Science.gov

Sample records for wake field suppression

  1. Wake fields and wake field acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Wilson, P.B.; Weiland, T.

    1984-12-01

    In this lecture we introduce the concepts of wake fields and wake potentials, examine some basic properties of these functions, show how they can be calculated, and look briefly at a few important applications. One such application is wake field acceleration. The wake field accelerator is capable of producing the high gradients required for future very high energy e/sup +/e/sup -/ linear colliders. The principles of wake field acceleration, and a brief description of experiments in progress in this area, are presented in the concluding section. 40 references, 27 figures.

  2. Collinear wake field acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Chen, P.; Wilson, P.B.

    1985-04-01

    In the Voss-Weiland scheme of wake field acceleration a high current, ring-shaped driving bunch is used to accelerate a low current beam following along on axis. In such a structure, the transformer ratio, i.e., the ratio of maximum voltage that can be gained by the on-axis beam and the voltage lost by the driving beam, can be large. In contrast, it has been observed that for an arrangement in which driving and driven bunches follow the same path, and where the current distribution of both bunches is gaussian, the transformer ratio is not normally greater than two. This paper explores some of the possibilities and limitations of a collinear acceleration scheme. In addition to its application to wake field acceleration in structures, this study is also of interest for the understanding of the plasma wake field accelerator. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Wake field acceleration experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Where and how will wake field acceleration devices find use for other than, possibly, accelerators for high energy physics. I don't know that this can be responsibly answered at this time. What I can do is describe some recent results from an ongoing experimental program at Argonne which support the idea that wake field techniques and devices are potentially important for future accelerators. Perhaps this will spawn expanded interest and even new ideas for the use of this new technology. The Argonne program, and in particular the Advanced Accelerator Test Facility (AATF), has been reported in several fairly recent papers and reports. But because this is a substantially new audience for the subject, I will include a brief review of the program and the facility before describing experiments. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Wake Field work at DESY

    SciTech Connect

    Weilland, T.

    1985-10-01

    At DESY, we are investigating the applicability of the ''Wake Field Transformer'' concept for high gradient acceleration of particles. In this paper we focus on the experiment which is under construction. We have built a 8 MeV high current linac for generation of a hollow driving beam of 1 ..mu..Cou lomb charge. The hollow beam gun came into operation in March 1985 and is laser driven with a tungsten (or tantalum) cathode. This new type of gun does not need extremely high vacuum and is very reliable. The linac will come into operation in May. By the end of 1985, we hope to have first results from the Wake Field Transformer operation. All parts including the gun, linac cavities, solenoid coils and the transformer have already been manufactured.

  5. Multi-stage wake-field accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Gai, Wei

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we propose a multi-stage wake field acceleration scheme to overcome the low transformer ratio problem and still provide high accelerating gradients. The idea is very simple. We use a train of several electron bunches from a linear accelerator (main linac) with well defined separations between the bunches (tens of ns) to drive wake field devices. Here we have made the assumption that the wake field devices are available, whether plasma, iris-loaded metallic or dielectric wake field structures. 10 refs.

  6. DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD RESONATOR ACCELERATOR MODULE

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-11-06

    Results are presented from experiments, and numerical analysis of wake fields set up by electron bunches passing through a cylindrical or rectangular dielectric-lined structure. These bunches excite many TM-modes, with Ez components of the wake fields sharply localized on the axis of the structure periodically behind the bunches. The experiment with the cylindrical structure, carried out at ATF Brookhaven National Laboratory, used up to three 50 MeV bunches spaced by one wake field period (21 cm) to study the superposition of wake fields by measuring the energy loss of each bunch after it passed through the 53-cm long dielectric element. The millimeter-wave spectrum of radiation excited by the passage of bunches is also studied. Numerical analysis was aimed not only to simulate the behavior of our device, but in general to predict dielectric wake field accelerator performance. It is shown that one needs to match the radius of the cylindrical dielectric channel with the bunch longitudinal rms-length to achieve optimal performance.

  7. Wake fields and energy spread for the ERHIC ERL

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A.; Kayran, D.

    2011-10-16

    Wake fields in high-current ERLs can cause significant beam quality degradations. Here we summarize effects of coherent synchrotron radiation, resistive wall, accelerating cavities and wall roughness for ERL parameters of the eRHIC project. A possibility of compensation of such correlated energy spread is also presented. An emphasis in the discussion is made on the suppression of coherent synchrotron radiation due to shielding and a possible reduction of wall roughness effects for realistic surfaces.

