Science.gov

Sample records for voyager space probes

  1. Voyager 1 encounters new region of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-10-01

    Voyager 1, which left Earth in 1977 and is now about 10 billion miles away, has entered a region of space with strange anomalies, according to project scientist Ed Stone, former director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The spacecraft has encountered magnetic potholes and bumps-areas where the magnetic field of the heliosheath either nearly vanishes or doubles, respectively. It also has encountered `anomalous cosmic rays' that are less energetic, and thus less dangerous, than galactic cosmic rays. In addition, the solar wind in the heliosheath has been slower than scientists had expected, only about 54,700 kilometers per hour compared with the predicted 322,000-483,000 kilometers per hour. Voyager 1 is expected to reach the edge of the heliosheath in about 10 years.

  2. Voyager.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of the Voyager Expanded Learning programs. Initially begun with hands-on, activity-based learning experiences centered around academic themes designed to pique children's interest and motivate them to learn, Voyager has expanded from elementary after- and summer-school programs to include K-8 programs designed for…

  3. A voyage to Mars: space radiation, aging, and nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On exploratory class missions, such as a voyage to Mars, astronauts will be exposed to doses and types of radiation that are not experienced in low earth orbit where the space shuttle and International Space Station operate. Astronauts who participate in exploratory class missions outside the magne...

  4. Space Probe Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the Space Tug was a reusable multipurpose space vehicle designed to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations. Utilizing mission-specific combinations of its three primary modules (crew, propulsion, and cargo) and a variety of supplementary kits, the Space Tug was capable of numerous space applications. This 1970 artist's concept depicts the Tug's propulsion module launching a space probe into lunar orbit.

  5. Einstein's Symphony: A Gravitational Wave Voyage Through Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro Key, Joey; Yunes, Nico; Grimberg, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Einstein's Symphony: A Gravitational Wave Voyage Through Space and Time is a gravitational wave astronomy planetarium show in production by a collaboration of scientists, filmmakers, and artisits from the Center for Gravitational Wave Astonomy (CGWA) at the University of Texas at Brownsville (UTB) and Montana State University (MSU). The project builds on the success of the interdisciplinary Celebrating Einstein collaboration. The artists and scientists who created the A Shout Across Time original film and the Black (W)hole immersive art installation for Celebrating Einstein are teaming with the Museum of the Rockies Taylor Planetarium staff and students to create a new full dome Digistar planetarium show that will be freely and widely distributed to planetaria in the US and abroad. The show uses images and animations filmed and collected for A Shout Across Time and for Black (W)hole as well as new images and animations and a new soundtrack composed and produced by the MSU School of Music to use the full capability of planetarium sound systems. The planetarium show will be narrated with ideas drawn from the Celebrating Einstein danced lecture on gravitational waves that the collaboration produced. The combination of products, resources, and team members assembled for this project allows us to create an original planetarium show for a fraction of the cost of a typical show. In addition, STEM education materials for G6-12 students and teachers will be provided to complement and support the show. This project is supported by the Texas Space Grant Consortium (TSGC), Montana Space Grant Consortium (MSGC), and the American Physical Society (APS).

  6. Future studies of planetary rings by space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    Recent space probe observations of the rings of Jupiter and Saturn have furnished a substantial enhancement of the current understanding of the outer planets' rings. Voyager 2 offers further opportunities for the study of the Neptune and Uranus ring systems. The Galileo mission to Jupiter furnishes the first opportunity for long term space probe studies of a planetary ring system. It is suggested that an appropriately instrumented Saturn orbiter would not only provide a similar opportunity for the study of the Saturn rings, but may also be the only means by which to adequately address the nature of the diverse phenomena displayed by this prototypical planetary ring system.

  7. The navigation of space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fliegel, H. F.; Ohandley, D. A.; Zielenbach, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    A new navigational method combining electronic measurement procedures and celestial mechanics makes it possible to conduct a space probe very close to a desired point in the neighborhood of a remote planet. Approaches for the determination of the position of the space probe in space are discussed, giving attention to the effects of errors in the employed data. The application of the navigational methods in a number of space missions is also considered.

  8. The Challenge of Space Futures: Starcomber's Galactic Voyage to Xeranthemom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimonauff, Jacqueline

    1998-01-01

    Describes a curriculum enrichment activity for gifted middle school students. Students design a long-range space travel vehicle and plan for colonizing a discovered planet. Students contact people in science and industry and produce a handbook for space travel and colonization. (DB)

  9. Nick Sagan Reflects on Voyager 1 and the Golden Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-10-01

    When scientists confirmed on 12 September that NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft had entered interstellar space (Eos, 94(39), 339, doi:10.1002/2013EO390003), the probe was acknowledged as the first human-made object to travel into that realm. The probe and its twin, Voyager 2, each carry a 12-inch gold-plated copper disk, known as the Golden Record.

  10. PROBING THE NATURE OF THE HELIOSHEATH WITH THE NEUTRAL ATOM SPECTRA MEASURED BY IBEX IN THE VOYAGER 1 DIRECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Opher, M.; Prested, C.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Drake, J. F.

    2013-10-20

    We are able to show by comparing modeled energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) spectra to those measured by Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) that the models along the Voyager 1 (V1) trajectory that best agree with the low energy IBEX data include extra heating due to ram and magnetic energy in the quasi-stagnation region or a kappa ion distribution (with κ = 2.0) in the outer heliosheath. The model explored is the multi-ion, multi-fluid (MI-MF) which treats the pick-up ions and the thermal ion fluids with separate Maxwellian distributions. These effects are included ad hoc in the modeled ENA since they are not present in the model. These results indicate that the low energy spectra of ENAs as measured by IBEX is sensitive to the physical nature of the heliosheath and to effects not traditionally present in current global models. Therefore, by comparing the low energy ENA spectra to models, we can potentially probe the heliosheath in locations beyond those probed by V1 and Voyager 2 (V2)

  11. Voyages Guided by the Skies: Ancient Concepts of Exploring and Domesticating Time and Space across Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappenglück, Michael A.

    2015-05-01

    Persistence and change are necessary for the stability and development of both the human individual and the human society, since the beginnings of human history. Man needs a static framework which, related to his self-awareness, defines a topocentric system of perception, evaluation, order, and meaning. He also requires a dynamic impetus, which allows exceeding the limits of special world views, shifting of perspectives and transformations of individual as well as social approaches to life. Travelling especially helped to broaden man's horizon and mind. Across cultures voyages guided by the skies are linked with practical concepts of exploring and domesticating time and space, but also figuratively with the life's journey and with other worlds, being expressed by mythic, ritual and later scientific language.

  12. Cryogenic temperature control by means of energy storage materials. [for long space voyages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodzka, P. G.; Picklesimer, E. A.; Connor, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the concept of thermal control by means of physical or chemical reaction heats for applications involving the storage of cryogens during long-term space voyages. The investigation included some preliminary experimental tests of energy storage material (ESM) effectiveness. The materials considered can store and liberate large amounts of thermal energy by means of mechanisms such as sensible heat, heat of fusion, and physical or chemical reaction heat. A differential thermal analysis was utilized in the laboratory tests. Attention is given to the evaluation of cryogenic ESM thermal control concepts, the experimental determination of phase change materials characteristics, and adsorption ESMs. It is found that an ESM shield surrounded by multiple layer insulation provides the best protection for a cryogen store.

  13. Gravity Probe B Space Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The space vehicle for Gravity Probe B (GP-B) arrives at the launch site at Vandenburg Air Force Base. GP-B is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center, development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

  14. NASA Now: Space Science: Voyager’s Grand Tour of the Solar System

    NASA Video Gallery

    Planetary scientist Lou Mayo discusses what we’re learning from the Voyager missions, where the two spacecraft currently are located, and some of the incredible discoveries made on the long journ...

  15. Deep space network radio science system for Voyager Uranus and Galileo missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, T. K.; Donivan, F. F.

    1986-01-01

    An overview is presented of major new requirements, challenges and conceptual designs for the DSN Radio Science System in the 1985 to 1988 period. The Voyager Uranus encounter is being supported with larger combined aperture, higher sample rate, and a centrally controlled network. The Galileo mission will be provided with a high resolution S-Band Faraday rotation detection capability and a high-stability Doppler system with X-Band uplink for gravitational wave search.

  16. Probing planetary pollution from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Jack

    1991-01-01

    The data sets obtained from instruments that have measured carbon monoxide and tropospheric ozone from space are reviewed. These instruments include a gas cell correlation radiometer named MAPS (Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites), the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment. Particular attention is given to differential absorption lidar technology which can determine the vertical distribution of aerosols and selected trace gases with considerably more resolution than passive remote sensing techniques. The current plans for monitoring pollution from spaceborne platforms are also discussed.

  17. Encounter with Jupiter. [Pioneer 10 space probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Pioneer 10 space probe's encounter with the Jupiter is discussed in detail. Tables are presented which include data on the distances during the encounter, times of crossing satellite orbits, important events in the flight near Jupiter, and time of experiments. Educational study projects are also included.

  18. Compression of Space for Low Visibility Probes

    PubMed Central

    Born, Sabine; Krüger, Hannah M.; Zimmermann, Eckart; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli briefly flashed just before a saccade are perceived closer to the saccade target, a phenomenon known as perisaccadic compression of space (Ross et al., 1997). More recently, we have demonstrated that brief probes are attracted towards a visual reference when followed by a mask, even in the absence of saccades (Zimmermann et al., 2014a). Here, we ask whether spatial compression depends on the transient disruptions of the visual input stream caused by either a mask or a saccade. Both of these degrade the probe visibility but we show that low probe visibility alone causes compression in the absence of any disruption. In a first experiment, we varied the regions of the screen covered by a transient mask, including areas where no stimulus was presented and a condition without masking. In all conditions, we adjusted probe contrast to make the probe equally hard to detect. Compression effects were found in all conditions. To obtain compression without a mask, the probe had to be presented at much lower contrasts than with masking. Comparing mislocalizations at different probe detection rates across masking, saccades and low contrast conditions without mask or saccade, Experiment 2 confirmed this observation and showed a strong influence of probe contrast on compression. Finally, in Experiment 3, we found that compression decreased as probe duration increased both for masks and saccades although here we did find some evidence that factors other than simply visibility as we measured it contribute to compression. Our experiments suggest that compression reflects how the visual system localizes weak targets in the context of highly visible stimuli. PMID:27013989

  19. NASA Facts, Voyager.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    This document is one of a series of publications of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on facts about the exploration of Jupiter and Saturn. This NASA mission consists of two unmanned Voyager spacecrafts launched in August and September of 1977, and due to arrive at Jupiter in 1979. An account of the scientific equipment…

  20. Voyager 2 Jupiter encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A NASA News Release is presented which contains the following: (1) general release; (2) two views of Voyager 2 flight past Jupiter; (3) Voyager mission summary; (4) Voyager 1 science results; (5) Jupiter science objectives; (6) Jupiter the planet and its satellites; (7) Voyager experiments; (8) planet comparison; (9) a list of Voyager science investigators and (10) the Voyager team.

  1. Gigapan Voyage for Robotic Recon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Susan Y.; Moorse, Theodore Fitzgerald; Park, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Gigapan Voyage (GV) is a self-contained remotely-operable Gigapan capturing system that is currently being developed by the Intelligent Robotics Group (IRG) at NASA Ames Research Center. Gigapan Voyage was primarily designed to be integrated onto Johnson Space Center s Lunar Electric Rovers (LER). While on LER, Gigapan Voyage was used by scientists and astronauts during the 2009 and 2010 Desert RATS field tests. The concept behind Gigapan Voyage is to merge all the sub-components of the commercial GigaPan system into an all-in-one system that can capture, stitch, and display Gigapans in an automated way via a simple web interface. The GV system enables NASA to quickly and easily add remote-controlled Gigapan capturing capability onto rovers with minimal integration effort. Key Words: Geology, NASA, Black Point Lava Flow, Robot, K10, LER, Gigapan Voyage, Desert RATS, Intelligent Robotics Group

  2. Voyager backgrounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Voyager spacecraft and experiments are described. The spacecraft description includes the structure and configuration, communications systems, power supplies, computer command subsystems, and the science platform. The experiments discussed are investigations of cosmic rays, low-energy charged particles, magnetic fields, and plasma waves, along with studies in radio astronomy photopolarimetry. The tracking and data acquisition procedures for the missions are presented.

  3. Galileo Space Probe News Conference. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) video release presents Part 1 of a press conference regarding the successful entry of the Galileo Space Probe into Jupiter's atmosphere. The press conference panel is comprised of twelve principal investigators and project scientists that oversee the Galileo mission. Among these panelists, William J. O'Neil (Jet Propulsion Lab.) begins the video praising all of the scientists that worked on the orbiter mission. He then presents a visual overview of Galileo's overall mission trajectory and schedule. Marcie Smith (NASA Ames Research Center) then describes the Galileo Probe mission and the overall engineering and data acquisition aspects of the Probe's Jupiter atmospheric entry. Dr. Richard Young (NASA Ames Research Center) follows with a brief scientific overview, describing the measurements of the atmospheric composition as well as the instruments that were used to gather the data. Atmospheric pressure, temperature, density, and radiation levels of Jupiter were among the most important parameters measured. It is explained that these measurements would be helpful in determining among other things, the overall dynamic meteorology of Jupiter. A question and answer period follows the individual presentations. Atmospheric thermal structure, water abundances, wind profiles, radiation, cloud structure, chemical composition, and electricity are among the topics discussed. Parts 2 and 3 of the press conference can be found in document numbers NONP-NASA-VT-2000001074, and NONP-NASA-VT-2000001075.

  4. Employment of Asteroids for Movement Space Ship and Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    At present, rockets are used to change the trajectory of space ships and probes. This method is very expensive and requires a lot of fuel, which limits the feasibility of space stations, interplanetary space ships, and probes. Sometimes space probes use the gravity field of a planet. However, there are only 9 planets in our solar system and they are separated by great distances. There are tens of millions of asteroids in outer space. The author offers a revolutionary method for changing the trajectory of space probes. This method uses the kinetic or rotary energy of asteroids, meteorites or other space bodies (small planets, natural planet satellites, etc.). to increase (to decrease) ship (probe) speed up to 1000 m/sec (or more) and to get any new direction in outer space. The flight possibilities of space ships and probes are increased by a factor of millions.

  5. NASA Now Minute: Space Science: Voyager’s Grand Tour of the Solar System

    NASA Video Gallery

    Planetary scientist Lou Mayo discusses what we’re learning from theVoyager missions, where the two spacecraft are currently located andsome of the incredible discoveries made on the long journe...

  6. Voyager picture of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Voyager 1 took this picture of the planet Jupiter on Saturday, Jan. 6, the first in its three-month-long, close-up investigation of the largest planet. The spacecraft, flying toward a March 5 closest approach, was 35.8 million miles (57.6 million kilometers) from Jupiter and 371.7 million miles (598.2 million kilometers) from Earth when the picture was taken. As the Voyager cameras begin their meteorological surveillance of Jupiter, they reveal a dynamic atmosphere with more convective structure than had previously been thought. While the smallest atmospheric features seen in this picture are still as large as 600 miles (1,000 kilometers) across, Voyager will be able to detect individual storm systems as small as 3 miles (5 kilometers) at closest approach. The Great Red Spot can be seen near the limb at the far right. Most of the other features are too small to be seen in terrestrial telescopes. This picture was transmitted to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory through the Deep Space Network's tracking station at Madrid, Spain. The Voyager Project is managed for NASA by Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  7. Thermodynamic considerations in the support of life for long space voyages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iberall, A. S.; Cardon, S. Z.

    1979-01-01

    The essential requirements for the maintenance of life, particularly human life, on isolated space missions of long duration were investigated through the study of extended irreversible thermodynamics. The characterization of a four trophic level system was developed. Questions of stability are discussed.

  8. What do space voyagers value? a thematic analysis of the narratives of spaceflight veterans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suedfeld, Peter

    Values are desired outcomes, differing in importance, that guide people's lives. Considerable anecdotal evidence suggests that astronauts and cosmonauts experience changes in values as a consequence of their experiences in space. Among the most frequently mentioned changes are a greater appreciation of the unity of Earth and humanity, and an increase in self-confidence. Two preliminary studies by the author have confirmed significant changes in values among (a) four Apollo-era American astronauts and (b) ten male astronauts from the Apollo, Mercury, and Gemini programs, three female veterans of the Shuttle-Mir, and two male high-ranking NASA administrators. The current study expanded the database to 104 space veterans from the US, Russia, and other nations, whose narratives (memoirs, media interviews, and oral histories) were subjected to thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value categories. Significant pre-flight differences were found related to nationality, space age era (through vs. later than 1975), and longest flight duration. Comparing references from the pre-flight period with those to the time of the mission and then to post-return from space, we found a U-shaped curve for the values of Achievement, Power, and Self-Direction, and steady increases across periods for Enjoyment and Universalism. Compared to multicultural norms, astronauts showed higher values placed on Achievement, Enjoyment (their two primary values), and Power (after the mission only), and lower values on Security, Self-Direction (after the mission), Universalism, and Tradition.

  9. Earth observations during Space Shuttle flight STS-29 - Discovery's voyage to the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh; Helfert, Michael; Whitehead, Victor; Amsbury, David; Coats, Michael; Blaha, John; Buchli, James; Springer, Robert; Bagian, James

    1989-01-01

    The environmental, geologic, meteorologic, and oceanographic phenomena documented by earth photography during the Space Shuttle STS-29 mission are reviewed. A map of the nadir point positions of earth-viewing photographs from the mission is given and color photographs of various regions are presented. The mission photographs include atmospheric dust and smoke over parts of Africa and Asia, Sahelian water sites, center pivot irrigation fields in the Middle East, urban smog over Mexico City, isolated burning in the Bolivian Amazon, and various ocean features and cloud formations.

  10. Wave Probe - New Instrument For Space Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, V.; Dudkin, F.

    2007-12-01

    The dispersion relations are very important for the wave activity study in space plasmas. One of the most efficient methods for their analysis is the simultaneous measurements of spatial current density and magnetic field fluctuations during such a wave process. Whereas the measurement of the magnetic field is a routine task realized onboard practically every spacecraft (SC), the direct measurement of spatial current density (SCD) still remains a complicated scientific and technological problem. First attempt to solve it was executed in late 60-ties by a group headed by F. Mozer. They proposed and launched in a rocket experiment the device named "Split Langmuir Probe" (SLP) - two conducting plates separated by a thin insulated split. Unfortunately this experiment failed what diverted the attention of experimenters in space branch from this instrument for many years, practically till now. But the importance to know the SCD stimulated the development of new principles and devices to measure it. A short review of known versions is discussed. The newly evoked interest to this problem caused next attempt to improve the SLP construction and methodology of its application for SCD measurements, which resulted in first successful attempt in 1985: the measured SCD onboard Prognos-10 SC in the bow shock region was in rather good agreement with the calculated value. This attempt was continued onboard Interball-Tail SC (1995-2000) where again a qualitatively good coincidence of measured and calculated values was observed. The obtained experience and further theoretical research allowed developing a new instrument - Wave Probe - which is a combination of induction magnetometer and SLP in one body. Both on-ground tests in plasma chamber and the spatial experiment executed onboard Ukrainian "Sich-1M" SC (2004) showed that the combined in-situ simultaneous measurements of SCD and magnetic field fluctuations allowed obtaining the wave number of the whistler wave. The same wave

  11. NASA Facts: Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A news release on NASA's Voyager project is presented. The spacecraft, science instrumentation, experiments and a mission profile are described. A drawing identifying Voyager's major components and instrumentation was included along with diagrams showing the path of Voyager 1 (JST trajectory) past Jupiter, and the path of Voyager 2 (JXT trajectory) during its encounter with Jupiter. An exercise for student involvement was also provided.

  12. Voyager's decade of wonder

    SciTech Connect

    Mclaughlin, W.I. )

    1989-07-01

    The development and implementation of the Voyager missions are reviewed. The interplanetary missions preceding Voyager are discussed, focusing on the technological development leading up to the Voyager spacecraft. The main results from Voyager observations of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus are outlined. Also, consideration is given to the prospects for observations of Neptune.

  13. The Voyager Neptune travel guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlhase, Charles (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The Voyager mission to the giant outer planets of our solar system is described. Scientific highlights include interplanetary cruise, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and their vast satellite and ring systems. Detailed plans are provided for the August 1989 Neptune encounter and subsequent interstellar journey to reach the heliopause. As background, the elements of an unmanned space mission are explained, with emphasis on the capabilities of the spacecraft and the scientific sensors. Other topics include the Voyager Grand Tour trajectory design, deep-space navigation, and gravity-assist concepts. The Neptune flyby is animated through the use of computer-generated, flip-page movie frames that appear in the corners of the publication. Useful historical information is also presented, including facts associated with the Voyager mission. Finally, short summaries are provided to describe the major objectives and schedules for several space missions planned for the remainder of the 20th century.

