcome.html.

  6. Educating the Next Generation of SETI Scientists: Voyages Through Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devore, Edna

    2002-01-01

    The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) could succeed tomorrow, or not for many generations, or never. SETI scientists are very cognizant of the need to train the next generation of researchers who can carry on this vast scientific exploration. Previously, the SETI Institute has met this challenge by developing supplementary teachers' guides for elementary and middle schools called "Life In The Universe" and published by Teacher Ideas Press. Currently, we are engaged in a far more challenging project that is funded primarily by the National Science Foundation (NSF). The SETI Institute is creating a year long, interdisciplinary, high school science curriculum called "Voyages Through Time: Everything Evolves". We are using the theme of evolution to weave a panoramic vista for students that begins with the origin of the universe, encompasses our own origin and evolution, and looks at the evolution of technology and our possible future. By integrating different scientific and technical disciplines to explore how we answer fundamentally important questions, we hope to excite and motivate high school students with the opportunities offered by the way science is practiced today. We invite them to plan a future in which they help to enrich the answers to the big questions: Where did I come from? Where am I going? Is anybody else out there? "Voyages Through Time" consists of six modules on CD-ROMs for teachers and students that have been extensively tested both regionally and nationally. Publication is expected in 2003. The partners in the development of this curriculum are the SETI Institute, NASA Ames Research Center, California Academy of Sciences, and San Francisco State University. "Voyages Through Time" is funded by the NSF (IMD # 9730693) with additional support from NASA, Hewlett Packard Company, The Foundation for Microbiology, and the FederatedCharitableCampaign.Forfurtherinformation,visit: http://www.seti.org/education/Welcome.html.

  7. Uranus' southern circulation revealed by Voyager 2: Unique characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkoschka, Erich

    2015-04-01

    Revised calibration and processing of 1600 images of Uranus by Voyager 2 revealed dozens of discrete features south of -45° latitude, where only a single feature was known from Voyager images and none has been seen since. Tracking of these features over five weeks defined the southern rotational profile of Uranus with high accuracy and no significant gap. The profile has kinks unlike previous profiles and is strongly asymmetric with respect to the northern profile by Sromovsky et al. (Sromovsky, L.A., Fry, P.M., Hammel, H.B., de Pater, I., Rages, K.A. [2012]. Icarus 220, 694-712). The asymmetry is larger than that of all previous data on jovian planets. A spot that included the South Pole off-center rotated with a period of 12.24 h, 2 h outside the range of all previous observations of Uranus. The region between -68° and -59° latitude rotated almost like a solid body, with a shear that was about 30 times smaller than typical shears on Uranus. At lower latitudes, features were sheared into tightly wound spirals as Voyager watched. The zone at -84° latitude was exceptionally bland; reflectivity variations were only 18 ppm, consistent with a signal-to-noise ratio estimated at 55,000. The low noise was achieved by smoothing over dozens of pixels per image and averaging 1600 images. The presented data set in eight filters contains rich information about temporal evolution and spectral characteristics of features on Uranus that will be the basis for further analysis.

  8. The Jupiter system through the eyes of Voyager 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, B.A.; Soderblom, L.A.; Johnson, T.V.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Collins, S.A.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Hunt, G.E.; Masursky, H.; Carr, M.H.; Davies, M.E.; Cook, A.F., II; Boyce, J.; Danielson, G.E.; Owen, editors, Timothy W.; Sagan, C.; Beebe, R.F.; Veverka, J.; Strom, R.G.; McCauley, J.F.; Morrison, D.; Briggs, G.A.; Suomi, V.E.

    1979-01-01

    The cameras aboard Voyager I have provided a closeup view of the Jupiter system, revealing heretofore unknown characteristics and phenomena associated with the planet's atmosphere and the surfaces of its five major satellites. On Jupiter itself, atmospheric motions-the interaction of cloud systems-display complex vorticity. On its dark side, lightning and auroras are observed. A ring was discovered surrounding Jupiter. The satellite surfaces display dramatic differences including extensive active volcanismn on Io, complex tectonism on Ganymnede and possibly Europa, and flattened remnants of enormous impact features on Callisto. Copyright ?? 1979 AAAS.

  9. Voyager and the origin of the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prentice, A. J. R.

    1981-01-01

    A unified model for the formation of regular satellite systems and the planetary system is outlined. The basis for this modern Laplacian theory is that there existed a large supersonic turbulent stress arising from overshooting convective motions within the three primitive gaseous clouds which formed Jupiter, Saturn, and the Sun. Calculations show that if each cloud possessed the same fraction of supersonic turbulent energy, equal to about 5% of the cloud's gravitational potential energy, then the broad mass distribution and chemistry of all regular satellite and planetary systems can be simultaneously accounted for. Titan is probably a captured moon of Saturn. Several predictions about observations made by Voyager 2 at Saturn are presented.

  10. The jupiter system through the eyes of voyager 1.

    PubMed

    Smith, B A; Soderblom, L A; Johnson, T V; Ingersoll, A P; Collins, S A; Shoemaker, E M; Hunt, G E; Masursky, H; Carr, M H; Davies, M E; Cook, A F; Boyce, J; Danielson, G E; Owen, T; Sagan, C; Beebe, R F; Veverka, J; Strom, R G; McCauley, J F; Morrison, D; Briggs, G A; Suomi, V E

    1979-06-01

    The cameras aboard Voyager 1 have provided a closeup view of the Jupiter system, revealing heretofore unknown characteristics and phenomena associated with the planet's atmosphere and the surfaces of its five major satellites. On Jupiter itself, atmospheric motions-the interaction of cloud systems-display complex vorticity. On its dark side, lightning and auroras are observed. A ring was discovered surrounding Jupiter. The satellite surfaces display dramatic differences including extensive active volcanismn on Io, complex tectonism on Ganymnede and possibly Europa, and flattened remnants of enormous impact features on Callisto. PMID:17800430

  11. Post Voyager comparisons of the interiors of Uranus and Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podolak, M.; Reynolds, R. T.; Young, R.

    1990-01-01

    The recent Voyager flyby of Uranus and Neptune has provided refined values for the gravitational moments and rotation periods of those planets. Using these new parameters, models of the interiors of these planets show that their density distributions are very similar. This lends support to the conjecture that their compositions are similar as well. The models are indeed consistent with such a conjecture. The difference in the internal heat sources of these two planets may be due to the fact that heat transport from the interior of Uranus is inhibited by a statically stable interior.

  12. Analysis of Voyager images of Europa - plasma bombardment

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.E.; Nelson, M.L.; Nccord, T.B.; Gradie, J.C.

