Sample records for vtol aircraft

  1. Trust Control of VTOL Aircraft Part Deux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Thrust control of Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft has always been a debatable issue. In most cases, it comes down to the fundamental question of throttle versus collective. Some aircraft used throttle(s), with a fore and aft longitudinal motion, some had collectives, some have used Thrust Levers where the protocol is still "Up is Up and Down is Down," and some have incorporated both throttles and collectives when designers did not want to deal with the Human Factors issues. There have even been combinations of throttles that incorporated an arc that have been met with varying degrees of success. A previous review was made of nineteen designs without attempting to judge the merits of the controller. Included in this paper are twelve designs entered in competition for the 1961 Tri-Service VTOL transport. Entries were from a Bell/Lockheed tiltduct, a North American tiltwing, a Vanguard liftfan, and even a Sikorsky tiltwing. Additional designs were submitted from Boeing Wichita (direct lift), Ling-Temco-Vought with its XC-142 tiltwing, Boeing Vertol's tiltwing, Mcdonnell's compound and tiltwing, and the Douglas turboduct and turboprop designs. A private party submitted a re-design of the Breguet 941 as a VTOL transport. It is important to document these 53 year-old designs to preserve a part of this country's aviation heritage.

  2. Study of dynamics of X-14B VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loscutoff, W. V.; Mitchiner, J. L.; Roesener, R. A.; Seevers, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Research was initiated to investigate certain facets of modern control theory and their integration with a digital computer to provide a tractable flight control system for a VTOL aircraft. Since the hover mode is the most demanding phase in the operation of a VTOL aircraft, the research efforts were concentrated in this mode of aircraft operation. Research work on three different aspects of the operation of the X-14B VTOL aircraft is discussed. A general theory for optimal, prespecified, closed-loop control is developed. The ultimate goal was optimal decoupling of the modes of the VTOL aircraft to simplify the pilot's task of handling the aircraft. Modern control theory is used to design deterministic state estimators which provide state variables not measured directly, but which are needed for state variable feedback control. The effect of atmospheric turbulence on the X-14B is investigated. A maximum magnitude gust envelope within which the aircraft could operate stably with the available control power is determined.

  3. The design of digital-adaptive controllers for VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, R. F.; Broussard, J. R.; Berry, P. W.

    1976-01-01

    Design procedures for VTOL automatic control systems have been developed and are presented. Using linear-optimal estimation and control techniques as a starting point, digital-adaptive control laws have been designed for the VALT Research Aircraft, a tandem-rotor helicopter which is equipped for fully automatic flight in terminal area operations. These control laws are designed to interface with velocity-command and attitude-command guidance logic, which could be used in short-haul VTOL operations. Developments reported here include new algorithms for designing non-zero-set-point digital regulators, design procedures for rate-limited systems, and algorithms for dynamic control trim setting.

  4. Benefits of VTOL aircraft in offshore petroleum logistics support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, D. E.; Shovlin, M. D.

    1975-01-01

    The mission suitability and potential economic benefits of advanced VTOL aircraft were investigated for logistics support of petroleum operations in the North Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. Concepts such as the tilt rotor and lift/cruise fan are promising for future operations beyond 150 miles offshore, where their high cruise efficiency provides savings in trip time, fuel consumption, and capital investment. Depending upon mission requirements, the aircraft operating costs are reduced by as much as 20 percent to 50 percent from those of current helicopters.

  5. Display/control requirements for VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, W. C.; Curry, R. E.; Kleinman, D. L.; Hollister, W. M.; Young, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    Quantative metrics were determined for system control performance, workload for control, monitoring performance, and workload for monitoring. Pilot tasks were allocated for navigation and guidance of automated commercial V/STOL aircraft in all weather conditions using an optimal control model of the human operator to determine display elements and design.

  6. A velocity-command controller for a VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    A technique is presented for calculating feedback and feedforward gain matrices that enable a VTOL aircraft to track input commands of forward and vertical velocity while maintaining acceptable responses to pilot inputs. Leverrier's algorithm is used for determining a set of state-variable, feedback gains that force the closed-loop poles and zeros of one pilot-input transfer function to pre-selected positions in the s-plane. This set of feedback gains is then used to calculate the feedback and feedforward gains for the velocity-command controller. The method is computationally attractive since the gains are determined by solving systems of linear, simultaneous equations. The method has been used in a digital simulation of the CH-47 helicopter to control longitudinal dynamics.

  7. A velocity-command controller for a VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    A technique is presented for calculating feedback and feedforward gain matrices that enable a VTOL aircraft to track input commands of forward and vertical velocity while maintaining acceptable responses to pilot inputs. Leverrier's algorithm is used for determining a set of state-variable, feedback gains that force the closed-loop poles and zeros of one pilot-input transfer function to pre-selected positions in the s-plane. This set of feedback gains is then used to calculate the feedback and feedforward gains for the velocity-command controller. The method is computationally attractive since the gains are determined by solving systems of linear, simultaneous equations. The method is used in a digital simulation of the CH-47 helicopter to control longitudinal dynamics.

  8. XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft on VTOL stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft undergoing tests on the VTOL stand. This allowed the engine and rotor system to undergo realistic testing before being committed to actual free flight. The XV-15s, manufactured by Bell, were involved in limited research at NASA/Dryden in 1980 and 1981. The development of the XV-15 Tiltrotor research aircraft was initiated in 1973 with joint Army/NASA funding as a 'proof of concept', or 'technology demonstrator' program, with two aircraft being built by Bell Helicopter Textron (BHT) in 1977. NASA Ames Research Center, where most of the NASA research is conducted, continues to be in charge of the joint NASA/Army/Bell program. The aircraft are powered by twin Lycoming T-53 turboshaft engines that are connected by a cross-shaft and drive three-bladed, 25 ft diameter metal rotors (the size extensively tested in a wind tunnel). The engines and main transmissions are located in wingtip nacelles to minimize the operational loads on the cross-shaft system and, with the rotors, tilt as a single unit. For takeoff, the proprotors and their engines are used in the straight-up position where the thrust is directed downward. The XV-15 then climbs vertically into the air like a helicopter. In this VTOL mode, the vehicle can lift off and hover for approximately one hour. Once off the ground, the XV-15 has the ability to fly in one of two different modes. It can fly as a helicopter, in the partially converted airplane mode. The XV-15 can also then convert from the helicopter mode to the airplane mode. This is accomplished by continuous rotation of the proprotors from the helicopter rotor position to the conventional airplane propeller position. During the ten to fifteen second conversion period, the aircraft speed increases and lift is transferred from the rotors to the wing. To land, the proprotors are rotated up to the helicopter rotor position and flown as a helicopter to a vertical landing.

  9. Ames aerodynamicists tested a wide variety of VTOL aircraft and helicopters during the 1960's Here

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Ames aerodynamicists tested a wide variety of VTOL aircraft and helicopters during the 1960's Here the Hiller rotorcycle YROE-1, made by Hiller Helicopter in nearby Palo Alto, California, hovers in front of the Ames Hangar. The Rotorcycle was a small, 500pound, single-place helicopter. Tests indicated that the vehicle was unsafe because of low yaw-control capability to the right; the design also had oor crashworthiness.

  10. Spiral approach navigation concepts for VTOL aircraft using a microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    Spiral approaches adjacent to the active runways of CTOL airports have been proposed as a means of effectively interfacing CTOL and VTOL landing operations. Assuming an airport equipped with a Microwave Landing System (MLS), a VTOL aircraft following a spiral approach path might, depending on the specific trajectory, pass alternatively in and out of the linear coverage of the MLS and thereby suffer degraded navigation performance. The objective of this study was to employ essentially state-of-the-art aided inertial navigation concepts to explore the expected navigation performance operating in the environment just described. Results show that aided inertial concepts utilizing simple body-mounted inertia systems may be adequate for an instrument landing if the MLS azimuth and Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) signal coverages extend to within a few feet of the ground.

  11. Flow visualization studies of VTOL aircraft models during Hover in ground effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mourtos, Nikos J.; Couillaud, Stephane; Carter, Dale; Hange, Craig; Wardwell, Doug; Margason, Richard J.

    1995-01-01

    A flow visualization study of several configurations of a jet-powered vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft model during hover in ground effect was conducted. A surface oil flow technique was used to observe the flow patterns on the lower surfaces of the model. There were significant configuration effects. Wing height with respect to fuselage, the presence of an engine inlet duct beside the fuselage, and nozzle pressure ratio are seen to have strong effects on the surface flow angles on the lower surface of the wing. This test was part of a program to improve the methods for predicting the hot gas ingestion (HGI) for jet-powered vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft. The tests were performed at the Jet Calibration and Hover Test (JCAHT) Facility at Ames Research Center.

  12. A Flight Study of the Conversion Maneuver of a Tilt-Duct VTOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapscott, Robert J.; Kelley, Henry L.

    1960-01-01

    Flight records are presented from an early flight test of a wing-tip mounted tilting-ducted-fan, vertical-take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft configuration. Time histories of the aircraft motions, control positions, and duct pitching-moment variation are presented to illustrate the characteristics of the aircraft in hovering, in conversion from hovering to forward flight, and in conversion from forward flight to hovering. The results indicate that during essentially continuous slow level- flight conversions, this aircraft experiences excessive longitudinal trim changes. Studies have shown that the large trim changes are caused primarily by the variation of aerodynamic moments acting on the duct units. Action of the duct-induced downwash on the horizontal stabilizer during the conversion also contributes to the longitudinal trim variations. Time histories of hovering and slow vertical descent in the final stages of landing in calm air show angular motions of the aircraft as great as +/- 10 deg. about all axes. Stick and pedal displacements required to control the aircraft during the landing maneuver were on the order of 50 to 60 percent of the total travel available.

  13. Benefits of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion to Achieve 4x Increase in Cruise Efficiency for a VTOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, William J.; Moore, Mark D.; Busan, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Electric propulsion enables radical new vehicle concepts, particularly for Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft because of their significant mismatch between takeoff and cruise power conditions. However, electric propulsion does not merely provide the ability to normalize the power required across the phases of flight, in the way that automobiles also use hybrid electric technologies. The ability to distribute the thrust across the airframe, without mechanical complexity and with a scale-free propulsion system, is a new degree of freedom for aircraft designers. Electric propulsion is scale-free in terms of being able to achieve highly similar levels of motor power to weight and efficiency across a dramatic scaling range. Applying these combined principles of electric propulsion across a VTOL aircraft permits an improvement in aerodynamic efficiency that is approximately four times the state of the art of conventional helicopter configurations. Helicopters typically achieve a lift to drag ratio (L/D) of between 4 and 5, while the VTOL aircraft designed and developed in this research were designed to achieve an L/D of approximately 20. Fundamentally, the ability to eliminate the problem of advancing and retreating rotor blades is shown, without resorting to unacceptable prior solutions such as tail-sitters. This combination of concept and technology also enables a four times increase in range and endurance while maintaining the full VTOL and hover capability provided by a helicopter. Also important is the ability to achieve low disc-loading for low ground impingement velocities, low noise and hover power minimization (thus reducing energy consumption in VTOL phases). This combination of low noise and electric propulsion (i.e. zero emissions) will produce a much more community-friendly class of vehicles. This research provides a review of the concept brainstorming, configuration aerodynamic and mission analysis, as well as subscale prototype construction and flight testing that verifies transition flight control. A final down-selected vehicle is also presented.

  14. NASA Langley Distributed Propulsion VTOL Tilt-Wing Aircraft Testing, Modeling, Simulation, Control, and Flight Test Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothhaar, Paul M.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Bacon, Barton J.; Gregory, Irene M.; Grauer, Jared A.; Busan, Ronald C.; Croom, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Control of complex Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) aircraft traversing from hovering to wing born flight mode and back poses notoriously difficult modeling, simulation, control, and flight-testing challenges. This paper provides an overview of the techniques and advances required to develop the GL-10 tilt-wing, tilt-tail, long endurance, VTOL aircraft control system. The GL-10 prototype's unusual and complex configuration requires application of state-of-the-art techniques and some significant advances in wind tunnel infrastructure automation, efficient Design Of Experiments (DOE) tunnel test techniques, modeling, multi-body equations of motion, multi-body actuator models, simulation, control algorithm design, and flight test avionics, testing, and analysis. The following compendium surveys key disciplines required to develop an effective control system for this challenging vehicle in this on-going effort.

  15. An investigation of automatic guidance concepts to steer a VTOL aircraft to a small aviation facility ship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Goka, T.; Phatak, A. V.; Schmidt, S. F.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed system model of a VTOL aircraft approaching a small aviation facility ship was developed and used to investigate several approach guidance concepts. A preliminary anaysis of the aircraft-vessel landing guidance requirements was conducted. The various subelements and constraints of the flight system are described including the landing scenario, lift fan aircraft, state rate feedback flight control, MLS-based navigation, sea state induced ship motion, and wake turbulence due to wind-over-deck effects. These elements are integrated into a systems model with various guidance concepts. Guidance is described in terms of lateral, vertical, and longitudinal axes steering modes and approach and landing phases divided by a nominal hover (or stationkeeping) point defined with respect to the landing pad. The approach guidance methods are evaluated, and the two better steering concepts are studied by both single pass and Monte Carlo statistical simulation runs. Four different guidance concepts are defined for further analysis for the landing phase of flight.

  16. Open airscrew VTOL concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepniewski, W. Z.; Tarczynski, T.

    1992-01-01

    The following concepts, based on using open airscrew(s) for VTOL maneuvers, are re-examined in light of current technology: (1) tip-driven helicopters, (2) compound helicopters; and (3) high-speed VTOL aircraft, represented by tiltrotors, tiltwings, retractoplanes and stoppable rotors. Criteria, permitting one to compare performance of aircraft using diverse lifting and propelling methods are established. Determination of currently possible performance, indication of near-future potentials, and comparison of those items with the baseline levels (as represented by contemporary shaft-driven helicopters, first generation tiltrotors, and commercial turboprop fixed-wind aircraft) constitutes bulk of this report.

  17. Studies in tilt-rotor VTOL aircraft aeroelasticity, volume 1. Ph.D. Thesis - Case Western Reserve Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    Aeroelastic and dynamic studies which complement and extend various aspects of technology applicable to tilt-rotor VTOL aircraft are discussed. Particular attention is given to proprotor/pylon whirl instability, a precession-type instability akin to propeller/nacelle whirl flutter. The blade flapping and pitch-change freedoms of a proprotor are shown to lead to a fundamentally different situation as regards the manner in which the precession-generated aerodynamic forces and moments act on the pylon and induce whirl flutter relative to that of a propeller. The implication of these forces and moments with regard to their capacity for instigating a whirl instability is examined, demonstrating why a proprotor can exhibit whirl flutter in either the backward or forward directions in contrast to a propeller which is found to always whirl in the backward direction. Analytical trend studies delineating the effect of several system design parameters on proprotor/pylon stability and response are shown.

  18. Experiment Design for Complex VTOL Aircraft with Distributed Propulsion and Tilt Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Landman, Drew

    2015-01-01

    Selected experimental results from a wind tunnel study of a subscale VTOL concept with distributed propulsion and tilt lifting surfaces are presented. The vehicle complexity and automated test facility were ideal for use with a randomized designed experiment. Design of Experiments and Response Surface Methods were invoked to produce run efficient, statistically rigorous regression models with minimized prediction error. Static tests were conducted at the NASA Langley 12-Foot Low-Speed Tunnel to model all six aerodynamic coefficients over a large flight envelope. This work supports investigations at NASA Langley in developing advanced configurations, simulations, and advanced control systems.

  19. Investigation of Flow Instabilities in the Inlet Ducts of DP-1C VTOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, Jan

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of flow instabilities in the inlet ducts of a two-engine vertical takeoff and landing aircraft DP-1C is described in this report. Recent tests revealed that the engines stall during run ups while the aircraft is operating on the ground. These pop stalls occurred at relatively low power levels, sometimes as low as 60 percent of the engine full speed. Inability to run the engines up to the full speed level is attributed to in-ground effects associated with hot gas ingestion. Such pop stalls were never experienced when the aircraft was tested on a elevated grid platform, which ensured that the aircraft was operating in out-of-the-ground-effect conditions. Based on available information on problems experienced with other vertical takeoff and landing aircraft designs, it was assumed that the engine stalls were caused by partial ingestion of hot gases streaming forward from the main exit nozzle under the aircraft inlets, which are very close to the ground. It was also suggested that the nose wheel undercarriage, located between the inlets, may generate vortices or an unstable wake causing intense mixing of hot exit gases with incoming inlet flow, which would enhance the hot gas ingestion. After running a short three-day series of tests with fully instrumented engine inlets, it is now believed the most probable reason for engine pop stalls are random ingestions of a vortex generated between the two streams moving in opposite directions: outbound hot gas stream from the main nozzle close to the ground and inbound inlet flow above. Originally, the vortex is in a horizontal plane. However, at a certain velocity ratio of these two streams, the vortex attaches either to the ground or the aircraft surface at one end and the other end is swallowed by one of the aircraft inlets. Once the vortex enters the inlet duct, a puff of hot air can be sucked through the vortex core into the engine, which causes a serious inlet flow field distortion followed by an engine stall. Once the engine stalls, the outflow from the inlet pushes the vortex away and the engine resumes normal operation. This hypothesis needs to be verified experimentally; e.g., by extensive smoke flow visualization ahead of the aircraft inlets.

  20. Modelling and Control of a Convertible VTOL Aircraft J. Escareo, S. Salazar and R. Lozano.

    E-print Network

    Sontag, Eduardo

    architecture. I. INTRODUCTION Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are used in a wide variety of missions, like forward velocity like forest fire detection or desert reconnaissance, usually use fixed-wing vehicles the control of the T-wing aircraft, which is a twin-engine tailsitter UAV that uses an LQR algorithm applied

  1. An investigation into the vertical axis control power requirements for landing VTOL type aircraft onboard nonaviation ships in various sea states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, M. E.; Roskam, J.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of determining the vertical axis control requirements for landing a VTOL aircraft on a moving ship deck in various sea states is examined. Both a fixed-base piloted simulation and a nonpiloted simulation were used to determine the landing performance as influenced by thrust-to-weight ratio, vertical damping, and engine lags. The piloted simulation was run using a fixed-based simulator at Ames Research center. Simplified versions of an existing AV-8A Harrier model and an existing head-up display format were used. The ship model used was that of a DD963 class destroyer. Simplified linear models of the pilot, aircraft, ship motion, and ship air-wake turbulence were developed for the nonpiloted simulation. A unique aspect of the nonpiloted simulation was the development of a model of the piloting strategy used for shipboard landing. This model was refined during the piloted simulation until it provided a reasonably good representation of observed pilot behavior.

  2. VTOL in ground effect flows for closely spaced jets. [to predict pressure and upwash forces on aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Migdal, D.; Hill, W. G., Jr.; Jenkins, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Results of a series of in ground effect twin jet tests are presented along with flow models for closely spaced jets to help predict pressure and upwash forces on simulated aircraft surfaces. The isolated twin jet tests revealed unstable fountains over a range of spacings and jet heights, regions of below ambient pressure on the ground, and negative pressure differential in the upwash flow field. A separate computer code was developed for vertically oriented, incompressible jets. This model more accurately reflects fountain behavior without fully formed wall jets, and adequately predicts ground isobars, upwash dynamic pressure decay, and fountain lift force variation with height above ground.

  3. A translational velocity command system for VTOL low speed flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrick, V. K.

    1982-01-01

    A translational velocity flight controller, suitable for very low speed maneuvering, is described and its application to a large class of VTOL aircraft from jet lift to propeller driven types is analyzed. Estimates for the more critical lateral axis lead to the conclusion that the controller would provide a jet lift (high disk loading) VTOL aircraft with satisfactory "hands off" station keeping in operational conditions more stringent than any specified in current or projected requirements. It also seems likely that ducted fan or propeller driven (low disk loading) VTOL aircraft would have acceptable hovering handling qualities even in high turbulence, although in these conditions pilot intervention to maintain satisfactory station keeping would probably be required for landing in restricted areas.

  4. Analysis of selected VTOL concepts for a civil transportation mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. B., III; Bowles, J. V.; Foster, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    As part of defining the needs and technology requirements for VTOL aircraft research and development, the objective of this paper is to study the application of two tilt propulsion concept VTOL aircraft to the business/executive transport mission. The two concepts selected for study are the tilt jet concept utilizing rotating turbofan engines for both vertical lift and cruise thrust, and the tilt rotor concept using relatively low disc loading propellers for hover and cruise. Overall mission costs, including the time-value cost of the executives, was computed for a selected range of mission distances, up to the design mission range of 750 nm (1400 km). The total trip cost was also compared to that of a conventional helicopter/business jet combination for a typical executive transport mission.

  5. Design and evaluation of an integrated flight-control system concept for manual IFR VTOL operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrick, V. K.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    An integrated flight controller, display, and power management system design, suitable for all-weather VTOL flight operations onto small ships, is described. The flight controller uncouples the aircraft's translational and attitude motions, which are then commanded by the pilot, through separate controls. A head-up display provides situation and flight director information sufficient to permit zero-zero landings. The system was applied to a VTOL transport model and simulated on moving base simulators at Ames Research Center. Presented herein are results concerning the aircraft's general handling qualities and, in particular, its handling qualities during IFR landings onto a moving ship.

  6. VTOL shipboard letdown guidance system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phatak, A. V.; Karmali, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative letdown guidance strategies are examined for landing of a VTOL aircraft onboard a small aviation ship under adverse environmental conditions. Off line computer simulation of shipboard landing task is utilized for assessing the relative merits of the proposed guidance schemes. The touchdown performance of a nominal constant rate of descent (CROD) letdown strategy serves as a benchmark for ranking the performance of the alternative letdown schemes. Analysis of ship motion time histories indicates the existence of an alternating sequence of quiescent and rough motions called lulls and swells. A real time algorithms lull/swell classification based upon ship motion pattern features is developed. The classification algorithm is used to command a go/no go signal to indicate the initiation and termination of an acceptable landing window. Simulation results show that such a go/no go pattern based letdown guidance strategy improves touchdown performance.

  7. VTOL periodic aerodynamic loadings: The problems, what is being done and what needs to be done

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. White

    1966-01-01

    An attempt is made in this paper to establish the present state of the art in predicting periodic loads associated with finite-bladed rotors of VTOL aircraft. It is concluded that, although significant advances are being made through the development of high-speed digital computing machines, a significant amount of basic aerodynamic research will now be required.

  8. Maintenance cost studies of rotary wing commercial transport aircraft

    E-print Network

    Ausrotas, Raymond A.

    1974-01-01

    Introduction: The vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft market has had substantial growth in the period of the last ten years when one considers the overall number of aircraft in use. The military fleet has continued ...

  9. NASA Puffin Electric Tailsitter VTOL Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Electric propulsion offers dramatic new vehicle mission capabilities, not possible with turbine or reciprocating engines; including high reliability and efficiency, low engine weight and maintenance, low cooling drag and volume required, very low noise and vibration, and zero emissions. The only penalizing characteristic of electric propulsion is the current energy storage technology level, which is set to triple over the next 5-10 years through huge new investments in this field. Most importantly, electric propulsion offers incredible new degrees of freedom in aircraft system integration to achieve unprecedented levels of aerodynamic, propulsive, control, and structural synergistic coupling. A unique characteristic of electric propulsion is that the technology is nearly scale-free, permitting small motors to be parallelized for fail-safe redundancy, or distributed across the airframe for tightly coupled interdisciplinary functionality without significant impacts in motor-controller efficiency or specific weight. Maximizing the potential benefit of electric propulsion is dependent on applying this technology to synergistic mission concepts. The vehicle missions with the most benefit include those which constrain environmental impact (or limit noise, exhaust, or emission signatures) are short range, or where large differences exist in the propulsion system sizing between takeoff and cruise conditions. Electric propulsion offers the following unique capabilities that other propulsion systems can t provide for short range Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft; elimination of engine noise and emissions, drastic reduction in engine cooling and radiated heat, drastic reduction in vehicle vibration levels, drastic improvement in reliability and operating costs, variable speed output at full power, for improved cruise efficiency at low tip-speed, elimination of high/hot sizing penalty, and reduction of engine-out penalties.

  10. Digital adaptive controllers for VTOL vehicles. Volume 1: Concept evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Stein, G.; Pratt, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    A digital self-adaptive flight control system was developed for flight test in the VTOL approach and landing technology (VALT) research aircraft (a modified CH-47 helicopter). The control laws accept commands from an automatic on-board guidance system. The primary objective of the control laws is to provide good command-following with a minimum cross-axis response. Three attitudes and vertical velocity are separately commanded. Adaptation of the control laws is based on information from rate and attitude gyros and a vertical velocity measurement. The final design resulted from a comparison of two different adaptive concepts--one based on explicit parameter estimates from a real-time maximum-likelihood estimation algorithm, the other based on an implicit model reference adaptive system. The two designs were compared on the basis of performance and complexity.

  11. Design of a new VTOL UAV by combining cycloidal blades and FanWing propellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daizong

    Though the propelling principles of Cycloidal Blades and FanWing propellers are totally different, their structures are similar. Therefore, it is possible to develop an aircraft which combines both types of the propulsion modes of Cyclogyro and FanWing aircrafts. For this kind of aircraft, Cycloidal Blades Mode provides capabilities of Vertical Take-Off and Landing, Instantly Alterable Vector Thrusting, and Low Noise. The FanWing Mode provides capabilities of High Efficiency, Energy-Saving, and Cannot-Stall Low-Speed Cruising. Besides, because both of these propellers are observably better than conventional screw propeller in terms of efficiency, so this type of VTOL UAV could fly with Long Endurance. Furthermore, the usage of flying-wing takes advantage of high structure utilization and high aerodynamic efficiency, eliminates the interference of fuselage and tail, and overcomes flying wing's shortcomings of pitching direction instability and difficulty of control. A new magnetic suspension track-type cycloidal propulsion system is also presented in the paper to solve problems of heavy structure, high mechanical resistance, and low reliability in the traditional cycloidal propellers. The further purpose of this design is to trying to make long-endurance VTOL aircraft and Practical Flying Cars possible in reality, and to bring a new era to the aviation industry.

  12. Performance, physiological, and oculometer evaluation of VTOL landing displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, R. A.; Stackhouse, S. P.; Graffunder, K.

    1979-01-01

    A methodological approach to measuring workload was investigated for evaluation of new concepts in VTOL aircraft displays. Physiological, visual response, and conventional flight performance measures were recorded for landing approaches performed in the NASA Visual Motion Simulator (VMS). Three displays (two computer graphic and a conventional flight director), three crosswind amplitudes, and two motion base conditions (fixed vs. moving base) were tested in a factorial design. Multivariate discriminant functions were formed from flight performance and/or visual response variables. The flight performance variable discriminant showed maximum differentation between crosswind conditions. The visual response measure discriminant maximized differences between fixed vs. motion base conditions and experimental displays. Physiological variables were used to attempt to predict the discriminant function values for each subject/condition trial. The weights of the physiological variables in these equations showed agreement with previous studies. High muscle tension, light but irregular breathing patterns, and higher heart rate with low amplitude all produced higher scores on this scale and thus represent higher workload levels.

  13. Evaluation of the navigation performance of shipboard-VTOL-landing guidance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Paulk, C. H., Jr.; Steck, S. A.; Schmidt, S. F.; Merz, A. W.

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the performance of a VTOL aircraft landing approach navigation system that receives data (1) from either a microwave scanning beam (MSB) or a radar-transponder (R-T) landing guidance system, and (2) information data-linked from an aviation facility ship. State-of-the-art low-cost-aided inertial techniques and variable gain filters were used in the assumed navigation system. Compensation for ship motion was accomplished by a landing pad deviation vector concept that is a measure of the landing pad's deviation from its calm sea location. The results show that the landing guidance concepts were successful in meeting all of the current Navy navigation error specifications, provided that vector magnitude of the allowable error, rather than the error in each axis, is a permissible interpretation of acceptable performance. The success of these concepts, however, is strongly dependent on the distance measuring equipment bias. In addition, the 'best possible' closed-loop tracking performance achievable with the assumed point-mass VTOL aircraft guidance concept is demonstrated.

  14. Small V/STOL aircraft analysis, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, K. R., Jr.; Belina, F. W.

    1974-01-01

    A study has been made of the economic viability of advanced V/STOL aircraft concepts in performing general aviation missions. A survey of general aviation aircraft users, operators, and manufacturers indicated that personnel transport missions formulated around business executive needs, commuter air service, and offshore oil supply are the leading potential areas of application using VTOL aircraft. Advanced VTOL concepts potentially available in the late 1970 time period were evaluated as alternatives to privately owned contemporary aircraft and commercial airline service in satisfying these personnel transport needs. Economic analysis incorporating the traveler's value of time as the principle figure of merit were used to identify the relative merits of alternative VTOL air transportation concepts.

  15. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D. (1732 N. Grand Oaks, Altadena, CA 91001); Lissaman, Peter B. S. (3276 Rubio Canyon Rd., Altadena, CA 91001); Morgan, Walter R. (3217 Amarillo Ave., Simi Valley, CA 93063); Radkey, Robert L. (70 Eddystone Ct., Redwood City, CA 94065)

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  16. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  17. Ground facilities for a VTOL intercity air transportation system

    E-print Network

    Allen Edward

    1970-01-01

    Introduction: This study covers the design of ground facilities, or metroports, for a future form of short haul intercity air transportation, the VTOL Airbus system as described by previous M.I.T. Flight Transportation ...

  18. Preliminary study of an integral fan lift/cruise engine for a 100 passenger VTOL transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Civinskas, K. C.

    1973-01-01

    A simplified mission analysis was performed to determine an optimum engine cycle for a 100-passenger VTOL transport with a range of 500 statute miles. The aircraft had a total of eight integral fan lift engines, three of which serve as cruise engines. Fan pressure ratio was varied from 1.2 to 1.3, overall pressure ratio from 7 to 13, and turbine inlet temperature from 2460 to 2860 R. Bypass ratio was selected to meet a 500-foot altitude flyover noise goal of 95 PNdB. Airplane gross weight and direct operating cost (DOC) were calculated. The lowest DOC of 1.82 cents per seat-mile was achieved with a fan pressure ratio of 1.3, overall pressure ratio of 12, and turbine inlet temperature of 2860 R.

  19. Navigation and guidance requirements for commercial VTOL operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, W. C.; Hollister, W. M.; Howell, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has undertaken a research program to develop the navigation, guidance, control, and flight management technology base needed by Government and industry in establishing systems design concepts and operating procedures for VTOL short-haul transportation systems in the 1980s time period. The VALT (VTOL Automatic Landing Technology) Program encompasses the investigation of operating systems and piloting techniques associated with VTOL operations under all-weather conditions from downtown vertiports; the definition of terminal air traffic and airspace requirements; and the development of avionics including navigation, guidance, controls, and displays for automated takeoff, cruise, and landing operations. The program includes requirements analyses, design studies, systems development, ground simulation, and flight validation efforts.

  20. Lateral control system design for VTOL landing on a DD963 in high sea states. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodson, M.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of designing lateral control systems for the safe landing of VTOL aircraft on small ships is addressed. A ship model is derived. The issues of estimation and prediction of ship motions are discussed, using optimal linear linear estimation techniques. The roll motion is the most important of the lateral motions, and it is found that it can be predicted for up to 10 seconds in perfect conditions. The automatic landing of the VTOL aircraft is considered, and a lateral controller, defined as a ship motion tracker, is designed, using optimal control techniqes. The tradeoffs between the tracking errors and the control authority are obtained. The important couplings between the lateral motions and controls are demonstrated, and it is shown that the adverse couplings between the sway and the roll motion at the landing pad are significant constraints in the tracking of the lateral ship motions. The robustness of the control system, including the optimal estimator, is studied, using the singular values analysis. Through a robustification procedure, a robust control system is obtained, and the usefulness of the singular values to define stability margins that take into account general types of unstructured modelling errors is demonstrated. The minimal destabilizing perturbations indicated by the singular values analysis are interpreted and related to the multivariable Nyquist diagrams.