  14. The Voyager Interstellar Mission.

    PubMed

    Rudd, R P; Hall, J C; Spradlin, G L

    1997-01-01

    The Voyager Interstellar Mission began on January 1, 1990, with the primary objective being to characterize the interplanetary medium beyond Neptune and to search for the transition region between the interplanetary medium and the interstellar medium. At the start of this mission, the two Voyager spacecraft had already been in flight for over twelve years, having successfully returned a wealth of scientific information about the planetary systems of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and the interplanetary medium between Earth and Neptune. The two spacecraft have the potential to continue returning science data until around the year 2020. With this extended operating lifetime, there is a high likelihood of one of the two spacecraft penetrating the termination shock and possibly the heliopause boundary, and entering interstellar space before that time. This paper describes the Voyager Interstellar Mission--the mission objectives, the spacecraft and science payload, the mission operations system used to support operations, and the mission operations strategy being used to maximize science data return even in the event of certain potential spacecraft subsystem failures. The implementation of automated analysis tools to offset and enable reduced flight team staffing levels is also discussed. PMID:11540770

  15. Huygens space probe ready to leave Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-03-01

    Over the past year, the Huygens probe has been integrated and extensively tested at the facilities of Daimler Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme in Ottobrunn near Munich. It was designed and developed for ESA by a European industrial consortium led by Aerospatiale (F) as prime contractor. The European activities have been successfully completed and this is to be formalised by the Flight Acceptance Review which will release the probe for shipment to the USA. To mark this important milestone a press briefing is scheduled for Wednesday, 26 March at 10.00 hours at Daimler-Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme in Ottobrunn. The detailed programme of the press briefing is attached. If you wish to attend the press briefing, please complete the attached accreditation form and return it, preferably by fax, to : Daimler Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme Mr. Mathias Pikelj, Fax. + 49 7545 8 5589, Tel. + 49 7545 8 9123 NOTE FOR THE EDITORS: Background facts about the Cassini Huygens mission Huygens is a medium-sized mission of ESA's Horizons 2000 programme for space science, and a contribution to the joint NASA ESA Cassini mission. Christiaan Huygens discovered Saturn s moon Titan in 1655, and the mission named after him aims to land a 343 kilogram probe on Titan carrying a package of scientific instruments through the atmosphere. Six sets of instruments will analyse the chemical composition of the atmosphere, observe the weather and topography of Titan, and examine the nature of its surface. Titan is larger than the planet Mercury, and its unique atmosphere, rich in nitrogen and hydrocarbons, may resemble the atmosphere of the primitive Earth, before life began. Nominal dates for the Huygens mission are as follows: * launch, 6 October 1997 * arrival at Saturn, 1 July 2004 * release of Huygens, 6 November 2004 * entry into Titan's atmosphere, 27 November 2004. The Saturn Orbiter, the other element in the Cassini mission, will relay the signals from Huygens to

  16. "Voyager": An Educational Card Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David Ryan

    2003-01-01

    "Voyager" is an educational card game involving scientific satellites, developed for use in schools with children aged 9 to 13 years. The idea of the game is to improve pupils' knowledge about the large number of scientific satellites there are in space in a fun way, while also practising numeracy skills. Several copies of the game were produced…

  17. Voyager - Humanity's Farthest Journey

    NASA Video Gallery

    After 33 years, NASA's twin Voyager spacecraft are still going strong and still sending home information. This video features highlights of the Voyager journeys to the outer planets, and looks at t...

  18. Voyager - 35 Years Later

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video drops in on mission control for NASA's Voyager spacecraft asVoyager 1 sends back data from the far reaches of our solar system.Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech    › Voyager's mission site

  19. Reacting to nuclear power systems in space: American public protests over outer planetary probes since the 1980s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launius, Roger D.

    2014-03-01

    The United States has pioneered the use of nuclear power systems for outer planetary space probes since the 1970s. These systems have enabled the Viking landings to reach the surface of Mars and both Pioneers 10 and 11 and Voyagers 1 and 2 to travel to the limits of the solar system. Although the American public has long been concerned about safety of these systems, in the 1980s a reaction to nuclear accidents - especially the Soviet Cosmos 954 spacecraft destruction and the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accidents - heightened awareness about the hazards of nuclear power and every spacecraft launch since that time has been contested by opponents of nuclear energy. This has led to a debate over the appropriateness of the use of nuclear power systems for spacecraft. It has also refocused attention on the need for strict systems of control and rigorous checks and balances to assure safety. This essay describes the history of space radioisotope power systems, the struggles to ensure safe operations, and the political confrontation over whether or not to allow the launch the Galileo and Cassini space probes to the outer planets. Effectively, these efforts have led to the successful flights of 12 deep space planetary probes, two-thirds of them operated since the accidents of Cosmos 954, Three Mile Island, and Chernobyl.

  20. Space-charge limits of ion sensitive probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.; Ochoukov, R.; Sullivan, R.; Whyte, D.

    2013-12-01

    Ion sensitive probes (ISPs) are used to measure ion temperature and plasma potential in magnetized plasmas. Their operation relies on the difference in electron and ion Larmor radii to preferentially collect the ion species on a recessed electrode. Because of their simple two-electrode construction and optimal geometry for heat flux handling they are an attractive probe to use in the high heat flux boundary of magnetic confinement fusion experiments. However, the integrity of its measurements is rarely, if ever, checked under such conditions. Recent measurements with an ISP in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak have shown that its ion current is space-charge limited and thus its current-voltage (I-V) response does not contain information on the ion temperature. We numerically solve a 1D Vlasov-Poisson model of ion collection to determine how much bias is needed to overcome space-charge effects and regain the classic I-V characteristic with an exponential decay. Prompted by the observations of space charge in C-Mod, we have performed a survey of ISP measurements reported in the literature. Evidence of space-charge limited current collection is found on many probes, with few authors noting its presence. Some probes are able to apparently exceed the classic 1D space-charge limit because electrons can E × B drift into the probe volume, partially reducing the net ion charge; it is argued that this does not, however, change the basic problem that space charge compromises the measurement of ion temperature. Guidance is given for design of ISPs to minimize the effects of space charge.

  1. Voyager program. Voyager 1 encounter at Jupiter, 5 March 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Highlights of Voyager 1 activity during the observatory and far-encounter phases are summarized. Daily sequence of events for the spacecraft during the period of greatest encounter activity (Feb. 26 through Mar. 7) the near-encounter phase is given. Times shown designate the time of signal reception at Deep Space Network stations. Events listed emphasize activities pertaining to the four remote sensing instruments on the scan platforms. However, the other 7 experiments will continuously collect data throughout the encounter period.

  2. Voyager-Jupiter radio science data papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, G. S.; Wood, G. E.

    1980-01-01

    The reduction and interpretation of the radio science data from the Voyager 1 and 2 encounters of the planet Jupiter and its satellites resulted in the preparation of several papers for publication in the special Voyager-Jupiter issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research. The radio science and tracking systems of the Deep Space Network provide the data which makes this research possible. This article lists submitted papers by title, with their authors and with abstracts of their contents.

  3. Citizens in Space: Participating in sub orbital student space probe development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, J.

    2012-12-01

    Volunteer students from Deer Valley High School participated in the development of a microcomputer-based sensor probe to be deployed on a sub orbital rocket during the 2011-2012 school year. The design was initiated by a group formerly known as Teachers in Space and now designated as Citizens in Space. Masten Space Systems has offered to launch the probes. Our student volunteers worked on Friday afternoons for most of a school year to develop a radiation probe based on a Vernier radiation sensor. The design, software, and current status of the project will be shared.

  4. Voyage of Discovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    These animations show NASA's Voyager spacecraft encountering Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune on their grand tour through the solar system. The artist's renderings were made based on navigationa...

  5. The Evolving Space Weather System—Van Allen Probes Contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanetti, L. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Fox, N. J.; Barnes, R. J.; Weiss, M.; Sotirelis, T. S.; Raouafi, N.-E.; Kessel, R. L.; Becker, H. N.

    2014-10-01

    The overarching goal and purpose of the study of space weather is clear—to understand and address the issues caused by solar disturbances on humans and technological systems. Space weather has evolved in the past few decades from a collection of concerned agencies and researchers to a critical function of the National Weather Service of NOAA. The general effects have also evolved from the well-known telegraph disruptions of the mid-1800s to modern day disturbances of the electric power grid, communications and navigation, human spaceflight and spacecraft systems. The last two items in this list, and specifically the effects of penetrating radiation, were the impetus for the space weather broadcast implemented on NASA's Van Allen Probes' twin pair of satellites, launched in August of 2012 and orbiting directly through Earth's severe radiation belts. The Van Allen Probes mission, formerly the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), was renamed soon after launch to honor the discoverer of Earth's radiation belts at the beginning of the space age, the late James Van Allen (the spacecraft themselves are still referred to as RBSP-A and RBSP-B). The Van Allen Probes are one part of NASA's Living With a Star program formulated to advance the scientific understanding of the connection between solar disturbances, the resulting heliospheric conditions, and their effects on the geospace and Earth environment.

  6. Mission to Jupiter. [Pioneer 10 and 11 space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 space probes and their missions to Jupiter are discussed along with the experiments and investigations which will be conducted onboard. Jupiter's atmosphere, its magnetic fields, radiation belts, the spacecraft instruments, and the Jovian system will be investigated. Educational study projects are also included.

  7. Features of the Gravity Probe B Space Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeve, William; Green, Gaylord

    2007-04-01

    Space vehicle performance enabled successful relativity data collection throughout the Gravity Probe B mission. Precision pointing and drag-free translation control was maintained using proportional helium micro-thrusters. Electrical power was provided by rigid, double sided solar arrays. The 1.8 kelvin science instrument temperature was maintained using the largest cryogenic liquid helium dewar ever flown in space. The flight software successfully performed autonomous operations and safemode protection. Features of the Gravity Probe B Space Vehicle mechanisms include: 1) sixteen helium micro-thrusters, the first proportional thrusters flown in space, and large-orifice thruster isolation valves, 2) seven precision and high-authority mass trim mechanisms, 3) four non-pyrotechnic, highly reliable solar array deployment and release mechanism sets. Early incremental prototyping was used extensively to reduce spacecraft development risk. All spacecraft systems were redundant and provided multiple failure tolerance in critical systems. Lockheed Martin performed the spacecraft design, systems engineering, hardware and software integration, environmental testing and launch base operations, as well as on-orbit operations support for the Gravity Probe B space science experiment.

  8. Voyager at Uranus: 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The voyager 2 spacecraft begins its initial observations of Uranus November 4, 1985, and makes its final observation February 25, 1996. The data from the infrared interfermometer spectrometer, photopolarimeters, plasma wave, plasma detecter, and ultraviolet spectrometer will be processed to add a large block of infermation to the small amount already known. The trajectory of Voyager 2 is also discussed.

  9. Voyage to Jupiter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David; Samz, Jane

    This publication illustrates the features of Jupiter and its family of satellites pictured by the Pioneer and the Voyager missions. Chapters included are: (1) "The Jovian System" (describing the history of astronomy); (2) "Pioneers to Jupiter" (outlining the Pioneer Mission); (3) "The Voyager Mission"; (4) "Science and Scientsts" (listing 11…

  10. The Voyager flights to Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The results of the mini-Grand Tour to Jupiter and Saturn by the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are highlighted. Features of the spacecraft are depicted including the 11 instruments designed to probe the planets and their magnetic environments, the rings of Saturn, the fleets of satellites escorting the planets, and the interplanetary medium. Major scientific discoveries relating to these phenomena are summarized.

  11. Van Allen Probes Science Gateway and Space Weather Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, G.; Barnes, R. J.; Weiss, M.; Fox, N. J.; Mauk, B.; Potter, M.; Kessel, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Van Allen Probes Science Gateway acts as a centralized interface to the instrument Science Operation Centers (SOCs), provides mission planning tools, and hosts a number of science related activities such as the mission bibliography. Most importantly, the Gateway acts as the primary site for processing and delivering the VAP Space Weather data to users. Over the past year, the web-site has been completely redesigned with the focus on easier navigation and improvements of the existing tools such as the orbit plotter, position calculator and magnetic footprint tool. In addition, a new data plotting facility has been added. Based on HTML5, which allows users to interactively plot Van Allen Probes summary and space weather data. The user can tailor the tool to display exactly the plot they wish to see and then share this with other users via either a URL or by QR code. Various types of plots can be created, including simple time series, data plotted as a function of orbital location, and time versus L-Shell. We discuss the new Van Allen Probes Science Gateway and the Space Weather Data Pipeline.

  12. Voyager at Neptune: 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Voyager mission has taken advantage of a rare planetary alignment that occurs at intervals of about 175 years and affords an extraordinary opportunity: a grand tour by a single spacecraft of the outer planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Voyager 2 will fly past Nepture and its large moon Triton on August 24, 1989. The discovery of Neptune, along with its current history is discussed. The imaging challenges, tracking and data acquisition, and the Voyager spacecraft are explained. Data will be gathered on the ring arcs of Neptune, the atmosphere and surface of Neptune, Triton, and Nereid (the smaller moon).

  13. Voyager 1 Image of Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Voyager 1 took this picture of Ganymede from a distance of 1.6 million miles. Ganymede is Jupiter's largest satellite with a radius of approximately 2600 kilometers, about 1.5 times that of Earth's Moon. Ganymede is the seventh and largest of Jupiter's known satellites and is the third of the Galilean moons. Discovered in 1610 by Galileo and Marius, Ganymede is the largest satellite in the Solar System. It was named after the Greek mythical character, Ganymede, a handsome Trojan boy that Zeus took to Olympus to be a cupbearer for the gods (one of the only humans in Greek mythology who became immortal). Ganymede is larger than Mercury but has only half Mercury's mass. It has a bulk density of only two grams per cubic centimeter, almost half that of Earth's Moon. Ganymede is most likely composed of a mixture of rock and ice. The long white filaments resemble rays associated with impacts on the lunar surface. The various colors of different regions probably represent differing surface materials. Several dots of a single color (blue, green, and orange) on the picture are the result of markings on the camera used for pointing determinations and are not physical markings. Voyager scientists discovered that Ganymede has its own magnetosphere embedded inside Jupiter's large one. JPL manages and controls the Voyager Project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  14. Voyager 1 View of Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Voyager 1 took this picture of Callisto during Voyager's approach to Jupiter's outer large satellite in 1979. Both Galileo and Marius discovered Callisto in 1610. In Greek mythology, Callisto was a nymph loved by Zeus and thus hated by Hera. Hera turned her into a bear, which Zeus placed in the heavens as the constellation Ursa Major. Voyager was 350,000 kilometers from Callisto and took this picture that shows features about seven kilometers wide across the surface. Callisto is a little smaller than Ganymede (Callisto is about the size of Mercury) and it seems that it is composed of a mixture of ice and rock (about 40 percent ice and 60 percent rock and iron). The darker color of Callisto (about half as reflective as Ganymede but still twice as bright as the Moon) implies that the upper surface is 'dirty ice' or water- rich rock frozen on Callisto's cold surface (approximately -243 Fahrenheit degrees at the equator). Callisto's atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide. Far more craters appear on the surface of Callisto than on the surface of Ganymede, leading scientists to believe that Callisto is the oldest of the Galilean satellites. Callisto could date back as far as four billion years ago and has remained relatively unchanged in the history of space.

  15. Pu-powered space probes face uncertain future

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    When fragments of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 crashed into the gas clouds of Jupiter in July, the only representatives of humankind with a good view were a trio of spacecraft, Voyager 2, Galileo, and Ulysses. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) supplied by the Department of Energy provided the power to run the observing instruments on these spacecraft, but now that source of power-and all deep-space missions-may be in jeopardy. Despite the fact that the recently passed congressional appropriations bill increased funding for the RTG program by nearly 20 percent, from $51 million in 1994 to $61 million in 1995, rumors persist that the program is in danger of being discontinued. Peter Ulrich, chief of the Flight Programs Branch of the Solar System Exploration Division of the Office of Space Science at NASA, was confident that the program would stay alive through NASA`s next mission. RTGs will be on board the Cassini spacecraft scheduled to blast off in 1997 for an exploration of Saturn and its rings and moons. RTG`s use the heat produced by the alpha decay of plutonium-238 to heat a thermocouple, which generates electricity. Cassini is designed to carry three RTGs, producing a total of 750 W of electricity initially, decreasing to about 600 W by the time it reaches Saturn seven years after launch. The RTGs on Cassini will carry a total of about 70 lb of plutonium oxide. RTGs have no moving parts. They are simple, rugged, and reliable. According to Ulrich, {open_quotes}It`s really a very well-matched power source for something like a remote mission.{close_quotes} The political situation is less clear, though. {open_quotes}What I hear unofficially is funding looks dime,{close_quotes} said the DOE spokesperson, {open_quotes}and the lights are being turned off for these missions.{close_quotes} If that happens, the lights will go out on NASA`s deep-space missions to other parts of our solar system.

  16. Voyage to Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalrymple, M.

    1985-01-01

    Preparations being made for the Voyager 2's encounter with the seventh planet, Uranus are discussed. Research activities involved with the methane in Uranus' atmosphere and its absorption of photons of sunlight are discussed.

  17. The Voyager magnetometer boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    The Voyager spacecraft magnetometer experiment utilizes two sensors on a deployable boom. The boom is an Astromast. The implementation of the Astromast into the Voyager design is described along with the hardware used to hold, latch, and deploy the mast and the tests to demonstrate damping, deployment, and alignments. Several problems encountered are discussed and their solutions are given. Flight deployment and preliminary alignment results are presented. Finally, the design is evaluated in retrospect.

  18. Voyages to Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.

    1982-01-01

    The Voyager mission to Saturn is explained in detail. A history of Saturn observations from ancient times to the present is given. The Voyager spacecraft and their instruments are described. An overview of planetary astronomy is presented. The text is supplemented by numerous black and white and color photographs. The Saturn satellites are discussed in detail, and preliminary pictorial maps of the satellites are given.

  19. Voyager: Neptune Encounter Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Voyager encounter data are presented in computer animation (CA) and real (R) animation. The highlights include a view of 2 full rotations of Neptune. It shows spacecraft trajectory 'diving' over Neptune and intercepting Triton's orbit, depicting radiation and occulation zones. Also shown are a renegade orbit of Triton and Voyager's encounter with Neptune's Magnetopause. A model of the spacecraft's complex maneuvers during close encounters of Neptune and Triton is presented. A view from Earth of Neptune's occulation experiment is is shown as well as a recreation of Voyager's final pass. There is detail of Voyager's Image Compensation technique which produces Voyager images. Eighteen images were produced on June 22 - 23, 1989, from 57 million miles away. A 68 day sequence which provides a stroboscopic view - colorization approximates what is seen by the human eye. Real time images recorded live from Voyager on 8/24/89 are presented. Photoclinometry produced the topography of Triton. Three images are used to create a sequence of Neptune's rings. The globe of Neptune and 2 views of the south pole are shown as well as Neptune rotating. The rotation of a scooter is frozen in images showing differential motion. There is a view of rotation of the Great Dark Spot about its own axis. Photoclinometry provides a 3-dimensional perspective using a color mosaic of Triton images. The globe is used to indicate the orientation of Neptune's crescent. The east and west plumes on Triton are shown.

  20. Future exploration of the asteroids. [by space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.; Niehoff, J.

    1979-01-01

    Future possibilities for the further study of the asteroids are reviewed, with particular attention paid to space missions for their direct exploration. The role of traditional ground-based and earth orbiting techniques is examined briefly, and it is concluded that although astronomical techniques are presently at their peak, and despite the opportunities provided by the Infrared Astronomical satellite, the Space Telescope and Spacelab Infrared Telescope Facility, the next major step will require direct exploration by space probes to obtain information on asteroid surface chemistry, geology and bulk properties. Various mission modes and propulsion systems for a first multi-target asteroid mission are discussed, including flyby, rendezvous, landing and sample return, and ion-drive propulsion systems. Science payloads for a basic rendezvous mission are considered, and target selection for multi-asteroid flyby tours and rendezvous tours is discussed. Consideration is also given to sample return missions for the evaluation of the asteroid as potential resources.

  1. Deep Space Network Capabilities for Receiving Weak Probe Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmar, Sami; Johnston, Doug; Preston, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Planetary probes can encounter mission scenarios where communication is not favorable during critical maneuvers or emergencies. Launch, initial acquisition, landing, trajectory corrections, safing. Communication challenges due to sub-optimum antenna pointing or transmitted power, amplitude/frequency dynamics, etc. Prevent lock-up on signal and extraction of telemetry. Examples: loss of Mars Observer, nutation of Ulysses, Galileo antenna, Mars Pathfinder and Mars Exploration Rovers Entry, Descent, and Landing, and the Cassini Saturn Orbit Insertion. A Deep Space Network capability to handle such cases has been used successfully to receive signals to characterize the scenario. This paper will describe the capability and highlight the cases of the critical communications for the Mars rovers and Saturn Orbit Insertion and preparation radio tracking of the Huygens probe at (non-DSN) radio telescopes.