    1988-09-01

    Voyager-derived data on the albedos of Europa are presently photometrically corrected and converted into average, single-scattering form, in order to analyze them as a function of angular distance from the apex of orbital motion. A hypothesized magnetospheric modification of the Europa surface is confirmed by the UV absorption found in the 0.35-micron filter data; this absorption directly correlates with the longitudinal ion implantation distribution in both terrain types. A red spectrum is found in both terrain types as well, and is found to be constant across the surface. A uniform increase is noted in the dark terrain absorption over that in the bright terrain. 43 references.

  13. Voyager photometry of Triton - Haze and surface photometric properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillier, J.; Helfenstein, P.; Verbiscer, A.; Veverka, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Voyager whole-disk observations of Triton at 0.41, 0.48, and 0.56 micron filter wavelengths are analyzed using a model which combines an improved version of Hapke's photometric equation with a thin atmospheric haze layer in the appropriate spherical geometry. The model is shown to describe accurately the phase curves over a range of phase angles and to agree with disk-resolved brightness scans along the photometric equator and mirror meridian. According to the model, the photometric parameters of Triton's regolith are reasonably typical of icy satellites, except for the extremely high (close to unity) single-scattering albedo.

  14. Preliminary science results of Voyager 1 Saturn encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bane, D.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary science results of the Voyager 1 encounter of the planet Saturn are reported. On August 22, 1980, the spacecraft was 109 million km (68 million mi) from Saturn. Closest approach to Saturn took place on November 12, at 3:46 p.m. (PDT), when the spacecraft passed 126,000 km (78,000 mi) from the cloud tops. Measurements of the atmosphere, wind speed, radiation, six surrounding rings, and the planet's old and newly found satellites were recorded. The encounter ended December 15, 1980. The spacecraft took more than 17,500 photographs of Saturn and its satellites.

  15. Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager 1 near Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.; Evans, D. R.; Carr, T. D.; Schauble, J. J.; Alexander, J. K.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Pedersen, M.; Lecacheux, A.

    1981-01-01

    The Voyager 1 planetary radio astronomy experiment detected two distinct kinds of radio emissions from Saturn. The first, Saturn kilometric radiation, is strongly polarized, bursty, tightly correlated with Saturn's rotation, and exhibits complex dynamic spectral features somewhat reminiscent of those in Jupiter's radio emission. It appears in radio frequencies below about 1.2 megahertz. The second kind of radio emission, Saturn electrostatic discharge, is unpolarized, extremely impulsive, loosely correlated with Saturn's rotation, and very broadband, appearing throughout the observing range of the experiment (20.4 kilohertz to 40.2 megahertz). Its sources appear to lie in the planetary rings.

  16. Planetary radio astronomy observations during the Voyager 1 Titan flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigne, G.; Pedersen, B. M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    During the Voyager 1 Titan flyby, unusual radio emissions were observed by the planetary radio astronomy experiment in the 20- to 97-kHz frequency range. It is shown that Titan itself is not the source of the observed radio emission. The emission features are attributed to modification of the normal Saturn kilometric radiation by propagation effects in enhanced density structures within the Titan wake. Furthermore, spiky emissions observed in the magnetic wake of Titan are interpreted in terms of local electrostatic instabilities at the electron plasma frequency. From these measurements a range of electron densities in the wake region is derived, and the consistency of the results is discussed.

  17. Voyager image processing at the Image Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jepsen, P. L.; Mosher, J. A.; Yagi, G. M.; Avis, C. C.; Lorre, J. J.; Garneau, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses new digital processing techniques as applied to the Voyager Imaging Subsystem and devised to explore atmospheric dynamics, spectral variations, and the morphology of Jupiter, Saturn and their satellites. Radiometric and geometric decalibration processes, the modulation transfer function, and processes to determine and remove photometric properties of the atmosphere and surface of Jupiter and its satellites are examined. It is exhibited that selected images can be processed into 'approach at constant longitude' time lapse movies which are useful in observing atmospheric changes of Jupiter. Photographs are included to illustrate various image processing techniques.

  18. Plasma observations near Saturn - Initial results from Voyager 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridge, H. S.; Belcher, J. W.; Lazarus, A. J.; Olbert, S.; Sullivan, J. D.; Bagenal, F.; Gazis, P. R.; Hartle, R. E.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Scudder, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    The Voyager 1 encounter with Saturn and its satellites yielded extensive measurements of magnetospheric low-energy plasma electrons and positive ions, both heavy and light, probably of hydrogen and nitrogen or oxygen. At radial distances between 15 and 7 Saturn radii on the inbound trajectory, the plasma appears to corotate with a velocity within 20% of that theoretically expected for rigid corotation. The Titan data, taken while the moon was inside the Saturn magnetosphere, shows a clear signature characteristic of the interaction between a subsonic corotating magnetospheric plasma and the atmospheric or ionospheric exosphere of Titan.

  19. The Jupiter system through the eyes of Voyager 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. A.; Soderblom, L. A.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Masursky, H.; Johnson, T. V.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Collins, S. A.; Hunt, G. E.; Carr, M. H.; Davies, M. E.; Morrison, D.

    1979-01-01

    The cameras aboard Voyager 1 have provided a closeup view of the Jupiter system, revealing heretofore unknown characteristics and phenomena associated with the planet's atmosphere and the surfaces of its five major satellites. On Jupiter itself, atmospheric motions - the interaction of cloud systems - display complex vorticity. On its dark side, lightening and auroras are observed. A ring was discovered surrounding Jupiter. The satellite surfaces display dramatic differences including extensive active volcanism on Io, complex tectonism on Ganymede and possibly Europa, and flattened remnants of enormous impact features on Callisto.

  20. Planetary radio astronomy observations from voyager 1 near saturn.

    PubMed

    Warwick, J W; Pearce, J B; Evans, D R; Carr, T D; Schauble, J J; Alexander, J K; Kaiser, M L; Desch, M D; Pedersen, M; Lecacheux, A; Daigne, G; Boischot, A; Barrow, C H

    1981-04-10

    The Voyager 1 planetary radio astronomy experiment detected two distinct kinds of radio emissions from Saturn. The first, Saturn kilometric radiation, is strongly polarized, bursty, tightly correlated with Saturn's rotation, and exhibits complex dynamic spectral features somewhat reminiscent of those in Jupiter's radio emission. It appears in radio frequencies below about 1.2 megahertz. The second kind of radio emission, Saturn electrostatic discharge, is unpolarized, extremely impulsive, loosely correlated with Saturn's rotation, and very broadband, appearing throughout the observing range of the experiment (20.4 kilohertz to 40.2 megahertz). Its sources appear to lie in the planetary rings. PMID:17783837

  1. Microwave communications from outer planets - The Voyager Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brejcha, A. G.

    1980-01-01

    The paper summarizes the Voyager Project, the mission objectives, and the spacecraft communications system required to meet the mission objectives. The primary emphasis of the mission is on comparative studies of the Jupiter and Saturn systems in the areas of: (1) the environment, atmosphere and body characteristics of the planets, and one or more of the satellites, (2) the nature of the recently discovered Jovian ring and the rings of Saturn, and (3) the interplanetary medium at increasing distances from the sun. The complexities and problems, such as power consumption, weight, and antenna pointing constraints are presented, along with a detailed description of the radio frequency and S/X-band antenna subsystems.