  1. Position control of a ducted fan VTOL UAV in crosswind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Pflimlin; P. Soueres; T. Hamel

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a control strategy to stabilize the position of a vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in crosswind despite unknown aerodynamic effects. The proposed approach overcomes the problem of gyroscopic coupling by taking advantage of both the structure of the thrust mechanism, which is made of two counter rotating propellers, and the control strategy which

  2. Avionics system design of a mini VTOL UAV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Ilarslan; M. Kemal Bayrakceken; Aydemir Arisoy

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the avionics system design of a mini vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) capable Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) namely a Quadrotor will be described. The Turkish Air Force Academy personnel together with a team of cadets have been working on the design and development of an autonomous quadrotor vehicle for educational purposes. The main emphasize was to study

  3. Digital adaptive controllers for VTOL vehicles. Volume 2: Software documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Stein, G.; Pratt, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    The VTOL approach and landing test (VALT) adaptive software is documented. Two self-adaptive algorithms, one based on an implicit model reference design and the other on an explicit parameter estimation technique were evaluated. The organization of the software, user options, and a nominal set of input data are presented along with a flow chart and program listing of each algorithm.

  4. Hovering flight and vertical landing control of a VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicle using optical flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Herisse; Francois-xavier Russotto; Tarek Hamel; Robert E. Mahony

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear controller for hovering flight and touchdown control for a vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) using inertial optical flow. The VTOL vehicle is assumed to be a rigid body, equipped with a minimum sensor suite (camera and IMU), manoeuvring over a textured flat target plane. Two different tasks are considered in this

  5. Concentric circles based simple optical landing aid for vertical takeoff and landing aircrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murshid, Syed H.; Enaya, Rayan; Lovell, Gregory L.

    2014-09-01

    Vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircrafts such as helicopters and drones, add a flexible degree of operation to airborne vehicles. In order to operate these devices in low light situations, where it is difficult to determine slope of the landing surface, a lightweight and standalone device is proposed here. This small optical device can be easily integrated into current VTOL systems. An optical projector consisting of low power, light weight, solid state laser along with minimal optics is utilized to illuminate the landing surface with donut shaped circles and coaxial centralized dot. This device can placed anywhere on the aircraft and a properly placed fiber system can be used to illuminate the surface beneath the bottom of the VTOL aircraft in a fashion that during operation, when the aircraft is parallel to the landing surface, the radius between the central dot and outer ring(s) are equidistant for the entire circumference; however, when there the landing surface of the VTOL aircraft is not parallel to the landing strip, the radial distance between two opposite sides of the circle and central dot will be unequal. The larger this distortion, the greater the difference will be between the opposite sides of the circle. Visual confirmation or other optical devices can be used to determine relative alignment of the projector output allowing the pilot to make proper adjustments as they approach the landing surface to ensure safe landings. Simulated and experimental results from a prototype optical projector are presented here.

  6. Simulation evaluation of two VTOL control/display systems in IMC approach and shipboard landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrick, V. K.

    1984-01-01

    Two control/display systems, which differed in overall complexity but were both designed for VTOL flight operations to and from small ships in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), were tested using the Ames Flight Simulator for Advanced Aircraft (FSAA). Both systems have attitude command in transition and horizontal-velocity command in hover; the more complex system also has longitudinal-acceleration and flightpath-angle command in transition, and vertical-velocity command in hover. The most important overall distinction between the two systems for the viewpoint of implementation is that in one - the more complex - engine power and nozzle position are operated indirectly through flight controllers, whereas in the other they are operated directly by the pilot. Simulated landings were made on a moving model of a DD 963 Spruance-class destroyer. Acceptable transitions can be performed in turbulence of 3 m/sec rms using either system. Acceptable landings up to sea state 6 can be performed using the more complex system, and up to sea state 5 using the other system.

  7. Stability and control of VTOL capable airships in hovering flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtiss, H. C., Jr.; Sumantran, V.

    1985-01-01

    The stability and control characteristics of an airship equipped with lifting rotors to provide a modest VTOL capability are discussed. The rotors are used for control and maneuvering in near-hovering flight. Configurations with two, three, and four lifting rotors are examined and compared with respect to control capabilities and dynamic response characteristics. Linearized models of the dynamics are employed for this study. A new approach to the prediction of rotor derivatives for operation near zero thrust in hover is presented. It is found that all three configurations have similar control and response characteristics. The responses are characterized by long time constants and low levels of angular damping.

  8. A look at V/STOL for business aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feistel, T. W.; Stewart, E. C.; Gerdes, R. M.; Smith, K. R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Attempt to ascertain the economic viability of the V/STOL capability for business aircraft and the manner in which this viability depends on the aircraft concept. A cost-benefit analysis is presented which indicates that a VTOL business aircraft would be more viable economically than a contemporary turbine-powered business aircraft. The combination of traveler's time value and trip distance for which each aircraft dominates is shown. The significance of disk loading in V/STOL concept application is discussed, and preliminary design configuration studies for three different business-aircraft-sized V/STOLs, using three concepts covering a range of disk loading, are presented as examples. Finally, a discussion of operational aspects of interest to future users of V/STOL business aircraft is presented which centers around the requirements for routine IFR terminal-area operations.

  9. Study of aircraft in intraurban transportation systems, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, E. G.; Kesling, P. H.; Matteson, D. E.; Sherwood, D. E.; Tuck, W. R., Jr.; Vaughn, L. A.

    1971-01-01

    An investigation of three aircraft concepts, deflected slipstream STOL, helicopter VTOL, and fixed wing STOL, is presented. An attempt was made to determine the best concept for the intraurban transportation system. Desirability of the concept was based on ease of maintenance, development timing, reliability, operating costs, and the noise produced. Indications are that the deflected slipstream STOL is best suited for intraurban transportation. Tables and graphs are included.

  10. Flight tests of the total automatic flight control system (Tafcos) concept on a DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehrend, W. R., Jr.; Meyer, G.

    1980-01-01

    Flight control systems capable of handling the complex operational requirements of the STOL and VTOL aircraft designs as well as designs using active control concepts are considered. Emphasis is placed on the total automatic flight control system (TACOS) (TAFCOS). Flight test results which verified the performance of the system concept are presented.

  11. Design and development of an unconventional VTOL micro air vehicle: The Cyclocopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, Moble; Chopra, Inderjit

    2012-06-01

    This paper discusses the systematic experimental and vehicle design/development studies conducted at the University of Maryland which culminated in the development of the first flying Cyclocopter in the history. Cyclocopter is a novel Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) aircraft, which utilizes cycloidalrotors (cyclorotors), a revolutionary horizontal axis propulsion concept, that has many advantages such as higher aerodynamic efficiency, maneuverability and high-speed forward flight capability when compared to a conventional helicopter rotor. The experimental studies included a detailed parametric study to understand the effect of rotor geometry and blade kinematics on cyclorotor hover performance. Based on the experimental results, higher blade pitch angles were found to improve thrust and increase the power loading (thrust per unit power) of the cyclorotor. Asymmetric pitching with higher pitch angle at the top than at the bottom produced better power loading. The chordwise optimum pitching axis location was observed to be around 25-35% of the blade chord. Because of the flow curvature effects, the cycloidal rotor performance was a strong function of the chord/radius ratio. The optimum chord/radius ratios were extremely high, around 0.5-0.8, depending on the blade pitching amplitude. A flow field investigation was also conducted using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to unravel the physics behind thrust production of a cyclorotor. PIV studies indicated evidence of a stall delay as well as possible increases in lift on the blades from the presence of a leading edge vortex. The goal of all these studies was to understand and optimize the performance of a micro-scale cyclorotor so that it could be used in a flying vehicle. An optimized cyclorotor was used to develop a 200 gram cyclocopter capable of autonomous stable hover using an onboard feedback controller.

  12. Fluidic Emergency Thruster for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honda, T. S.

    1972-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication and test evaluation of two prototype fluidic emergency thrusters (FET) for aircraft stabilization are discussed. The fluidic control units were designed to provide, between two diametrically opposed nozzles, a thrust differential proportional to an input voltage signal. The emergency roll control requirements of the X-14 VTOL research aircraft were defined as typical design goals. Two control units, one on each wing tip, are intended to provide a maximum thrust of 224 pounds per unit. The units are designed to operate with 2500 psig, 2000 F gas from a solid propellant gas generator. The emergency system including the gas generator was designed to add less than 11 pounds per wing tip. The operating time under emergency conditions was specified as five seconds. The fluidic emergency thruster is similar in concept to a JATO system but has the added feature of controllable thrust.

  13. Engine selection for transport and combat aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The procedures that are used to select engines for transport and combat aircraft are discussed. In general, the problem is to select the engine parameters including engine size in such a way that all constraints are satisfied and airplane performance is maximized. This is done for four different classes of aircraft: (1) a long haul conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) transport, (2) a short haul vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) transport, (3) a long range supersonic transport (SST), and (4) a fighter aircraft. For the commercial airplanes the critical constraints have to do with noise while for the fighter, maneuverability requirements define the engine. Generally, the resultant airplane performance (range or payload) is far less than that achievable without these constraints and would suffer more if nonoptimum engines were selected.

  14. Description of the VTOL Approach and Landing Technology (VALT) CH-47 research system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, J. R.; Niessen, F. R.; Garren, J. F., Jr.; Abbott, T. S.

    1979-01-01

    The Langley Research Center modified a CH-47B helicopter to provide a general-purpose variable-stability capability for the VTOL approach and landing technology (VALT) program. The functional aspects and capabilities of the overall system are described. Automatic decelerating approach data are presented to illustrate the performance of the overall system.

  15. The development of a UGV-mounted automated refueling system for VTOL UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, Mike; Burmeister, Aaron; Nelson, Travis; Denewiler, Thomas; Mullens, Kathy

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the latest efforts to develop an Automated UAV Mission System (AUMS) for small vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). In certain applications such as force protection, perimeter security, and urban surveillance a VTOL UAV can provide far greater utility than fixed-wing UAVs or ground-based sensors. The VTOL UAV can operate much closer to an object of interest and can provide a hover-and-stare capability to keep its sensors trained on an object, while the fixed wing UAV would be forced into a higher altitude loitering pattern where its sensors would be subject to intermittent blockage by obstacles and terrain. The most significant disadvantage of a VTOL UAV when compared to a fixed-wing UAV is its reduced flight endurance. AUMS addresses this disadvantage by providing forward staging, refueling, and recovery capabilities for the VTOL UAV through a host unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), which serves as a launch/recovery platform and service station. The UGV has sufficient payload capacity to carry UAV fuel for multiple launch, recovery, and refuel iterations. The UGV also provides a highly mobile means of forward deploying a small UAV into hazardous areas unsafe for personnel, such as chemically or biologically contaminated areas. Teaming small UAVs with large UGVs can decrease risk to personnel and expand mission capabilities and effectiveness. There are numerous technical challenges being addressed by these development efforts. Among the challenges is the development and integration of a precision landing system compact and light enough to allow it to be mounted on a small VTOL UAV while providing repeatable landing accuracy to safely land on the AUMS. Another challenge is the design of a UGV-transportable, expandable, self-centering landing pad that contains hardware and safety devices for automatically refueling the UAV. A third challenge is making the design flexible enough to accommodate different types of VTOL UAVs, such as the AAI iSTAR ducted-fan vehicle and small helicopter UAVs. Finally, a common command-and-control architecture which supports the UAV, UGV, and AUMS must be developed and interfaced with these systems to allow fully autonomous collaborative behaviors. Funded by the Joint Robotics Program, AUMS is part of a joint effort with the Air Force Research Laboratory and the Army Missile Research Development and Engineering Command. The objective is to develop and demonstrate UGVUAV teaming concepts and work with the warfighter to ensure that future upgrades are focused on operational requirements. This paper describes the latest achievements in AUMS development and some of the military program and first responder situations that could benefit from this system.

  16. Piloting Vertical Flight Aircraft: A Conference on Flying Qualities and Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanken, Christopher L. (editor); Whalley, Matthew S. (editor)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains papers from a specialists' meeting entitled 'Piloting Vertical Flight Aircraft: A Conference on Flying Qualities and Human Factors.' Vertical flight aircraft, including helicopters and a variety of Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) concepts, place unique requirements on human perception, control, and performance for the conduct of their design missions. The intent of this conference was to examine, for these vehicles, advances in: (1) design of flight control systems for ADS-33C standards; (2) assessment of human factors influences of cockpit displays and operational procedures; (3) development of VTOL design and operational criteria; and (4) development of theoretical methods or models for predicting pilot/vehicle performance and mission suitability. A secondary goal of the conference was to provide an initial venue for enhanced interaction between human factors and handling qualities specialists.

  17. Effect of crossflow velocity on the generation of lift fan jet noise in VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimpert, D. L.; Fogg, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    Analytical studies based on a turbulent mixing noise prediction technique indicate that jet noise power levels are increased when a jet is situated in a crossflow. V/STOL model transport acoustic test data obtained in the NASA Ames 40 ft. x 80 ft. wind tunnel confirmed this jet noise power level increase due to crossflow. Increases up to 6 db at a Strouhal number of 2.5 and crossflow velocity to jet velocity ratio of 0.58 were observed. The power level increases observed in the experimental data confirm the predicted power level increases.

  18. Accurate Modeling and Robust Hovering Control for a Quad-rotor VTOL Aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinhyun Kim; Min-sung Kang

    2010-01-01

    Quad-robot type (QRT) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been developed for quick detection and observation of the circumstances\\u000a under calamity environment such as indoor fire spots. The UAV is equipped with four propellers driven by each electric motor,\\u000a an embedded controller, an Inertial Navigation System (INS) using three rate gyros and accelerometers, a CCD (Charge Coupled\\u000a Device) camera with wireless

  19. Accurate Modeling and Robust Hovering Control for a Quad-rotor VTOL Aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinhyun Kim; Min-Sung Kang

    \\u000a Quad-robot type (QRT) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been developed for quick detection and observation of the circumstances\\u000a under calamity environment such as indoor fire spots. The UAV is equipped with four propellers driven by each electricmotor,\\u000a an embedded controller, an Inertial Navigation System (INS) using three rate gyros and accelerometers, a CCD (Charge Coupled\\u000a Device) camera with wireless communication

  20. Rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) powered spaceliner class vehicle can advantageously employ vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1995-01-01

    The subject is next generation orbital space transporation, taken to be fully reusable non-staged 'aircraft like' systems targeted for routine, affordable access to space. Specifically, the takeoff and landing approach to be selected for such systems is considered, mainly from a propulsion viewpoint. Conventional wisdom has it that any transatmospheric-class vehicle which uses high-speed airbreathing propulsion modes (e.g., scramjet) intrinsically must utilize horizontal takeoff and landing, HTOHL. Although this may be true for all-airbreathing propulsion (i.e., no rocket content as in turboramjet propulsion), that emerging class of powerplant which integrally combines airbreathing and rocket propulsion, referred to as rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion, is considerably more flexible with respect to selecting takeoff/landing modes. In fact, it is proposed that any of the modes of interest may potentially be selected: HTOHL, VTOHL, VTOVL. To illustrate this surmise, the case of a previously documented RBCC-powered 'Spaceliner' class space transport concept, which is designed for vertical takeoff and landing, is examined. The 'RBCC' and 'Spaceliner' categories are first described for background. Departing form an often presumed HTOHL baseline, the leading design and operational advantages of moving to VTOVL are then elucidated. Technical substantiation that the RBCC approach, in fact, enables this capability (but also that of HTOHL and VTOVL) is provided, with extensive reference to case-in-point supporting studies. The paper closes with a set of conditional surmises bearing on its set of conclusions, which point up the operational cost advantages associated with selecting the vertical takeoff and landing mode combination (VTOL), uniquely offered by RBCC propulsion.

  1. The effect of engine component noise on V/STOL aircraft noise contours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogg, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical study of fly-over noise using noise contours to show the effects of varying airplane and path parameters. The method of approach was to synthesize engine component noise spectra and exercise these components along given flight paths to measure the individual and total fly-over effect as a function of noise footprint area. The study was carried out in two phases. Phase 1 utilized a research type aircraft and Phase 2 used an advanced VTOL aircraft. The effect of cross flow was considered for both inlet and exhaust sections of the engine.

  2. Study of aircraft in intraurban transportation systems, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, E. G.; Kesling, P. H.; Matteson, H. C.; Sherwood, D. E.; Tuck, W. R., Jr.; Vaughn, L. A.

    1971-01-01

    An analysis of an effective short range, high density computer transportation system for intraurban systems is presented. The seven county Detroit, Michigan, metropolitan area, was chosen as the scenario for the analysis. The study consisted of an analysis and forecast of the Detroit market through 1985, a parametric analysis of appropriate short haul aircraft concepts and associated ground systems, and a preliminary overall economic analysis of a simplified total system designed to evaluate the candidate vehicles and select the most promising VTOL and STOL aircraft. Data are also included on the impact of advanced technology on the system, the sensitivity of mission performance to changes in aircraft characteristics and system operations, and identification of key problem areas that may be improved by additional research. The approach, logic, and computer models used are adaptable to other intraurban or interurban areas.

  3. The Advantages, Potentials and Safety of VTOL Suborbital Space Tourism Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridzuan Zakaria, N.; Nasrun, N.; Abu, J.; Jusoh, A.; Azim, L.; Said, A.; Ishak, S.; Rafidi Zakaria, N.

    2012-01-01

    Suborbital space tourism offers short-time zero gravity and Earth view from space to its customers, and a package that can offer the longest duration of zero- gravity and the most exciting Earth view from space to its customer can be considered a better one than the others. To increase the duration of zero gravity time involves the design and engineering of the suborbital vehicles, but to improve the view of Earth from space aboard a suborbital vehicle, involves more than just the design and engineering of the vehicle, but more on the location of where the vehicle operates. So far, most of the proposed operations of suborbital space tourism vehicles involve a flight to above 80km and less than 120km and taking-off and landing at the same location. Therefore, the operational location of the suborbital vehicle clearly determines the view of earth from space that will be available to its passengers. The proposed operational locations or spaceports usually are existing airports such as the airport at Curacao Island in the Caribbean or spaceport specially built at locations with economic interests such as Spaceport America in New Mexico or an airport that is going to be built, such as SpaceportSEA in Selangor, Malaysia. Suborbital vehicles operating from these spaceports can only offer limited views of Earth from space which is only few thousand kilometers of land or sea around their spaceports, and a clear view of only few hundred kilometers of land or sea directly below them, even though the views can be enhanced by the application of optical devices. Therefore, the view of some exotic locations such as a colorful coral reef, and phenomena such as a smoking volcano on Earth which may be very exciting when viewed from space will not be available on these suborbital tourism packages. The only possible way for the passengers of a suborbital vehicle to view such exotic locations and phenomena is by flying above or near them, and since it will not be economic and will be more risky for a suborbital vehicle to fly above such objects after taking off from a spaceport far away from the object, and later returning to the spaceport, the way to go is to have the operation of the suborbital vehicle near the exotic locations. Unfortunately, some exotic locations such as a tropical archipelago in the middle of a clear blue ocean or a permanent icecap on a mountain range with variety of vegetation around it due to differences in height may not have suitable runway to function as spaceport, and for such reason, VTOL (vertical take-off and landing) capability for suborbital tourism vehicle may be worth considered. VTOL suborbital space tourism vehicle may not operate from a remote uneconomical location even though the location is near an exotic viewing target, but such vehicle may operate from a luxury super yacht that can sail to exotic locations around the world, and during the journey, the passengers can be trained and prepared for the flight of their life. Such is an advantage and potential of VTOL suborbital space tourism vehicle, but VTOL operation can be more complex than a conventional operation and therefore will increase the risk of operation, and for this reason the safety issue for such operation is very significant. This paper explores and discusses some advantages and potentials of VTOL suborbital space tourism operations and safety issues related to them. It also describes a couple of proposed concepts of VTOL suborbital tourism vehicles and potential exotic locations on Earth to be viewed from such vehicles.

  4. A practical receding horizon control framework for path planning and control of autonomous vtol vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Chen, W.-H.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes an integrated path planning and tracking control framework for autonomous vertical-take-off-and-landing (VTOL) vehicles, particularly quadrotors. The path planning adopts a receding horizon strategy to repeatedly plan a local trajectory that satisfies both the vehicle dynamics and obstacle-free requirement. A tracking controller is then designed to track the planned path. The differential flatness property of the quadrotor is exploited in both path planner and tracking controller designs. The proposed framework is verified by real-time simulations incorporating online optimization.

  5. Potential and viscous flow in VTOL, STOL or CTOL propulsion system inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockman, N. O.

    1975-01-01

    A method was developed for analyzing the flow in subsonic axisymmetric inlets at arbitrary conditions of freestream velocity, incidence angle, and inlet mass flow. An improved version of the method is discussed and comparisons of results obtained with the original and improved methods are given. Comparisons with experiments are also presented for several inlet configurations and for various conditions of the boundary layer from insignificant to separated. Applications of the method are discussed, with several examples given for specific cases involving inlets for VTOL lift fans and for STOL engine nacelles.

  6. Preliminary Assessment of Using Gelled and Hybrid Propellant Propulsion for VTOL/SSTO Launch Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan; OLeary, Robert; Pelaccio, Dennis G.

    1998-01-01

    A novel, reusable, Vertical-Takeoff-and-Vertical-Takeoff-and-Landing, Single-Stage-to-Orbit (VTOL/SSTO) launch system concept, named AUGMENT-SSTO, is presented in this paper to help quantify the advantages of employing gelled and hybrid propellant propulsion system options for such applications. The launch vehicle system concept considered uses a highly coupled, main high performance liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen (LO2/LH2) propulsion system, that is used only for launch, while a gelled or hybrid propellant propulsion system auxiliary propulsion system is used during final orbit insertion, major orbit maneuvering, and landing propulsive burn phases of flight. Using a gelled or hybrid propellant propulsion system for major orbit maneuver burns and landing has many advantages over conventional VTOL/SSTO concepts that use LO2/LH2 propulsion system(s) burns for all phases of flight. The applicability of three gelled propellant systems, O2/H2/Al, O2/RP-1/Al, and NTO/MMH/Al, and a state-of-the-art (SOA) hybrid propulsion system are examined in this study. Additionally, this paper addresses the applicability of a high performance gelled O2/H2 propulsion system to perform the primary, as well as the auxiliary propulsion system functions of the vehicle.

  7. Far-field hover acoustic characteristics of the XV-15 tiltrotor aircraft with Advanced Technology Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, David A.; Wellman, Brent

    1991-05-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted with the XV-15 tilt-rotor VTOL aircraft in order to ascertain the noise-reduction efficacy of Advanced Technology Blades (ATBs). Attention is given to acoustic directivity characteristics in the lower hemisphere of the sound field. Modest overall sound pressure levels (OASPLs) were measured near the in-plane position, showing that thickness noise is not significant in hover when ATBs are used; rotor tip-speed reductions reduced the average OASPL by nearly 8 dB in-plane and by nearly 5 dB at 12.6 deg below the rotor plane.

  8. Far-field hover acoustic characteristics of the XV-15 tiltrotor aircraft with Advanced Technology Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, David A.; Wellman, Brent

    1991-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted with the XV-15 tilt-rotor VTOL aircraft in order to ascertain the noise-reduction efficacy of Advanced Technology Blades (ATBs). Attention is given to acoustic directivity characteristics in the lower hemisphere of the sound field. Modest overall sound pressure levels (OASPLs) were measured near the in-plane position, showing that thickness noise is not significant in hover when ATBs are used; rotor tip-speed reductions reduced the average OASPL by nearly 8 dB in-plane and by nearly 5 dB at 12.6 deg below the rotor plane.

  9. Conceptual design studies of 1985 commercial VTOL transports that utilized rotors, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, J. P.; Clark, R. D.; Alexander, H. R.

    1974-01-01

    Results of conceptual design studies of commercial rotary wing transport aircraft for the 1985 time period are presented. Two aircraft configurations, a tandem helicopter and a tilt rotor, were designed for a 200 nautical mile short haul mission with an upper limit of 100 passengers. In addition to the baseline aircraft two further designs of each configuration are included to assess the impact of external noise design criteria on the aircraft size, weight, and cost.

  10. Mystery Aircraft

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Federation of American Scientists offers this unique perspective into classified government aircraft, "some of which actually exist, some of which certainly do not, and all of which are fascinating in a way." This site is divided into two main sections. The first provides insight into several aircraft that were initially shrouded in secrecy but have since been revealed to the public. Some examples include the SR-71, the B-2, and the Hyper-X. The second section is devoted to aircraft that may or may not be currently under development or in operation by the US government. The much popularized Aurora is in this section, as well as exotic propulsion aircraft.

  11. Performance and Flowfield Measurements on a 10-inch Ducted Rotor VTOL UAV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Preston; Tung, Chee

    2004-01-01

    A ducted fan VTOL UAV with a 10-inch diameter rotor was tested in the US Army 7-by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel. The test conditions covered a range of angle of attack from 0 to 110 degrees to the freestream. The tunnel velocity was varied from 0 (simulating a hover condition) to 128 ft/sec in propeller mode. A six-component internal balance measured the aerodynamic loads for a range of model configurations. including the isolated rotor, the isolated duct, and the full configuration of the duct and rotor. For some conditions, hotwire velocity surveys were conducted along the inner and outer surface of the duct and across the downstream wake. In addition, fluorescent oil flow visualization allowed the flow separation patterns inside and outside of the duct to be mapped for a few test conditions. Two different duct shapes were tested to determine the performance effects of leading edge radius. For each duct, a range of rotor tip gap from 1%R to 4.5%R was tested to determine the performance penalty in hover and axial flight. Measured results are presented in terms of hover performance, hover performance in a crosswind, and high angle of attack performance in propeller mode. In each case, the effects of both tip gap and duct leading edge radius are illustrated using measurements. Some of the hover performance issues were also studied using a simple analytical method, and the results agreed with the measurements.

  12. Effect of rotor design tip seed on aerodynamic performance of a model VTOL lift fan under static and crossflow conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockman, N. O.; Loeffler, I. J.; Lieblein, S.

    1973-01-01

    Results are presented for a wind tunnel investigation of three single VTOL lift fan stages designed for the same overall total pressure ratio at different rotor tip speeds. The stages were tested in a model lift fan installed in a wing pod. The three stages had essentially the same aerodynamic performance along the operating line. However, differences in stage thrust characteristics were obtained when a variation in back pressure was imposed on the stages by cross-flow effects and thrust-vectoring louvers.

  13. Conceptual design studies of 1985 commercial VTOL transports that utilized rotors, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, J. P.; Clark, R.; Alexander, H. R.

    1974-01-01

    Results of conceptual design studies of tilt rotor and tandem helicopter aircraft for a 200 nautical mile commercial short haul transport mission are presented. The trade study data used in selecting the design point aircraft and technology details necessary to support the design conclusions are included.

  14. Development of a GPS/INS/MAG navigation system and waypoint navigator for a VTOL UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Oliver; Mönikes, Ralf; Wendel, Jan; Frietsch, Natalie; Schlaile, Christian; Trommer, Gert F.

    2007-04-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) can be used for versatile surveillance and reconnaissance missions. If a UAV is capable of flying automatically on a predefined path the range of possible applications is widened significantly. This paper addresses the development of the integrated GPS/INS/MAG navigation system and a waypoint navigator for a small vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) unmanned four-rotor helicopter with a take-off weight below 1 kg. The core of the navigation system consists of low cost inertial sensors which are continuously aided with GPS, magnetometer compass, and a barometric height information. Due to the fact, that the yaw angle becomes unobservable during hovering flight, the integration with a magnetic compass is mandatory. This integration must be robust with respect to errors caused by the terrestrial magnetic field deviation and interferences from surrounding electronic devices as well as ferrite metals. The described integration concept with a Kalman filter overcomes the problem that erroneous magnetic measurements yield to an attitude error in the roll and pitch axis. The algorithm provides long-term stable navigation information even during GPS outages which is mandatory for the flight control of the UAV. In the second part of the paper the guidance algorithms are discussed in detail. These algorithms allow the UAV to operate in a semi-autonomous mode position hold as well an complete autonomous waypoint mode. In the position hold mode the helicopter maintains its position regardless of wind disturbances which ease the pilot job during hold-and-stare missions. The autonomous waypoint navigator enable the flight outside the range of vision and beyond the range of the radio link. Flight test results of the implemented modes of operation are shown.

  15. Aircraft liftmeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millen, E. W. (inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A display for aiding the pilot of an aircraft in anomalous wind environments is described. Wind velocity components are measured by an instrument, processed by a computer and a vector generator, and then displayed as a vector. The display utilizes the measurements of ground speed and of wind velocity in three mutually perpendicular directions. This display will also show changes in lift of an aircraft.

  16. Conceptual design study of 1985 commercial tilt rotor transports. Volume 1: VTOL design summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detore, J. A.; Sambell, K. W.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft were synthesized in the 21-, 45-, and 100- passenger categories. Technological factors were considered and the 45-passenger point design, designated the D312, was selected. Variants of the D312 having sideline noise levels in hover of + or - 5 PNdB were also studied. All three 45-passenger aircraft were analyzed for performance, weights, economics, handling qualities, noise footprints, aeroelastic stability and ride comfort. Results are presented.

  17. Aircraft cybernetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  18. Aircraft icing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Gent; N. P. Dart; J. T. Cansdale

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the background to and the current status of analyses developed to address the problem of icing on aircraft. Methods for water droplet trajectory calculation, ice accretion prediction, aerodynamic performance degradation and an overview of ice protection system modelling are presented. The paper addresses the issues involved in the development of icing analyses including problem formulation and assumptions,

  19. Conceptual design study of 1985 commercial VTOL transports that utilize rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kefford, N. F. K.; Munch, C. L.

    1975-01-01

    Conceptual design studies of pure and compound helicopter commercial short-haul transport aircraft for initial fabrication in 1980 were performed to determine their technical and economic feasibility. One-hundred-passenger configurations were optimized for minimum direct operating cost consistent with producibility and marketability, with emphasis on proper account of mass properties, performance and handling qualities adequacy, and suppression of internal and external noise. The effect of external noise constraints was assessed, in terms of gross weight and direct operating cost, for each aircraft.

  20. Lift cruise fan V/STOL aircraft conceptual design study T-39 modification. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    The conversion of two T-39 aircraft into lift cruise fan research and technology vehicles is discussed. The concept is based upon modifying the T-39A (NA265-40) Sabreliner airframe into a V/STOL configuration by incorporating two LCF-459 lift cruise fans and three YJ-97 gas generators. The propulsion concept provides the thrust for horizontal flight or lift for vertical flight by deflection of bifurcated nozzles while maintaining engine out safety throughout the flight envelope. The configuration meets all the study requirements specified for the design with control powers in VTOL and conversion in excess of the requirement making it an excellent vehicle for research and development. The study report consists of two volumes; Volume 1 (Reference a) contains background data detailed description and technical substantiation of the aircraft. Volume 2 includes cost data, scheduling and program planning not addressed in Volume 1.

  1. Use of active control systems to improve bending and rotor flapping response of a tilt rotor VTOL airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, H. P.; Cheng, Y.

    1975-01-01

    The results are summarized of an analytical study of the use of active control systems for the purpose of reducing the root mean square response of wing vertical bending and rotor flapping to atmospheric turbulence for a tilt-rotor VTOL airplane. Only the wing/rotor assembly was considered so that results of a wind tunnel test program would be applicable in a subsequent phase of the research. The capabilities and limitations of simple single feedback configurations were identified, and the most promising multiloop feedback configurations were then investigated. Design parameters were selected so as to minimize either wing bending or rotor flapping response. Within the constraints imposed by practical levels of feedback gains and complexity and by considerations of safety, reduction in response due to turbulence of the order of 30 to 50 percent is predicted using the rotor longitudinal cyclic and a trailing edge wing flap as control effectors.

  2. Investigation of Longitudinal and Lateral Stability Characteristics of a Six-Propeller Deflected-Slipstream VTOL Model with Boundary-Layer Control Including Effects of Ground Proximity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Kalman J.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation of the longitudinal and lateral stability and control and Performance characteristics of a six-propeller deflected- slipstream vertical-take-off-and-landing (VTOL) model in the transition speed range was conducted in the 17-foot test section of the Langley 300-MPH 7- by 10-foot tunnel. A complete analysis of the data was not conducted. A modest amount of blowing boundary-layer control was necessary to achieve transition without wing stall.