  2. Welded Titanium Case for Space-Probe Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brothers, A. J.; Boundy, R. A.; Martens, H. E.; Jaffe, L. D.

    1959-01-01

    The high strength-to-weight ratio of titanium alloys suggests their use for solid-propellant rocket-motor cases for high-performance orbiting or space-probe vehicles. The paper describes the fabrication of a 6-in.-diam., 0.025-in.-wall rocket-motor from the 6A1-4V titanium alloy. The rocket-motor case, used in the fourth stage of a successful JPL-NASA lunar-probe flight, was constructed using a design previously proven satisfactory for Type 410 stainless steel. The nature and scope of the problems peculiar to the use of the titanium alloy, which effected an average weight saving of 34%, are described.

  3. Space Science Education by Mathematica Demonstrations: Interactive Design of Moving Space Probe Elements Mechanics by Foldable and Extendable Structures for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabai, S.; Bérczi, Sz.

    2010-03-01

    By the interactive Mathematica Demonstrations of the Wolfram Research several mechanics for space probe operation and motion simulations were studied as space robotics and science educational program.

  4. Role of space charge in scanned probe oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagata, J. A.; Inoue, T.; Itoh, J.; Matsumoto, K.; Yokoyama, H.

    1998-12-01

    The growth rate and electrical character of nanostructures produced by scanned probe oxidation are investigated by integrating an in situ electrical force characterization technique, scanning Maxwell-stress microscopy, into the fabrication process. Simultaneous topographical, capacitance, and surface potential data are obtained for oxide features patterned on n- and p-type silicon and titanium thin-film substrates. The electric field established by an applied voltage pulse between the probe tip and substrate depends upon reactant and product ion concentrations associated with the water meniscus at the tip-substrate junction and within the growing oxide film. Space-charge effects are consistent with the rapid decline of high initial growth rates, account for observed doping and voltage-pulse dependencies, and provide a basis for understanding local density variations within oxide features. An obvious method for avoiding the buildup of space charge is to employ voltage modulation and other dynamic pulse-shaping techniques during the oxidation pulse. Voltage modulation leads to a significant enhancement of the growth rate and to improvements in the aspect ratio compared with static voltage pulses.

  5. IEC Thrusters for Space Probe Applications and Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu; Wu, Linchun; Reilly, Michael P.; Teofilo, Vince L.; Burton, Rodney; Dell, Richard; Dell, Dick; Hargus, William A.

    2009-03-01

    Earlier conceptual design studies (Bussard, 1990; Miley et al., 1998; Burton et al., 2003) have described Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion propulsion to provide a high-power density fusion propulsion system capable of aggressive deep space missions. However, this requires large multi-GW thrusters and a long term development program. As a first step towards this goal, a progression of near-term IEC thrusters, stating with a 1-10 kWe electrically-driven IEC jet thruster for satellites are considered here. The initial electrically-powered unit uses a novel multi-jet plasma thruster based on spherical IEC technology with electrical input power from a solar panel. In this spherical configuration, Xe ions are generated and accelerated towards the center of double concentric spherical grids. An electrostatic potential well structure is created in the central region, providing ion trapping. Several enlarged grid opening extract intense quasi-neutral plasma jets. A variable specific impulse in the range of 1000-4000 seconds is achieved by adjusting the grid potential. This design provides high maneuverability for satellite and small space probe operations. The multiple jets, combined with gimbaled auxiliary equipment, provide precision changes in thrust direction. The IEC electrical efficiency can match or exceed efficiencies of conventional Hall Current Thrusters (HCTs) while offering advantages such as reduced grid erosion (long life time), reduced propellant leakage losses (reduced fuel storage), and a very high power-to-weight ratio. The unit is ideally suited for probing missions. The primary propulsive jet enables delicate maneuvering close to an object. Then simply opening a second jet offset 180 degrees from the propulsion one provides a "plasma analytic probe" for interrogation of the object.

  6. IEC Thrusters for Space Probe Applications and Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu; Wu Linchun; Reilly, Michael P.; Teofilo, Vince L.; Burton, Rodney; Dell, Richard; Dell, Dick; Hargus, William A.

    2009-03-16

    Earlier conceptual design studies (Bussard, 1990; Miley et al., 1998; Burton et al., 2003) have described Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion propulsion to provide a high-power density fusion propulsion system capable of aggressive deep space missions. However, this requires large multi-GW thrusters and a long term development program. As a first step towards this goal, a progression of near-term IEC thrusters, stating with a 1-10 kWe electrically-driven IEC jet thruster for satellites are considered here. The initial electrically-powered unit uses a novel multi-jet plasma thruster based on spherical IEC technology with electrical input power from a solar panel. In this spherical configuration, Xe ions are generated and accelerated towards the center of double concentric spherical grids. An electrostatic potential well structure is created in the central region, providing ion trapping. Several enlarged grid opening extract intense quasi-neutral plasma jets. A variable specific impulse in the range of 1000-4000 seconds is achieved by adjusting the grid potential. This design provides high maneuverability for satellite and small space probe operations. The multiple jets, combined with gimbaled auxiliary equipment, provide precision changes in thrust direction. The IEC electrical efficiency can match or exceed efficiencies of conventional Hall Current Thrusters (HCTs) while offering advantages such as reduced grid erosion (long life time), reduced propellant leakage losses (reduced fuel storage), and a very high power-to-weight ratio. The unit is ideally suited for probing missions. The primary propulsive jet enables delicate maneuvering close to an object. Then simply opening a second jet offset 180 degrees from the propulsion one provides a 'plasma analytic probe' for interrogation of the object.

  7. Voyager 1 May Have Crossed Termination Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    NASA's intrepid Voyager 1, launched in 1977, may have recently become the first spacecraft to at least temporarily cross the termination shock of the solar system and enter into the heliosheath. Or maybe not. Different teams of scientists recently published conflicting papers about whether the spacecraft has entered this realm. Either way, the scientists agree that Voyager 1 is crossing through unexplored territory and likely will become the first human'made object to cross the termination shock and enter the heliosheath on its way toward the heliopause and interstellar space.

  8. Voyager electronic parts radiation program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Price, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    The Voyager spacecraft is subject to radiation from external natural space, from radioisotope thermoelectric generators and heater units, and from the internal environment where penetrating electrons generate surface ionization effects in semiconductor devices. Methods for radiation hardening and tests for radiation sensitivity are described. Results of characterization testing and sample screening of over 200 semiconductor devices in a radiation environment are summarized.

  9. Voyager 2 Observes Energetic Electrons

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the Voyager 2 observations of energetic electrons. Voyager 2 detected a dramatic drop of the flux of electrons as it left the sector region. The intense flux came back as soon ...

  10. Probing Asteroid Families for Evidence of Ultraviolet Space Weathering Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilas, Faith

    2005-07-01

    We propose six HST orbits to obtain UV reflectance spectra covering 200-460 nm of two Vesta asteroid family members, asteroid 832 Karin, and two Karin family members. These observations extend work done under a Cycle 13 AR grant, where we analyzed all of the existing IUE and HST S-class asteroids in the MAST database to investigate the effects of space weathering at UV wavelengths. Our hypothesis is that the manifestation of space weathering at UV wavelengths is a spectral bluing, in contrast with a spectral reddening at visible-NIR wavelengths, and that UV wavelengths can be more sensitive to relatively small amounts of weathering than longer wavelengths. The proposed observations will address two objectives: {1} Measure the UV-visible spectra of 832 Karin and two members of the young Karin family {absolute age of 5.8 My}, in order to determine whether intermediate space weathering is observable in objects likely pristine when they originated from the interior of Karin's pa rent body. {2} Measure the UV-visible spectra of two members of the Vesta family to compare with our analysis of IUE Vesta spectra. These observations will probe Vesta's interior, and test our hypothesis by contrasting the apparent amount of alteration on the surfaces of Vestoids with excavated material on Vesta.

  11. Voyager Outreach Compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This NASA JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) video presents a collection of the best videos that have been published of the Voyager mission. Computer animation/simulations comprise the largest portion of the video and include outer planetary magnetic fields, outer planetary lunar surfaces, and the Voyager spacecraft trajectory. Voyager visited the four outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The video contains some live shots of Jupiter (actual), the Earth's moon (from orbit), Saturn (actual), Neptune (actual) and Uranus (actual), but is mainly comprised of computer animations of these planets and their moons. Some of the individual short videos that are compiled are entitled: The Solar System; Voyage to the Outer Planets; A Tour of the Solar System; and the Neptune Encounter. Computerized simulations of Viewing Neptune from Triton, Diving over Neptune to Meet Triton, and Catching Triton in its Retrograde Orbit are included. Several animations of Neptune's atmosphere, rotation and weather features as well as significant discussion of the planet's natural satellites are also presented.

  12. Two Voyagers to Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-08-01

    The pages which follow may be taken as a celebration of the impending encounter of Voyager 2 with Saturn and are a pointer to the richness of data likely to be gathered in the next few days and weeks. Although there may be some to whom the work of these two remarkable spacecraft will be proof of how even more remarkable would have been the Grand Tour of the Solar System planned in the 1960s but executed only in the form of the two Voyagers, to most people the encounters with Jupiter and Saturn will seem exciting enough for the time being. Yet there are Uranus and Neptune to come. This group of scientific articles includes some of the first detailed attempts to make sense of last year's Voyager 1 observations of Saturn-and Nature acknowledges its debt to Dr G. E. Hunt of University College, London for having helped to recruit these articles and to give shape to the ground they cover. The scope is necessarily restricted, for there is hardly a branch of planetary astronomy which has not been changed in some way by the data from Voyager 1-and which is not about to be changed again.

  13. Electric Field Double Probe Measurements for Ionospheric Space Plasma Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.

    1999-01-01

    Double probes represent a well-proven technique for gathering high quality DC and AC electric field measurements in a variety of space plasma regimes including the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and mesosphere. Such experiments have been successfully flown on a variety of spacecraft including sounding rockets and satellites. Typical instrument designs involve a series of trades, depending on the science objectives, type of platform (e.g., spinning or 3-axis stabilized), expected plasma regime where the measurements will be made, available telemetry, budget, etc. In general, ionospheric DC electric field instruments that achieve accuracies of 0.1 mV/m or better, place spherical sensors at large distances (10m or more) from the spacecraft body in order to extend well beyond the spacecraft wake and sheath and to achieve large signal-to-noise ratios for DC and long wavelength measurements. Additional sets of sensors inboard of the primary, outermost sensors provide useful additional information, both for diagnostics of the plasma contact potentials, which particularly enhance the DC electric field measurements on non-spinning spacecraft, and for wavelength and phase velocity measurements that use the spaced receiver or "interferometer" technique. Accurate attitude knowledge enables B times V contributions to be subtracted from the measured potentials, and permits the measured components to be rotated into meaningful geophysical reference frames. We review the measurement technique for both DC and wave electric field measurements in the ionosphere discussing recent advances involving high resolution burst memories, multiple baseline double probes, new sensor surface materials, biasing techniques, and other considerations.

  14. VOYAGER OBSERVATIONS OF THE DIFFUSE FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, Jayant; Henry, Richard Conn; Holberg, Jay B.

    2012-03-01

    The two Voyager spacecraft have completed their planetary exploration mission and are now probing the outer realms of the heliosphere. The Voyager ultraviolet spectrometers continued to operate well after the Voyager 2 Neptune encounter in 1989. We present a complete database of diffuse radiation observations made by both Voyagers: a total of 1943 spectra (500-1600 A) scattered throughout the sky. These include observations of dust-scattered starlight, emission lines from the hot interstellar medium, and a number of locations where no diffuse radiation was detected, with the very low upper limit of about 25 photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} A{sup -1}. Many of these observations were from late in the mission when there was significantly less contribution from interplanetary emission lines and thus less contamination of the interstellar signal.

  15. Triton - Voyager's finale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The investigation of the Neptunian satellite Triton by the Voyager 2 is described with interpretations of the object's nature and composition. The orbit, seasonal cycle, and southern-hemisphere solstice are described, and the composition of the satellite is discussed. Triton's mass and radius are known, and the objects is made up of about 70 percent rock and organics and 30 percent ice by mass. Triton's interior is warm and geologically active considering its distance from the sun, and large amounts of frozen methane and nitrogen are theorized to contribute to the object's high reflectivity. Also noted in the Voyager color images are creeping ice, cryogenic lava, and dark streaks on the south polar cap from nitrogen gas leaks driven by a type of greenhouse effect. Triton represents a class of satellite that has not been observed previously: a moon-sized body in a retrograde inclined orbit from the class of objects that coalesced to form Neptune.

  16. Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  17. Aspects of Voyager photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sherman S. C.; Schafer, Francis J.; Jordan, Raymond; Howington, Annie-Elpis

    1987-01-01

    In January 1986, Voyager 2 took a series of pictures of Uranus and its satellites with the Imaging Science System (ISS) on board the spacecraft. Based on six stereo images from the ISS narrow-angle camera, a topographic map was compiled of the Southern Hemisphere of Miranda, one of Uranus' moons. Assuming a spherical figure, a 20-km surface relief is shown on the map. With three additional images from the ISS wide-angle camera, a control network of Miranda's Southern Hemisphere was established by analytical photogrammetry, producing 88 ground points for the control of multiple-model compilation on the AS-11AM analytical stereoplotter. Digital terrain data from the topographic map of Miranda have also been produced. By combining these data and the image data from the Voyager 2 mission, perspective views or even a movie of the mapped area can be made. The application of these newly developed techniques to Voyager 1 imagery, which includes a few overlapping pictures of Io and Ganymede, permits the compilation of contour maps or topographic profiles of these bodies on the analytical stereoplotters.

  18. Floating Potential Probe Deployed on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    2001-01-01

    In the spring and summer of 2000, at the request of the International Space Station (ISS) Program Office, a Plasma Contactor Unit Tiger Team was set up to investigate the threat of the ISS arcing in the event of a plasma contactor outage. Modeling and ground tests done under that effort showed that it is possible for the external structure of the ISS to become electrically charged to as much as -160 V under some conditions. Much of this work was done in anticipation of the deployment of the first large ISS solar array in November 2000. It was recognized that, with this deployment, the power system would be energized to its full voltage and that the predicted charging would pose an immediate threat to crewmembers involved in extravehicular activities (EVA's), as well as long-term damage to the station structure, were the ISS plasma contactors to be turned off or stop functioning. The Floating Potential Probe was conceived, designed, built, and deployed in record time by a crack team of scientists and engineers led by the NASA Glenn Research Center in response to ISS concerns about crew safety.

  19. Preliminary Results from the Space Probe Pioneer V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, C. Y.; Meyer, P.; Simpson, J. A.

    1960-01-01

    The space probe Pioneer V was launched March 11, 1960, into an orbit around the sun and inside the orbit of earth. The scientific apparatus included instruments identical with the University of Chicago apparatus used on Explorer VI [Fan, Meyer, and Simpson, 1960b], namely, energetic particle detectors which measure fluxes of protons with energies greater than 75 Mev, electrons with energies greater than 15 Mev, and the bremsstrahlung from electrons and y rays of lower energy. Simultaneously with the measurements in Pioneer V a series of four neutron monitor piles were recording the changes in cosmic radiation intensity at the earth. We report here on some preliminary results obtained from the Chicago experiments during the time within which Pioneer V traveled to a distance of approximately 8 x 10 km from earth. Beginning on March 20, solar activity rapidly increased with many solar flares, radio noise bursts, etc., over a period of 10 days. Most of our results relate to this period. The preliminary data are given in Figures 1 and 2.

  20. Planning the Voyager spacecraft's mission to Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plagemann, Stephen H.

    1987-01-01

    The application of the systems engineering process to the planning of the Voyager spacecraft mission is described. The Mission Planning Office prepared guidelines that controlled the use of the project and multimission resources and spacecraft consumables in order to obtain valuable scientific data at an acceptable risk level. Examples of mission planning which are concerned with the design of the Deep Space Network antenna, the uplink window for transmitting computer command subsystem loads, and the contingency and risk assessment functions are presented.

  1. Outer planet probe navigation. [considering Pioneer space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, L.

    1974-01-01

    A series of navigation studies in conjunction with outer planet Pioneer missions are reformed to determine navigation requirements and measurement systems in order to target probes. Some particular cases are established where optical navigation is important and some cases where radio alone navigation is suffucient. Considered are a direct Saturn mission, a Saturn Uranus mission, a Jupiter Uranus mission, and a Titan probe mission.

  2. Voyager 1 examines Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the Voyager mission to Jupiter, Saturn, and possibly Uranus is presented. Scientific instruments onboard the spacecraft are described as well as methods used for their calibration and evaluation during the cruise phase of the mission. Experiments to be performed cover the following areas: imaging science, radio science, cosmic rays, ultraviolet spectroscopy, photopolarimetry, planetary radio astronomy, magnetic fields, low-energy charged particles, plasma science, and infrared radiometry and spectroscopy. A list of the satellites of Jupiter and their diameters, distances, and periods is included.

  3. Erratum: Voyager Color Photometry of Saturn's Main Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estrada, Paul R.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Showalter, Mark R.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We correct a calibration error in our earlier analysis of Voyager color observations of Saturn's main rings at 14 deg phase angle and present thoroughly revised and reanalyzed radial profiles of the brightness of the main rings in Voyager G, V, and UV filters, and ratios of these brightnesses. These results are consistent with more recent HST results at 6 deg phase angle, once allowance is made for plausible phase reddening of the rings. Unfortunately, the Voyager camera calibration factors are simply not sufficiently well known for a combination of the Voyager and HST data to be used to constrain the phase reddening quantitatively. However, some interesting radial variations in reddening between 6-14 deg phase angles are hinted at. We update a ring-and-satellite color vs. albedo plot from Cuzzi and Estrada in several ways. The A and B rings are still found to be in a significantly redder part of color-albedo space than Saturn's icy satellites.

  4. Voyager 1: Encounter with Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the Voyager is presented along with samples of the nearly 19,000 photographs returned by Voyager 1 spacecraft at the midpoint of its 38-month mission to Jupiter and Saturn. Particular emphasis is given to color photographs of the Great Red Spot, and the surface features of the Gallilean satellites.

  5. Deep Space Network capabilities for receiving weak probe signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmar, Sami; Johnston, Doug; Preston, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This paper will describe the capability and highlight the cases of the critical communications for the Mars rovers and Saturn Orbit Insertion and preparation radio tracking of the Huygens probe at (non-DSN) radio telescopes.

  6. Probing Critical Surfaces in Momentum Space Using Real-Space Entanglement Entropy: Bose versus Fermi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun; Lai, Hsin-Hua

    A co-dimension one critical surface in the momentum space can be either a familiar Fermi surface, which separates occupied states from empty ones in the non-interacting fermion case, or a novel Bose surface, where gapless bosonic excitations are anchored. Their presence gives rise to logarithmic violation of entanglement entropy area law. When they are convex, we show that the shape of these critical surfaces can be determined by inspecting the leading logarithmic term of real space entanglement entropy. The fundamental difference between a Fermi surface and a Bose surface is revealed by the fact that the logarithmic terms in entanglement entropies differ by a factor of two: SlogBose = 2SlogFermi , even when they have identical geometry. Our method has remarkable similarity with determining Fermi surface shape using quantum oscillation. We also discuss possible probes of concave critical surfaces in momentum space. HHL and KY acknowledge the National Science Foundation through Grants No. DMR-1004545, DMR-1157490, No. DMR-1442366, and State of Florida. HHL is also partially supported by NSF Grant No. DMR-1309531, and the Smalley Postdoctoral Fellowship in Quantum Ma.

  7. Positioning Reduction of Deep Space Probes Based on VLBI Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, S. B.

    2011-11-01

    ) Investigate the application of Kalman filter to the positioning reduction of deep space probes and develop related software systems. In summary, the progress in this dissertation is made in the positioning reduction of deep space probes tracked by VLBI concerning the algorithm study, software development, real observation processing and so on, while a further study is still urgent and arduous.

  8. Early Results from the Floating Potential Probe on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Thomas L.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the Floating Potential Probe (FPP) on the International Space Station (ISS). The FPP measures the body voltage (electric potential) of the, and the measurements are then transmitted to Earth.

  9. Amalthea. [Voyager observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.

    1982-01-01

    Voyager images have revealed Amalthea to be an irregular object 270 x 165 x 150 km in size. The spin period is probably synchronous with the orbital period of 11.9 hr, with the long axis pointing toward Jupiter. The satellite's surface is heavily scarred by impact craters, the largest of which has a diameter of 90 km (comparable to the mean radius of the satellite). Amalthea is very dark (reflectance about 5-6%) and very red, but isolated bright spots (reflectance up to 20%) occur. The spectrum of these bright spots is less red and may show an absorption feature near 0.6 micron. It is likely that the surface of Amalthea has been severely altered by its environment and by contamination from Io (especially by sulfur). It may, therefore, be very difficult to obtain definitive information on the composition of the intrinsic Amalthea material from remote sensing measurements.