  2. DETAIL OF PLAQUE COMMEMORATING THE JULY/ AUGUST 1958 VOYAGE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF PLAQUE COMMEMORATING THE JULY/ AUGUST 1958 VOYAGE OF THE USS NAUTILUS (SSN-571) TO THE NORTH POLE. NOTE: THIS PLAQUE IS NOT LOCATED AT WHARFS S13-S19; IT IS AT THE SUBMARINE MEMORIAL PARK, ABOUT 1,000' SOUTH OF THE WHARFS. THE LOCATION AND ORIENTATION OF THIS PHOTO IS NOT SHOWN ON THE PHOTO KEY MAP - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Additional Piers and Quay Walls, S13 to S19, Northeast end of Magazine Loch, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. 1980 Aeronautics and Space Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This video includes Voyager 1 to Saturn, Solar Maximum Mission, sounding rockets/balloons, Space Shuttle, GOES 4 weather satellite, Mount St. Helen's Research, wind energy, rotor systems research aircraft, quiet shorthaul aircraft, AD-1 Scissor Wing, and automated pilot advisory system.

  4. ALEX neutral beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Pourrezaei, K.

    1982-01-01

    A neutral beam probe capable of measuring plasma space potential in a fully 3-dimensional magnetic field geometry has been developed. This neutral beam was successfully used to measure an arc target plasma contained within the ALEX baseball magnetic coil. A computer simulation of the experiment was performed to refine the experimental design and to develop a numerical model for scaling the ALEX neutral beam probe to other cases of fully 3-dimensional magnetic field. Based on this scaling a 30 to 50 keV neutral cesium beam probe capable of measuring space potential in the thermal barrier region of TMX Upgrade was designed.

  5. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the Lick Jupiter-Voyager Reference Star Catalogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A machine-readable version is described of the Lick Jupiter-Voyager Reference Star Catalogue (Klemola, Morabito Taraji 1978) prepared for purposes of determining up-to-date, reasonably accurate, equatorial coordinates for reference stars in a band of sky against which cameras of the Voyager spacecraft were aligned for observations of Jovian satellites during the flyby.

  6. 46 CFR 70.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application to vessels on an international voyage. 70.05-10 Section 70.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 70.05-10 Application to vessels on an international voyage....

  7. 46 CFR 70.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application to vessels on an international voyage. 70.05-10 Section 70.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 70.05-10 Application to vessels on an international voyage. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b), (c), and...

  8. The Columbian Voyages, the Columbian Exchange, and Their Historians. Essays on Global and Comparative History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Alfred W.

    The 500th anniversary of the Columbian discovery of America is upon us, and with it the obligation to assess existing interpretations of the significance of the voyage and establishment of permanent links between the Old and New Worlds. The traditional, or bardic, version of the Columbian voyages and their consequences was the product of narrative…

  9. Voyager 2's encounter with Neptune answered many questions about the 'blue' planet

    SciTech Connect

    Tsurutani, B.T. )

    1990-02-01

    Voyager 2 observations of Neptune from August 1989 are examined. Voyager 2 discovered 6 new moons around Neptune and collected information on the shape and composition of Neptune's rings. The spots and clouds detected in the planet's atmosphere are described. Consideration is given to Neptune's magnetic field and auroras.

  10. 78 FR 32008 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BOND VOYAGE; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BOND VOYAGE.... ADDRESSES: Comments should refer to docket number MARAD-2013-0059. Written comments may be submitted by hand... of the vessel BOND VOYAGE is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``6-pack non-inspected harbor...

  11. 46 CFR 188.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mandate, whose international relations are the responsibility of a contracting SOLAS 74 government, or... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application to vessels on an international voyage. 188... international voyage. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, the regulations...

  12. 46 CFR 30.01-6 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

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  13. 46 CFR 30.01-6 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

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  14. 46 CFR 188.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

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  15. 46 CFR 188.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... mandate, whose international relations are the responsibility of a contracting SOLAS 74 government, or... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application to vessels on an international voyage. 188... international voyage. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, the regulations...

  16. 46 CFR 70.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., whose international relations are the responsibility of a contracting SOLAS 74 government, or which is... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application to vessels on an international voyage. 70.05... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 70.05-10 Application to vessels on an international voyage....

  17. 46 CFR 30.01-6 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application to vessels on an international voyage. 30.01-6 Section 30.01-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Administration § 30.01-6 Application to vessels on an international voyage. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of...

  18. 46 CFR 70.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application to vessels on an international voyage. 70.05-10 Section 70.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 70.05-10 Application to vessels on an international voyage. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b), (c), and...

  19. 46 CFR 30.01-6 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application to vessels on an international voyage. 30.01-6 Section 30.01-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Administration § 30.01-6 Application to vessels on an international voyage. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of...

  20. 46 CFR 188.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application to vessels on an international voyage. 188.05-10 Section 188.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 188.05-10 Application to vessels on an international voyage. (a) Except as provided in...

  1. 46 CFR 188.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

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  2. 46 CFR 70.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

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  3. 46 CFR 14.209 - Preparation of shipping articles at beginning of voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation of shipping articles at beginning of voyage. 14.209 Section 14.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS... Preparation of shipping articles at beginning of voyage. Each master or individual in charge of a vessel...

  4. 46 CFR 14.209 - Preparation of shipping articles at beginning of voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Preparation of shipping articles at beginning of voyage. 14.209 Section 14.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS... Preparation of shipping articles at beginning of voyage. Each master or individual in charge of a vessel...

  5. 46 CFR 14.209 - Preparation of shipping articles at beginning of voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

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  6. 46 CFR 14.203 - Voyages upon which shipping articles are not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Voyages upon which shipping articles are not required. 14.203 Section 14.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS... upon which shipping articles are not required. Although they may be used for the voyage;...

  7. 46 CFR 14.203 - Voyages upon which shipping articles are not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Voyages upon which shipping articles are not required. 14.203 Section 14.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS... upon which shipping articles are not required. Although they may be used for the voyage;...

  8. 46 CFR 14.209 - Preparation of shipping articles at beginning of voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Preparation of shipping articles at beginning of voyage. 14.209 Section 14.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS... Preparation of shipping articles at beginning of voyage. Each master or individual in charge of a vessel...

  9. 46 CFR 14.203 - Voyages upon which shipping articles are not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Voyages upon which shipping articles are not required. 14.203 Section 14.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS... upon which shipping articles are not required. Although they may be used for the voyage;...

  10. 46 CFR 14.203 - Voyages upon which shipping articles are not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Voyages upon which shipping articles are not required. 14.203 Section 14.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS... upon which shipping articles are not required. Although they may be used for the voyage;...