  3. Flight test and evaluation of Omega navigation in a general aviation aircraft. Volume 1: Technical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, J. D.; Hoffman, W. C.; Hwoschinsky, P. V.; Wischmeyer, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    A low cost flight research program was conducted to evaluate the performance of differential Omega navigation in a general aviation aircraft. The flight program consisted of two distinct parts corresponding to the two major objectives of the study. The Wallops Flight Program was conducted to obtain Omega signal and phase data in the Wallops Flight Center vicinity to provide preliminary technical information and experience in preparation for a comprehensive NASA/FAA flight test program of an experimental differential Omega system. The Northeast Corridor Flight Program was conducted to examine Omega operational suitability and performance on low altitude area navigation (RNAV) routes for city-center to city-center VTOL commercial operations in the Boston-New York-Washington corridor. The development, execution and conclusions of the flight research program are discribed. The results of the study provide both quantitative and qualitative data on the Omega Navigation System under actual operating conditions.

  4. Simulation evaluation of flight controls and display concepts for VTOL shipboard operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farris, G. G.; Merrick, V. K.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    A ground-based evaluation of several control-system concepts and display formats for use in shipboard landing operations of a V/STOL aircraft (AV-8A Harrier) is reported. The study was conducted in the Vertical Motion Simulator at Ames Research Center. The control systems ranged from a rate-damping SAS to a translational-velocity command system; displays ranged from a head-down presentation of attitude and altitude to two different head-up formats that provided position and velocity information. Results of pilot evaluations of the aircraft's handling qualities, as well as measures of task performance and control power use during landing on a moving deck in visual meteorological condtions, are presented.

  5. A Control Approach for Thrust-Propelled Underactuated Vehicles and its Application to VTOL Drones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minh-Duc Hua; Tarek Hamel; Pascal Morin; Claude Samson

    2009-01-01

    A control approach is proposed for a class of underactuated vehicles in order to stabilize reference trajectories either in thrust direction, velocity, or position. The basic modeling assumption is that the vehicle is pro-pulsed via a thrust force along a single body-fixed direction and that it has full torque actuation for attitude control (i.e., a typical actuation structure for aircrafts,

  6. Aircraft Engines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Presented by Florida International University and NASA, this website presents a brief tutorial on the schematics for different car and aircraft engines, their cooling mechanisms, and engine development history. Here, visitors will find information on air-breathing, turboprop, turbofan, prop-fan, and ramjet engines along with handy and clear illustrations of each. This is a useful resource for educators looking for a brief, introductory handout for students in mechanical engineering and aeronautics or for students seeking material to simply illustrate the differences between engine types.

  7. Some VTOL head-up display drive-law problems and solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrick, Vernon K.

    1993-01-01

    A piloted simulation test was conducted on the Ames Research Center's vertical motion simulator (VMS) in support of the Phase 2A flight test of NASA's V/STOL systems research aircraft (VSRA). During the simulation several problems were found with the head-up display (HUD) symbol drive laws and the flightpath synthesis. These problems and the solutions devised to solve them are described. Most of the resulting HUD drive-law changes were implemented during the simulation and their effectiveness was verified. Subsequently both the HUD symbol drive-law and flightpath-synthesis changes were implemented in the VSRA and tested successfully in the Phase 2A flight tests.

  8. Study of VTOL in ground-effect flow field including temperature effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, W. G.; Jenkins, R. C.; Kalemaris, S. G.; Siclari, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed pressure, temperature, and velocity data were obtained for twin-fan configurations in-ground-effect and flow models to aid in predicting pressures and upwash forces on aircraft surfaces were developed. For the basic experiments, 49.5 mm-diameter jets were used, oriented normal to a simulated round plane, with pressurized, heated air providing a jet. The experimental data consisted of: (1) the effect of jet height and temperature on the ground, model, and upwash pressures, and temperatures, (2) the effect of simulated aircraft surfaces on the isolated flow field, (3) the jet-induced forces on a three-dimensional body with various strakes, (4) the effects of non-uniform coannular jets. For the uniform circular jets, temperature was varied from room temperature (24 C) to 232 C. Jet total pressure was varied between 9,300 Pascals and 31,500 Pascals. For the coannular jets, intended to represent turbofan engines, fan temperature was maintained at room temperature while core temperature was varied from room temperature to 437 C. Results are presented.

  9. The effect of wind tunnel wall interference on the performance of a fan-in-wing VTOL model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyson, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    A fan-in-wing model with a 1.07-meter span was tested in seven different test sections with cross-sectional areas ranging from 2.2 sq meters to 265 sq meters. The data from the different test sections are compared both with and without correction for wall interference. The results demonstrate that extreme care must be used in interpreting uncorrected VTOL data since the wall interference may be so large as to invalidate even trends in the data. The wall interference is particularly large at the tail, a result which is in agreement with recently published comparisons of flight and large scale wind tunnel data for a propeller-driven deflected-slipstream configuration. The data verify the wall-interference theory even under conditions of extreme interference. A method yields reasonable estimates for the onset of Rae's minimum-speed limit. The rules for choosing model sizes to produce negligible wall effects are considerably in error and permit the use of excessively large models.

  10. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  11. Simulated Rotor Wake Interactions Resulting from Civil Tiltrotor Aircraft Operations Near Vertiport Terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Rajagopalan, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    A mid-fidelity computational fluid dynamics tool called RotCFD - specifically developed to aid in rotorcraft conceptual design efforts - has been applied to the study of rotor wake interactions of civil tiltrotor aircraft in the immediate vicinity of vertiport/airport ground infrastructure. This issue has grown in importance as previous NASA studies have suggested that civil tiltrotor aircraft can potentially have a significant impact on commercial transport aviation. Current NASA reference designs for such civil tiltrotor aircraft are focused on a size category of 90-120 passengers. Notional concepts of operations include simultaneous non-interfering flight into and out of congested airports having vertiports, that is, prepared VTOL takeoff and landing zones, or underutilized short runways for STOL operation. Such large gross-weight vehicles will be generating very high induced velocities. Inevitably, the interaction of the rotor wake with ground infrastructure such as terminals/jetways must be considered both from an operational as well as design perspective.

  12. Lateral Stability and Control Characteristics of a Four-Propeller Deflected-Slipstream VTOL Model Including the Effects of Ground Proximity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Richard E.; Grunwald, Kalman J.

    1961-01-01

    The investigation of the lateral-directional stability and control characteristics of a four-propeller deflected-slipstream VTOL model in the transition speed range was conducted in the 17-foot test section of the Langley 300-MPH 7- by 10-foot tunnel. A large fairing on top of the rear fuselage was needed to eliminate directional instability in the power-off flaps-retracted condition. Even with this fairing some instability at small sideslip angles remained for power-on conditions with low flap deflections. The configuration exhibited a high level of dihedral effect which, coupled with the directional instability, will probably produce an undesirable Dutch roll oscillation.

  13. The effects of aeroelastic deformation on the unaugmented stopped-rotor dynamics of an X-Wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.; Silva, Walter A.

    1987-01-01

    A new design concept in the development of VTOL aircraft with high forward flight speed capability is that of the X-Wing, a stiff, bearingless helicopter rotor system which can be stopped in flight and the blades used as two forward-swept and two aft-swept wings. Because of the usual configuration in the fixed-wing mode, there is a high potential for aeroelastic divergence or flutter and coupling of blade vibration modes with rigid-body modes. An aeroelastic stability analysis of an X-Wing configuration aircraft was undertaken to determine if these problems could exist. This paper reports on the results of dynamic stability analyses in the lateral and longitudinal directions including the vehicle rigid-body and flexible modes. A static aeroelastic analysis using the normal vibration mode equations of motion was performed to determine the cause of a loss of longitudinal static margin with increasing airspeed. This loss of static margin was found to be due to aeroelastic washin of the forward-swept blades and washout of the aft-swept blades moving the aircraft aerodynamic center forward of the center of gravity. This phenomenon is likely to be generic to X-Wing aircraft.

  14. International Pacific Air and Space Technology Conference and Aircraft Symposium, 29th, Gifu, Japan, Oct. 7-11, 1991, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on air and space technology are presented. Individual topics addressed include: media selection analysis: implications for training design, high-speed challenge for rotary wing aircraft, high-speed VSTOL answer to congestion, next generation in computational aerodynamics, acrobatic airship 'Acrostat', ducted fan VTOL for working platform, Arianespace launch of Lightsats, small particle acceleration by minirailgun, free-wake analyses of a hovering rotor using panel method, update of the X-29 high-angle-of-attack program, economic approach to accurate wing design, flow field around thick delta wing with rounded leading edge, aerostructural integrated design of forward-swept wing, static characteristics of a two-phase fluid drop system, simplfied-model approach to group combustion of fuel spray, avionics flight systems for the 21st century. Also discussed are: Aircraft Command in Emergency Situations, spectrogram diagnosis of aircraft disasters, shock interaction induced by two hemisphere-cylinders, impact response of composite UHB propeller blades, high-altitude lighter-than-air powered platform, integrated wiring system, auxiliary power units for current and future aircraft, Space Shuttle Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit status, numerical analysis of RCS jet in hypersonic flights, energy requirements for the space frontier, electrical system options for space exploration, aerospace plane hydrogen scramjet boosting, manual control of vehicles with time-varying dynamics, design of strongly stabilizing controller, development of the Liquid Apogee Propulsion System for ETS-VI.

  15. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  16. Investigation of Interference of a Deflected Jet with Free Stream and Ground on Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Semispan Delta-Wing VTOL Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spreemann, Kenneth P.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation of the mutual interference effects of the ground, wing, deflected jet stream, and free stream of a semispan delta-wing VTOL model at zero and low forward speeds has been conducted in the 17-foot test section of the Langley 300-MPH 7-by 10-foot tunnel. The model consisted of two interchangeable semispan clipped delta wings, a simplified fuselage, and a high-pressure jet for simulation of a jet exhaust. Attached to the wing behind the jet were various sets of vanes for deflecting the jet stream to different turning angles. The effect of ground proximity gave the normally expected losses in lift at zero and very low forward speeds (up to about 60 or 80 knots for the assumed wing loading of 100 lb/sq ft); at higher forward speeds ground effects were favorable. At low forward speeds, out of ground effect, the model encountered large losses in lift and large nose-up pitching moments with the model at low angles of attack and the jet deflected 90 deg or 75 deg (the angles required for VTOL performance and very low forward speeds). Rotating the model to higher angles of attack and deflecting the jet back to lower angles eliminated these losses in lift. Moving the jet rearward with respect to the wing reduced the losses in lift and the nose-up moments at all speeds within the range of this investigation.

  17. Investigation of application of two-degree-of-freedom dry tuned-gimbal gyroscopes to strapdown navigation systems. [for use in VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The work is described which was accomplished during the investigation of the application of dry-tuned gimbal gyroscopes to strapdown navigation systems. A conventional strapdown configuration, employing analog electronics in conjunction with digital attitude and navigation computation, was examined using various levels of redundancy and both orthogonal and nonorthogonal sensor orientations. It is concluded that the cost and reliability performance constraints which had been established could not be met simultaneously with such a system. This conclusion led to the examination of an alternative system configuration which utilizes an essentially new strapdown system concept. This system employs all-digital signal processing in conjunction with the newly-developed large scale integration (LSI) electronic packaging techniques and a new two-degree-of-freedom dry tuned-gimbal instrument which is capable of providing both angular rate and acceleration information. Such a system is capable of exceeding the established performance goals.

  18. Small transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  19. Conceptual aircraft dynamics from inverse aircraft modeling

    E-print Network

    Ziegler, Gregory E

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents a method of construe' ting a nonlinear dynamics model of a theoretical aircraft from the nonlinear batch simulation of an existing aircrew This method provides control law designers with a method of fabricating nonlinear models...

  20. Fan and wing force data from wind tunnel investigation of a 0.38 meter (15 inch) diameter VTOL model lift fan installed in a two dimensional wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuska, J. A.; Diedrich, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Test data are presented for a 38-cm (15-in.) diameter, 1.28 pressure ratio model VTOL lift fan installed in a two-dimensional wing and tested in a 2.74-by 4.58-meter (9-by 15-ft)V/STOL wind tunnel. Tests were run with and without exit louvers over a wide range of crossflow velocities and wing angle of attack. Tests were also performed with annular-inlet vanes, inlet bell-mouth surface disconuities, and fences to induce fan windmilling. Data are presented on the axial force of the fan assembly and overall wing forces and moments as measured on force balances for various static and crossflow test conditions. Midspan wing surface pressure coefficient data are also given.

  1. Hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkamhawi, Hani; Greiner, Tom; Fuerst, Gerry; Luich, Shawn; Stonebraker, Bob; Wray, Todd

    1990-01-01

    A hypersonic aircraft is designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and it was decided that the aircraft would use one full scale turbofan-ramjet. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic region. After considering aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, and landing systems, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets are also taken into consideration in the final design. A hypersonic aircraft was designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and a full scale turbofan-ramjet was chosen. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic reqion. After the aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, landing systems, and their physical interactions were considered, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets were also considered in the designing process.

  2. Aircraft fire safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botteri, Benito P.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.

  3. Human Factors In Aircraft Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Report presents survey of state of art in human factors in automation of aircraft operation. Presents examination of aircraft automation and effects on flight crews in relation to human error and aircraft accidents.

  4. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  5. Lightning protection for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Reference book summarizes current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and means available to designers and operators to protect against effects. Book is available because of increasing use of nonmetallic materials in aircraft structural components and use of electronic equipment for control of critical flight operations and navigation.

  6. Lightning protection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and the means that are available to designers and operators to protect against these effects are summarized. The increased use of nonmetallic materials in the structure of aircraft and the constant trend toward using electronic equipment to handle flight-critical control and navigation functions have served as impetus for this study.

  7. Solar powered aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1983-01-01

    A cruciform wing structure for a solar powered aircraft is disclosed. Solar cells are mounted on horizontal wing surfaces. Wing surfaces with spanwise axis perpendicular to surfaces maintain these surfaces normal to the sun's rays by allowing aircraft to be flown in a controlled pattern at a large bank angle. The solar airplane may be of conventional design with respect

  8. Commercial aircraft wake vortices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Gerza; Frank Holz

    This paper discusses the problem of wake vortices shed by commercial aircraft. It presents a consolidated European view on the current status of knowledge of the nature and characteristics of aircraft wakes and of technical and operational procedures of minimizing and predicting the vortex strength and avoiding wake encounters. Methodological aspects of data evaluation and interpretation, like the description of

  9. Civil aircraft accident investigation.

    PubMed

    Haines, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

  10. Health monitoring aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Gerardi, T.G. (USAF, Wright Research and Development Center, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (USA))

    1990-07-01

    A description is given of the health monitoring aircraft concept, which will incorporate innovative sensors, AI, and advanced analytical techniques to provivide real-time and continual aircraft health assessment. According to this concept, all flight-critical structures will be evaluated for integrity as part of the automated preflight checklist. The pilot will be given a visual display of the health of all systems prior to takeoff. Any in-flight change in the health of the aircraft wil be displayed along with recommended action. In order to achieve these capabilities, state-of-the-art structural integrity computer programs, together with AI/neutral network decision-making software, will be incorporated as part of the aircraft computing capability. The life history of the aircraft will be continually and automaticaly updated so that acccurate structural integrity assessments can be made.

  11. Why aircraft disinsection?

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, N. G.; Steffen, R.; Cocksedge, W.

    2000-01-01

    A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described. PMID:10994283

  12. Aircraft operations management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  13. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for...aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for...aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part...

  14. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. 21.6 Section 21.6 Aeronautics...new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in...a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based on a type certificate unless...

  15. Tropospheric sampling with aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

  16. Aircraft compass characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W

    1937-01-01

    A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.

  17. OVRhyp, Scramjet Test Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslan, J.; Bisard, T.; Dallinga, S.; Draper, K.; Hufford, G.; Peters, W.; Rogers, J.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design for an unmanned hypersonic research vehicle to test scramjet engines is presented. The aircraft will be launched from a carrier aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 feet at Mach 0.8. The vehicle will then accelerate to Mach 6 at an altitude of 100,000 feet. At this stage the prototype scramjet will be employed to accelerate the vehicle to Mach 10 and maintain Mach 10 flight for 2 minutes. The aircraft will then decelerate and safely land.

  18. Lightning hazards to aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corn, P. B.

    1978-01-01

    Lightning hazards and, more generally, aircraft static electricity are discussed by a representative for the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. An overview of these atmospheric electricity hazards to aircraft and their systems is presented with emphasis on electrical and electronic subsystems. The discussion includes reviewing some of the characteristics of lightning and static electrification, trends in weather and lightning-related mishaps, some specific threat mechanisms and susceptible aircraft subsystems and some of the present technology gaps. A roadmap (flow chart) is presented to show the direction needed to address these problems.

  19. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  20. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  1. Aircraft Safety Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, G.

    1985-01-01

    Fabrication and testing of honeycomb sandwich aircraft panels are discussed. Also described is the use of the following instruments: thermogravimetric analyzer, differential scanning calorimeter, limiting oxygen index, and infrared spectrometer.

  2. Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J. (compiler)

    1986-01-01

    Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.

  3. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  4. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  5. Alternative jet aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

  6. ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT MOTIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed by Ames Research Center, in cooperation with the National Transportation Safety Board, as a technique for deriving time histories of an aircraft's motion from Air Traffic Control (ATC) radar records. This technique uses the radar range and azimuth data, along with the downlinked altitude data, to derive an expanded set of data which includes airspeed, lift, attitude angles (pitch, roll, and heading), etc. This technique should prove useful as a source of data in the investigation of commercial airline accidents and in the analysis of accidents involving aircraft which do not have onboard data recorders (e.g., military, short-haul, and general aviation). The technique used to determine the aircraft motions involves smoothing of raw radar data. These smoothed results, in combination with other available information (wind profiles and aircraft performance data), are used to derive the expanded set of data. This program uses a cubic least-square fit to smooth the raw data. This moving-arc procedure provides a smoothed time history of the aircraft position, the inertial velocities, and accelerations. Using known winds, these inertial data are transformed to aircraft stability axes to provide true airspeed, thrust-drag, lift, and roll angle. Further derivation, based on aircraft dependent performance data, can determine the aircraft angle of attack, pitch, and heading angle. Results of experimental tests indicate that values derived from ATC radar records using this technique agree favorably with airborne measurements. This program is written in FORTRAN IV to be executed in the batch mode, and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of 64k (octal) of 60 bit words.

  7. Aircraft Sensors Signal Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bajer; R. Byst?ickż; R. Jaloveckż; P. Jan?

    The paper deals with possibilities and methods of processing of signals from aircraft sensors. Because of a large amount of\\u000a proceeded data the subject of the paper is limited only to data processing from electrical subsystem of aircraft. Designed\\u000a data acquisition and processing avionic system is based on CANaerospace communication network. Primary function of the system\\u000a is to collect all

  8. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated to determine the physical compatibility of integrating multiple technologies and then the impact on the design, both improvements and degradations, must be determined. These technologies are assessed deterministically. Again, Response Surface Equations (RSEs) are developed to allow for a full factorial evaluation of the combinations of the technologies. The best combination of technologies is selected and then the design space is again reevaluated for feasibility and viability.

  9. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Four-Propeller Tilt-Wing VTOL Model with Twin Vertical Tails, Including Effects of Ground Proximity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Kalman J.

    1961-01-01

    Results are presented of a wind-tunnel investigation of the aerodynamic stability, control, and performance characteristics of a model of a four-propeller tilt-wing VTOL airplane employing flaps and speed brakes through the transition speed range. The results indicate that the wing was stalled for steady level flight for all conditions of the investigation; however, the flapped configuration did produce a higher maximum lift. The effectiveness of the flap in delaying the stall in the present investigation was not as great as in some previous investigations because the flap used was smaller than that used previously. The wing stall resulted in an appreciable reduction of aileron effectiveness during the transition. Out of ground effect the low horizontal tail did not appear to be in an adverse flow field as had been expected and showed no erratic changes in effectiveness; however, in ground effect a large nose-down moment was experienced by the model. In general, the lateral aerodynamic data indicate that the configuration is directionally stable and possesses positive dihedral effect throughout the transition, and the data show no signs of erratic flow at the vertical tails.

  10. Damage tolerance for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, John W.

    1992-01-01

    The damage tolerance experience in the United States Air Force with military aircraft and in the commercial world with large transport category aircraft indicates that a similar success could be achieved in commuter aircraft. The damage tolerance process is described for the purpose of defining the approach that could be used for these aircraft to ensure structural integrity. Results of some of the damage tolerance assessments for this class of aircraft are examined to illustrate the benefits derived from this approach. Recommendations are given for future damage tolerance assessment of existing commuter aircraft and on the incorporation of damage tolerance capability in new designs.

  11. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  12. Aircraft control position indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Dale V. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An aircraft control position indicator was provided that displayed the degree of deflection of the primary flight control surfaces and the manner in which the aircraft responded. The display included a vertical elevator dot/bar graph meter display for indication whether the aircraft will pitch up or down, a horizontal aileron dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will roll to the left or to the right, and a horizontal dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will turn left or right. The vertical and horizontal display or displays intersect to form an up/down, left/right type display. Internal electronic display driver means received signals from transducers measuring the control surface deflections and determined the position of the meter indicators on each dot/bar graph meter display. The device allows readability at a glance, easy visual perception in sunlight or shade, near-zero lag in displaying flight control position, and is not affected by gravitational or centrifugal forces.

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  14. High altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdo, Renee Anna; Moller, David

    1990-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000 plus feet, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 feet for six hours at Mach 0.7, while carrying 3,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum range of 6,000 miles. In consideration of the novel nature of this project, the pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforeseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable - a joined-wing, a biplane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The performance of each configuration was analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project.

  15. System description and analysis. Part 1: Feasibility study for helicopter/VTOL wide-angle simulation image generation display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary design for a helicopter/VSTOL wide angle simulator image generation display system is studied. The visual system is to become part of a simulator capability to support Army aviation systems research and development within the near term. As required for the Army to simulate a wide range of aircraft characteristics, versatility and ease of changing cockpit configurations were primary considerations of the study. Due to the Army's interest in low altitude flight and descents into and landing in constrained areas, particular emphasis is given to wide field of view, resolution, brightness, contrast, and color. The visual display study includes a preliminary design, demonstrated feasibility of advanced concepts, and a plan for subsequent detail design and development. Analysis and tradeoff considerations for various visual system elements are outlined and discussed.

  16. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  17. Composite aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vosteen, L. F.

    1980-01-01

    In late 1975, the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program was initiated by NASA in order to accelerate the development of selected technologies which showed promise for substantial improvements in the fuel efficiency of commercial transport aircraft. A description is presented of the status of the composite structure development programs which form one of the six sections of the ACEE program. Six aircraft components are currently being developed under NASA contract by three major transport manufacturers. The components include the upper aft rudder of the Douglas DC-10, the inboard ailerons of the Lockheed L-1011, the elevators of the Boeing 727, the vertical stabilizers for the Lockheed L-1011 and Douglas DC-10, and the horizontal stabilizers of the Boeing 737. It is found that the composite components show a high potential for achieving cost comparability with the metal parts they are designed to replace.

  18. Intelligent agent for aircraft collision avoidance

    E-print Network

    Shandy, Surya Utama

    2002-01-01

    of aircraft to aircraft communication for free flight environment is Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast. In this research, the focus is on constructing a traffic agent, utilizing aircraft to aircraft information for flight management system...

  19. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel, and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. The effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications are discussed.

  20. Aircraft Laminar Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft laminar flow control (LFC) from the 1930's through the 1990's is reviewed and the current status of the technology is assessed. Examples are provided to demonstrate the benefits of LFC for subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Early studies related to the laminar boundary-layer flow physics, manufacturing tolerances for laminar flow, and insect-contamination avoidance are discussed. LFC concept studies in wind-tunnel and flight experiments are the major focus of the paper. LFC design tools are briefly outlined for completeness.

  1. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid, spray on elastomeric polyurethanes are selected and investigated as best candidates for aircraft external protective coatings. Flight tests are conducted to measure drag effects of these coatings compared to paints and a bare metal surface. The durability of two elastometric polyurethanes are assessed in airline flight service evaluations. Laboratory tests are performed to determine corrosion protection properties, compatibility with aircraft thermal anti-icing systems, the effect of coating thickness on erosion durability, and the erosion characteristics of composite leading edges-bare and coated. A cost and benefits assessment is made to determine the economic value of various coating configurations to the airlines.

  2. Dryden Aircraft Photo Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Any lover of airplanes is bound to enjoy this collection of digitized photos "of many of the unique research aircraft" from the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards, California. The photos go back to the 1940s and into the present. Multiple resolutions are available. The collection is regularly updated. Visitors can browse the entire list alphabetically, or go right to the most recent postings in "What's New" or check out the Slide Show of selected photos. Each photo is accompanied by a short description of the aircraft's flight history. Some other miscellaneous photos include the shock wave of a T-38 at Mach 1.1 and photos of Dryden pilots.

  3. Optical communications for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Optical communications for transport aircraft are discussed. The problem involves: increasing demand for radio-frequency bands from an enlarging pool of users (aircraft, ground and sea vehicles, fleet operators, traffic control centers, and commercial radio and television); desirability of providing high-bandwidth dedicated communications to and from every aircraft in the National Airspace System; need to support communications, navigation, and surveillance for a growing number of aircraft; and improved meteorological observations by use of probe aircraft. The solution involves: optical signal transmission support very high data rates; optical transmission of signals between aircraft, orbiting satellites, and ground stations, where unobstructed line-of-sight is available; conventional radio transmissions of signals between aircraft and ground stations, where optical line-of-sight is unavailable; and radio priority given to aircraft in weather.

  4. Safety hazard of aircraft icing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, J. C., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of aircraft icing is reported as well as the type of aircraft affected, the pilots involved, and an identification of the areas where reduction in icing accidents are readily accomplished.

  5. Noise transmission into propeller aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaicaitis, R.

    1985-08-01

    Papers and reports, most of which were written since 1981, that are concerned with airborne and structure-borne noise transmission into a propeller-driven aircraft are surveyed. Special attention is given to a new propfan aircraft.

  6. Aircraft community noise impact studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to: (1) conduct a program to determine the community noise impact of advanced technology engines when installed in a supersonic aircraft, (2) determine the potential reduction of community noise by flight operational techniques for the study aircraft, (3) estimate the community noise impact of the study aircraft powered by suppressed turbojet engines and by advanced duct heating turbofan engines, and (4) compare the impact of the two supersonic designs with that of conventional commercial DC-8 aircraft.

  7. Light aircraft sound transmission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwal, M.; David, J.; Heitman, K.; Crocker, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The revived interest in the design of propeller driven aircraft is based on increasing fuel prices as well as on the need for bigger short haul and commuter aircraft. A major problem encountered with propeller driven aircraft is propeller and exhaust noise that is transmitted through the fuselage sidewall structure. Part of the work which was conducted during the period April 1 to August 31, 1983, on the studies of sound transmission through light aircraft walls is presented.

  8. Aircraft Antenna System Lightning Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Huber; M. M. Newman; J. D. Robb

    1955-01-01

    The recent use of insulated aircraft wing or fin cap sections for radio antennas has required that consideration be given not only to the protection of radio equipment but to the protection of the insulated aircraft sections as well. Failure of simple spark gap protection used in early installations for aircraft radio equipment has been correlated to the occurrence of

  9. Bibliography for aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Maine, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    An extensive bibliography in the field of aircraft parameter estimation has been compiled. This list contains definitive works related to most aircraft parameter estimation approaches. Theoretical studies as well as practical applications are included. Many of these publications are pertinent to subjects peripherally related to parameter estimation, such as aircraft maneuver design or instrumentation considerations.

  10. Communications Over Aircraft Power Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Jones

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a study of the feasibility and initial hardware design for transmitting data over aircraft power lines. The intent of this design is to significantly reduce the wiring in the aircraft instrumentation system. The potential usages of this technology include common airborne instrumentation system (CAIS) or clock distribution. Aircraft power line channel characteristics are presented and orthogonal frequency

  11. Stearman Hammond Y-1 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1939-01-01

    The Stearman Hammond Y aircraft was produced to compete in a 'Safe Aircraft' competition in January 1939. It was the winner of the $700 prize which was sponsored by the Department of Commerce. The model Y used many of the safety features the NACA's Fred Weick developed for his W-1 aircraft.

  12. Robots for Aircraft Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center charged USBI (now Pratt & Whitney) with the task of developing an advanced stripping system based on hydroblasting to strip paint and thermal protection material from Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters. A robot, mounted on a transportable platform, controls the waterjet angle, water pressure and flow rate. This technology, now known as ARMS, has found commercial applications in the removal of coatings from jet engine components. The system is significantly faster than manual procedures and uses only minimal labor. Because the amount of "substrate" lost is minimal, the life of the component is extended. The need for toxic chemicals is reduced, as is waste disposal and human protection equipment. Users of the ARMS work cell include Delta Air Lines and the Air Force, which later contracted with USBI for development of a Large Aircraft Paint Stripping system (LARPS). LARPS' advantages are similar to ARMS, and it has enormous potential in military and civil aircraft maintenance. The technology may also be adapted to aircraft painting, aircraft inspection techniques and paint stripping of large objects like ships and railcars.

  13. The solar aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A discussion is given in a popular manner of the solar powered aircraft Solair I. The achievements of the designer are detailed, and trial runs leading up to the first successful flight are given. Technical data of Solair I are listed, and brief news items about it are presented.

  14. Raven Unmanned Aircraft.

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Lance Brady of the US Bureau of Land Management observes a USGS Raven unmanned aircraft in action June 20, 2012 at Lake Aldwell on the Elwha River south of Olympic National Park, Wash. USGS and BLM are cooperating on science missions to study hydrology, sedimentation, revegetation and other issues r...

  15. Aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  16. Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure

    E-print Network

    Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 #12 Ā­ 21% Oxygen Ā­ 1% other gases (argon, helium, etc) Ā· Most oxygen Atmospheric Pressure;High Density Altitude (worse performance) Ā· High elevations Ā· Low atmospheric pressures Ā· High

  17. Raven Aircraft Launch

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS contractor Phil Owen of EnrGies, Inc. launches a Raven aircraft on the Missouri River near Lower Brule, S.D., during an August 2012 mission to monitor erosion on the river. Owen is accompanied by USGS and Bureau of Indian Affairs researchers.  ...

  18. Aircraft Inlet Ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    After studying three Tech Briefs reports on NASA submerged duct technology developed for high performance aircraft, Wilhelm Cashen was able to adapt the technology to the induction intercooler system of turbocharged lightplanes. In lightplane installations, the submerged ducts introduce cool "ram" air to the propulsion system for greater operating efficiency.

  19. Failures in military aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham Clark

    2005-01-01

    The severe operating conditions for components in military aircraft lead to a wide range of failure modes and introduce many factors which can influence those failures. As a result, the accident investigator or failure analyst may need to explore issues more widely than might be the case with systems operating in more benign or controlled environments. Complicating factors are the

  20. Cooperation in aircraft design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan H. Bond; Richard J. Ricci

    1992-01-01

    We describe how aircraft are designed in a large organization. We discuss the different phases of design and interaction with the customer. We then describe the models used by each specialist department and the interactions among departments during the design process. We observe that the main design choices are refinement operations on the design. We then briefly describe how the

  1. Counterrotating aircraft propulsor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Joey L. (Inventor); Elston, III, Sidney B. (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A propulsor blade for an aircraft engine includes an airfoil section formed in the shape of a scimitar. A metallic blade spar is interposed between opposed surfaces of the blade and is bonded to the surfaces to establish structural integrity of the blade. The metallic blade spar includes a root end allowing attachment of the blade to the engine.

