Sample records for vtol aircraft

  1. Rapid Site Preparation Research for VTOL Aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Vasiloff; F. W. Forbes

    1963-01-01

    The advent of VTOL aerospace vehicles has imposed a serious problem on ground support organizations, that is, to develop a technique for rapidly preparing previously unprepared remote landing sites for VTOL aircraft. This paper summarizes background investigations and the current in-house research conducted by the Air Force for the formulation of rapid site preparation concepts. A J-85 jet engine with

  2. Lift/cruise fan VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quigley, H. C.; Franklin, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the technology related to lift/cruise fan VTOL aircraft, covering propulsion systems, thrust deflection, flight dynamics, controls, displays, aerodynamics, and configurations. Piloting problems are discussed, and the need for integration of power management and thrust-vector controls is pointed out. Major components for a high-bypass-ratio lift/cruise fan propulsion system for VTOL aircraft have been tested.

  3. Trust Control of VTOL Aircraft Part Deux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Thrust control of Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft has always been a debatable issue. In most cases, it comes down to the fundamental question of throttle versus collective. Some aircraft used throttle(s), with a fore and aft longitudinal motion, some had collectives, some have used Thrust Levers where the protocol is still "Up is Up and Down is Down," and some have incorporated both throttles and collectives when designers did not want to deal with the Human Factors issues. There have even been combinations of throttles that incorporated an arc that have been met with varying degrees of success. A previous review was made of nineteen designs without attempting to judge the merits of the controller. Included in this paper are twelve designs entered in competition for the 1961 Tri-Service VTOL transport. Entries were from a Bell/Lockheed tiltduct, a North American tiltwing, a Vanguard liftfan, and even a Sikorsky tiltwing. Additional designs were submitted from Boeing Wichita (direct lift), Ling-Temco-Vought with its XC-142 tiltwing, Boeing Vertol's tiltwing, Mcdonnell's compound and tiltwing, and the Douglas turboduct and turboprop designs. A private party submitted a re-design of the Breguet 941 as a VTOL transport. It is important to document these 53 year-old designs to preserve a part of this country's aviation heritage.

  4. Digital adaptive control of a VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    A technique has been developed for calculating feedback and feedforward gain matrices that stabilize a VTOL aircraft while enabling it to track input commands of forward and vertical velocity. Leverrier's algorithm is used in a procedure for determining a set of state variable, feedback gains that force the closed loop poles and zeroes of one pilot input transfer function to be at preselected positions in the s plane. This set of feedback gains is then used to calculate the feedback and feedforward gains for the velocity command controller. The method is computationally attractive since the gains are determined by solving systems of linear, simultaneous equations. Responses obtained using a digital simulation of the longitudinal dynamics of the CH-47 helicopter are presented.

  5. Study of dynamics of X-14B VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loscutoff, W. V.; Mitchiner, J. L.; Roesener, R. A.; Seevers, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Research was initiated to investigate certain facets of modern control theory and their integration with a digital computer to provide a tractable flight control system for a VTOL aircraft. Since the hover mode is the most demanding phase in the operation of a VTOL aircraft, the research efforts were concentrated in this mode of aircraft operation. Research work on three different aspects of the operation of the X-14B VTOL aircraft is discussed. A general theory for optimal, prespecified, closed-loop control is developed. The ultimate goal was optimal decoupling of the modes of the VTOL aircraft to simplify the pilot's task of handling the aircraft. Modern control theory is used to design deterministic state estimators which provide state variables not measured directly, but which are needed for state variable feedback control. The effect of atmospheric turbulence on the X-14B is investigated. A maximum magnitude gust envelope within which the aircraft could operate stably with the available control power is determined.

  6. Benefits of VTOL aircraft in offshore petroleum logistics support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, D. E.; Shovlin, M. D.

    1975-01-01

    The mission suitability and potential economic benefits of advanced VTOL aircraft were investigated for logistics support of petroleum operations in the North Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. Concepts such as the tilt rotor and lift/cruise fan are promising for future operations beyond 150 miles offshore, where their high cruise efficiency provides savings in trip time, fuel consumption, and capital investment. Depending upon mission requirements, the aircraft operating costs are reduced by as much as 20 percent to 50 percent from those of current helicopters.

  7. Attitude stabilization of a VTOL quadrotor aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdelhamid Tayebi; Stephen McGilvray

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new quaternion-based feedback control scheme for exponential attitude stabilization of a four-rotor vertical takeoff and landing aerial robot known as a quadrotor aircraft. The proposed controller is based upon the compensation of the Coriolis and gyroscopic torques and the use of a PD2 feedback structure, where the proportional action is in terms of the

  8. Flight investigation of a vertical-velocity command system for VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, J. R.; Niessen, F. R.; Yenni, K. R.; Person, L. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A flight investigation was undertaken to assess the potential benefits afforded by a vertical-velocity command system (VVCS) for VTOL (vertical take-off and landing) aircraft. This augmentation system was conceived primarily as a means of lowering pilot workload during decelerating approaches to a hover and/or landing under category III instrument meteorological conditions. The scope of the investigation included a determination of acceptable system parameters, a visual flight evaluation, and an instrument flight evaluation which employed a 10 deg, decelerating, simulated instrument approach task. The results indicated that the VVCS, which decouples the pitch and vertical degrees of freedom, provides more accurate glide-path tracking and a lower pilot workload than does the unaugmented system.

  9. NASA Langley Distributed Propulsion VTOL Tilt-Wing Aircraft Testing, Modeling, Simulation, Control, and Flight Test Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothhaar, Paul M.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Bacon, Barton J.; Gregory, Irene M.; Grauer, Jared A.; Busan, Ronald C.; Croom, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Control of complex Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) aircraft traversing from hovering to wing born flight mode and back poses notoriously difficult modeling, simulation, control, and flight-testing challenges. This paper provides an overview of the techniques and advances required to develop the GL-10 tilt-wing, tilt-tail, long endurance, VTOL aircraft control system. The GL-10 prototype's unusual and complex configuration requires application of state-of-the-art techniques and some significant advances in wind tunnel infrastructure automation, efficient Design Of Experiments (DOE) tunnel test techniques, modeling, multi-body equations of motion, multi-body actuator models, simulation, control algorithm design, and flight test avionics, testing, and analysis. The following compendium surveys key disciplines required to develop an effective control system for this challenging vehicle in this on-going effort.

  10. The use of an aircraft test stand for VTOL handling qualities studies. [pilot evaluation of flight controllability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauli, F. A.; Corliss, L. D.; Selan, S. D.; Gerdes, R. M.; Gossett, T. D.

    1974-01-01

    The VTOL flight tests stand for testing control concepts on the X-14B VSS aircraft in hover, is described. This stand permits realistic and safe piloted evaluation and checkout of various control systems and of parameter variations within each system to determine acceptability to the pilot. Pilots can use it as a practical training tool to practice procedures and flying techniques and become familiar with the aircraft characteristics. Some examples of test experience are given. The test stand allows the X14B to maneuver in hover from centered position + or - 9.7 deg in roll and + or - 9.3 deg in pitch, about + or - 6 deg in yaw, and + or - 15 cm in vertical translation. The unique vertical free flight freedom enables study of liftoffs and landings with power conditions duplicated. The response on the stand agrees well with that measured in free hovering flight, and pilot comments confirm this.

  11. Studies in tilt-rotor VTOL aircraft aeroelasticity, volume 1. Ph.D. Thesis - Case Western Reserve Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    Aeroelastic and dynamic studies which complement and extend various aspects of technology applicable to tilt-rotor VTOL aircraft are discussed. Particular attention is given to proprotor/pylon whirl instability, a precession-type instability akin to propeller/nacelle whirl flutter. The blade flapping and pitch-change freedoms of a proprotor are shown to lead to a fundamentally different situation as regards the manner in which the precession-generated aerodynamic forces and moments act on the pylon and induce whirl flutter relative to that of a propeller. The implication of these forces and moments with regard to their capacity for instigating a whirl instability is examined, demonstrating why a proprotor can exhibit whirl flutter in either the backward or forward directions in contrast to a propeller which is found to always whirl in the backward direction. Analytical trend studies delineating the effect of several system design parameters on proprotor/pylon stability and response are shown.

  12. A Preliminary Study of V/STOL Transport Aircraft and Bibliography of NASA Research in the VTOL-STOL Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    This group of papers was prepared by the staff of the Langley Research Center to assist in planning for future commercial air-transport facilities in the New York metropolitan area. Areas of particular interest were predictions regarding the types of V/STOL aircraft that are likely to be developed for various commercial transport applications, estimates of the performance and probable operating procedures for such aircraft, and the approximate dates these aircraft could be available for use. Although the NASA has made no comprehensive studies of this type, the extensive research program in the VTOL-STOL field during the last 10 years appeared to provide a source for some of the desired information . The five papers included herein were therefore prepared to summarize pertinent available material in a form suitable for the intended use. In several instances, new studies and analysis were required to provide the necessary information, but because of a time deadline, many of the significant points received only a cursory examination. For example, much of the quantitative data used in the papers for making generalized comparisons was obtained by approximate methods and is not considered appropriate for use in applications where precise estimates are required. It should be recognized, then, that the treatment of the V/STOL transport provided by this group of papers is necessarily of a preliminary nature.

  13. Experiment Design for Complex VTOL Aircraft with Distributed Propulsion and Tilt Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Landman, Drew

    2015-01-01

    Selected experimental results from a wind tunnel study of a subscale VTOL concept with distributed propulsion and tilt lifting surfaces are presented. The vehicle complexity and automated test facility were ideal for use with a randomized designed experiment. Design of Experiments and Response Surface Methods were invoked to produce run efficient, statistically rigorous regression models with minimized prediction error. Static tests were conducted at the NASA Langley 12-Foot Low-Speed Tunnel to model all six aerodynamic coefficients over a large flight envelope. This work supports investigations at NASA Langley in developing advanced configurations, simulations, and advanced control systems.

  14. Investigation of Flow Instabilities in the Inlet Ducts of DP-1C VTOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, Jan

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of flow instabilities in the inlet ducts of a two-engine vertical takeoff and landing aircraft DP-1C is described in this report. Recent tests revealed that the engines stall during run ups while the aircraft is operating on the ground. These pop stalls occurred at relatively low power levels, sometimes as low as 60 percent of the engine full speed. Inability to run the engines up to the full speed level is attributed to in-ground effects associated with hot gas ingestion. Such pop stalls were never experienced when the aircraft was tested on a elevated grid platform, which ensured that the aircraft was operating in out-of-the-ground-effect conditions. Based on available information on problems experienced with other vertical takeoff and landing aircraft designs, it was assumed that the engine stalls were caused by partial ingestion of hot gases streaming forward from the main exit nozzle under the aircraft inlets, which are very close to the ground. It was also suggested that the nose wheel undercarriage, located between the inlets, may generate vortices or an unstable wake causing intense mixing of hot exit gases with incoming inlet flow, which would enhance the hot gas ingestion. After running a short three-day series of tests with fully instrumented engine inlets, it is now believed the most probable reason for engine pop stalls are random ingestions of a vortex generated between the two streams moving in opposite directions: outbound hot gas stream from the main nozzle close to the ground and inbound inlet flow above. Originally, the vortex is in a horizontal plane. However, at a certain velocity ratio of these two streams, the vortex attaches either to the ground or the aircraft surface at one end and the other end is swallowed by one of the aircraft inlets. Once the vortex enters the inlet duct, a puff of hot air can be sucked through the vortex core into the engine, which causes a serious inlet flow field distortion followed by an engine stall. Once the engine stalls, the outflow from the inlet pushes the vortex away and the engine resumes normal operation. This hypothesis needs to be verified experimentally; e.g., by extensive smoke flow visualization ahead of the aircraft inlets.

  15. VTOL/STOL visual study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, F. P.

    1980-01-01

    The development of data bases and real time techniques to improve the realism of sea state, bow and stern wake, and ship motion is addressed. This system was designed for use with the Vertical Motion Simulator to perform basic studies on VTOL/STOL aircraft.

  16. An investigation into the vertical axis control power requirements for landing VTOL type aircraft onboard nonaviation ships in various sea states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, M. E.; Roskam, J.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of determining the vertical axis control requirements for landing a VTOL aircraft on a moving ship deck in various sea states is examined. Both a fixed-base piloted simulation and a nonpiloted simulation were used to determine the landing performance as influenced by thrust-to-weight ratio, vertical damping, and engine lags. The piloted simulation was run using a fixed-based simulator at Ames Research center. Simplified versions of an existing AV-8A Harrier model and an existing head-up display format were used. The ship model used was that of a DD963 class destroyer. Simplified linear models of the pilot, aircraft, ship motion, and ship air-wake turbulence were developed for the nonpiloted simulation. A unique aspect of the nonpiloted simulation was the development of a model of the piloting strategy used for shipboard landing. This model was refined during the piloted simulation until it provided a reasonably good representation of observed pilot behavior.

  17. Conceptual design, evaluation and research identification for Remote Augmented Propulsive Lift Systems (RALS) with ejectors for VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, W. S.; Konarski, M.; Sutherland, M. V.

    1982-01-01

    Ejector concepts for use with a remote augmented lift system (RALS) exhaust nozzle were studied. A number of concepts were considered and three were selected as having the greatest promise of providing the desired aircraft and exhaust gas cooling and lift enhancement. A scale model test program is recommended to explore the effects of the more important parameters on ejector performance.

  18. VTOL in ground effect flows for closely spaced jets. [to predict pressure and upwash forces on aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Migdal, D.; Hill, W. G., Jr.; Jenkins, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Results of a series of in ground effect twin jet tests are presented along with flow models for closely spaced jets to help predict pressure and upwash forces on simulated aircraft surfaces. The isolated twin jet tests revealed unstable fountains over a range of spacings and jet heights, regions of below ambient pressure on the ground, and negative pressure differential in the upwash flow field. A separate computer code was developed for vertically oriented, incompressible jets. This model more accurately reflects fountain behavior without fully formed wall jets, and adequately predicts ground isobars, upwash dynamic pressure decay, and fountain lift force variation with height above ground.

  19. Attitude controls for VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauli, F. A.

    1971-01-01

    Systems consist of single duct system with two sets of reaction control nozzles, one linked mechanically to pilot's controls, and other set driven by electric servomotors commanded by preselected combinations of electrical signals.

  20. Analysis of selected VTOL concepts for a civil transportation mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. B., III; Bowles, J. V.; Foster, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    As part of defining the needs and technology requirements for VTOL aircraft research and development, the objective of this paper is to study the application of two tilt propulsion concept VTOL aircraft to the business/executive transport mission. The two concepts selected for study are the tilt jet concept utilizing rotating turbofan engines for both vertical lift and cruise thrust, and the tilt rotor concept using relatively low disc loading propellers for hover and cruise. Overall mission costs, including the time-value cost of the executives, was computed for a selected range of mission distances, up to the design mission range of 750 nm (1400 km). The total trip cost was also compared to that of a conventional helicopter/business jet combination for a typical executive transport mission.

  1. Design and evaluation of an integrated flight-control system concept for manual IFR VTOL operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrick, V. K.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    An integrated flight controller, display, and power management system design, suitable for all-weather VTOL flight operations onto small ships, is described. The flight controller uncouples the aircraft's translational and attitude motions, which are then commanded by the pilot, through separate controls. A head-up display provides situation and flight director information sufficient to permit zero-zero landings. The system was applied to a VTOL transport model and simulated on moving base simulators at Ames Research Center. Presented herein are results concerning the aircraft's general handling qualities and, in particular, its handling qualities during IFR landings onto a moving ship.

  2. VTOL shipboard letdown guidance system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phatak, A. V.; Karmali, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative letdown guidance strategies are examined for landing of a VTOL aircraft onboard a small aviation ship under adverse environmental conditions. Off line computer simulation of shipboard landing task is utilized for assessing the relative merits of the proposed guidance schemes. The touchdown performance of a nominal constant rate of descent (CROD) letdown strategy serves as a benchmark for ranking the performance of the alternative letdown schemes. Analysis of ship motion time histories indicates the existence of an alternating sequence of quiescent and rough motions called lulls and swells. A real time algorithms lull/swell classification based upon ship motion pattern features is developed. The classification algorithm is used to command a go/no go signal to indicate the initiation and termination of an acceptable landing window. Simulation results show that such a go/no go pattern based letdown guidance strategy improves touchdown performance.

  3. Empirical expressions for estimating length and weight of axial-flow components of VTOL powerplants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagerser, D. A.; Lieblein, S.; Krebs, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    Simplified equations are presented for estimating the length and weight of major powerplant components of VTOL aircraft. The equations were developed from correlations of lift and cruise engine data. Components involved include fan, fan duct, compressor, combustor, turbine, structure, and accessories. Comparisons of actual and calculated total engine weights are included for several representative engines.

  4. VTOL controls for shipboard landing. M.S.Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmuldroch, C. G.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of landing a VTOL aircraft on a small ship in rough seas using an automatic controller is examined. The controller design uses the linear quadratic Gaussian results of modern control theory. Linear time invariant dynamic models are developed for the aircraft, ship, and wave motions. A hover controller commands the aircraft to track position and orientation of the ship deck using only low levels of control power. Commands for this task are generated by the solution of the steady state linear quadratic gaussian regulator problem. Analytical performance and control requirement tradeoffs are obtained. A landing controller commands the aircraft from stationary hover along a smooth, low control effort trajectory, to a touchdown on a predicted crest of ship motion. The design problem is formulated and solved as an approximate finite-time linear quadratic stochastic regulator. Performance and control results are found by Monte Carlo simulations.

  5. Digital adaptive controllers for VTOL vehicles. Volume 1: Concept evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Stein, G.; Pratt, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    A digital self-adaptive flight control system was developed for flight test in the VTOL approach and landing technology (VALT) research aircraft (a modified CH-47 helicopter). The control laws accept commands from an automatic on-board guidance system. The primary objective of the control laws is to provide good command-following with a minimum cross-axis response. Three attitudes and vertical velocity are separately commanded. Adaptation of the control laws is based on information from rate and attitude gyros and a vertical velocity measurement. The final design resulted from a comparison of two different adaptive concepts--one based on explicit parameter estimates from a real-time maximum-likelihood estimation algorithm, the other based on an implicit model reference adaptive system. The two designs were compared on the basis of performance and complexity.

  6. A flight evaluation of VTOL jet transport under visual and simulated instrument conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzhauser, C. A.; Morello, S. A.; Innis, R. C.; Patton, J. M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A flight investigation was performed with the Dornier DO-31 VTOL to evaluate the performance, handling qualities, and operating characteristics that are considered to be important in the operation of a commerical VTOL transport in the terminal area. The DO-31, a 20,000 kilogram transport, has a mixed jet propulsion system; main engines with nozzles deflect from a cruise to a hover position, and vertical lift engines operated below 170 knots. This VTOL mode incorporates pitch and roll attitude and yaw rate stabilization. The tests concentrated on the transition, approach, and vertical landing. The mixed jet propulsion system provided a large usable performance envelope that enabled simulated IFR approaches to be made on 7 deg and 12 deg glide slopes. In these approaches management of thrust magnitude and direction was a primary problem, and some form of integrating the controls will be necessary. The handling qualities evaluation pointed out the need for additional research of define flight path criteria. The aircraft had satisfactory control and stability in hover out of ground effect. The recirculation effects in vertical landing were large below 15 meters.

  7. Performance, physiological, and oculometer evaluation of VTOL landing displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, R. A.; Stackhouse, S. P.; Graffunder, K.

    1979-01-01

    A methodological approach to measuring workload was investigated for evaluation of new concepts in VTOL aircraft displays. Physiological, visual response, and conventional flight performance measures were recorded for landing approaches performed in the NASA Visual Motion Simulator (VMS). Three displays (two computer graphic and a conventional flight director), three crosswind amplitudes, and two motion base conditions (fixed vs. moving base) were tested in a factorial design. Multivariate discriminant functions were formed from flight performance and/or visual response variables. The flight performance variable discriminant showed maximum differentation between crosswind conditions. The visual response measure discriminant maximized differences between fixed vs. motion base conditions and experimental displays. Physiological variables were used to attempt to predict the discriminant function values for each subject/condition trial. The weights of the physiological variables in these equations showed agreement with previous studies. High muscle tension, light but irregular breathing patterns, and higher heart rate with low amplitude all produced higher scores on this scale and thus represent higher workload levels.

  8. Ground facilities for a VTOL intercity air transportation system

    E-print Network

    Allen Edward

    1970-01-01

    Introduction: This study covers the design of ground facilities, or metroports, for a future form of short haul intercity air transportation, the VTOL Airbus system as described by previous M.I.T. Flight Transportation ...

  9. Navigation and guidance requirements for commercial VTOL operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, W. C.; Hollister, W. M.; Howell, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has undertaken a research program to develop the navigation, guidance, control, and flight management technology base needed by Government and industry in establishing systems design concepts and operating procedures for VTOL short-haul transportation systems in the 1980s time period. The VALT (VTOL Automatic Landing Technology) Program encompasses the investigation of operating systems and piloting techniques associated with VTOL operations under all-weather conditions from downtown vertiports; the definition of terminal air traffic and airspace requirements; and the development of avionics including navigation, guidance, controls, and displays for automated takeoff, cruise, and landing operations. The program includes requirements analyses, design studies, systems development, ground simulation, and flight validation efforts.

  10. Digital adaptive controllers for VTOL vehicles. Volume 2: Software documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Stein, G.; Pratt, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    The VTOL approach and landing test (VALT) adaptive software is documented. Two self-adaptive algorithms, one based on an implicit model reference design and the other on an explicit parameter estimation technique were evaluated. The organization of the software, user options, and a nominal set of input data are presented along with a flow chart and program listing of each algorithm.

  11. Study for conceptual design of VEO, VTOL exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittrick, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    Design requirements for a VEO Wing V/STOL exhaust nozzle with a two dimensional shape and having the capability for upper surface blowing, spanwise blowing, and 90 deg turning of the exhaust flow for VTOL were established. A preliminary design of the nozzle that identified the actuation scheme, key dimensions, the flowpath, and the recommended materials were prepared. The airplane characteristics resulting from integrating the study nozzle were established.

  12. Requirement for simulation in V/STOL research aircraft programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quigley, H. C.; Holzhauser, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    The application of flight simulation to aircraft design and development is discussed. The general stages of aircraft development are defined. The application of flight simulation to the following projects is reported: (1) the development and flight research of the Augmented Jet-Flap STOL research aircraft and (2) design studies of advanced VTOL research aircraft. It is stated that the simulation projects proved significant in helping establish criteria for the aircraft design and in facilitating the study of problems associated with new flight profiles, new methods of control, and special emergency conditions.

  13. Rotary-wing aeroelasticity with application to VTOL vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, Peretz P.

    1993-01-01

    A concise assessment is presented of the state of the art in the field of rotary-wing aeroelasticity (RWE). The basic ingredients of RWE are reviewed, including structural modeling, unsteady aerodynamic modeling, formulation of the equations of motion, and solution methods. Results illustrating these methods are presented for isolated blades and coupled rotor-fuselage problems. The application of active controls to suppress aeromechanical and aeroelastic instabilities and to reduce vibration in rotorcraft is discussed. Structural optimization with aeroelastic constraints, gust response analysis of helicopters, and aeroelastic problems in special VTOL vehicles are briefly examined.

  14. Rotary-wing aeroelasticity with application to VTOL vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, Peretz P.

    1990-01-01

    This survey presents an assessment of the state of the art in rotary-wing aeroelasticity as applied to conventional helicopters as well as other VTOL vehicles such as tilting prop-rotors, the X-wing and a hybrid heavy lift vehicle. The objective is to enable the reader to develop an awareness of what has been accomplished, what remains to be done, and where to find more comprehensive treatments of the various topics discussed. The main topics discussed are: (1) structural modeling; (2) unsteady aerodynamic modeling; (3) formulation of the equations of motion and their solutions; (4) illustrative results for isolated blades in hover and forward flight; (5) illustrative results for coupled rotor/fuselage problems; (6) active control of aeromechanical and aeroelastic problems; (7) active controls for vibration reduction; (8) structural optimization with aeroelastic constraints; (9) gust response analysis of rotors; and (10) aeroelastic problems in special VTOL vehicles. These topics are reviewed with different levels of detail and some useful observation on potentially rewarding areas of future research are made.

  15. Strapdown system redundancy management flight demonstration. [vertical takeoff and landing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The suitability of strapdown inertial systems in providing highly reliable short-term navigation for vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft operating in an intra-urban setting under all-weather conditions was assessed. A preliminary design configuration of a skewed sensor inertial reference system employing a redundancy management concept to achieve fail-operational, fail-operational performance, was developed.

  16. Advanced subsonic aircraft concepts for passenger transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, M. H.; Williams, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential for new subsonic transport aircraft designs that may evolve in the relatively near future, taking into account the added requirements for improved environmental compatibility and the potential constraints due to system congestion, substantial financial risk, and higher fuel costs or limited availability. Reflecting these additional requirements, potential aircraft developments are presented for new CTOL transports with significantly improved fuel economy, new STOL transports with improved short field capability, and new VTOL transports that could provide direct city-center service.