  8. Field Line Bend in the Lunar Wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Khurana, Krishan; Kivelson, Margaret; Wan, Weixing; Liu, Libo; Chen, Yiding; Le, Huijun; Shi, Quanqi; Liu, Wenlong

    2015-04-01

    By taking advantage of the magnetic field measurements simultaneously observed by two ARTEMIS satellites in the Moon's upstream solar wind and in the downstream wake, we characterized the magnetic field line bends in the lunar wake. Magnetic flux tube are observed to be squeezed by the pressure gradient force in the Y direction; while in the XZ plane the field line bends can be decomposed to two components, according to the conventional diamagnetic current theory, caused by the pressure gradients in the X and Z directions, respectively. Our calculations show that, however, the pressure gradient in the X direction is not strong enough to make the field line bend as we observed and that additional processes are needed to make the field line bulge towards the Moon. The effect of the finite conductivity inside the Moon body can bend field lines in wake to the Moon, which, however, is eliminated since it seems not consistent with our observations. The interaction (pickup) between the heavy charged lunar dust grains floating above the lunar surface and the solar wind provides a reasonable mechanism both to slow down the solar wind plasma and bulge the magnetic field line towards the Moon. According to our calculations, the current associated with the pickup process is ~3×10-9 A/m2 and the Pedersen conductivity of the lunar dust is ~2×10-6 S/m. Thus, the field line bend in the lunar wake may provide another clue to the existence of the lunar dust other than the 'lunar horizon glow.

  9. Wake fields in SLAC Linac Collimators

    SciTech Connect

    Novokhatski, Alexander; Decker, F. -J.; Smith, H.; Sullivan, M.

    2014-12-02

    When a beam travels near collimator jaws, it gets an energy loss and a transverse kick due to the backreaction of the beam field diffracted from the jaws. The effect becomes very important for an intense short bunch when a tight collimation of the background beam halo is required. In the Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC a collimation system is used to protect the undulators from radiation due to particles in the beam halo. The halo is most likely formed from gun dark current or dark current in some of the accelerating sections. However, collimators are also responsible for the generation of wake fields. The wake field effect from the collimators not only brings an additional energy jitter and change in the trajectory of the beam, but it also rotates the beam on the phase plane, which consequently leads to a degradation of the performance of the Free Electron Laser at the Linac Coherent Light Source. In this paper, we describe a model of the wake field radiation in the SLAC linac collimators. We use the results of a numerical simulation to illustrate the model. Based on the model, we derive simple formulas for the bunch energy loss and the average kick. In addition, we also present results from experimental measurements that confirm our model.

  10. Magnetic field anomalies in the lunar wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whang, Y. C.; Ness, N. F.

    1971-01-01

    The interplanetary magnetic field is only slightly perturbed by the presence of the moon in the solar wind flow. A statistical study of umbral increases and of penumbral variations was conducted with respect to variation in the solar wind plasma value beta, the distance from the moon, and the selenographic longitude of the limb regions of the lunar surface in the solar wind flow. All lunar wake anomalies show a strong positive correlation with the plasma value beta, while only penumbral increases show a marked variation with distance from the moon. There is no clear correlation of penumbral anomaly occurrence with selenographic longitude of the exposed lunar limb in the solar wind flow.

  11. Plasma wake field XUV radiation source

    DOEpatents

    Prono, Daniel S.; Jones, Michael E.

    1997-01-01

    A XUV radiation source uses an interaction of electron beam pulses with a gas to create a plasma radiator. A flowing gas system (10) defines a circulation loop (12) with a device (14), such as a high pressure pump or the like, for circulating the gas. A nozzle or jet (16) produces a sonic atmospheric pressure flow and increases the density of the gas for interacting with an electron beam. An electron beam is formed by a conventional radio frequency (rf) accelerator (26) and electron pulses are conventionally formed by a beam buncher (28). The rf energy is thus converted to electron beam energy, the beam energy is used to create and then thermalize an atmospheric density flowing gas to a fully ionized plasma by interaction of beam pulses with the plasma wake field, and the energetic plasma then loses energy by line radiation at XUV wavelengths Collection and focusing optics (18) are used to collect XUV radiation emitted as line radiation when the high energy density plasma loses energy that was transferred from the electron beam pulses to the plasma.

  12. Fast polynomial approach to calculating wake fields

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, C.I.; Peierls, R.F.

    1997-06-15

    In the computation of transverse wake field effects in accelerators, it is necessary to compute expressions of the form given in equations (1). It is usually desired to compute this a large number of times, the values of z{sub i} and x{sub i} being different at each iteration, other quantities remaining the same. The problem in practical applications is that the computational work grows as N{sub m}{sup 2}. Thus even using parallel computation to achieve speedup, the elapsed time to obtain a result still increases linearly with N{sub m}. The authors introduce here an approximate method of evaluating the sum in (1) whose computational work increases only as N{sub m}logN{sub m}. It involves some significant initial computation which does not have to be repeated at each subsequent iteration. The basis of the approach is to replace the individual contributions of a group of distant macroparticles with a local series expansion. In this respect it is similar in spirit to the so called fast multipole method.