  2. Counterrotating aircraft propulsor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Joey L. (Inventor); Elston, III, Sidney B. (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A propulsor blade for an aircraft engine includes an airfoil section formed in the shape of a scimitar. A metallic blade spar is interposed between opposed surfaces of the blade and is bonded to the surfaces to establish structural integrity of the blade. The metallic blade spar includes a root end allowing attachment of the blade to the engine.

  3. Turboprop cargo aircraft systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlbauer, J. C.; Hewell, J. G., Jr.; Lindenbaum, S. P.; Randall, C. C.; Searle, N.; Stone, R. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of using advanced turboprop propulsion systems to reduce the fuel consumption and direct operating costs of cargo aircraft were studied, and the impact of these systems on aircraft noise and noise prints around a terminal area was determined. Parametric variations of aircraft and propeller characteristics were investigated to determine their effects on noiseprint areas, fuel consumption, and direct operating costs. From these results, three aircraft designs were selected and subjected to design refinements and sensitivity analyses. Three competitive turbofan aircraft were also defined from parametric studies to provide a basis for comparing the two types of propulsion.

  4. Hovering and Transition Flight Tests of a 1/5-Scale Model of a Jet-Powered Vertical-Attitude VTOL Research Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles C., Jr.

    1958-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been made to determine the dynamic stability and control characteristics of a 1/5-scale flying model of a jet-powered vertical-attitude VTOL research airplane in hovering and transition flight. The model was powered with either a hydrogen peroxide rocket motor or a compressed-air jet exhausting through an ejector tube to simulate the turbojet engine of the airplane. The gyroscopic effects of the engine were simulated by a flywheel driven by compressed-air jets. In hovering flight the model was controlled by jet-reaction controls which consisted of a swiveling nozzle on the main jet and a movable nozzle on each wing tip; and in forward flight the model was controlled by elevons and a rudder. If the gyroscopic effects of the jet engine were not represented, the model could be flown satisfactorily in hovering flight without any automatic stabilization devices. When the gyroscopic effects of the jet engine were represented, however, the model could not be controlled without the aid of artificial stabilizing devices because of the gyroscopic coupling of the yawing and pitching motions. The use of pitch and yaw dampers made these motions completely stable and the model could then be controlled very easily. In the transition flight tests, which were performed only with the automatic pitch and yaw dampers operating, it was found that the transition was very easy to perform either with or without the engine gyroscopic effects simulated, although the model had a tendency to fly in a rolled and sideslipped attitude at angles of attack between approximately 25 and 45 deg because of static directional instability in this range.

  5. Hovering and Transition Flight Tests of a 1/5-Scale Model of a Jet-Powered Vertical-Attitude VTOL Research Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles C., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been made to determine the dynamic stability and control characteristics of a 1/5-scale flying model of a jet-powered vertical-attitude VTOL research airplane in hovering and transition flight. The model was powered with either a hydrogen peroxide rocket motor or a compressed-air jet exhausting through an ejector tube to simulate the turbojet engine of the airplane. The gyroscopic effects of the engine were simulated by a flywheel driven by compressed-air jets. In hovering flight the model was controlled by jet-reaction controls which consisted of a swiveling nozzle on the main jet and a movable nozzle on each wing tip; and in forward flight the model was controlled by elevons and a rudder. If the gyroscopic effects of the jet engine were not represented, the model could be flown satisfactorily in hovering flight without any automatic stabilization devices. When the gyroscopic effects of the jet engine were represented, however, the model could not be controlled without the aid of artificial stabilizing devices because of the gyroscopic coupling of the yawing and pitching motions. The use of pitch and yaw dampers made these motions completely stable and the model could then be controlled very easily. In the transition flight tests, which were performed only with the automatic pitch and yaw dampers operating, it was found that the transition was very easy to perform either with or without the engine gyroscopic effects simulated, although the model had a tendency to fly in a rolled and sideslipped attitude at angles of attack between approximately 25 deg and 45 deg because of static directional instability in this range.

  6. Project report: Aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Baughcum, S. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States). Commercial Airplane Group; Metwally, M. [McDonnell Douglas Corp., Long Beach, CA (United States); Seals, R. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Atmospheric Science Div.

    1994-04-01

    Analyses of scenarios of past and possible future emissions are an important aspect of assessing the potential environmental effects from aircraft, including the proposed high speed civil transport (HSCT). The development of a detailed three-dimensional database that accurately represents the integration of all aircraft emissions along realistic flight paths for such scenarios requires complex computational modeling capabilities. Such a detailed data set is required for the scenarios evaluated in this interim assessment. Within the NASA High-Speed Research Program, the Emissions Scenarios Committee provides a forum for identifying the required scenarios and evaluating the resulting database being developed with the advanced emissions modeling capabilities at the Boeing Company and McDonnell Douglas Corporation.

  7. Autonomous aircraft initiative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, Marle D.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a consulting effort to aid NASA Ames-Dryden in defining a new initiative in aircraft automation are described. The initiative described is a multi-year, multi-center technology development and flight demonstration program. The initiative features the further development of technologies in aircraft automation already being pursued at multiple NASA centers and Department of Defense (DoD) research and Development (R and D) facilities. The proposed initiative involves the development of technologies in intelligent systems, guidance, control, software development, airborne computing, navigation, communications, sensors, unmanned vehicles, and air traffic control. It involves the integration and implementation of these technologies to the extent necessary to conduct selected and incremental flight demonstrations.

  8. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

  9. Aircraft turbofan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, J. F.; Rice, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental technique of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid in the determination of the types and strengths of the generation mechanisms. Approaches to predicting or measuring acoustic mode content, optimizing treatment impedance to maximize attenuation, translating impedance into porous wall structure and interpreting far field directivity patterns are illustrated by comparisons of analytical and experimental results. The interdependence of source and acoustic treatment design to minimize far field noise is emphasized. Area requiring further research are discussed and the relevance of aircraft turbofan results to quieting other turbomachinery installations is addressed.

  10. Electrical Thermometers for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Womack, S H J

    1937-01-01

    Electrical thermometers commonly used on aircraft are the thermoelectric type for measuring engine-cylinder temperatures, the resistance type for measuring air temperatures, and the superheat meters of thermoelectric and resistance types for use on airships. These instruments are described and their advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Methods of testing these instruments and the performance to be expected from each are discussed. The field testing of engine-cylinder thermometers is treated in detail.

  11. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witkowski, David P. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A swept aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one full-span slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The full-span slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  12. Influencing Aircraft Wing Vortices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hörnschemeyer; G. Neuwerth; R. Henke

    \\u000a Results presented here were obtained within a project which was part of the Collaborative Research Centre SFB 401 “Flow Modulation\\u000a and Fluid-Structure Interaction at Airplane Wings” funding from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). The goal of this\\u000a project was to gain better understanding of aircraft wake vortices in order to investigate possibilities to mitigate the hazard\\u000a posed by these to following

  13. Interaction of Aircraft Wakes From Laterally Spaced Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    Large Eddy Simulations are used to examine wake interactions from aircraft on closely spaced parallel paths. Two sets of experiments are conducted, with the first set examining wake interactions out of ground effect (OGE) and the second set for in ground effect (IGE). The initial wake field for each aircraft represents a rolled-up wake vortex pair generated by a B-747. Parametric sets include wake interactions from aircraft pairs with lateral separations of 400, 500, 600, and 750 ft. The simulation of a wake from a single aircraft is used as baseline. The study shows that wake vortices from either a pair or a formation of B-747 s that fly with very close lateral spacing, last longer than those from an isolated B-747. For OGE, the inner vortices between the pair of aircraft, ascend, link and quickly dissipate, leaving the outer vortices to decay and descend slowly. For the IGE scenario, the inner vortices ascend and last longer, while the outer vortices decay from ground interaction at a rate similar to that expected from an isolated aircraft. Both OGE and IGE scenarios produce longer-lasting wakes for aircraft with separations less than 600 ft. The results are significant because concepts to increase airport capacity have been proposed that assume either aircraft formations and/or aircraft pairs landing on very closely spaced runways.

  14. Mission management aircraft operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This manual prescribes the NASA mission management aircraft program and provides policies and criteria for the safe and economical operation, maintenance, and inspection of NASA mission management aircraft. The operation of NASA mission management aircraft is based on the concept that safety has the highest priority. Operations involving unwarranted risks will not be tolerated. NASA mission management aircraft will be designated by the Associate Administrator for Management Systems and Facilities. NASA mission management aircraft are public aircraft as defined by the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. Maintenance standards, as a minimum, will meet those required for retention of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness certification. Federal Aviation Regulation Part 91, Subparts A and B, will apply except when requirements of this manual are more restrictive.

  15. Advanced aircraft for atmospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P.; Wegener, S.; Langford, J.; Anderson, J.; Lux, D.; Hall, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    The development of aircraft for high-altitude research is described in terms of program objectives and environmental, technological limitations, and the work on the Perseus A aircraft. The need for these advanced aircraft is proposed in relation to atmospheric science issues such as greenhouse trapping, the dynamics of tropical cyclones, and stratospheric ozone. The implications of the study on aircraft design requirements is addressed with attention given to the basic categories of high-altitude, long-range, long-duration, and nap-of-the-earth aircraft. A strategy is delineated for a platform that permits unique stratospheric measurements and is a step toward a more advanced aircraft. The goal of Perseus A is to carry scientific air sampling payloads weighing at least 50 kg to altitudes of more than 25 km. The airfoils are designed for low Reynolds numbers, the structural weight is very low, and the closed-cycle power plant runs on liquid oxygen.

  16. Aircraft cockpit vision: Math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashir, J.; Singh, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the field of vision of a pilot seated in an aircraft. Given the position and orientation of the aircraft, along with the geometrical configuration of its windows, and the location of an object, the model determines whether the object would be within the pilot's external vision envelope provided by the aircraft's windows. The computer program using this model was implemented and is described.

  17. Intelligent aircraft/airspace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangermann, John P.

    1995-01-01

    Projections of future air traffic predict at least a doubling of the number of revenue passenger miles flown by the year 2025. To meet this demand, an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) has been proposed. The IAAS operates on the basis of principled negotiation between intelligent agents. The aircraft/airspace system today consists of many agents, such as airlines, control facilities, and aircraft. All the agents are becoming increasingly capable as technology develops. These capabilities should be exploited to create an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) that would meet the predicted traffic levels of 2005.

  18. 75 FR 35329 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ...Overdue Aircraft, and Preservation of Aircraft Wreckage...use airports on land. These amendments...Overdue Aircraft, and Preservation of Aircraft Wreckage...carrier: (i) Lands or departs on a...public-use airports on land are involved in...OVERDUE AIRCRAFT, AND PRESERVATION OF AIRCRAFT...

  19. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines...PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.6 Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines...c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine,...

  20. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines...PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.6 Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines...c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine,...

  1. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines...PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.6 Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines...c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine,...

  2. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines...PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.6 Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines...c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine,...

  3. Aircraft Inspection for the General Aviation Aircraft Owner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    Presented is useful information for owners, pilots, student mechanics, and others with aviation interests. Part I of this booklet outlines aircraft inspection requirements, owner responsibilities, inspection time intervals, and sources of basic information. Part II is concerned with the general techniques used to inspect an aircraft. (Author/JN)

  4. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, John C. (Inventor); Gea, Lie-Mine (Inventor); McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witowski, David P. (Inventor); Krist, Steven E. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The slot may either extend spanwise along only a portion of the wingspan, or it may extend spanwise along the entire wingspan. In either case, the slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  5. X-29 aircraft takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Two X-29 aircraft, featuring one of the most unusual designs in aviation history, were flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., as technology demonstrators to investigate a host of advanced concepts and technologies. This movie clip runs 26 seconds and begins with a rear view of the X-29 in full afterburner at brake release, then a chase plane shot as it rotates off the runway beginning a rapid climb and finally an air-to-air view of the tail as the chase plane with the camera moves from right to left.

  6. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A series of studies in which films and liquid spray-on materials were evaluated in the laboratory for transport aircraft external surface coatings are summarized. Elastomeric polyurethanes were found to best meet requirements. Two commercially available products, CAAPCO B-274 and Chemglaze M313, were subjected to further laboratory testing, airline service evaluations, and drag-measurement flight tests. It was found that these coatings were compatible with the severe operating environment of airlines and that coatings reduced airplane drag. An economic analysis indicated significant dollar benefits to airlines from application of the coatings.

  7. Aircraft Speed Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1933-01-01

    This report presents a concise survey of the measurement of air speed and ground speed on board aircraft. Special attention is paid to the pitot-static air-speed meter which is the standard in the United States for airplanes. Air-speed meters of the rotating vane type are also discussed in considerable detail on account of their value as flight test instruments and as service instruments for airships. Methods of ground-speed measurement are treated briefly, with reference to the more important instruments. A bibliography on air-speed measurement concludes the report.

  8. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on aircraft designed to have a passenger capacity of 30 or fewer seats....

  9. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on aircraft designed to have a passenger capacity of 30 or fewer seats....

  10. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on aircraft designed to have a passenger capacity of 30 or fewer seats....

  11. 78 FR 67309 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ...Docket Nos. 12-376, FCC 12-161] Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft AGENCY: Federal...collection associated with the Commission's Earth Station Aboard Aircraft, Report and Order...adopted licensing and service rules for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAA)...

  12. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6 ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION...General Provisions § 34.6 Aircraft safety. (a) The provisions...

  13. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6 ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION...General Provisions § 34.6 Aircraft safety. (a) The provisions...

  14. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6 ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION...General Provisions § 34.6 Aircraft safety. (a) The provisions...

  15. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6 ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION...General Provisions § 34.6 Aircraft safety. (a) The provisions...

  16. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6 ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION...General Provisions § 34.6 Aircraft safety. (a) The provisions...

  17. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on aircraft designed to have a passenger capacity of 30 or fewer seats....

  18. Hypersonic transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A hypersonic transport aircraft design project was selected as a result of interactions with NASA Lewis Research Center personnel and fits the Presidential concept of the Orient Express. The Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) and an undergraduate student worked at the NASA Lewis Research Center during the 1986 summer conducting a literature survey, and relevant literature and useful software were collected. The computer software was implemented in the Computer Aided Design Laboratory of the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department. In addition to the lectures by the three instructors, a series of guest lectures was conducted. The first of these lectures 'Anywhere in the World in Two Hours' was delivered by R. Luidens of NASA Lewis Center. In addition, videotaped copies of relevant seminars obtained from NASA Lewis were also featured. The first assignment was to individually research and develop the mission requirements and to discuss the findings with the class. The class in consultation with the instructors then developed a set of unified mission requirements. Then the class was divided into three design groups (1) Aerodynamics Group, (2) Propulsion Group, and (3) Structures and Thermal Analyses Group. The groups worked on their respective design areas and interacted with each other to finally come up with an integrated conceptual design. The three faculty members and the GTA acted as the resource persons for the three groups and aided in the integration of the individual group designs into the final design of a hypersonic aircraft.

  19. Altus aircraft on runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The remotely piloted Altus aircraft flew several developmental test flights from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., in 1996. The Altus--the word is Latin for 'high'--is a variant of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. It is designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and is powered by a turbocharged four-cylinder piston engine. The first Altus was developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, while a second Altus was built for a Naval Postgraduate School/Department of Energy program. A pilot in a control station on the ground flew the craft by radio signals, using visual cues from a video camera in the nose of the Altus and information from the craft's air data system. Equipped with a single-stage turbocharger during the 1996 test flights, the first Altus reached altitudes in the 37,000-foot range, while the similarly-equipped second Altus reached 43,500 feet during developmental flights at Dryden in the summer of 1997. The NASA Altus also set an endurance record of more than 26 hours while flying a science mission in late 1996 and still had an estimated 10 hours of fuel remaining when it landed. Now equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, the NASA Altus maintained an altitude of 55,000 feet for four hours during flight tests in 1999.

  20. Dumbo heavy lifter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riester, Peter; Ellis, Colleen; Wagner, Michael; Orren, Scott; Smith, Byron; Skelly, Michael; Zgraggen, Craig; Webber, Matt

    1992-01-01

    The world is rapidly changing from one with two military superpowers, with which most countries were aligned, to one with many smaller military powers. In this environment, the United States cannot depend on the availability of operating bases from which to respond to crises requiring military intervention. Several studies (e.g. the SAB Global Reach, Global Power Study) have indicated an increased need to be able to rapidly transport large numbers of troops and equipment from the continental United States to potential trouble spots throughout the world. To this end, a request for proposals (RFP) for the concept design of a large aircraft capable of 'projecting' a significant military force without reliance on surface transportation was developed. These design requirements are: minimum payload of 400,000 pounds at 2.5 g maneuver load factor; minimum unfueled range of 6,000 nautical miles; and aircraft must operate from existing domestic air bases and use existing airbases or sites of opportunity at the destination.

  1. Aircraft wiring program status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Rex

    1995-11-01

    In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

  2. The Ultra Light Aircraft Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Howard W.

    1993-01-01

    The final report for grant NAG1-345 is presented. Recently, the bulk of the work that the grant has supported has been in the areas of ride quality and the structural analysis and testing of ultralight aircraft. The ride quality work ended in May 1989. Hence, the papers presented in this final report are concerned with ultralight aircraft.

  3. Evaluation of Aircraft Brake Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. L. Ho; F. E. Kennedy; M. B. Peterson

    1979-01-01

    A test program was carried out to evaluate several new high-temperature friction materials for use in aircraft disk brakes. A specially built test apparatus utilizing a disk brake and wheel half from a small jet aircraft was used. The apparatus enabled control of brake pressure, velocity and braking time. Tests were run under both constant and variables velocity conditions and

  4. Aircraft roll steering command system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Aircraft roll command signals are generated as a function of the Microwave Landing System based azimuth, groundtrack, groundspeed and azimuth rate or range distance input parameters. On initial approach, roll command signals are inhibited until a minimum roll command requirement is met. As the aircraft approaches the centerline of the runway, the system reverts to a linear track control.

  5. Fuel conservative aircraft engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technology developments for more fuel-efficiency subsonic transport aircraft are reported. Three major propulsion projects were considered: (1) engine component improvement - directed at current engines; (2) energy efficient engine - directed at new turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprops - directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft. Each project is reviewed and some of the technologies and recent accomplishments are described.

  6. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lara Gundel; Thomas Kirchstetter; Michael Spears; Douglas Sullivan

    2010-01-01

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's

  7. Aircraft as a meteorological sensor

    E-print Network

    Haak, Hein

    Aircraft as a meteorological sensor Using Mode-S Enhanced Surveillance data to derive upper air Meteorological Institute 2 | The aircraft as a meteorological sensor Photo cover: A KLM Airbus A330-200 lands of meteorological observations. #12;Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment | Royal Netherlands

  8. Ball lightning risk to aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Doe; A. Keul

    2009-01-01

    Lightning is a rare but regular phenomenon for air traffic. Aircraft are designed to withstand lightning strikes. Research on lightning and aircraft can be called detailed and effective. In the last 57 years, 18 reported lightning aviation disasters with a fatality figure of at least 714 persons occurred. For comparison, the last JACDEC ten-year average fatality figure was 857. The

  9. Research developments for aircraft safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, K. E.

    1980-01-01

    The paper deals with an aviation safety technology program, whose objective is to provide technology for near-term application to civil transport aircraft and for designing the next generation of advanced transports. The influence of research and development efforts on current safety levels and aircraft operating efficiency is examined.

  10. Aircraft vortex marking program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pompa, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    A simple, reliable device for identifying atmospheric vortices, principally as generated by in-flight aircraft and with emphasis on the use of nonpolluting aerosols for marking by injection into such vortex (-ices) is presented. The refractive index and droplet size were determined from an analysis of aerosol optical and transport properties as the most significant parameters in effecting vortex optimum light scattering (for visual sighting) and visual persistency of at least 300 sec. The analysis also showed that a steam-ejected tetraethylene glycol aerosol with droplet size near 1 micron and refractive index of approximately 1.45 could be a promising candidate for vortex marking. A marking aerosol was successfully generated with the steam-tetraethylene glycol mixture from breadboard system hardware. A compact 25 lb/f thrust (nominal) H2O2 rocket chamber was the key component of the system which produced the required steam by catalytic decomposition of the supplied H2O2.

  11. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

  12. Aircraft agility maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, Eugene M.; Thompson, Brian G.

    1992-01-01

    A new dynamic model for aircraft motions is presented. This model can be viewed as intermediate between a point-mass model, in which the body attitude angles are control-like, and a rigid-body model, in which the body-attitude angles evolve according to Newton's Laws. Specifically, consideration is given to the case of symmetric flight, and a model is constructed in which the body roll-rate and the body pitch-rate are the controls. In terms of this body-rate model a minimum-time heading change maneuver is formulated. When the bounds on the body-rates are large the results are similar to the point-mass model in that the model can very quickly change the applied forces and produce an acceleration to turn the vehicle. With finite bounds on these rates, the forces change in a smooth way. This leads to a measurable effect of agility.

  13. Aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisoski, Derek L. (Inventor); Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A solar rechargeable, long-duration, span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn, pitch and yaw. The wing is configured to deform under flight loads to position the propellers such that the control can be achieved. Each of five segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other segments, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface.

  14. Multibody aircraft study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.; Craven, E. P.; Farmer, B. T.; Honrath, J. F.; Stephens, R. E.; Bronson, C. E., Jr.; Meyer, R. T.; Hogue, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The potential benefits of a multibody aircraft when compared to a single body aircraft are presented. The analyses consist principally of a detailed point design analysis of three multibody and one single body aircraft, based on a selected payload of 350,000 kg (771,618 lb), for final aircraft definitions; sensitivity studies to evaluate the effects of variations in payload, wing semispan body locations, and fuel price; recommendations as to the research and technology requirements needed to validate the multibody concept. Two, two body, one, three body, and one single body aircraft were finalized for the selected payload, with DOC being the prime figure of merit. When compared to the single body, the multibody aircraft showed a reduction in DOC by as much as 11.3 percent. Operating weight was reduced up to 14 percent, and fly away cost reductions ranged from 8.6 to 13.4 percent. Weight reduction, hence cost, of the multibody aircraft resulted primarily from the wing bending relief afforded by the bodies being located outboard on the wing.

  15. NASA Aircraft Controls Research, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, G. P. (compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The workshop consisted of 24 technical presentations on various aspects of aircraft controls, ranging from the theoretical development of control laws to the evaluation of new controls technology in flight test vehicles. A special report on the status of foreign aircraft technology and a panel session with seven representatives from organizations which use aircraft controls technology were also included. The controls research needs and opportunities for the future as well as the role envisioned for NASA in that research were addressed. Input from the panel and response to the workshop presentations will be used by NASA in developing future programs.

  16. Designing for aircraft structural crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, R. G.; Caiafa, C.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes structural aviation crash dynamics research activities being conducted on general aviation aircraft and transport aircraft. The report includes experimental and analytical correlations of load-limiting subfloor and seat configurations tested dynamically in vertical drop tests and in a horizontal sled deceleration facility. Computer predictions using a finite-element nonlinear computer program, DYCAST, of the acceleration time-histories of these innovative seat and subfloor structures are presented. Proposed application of these computer techniques, and the nonlinear lumped mass computer program KRASH, to transport aircraft crash dynamics is discussed. A proposed FAA full-scale crash test of a fully instrumented radio controlled transport airplane is also described.

  17. Aircraft Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in aircraft mechanics. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in 24 different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: airframe mechanic, power plant mechanic, aircraft mechanic, aircraft sheet metal worker, aircraft electrician,…

  18. Progress in aircraft design since 1903

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Significant developments in aviation history are documented to show the advancements in aircraft design which have taken place since 1903. Each aircraft is identified according to the manufacturer, powerplant, dimensions, normal weight, and typical performance. A narrative summary of the major accomplishments of the aircraft is provided. Photographs of each aircraft are included.

  19. Aircraft routing under the risk of detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Zabarankin; Stan Uryasev; Robert Murphey

    2006-01-01

    The deterministic problem for finding an aircraft's optimal risk trajectory in a threat environment has been formulated. The threat is associated with the risk of aircraft detection by radars or similar sensors. The model considers an aircraft's trajectory in three-dimensional (3-D) space and represents the aircraft by a symmetrical ellipsoid with the axis of symmetry directing the trajectory. Analytical and

  20. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection...CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of this part...

  1. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection...CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of this part...

  2. Wet runways. [aircraft landing and directional control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft stopping and directional control performance on wet runways is discussed. The major elements affecting tire/ground traction developed by jet transport aircraft are identified and described in terms of atmospheric, pavement, tire, aircraft system and pilot performance factors or parameters. Research results are summarized, and means for improving or restoring tire traction/aircraft performance on wet runways are discussed.

  3. Characteristics of future aircraft impacting aircraft and airport compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    Results are reported of an opinion survey of selected individuals at the decision-making level within the five major manufacturers of transport aircraft in the United States and Europe. Opinions were obtained concerning both possible and probable existence of over 50 compatibility-related characteristics of transport aircraft in use in the years 1990, 2000, and 2010. The maximum size of aircraft is expected to increase, at a roughly uniform rate, to the year 2010 by 85 percent in passengers, 55 percent in airfreighter payload, and 35 percent in gross weight weight. Companion to the expected growth in payloads and gross weight was the identification of probable increases in aircraft geometrical dimensions and component capability, and use of fully double-decked passenger compartments. Wing span will increase considerably more than normally expected to provide wings of higher aspect ratio. New aircraft features coming into probable use include large turboprops, synthetic jet-A fuel, winglets, wake-vortex-reducing devices and laminar flow control. New operational concepts considered probable include steep approaches, high-speed turnoffs, and taxiway towing for the aircraft, plus passenger bypass of the terminal building, expedited handling of belly cargo and an intermodal cargo container for the payloads.

  4. Turboprop Cargo Aircraft Systems study, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlbauer, J. C.; Hewell, J. G., Jr.; Lindenbaum, S. P.; Randall, C. C.; Searle, N.; Stone, F. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of advanced propellers (propfan) on aircraft direct operating costs, fuel consumption, and noiseprints were determined. A comparison of three aircraft selected from the results with competitive turbofan aircraft shows that advanced turboprop aircraft offer these potential benefits, relative to advanced turbofan aircraft: 21 percent fuel saving, 26 percent higher fuel efficiency, 15 percent lower DOCs, and 25 percent shorter field lengths. Fuel consumption for the turboprop is nearly 40 percent less than for current commercial turbofan aircraft. Aircraft with both types of propulsion satisfy current federal noise regulations. Advanced turboprop aircraft have smaller noiseprints at 90 EPNdB than advanced turbofan aircraft, but large noiseprints at 70 and 80 EPNdB levels, which are usually suggested as quietness goals. Accelerated development of advanced turboprops is strongly recommended to permit early attainment of the potential fuel saving. Several areas of work are identified which may produce quieter turboprop aircraft.

  5. Unmanned Aircraft: A Pilot's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pestana, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the challenges of "piloting" a unmanned aircraft. The topic include the pilot-vehicle interact design, the concept of pilot/operator, and role of NASA's Ikhana UAS in the western states fire mission.

  6. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    E-print Network

    Gundel, Lara

    2010-01-01

    cabin air through high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filterscabin air. The GAO learned that 85% used HEPA filters. Afilter. On most large aircraft, recirculation reduces exposure to particulate air contaminants because the cabin

  7. Evaluation of aircraft brake materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, T. L.; Kennedy, F. E.; Peterson, M. B.

    1977-01-01

    A test program was carried out to evaluate several new high-temperature friction materials for use in aircraft disk brakes. A specially built test apparatus utilizing a disk brake and wheel half from a small jet aircraft was used. The apparatus enabled control of brake pressure, velocity and braking time. Tests were run under both constant and variable velocity conditions and covered a kinetic energy range similar to that encountered in aircraft brake service. The materials evaluation showed that two newly developed friction materials show potential for use in aircraft disk brakes. One of the materials is a nickel-based sintered composite, while the other is a molybdenum-based material. Both materials show much lower wear rates than conventional copper-based materials and are better able to withstand the high temperatures encountered during braking. Additional materials improvement is necessary, however, since both materials show a significant negative slope of the friction-velocity curve at low velocities.

  8. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    Commercial aircraft manufacturers are making production commitments to composite structure for future aircraft and modifications to current production aircraft. Flight service programs with advanced composites sponsored by NASA during the past 10 years are described. Approximately 2.5 million total composite component flight hours have been accumulated since 1970 on both commercial transports and helicopters. Design concepts with significant mass savings were developed, appropriate inspection and maintenance procedures were established, and satisfactory service was achieved for the various composite components. A major NASA/U.S. industry technology program to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites was undertaken. Ground and flight environmental effects on the composite materials used in the flight service programs supplement the flight service evaluation.

  9. Aircraft accidents : method of analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    This report on a method of analysis of aircraft accidents has been prepared by a special committee on the nomenclature, subdivision, and classification of aircraft accidents organized by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in response to a request dated February 18, 1928, from the Air Coordination Committee consisting of the Assistant Secretaries for Aeronautics in the Departments of War, Navy, and Commerce. The work was undertaken in recognition of the difficulty of drawing correct conclusions from efforts to analyze and compare reports of aircraft accidents prepared by different organizations using different classifications and definitions. The air coordination committee's request was made "in order that practices used may henceforth conform to a standard and be universally comparable." the purpose of the special committee therefore was to prepare a basis for the classification and comparison of aircraft accidents, both civil and military. (author)

  10. Propulsion integration for military aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, William P.

    1989-01-01

    The transonic aerodynamic characteristics for high-performance aircraft are significantly affected by shock-induced flow interactions as well as other local flow interference effects which usually occur at transonic speeds. These adverse interactions can not only cause high drag, but can cause unusual aerodynamic loadings and/or severe stability and control problems. Many new programs are underway to develop methods for reducing the adverse effects, as well as to develop an understanding of the basic flow conditions which are the primary contributors. It is anticipated that these new programs will result in technologies which can reduce the aircraft cruise drag through improved integration as well as increased aircraft maneuverability throughh the application of thrust vectoring. This paper will identify some of the primary propulsion integration problems for high performance aircraft at transonic speeds, and demonstrate several methods for reducing or eliminating the undesirable characteristics, while enhancing configuration effectiveness.

  11. Aircraft noise prediction program validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivashankara, B. N.

    1980-01-01

    A modular computer program (ANOPP) for predicting aircraft flyover and sideline noise was developed. A high quality flyover noise data base for aircraft that are representative of the U.S. commercial fleet was assembled. The accuracy of ANOPP with respect to the data base was determined. The data for source and propagation effects were analyzed and suggestions for improvements to the prediction methodology are given.

  12. AD-1 aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Ames-Dryden (AD)-1 was a research aircraft designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (or pivoting) wing. The movie clip runs about 17 seconds and has two air-to-air views of the AD-1. The first shot is from slightly above as the wing pivots to 60 degrees. The other angle is almost directly below the aircraft when the wing is fully pivoted.

  13. X-29 - views of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Two X-29 aircraft, featuring one of the most unusual designs in aviation history, were flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., as technology demonstrators to investigate a host of advanced concepts and technologies. In this 29-second film clip the camera pans along the aircraft from nose to tail and then air-to-air as the shot sweeps from beside the X-29 around to the front.

  14. Jet aircraft hydrocarbon fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P. (editor)

    1978-01-01

    A broad specification, referee fuel was proposed for research and development. This fuel has a lower, closely specified hydrogen content and higher final boiling point and freezing point than ASTM Jet A. The workshop recommended various priority items for fuel research and development. Key items include prediction of tradeoffs among fuel refining, distribution, and aircraft operating costs; combustor liner temperature and emissions studies; and practical simulator investigations of the effect of high freezing point and low thermal stability fuels on aircraft fuel systems.

  15. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    Flight experience gained with numerous composite aircraft structures is discussed. Both commercial transports and helicopters are included. Design concepts with significant mass savings and appropriate inspection and maintenance procedures are among the factors considered. Also, a major NASA/U.S. industry technology program to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites is described, including preliminary results. Ground and flight environmental effects on the composite materials used in the flight service programs are also discussed.