  17. Study of aircraft in intraurban transportation systems, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, E. G.; Kesling, P. H.; Matteson, D. E.; Sherwood, D. E.; Tuck, W. R., Jr.; Vaughn, L. A.

    1971-01-01

    An investigation of three aircraft concepts, deflected slipstream STOL, helicopter VTOL, and fixed wing STOL, is presented. An attempt was made to determine the best concept for the intraurban transportation system. Desirability of the concept was based on ease of maintenance, development timing, reliability, operating costs, and the noise produced. Indications are that the deflected slipstream STOL is best suited for intraurban transportation. Tables and graphs are included.

  18. Flight tests of the total automatic flight control system (Tafcos) concept on a DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehrend, W. R., Jr.; Meyer, G.

    1980-01-01

    Flight control systems capable of handling the complex operational requirements of the STOL and VTOL aircraft designs as well as designs using active control concepts are considered. Emphasis is placed on the total automatic flight control system (TACOS) (TAFCOS). Flight test results which verified the performance of the system concept are presented.

  19. Engine selection for transport and combat aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The procedures that are used to select engines for transport and combat aircraft are discussed. In general, the problem is to select the engine parameters including engine size in such a way that all constraints are satisfied and airplane performance is maximized. This is done for four different classes of aircraft: (1) a long haul conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) transport, (2) a short haul vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) transport, (3) a long range supersonic transport (SST), and (4) a fighter aircraft. For the commercial airplanes the critical constraints have to do with noise while for the fighter, maneuverability requirements define the engine. Generally, the resultant airplane performance (range or payload) is far less than that achievable without these constraints and would suffer more if nonoptimum engines were selected.

  20. Piloting Vertical Flight Aircraft: A Conference on Flying Qualities and Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanken, Christopher L. (editor); Whalley, Matthew S. (editor)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains papers from a specialists' meeting entitled 'Piloting Vertical Flight Aircraft: A Conference on Flying Qualities and Human Factors.' Vertical flight aircraft, including helicopters and a variety of Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) concepts, place unique requirements on human perception, control, and performance for the conduct of their design missions. The intent of this conference was to examine, for these vehicles, advances in: (1) design of flight control systems for ADS-33C standards; (2) assessment of human factors influences of cockpit displays and operational procedures; (3) development of VTOL design and operational criteria; and (4) development of theoretical methods or models for predicting pilot/vehicle performance and mission suitability. A secondary goal of the conference was to provide an initial venue for enhanced interaction between human factors and handling qualities specialists.

  1. A different look at output tracking: control of a vtol aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Martin; Santosh Devasia; Brad Paden

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we propose a scheme for output tracking of nonminimum phase flat systems. The technique, which is applicable even in the minimum phase case, uses an inverse trajectory for feedforward which is stabilized by a state tracker built using the flat output. In contrast to approximate-linearization based control [Hauser, J., S. Sastry and G. Meyer (1992). Nonlinear control

  2. Theoretical flow characteristics of inlets for tilting-nacelle VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boles, M. A.; Luidens, R. W.; Stockman, N. O.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a theoretical investigation of geometric variables for lift-cruise-fan, tilting nacelle inlets operating at high incidence angles are presented. These geometric variables are investigated for their effects on surface static to free stream pressure ratio, and the separation parameters of maximum to diffuser exit surface velocity ratio and maximum surface Mach number for low speed operating conditions. The geometric parameters varied were the internal lip contraction ratio, external forebody to diffuser exit diameter ratio external forebody length to diameter ratio and internal lip major to minor axis ratio.

  3. Aerocrane: A hybrid LTA aircraft for aerial crane applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, R. G., Jr.; Doolittle, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    The Aerocrane, a hybrid aircraft, combines rotor lift with buoyant lift to offer VTOL load capability greatly in excess of helicopter technology while eliminating the airship problem of ballast transfer. In addition, the Aerocrane concept sharply reduces the mooring problem of airships and provides 360 deg vectorable thrust to supply a relatively large force component for control of gust loads. Designed for use in short range, ultra heavy lift missions, the Aerocrane operates in a performance envelope unsuitable for either helicopters or airships. Basic design considerations and potential problem areas of the concept are addressed.

  4. The impact of technology on fighter aircraft requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollyhigh, S. M.; Foss, W. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Technology integration studies were made to examine the impact of emerging technologies on fighter aircraft. The technologies examined included advances in aerodynamics, controls, structures, propulsion, and systems and were those which appeared capable of being ready for application by the turn of the century. A primary impetus behind large increases in figher capability will be the rapid increase in fighter engine thrust-to-weight ratio. High thrust-weight engines, integrated with other advanced and emerging technologies, can result in small extremely maneuverable fighter aircraft that have thrust-weight ratios of 1.4+ and weight one-half as much as today's fighters. Future fighter aircraft requirements are likely to include a turn capability in excess of 7g's throughout much of the maneuver envelope, post-stall maneuverability, STOVL or VTOL, and a single engine for low cost.

  5. The Advantages, Potentials and Safety of VTOL Suborbital Space Tourism Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridzuan Zakaria, N.; Nasrun, N.; Abu, J.; Jusoh, A.; Azim, L.; Said, A.; Ishak, S.; Rafidi Zakaria, N.

    2012-01-01

    Suborbital space tourism offers short-time zero gravity and Earth view from space to its customers, and a package that can offer the longest duration of zero- gravity and the most exciting Earth view from space to its customer can be considered a better one than the others. To increase the duration of zero gravity time involves the design and engineering of the suborbital vehicles, but to improve the view of Earth from space aboard a suborbital vehicle, involves more than just the design and engineering of the vehicle, but more on the location of where the vehicle operates. So far, most of the proposed operations of suborbital space tourism vehicles involve a flight to above 80km and less than 120km and taking-off and landing at the same location. Therefore, the operational location of the suborbital vehicle clearly determines the view of earth from space that will be available to its passengers. The proposed operational locations or spaceports usually are existing airports such as the airport at Curacao Island in the Caribbean or spaceport specially built at locations with economic interests such as Spaceport America in New Mexico or an airport that is going to be built, such as SpaceportSEA in Selangor, Malaysia. Suborbital vehicles operating from these spaceports can only offer limited views of Earth from space which is only few thousand kilometers of land or sea around their spaceports, and a clear view of only few hundred kilometers of land or sea directly below them, even though the views can be enhanced by the application of optical devices. Therefore, the view of some exotic locations such as a colorful coral reef, and phenomena such as a smoking volcano on Earth which may be very exciting when viewed from space will not be available on these suborbital tourism packages. The only possible way for the passengers of a suborbital vehicle to view such exotic locations and phenomena is by flying above or near them, and since it will not be economic and will be more risky for a suborbital vehicle to fly above such objects after taking off from a spaceport far away from the object, and later returning to the spaceport, the way to go is to have the operation of the suborbital vehicle near the exotic locations. Unfortunately, some exotic locations such as a tropical archipelago in the middle of a clear blue ocean or a permanent icecap on a mountain range with variety of vegetation around it due to differences in height may not have suitable runway to function as spaceport, and for such reason, VTOL (vertical take-off and landing) capability for suborbital tourism vehicle may be worth considered. VTOL suborbital space tourism vehicle may not operate from a remote uneconomical location even though the location is near an exotic viewing target, but such vehicle may operate from a luxury super yacht that can sail to exotic locations around the world, and during the journey, the passengers can be trained and prepared for the flight of their life. Such is an advantage and potential of VTOL suborbital space tourism vehicle, but VTOL operation can be more complex than a conventional operation and therefore will increase the risk of operation, and for this reason the safety issue for such operation is very significant. This paper explores and discusses some advantages and potentials of VTOL suborbital space tourism operations and safety issues related to them. It also describes a couple of proposed concepts of VTOL suborbital tourism vehicles and potential exotic locations on Earth to be viewed from such vehicles.

  6. Free-flight model investigation of a vertical-attitude VTOL fighter with twin vertical tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grafton, S. B.; Anglin, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    Free-flight tests were conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to determine the stability and control characteristics of a vertical-attitude VTOL fighter having twin vertical tails and a pivoted fuselage forebody (nose-cockpit) arrangement. The flight tests included hovering flights and transition flights from hover to conventional forward flight. Static force tests were also made to aid in the analysis of the flight tests. The model exhibited satisfactory stability and control characteristics, and the transition from hovering flight to conventional forward flight was relatively smooth and straightforward.

  7. A practical receding horizon control framework for path planning and control of autonomous vtol vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Chen, W.-H.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes an integrated path planning and tracking control framework for autonomous vertical-take-off-and-landing (VTOL) vehicles, particularly quadrotors. The path planning adopts a receding horizon strategy to repeatedly plan a local trajectory that satisfies both the vehicle dynamics and obstacle-free requirement. A tracking controller is then designed to track the planned path. The differential flatness property of the quadrotor is exploited in both path planner and tracking controller designs. The proposed framework is verified by real-time simulations incorporating online optimization.

  8. Conceptual design of a lift fan plus lift/cruise fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, G. C.; Waters, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    Results of a design synthesis and mission analysis of a supersonic VTOL fighter aircraft are presented. Propulsive lift is provided by a single turbotip-driven lift fan and deflected thrust from a high performance turbofan cruise engine fitted with an afterburner for supersonic flight. The inlet and thrust diverter in the main engine tail-pipe are seen to be the principal design problems. V/STOL and supersonic design tradeoffs are addressed in lift fan sizing and placement, reaction and aerodynamic control sizing, fuselage volume requirements, and area ruling. Range and turn rate are used as figures of merit.-

  9. Studies in tilt rotor VTOL aircraft aeroelasticity, volume 2. Ph.D. Thesis - Case Western Reserve Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    Two methods for natural mode vibration analysis are discussed. The first consists of a direct approach based on a finite element representation of the complete structure as an entity. The mass and stiffness matrices for the complete structure are assembled by properly combining the mass and stiffness matrices of the individual elements into which the structure has been divided. The second approach is that of component mode synthesis. This method is based on the concept of synthesizing the natural modes of the complete structure from modes of conveniently difined substructures, or components, into which the structure has been partitioned. In this way the expedient of reducing the system degrees of freedom, and thus the size of the eigenvalue problem, can be introduced by partial modal synthesis.

  10. Performance and Flowfield Measurements on a 10-inch Ducted Rotor VTOL UAV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Preston; Tung, Chee

    2004-01-01

    A ducted fan VTOL UAV with a 10-inch diameter rotor was tested in the US Army 7-by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel. The test conditions covered a range of angle of attack from 0 to 110 degrees to the freestream. The tunnel velocity was varied from 0 (simulating a hover condition) to 128 ft/sec in propeller mode. A six-component internal balance measured the aerodynamic loads for a range of model configurations. including the isolated rotor, the isolated duct, and the full configuration of the duct and rotor. For some conditions, hotwire velocity surveys were conducted along the inner and outer surface of the duct and across the downstream wake. In addition, fluorescent oil flow visualization allowed the flow separation patterns inside and outside of the duct to be mapped for a few test conditions. Two different duct shapes were tested to determine the performance effects of leading edge radius. For each duct, a range of rotor tip gap from 1%R to 4.5%R was tested to determine the performance penalty in hover and axial flight. Measured results are presented in terms of hover performance, hover performance in a crosswind, and high angle of attack performance in propeller mode. In each case, the effects of both tip gap and duct leading edge radius are illustrated using measurements. Some of the hover performance issues were also studied using a simple analytical method, and the results agreed with the measurements.

  11. Effect of rotor design tip seed on aerodynamic performance of a model VTOL lift fan under static and crossflow conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockman, N. O.; Loeffler, I. J.; Lieblein, S.

    1973-01-01

    Results are presented for a wind tunnel investigation of three single VTOL lift fan stages designed for the same overall total pressure ratio at different rotor tip speeds. The stages were tested in a model lift fan installed in a wing pod. The three stages had essentially the same aerodynamic performance along the operating line. However, differences in stage thrust characteristics were obtained when a variation in back pressure was imposed on the stages by cross-flow effects and thrust-vectoring louvers.

  12. Mystery Aircraft

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Federation of American Scientists offers this unique perspective into classified government aircraft, "some of which actually exist, some of which certainly do not, and all of which are fascinating in a way." This site is divided into two main sections. The first provides insight into several aircraft that were initially shrouded in secrecy but have since been revealed to the public. Some examples include the SR-71, the B-2, and the Hyper-X. The second section is devoted to aircraft that may or may not be currently under development or in operation by the US government. The much popularized Aurora is in this section, as well as exotic propulsion aircraft.

  13. Carrier aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Ohio State University planned to conduct a conceptual design of a single research vehicle that could be used to explore the flight regime from Mach 6 to Mach 12. Since this aircraft will be a special purpose vehicle, it need not take off and land in a conventional manner. Indeed, if this aircraft were launched from a larger aircraft that carried it to altitude, then conventional landing gear would not be needed and the extra weight of the fuel needed to take off and climb into the stratosphere would be eliminated. The focus of the students' project was on the design of a carrier aircraft answering to the specifications. Its mission is to take off with the research aircraft from runways of less than 15,000 feet, climb to 40,000 feet, and release the hypersonic aircraft at the speed of Mach 8, and return to base. The range of this mission is 2000 n.m. This study includes the conception of an optimized aircraft (geometry, weights, propulsion, aerodynamics, interactions between the two aircraft, etc.), the longitudinal stability of the composite, and the separation critical phase.

  14. Aircraft

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    The evaluation of an in-flight airfoil model requires extensive analysis of a variety of structural systems. Determining the safety of the design is a unique task dependant on the aircraft, flight environment, and physical requirements...

  15. Conceptual design study of 1985 commercial VTOL transports that utilize rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kefford, N. F. K.; Munch, C. L.

    1975-01-01

    Conceptual design studies of pure and compound helicopter commercial short-haul transport aircraft for initial fabrication in 1980 were performed to determine their technical and economic feasibility. One-hundred-passenger configurations were optimized for minimum direct operating cost consistent with producibility and marketability, with emphasis on proper account of mass properties, performance and handling qualities adequacy, and suppression of internal and external noise. The effect of external noise constraints was assessed, in terms of gross weight and direct operating cost, for each aircraft.

  16. Low-speed wind-tunnel investigation of a large-scale VTOL lift-fan transport model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aoyagi, K.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the NASA-Ames 40 by 80 Foot Wind Tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a large scale, VTOL, lift fan, jet transport model. The model had two lift fans at the forward portion of the fuselage, a lift fan at each wing tip, and two lift/cruise fans at the aft portion of the fuselage. All fans were driven by tip turbines using T-58 gas generators. Results were obtained for several lift fan, exit vane deflections and lift/cruise fan thrust deflections are zero sideslip. Three component longitudinal data are presented at several fan tip speed ratios. A limited amount of six component data were obtained with asymmetric vane settings. All of the data were obtained without a horizontal tail. Downwash angles at a typical tail location are also presented.

  17. Aircraft disinsection.

    PubMed

    Rayman, Russell B

    2006-07-01

    Aircraft disinsection has been an international practice since the 1920s, the purpose of which is to protect public health, the environment, agriculture, and livestock by the eradication of disease vectors. Although most nations of the world have discontinued this practice, about 20 continue with this requirement. Aircraft disinsection is sanctioned by international law with the World Health Organization (WHO) publishing general procedural guidelines in the International Health Regulations (IHR). There are currently four acceptable procedures: blocks away, top of descent, on arrival, and residual. A 2% pyrethrum solution, a naturally occurring substance found in the chrysanthemum flower, or several synthetic pyrethroids, are the recommended agents because they are extremely effective insecticides which pose minimal health risks. Although the use of insecticides for aircraft disinsection is controversial, national policies compelling this requirement must be respected. This paper will explore the background of aircraft disinsection, the procedures, the types of agents, and the toxicity. If aircraft disinsection is regulatory policy, it should be done in accordance with WHO procedures. Residual application is probably the most efficacious method. The use of air curtains or plastic strips should be explored as an alternative to the use of chemicals. PMID:16856359

  18. A Control Approach for Thrust-Propelled Underactuated Vehicles and its Application to VTOL Drones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minh-Duc Hua; Tarek Hamel; Pascal Morin; Claude Samson

    2009-01-01

    A control approach is proposed for a class of underactuated vehicles in order to stabilize reference trajectories either in thrust direction, velocity, or position. The basic modeling assumption is that the vehicle is pro-pulsed via a thrust force along a single body-fixed direction and that it has full torque actuation for attitude control (i.e., a typical actuation structure for aircrafts,

  19. Conceptual engineering design studies of 1985-era commercial VTOL and STOL transports that utilize rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, J. P.; Clark, R. D.; Widdison, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    Conceptual design studies are summarized of tandem-rotor helicopter and tilt-rotor aircraft for a short haul transport mission in the 1985 time frame. Vertical takeoff designs of both configurations are discussed, and the impact of external noise criteria on the vehicle designs, performance, and costs are shown. A STOL design for the tilt-rotor configuration is reported, and the effect of removing the vertical takeoff design constraints on the design parameters, fuel economy, and operating cost is discussed.

  20. Some VTOL head-up display drive-law problems and solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrick, Vernon K.

    1993-01-01

    A piloted simulation test was conducted on the Ames Research Center's vertical motion simulator (VMS) in support of the Phase 2A flight test of NASA's V/STOL systems research aircraft (VSRA). During the simulation several problems were found with the head-up display (HUD) symbol drive laws and the flightpath synthesis. These problems and the solutions devised to solve them are described. Most of the resulting HUD drive-law changes were implemented during the simulation and their effectiveness was verified. Subsequently both the HUD symbol drive-law and flightpath-synthesis changes were implemented in the VSRA and tested successfully in the Phase 2A flight tests.

  1. The effect of wind tunnel wall interference on the performance of a fan-in-wing VTOL model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyson, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    A fan-in-wing model with a 1.07-meter span was tested in seven different test sections with cross-sectional areas ranging from 2.2 sq meters to 265 sq meters. The data from the different test sections are compared both with and without correction for wall interference. The results demonstrate that extreme care must be used in interpreting uncorrected VTOL data since the wall interference may be so large as to invalidate even trends in the data. The wall interference is particularly large at the tail, a result which is in agreement with recently published comparisons of flight and large scale wind tunnel data for a propeller-driven deflected-slipstream configuration. The data verify the wall-interference theory even under conditions of extreme interference. A method yields reasonable estimates for the onset of Rae's minimum-speed limit. The rules for choosing model sizes to produce negligible wall effects are considerably in error and permit the use of excessively large models.

  2. Educating with Aircraft Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Hobie

    1976-01-01

    Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)

  3. Aircraft Engines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Presented by Florida International University and NASA, this website presents a brief tutorial on the schematics for different car and aircraft engines, their cooling mechanisms, and engine development history. Here, visitors will find information on air-breathing, turboprop, turbofan, prop-fan, and ramjet engines along with handy and clear illustrations of each. This is a useful resource for educators looking for a brief, introductory handout for students in mechanical engineering and aeronautics or for students seeking material to simply illustrate the differences between engine types.

  4. Simulated Rotor Wake Interactions Resulting from Civil Tiltrotor Aircraft Operations Near Vertiport Terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Rajagopalan, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    A mid-fidelity computational fluid dynamics tool called RotCFD - specifically developed to aid in rotorcraft conceptual design efforts - has been applied to the study of rotor wake interactions of civil tiltrotor aircraft in the immediate vicinity of vertiport/airport ground infrastructure. This issue has grown in importance as previous NASA studies have suggested that civil tiltrotor aircraft can potentially have a significant impact on commercial transport aviation. Current NASA reference designs for such civil tiltrotor aircraft are focused on a size category of 90-120 passengers. Notional concepts of operations include simultaneous non-interfering flight into and out of congested airports having vertiports, that is, prepared VTOL takeoff and landing zones, or underutilized short runways for STOL operation. Such large gross-weight vehicles will be generating very high induced velocities. Inevitably, the interaction of the rotor wake with ground infrastructure such as terminals/jetways must be considered both from an operational as well as design perspective.

  5. Aircraft lightning attachment phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    An aircraft's influence on lightning-strike occurrence was investigated. The compression of an electric field around an aircraft was considered in mathematical calculations of an aircraft's ability to store charge. Model test results were used to predict lightning-strike attachment zones in an analysis of aircraft design.

  6. International Pacific Air and Space Technology Conference and Aircraft Symposium, 29th, Gifu, Japan, Oct. 7-11, 1991, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on air and space technology are presented. Individual topics addressed include: media selection analysis: implications for training design, high-speed challenge for rotary wing aircraft, high-speed VSTOL answer to congestion, next generation in computational aerodynamics, acrobatic airship 'Acrostat', ducted fan VTOL for working platform, Arianespace launch of Lightsats, small particle acceleration by minirailgun, free-wake analyses of a hovering rotor using panel method, update of the X-29 high-angle-of-attack program, economic approach to accurate wing design, flow field around thick delta wing with rounded leading edge, aerostructural integrated design of forward-swept wing, static characteristics of a two-phase fluid drop system, simplfied-model approach to group combustion of fuel spray, avionics flight systems for the 21st century. Also discussed are: Aircraft Command in Emergency Situations, spectrogram diagnosis of aircraft disasters, shock interaction induced by two hemisphere-cylinders, impact response of composite UHB propeller blades, high-altitude lighter-than-air powered platform, integrated wiring system, auxiliary power units for current and future aircraft, Space Shuttle Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit status, numerical analysis of RCS jet in hypersonic flights, energy requirements for the space frontier, electrical system options for space exploration, aerospace plane hydrogen scramjet boosting, manual control of vehicles with time-varying dynamics, design of strongly stabilizing controller, development of the Liquid Apogee Propulsion System for ETS-VI.

  7. PILOT AUTHORITY AND AIRCRAFT PROTECTIONS

    E-print Network

    Ladkin, Peter B.

    PILOT AUTHORITY AND AIRCRAFT PROTECTIONS Air Line Pilots Association Airworthiness Performance AUTHORITY AND AIRCRAFT PROTECTIONS --------------------------------------- 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------17 6.4 Aircraft Flight Control Design

  8. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  9. AIRCRAFT DEPAINTING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical paint strippers historically used for aircraft contained toxic and hazardous components; aircraft depainting operations are a major source of hazardous waste generation in DOD. Federal and state agencies have begun to restrict using these hazardous materials and Governme...

  10. Supersonic STOVL research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. B., III; Kidwell, G. H., Jr.; Turney, G. E.; Rogers, A.

    1982-01-01

    Two powered-lift concepts, the tandem fan and the longitudinally-arrayed ejector, are integrated with two existing fighter aircraft, the F-14A and F-16A respectively, to indicate the benefits and/or penalties involved with providing STOVL capability to CTOL aircraft. It is shown that properly designed powered-lift aircraft can achieve either comparable or superior mission performance relative to CTOL aircraft.

  11. Batteries for future aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sidney Gross

    1987-01-01

    The general requirements for future aircraft batteries are summarized, and primary and secondary battery requirements for primary and secondary batteries in such aircraft are examined. The greater use of primary batteries as compared to secondary batteries in future aircraft will permit the use of self-contained avionics with low power levels. The much greater energy density and shelf life of primary

  12. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  13. Lightning Response of Aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. C. Yang; K. S. H. Lee; D. J. Andersh; J. Steil

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the lightning data acquired by the F-106B aircraft during 1984 and 1985. Representative data recorded inside and outside the aircraft are given in both the time and frequency domains. Peak values and spectral envelopes are tabulated and graphed. The interaction of aircraft with lightning is discussed with the aid of the test data, and a mathematical model

  14. A head up display format for application to V/STOL aircraft approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrick, Vernon K.; Farris, Glenn G.; Vanags, Andrejs A.

    1990-01-01

    A head up display (HUD) format developed at NASA Ames Research Center to provide pilots of V/STOL aircraft with complete flight guidance and control information for category-3C terminal-area flight operations, is described in detail. These flight operations cover a large spectrum, from STOL operations on land-based runways to VTOL operations on small ships in high seas. Included in this description is a complete geometrical specification of the HUD elements and their drive laws. The principal features of this display format are the integration of the flightpath and pursuit guidance information into a narrow field of view, easily assimilated by the pilot with a single glance, and the superposition of vertical and horizontal situation information. The display is a derivative of a successful design developed for conventional transport aircraft. The design is the outcome of many piloted simulations conducted over a four-year period. Whereas the concepts on which the display format rests could not be fully exploited because of field-of-view restrictions, and some reservations remain about the acceptability of superimposing vertical and horizontal situation information, the design successfully fulfilled its intended objectives.