  13. Wake Fields in the Super B Factory Interaction Region

    SciTech Connect

    Weathersby, Stephen; Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC

    2011-06-02

    The geometry of storage ring collider interaction regions present an impedance to beam fields resulting in the generation of additional electromagnetic fields (higher order modes or wake fields) which affect the beam energy and trajectory. These affects are computed for the Super B interaction region by evaluating longitudinal loss factors and averaged transverse kicks for short range wake fields. Results indicate at least a factor of 2 lower wake field power generation in comparison with the interaction region geometry of the PEP-II B-factory collider. Wake field reduction is a consderation in the Super B design. Transverse kicks are consistent with an attractive potential from the crotch nearest the beam trajectory. The longitudinal loss factor scales as the -2.5 power of the bunch length. A factor of 60 loss factor reduction is possible with crotch geometry based on an intersecting tubes model.

  14. Calculation of wake vortex structures in the near-field wake behind cruising aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehret, T.; Oertel, H.

    Wake flows behind cruising aircraft influence the distribution of the exhaust gases. A three-dimensional vortex filament method was developed to calculate the vortex structures and the velocity field of the vorticity dominated wake flows as an integration of the Biot-Savart law. For three-dimensional vortex filament calculations, self-induction singularities were prevented using a finite vortex core for each vortex filament. Numerical simulations show the vortex structures and the velocity field in the wake behind a cruising Boeing 747 as a result of the integration of the Biot-Savart law. It is further shown how the structures of the fully rolled-up trailing vortices depend on the wing span loading, i.e. the circulation distribution.

  15. Suppression of Wake Vortices Using Periodic Cross-Section Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouabdallah, A.; Oualli, H.; Benlahnache, A.; Menad, Y.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2013-11-01

    Vortices in the wake of blunt bodies are responsible for significant portion of the drag. An active flow control strategy is designed to inhibit the shedding of such vortex structures. A numerical study is conducted to investigate the effect of periodic cross-section variations on the shed vortices. We use an LES scheme with a Smagorinsky-Lilly subgrid model. The two-dimensional body sinusoidally changes its cross-section from circular to elliptic. The amplitude varies in the range of 5-100% of the nominal cylinder's diameter, and the oscillation frequency varies in the range of 0.2-10 times the cylinder's natural shedding frequency. The von Kármán vortex street is most sensitive to the cross-section variations at a Reynolds number of 3,740. At this Re, the boundary layer is subcritical, and the wake is predominately bidimensional. The flow exhibits a cascade of bifurcations identified by the shifting of the shedding mode. When the flow control strategy is optimized, as much as 65% drag reduction is achieved, which is a direct result of the shedding mechanism inhibition. An experimental validation of this result is forthcoming.

  16. Dreaming and personality: Wake-dream continuity, thought suppression, and the Big Five Inventory.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Josie E

    2015-12-15

    Studies have found relationships between dream content and personality traits, but there are still many traits that have been underexplored or have had questionable conclusions drawn about them. Experimental work has found a 'rebound' effect in dreams when thoughts are suppressed prior to sleep, but the effect of trait thought suppression on dream content has not yet been researched. In the present study participants (N=106) reported their Most Recent Dream, answered questions about the content of the dream, and completed questionnaires measuring trait thought suppression and the 'Big Five' personality traits. Of these, 83 were suitably recent for analyses. A significant positive correlation was found between trait thought suppression and participants' ratings of dreaming of waking-life emotions, and high suppressors reported dreaming more of their waking-life emotions than low suppressors did. The results may lend support to the compensation theory of dreams, and/or the ironic process theory of mental control. PMID:26496477

  17. Wake Vortex Field Measurement Program at Memphis, Tennessee: Data Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, S. D.; Dasey, T. J.; Freehart, R. E.; Heinrichs, R. M.; Mathews, M. P.; Perras, G. H.; Rowe, G. S.