  10. Amalthea - Voyager imaging results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.; Thomas, P.; Davies, M.; Morrison, D.

    1981-01-01

    Voyager images of Amalthea are presented, which reveal an irregular satellite in synchronous rotation relative to Jupiter with dimensions of 270 x 165 x 150 km. The surface appears scarred by large craters and sharp ridges to indicate a history of cosmic battering. Amalthea'a normal surface reflectance is 5-6% with a very red color and a mean opposition angle magnitude of +14. The phase coefficient between phase angles of 0.8 and 42 deg of 0.042 + or - 0.004 mag/deg indicates that the phase integral does not exceed 0.3 and the Bond Albedo is less than 0.02. Several prominent bright spots of 10-50 km across occur on local slopes and ridges, have albedos several times higher than the background, and have a greenish color where the spectrum bends down beyond 0.56 microns.

  11. Voyager photometry of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buratti, B.; Veverka, J.

    1983-01-01

    The photometric properties of Europa are derived through an analysis of 90 Voyager images with 3-143 deg phase angles in the spectral range from 0.34 to 0.58 microns. It is noted that, at small phase angles, the disk-integrated phase curve shows almost no evidence of an opposition effect. The scattering properties of Europa in general, and of the bright plain and dark mottled terrain types, cannot be represented by a lunar-like photometric law, although an equation which is a linear superposition of a lunar-like scattering law and a Lambert component provides an adequate and simple representation of scattering properties. The plains are photometrically more homogeneous than the mottled terrain, and these two terrain types exhibit an average normal reflectance of 0.71 on both leading and trailing hemispheres and of 0.60 on leading and 0.48 on trailing hemispheres, respectively.

  12. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... voyage No. 1 having the prefixed designation NSA and followed by the General Agents' abbreviated designation and voyage number, as NSA-1/ABC-1. (b) The continuity of NSA voyage numbers shall not change with... General Agent shall affix his abbreviated designation and initial voyage numbers, as NSA-13/XYZ-1....

  13. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... voyage No. 1 having the prefixed designation NSA and followed by the General Agents' abbreviated designation and voyage number, as NSA-1/ABC-1. (b) The continuity of NSA voyage numbers shall not change with... General Agent shall affix his abbreviated designation and initial voyage numbers, as NSA-13/XYZ-1....

  14. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... voyage No. 1 having the prefixed designation NSA and followed by the General Agents' abbreviated designation and voyage number, as NSA-1/ABC-1. (b) The continuity of NSA voyage numbers shall not change with... General Agent shall affix his abbreviated designation and initial voyage numbers, as NSA-13/XYZ-1....

  15. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... voyage No. 1 having the prefixed designation NSA and followed by the General Agents' abbreviated designation and voyage number, as NSA-1/ABC-1. (b) The continuity of NSA voyage numbers shall not change with... General Agent shall affix his abbreviated designation and initial voyage numbers, as NSA-13/XYZ-1....

  16. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... voyage No. 1 having the prefixed designation NSA and followed by the General Agents' abbreviated designation and voyage number, as NSA-1/ABC-1. (b) The continuity of NSA voyage numbers shall not change with... General Agent shall affix his abbreviated designation and initial voyage numbers, as NSA-13/XYZ-1....

  17. Voyager EUV and FUV observations

    SciTech Connect

    Holberg, J.B.

    1984-11-01

    The Voyager 1 and 2 ultraviolet spectrometers are sensitive over the wavelength range 500 to 1700 A. In the extreme ultraviolet (EUV), at wavelengths shortward of the Lyman limit (912 A), Voyager observations detected emission from three out of a sample of 11 nearly hot DA white dwarfs. These observations imply very low HI column densities in the directions of the three stars detected. In the far ultraviolet (FUV), at wavelengths between 912 and 1200 A, Voyager observations of O and B stars can be used to study interstellar reddening at the shortest wavelengths and to provide useful estimates of interstellar H2 column densities.

  18. Jupiter and the Voyager mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soderblom, L.

    1980-01-01

    In 1977, the United States launched two unmanned Voyager spacecraft that were to take part in an extensive reconnaissance of the outer planets over a 12-year period visiting the environs of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Their first encounter was with the complex Jupiter planetary system 400 million miles away. Sweeping by Jupiter and its five moons in 1979, the two spacecraft have sent back to Earth an enormous amount of data that will prove to be vital in understanding our solar system. Voyager 1 is scheduled to fly past Saturn on November 13 of this year; Voyager 2, in August of the following year. 

  19. Data link relay design. [space probe with entry at Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, P.

    1974-01-01

    The data link for the Ames baseline probe as applied to the MJU spacecraft specifically with an entry at Uranus is analyzed. A frequency analysis, a trajectory analysis, and a discussion of the effects on the spacecraft design by the data link are presented. The possibilities of a two-way link are considered.

  20. Ganymede - Comparison of Voyager and Galileo Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    These images demonstrate the dramatic improvement in the resolution of pictures that NASA's Galileo spacecraft is returning compared to previous images of the Jupiter system. The frame at left was taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft when it flew by in 1979, with a resolution of about 1.3 kilometers (0.8 mile) per pixel. The frame at right showing the same area was captured by Galileo during its first flyby of Ganymede on June 27, 1996; it has a resolution of about 74 meters (243 feet) per pixel, more than 17 times better than that of the Voyager image. In the Voyager frame, line-like bright and dark bands can be seen but their detailed structure and origin are not clear. In the Galileo image, each band is now seen to be composed of many smaller ridges. The structure and shape of the ridges permit scientists to determine their origin and their relation to other terrains, helping to unravel the complex history of the planet-sized moon. In each of these frames, north is to the top, and the sun illuminates the surface from the lower left nearly overhead (about 77 degrees above the horizon). The area shown, at latitude 10 degrees north, 167 degrees west, is about 35 by 55 kilometers (25 by 34 miles). The image was taken June 27 when Galileo was 7,448 kilometers (4.628 miles) away from Ganymede. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  1. Voyager Encounters Saturn: Scientific Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Observations generated by Voyager 1's encounter with Saturn are disclosed. Atmospheric conditions, the rings, new moons and the five inner moons are described. Titan, Hyperion and Iapetus are discussed in detail, as is Saturn's magnetosphere.

  2. The Voyager 2 Neptune encounter

    SciTech Connect

    Tsurutani, B.T. )

    1989-10-01

    The findings made by the Voyager 2 Neptune encounter are reviewed. Data on the bowshock, magnetic field, magnetosphere, rings, plasma sheet, aurora, moons, and dust of Neptune are discussed. Findings made concerning Triton are summarized.

  3. Planetary radio astronomy from Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    The technique of radio astronomy makes it possible for a remote observer to detect the presence of magnetic fields and plasmas in planetary environments. Prior to the flights of the Voyager spacecraft, radio astronomical studies of Jupiter from earth and from earth orbit had correctly predicted the strength and orientation of Jupiter's magnetic field and trapped radiation belts. The Voyager Planetary Radio Astronomy investigations have now provided measurements of the complete spectrum of low frequency radio emissions from both planets. Each Voyager instrument consists of a pair of orthogonal, 10-m, electric monopole antennas which are connected to a step-tuned, superheterodyne receiver operating over the frequency range from 1.2 kHz to 40.5 MHz. The Voyager trajectory provided observations from above both the sunlit and nightside hemispheres of Jupiter. Saturn's nonthermal radio emission has been observed at frequencies as low as 3 kHz and as high as 1.2 MHz.

  4. Voyager Observations of the Heliosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J. D.; Decker, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Voyager 2 has been observing plasma in the heliosheath since 2007. This paper presents the most recent data through 106 AU. The plasma flows at Voyager 2 have maintained a constant average speed throughout the heliosheath but have turned significantly. Flow angles are over 60 degrees in the azimuthal (RT) plane and 30 degrees in the meridional (RN) plane. Most of the plasma is moving around the side of the heliosphere. Average densities and temperatures have remained constant since an increase in 2011. This flow pattern is very different from that observed at Voyager 1 by the LECP partlcle instrument. We compare flows at Voyager 2 derived from the particle and plasma in the RT plane by the plasma and LECP instruments and find generally good agreement.

  5. Voyager to the Seventh Planet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Michael

    1986-01-01

    Presents recent findings obtained by the Voyager 2 mission on Uranus. Updates information on the planet's moons, rings, atmosphere, and magnetic field. Illustrations and diagrams of selected aspects of Uranus are included. (ML)

  6. MARINER 9 SPACE PROBE UNDERGOES FINAL CHECKS PRIOR TO ENCAPSULATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A technician checks the Mariner I spacecraft prior to its encapsulation for launch to Mars. An Atlas-Centaur rocket successfully launched the mars-bound spacecraft from Cape Kennedy at 6:23 p.m. EDT, May 30, 1971. Designated Mariner 9 following launch, the probe will arrive at Mars in mid-November. It will transmit scientific data about that planet's surface and atmosphere.

  7. Triumph of the Voyager mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerr, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    It had been a long, productive trip. Launched in 1977, the two Voyager spacecraft had visited three giant planets, a dozen major Moons, three ring systems with thousands of rings composed of a myriad of tiny Moonlets. The spacecraft had returned 5 trillion bits of data and over 100,000 photographs. The last encounter in our Solar System by Voyager 2 with Neptune was to be a spectacular finale to the 12-year drama. 

  8. Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and the curvature of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Kirchner, Ulrich; Ellis, George F. R.

    2003-10-01

    Inter alia, the high-precision Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data on cosmic background radiation marginally indicate that the Universe has positively curved (and hence spherical) spatial sections. In this Letter, we take this data seriously and consider some of the consequences for the background dynamics. In particular, we show that this implies a limit to the number of e-foldings that could have taken place in the inflationary epoch; however, this limit is consistent with some inflationary models that solve all the usual cosmological problems and that are consistent with standard structure formation theory.

  9. European Space Agency studies of the solar probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roxburgh, I. W.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility and scientific objectives of a solar probe were studied by a Mission Definition Group in 1975 and 1976. The orbit analysis program was developed and an extended study of the orbit analysis was done in 1977. The results of these studies are in the Report of the Mission Definition Study (1976) and an E.S.O.C. report (1978), and the reader is referred to these sources for greater details. In this report, only brief discussion on mission concept and objectives, satellite design, orbit, orbit analysis, are presented.

  10. Voyager encounters Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-05-01

    Scientific discoveries and observations of the November 11-13, 1980 Voyager 1 Saturn flyby and the resulting theories are presented. The basic appearance of the Saturn atmosphere is similar to that of Jupiter, but its features are made less clear by a much thicker haze layer above the visible clouds. The greatest wind speeds (more than 1600 km per hour) occur at the equator. Temperatures near the cloud tops range from -305 to -294 F, with the coolest temperature near the center of the equatorial zone. Auroral emissions were observed near the poles, and auroral-type emissions in the ultraviolet were also seen near the illuminated limbs of the planet. Radio emissions indicate that the body of the planet and its magnetosphere rotate every 10 hours 39 minutes 26 seconds. A, B, and C rings were observed to consist of hundreds of ringlets, a few of which are elliptical in shape, and a further explanation of the D, E, and F rings is given. Each of the recently discovered moons was photographed, but only S-10 and S-11 had large enough diameters in the images to permit their shapes to be determined. Data on Saturn's inner and outer moons are presented, and special attention is given to Titan. Saturn's magnetosphere extends nearly a million miles inward from the planet toward the sun, and its charged particles are dragged along by the magnetic field and circle Saturn once every 10 hours 39 minutes.

  11. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  12. Probing scalar tensor theories for gravity in redshift space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabiu, Cristiano G.; Mota, David F.; Llinares, Claudio; Park, Changbom

    2016-07-01

    We present measurements of the spatial clustering statistics in redshift space of various scalar field modified gravity simulations. We utilise the two-point and three-point correlation functions to quantify the spatial distribution of dark matter halos within these simulations and thus discriminate between the models. We compare Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) simulations to various modified gravity scenarios and find consistency with previous work in terms of two-point statistics in real and redshift space. However, using higher-order statistics such as the three-point correlation function in redshift space we find significant deviations from ΛCDM hinting that higher-order statistics may prove to be a useful tool in the hunt for deviations from General Relativity.

  13. Probing chemical space with alkaloid-inspired libraries.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Michael C; Singh, Gurpreet; Plampin, James N; Rane, Digamber; Wang, Jenna L; Day, Victor W; Aubé, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    Screening of small-molecule libraries is an important aspect of probe and drug discovery science. Numerous authors have suggested that bioactive natural products are attractive starting points for such libraries because of their structural complexity and sp(3)-rich character. Here, we describe the construction of a screening library based on representative members of four families of biologically active alkaloids (Stemonaceae, the structurally related cyclindricine and lepadiformine families, lupin and Amaryllidaceae). In each case, scaffolds were based on structures of the naturally occurring compounds or a close derivative. Scaffold preparation was pursued following the development of appropriate enabling chemical methods. Diversification provided 686 new compounds suitable for screening. The libraries thus prepared had structural characteristics, including sp(3) content, comparable to a basis set of representative natural products and were highly rule-of-five compliant. PMID:24451589

  14. Probing chemical space with alkaloid-inspired libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Michael C.; Singh, Gurpreet; Plampin, James N.; Rane, Digamber; Wang, Jenna L.; Day, Victor W.; Aubé, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    Screening of small-molecule libraries is an important aspect of probe and drug discovery science. Numerous authors have suggested that bioactive natural products are attractive starting points for such libraries because of their structural complexity and sp3-rich character. Here, we describe the construction of a screening library based on representative members of four families of biologically active alkaloids (Stemonaceae, the structurally related cyclindricine and lepadiformine families, lupin and Amaryllidaceae). In each case, scaffolds were based on structures of the naturally occurring compounds or a close derivative. Scaffold preparation was pursued following the development of appropriate enabling chemical methods. Diversification provided 686 new compounds suitable for screening. The libraries thus prepared had structural characteristics, including sp3 content, comparable to a basis set of representative natural products and were highly rule-of-five compliant.

  15. Probing Planckian physics in de Sitter space with quantum correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jun; Zhang, Yao-Zhong; Gould, Mark D.; Fan, Heng; Sun, Cheng-Yi; Yang, Wen-Li

    2014-12-15

    We study the quantum correlation and quantum communication channel of both free scalar and fermionic fields in de Sitter space, while the Planckian modification presented by the choice of a particular α-vacuum has been considered. We show the occurrence of degradation of quantum entanglement between field modes for an inertial observer in curved space, due to the radiation associated with its cosmological horizon. Comparing with standard Bunch–Davies choice, the possible Planckian physics causes some extra decrement on the quantum correlation, which may provide the means to detect quantum gravitational effects via quantum information methodology in future. Beyond single-mode approximation, we construct proper Unruh modes admitting general α-vacua, and find a convergent feature of both bosonic and fermionic entanglements. In particular, we show that the convergent points of fermionic entanglement negativity are dependent on the choice of α. Moreover, an one-to-one correspondence between convergent points H{sub c} of negativity and zeros of quantum capacity of quantum channels in de Sitter space has been proved. - Highlights: • Quantum correlation and quantum channel in de Sitter space are studied. • Gibbons–Hawking effect causes entanglement degradation for static observer. • Planckian physics causes extra decrement on quantum correlation. • Convergent feature of negativity relies on the choice of alpha-vacua. • Link between negativity convergence and quantum channel capacity is given.

  16. Voyager at Saturn, Act II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatty, J. K.

    1981-11-01

    Preliminary results of the Voyager 2 encounter with Saturn are discussed. Following a review of the Voyager 2 mission, noting the jamming of the scan platform carrying most of the instruments just prior to encounter, attention is given to observations of ring structures including ringlets, spokes, kinks, Cassini's division and satellite resonance effects. Changes in the atmosphere of Saturn allowing cloud structures to be observed with greater contrast and clarity than during the Voyager 1 encounter are noted, and differences between the observed meteorology on Saturn and that on Jupiter are pointed out. Observations of the Saturn magnetic field, including an internal anomaly responsible for a radio pulse and plasma and neutral hydrogen toruses within the magnetosphere are presented along with detections of electromagnetic disturbances near the ring system. Consideration is finally given to Voyager 2 images and measurements of the Saturn satellites, which revealed a dense, orange-colored atmosphere attributed to an aerosol haze around Titan, the ancient cratered surface with an enormous rift on Tethys, evidence of at least five distinct evolutionary episodes on Enceladus, and the configuration of the highly contrasting forward and rear-facing sides of Iapetus. The potential for discoveries in the Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus to take place four years hence is also indicated.

  17. Space Weather data processing and Science Gateway for the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, G.; Barnes, R. J.; Weiss, M.; Fox, N. J.; Mauk, B.; Potter, M.; Kessel, R.

    2013-12-01

    A near real-time data processing pipeline for the Space Weather broadcast data from the Van Allen Probes is presented. The Van Allen Probes broadcasts a sub-set of the science data in real-time when not downlinking the principal science data. This broadcast is received by several ground stations and relayed to APL in near real time to be ingested into the space weather processing pipeline. This pipeline processes the available level zero space weather data into higher level science data products. These products are made available to the public via the Van Allen Probes Science Gateway website (http://athena.jhuapl.edu). The website acts as pivotal point though which all other instrument SOC's can be accessed. Several other data products (e.g KP/DST indices) and tools (e.g orbit calculator) are made also available to the general public.

  18. The Future of NASA's Deep Space Network and Applications to Planetary Probe Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Leslie J.; Preston, Robert A.; Vrotsos, Peter

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) has been an invaluable tool in the world's exploration of space. It has served the space-faring community for more than 45 years. The DSN has provided a primary communication pathway for planetary probes, either through direct- to-Earth links or through intermediate radio relays. In addition, its radiometric systems are critical to probe navigation and delivery to target. Finally, the radio link can also be used for direct scientific measurement of the target body ('radio science'). This paper will examine the special challenges in supporting planetary probe missions, the future evolution of the DSN and related spacecraft technology, the advantages and disadvantages of radio relay spacecraft, and the use of the DSN radio links for navigation and scientific measurements.

  19. Probing Planckian physics in de Sitter space with quantum correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jun; Zhang, Yao-Zhong; Gould, Mark D.; Fan, Heng; Sun, Cheng-Yi; Yang, Wen-Li

    2014-12-01

    We study the quantum correlation and quantum communication channel of both free scalar and fermionic fields in de Sitter space, while the Planckian modification presented by the choice of a particular α-vacuum has been considered. We show the occurrence of degradation of quantum entanglement between field modes for an inertial observer in curved space, due to the radiation associated with its cosmological horizon. Comparing with standard Bunch-Davies choice, the possible Planckian physics causes some extra decrement on the quantum correlation, which may provide the means to detect quantum gravitational effects via quantum information methodology in future. Beyond single-mode approximation, we construct proper Unruh modes admitting general α-vacua, and find a convergent feature of both bosonic and fermionic entanglements. In particular, we show that the convergent points of fermionic entanglement negativity are dependent on the choice of α. Moreover, an one-to-one correspondence between convergent points Hc of negativity and zeros of quantum capacity of quantum channels in de Sitter space has been proved.

  20. Mass spectrometer experiments for the European space probe Giotto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, G.

    The Particulate Impact Analyzer (PIA) and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) experiments to be carried on board the Giotto cometary probe are presented. The NMS is designed to determine the chemical composition of gases and ions in the coma of Halley's Comet based on the ue of two spectrometers: an electrostatic parallel-plate analyzer, and a similar analyzer coupled with a magnetic analyzer with double-focusing geometry. The sensor structure consists of a monolithic multi-rib milled body with integral fixation points, with provisions for electromagnetic and thermal isolation, and dust protection. The PIA is intended for the measurement of the physical and chemical characteristics of cometary dust particles. It is based on an instrument comprising an entrance baffle and shutter unit, a target unit at which the dust is ionized, a light flash detector marking the flash of ionization, an acceleration grid sending the ions into the time-of-flight unit, and a multiplier unit for recording the time of flight spectrum. A microprocessor-based electronics system housed in a separate case next to the sensor performs tasks of power supply, signal processing, data processing and flow control.

  1. MARINER 8 SPACE PROBE'S SOLAR ARRAYS ARE INSTALLED

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Technicians prepare to install a solar panel on the Mariner H spacecraft in preparation for its launch to Mars, no earlier than May 7, 1971. The spacecraft will be launched aboard an Atlas Centaur space vehicle from Cape Kennedy's Complex 36A, and will go into orbit around Mars at the completion of a seven-month journey from Earth. It is designed to operate 90 days and return data about the planet's atmospheric and surface characteristics. Following launch, the spacecraft will be designated Mariner 8. A second Mariner Mars spacecraft is scheduled to be launched 10 days later.