  16. Neural networks for aircraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linse, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

  17. Hydrogen aircraft and airport safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Rostek; E. Behrend; H.-W. Pohl

    1997-01-01

    Hydrogen will be used as aviation fuel in the foreseeable future. First flight tests with a hydrogen demonstrator aircraft, currently under investigation in the scope of the German-Russian Cryoplane project, are scheduled for 1999. Regular service with regional aircraft may begin around 2005, followed by larger Airbus-type airliners around 2010–2015. The fuel storage aboard such airliners will be of the

  18. Technologies for Aircraft Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2006-01-01

    Technologies for aircraft noise reduction have been developed by NASA over the past 15 years through the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program and the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) project. This presentation summarizes highlights from these programs and anticipated noise reduction benefits for communities surrounding airports. Historical progress in noise reduction and technologies available for future aircraft/engine development are identified. Technologies address aircraft/engine components including fans, exhaust nozzles, landing gear, and flap systems. New "chevron" nozzles have been developed and implemented on several aircraft in production today that provide significant jet noise reduction. New engines using Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) ratios are projected to provide about 10 EPNdB (Effective Perceived Noise Level in decibels) engine noise reduction relative to the average fleet that was flying in 1997. Audio files are embedded in the presentation that estimate the sound levels for a 35,000 pound thrust engine for takeoff and approach power conditions. The predictions are based on actual model scale data that was obtained by NASA. Finally, conceptual pictures are shown that look toward future aircraft/propulsion systems that might be used to obtain further noise reduction.

  19. High-altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdi, Renee Anna

    1991-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000+ ft, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft. This project is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer. The aircraft must be able to satisfy four mission profiles. The first is a polar mission that ranges from Chile to the South Pole and back to Chile, a total range of 6000 n.m. at 100,000 ft with a 2500-lb payload. The second mission is also a polar mission with a decreased altitude and an increased payload. For the third mission, the aircraft will take off at NASA Ames, cruise at 100,000 ft, and land in Chile. The final mission requires the aircraft to make an excursion to 120,000 ft. All four missions require that a subsonic Mach number be maintained because of constraints imposed by the air sampling equipment. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable for meeting the requirements. The performance of each is analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the mission requirements.

  20. Optimization in fractional aircraft ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septiani, R. D.; Pasaribu, H. M.; Soewono, E.; Fayalita, R. A.

    2012-05-01

    Fractional Aircraft Ownership is a new concept in flight ownership management system where each individual or corporation may own a fraction of an aircraft. In this system, the owners have privilege to schedule their flight according to their needs. Fractional management companies (FMC) manages all aspects of aircraft operations, including utilization of FMC's aircraft in combination of outsourced aircrafts. This gives the owners the right to enjoy the benefits of private aviations. However, FMC may have complicated business requirements that neither commercial airlines nor charter airlines faces. Here, optimization models are constructed to minimize the number of aircrafts in order to maximize the profit and to minimize the daily operating cost. In this paper, three kinds of demand scenarios are made to represent different flight operations from different types of fractional owners. The problems are formulated as an optimization of profit and a daily operational cost to find the optimum flight assignments satisfying the weekly and daily demand respectively from the owners. Numerical results are obtained by Genetic Algorithm method.

  1. Parabolic aircraft solidification experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L. (Principal Investigator); Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Susan

    1996-01-01

    A number of solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental environment which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Two techniques of interest are directional solidification and isothermal casting. Because of the wide-spread use of these experimental techniques in space-based research, several MSAD experiments have been manifested for space flight. In addition to the microstructural analysis for interpretation of the experimental results from previous work with parabolic flights, it has become apparent that a better understanding of the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible. Our university has performed in several experimental studies such as this in recent years. The most recent was in visualizing the effect of convective flow phenomena on the KC-135 and prior to that were several successive contracts to perform directional solidification and isothermal casting experiments on the KC-135. Included in this work was the modification and utilization of the Convective Flow Analyzer (CFA), the Aircraft Isothermal Casting Furnace (ICF), and the Three-Zone Directional Solidification Furnace. These studies have contributed heavily to the mission of the Microgravity Science and Applications' Materials Science Program.

  2. Innovations in Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Boeing 777 carries with it basic and applied research, technology, and aerodynamic knowledge honed at several NASA field centers. Several Langley Research Center innovations instrumental to the development of the aircraft include knowledge of how to reduce engine and other noise for passengers and terminal residents, increased use of lightweight aerospace composite structures for increased fuel efficiency and range, and wind tunnel tests confirming the structural integrity of 777 wing-airframe integration. Test results from Marshall Space Flight Center aimed at improving the performance of the Space Shuttle engines led to improvements in the airplane's new, more efficient jet engines. Finally, fostered by Ames Research Center, the Boeing 777 blankets that protect areas of the plane from high temperatures and fire have a lineage to Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation used on certain areas of the Space Shuttle. According to Boeing Company estimates, the 777 has captured three-quarters of new orders for airplanes in its class since the program was launched.

  3. Pilotless Aircraft Research Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1950-01-01

    Technician William Ferguson adjusts coupling on typical NACA D4 automatic control research missile with double Deacon booster, August 18, 1950. Joseph Shortal noted that a new research authorization (RA 1525) was issued on September 29, 1948 'to study various automatic stabilization systems for pilotless aircraft.' Earlier research had revealed aerodynamic control problems at speeds beyond Mach 1. The first two development missiles in this research program were launched in April 1949; the first stabilized missile on May 24, 1949. That flight was successful and 'verified the wing-tip aileron control system, the adaptation of the gyro-actuated control to supersonic flight, and a method for calculating rolling response.' 'A typical D4 missile is shown on the launcher.... This particular missile was launched August 1950, by which time the booster had been changed to a double-Deacon System to obtain higher speeds. The D4 missile configuration was also found to be a desirable one from pitch and yaw considerations in later flights. Its general configuration was followed later in the design of the Navy-Martin Bullpup air-to-ground guided missile.' Excerpts from Joseph Shortal's history of Wallops Station.

  4. 76 FR 76686 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ...advisories that the NTSB may seek to investigate. List of Subjects in 49 CFR Part 830 Aircraft accidents, Aircraft incidents, Aviation safety, Overdue aircraft notification and reporting, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. For the...

  5. 14 CFR 183.27 - Designated aircraft maintenance inspectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...27 Designated aircraft maintenance inspectors. A designated aircraft maintenance inspector (DAMI) may approve maintenance on civil aircraft used by United States military flying clubs in foreign...

  6. 14 CFR 183.27 - Designated aircraft maintenance inspectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...27 Designated aircraft maintenance inspectors. A designated aircraft maintenance inspector (DAMI) may approve maintenance on civil aircraft used by United States military flying clubs in foreign...

  7. 14 CFR 183.27 - Designated aircraft maintenance inspectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...27 Designated aircraft maintenance inspectors. A designated aircraft maintenance inspector (DAMI) may approve maintenance on civil aircraft used by United States military flying clubs in foreign...

  8. 14 CFR 183.27 - Designated aircraft maintenance inspectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...27 Designated aircraft maintenance inspectors. A designated aircraft maintenance inspector (DAMI) may approve maintenance on civil aircraft used by United States military flying clubs in foreign...

  9. 14 CFR 183.27 - Designated aircraft maintenance inspectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...27 Designated aircraft maintenance inspectors. A designated aircraft maintenance inspector (DAMI) may approve maintenance on civil aircraft used by United States military flying clubs in foreign...

  10. 77 FR 41889 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ...Michael Schwetz, Aviation Safety Engineer, Boston Aircraft Certification Office...Air transportation, Aircraft, Aviation safety, Incorporation by Reference...Michael Schwetz, Aviation Safety Engineer, Boston Aircraft Certification...

  11. Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research Testbed: Aircraft Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Langford, William M.; Hill, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    The Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) testbed being developed at NASA Langley Research Center is an experimental flight test capability for research experiments pertaining to dynamics modeling and control beyond the normal flight envelope. An integral part of that testbed is a 5.5% dynamically scaled, generic transport aircraft. This remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) is powered by twin turbine engines and includes a collection of sensors, actuators, navigation, and telemetry systems. The downlink for the plane includes over 70 data channels, plus video, at rates up to 250 Hz. Uplink commands for aircraft control include over 30 data channels. The dynamic scaling requirement, which includes dimensional, weight, inertial, actuator, and data rate scaling, presents distinctive challenges in both the mechanical and electrical design of the aircraft. Discussion of these requirements and their implications on the development of the aircraft along with risk mitigation strategies and training exercises are included here. Also described are the first training (non-research) flights of the airframe. Additional papers address the development of a mobile operations station and an emulation and integration laboratory.

  12. Aircraft flight characteristics in icing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yihua; Wu, Zhenlong; Su, Yuan; Xu, Zhongda

    2015-04-01

    Aircraft flight dynamic characteristics can be greatly changed by ice accretion, which has been considered a considerable threat to aircraft flight safety for a long time. An overview of the studies on several ice accretion effects on aircraft flight dynamics is presented here. Special attention is paid to the following areas: ways to obtain the aerodynamic data of iced aircraft, flight dynamic modeling and simulation for iced aircraft, effects of ice accretion on aircraft stability and control as well as on flight performance and aircraft icing envelope protection and control adaption. Finally based on the progress of existing research in these areas, some key issues which deserve more attention for researchers to resolve are addressed, including obtaining aerodynamic data of iced aircraft through numerical simulation method, consummating the existing calculation models about effects of ice accretion on aircraft aerodynamic derivatives and enhancing the investigation on problems of tailplane ice accretion.

  13. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This photo shows two QF-106 aircraft that were used for the Eclipse project, both parked at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator -01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  14. Durability of aircraft composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dextern, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    Confidence in the long term durability of advanced composites is developed through a series of flight service programs. Service experience is obtained by installing secondary and primary composite components on commercial and military transport aircraft and helicopters. Included are spoilers, rudders, elevators, ailerons, fairings and wing boxes on transport aircraft and doors, fairings, tail rotors, vertical fins, and horizontal stabilizers on helicopters. Materials included in the evaluation are boron/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy, graphite/epoxy and boron/aluminum. Inspection, maintenance, and repair results for the components in service are reported. The effects of long term exposure to laboratory, flight, and outdoor environmental conditions are reported for various composite materials. Included are effects of moisture absorption, ultraviolet radiation, and aircraft fuels and fluids.

  15. Dynamic properties of aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.; Nybakken, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    A research program has investigated the use of the von Schlippe string-type tire model for predicting the dynamic behavior of aircraft tires. The transfer-function method was used for theory evaluation. A more flexible two-constant modification to the string theory tire model is presented. Experiments were conducted on four types of scale model aircraft tires. Two types were of conventional bias construction, one type was an isotropic toroid, and one type was of unbelted radial construction. The conventional string theory and model gave predictions that were in good agreement with experimental data for bias constructed tires. The two-constant modification to string theory provided better agreement between predictions and experiment for the unconventional tires. The results indicate that the string theory tire model using static and slow-rolling tire properties predicts dynamic aircraft tire properties that have the same trends as the measured dynamic properties and, in most cases, provides good quantitative agreement.

  16. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents computational results of these large-scale instances. To validate the models and solution algorithms developed, this thesis also compares the daily flight schedules that it designs with the schedules of the existing airlines. Furthermore, it creates instances that represent different economic and fuel-prices conditions and derives schedules under these different conditions. In addition, it discusses the implication of using new aircraft in the future flight schedules. Finally, future research in three areas---model, computational method, and simulation for validation---is proposed.

  17. Aircraft anti-insect system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiro, Clifford Lawrence (Inventor); Fric, Thomas Frank (Inventor); Leon, Ross Michael (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Insect debris is removed from or prevented from adhering to insect impingement areas of an aircraft, particularly on an inlet cowl of an engine, by heating the area to 180.degree.-500.degree. C. An apparatus comprising a means to bring hot air from the aircraft engine to a plenum contiguous to the insect impingement area provides for the heating of the insect impingement areas to the required temperatures. The plenum can include at least one tube with a plurality of holes contained in a cavity within the inlet cowl. It can also include an envelope with a plurality of holes on its surface contained in a cavity within the inlet cowl.

  18. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers the use of composite components in commercial aircraft. NASA has been active in sponsoring flight service programs with advanced composites for the last 10 years, with 2.5 million total composite component hours accumulated since 1970 on commercial transports and helicopters with no significant degradation in residual strength of composite components. Design, inspection, and maintenance procedures have been developed; a major NASA/US industry technology program has been developed to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites.

  19. Minimum noise impact aircraft trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Melton, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical optimization is used to compute the optimum flight paths, based upon a parametric form that implicitly includes some of the problem restrictions. The other constraints are formulated as penalties in the cost function. Various aircraft on multiple trajectores (landing and takeoff) can be considered. The modular design employed allows for the substitution of alternate models of the population distribution, aircraft noise, flight paths, and annoyance, or for the addition of other features (e.g., fuel consumption) in the cost function. A reduction in the required amount of searching over local minima was achieved through use of the presence of statistical lateral dispersion in the flight paths.

  20. Aircraft accidents : method of analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    The revised report includes the chart for the analysis of aircraft accidents, combining consideration of the immediate causes, underlying causes, and results of accidents, as prepared by the special committee, with a number of the definitions clarified. A brief statement of the organization and work of the special committee and of the Committee on Aircraft Accidents; and statistical tables giving a comparison of the types of accidents and causes of accidents in the military services on the one hand and in civil aviation on the other, together with explanations of some of the important differences noted in these tables.

  1. Aircraft maneuver envelope warning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bivens, Courtland C. (inventor); Rosado, Joel M. (inventor); Lee, Burnett (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A maneuver envelope warning system for an aircraft having operating limits, operating condition sensors and an indicator driver. The indicator driver has a plurality of visual indicators. The indicator driver determines a relationship between sensed operating conditions and the operating limits; such as, a ratio therebetween. The indicator driver illuminates a number of the indicators in proportion to the determined relationship. The position of the indicators illuminated represents to a pilot in an easily ascertainable manner whether the operational conditions are approaching operational limits of the aircraft, and the degree to which operational conditions lie within or exceed operational limits.

  2. Model of aircraft noise adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Cawthorn, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Development of an aircraft noise adaptation model, which would account for much of the variability in the responses of subjects participating in human response to noise experiments, was studied. A description of the model development is presented. The principal concept of the model, was the determination of an aircraft adaptation level which represents an annoyance calibration for each individual. Results showed a direct correlation between noise level of the stimuli and annoyance reactions. Attitude-personality variables were found to account for varying annoyance judgements.

  3. NASA's Aircraft Icing Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the NASA ongoing efforts to develop an aircraft icing analysis capability is presented. Discussions are included of the overall and long term objectives of the program as well as current capabilities and limitations of the various computer codes being developed. Descriptions are given of codes being developed to analyze two and three dimensional trajectories of water droplets, airfoil ice accretion, aerodynamic performance degradation of components and complete aircraft configurations, electrothermal deicer, fluid freezing point depressant antideicer and electro-impulse deicer. The need for bench mark and verification data to support the code development is also discussed, and selected results of experimental programs are presented.

  4. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment...

  5. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment...

  6. Aircraft Electronics Maintenance Training Simulator. Curriculum Outlines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackhawk Technical Coll., Janesville, WI.

    Instructional materials are provided for nine courses in an aircraft electronics maintenance training program. Courses are as follows: aviation basic electricity, direct current and alternating current electronics, basic avionic installations, analog electronics, digital electronics, microcomputer electronics, radio communications, aircraft

  7. Alternate Fuels for use in Commercial Aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Daggett; Robert C. Hendricks; Edwin Corporan

    The engine and commercial aircraft research and development communities have been investigating the practicality of using alternative fuels in near, mid, and far-term aircraft. Presently, it appears that an approach of using a \\

  8. Maintenance cost studies of present aircraft subsystems

    E-print Network

    Pearlman, Chaim Herman Shalom

    1966-01-01

    This report describes two detailed studies of actual maintenance costs for present transport aircraft. The first part describes maintenance costs for jet transport aircraft broken down into subsystem costs according to an ...

  9. Global Mortality Attributable to Aircraft Cruise Emissions

    E-print Network

    Britter, Rex E.

    Aircraft emissions impact human health though degradation of air quality. The majority of previous analyses of air quality impacts from aviation have considered only landing and takeoff emissions. We show that aircraft ...

  10. Fuel Cell Council Working Group on Aircraft and Aircraft Ground Support Fuel

    E-print Network

    Fuel Cell Council Working Group on Aircraft and Aircraft Ground Support Fuel Cell Applications #12;Topics Ā· The US Fuel Cell Council Aircraft and Aircraft Support Working Group Establishment Working Group, nonprofits, government Advocacy Regulations Safety and standardization Education Strategic Alliances #12;Our

  11. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A review is provided of the goals, objectives, and recent progress in each of six aircraft energy efficiency programs aimed at improved propulsive, aerodynamic and structural efficiency for future transport aircraft. Attention is given to engine component improvement, an energy efficient turbofan engine, advanced turboprops, revolutionary gains in aerodynamic efficiency for aircraft of the late 1990s, laminar flow control, and composite primary aircraft structures.

  12. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOEpatents

    Dickens, Larry M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Clinton, TN)

    1996-01-01

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components.

  13. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOEpatents

    Dickens, L.M.; Haynes, H.D.; Ayers, C.W.

    1996-01-16

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components. 14 figs.

  14. Structural health management for aging aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy Ikegami; Eric D. Haugse

    2001-01-01

    An effective structural health management (SHM) system can be a useful tool for making aircraft fleet management decisions ranging from individual aircraft maintenance scheduling and usage restrictions to fleet rotation strategies. This paper discusses the end-user requirements for the elements and architecture of an effective SHM system for application to both military and commercial aging aircraft fleets. The elements discussed

  15. Robust hovering control of a PVTOL aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Lin; William Zhang; Robert D. Brandt

    1999-01-01

    We study robust hovering control of vertical\\/short takeoff and landing (V\\/STOL) aircraft. For hovering control, we can model a V\\/STOL aircraft as a planar vertical takeoff and landing (PVTOL) aircraft. We use an optimal control approach to design a robust hovering control. The resulting control is a nonlinear state feedback whose robustness is demonstrated by numerical simulations

  16. Aircraft Landing Gear Dynamics: Simulation and Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. KRÜGER; I. BESSELINK; D. COWLING; D. B. DOAN; W. KORTÜM; W. KRABACHER

    1997-01-01

    The landing gear is an inevitable system for the aircraft. It absorbs the energy of the landing impact and carries the aircraft weight at all ground operations, including take off, taxiing, and towing. Numerical simulation has become an invaluable tool for the assessment of landing gear dynamics as well as of aircraft\\/landing gear interaction. This paper gives an overview of

  17. Aviation Safety Program Aircraft Aging & Durability Project

    E-print Network

    Aviation Safety Program Aircraft Aging & Durability Project Technical Plan Summary Principal by NASA to define the rationale, scope and detailed content of a comprehensive Aviation Safety, Aircraft Aircraft Aging & Durability Project ADP Advanced Digital Processing AvSP Aviation Safety Program CDM

  18. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6...General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of this...without creating a hazard to aircraft safety. [77 FR 36381, June...

  19. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... Definitions. § 87.6 Aircraft safety. Link to an amendment published...forth as follows: § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of...

  20. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6...General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of this...without creating a hazard to aircraft safety. [77 FR 36381, June...

  1. Contribution of laser anemometry to aircraft safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques Mandle

    1987-01-01

    The contribution of laser anemometry to aircraft safety through its use in the calibration of aircraft wind and pressure measurements and in wind shear detection is considered. Following a discussion of the principles of laser anemometry and four standard pressure error calibration methods, the application of laser anemometry to the calibration of aircraft incidence and sideslip is discussed. Calibration precisions

  2. A Ubiquitous Computing Environment for Aircraft Maintenance

    E-print Network

    in the area of aircraft maintenance. Extensive requirements regarding quality, safety, and documentationA Ubiquitous Computing Environment for Aircraft Maintenance Matthias Lampe Department of Computer as well as high costs for having aircrafts idle during maintenance demand for an efficient execution

  3. Subsonic jet aircraft and stratospheric pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Anderson

    1973-01-01

    A significant number of thepresent long-range subsonic jet aircraft flights are in the stratosphere. Based on fuel consumption, an equivalent of 107 SST aircraft (Concorde) have been flying in the stratosphere each year from 1960 to 1970 (620 equivalent SST in 1990). Subsonic jets in 1990 will burn about 1.6 times as much fuel in the stratosphere as SST aircraft.

  4. Douglas DT-2 (Naval Aircraft Factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1923-01-01

    Douglas DT-2 (Naval Aircraft Factory): This example of the Douglas DT-2 torpedo plane, which flew as 'NACA 11,' was built in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by the Naval Aircraft Factory. Langley's NACA staff studied the take-off characteristics of a twin-float seaplane with this aircraft.

  5. Autolanding of Commercial Aircrafts by Genetic Programming

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    of the aircraft is controlled by specifying the desired elevator angle c (the output of ALS) to the pitch autopi to the autolander control system include the al- titude of the aircraft, its vertical speed and the desired values of the controller (ALS) to generate a sequence of desired elevator angles c(t), which will lead the aircraft

  6. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  7. Aircraft noise and risk politics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Bröer

    2007-01-01

    Air mobility spans most of the globe, but its side effects are concentrated in relatively small localities. In this paper aircraft noise annoyance is interpreted from the perspective of risk society theory as described by Ulrich Beck. With the increase in air mobility, side effects like noise nuisance gradually dominate the air mobility discussions. The logic of wealth distribution is

  8. Subsonic Aircraft Safety Icing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon Monica; Reveley, Mary S.; Evans, Joni K.; Barrientos, Francesca A.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project is one of four projects within the agency s Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe) in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The IRAC Project, which was redesigned in the first half of 2007, conducts research to advance the state of the art in aircraft control design tools and techniques. A "Key Decision Point" was established for fiscal year 2007 with the following expected outcomes: document the most currently available statistical/prognostic data associated with icing for subsonic transport, summarize reports by subject matter experts in icing research on current knowledge of icing effects on control parameters and establish future requirements for icing research for subsonic transports including the appropriate alignment. This study contains: (1) statistical analyses of accident and incident data conducted by NASA researchers for this "Key Decision Point", (2) an examination of icing in other recent statistically based studies, (3) a summary of aviation safety priority lists that have been developed by various subject-matter experts, including the significance of aircraft icing research in these lists and (4) suggested future requirements for NASA icing research. The review of several studies by subject-matter experts was summarized into four high-priority icing research areas. Based on the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project goals and objectives, the IRAC project was encouraged to conduct work in all of the high-priority icing research areas that were identified, with the exception of the developing of methods to sense and document actual icing conditions.

  9. System design and aircraft integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, John R.

    1996-06-01

    The Integrated Helmet Audio/Visual System (IHAVS) suite is composed of the GEC Helmet Mounted Display (HMD), Armstrong Labs 3-D Audio system, Polhemus Head Tracker (HT) and SMiths Interactive Voice Module (IVM). The LORAL NITE Hawk Targeting Self Cooled IR pod (TFLIR) was added, supplementing the IHAVS for off-boresight target management. The lightweight HMD generates a high resolution visor projected display. Symbology displayed within the binocular and fully overlapped 40 degree field of view presents aircraft moding, navigation, weapon delivery, and threat data to the pilot. The 3-D Audio system generates four audio cues localized to within 10 degrees of the commanded position. THe specialized headset localizes TFLIR position and threat audio cues. The HT system provides helmet position to the aircraft, the HMD and 3-D Audio system. Twelve IVM digital voice output reports aircraft status. The T/AV-8B aircraft and avionics architecture are discussed laying the foundation for the described integration of the IHAVS suite. Integrated together, these systems provide the pilot with greatly increased field of regard for target recognition, designation and attack. Tightly coupled to the IHAVS suite, the TFLIR allows off-boresight target management and the field of regard is well matched and complements the IHAVS.

  10. Fretting in aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Bill, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of fretting in aircraft turbine engines is discussed. Critical fretting can occur on fan, compressor, and turbine blade mountings, as well as on splines, rolling element bearing races, and secondary sealing elements of face type seals. Structural fatigue failures have been shown to occur at fretted areas on component parts. Methods used by designers to reduce the effects of fretting are given.

  11. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  12. Radiation Effects on Spacecraft & Aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clive Dyer

    2001-01-01

    Satellite systems are vulnerable to Space Weather through its influence on energetic charged particle and plasma populations, which produce a variety of effects, including total dose, lattice displacement damage, single event effects (SEE), noise in sensors and electrostatic charging. In addition aircraft electronics and aircrew are subjected to atmospheric secondary radiation produced by cosmic rays and solar particle events. European

  13. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results when it is finally ready for testing. Another of my goals is to test new membranes for use in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells, in the hope that these membranes can increase the electricity that is produced by he1 cells. Producing more electricity means that fewer fuel cells are needed, thus reducing the weight and volume of an APU based on fuel cells, making such an APU much more viable.

  14. 75 FR 5203 - Certification of Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft; Modifications to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ...Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft; Modifications to Rules...Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light- Sport Aircraft; Modifications to Rules...aircraft and airmen for the operation of light-sport aircraft were implemented in...

  15. Laser Powered Aircraft Takes Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A team of NASA researchers from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Dryden Flight Research center have proven that beamed light can be used to power an aircraft, a first-in-the-world accomplishment to the best of their knowledge. Using an experimental custom built radio-controlled model aircraft, the team has demonstrated a system that beams enough light energy from the ground to power the propeller of an aircraft and sustain it in flight. Special photovoltaic arrays on the plane, similar to solar cells, receive the light energy and convert it to electric current to drive the propeller motor. In a series of indoor flights this week at MSFC, a lightweight custom built laser beam was aimed at the airplane `s solar panels. The laser tracks the plane, maintaining power on its cells until the end of the flight when the laser is turned off and the airplane glides to a landing. The laser source demonstration represents the capability to beam more power to a plane so that it can reach higher altitudes and have a greater flight range without having to carry fuel or batteries, enabling an indefinite flight time. The demonstration was a collaborative effort between the Dryden Center at Edward's, California, where the aircraft was designed and built, and MSFC, where integration and testing of the laser and photovoltaic cells was done. Laser power beaming is a promising technology for consideration in new aircraft design and operation, and supports NASA's goals in the development of revolutionary aerospace technologies. Photographed with their invention are (from left to right): David Bushman and Tony Frackowiak, both of Dryden; and MSFC's Robert Burdine.

  16. Small Transport Aircraft Technology /STAT/ Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldenbrand, R. W.; Baerst, C. F.; Rowse, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The NASA Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) Propulsion Study was established to identify technology requirements and define the research and development required for new commuter aircraft. Interim results of the studies defined mission and design characteristics for 30- and 50-passenger aircraft. Sensitivities were defined that relate changes in engine specific fuel consumption (SFC), weight, and cost (including maintenance) to changes in the aircraft direct operating cost (DOC), takeoff gross weight, and empty weight. A comparison of performance and economic characteristics is presented between aircraft powered by 1980 production engines and those powered by a 1990 advanced technology baseline engine.

  17. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  18. Hydrogen Storage for Aircraft Applications Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Kohout, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell technology have brought about their consideration as sources of power for aircraft. This power can be utilized to run aircraft systems or even provide propulsion power. One of the key obstacles to utilizing fuel cells on aircraft is the storage of hydrogen. An overview of the potential methods of hydrogen storage was compiled. This overview identifies various methods of hydrogen storage and points out their advantages and disadvantages relative to aircraft applications. Minimizing weight and volume are the key aspects to storing hydrogen within an aircraft. An analysis was performed to show how changes in certain parameters of a given storage system affect its mass and volume.

  19. Perspectives on Highly Adaptive or Morphing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Busan, Ronald C.; Hahn, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to adapt to different flight conditions has been fundamental to aircraft design since the Wright Brothers first flight. Over a hundred years later, unconventional aircraft adaptability, often called aircraft morphing has become a topic of considerable renewed interest. In the past two decades, this interest has been largely fuelled by advancements in multi-functional or smart materials and structures. However, highly adaptive or morphing aircraft is certainly a cross-discipline challenge that stimulates a wide range of design possibilities. This paper will review some of the history of morphing aircraft including recent research programs and discuss some perspectives on this work.

  20. Stability-Augmentation Devices for Miniature Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Non-aerodynamic mechanical devices are under consideration as means to augment the stability of miniature autonomous and remotely controlled aircraft. Such aircraft can be used for diverse purposes, including military reconnaissance, radio communications, and safety-related monitoring of wide areas. The need for stability-augmentation devices arises because adverse meteorological conditions generally affect smaller aircraft more strongly than they affect larger aircraft: Miniature aircraft often become uncontrollable under conditions that would not be considered severe enough to warrant grounding of larger aircraft. The need for the stability-augmentation devices to be non-aerodynamic arises because there is no known way to create controlled aerodynamic forces sufficient to counteract the uncontrollable meteorological forces on miniature aircraft. A stability-augmentation device of the type under consideration includes a mass pod (a counterweight) at the outer end of a telescoping shaft, plus associated equipment to support the operation of the aircraft. The telescoping shaft and mass pod are stowed in the rear of the aircraft. When deployed, they extend below the aircraft. Optionally, an antenna for radio communication can be integrated into the shaft. At the time of writing this article, the deployment of the telescoping shaft and mass pod was characterized as passive and automatic, but information about the deployment mechanism(s) was not available. The feasibility of this stability-augmentation concept was demonstrated in flights of hand-launched prototype aircraft.

  1. Ignition characteristics of some aircraft interior fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Brandt, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Six samples of aircraft interior fabrics were evaluated with regard to resistance to ignition by radiant heat. Five samples were aircraft seat upholstery fabrics and one sample was an aircraft curtain fabric. The aircraft seat fabrics were 100% wool (2 samples), 83% wool/17% nylon, 49% wool/51% polyvinyl chloride, and 100% rayon. The aircraft curtain fabric was 92% modacrylic/8% polyester. The five samples of aircraft seat upholstery fabrics were also evaluated with regard to resistance to ignition by a smoldering cigarette. The four samples of wool-containing aircraft seat fabrics appeared to be superior to the sample of rayon seat fabric in resistance to ignition, both by radiant heat and by a smoldering cigarette.

  2. Trends in transport aircraft avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkstresser, B. K.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of avionics onboard present commercial transport aircraft was conducted to identify trends in avionics systems characteristics and to determine the impact of technology advances on equipment weight, cost, reliability, and maintainability. Transport aircraft avionics systems are described under the headings of communication, navigation, flight control, and instrumentation. The equipment included in each section is described functionally. However, since more detailed descriptions of the equipment can be found in other sources, the description is limited and emphasis is put on configuration requirements. Since airborne avionics systems must interface with ground facilities, certain ground facilities are described as they relate to the airborne systems, with special emphasis on air traffic control and all-weather landing capability.

  3. Aircraft Cabin Turbulence Warning Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Larcher, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    New turbulence prediction technology offers the potential for advance warning of impending turbulence encounters, thereby allowing necessary cabin preparation time prior to the encounter. The amount of time required for passengers and flight attendants to be securely seated (that is, seated with seat belts fastened) currently is not known. To determine secured seating-based warning times, a consortium of aircraft safety organizations have conducted an experiment involving a series of timed secured seating trials. This demonstrative experiment, conducted on October 1, 2, and 3, 2002, used a full-scale B-747 wide-body aircraft simulator, human passenger subjects, and supporting staff from six airlines. Active line-qualified flight attendants from three airlines participated in the trials. Definitive results have been obtained to provide secured seating-based warning times for the developers of turbulence warning technology

  4. Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.

  5. Development of aircraft brake materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, T.-L.; Peterson, M. B.

    1976-01-01

    A program has been carried out to study and develop high temperature aircraft brake materials. A survey of the requirements of brake materials was made to select materials to meet these requirements. Based upon their physical and thermal properties, a number of materials were selected and evaluated in sliding tests which simulated aircraft braking. The mating material is 17-22 AS steel. Additives were incorporated into these materials to optimize their wear or strength behavior with particular emphasis on nickel and molybdenum base materials. Optimum materials were developed which had improved wear behavior over conventional brake materials in the simulated test. The best materials were a nickel, aluminum oxide, lead tungstate composition containing graphite and a molybdenum base material containing LPA 100 (an intermetallic compound of cobalt, molybdenum and silicon).