    1997-01-01

    Eliminating or reducing current restrictions in the air traffic control system due to wake vortex considerations would yield increased capacity, decreased delays, and cost savings. Current wake vortex separation standards are widely viewed as very conservative under most conditions. However, scientific uncertainty about wake vortex behavior under different atmospheric conditions remains a barrier to development of an adaptive vortex spacing system. The objective of the wake vortex field measurement efforts during December, 1994 and August, 1995 at Memphis, TN were to record wake vortex behavior for varying atmospheric conditions and types of aircraft. This effort is part of a larger effort by the NASA Langley Research Center to develop an Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) as an element of the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. The TAP program is being performed in concert with the FAA Terminal Air Traffic Control Automation (TATCA) program and ATC Automation. Wake vortex behavior was observed using a mobile continuous-wave (CW) coherent laser Doppler radar (lidar) developed at Lincoln Laboratory. This lidar features a number of improvements over previous systems, including the first-ever demonstration of an automatic wake vortex detection and tracking algorithm.

  18. Wake fields and energy spread for the eRHIC ERL

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A.; Kayran, D.

    2011-10-16

    Wake fields in high-current ERLs can cause significant beam quality degradations. Here we summarize effects of coherent synchrotron radiation, resistive wall, accelerating cavities and wall roughness for ERL parameters of the eRHIC project. A possibility of compensation of such correlated energy spread is also presented. An emphasis in the discussion is made on the suppression of coherent synchrotron radiation due to shielding and a possible reduction of wall roughness effects for realistic surfaces. In this report we discuss the wake fields with a focus on their effect on the energy spread of the beam. Other effects of wake fields are addressed elsewhere. An energy spread builds up during a pass though a very long beam transport in the eRHIC ERL under design. Such energy spread become important when beam is decelerated to low energy, and needs to be corrected. Several effects, such as Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR), Resistive Wall (RW), accelerating RF cavities (RF) and Wall Roughness (WR) were considered. In this paper, we briefly summarize major contributions to energy spread from the wake fields for eRHIC parameters, and present possible energy spread compensation for decelerated beam. In the rest of the report we discuss effects which we believe are suppressed for the eRHIC parameters.

  19. Mariner 10 magnetic field observations of the Venus wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Behannon, K. W.

    1977-01-01

    Magnetic field measurements made over a 21-hour interval during the Mariner 10 encounter with Venus were used to study the down-stream region of the solar wind-Venus interaction over a distance of approximately 100 R sub v. For most of the day before closest approach the spacecraft was located in a sheath-like region which was apparently bounded by planetary bow shock on the outer side and either a planetary wake boundary or transient boundary-like feature on the inner side. The spacecraft made multiple encounters with the wake-like boundary during the 21-hour interval with an increasing frequency as it approached the planet. Each pass into the wake boundary from the sheath region was consistently characterized by a slight decrease in magnetic field magnitude, a marked increase in the frequency and amplitude of field fluctuations, and a systematic clockwise rotation of the field direction when viewed from above the plane of the planet orbit.

  20. Localized wake-field excitation and relativistic wave-breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, G.; Laedke, E. W.; Spatschek, K. H.

    2007-10-01

    The localized wake-field behavior behind a short laser pulse is analyzed numerically as well as analytically in one space dimension. A laser pulse propagating in an underdense plasma oscillates in amplitude and width. Within a certain parameter regime, the variations may be near the threshold for wake-field generation. During the times when the width becomes small enough, localized electrostatic wave-packets are generated. The latter may have amplitudes in the relativistic regime. The breaking of the wake-field wave packets is investigated. Known criteria for wave-breaking are generalized to the relativistic and inhomogeneous cases. It is found that relativistic, inhomogeneous packets break without threshold; however, not, in general, on the first oscillation. The time for wave-breaking can be estimated. The numerical findings are proven analytically by making use of a Lagrangian coordinate formulation.

  1. Waking.

    PubMed

    Moon, Paul J

    2013-09-01

    An indubitable aspect of laboring in the realm of hospice care is the "everydayness" of human loss or the stark encounter of death in the human experience. This can pose as opportunity to adopt each day in a particular manner. As such, the focus of my reflection is on transposing certain dynamics of a (funeral) wake to broader professional and personal socioexistential processes. PMID:22811212

  2. Experimental studies of plasma wake-field acceleration and focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, J.B.; Cole, B.; Ho, C.; Gai, W.; Konecny, R.; Mtingwa, S.; Norem, J.; Rosing, M.; Schoessow, P.; Simpson, J.

    1989-07-18

    More than four years after the initial proposal of the Plasma Wake-field Accelerator (PWFA), it continues to be the object of much investigation, due to the promise of the ultra-high accelerating gradients that can exist in relativistic plasma waves driven in the wake of charged particle beams. These large amplitude plasma wake-fields are of interest in the laboratory, both for the wealth of basic nonlinear plasma wave phenomena which can be studied, as well as for the applications of acceleration of focusing of electrons and positrons in future linear colliders. Plasma wake-field waves are also of importance in nature, due to their possible role in direct cosmic ray acceleration. The purpose of the present work is to review the recent experimental advances made in PWFA research at Argonne National Laboratory, in which many interesting beam and plasma phenomena have been observed. Emphasis is given to discussion of the nonlinear aspects of the PWFA beam-plasma interaction. 29 refs., 13 figs.