  15. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  16. Fan and wing force data from wind tunnel investigation of a 0.38 meter (15 inch) diameter VTOL model lift fan installed in a two dimensional wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuska, J. A.; Diedrich, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Test data are presented for a 38-cm (15-in.) diameter, 1.28 pressure ratio model VTOL lift fan installed in a two-dimensional wing and tested in a 2.74-by 4.58-meter (9-by 15-ft)V/STOL wind tunnel. Tests were run with and without exit louvers over a wide range of crossflow velocities and wing angle of attack. Tests were also performed with annular-inlet vanes, inlet bell-mouth surface disconuities, and fences to induce fan windmilling. Data are presented on the axial force of the fan assembly and overall wing forces and moments as measured on force balances for various static and crossflow test conditions. Midspan wing surface pressure coefficient data are also given.

  17. A Flight Examination of Operating Problems of V/STOL Aircraft in STOL-Type Landing and Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Innis, Robert C.; Quigley, Hervey C.

    1961-01-01

    A flight investigation has been conducted using a large twin-engine cargo aircraft to isolate the problems associated with operating propeller-driven aircraft in the STOL speed range where appreciable engine power is used to augment aerodynamic lift. The problems considered would also be representative of those of a large overloaded VTOL aircraft operating in an STOL manner with comparable thrust-to-weight ratios. The study showed that operation at low approach speeds was compromised by the necessity of maintaining high thrust to generate high lift and yet achieving the low lift-drag ratios needed for steep descents. The useable range of airspeed and flight path angle was limited by the pilot's demand for a positive climb margin at the approach speed, a suitable stall margin, and a control and/or performance margin for one engine inoperative. The optimum approach angle over an obstacle was found to be a compromise between obtaining the shortest air distance and the lowest touchdown velocity. In order to realize the greatest low-speed potential from STOL designs, the stability and control characteristics must be satisfactory.

  18. Rating aircraft on energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1974-01-01

    Questions concerning the energy efficiency of aircraft compared to ground transport are considered, taking into account as energy intensity the energy consumed per passenger statute mile. It is found that today's transport aircraft have an energy intensity potential comparable to that of ground modes. Possibilities for improving the energy density are also much better in the case of aircraft than in the case of ground transportation. Approaches for potential reductions in aircraft energy consumption are examined, giving attention to steps for increasing the efficiency of present aircraft and to reductions in energy intensity obtainable by the introduction of new aircraft utilizing an advanced technology. The use of supercritical aerodynamics is discussed along with the employment of composite structures, advances in propulsion systems, and the introduction of very large aircraft. Other improvements in fuel economy can be obtained by a reduction of skin-friction drag and a use of hydrogen fuel.

  19. Conceptual aircraft dynamics from inverse aircraft modeling 

    E-print Network

    Ziegler, Gregory E

    1999-01-01

    on which to test their control laws. The method involves the extraction of the aerodynamic and propulsive data from the existing simulation and their subsequent integration into a new nonlinear simulation. The subject aircraft from which the data is derived...

  20. Conceptual aircraft dynamics from inverse aircraft modeling

    E-print Network

    Ziegler, Gregory E

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents a method of construe' ting a nonlinear dynamics model of a theoretical aircraft from the nonlinear batch simulation of an existing aircrew This method provides control law designers with a method of fabricating nonlinear models...

  1. Raptors and aircraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.; Johnson, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    Less than 5% of all bird strikes of aircraft are by raptor species, but damage to airframe structure or jet engine dysfunction are likely consequences. Beneficial aircraft-raptor interactions include the use of raptor species to frighten unwanted birds from airport areas and the use of aircraft to census raptor species. Many interactions, however, modify the raptor?s immediate behavior and some may decrease reproduction of sensitive species. Raptors may respond to aircraft stimuli by exhibiting alarm, increased heart rate, flushing or fleeing and occasionally by directly attacking intruding aircraft. To date, most studies reveal that raptor responses to aircraft are brief and do not limit reproduction; however, additional study is needed.

  2. Aircraft Ground Movement Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis F. X. Mathaisel; Husni Idris

    \\u000a This paper describes the design and implementation of a real-time simulation of aircraft motion on the ground at airports.\\u000a The aircraft Ground Motion Simulator (GMS) is designed to realistically simulate tower, ground, and apron aircraft control.\\u000a The simulation includes high-fidelity graphic views, in color, of airport ground activity. It simulates air traffic operations\\u000a in real time for all stages of

  3. Lightning effects on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  4. Batteries for future aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Sidney

    The general requirements for future aircraft batteries are summarized, and primary and secondary battery requirements for primary and secondary batteries in such aircraft are examined. The greater use of primary batteries as compared to secondary batteries in future aircraft will permit the use of self-contained avionics with low power levels. The much greater energy density and shelf life of primary batteries should allow redundancy to be standard practice. Safety problems associated with primary batteries will have to be resolved. In secondary batteries, conventional aircraft Ni-Cd secondary batteries may be largely replaced by improved types. Solid polymer electrolyte batteries and bipolar batteries should have an important future.

  5. Hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkamhawi, Hani; Greiner, Tom; Fuerst, Gerry; Luich, Shawn; Stonebraker, Bob; Wray, Todd

    1990-01-01

    A hypersonic aircraft is designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and it was decided that the aircraft would use one full scale turbofan-ramjet. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic region. After considering aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, and landing systems, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets are also taken into consideration in the final design. A hypersonic aircraft was designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and a full scale turbofan-ramjet was chosen. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic reqion. After the aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, landing systems, and their physical interactions were considered, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets were also considered in the designing process.

  6. Aircraft EMP isolation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finci, A.; Price, H.; Chao, P.; Mercer, S.; Naff, T.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary study into methods for electrically isolating the E-4B, the EC-135, and the EC-130 aircraft during EMP tests where the aircraft under test is directly driven by a high-voltage pulser.

  7. Aircraft Circuit Breakers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Kuhn

    1943-01-01

    Airplane circuit breakers are recognized as important units in the electrical systems of military aircraft. The design of such circuit breakers can be combined with switching and contactor functions. This makes possible the use of welldeveloped switch and contactor structures. The design of such circuit breakers must provide for operation under the very exacting requirements of military aircraft service. The

  8. Health Monitoring Aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony G. Gerardi

    1990-01-01

    A description is given of the health monitoring aircraft concept, which will incorporate innovative sensors, AI, and advanced analytical techniques to provivide real-time and continual aircraft health assessment. According to this concept, all flight-critical structures will be evaluated for integrity as part of the automated preflight checklist. The pilot will be given a visual display of the health of all

  9. Lightning protection for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Reference book summarizes current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and means available to designers and operators to protect against effects. Book is available because of increasing use of nonmetallic materials in aircraft structural components and use of electronic equipment for control of critical flight operations and navigation.

  10. Hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulk, Tim; Chiarini, David; Hill, Kevin; Kunszt, Bob; Odgen, Chris; Truong, Bon

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft for the U.S. Navy is discussed. After eighteen weeks of work, a waverider design powered by two augmented turbofans was chosen. The aircraft was designed to be based on an aircraft carrier and to cruise 6,000 nautical miles at Mach 4;80,000 feet and above. As a result the size of the aircraft was only allowed to have a length of eighty feet, fifty-two feet in wingspan, and roughly 2,300 square feet in planform area. Since this is a mainly cruise aircraft, sixty percent of its 100,000 pound take-off weight is JP fuel. At cruise, the highest temperature that it will encounter is roughly 1,100 F, which can be handled through the use of a passive cooling system.

  11. Why aircraft disinsection?

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, N. G.; Steffen, R.; Cocksedge, W.

    2000-01-01

    A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described. PMID:10994283

  12. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  13. Predicting visibility of aircraft.

    PubMed

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  14. Some fighter aircraft trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, L.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic trends in fighters are traced from the post World II era. Beginning with the first operational jet fighter, the P-80, the characteristics of subsequent fighter aircraft are examined for performance, mission capability, effectiveness, and cost. Characteristics presented include: power loading, wing loading, maximum speed, rate of climb, turn rate, weight and weight distribution, cost and cost distribution. The characteristics of some USSR aircraft are included for comparison. The trends indicate some of the rationale for certain fighter designs and some likely characteristics to be sought in future fighter aircraft designs.

  15. Aircraft compass characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W

    1937-01-01

    A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.

  16. Loftin Collection - Boeing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1933-01-01

    Either a F2B-1 or F3B-1, both aircraft were built by Boeing and both were powered by Pratt and Whitney Wasp engines. These fighters were intended for Navy shipboard use. Boeing F3B-1: While most Boeing F3B-1s served the U. S. Navy aircraft carriers the Lexington and the Saratoga, this example flew in NACA hands at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in the late 1920's. Also known as the Boeing Model 77, the aircraft was the next to last F3B-1 build in November 1928.

  17. Lightning hazards to aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corn, P. B.

    1978-01-01

    Lightning hazards and, more generally, aircraft static electricity are discussed by a representative for the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. An overview of these atmospheric electricity hazards to aircraft and their systems is presented with emphasis on electrical and electronic subsystems. The discussion includes reviewing some of the characteristics of lightning and static electrification, trends in weather and lightning-related mishaps, some specific threat mechanisms and susceptible aircraft subsystems and some of the present technology gaps. A roadmap (flow chart) is presented to show the direction needed to address these problems.

  18. Detectability of high power aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettmar, Klaus Uwe; Kruse, Juergen; Loebert, Gerhard

    1992-05-01

    In addition to the measures aiming at improving the probability of survival for an aircraft, including aircraft performance, flight profile selection, efficient electronic warfare equipment, and self protection weapons, it is shown that an efficient measure consists of reducing aircraft signature (radar, infrared, acoustic, visual) in connection with the use of signature avionics. The American 'stealth' aircrafts are described as examples.

  19. Detectability of high power aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Uwe Dettmar; Juergen Kruse; Gerhard Loebert

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the measures aiming at improving the probability of survival for an aircraft, including aircraft performance, flight profile selection, efficient electronic warfare equipment, and self protection weapons, it is shown that an efficient measure consists of reducing aircraft signature (radar, infrared, acoustic, visual) in connection with the use of signature avionics. The American 'stealth' aircrafts are described as

  20. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  1. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  2. Aircraft Materials Test Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Microsoft Word document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project provides a bank of test questions on materials used in the aircraft industry. 35 test questions and their correct answers are included in this test bank.

  3. Advanced hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utzinger, Rob; Blank, Hans-Joachim; Cox, Craig; Harvey, Greg; Mckee, Mike; Molnar, Dave; Nagy, Greg; Petersen, Steve

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this design project is to develop the hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft to replace the SR-71 and to complement existing intelligence gathering devices. The initial design considerations were to create a manned vehicle which could complete its mission with at least two airborne refuelings. The aircraft must travel between Mach 4 and Mach 7 at an altitude of 80,000 feet for a maximum range of 12,000 nautical miles. The vehicle should have an air breathing propulsion system at cruise. With a crew of two, the aircraft should be able to take off and land on a 10,000 foot runway, and the yearly operational costs were not to exceed $300 million. Finally, the aircraft should exhibit stealth characteristics, including a minimized radar cross-section (RCS) and a reduced sonic boom. The technology used in this vehicle should allow for production between the years 1993 and 1995.

  4. Aircraft Safety Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, G.

    1985-01-01

    Fabrication and testing of honeycomb sandwich aircraft panels are discussed. Also described is the use of the following instruments: thermogravimetric analyzer, differential scanning calorimeter, limiting oxygen index, and infrared spectrometer.

  5. Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure

    E-print Network

    Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 #12 ­ 21% Oxygen ­ 1% other gases (argon, helium, etc) · Most oxygen Atmospheric Pressure;High Density Altitude (worse performance) · High elevations · Low atmospheric pressures · High

  6. Multifuel rotary aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Berkowitz, M.

    1980-01-01

    The broad objectives of this paper are the following: (1) to summarize the Curtiss-Wright design, development and field testing background in the area of rotary aircraft engines; (2) to briefly summarize past activity and update development work in the area of stratified charge rotary combustion engines; and (3) to discuss the development of a high-performance direct injected unthrottled stratified charge rotary combustion aircraft engine. Efficiency improvements through turbocharging are also discussed.

  7. High altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdo, Renee Anna; Moller, David

    1990-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000 plus feet, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 feet for six hours at Mach 0.7, while carrying 3,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum range of 6,000 miles. In consideration of the novel nature of this project, the pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforeseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable - a joined-wing, a biplane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The performance of each configuration was analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project.

  8. Hovering and Transition Flight Tests of a 1/5-Scale Model of a Jet-Powered Vertical-Attitude VTOL Research Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles C., Jr.

    1958-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been made to determine the dynamic stability and control characteristics of a 1/5-scale flying model of a jet-powered vertical-attitude VTOL research airplane in hovering and transition flight. The model was powered with either a hydrogen peroxide rocket motor or a compressed-air jet exhausting through an ejector tube to simulate the turbojet engine of the airplane. The gyroscopic effects of the engine were simulated by a flywheel driven by compressed-air jets. In hovering flight the model was controlled by jet-reaction controls which consisted of a swiveling nozzle on the main jet and a movable nozzle on each wing tip; and in forward flight the model was controlled by elevons and a rudder. If the gyroscopic effects of the jet engine were not represented, the model could be flown satisfactorily in hovering flight without any automatic stabilization devices. When the gyroscopic effects of the jet engine were represented, however, the model could not be controlled without the aid of artificial stabilizing devices because of the gyroscopic coupling of the yawing and pitching motions. The use of pitch and yaw dampers made these motions completely stable and the model could then be controlled very easily. In the transition flight tests, which were performed only with the automatic pitch and yaw dampers operating, it was found that the transition was very easy to perform either with or without the engine gyroscopic effects simulated, although the model had a tendency to fly in a rolled and sideslipped attitude at angles of attack between approximately 25 and 45 deg because of static directional instability in this range.

  9. Hovering and Transition Flight Tests of a 1/5-Scale Model of a Jet-Powered Vertical-Attitude VTOL Research Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles C., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been made to determine the dynamic stability and control characteristics of a 1/5-scale flying model of a jet-powered vertical-attitude VTOL research airplane in hovering and transition flight. The model was powered with either a hydrogen peroxide rocket motor or a compressed-air jet exhausting through an ejector tube to simulate the turbojet engine of the airplane. The gyroscopic effects of the engine were simulated by a flywheel driven by compressed-air jets. In hovering flight the model was controlled by jet-reaction controls which consisted of a swiveling nozzle on the main jet and a movable nozzle on each wing tip; and in forward flight the model was controlled by elevons and a rudder. If the gyroscopic effects of the jet engine were not represented, the model could be flown satisfactorily in hovering flight without any automatic stabilization devices. When the gyroscopic effects of the jet engine were represented, however, the model could not be controlled without the aid of artificial stabilizing devices because of the gyroscopic coupling of the yawing and pitching motions. The use of pitch and yaw dampers made these motions completely stable and the model could then be controlled very easily. In the transition flight tests, which were performed only with the automatic pitch and yaw dampers operating, it was found that the transition was very easy to perform either with or without the engine gyroscopic effects simulated, although the model had a tendency to fly in a rolled and sideslipped attitude at angles of attack between approximately 25 deg and 45 deg because of static directional instability in this range.

  10. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  11. Transport aircraft accident dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was carried out of 112 impact survivable jet transport aircraft accidents (world wide) of 27,700 kg (60,000 lb.) aircraft and up extending over the last 20 years. This study centered on the effect of impact and the follow-on events on aircraft structures and was confined to the approach, landing and takeoff segments of the flight. The significant characteristics, frequency of occurrence and the effect on the occupants of the above data base were studied and categorized with a view to establishing typical impact scenarios for use as a basis of verifying the effectiveness of potential safety concepts. Studies were also carried out of related subjects such as: (1) assessment of advanced materials; (2) human tolerance to impact; (3) merit functions for safety concepts; and (4) impact analysis and test methods.

  12. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder solar-powered research aircraft is silhouetted against a clear blue sky as it soars aloft during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, November, 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  13. Pathfinder aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure is clearly defined as it soars under a clear blue sky during a test flight from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November of 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  14. Optical communications for transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stengel, Robert

    1994-02-01

    Optical communications for transport aircraft are discussed. The problem involves: increasing demand for radio-frequency bands from an enlarging pool of users (aircraft, ground and sea vehicles, fleet operators, traffic control centers, and commercial radio and television); desirability of providing high-bandwidth dedicated communications to and from every aircraft in the National Airspace System; need to support communications, navigation, and surveillance for a growing number of aircraft; and improved meteorological observations by use of probe aircraft. The solution involves: optical signal transmission support very high data rates; optical transmission of signals between aircraft, orbiting satellites, and ground stations, where unobstructed line-of-sight is available; conventional radio transmissions of signals between aircraft and ground stations, where optical line-of-sight is unavailable; and radio priority given to aircraft in weather.

  15. Safety hazard of aircraft icing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, J. C., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of aircraft icing is reported as well as the type of aircraft affected, the pilots involved, and an identification of the areas where reduction in icing accidents are readily accomplished.

  16. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel, and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. The effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications are discussed.

  17. Aircraft Flutter Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Wilmer Reed gained international recognition for his innovative research, contributions and patented ideas relating to flutter and aeroelasticity of aerospace vehicles at Langley Research Center. In the early 1980's, Reed retired from Langley and joined the engineering staff of Dynamic Engineering Inc. While at DEI, Reed conceived and patented the DEI Flutter Exciter, now used world-wide in flight flutter testing of new or modified aircraft designs. When activated, the DEI Flutter Exciter alternately deflects the airstream upward and downward in a rapid manner, creating a force similar to that produced by an oscillating trailing edge flap. The DEI Flutter Exciter is readily adaptable to a variety of aircraft.

  18. Dryden Aircraft Photo Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Any lover of airplanes is bound to enjoy this collection of digitized photos "of many of the unique research aircraft" from the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards, California. The photos go back to the 1940s and into the present. Multiple resolutions are available. The collection is regularly updated. Visitors can browse the entire list alphabetically, or go right to the most recent postings in "What's New" or check out the Slide Show of selected photos. Each photo is accompanied by a short description of the aircraft's flight history. Some other miscellaneous photos include the shock wave of a T-38 at Mach 1.1 and photos of Dryden pilots.

  19. Bibliography for aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Maine, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    An extensive bibliography in the field of aircraft parameter estimation has been compiled. This list contains definitive works related to most aircraft parameter estimation approaches. Theoretical studies as well as practical applications are included. Many of these publications are pertinent to subjects peripherally related to parameter estimation, such as aircraft maneuver design or instrumentation considerations.

  20. Aircraft as a meteorological sensor

    E-print Network

    Haak, Hein

    Aircraft as a meteorological sensor Using Mode-S Enhanced Surveillance data to derive upper air Meteorological Institute 2 | The aircraft as a meteorological sensor Photo cover: A KLM Airbus A330-200 lands at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in The Netherlands. Increased aircraft movements will result in a greater number

  1. Stearman Hammond Y-1 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1939-01-01

    The Stearman Hammond Y aircraft was produced to compete in a 'Safe Aircraft' competition in January 1939. It was the winner of the $700 prize which was sponsored by the Department of Commerce. The model Y used many of the safety features the NACA's Fred Weick developed for his W-1 aircraft.

  2. Introduction to aircraft lightning attachment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Larsson

    2008-01-01

    The article consists of a Powerpoint presentation on aircraft lightning attachment. The areas discussed include: in-flight statistics; commercial airliner; standard lightning current; aircraft surface; zoning tool; continuous sweeping; lightning channel properties; swept stroke simulation tool; Falcon 2000 aircraft etc. listing some of the slide titles.

  3. Robots for Aircraft Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center charged USBI (now Pratt & Whitney) with the task of developing an advanced stripping system based on hydroblasting to strip paint and thermal protection material from Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters. A robot, mounted on a transportable platform, controls the waterjet angle, water pressure and flow rate. This technology, now known as ARMS, has found commercial applications in the removal of coatings from jet engine components. The system is significantly faster than manual procedures and uses only minimal labor. Because the amount of "substrate" lost is minimal, the life of the component is extended. The need for toxic chemicals is reduced, as is waste disposal and human protection equipment. Users of the ARMS work cell include Delta Air Lines and the Air Force, which later contracted with USBI for development of a Large Aircraft Paint Stripping system (LARPS). LARPS' advantages are similar to ARMS, and it has enormous potential in military and civil aircraft maintenance. The technology may also be adapted to aircraft painting, aircraft inspection techniques and paint stripping of large objects like ships and railcars.

  4. Aircraft thrust control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Neil (Inventor); Day, Stanley G. (Inventor); Collopy, Paul D. (Inventor); Bennett, George W. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An integrated control system for coaxial counterrotating aircraft propulsors driven by a common gas turbine engine. The system establishes an engine pressure ratio by control of fuel flow and uses the established pressure ratio to set propulsor speed. Propulsor speed is set by adjustment of blade pitch.

  5. Raven Unmanned Aircraft.

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Lance Brady of the US Bureau of Land Management observes a USGS Raven unmanned aircraft in action June 20, 2012 at Lake Aldwell on the Elwha River south of Olympic National Park, Wash. USGS and BLM are cooperating on science missions to study hydrology, sedimentation, revegetation and other issues r...

  6. Aircraft turbofan noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Groeneweg; E. J. Rice

    1987-01-01

    Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation, and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental techniques of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid

  7. Aircraft turbofan noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Groeneweg; E. J. Rice

    1983-01-01

    Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental technique of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid

  8. Failures in military aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham Clark

    2005-01-01

    The severe operating conditions for components in military aircraft lead to a wide range of failure modes and introduce many factors which can influence those failures. As a result, the accident investigator or failure analyst may need to explore issues more widely than might be the case with systems operating in more benign or controlled environments. Complicating factors are the

  9. Aircraft adaptive learning control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, P. S. T.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1979-01-01

    The optimal control theory of stochastic linear systems is discussed in terms of the advantages of distributed-control systems, and the control of randomly-sampled systems. An optimal solution to longitudinal control is derived and applied to the F-8 DFBW aircraft. A randomly-sampled linear process model with additive process and noise is developed.

  10. Counterrotating aircraft propulsor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Joey L. (Inventor); Elston, III, Sidney B. (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A propulsor blade for an aircraft engine includes an airfoil section formed in the shape of a scimitar. A metallic blade spar is interposed between opposed surfaces of the blade and is bonded to the surfaces to establish structural integrity of the blade. The metallic blade spar includes a root end allowing attachment of the blade to the engine.

  11. Advanced ATC - An aircraft perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, L.; Williams, D. H.; Howell, W. E.; Spitzer, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    The principal operational improvements desired by commercial aircraft operators in the United States are efficient aircraft operations and delay reductions at the major terminals. This paper describes efforts underway within the Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program at the Langley Research Center to provide a technology basis for reducing delay while improving aircraft efficiency. The principal thrust is the development of time-based traffic control concepts which could be used within the framework of the upgraded National Airspace System and which would allow conventionally equipped aircraft to operate in a manner compatible with advanced aircraft.

  12. Turboprop cargo aircraft systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlbauer, J. C.; Hewell, J. G., Jr.; Lindenbaum, S. P.; Randall, C. C.; Searle, N.; Stone, R. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of using advanced turboprop propulsion systems to reduce the fuel consumption and direct operating costs of cargo aircraft were studied, and the impact of these systems on aircraft noise and noise prints around a terminal area was determined. Parametric variations of aircraft and propeller characteristics were investigated to determine their effects on noiseprint areas, fuel consumption, and direct operating costs. From these results, three aircraft designs were selected and subjected to design refinements and sensitivity analyses. Three competitive turbofan aircraft were also defined from parametric studies to provide a basis for comparing the two types of propulsion.

  13. Advanced ATC: An aircraft perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, Leonard; Williams, David H.; Howell, William E.; Spitzer, Cary R.

    1986-01-01

    The principal operational improvements desired by commercial aircraft operators in the United States are efficient aircraft operations and delay reductions at the major terminals. Efforts underway within the Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program at the Langley Research Center to provide a technology basis for reducing delay while improving aircraft efficiency are discussed. The principal thrust is the development of time-based traffic control concepts which could be used within the framework of the upgraded National Airspace System and which would allow conventionally equipped aircraft to operate in a manner compatible with advanced aircraft.

  14. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE,...

  15. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE,...

  16. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE,...

  17. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE,...

  18. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE,...

  19. Aircraft turbofan noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneweg, J. F.; Rice, E. J.

    1983-03-01

    Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental technique of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid in the determination of the types and strengths of the generation mechanisms. Approaches to predicting or measuring acoustic mode content, optimizing treatment impedance to maximize attenuation, translating impedance into porous wall structure and interpreting far field directivity patterns are illustrated by comparisons of analytical and experimental results. The interdependence of source and acoustic treatment design to minimize far field noise is emphasized. Area requiring further research are discussed and the relevance of aircraft turbofan results to quieting other turbomachinery installations is addressed.