  6. Review of aircraft noise propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, T. W.

    1975-01-01

    The current state of knowledge about the propagation of aircraft noise was reviewed. The literature on the subject is surveyed and methods for predicting the most important and best understood propagation effects are presented. Available empirical data are examined and the data's general validity is assessed. The methods used to determine the loss of acoustic energy due to uniform spherical spreading, absorption in a homogeneous atmosphere, and absorption due to ground cover are presented. A procedure for determining ground induced absorption as a function of elevation angle between source and receiver is recommended. Other factors that affect propagation, such as refraction and scattering due to turbulence, which were found to be less important for predicting the propagation of aircraft noise, are also evaluated.

  7. CID Aircraft slap-down

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In this photograph the B-720 is seen during the moments of initial impact. The left wing is digging into the lakebed while the aircraft continues sliding towards wing openers. In 1984 NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID). The test involved crashing a Boeing 720 aircraft with four JT3C-7 engines burning a mixture of standard fuel with an additive, Anti-misting Kerosene (AMK), designed to supress fire. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1, 1984, more than four years of effort passed trying to set-up final impact conditions considered survivable by the FAA. During those years while 14 flights with crews were flown the following major efforts were underway: NASA Dryden developed the remote piloting techniques necessary for the B-720 to fly as a drone aircraft; General Electric installed and tested four degraders (one on each engine); and the FAA refined AMK (blending, testing, and fueling a full-size aircraft). The 15 flights had 15 takeoffs, 14 landings and a larger number of approaches to about 150 feet above the prepared crash site under remote control. These flight were used to introduce AMK one step at a time into some of the fuel tanks and engines while monitoring the performance of the engines. On the final flight (No. 15) with no crew, all fuel tanks were filled with a total of 76,000 pounds of AMK and the remotely-piloted aircraft landed on Rogers Dry Lakebed in an area prepared with posts to test the effectiveness of the AMK in a controlled impact. The CID, which some wags called the Crash in the Desert, was spectacular with a large fireball enveloping and burning the B-720 aircraft. From the standpoint of AMK the test was a major set-back, but for NASA Langley, the data collected on crashworthiness was deemed successful and just as important.

  8. Safe structures for future aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomb, H. G., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The failure mechanisms, design lessons, and test equipment employed by NASA in establishing the airworthiness and crashworthiness of aircraft components for commercial applications are described. The composites test programs have progressed to medium primary structures such as stabilizers and a vertical fin. The failures encountered to date have been due to the nonyielding nature of composites, which do not diffuse loads like metals, and the presence of eccentricities, irregular shapes, stiffness changes, and discontinuities that cause tension and shear. Testing to failure, which always occurred in first tests before the design loads were reached, helped identify design changes and reinforcements that produced successful products. New materials and NDE techniques are identified, together with aircraft structural design changes that offer greater protection to the passengers, fuel antimisting agents, and landing gear systems.

  9. Handbook of aircraft noise metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, R. L.; Pearsons, K. S.

    1981-01-01

    Information is presented on 22 noise metrics that are associated with the measurement and prediction of the effects of aircraft noise. Some of the instantaneous frequency weighted sound level measures, such as A-weighted sound level, are used to provide multiple assessment of the aircraft noise level. Other multiple event metrics, such as day-night average sound level, were designed to relate sound levels measured over a period of time to subjective responses in an effort to determine compatible land uses and aid in community planning. The various measures are divided into: (1) instantaneous sound level metrics; (2) duration corrected single event metrics; (3) multiple event metrics; and (4) speech communication metrics. The scope of each measure is examined in terms of its: definition, purpose, background, relationship to other measures, calculation method, example, equipment, references, and standards.

  10. Process modeling KC-135 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Instrumentation will be provided for KC-135 aircraft which will provide a quantitative measure of g-level variation during parabolic flights and its effect on experiments which demonstrate differences in results obtained with differences in convective flow. The flight apparatus will provide video recording of the effects of the g-level variations on varying fluid samples. The apparatus will be constructed to be available to fly on the KC-135 during most missions.

  11. Fourth Aircraft Interior Noise Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David G. (compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The fourth in a series of NASA/SAE Interior Noise Workshops was held on May 19 and 20, 1992. The theme of the workshop was new technology and applications for aircraft noise with emphasis on source noise prediction; cabin noise prediction; cabin noise control, including active and passive methods; and cabin interior noise procedures. This report is a compilation of the presentations made at the meeting which addressed the above issues.

  12. An Aircraft Accident Investigation: Revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Bhaumik

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft accidents are usually complex, and hence their investigation requires expertise from several fields. The challenge\\u000a for an investigating team is to analyze the bits and pieces of information gathered in the course of the investigation through\\u000a background information, interrogation, and material evidence and stitch them into a descriptive picture to arrive at the possible\\u000a cause(s) of the accident. During

  13. Oblique-wing supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T. (inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An aircraft including a single fuselage having a main wing and a horizontal stabilizer airfoil pivotally attached at their centers to the fuselage is described. The pivotal attachments allow the airfoils to be yawed relative to the fuselage for high speed flight, and to be positioned at right angles with respect to the fuselage during takeoff, landing, and low speed flight. The main wing and the horizontal stabilizer are upwardly curved from their center pivotal connections towards their ends to form curvilinear dihedrals.

  14. Imaging Supersonic Aircraft Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.; Stacy, Kathryn; Vieira, Gerald J.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Bowers, Albion H.

    1997-01-01

    A schlieren imaging system that uses the sun as a light source was developed it) obtain direct flow-field images of shock waves of aircraft in flight. This system was used to study how shock waves evolve to form sonic booms. The image quality obtained was limited by several optical and mechanical factors. Converting the photographs to digital images and applying digital image-processing techniques greatly improved the final quality of the images and more clearly showed the shock structures.

  15. Weather data dissemination to aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Richard H.; Parker, Craig B.

    1990-01-01

    Documentation exists that shows weather to be responsible for approximately 40 percent of all general aviation accidents with fatalities. Weather data products available on the ground are becoming more sophisticated and greater in number. Although many of these data are critical to aircraft safety, they currently must be transmitted verbally to the aircraft. This process is labor intensive and provides a low rate of information transfer. Consequently, the pilot is often forced to make life-critical decisions based on incomplete and outdated information. Automated transmission of weather data from the ground to the aircraft can provide the aircrew with accurate data in near-real time. The current National Airspace System Plan calls for such an uplink capability to be provided by the Mode S Beacon System data link. Although this system has a very advanced data link capability, it will not be capable of providing adequate weather data to all airspace users in its planned configuration. This paper delineates some of the important weather data uplink system requirements, and describes a system which is capable of meeting these requirements. The proposed system utilizes a run-length coding technique for image data compression and a hybrid phase and amplitude modulation technique for the transmission of both voice and weather data on existing aeronautical Very High Frequency (VHF) voice communication channels.

  16. Small Aircraft Data Distribution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chazanoff, Seth L.; Dinardo, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    The CARVE Small Aircraft Data Distribution System acquires the aircraft location and attitude data that is required by the various programs running on a distributed network. This system distributes the data it acquires to the data acquisition programs for inclusion in their data files. It uses UDP (User Datagram Protocol) to broadcast data over a LAN (Local Area Network) to any programs that might have a use for the data. The program is easily adaptable to acquire additional data and log that data to disk. The current version also drives displays using precision pitch and roll information to aid the pilot in maintaining a level-level attitude for radar/radiometer mapping beyond the degree available by flying visually or using a standard gyro-driven attitude indicator. The software is designed to acquire an array of data to help the mission manager make real-time decisions as to the effectiveness of the flight. This data is displayed for the mission manager and broadcast to the other experiments on the aircraft for inclusion in their data files. The program also drives real-time precision pitch and roll displays for the pilot and copilot to aid them in maintaining the desired attitude, when required, during data acquisition on mapping lines.

  17. 41 CFR 102-33.200 - Must we periodically justify owning and operating Federal aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT...PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Managing Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Accounting for the Cost of Government Aircraft §...

  18. 41 CFR 102-33.200 - Must we periodically justify owning and operating Federal aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT...PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Managing Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Accounting for the Cost of Government Aircraft §...

  19. 41 CFR 102-33.200 - Must we periodically justify owning and operating Federal aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT...PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Managing Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Accounting for the Cost of Government Aircraft §...

  20. 41 CFR 102-33.200 - Must we periodically justify owning and operating Federal aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT...PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Managing Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Accounting for the Cost of Government Aircraft §...

  1. 41 CFR 102-33.200 - Must we periodically justify owning and operating Federal aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT...PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Managing Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Accounting for the Cost of Government Aircraft §...

  2. Scanning laser aircraft surveillance system for carrier flight operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan A. Vetter; David M. Shemwell; R. I. Gellert; J. Black

    1992-01-01

    The Scanning Laser Aircraft Surveillance System (SLASS) uses two scanning infrared laser beams to illuminate retroreflectors located on aircraft landing gears and hook to determine very precisely the azimuthal, ascension, yaw, roll, and pitch angles of the aircraft in the approach corridor. The range, approach velocity, and aircraft type are also determined. Aircraft configuration is determined by the presence or

  3. Formal Verification of Distributed Aircraft Controllers Sarah M. Loos

    E-print Network

    Platzer, AndrƩ

    not be aware of. Because these safety guarantees always hold, the aircraft are protected against unexpected-avoidance controllers for aircraft systems. We want to prove safety not just for a single aircraft or a pair of aircraft. Aircraft control systems are safety-critical, so they must be de- signed with a high assurance

  4. DESIGN OFA SUPERVISED FLIGHT CONTROLSYSTEM FOR AIRCRAFT RELATIVE GUIDANCE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, UniversitƩ de

    of such aircraft are more constrainedthanthose of military aircraft or UAV. In addition, safety and passengerDESIGN OFA SUPERVISED FLIGHT CONTROLSYSTEM FOR AIRCRAFT RELATIVE GUIDANCE Thieny Miquel, CENA is relieved of providing instructions to the trailing aircraft for merging behind the leading aircraft

  5. 75 FR 28504 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ...Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...Directive (AD) results from reports of cracks in the engine crankcase. Austro Control GmbH (ACG)...

  6. Approaches to representing aircraft fuel efficiency performance for the purpose of a commercial aircraft certification standard

    E-print Network

    Yutko, Brian M. (Brian Matthew)

    2011-01-01

    Increasing concern over the potential harmful effects of green house gas emissions from various sources has motivated the consideration of an aircraft certification standard as one way to reduce aircraft C02 emissions and ...

  7. Approaches to Representing Aircraft Fuel Efficiency Performance for the Purpose of a Commercial Aircraft Certification Standard

    E-print Network

    Yutko, Brian

    2011-06-27

    Increasing concern over the potential harmful effects of green house gas emissions from various sources has motivated the consideration of an aircraft certification standard as one way to reduce aircraft CO2 emissions and ...

  8. Wireless Sensor Network forWireless Sensor Network for Aircraft Health MonitoringAircraft Health Monitoring

    E-print Network

    Atiquzzaman, Mohammed

    Wireless Sensor Network forWireless Sensor Network for Aircraft Health MonitoringAircraft Health -short battery lifetime #12;Our Proposed SolutionsOur Proposed Solutions Ā· Power-aware routing for Ad Hoc

  9. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those over the poles. The system consists of a constellation of 4 geostationary satellites covering the earth and delivering its signals to the aircraft at S band (2.52 -2.67 GHz). The S-band spectrum is ideal for this application since it is allocated on a primary basis by the ITU for global broadcast service. The AirTV service is expected to begin in 2004 and should be unencumbered by adjacent satellite interference due to near completion of the ITU coordination process. Each satellite will deliver four 20 Mbps QPSK data streams consisting of multiplexed compressed digital video channels and IP data over the full global beam coverage. The 80 Mbps capacity of each satellite will provide approximately 60 video channels while still allocating 40 Mbits to data services. The combined constellation capacity of 320 Mbits will significantly exceed the capacity of any similar existing or currently planned global satellite system. In addition, the simplicity of the 4-satellite approach is the most cost effective means to deliver high bandwidth globally. Return links, which are required for internet service, will be provided through the existing Inmarsat Aero-H system already onboard virtually all long haul aircraft and will provide return data rates from the aircraft as high as 432 kbps. integrated receiver/decoder (IRD) assembly. The phased array antenna, a key technology element, is being developed by AirTV's strategic partner, CMC Electronics. This antenna is a scaled version of CMC's Inmarsat Aero H antenna and is capable of scanning to 5 degrees above the horizon. Wide angle scanning up to 85 degrees from zenith is necessary for aircraft traversing the northernmost latitudes on transoceanic routes. AirTV has designed both the satellite coverage and aircraft antenna performance to ensure that high signal quality is maintained along all non-polar airline routes. AirTV will be the future of aeronautical broadband delivery. It has been designed specifically for global services and uses the ideal spectrum for this application. It will revolutionize the delivery of content t

  10. National Center for Aircraft Technician Training (NCATT)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Center for Aircraft Technician Training (NCATT), a project of NSF's Advanced Technological Education program, aims to "facilitate a cohesive alliance of industry, government, and education to promote aircraft maintenance professionalism." On the site, visitors can find information about the project's two training and certification programs: aircraft electronics technician (AET), and Foreign Object Elimination -- Elements of Basic Awareness (FOE). There is also information about how to become a NCATT-accredited program. In addition to learning more about the project and its partners, there is also a link to other aircraft technician training materials online and a full list of NCATT-accredited institutions.

  11. Commercial aircraft fuel efficiency potential through 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Aircraft are second only to motor vehicles in the use of motor fuels, and air travel is growing twice as fast. Since 1970 air travel has more than tripled, but the growth of fuel use has been restrained by a near doubling of efficiency, from 26.2 seat miles per gallon (SMPG) in 1970 to about 49 SMPG in 1989. This paper explores the potential for future efficiency improvements via the replacement of existing aircraft with 1990's generation'' and post 2000'' aircraft incorporating advances in engine and airframe technology. Today, new commercial passenger aircraft deliver 50--70 SMPG. New aircraft types scheduled for delivery in the early 1990's are expected to achieve 65--80 SMPG. Industry and government researchers have identified technologies capable of boosting aircraft efficiencies to the 100--150 SMPG range. Under current industry plans, which do not include a post-2000 generation of new aircraft, the total aircraft fleet should reach the vicinity of 65 SMPG by 2010. A new generation of 100--150 SMPG aircraft introduced in 2005 could raise the fleet average efficiency to 75--80 SMPG in 2010. In any case, fuel use will likely continue to grow at from 1--2%/yr. through 2010. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. An Assessment of Commuter Aircraft Noise Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fidell, Sanford; Pearsons, Karl S.; Silvati, Laura; Sneddon, Matthew

    1996-01-01

    This report examines several approaches to understanding 'the commuter aircraft noise problem.' The commuter aircraft noise problem in the sense addressed in this report is the belief that some aspect(s) of community response to noise produced by commuter aircraft operations may not be fully assessed by conventional environmental noise metrics and methods. The report offers alternate perspectives and approaches for understanding this issue. The report also develops a set of diagnostic screening questions; describes commuter aircraft noise situations at several airports; and makes recommendations for increasing understanding of the practical consequences of greater heterogeneity in the air transport fleet serving larger airports.

  13. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program is to accelerate the development of advanced technology for more energy-efficient subsonic transport aircraft. This program will have application to current transport derivatives in the early 1980s and to all-new aircraft of the late 1980s and early 1990s. Six major technology projects were defined that could result in fuel savings in commercial aircraft: (1) Engine Component Improvement, (2) Energy Efficient Engine, (3) Advanced Turboprops, (4) Energy Efficiency Transport (aerodynamically speaking), (5) Laminar Flow Control, and (6) Composite Primary Structures.

  14. The lift-fan aircraft: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the highlights and results of a workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in October 1992. The objective of the workshop was a thorough review of the lessons learned from past research on lift fans, and lift-fan aircraft, models, designs, and components. The scope included conceptual design studies, wind tunnel investigations, propulsion systems components, piloted simulation, flight of aircraft such as the SV-5A and SV-5B and a recent lift-fan aircraft development project. The report includes a brief summary of five technical presentations that addressed the subject The Lift-Fan Aircraft: Lessons Learned.

  15. Challenges for the aircraft structural integrity program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, John W.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-six years ago the United States Air Force established the USAF Aircraft Structural Integrity Program (ASIP) because flight safety had been degraded by fatigue failures of operational aircraft. This initial program evolved, but has been stable since the issuance of MIL-STD-1530A in 1975. Today, the program faces new challenges because of a need to maintain aircraft longer in an environment of reduced funding levels. Also, there is increased pressure to reduce cost of the acquisition of new aircraft. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the challenges for the ASIP and identify the changes in the program that will meet these challenges in the future.

  16. The F-18 systems research aircraft facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitz, Joel R.

    1992-01-01

    To help ensure that new aerospace initiatives rapidly transition to competitive U.S. technologies, NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility has dedicated a systems research aircraft facility. The primary goal is to accelerate the transition of new aerospace technologies to commercial, military, and space vehicles. Key technologies include more-electric aircraft concepts, fly-by-light systems, flush airdata systems, and advanced computer architectures. Future aircraft that will benefit are the high-speed civil transport and the National AeroSpace Plane. This paper describes the systems research aircraft flight research vehicle and outlines near-term programs.

  17. Aircraft-type dependency of contrail evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unterstrasser, S.; Görsch, N.

    2014-12-01

    The impact of aircraft type on contrail evolution is assessed using a large eddy simulation model with Lagrangian ice microphysics. Six different aircraft ranging from the small regional airliner Bombardier CRJ to the largest aircraft Airbus A380 are taken into account. Differences in wake vortex properties and fuel flow lead to considerable variations in the early contrail geometric depth and ice crystal number. Larger aircraft produce contrails with more ice crystals (assuming that the number of initially generated ice crystals per kilogram fuel is constant). These initial differences are reduced in the first minutes, as the ice crystal loss during the vortex phase is stronger for larger aircraft. In supersaturated air, contrails of large aircraft are much deeper after 5 min than those of small aircraft. A parameterization for the final vertical displacement of the wake vortex system is provided, depending only on the initial vortex circulation and stratification. Cloud resolving simulations are used to examine whether the aircraft-induced initial differences have a long-lasting mark. These simulations suggest that the synoptic scenario controls the contrail cirrus evolution qualitatively. However, quantitative differences between the contrail cirrus properties of the various aircraft remain over the total simulation period of 6 h. The total extinctions of A380-produced contrails are about 1.5 to 2.5 times higher than those from contrails of a Bombardier CRJ.

  18. Alternate Fuels for Use in Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Walther, Rainer; Corporan, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    The engine and aircraft Research and Development (R&D) communities have been investigating alternative fueling in near-term, midterm, and far-term aircraft. A drop in jet fuel replacement, consisting of a kerosene (Jet-A) and synthetic fuel blend, will be possible for use in existing and near-term aircraft. Future midterm aircraft may use a biojet and synthetic fuel blend in ultra-efficient airplane designs. Future far-term engines and aircraft in 50-plus years may be specifically designed to use a low- or zero-carbon fuel. Synthetic jet fuels from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks are very similar in performance to conventional jet fuel, yet the additional CO2 produced during the manufacturing needs to be permanently sequestered. Biojet fuels need to be developed specifically for jet aircraft without displacing food production. Envisioned as midterm aircraft fuel, if the performance and cost liabilities can be overcome, biofuel blends with synthetic jet or Jet-A fuels have near-term potential in terms of global climatic concerns. Long-term solutions address dramatic emissions reductions through use of alternate aircraft fuels such as liquid hydrogen or liquid methane. Either of these new aircraft fuels will require an enormous change in infrastructure and thus engine and airplane design. Life-cycle environmental questions need to be addressed.

  19. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...as a Coast Guard Auxiliary aircraft. The pilot will always be...Auxiliary Patrol Order. If the aircraft is operating under “verbal...support of operations involving safety of life or property as a result...responsibilities. (7) Civil aircraft transporting critically...

  20. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...as a Coast Guard Auxiliary aircraft. The pilot will always be...Auxiliary Patrol Order. If the aircraft is operating under “verbal...support of operations involving safety of life or property as a result...responsibilities. (7) Civil aircraft transporting critically...

  1. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...as a Coast Guard Auxiliary aircraft. The pilot will always be...Auxiliary Patrol Order. If the aircraft is operating under “verbal...support of operations involving safety of life or property as a result...responsibilities. (7) Civil aircraft transporting critically...

  2. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...as a Coast Guard Auxiliary aircraft. The pilot will always be...Auxiliary Patrol Order. If the aircraft is operating under “verbal...support of operations involving safety of life or property as a result...responsibilities. (7) Civil aircraft transporting critically...

  3. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...as a Coast Guard Auxiliary aircraft. The pilot will always be...Auxiliary Patrol Order. If the aircraft is operating under “verbal...support of operations involving safety of life or property as a result...responsibilities. (7) Civil aircraft transporting critically...

  4. Innovative Materials for Aircraft Morphing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. O.; Wise, S. A.; Bryant, R. G.; Cano, R. J.; Gates, T. S.; Hinkley, J. A.; Rogowski, R. S.; Whitley, K. S.

    1997-01-01

    Reported herein is an overview of the research being conducted within the Materials Division at NASA Langley Research Center on the development of smart material technologies for advanced airframe systems. The research is a part of the Aircraft Morphing Program which is a new six-year research program to develop smart components for self-adaptive airframe systems. The fundamental areas of materials research within the program are computational materials; advanced piezoelectric materials; advanced fiber optic sensing techniques; and fabrication of integrated composite structures. This paper presents a portion of the ongoing research in each of these areas of materials research.

  5. Aircraft empennage structural detail design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meholic, Greg; Brown, Rhonda; Hall, Melissa; Harvey, Robert; Singer, Michael; Tella, Gustavo

    1993-01-01

    This project involved the detailed design of the aft fuselage and empennage structure, vertical stabilizer, rudder, horizontal stabilizer, and elevator for the Triton primary flight trainer. The main design goals under consideration were to illustrate the integration of the control systems devices used in the tail surfaces and their necessary structural supports as well as the elevator trim, navigational lighting system, electrical systems, tail-located ground tie, and fuselage/cabin interface structure. Accommodations for maintenance, lubrication, adjustment, and repairability were devised. Weight, fabrication, and (sub)assembly goals were addressed. All designs were in accordance with the FAR Part 23 stipulations for a normal category aircraft.

  6. Aircraft interior sandwich panel development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. A.; Johnson, G. A.

    1977-01-01

    Three resin systems (bismaleimide, polyimide and modified phenolic) and several decorative films for use in aircraft interior panelling were subjected to flammability, smoke and gas emission, and toxicity testing. Cost, weight and appearance were also taken into account in assessing the feasibility of the materials for applications in passenger seating areas as well as in unoccupied compartments (galleys, lavatories, closets). Heat release studies and burn-through tests provided an additional measure of the fire safety characteristics of the panelling. A modified phenolic resin system and Tedlar-polycarbonate decorative film were selected as the most promising candidates for replacing conventional epoxy resin-impregnated fiberglass materials.

  7. Lightweight materials for aircraft applications

    SciTech Connect

    Immarigeon, J.P.; Holt, R.T.; Koul, A.K.; Zhao, L.; Wallace, W. [NRC Inst. for Aerospace Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)] [NRC Inst. for Aerospace Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Beddoes, J.C. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering] [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    1995-07-01

    Reducing structural weight is one of the major ways to improve aircraft performance. Lighter and/or stronger materials allow greater range and speed and may also contribute to reducing operational costs. The article reviews some recent developments in lightweight materials for airframe components (aluminum alloys, composites, and hybrid materials) and engine components (titanium aluminides and titanium-based composites). Emphasis is placed on microstructural characterization and the relationship between the microstructure and mechanical properties of specific materials systems being investigated at the National Research Council`s Institute for Aerospace Research.

  8. Resonance vibrations of aircraft propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebers, Fritz

    1932-01-01

    On the basis of the consideration of various possible kinds of propeller vibrations, the resonance vibrations caused by unequal impacts of the propeller blades appear to be the most important. Their theoretical investigation is made by separate analysis of torsional and bending vibrations. This method is justified by the very great difference in the two natural frequencies of aircraft propeller blades. The calculated data are illustrated by practical examples. Thereby the observed vibration phenomenon in the given examples is explained by a bending resonance, for which the bending frequency of the propeller is equal to twice the revolution speed.

  9. Technology for aircraft energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Six technology programs for reducing fuel use in U.S. commercial aviation are discussed. The six NASA programs are divided into three groups: Propulsion - engine component improvement, energy efficient engine, advanced turboprops; Aerodynamics - energy efficient transport, laminar flow control; and Structures - composite primary structures. Schedules, phases, and applications of these programs are considered, and it is suggested that program results will be applied to current transport derivatives in the early 1980s and to all-new aircraft of the late 1980s and early 1990s.

  10. Altus I aircraft on lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The remotely-piloted Altus I aircraft climbs away after takeoff from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The short series of test flights sponsored by the Naval Postgraduate School in early August, 1997, were designed to demonstrate the ability of the experimental craft to cruise at altitudes above 40,000 feet for sustained durations. On its final flight Aug. 15, the Altus I reached an altitude of 43,500 feet. The Altus I and its sister ship, the Altus II, are variants of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. They are designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and are powered by turbocharged piston engines. The Altus I incorporates a single-stage turbocharger, while the Altus II, built for NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, sports a two-stage turbocharger to enable the craft to fly at altitudes above 55,000 feet. The Altus II, the first of the two craft to be completed, made its first flight on May 1, 1996. With its engine augmented by a single-stage turbocharger, the Altus II reached an altitude of 37,000 ft during its first series of development flights at Dryden in Aug., 1996. In Oct. of that year, the Altus II was flown in an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement study for the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratory in Oklahoma. During the course of those flights, the Altus II set a single-flight endurance record for remotely-operated aircraft of more than 26 hours. The Altus I, completed in 1997, flew a series of development flights at Dryden that summer. Those test flights culminated with the craft reaching an altitude of 43,500 ft while carrying a simulated 300-lb payload, a record for an unmanned aircraft powered by a piston engine augmented with a single-stage turbocharger. The Altus II sustained an altitudeof 55,000 feet for four hours in 1999. A pilot in a control station on the ground flies the craft by radio signals, using visual cues from a video camera in the nose of the Altus and information from the craft's air data system.

  11. Assessment of Alternative Aircraft Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium is to provide representatives from industry, government, and academia concerned with the availability and quality of future aviation turbine fuels with recent technical results and a status review of DOD and NASA sponsored fuels research projects. The symposium has included presentations on the potential crude sources, refining methods, and characteristics of future fuels; the effects of changing fuel characteristics on the performance and durability of jet aircraft components and systems; and the prospects for evolving suitable technology to produce and use future fuels.

  12. Combustor technology for future aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    The continuing improvement of aircraft gas turbine engine operating efficiencies involves increases in overall engine pressure ratio increases that will result in combustor inlet pressure and temperature increases, greater combustion temperature rises, and higher combustor exit temperatures. These conditions entail the development of fuel injectors generating uniform circumferential and radial temperature patterns, as well as combustor liner configurations and materials capable of withstanding increased thermal radiation even as the amount of cooling air is reduced. Low NO(x)-emitting combustor concepts are required which will employ staged combustion. The development status of component technologies answering these requirements are presently evaluated.

  13. Titanium fasteners. [for aircraft industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Titanium fasteners are used in large quantities throughout the aircraft industry. Most of this usage is in aluminum structure; where titanium structure exists, titanium fasteners are logically used as well. Titanium fasteners offer potential weight savings to the designer at a cost of approximately $30 per pound of weight saved. Proper and least cost usage must take into consideration type of fastener per application, galvanic couples and installation characteristics of protective coatings, cosmetic appearance, paint adhesion, installation forces and methods available and fatigue performance required.

  14. The dynamic scheduling of aircraft in the near terminal area

    E-print Network

    Dear, Roger George

    1976-01-01

    Aircraft arrive in a random fashion into a terminal area seeking to land at a given runway. The aircraft are differentiated by their landing velocities. All aircraft are required to maintain a prespecified minimum horizontal ...

  15. 14 CFR 252.11 - Aircraft on the ground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.11 Aircraft... (a) Air carriers shall prohibit smoking whenever the aircraft is on the ground. (b) With respect to the restrictions on smoking described in § 252.5, foreign air...

  16. 14 CFR 252.11 - Aircraft on the ground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.11 Aircraft... (a) Air carriers shall prohibit smoking whenever the aircraft is on the ground. (b) With respect to the restrictions on smoking described in § 252.5, foreign air...

  17. 14 CFR 252.11 - Aircraft on the ground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.11 Aircraft... (a) Air carriers shall prohibit smoking whenever the aircraft is on the ground. (b) With respect to the restrictions on smoking described in § 252.5, foreign air...

  18. 14 CFR 252.11 - Aircraft on the ground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.11 Aircraft... (a) Air carriers shall prohibit smoking whenever the aircraft is on the ground. (b) With respect to the restrictions on smoking described in § 252.5, foreign air...

  19. 47 CFR 87.51 - Aircraft earth station commissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft earth station commissioning. 87.51 Section...Applications and Licenses § 87.51 Aircraft earth station commissioning. (a) [Reserved] (b) Aircraft earth stations authorized to operate...

  20. 47 CFR 87.51 - Aircraft earth station commissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft earth station commissioning. 87.51 Section...Applications and Licenses § 87.51 Aircraft earth station commissioning. (a) [Reserved] (b) Aircraft earth stations authorized to operate...

  1. 47 CFR 87.51 - Aircraft earth station commissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft earth station commissioning. 87.51 Section...Applications and Licenses § 87.51 Aircraft earth station commissioning. (a) [Reserved] (b) Aircraft earth stations authorized to operate...

  2. 47 CFR 87.51 - Aircraft earth station commissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft earth station commissioning. 87.51 Section...Applications and Licenses § 87.51 Aircraft earth station commissioning. (a) [Reserved] (b) Aircraft earth stations authorized to operate...

  3. 47 CFR 87.51 - Aircraft earth station commissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft earth station commissioning. 87.51 Section...Applications and Licenses § 87.51 Aircraft earth station commissioning. (a) [Reserved] (b) Aircraft earth stations authorized to operate...

  4. 47 CFR 90.423 - Operation on board aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Operation on board aircraft. 90.423 Section 90...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES...423 Operation on board aircraft. (a) Except as...part may be operated aboard aircraft for air-to-mobile,...

  5. 77 FR 64442 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ...flight of civil aircraft in air commerce...finds necessary for safety in air commerce...transportation, Aircraft, Aviation safety, Safety. The...European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA...Pilatus PC12 Aircraft Maintenance...

  6. 78 FR 11572 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ...flight of civil aircraft in air commerce...finds necessary for safety in air commerce...transportation, Aircraft, Aviation safety, Incorporation...European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA...2012; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Service...

  7. 47 CFR 87.191 - Foreign aircraft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Foreign aircraft stations. 87.191 Section...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aircraft Stations § 87.191 Foreign aircraft stations. (a)...

  8. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519 Section...Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses...commercial passenger aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going...

  9. 47 CFR 90.423 - Operation on board aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false Operation on board aircraft. 90.423 Section 90...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES...423 Operation on board aircraft. (a) Except as...part may be operated aboard aircraft for air-to-mobile,...

  10. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519 Section...Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses...commercial passenger aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going...

  11. 47 CFR 87.191 - Foreign aircraft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Foreign aircraft stations. 87.191 Section...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aircraft Stations § 87.191 Foreign aircraft stations. (a)...

  12. 47 CFR 90.423 - Operation on board aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Operation on board aircraft. 90.423 Section 90...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES...423 Operation on board aircraft. (a) Except as...part may be operated aboard aircraft for air-to-mobile,...

  13. 78 FR 51121 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ...Information The 2011 safety event prompted us to review the Piper Aircraft, Inc. service...flight of civil aircraft in air commerce...finds necessary for safety in air commerce...transportation, Aircraft, Aviation safety,...