  3. Field measurements in the wake of a model wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pol, Suhas; Taylor, Amelia; Bilbao, Argenis; Doostalab, Ali; Novoa, Santiago; Westergaard, Carsten; Hussain, Fazle; Sheng, Jian; Ren, Beibei; Giesselmann, Michael; Glauser, Mark; Castillo, Luciano

    2014-06-01

    As a first step to study the dynamics of a wind farm' we experimentally explored the flow field behind a single wind turbine of diameter 1.17 m at a hub height of 6.25 m. A 10 m tower upstream of the wind farm characterizes the atmospheric conditions and its influence on the wake evolution. A vertical rake of sonic anemometers is clustered around the hub height on a second tower' 6D downstream of the turbine. We present preliminary observations from a 1- hour block of data recorded in near-neutral atmospheric conditions. The ratio of the standard deviation of power to the inflow velocity is greater than three' revealing adverse effects of inflow turbulence on the power and load fluctuations. Furthermore' the wake defect and Reynolds stress and its gradient are pronounced at 6D. The flux of energy due to Reynolds stresses is similar to that reported in wind tunnel studies. The swirl and mixing produces a constant temperature wake which results in a density jump across the wake interface. Further field measurements will explore the dynamics of a model wind farm' including the effects of atmospheric variability.

  4. Transverse focussing using plasma wake fields

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, D.B.; Cole, B.; Rosenzweig, J.; Norem, J.

    1987-01-01

    Dense particle beams traveling in plasmas can produce very high electric and magnetic fields, and these fields can be used to accelerate and focus particles. The effects on trailing beams and self focusing can be strong and nonlinear. This paper discusses two aspects of self pinching beams: (1) the production of beams which do not self pinch, and (2) a short focal length plasma lens which uses self pinching to reduce beam sizes at the interaction point of a linear collider. As an example, a final focus system for the Stanford Linear Collider is considered. It is shown how the luminosity could be increased using this system.

  5. Wouthuysen-Field absorption trough in cosmic string wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernndez, Oscar F.

    2014-12-01

    The baryon density enhancement in cosmic string wakes leads to a stronger coupling of the spin temperature to the gas kinetic temperate inside these string wakes than in the intergalactic medium (IGM). The Wouthuysen-Field (WF) effect has the potential to enhance this coupling to such an extent that it may result in the strongest and cleanest cosmic string signature in the currently planned radio telescope projects. Here we consider this enhancement under the assumption that x-ray heating is not significant. We show that the size of this effect in a cosmic string wake leads to a brightness temperature at least two times more negative than in the surrounding IGM. If the SCI-HI [T. C. Voytek et al., Astrophys. J. 782, L9 (2014), J. B. Peterson et al., arXiv:1409.2774] or EDGES [J. D. Bowman and A. E. E. Rogers Nature (London) 468, 796 (2010), J. D. Bowman et al., Astrophys. J. 676, 1 (2008)] experiments confirm a WF absorption trough in the cosmic gas, then cosmic string wakes should appear clearly in 21 cm redshift surveys of z =10 to 30.

  6. Modulation of continuous electron beams in plasma wake-fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, J.B.

    1988-09-08

    In this paper we discuss the interaction of a continuous electron beam with wake-field generated plasma waves. Using a one-dimensional two fluid model, a fully nonlinear analytical description of the interaction is obtained. The phenomena of continuous beam modulation and wave period shortening are discussed. The relationship between these effects and the two-stream instability is also examined. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Nonlinear plasma and beam physics in plasma wake-fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, J.B.

    1990-02-12

    In experimental studies of the Plasma Wake-field Accelerator performed to date at the Argonne Advanced Accelerator Test Facility, significant nonlinearities in both plasma and beam behavior have been observed. The plasma waves driven in the wake of the intense driving beam in these experiments exhibit three-dimensional nonlinear behavior which has as yet no quantitative theoretical explanation. This nonlinearity is due in part to the self-pinching of the driving beam in the plasma, as the denser self-focused beam can excite larger amplitude plasma waves. The self-pinching is a process with interesting nonlinear aspects: the initial evolution of the beam envelope and the subsequent approach to Bennett equilibrium through phase mixing. 35 refs., 10 figs.