  2. Space probe/satellite ejection apparatus for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyly, H. M.; Miller, C. D.; Cloyd, R. A.; Heller, C. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An ejection apparatus for spinning and propelling objects for ejection from a spacecraft at a desired velocity and rotational speed is discussed. The apparatus includes a launch cradle on which the space object to be ejected rests. The cradle is rotatably supported by a central hub secured to the upper end of the pneumatic cylinder piston shaft. Release mechanisms consisting of a retractable pin and locking lug is utilized to hold the cradle and object to be ejected. The release mechanism has a fixed barrier member which holds the retractable pin in engagement with the locking lug until release by upward movement of the launch cradle beyond the barrier height.

  3. MARINER 8 SPACE PROBE UNDERGOES INSTALLATION OF SOLAR ARRAYS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Technicians install solar panels aboard the mariner H spacecraft in a cleanroom facility at Cape Kennedy. The spacecraft will orbit Mars following a seven-month journey from Earth. Designed to function 90 days, the spacecraft, which will be designated Mariner 8 following launch, will provide data about the Red Planet's atmospheric and surface characteristics. Mariner Mars H will be launched aboard an Atlas-Centaur space vehicle no earlier than May 7, 1971, from Cape Kennedy's Launch Complex 36A. A second Mariner Mars spacecraft will be launched 10 days later.

  4. Space probe/satellite ejection apparatus for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyly, H. M.; Miller, C. D.; Cloyd, R. A.; Heller, C. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An ejection apparatus for spinning and propelling objects for ejection from a spacecraft at a desired velocity and rotational speed is discussed. The apparatus includes a launch cradle on which the space object to be ejected rests. The cradle is rotatably supported by a central hub secured to the upper end of the pneumatic cylinder piston shaft. Release mechanisms consisting of a retractable pin and locking lug is utilized to hold the cradle and object to be ejected. The release mechanism has a fixed barrier member which holds the retractable pin in engagement with the locking lug until release by upward movement of the launch cradle beyond the barrier height.

  5. Probing the shape of atoms in real space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herz, M.; Giessibl, F. J.; Mannhart, J.

    2003-07-01

    The structure of single atoms in real space is investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy. Very high resolution can be obtained by a dramatic reduction of the tip-sample distance. The instabilities which are normally encountered while using small tip-sample distances are avoided by oscillating the tip of the scanning tunneling microscope vertically with respect to the sample. The surface atoms of Si(111)-(7×7) with their well-known electronic configuration are used to image individual samarium, cobalt, iron, and silicon atoms. The resulting images resemble the charge density corresponding to 4f, 3d, and 3p atomic orbitals.

  6. The Jovian magnetosphere - A post-Voyager view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, T. W.

    1981-01-01

    Results of observational and theoretical work presented at the Rice University Conference on the Physics of the Jovian Magnetosphere (February 27-29, 1980) are summarized and used to elucidate the post-Voyager status of the understanding of Jovian magnetosphere dynamics. Works considered treat earth-based and Voyager observations of the Io torus, decametric and kilometric radio emissions, corotation of magnetospheric plasma with the magnetic field, and theoretical studies of mechanisms of particle acceleration, diffusion and loss in the magnetosphere and interplanetary space. Issues remaining to be resolved by future research are also indicated, particularly questions of the discrepancy between plasma flow measurements obtained on the two plasma experiments on each Voyager spacecraft, and the localization of the source of torus plasma.

  7. Astrometric Gravitation Probe: a space mission concept for fundamental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchiato, Alberto; Fienga, Agnes; Gai, Mario; Lattanzi, Mario G.; Riva, Alberto; Busonero, Deborah

    2015-08-01

    Modern technological developments have pushed the accuracy of astrometric measurements in the visible band down to the micro-arcsec level. This allows to test theories of gravity in the weak field limit to unprecedented level, with possible consequences spanning from the validity of fundamental physics principles, to tests of theories describing cosmological and galactic dynamics without resorting to Dark Matter and Dark Energy.This is the main goal of Astrometric Gravitation Probe (AGP) mission, which will be achieved by highly accurate astrometric determination of light deflection (as a modern rendition of the Dyson, Eddington, and Robertson eclipse experiment of 1919), aberration, and of the orbits of selected Solar System objects, with specific reference to the excess shift of the pericentre effect.The AGP concept was recently proposed for the recent call for ESA M4 missions as a collaboration among several scientists coming from many different European and US institutions. Its payload is based on a 1.15 m diameter telescope fed through a coronagraphic system by four fields, two set in symmetric positions around the Sun, and two in the opposite direction, all imaged on a CCD detector. Large parts of the instrument are common mode to all fields. The baseline operation mode is the scan of the ±1.13 deg Ecliptic strip, repeated for a minimum of 3 years and up to an optimal duration of 5 years. Operations and calibrations are simultaneous, defined in order to ensure common mode instrumental effects, identified and removed in data reduction. The astrometric and coronagraphic technologies build on the heritage of Gaia and Solar Orbiter.We review the mission concept and its science case, and discuss how this measurement concepts can be scaled to different mission implementations.

  8. 46 CFR 80.15 - Ocean voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean voyage. 80.15 Section 80.15 Shipping COAST GUARD... REGISTRY § 80.15 Ocean voyage. An ocean voyage for the purposes of this part means: A voyage on any body of water seaward of the low water mark such as an ocean or arm thereof, other major bodies of water such...

  9. 46 CFR 80.15 - Ocean voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean voyage. 80.15 Section 80.15 Shipping COAST GUARD... REGISTRY § 80.15 Ocean voyage. An ocean voyage for the purposes of this part means: A voyage on any body of water seaward of the low water mark such as an ocean or arm thereof, other major bodies of water such...

  10. 46 CFR 80.15 - Ocean voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean voyage. 80.15 Section 80.15 Shipping COAST GUARD... REGISTRY § 80.15 Ocean voyage. An ocean voyage for the purposes of this part means: A voyage on any body of water seaward of the low water mark such as an ocean or arm thereof, other major bodies of water such...

  11. 46 CFR 80.15 - Ocean voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean voyage. 80.15 Section 80.15 Shipping COAST GUARD... REGISTRY § 80.15 Ocean voyage. An ocean voyage for the purposes of this part means: A voyage on any body of water seaward of the low water mark such as an ocean or arm thereof, other major bodies of water such...

  12. 46 CFR 80.15 - Ocean voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean voyage. 80.15 Section 80.15 Shipping COAST GUARD... REGISTRY § 80.15 Ocean voyage. An ocean voyage for the purposes of this part means: A voyage on any body of water seaward of the low water mark such as an ocean or arm thereof, other major bodies of water such...

  13. Improved downlink frequency calculations for Voyager 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricardo, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    Voyager 2 and her sister Voyager 1 were launched, respectively, in August and September 1977. The object of these spacecraft was to conduct exploratory investigations of the Jupiter and Saturn planetary systems and the interplanetary medium between Earth and Saturn. In April 1978 the Voyager 2 redundant receiver and the loop capacitor in the prime spacecraft receiver failed, leaving the Voyager Project with a major problem: how to communicate with the spacecraft and get the data back.

  14. Welded Titanium Case for Space-Probe Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brothers, A. J.; Boundy, R. A.; Martens, H. E.; Jaffe, L. D.

    1959-01-01

    Early in 1958, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology was requested to participate in a lunar-probe mission code-named Juno II which would place a 15-lb Instrumented payload (Pioneer IV) in the vicinity of the moon. The vehicle was to use the same high-speed upper-stage assembly as flown on the successful Jupiter-C configuration; however, the first-stage booster was to be a Jupiter rather than a Redstone. An analysis of the intended flight and payload configuration Indicated that the feasibility of accomplishing the mission was questionable and that additional performance would have to be obtained if the mission was to be feasible. Since the most efficient way of Increasing the performance of a staged vehicle is to increase the performance of the last stage, a study of possible ways of doing this was made.. Because of the time schedule placed on this effort It was decided to reduce the weight of the fourth-stage rocket-motor case by substituting the annealed 6Al--4V titanium alloy for the Type 410 stainless steel. Although this introduced an unfamiliar material, It reduced the changes in design and fabrication techniques. This particular titanium alloy was chosen on the basis of previous tests which proved the suitability of the alloy as a pressure-vessel material when used at an annealed yield strength of about 120, 000 psi. The titanium-case fourth stage of Juno U is shown with the payload and on the missile in Fig. 1; the stainless-steel motor cases used in the Jupiter-C vehicle are shown in Fig. 2. The fourth-stage motor case has a diameter of 6 in., a length of approximately 38 in. center dot and a nominal cylindrical wall thickness of 0.025 in. As shown in Fig. 1, the case serves as the structural support of the payload and is aligned to the upper stage assembly through an alignment ring. The nozzle is threaded into the end of the motor case, and is of the ceramic-coated steel design. Figure 3 shows a comparison of the

  15. View of Callisto from Voyager and Galileo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    View of Callisto, most distant of the four large moons of Jupiter. This mosaic was prepared from images obtained by three spacecraft: Voyager 1 (left side), Galileo (middle), and Voyager 2 data (right side). The Voyager data were taken in 1979 but left a 'gap' centered at longitude 290 degrees in the trailing hemisphere of Callisto. The Galileo Solid-State Imaging system photographed this area on its second orbit around Jupiter on 9 September, 1996 Universal Time. The resolution of the Galileo data is 4.3 kilometers/pixel (2.7 miles), meaning that the smallest visible feature is about 12 kilometers (7 miles) across. North is to the top of the picture.

    Features of interest in the new Galileo data include a dark, smooth area in the northern latitudes (upper third) which appears to mantle older terrain. This could be dark ejecta from a small impact crater. Also visible is a fresh, sharp-rimmed crater some 90 km (56 miles) across named Igaluk (center left third of picture), and a bright zone in the south polar area (bottom of image) which could be an impact scar.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  16. Means to remove electrode contamination effect of Langmuir probe measurement in space

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, K.-I.; Lee, C. H.; Fang, H. K.; Cheng, C. Z.

    2012-05-15

    Precaution to remove the serious effect of electrode contamination in Langmuir probe experiments has not been taken in many space measurements because the effect is either not understood or ignored. We stress here that one should pay extra attention to the electrode contamination effect to get accurate and reliable plasma measurements so that the long time effort for sounding rocket/satellite missions does not end in vain or becomes less fruitful. In this paper, we describe two main features of voltage-current characteristic curves associated with the contaminated Langmuir probe, which are predicted from the equivalent circuit model, which we proposed in 1970's. We then show that fast sweeping dc Langmuir probes can give reliable results in the steady state regime. The fast sweeping probe can also give reliable results in transient situations such as satellite moves through plasma bubble in the ionosphere where the electron density drastically changes. This fact was first confirmed in our laboratory experiment.

  17. Means to remove electrode contamination effect of Langmuir probe measurement in space.

    PubMed

    Oyama, K-I; Lee, C H; Fang, H K; Cheng, C Z

    2012-05-01

    Precaution to remove the serious effect of electrode contamination in Langmuir probe experiments has not been taken in many space measurements because the effect is either not understood or ignored. We stress here that one should pay extra attention to the electrode contamination effect to get accurate and reliable plasma measurements so that the long time effort for sounding rocket/satellite missions does not end in vain or becomes less fruitful. In this paper, we describe two main features of voltage-current characteristic curves associated with the contaminated Langmuir probe, which are predicted from the equivalent circuit model, which we proposed in 1970's. We then show that fast sweeping dc Langmuir probes can give reliable results in the steady state regime. The fast sweeping probe can also give reliable results in transient situations such as satellite moves through plasma bubble in the ionosphere where the electron density drastically changes. This fact was first confirmed in our laboratory experiment. PMID:22667663

  18. Launch summary for 1978 - 1982. [sounding rockets, space probes, and satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hills, H. K.

    1984-01-01

    Data pertinent to the launching of space probes, soundings rockets, and satellites presented in tables include launch date, time, and site; agency rocket identification; sponsoring country or countries; instruments carried for experiments; the peak altitude achieved by the rockets; and the apoapsis and periapsis for satellites. The experimenter or institution involved in the launching is also cited.

  19. Voyager to Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Voyager mission to explore planets of the outer solar system is summarized. The mission schedule and profiles for encounters with Jupiter and Saturn, and possibly with Uranus and Pluto are included along with a description of the spacecraft and its trajectories. Scientific investigations to be made and the instruments carried are also discussed.

  20. The Voyage of the MIMI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Sam; Hooper, Kristina

    1986-01-01

    The Voyage of MIMI is a major educational project housed at Bank Street College (New York) which is directed toward the development of extensive television, computer software, videodisc, and print materials for use in science and mathematics education in grades 5-7. The first series has been completed, and includes a 13-part dramatic television…

  1. Voyager - a mission for life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Mark

    2012-12-01

    There may be no such thing as a "job for life" these days, but NASA's Voyager mission to Jupiter, Saturn and beyond has kept hundreds of scientists busy for as much as 35 years. Mark Williamson reveals how researchers stay motivated and scientifically productive during such a long-term project.

  2. The heliosphere neutrals composition: from Voyager UVS to IMAPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Jaffel, L.

    2015-12-01

    For the last 35 years, the Voyagers (V) 1 and 2 ultraviolet spectrometers (UVS) data harvest has covered heliosphere sky-background in-situ measurements, stellar spectrophotometry, and outer planets encounters. Their long and ongoing operation period overlaps with many current and past ultraviolet missions, offering unique opportunities for cross-calibration with other spectrometers. Here we revisit the Voyager UVS calibration to assess the intriguing 243% (V1) and 156% (V2) sensitivity enhancements recently proposed. Using the Saturn Lyman-α airglow, observed in-situ by both Voyagers, and remotely by IUE, we match the Voyager values to IUE, taking into account the shape of the Saturn and sky-background Lyman-α lines observed with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. For all known ranges of the interplanetary H I density, we show that the V1 and V2 UVS sensitivities at the Lyman-α channels cannot be enhanced by the amounts thus far proposed. Our prescription is to keep the original calibration of the Voyager UVS with an uncertainty that should not exceed 30%, making both instruments some of the most stable EUV/FUV spectrographs of the history of space exploration. This rich heritage from past and current space missions confirms that UV observations of the sky-background are a powerful lever for constraining the neutral composition and large structure of the heliosphere. It also points to the need in the future for fine Doppler-shift measurements and faint emissions detection in order to directly access the microphysical processes that drive the instant shape and composition of the heliosphere that is forced by the magnetized plasmas from solar wind and the local interstellar medium. Future deep space missions should thus include UV capabilities that make use of sensitive, high-resolution technology that allows achieving the highest throughput for extended light sources.

  3. Endeavour's Final Voyage

    NASA Video Gallery

    After nearly two decades of achievements in space, Endeavour makes one last reach for the stars on its 25th and final mission, STS-134. This webcast examines the mission to come and explores the st...

  4. Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siddiqi, Asif A.; Launius, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This monograph contains brief descriptions of all robotic deep space missions attempted since the opening of the space age in 1957. The missions are listed strictly chronologically in order of launch date (not by planetary encounter).

  5. Advances in Impedance Probe Applications and Design in the NRL Space Physics Simulation Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, David; Walker, David; Cothran, Christopher; Gatling, George; Tejero, Erik; Amatucci, William

    2013-10-01

    We will present recent progress in plasma impedance probe experiments and design at NRL's Space Physics Simulation Chamber. These include our network analyzer S-parameter methods as well as more portable self-contained diagnostics with an eye towards space vehicle applications. The experiments are performed under a variety of conditions with magnetized and unmagnetized collisionless, cold (Te ~ 1 - 2 eV) plasmas in density ranges of 105-108 cm-3. Large and small spheres, disks, floating dipoles and monopoles are all in development with various electronic setups, along with traditional emissive and Langmuir probes for measurement redundancy. New computational results provide experimental predictions over a larger parameter space. This work supported by the Naval Research Laboratory Base Program.

  6. Has Voyager 1 really crossed the heliopause?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Fisk, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Voyager 1 spacecraft is currently in the vicinity of the heliopause, which separates the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium. There has been a precipitous decrease in particles accelerated in the heliosphere, and a substantial increase in galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The evidence is unclear, however, as to whether Voyager 1 has crossed the heliopause into the local interstellar medium, or remains within the heliosheath. In this paper we propose a test that will determine whether Voyager 1 has crossed the heliopause: If Voyager 1 remains in the heliosheath, the high plasma densities must be due to compressed solar wind, with the consequence that Voyager 1 will encounter another current sheet, where the polarity of the magnetic field reverses. Voyager 1 observations can be used to predict that the next current sheet crossing is likely to occur during 2015. A prediction is also provided as to what the Voyager 2 plasma detector will measure in the next few years.

  7. The Deep Space Network. An instrument for radio navigation of deep space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.; Jordan, J. F.; Berman, A. L.; Wackley, J. A.; Yunck, T. P.

    1982-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) network configurations used to generate the navigation observables and the basic process of deep space spacecraft navigation, from data generation through flight path determination and correction are described. Special emphasis is placed on the DSN Systems which generate the navigation data: the DSN Tracking and VLBI Systems. In addition, auxiliary navigational support functions are described.

  8. The Voyager program at APL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauk, Barry H.; Keath, Edwin P.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented of the structure and function of the Applied Physics Laboratory's low-energy charged particle (LECP) instrument used in NASA's Voyager program. The LECP experiment was designed to measure the intensity, energy spectra, composition, angular distributions, and spatial and temporal characteristics of ions and electrons that are encountered by the spacecraft. Scientific findings of previous planetary encounters are noted, and color energy-time spectrograms that summarize the LECP results at each planet are presented and analyzed. Some details of the encounter by Voyager 2 of Neptune are provided, noting that the characteristics of the trajectory that was used provided for close observation of Triton, observations of particle structures, and exploration of Neptune's polar cap. A schematic of Neptune's magnetosphere is provided and analyzed.

  9. Ariel at Voyager Closest Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This picture is part of the highest-resolution Voyager 2 imaging sequence of Ariel, a moon of Uranus about 1,300 kilometers (800 miles) in diameter. The clear-filter, narrow-angle image was taken Jan. 24, 1986, from a distance of 130,000 km (80,000 mi). The complexity of Ariel's surface indicates that a variety of geologic processes have occurred. The numerous craters, for example, are indications of an old surface bombarded by meteoroids over a long period. Also conspicuous at this resolution, about 2.4 km (1.5 mi), are linear grooves (evidence of tectonic activity that has broken up the surface) and smooth patches (indicative of deposition of material). The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  10. Voyager 1: Encounter with Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panagakos, N.

    1980-01-01

    The history of the Voyager Project is reviewed as well as known facts about Saturn and its satellites. Important results of encounters with Jupiter are summarized. Scientific objectives of the flyby of Saturn involve the planet's atmosphere, rings, and magnetic field interactions with the solar wind and satellites. The search for additional satellites, and various aspects of Titan, Rhea, Dione, Mimas, Iapetus, Hyperion, and Enceladas are also of interest. The instruments developed to obtain these goals are described.

  11. Take a Voyage of Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2008-01-01

    On December 27, 1831, the "H.M.S. Beagle" left Plymouth Harbor for a round-the-world voyage. On board was would-be botanist Charles Darwin, the best tour guide biology has ever known. In 2009, we will celebrate Darwin's 200th birthday and the 150th anniversary of "The Origin of Species" publication. What better way to prepare for this celebration…

  12. The Jovian nebula - A post-Voyager perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trauger, J. T.

    1984-01-01

    Voyager 1 carried a diverse collection of magnetospheric probes through the inner Jovian magnetosphere in March 1979. The ensuing data analysis and theoretical investigation provided a comprehensive description of the Jovian nebula, a luminous torus populated with newly released heavy ions drawn from Io's surface. Recent refinements in earth-based imaging instrumentation are used to extend the Voyager in situ picture in temporal and spatial coverage. An analysis of S III and S II forbidden-line optical emissions observed during the Jovian apparitions of 1981 through 1983 reveals three distinct torus components. Regularities have been identified in the ion partitioning and ion densities in the hot outer and inner tori, sharply defined radial structure is found in the plasma near Io, and the relative permanence of the cool inner torus is inferred. An extended cloud of neutral material is required as a source of fresh ions in the nebula.

  13. Investigation of interplanetary dust from out-of-ecliptic space probes. [astronomical models of interplanetary dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fechtig, H.; Giese, R. H.; Hanner, M. S.; Zook, H. A.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of interplanetary dust via zodiacal light observations and direct detection are discussed for an out-of-ecliptic space probe. Particle fluxes and zodiacal light brightnesses were predicted for three models of the dust distribution. These models predict that most of the information will be obtained at space probe distances less than 1 A.U. from the ecliptic plane. Joint interpretation of the direct particle measurements and the zodiacal light data can yield the best knowledge of the three-dimensional particle dynamics, spatial distribution, and physical characteristics of the interplanetary dust. Such measurements are important for an understanding of the origin and role of the dust in relation to meteoroids, asteroids, and comets, as well as the interaction of the dust with solar forces.