  20. Aircraft turbofan noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneweg, J. F.; Rice, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation, and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental techniques of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid in the determination of the types and strengths of the generation mechanisms. Approaches to predicting or measuring acoustic mode content, optimizing treatment impedance to maximize attenuation, translating impedance into porous wall structure, and interpreting far field directivity patterns are illustrated by comparisons of analytical and experimental results. The interdependence of source and acoustic treatment design to minimize far field noise is emphasized. Areas requiring further research are discussed, and the relevance of aircraft turbofan results to quieting other turbomachinery installation is addressed.

  1. Autonomous aircraft initiative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, Marle D.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a consulting effort to aid NASA Ames-Dryden in defining a new initiative in aircraft automation are described. The initiative described is a multi-year, multi-center technology development and flight demonstration program. The initiative features the further development of technologies in aircraft automation already being pursued at multiple NASA centers and Department of Defense (DoD) research and Development (R and D) facilities. The proposed initiative involves the development of technologies in intelligent systems, guidance, control, software development, airborne computing, navigation, communications, sensors, unmanned vehicles, and air traffic control. It involves the integration and implementation of these technologies to the extent necessary to conduct selected and incremental flight demonstrations.

  2. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are (1) Engine Component Improvement--directed at current engines, (2) Energy Efficiency Engine directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) Advanced Turboprops--directed at technology for advanced turboprop--powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  3. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witkowski, David P. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A swept aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one full-span slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The full-span slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  4. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit. 855.6 Section 855...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES...

  5. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit. 855.6 Section 855...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES...

  6. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit. 855.6 Section 855...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES...

  7. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit. 855.6 Section 855...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES...

  8. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit. 855.6 Section 855...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES...

  9. Adaptive Control of AircraftAdaptive Control of Aircraft Gianluca Di Muro, PhD Student

    E-print Network

    Ferrari, Silvia

    Adaptive Control of AircraftAdaptive Control of Aircraft Gianluca Di Muro, PhD Student Advisor, Duke University, 2005 Typical aircraft missions include: ·Transport / Surveillance ­Steady, level Benefits of Nonlinear Adaptive Control Systems · Aircraft Model ­ Decoupled dynamics ­ Linearization

  10. Infrared radiation powered lightweight aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Long, D.E.

    1990-03-13

    This patent describes a high altitude, ultralight aircraft requiring no fuel. It comprises: an aircraft having wings with broad area lower wing surfaces and a fuselage; a low speed propeller mounted on the aircraft; electric motor means mounted on the aircraft and coupled to drive the propeller; long wavelength infrared (LWIR) responsive cell means for receiving infrared energy radiated from the earth and for supplying electricity to power the motor means. The LWIR cell means being mounted on the lower surfaces of the wings and the fuselage; and the LWIR being substantially the only source of input power for the aircraft to provide a continuous source of power both during the day and at night; whereby the aircraft may have a life at elevated altitudes of several years.

  11. Aircraft cockpit vision: Math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashir, J.; Singh, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the field of vision of a pilot seated in an aircraft. Given the position and orientation of the aircraft, along with the geometrical configuration of its windows, and the location of an object, the model determines whether the object would be within the pilot's external vision envelope provided by the aircraft's windows. The computer program using this model was implemented and is described.

  12. Aircraft Rollout Iterative Energy Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinoshita, L.

    1986-01-01

    Aircraft Rollout Iterative Energy Simulation (ARIES) program analyzes aircraft-brake performance during rollout. Simulates threedegree-of-freedom rollout after nose-gear touchdown. Amount of brake energy dissipated during aircraft landing determines life expectancy of brake pads. ARIES incorporates brake pressure, actual flight data, crosswinds, and runway characteristics to calculate following: brake energy during rollout for up to four independent brake systems; time profiles of rollout distance, velocity, deceleration, and lateral runway position; and all aerodynamic moments on aircraft. ARIES written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution.

  13. Scheduling of an aircraft fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paltrinieri, Massimo; Momigliano, Alberto; Torquati, Franco

    1992-01-01

    Scheduling is the task of assigning resources to operations. When the resources are mobile vehicles, they describe routes through the served stations. To emphasize such aspect, this problem is usually referred to as the routing problem. In particular, if vehicles are aircraft and stations are airports, the problem is known as aircraft routing. This paper describes the solution to such a problem developed in OMAR (Operative Management of Aircraft Routing), a system implemented by Bull HN for Alitalia. In our approach, aircraft routing is viewed as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The solving strategy combines network consistency and tree search techniques.

  14. Aircraft Inspection for the General Aviation Aircraft Owner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    Presented is useful information for owners, pilots, student mechanics, and others with aviation interests. Part I of this booklet outlines aircraft inspection requirements, owner responsibilities, inspection time intervals, and sources of basic information. Part II is concerned with the general techniques used to inspect an aircraft. (Author/JN)

  15. Integrated Aircraft Environment Surveillance System for large civil aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao Gang

    2011-01-01

    • The Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics' (RTCA) Free Flight Selection Committee defines surveillance as “detection, tracking, characterization and observation of aircraft, other vehicles and weather phenomena for the purpose of conducting flight operations in a safe and efficient manner.” • Civil aircraft environment surveillance includes four functions: 1) The ATCRBS\\/Mode S transponder which includes classic SSR Mode A\\/C, Mode

  16. Fiber optics for aircraft entertainment systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory L. Tangonan; Harry T. Wang; Sang Van Nguyen

    1993-01-01

    We describe the development of a fiber based video distribution for aircraft entertainment. The fiber system delivers live satellite video to every seat in the aircraft and can be interface to the interactive services presently being deployed on commercial aircraft.

  17. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic...Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within,...

  18. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic...Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within,...

  19. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic...Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within,...

  20. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic...Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within,...

  1. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127 Aeronautics...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS...Type Certificate § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a) Each person...

  2. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic...Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within,...

  3. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127 Aeronautics...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS...Type Certificate § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a) Each person...

  4. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127 Aeronautics...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS...Type Certificate § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a) Each person...

  5. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127 Aeronautics...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS...Certificate Only § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a) Each person...

  6. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127 Aeronautics...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS...Certificate Only § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a) Each person...

  7. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6 ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION...General Provisions § 34.6 Aircraft safety. (a) The provisions...

  8. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6 ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION...General Provisions § 34.6 Aircraft safety. (a) The provisions...

  9. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6 ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION...General Provisions § 34.6 Aircraft safety. (a) The provisions...

  10. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6 ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION...General Provisions § 34.6 Aircraft safety. (a) The provisions...

  11. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6 ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION...General Provisions § 34.6 Aircraft safety. (a) The provisions...

  12. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, John C. (Inventor); Gea, Lie-Mine (Inventor); McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witowski, David P. (Inventor); Krist, Steven E. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The slot may either extend spanwise along only a portion of the wingspan, or it may extend spanwise along the entire wingspan. In either case, the slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  13. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A series of studies in which films and liquid spray-on materials were evaluated in the laboratory for transport aircraft external surface coatings are summarized. Elastomeric polyurethanes were found to best meet requirements. Two commercially available products, CAAPCO B-274 and Chemglaze M313, were subjected to further laboratory testing, airline service evaluations, and drag-measurement flight tests. It was found that these coatings were compatible with the severe operating environment of airlines and that coatings reduced airplane drag. An economic analysis indicated significant dollar benefits to airlines from application of the coatings.

  14. X-29 aircraft takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Two X-29 aircraft, featuring one of the most unusual designs in aviation history, were flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., as technology demonstrators to investigate a host of advanced concepts and technologies. This movie clip runs 26 seconds and begins with a rear view of the X-29 in full afterburner at brake release, then a chase plane shot as it rotates off the runway beginning a rapid climb and finally an air-to-air view of the tail as the chase plane with the camera moves from right to left.

  15. Small Transport Aircraft Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    The article surveys the results of the NASA-instituted Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) research effort aimed at generating advanced technologies for application to new small, short haul transports having significantly better performance, efficiency, and environmental compatibility. Discussion covers fuselage designs and bonded aluminum-honeycomb wing construction which reduces the number of parts and fasteners, and gives a smoother outer contour. Topics discussed include: advanced aluminum alloys, composite primary structures, propellers, engine components, icing protection, avionics, flight controls, aerodynamics, and gust load alleviation.

  16. Hydrogen aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is conducted of the technology development status, economics, commercial feasibility, and infrastructural requirements of LH2-fueled aircraft, with additional consideration of hydrogen production, liquefaction, and cryostorage methods. Attention is given to the effects of LH2 fuel cryotank accommodation on the configurations of prospective commercial transports and military airlifters, SSTs, and HSTs, as well as to the use of the plentiful heatsink capacity of LH2 for innovative propulsion cycles' performance maximization. State-of-the-art materials and structural design principles for integral cryotank implementation are noted, as are airport requirements and safety and environmental considerations.

  17. Aircraft Speed Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1933-01-01

    This report presents a concise survey of the measurement of air speed and ground speed on board aircraft. Special attention is paid to the pitot-static air-speed meter which is the standard in the United States for airplanes. Air-speed meters of the rotating vane type are also discussed in considerable detail on account of their value as flight test instruments and as service instruments for airships. Methods of ground-speed measurement are treated briefly, with reference to the more important instruments. A bibliography on air-speed measurement concludes the report.

  18. Strategic deconfliction of aircraft trajectories

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for every trajectory is obtained within affordable computation time. Keywords. 4D trajectory planningStrategic deconfliction of aircraft trajectories Supatcha CHAIMATANAN, Daniel DELAHAYE and Marcel a methodology to minimize the number of po- tential conflicts between aircraft trajectories based on route

  19. Research developments for aircraft safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, K. E.

    1980-01-01

    The paper deals with an aviation safety technology program, whose objective is to provide technology for near-term application to civil transport aircraft and for designing the next generation of advanced transports. The influence of research and development efforts on current safety levels and aircraft operating efficiency is examined.

  20. Ball lightning risk to aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Doe; A. Keul

    2009-01-01

    Lightning is a rare but regular phenomenon for air traffic. Aircraft are designed to withstand lightning strikes. Research on lightning and aircraft can be called detailed and effective. In the last 57 years, 18 reported lightning aviation disasters with a fatality figure of at least 714 persons occurred. For comparison, the last JACDEC ten-year average fatality figure was 857. The

  1. The Ultra Light Aircraft Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Howard W.

    1993-01-01

    The final report for grant NAG1-345 is presented. Recently, the bulk of the work that the grant has supported has been in the areas of ride quality and the structural analysis and testing of ultralight aircraft. The ride quality work ended in May 1989. Hence, the papers presented in this final report are concerned with ultralight aircraft.

  2. Unmanned aircraft systems as wingmen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Garcia; Laura Barnes; Maryanne Fields

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a concept towards integrating manned and Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) into a highly functional team though the design and implementation of 3-D distributed formation\\/flight control algorithms with the goal to act as wingmen for a manned aircraft. This method is designed to minimize user input for team control, dynamically modify formations as required, utilize standard operating formations

  3. Composite Lightning Rods for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Charles F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Composite, lightweight sacrificial tip with graphite designed reduces lightning-strike damage to composite parts of aircraft and dissipates harmful electrical energy. Device consists of slender composite rod fabricated from highly-conductive unidirectional reinforcing fibers in matrix material. Rods strategically installed in trailing edges of aircraft wings, tails, winglets, control surfaces, and rearward-most portion of aft fuselage.

  4. ANNOYANCE FROM NOCTURNAL AIRCRAFT NOISE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Quehl; M. Basner; H. Buess; N. Luks; H. Maaß; L. Mawet; E. W. Mueller; U. Mueller; C. Piehler; G. Plath; E. Rey; A. Samel; M. Schulze; M. Vejvoda; J. Wenzel

    Introduction Annoyance is the most important psychological effect of environmental noise exposure. People's annoyance reaction to traffic noise is primarily caused by noise-induced sleep disturbances. Thus, aircraft noise exposure during sleep may cause increased annoyance. Even though sound energy emitted by individual aircrafts has drastically been reduced in the past - particularly due to the replacement of older and loud

  5. Aircraft landing using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, David Gary

    The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

  6. Altus aircraft on runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The remotely piloted Altus aircraft flew several developmental test flights from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., in 1996. The Altus--the word is Latin for 'high'--is a variant of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. It is designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and is powered by a turbocharged four-cylinder piston engine. The first Altus was developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, while a second Altus was built for a Naval Postgraduate School/Department of Energy program. A pilot in a control station on the ground flew the craft by radio signals, using visual cues from a video camera in the nose of the Altus and information from the craft's air data system. Equipped with a single-stage turbocharger during the 1996 test flights, the first Altus reached altitudes in the 37,000-foot range, while the similarly-equipped second Altus reached 43,500 feet during developmental flights at Dryden in the summer of 1997. The NASA Altus also set an endurance record of more than 26 hours while flying a science mission in late 1996 and still had an estimated 10 hours of fuel remaining when it landed. Now equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, the NASA Altus maintained an altitude of 55,000 feet for four hours during flight tests in 1999.

  7. Structural modeling of aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.; Lackey, J. I.; Nybakken, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of the feasibility of determining the mechanical properties of aircraft tires from small-scale model tires was accomplished. The theoretical results indicate that the macroscopic static and dynamic mechanical properties of aircraft tires can be accurately determined from the scale model tires although the microscopic and thermal properties of aircraft tires can not. The experimental investigation was conducted on a scale model of a 40 x 12, 14 ply rated, type 7 aircraft tire with a scaling factor of 8.65. The experimental results indicate that the scale model tire exhibited the same static mechanical properties as the prototype tire when compared on a dimensionless basis. The structural modeling concept discussed in this report is believed to be exact for mechanical properties of aircraft tires under static, rolling, and transient conditions.

  8. 41 CFR 102-33.240 - What must we consider before disposing of aircraft and aircraft parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false What must we consider before disposing of aircraft and aircraft parts? 102-33.240 Section 102-33.240...PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Disposing of Government Aircraft and Aircraft...

  9. 41 CFR 102-33.240 - What must we consider before disposing of aircraft and aircraft parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false What must we consider before disposing of aircraft and aircraft parts? 102-33.240 Section 102-33.240...PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Disposing of Government Aircraft and Aircraft...

  10. 41 CFR 102-33.240 - What must we consider before disposing of aircraft and aircraft parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false What must we consider before disposing of aircraft and aircraft parts? 102-33.240 Section 102-33.240...PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Disposing of Government Aircraft and Aircraft...

  11. 41 CFR 102-33.240 - What must we consider before disposing of aircraft and aircraft parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false What must we consider before disposing of aircraft and aircraft parts? 102-33.240 Section 102-33.240...PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Disposing of Government Aircraft and Aircraft...

  12. 41 CFR 102-33.240 - What must we consider before disposing of aircraft and aircraft parts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false What must we consider before disposing of aircraft and aircraft parts? 102-33.240 Section 102-33.240...PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Disposing of Government Aircraft and Aircraft...

  13. Tilt Rotor Aircraft Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Albert R.

    1996-01-01

    A fleet of civil tilt rotor transports offers a means of reducing airport congestion and point-to-point travel time. The speed, range, and fuel economy of these aircraft, along with their efficient use of vertiport area, make them good candidates for short-to-medium range civil transport. However, to be successfully integrated into the civilian community, the tilt rotor must be perceived as a quiet, safe, and economical mode of transportation that does not harm the environment. In particular, noise impact has been identified as a possible barrier to the civil tilt rotor. Along with rotor conversion-mode flight, and blade-vortex interaction noise during descent, hover mode is a noise problem for tilt rotor operations. In the present research, tilt rotor hover aeroacoustics have been studied analytically, experimentally, and computationally. Various papers on the subject were published as noted in the list of publications. More recently, experimental measurements were made on a 1/12.5 scale model of the XV-15 in hover and analyses of this data and extrapolations to full scale were also carried out. A dimensional analysis showed that the model was a good aeroacoustic approximation to the full-scale aircraft, and scale factors were derived to extrapolate the model measurements to the full-scale XV-15. The experimental measurements included helium bubble flow visualization, silk tuft flow visualization, 2-component hot wire anemometry, 7-hole pressure probe measurements, vorticity measurements, and outdoor far field acoustic measurements. The hot wire measurements were used to estimate the turbulence statistics of the flow field into the rotors, such as length scales, velocity scales, dissipation, and turbulence intermittency. Several different configurations of the model were tested: (1) standard configurations (single isolated rotor, two rotors without the aircraft, standard tilt rotor configuration); (2) flow control devices (the 'plate', the 'diagonal fences'); (3) basic configuration changes (increasing the rotor/rotor spacing, reducing the rotor plane/wing clearance. operating the rotors out of phase). Also, an approximation to Sikorsky's Variable Diameter Tilt Rotor (VDTR) configuration was tested, and some flow measurements were made on a semi-span configuration of the model. Acoustic predictions were made using LOWSON.M, a Mathematica code Mean aerodynamic models were developed based on hover performance predictions from HOVER.FOR. This hover prediction code used blade element theory for the aerodynamics, and Prandtl's Vortex theory to model the wake, along with empirical formulas for the effects of Reynolds number, Mach number, and stall. Aerodynamic models were developed from 7-hole pressure probe measurements of the mean velocity into the model rotors.

  14. Aircraft vortex marking program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pompa, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    A simple, reliable device for identifying atmospheric vortices, principally as generated by in-flight aircraft and with emphasis on the use of nonpolluting aerosols for marking by injection into such vortex (-ices) is presented. The refractive index and droplet size were determined from an analysis of aerosol optical and transport properties as the most significant parameters in effecting vortex optimum light scattering (for visual sighting) and visual persistency of at least 300 sec. The analysis also showed that a steam-ejected tetraethylene glycol aerosol with droplet size near 1 micron and refractive index of approximately 1.45 could be a promising candidate for vortex marking. A marking aerosol was successfully generated with the steam-tetraethylene glycol mixture from breadboard system hardware. A compact 25 lb/f thrust (nominal) H2O2 rocket chamber was the key component of the system which produced the required steam by catalytic decomposition of the supplied H2O2.

  15. Laser aircraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzberg, A.; Sun, K.

    1978-01-01

    The concept of using a high energy continuous wave laser beam from a power satellite in geosynchronous orbit to power a commercial air transport during cruise, i.e., a laser-powered airplane, is examined. These studies indicate that a laser powered airplane is a nearly fuelless and pollution-free flight transportation system which is cost competitive with the fuel conservative air transport of the future. This laser flight system involves the integration of a conventional aircraft with a laser power satellite and a set of laser driven turbofans, all of which can be fabricated with existing or projected technology. The dominant cost of the laser-powered flight transportation system is the cost of the power satellite.

  16. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. C.; Anderson, M. R.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Sorokin, A. A.; Buriko, Y. Y.

    The conversion of fuel sulfur to S(VI) (SO3 + H2SO4) in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. Model results indicate between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as S(VI). It is also shown that, for a high sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is kinetically limited by the level of atomic oxygen. This results in a higher oxidation efficiency at lower sulfur loadings. SO3 is the primary S(VI) oxidation product and calculated H2SO4 emission levels were less than 1% of the total fuel sulfur. This source of S(VI) can exceed the S(VI) source due to gas phase oxidation in the exhaust wake.

  17. Advanced transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winblade, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Various elements of the NASA aircraft energy efficiency program are described. Regarding composite structures, the development of three secondary and three medium-primary components to validate structural and fabrication technology is discussed. In laminar flow control, the design of advanced airfoils having large regions of supercritical flow with features which simplify laminarization are considered. Emphasis is placed on engine performance improvement, directed at developing advanced components to reduce fuel consumption in current production engines, and engine diagnostics aimed at identifying the sources and causes of performance deterioration in high-bypass turbofan engines. In addition, the results of propeller aerodynamic and acoustic tests have substantiated the feasibility of achieving the propeller efficiency goal of 80% and confirmed that the effect of blade sweep on reducing propeller source noise was 5-6 dB.

  18. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

  19. Multibody aircraft study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.; Craven, E. P.; Farmer, B. T.; Honrath, J. F.; Stephens, R. E.; Bronson, C. E., Jr.; Meyer, R. T.; Hogue, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The potential benefits of a multibody aircraft when compared to a single body aircraft are presented. The analyses consist principally of a detailed point design analysis of three multibody and one single body aircraft, based on a selected payload of 350,000 kg (771,618 lb), for final aircraft definitions; sensitivity studies to evaluate the effects of variations in payload, wing semispan body locations, and fuel price; recommendations as to the research and technology requirements needed to validate the multibody concept. Two, two body, one, three body, and one single body aircraft were finalized for the selected payload, with DOC being the prime figure of merit. When compared to the single body, the multibody aircraft showed a reduction in DOC by as much as 11.3 percent. Operating weight was reduced up to 14 percent, and fly away cost reductions ranged from 8.6 to 13.4 percent. Weight reduction, hence cost, of the multibody aircraft resulted primarily from the wing bending relief afforded by the bodies being located outboard on the wing.

  20. NASA Aircraft Controls Research, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, G. P. (compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The workshop consisted of 24 technical presentations on various aspects of aircraft controls, ranging from the theoretical development of control laws to the evaluation of new controls technology in flight test vehicles. A special report on the status of foreign aircraft technology and a panel session with seven representatives from organizations which use aircraft controls technology were also included. The controls research needs and opportunities for the future as well as the role envisioned for NASA in that research were addressed. Input from the panel and response to the workshop presentations will be used by NASA in developing future programs.

  1. Aircraft plume signature suppression and stealth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Wang; Jiaobo Gao; Weina Wang; Jilong Wang; Junhu Xie

    2005-01-01

    How to turning down the heat of aircraft infrared picture, how to get stealthy. To make a stealthy aircraft, designers had to consider a lot of key ingredients. This paper mainly introduces aircraft stealthy and discussed the efficiency of aircraft signature suppression. We describe testing process, measure and analyze the characteristics of aerosol scattering and absorption and present testing data

  2. Scheduling Aircraft Landings The Dynamic Case

    E-print Network

    Scheduling Aircraft Landings The Dynamic Case Master Thesis April 2007 Supervisor: Jens Clausen #12;Abstract This Master Theses is about solving the aircraft landing problem dynamically. Given an original landing schedule for the incoming aircraft this schedule are rescheduled whenever an aircraft

  3. AIRCRAFT CONTROL USING FLATNESS Philippe Martin

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AIRCRAFT CONTROL USING FLATNESS Philippe Martin £ £ Centre Automatique et Syst`emes, ´Ecole des: A control law for an aircraft is presented. It is valid on the whole flight envelope and able to track any approximating the real aircraft and the use of time scales. Keywords: Aircraft control, nonlinear control

  4. Aircraft Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in aircraft mechanics. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in 24 different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: airframe mechanic, power plant mechanic, aircraft mechanic, aircraft sheet metal worker, aircraft electrician,…

  5. Strategic Planning in Fractional Aircraft Ownership Programs

    E-print Network

    Ergun, Ozlem

    Strategic Planning in Fractional Aircraft Ownership Programs Yufeng Yaoa* , Özlem Erguna , Ellis, the partial owner of an aircraft is entitled to certain flight hours per year, and the management company is responsible for all the operational considerations of the aircraft and for making an aircraft available

  6. Combat aircraft noise: The operator's perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Bogg

    1992-01-01

    Combat aircraft are not subject to the same noise reduction regulations as civil aircraft. Additionally, combat aircraft are operated closer to their performance limits and at high power settings for extended periods. There is general pressure to reduce noise of all kinds, but particularly noise from low flying aircraft. Although there is little that can be done to quiet in-service

  7. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection...CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of this part...

  8. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection...CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of this part...

  9. Wet runways. [aircraft landing and directional control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft stopping and directional control performance on wet runways is discussed. The major elements affecting tire/ground traction developed by jet transport aircraft are identified and described in terms of atmospheric, pavement, tire, aircraft system and pilot performance factors or parameters. Research results are summarized, and means for improving or restoring tire traction/aircraft performance on wet runways are discussed.

  10. UWB: Success in AircraftUWB: Success in Aircraft Shielding MetrologyShielding Metrology

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    -way - wave TEM vpol Optical rx Single-Mode Optical Fibers rx port tx port Airframe #12;UWBUWB: Success in AircraftUWB: Success in Aircraft Shielding MetrologyShielding Metrology Dr. Robert;Aircraft Shielding MeasurementsAircraft Shielding Measurements · Aircraft systems integration engineers

  11. Fuel Cell Council Working Group on Aircraft and Aircraft Ground Support Fuel

    E-print Network

    Fuel Cell Council Working Group on Aircraft and Aircraft Ground Support Fuel Cell Applications #12;Topics · The US Fuel Cell Council Aircraft and Aircraft Support Working Group Establishment Working Group and Components Transportation Power Generation Portable Power Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Aircraft and Aircaft Support

  12. Turboprop Cargo Aircraft Systems study, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlbauer, J. C.; Hewell, J. G., Jr.; Lindenbaum, S. P.; Randall, C. C.; Searle, N.; Stone, F. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of advanced propellers (propfan) on aircraft direct operating costs, fuel consumption, and noiseprints were determined. A comparison of three aircraft selected from the results with competitive turbofan aircraft shows that advanced turboprop aircraft offer these potential benefits, relative to advanced turbofan aircraft: 21 percent fuel saving, 26 percent higher fuel efficiency, 15 percent lower DOCs, and 25 percent shorter field lengths. Fuel consumption for the turboprop is nearly 40 percent less than for current commercial turbofan aircraft. Aircraft with both types of propulsion satisfy current federal noise regulations. Advanced turboprop aircraft have smaller noiseprints at 90 EPNdB than advanced turbofan aircraft, but large noiseprints at 70 and 80 EPNdB levels, which are usually suggested as quietness goals. Accelerated development of advanced turboprops is strongly recommended to permit early attainment of the potential fuel saving. Several areas of work are identified which may produce quieter turboprop aircraft.