  11. 46 CFR 14.203 - Voyages upon which shipping articles are not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Voyages upon which shipping articles are not required. 14.203 Section 14.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS... upon which shipping articles are not required. Although they may be used for the voyage;...

  12. 46 CFR 14.209 - Preparation of shipping articles at beginning of voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preparation of shipping articles at beginning of voyage. 14.209 Section 14.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS... Preparation of shipping articles at beginning of voyage. Each master or individual in charge of a vessel...

  13. Voyager 2's encounter with Neptune answered many questions about the 'blue' planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1990-01-01

    Voyager 2 observations of Neptune from August 1989 are examined. Voyager 2 discovered 6 new moons around Neptune and collected information on the shape and composition of Neptune's rings. The spots and clouds detected in the planet's atmosphere are described. Consideration is given to Neptune's magnetic field and auroras.

  14. Magnetic field measurements at Jupiter by Voyagers 1 and 2: Daily plots of 48 second averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Silverstein, M. J.; Ness, N. F.

    1981-01-01

    A series of 24 hour summary plots of the magnetic field, in 48-s average form, measured in the vicinity of Jupiter by the magnetometers onboard Voyagers 1 and 2 are presented. The Voyager 1 data cover the period from 27 February 1979 (day = 58) to 23 March (day = 82) inclusive, and the Voyager 2 data cover the period from 2 July 1979 (day = 183) to 14 August (day = 226) inclusive. Closest approach to the planet occurred on days 64 (AT 1205 UT) and 190 (AT 2230 UT) for Voyagers 1 and 2, respectively. Also included are: a description of the characteristics of the magnetometers, a brief description of the near-planet trajectories of the two spacecraft, a listing of the bow shock and magnetopause crossing times, and a bibliography containing Voyager-Jupiter related papers and reports.

  15. Encounter with Saturn: Voyager 1 imaging science results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, B.A.; Soderblom, L.; Beebe, R.; Boyce, J.; Briggs, G.; Bunker, A.; Collins, S.A.; Hansen, C.J.; Johnson, T.V.; Mitchell, J.L.; Terrile, R.J.; Carr, M.; Cook, A.F., II; Cuzzi, J.; Pollack, James B.; Edward, Danielson G.; Ingersoll, A.; Davies, M.E.; Hunt, G.E.; Masursky, H.; Shoemaker, E.; Morrison, D.; Owen, editors, Timothy W.; Sagan, C.; Veverka, J.; Strom, R.; Suomi, V.E.

    1981-01-01

    As Voyager 1 flew through the Saturn system it returned photographs revealing many new and surprising characteristics of this complicated community of bodies. Saturn's atmosphere has numerous, low-contrast, discrete cloud features and a pattern of circulation significantly different from that of Jupiter. Titan is shrouded in a haze layer that varies in thickness and appearance. Among the icy satellites there is considerable variety in density, albedo, and surface morphology and substantial evidence for endogenic surface modification. Trends in density and crater characteristics are quite unlike those of the Galilean satellites. Small inner satellites, three of which were discovered in Voyager images, interact gravitationally with one another and with the ring particles in ways not observed elsewhere in the solar system. Saturn's broad A, B, and C rings contain hundreds of "ringlets," and in the densest portion of the B ring there are numerous nonaxisymmetric features. The narrow F ring has three components which, in at least one instance, are kinked and crisscrossed. Two rings are observed beyond the F ring, and material is seen between the C ring and the planet. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  16. Circadian rhythm of body temperature during prolonged undersea voyages.

    PubMed

    Colquhoun, W P; Paine, M W; Fort, A

    1978-05-01

    Circadian rhythms of oral temperature were assessed in 12 watchkeepers during a prolonged submarine voyage and compared with a "standard" rhythm obtained from nonwatchkeepers ashore. Initially, the parameters of the rhythms were similar to those of the standard; however, among eight ratings working 4-h watches in a rapidly rotating cycle, considerable changes in the rhythms occurred as the voyage progressed, and concurrent alterations in sleep patterning were observed. The most characteristic change in the rhythm was a marked decline in its amplitude. In most subjects, the rhythm also tended to depart from its original circadian pattern; in at least one case, it effectively disintegrated. One subject's rhythm appeared to "free-run" with a period greater than 24 h. A strong circadian rhythm was maintained in only one of these eight subjects. In four officers whose watch times were at fixed hours, adaptation of the rhythm to unusual times of sleep occurred in 2 of 3 cases where the schedule demanded it. The results are discussed in relation to the design of optimal watchkeeping systems for submariners. PMID:655989

  17. Shared Voyage: Learning and Unlearning from Remarkable Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufer, Alexander; Post, Todd; Hoffman, Edward J.

    2005-01-01

    Shared Voyage is about four remarkable projects: the Advanced Composition Explorer (NASA), the Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (U.S. Air Force), the Pathfinder Solar-Powered Airplane (NASA), and the Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (U.S.Air Force). Each project is presented as a case study comprised of stories collected from key members of the project teams. The stories found in the book are included with the purpose of providing an effective learning source for project management, encouraging the unlearning of outdated project management concepts, and enhancing awareness of the contexts surrounding different projects. Significantly different from project concepts found in most project management literature, Shared Voyage highlights concepts like a will to win, a results-oriented focus, and collaboration through trust. All four project teams researched in this study applied similar concepts; however, they applied them differently, tailoring them to fit the context of their own particular projects. It is clear that the one best way approach which is still the prevailing paradigm in project management literature should be replaced by a new paradigm: Even though general project management principles exist, their successful application depends on the specifics of the situation.

  18. Multifractal Structures Detected by Voyager 1 at the Heliospheric Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macek, W. M.; Wawrzaszek, A.; Burlaga, L. F.

    2014-10-01

    To better understand the dynamics of turbulent systems, we have proposed a phenomenological model based on a generalized Cantor set with two rescaling and one weight parameters. In this Letter, using recent Voyager 1 magnetic field data, we extend our two-scale multifractal analysis further in the heliosheath beyond the heliospheric termination shock, and even now near the heliopause, when entering the interstellar medium for the first time in human history. We have identified the scaling inertial region for magnetized heliospheric plasma between the termination shock and the heliopause. We also show that the degree of multifractality decreases with the heliocentric distance and is still modulated by the phases of the solar cycle in the entire heliosphere including the heliosheath. Moreover, we observe the change of scaling toward a nonintermittent (nonmultifractal) behavior in the nearby interstellar medium, just beyond the heliopause. We argue that this loss of multifractal behavior could be a signature of the expected crossing of the heliopause by Voyager 2 in the near future. The results obtained demonstrate that our phenomenological multifractal model exhibits some properties of intermittent turbulence in the solar system plasmas, and we hope that it could shed light on universal characteristics of turbulence.