  14. On the detection of a cometary mass distribution. [by perturbations on space probe orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boss, A. P.; Peale, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of detecting a possible cometary distribution on the fringes of the solar system is examined. The acceleration of a space probe due to a hypothetical cometary mass distribution with the surface density rising to a maximum and subsequently falling off with increasing distance from the sun is analyzed. The total minimum detectable cometary mass for the Pioneer and Mariner spacecraft is estimated on the basis of this model to be on the order of 1000 earth masses. Precision tracking of deep space probes is less sensitive by three orders of magnitude for the detection of an unseen cometary mass distribution at the fringes of the solar system than are the secular perturbations of long-period comets.

  15. VOYAGER 1 NEAR THE HELIOPAUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Borovikov, S. N.; Pogorelov, N. V.

    2014-03-01

    Recent observations from the Voyager 1 spacecraft show that it is sampling the local interstellar medium (LISM). This is quite surprising because no realistic, steady-state model of the solar wind (SW) interaction with the LISM gives an inner heliosheath width as narrow as ∼30 AU. This includes models that assume a strong redistribution of the ion energy to the tails in the pickup ion distribution function. We show that the heliopause (HP), which separates the SW from the LISM, is not a smooth tangential discontinuity, but rather a surface subject to Rayleigh-Taylor-type instabilities which can result in LISM material penetration deep inside the SW. We also show that the HP flanks are always subject to a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The instabilities are considerably suppressed near the HP nose by the heliospheric magnetic field in steady-state models, but reveal themselves in the presence of solar cycle effects. We argue that Voyager 1 may be in one such instability region and is therefore observing plasma densities much higher than those in the pristine SW. These results may explain the early penetration of Voyager 1 into the LISM. They also show that there is a possibility that the spacecraft may start sampling the SW again before it finally leaves the heliosphere.

  16. Physical limitations in sensors for a drag-free deep space probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juillerat, R.

    1971-01-01

    The inner perturbing forces acting on sensors were analyzed, taking into account the technological limitations imposed on the proof mass position pickup and proof mass acquisition system. The resulting perturbing accelerations are evaluated as a function of the drag-free sensor parameters. Perturbations included gravitational attraction, electrical action, magnetic action, pressure effects, radiation effects, and action of the position pickup. These data can be used to study the laws of guidance, providing an optimization of the space probe as a whole.

  17. Changes around Marduk between Voyager, and Galileo's first two orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Detail of changes around Marduk on Jupiter's moon Io as seen by Voyager 1 in 1979 (upper left) and NASA's Galileo spacecraft between June 1996 (lower left) and September 1996 (upper and lower right). The new dark red linear feature extending southeast from Marduk is about 250 kilometers long and may be a volcanic fissure. The flow-like feature at the bottom of the images is distinct in the Voyager data, indistinct in the June Galileo data, but distinct again in the September Galileo data. This may be due to the different lighting conditions rather than volcanic activity. The Voyager 1 image uses the green, blue, and violet filters. The upper right September 1996 image from Galileo uses the violet and green filters of the solid state imaging system aboard the Galileo spacecraft and a synthetic blue to simulate Voyager colors. The lower June and September, 1996 Galileo images use the imaging system's near-infrared (756 nm), green, and violet filters. North is to the top in all frames.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  18. Voyager: The grandest tour. The mission to the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A history and general accomplishments of the Voyager 1 and 2 missions to the outer planets are presented. Over the course of 12 years, these spacecraft drew back the curtain on nearly half the solar system. They brought into sharp focus the faces of the four giant outer planets - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune - and their families of disparate moons. The Voyagers showed us unimagined worlds: frozen beauty in the rings of Saturn, and molten violence in the explosive sulfur volcanoes on Jupiter's moon Io. They brought us close-ups of the florid and intricate storms of Jupiter itself. Voyager 2 went on to reveal the peculiarities of cockeyed Uranus and its equally skewed rings and moons. Then finally, Neptune, nearly invisible from earth, was unveiled in all its big, blue splendor, circled by shadowy rings and a bright pastel moon called Triton. Both Voyagers are headed toward the outer boundary of the solar system in search of the heliopause, the region where the sun's influence wanes and the beginning of interstellar space can be sensed.

  19. Voyager: The grandest tour. The mission to the outer planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-04-01

    A history and general accomplishments of the Voyager 1 and 2 missions to the outer planets are presented. Over the course of 12 years, these spacecraft drew back the curtain on nearly half the solar system. They brought into sharp focus the faces of the four giant outer planets - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune - and their families of disparate moons. The Voyagers showed us unimagined worlds: frozen beauty in the rings of Saturn, and molten violence in the explosive sulfur volcanoes on Jupiter's moon Io. They brought us close-ups of the florid and intricate storms of Jupiter itself. Voyager 2 went on to reveal the peculiarities of cockeyed Uranus and its equally skewed rings and moons. Then finally, Neptune, nearly invisible from earth, was unveiled in all its big, blue splendor, circled by shadowy rings and a bright pastel moon called Triton. Both Voyagers are headed toward the outer boundary of the solar system in search of the heliopause, the region where the sun's influence wanes and the beginning of interstellar space can be sensed.

  20. Planetary and Space Science Education by Mathematica Demonstrations: Lunar Probe Planning, Instrumentations and Field Operation Simulations for Hunveyor Model by Studies of Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabai, S.; Bérczi, Sz.

    2008-03-01

    By interactive Mathematica Demonstrations of the Wolfram Research instrumentation, mechatronics and field operation simulations of lunar and martian space probes were studied focusing on our Surveyor- type educational space probe model: Hunveyor.

  1. Voyager observations of plasma in the heliosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J. D.

    2012-04-01

    Voyager 2 has been observing plasma in the heliosheath since August 2007. We present the most recent data which shows that the plasma speed has remained fairly constant while the flow direction has turned toward the heliotail, with flows about 60 degrees from the radial direction. The density has increased by a factor of two over the past year, possibly due to solar cycle changes as solar maximum approaches. The heliosheath remains a highly variable environment with changes in plasma parameters occurring on time scales of tens of minutes. These Voyager 2 data will be compared with the Voyager 1 observations, which show a very different speed profile than observed at Voyager 2.

  2. The deep space network. [tracking and communication support for space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The objectives, functions, and organization of the deep space network are summarized. Progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations is reported. Interface support for the Mariner Venus Mercury 1973 flight and Pioneer 10 and 11 missions is included.

  3. New developments at Hunveyor and Husar space probe model constructions in Hungarian Universities and Colleges: status report of 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegzi, S.; Bérczi, Sz.; Hudoba, Gy.; Magyar, I.; Lang, A.; Istenes, Z.; Weidinger, T.; Tepliczky, I.; Varga, T.; Hargitai, H.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction Hunveyor and Husar space probe models are the main school robotics program in Hungary in the last decade initiated by our Cosmic Materials Space research Group (CMSRG). As a new form of planetary science education in Hungary students build their lander and rover robots and test them on test tables, carry out simulations, and go with their instruments to field works of planetary geology analog sites. Recently 10 groups work in this program and here is a status report about the new results. Planetary robot construction and simulations steps We summarized in 10 steps the main "constructional and industrial research and technology" description of planetary material studying and collecting by space probes (landers, rovers). We focused on the activity we began and teach to carry out at those steps. (Main planets considered were the Moon and Mars): 1. Reconnaissance and survey of the surface of a planet by orbital space probes (i.e. Lunar Orbiter, MGS, MRO etc.) Our studies: photogeology, geomorphology, preparations to cartography. 2. Mapping of the surface of the selected planet with geographical and stratigraphical methods. We (CMSRG) prepared thematic maps on Moon, Mercury, Mars, Venus [1] and Atlas (3) in the series [2,3]. 3. Identification of various surface materials by albedo, spectroscopic [4], thermal IR, identification and selection of the target sites. (in terrestrial analog sites during field works) 4. Planning the space probe system lander and rover working together (MPF-Sojourner type assembly). Planning of the Hunveyor and Husar models. 5. Construction and manufacturing lander and rover units. All Hunveyor groups built their models [5]. 6. Launching and traveling the space probes to the planetary surface. (No rocket building, we simulate [6] some events during the voyage only). 7. Measuring the planetary surface environment on the surface of target planet [7]. (CMSRG) groups carry out test-table measurements [8] and simulations, and later they

  4. Uruk Sulcus Mosaic - Galileo over Voyager Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A mosaic of four Galileo images of the Uruk Sulcus region on Ganymede (Latitude 11 N, Longitude: 170 W) is shown overlayed on the data obtained by the Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1979. North is to the top of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the lower left, nearly overhead. The area shown is about 120 by 110 kilometers (75 by 68 miles) in extent and the smallest features that can be discerned are 74 meters (243 feet) in size in the Galileo images and 1.3 kilometers (0.8 miles) in the Voyager data. The higher resolution Galileo images unveil the details of parallel ridges and troughs that are principal features in the brighter regions of Ganymede. High photometric activity (large light contrast at high spatial frequencies) of this ice-rich surface was such that the Galileo camera's hardware data compressor was pushed into truncating lines. The north-south running gap between the left and right halves of the mosaic is a result of line truncation from the normal 800 samples per line to about 540. The images were taken on 27 June, 1996 Universal Time at a range of 7,448 kilometers (4,628 miles) through the clear filter of the Galileo spacecraft's imaging system.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  5. ULF Waves Observed at MAGDAS Stations as Probes for Litho-Space Weather Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, Kiyohumi

    K.Yumoto, Space Environment Research Center (SERC), Kyushu University started the MAGDAS Project effectively in May of 2005, with the installation of the first unit in Hualien, Taiwan (Yumoto et al., 2006, 2007). Since then, over 50 units have been deployed around the world. They are concentrated along three chains: (1) North and South of Japan (the so-called "210o Magnetic Meridian Chain"), (2) Dip Equator Chain, and (3) Africa Chain (the so-called "96o Magnetic Meridian Chain"). The main goals of MAGDAS project are: (1) study magnetospheric pro-cesses by distinguishing between temporal changes and spatial variations in the phenomena, (2) clarify global structures and propagation characteristics of magnetospheric variations from higher to equatorial latitudes, and (3) understand global generation mechanisms of the Solar-Terrestrial phenomena (see Yumoto, 2004). From MAGDAS observations, ULF waves are found to be used as good probes for litho-space weather study in developing and developed countries. In the present paper, we will introduce the following examples: Pc 5 magnetic amplitudes at lower-latitude MAGDAS station show a linear relation with the solar wind velocity, thus we can use the Pc 5 amplitudes as a monitoring probe of the solar wind velocity. Pc 3-4 magnetic pulsations have skin depth comparable with the depth of epicentre of earthquakes in the lithosphere. Therefore, we can use Pc 3-4 as a probe for detecting ULF anomaly and precursors associated with great earthquakes. Pi 2 magnetic pulsations are observed globally at MAGDAS stations located at high, middle, low, and equatorial latitudes in night-and day-time. We can use the Pi 2s as a good indicator of onsets of magnetospheric substorms. Sudden commencements (sc), sudden impulse (si), and solar flare effects (sfe) create magnetic variations at MAGDAS stations. Therefore, MAGDAS data can be used as a probe of interplanetary shocks and interplanetary discontinuities in the solar wind, and solar flare

  6. The Columbian Voyages in Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlan, Louis R.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the modern historical view of the Columbian voyages that recognizes both the positive and negative consequences of the contact. Describes the voyages as a boon to scientific knowledge, a key step in the development of world trade, and an ecological disaster. Acknowledges the role of India, Islam, and Iberian Jews. (DK)

  7. 46 CFR 185.503 - Voyage plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Voyage plan. 185.503 Section 185.503 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.503 Voyage plan. (a) The master of the following vessels...

  8. 46 CFR 185.503 - Voyage plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Voyage plan. 185.503 Section 185.503 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.503 Voyage plan. (a) The master of the following vessels...

  9. 46 CFR 185.503 - Voyage plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Voyage plan. 185.503 Section 185.503 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.503 Voyage plan. (a) The master of the following vessels...

  10. 46 CFR 185.503 - Voyage plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Voyage plan. 185.503 Section 185.503 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.503 Voyage plan. (a) The master of the following vessels...

  11. 46 CFR 185.503 - Voyage plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Voyage plan. 185.503 Section 185.503 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.503 Voyage plan. (a) The master of the following vessels...

  12. Voyager Sails into Market for Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2006-01-01

    This article reports how the Voyager Universal Literacy core program, which is sailing successively into the market for reading programs, has been the target of several speculations over its secrets of success. Use of the Voyager Universal Literacy program has since spread to 1,000 districts throughout the country since its introduction into the…

  13. Voyager Spacecraft During Vibration Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Two Voyager spacecraft were launched in 1977 to explore the outer planets and some of their satellites. A prototype Voyager spacecraft is shown at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, as it successfully passed vibration tests which simulated the expected launch environment. The large parabolic antenna at the top is 3.7 meters in diameter and was used at both S-band and X-band radio frequencies for communicating with Earth over the great distances from the outer planets. The spacecraft received electrical power from three nuclear power sources (lower left). The shiny cylinder on the left side under the antenna contained a folded boom, which extended after launch to hold a magnetometer instrument thirteen meters away from the body of the spacecraft. The truss-like structure on the right side is the stowed instrument boom which supported three science instruments and a scan platform. The scan platform allowed the accurate pointing of two cameras and three other science instruments at Jupiter, Saturn, the rings of Saturn, Jupiter's moons, Saturn's moons, Uranus, moons of Uranus, and Neptune.

  14. Voyager Briefing: Expectations of the Neptune Encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This NASA KSC video release presents a news briefing held Aug. 4, 1989 at NASA Headquarters three weeks after Voyager 2's official "encounter" with Neptune began. The video is comprised of two slide presentations followed by a short question and answer period. The press conference is moderated by Charles Redmond, (NASA Public Affairs), includes an introduction by Dr. Geoffrey A Briggs (Dir., Solar System Exploration Div.), and features Norman R. Haynes (Voyager Project Manager, JPL) and Dr. Edward C. Stone (Voyager Project Scientist, Cal Tech). Mr. Haynes' presentation centers on Voyager's history, engineering changes, and spacecraft trajectories while Dr. Stone presents the scientific aspects of Voyager, including the 11 scientific investigations planned for the mission, instruments used, and imaging techniques.

  15. Voyager Briefing: Expectations of the Neptune Encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-08-01

    This NASA KSC video release presents a news briefing held Aug. 4, 1989 at NASA Headquarters three weeks after Voyager 2's official "encounter" with Neptune began. The video is comprised of two slide presentations followed by a short question and answer period. The press conference is moderated by Charles Redmond, (NASA Public Affairs), includes an introduction by Dr. Geoffrey A Briggs (Dir., Solar System Exploration Div.), and features Norman R. Haynes (Voyager Project Manager, JPL) and Dr. Edward C. Stone (Voyager Project Scientist, Cal Tech). Mr. Haynes' presentation centers on Voyager's history, engineering changes, and spacecraft trajectories while Dr. Stone presents the scientific aspects of Voyager, including the 11 scientific investigations planned for the mission, instruments used, and imaging techniques.

  16. Voyager radio science observations of Neptune and Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, G. L.; Sweetnam, D. N.; Anderson, J. D.; Borutzki, S. E.; Campbell, J. K.; Kursinski, E. R.; Levy, G. S.; Lindal, G. F.; Lyons, J. R.; Wood, G. E.

    1989-12-01

    Voyager 2 undertook radio science investigations of the Neptune and Triton masses and densities, as well as of their atmospheric and ionospheric vertical structures, the atmospheric composition and low-order gravitational harmonics of Neptune, and ring material characteristics. Upon probing the atmosphere of Neptune to a pressure level of about 500,000 Pa, the effects of a methane cloud region and of ammonia absorption below the cloud have become apparent. The tenuous neutral atmosphere of Triton produced distinct signatures in the occultation data; it is inferred that the Triton atmosphere is controlled by water-pressure equilibrium with surface ices.

  17. Titan. [Voyager IRIS observation of satellite atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.

    1990-01-01

    Saturn's satellite Titan is the second-largest in the solar system. Its dense atmosphere is mostly molecular nitrogen with an admixture of methane, a surface pressure of 1.5 bars and a surface temperature of 94K. The fundamental driving force in the long-term evolution of Titan's atmosphere is the photolysis of methane in the stratosphere to form higher hydrocarbons and aerosols. The current rate of photolysis and undersaturation of methane in the lower troposphere suggests the presence of a massive ethane-methane-nitrogen ocean. The ocean evolves to a more ethane-rich state over geologic time, driving changes in the atmospheric thermal structure. An outstanding issue concerning Titan's earliest history is the origin of atmospheric nitrogen: was it introduced into Titan as molecular nitrogen or ammonia? Measurement of the argon-to-nitrogen ratio in the present atmosphere provides a diagnostic test of these competing hypotheses. Many of the questions raised by the Voyager encounters about Titan and its atmosphere can be adequately addressed only by an entry probe, such as that planned for the Cassini mission.

  18. Voyager II Encounter with Neptune: Voyager/Neptune Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The main focus of this lecture is to discuss the relative size of the planets, the formation of the solar system, details of atmospheric motion (atmospheric dynamics), the aspects of the magnetic fields, different ring systems, and the Triton satellite. The study evolves around the planets of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Their temperature and absorption properties of the ice are discussed. Two of the chemicals being absorbed by the ice are ammonia and methane. Also discussed are the belt and zonal circulation models, jet streams, plumes and clouds, magnetic fields, planetary rings, the pressure on Triton, the atmosphere of Titan, Callisto, Aria, Ganymede, Ariel, Miranda, Io, Europa, Amalthea, Rhea, Dione, Tethys, Enceladus, Mimas, Hyperion, Oberon, Titania, and Umbriel. The lecture also contained some computerized simulation and various images from Voyager.

  19. The Context for IMAP: Voyager and INCA Observations of the Heliosheath at E > 5 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimigis, Stamatios M.

    2016-04-01

    The basic premise of the proposed Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP) is detailed scientific understanding of the Heliosheath (HS) and beyond, a region of space explored in situ by Voyager 1 (V1) since 2004, Voyager 2 (V2) since 2007, and remotely via energetic neutral atoms (ENA) by the Cassini/INCA (Ion and Neutral CAmera) since 2003 and IBEX since 2009. The IMAP instrumentation proposed for this purpose combines and extends the IBEX and INCA ENA energy ranges (0.3- 20 keV and 3-200 keV, for low and high energy, respectively). All three missions-Voyagers, Cassini/INCA, and IBEX- have made discovery-class measurements in the HS, the Voyagers providing in situ ion intensities at E > 30 keV, while INCA images ENA in the range 5 < E < 55 keV, and IBEX 0.3 < E < 6 keV. The partial overlap in energy coverage between Voyager ions and INCA ENA allows for the possibility of observing the intensity and time evolution of ions in the HS, thought to give rise to the ENAs via charge-exchange, and the resultant ENA images in the inner heliosphere and their spatial and/or temporal variability. Unfortunately, no such "ground truth" ion measurements are possible at Voyager in the ENA energy range imaged by IBEX. Some of the key findings from the Voyager and Cassini/INCA measurements are as follows: (1) The HS contains a hot plasma population that carries a substantial part (30-50 %) of the total pressure at E > 5 keV, the rest residing below that range, resulting in a beta (particle/magnetic pressure) always > 1, typically >10. (2) The width of the HS in the direction of V1 is ~ 30 AU, but is thought to be larger (40-70 AU) in the southern ecliptic where V2 currently travels.. (3) The ENA intensities at E > 5 keV exhibit a correlation with the solar cycle (SC) over the period 2003 to 2015, with minimum intensities in the anti-nose direction observed ~ 1.5 yrs after solar minimum followed by a recovery thereafter. (4) The in situ ion measurements at V2 within the HS

  20. Van Allen Probes Mission Space Academy: Educating middle school students about Earth's mysterious radiation belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, L.; Turney, D.; Matiella Novak, A.; Smith, D.; Simon, M.