  13. Qualification needs for advanced integrated aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    In an effort to achieve maximum aircraft performance, designers are integrating aircraft systems. The characteristics of aerodynamics, vehicle structure, and propulsion systems are being integrated and controlled through embedded, often flight critical, electronic systems. The qualification needs for such highly integrated aircraft systems are addressed. Based on flight experience with research aircraft, a set of test capabilities is described which allows for complete and efficient qualification of advanced integrated aircraft.

  14. Aircraft recognition and tracking device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filis, Dimitrios P.; Renios, Christos I.

    2011-11-01

    The technology of aircraft recognition and tracking has various applications in all areas of air navigation, be they civil or military, spanning from air traffic control and regulation at civilian airports to anti-aircraft weapon handling and guidance for military purposes.1, 18 The system presented in this thesis is an alternative implementation of identifying and tracking flying objects, which benefits from the optical spectrum by using an optical camera built into a servo motor (pan-tilt unit). More specifically, through the purpose-developed software, when a target (aircraft) enters the field of view of the camera18, it is both detected and identified.5, 22 Then the servo motor, being provided with data on target position and velocity, tracks the aircraft while it is in constant communication with the camera (Fig. 1). All the features are so designed as to operate under real time conditions.

  15. Automatic Multiagent Aircraft Collision Avoidance 

    E-print Network

    Sayahi, Shayan

    2014-09-22

    aircraft at any point during the flight, which proves to be a challenging task. This research seeks to find an optimized cooperative collision avoidance strategy to resolve conflicts in the horizontal and vertical planes by proposing maneuvers that involve...

  16. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    Commercial aircraft manufacturers are making production commitments to composite structure for future aircraft and modifications to current production aircraft. Flight service programs with advanced composites sponsored by NASA during the past 10 years are described. Approximately 2.5 million total composite component flight hours have been accumulated since 1970 on both commercial transports and helicopters. Design concepts with significant mass savings were developed, appropriate inspection and maintenance procedures were established, and satisfactory service was achieved for the various composite components. A major NASA/U.S. industry technology program to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites was undertaken. Ground and flight environmental effects on the composite materials used in the flight service programs supplement the flight service evaluation.

  17. Powered-lift aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, W. H.; Franklin, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Powered lift aircraft have the ability to vary the magnitude and direction of the force produced by the propulsion system so as to control the overall lift and streamwise force components of the aircraft, with the objective of enabling the aircraft to operate from minimum sized terminal sites. Power lift technology has contributed to the development of the jet lift Harrier and to the forth coming operational V-22 Tilt Rotor and the C-17 military transport. This technology will soon be expanded to include supersonic fighters with short takeoff and vertical landing capability, and will continue to be used for the development of short- and vertical-takeoff and landing transport. An overview of this field of aeronautical technology is provided for several types of powered lift aircraft. It focuses on the description of various powered lift concepts and their operational capability. Aspects of aerodynamics and flight controls pertinent to powered lift are also discussed.

  18. Aircraft icing research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Shaw, R. J.; Olsen, W. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Research activity is described for: ice protection systems, icing instrumentation, experimental methods, analytical modeling for the above, and in flight research. The renewed interest in aircraft icing has come about because of the new need for All-Weather Helicopters and General Aviation aircraft. Because of increased fuel costs, tomorrow's Commercial Transport aircraft will also require new types of ice protection systems and better estimates of the aeropenalties caused by ice on unprotected surfaces. The physics of aircraft icing is very similar to the icing that occurs on ground structures and structures at sea; all involve droplets that freeze on the surfaces because of the cold air. Therefore all icing research groups will benefit greatly by sharing their research information.

  19. Unmanned Aircraft: A Pilot's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pestana, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the challenges of "piloting" a unmanned aircraft. The topic include the pilot-vehicle interact design, the concept of pilot/operator, and role of NASA's Ikhana UAS in the western states fire mission.

  20. Hydrogen aircraft and airport safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Rostek; E. Behrend; H.-W. Pohl

    1997-01-01

    Hydrogen will be used as aviation fuel in the foreseeable future. First flight tests with a hydrogen demonstrator aircraft, currently under investigation in the scope of the German-Russian Cryoplane project, are scheduled for 1999. Regular service with regional aircraft may begin around 2005, followed by larger Airbus-type airliners around 2010–2015. The fuel storage aboard such airliners will be of the

  1. Community response to aircraft noise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, R. P.

    1972-01-01

    Organized community resistance to any plan of airport development has become so intense that noise exposure is a primary consideration in plans for new airports, runway extensions, and the introduction of new types of aircraft. Approaches for evaluating the amount of aircraft noise and the annoyance produced by it are discussed. The sociometric studies considered show that fear of crash is the strongest single variable.

  2. An advanced conceptual aircraft simulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Kupermann; D. L. Wilson

    1988-01-01

    The development of a proposed multiseat advanced aircraft man-in-the-loop simulation facility is briefly described. This facility, called the strategic avionics battle-management evaluation and research (SABER) simulation facility, is based on distributed graphics processors hosted on a central mainframe computer. The mainframe supports aircraft flight models, weapon flyout models, and simulation data storage and data collection. The graphics processors, exploiting downloaded

  3. Advanced technology composite aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Walker, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    Work performed during the 25th month on NAS1-18889, Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures, is summarized. The main objective of this program is to develop an integrated technology and demonstrate a confidence level that permits the cost- and weight-effective use of advanced composite materials in primary structures of future aircraft with the emphasis on pressurized fuselages. The period from 1-31 May 1991 is covered.

  4. Jet aircraft hydrocarbon fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P. (editor)

    1978-01-01

    A broad specification, referee fuel was proposed for research and development. This fuel has a lower, closely specified hydrogen content and higher final boiling point and freezing point than ASTM Jet A. The workshop recommended various priority items for fuel research and development. Key items include prediction of tradeoffs among fuel refining, distribution, and aircraft operating costs; combustor liner temperature and emissions studies; and practical simulator investigations of the effect of high freezing point and low thermal stability fuels on aircraft fuel systems.

  5. Unmanned aircraft systems as wingmen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D Garcia; Laura Barnes; MaryAnne Fields

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a method to integrate Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) into a highly functional manned\\/unmanned team through the design and implementation of 3D distributed formation\\/flight control algorithms with the goal to act as wingmen for a manned aircraft. The proposed algorithms are designed to increase UAS autonomy, dynamically modify formations, utilize standard operating formations to reduce pilot resistance to

  6. Neural networks for aircraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linse, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

  7. Aircraft noise prediction program validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivashankara, B. N.

    1980-01-01

    A modular computer program (ANOPP) for predicting aircraft flyover and sideline noise was developed. A high quality flyover noise data base for aircraft that are representative of the U.S. commercial fleet was assembled. The accuracy of ANOPP with respect to the data base was determined. The data for source and propagation effects were analyzed and suggestions for improvements to the prediction methodology are given.

  8. High-altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdi, Renee Anna

    1991-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000+ ft, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft. This project is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer. The aircraft must be able to satisfy four mission profiles. The first is a polar mission that ranges from Chile to the South Pole and back to Chile, a total range of 6000 n.m. at 100,000 ft with a 2500-lb payload. The second mission is also a polar mission with a decreased altitude and an increased payload. For the third mission, the aircraft will take off at NASA Ames, cruise at 100,000 ft, and land in Chile. The final mission requires the aircraft to make an excursion to 120,000 ft. All four missions require that a subsonic Mach number be maintained because of constraints imposed by the air sampling equipment. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable for meeting the requirements. The performance of each is analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the mission requirements.

  9. Fiber optics for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    The increased use of composites makes the digital control more susceptible to electromagnetic effects. In order to provide the protection to the digital control additional shielding will be required as well as protective circuitry for the electronics. This results in increased weight and reduced reliability. The advantages that fiber optic technology provides for advanced aircraft applications is recognized. The use of optical signals to carry information between the aircraft and the control module provides immunity from contamination by electromagnetic sources as well as other important benefits such as reduced weight and volume resulting from the elimination of the shielding and the replacement of metal conductors with low weight glass fibers. In 1975 NASA began work to develop passive optical sensors for use with fiber optics in aircraft control systems. The problem now is to choose the best optical sensor concepts and evaluate them for use. In 1985 NASA and DOD entered into a joint program, Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI), to look at optical technology specifically for use in advanced aircraft systems. The results of this program are discussed. The conclusion of the study indicated that the use of fiber optic technology in advanced aircraft systems is feasible and desirable. The study pointed to a lack of available sensors from vendors capable of operating in the adverse environments of advanced aircraft.

  10. Fiber optics for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    The increased use of composites makes the digital control more susceptible to electromagnetic effects. In order to provide the protection to the digital control additional shielding will be required as well as protective circuitry for the electronics. This results in increased weight and reduced reliability. The advantages that fiber optic technology provides for advanced aircraft applications is recognized. The use of optical signals to carry information between the aircraft and the control module provides immunity from contamination by electromagnetic sources as well as other important benefits such as reduced weight and volume resulting from the elimination of the shielding and the replacement of metal conductors with low weight glass fibers. In 1975 NASA began work to develop passive optical sensors for use with fiber optics in aircraft control systems. The problem now is to choose the best optical sensor concepts and evaluate them for use. In 1985 NASA and DOD entered into a joint program, Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI), to look at optical technology specifically for use in advanced aircraft systems. The results of this program are discussed. The conclusion of the study indicated that the use of fiber optic technology in advanced aircraft systems is feasible and desirable. The study pointed to a lack of available sensors from vendors capable of operating in the adverse environments of advanced aircraft.

  11. Fiber optics for advanced aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumbick, Robert J.

    1989-06-01

    The increased use of composites makes the digital control more susceptible to electromagnetic effects. In order to provide the protection to the digital control additional shielding will be required as well as protective circuitry for the electronics. This results in increased weight and reduced reliability. The advantages that fiber optic technology provides for advanced aircraft applications is recognized. The use of optical signals to carry information between the aircraft and the control module provides immunity from contamination by electromagnetic sources as well as other important benefits such as reduced weight and volume resulting from the elimination of the shielding and the replacement of metal conductors with low weight glass fibers. In 1975 NASA began work to develop passive optical sensors for use with fiber optics in aircraft control systems. The problem now is to choose the best optical sensor concepts and evaluate them for use. In 1985 NASA and DOD entered into a joint program, Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI), to look at optical technology specifically for use in advanced aircraft systems. The results of this program are discussed. The conclusion of the study indicated that the use of fiber optic technology in advanced aircraft systems is feasible and desirable. The study pointed to a lack of available sensors from vendors capable of operating in the adverse environments of advanced aircraft.

  12. Technologies for Aircraft Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2006-01-01

    Technologies for aircraft noise reduction have been developed by NASA over the past 15 years through the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program and the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) project. This presentation summarizes highlights from these programs and anticipated noise reduction benefits for communities surrounding airports. Historical progress in noise reduction and technologies available for future aircraft/engine development are identified. Technologies address aircraft/engine components including fans, exhaust nozzles, landing gear, and flap systems. New "chevron" nozzles have been developed and implemented on several aircraft in production today that provide significant jet noise reduction. New engines using Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) ratios are projected to provide about 10 EPNdB (Effective Perceived Noise Level in decibels) engine noise reduction relative to the average fleet that was flying in 1997. Audio files are embedded in the presentation that estimate the sound levels for a 35,000 pound thrust engine for takeoff and approach power conditions. The predictions are based on actual model scale data that was obtained by NASA. Finally, conceptual pictures are shown that look toward future aircraft/propulsion systems that might be used to obtain further noise reduction.

  13. Optimization in fractional aircraft ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septiani, R. D.; Pasaribu, H. M.; Soewono, E.; Fayalita, R. A.

    2012-05-01

    Fractional Aircraft Ownership is a new concept in flight ownership management system where each individual or corporation may own a fraction of an aircraft. In this system, the owners have privilege to schedule their flight according to their needs. Fractional management companies (FMC) manages all aspects of aircraft operations, including utilization of FMC's aircraft in combination of outsourced aircrafts. This gives the owners the right to enjoy the benefits of private aviations. However, FMC may have complicated business requirements that neither commercial airlines nor charter airlines faces. Here, optimization models are constructed to minimize the number of aircrafts in order to maximize the profit and to minimize the daily operating cost. In this paper, three kinds of demand scenarios are made to represent different flight operations from different types of fractional owners. The problems are formulated as an optimization of profit and a daily operational cost to find the optimum flight assignments satisfying the weekly and daily demand respectively from the owners. Numerical results are obtained by Genetic Algorithm method.

  14. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. 21.6 Section 21...AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND...

  15. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. 21.6 Section 21...AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND...

  16. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. 21.6 Section 21...AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND...

  17. 75 FR 51953 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ...NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD 49 CFR Part 830 Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and Preservation of Aircraft Wreckage, Mail, Cargo, and Records AGENCY: National Transportation Safety...

  18. 76 FR 76686 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ...NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD 49 CFR Part 830 Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and Preservation of Aircraft Wreckage, Mail, Cargo, and Records AGENCY: National Transportation Safety...

  19. 75 FR 35329 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ...NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD 49 CFR Part 830 Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and Preservation of Aircraft Wreckage, Mail, Cargo, and Records AGENCY: National Transportation Safety...

  20. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. 21.6 Section 21...AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND...

  1. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. 21.6 Section 21...AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND...

  2. Sun powered aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccready, P. B.; Lissaman, P. B. S.; Morgan, W. R.; Burke, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Two piloted aircraft have been developed and flown powered solely by photovoltaic cells in a program sponsored by the DuPont Company. The 30.8-kg (68-lb), 21.6-m (71-ft) span, Gossamer Penguin was used as a solar test bed, making a 2.6-km (1.6-mile) flight in August 1980. The 88.1-kg (194-lb), 14.3-m (47-ft) span Solar Challenger was developed for long flights in normal turbulence. Stressed to +9 G, it utilizes Kevlar, Nomex honeycomb-graphite sandwich wall tubes, expanded polystyrene foam ribs, and Mylar skin. With a 54.9-kg (121-lb) airframe, 33.1-kg (73-lb) propulsion system, and a 45.4-kg (100-lb) pilot, it flies on 1400 watts. In summer, the projected maximum climb is 1.0 m/s (200 ft/min) at 9,150 m (30,000 ft). Sixty purely solar-powered flights were made during winter 1980-1981. Using thermals, 1,070 m (3,500 ft) was reached with 115-minute duration.

  3. Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research Testbed: Aircraft Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Langford, William M.; Hill, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    The Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) testbed being developed at NASA Langley Research Center is an experimental flight test capability for research experiments pertaining to dynamics modeling and control beyond the normal flight envelope. An integral part of that testbed is a 5.5% dynamically scaled, generic transport aircraft. This remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) is powered by twin turbine engines and includes a collection of sensors, actuators, navigation, and telemetry systems. The downlink for the plane includes over 70 data channels, plus video, at rates up to 250 Hz. Uplink commands for aircraft control include over 30 data channels. The dynamic scaling requirement, which includes dimensional, weight, inertial, actuator, and data rate scaling, presents distinctive challenges in both the mechanical and electrical design of the aircraft. Discussion of these requirements and their implications on the development of the aircraft along with risk mitigation strategies and training exercises are included here. Also described are the first training (non-research) flights of the airframe. Additional papers address the development of a mobile operations station and an emulation and integration laboratory.

  4. Chemical hazards in aeromedical aircraft.

    PubMed

    Tupper, C R

    1989-01-01

    Several potentially hazardous chemicals are required to make modern military aircraft fly. With each airevac mission, the possibility exists for structural failure of a fluid system, resulting in contamination to flight/medical crews, patients, and passengers. Aeromedical Evacuation Crewmembers (AECMs) need to be aware of the hazardous chemicals used in aircraft and areas where there is an increased risk to those in and around the aircraft. This study identified potential areas for chemical leakage, such as refuel receptacles, hydraulic reservoirs, hydraulic motors, doors, ramps, engines, and more. Further, it identified the basic first aid procedures to perform on people contaminated with jet fuel, hydraulic fluid, engine oil, fire extinguisher agents, LOX and other fluids. First aid procedures are basic and can be performed with supplies and equipment on a routine aeromedical evacuation mission, AECMs trained in a basic awareness of hazardous aircraft chemicals will result in crews better prepared to cope with the unique risks of transporting patients in a complicated military aircraft. PMID:2923600

  5. Multidisciplinary Optimization for Design of Low Emissions Aircraft

    E-print Network

    Zingg, David W.

    efficiency (without increasing NOx emissions) · aircraft efficiency (drag, weight) · more emphasis needed on aircraft efficiency #12;Aircraft Efficiency · weight reduction through materials, e.g. composites equation · unconventional aircraft configurations; potential for improved efficiency #12;PREMISE · High

  6. 14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft proving and validation tests. 135.145 Section...OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Aircraft and Equipment § 135.145 Aircraft proving...

  7. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. 47.33 Section...AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft...

  8. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. 47.33 Section...AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft...

  9. 14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft proving and validation tests. 135.145 Section...OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Aircraft and Equipment § 135.145 Aircraft proving...

  10. 14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft proving and validation tests. 135.145 Section...OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Aircraft and Equipment § 135.145 Aircraft proving...

  11. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. 47.33 Section...AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft...

  12. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. 47.33 Section...AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft...

  13. 14 CFR 47.61 - Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates. 47.61 Section 47...AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Dealers' Aircraft Registration...

  14. 14 CFR 47.61 - Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates. 47.61 Section 47...AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Dealers' Aircraft Registration...

  15. 14 CFR 47.51 - Triennial aircraft registration report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Triennial aircraft registration report. 47.51 Section 47.51...AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft...

  16. 14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft proving and validation tests. 135.145 Section...OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Aircraft and Equipment § 135.145 Aircraft proving...

  17. 14 CFR 47.61 - Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates. 47.61 Section 47...AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Dealers' Aircraft Registration...

  18. 14 CFR 47.61 - Dealers' Aircraft Registration Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dealers' Aircraft Registration Certificates. 47.61 Section 47...AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Dealers' Aircraft Registration...

  19. 14 CFR 47.61 - Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates. 47.61 Section 47...AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Dealers' Aircraft Registration...

  20. 14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft proving and validation tests. 135.145 Section...OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Aircraft and Equipment § 135.145 Aircraft proving...

  1. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. 47.33 Section...AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft...

  2. NASA's aircraft icing technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, John J.

    1991-01-01

    NASA' Aircraft Icing Technology program is aimed at developing innovative technologies for safe and efficient flight into forecasted icing. The program addresses the needs of all aircraft classes and supports both commercial and military applications. The program is guided by three key strategic objectives: (1) numerically simulate an aircraft's response to an in-flight icing encounter, (2) provide improved experimental icing simulation facilities and testing techniques, and (3) offer innovative approaches to ice protection. Our research focuses on topics that directly support stated industry needs, and we work closely with industry to assure a rapid and smooth transfer of technology. This paper presents selected results that illustrate progress towards the three strategic objectives, and it provides a comprehensive list of references on the NASA icing program.

  3. Dynamic properties of aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.; Nybakken, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    A research program has investigated the use of the von Schlippe string-type tire model for predicting the dynamic behavior of aircraft tires. The transfer-function method was used for theory evaluation. A more flexible two-constant modification to the string theory tire model is presented. Experiments were conducted on four types of scale model aircraft tires. Two types were of conventional bias construction, one type was an isotropic toroid, and one type was of unbelted radial construction. The conventional string theory and model gave predictions that were in good agreement with experimental data for bias constructed tires. The two-constant modification to string theory provided better agreement between predictions and experiment for the unconventional tires. The results indicate that the string theory tire model using static and slow-rolling tire properties predicts dynamic aircraft tire properties that have the same trends as the measured dynamic properties and, in most cases, provides good quantitative agreement.

  4. Aircraft Skin Restoration and Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yandouzi, M.; Gaydos, S.; Guo, D.; Ghelichi, R.; Jodoin, B.

    2014-12-01

    The recent development of the cold spray technology has made possible the deposition of low porosity and oxide-free coatings with good adhesion and with almost no change in the microstructure of the coated parts. This focuses on the use of low-pressure cold spray process to repair damaged Al-based aircraft skin, aiming at obtaining dense coatings with strong adhesion to the Al2024-T3 alloy. In order to prove the feasibility of using of the cold spray process as a repair process for aircraft skin, series of characterisation/tests including microstructures, microhardness, adhesion strength, three-point bending, surface finish, fatigue test, and corrosion resistance were performed. The obtained results revealed that the low-pressure cold spray process is a suitable for the repair of aircraft skin.

  5. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA, KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited, unless authorized in...

  6. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA, KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited, unless authorized in...

  7. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA, KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited, unless authorized in...

  8. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA, KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited, unless authorized in...

  9. Global Mortality Attributable to Aircraft Cruise Emissions

    E-print Network

    Britter, Rex E.

    Aircraft emissions impact human health though degradation of air quality. The majority of previous analyses of air quality impacts from aviation have considered only landing and takeoff emissions. We show that aircraft ...

  10. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting in harassment of wildlife, or the unauthorized landing or take-off on a national wildlife refuge,...

  11. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting in harassment of wildlife, or the unauthorized landing or take-off on a national wildlife refuge,...

  12. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices or any other such equipment. (b) The operation of...

  13. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices or any other such equipment. (b) The operation of...

  14. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting in harassment of wildlife, or the unauthorized landing or take-off on a national wildlife refuge,...

  15. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting in harassment of wildlife, or the unauthorized landing or take-off on a national wildlife refuge,...

  16. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting in harassment of wildlife, or the unauthorized landing or take-off on a national wildlife refuge,...

  17. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices or any other such equipment. (b) The operation of...

  18. Optimal scheduling of fighter aircraft maintenance

    E-print Network

    Cho, Philip Y

    2011-01-01

    The effective scheduling of fighter aircraft maintenance in the Air Force is crucial to overall mission accomplishment. An effective maintenance scheduling policy maximizes the use of maintenance resources and aircraft ...

  19. Propulsion system concepts for silent aircraft

    E-print Network

    Manneville, Alexis, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    The noise emitted by commercial aircraft is a major inhibitor of the growth of commercial air transport and is a critical environmental issue in air transportation. A functionally-silent aircraft is envisioned to achieve ...

  20. Alternate Fuels for use in Commercial Aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Daggett; Robert C. Hendricks; Edwin Corporan

    The engine and commercial aircraft research and development communities have been investigating the practicality of using alternative fuels in near, mid, and far-term aircraft. Presently, it appears that an approach of using a \\

  1. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section...Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses...of goods, services, and technology to insure the safety of civil...origin commercial passenger...

  2. 14 CFR 142.57 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...requirements: (1) Except for flight instruction and solo flights in a curriculum for agricultural aircraft operations, external load operations, and similar aerial work operations, the aircraft must have an FAA standard airworthiness...

  3. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground crews, licenses and inspection fees, washing, repainting, and minor accessories. (b) Credits...

  4. The commercial aircraft noise problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J. T.

    1989-01-01

    The history and future developments of commercial aircraft noise are discussed. The use of the turbofan engine to replace the louder turbojet engine is identified as a step forward in reducing noise. The increasing use of two engine planes for medium and even long hauls is seen as a positive trend. An increase in the number of aircraft movements is predicted. An upturn in noise exposure around the end of the century is predicted. The development goals of Rolls Royce in meeting the noise reduction challenges of the next decades are discussed.

  5. Alternative general-aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomazic, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

  6. Aircraft maneuver envelope warning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bivens, Courtland C. (inventor); Rosado, Joel M. (inventor); Lee, Burnett (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A maneuver envelope warning system for an aircraft having operating limits, operating condition sensors and an indicator driver. The indicator driver has a plurality of visual indicators. The indicator driver determines a relationship between sensed operating conditions and the operating limits; such as, a ratio therebetween. The indicator driver illuminates a number of the indicators in proportion to the determined relationship. The position of the indicators illuminated represents to a pilot in an easily ascertainable manner whether the operational conditions are approaching operational limits of the aircraft, and the degree to which operational conditions lie within or exceed operational limits.