  8. High-Efficiency Absorber for Damping the Transverse Wake Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Novokhatski, A.; Seeman, J.; Weathersby, S.; /SLAC

    2007-02-28

    Transverse wake fields generated by intense beams may propagate long distances in the vacuum chamber and dissipate power in different shielded elements such as bellows, vacuum valves or vacuum pumps. Induced heating in these elements may be high enough to deteriorate vacuum conditions. We have developed a broadband water-cooled bellows-absorber to capture and damp these harmful transverse fields without impacting the longitudinal beam impedance. Experimental results at the PEP-II SLAC B-factory demonstrate high efficiency of this device. This absorber may be useful in other machines like synchrotron light sources or International Linear Collider.

  9. Direct simulation of single bubble motion under vertical magnetic field: Paths and wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Ni, Ming-Jiu

    2014-10-01

    Motion of single Ar bubbles rising in GaInSn under vertical magnetic fields is studied numerically using a volume-of-fluid method and adaptive mesh refinement technique for two-phase interface treatment; a consistent and conservative scheme calculates induced current density and Lorentz force. Numerical results are compared with published experimental data [C. Zhang, S. Eckert, and G. Gerbeth, "Experimental study of single bubble motion in a liquid metal column exposed to a DC magnetic field," Int. J. Multiphase Flow 31, 824-842 (2005)], where bubble diameters range from 2.5 to 6.4 mm, producing Reynolds numbers that vary between 2000 and 4000. Maximum experimental magnetic field strength was set to 0.3 T because of experimental restrictions, although we increased it to 0.5 T for firm conclusions. Apart from terminal rising velocity comparisons, we focused on variations in bubble motion paths and wake structures under magnetic fields, which cannot be observed experimentally because liquid metal is opaque. Magnetic field effects on bubble trajectory are exerted through vortex structure modification, which reinforced the conjecture that path instability is mainly attributed to wake instability. In bubble motion without magnetic fields, vortex threads in the bubble wake wrap around each other while vortex filaments incline parallel to the field with increasing magnetic intensity. Additionally, high magnetic fields will induce secondary bubble path instabilities, which contribute to the high Reynolds number flow that instabilities develop around the bubble, producing an asymmetrical Lorentz force distribution. This instability vanishes under higher magnetic intensities because flow instability is suppressed. Rising bubble aspect ratios decrease considerably under magnetic fields and may also contribute to smaller vorticities at the bubble surface. A close relationship between fluctuations in rising velocity and shape variations is found.

  10. Field-aligned Currents in Io's Plasma Wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuxin

    2008-09-01

    Since the discovery of Io-controlled decametric radio emissions, the interaction between Io and Jovian magnetosphere has been studied intensively. Two types of interaction have been proposed so far. One is electric circuit model, in which the induced currents flow between Io and the Jovian ionosphere along the magnetic flux tube threading Io. The other is Alfvn wing model. A wing forms in the perturbed magnetic field lines behind Io, the Alfvnic currents develop in the wing rather than along the magnetic flux tubes. More recently, auroral emission associated with Io's footprint and its trailing emission were observed. Such auroral arc may extend longitudinally westward for more than 100 degrees. This trail of aurora is brightest near Io and dims with increasing downstream distance. There is no clear theoretical understanding of the physics that generates this downstream aurora. However it is generally believed that Io's plasma wake is associated with this phenomenon and field-aligned currents lead to downstream emissions. Along with the above two types of the interaction between Io and its surrounding medium, there are also two theoretical frameworks in which these downstream emissions can be interpreted. The first one is corotational lag. When an Io-perturbed (mass loading and/or Io's conductivity) magnetic flux tube moves slowly relative to Jovian magnetosphere, an electric field would be induced at the equatorial plane of the flux tube, which in turn causes a current perpendicular to the field lines that is connected by field-aligned currents. The Lorentz force due to the perpendicular current would play the role of bring the lagged plasma up to corotation. The second is Alfvn wave, in which the Io-perturbed Alfvn wave is reflected between the Jovian ionosphere and the torus edge, driving particles into loss cone. Our present study attempts to use a MHD method to solve the above problem. MHD simulations of Io-Jupiter interaction has been carried out by several groups and yielded some suggestive results, but these studies concentrated primarily on the vicinity of Io and did not treat the Jovian ionospheric effect realistically. To investigate the mechanism for emissions in the trailing tail, a model extending longitudinally more than 100 degrees and latitudinally from the southern Jovian ionosphere to the northern ionosphere is needed. In particular, such a model should reflect both the non-uniform magnetic field and the non-uniform plasma distributions together with realistic boundary conditions. To tackle this problem with available computer resources, we provide instead an equivalent approach "theory of thin filament motion". Our model is indeed a one-dimensional MHD simulation that satisfies all the above requirements and has the advantage of using much less computer resources than the earlier MHD models, which in turn allows us to try various physical conditions within limited computing time. We assume Io's plasma wake can be regarded as a tail of thin magnetic flux tubes perturbed by Io successively. In this assumption, a flux tube is considered as thin if the pressure variations across the flux tube are negligible compared to the total external pressure (gas plus magnetic pressure) representing the effects of the enveloping magnetized plasma (Jovian magnetosphere). Furthermore we assume that in Io's reference frame the variations of the physical quantities along the downstream distance do not change with time. After converting to the corotating frame, the study of Io's plasma wake can be simplified to investigate the evolution of a magnetic flux tube in Io's wake with appropriate initial conditions. Our simulations suggest that the mechanism for producing wake aurora could not be explained by either Alfvn wave or electric circuit alone, rather, the underlying physics possesses the characteristics typical for both Alfvn wave and corotational lag models. An upstream-coming flux tube must be in contact with Io for approximately 500 seconds, until a tilt angle of about 4 degrees has been develo