  19. MULTIFRACTAL STRUCTURES DETECTED BY VOYAGER 1 AT THE HELIOSPHERIC BOUNDARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, W. M.; Burlaga, L. F. E-mail: anna.wawrzaszek@cbk.waw.pl

    2014-10-01

    To better understand the dynamics of turbulent systems, we have proposed a phenomenological model based on a generalized Cantor set with two rescaling and one weight parameters. In this Letter, using recent Voyager 1 magnetic field data, we extend our two-scale multifractal analysis further in the heliosheath beyond the heliospheric termination shock, and even now near the heliopause, when entering the interstellar medium for the first time in human history. We have identified the scaling inertial region for magnetized heliospheric plasma between the termination shock and the heliopause. We also show that the degree of multifractality decreases with the heliocentric distance and is still modulated by the phases of the solar cycle in the entire heliosphere including the heliosheath. Moreover, we observe the change of scaling toward a nonintermittent (nonmultifractal) behavior in the nearby interstellar medium, just beyond the heliopause. We argue that this loss of multifractal behavior could be a signature of the expected crossing of the heliopause by Voyager 2 in the near future. The results obtained demonstrate that our phenomenological multifractal model exhibits some properties of intermittent turbulence in the solar system plasmas, and we hope that it could shed light on universal characteristics of turbulence.

  20. Cosmic ray modulation - Voyager 2 observations, 1987-1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Ness, N. F.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The intensity profile of cosmic rays above 70 MeV observed by Voyager 2 and its relation to the interplanetary magnetic field and plasma at the beginning of the new modulation cycle from day 190, 1987 to day 345, 1988 in the region from 23.3 AU to 27.8 AU is analyzed. The cosmic ray intensity profile was approximately a series of four plateaus separated by three steps in which the intensity dropped abruptly. Each step was associated with a region in which the magnetic field, density and temperature were higher than average. The plateaus were associated with regions in which the magnetic field was alternately strong and weak. The solar wind within 200 AU during this interval can be roughly pictured as consisting of three shells between which the flow was quasiperiodic with a 26 day periodicity. The latitudinal extent of the shells in the northern hemisphere was probably less than 33 deg, since no steps were observed by Voyager 1. Drift motions might play a role during the recovery phase, just prior to the onset of the new modulation cycle, in the plateau regions between the shells, within the shells where drifts in various directions might mimic diffusion, and close to 1 AU, where large regions of intense magnetic fields have not yet formed. However the principal decreases in the cosmic ray intensity in the outer heliosphere during 1987 and 1988 were associated with the passage of broad regions of intense magnetic fields, consistent with the diffusion/convection model.

  1. Preliminary results from the Voyager solar wind experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, J. W.; Bridge, H. S.; Lazarus, A. J.; Sullivan, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The properties of the positive ion spectra obtained by the Voyager 2 plasma instrument from September 20, 1977, through June 19, 1978 are reviewed Voyager 2 covered a radial distance of from 1.0 to 3.3 AU. The radial evolution of the solar wind over this distance shows a general decrease in stream amplitude. There is a frequent appearance of deep rarefactions in the higher velocity regions, lasting on the order of one to two days. Globally, the proton number density varies as radial distance to the (-2.4 plus or minus 0.1) power, and the proton temperature as (-0.3 plus or minus 0.1) The alpha particle temperature remains about four times the proton temperature. In quiet regions, the alpha and proton temperatures have a tendency to equalize. There are regions beyond 1.0 AU in which the alpha bulk velocity is significantly different from the proton bulk velocity, but the amplitude of this velocity difference appears to be decreasing somewhat near 3 AU. Outwardly propagating Alfvenic fluctuations are observed at 3.3 AU, essentially unchanged from their 1.0 AU counterparts. Some interesting features of the proton distribution function occurring at a magnetic hole in the solar wind near 1.8 AU are discussed.

  2. Shock evolution in the outer heliosphere - Voyager and Pioneer observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazis, P. R.; Lazarus, A. J.; Hester, K.

    1985-01-01

    Observations are reported of 35 interplanetary shocks detected at heliocentric distances between 6.5 and 9.4 AU in mid-1980 by the Voyager 1, Voyager 2, and Pioneer 11 spacecraft. These shocks were all evidently generated by the interaction of corotating streams. Measurements of the pre- and postshock plasma parameters are used to determine the shock normals and speeds for each shock. Twelve of these 35 events are observed at all three spacecraft. The shock parameters at each spacecraft are compared to determine the time history for the 12 shocks. The single-spacecraft determinations of shock normal and speed are compared wih the results of several techniques for determining shock velocities using all three spacecraft. It is found that shocks undergo significant evolution as they travel past the three spacecraft. Every shock seen by both end spacecraft was also seen by the middle spacecraft. Shock formation possibly may be occurring at a heliocentric distance as great as 7 AU. It appears that the shock surfaces have a complex three-dimensional structure with 'ripples' on a scale of 0.001-1.0 AU.

  3. Comparing Clumps in Saturn's F Ring from Voyager to Cassini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Shannon; French, R. S.; Showalter, M. R.; Antonsen, A.; Packard, D.

    2013-01-01

    Saturn’s F ring is unusual in that it is subject to dynamic structural changes over short periods - anywhere from days to months. Images from the Voyager and Cassini spacecraft have revealed phenomena such as kinks, fans, channels, streamers, and clumps, all of which change over these short time intervals. While the causes of some of these features have been explained and well documented, we are still attempting to learn more about others. This work focuses on the nature and behavior of clumps, diffuse bright regions that extend 3-40 degrees in longitude. Previous work by Showalter (2004, Icarus, 171, 356) showed that it was possible to analyze and track clumps with respect to the F ring's mean motion using Voyager data. Now using 6 years’ worth of Cassini images, we have developed a new method of detecting clumps using wavelet theory. We compare the physical attributes of current clumps to those analyzed in the Showalter study and find significant differences. In general, modern clumps are wider, less bright, and occur less frequently. It is becoming increasingly evident that the F ring we see today is not the same ring it was 30 years ago.

  4. Encounter with Saturn - Voyager 1 imaging science results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. A.; Soderblom, L.; Beebe, R.; Boyce, J.; Briggs, G.; Bunker, A.; Collins, S. A.; Hansen, C. J.; Johnson, T. V.; Mitchell, J. L.; Morrison, D.

    1981-01-01

    As Voyager 1 flew through the Saturn system it returned photographs revealing many new and surprising characteristics of this complicated community of bodies. Saturn's atmosphere has numerous, low-contrast, discrete cloud features and a pattern of circulation significantly different from that of Jupiter. Titan is shrouded in a haze layer that varies in thickness and appearance. Among the icy satellites there is considerable variety in density, albedo, and surface morphology and substantial evidence for endogenic surface modification. Trends in density and crater characteristics are quite unlike those of the Galilean satellites. Small inner satellites, three of which were discovered in Voyager images, interact gravitationally with one another and with the ring particles in ways not observed elsewhere in the solar system. Saturn's broad A, B, and C rings contain hundreds of 'ringlets', and in the densest portion of the B ring there are numerous nonaxisymmetric features. The narrow F ring has three components which, in at least one instance, are kinked and crisscrossed. Two rings are observed beyond the F ring, and material is seen between the C ring and the planet.