  7. Model of aircraft noise adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Cawthorn, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Development of an aircraft noise adaptation model, which would account for much of the variability in the responses of subjects participating in human response to noise experiments, was studied. A description of the model development is presented. The principal concept of the model, was the determination of an aircraft adaptation level which represents an annoyance calibration for each individual. Results showed a direct correlation between noise level of the stimuli and annoyance reactions. Attitude-personality variables were found to account for varying annoyance judgements.

  8. Issue 413 June 2014 Experimental Amateur-Built aircraft (aircraft limited to

    E-print Network

    Issue 413 June 2014 Experimental Amateur-Built aircraft (aircraft limited to recreational, non by the NTSB, Experimental Amateur-Built (EAB) aircraft accounted for approximately 15% of the total and 21% of the fatal U.S. general aviation (GA) accidents. The NTSB also noted that EAB aircraft accidents usually

  9. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOEpatents

    Dickens, Larry M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Clinton, TN)

    1996-01-01

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components.

  10. Look at NASA's Aircraft Energy-Efficiency Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Staats

    1980-01-01

    Four years ago the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) initiated the Aircraft Energy-Efficiency Program to provide by 1985 the technology for making future transport aircraft up to 50% more fuel-efficient than today's aircraft. Thus far, NASA has helped the aircraft industry to improve its current and derivative aircraft, and the program offers continued promise that future aircraft will be

  11. Lightning test facility for light combat aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. N. A. P. Rao; K. N. Shamanna; G. R. Nagabhushana

    1997-01-01

    With the increased use of composites and sensitive electronic systems on board a fighter aircraft, there is a necessity to design the aircraft structure and systems to withstand lightning strike-both direct and indirect. A comprehensive lightning test facility has been established in Bangalore by ADA and IISc as part of the light combat aircraft programme for carrying out various lightning

  12. Managing IT investment for aircraft sustainment

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Managing IT investment for aircraft sustainment Michael MacDonnell, Department of Management and offers great scope for efficiency improvement and cost reduction. In terms of value chain systems. The commercial aircraft maintenance industry is on a scale similar to the aircraft manufacturing industry

  13. SCIENTIFIC OPPORTUNITIES LONG-RANGE AIRCRAFT

    E-print Network

    Howat, Ian M.

    LARA SCIENTIFIC OPPORTUNITIES FOR A LONG-RANGE AIRCRAFT FOR RESEARCH IN ANTARCTICA SCIENTIFIC OPPORTUNITIES FOR A LONG-RANGE AIRCRAFT FOR RESEARCH IN ANTARCTICA LARA #12;ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The workshop SEPTEMBER 27-29, 2004 LARA SCIENTIFIC OPPORTUNITIES FOR A LONG-RANGE AIRCRAFT FOR RESEARCH IN ANTARCTICA

  14. 20 Highlights Profiling the atmosphere with aircraft

    E-print Network

    Haak, Hein

    20 Highlights Profiling the atmosphere with aircraft Jitze van der Meulen Introduction Weather aircrafts perform continuous observations during their flights and especially during ascent and descent of aircraft, quality monitoring services and rapid feed back to the AMDAR operations system are essential

  15. Arnold Schwarzenegger AIRCRAFT MEASUREMENTS OF THE

    E-print Network

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor AIRCRAFT MEASUREMENTS OF THE IMPACTS OF POLLUTION AEROSOLS ON CLOUDS Prentice piloted the Cheyenne II cloud physics aircraft during SUPRECIP1, and Mr. Gary Walker, Manager Conservation District, piloted this aircraft in SUPRECIP2. Mr. Kevin McLaughlin piloted the Cessna 340 aerosol

  16. Bayesian Methods for Aircraft Structural Health

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Thomas C.

    Chapter 1 Bayesian Methods for Aircraft Structural Health Monitoring T.C. Henderson1 , V.J. Mathews.1 Introduction Aircraft structures, whether metallic or composite, are subject to service damage which requires their periodic inspection and maintenance. While taking the aircraft out of service is quite costly

  17. Arnold Schwarzenegger AIRCRAFT MEASUREMENTS OF THE

    E-print Network

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor AIRCRAFT MEASUREMENTS OF THE IMPACTS OF POLLUTION AEROSOLS ON CLOUDS Documentation of the SUPRECIP2 Program Appendix C. The SOAR Research Aircraft During SUPRECIP2 Appendix D Data for Flights of the Cloud Physics and Aerosol Aircraft #12; #12;APA-1 Appendix A Worldwide

  18. WEATHER MODIFICATION BY AIRCRAFT CLOUD SEEDING

    E-print Network

    Vali, Gabor

    WEATHER MODIFICATION BY AIRCRAFT CLOUD SEEDING BERYULEV G.P. Head, Department of Cloud;#12; Precipitation Enhancement An aircraft cloud seeding by iceforming or hygroscopic agents is a basis of the technology. The seeding is produced from aircrafts of a types IL18, AN12, AN26, AN 30, YaK40, equipped

  19. Modular Aircraft simulation platform based on Simulink

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-qing Chen; Yong Ji

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft simulation platform is the most important supporting technology in the aircraft development process. This simulation platform can be used for validating the design of subsystem and also it provides the necessary data for the Aircraft design. Wind has great impact on the flight parameter. In order to accurately simulate the wind model and calculate the flight parameters, a simulation

  20. Fiber optic hardware for transport aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. White

    1993-01-01

    Fiber Optic Technology is being developed for aircraft and offers benefits in system performance and manufacturing cost reduction. Thr fiber optic systems have high bandwidths that exceeds all of the new aircraft design requirements and exceptional electromagnetic interference (EMI) immunity. Additionally, fiber optic systems have been installed in production aircraft proving design feasiblity.

  1. Fiber optic hardware for transport aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. White

    1994-01-01

    Aircraft manufacturers are developing fiber optic technology to exploit the benefits in system performance and manufacturing cost reduction. The fiber optic systems have high bandwidths and exceptional Electromagnetic Interference immunity that exceeds all new aircraft design requirements. Additionally, aircraft manufacturers have shown production readiness of fiber optic systems and design feasibility.

  2. 7, 25312560, 2007 Aircraft pollution: a

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 2531­2560, 2007 Aircraft pollution: a futuristic view O. A. Søvde et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Aircraft pollution: a futuristic view O. A. Søvde 1 , M. Gauss 1 , I. S. A Correspondence to: O. A. Søvde (asovde@geo.uio.no) 2531 #12;ACPD 7, 2531­2560, 2007 Aircraft pollution

  3. 2, 20452074, 2002 Emission by aircraft

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 2, 2045­2074, 2002 Emission by aircraft engines A. Sorokin et al. Title Page Abstract soot particles by aircraft engines A. Sorokin1 , X. Vancassel2 , and P. Mirabel2 1 Central Institute@illite.u-strasbg.fr) 2045 #12;ACPD 2, 2045­2074, 2002 Emission by aircraft engines A. Sorokin et al. Title Page Abstract

  4. Cooperative Electronic Chaining Using Small Unmanned Aircraft

    E-print Network

    Frew, Eric W.

    Cooperative Electronic Chaining Using Small Unmanned Aircraft Cory R. Dixon and Eric W. Frew RECUV, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 80309, USA When using a team of small unmanned aircraft-of-sight communication constraints between an individual aircraft and a ground station, and not the endurance range

  5. The Aircraft Dispatcher "One stop shopping"

    E-print Network

    The Aircraft Dispatcher "One stop shopping" source of information for the pilot #12;What there for not more than one hour, no person may start a flight unless an aircraft dispatcher specifically authorizes aircraft. They operate approximately 20,000 flights per day. They employ almost 50,000 pilots

  6. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6...General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of this...without creating a hazard to aircraft safety. [77 FR 36381, June...

  7. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6...General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of this...without creating a hazard to aircraft safety. [77 FR 36381, June...

  8. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... Definitions. § 87.6 Aircraft safety. Link to an amendment published...forth as follows: § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of...

  9. Contribution of laser anemometry to aircraft safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques Mandle

    1987-01-01

    The contribution of laser anemometry to aircraft safety through its use in the calibration of aircraft wind and pressure measurements and in wind shear detection is considered. Following a discussion of the principles of laser anemometry and four standard pressure error calibration methods, the application of laser anemometry to the calibration of aircraft incidence and sideslip is discussed. Calibration precisions

  10. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  11. Douglas DT-2 (Naval Aircraft Factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1923-01-01

    Douglas DT-2 (Naval Aircraft Factory): This example of the Douglas DT-2 torpedo plane, which flew as 'NACA 11,' was built in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by the Naval Aircraft Factory. Langley's NACA staff studied the take-off characteristics of a twin-float seaplane with this aircraft.

  12. Autolanding of Commercial Aircrafts by Genetic Programming

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    disturbances. The derived control law is tested successfully, using a linearised model of a commercial aircraftAutolanding of Commercial Aircrafts by Genetic Programming Dimitris C. Dracopoulos Abstract--The genetic programming approach is applied to the problem of aircraft autolanding, sub- ject to wind

  13. Aircraft engine weight and dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, L. C.

    1977-01-01

    Program estimates engine weights and major dimensions on compartment to compartment basis for any engine with components that can be represented within the program. Data base of program reflects selected high technology engines from supersonic cruise aircraft research studies, some NASA in-house results, and some older military supersonic engines.

  14. Hypersonic flight [scramjet aircraft propulsion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Guizzo

    2004-01-01

    Current turbojet engines cannot propel an aircraft to hypersonic speeds -their spinning shafts and compressors would simply collapse. To solve this problem, groups in the United States, Japan, Australia, and other countries are working on a propulsion system that burns fuel combined with air flowing at supersonic speeds through the engine, which is essentially a metallic funnel, with no moving

  15. Aircraft Control-Position Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, D. V.

    1985-01-01

    Aircraft control-position indicator cockpit-mounted instrument that displays positions of elevator and ailerons to pilot. Display is cruciform array of lights: horizontal row of amber lights and vertical row of green lights representing aileron and elevator positions, respectively. Display used extensively in spin testing and has been trouble-free, with no maintenance required after about 30 hours of operation.

  16. Automatic aircraft cargo load planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Limbourg; M Schyns; G Laporte

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is the development of a new mixed integer linear program designed for optimally loading a set of containers and pallets into a compartmentalised cargo aircraft. It is based on real-world problems submitted by a professional partner. This model takes into account strict technical and safety constraints. In addition to the standard goal of optimally positioning

  17. Morphing wings for unmanned aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg W. Pettit; Harry H. Robertshaw; Dan J. Inman

    2001-01-01

    Here a computational model is presented which predicts the force, stroke and energy needed to overcome aerodynamic loads encountered by morphing wings, to perform aircraft manoeuvres. The aerodynamic load algorithms have been verified against more time-expensive codes. The overall model allows for desired flight-path inputs and variable control algorithms. The four modules that make up the model integrate well, to

  18. Aircraft Mechanics: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for an aircraft mechanics vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and…

  19. The aircraft movement simulation model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel A. Thomet

    1983-01-01

    The following paragraphs describe a computer program for simulating the movements of aircraft on the apron, taxiways, and runways of an airport. The purpose of this program is to enable the airport planner to evaluate the performance of a given airport layout from an operational point of view. Likewise, he can compare alternative layouts, investigate the impact of a change

  20. Towards virtual sound aircraft simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jocelyn Périsse; Patrik Chevret; Christophe Thirard; Jean-Michel Nogues

    Snecma Moteur, Département Acoustique \\/ YYA\\/ bât. 7D, 77550 Moissy-Cramayel - France Sound simulation can help the understanding and the improvement of sound quality around airports. This paper presents sound synthesis methodology capable of binaural restitution and modelling of main noise sources radiated by an aircraft. It is dedicated to \\

  1. Aircraft Simulators and Pilot Training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul W. Caro

    1973-01-01

    Flight simulators are built as realistically as possible, presumably to enhance their training value. Yet, their training value is determined by the way they are used. Traditionally, simulators have been less important for training than have aircraft, but they are currently emerging as primary pilot training vehicles. This new emphasis is an outgrowth of systems engineering of flight training programs,

  2. Fiber optics for advanced aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Baumbick

    1989-01-01

    The increased use of composites makes the digital control more susceptible to electromagnetic effects. In order to provide the protection to the digital control additional shielding will be required as well as protective circuitry for the electronics. This results in increased weight and reduced reliability. The advantages that fiber optic technology provides for advanced aircraft applications is recognized. The use

  3. Aircraft Identification by Moment Invariants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sahibsingh A. Dudani; Kenneth J. Breeding; Robert B. Mcghee

    1977-01-01

    Although many systems for optical reading of printed matter have been developed and are now in wide use, comparatively little success has been achieved in the automatic interpretation of optical images of three-dimensional scenes. This paper is addressed to the latter problem and is specifically concerned with automatic recognition of aircraft types from optical images. An experimental system is described

  4. Aircraft absorbers - Promise and practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. O. Andersson

    1981-01-01

    Attention is given to the application of sound absorbers to aircraft engine ducts. Fan duct application is discussed with reference to the frequency spectrum of fan noise, the wave number spectrum of fan noise, and both local and extended reactions to lining types. The design of duct linings is examined, noting a number of analysis techniques for non-uniform ducts and

  5. Composite structural materials. [aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1981-01-01

    The development of composite materials for aircraft applications is addressed with specific consideration of physical properties, structural concepts and analysis, manufacturing, reliability, and life prediction. The design and flight testing of composite ultralight gliders is documented. Advances in computer aided design and methods for nondestructive testing are also discussed.

  6. Fretting in aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Bill, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of fretting in aircraft turbine engines is discussed. Critical fretting can occur on fan, compressor, and turbine blade mountings, as well as on splines, rolling element bearing races, and secondary sealing elements of face type seals. Structural fatigue failures have been shown to occur at fretted areas on component parts. Methods used by designers to reduce the effects of fretting are given.

  7. Disturbance caused by aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Josse, R.

    1980-01-01

    Noise pollution caused by the presence of airfields adjacent to residential areas is studied. Noise effects on the sleep of residents near airports and the degree of the residents noise tolerance are evaluated. What aircraft noises are annoying and to what extent the annoyance varies with sound level are discussed.

  8. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results when it is finally ready for testing. Another of my goals is to test new membranes for use in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells, in the hope that these membranes can increase the electricity that is produced by he1 cells. Producing more electricity means that fewer fuel cells are needed, thus reducing the weight and volume of an APU based on fuel cells, making such an APU much more viable.

  9. Laser Powered Aircraft Takes Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A team of NASA researchers from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Dryden Flight Research center have proven that beamed light can be used to power an aircraft, a first-in-the-world accomplishment to the best of their knowledge. Using an experimental custom built radio-controlled model aircraft, the team has demonstrated a system that beams enough light energy from the ground to power the propeller of an aircraft and sustain it in flight. Special photovoltaic arrays on the plane, similar to solar cells, receive the light energy and convert it to electric current to drive the propeller motor. In a series of indoor flights this week at MSFC, a lightweight custom built laser beam was aimed at the airplane `s solar panels. The laser tracks the plane, maintaining power on its cells until the end of the flight when the laser is turned off and the airplane glides to a landing. The laser source demonstration represents the capability to beam more power to a plane so that it can reach higher altitudes and have a greater flight range without having to carry fuel or batteries, enabling an indefinite flight time. The demonstration was a collaborative effort between the Dryden Center at Edward's, California, where the aircraft was designed and built, and MSFC, where integration and testing of the laser and photovoltaic cells was done. Laser power beaming is a promising technology for consideration in new aircraft design and operation, and supports NASA's goals in the development of revolutionary aerospace technologies. Photographed with their invention are (from left to right): David Bushman and Tony Frackowiak, both of Dryden; and MSFC's Robert Burdine.

  10. Aircraft plume signature suppression and stealth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Gao, Jiaobo; Wang, Weina; Wang, Jilong; Xie, Junhu

    2005-01-01

    How to turning down the heat of aircraft infrared picture, how to get stealthy. To make a stealthy aircraft, designers had to consider a lot of key ingredients. This paper mainly introduces aircraft stealthy and discussed the efficiency of aircraft signature suppression. We describe testing process, measure and analyze the characteristics of aerosol scattering and absorption and present testing data of aircraft plume signature suppression. It covers the waveband from 2?m to 14?m. Another, infrared radiation temperature be minimized by a combination of temperature reduction and masking radiation temperature.

  11. Small Transport Aircraft Technology /STAT/ Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldenbrand, R. W.; Baerst, C. F.; Rowse, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The NASA Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) Propulsion Study was established to identify technology requirements and define the research and development required for new commuter aircraft. Interim results of the studies defined mission and design characteristics for 30- and 50-passenger aircraft. Sensitivities were defined that relate changes in engine specific fuel consumption (SFC), weight, and cost (including maintenance) to changes in the aircraft direct operating cost (DOC), takeoff gross weight, and empty weight. A comparison of performance and economic characteristics is presented between aircraft powered by 1980 production engines and those powered by a 1990 advanced technology baseline engine.

  12. Role of research aircraft in technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.

    1984-01-01

    NASA supercritical wing technology, and the digital fly-by-wire program are discussed as used on the F-8 research aircraft. Furthermore, the Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology (HiMAT) program, using a 0.44-scale, 3500 lb jet-powered remotely piloted research aircraft, is analyzed. Highly accurate data on aerodynamic and structural loads and deflection data were obtained from model flight tests. In addition, an oblique-wing technology is discussed through the example of the piloted AD-1 research aircraft, noting the low cost of the experiment. Other topics include: integrated system technology; generic forces of the research aircraft program; and aeronautical technology application trends.

  13. Refurbishment of NASA aircraft with fire-retardant materials. [aircraft compartments of commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Supkis, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Selected fire-retardant materials for possible application to commercial aircraft are described. The results of flammability screening tests and information on the physical and chemical properties of both original and newly installed materials after extended use are presented in tabular form, with emphasis on wear properties, strength, puncture and tear resistances, and cleanability.

  14. Instrument for Aircraft-Icing and Cloud-Physics Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilie, Lyle; Bouley, Dan; Sivo, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The figure shows a compact, rugged, simple sensor head that is part of an instrumentation system for making measurements to characterize the severity of aircraft-icing conditions and/or to perform research on cloud physics. The quantities that are calculated from measurement data acquired by this system and that are used to quantify the severity of icing conditions include sizes of cloud water drops, cloud liquid water content (LWC), cloud ice water content (IWC), and cloud total water content (TWC). The sensor head is mounted on the outside of an aircraft, positioned and oriented to intercept the ambient airflow. The sensor head consists of an open housing that is heated in a controlled manner to keep it free of ice and that contains four hot-wire elements. The hot-wire sensing elements have different shapes and sizes and, therefore, exhibit different measurement efficiencies with respect to droplet size and water phase (liquid, frozen, or mixed). Three of the hot-wire sensing elements are oriented across the airflow so as to intercept incoming cloud water. For each of these elements, the LWC or TWC affects the power required to maintain a constant temperature in the presence of cloud water.

  15. Aircraft Cabin Turbulence Warning Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Larcher, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    New turbulence prediction technology offers the potential for advance warning of impending turbulence encounters, thereby allowing necessary cabin preparation time prior to the encounter. The amount of time required for passengers and flight attendants to be securely seated (that is, seated with seat belts fastened) currently is not known. To determine secured seating-based warning times, a consortium of aircraft safety organizations have conducted an experiment involving a series of timed secured seating trials. This demonstrative experiment, conducted on October 1, 2, and 3, 2002, used a full-scale B-747 wide-body aircraft simulator, human passenger subjects, and supporting staff from six airlines. Active line-qualified flight attendants from three airlines participated in the trials. Definitive results have been obtained to provide secured seating-based warning times for the developers of turbulence warning technology

  16. Aircraft jolts from lightning bolts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Felix L.; Fisher, Bruce D.; Mazur, Vladislav; Perala, Rodney A.

    1988-01-01

    The trend toward the use of composite materials and digital electronics has renewed the need to quantify the effects of lightning strikes to airplanes, since composite structures do not provide shielding equivalent to that of metal aircraft, and digital systems are potentially more susceptible to upset by electrical transients than are analog electronic systems. A research program, called the Storm Hazards Program, has been run by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for the past eight years and has provided the first statistically significant measurements of the electromagnetic interaction between lightning and aircraft. A NASA-owned F-106B airplane has been flown through thunderstorms about 1500 times at altitudes between 5,000 and 40,000 feet (1,500 to 12,000 meters). The airplane, lightning-hardened and outfitted with special instruments, was hit by lightning 714 times. The types of measurements made and the results are described.

  17. Safe structures for future aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomb, H. G., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The failure mechanisms, design lessons, and test equipment employed by NASA in establishing the airworthiness and crashworthiness of aircraft components for commercial applications are described. The composites test programs have progressed to medium primary structures such as stabilizers and a vertical fin. The failures encountered to date have been due to the nonyielding nature of composites, which do not diffuse loads like metals, and the presence of eccentricities, irregular shapes, stiffness changes, and discontinuities that cause tension and shear. Testing to failure, which always occurred in first tests before the design loads were reached, helped identify design changes and reinforcements that produced successful products. New materials and NDE techniques are identified, together with aircraft structural design changes that offer greater protection to the passengers, fuel antimisting agents, and landing gear systems.

  18. Handbook of aircraft noise metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, R. L.; Pearsons, K. S.

    1981-01-01

    Information is presented on 22 noise metrics that are associated with the measurement and prediction of the effects of aircraft noise. Some of the instantaneous frequency weighted sound level measures, such as A-weighted sound level, are used to provide multiple assessment of the aircraft noise level. Other multiple event metrics, such as day-night average sound level, were designed to relate sound levels measured over a period of time to subjective responses in an effort to determine compatible land uses and aid in community planning. The various measures are divided into: (1) instantaneous sound level metrics; (2) duration corrected single event metrics; (3) multiple event metrics; and (4) speech communication metrics. The scope of each measure is examined in terms of its: definition, purpose, background, relationship to other measures, calculation method, example, equipment, references, and standards.

  19. Aircraft digital control design methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Parsons, E.; Tashker, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    Variations in design methods for aircraft digital flight control are evaluated and compared. The methods fall into two categories; those where the design is done in the continuous domain (or s plane) and those where the design is done in the discrete domain (or z plane). Design method fidelity is evaluated by examining closed loop root movement and the frequency response of the discretely controlled continuous aircraft. It was found that all methods provided acceptable performance for sample rates greater than 10 cps except the uncompensated s plane design method which was acceptable above 20 cps. A design procedure based on optimal control methods was proposed that provided the best fidelity at very slow sample rates and required no design iterations for changing sample rates.

  20. Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.

  1. CID Aircraft slap-down

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In this photograph the B-720 is seen during the moments of initial impact. The left wing is digging into the lakebed while the aircraft continues sliding towards wing openers. In 1984 NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID). The test involved crashing a Boeing 720 aircraft with four JT3C-7 engines burning a mixture of standard fuel with an additive, Anti-misting Kerosene (AMK), designed to supress fire. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1, 1984, more than four years of effort passed trying to set-up final impact conditions considered survivable by the FAA. During those years while 14 flights with crews were flown the following major efforts were underway: NASA Dryden developed the remote piloting techniques necessary for the B-720 to fly as a drone aircraft; General Electric installed and tested four degraders (one on each engine); and the FAA refined AMK (blending, testing, and fueling a full-size aircraft). The 15 flights had 15 takeoffs, 14 landings and a larger number of approaches to about 150 feet above the prepared crash site under remote control. These flight were used to introduce AMK one step at a time into some of the fuel tanks and engines while monitoring the performance of the engines. On the final flight (No. 15) with no crew, all fuel tanks were filled with a total of 76,000 pounds of AMK and the remotely-piloted aircraft landed on Rogers Dry Lakebed in an area prepared with posts to test the effectiveness of the AMK in a controlled impact. The CID, which some wags called the Crash in the Desert, was spectacular with a large fireball enveloping and burning the B-720 aircraft. From the standpoint of AMK the test was a major set-back, but for NASA Langley, the data collected on crashworthiness was deemed successful and just as important.

  2. Trends in transport aircraft avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkstresser, B. K.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of avionics onboard present commercial transport aircraft was conducted to identify trends in avionics systems characteristics and to determine the impact of technology advances on equipment weight, cost, reliability, and maintainability. Transport aircraft avionics systems are described under the headings of communication, navigation, flight control, and instrumentation. The equipment included in each section is described functionally. However, since more detailed descriptions of the equipment can be found in other sources, the description is limited and emphasis is put on configuration requirements. Since airborne avionics systems must interface with ground facilities, certain ground facilities are described as they relate to the airborne systems, with special emphasis on air traffic control and all-weather landing capability.

  3. Review of aircraft noise propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, T. W.

    1975-01-01

    The current state of knowledge about the propagation of aircraft noise was reviewed. The literature on the subject is surveyed and methods for predicting the most important and best understood propagation effects are presented. Available empirical data are examined and the data's general validity is assessed. The methods used to determine the loss of acoustic energy due to uniform spherical spreading, absorption in a homogeneous atmosphere, and absorption due to ground cover are presented. A procedure for determining ground induced absorption as a function of elevation angle between source and receiver is recommended. Other factors that affect propagation, such as refraction and scattering due to turbulence, which were found to be less important for predicting the propagation of aircraft noise, are also evaluated.