    2013-12-01

    How's the weather in space? Why on Earth did NASA send two satellites above Earth to study radiation belts and space weather? To learn the answer to questions about NASA's Van Allen Probes mission, 450 students and their teachers from Maryland middle schools attended Space Academy events highlighting the Van Allen Probes mission. Sponsored by the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and Discovery Education, the events are held at the APL campus in Laurel, MD. Space Academies take students and teachers on behind-the-scenes exploration of how spacecraft are built, what they are designed to study, and introduces them to the many professionals that work together to create some of NASA's most exciting projects. Moderated by a public relations representative in the format of an official NASA press conference, the daylong event includes a student press conference with students as reporters and mission experts as panelists. Lunch with mission team members gives students a chance to ask more questions. After lunch, students don souvenir clean room suits, enjoy interactive science demonstrations, and tour APL facilities where the Van Allen Probes were built and tested before launch. Students may even have an opportunity to peek inside a clean room to view spacecraft being assembled. Prior to the event, teachers are provided with classroom activities, lesson plans, and videos developed by APL and Discovery Education to help prepare students for the featured mission. The activities are aligned to National Science Education Standards and appropriate for use in the classroom. Following their visit, student journalists are encouraged to write a short article about their field trip; selections are posted on the Space Academy web site. Designed to engage, inspire, and influence attitudes about space science and STEM careers, Space Academies provide an opportunity to attract underserved populations and emphasize that space science is for everyone. Exposing students to a diverse group of

  1. In situ temperature measurements of reaction spaces under microwave irradiation using photoluminescent probes.

    PubMed

    Ano, Taishi; Kishimoto, Fuminao; Sasaki, Ryo; Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Maitani, Masato M; Suzuki, Eiichi; Wada, Yuji

    2016-05-11

    We demonstrate two novel methods for the measurement of the temperatures of reaction spaces locally heated by microwaves, which have been applied here to two example systems, i.e., BaTiO3 particles covered with a SiO2 shell (BaTiO3-SiO2) and layered tungstate particles. Photoluminescent (PL) probes showing the temperature-sensitivity in their PL lifetimes are located in the nanospaces of the above systems. In the case of BaTiO3-SiO2 core-shell particles, rhodamine B is loaded into the mesopores of the SiO2 shell covering the BaTiO3 core, which generates the heat through the dielectric loss of microwaves. The inner nanospace temperature of the SiO2 shell is determined to be 28 °C higher than the bulk temperature under microwave irradiation at 24 W. On the other hand, Eu(3+) is immobilized in the interlayer space of layered tungstate as the PL probe, showing that the nanospace temperature of the interlayer is only 4 °C higher than the bulk temperature. This method for temperature-measurement is powerful for controlling microwave heating and elucidates the ambiguous mechanisms of microwave special effects often observed in chemical reactions, contributing greatly to the practical application of microwaves in chemistry and materials sciences. PMID:27136754

  2. Voyager 1 Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows the portion of Jupiter around the Great Red Spot as it swirls through more than 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storm shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  3. Voyager 2 Jupiter Eruption Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie records an eruptive event in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter over a period of 8 Jupiter days. Prior to the event, an undistinguished oval cloud mass cruised through the turbulent atmosphere. The eruption occurs over avery short time at the very center of the cloud. The white eruptive material is swirled about by the internal wind patterns of the cloud. As a result of the eruption, the cloud then becomes a type of feature seen elsewhere on Jupiter known as 'spaghetti bowls'.

    As Voyager 2 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 8 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). These images were acquired in the Violet filter around May 6, 1979. The spacecraft was about 50 million kilometers from Jupiter at that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  4. Voyager observations of Zeta Tau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carone, T. E.; Polidan, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    Two Voyager observations of Zeta Tau, a well-known Be/shell star of spectral type B1 IVe and vsin(i) = 220 km/s, separated by 503 days are presented and discussed. The observations show that in the spectral region shortward of Lyman-alpha, the 950-1150 A flux increased by about 40 percent, while in the region longward of 1300 A the flux increased by about 30 percent. Changes in features at 975 A and at 1020 A also appear. The observed change in the continuum flux is probably associated with a change in the effective temperature of the underlying B star, though change in the ubiquitous Fe II lines cannot be ruled out as the cause. The line variations are consistent with IUE spectra of Zeta Tau taken during the same time period.

  5. The Argonne Voyager multimedia server

    SciTech Connect

    Disz, T.; Judson, I.; Olson, R.; Stevens, R.

    1997-07-01

    With the growing presence of multimedia-enabled systems, one will see an integration of collaborative computing concepts into the everyday environments of future scientific and technical workplaces. Desktop teleconferencing is in common use today, while more complex desktop teleconferencing technology that relies on the availability of multipoint (greater than two nodes) enabled tools is now starting to become available on PCs. A critical problem when using these collaboration tools is the inability to easily archive multistream, multipoint meetings and make the content available to others. Ideally one would like the ability to capture, record, playback, index, annotate and distribute multimedia stream data as easily as one currently handles text or still image data. While the ultimate goal is still some years away, the Argonne Voyager project is aimed at exploring and developing media server technology needed to provide a flexible virtual multipoint recording/playback capability. In this article the authors describe the motivating requirements, architecture implementation, operation, performance, and related work.

  6. Radio science experiment of Voyager-2 spacecraft occultation by Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, T.; Nishimura, T.; Takano, T.; Yamamoto, Z.; Yamada, M.; Shuto, K.; Saito, H.; Ichikawa, T.; Kawashima, N.; Mizuno, E.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-JPL and Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science collaborated at the Usuda Deep Space Center in the Voyager-2 Neptune occultation experiment. Phase information is extracted from the recorded data by means of a digital filter that can track the carrier frequency and narrow the filter bandwidth by up to 3 mHz. The results thus obtained can verify the phase-stability of the receiving system as a whole. Problems experienced by low-noise amplifiers were solved through the use of system redundancies.

  7. Radio science experiment of Voyager-2 spacecraft occultation by Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, T.; Nishimura, T.; Takano, T.; Yamamoto, Z.; Yamada, M.; Shuto, K.; Saito, H.; Ichikawa, T.; Kawashima, N.; Mizuno, E.

    NASA-JPL and Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science collaborated at the Usuda Deep Space Center in the Voyager-2 Neptune occultation experiment. Phase information is extracted from the recorded data by means of a digital filter that can track the carrier frequency and narrow the filter bandwidth by up to 3 mHz. The results thus obtained can verify the phase-stability of the receiving system as a whole. Problems experienced by low-noise amplifiers were solved through the use of system redundancies.

  8. Voyages Through Time: Everything Evolves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendleton, Y. J.; Tarter, J. C.; DeVore, E. K.; O'Sullivan, K. A.; Taylor, S. M.

    2001-12-01

    Evolutionary change is a powerful framework for studying our world and our place therein. It is a recurring theme in every realm of science: over time, the universe, the planet Earth, life, and human technologies all change, albeit on vastly different scales. Evolution offers scientific explanations for the age-old question, "Where did we come from?" In addition, historical perspectives of science show how our understanding has evolved over time. The complexities of all of these systems will never reveal a "finished" story. But it is a story of epic size, capable of inspiring awe and of expanding our sense of time and place, and eminently worthy of investigating. This story is the basis of Voyages Through Time. Voyages Through Time (VTT), provides teachers with not only background science content and pedagogy, but also with materials and resources for the teaching of evolution. The six modules, Cosmic Evolution, Planetary Evolution, Origin of Life, Evolution of Life, Hominid Evolution, and Evolution of Technology, emphasize student inquiry, and promote the nature of science, as recommended in the NSES and BSL. The modules are unified by the overarching theme of evolution and the meta questions: "What is changing?" "What is the rate of change?" and "What is the mechanism of change?" Determination of student outcomes for the project required effective collaboration of scientists, teachers, students and media specialists. The broadest curricula students outcomes are 1) an enjoyment of science, 2) an understanding of the nature of science, especially the understanding of evidence and re-evaluation, and 3) key science content. The curriculum is being developed by the SETI Institute, NASA Ames Research Center, California Academy of Sciences, and San Francisco State University, and is funded by the NSF (IMD 9730693), with support form Hewlett-Packard Company, The Foundation for Microbiology, Combined Federated Charities, NASA Astrobiology Institute, and NASA Fundamental

  9. Voyager 2 to make closest encounter with Saturn in August

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The planned Voyager 2 Saturn mission is described. Information about Saturn obtained from the Voyager 1 encounter is summarized. Data on the satellites and rings of Saturn are tabulated. The video programming schedule for the Voyager 2 Saturn encounter is given. The Voyager science team is listed.

  10. 46 CFR 42.05-45 - International voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International voyage. 42.05-45 Section 42.05-45 Shipping... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-45 International voyage. (a) The term international voyage as used in this part shall have the same meaning as the term international voyage in Article...

  11. 46 CFR 42.05-45 - International voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International voyage. 42.05-45 Section 42.05-45 Shipping... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-45 International voyage. (a) The term international voyage as used in this part shall have the same meaning as the term international voyage in Article...

  12. 46 CFR 42.05-45 - International voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false International voyage. 42.05-45 Section 42.05-45 Shipping... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-45 International voyage. (a) The term international voyage as used in this part shall have the same meaning as the term international voyage in Article...

  13. 46 CFR 42.05-45 - International voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International voyage. 42.05-45 Section 42.05-45 Shipping... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-45 International voyage. (a) The term international voyage as used in this part shall have the same meaning as the term international voyage in Article...

  14. 46 CFR 42.05-45 - International voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International voyage. 42.05-45 Section 42.05-45 Shipping... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-45 International voyage. (a) The term international voyage as used in this part shall have the same meaning as the term international voyage in Article...

  15. Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP) - Its Time Has Come!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, N.; Kasper, J. C.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Moebius, E.; Opher, M.; Spence, H. E.; Zurbuchen, T.

    2014-12-01

    Our piece of cosmic real-estate, the heliosphere, is the domain of all human existence -- an astrophysical case-history of the successful evolution of life in a habitable system. By exploring our global heliosphere and its myriad interactions, we develop key physical knowledge of the interstellar interactions that influence exoplanetary habitability as well as the distant history and destiny of our solar system and world. IBEX was the first mission to explore the global heliosphere and in concert with Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 is discovering a fundamentally new and uncharted physical domain of the outer heliosphere. The enigmatic IBEX ribbon is an unanticipated discovery demonstrating that much of what we know or think we understand about the outer heliosphere needs to be revised. The next quantum leap enabled by IMAP will open new windows on the frontier of Heliophysics at a time when the space environment is rapidly evolving. IMAP with 100 times the combined resolution and sensitivity of IBEX will discover the substructure of the IBEX ribbon and will reveal in unprecedented resolution global maps of our heliosphere. The remarkable synergy between IMAP, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 will remain for at least the next decade as Voyager 1 pushes further into the interstellar domain and Voyager 2 moves through the heliosheath. Voyager 2 moves outward in the vicinity of the IBEX ribbon and its plasma measurements will create singular opportunities for discovery in the context of IMAP's global measurements. IMAP, like ACE before it, will be a keystone of the Heliophysics System Observatory by providing comprehensive cosmic ray, energetic particle, pickup ion, suprathermal ion, neutral atom, solar wind, solar wind heavy ion, and magnetic field observations to diagnose the changing space environment and understand the fundamental origins of particle acceleration. Thus, IMAP is a mission whose time has come. IMAP is the highest ranked next Solar Terrestrial Probe in the Decadal

  16. Getting together in deep space - The Rosetta space probe's long trek to Comet 67/P Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-02-01

    The countdown to Rosetta’s rendezvous in space began on 1 March 1997. At the end of February 2004, seven years and not a few headaches later, the European Space Agency (ESA) probe will at last be setting off on its journey to meet Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The long-planned get-together will not however take place until the middle of 2014. A few months after arriving at the comet, Rosetta will release a small lander onto its surface. Then, for almost two years it will investigate Churyumov-Gerasimenko from close up. Dr Gerhard Schwehm, lead scientist for the Rosetta project, explains that, “With this mission we will be breaking new ground - this will be the first protracted cometary encounter.” The trip to the meeting place in space will certainly be a long one, located as it is some 4.5 astronomical units from the Sun, which translates into something like 675 million kilometres. Rosetta will be on the road for ten years, during which time it will clock up in excess of five billion kilometres. Launch in February 2004 Rosetta will be waved off on 26 February when it lifts off from the space centre in Kourou, French Guiana, aboard an Ariane 5 launcher. Shortly after the spacecraft’s release, its solar panels will be deployed and turned towards the Sun to build up the necessary power reserves. Its various systems and experiments will be gradually brought into operation and tested. Just three months into the mission the first active phase will be over, followed by final testing of the experiments in October 2004. Rosetta will then spend the following years flying a lonely path to the comet, passing by the Earth, Mars, the Earth and the Earth again. There is no alternative to this detour, for even Ariane 5, the most powerful launcher on the market today, lacks the power to hurl the probe on a direct route to the comet. To get the required momentum, it will rely on swing-by manœuvres, using the gravitation pull of Mars (in 2007) and the Earth (three times, in

  17. Voyager: Perils of advanced planning, 1960 - 1967

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Contract proposals; phased project planning; budgetary problems; Saturn 1 B-Centaur versus Saturn V; mission guidelines and management assignments; and the origins of the Voyager project are discussed.

  18. Voyager 1 Explores the "Magnetic Highway"

    NASA Video Gallery

    This set of animations show NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft exploring a new region in our solar system called the "magnetic highway." In this region, the sun's magnetic field lines are connected to int...

  19. Wall current probe: A non-invasive in situ plasma diagnostic for space and time resolved current density distribution measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Baude, R.; Gaboriau, F.; Hagelaar, G. J. M.

    2013-08-15

    In the context of low temperature plasma research, we propose a wall current probe to determine the local charged particle fluxes flowing to the chamber walls. This non-intrusive planar probe consists of an array of electrode elements which can be individually biased and for which the current can be measured separately. We detail the probe properties and present the ability of the diagnostic to be used as a space and time resolved measurement of the ion and electron current density at the chamber walls. This diagnostic will be relevant to study the electron transport in magnetized low-pressure plasmas.

  20. Gradual Diffusion and Punctuated Phase Space Density Enhancements of Highly Relativistic Electrons: Van Allen Probes Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Li, X.; Henderson, M. G.; Kanekal, S. G.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.; Hudson, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    The dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission has provided a new window into mega electron volt (MeV) particle dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts. Observations (up to E (is) approximately 10MeV) show clearly the behavior of the outer electron radiation belt at different timescales: months-long periods of gradual inward radial diffusive transport and weak loss being punctuated by dramatic flux changes driven by strong solar wind transient events. We present analysis of multi-MeV electron flux and phase space density (PSD) changes during March 2013 in the context of the first year of Van Allen Probes operation. This March period demonstrates the classic signatures both of inward radial diffusive energization and abrupt localized acceleration deep within the outer Van Allen zone (L (is) approximately 4.0 +/- 0.5). This reveals graphically that both 'competing' mechanisms of multi-MeV electron energization are at play in the radiation belts, often acting almost concurrently or at least in rapid succession.

  1. Probing theories of gravity with phase space-inferred potentials of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Alejo; Miller, Christopher J.; Kern, Nicholas; Gifford, Daniel; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Li, Baojiu; Koyama, Kazuya; Nichol, Robert C.

    2016-04-01

    Modified theories of gravity provide us with a unique opportunity to generate innovative tests of gravity. In Chameleon f (R ) gravity, the gravitational potential differs from the weak-field limit of general relativity (GR) in a mass dependent way. We develop a probe of gravity which compares high mass clusters, where Chameleon effects are weak, to low mass clusters, where the effects can be strong. We utilize the escape velocity edges in the radius/velocity phase space to infer the gravitational potential profiles on scales of 0.3-1 virial radii. We show that the escape edges of low mass clusters are enhanced compared to GR, where the magnitude of the difference depends on the background field value |fR 0 ¯ | . We validate our probe using N-body simulations and simulated light cone galaxy data. For a Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument Bright Galaxy Sample, including observational systematics, projection effects, and cosmic variance, our test can differentiate between GR and Chameleon f (R ) gravity models, |fR 0 ¯ |=4 ×10-6 (2 ×10-6) at >5 σ (>2 σ ), more than an order of magnitude better than current cluster-scale constraints.

  2. Voyager 2 and the Uranian rings

    SciTech Connect

    Porco, C.C.

    1986-12-01

    Voyager 2 data on the Uranian disk system are presented and examined. The disk system consists of nine narrow rings, ranging in width from a few km to about 100 km. The Uranian rings are eccentric, inclined to the planet's equatorial plane, and precessing. The Uranian ring characteristics detected in the Voyager data are described and compared with those of the Saturn rings. The origin and maintenance of the rings are discussed, and the particle distribution in the ring system is studied.

  3. Real-space measurement of potential distribution in PECVD ONO electrets by Kelvin probe force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmerich, F.; Thielemann, C.

    2016-05-01

    Multilayers of silicon oxide/silicon nitride/silicon oxide (ONO) are known for their good electret properties due to deep energy traps near the material interfaces, facilitating charge storage. However, measurement of the space charge distribution in such multilayers is a challenge for conventional methods if layer thickness dimensions shrink below 1 μm. In this paper, we propose an atomic force microscope based method to determine charge distributions in ONO layers with spatial resolution below 100 nm. By applying Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) on freshly cleaved, corona-charged multilayers, the surface potential is measured directly along the z-axis and across the interfaces. This new method gives insights into charge distribution and charge movement in inorganic electrets with a high spatial resolution.

  4. Real-space measurement of potential distribution in PECVD ONO electrets by Kelvin probe force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Emmerich, F; Thielemann, C

    2016-05-20

    Multilayers of silicon oxide/silicon nitride/silicon oxide (ONO) are known for their good electret properties due to deep energy traps near the material interfaces, facilitating charge storage. However, measurement of the space charge distribution in such multilayers is a challenge for conventional methods if layer thickness dimensions shrink below 1 μm. In this paper, we propose an atomic force microscope based method to determine charge distributions in ONO layers with spatial resolution below 100 nm. By applying Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) on freshly cleaved, corona-charged multilayers, the surface potential is measured directly along the z-axis and across the interfaces. This new method gives insights into charge distribution and charge movement in inorganic electrets with a high spatial resolution. PMID:27053633

  5. Probing Real-Space and Time-Resolved Correlation Functions with Many-Body Ramsey Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knap, Michael; Kantian, Adrian; Giamarchi, Thierry; Bloch, Immanuel; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Demler, Eugene

    2013-10-01

    We propose to use Ramsey interferometry and single-site addressability, available in synthetic matter such as cold atoms or trapped ions, to measure real-space and time-resolved spin correlation functions. These correlation functions directly probe the excitations of the system, which makes it possible to characterize the underlying many-body states. Moreover, they contain valuable information about phase transitions where they exhibit scale invariance. We also discuss experimental imperfections and show that a spin-echo protocol can be used to cancel slow fluctuations in the magnetic field. We explicitly consider examples of the two-dimensional, antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model and the one-dimensional, long-range transverse field Ising model to illustrate the technique.

  6. Scalar field probes of power-law space-time singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blau, Matthias; Frank, Denis; Weiss, Sebastian

    2006-08-01

    We analyse the effective potential of the scalar wave equation near generic space-time singularities of power-law type (Szekeres-Iyer metrics) and show that the effective potential exhibits a universal and scale invariant leading inverse square behaviour ~ x-2 in the ``tortoise coordinate'' x provided that the metrics satisfy the strict Dominant Energy Condition (DEC). This result parallels that obtained in [1] for probes consisting of families of massless particles (null geodesic deviation, a.k.a. the Penrose Limit). The detailed properties of the scalar wave operator depend sensitively on the numerical coefficient of the x-2-term, and as one application we show that timelike singularities satisfying the DEC are quantum mechanically singular in the sense of the Horowitz-Marolf (essential self-adjointness) criterion. We also comment on some related issues like the near-singularity behaviour of the scalar fields permitted by the Friedrichs extension.

  7. Light as a probe of the structure of space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartaglia, Angelo

    2016-05-01

    Light is an intrinsically relativistic probe and when used in an adequately sized array of ring lasers it is sensible to the curvature and to the chirality of space-time. On this basis the GINGER experiment is being implemented at the underground National Laboratories at Gran Sasso. The experiment, whose objective is the measurement of the terrestrial frame dragging effect or deviations from it, will be presented and discussed in its foundation. Furthermore, at a bigger scale, the possibilities given by the under way GAIA mission and the proposed AGP, will be analyzed with a special attention paied to the possibility of extracting information concerning the angular momenta of the sun and the main bodies of the solar system.