  11. Two-Channel Rectangular Dielectric Wake Field Accelerator Structure Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sotnikov, G. V.; Marshall, T. C.; Shchelkunov, S. V.; Didenko, A.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    2009-01-22

    A design is presented for a two-channel 30-GHz rectangular dielectric wake field accelerator structure being built for experimental tests at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This structure allows for a transformer ratio T much greater than two, and permits continuous coupling of energy from drive bunches to accelerated bunches. It consists of three planar slabs of cordierite ceramic ({epsilon} = 4.7) supported within a rectangular copper block, forming a drive channel 12 mmx6 mm, and an accelerator channel 2 mmx6 mm. When driven by a 50 nC, 14 MeV single bunch available at ANL, theory predicts an acceleration field of 6 MeV/m, and T = 12.6. Inherent transverse wake forces introduce deflections and some distortion of bunch profiles during transit through the structure that are estimated to be tolerable. Additionally, a cylindrical two-channel DWFA is introduced which shares many advantages of the rectangular structure including high T, and the added virtue of axisymmetry that eliminates lowest-order transverse deflecting forces.

  12. Wake-field generation by the ponderomotive memory effect

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, U.; Schamel, H.

    1997-10-01

    An analytical and numerical investigation of the plasma response to an imposed high frequency wave packet with a slow explicit time-dependent envelope is presented. An underlying picture of ponderomotive effects is developed, which shows that the explicit time dependence forces us to treat the problem kinetically, and furthermore, that a wake field is generated by the ponderomotive memory effect. The latter supplements the well-known ponderomotive force and fake heating effect. Several perturbation schemes are compared showing that the influence of resonant particles, treated by the method of characteristics, has to be taken into account for Langmuir wave packets with k{lambda}{sub d}{ge}0.2, where k is the wave number and {lambda}{sub d} the Debye length. A self-consistent Vlasov simulation shows the disappearance of the density depression in the case of immobile ions, whereas the wake-field pattern survives self-consistency. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. COAXIAL TWO-CHANNEL DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-04-30

    Theory, computations, and experimental apparatus are presented that describe and are intended to confirm novel properties of a coaxial two-channel dielectric wake field accelerator. In this configuration, an annular drive beam in the outer coaxial channel excites multimode wakefields which, in the inner channel, can accelerate a test beam to an energy much higher than the energy of the drive beam. This high transformer ratio is the result of judicious choice of the dielectric structure parameters, and of the phase separation between drive bunches and test bunches. A structure with cm-scale wakefields has been build for tests at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Laboratory, and a structure with mm-scale wakefields has been built for tests at the SLAC FACET facility. Both tests await scheduling by the respective facilities.

  14. Control of wake and vortex shedding behind a porous circular obstacle by exerting an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovand, M.; Rashidi, S.; Dehghan, M.; Esfahani, J. A.; Valipour, M. S.

    2015-07-01

    In this article the finite volume method (FVM) is carried out to simulate the flow around and through a two-dimensional porous cylinder. An external magnetic field is used to control the wake behind the bluff body and also to suppress the vortex shedding phenomena. The Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model has been used for modeling the flow in the porous medium. Effects of Stuart (N), Reynolds (Re) and Darcy (Da) numbers on the flow behavior have been investigated. The results show that the critical Stuart number for suppress vortex shedding decreases with increasing the Darcy numbers. Also, the Stuart number for disappearance the re-circulating wake increases with increased Reynolds number for both porous and solid cylinders.