  4. Fiber optic sensors for aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glen E. Miller

    1989-01-01

    Some of the more common classes of fiber optic sensors are reviewed. In particular, the characteristics of three broad classes of fiber optic sensors (hybrid, self-generating, and electrically-passive\\/optically-active) are compared with those of the conventional electrical sensor. Examples of solved and unsolved problems that may have prevented the immediate acceptance of the new technology by the aircraft industries are examined.

  5. Process modeling KC-135 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Instrumentation will be provided for KC-135 aircraft which will provide a quantitative measure of g-level variation during parabolic flights and its effect on experiments which demonstrate differences in results obtained with differences in convective flow. The flight apparatus will provide video recording of the effects of the g-level variations on varying fluid samples. The apparatus will be constructed to be available to fly on the KC-135 during most missions.

  6. Cost-minimized aircraft trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H.; Erzberger, H.

    1981-01-01

    For aircraft operating over fixed range, operating costs are basically sum of fuel cost and time cost; but determining minimum cost trajectory can be complex. Program optimizes trajectories with respect to cost function that is based on weighed sum of fuel cost and time cost. Minimum fuel, minimum time, and various delay trajectories are obtained by specifying particular values for fuel and time cost factors.

  7. Aircraft flight test trajectory control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Walker, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Two control law design techniques are compared and the performance of the resulting controllers evaluated. The design requirement is for a flight test trajectory controller (FTTC) capable of closed-loop, outer-loop control of an F-15 aircraft performing high-quality research flight test maneuvers. The maneuver modeling, linearization, and design methodologies utilized in this research, are detailed. The results of applying these FTTCs to a nonlinear F-15 simulation are presented.

  8. Fourth Aircraft Interior Noise Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David G. (compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The fourth in a series of NASA/SAE Interior Noise Workshops was held on May 19 and 20, 1992. The theme of the workshop was new technology and applications for aircraft noise with emphasis on source noise prediction; cabin noise prediction; cabin noise control, including active and passive methods; and cabin interior noise procedures. This report is a compilation of the presentations made at the meeting which addressed the above issues.

  9. Oblique-wing supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T. (inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An aircraft including a single fuselage having a main wing and a horizontal stabilizer airfoil pivotally attached at their centers to the fuselage is described. The pivotal attachments allow the airfoils to be yawed relative to the fuselage for high speed flight, and to be positioned at right angles with respect to the fuselage during takeoff, landing, and low speed flight. The main wing and the horizontal stabilizer are upwardly curved from their center pivotal connections towards their ends to form curvilinear dihedrals.

  10. Aircraft-borne lightning sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    An instrument is described that has been used to measure the spatial and temporal distributions of lightning strokes as seen from a high-altitude aircraft platform. It consists of two separate sensors. One has a lens, selectable filters, and a 50 x 50 element array of photodiodes. The second has an identical lens, filters, and a single detector that covers the same total field of view.

  11. Decision Aiding For Tactical Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadwell, Marty; Smith, James; Barnette, Jack; Staros, Chris

    1985-04-01

    This paper describes and discusses an airborne mission/route planner system currently under development at Lockheed-Georgia Co. Some of the tasks performed by this system require reasoning symbolically with subjective, incomplete information. Other tasks require precise, synchronized processing of aircraft control parameters. Still other tasks are a blend of these two extremes. This paper presents the design and implementation approach which is being followed to develop this system.

  12. Weather data dissemination to aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Richard H.; Parker, Craig B.

    1990-01-01

    Documentation exists that shows weather to be responsible for approximately 40 percent of all general aviation accidents with fatalities. Weather data products available on the ground are becoming more sophisticated and greater in number. Although many of these data are critical to aircraft safety, they currently must be transmitted verbally to the aircraft. This process is labor intensive and provides a low rate of information transfer. Consequently, the pilot is often forced to make life-critical decisions based on incomplete and outdated information. Automated transmission of weather data from the ground to the aircraft can provide the aircrew with accurate data in near-real time. The current National Airspace System Plan calls for such an uplink capability to be provided by the Mode S Beacon System data link. Although this system has a very advanced data link capability, it will not be capable of providing adequate weather data to all airspace users in its planned configuration. This paper delineates some of the important weather data uplink system requirements, and describes a system which is capable of meeting these requirements. The proposed system utilizes a run-length coding technique for image data compression and a hybrid phase and amplitude modulation technique for the transmission of both voice and weather data on existing aeronautical Very High Frequency (VHF) voice communication channels.

  13. Aircraft morphing wing concepts with radical geometry change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng Min; Vu Khac Kien; Liew J. Y. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft morphing schemes affect flying performance of aircrafts by dramatic change of aircraft body shapes. Such schemes eliminate the need for multiple, expensive, mission-specific aircraft. Morphing designs include rotating, sliding and inflating based on shape change mechanisms. The current trend in technology development shows that there is room to improve with regards to aircraft size, flying range and flight performance

  14. Assessment of NDE needs for aging corporate and private aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene R. Reinhart

    1998-01-01

    Considerable attention has been focused on the life extension of ageing military and commercial aircraft by the government and major aircraft fabricators. A vital, but often neglected segment of the aircraft industry is the are of inspecting ageing fleets of corporate and privately-owned aircraft. Many of these aircraft are inspected and maintained by the various FAA-approved repair stations located around

  15. Advanced technology for future regional transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with a request for a report coming from a U.S. Senate committee, NASA formed a Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) team in 1978. STAT was to obtain information concerning the technical improvements in commuter aircraft that would likely increase their public acceptance. Another area of study was related to questions regarding the help which could be provided by NASA's aeronautical research and development program to commuter aircraft manufacturers with respect to the solution of technical problems. Attention is given to commuter airline growth, current commuter/region aircraft and new aircraft in development, prospects for advanced technology commuter/regional transports, and potential benefits of advanced technology. A list is provided of a number of particular advances appropriate to small transport aircraft, taking into account small gas turbine engine component technology, propeller technology, three-dimensional wing-design technology, airframe aerodynamics/propulsion integration, and composite structure materials.

  16. Approaches to Representing Aircraft Fuel Efficiency Performance for the Purpose of a Commercial Aircraft Certification Standard

    E-print Network

    Yutko, Brian

    2011-06-27

    Increasing concern over the potential harmful effects of green house gas emissions from various sources has motivated the consideration of an aircraft certification standard as one way to reduce aircraft CO2 emissions and ...

  17. Approaches to representing aircraft fuel efficiency performance for the purpose of a commercial aircraft certification standard

    E-print Network

    Yutko, Brian M. (Brian Matthew)

    2011-01-01

    Increasing concern over the potential harmful effects of green house gas emissions from various sources has motivated the consideration of an aircraft certification standard as one way to reduce aircraft C02 emissions and ...

  18. Maintenance cost study of rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility was studied of predicting rotary wing operation maintenance costs by using several aircraft design factors for the aircraft dynamic systems. The dynamic systems considered were engines, drives and transmissions, rotors, and flight controls. Multiple regression analysis was used to correlate aircraft design and operational factors with manhours per flight hour, and equations for each dynamic system were developed. Results of labor predictions using the equations compare favorably with actual values.

  19. Computation of minimum noise aircraft landing trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, G.

    1978-01-01

    Efforts to reduce aircraft noise perceived by residents during landing are reported. Steps in the development of the aircraft aerodynamic model, noise model, population model, performance index, and optimization procedure are reviewed. The optimal trajectories from the three main near-terminal entry points are presented via tables and graphs. The recommendation is that these minimal noise trajectories be tested as reference trajectories for the terminally configured aircraft to fly along.

  20. The History of Aircraft Materials Presentation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This PowerPoint document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project provides a solid background of the history of materials used in the aircraft industry. The presentation includes 28 slides and covers the types of materials used throughout the history of the aircraft industry, why materials were adopted at different points in time, why materials have been replaced by new technologies and what the future is for materials in aircraft. Many useful graphics and photographs are included.

  1. Naval Aircraft Factory (Curtiss) H-16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Naval Aircraft Factory (Curtiss) H-16: The Naval Aircraft Factory H-16 flying boat, seen here on a beaching dolly on the Langley seaplane ramp, was one of 150 built by the Naval Aircraft Factory in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Most H-16s built were made by Curtiss, so the type is more readily known under that name. The NACA performed hull pressure distribution tests at Langley during 1929.

  2. Supersonic cruise aircraft research: An annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography, with abstracts, consists of 69 publications arranged in chronological order. The material may be useful to those interested in supersonic cruise fighter/penetrator/interceptor airplanes. Two pertinent conferences on military supercruise aircraft are considered as single items; one contains 37 papers and the other 29 papers. In addition, several related bibliographies are included which cover supersonic civil aircraft and military aircraft studies at the Langley Research Center. There is also an author index.

  3. A dynamic stability analysis of an aircraft passing through the trailing vortices of another aircraft

    E-print Network

    De Santo, Robert James William

    1972-01-01

    A DYNAMIC STABILITY ANALYSIS OF AN AIRCRAFT PASSING THROUGH THE TRAILING VORTICES OF ANOTHER AIRCRAFT A Thesi~ x ROBERT J. MAE SANTO, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1972 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering A DYNAMIC STABILITY ANALYSIS OF AN AIRCRAFT PASSING THROUGH THE TRAILING VORTICES OF ANOTHER AIRCRAFT A Thesis by ROBERT J. W. DE SANTO) JR. Approved as to style...

  4. National Center for Aircraft Technician Training (NCATT)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Center for Aircraft Technician Training (NCATT), a project of NSF's Advanced Technological Education program, aims to "facilitate a cohesive alliance of industry, government, and education to promote aircraft maintenance professionalism." On the site, visitors can find information about the project's two training and certification programs: aircraft electronics technician (AET), and Foreign Object Elimination -- Elements of Basic Awareness (FOE). There is also information about how to become a NCATT-accredited program. In addition to learning more about the project and its partners, there is also a link to other aircraft technician training materials online and a full list of NCATT-accredited institutions.

  5. Aircraft-type dependency of contrail evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unterstrasser, S.; Görsch, N.

    2014-12-01

    The impact of aircraft type on contrail evolution is assessed using a large eddy simulation model with Lagrangian ice microphysics. Six different aircraft ranging from the small regional airliner Bombardier CRJ to the largest aircraft Airbus A380 are taken into account. Differences in wake vortex properties and fuel flow lead to considerable variations in the early contrail geometric depth and ice crystal number. Larger aircraft produce contrails with more ice crystals (assuming that the number of initially generated ice crystals per kilogram fuel is constant). These initial differences are reduced in the first minutes, as the ice crystal loss during the vortex phase is stronger for larger aircraft. In supersaturated air, contrails of large aircraft are much deeper after 5 min than those of small aircraft. A parameterization for the final vertical displacement of the wake vortex system is provided, depending only on the initial vortex circulation and stratification. Cloud resolving simulations are used to examine whether the aircraft-induced initial differences have a long-lasting mark. These simulations suggest that the synoptic scenario controls the contrail cirrus evolution qualitatively. However, quantitative differences between the contrail cirrus properties of the various aircraft remain over the total simulation period of 6 h. The total extinctions of A380-produced contrails are about 1.5 to 2.5 times higher than those from contrails of a Bombardier CRJ.

  6. An aircraft sensor fault tolerant system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Lancraft, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The design of a sensor fault tolerant system which uses analytical redundancy for the Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV) research aircraft in a Microwave Landing System (MLS) environment was studied. The fault tolerant system provides reliable estimates for aircraft position, velocity, and attitude in the presence of possible failures in navigation aid instruments and onboard sensors. The estimates, provided by the fault tolerant system, are used by the automated guidance and control system to land the aircraft along a prescribed path. Sensor failures are identified by utilizing the analytic relationship between the various sensor outputs arising from the aircraft equations of motion.

  7. Electromagnetic Propagation Prediction Inside Aircraft Cabins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, Genevieve; Vahala, Linda; Beggs, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Electromagnetic propagation models for signal strength prediction within aircraft cabins are essential for evaluating and designing a wireless communication system to be implemented onboard aircraft. A model was developed using Wireless Valley's SitePlanner; which is commercial grade software intended for predictions within office buildings. The performance of the model was evaluated through a comparison with test data measurements taken on several aircraft. The comparison concluded that the model can accurately predict power propagation within the cabin. This model can enhance researchers understanding of power propagation within aircraft cabins and will aid in future research.

  8. Alternate Fuels for Use in Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Walther, Rainer; Corporan, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    The engine and aircraft Research and Development (R&D) communities have been investigating alternative fueling in near-term, midterm, and far-term aircraft. A drop in jet fuel replacement, consisting of a kerosene (Jet-A) and synthetic fuel blend, will be possible for use in existing and near-term aircraft. Future midterm aircraft may use a biojet and synthetic fuel blend in ultra-efficient airplane designs. Future far-term engines and aircraft in 50-plus years may be specifically designed to use a low- or zero-carbon fuel. Synthetic jet fuels from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks are very similar in performance to conventional jet fuel, yet the additional CO2 produced during the manufacturing needs to be permanently sequestered. Biojet fuels need to be developed specifically for jet aircraft without displacing food production. Envisioned as midterm aircraft fuel, if the performance and cost liabilities can be overcome, biofuel blends with synthetic jet or Jet-A fuels have near-term potential in terms of global climatic concerns. Long-term solutions address dramatic emissions reductions through use of alternate aircraft fuels such as liquid hydrogen or liquid methane. Either of these new aircraft fuels will require an enormous change in infrastructure and thus engine and airplane design. Life-cycle environmental questions need to be addressed.

  9. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those over the poles. The system consists of a constellation of 4 geostationary satellites covering the earth and delivering its signals to the aircraft at S band (2.52 -2.67 GHz). The S-band spectrum is ideal for this application since it is allocated on a primary basis by the ITU for global broadcast service. The AirTV service is expected to begin in 2004 and should be unencumbered by adjacent satellite interference due to near completion of the ITU coordination process. Each satellite will deliver four 20 Mbps QPSK data streams consisting of multiplexed compressed digital video channels and IP data over the full global beam coverage. The 80 Mbps capacity of each satellite will provide approximately 60 video channels while still allocating 40 Mbits to data services. The combined constellation capacity of 320 Mbits will significantly exceed the capacity of any similar existing or currently planned global satellite system. In addition, the simplicity of the 4-satellite approach is the most cost effective means to deliver high bandwidth globally. Return links, which are required for internet service, will be provided through the existing Inmarsat Aero-H system already onboard virtually all long haul aircraft and will provide return data rates from the aircraft as high as 432 kbps. integrated receiver/decoder (IRD) assembly. The phased array antenna, a key technology element, is being developed by AirTV's strategic partner, CMC Electronics. This antenna is a scaled version of CMC's Inmarsat Aero H antenna and is capable of scanning to 5 degrees above the horizon. Wide angle scanning up to 85 degrees from zenith is necessary for aircraft traversing the northernmost latitudes on transoceanic routes. AirTV has designed both the satellite coverage and aircraft antenna performance to ensure that high signal quality is maintained along all non-polar airline routes. AirTV will be the future of aeronautical broadband delivery. It has been designed specifically for global services and uses the ideal spectrum for this application. It will revolutionize the delivery of content t

  10. Improving Aircraft Sequencing and Separation at a Small Aircraft Transportation System Airport

    E-print Network

    Valasek, John

    Improving Aircraft Sequencing and Separation at a Small Aircraft Transportation System Airport Kyle and procedures for approach and landing during instrument meteorological conditions, the NASA small aircraft, and evaluation was conducted with multiple pilots flying simultaneously in a real-time distributed simulation

  11. 77 FR 1626 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ...Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...equipped with Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A series engine. This AD results from mandatory...Equipped with a Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A series engine, with a part number...

  12. Program to compute the positions of the aircraft and of the aircraft sensor footprints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, J. F. (principal investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The positions of the ground track of the aircraft and of the aircraft sensor footprints, in particular the metric camera and the radar scatterometer on the C-130 aircraft, are estimated by a program called ACTRK. The program uses the altitude, speed, and attitude informaton contained in the radar scatterometer data files to calculate the positions. The ACTRK program is documented.

  13. 76 FR 69123 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ...AD applies to certain Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Models 150F...Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Wichita Aircraft Certification Office, 1801...installing a placard prohibiting spins and other acrobatic maneuvers...and make an entry into the aircraft logbook showing...

  14. Aircraft Engine Performance Study Using Flight Data Recorder Archives

    E-print Network

    Gummadi, Ramakrishna

    Aircraft Engine Performance Study Using Flight Data Recorder Archives Yashovardhan S. Chati and Hamsa Balakrishnan Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02139, USA Aircraft Flight Data Recorder (FDR) is an accurate source of information as it logs operational aircraft data

  15. 19 CFR 122.86 - Substitution of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...must substitute aircraft to reach a destination due to weather conditions or operational...which prevent an aircraft on arrival of...transferring it to another aircraft of the same airline...supervision. (2) Conditions. All of...

  16. 14 CFR 91.7 - Civil aircraft airworthiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (a) No person may operate a civil aircraft unless it is in an airworthy condition. (b) The pilot in command of a civil aircraft is responsible for determining whether that aircraft is in condition for safe flight. The pilot in...

  17. 78 FR 1155 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation...directive (AD) that applies to all Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Models 190, 195...identified in this AD, contact Cessna Aircraft Company, Customer service,...

  18. 14 CFR 135.419 - Approved aircraft inspection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Approved aircraft inspection program. 135.419 Section...RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.419 Approved aircraft inspection program. (a)...

  19. 49 CFR 175.9 - Special aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special aircraft operations. 175.9 Section 175...MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY AIRCRAFT General Information and Regulations § 175.9 Special aircraft operations. (a) This...

  20. AIRCRAFT SERIOUS INCIDENT REPORT OCCURRENCE NUMBER 00/2518

    E-print Network

    Ladkin, Peter B.

    AIRCRAFT SERIOUS INCIDENT REPORT OCCURRENCE NUMBER 00/2518 B767-319ER ZK-NCJ NZ 60 `ERRONEOUS ................................................................................................... 23 1.3 Damage to Aircraft) ................................................................................................. 26 1.6 Aircraft Information

  1. 14 CFR 135.419 - Approved aircraft inspection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Approved aircraft inspection program. 135.419 Section...RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.419 Approved aircraft inspection program. (a)...

  2. 14 CFR 135.419 - Approved aircraft inspection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Approved aircraft inspection program. 135.419 Section...RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.419 Approved aircraft inspection program. (a)...

  3. 77 FR 33083 - Airworthiness Directives; WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ...Airworthiness Directives; WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal...directive (AD) for certain WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Models 2T-1A, 2T-1A-1...identified in this AD, contact WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation; 15955 South Airport...

  4. 77 FR 70114 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation...airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Cessna Aircraft Company Models 172R and 172S airplanes...identified in this AD, contact Cessna Aircraft Company, Customer service,...

  5. 77 FR 72250 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation...airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Cessna Aircraft Company Models 172R and 172S airplanes...in this proposed AD, contact Cessna Aircraft Company, Customer service,...

  6. 14 CFR 121.153 - Aircraft requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft requirements: General. 121.153 Section...DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.153 Aircraft requirements: General. (a) Except...

  7. 19 CFR 122.41 - Aircraft required to enter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aircraft required to enter. 122.41 Section...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic...Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within,...

  8. 49 CFR 175.9 - Special aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special aircraft operations. 175.9 Section 175...MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY AIRCRAFT General Information and Regulations § 175.9 Special aircraft operations. (a) This...

  9. 14 CFR 121.153 - Aircraft requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft requirements: General. 121.153 Section...DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.153 Aircraft requirements: General. (a) Except...

  10. 77 FR 50054 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation...airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Cessna Aircraft Company Models 172R and 172S airplanes...in this proposed AD, contact Cessna Aircraft Company, Customer service,...

  11. 14 CFR 135.419 - Approved aircraft inspection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Approved aircraft inspection program. 135.419 Section...RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.419 Approved aircraft inspection program. (a)...

  12. 14 CFR 121.153 - Aircraft requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft requirements: General. 121.153 Section...DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.153 Aircraft requirements: General. (a) Except...

  13. 32 CFR 855.15 - Detaining an aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detaining an aircraft. 855.15 Section 855.15 National Defense...Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS...

  14. 77 FR 45480 - Deductions for Entertainment Use of Business Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...Deductions for Entertainment Use of Business Aircraft AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS...regulations relating to the use of business aircraft for entertainment. These final regulations...of deductions for the use of business aircraft for entertainment. On June 15,...

  15. 32 CFR 855.15 - Detaining an aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Detaining an aircraft. 855.15 Section 855.15 National Defense...Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS...

  16. 32 CFR 855.15 - Detaining an aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Detaining an aircraft. 855.15 Section 855.15 National Defense...Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS...

  17. 49 CFR 175.9 - Special aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special aircraft operations. 175.9 Section 175...MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY AIRCRAFT General Information and Regulations § 175.9 Special aircraft operations. (a) This...

  18. 77 FR 45979 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation...airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) PA-28, PA-32,...

  19. 78 FR 58874 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation...airworthiness directive (AD) for PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD. Model PC-12/47E airplanes...identified in this AD, contact Pilatus Aircraft Ltd., Customer Service Manager,...

  20. 77 FR 56993 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation...airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-24, PA-24-250...identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero...

  1. 78 FR 11572 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation...airworthiness directive (AD) for all Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Models PC-12, PC-12/45...identified in this AD, contact Pilatus Aircraft Ltd., Customer Service Manager,...

  2. 78 FR 37448 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation...airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) (previously COLUMBIA...identified in this AD, contact Cessna Aircraft Company, Customer Service,...

  3. 77 FR 31169 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation...airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-31T and...

  4. FM 3-04.513 Aircraft Recovery Operations

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    FM 3-04.513 Aircraft Recovery Operations July 2008 DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public-04.513 Headquarters Department of the Army Washington, DC, 21 July 2008 Aircraft Recovery Operations Contents Page.............................................................................................. 1-1 Aircraft Recovery

  5. 76 FR 53308 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation...airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Models 150F, 150G...identified in this AD, contact Cessna Aircraft Company, Product Support,...

  6. 78 FR 67011 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation...directive (AD) for certain PILATUS Aircraft Ltd. Model PC-7 airplanes. This AD...identified in this AD, contact PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD., Customer Technical...

  7. 14 CFR 121.153 - Aircraft requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft requirements: General. 121.153 Section...DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.153 Aircraft requirements: General. (a) Except...

  8. 14 CFR 135.419 - Approved aircraft inspection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approved aircraft inspection program. 135.419 Section...RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.419 Approved aircraft inspection program. (a)...

  9. 49 CFR 175.9 - Special aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special aircraft operations. 175.9 Section 175...MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY AIRCRAFT General Information and Regulations § 175.9 Special aircraft operations. (a) This...

  10. 78 FR 20227 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation...airworthiness directive (AD) for all Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Models 190, 195...identified in this AD, contact Cessna Aircraft Company, Customer service,...

  11. 32 CFR 855.15 - Detaining an aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Detaining an aircraft. 855.15 Section 855.15 National Defense...Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS...

  12. 77 FR 64442 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation...revising an earlier NPRM for all PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD. Models PC-12, PC-12/45...in this proposed AD, contact PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD., Customer Service Manager,...

  13. 14 CFR 121.153 - Aircraft requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft requirements: General. 121.153 Section...DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.153 Aircraft requirements: General. (a) Except...

  14. 32 CFR 855.15 - Detaining an aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Detaining an aircraft. 855.15 Section 855.15 National Defense...Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS...

  15. 49 CFR 175.9 - Exceptions for special aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false Exceptions for special aircraft operations. 175.9 Section...MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY AIRCRAFT General Information and Regulations...175.9 Exceptions for special aircraft operations. This...

  16. 77 FR 5418 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ...applies to Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky...helicopters with a fuel system 40 micron fuel...Subject Joint Aircraft Service Component...Code: 2800, Fuel system. Issued in Fort...Rotorcraft Directorate, Aircraft Certification...

  17. 78 FR 24689 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ...Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. published...Emergency Fuel Control System (FCS...Information PILATUS Aircraft Ltd. has...Emergency Fuel Control System--Adjustment...Emergency Fuel Control System--Adjustment...contact PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD.,...

  18. 77 FR 21420 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ...Electrical Systems and Avionics...FAA, Wichita Aircraft Certification...diodes to the fuel cross-feed...applies to Cessna Aircraft Company Model...Subject Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC...right- hand fuel control...

  19. 78 FR 41285 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ...Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. published...Emergency Fuel Control System (FCS...Emergency Fuel Control System, of Chapter...Turbo Trainer Aircraft Maintenance...Emergency Fuel Control System, of Chapter...Turbo Trainer Aircraft...