  8. Comparison of Galileo Probe and Earth-Based Translation Rates of Jupiter's Equatorial Clouds

    PubMed

    Beebe; Simon; Huber

    1996-05-10

    The Doppler wind speeds derived from Galileo probe data are comparable with the maximum translation speeds observed in the equatorial zone by Voyager 1 and the Hubble Space Telescope. Slower published values of east-west winds are based on measurements of larger features and should be interpreted as translation rates of large weather systems interacting with the wind. The nature of the hot-spot region that the Galileo probe entered is compatible with a high-speed jet at 6 degrees north. The hot spot is associated with an equatorial weather system that spans 5 degrees of latitude and translates at 103 meters per second. PMID:8662572

  9. Ancient voyaging and Polynesian origins.

    PubMed

    Soares, Pedro; Rito, Teresa; Trejaut, Jean; Mormina, Maru; Hill, Catherine; Tinkler-Hundal, Emma; Braid, Michelle; Clarke, Douglas J; Loo, Jun-Hun; Thomson, Noel; Denham, Tim; Donohue, Mark; Macaulay, Vincent; Lin, Marie; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Richards, Martin B

    2011-02-11

    The "Polynesian motif" defines a lineage of human mtDNA that is restricted to Austronesian-speaking populations and is almost fixed in Polynesians. It is widely thought to support a rapid dispersal of maternal lineages from Taiwan ~4000 years ago (4 ka), but the chronological resolution of existing control-region data is poor, and an East Indonesian origin has also been proposed. By analyzing 157 complete mtDNA genomes, we show that the motif itself most likely originated >6 ka in the vicinity of the Bismarck Archipelago, and its immediate ancestor is >8 ka old and virtually restricted to Near Oceania. This indicates that Polynesian maternal lineages from Island Southeast Asia gained a foothold in Near Oceania much earlier than dispersal from either Taiwan or Indonesia 3-4 ka would predict. However, we find evidence in minor lineages for more recent two-way maternal gene flow between Island Southeast Asia and Near Oceania, likely reflecting movements along a "voyaging corridor" between them, as previously proposed on archaeological grounds. Small-scale mid-Holocene movements from Island Southeast Asia likely transmitted Austronesian languages to the long-established Southeast Asian colonies in the Bismarcks carrying the Polynesian motif, perhaps also providing the impetus for the expansion into Polynesia. PMID:21295281

  10. Voyages Through Time: Everything Evolves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Jane; Tarter, Jill; Devore, Edna; Pendleton, Yvonne; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Burke, Meg

    2004-06-01

    The SETI Institute, the California Academy of Sciences, NASA Ames Research Center, and San Francisco State University have developed standards-based curriculum materials for a one-year high school integrated science course centered on the unifying theme of evolution. Scientists, teachers, curriculum writers, and media specialists are currently finalizing six modules that integrate astronomical, geological, and biological sciences as well as the history of science and technology. The sequence of lessons in each module is designed to promote students' understanding and skills as defined by the National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks for Science Literacy. The modules cover: Cosmic Evolution, Planetary Evolution, Origin of Life, Evolution of Life, Hominid Evolution, and the Evolution of Technology. The core lessons for all six modules are provided via CD-ROM, including instructional guidelines, science background information, and additional resources (print, audiovisual, software, WWW sites, and databases). These products will be published as a complete set for use as a yearlong science course and will also be available as individual modules for use in discipline-based courses. Evolutionary change is a powerful framework for studying our world and our place therein. It is a story of epic size, capable of inspiring awe and of expanding our sense of time and place. This story is the basis of Voyages Through Time.

  11. Probing the bioactivity-relevant chemical space of robust reactions and common molecular building blocks.

    PubMed

    Hartenfeller, Markus; Eberle, Martin; Meier, Peter; Nieto-Oberhuber, Cristina; Altmann, Karl-Heinz; Schneider, Gisbert; Jacoby, Edgar; Renner, Steffen

    2012-05-25

    In the search for new bioactive compounds, there is a trend toward increasingly complex compound libraries aiming to target the demanding targets of the future. In contrast, medicinal chemistry and traditional library design rely mainly on a small set of highly established and robust reactions. Here, we probe a set of 58 such reactions for their ability to sample the chemical space of known bioactive molecules, and the potential to create new scaffolds. Combined with ~26,000 common available building blocks, the reactions retrieve around 9% of a scaffold-diverse set of compounds active on human target proteins covering all major pharmaceutical target classes. Almost 80% of generated scaffolds from virtual one-step synthesis products are not present in a large set of known bioactive molecules for human targets, indicating potential for new discoveries. The results suggest that established synthesis resources are well suited to cover the known bioactivity-relevant chemical space and that there are plenty of unexplored regions accessible by these reactions, possibly providing valuable "low-hanging fruit" for hit discovery. PMID:22512717

  12. Application of high stability oscillators to radio science experiments using deep space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kursinski, Emil R.

    1990-01-01

    The microwave telecommunication links between the earth and deep space probes have long been used to conduct radio science experiments which take advantage of the phase coherency and stability of these links. These experiments measure changes in the phase delay of the signals to infer electrical, magnetic and gravitational properties of the solar system environment and beyond through which the spacecraft and radio signals pass. The precision oscillators, from which the phase of the microwave signals are derived, play a key role in the stability of these links and therefore the sensitivity of these measurements. These experiments have become a driving force behind recent and future improvements in the Deep Space Network and spacecraft oscillators and frequency and time distribution systems. Three such experiments which are key to these improvements are briefly discussed and relationship between their sensitivity and the signal phase stability is described. The first is the remote sensing of planetary atmospheres by occultation in which the radio signal passes through the atmosphere and is refracted causing the signal pathlength to change from which the pressure and the temperature of the atmosphere can be derived. The second experiment is determination of the opacity of planetary rings by passage of the radio signals through the rings. The third experiment is the research for very low frequency gravitational radiation. The fractional frequency variation of the signal is comparable to the spatial strain amplitude the system is capable of detecting. A summary of past results and future possibilities for these experiments are presented.

  13. Interagency telemetry arraying for Voyager-Neptune encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. W.; Brundage, W. D.; Ulvestad, J. S.; Kent, S. S.; Bartos, K. P.

    1990-01-01

    The reception capability of the Deep Space Network (DSN) has been improved over the years by increasing both the size and number of antennas at each complex to meet spacecraft-support requirements. However, even more aperture was required for the final planetary encounters of the Voyager 2 spacecraft. This need was met by arraying one radio astronomy observatory with the DSN complex in the United States and another with the complex in Australia. Following a review of augmentation for the Uranus encounter, both the preparation at the National Radio Astronomy (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA) and the Neptune encounter results for the Parkes-Canberra and VLA-Goldstone arrays are presented.

  14. Telecommunications and data acquisition systems support for Voyager missions to Jupiter and Saturn, 1972-1981, prelaunch through Saturn encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traxler, M. R.; Beauchamp, D. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Deep Space Network has supported the Voyager Project for approximately nine years, during which time implementation, testing, and operational support was provided. Four years of this time involved testing prior to launch; the final five years included network operations support and additional network implementation. Intensive and critical support intervals included launch and four planetary encounters. The telecommunications and data acquisition support for the Voyager Missions to Jupiter and Saturn are summarized.

  15. DC Langmuir Probe for Measurement of Space Plasma: A Brief Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, Koichiro

    2015-09-01

    Herein, we discuss the in situ measurement of the electron temperature in the ionosphere/plasmasphere by means of DC Langmuir probes. Major instruments which have been reported are a conventional DC Langmuir probe, whose probe voltage is swept; a pulsed probe, which uses pulsed bias voltage; a rectification probe, which uses sinusoidal signal; and a resonance cone probe, which uses radio wave propagation. The content reviews past observations made with the instruments above. We also discuss technical factors that should be taken into account for reliable measurement, such as problems related to the contamination of electrodes and the satellite surface. Finally, we discuss research topics to be studied in the near future.

  16. Voyager planetary radio astronomy studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, David H.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of nonthermal radio emission data obtained by the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) spectrometers on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft was performed. This PRA data provided unique insights into the radio emission characteristics of the outer planets because of PRA's unique spectral response below the terrestrial ionospheric plasma frequency and its unprecedented proximity to the source. Of those results which were documented or published, this final report surveys only the highlights and cites references for more complete discussions. Unpublished results for Uranus, Neptune, and theoretical Ionian current distributions are presented at greater length. The most important conclusion to be drawn from these observations is that banded spectral emission is common to the radio emission below 1-2 MHz observed from all four Jovian planets. In every case multiple spectral features evolve on time scales of seconds to minutes. To the extent these features drift in frequency, they appear never to cross one another. The Neptunian spectral features appear to drift little or not at all, their evolution consisting principally of waxing and waning. Since other evidence strongly suggests that most or all of this radio emission is occurring near the local magnetospheric electron cyclotron frequency, this implies that this emission preferentially occurs at certain continually changing planetary radii. It remains unknown why certain radii might be favored, unless radial electric field components or other means serve to differentiate radially the magnetospheric plasma density, particle energy vectors, or particle coherence. Calculation of the spatial distribution and intensity of the Io-generated magnetospheric currents are also presented; these currents may be limited principally by wave impedance and local field strengths.

  17. Miranda as seen by Voyager 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Flying by in early 1986, Voyager 2 captured this picture of Miranda, which enabled scientists to study this moon of Uranus in much greater detail than ever before. Discovered in 1948 by Gerard Peter Kuiper, Miranda is named for the daughter of the wily Prospero in Shakespeare's 'The Tempest.' It is the eleventh known satellite of Uranus and the innermost large moon of Uranus It was necessary that Voyager 2 passed by Miranda, not for scientific reasons, but simply for the gravity assist it needed to go on to Neptune. Due to the position of the entire Solar System, Miranda provided the energy to throw Voyager 2 to Neptune. Before Voyager, Miranda was largely ignored as it is not the largest moon and did not seem to have any other outstanding qualities. Fortunately, however, Voyager passed close enough to Miranda to provide scientists with fascinating photographs that captivated astronomers. About half ice and half rock, Miranda's surface has terraced layers that indicate both older and new surfaces coexisting. Since the mixing of ancient and recent surfaces is rare in planetary geology, scientists have postulated two explanations for the different ages of the numerous valleys and cliffs on Miranda. One theory is that Miranda could have shattered as many as five times and was then reassembled. Another hypothesis is that partly melted ice upwells forced new surfaces to emerge.

  18. Magnetically insulated baffled probe for real-time monitoring of equilibrium and fluctuating values of space potentials, electron and ion temperatures, and densities

    SciTech Connect

    Demidov, V. I.; Koepke, M. E.; Raitses, Y.

    2010-10-15

    By restricting the electron-collection area of a cold Langmuir probe compared to the ion-collection area, the probe floating potential can become equal to the space potential, and thus conveniently monitored, rather than to a value shifted from the space potential by an electron-temperature-dependent offset, i.e., the case with an equal-collection-area probe. This design goal is achieved by combining an ambient magnetic field in the plasma with baffles, or shields, on the probe, resulting in species-selective magnetic insulation of the probe collection area. This permits the elimination of electron current to the probe by further adjustment of magnetic insulation which results in an ion-temperature-dependent offset when the probe is electrically floating. Subtracting the floating potential of two magnetically insulated baffled probes, each with a different degree of magnetic insulation, enables the electron or ion temperature to be measured in real time.

  19. A Model Space Mission to probe Einstein's Equivalence Principle - The STE-QUEST Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heske, Astrid; Cacciapuoti, Luigi; Gehler, Martin

    Understanding General Relativity at all scales requires, in particular, understanding gravity at quantum level. To attempt this, tests of the most prominent aspect of General Relativity, the Einstein Equivalence Principle, can be performed with the next generation of atomic quantum sensors to significantly improved accuracy. To exploit the ultimate limits of atomic sensors a dedicated space platform is needed; the advantages space offers are, among others, unperturbed free-fall conditions, longer interaction times per measurement and large variations in velocity and gravitational field. In the frame of the third medium class launch opportunity of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015 - 2025 programme a study was conducted - STE-QUEST (Space-Time Explorer and QUantum Equivalence principle Test), one of the candidates for a medium class mission - and the feasibility of such a mission assessed. The spacecraft would carry two instruments probing the different aspects of the Einstein Equivalence Principle: begin{enumerate} A dual species ( (87) Rb and (85) Rb) atom interferometer to probe the universality of propagation of matter waves. A high-performance time and frequency link dedicated to comparison of atomic clocks on ground. The specific primary science objectives for STE-QUEST are: begin{enumerate} Universality of propagation of matter waves test begin{itemize} Test of the universality of free fall of matter waves to an uncertainty of the Eötvös ratio lower than 2*10 (-15) . Gravitational redshift tests begin{itemize} Sun gravitational red-shift measurement to a fractional uncertainty of 2*10 (-6) , with an ultimate goal of 5*10 (-7) . Moon gravitational red-shift measurement to a fractional uncertainty of 4*10 (-4) , with an ultimate goal of 9*10 (-5) . Such a measurement has never been attempted before. The availability of an atomic clock on-board the spacecraft (optional) would additionally allow testing the Earth gravitational red-shift measurement to a fractional

  20. Probing cosmology and gravity with redshift-space distortions around voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaus, Nico; Sutter, P. M.; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2015-11-01

    Cosmic voids in the large-scale structure of the Universe affect the peculiar motions of objects in their vicinity. Although these motions are difficult to observe directly, the clustering pattern of their surrounding tracers in redshift space is influenced in a unique way. This allows to investigate the interplay between densities and velocities around voids, which is solely dictated by the laws of gravity. With the help of N-body simulations and derived mock-galaxy catalogs we calculate the average density fluctuations around voids identified with a watershed algorithm in redshift space and compare the results with the expectation from general relativity and the ΛCDM model. We find linear theory to work remarkably well in describing the dynamics of voids. Adopting a Bayesian inference framework, we explore the full posterior of our model parameters and forecast the achievable accuracy on measurements of the growth rate of structure and the geometric distortion through the Alcock-Paczyński effect. Systematic errors in the latter are reduced from ~15% to ~5% when peculiar velocities are taken into account. The relative parameter uncertainties in galaxy surveys with number densities comparable to the SDSS MAIN (CMASS) sample probing a volume of 1h-3Gpc3 yield σf/b/(f/b).~2% (20%) and σDAH/DAH~0.2% (2%), respectively. At this level of precision the linear-theory model becomes systematics dominated, with parameter biases that fall beyond these values. Nevertheless, the presented method is highly model independent; its viability lies in the underlying assumption of statistical isotropy of the Universe.

  1. Voyager Plasma Observations in the Heliosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Voyager spacecraft are both more than 20 AU past the termination shock. The plasma experiment on Voyager 2 measures the plasma velocity, density, and temperature. This paper discusses the recent observations. The density increased in 2011 by a factor of 2 and in 2012 has remained at the higher level. The speed had been roughly constant since the TS but recently has started to decrease; the speed profile is very different from that at Voyager 1. The plasma at V2 continues to turn tailward. The V1 and V2 data will be compared, and we will discuss the magnetic flux which is conserved at V2 but not at V1.

  2. 15 CFR 970.2502 - Post voyage report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Pre-license Exploration § 970.2502 Post voyage report. Within 30 days of the conclusion of each exploration voyage, the United...

  3. 15 CFR 970.2502 - Post voyage report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Pre-license Exploration § 970.2502 Post voyage report. Within 30 days of the conclusion of each exploration voyage, the United...

  4. 46 CFR 185.280 - Official Logbook for foreign voyages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... wages due to a seaman who dies during the voyage and the gross amount of all deductions to be made from the wages; (ii) The sale of the property of a seaman who dies during the voyage, including a...

  5. 46 CFR 185.280 - Official Logbook for foreign voyages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... wages due to a seaman who dies during the voyage and the gross amount of all deductions to be made from the wages; (ii) The sale of the property of a seaman who dies during the voyage, including a...

  6. What's new, Voyager: The discoveries continue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Ellis D.

    1995-01-01

    The twin Voyager spacecraft, launched nearly two decades ago, continue to operate and are now searching for the edge of our solar system, the heliopause. Voyager's giant-planet flybys of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune have provided data that are likely to remain the definitive data set for the foreseeable future and have led to many ongoing discoveries. As the spacecraft move toward the heliopause, they are also providing data on the structure of the heliosphere. This article discusses the discoveries resulting from the flyby and heliosphere data that have been made within the past five years.

  7. 46 CFR 46.05-20 - Great Lakes voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Great Lakes voyage. 46.05-20 Section 46.05-20 Shipping... VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part § 46.05-20 Great Lakes voyage. A Great Lakes voyage is any voyage from a United States port or place on the Great Lakes to another United States port or place on...

  8. 46 CFR 46.05-20 - Great Lakes voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes voyage. 46.05-20 Section 46.05-20 Shipping... VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part § 46.05-20 Great Lakes voyage. A Great Lakes voyage is any voyage from a United States port or place on the Great Lakes to another United States port or place on...

  9. Limiting vibration in space lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Midturi, S.

    1997-12-01

    Using finite-element analysis and other methods, engineers are evaluating ways to control the vibrations and extend the use of flexible, deployable structures in space. The exploration of the universe by the United States has led to many technological innovations for space travel. Among them are lightweight lattice structures and booms, which have been used on the Voyager probes to the outer planets, the Hubble space telescope,m and many other missions. Typical applications of lattice structures in space include instrument booms, antennae, and solar-array deployers and supports. Booms are designed for automatic deployment to a controlled length and retraction into a very compact stowage volume. Deployable solar booms are often subjected to severe vibration while in orbit, and vibration must be limited or completely eliminated for safe and satisfactory performance.

  10. 15 CFR 970.2502 - Post voyage report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Post voyage report. 970.2502 Section 970.2502 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued....2502 Post voyage report. Within 30 days of the conclusion of each exploration voyage, the United...

  11. 46 CFR 175.120 - Vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels on an international voyage. 175.120 Section 175... 100 GROSS TONS) GENERAL PROVISIONS § 175.120 Vessels on an international voyage. A mechanically propelled vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must comply with...

  12. 46 CFR 175.120 - Vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vessels on an international voyage. 175.120 Section 175... 100 GROSS TONS) GENERAL PROVISIONS § 175.120 Vessels on an international voyage. A mechanically propelled vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must comply with...

  13. 46 CFR 175.120 - Vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vessels on an international voyage. 175.120 Section 175... 100 GROSS TONS) GENERAL PROVISIONS § 175.120 Vessels on an international voyage. A mechanically propelled vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must comply with...

  14. 46 CFR 188.10-35 - International voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International voyage. 188.10-35 Section 188.10-35... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-35 International voyage. (a) This section describes those voyages which are considered to be “international voyages” for the purposes of...

  15. 46 CFR 175.120 - Vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vessels on an international voyage. 175.120 Section 175... 100 GROSS TONS) GENERAL PROVISIONS § 175.120 Vessels on an international voyage. A mechanically propelled vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must comply with...

  16. 46 CFR 188.10-35 - International voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false International voyage. 188.10-35 Section 188.10-35... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-35 International voyage. (a) This section describes those voyages which are considered to be “international voyages” for the purposes of...

  17. 46 CFR 188.10-35 - International voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International voyage. 188.10-35 Section 188.10-35... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-35 International voyage. (a) This section describes those voyages which are considered to be “international voyages” for the purposes of...

  18. 46 CFR 114.120 - Vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vessels on an international voyage. 114.120 Section 114... PROVISIONS § 114.120 Vessels on an international voyage. A mechanically propelled vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must comply with the applicable requirements of SOLAS...

  19. 46 CFR 114.120 - Vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vessels on an international voyage. 114.120 Section 114... PROVISIONS § 114.120 Vessels on an international voyage. A mechanically propelled vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must comply with the applicable requirements of SOLAS...

  20. 46 CFR 188.10-35 - International voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International voyage. 188.10-35 Section 188.10-35... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-35 International voyage. (a) This section describes those voyages which are considered to be “international voyages” for the purposes of...

  1. 46 CFR 175.120 - Vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vessels on an international voyage. 175.120 Section 175... 100 GROSS TONS) GENERAL PROVISIONS § 175.120 Vessels on an international voyage. A mechanically propelled vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must comply with...

  2. 46 CFR 188.10-35 - International voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International voyage. 188.10-35 Section 188.10-35... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-35 International voyage. (a) This section describes those voyages which are considered to be “international voyages” for the purposes of...

  3. 46 CFR 114.120 - Vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vessels on an international voyage. 114.120 Section 114... PROVISIONS § 114.120 Vessels on an international voyage. A mechanically propelled vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must comply with the applicable requirements of SOLAS...

  4. 46 CFR 46.05-10 - Foreign voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign voyage. 46.05-10 Section 46.05-10 Shipping COAST... VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part § 46.05-10 Foreign voyage. (a) A foreign voyage for the purpose of... jurisdiction of the United States and a port of a foreign country, its colonies, territories, or...

  5. Enhancing Resilience in Youth through a 10-Day Developmental Voyage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayhurst, Jill; Hunter, John A.; Kafka, Sarah; Boyes, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The present study sought to examine the potential for resilience to be enhanced in a group of youth participating in a developmental voyage, and to identify the factors that contribute to increased resilience following the voyage. Two studies are reported. Study 1 revealed that voyage participants experienced increased resilience over the course…

  6. Voyager Reading Programs. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Voyager Passport"[TM] is a supplemental reading intervention system for students in grades K-5. "Voyager Passport Reading Journeys"[TM] is a reading intervention program designed for adolescents who struggle with reading. The "Voyager Universal Literacy System"[R] is a K-3 reading program that includes a core reading curriculum; a progress…

  7. Data Announcement Bulletin: Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 Jupiter Encounter Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Available data on imaging, infrared spectroscopy and radiometry, triaxial fluxgate magnetometers, the multifilter photopolarimeter, planetary radio astronomy, and radio science is described. The Voyager experiments are listed, and it is indicated on which experiments data is available.

  8. Voyager 2's encounter with Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, William I.

    1990-01-01

    The results of Voyager 2 observations of Neptune are reviewed. Observations of Neptune's Great Dark Spot, rotation atmosphere, magnetic field, rings, and satellites are discussed. Also, observations of Triton are considered, noting the presence of geyser activity on the satellite. Several photographs of features on both Neptune and Triton are presented.

  9. 46 CFR 122.503 - Voyage plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Voyage plan. 122.503 Section 122.503 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Preparations...

  10. 46 CFR 122.503 - Voyage plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Voyage plan. 122.503 Section 122.503 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Preparations...