  14. 77 FR 2238 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ...flight of civil aircraft in air commerce...finds necessary for safety in air commerce...transportation, Aircraft, Aviation safety, Incorporation...European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA...2011, and Pilatus Aircraft Ltd....

  15. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519 Section...Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses...commercial passenger aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going...

  16. 47 CFR 87.191 - Foreign aircraft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Foreign aircraft stations. 87.191 Section...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aircraft Stations § 87.191 Foreign aircraft stations. (a)...

  17. 47 CFR 87.191 - Foreign aircraft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Foreign aircraft stations. 87.191 Section...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aircraft Stations § 87.191 Foreign aircraft stations. (a)...

  18. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519 Section...Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses...commercial passenger aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going...

  19. 47 CFR 90.423 - Operation on board aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false Operation on board aircraft. 90.423 Section 90...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES...423 Operation on board aircraft. (a) Except as...part may be operated aboard aircraft for air-to-mobile,...

  20. 47 CFR 90.423 - Operation on board aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Operation on board aircraft. 90.423 Section 90...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES...423 Operation on board aircraft. (a) Except as...part may be operated aboard aircraft for air-to-mobile,...

  1. 47 CFR 87.191 - Foreign aircraft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Foreign aircraft stations. 87.191 Section...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aircraft Stations § 87.191 Foreign aircraft stations. (a)...

  2. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519 Section...Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses...commercial passenger aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going...

  3. 75 FR 8427 - Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ...technological advances in supersonic aircraft technology aimed at reducing...flight over land by civil aircraft has been prohibited in the United States. The Concorde was the only civil supersonic...The interest in supersonic aircraft technology has not...

  4. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Unmanned Aircraft System

    E-print Network

    #12;i National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ikhana Unmanned Aircraft System Western States Fire Missions Peter W. Merlin National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA History Office. Drone aircraft. 4. Predator (Drone aircraft) 5. United States. National Aeronautics and Space

  5. 14 CFR 252.11 - Aircraft on the ground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.11 Aircraft... (a) Air carriers shall prohibit smoking whenever the aircraft is on the ground. (b) With respect to the restrictions on smoking described in § 252.5, foreign air...

  6. 78 FR 28125 - Airworthiness Directives; Twin Commander Aircraft LLC Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Twin Commander Aircraft LLC Airplanes AGENCY...airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Twin Commander Aircraft LLC Models 690, 690A...information identified in this AD, contact Twin Commander Aircraft LLC; 1176...

  7. 22 CFR 121.3 - Aircraft and related articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Aircraft and related articles. 121.3 Section 121.3 Foreign Relations...UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.3 Aircraft and related articles. In Category VIII, aircraft...

  8. 22 CFR 121.3 - Aircraft and related articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Aircraft and related articles. 121.3 Section 121.3 Foreign Relations...UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.3 Aircraft and related articles. In Category VIII, aircraft...

  9. Commercial-Aircraft Protection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Russell L., Jr.; Wolff, Peter H.

    2004-09-01

    Recent world events have identified needs for a commercial aircraft defense system against Man-Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS), such as SA-7 and Stinger shoulder launched surface-to-air missiles. Technical challenges include target detection, identification and countermeasures. Political and societal challenges include cost, time to deployment, ground and air safety, and reliability. These challenges, as well as many others, have been met and overcome with the development of Thor Systems' Commercial-Aircraft Protection System (C-APS). C-APS makes use of commercial technology such as radar and infrared sensors with a laser-based countermeasure. Unlike adapted military systems, C-APS detects the threat long before the military versions by employing a 360 degree hemispherical scan, identifying the threat with an infrared sensor and employing a directed laser to not only deflect the target but to permanently disable its seeker. Enhanced capabilities include multiple threat elimination and closed-loop technology for kill verification. All of this is accomplished with development costs less than half that required to convert military technology, manufacturing costs significantly less than competitive products, and a maintenance cycle coincident with standard FAA requirements, which are significantly longer than current systems.

  10. Aircraft Loss of Control Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control has become the leading cause of jet fatalities worldwide. Aside from their frequency of occurrence, accidents resulting from loss of aircraft control seize the public s attention by yielding large numbers of fatalities in a single event. In response to the rising threat to aviation safety, NASA's Aviation Safety Program has conducted a study of the loss of control problem. This study gathered four types of information pertaining to loss of control accidents: (1) statistical data; (2) individual accident reports that cite loss of control as a contributing factor; (3) previous meta-analyses of loss of control accidents; and (4) inputs solicited from aircraft manufacturers, air carriers, researchers, and other industry stakeholders. Using these information resources, the study team identified causal factors that were cited in the greatest number of loss of control accidents, and which were emphasized most by industry stakeholders. For each causal factor that was linked to loss of control, the team solicited ideas about what solutions are required and future research efforts that could potentially help avoid their occurrence or mitigate their consequences when they occurred in flight.

  11. Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Original Test Carriage: A carriage catapulted by a hydraulic jet at speeds up to 150 mph for studies of ground loads on high-speed aircraft is in operation at the Langley Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A drop test rig is installed on the carriage, which is catapulted 400 feet in 3.5 seconds. The carriage travels along a track and special instruments record loads data as an aircraft landing gear or other test specimen is dropped on a concrete strip. Five cables attached to a battery of 20 Navy Mark IV arresting gears, stretched across the 2,200-foot track, bring the carriage to a halt after the test run. The carriage, when loaded to its capacity of 20,000 pounds, represents a 50-ton load. The hydraulic catapult consists of a single water jet, which roars from a nozzle at the front end of the L-shaped pressure vessel (center) and is forced into a specially-shaped bucket on the carriage. The water jet, traveling at 660 feet per second, undergoes a 180 degree change of direction and floods out of another opening in the bucket below the incoming jet stream. The momentum change produces a thrust on the carriage of 400,00 pounds.

  12. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team in Phase 1, which includes the time period of October 2008 through March 2010. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. The team completed the development of a comprehensive future scenario for world-wide commercial aviation, selected baseline and advanced configurations for detailed study, generated technology suites for each configuration, conducted detailed performance analysis, calculated noise and emissions, assessed technology risks, and developed technology roadmaps. Five concepts were evaluated in detail: 2008 baseline, N+3 reference, N+3 high span strut braced wing, N+3 gas turbine battery electric concept, and N+3 hybrid wing body. A wide portfolio of technologies was identified to address the NASA N+3 goals. Significant improvements in air traffic management, aerodynamics, materials and structures, aircraft systems, propulsion, and acoustics are needed. Recommendations for Phase 2 concept and technology projects have been identified.

  13. The Sonic Altimeter for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, C S

    1937-01-01

    Discussed here are results already achieved with sonic altimeters in light of the theoretical possibilities of such instruments. From the information gained in this investigation, a procedure is outlined to determine whether or not a further development program is justified by the value of the sonic altimeter as an aircraft instrument. The information available in the literature is reviewed and condensed into a summary of sonic altimeter developments. Various methods of receiving the echo and timing the interval between the signal and the echo are considered. A theoretical discussion is given of sonic altimeter errors due to uncertainties in timing, variations in sound velocity, aircraft speed, location of the sending and receiving units, and inclinations of the flight path with respect to the ground surface. Plots are included which summarize the results in each case. An analysis is given of the effect of an inclined flight path on the frequency of the echo. A brief study of the acoustical phases of the sonic altimeter problem is carried through. The results of this analysis are used to predict approximately the maximum operating altitudes of a reasonably designed sonic altimeter under very good and very bad conditions. A final comparison is made between the estimated and experimental maximum operating altitudes which shows good agreement where quantitative information is available.

  14. Emerging NDE Technology for aging aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.G.; Perry, R.L.

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of several emerging nondestructive evaluation technologies that are being employed or considered for use to inspect commercial transport, commuter aircraft and military aircraft. An overview of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) is described and how AANC teams with industry, universities, and other federal entities to assess these technologies.

  15. Designing for MFOP: towards the autonomous aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul F. Cini; Paul Griffith

    1999-01-01

    BAe Airbus has studied the application of the maintenance free operating period (MFOP) concept to Airbus aircraft in order to meet a growing demand for autonomous operation. This concept can apply to both civil and military aircraft and, most recently, has resulted in Airbus Military Company including the MFOP as part of its formal proposal for a new military transport

  16. Hands free data collection for aircraft maintainers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Troy Grissom; Rob Done

    2008-01-01

    Todaypsilas high demand on our military aircraft and the corresponding lean maintenance workforce requires this lean workforce to focus their attention on repairing mission incapable aircraft, leaving little time to document their actions. When performing maintenance, technicians manage many resources, including team coordination requirements, various tools required for the job, technical order (TO) manuals, and various maintenance documentation systems. Many

  17. Lift augmentation for highly swept wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Dhanvada M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pair of spaced slots, disposed on each side of an aircraft centerline and spaced well inboard of the wing leading edges, are provided in the wing upper surfaces and directed tangentially spanwise toward thin sharp leading wing edges of a highly swept, delta wing aircraft. The slots are individually connected through separate plenum chambers to separate compressed air tanks and serve, collectively, as a system for providing aircraft lift augmentation. A compressed air supply is tapped from the aircraft turbojet power plant. Suitable valves, under the control of the aircraft pilot, serve to selective provide jet blowing from the individual slots to provide spanwise sheets of jet air closely adjacent to the upper surfaces and across the aircraft wing span to thereby create artificial vortices whose suction generate additional lift on the aircraft. When desired, or found necessary, unequal or one-side wing blowing is employed to generate rolling moments for augmented lateral control. Trailing flaps are provided that may be deflected differentially, individually, or in unison, as needed for assistance in take-off or landing of the aircraft.

  18. The Cal Poly aircraft design program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandlin, Doral R.; Van't Riet, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Discussed is the aircraft design program at Cal Poly, SLO. The history of the program and the impact of the NASA/USRA ADP are presented. Examples of student design accomplishments are included. Questions on how the aircraft design education process can be improved are postulated.

  19. Composite aircraft structure having lightning protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Glenn O. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A lightning protection system for advanced composite aircraft structures consisting of a sandwich structure including two layers of aluminum foil separated by a layer of dielectric material. The sandwich structure is applied to the surface of the composite aircraft structure desired to be protected from lightning strike damage thereby confining damage to the sandwich structure which can be removed and replaced.

  20. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on aircraft designed to have a passenger capacity of 30 or fewer seats. Note to § 252.13: This section, like the rest of this part, does not apply to on-demand services of air taxi operators;...

  1. Aircraft of Today. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savler, D. S.

    This textbook gives a brief idea about the modern aircraft used in defense and for commercial purposes. Aerospace technology in its present form has developed along certain basic principles of aerodynamic forces. Different parts in an airplane have different functions to balance the aircraft in air, provide a thrust, and control the general…

  2. Noise Control in Propeller-Driven Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rennison, D. C.; Wilby, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical model predicts noise levels inside propeller-driven aircraft during cruise at mach 0.8. Double wall sidewalls minimize interior noise and weight. Model applied to three aircraft with fuselages of different size (wide-body, narrow-body, and small-diameter) to determine noise reductions required to achieve A-weighted sound level not to exceed 80 dB.

  3. Aircraft accidents.method of analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1937-01-01

    This report is a revision of NACA-TR-357. It was prepared by the Committee on Aircraft Accidents. The purpose of this report is to provide a basis for the classification and comparison of aircraft accidents, both civil and military.

  4. Wireless Network Simulation in Aircraft Cabins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, John H.; Youssef, Mennatoallah; Vahala, Linda

    2004-01-01

    An electromagnetic propagation prediction tool was used to predict electromagnetic field strength inside airplane cabins. A commercial software package, Wireless Insite, was used to predict power levels inside aircraft cabins and the data was compared with previously collected experimental data. It was concluded that the software could qualitatively predict electromagnetic propagation inside the aircraft cabin environment.

  5. TIRE MODELS IN AIRCRAFT LANDING GEAR SIMULATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. T. P. van Slagmaat

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the development of a simulation model of an aircraft landing gear describing its typical non-linear behaviour. The development of the design tool -which correlates the actual design parameters with the performance of the gear- is a part of the research project that investigates the estimation of the nonlinear dynamical system, which an aircraft landing gear is. This

  6. Small Aircraft Nose Landing Gear Structure Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JinWon Kim; SeokMin Ahn

    Pipe spring type nose landing gear strut and fork design has been performed for small aircraft. Structurally weak area is selected in currently used parts, and improvement has been studied. Again, weight saving optimization design will be performed for actual aircraft.

  7. Aircraft health management network: A user interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Thanthry; R. Pendse

    2009-01-01

    Network management is one of the most discussed topics in the networking fraternity. The efficiency of the network management suit is measured by the number of parameters\\/components handled by the application while making decisions. In the case of Internet-enabled aircrafts, along with network security, even aircraft safety needs to be considered as a factor while designing the network management suit.

  8. Smart Icing Systems for Aircraft Icing Safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael B. Bragg; Tamer Basar; William R. Perkins; Michael S. Selig

    2002-01-01

    Ice accretion affects the performance and control of an aircraft and in extreme situations can lead to incidents and accidents. However, changes in performance and control are difficult to sense. As a result, the icing sensors currently in use sense primarily ice accretion, not the effect of the ice. No processed aircraft performance degradation information is available to the pilot.

  9. Market Forces and Commercial Aircraft Safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J Chalk

    1987-01-01

    This paper investigates the wealth impact on aircraft manufacturers of crashes involving their aircraft. The author attempts to separate out the regulatory, tort law, and endogenous market components of these costs using stock market data. The results indicate that on average the manufacturer suffers a wealth loss of $21.3 million as the result of a fatal crash in which the

  10. Unmanned Aircraft and the Human Element: Public

    E-print Network

    McShea, Daniel W.

    1 June 2013 Unmanned Aircraft and the Human Element: Public Perceptions and First Responder Kaydos-Daniels, RTI International Introduction Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are a relatively mature for transition to public safety, first responder, and commercial applications in the United States. Although

  11. Computer programs for estimating civil aircraft economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.; Molloy, J. K.; Neubawer, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    Computer programs for calculating airline direct operating cost, indirect operating cost, and return on investment were developed to provide a means for determining commercial aircraft life cycle cost and economic performance. A representative wide body subsonic jet aircraft was evaluated to illustrate use of the programs.

  12. Measurement of In-Flight Aircraft Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokoloski, M.; Arnold, C.; Rider, D.; Beer, R.; Worden, H.; Glavich, T.

    1995-01-01

    Aircraft engine emission and their chemical and physical evolution can be measured in flight using high resolution infrared spectroscopy. The Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES), designed for remote measure- ments of atmosphere emissions from an airborne platform, is an ideal tool for the evaluation of aircraft emissions and their evolution. Capabilities of AES will be discussed. Ground data will be given.

  13. Pilot Preferences on Displayed Aircraft Control Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2013-01-01

    The experiments described here explored how pilots want available maneuver authority information transmitted and how this information affects pilots before and after an aircraft failure. The aircraft dynamic variables relative to flight performance were narrowed to energy management variables. A survey was conducted to determine what these variables should be. Survey results indicated that bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were the preferred variables. Based on this, two displays were designed to inform the pilot of available maneuver envelope expressed as bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed. These displays were used in an experiment involving control surface failures. Results indicate the displayed limitations in bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were helpful to the pilots during aircraft surface failures. However, the additional information did lead to a slight increase in workload, a small decrease in perceived aircraft flying qualities, and no effect on aircraft situation awareness.

  14. Toward scramjet aircraft. [progress in engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. A.; Huber, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility for civil, military, and remotely-piloted aviation above Mach 5 is discussed with reference to the scramjet. Actively cooled aircraft structures of low weight are described, together with jet nozzle design and combustion parameters. The scramjet is seen as operating alone or in tandem with ramjet propulsion, which would power an aircraft up to scramjet speeds. Attention is given to the specific impulse of the scramjet engine, with hydrogen as the primary fuel. Applications include: advanced reconnaissance and interceptor aircraft, strategic cruise (both aircraft and missiles), highly-maneuverable interceptor missiles, transports, aircraft-type launch vehicles, first stages for Space Shuttle launching craft, and single-stage-to-orbit vehicles. Research has focused on increasing the propulsion power of the scramjet engine, while reducing drag on the accompanying airframe.

  15. The design of sport and touring aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, R.; Guenther, W.

    1984-01-01

    General considerations concerning the design of a new aircraft are discussed, taking into account the objective to develop an aircraft can satisfy economically a certain spectrum of tasks. Requirements related to the design of sport and touring aircraft included in the past mainly a high cruising speed and short take-off and landing runs. Additional requirements for new aircraft are now low fuel consumption and optimal efficiency. A computer program for the computation of flight performance makes it possible to vary automatically a number of parameters, such as flight altitude, wing area, and wing span. The appropriate design characteristics are to a large extent determined by the selection of the flight altitude. Three different wing profiles are compared. Potential improvements with respect to the performance of the aircraft and its efficiency are related to the use of fiber composites, the employment of better propeller profiles, more efficient engines, and the utilization of suitable instrumentation for optimal flight conduction.

  16. Coupling Dynamics in Aircraft: A Historical Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    Coupling dynamics can produce either adverse or beneficial stability and controllability, depending on the characteristics of the aircraft. This report presents archival anecdotes and analyses of coupling problems experienced by the X-series, Century series, and Space Shuttle aircraft. The three catastrophic sequential coupling modes of the X-2 airplane and the two simultaneous unstable modes of the X-15 and Space Shuttle aircraft are discussed. In addition, the most complex of the coupling interactions, inertia roll coupling, is discussed for the X-2, X-3, F-100A, and YF-102 aircraft. The mechanics of gyroscopics, centrifugal effect, and resonance in coupling dynamics are described. The coupling modes discussed are interacting multiple degrees of freedom of inertial and aerodynamic forces and moments. The aircraft are assumed to be rigid bodies. Structural couplings are not addressed. Various solutions for coupling instabilities are discussed.

  17. NASA Wake Vortex Research for Aircraft Spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, R. Brad; Hinton, David A.; Stuever, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several inter-related areas to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These areas include current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors, and operationally acceptable aircraft/wake interaction criteria. In today's ATC system, the AVOSS could inform ATC controllers when a fixed reduced separation becomes safe to apply to large and heavy aircraft categories. With appropriate integration into the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), AVOSS dynamic spacing could be tailored to actual generator/follower aircraft pairs rather than a few broad aircraft categories.

  18. Aircraft system modeling error and control error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Nilesh V. (Inventor); Kaneshige, John T. (Inventor); Krishnakumar, Kalmanje S. (Inventor); Burken, John J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for modeling error-driven adaptive control of an aircraft. Normal aircraft plant dynamics is modeled, using an original plant description in which a controller responds to a tracking error e(k) to drive the component to a normal reference value according to an asymptote curve. Where the system senses that (1) at least one aircraft plant component is experiencing an excursion and (2) the return of this component value toward its reference value is not proceeding according to the expected controller characteristics, neural network (NN) modeling of aircraft plant operation may be changed. However, if (1) is satisfied but the error component is returning toward its reference value according to expected controller characteristics, the NN will continue to model operation of the aircraft plant according to an original description.

  19. Shrouded fan propulsors for light aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, M. H.; Galloway, T. L.; Rohrbach, C.; Mayo, M. G.

    1973-01-01

    Continued growth of general-aviation over the next 10-15 years is dependent upon continuing improvement in aircraft safety, utility, performance, and cost. An attractive, compact, low-noise propulsor concept, the Q-FAN, when matched to reciprocating or rotary combustion engines, opens up the exciting prospect of new, cleaner airframe designs for the next generation of general-aviation aircraft, which will provide these improvements and meet the expected noise and pollution restrictions of the 1980 time period. In this paper, Q-FAN propulsion system performance, weight, noise, and cost trends are discussed. The impact of this propulsion system on the complete aircraft is investigated for two representative aircraft size categories. Examples of conceptual designs for Q-FAN/engine integration and aircraft installations are presented.

  20. NASA progress in aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, J. P.; Padula, S. L.; Zorumski, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    Langley Research Center efforts to develop a methodology for predicting the effective perceived noise level (EPNL) produced by jet-powered CTOL aircraft to an accuracy of + or - 1.5 dB are summarized with emphasis on the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) which contains a complete set of prediction methods for CTOL aircraft including propulsion system noise sources, aerodynamic or airframe noise sources, forward speed effects, a layered atmospheric model with molecular absorption, ground impedance effects including excess ground attenuation, and a received noise contouring capability. The present state of ANOPP is described and its accuracy and applicability to the preliminary aircraft design process is assessed. Areas are indicated where further theoretical and experimental research on noise prediction are needed. Topics covered include the elements of the noise prediction problem which are incorporated in ANOPP, results of comparisons of ANOPP calculations with measured noise levels, and progress toward treating noise as a design constraint in aircraft system studies.

  1. NASA technical advances in aircraft occupant safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    A NASA program to improve aircraft safety is discussed in terms of three areas of concentration: unexpected turbulence encounters, fire, and crash impact. To provide warning of clear air turbulence (CAT) so that the pilot can take evasive action, a laser Doppler system is described, which functions by measuring backscatter frequency radiation occurring in aerosols ahead of the aircraft. The system was found able to detect CAT, but at shorter than optimal ranges (10 km as opposed to 32 km). Fire safety has focused on both the early detection of fires through improved sensing methods, and on the development of fire-retardant materials, i.e., intumescent char-forming protective coatings. Crashworthiness is discussed in terms of the development of a survivable crash envelope and improved seat and restraint systems. To evaluate an aircraft for crashworthiness, finite-element computer programs are currently being developed which analyze both aircraft structural configurations and the intrinsic strength of aircraft materials.

  2. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2007-01-01

    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to better interference risk assessment.

  3. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2007-01-01

    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to more meaningful interference risk assessment.

  4. Aircraft Power-Plant Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sontag, Harcourt; Brombacher, W G

    1934-01-01

    This report supersedes NACA-TR-129 which is now obsolete. Aircraft power-plant instruments include tachometers, engine thermometers, pressure gages, fuel-quantity gages, fuel flow meters and indicators, and manifold pressure gages. The report includes a description of the commonly used types and some others, the underlying principle utilized in the design, and some design data. The inherent errors of the instrument, the methods of making laboratory tests, descriptions of the test apparatus, and data in considerable detail in the performance of commonly used instruments are presented. Standard instruments and, in cases where it appears to be of interest, those used as secondary standards are described. A bibliography of important articles is included.

  5. Composite structural materials. [aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of filamentary composite materials in the design and construction of primary aircraft structures is considered with emphasis on efforts to develop advanced technology in the areas of physical properties, structural concepts and analysis, manufacturing, and reliability and life prediction. The redesign of a main spar/rib region on the Boeing 727 elevator near its actuator attachment point is discussed. A composite fabrication and test facility is described as well as the use of minicomputers for computer aided design. Other topics covered include (1) advanced structural analysis methids for composites; (2) ultrasonic nondestructive testing of composite structures; (3) optimum combination of hardeners in the cure of epoxy; (4) fatigue in composite materials; (5) resin matrix characterization and properties; (6) postbuckling analysis of curved laminate composite panels; and (7) acoustic emission testing of composite tensile specimens.

  6. Aircraft wing structure detail design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, Garrett L.; Roberts, Ron; Mallon, Bob; Alameri, Mohamed; Steinbach, Bill

    1993-01-01

    The provisions of this project call for the design of the structure of the wing and carry-through structure for the Viper primary trainer, which is to be certified as a utility category trainer under FAR part 23. The specific items to be designed in this statement of work were Front Spar, Rear Spar, Aileron Structure, Wing Skin, and Fuselage Carry-through Structure. In the design of these parts, provisions for the fuel system, electrical system, and control routing were required. Also, the total weight of the entire wing planform could not exceed 216 lbs. Since this aircraft is to be used as a primary trainer, and the SOW requires a useful life of 107 cycles, it was decided that all of the principle stresses in the structural members would be kept below 10 ksi. The only drawback to this approach is a weight penalty.

  7. Advanced aircraft engine materials trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Gray, H. R.; Levine, S. R.; Signorelli, R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent activities of the Lewis Research Center are reviewed which are directed toward developing materials for rotating hot section components for aircraft gas turbines. Turbine blade materials activities are directed at increasing metal temperatures approximately 100 C compared to current directionally solidified alloys by use of oxide dispersion strengthening or tungsten alloy wire reinforcement of nickel or iron base superalloys. The application of thermal barrier coatings offers a promise of increasing gas temperatures an additional 100 C with current cooling technology. For turbine disk alloys, activities are directed toward reducing the cost of turbine disks by 50 percent through near net shape fabrication of prealloyed powders as well as towards improved performance. In addition, advanced alloy concepts and fabrication methods for dual alloy disks are being studied as having potential for improving the life of future high performance disks and reducing the amount of strategic materials required in these components.

  8. Noise Reduction of Aircraft Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V. (Inventor); Brooks, Thomas F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A reduction in noise radiating from a side of a deployed aircraft flap is achieved by locating a slot adjacent the side of the flap, and then forcing air out through the slot with a suitable mechanism. One, two or even three or more slots are possible, where the slot is located at one;or more locations selected from a group of locations comprising a top surface of the flap, a bottom surface of the flap, an intersection of the top and side surface of the flap, an intersection of the bottom and side surfaces of the flap, and a side surface of the flap. In at least one embodiment the slot is substantially rectangular. A device for adjusting a rate of the air forced out through the slot can also be provided.

  9. Studies of advanced transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    Concepts for possible future airplanes are studied that include all-wing distributed-load airplanes, multi-body airplanes, a long-range laminar flow control airplane, a nuclear powered airplane designed for towing conventionally powered airplanes during long range cruise, and an aerial transportation system comprised of continuously flying liner airplanes operated in conjunction with short range feeder airplanes. Results indicate that each of these concepts has the potential for important performance and economic advantages, provided certain suggested research tasks are successfully accomplished. Indicated research areas include all-wing airplane aerodynamics, aerial rendezvous, nuclear aircraft engines, air-cushion landing systems, and laminar flow control, as well as the basic research discipline areas of aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, avionics, and computer applications.

  10. Turboprop aircraft against terrorism: a SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Murat; Akkas, Ali; Aslan, Yavuz

    2012-06-01

    Today, the threat perception is changing. Not only for countries but also for defence organisations like NATO, new threat perception is pointing terrorism. Many countries' air forces become responsible of fighting against terorism or Counter-Insurgency (COIN) Operations. Different from conventional warfare, alternative weapon or weapon systems are required for such operatioins. In counter-terrorism operations modern fighter jets are used as well as helicopters, subsonic jets, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), turboprop aircraft, baloons and similar platforms. Succes and efficiency of the use of these platforms can be determined by evaluating the conditions, the threats and the area together. Obviously, each platform has advantages and disadvantages for different cases. In this research, examples of turboprop aircraft usage against terrorism and with a more general approach, turboprop aircraft for Close Air Support (CAS) missions from all around the world are reviewed. In this effort, a closer look is taken at the countries using turboprop aircraft in CAS missions while observing the fields these aircraft are used in, type of operations, specifications of the aircraft, cost and the maintenance factors. Thus, an idea about the convenience of using these aircraft in such operations can be obtained. A SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations is performed. This study shows that turboprop aircraft are suitable to be used in counter-terrorism and COIN operations in low threat environment and is cost benefical compared to jets.

  11. Greenhouse effects of aircraft emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Fortuin, J.P.F.; Wauben, W.M.F.; Dorland, R. van; Kelder, H. [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Inst., De Bilt (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    Ranges for direct and indirect greenhouse effects due to present day aircraft emissions are quantified for northern midlatitudes, using the concept of fixed temperature (FT) radiative forcing as calculated with a radiative transfer model. The direct greenhouse effects considered here are from emissions of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and nitrogen dioxide. To calculate the concentration increases of carbon dioxide and stratospheric water vapor, an analytical expression is developed based on a linear approximation of global fuel burn versus time. Unlike the expressions currently used in the literature, the authors` expression does not account for emission rates only, but also for a loss term--hence making it more suitable for shorter lived emittants. For midlatitude summer conditions, a total radiative forcing ranging from 0.04 to 0.09 Wm{sup {minus}2} is calculated for the direct greenhouse effects, whereas for midlatitude winter the range is 0.07 to 0.26 Wm{sup {minus}2}. The indirect greenhouse effects considered here are sulfate aerosol formation from sulfur dioxide emissions, contrail formation from emitted water vapor and condensation nuclei, and ozone formation from NO{sub x} emissions. The total radiative forcing coming from these indirect effects range from {minus}0.67 to 0.25 Wm{sup {minus}2} in summer a/nd from {minus}0.36 to 0.21 Wm{sup {minus}2} in winter. Further, the global distribution of NO{sub x} and ozone increases from aircraft emissions world-wide are simulated with a three-dimensional chemistry transport model for January and July. The geographical distribution of the radiative forcing associated with the simulated ozone increases is also calculated for these months.

  12. Novel methods for aircraft corrosion monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossi, Richard H.; Criswell, Thomas L.; Ikegami, Roy; Nelson, James; Normand, Eugene; Rutherford, Paul S.; Shrader, John E.

    1995-07-01

    Monitoring aging aircraft for hidden corrosion is a significant problem for both military and civilian aircraft. Under a Wright Laboratory sponsored program, Boeing Defense & Space Group is investigating three novel methods for detecting and monitoring hidden corrosion: (1) atmospheric neutron radiography, (2) 14 MeV neutron activation analysis and (3) fiber optic corrosion sensors. Atmospheric neutron radiography utilizes the presence of neutrons in the upper atmosphere as a source for interrogation of the aircraft structure. Passive track-etch neutron detectors, which have been previously placed on the aircraft, are evaluated during maintenance checks to assess the presence of corrosion. Neutrons generated by an accelerator are used via activation analysis to assess the presence of distinctive elements in corrosion products, particularly oxygen. By using fast (14 MeV) neutrons for the activation, portable, high intensity sources can be employed for field testing of aircraft. The third novel method uses fiber optics as part of a smart structure technology for corrosion detection and monitoring. Fiber optic corrosion sensors are placed in the aircraft at locations known to be susceptible to corrosion. Periodic monitoring of the sensors is used to alert maintenance personnel to the presence and degree of corrosion at specific locations on the aircraft. During the atmospheric neutron experimentation, we identified a fourth method referred to as secondary emission radiography (SER). This paper discusses the development of these methods.

  13. Residents' annoyance responses to aircraft noise events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Stephens, D. G.; Fields, J. M.; Shepherd, K. P.

    1983-01-01

    In a study conducted in the vicinity of Salt Lake City International Airport, community residents reported their annoyance with individual aircraft flyovers during rating sessions conducted in their homes. Annoyance ratings were obtained at different times of the day. Aircraft noise levels were measured, and other characteristics of the aircraft were noted by trained observers. Metrics commonly used for assessing aircraft noise were compared, but none performed significantly better than A-weighted sound pressure level. A significant difference was found between the ratings of commercial jet aircraft and general aviation propeller aircraft, with the latter being judged less annoying. After the effects of noise level were accounted for, no significant differences were found between the ratings of landings and takeoffs. Aircraft noise annoyance reactions are stronger in lowered ambient noise conditions. This is consistent with the theory that reduced nighttime and evening ambient levels could create different reactions at different times of day. After controlling for ambient noise in a multiple regression analysis, no significant differences were found between the ratings of single events obtained during the three time periods: morning, afternoon, and evenings.