  5. Encounter with saturn: voyager 1 imaging science results.

    PubMed

    Smith, B A; Soderblom, L; Beebe, R; Boyce, J; Briggs, G; Bunker, A; Collins, S A; Hansen, C J; Johnson, T V; Mitchell, J L; Terrile, R J; Carr, M; Cook, A F; Cuzzi, J; Pollack, J B; Danielson, G E; Ingersoll, A; Davies, M E; Hunt, G E; Masursky, H; Shoemaker, E; Morrison, D; Owen, T; Sagan, C; Veverka, J; Strom, R; Suomi, V E

    1981-04-10

    As Voyager 1 flew through the Saturn system it returned photographs revealing many new and surprising characteristics of this complicated community of bodies. Saturn's atmosphere has numerous, low-contrast, discrete cloud features and a pattern of circulation significantly different from that of Jupiter. Titan is shrouded in a haze layer that varies in thickness and appearance. Among the icy satellites there is considerable variety in density, albedo, and surface morphology and substantial evidence for endogenic surface modification. Trends in density and crater characteristics are quite unlike those of the Galilean satellites. Small inner satellites, three of which were discovered in Voyager images, interact gravitationally with one another and with the ring particles in ways not observed elsewhere in the solar system. Saturn's broad A, B, and C rings contain hundreds of "ringlets," and in the densest portion of the B ring there are numerous nonaxisymmetric features. The narrow F ring has three components which, in at least one instance, are kinked and crisscrossed. Two rings are observed beyond the F ring, and material is seen between the C ring and the planet. PMID:17783827

  6. Radiation burdens for humans on prolonged exomagnetospheric voyages.

    PubMed

    Moore, F D

    1992-03-01

    The severity of radiation exposure for astronauts outside the magnetosphere poses a critical unanswered question bearing on the use of manned vehicles in extended exploration of the solar system (moon, Mars). Such prolonged exomagnetospheric voyages (1-3 years) enter a radiologic environment more severe than that of low earth orbit, an annual dose equivalent in the range of 0.3-0.5 Sv (30-50 rem), and a lifetime excess cancer fatality risk of 3-5% due to low linear-energy-transfer components of galactic cosmic radiation alone. To this calculus must be added estimates for high-atomic-number, high-energy particles, the probability of solar particle events, and the limited effectiveness of shielding. For a 3-year Mars voyage these could elevate the dose equivalent to 1.5-2.25 Sv (150-225 rem) total (0.5-0.75 Sv [50-75 rem] annual) and risks to 5-9% excess cancer fatality. Both the mission (civilian scientific research) and the alternatives (unmanned robotic devices) enter the policy decision here. This paper presents a brief review of pertinent physical and biological data and of research urgently needed before reaching a decision on this question. PMID:1544543

  7. The Phase Space of z=1.2 Clusters: Probing Dust Temperature and Star Formation Rate as a Function of Environment and Accretion History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Allison; SpARCS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the influence of environment is a fundamental goal in studies of galaxy formation and evolution, and galaxy clusters offer ideal laboratories with which to examine environmental effects on their constituent members. Clusters continually evolve and build up mass through the accumulation of galaxies and groups, resulting in distinct galaxy populations based on their accretion history. In Noble et al. 2013, we presented a novel definition for environment using the phase space of line-of-sight velocity and clustercentric radius, which probes the time-averaged density to which a galaxy has been exposed and traces out accretion histories. Using this dynamical definition of environment reveals a decline in specific star formation towards the cluster core in the earliest accreted galaxies, and was further shown to isolate post-starburst galaxies within clusters (Muzzin et al. 2014). We have now extended this work to higher-redshift clusters at z=1.2 using deep Herschel-PACS and -SPIRE data. With a sample of 120 spectroscopically-confirmed cluster members, we investigate various galaxy properties as a function of phase-space environment. Specifically, we use 5-band Herschel photometry to estimate the dust temperature and star formation rate for dynamically distinct galaxy populations, namely recent infalls and those that were accreted into the cluster at an earlier epoch (Noble et al. submitted). These properties are then compared to a field sample of star-forming galaxies at 1.1 < z < 1.2 to shed light on cluster-specific processes in galaxy evolution. In this talk I will discuss the various implications of a phase-space definition for environment, and present our most recent results, focusing on how this accretion-based definition aids our understanding of quenching mechanisms within z=1.2 galaxies.

  8. Probing the space-time geometry around black hole candidates with the resonance models for high-frequency QPOs and comparison with the continuum-fitting method

    SciTech Connect

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2012-09-01

    Astrophysical black hole candidates are thought to be the Kerr black hole predicted by General Relativity. However, in order to confirm the Kerr-nature of these objects, we need to probe the geometry of the space-time around them and check that observations are consistent with the predictions of the Kerr metric. That can be achieved, for instance, by studying the properties of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the gas in the accretion disk. The high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations observed in the X-ray flux of some stellar-mass black hole candidates might do the job. As the frequencies of these oscillations depend only very weakly on the observed X-ray flux, it is thought they are mainly determined by the metric of the space-time. In this paper, I consider the resonance models proposed by Abramowicz and Kluzniak and I extend previous results to the case of non-Kerr space-times. The emerging picture is more complicated than the one around a Kerr black hole and there is a larger number of possible combinations between different modes. I then compare the bounds inferred from the twin peak high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations observed in three micro-quasars (GRO J1655-40, XTE J1550-564, and GRS 1915+105) with the measurements from the continuum-fitting method of the same objects. For Kerr black holes, the two approaches do not provide consistent results. In a non-Kerr geometry, this conflict may be solved if the observed quasi-periodic oscillations are produced by the resonance ?{sub ?}:?{sub r} = 3:1, where ?{sub ?} and ?{sub r} are the two epicyclic frequencies. It is at least worth mentioning that the deformation from the Kerr solution required by observations would be consistent with the one suggested in another recent work discussing the possibility that steady jets are powered by the spin of these compact objects.

  9. Exo-C: a probe-scale space observatory for direct imaging and spectroscopy of extrasolar planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Dekens, Frank G.; Brenner, Michael P.; Warfield, Keith R.; Belikov, Ruslan; Brugarolas, Paul B.; Bryden, Geoffrey; Cahoy, Kerri L.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Dubovitsky, Serge; Effinger, Robert T.; Hirsch, Brian; Kissil, Andrew; Krist, John E.; Lang, Jared J.; Marley, Mark S.; McElwain, Michael W.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Nissen, Joel; Oseas, Jeffrey M.; Pong, Chris; Serabyn, Eugene; Sunada, Eric; Trauger, John T.; Unwin, Stephen C.