  20. 78 FR 17591 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ...for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky...forward and aft fuel system 40 micron fuel...2013-05-17 Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation: Amendment...applies to Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Model...helicopters with a fuel system 40 micron...

  1. 76 FR 70379 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ...following new AD: Cessna Aircraft Company: Docket No...the following Cessna Aircraft Company airplanes, certificated...d) Subject Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC...ATA) of America Code Fuel, 28. (e) Unsafe...

  2. 19 CFR 10.62b - Aircraft turbine fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...domestic or other aircraft turbine fuel after such...the fueling system in which...use of the fuel on qualifying aircraft may be required...record-keeping systems. (h) Recordkeeping...withdrawing aircraft turbine fuel from...

  3. 78 FR 51121 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ...certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models...replacement of the fuel selector valve...review the Piper Aircraft, Inc. service...replacement of the fuel selector valve...Subject Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC...Code, 2823; Fuel...

  4. 77 FR 6003 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ...2012-02-02 Cessna Aircraft Company: Amendment 39-16925...the following Cessna Aircraft Company airplanes, certificated...d) Subject Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC...ATA) of America Code Fuel, 28. (e) Unsafe...

  5. 22 CFR 121.3 - Aircraft and related articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Aircraft and related articles. 121.3 Section 121.3 Foreign Relations...UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.3 Aircraft and related articles. In Category VIII, aircraft...

  6. 22 CFR 121.3 - Aircraft and related articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Aircraft and related articles. 121.3 Section 121.3 Foreign Relations...UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.3 Aircraft and related articles. In Category VIII, aircraft...

  7. 22 CFR 121.3 - Aircraft and related articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Aircraft and related articles. 121.3 Section 121.3 Foreign Relations...UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.3 Aircraft and related articles. In Category VIII, aircraft...

  8. 22 CFR 121.3 - Aircraft and related articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Aircraft and related articles. 121.3 Section 121.3 Foreign Relations...UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.3 Aircraft and related articles. In Category VIII, aircraft...

  9. 49 CFR 1544.225 - Security of aircraft and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Security of aircraft and facilities. 1544.225 Section...SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND...Operations § 1544.225 Security of aircraft and facilities. Each...

  10. 19 CFR 122.41 - Aircraft required to enter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aircraft required to enter. 122.41 Section...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic...Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within,...

  11. 19 CFR 122.41 - Aircraft required to enter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aircraft required to enter. 122.41 Section...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic...Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within,...

  12. 49 CFR 1544.225 - Security of aircraft and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Security of aircraft and facilities. 1544.225 Section...SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND...Operations § 1544.225 Security of aircraft and facilities. Each...

  13. 49 CFR 1544.225 - Security of aircraft and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Security of aircraft and facilities. 1544.225 Section...SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND...Operations § 1544.225 Security of aircraft and facilities. Each...

  14. 19 CFR 122.41 - Aircraft required to enter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aircraft required to enter. 122.41 Section...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic...Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within,...

  15. 49 CFR 1544.225 - Security of aircraft and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Security of aircraft and facilities. 1544.225 Section...SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND...Operations § 1544.225 Security of aircraft and facilities. Each...

  16. 49 CFR 1544.225 - Security of aircraft and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Security of aircraft and facilities. 1544.225 Section...SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND...Operations § 1544.225 Security of aircraft and facilities. Each...

  17. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538...Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. ...of goods, services, and technology to insure the safety of civil...origin commercial passenger aircraft, and to ensure the...

  18. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519 Section...Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses...commercial passenger aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going...

  19. 47 CFR 87.191 - Foreign aircraft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Foreign aircraft stations. 87.191 Section...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aircraft Stations § 87.191 Foreign aircraft stations. (a)...

  20. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519 Section...Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses...commercial passenger aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going...

  1. 47 CFR 87.191 - Foreign aircraft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Foreign aircraft stations. 87.191 Section...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aircraft Stations § 87.191 Foreign aircraft stations. (a)...

  2. 47 CFR 87.191 - Foreign aircraft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Foreign aircraft stations. 87.191 Section...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aircraft Stations § 87.191 Foreign aircraft stations. (a)...

  3. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519 Section...Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses...commercial passenger aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going...

  4. 47 CFR 87.191 - Foreign aircraft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Foreign aircraft stations. 87.191 Section...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aircraft Stations § 87.191 Foreign aircraft stations. (a)...

  5. 47 CFR 87.191 - Foreign aircraft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Foreign aircraft stations. 87.191 Section...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aircraft Stations § 87.191 Foreign aircraft stations. (a)...

  6. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519 Section...Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses...commercial passenger aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going...

  7. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Unmanned Aircraft System

    E-print Network

    #12;i National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ikhana Unmanned Aircraft System Western States Fire Missions Peter W. Merlin National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA History Office. Drone aircraft. 4. Predator (Drone aircraft) 5. United States. National Aeronautics and Space

  8. 10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft impact assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Aircraft impact assessment. 50.150 Section...Approvals § 50.150 Aircraft impact assessment. (a) Assessment...maintained. (2) Aircraft impact characteristics .1 The assessment must be based...

  9. 10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft impact assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Aircraft impact assessment. 50.150 Section...Approvals § 50.150 Aircraft impact assessment. (a) Assessment...maintained. (2) Aircraft impact characteristics .1 The assessment must be based...

  10. 10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft impact assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Aircraft impact assessment. 50.150 Section...Approvals § 50.150 Aircraft impact assessment. (a) Assessment...maintained. (2) Aircraft impact characteristics .1 The assessment must be based...

  11. 10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft impact assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Aircraft impact assessment. 50.150 Section...Approvals § 50.150 Aircraft impact assessment. (a) Assessment...maintained. (2) Aircraft impact characteristics .1 The assessment must be based...

  12. 78 FR 25363 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries Airplanes AGENCY...new airworthiness directive (AD) for Diamond Aircraft Industries Model DA 40 NG airplanes...information identified in this AD, contact Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH, N.A....

  13. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 65 - Aircraft Dispatcher Courses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Types. (c) Frontal Weather Flying. (15) Theory of Storm Systems: (a) Thunderstorms. (b...general. (2) Principles of flight: (a) Group one aircraft. (b) Group two aircraft. (3) Aircraft Limitations....

  14. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 65 - Aircraft Dispatcher Courses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Types. (c) Frontal Weather Flying. (15) Theory of Storm Systems: (a) Thunderstorms. (b...general. (2) Principles of flight: (a) Group one aircraft. (b) Group two aircraft. (3) Aircraft Limitations....

  15. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 65 - Aircraft Dispatcher Courses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Types. (c) Frontal Weather Flying. (15) Theory of Storm Systems: (a) Thunderstorms. (b...general. (2) Principles of flight: (a) Group one aircraft. (b) Group two aircraft. (3) Aircraft Limitations....

  16. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 65 - Aircraft Dispatcher Courses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Types. (c) Frontal Weather Flying. (15) Theory of Storm Systems: (a) Thunderstorms. (b...general. (2) Principles of flight: (a) Group one aircraft. (b) Group two aircraft. (3) Aircraft Limitations....

  17. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 65 - Aircraft Dispatcher Courses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Types. (c) Frontal Weather Flying. (15) Theory of Storm Systems: (a) Thunderstorms. (b...general. (2) Principles of flight: (a) Group one aircraft. (b) Group two aircraft. (3) Aircraft Limitations....

  18. Innovative Materials for Aircraft Morphing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. O.; Wise, S. A.; Bryant, R. G.; Cano, R. J.; Gates, T. S.; Hinkley, J. A.; Rogowski, R. S.; Whitley, K. S.

    1997-01-01

    Reported herein is an overview of the research being conducted within the Materials Division at NASA Langley Research Center on the development of smart material technologies for advanced airframe systems. The research is a part of the Aircraft Morphing Program which is a new six-year research program to develop smart components for self-adaptive airframe systems. The fundamental areas of materials research within the program are computational materials; advanced piezoelectric materials; advanced fiber optic sensing techniques; and fabrication of integrated composite structures. This paper presents a portion of the ongoing research in each of these areas of materials research.

  19. Assessment of Alternative Aircraft Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium is to provide representatives from industry, government, and academia concerned with the availability and quality of future aviation turbine fuels with recent technical results and a status review of DOD and NASA sponsored fuels research projects. The symposium has included presentations on the potential crude sources, refining methods, and characteristics of future fuels; the effects of changing fuel characteristics on the performance and durability of jet aircraft components and systems; and the prospects for evolving suitable technology to produce and use future fuels.

  20. Cyberinfrastructure for Aircraft Mission Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2010-01-01

    Forth last several years NASA's Airborne Science Program has been developing and using infrastructure and applications that enable researchers to interact with each other and with airborne instruments via network communications. Use of these tools has increased near realtime situational awareness during field operations, resulting it productivity improvements, improved decision making, and the collection of better data. Advances in pre-mission planning and post-mission access have also emerged. Integrating these capabilities with other tools to evolve coherent service-oriented enterprise architecture for aircraft flight and test operations is the subject of ongoing efforts.

  1. Aircraft type influence on contrail properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeßberger, P.; Voigt, C.; Schumann, U.; Sölch, I.; Schlager, H.; Kaufmann, S.; Petzold, A.; Schäuble, D.; Gayet, J.-F.

    2013-12-01

    The investigation of the impact of aircraft parameters on contrail properties helps to better understand the climate impact from aviation. Yet, in observations, it is a challenge to separate aircraft and meteorological influences on contrail formation. During the CONCERT campaign in November 2008, contrails from 3 Airbus passenger aircraft of types A319-111, A340-311 and A380-841 were probed at cruise under similar meteorological conditions with in situ instruments on board DLR research aircraft Falcon. Within the 2 min-old contrails detected near ice saturation, we find similar effective diameters Deff (5.2-5.9 ?m), but differences in particle number densities nice (162-235 cm-3) and in vertical contrail extensions (120-290 m), resulting in large differences in contrail optical depths ? at 550 nm (0.25-0.94). Hence larger aircraft produce optically thicker contrails. Based on the observations, we apply the EULAG-LCM model with explicit ice microphysics and, in addition, the Contrail and Cirrus Prediction (CoCiP) model to calculate the aircraft type impact on young contrails under identical meteorological conditions. The observed increase in ? for heavier aircraft is confirmed by the models, yet for generally smaller ?. CoCiP model results suggest that the aircraft dependence of climate-relevant contrail properties persists during contrail lifetime, adding importance to aircraft-dependent model initialization. We finally derive an analytical relationship between contrail, aircraft and meteorological parameters. Near ice saturation, contrail width × ? scales linearly with the fuel flow rate, as confirmed by observations. For higher relative humidity with respect to ice (RHI), the analytical relationship suggests a non-linear increase in the form (RHI-12/3. Summarized, our combined results could help to more accurately assess the climate impact from aviation using an aircraft-dependent contrail parameterization.

  2. Aircraft type influence on contrail properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeßberger, P.; Voigt, C.; Schumann, U.; Sölch, I.; Schlager, H.; Kaufmann, S.; Petzold, A.; Schäuble, D.; Gayet, J.-F.

    2013-05-01

    The investigation of the impact of aircraft parameters on contrail properties helps to better understand the climate impact from aviation. Yet, in observations, it is a challenge to separate aircraft and meteorological influences on contrail formation. During the CONCERT campaign in November 2008, contrails from 3 Airbus passenger aircraft of type A319-111, A340-311 and A380-841 were probed at cruise under similar meteorological conditions with in-situ instruments on board the DLR research aircraft Falcon. Within the 2 min old contrails detected near ice saturation, we find similar effective diameters Deff (5.2-5.9 ?m), but differences in particle number densities nice (162-235 cm-3) and in vertical contrail extensions (120-290 m), resulting in large differences in contrail optical depths ? (0.25-0.94). Hence larger aircraft produce optically thicker contrails. Based on the observations, we apply the EULAG-LCM model with explicit ice microphysics and in addition the Contrail and Cirrus Prediction model CoCiP to calculate the aircraft type impact on young contrails under identical meteorological conditions. The observed increase in ? for heavier aircraft is confirmed by the models, yet for generally smaller ?. An aircraft dependence of climate relevant contrail properties persists during contrail lifetime, adding importance to aircraft dependent model initialization. We finally derive an analytical relationship between contrail, aircraft and meteorological parameters. Near ice saturation, contrail width × ? scales linearly with fuel flow rate as confirmed by observations. For higher saturation ratios approximations from theory suggest a non-linear increase in the form (RHI-1)2/3. Summarized our combined results could help to more accurately assess the climate impact from aviation using an aircraft dependent contrail parameterization.

  3. V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 5: Definition of stowed rotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soule, V. A.

    1973-01-01

    The results of a study of folding tilt rotor (stowed rotor) aircraft are presented. The effects of design cruise speed on the gross weight of a conceptual design stowed rotor aircraft are shown and a comparison is made with a conventional (non-folding) tilt rotor aircraft. A flight research stowed rotor design is presented. The program plans, including costs and schedules, are shown for the research aircraft development and a wind tunnel plan is presented for a full scale test of the aircraft.

  4. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Civil Aircraft § 10.183 Duty-free entry of civil...

  5. 41 CFR 102-33.415 - When may we declassify an aircraft and remove it from our Federal aircraft inventory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false When may we declassify an aircraft and remove it from our Federal aircraft inventory? 102-33.415 Section 102-33...PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Reporting Information on Government...

  6. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Civil Aircraft § 10.183 Duty-free entry of civil...

  7. 41 CFR 102-33.415 - When may we declassify an aircraft and remove it from our Federal aircraft inventory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false When may we declassify an aircraft and remove it from our Federal aircraft inventory? 102-33.415 Section 102-33...PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Reporting Information on Government...

  8. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Civil Aircraft § 10.183 Duty-free entry of civil...

  9. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Civil Aircraft § 10.183 Duty-free entry of civil...

  10. 41 CFR 102-33.415 - When may we declassify an aircraft and remove it from our Federal aircraft inventory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false When may we declassify an aircraft and remove it from our Federal aircraft inventory? 102-33.415 Section 102-33...PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Reporting Information on Government...

  11. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Civil Aircraft § 10.183 Duty-free entry of civil...

  12. 41 CFR 102-33.415 - When may we declassify an aircraft and remove it from our Federal aircraft inventory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false When may we declassify an aircraft and remove it from our Federal aircraft inventory? 102-33.415 Section 102-33...PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Reporting Information on Government...

  13. 41 CFR 102-33.415 - When may we declassify an aircraft and remove it from our Federal aircraft inventory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false When may we declassify an aircraft and remove it from our Federal aircraft inventory? 102-33.415 Section 102-33...PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Reporting Information on Government...

  14. VIEW OF SOUTHEASTERN INTERIOR SPACE, FACING NORTHWEST. Douglas Aircraft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHEASTERN INTERIOR SPACE, FACING NORTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Parts Shipping & Receiving Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. VIEW OF CENTRAL INTERIOR SPACE, FACING NORTHEAST. Douglas Aircraft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CENTRAL INTERIOR SPACE, FACING NORTHEAST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Parts Shipping & Receiving Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. Calculations of Aircraft Contrail Formation Critical Temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark L. Schrader

    1997-01-01

    Forecasts of condensation trail (contrail) formation are an extremely important consideration in military aircraft operations, particularly in the operation of stealth aircraft. Some recently published works have claimed improvements in the time-tested forecast technique of H. Appleman, but the results are called into question by errors in the basic physics. This note provides a brief explanation of contrail formation theory

  17. Application of Supercontroller to Fighter Aircraft Reconfiguration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry N. Gross; Barry S. Migyanko

    1988-01-01

    Accepted methods of coping with aircraft control system failures and damage involve fault detection, isolation, and control law reconfiguration as a function of determined state. This incurs significant computations, accurate system models, and, with incorrect state determination, degraded performance. The supercontrolter methodology implicitly learns the effect of failures on the aircraft dynamics and efficiently stores the knowledge for real time

  18. Improving the efficiency of smaller transport aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1984-01-01

    Considered apart from its propulsive system the high altitude airplane itself adapted to higher flight altitudes than those in current use. Scaling on the assumption of constant aircraft density indicates that this conclusion applies most importantly to smaller transport aircraft. Climb to 60,000 ft could save time and energy for trips as short as 500 miles. A discussion of the

  19. Aircraft Systems Field Exam January 2009

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    the design of a 2 seat light sport aircraft with the goal of achieving a cruise fuel efficiency greater than 1 Aircraft Systems Field Exam January 2009 Note: You have 60 minutes to prepare 100MPG. 1. Identify the major design parameters which will influence cruise efficiency and combine

  20. Morphing Aircraft Dynamical Model: Longitudinal Shape Changes

    E-print Network

    Valasek, John

    Morphing Aircraft Dynamical Model: Longitudinal Shape Changes Adam Niksch , John Valasek , Thomas W develops an aerodynamic model and a dynamic model of a morphing flying wing aircraft. The dynamic model for the morphing wing based on the aerodynamic forces from the panel method. The model allows for multiple shape

  1. Preliminary sizing and performance of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetterman, D. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The basic processes of a program that performs sizing operations on a baseline aircraft and determines their subsequent effects on aerodynamics, propulsion, weights, and mission performance are described. Input requirements are defined and output listings explained. Results obtained by applying the method to several types of aircraft are discussed.

  2. Reliability Analysis of Aircraft Air Conditioning Packs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Z. Al-Garni; M. Tozan; A. Kassem; S. Farooq

    Air conditioning packs of aircraft are subject to a number of failures like other aircraft components. However, the number and results of unexpected failures in the Kingdom are expected to be more severe than the corresponding failures in many other countries due to climatic conditions. This paper examines the time-to failure distribution of Boeing 737 air conditioning packs by using

  3. Emerging NDE Technology for aging aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.G.; Perry, R.L.

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of several emerging nondestructive evaluation technologies that are being employed or considered for use to inspect commercial transport, commuter aircraft and military aircraft. An overview of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) is described and how AANC teams with industry, universities, and other federal entities to assess these technologies.

  4. Aircraft interior ANC with flat panel speakers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Gerner; Delf Sachau; Harald Breitbach

    2004-01-01

    In propeller driven aircraft the main source for internal noise are tonal disturbances caused by the propeller blades that are passing the fuselage. In a certain four propeller military transport aircraft the maximum sound level in the cabin can reach up to 110 dB(A), not taking into account any noise control treatments. Inside the semi closed loadmaster working station (LMWS)

  5. Finite Element Aircraft Simulation of Turbulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. McFarland

    this paper a similar technique to that developed in reference 1 is used to distribute turbulencecomponents to the centers of pressure of a conventional aircraft. A model is created called Finite3Element Aircraft Simulation of Turbulence (FEAST). With minor modification these techniquesmay be applied to helicopter simulations that use a rotor disc model.The compelling reason to use a model like this

  6. TIRE MODELS IN AIRCRAFT LANDING GEAR SIMULATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. T. P. van Slagmaat

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the development of a simulation model of an aircraft landing gear describing its typical non-linear behaviour. The development of the design tool -which correlates the actual design parameters with the performance of the gear- is a part of the research project that investigates the estimation of the nonlinear dynamical system, which an aircraft landing gear is. This

  7. Improved Wind Measurements on Research Aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Khelif; S. P. Burns; C. A. Friehe

    1999-01-01

    Improved techniques for measuring horizontal and vertical wind components and state variables on research aircraft are presented. They include a filtering method for correcting ground speed and position Inertial Navigation System data with Global Positioning System data, use of moist-air thermodynamic properties in the true airspeed calculation, postflight calculation of the aircraft vertical velocity, and calibration of airflow attack and

  8. Cooperative Aircraft Control for Minimum Radar Exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meir Pachter; Jeffrey Hebert

    Two aircraft exposed to illumination by a tracking radar are considered and the optimization problem of cooperatively steering them to a prespecified rendezvous point is addressed. First, the problem of a single aircraft exposed to illumination by a tracking radar is considered and the problem of determining an optimal planar trajectory connecting two prespecified points is addressed. The solution is

  9. Fiber optic data busses for aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norris E. Lewis

    1992-01-01

    A variety of fiber optic data busses is being developed for aircraft applications. This article addresses five different data busses under consideration for both military and commercial aircraft. The impact of data bus protocol on component design, the effect of data bus topology on power budget and installation issues, and overall data bus performance are discussed.

  10. Aircraft Manufacturing Occupations. Aviation Careers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in the aircraft manufacturing industry. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the aerospace industry (of which aircraft manufacturing is one part), including the numbers of various types of workers employed in those…

  11. Alternate-fueled transport aircraft possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiken, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    The paper is organized to describe: (1) NASA's cryogenically fueled aircraft program; (2) LH2 subsonic and supersonic transport design possibilities (3) the fuel system and ground side problems associated with LH2 distribution; (4) a comparison of LCH4 with LH2; (5) the design possibilities for LCH4 fueled aircraft; and (6) a summary of where NASA's cryogenically fueled programs are headed.

  12. This is the X-15: research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Footage of the X-15 research aircraft (in flight), designed to investigate the problems of manned flight in a near space environment: altitudes up to 50 miles, speed up mach 6, high speed aerodynamics, aerodynamic heating, structural design, aircraft stability and control in space and re-entry.

  13. A review of advanced turboprop transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Roy H.

    The application of advanced technologies shows the potential for significant improvement in the fuel efficiency and operating costs of future transport aircraft envisioned for operation in the 1990s time period. One of the more promising advanced technologies is embodied in an advanced turboprop concept originated by Hamilton Standard and NASA and known as the propfan. The propfan concept features a highly loaded multibladed, variable pitch propeller geared to a high pressure ratio gas turbine engine. The blades have high sweepback and advanced airfoil sections to achieve 80 percent propulsive efficiency at M=0.80 cruise speed. Aircraft system studies have shown improvements in fuel efficiency of 15-20 percent for propfan advanced transport aircraft as compared to equivalent turbofan transports. Beginning with the Lockheed C-130 and Electra turboprop aircraft, this paper presents an overview of the evolution of propfan aircraft design concepts and system studies. These system studies include possible civil and military transport applications and data on the performance, community and far-field noise characteristics and operating costs of propfan aircraft design concepts. NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program propfan projects with industry are reviewed with respect to system studies of propfan aircraft and recommended flight development programs.

  14. Carbon fiber reinforced plastics in aircraft construction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Soutis

    2005-01-01

    Fibrous composites have found applications in aircraft from the first flight of the Wright Brothers’ Flyer 1, in North Carolina on December 17th, 1903, to the plethora of uses now enjoyed by them on both military and civil aircraft, in addition to more exotic applications on unmanned aerial vehicles, space launchers, and satellites. Their growing use has arisen from their

  15. Aircrafts Emissions Green House Effects Impact Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Penanhoat

    2002-01-01

    Aircrafts emissions are contributing as many other human activities to the anthropogenic green house effect which has been more specially pointed out since the Kyoto Protocol. Aviation global impact in term of radiative forcing was estimated at 3.5% in 1992 (IPCC report). Reducing this impact is therefore today a major environmental concern for both engine manufacturers and aircrafts manufacturers. This

  16. Aircraft of Today. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savler, D. S.

    This textbook gives a brief idea about the modern aircraft used in defense and for commercial purposes. Aerospace technology in its present form has developed along certain basic principles of aerodynamic forces. Different parts in an airplane have different functions to balance the aircraft in air, provide a thrust, and control the general…

  17. Tribological systems as applied to aircraft engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Buckley

    1985-01-01

    Tribological systems as applied to aircraft are reviewed. The importance of understanding the fundamental concepts involved in such systems is discussed. Basic properties of materials which can be related to adhesion, friction and wear are presented and correlated with tribology. Surface processes including deposition and treatment are addressed in relation to their present and future application to aircraft components such

  18. Quantitative thermal imaging of aircraft structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Elliott Cramer; Patricia A. Howell; Hazari I. Syed

    1995-01-01

    Aircraft structural integrity is a major concern for airlines and airframe manufacturers. To remain economically competitive, airlines are looking at ways to retire older aircraft, not when some fixed number of flight hours or cycles has been reached, but when true structural need dictates. This philosophy is known as `retirement for cause.' The need to extend the life of commercial

  19. Market Forces and Commercial Aircraft Safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J Chalk

    1987-01-01

    This paper investigates the wealth impact on aircraft manufacturers of crashes involving their aircraft. The author attempts to separate out the regulatory, tort law, and endogenous market components of these costs using stock market data. The results indicate that on average the manufacturer suffers a wealth loss of $21.3 million as the result of a fatal crash in which the

  20. Smart Icing Systems for Aircraft Icing Safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael B. Bragg; Tamer Basar; William R. Perkins; Michael S. Selig

    2002-01-01

    Ice accretion affects the performance and control of an aircraft and in extreme situations can lead to incidents and accidents. However, changes in performance and control are difficult to sense. As a result, the icing sensors currently in use sense primarily ice accretion, not the effect of the ice. No processed aircraft performance degradation information is available to the pilot.