  14. Collision avoidance for aircraft in abort landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathwig, Jarret

    We study the collision avoidance between two aircraft flying in the same vertical plane: a host aircraft on a glide path and an intruder aircraft on a horizontal trajectory below that of the host aircraft and heading in the opposite direction. Assuming that the intruder aircraft is uncooperative, the host aircraft executes an optimal abort landing maneuver: it applies maximum thrust setting and maximum angle of attack lifting the flight path over the original path, thereby increasing the timewise minimum distance between the two aircraft and, in this way, avoiding the potential collision. In the presence of weak constraints on the aircraft and/or the environment, the angle of attack must be brought to the maximum value and kept there until the maximin point is reached. On the other hand, in the presence of strong constraints on the aircraft and the environment, desaturation of the angle of attack might have to take place before the maximin point is reached. This thesis includes four parts. In the first part, after an introduction and review of the available literature, we reformulate and solve the one-subarc Chebyshev maximin problem as a two-subarc Bolza-Pontryagin problem in which the avoidance and the recovery maneuvers are treated simultaneously. In the second part, we develop a guidance scheme (gamma guidance) capable of approximating the optimal trajectory in real time. In the third part, we present the algorithms employed to solve the one-subarc and two-subarc problems. In the fourth part, we decompose the two-subarc Bolza-Pontryagin problem into two one-subarc problems: the avoidance problem and the recovery problem, to be solved in sequence; remarkably, for problems where the ratio of total maneuver time to avoidance time is sufficiently large (?5), this simplified procedure predicts accurately the location of the maximin point as well as the maximin distance.

  15. Aircraft battle damage repair - A force multiplier

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, J.W. (USAF, Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States))

    1992-08-01

    An aircraft battle-damage repair (BDR) program is described that provides for the assessment and repair of battle damage and the return of badly damaged aircraft to their home bases. The program methodology is based on the use of time-saving temporary repairs and associated training and materials provision. BDR is shown to require knowledge of damage mechanisms and specifications for the minimum effective requirements for BDR support, and the method can facilitate the return of 50 percent of damaged aircraft within 24 hours.

  16. Fiber-optic technology for transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-07-01

    A development status evaluation is presented for fiber-optic devices that are advantageously applicable to commercial aircraft. Current developmental efforts at a major U.S. military and commercial aircraft manufacturer encompass installation techniques and data distribution practices, as well as the definition and refinement of an optical propulsion management interface system, environmental sensing systems, and component-qualification criteria. Data distribution is the most near-term implementable of fiber-optic technologies aboard commercial aircraft in the form of onboard local-area networks for intercomputer connections and passenger entertainment.

  17. Multirole cargo aircraft options and configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.; Vaughan, J. C., III

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses multirole cargo aircraft options and configurations. It was shown that derivatives of current wide-body aircraft would be economically attractive through 2008, but new dedicated airfreighters incorporating 1990 technology would offer little or no economic incentive. Option studies indicate that Mach 0.7 propfans would be economically attractive in trip cost, aircraft price, and airline ROI; spanloaders would be lower priced with higher ROI, but would have a relatively higher trip cost because of aerodynamic inefficiencies. Finally, air cushion landing gear configurations are identified as an option for avoiding runway constraints on airport accommodation of very large airfreighters.

  18. Hail damage to typical aircraft surfaces.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayduk, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Severe structural damage can occur when aircraft collide with hailstones. Consequently, methods of predicting hail damage to airplane surfaces are needed by the aircraft designer. This paper describes an analytical method of predicting the dent depth and final deformed shape for simple structural components impacted by hailstones. The solution was accomplished by adapting the DEPROSS computer program to the problem of normal impact of hail on flat metallic sheets and spherical metallic caps. Experimental data and analytical predictions are presented for hail damage to typical aircraft surfaces along with a description of the hail gun and hail simulation technique used in the experimental study.

  19. Improving the efficiency of smaller transport aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.T.

    1984-07-01

    Considered apart from its propulsive system the high altitude airplane itself adapted to higher flight altitudes than those in current use. Scaling on the assumption of constant aircraft density indicates that this conclusion applies most importantly to smaller transport aircraft. Climb to 60,000 ft could save time and energy for trips as short as 500 miles. A discussion of the effect of winglets on aircraft efficiency is presented. A 10% reduction of induced drag below that of a comparable elliptic wing can be achieved either by horizontal or vertical wing tip extensions.

  20. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

  1. Computing Linear Mathematical Models Of Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Eugene L.; Antoniewicz, Robert F.; Krambeer, Keith D.

    1991-01-01

    Derivation and Definition of Linear Aircraft Model (LINEAR) computer program provides user with powerful, and flexible, standard, documented, and verified software tool for linearization of mathematical models of aerodynamics of aircraft. Intended for use in software tool to drive linear analysis of stability and design of control laws for aircraft. Capable of both extracting such linearized engine effects as net thrust, torque, and gyroscopic effects, and including these effects in linear model of system. Designed to provide easy selection of state, control, and observation variables used in particular model. Also provides flexibility of allowing alternate formulations of both state and observation equations. Written in FORTRAN.

  2. Processing infrared images of aircraft lapjoints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, Hazari; Winfree, William P.; Cramer, K. E.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques for processing IR images of aging aircraft lapjoint data are discussed. Attention is given to a technique for detecting disbonds in aircraft lapjoints which clearly delineates the disbonded region from the bonded regions. The technique is weak on unpainted aircraft skin surfaces, but can be overridden by using a self-adhering contact sheet. Neural network analysis on raw temperature data has been shown to be an effective tool for visualization of images. Numerical simulation results show the above processing technique to be an effective tool in delineating the disbonds.

  3. Aircraft control in wake vortex wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wold, Gregory R.

    1995-01-01

    In the past, there have been a number of fatal incidents attributable to wake vortex encounters, involving both general aviation and commercial aircraft. In fact, the wake vortex hazard is considered to be the single dominant safety issue determining the aircraft spacing requirements at airports. As the amount of air traffic increases, the number of dangerous encounters is likely only to increase. It is therefore imperative that a means be found to reduce the danger. That is the purpose of this research: to use nonlinear inverse dynamic (NID) control methods in the design of an aircraft control system which can improve the safety margin in a wake vortex encounter.

  4. Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.; Dugan, J. F., Jr.; Saunders, N. T.; Ziemianski, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel efficiency in aeronautics, for fuel conservation in general as well as for its effect on commercial aircraft operating economics is considered. Projects of the Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program related to propulsion are emphasized. These include: (1) engine component improvement, directed at performance improvement and engine diagnostics for prolonged service life; (2) energy efficient engine, directed at proving the technology base for the next generation of turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprop, directed at advancing the technology of turboprop powered aircraft to a point suitable for commercial airline service. Progress in these technology areas is reported.

  5. Tunable architecture for aircraft fault detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguli, Subhabrata (Inventor); Papageorgiou, George (Inventor); Glavaski-Radovanovic, Sonja (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for detecting faults in an aircraft is disclosed. The method involves predicting at least one state of the aircraft and tuning at least one threshold value to tightly upper bound the size of a mismatch between the at least one predicted state and a corresponding actual state of the non-faulted aircraft. If the mismatch between the at least one predicted state and the corresponding actual state is greater than or equal to the at least one threshold value, the method indicates that at least one fault has been detected.

  6. Improved portable lighting for visual aircraft inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Shagam, R.N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lerner, J.; Shie, R. [Physical Optics Corp., Torrance, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The most common tool used by aircraft inspectors is the personal flashlight. While it is compact and very portable, it is generally typified by poor beam quality which can interfere with the ability for an inspector to detect small defects and anomalies, such as cracks and corrosion sites, which may be indicators of major structural problems. A Light Shaping Diffuser{trademark} (LSD) installed in a stock flashlight as a replacement to the lens can improve the uniformity of an average flashlight and improve the quality of the inspection. Field trials at aircraft maintenance facilities have demonstrated general acceptance of the LSD by aircraft inspection and maintenance personnel.

  7. Multidisciplinary Techniques and Novel Aircraft Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Rogers, James L.; Raney, David L.

    2000-01-01

    The Aircraft Morphing Program at NASA Langley Research Center explores opportunities to improve airframe designs with smart technologies. Two elements of this basic research program are multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) and advanced flow control. This paper describes examples where MDO techniques such as sensitivity analysis, automatic differentiation, and genetic algorithms contribute to the design of novel control systems. In the test case, the design and use of distributed shapechange devices to provide low-rate maneuvering capability for a tailless aircraft is considered. The ability of MDO to add value to control system development is illustrated using results from several years of research funded by the Aircraft Morphing Program.

  8. Systems integration studies for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascitti, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    Technical progress in each of the disciplinary research areas affecting the design of supersonic cruise aircraft is discussed. The NASA AST/SCAR Program supported the integration of these technical advances into supersonic cruise aircraft configuration concepts. While the baseline concepts reflect differing design philosophy, all reflect a level of economic performance considerably above the current foreign aircraft as well as the former U.S. SST. Range-payload characteristics of the study configurating show significant improvement, while meeting environmental goals such as takeoff and landing noise and upper atmospheric pollution.

  9. Role of research aircraft in technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.

    1984-01-01

    The United States's aeronautical research program has been rich in the use of research aircraft to explore new flight regimes, develop individual aeronautical concepts, and investigate new vehicle classes and configurations. This paper reviews the NASA supercritical wing, digital fly-by-wire, HiMAT, and AD-1 oblique-wing flight research programs, and draws from these examples general conclusions regarding the role and impact of research aircraft in technology development. The impact of a flight program on spinoff technology is also addressed. The secondary, serendipitous results are often highly significant. Finally, future research aircraft programs are examined for technology trends and expected results.

  10. Hydrogen fueled subsonic aircraft - A prospective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The performance characteristics of hydrogen-fueled subsonic transport aircraft are compared with those of aircraft using conventional aviation kerosene. Results of the Cryogenically Fueled Aircraft Technology Program sponsored by NASA indicate that liquid hydrogen may be particularly efficient for subsonic transport craft when ranges of 4000 km or more are involved; however, development of advanced cryogenic tanks for liquid hydrogen fuel is required. The NASA-sponsored program also found no major technical obstacles for international airports converting the liquid hydrogen fueling systems. Resource utilization efficiency and fuel production costs for hydrogen produced by coal gasification or for liquid methane or synthetic aviation kerosene are also assessed.

  11. Aspects of aging aircraft - A transatlantic view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, John W.

    This paper discusses, from a regulatory viewpoint, some of the key technical matters in the aging aircraft issue. Attention is focused primarily on research topics of interest, for an overview of the CAA approach to aging aircraft. In general, the reader is referred to Williams (1990) and James (1990). The topics covered here are: experience with proof pressure testing; inspection reliability in relation to the task; potential effects of corrosion on fatigue crack growth and toughness; definition of corrosion inhibiting fluids; and implementation management of aging aircraft programs.

  12. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modeling and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willers, Cornelius J.; Willers, Maria S.; de Waal, Alta

    2014-10-01

    Infrared missiles pose a significant threat to civilian and military aviation. ManPADS missiles are especially dangerous in the hands of rogue and undisciplined forces. Yet, not all the launched missiles hit their targets; the miss being either attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft-missile engagement is a complex series of events, many of which are only partially understood. Aircraft and missile designers focus on the optimal design and performance of their respective systems, often testing only in a limited set of scenarios. Most missiles react to the contrast intensity, but the variability of the background is rarely considered. Finally, the vulnerability of the aircraft depends jointly on the missile's performance and the doctrine governing the missile's launch. These factors are considered in a holistic investigation. The view direction, altitude, time of day, sun position, latitude/longitude and terrain determine the background against which the aircraft is observed. Especially high gradients in sky radiance occur around the sun and on the horizon. This paper considers uncluttered background scenes (uniform terrain and clear sky) and presents examples of background radiance at all view angles across a sphere around the sensor. A detailed geometrical and spatially distributed radiometric model is used to model the aircraft. This model provides the signature at all possible view angles across the sphere around the aircraft. The signature is determined in absolute terms (no background) and in contrast terms (with background). It is shown that the background significantly affects the contrast signature as observed by the missile sensor. A simplified missile model is constructed by defining the thrust and mass profiles, maximum seeker tracking rate, maximum guidance acceleration and seeker sensitivity. For the purpose of this investigation the aircraft is equipped with conventional pyrotechnic decoy flares and the missile has no counter-countermeasure means (security restrictions on open publication). This complete simulation is used to calculate the missile miss distance, when the missile is launched from different locations around the aircraft. The miss distance data is then graphically presented showing miss distance (aircraft vulnerability) as a function of launch direction and range. The aircraft vulnerability graph accounts for aircraft and missile characteristics, but does not account for missile deployment doctrine. A Bayesian network is constructed to fuse the doctrinal rules with the aircraft vulnerability data. The Bayesian network now provides the capability to evaluate the combined risk of missile launch and aircraft vulnerability. It is shown in this paper that it is indeed possible to predict the aircraft vulnerability to missile attack in a comprehensive modelling and a holistic process. By using the appropriate real-world models, this approach is used to evaluate the effectiveness of specific countermeasure techniques against specific missile threats. The use of a Bayesian network provides the means to fuse simulated performance data with more abstract doctrinal rules to provide a realistic assessment of the aircraft vulnerability.

  13. Daedalus Project's Light Eagle - Human powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Michelob Light Eagle is seen here in flight over Rogers Dry Lake at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an autopilot that could be used on high altitude or human powered aircraft, and determining the power required to fly the Daedalus aircraft. The research flights began in late December 1987 with a shake-down of the Light Eagle instrumentation and data transfer links. The first flight of the Daedalus 87 also occurred during this time. On February 7, 1988, the Daedalus 87 aircraft crashed on Rogers Dry Lakebed. The Daedalus 88, which later set the world record, was then shipped from MIT to replace the 87's research flights, and for general checkout procedures. Due to the accident, flight testing was extended four weeks and thus ended in mid-March 1988 after having achieved the major goals of the program; exploring the dynamics of low Reynolds number aircraft, and investigating the aeroelastic behavior of lightweight aircraft. The information obtained from this program had direct applications to the later design of many high-altitude, long endurance aircraft.

  14. Aircraft Maintenance Planning Using Fuzzy Critical Path Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omer Atli; Cengiz Kahraman

    2012-01-01

    Aircraft's availability is certainly one of the most important features of modern avionic industry. The aircraft maintenance scheduling is one of the major decisions an airline has to make during its operation. When an aircraft maintenance event occurs, the overhaul tasks management process requires the execution of all tasks to perform and has to guarantee the on-time aircraft delivery and

  15. Development and experimental characterization of a fuel cell powered aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas H. Bradley; Blake A. Moffitt; Dimitri N. Mavris; David E. Parekh

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics and performance of a fuel cell powered unmanned aircraft. The aircraft is novel as it is the largest compressed hydrogen fuel cell powered airplane built to date and is currently the only fuel cell aircraft whose design and test results are in the public domain. The aircraft features a 500W polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

  16. DYNAMIC AND AEROELASTIC ANALYSIS OF A TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. G. Vijaya Vittala; A. C. Pankaj; R. Swarnalatha

    The dynamic and aeroelastic characteristic of a transport aircraft has been established using MSC\\/NASTRAN. Correlation of the dynamic characteristics of the aircraft obtained from analysis with the Ground Vibration Test results of the aircraft is studied. The doublet lattice method has been used to estimate the appropriate unsteady air loads generated on the lifting surfaces of the aircraft. In an

  17. Unmanned Aircraft Collision Avoidance using Continuous-State POMDPs

    E-print Network

    Lee, Wee Sun

    aircraft and must act under tight time limits to help bring the aircraft to safety. The safetyUnmanned Aircraft Collision Avoidance using Continuous-State POMDPs Haoyu Bai David Hsu Mykel J--An effective collision avoidance system for un- manned aircraft will enable them to fly in civil airspace

  18. Wireless corrosion monitoring for evaluation of aircraft structural health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Demo; Fritz Friedersdorf; Conrad Andrews; Mateja Putic

    2012-01-01

    The military spends billions of dollars annually on inspection, identification, and repair of damage resulting from aircraft corrosion. The currently available methods for identifying aircraft corrosion damage involve expensive, labor intensive scheduled inspections, resulting in longer periods in depot, and reduction in aircraft availability. In order to increase aircraft safety, availability, and operational efficiency, an on-platform monitoring system capable of

  19. Model Checking and the Certification of Autonomous Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    E-print Network

    Atkinson, Katie

    of the aircraft, in lieu of an on-board human pilot, do not compromise the safety of the aircraft or otherModel Checking and the Certification of Autonomous Unmanned Aircraft Systems Matt Webster1, Michael Aircraft Systems (UAS) for civil airspace. We begin by modelling a basic UAS control system in PROMELA

  20. Safe Set Protection and Restoration for Unimpaired and Impaired Aircraft

    E-print Network

    Kwatny, Harry G.

    be viewed as a set within the state space of an aircraft. For various safety considerations an aircraftSafe Set Protection and Restoration for Unimpaired and Impaired Aircraft Robert C. Allen and Harry set within the flight envelope. Thus, if an aircraft is to remain within its envelope it must stay

  1. Scanning laser aircraft surveillance system for carrier flight operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Alan A.; Shemwell, David M.; Gellert, R. I.; Black, J.

    1992-07-01

    The Scanning Laser Aircraft Surveillance System (SLASS) uses two scanning infrared laser beams to illuminate retroreflectors located on aircraft landing gears and hook to determine very precisely the azimuthal, ascension, yaw, roll, and pitch angles of the aircraft in the approach corridor. The range, approach velocity, and aircraft type are also determined. Aircraft configuration is determined by the presence or absence of each return signal, and aircraft type is identified with an encoded sequence of retroreflectors on one landing gear. The position of the aircraft is determined by the time in the scan that the beam encounters the retroreflectors.

  2. Impact of Advanced Propeller Technology on Aircraft/Mission Characteristics of Several General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keiter, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of several General Aviation aircraft indicated that the application of advanced technologies to General Aviation propellers can reduce fuel consumption in future aircraft by a significant amount. Propeller blade weight reductions achieved through the use of composites, propeller efficiency and noise improvements achieved through the use of advanced concepts and improved propeller analytical design methods result in aircraft with lower operating cost, acquisition cost and gross weight.

  3. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short-haul transportation. Volume 2: Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A study of the quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short haul transportation was conducted. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) to determine the relationships between STOL characteristics and economic and social viability of short haul air transportation, (2) to identify critical technology problems involving introduction of STOL short haul systems, (3) to define representative aircraft configurations, characteristics, and costs, and (4) to identify high payoff technology areas to improve STOL systems. The analyses of the aircraft designs which were generated to fulfill the objectives are summarized. The baseline aircraft characteristics are documented and significant trade studies are presented.

  4. 75 FR 41986 - Certification of Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft; Modifications to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ...Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light- Sport Aircraft; Modifications to Rules...Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft; Modifications to Rules...document, contact Larry L. Buchanan, Light-Sport Aviation Branch, AFS-610,...

  5. 75 FR 15609 - Certification of Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft; Modifications to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ...Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light- Sport Aircraft; Modifications to Rules...aircraft and airmen for the operation of light-sport aircraft were implemented in 2004...this rule, contact Larry L. Buchanan, Light-Sport Aviation Branch, AFS- 610,...

  6. 41 CFR 102-33.415 - When may we declassify an aircraft and remove it from our Federal aircraft inventory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...may we declassify an aircraft and remove it from our Federal aircraft inventory? ...may we declassify an aircraft and remove it from our Federal aircraft inventory? ...non-operational and you want to retain it, you may declassify it and remove it...

  7. 41 CFR 102-33.415 - When may we declassify an aircraft and remove it from our Federal aircraft inventory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...may we declassify an aircraft and remove it from our Federal aircraft inventory? ...may we declassify an aircraft and remove it from our Federal aircraft inventory? ...non-operational and you want to retain it, you may declassify it and remove it...

  8. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J [and others

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  9. Classification of Aircraft Maneuvers for Fault Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj; Tumer, Irem Y.; Tumer, Kagan; Huff, Edward M.; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Automated fault detection is an increasingly important problem in aircraft maintenance and operation. Standard methods of fault detection assume the availability of either data produced during all possible faulty operation modes or a clearly-defined means to determine whether the data provide a reasonable match to known examples of proper operation. In the domain of fault detection in aircraft, the first assumption is unreasonable and the second is difficult to determine. We envision a system for online fault detection in aircraft, one part of which is a classifier that predicts the maneuver being performed by the aircraft as a function of vibration data and other available data. To develop such a system, we use flight data collected under a controlled test environment, subject to many sources of variability. We explain where our classifier fits into the envisioned fault detection system as well as experiments showing the promise of this classification subsystem.

  10. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3...Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ...MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA, KENTUCKY AND INDIANA §...

  11. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3...Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ...MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA, KENTUCKY AND INDIANA §...

  12. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3...Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ...MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA, KENTUCKY AND INDIANA §...

  13. Venus Atmospheric Exploration by Solar Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; LaMarre, C.; Colozza, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Venus atmosphere is a favorable environment for flying powered aircraft. The atmospheric pressure makes flight much easier than on planets such as Mars. Above the clouds, solar energy is available in abundance on Venus, and the slow rotation of Venus allows a solar airplane to be designed for flight within continuous sunlight. The atmosphere between 50 km and 75 km on Venus is one of the most dynamic and interesting regions of the planet. The challenge for a Venus aircraft will be the fierce winds and caustic atmosphere. In order to remain on the sunlit side of Venus, an exploration aircraft will have to be capable of sustained flight at or above the wind speed. An aircraft would be a powerful tool for exploration. By learning how Venus can be so similar to Earth, and yet so different, we will learn to better understand the climate and geological history of the Earth.

  14. Very Light Aircraft: Revitalization through Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zyskowski, Michael K.

    1995-01-01

    As the future of the general aviation industry seems to be improving, a cultural paradigm shift may be imminent with the implementation of an advanced, revolutionary transportation system within the United States. By observing the support of government and industry for this idea, near and long term effects must be addressed if this change is going to occur. The high certification costs associated with general aviation aircraft must be reduced without compromising safety if a new transportation system is to be developed in the future. With the advent of new, streamlined rules recently issued for the certification of small aircraft, it seems as though new opportunities are now available to the general aviation industry. Not only will immediate benefits be realized with increased sales of certified small aircraft, but there would now be a way of introducing the advanced concepts of future aircraft at varying degrees of technology and cost as options to the customer.

  15. Aircraft Electronics Technician (AET) Study Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Aircraft Electronics Technician (AET) Study Guide is designed to be used in preparing for the National Center for Aircraft Technician Training (NCATT) AET Certification examination. The study guide addresses each NCATT AET knowledge ā??Standardā?¯ and the required level of understanding for passing the AET examination. The AET examination will ask one or more questions from each of the standards areas. Use of this study guide coupled with a serious review of the references and study materials that are provided on the NCATT website (http://www.ncatt.org) will ensure the technician is adequately prepared to join the ranks of ā??Certified Aircraft Electronics Technicians.ā?¯ In this 20-page pdf, visitors will find basic terms and definitions, basic circuit material, and maintenance and aircraft fundamentals.

  16. Investigation of aircraft vortex wake structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, N. A.; Turchak, L. I.

    2014-11-01

    In this work we analyze the mechanisms of formation of the vortex wake structure of aircraft with different wing shape in the plan flying close to or away from the underlying surface cleaned or released mechanization wing.

  17. Steering Aircraft Clear of Choppy Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    AeroTech Research (U.S.A.), Inc., a leader in turbulence-detection and warning systems, has been involved with NASA Aviation Safety research since 1998. AeroTech served as a contractor for the TPAWS government/industry development project, and was funded by NASA to develop the E-Turb Mode Radar algorithms and the TAPS software. (Other contributors to this project include the National Center for Atmospheric Research, the FAA, North Carolina State University, and the Research Triangle Institute.) The radar algorithms combine an aircraft's turbulenceresponse characteristics with radar measurements to determine the predicted turbulence loads the aircraft will experience, and present this information to the pilot. The TAPS software monitors and processes onboard aircraft sensor data; generates automatic reports when an aircraft encounters turbulence and a set turbulence threshold is exceeded; and then displays the reports and underlying information to ground personnel to improve situational awareness of the location and the severity of the turbulence encounter.

  18. Technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Programs have been initiated by NASA to develop and demonstrate advanced technology for reducing aircraft gas turbine and piston engine pollutant emissions. These programs encompass engines currently in use for a wide variety of aircraft from widebody-jets to general aviation. Emission goals for these programs are consistent with the established EPA standards. Full-scale engine demonstrations of the most promising pollutant reduction techniques are planned within the next three years. Preliminary tests of advanced technology gas turbine engine combustors indicate that significant reductions in all major pollutant emissions should be attainable in present generation aircraft engines without adverse effects on fuel consumption. Fundamental-type programs are yielding results which indicate that future generation gas turbine aircraft engines may be able to utilize extremely low pollutant emission combustion systems.

  19. VSTOL Systems Research Aircraft (VSRA) Harrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center has developed and is testing a new integrated flight and propulsion control system that will help pilots land aircraft in adverse weather conditions and in small confined ares (such as, on a small ship or flight deck). The system is being tested in the V/STOL (Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing) Systems research Aircraft (VSRA), which is a modified version of the U.S. Marine Corps's AV-8B Harrier jet fighter, which can take off and land vertically. The new automated flight control system features both head-up and panel-mounted computer displays and also automatically integrates control of the aircraft's thrust and thrust vector control, thereby reducing the pilot's workload and help stabilize the aircraft for landing. Visiting pilots will be encouraged to test the new system and provide formal evaluation flights data and feedback. An actual flight test and the display panel of control system are shown in this video.

  20. The drive for Aircraft Energy Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, R. L., Jr.; Maddalon, D. V.

    1984-01-01

    NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program, which began in 1976, has mounted a development effort in four major transport aircraft technology fields: laminar flow systems, advanced aerodynamics, flight controls, and composite structures. ACEE has explored two basic methods for achieving drag-reducing boundary layer laminarization: the use of suction through the wing structure (via slots or perforations) to remove boundary layer turbulence, and the encouragement of natural laminar flow maintenance through refined design practices. Wind tunnel tests have been conducted for wide bodied aircraft equipped with high aspect ratio supercritical wings and winglets. Maneuver load control and pitch-active stability augmentation control systems reduce fuel consumption by reducing the drag associated with high aircraft stability margins. Composite structures yield lighter airframes that in turn call for smaller wing and empennage areas, reducing induced drag for a given payload. In combination, all four areas of development are expected to yield a fuel consumption reduction of 40 percent.

  1. Aircraft Optimization for Minimum Environmental Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, Nicolas; Kroo, Ilan M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the tradeoff between operating cost and environmental acceptability of commercial aircraft. This involves optimizing the aircraft design and mission to minimize operating cost while constraining exterior noise and emissions. Growth in air traffic and airport neighboring communities has resulted in increased pressure to severely penalize airlines that do not meet strict local noise and emissions requirements. As a result, environmental concerns have become potent driving forces in commercial aviation. Traditionally, aircraft have been first designed to meet performance and cost goals, and adjusted to satisfy the environmental requirements at given airports. The focus of the present study is to determine the feasibility of including noise and emissions constraints in the early design of the aircraft and mission. This paper introduces the design tool and results from a case study involving a 250-passenger airliner.

  2. Aircraft Maintenance Jacking Problem via Optimization

    E-print Network

    Mongeau, Marcel

    gears or by the main jacks positioned near the landing gears. Thus one relies on using a certain number or part assembling. This is generally not the case when the aircraft is only supported by its landing

  3. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members...

  4. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA, KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation...

  5. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA, KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation...

  6. INVESTIGATION OF RADM PERFORMANCE USING AIRCRAFT MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements using specially instrumented aircraft were obtained during August and September, 1988 as an integral part of the ACID MODES (Model Operational and Diagnostic Evaluation Study) field study. pecialized flights, each designed to diagnose different aspects of the perform...

  7. Outlook for advanced concepts in transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    Air transportation demand trends, air transportation system goals, and air transportation system trends well into the 21st century were examined in detail. The outlook is for continued growth in both air passenger travel and air freight movements. The present system, with some improvements, is expected to continue to the turn of the century and to utilize technologically upgraded, derivative versions of today's aircraft, plus possibly some new aircraft for supersonic long haul, short haul, and high density commuter service. Severe constraints of the system, expected by early in the 21st century, should lead to innovations at the airport, away from the airport, and in the air. The innovations are illustrated by descriptions of three candidate systems involving advanced aircraft concepts. Advanced technologies and vehicles expected to impact the airport are illustrated by descriptions of laminar flow control aircraft, very large air freighters and cryogenically fueled transports.

  8. 14 CFR 142.57 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Personnel and Flight Training...for, or holder of, a training center certificate must ensure that...aircraft operations, external load operations, and similar...or holder of, a training center certificate must ensure...

  9. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01...155 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...TRAFFIC RULES Ketchikan International Airport Traffic Rule...Ketchikan Flight Service Station stating that an aircraft...approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no...

  10. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01...155 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...TRAFFIC RULES Ketchikan International Airport Traffic Rule...Ketchikan Flight Service Station stating that an aircraft...approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no...

  11. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01...155 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...TRAFFIC RULES Ketchikan International Airport Traffic Rule...Ketchikan Flight Service Station stating that an aircraft...approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no...

  12. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01...155 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...TRAFFIC RULES Ketchikan International Airport Traffic Rule...Ketchikan Flight Service Station stating that an aircraft...approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no...

  13. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01...155 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...TRAFFIC RULES Ketchikan International Airport Traffic Rule...Ketchikan Flight Service Station stating that an aircraft...approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no...

  14. Maneuver Classification for Aircraft Fault Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.; Tumer, Irem Y.; Tumer, Kagan; Huff, Edward M.

    2003-01-01

    Automated fault detection is an increasingly important problem in aircraft maintenance and operation. Standard methods of fault detection assume the availability of either data produced during all possible faulty operation modes or a clearly-defined means to determine whether the data provide a reasonable match to known examples of proper operation. In the domain of fault detection in aircraft, identifying all possible faulty and proper operating modes is clearly impossible. We envision a system for online fault detection in aircraft, one part of which is a classifier that predicts the maneuver being performed by the aircraft as a function of vibration data and other available data. To develop such a system, we use flight data collected under a controlled test environment, subject to many sources of variability. We explain where our classifier fits into the envisioned fault detection system as well as experiments showing the promise of this classification subsystem.

  15. Annoyance caused by light aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The correlation between objective and noise stresses and subjectively perceived disturbance from general aviation aircraft was studied at 6 Swiss airports. Noise levels calculated for these airports are given. Survey results are analyzed.

  16. Aerodynamic Performance Studies for Supersonic Cruise Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascitti, V. R.

    1976-01-01

    Technical progress made in each of the disciplinary research areas affecting the design of supersonic cruise aircraft is discussed. The NASA Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research program has supported an expanded research program in aerodynamics including an ever growing experimental data base, methodology development across the Mach number range, and sonic boom. Progress in the aerodynamics area could facilitate the choice of the highly swept subsonic leading edge, arrow wing, known for superior supersonic cruise efficiency.

  17. Comparison of Mars Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    The propulsion system is a critical aspect of the performance and feasibility of a Mars aircraft. Propulsion system mass and performance greatly influence the aircraft s design and mission capabilities. Various propulsion systems were analyzed to estimate the system mass necessary for producing 35N of thrust within the Mars environment. Three main categories of propulsion systems were considered: electric systems, combustion engine systems and rocket systems. Also, the system masses were compared for mission durations of 1, 2, and 4 h.

  18. Nonlinear longitudinal control of a supermaneuverable aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, William L.; Snell, Anthony; Enns, Dale F.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described which can be used for design of feedback controllers for high-performance aircraft operating in flight conditions in which nonlinearities significantly affect performance. Designs are performed on a mathematical model of the longitudinal dynamics of a hypothetical aircraft similar to proposed supermaneuverable flight test vehicles. Nonlinear controller designs are performed using truncated solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. Preliminary results show that the method yields promising results.

  19. Pathfinder-Plus aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Pathfinder-Plus solar-powered aircraft is shown taking off from a runway, then flying at low altitude over the ocean. The vehicle, which looks like a flying ruler, operates at low airspeed. Among the missions proposed for a solar-powered aircraft are communications relay, atmospheric studies, pipeline monitoring and gas leak detection, environmental monitoring using thermal and radar images, and disaster relief and monitoring.

  20. Flight Controller Software Protects Lightweight Flexible Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight flexible aircraft may be the future of aviation, but a major problem is their susceptibility to flutter-uncontrollable vibrations that can destroy wings. Armstrong Flight Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Minneapolis, Minnesota-based MUSYN Inc. to develop software that helps program flight controllers to suppress flutter. The technology is now available for aircraft manufacturers and other industries that use equipment with automated controls.