    2015-09-01

    "Exo-C" is NASAs first community study of a modest aperture space telescope mission that is optimized for high contrast observations of exoplanetary systems. The mission will be capable of taking optical spectra of nearby exoplanets in reflected light, discovering previously undetected planets, and imaging structure in a large sample of circumstellar disks. It will obtain unique science results on planets down to super-Earth sizes and serve as a technology pathfinder toward an eventual flagship-class mission to find and characterize habitable Earth-like exoplanets. We present the mission/payload design and highlight steps to reduce mission cost/risk relative to previous mission concepts. Key elements are an unobscured telescope aperture, an internal coronagraph with deformable mirrors for precise wavefront control, and an orbit and observatory design chosen for high thermal stability. Exo-C has a similar telescope aperture, orbit, lifetime, and spacecraft bus requirements to the highly successful Kepler mission (which is our cost reference). Much of the needed technology development is being pursued under the WFIRST coronagraph study and would support a mission start in 2017, should NASA decide to proceed. This paper summarizes the study final report completed in March 2015.

  10. Four years of zodiacal light observations from the Helios space probes - Evidence for a smooth distribution of interplanetary dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leinert, C.; Richter, I.; Pitz, E.; Hanner, M.

    1980-01-01

    Zodiacal light experiments on Helios 2 that has been operating continually since January 1976 are discussed, with the purpose of elucidating the distribution of interplanetary dust. Results for the observed gradient of zodiacal light intensity between 1 A.U. and perihelion at 0.3 A.U. show that for all elongations, from 17.5 deg to 135 deg from the sun, the exponent of intensity increase is -2.3 plus or minus 0.1. Color investigations show no systematic variation with heliocentric distance, but a slight reddening is present, increasing towards small elongations. The degree of polarization is found to be higher at 1 A.U. than given previously and decreases towards the sun, even if no correction for electron scattering is made. All results thus fit the hypothesized power law for radial distribution of dust. It is concluded from the stability of zodiacal intensity that the distribution of interplanetary dust is rather simple in space and quite constant in time.

  11. Estimating the Deep Space Network modification costs to prepare for future space missions by using major cost drivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Donald S.; Sherif, Josef; Buchanan, Harry R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper develops a cost model to do long range planning cost estimates for Deep Space Network (DSN) support of future space missions. The paper focuses on the costs required to modify and/or enhance the DSN to prepare for future space missions. The model is a function of eight major mission cost drivers and estimates both the total cost and the annual costs of a similar future space mission. The model is derived from actual cost data from three space missions: Voyager (Uranus), Voyager (Neptune), and Magellan. Estimates derived from the model are tested against actual cost data for two independent missions, Viking and Mariner Jupiter/Saturn (MJS).

  12. Probing the haze in the atmosphere of HD 189733b with Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 transmission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, N. P.; Aigrain, S.; Pont, F.; Sing, D. K.; Désert, J.-M.; Evans, T. M.; Henry, G.; Husnoo, N.; Knutson, H.

    2012-05-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared transmission spectroscopy of the transiting exoplanet HD 189733b, using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). This consists of time series spectra of two transits, used to measure the wavelength dependence of the planetary radius. These observations aim to test whether the Rayleigh scattering haze detected at optical wavelengths extends into the near-infrared, or if it becomes transparent leaving molecular features to dominate the transmission spectrum. Due to saturation and non-linearity affecting the brightest (central) pixels of the spectrum, light curves were extracted from the blue and red ends of the spectra only, corresponding to wavelength ranges of 1.099-1.168 and 1.521-1.693 μm, respectively, for the first visit, and 1.082-1.128 and 1.514-1.671 μm for the second. The light curves were fitted using a Gaussian process model to account for instrumental systematics whilst simultaneously fitting for the transit parameters. This gives values of the planet-to-star radius ratio for the blue and red light curves of 0.156 50 ± 0.000 48 and 0.156 34 ± 0.000 32, respectively, for visit 1 and 0.157 16 ± 0.000 78 and 0.156 30 ± 0.000 37 for visit 2 (using a quadratic limb-darkening law). The planet-to-star radius ratios measured in both visits are consistent, and we see no evidence for the drop in absorption expected if the haze that is observed in the optical becomes transparent in the infrared. This tentatively suggests that the haze dominates the transmission spectrum of HD 189733b into near-infrared wavelengths, although more robust observations are required to provide conclusive evidence.

  13. Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and additional resources focuses on space and astronomy. Specifies age levels for resources that include Web sites, CD-ROMS and software, videos, books, audios, and magazines; offers professional resources; and presents a relevant class activity. (LRW)

  14. Voyager IRIS Measurements of Triton's Thermal Emission: Impllications for Pluto?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansberry, John A.; Spencer, John; Linscott, Ivan

    2015-11-01

    The New Horizons Pluto encounter data set includes unique observations obtained using the Radio Science experiment to measure the night-side thermal emission at centimeter wavelengths, well beyond the emission peak (in the 70 to 100 micron range). 26 years ago the Voyager 2 Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) obtained spectra in the 30 - 50 micron wavelength range to try and detect thermal emission from Pluto's sibling, Triton. Conrath etal. (1989) analyzed 16 of the IRIS spectra of Triton's dayside and derived a weak limit of 36 K - 41 K. We have analysed those, and an additional 75 spectra, to refine the limits on the temperature of Triton's surface, and to explore diurnal differences in the thermal emission. Triton results from other Voyager instruments provide important constraints on our interpretation of the IRIS data, as do Spitzer measurements of Pluto's thermal emission.For unit-emissivity, average temperature is 34 K, inconsistent with the pressure of Triton's atmosphere (13 - 19 microbar), the presence of beta-phase nitrogen ice on the surface, and the likely presence ofwarm regions on the surface. The atmospheric pressure requires nitrogen ice temperatures of 37.4 K - 38.1 K, which in turn requires emissivity of 0.31--0.53. Such a low emissivity in this spectral region might be expected if the surface is dominated by nitrogen or methane ice. Averages of data subsets show evidence for brightness temperature variations across Triton's surface. Surprisingly, the data seem to indicate that Triton's nightside equatorial region was warmer than on the dayside.These Voyager results for Triton provide a useful context for interpreting New Horizons and ALMA observations of emission from Pluto in the sub-millimeter and centimeter region. JWST will be capable of detecting Triton's and Pluto's 10 - 28 micron thermal emission, although scattered light from Neptune may be an issue for the Triton. Combined with new capabilities of ALMA to measure the sub-millimeter emission (and even resolve the disks of Pluto and Triton), it seems possible that we may gain significant new insights into the thermal properties of these bodies in the coming decade.

  15. Successes and failures of shallow-water interpretations of Voyager wind data.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Timothy E.

    1994-06-01

    Studying the dynamics of Jupiter's atmosphere is a rewarding experience, in part because the planet's cloud-top circulations are easy to track from space, the jet streams flow in straight lines eastward or westward, and there is enough room for the vortices to usually keep out of each other's way. Earth, in contrast, is a planet with global circulations that are not easy to track from space, with jet streams that make wide, fluctuating arcs as they negotiate mountain ranges, and with vortices that are constantly jostling against each other in a cramped environment. But we know a great deal more about the vertical structure of Earth's atmosphere than of Jupiter's. In order to make headway on the Jovian problem, researchers have turned to the shallow-water model as a guide to interpreting the Voyager wind data. The shallow-water model matches the character of the data because it combines high-resolution horizontal dynamics with low-resolution vertical structure, but there is no guarantee that it captures the character of Jupiter's atmosphere itself. Remarkably, the model does well at reproducing the Great Red Spot, and it has revealed that Jupiter is clever about how it manages its vorticity by arranging its zonal winds to be neutrally stable with respect to Arnol'd's second stability theorem. We discuss reasons why the shallow-water model works for Jupiter and point out the limitations that are motivating researchers to develop more realistic models. PMID:12780101

  16. Monitor and Control of the Deep-Space network via Secure Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamarra, N.

    1997-01-01

    (view graph) NASA lead center for robotic space exploration. Operating division of Caltech/Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Current missions, Voyagers, Galileo, Pathfinder, Global Surveyor. Upcoming missions, Cassini, Mars and New Millennium.

  17. Probing the steric space at the floor of the D1 dopamine receptor orthosteric binding domain: 7?-, 7?-, 8?-, and 8?-methyl substituted dihydrexidine analogues

    PubMed Central

    Cueva, Juan Pablo; Gallardo-Godoy, Alejandra; Juncosa, Jose I.; Vidi, Pierre A.; Lill, Markus A.; Watts, Val J.; Nichols, David E.

    2011-01-01

    To probe the space at the floor of the orthosteric ligand binding site in the dopamine D1 receptor, four methylated analogs of dihydrexidine (DHX) were synthesized with substitutions at the 7 and 8 positions. The 8?-axial, 8?-equatorial and 7?-equatorial were synthesized by photochemical cyclization of appropriately substituted N-benzoyl enamines, the 7?-axial analog was prepared by an intramolecular Henry reaction. All of the methylated analogs displayed losses in affinity when compared to DHX (20 nM): 8?-Meax-DHX (270 nM), 8?-Meeq-DHX (920 nM), 7?-Meeq-DHX (6540 nM), and 7?-Meax-DHX (>10000 nM). Molecular modeling studies suggest that although the disruption of an aromatic interaction between Phe2035.47 and Phe2886.51 is the cause for the 14-fold loss in affinity associated with 8?-axial substitution, unfavorable steric interactions with Ser1073.36 result in the more dramatic decreases in binding affinity suffered by the rest of the analogs. PMID:21714510

  18. Faraday-rotation fluctuations from radio-sounding measurements of the circumsolar plasma using polarized signals from the HELIOS-1 and HELIOS-2 space probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, A. I.; Lukanina, L. A.; Rogashkova, A. I.; Samoznaev, L. N.; Chashei, I. V.; Bird, M. K.; Paetzold, M.

    2015-04-01

    Fluctuations in the Faraday rotation of the plane of polarization of S-band (2.3 GHz) radio signals transmitted through the solar corona by the HELIOS-1 AND HELIOS-2 space probes are analyzed. Simultaneous measurements of the Faraday-rotation fluctuations at the Goldstone and Canberra stations have yielded estimates of the velocity of perturbations of the magnetic field in the circumsolar plasma at heliocentric distances of three to six solar radii. The velocity of these perturbations is a combination of the Alfvén and solar-wind speeds. Temporal spectra of the Faraday-rotation fluctuations are obtained based on a large volume of observational data obtained in various years in four cycles of radio-sounding experiments. Filtration of the input data using spectral, correlation, and wavelet analyses shows that trains of quasi-periodic oscillations of the magnetic field with various amplitudes and periods from 2 to 160 min are regularly present in the Faraday-rotation fluctuations. This quasi-periodic character of these perturbations supports their connection with Alfvén waves propagating in the circumsolar plasma.

  19. Energetic particle variations measured at Voyager 1 and 2 in 2013-14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, R. B.; Krimigis, S. M.; Roelof, E. C.; Hill, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    In late August of 2012 Voyager 1 evidently crossed the heliopause at 121.6 AU near the nose of the heliosphere and entered the local interstellar medium (LISM). Since that time Voyager 1 has been in a relatively stable, but not steady-state region. Low-energy ion and electron intensities measured by the LECP instrument on Voyager 1 continue to be down by factors of 103 to 104 for major ion species compared to those in the heliosheath, with no evidence of anomalous cosmic rays upstream. The anisotropy of galactic cosmic ray protons >211 MeV, which reached a maximum ≈9% in April 2013, persisted for about one year after Voyager 1 entered the LISM, suggesting a transition region upstream of the heliopause of ≈4 AU. However, the increase in anisotropy has resumed, suggesting that influence of the heliosphere persists to distances ≈7 AU. In addition, small (≈1%) increases in the angular-averaged GCR proton intensities, the most recent occurring in mid-April of 2014 (at 127.5 AU), have been attributed to large disturbances due to solar activity and are also associated with activity in the Voyager 1 Plasma Wave instrument [Gurnett et al. 2014, this session]. Voyager 2 is now at 106 AU and still firmly in the heliosheath, with the lower-energy ion intensities having increased by a factor ≈3 since reaching a minimum in early 2013. Although the intensities of low-energy heliosheath ions and electrons continue to increase, they remain variable on short time scales. The spectral hardening of low-energy ions observed at Voyager 1 beginning about ≈1.5 years before its crossing of the heliopause is totally absent at Voyager 2. Hence, it appears highly unlikely that Voyager 2 is approaching the heliopause in the near future.

  20. Plasma waves near Saturn - Initial results from Voyager 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Scarf, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument detected many familiar types of plasma waves during the encounter with Saturn, including ion-acoustic waves and electron plasma oscillations upstream of the bow shock, an intense burst of electrostatic noise at the shock, and chorus, hiss, electrostatic electron cyclotron waves, and upper hybrid resonance emissions in the inner magnetosphere. A clocklike Saturn rotational control of low-frequency radio emissions was observed, and evidence was obtained of possible control by the moon Dione. Strong plasma wave emissions were detected at the Titan encounter indicating the presence of a turbulent sheath extending around Titan, and upper hybrid resonance measurements of the electron density show the existence of a dense plume of plasma being carried downstream of Titan by the interaction with the rapidly rotating magnetosphere of Saturn.