  15. A prescribed wake rotor inflow and flow field prediction analysis, user's manual and technical approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    A user's manual is provided which includes the technical approach for the Prescribed Wake Rotor Inflow and Flow Field Prediction Analysis. The analysis is used to provide the rotor wake induced velocities at the rotor blades for use in blade airloads and response analyses and to provide induced velocities at arbitrary field points such as at a tail surface. This analysis calculates the distribution of rotor wake induced velocities based on a prescribed wake model. Section operating conditions are prescribed from blade motion and controls determined by a separate blade response analysis. The analysis represents each blade by a segmented lifting line, and the rotor wake by discrete segmented trailing vortex filaments. Blade loading and circulation distributions are calculated based on blade element strip theory including the local induced velocity predicted by the numerical integration of the Biot-Savart Law applied to the vortex wake model.

  16. Accelerating field step-up transformer in wake-field accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Chojnacki, E.; Gai, W.; Schoessow, P.; Simpson, J.

    1991-01-01

    In the wake-field scheme of particle acceleration, a short, intense drive bunch of electrons passes through a slow-wave structure, leaving behind high rf power in its wake field. The axial accelerating electric field associated with the rf can be quite large, > 100 MeV/m, and is used to accelerate a much less intense witness'' beam to eventual energies > 1 TeV. The rf power is deposited predominantly in the fundamental mode of the structure, which, for dielectric-lined waveguide as used at Argonne, is the TM{sub 01} mode. In all likelihood on the field amplitude will be limited only by rf breakdown of the dielectric material, the limit of which is currently unknown in the short time duration, high frequency regime of wake-field acceleration operation. To obtain such strong electric fields with given wake-field rf power, the dimensions of the dielectric-lined waveguide have to be fairly small, OD of the order of a cm and ID of a few mm, and this gives rise to the generation of strong deflection modes with beam misalignment. While a scheme exists to damp such deflection modes on a bunch-to-bunch time scale, head-tail beam deflection could still be a problem and BNS damping as well as FODO focusing are incomplete cures. Presented here are details of a scheme by which the rf power is generated by in a large-diameter wake-field tube, where deflection mode generation by the intense drive beam is tolerable, and then fed into a small-diameter acceleration tube where the less intense witness beam is accelerated by the greatly enhanced axial electric field. The witness beam generates little deflection-mode power itself, even in the small acceleration tube, thus a final high-quality, high-energy electron beam is produced.

  17. On the field anomaly of near wakes in a collisionless plasma.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, V. C.; Jew, H.

    1973-01-01

    A variational approach is presented for determining the electric field induced by charge separation in the near wake of a large negatively charged body moving at mesothermal speeds in a tenuous plasma. It is shown that the presence of a potential well in the wake is due to the charge separation resulting from the unequal mass motions with which the ambient electrons and ions move into the wake.

  18. Measurement of velocity and vorticity fields in the wake of an airfoil in periodic pitching motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Earl R., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The velocity field created by the wake of an airfoil undergoing a prescribed pitching motion was sampled using hot wire anemometry. Data analysis methods concerning resolution of velocity components from cross wire data, computation of vorticity from velocity time history data, and calculation of vortex circulation from vorticity field data are discussed. These data analysis methods are applied to a flow field relevant to a two dimensional blade-vortex interaction study. Velocity time history data were differentiated to yield vorticity field data which are used to characterize the wake of the pitching airfoil. Measurement of vortex strength in sinusoidal and nonsinusoidal wakes show vortices in the sinusoidal wake have stronger circulation and more concentrated vorticity distributions than the tailored nonsinusoidal wake.

  19. Nonthermal Lorentzian wake-field effects on collision processes in complex dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Woo-Pyo; Jung, Young-Dae

    2014-10-15

    The influence of nonthermal Lorentzian wake-field on the electron-dust grain collision is investigated in complex dusty plasmas. The Eikonal method and the effective interaction potential are applied to obtain the Eikonal scattering phase shift, the differential Eikonal collision cross section, and the total Eikonal collision cross section as functions of the collision energy, the impact parameter, the Mach number, and the spectral index of Lorentzian plasma. It is found that the nonthermal effect enhances the Eikonal scattering phase shift and, however, suppresses the Eikonal collision cross section for the electron-dust grain in Lorentzian complex dusty plasmas. It is also found that the Eikonal scattering phase shift decreases with increasing Mach number and spectral index. In addition, the Eikonal collision cross section increases with an increase of the spectral index and Mach number in Lorentzian complex dusty plasmas.

  20. Nonthermal Lorentzian wake-field effects on collision processes in complex dusty plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Woo-Pyo; Jung, Young-Dae

    2014-10-01

    The influence of nonthermal Lorentzian wake-field on the electron-dust grain collision is investigated in complex dusty plasmas. The Eikonal method and the effective interaction potential are applied to obtain the Eikonal scattering phase shift, the differential Eikonal collision cross section, and the total Eikonal collision cross section as functions of the collision energy, the impact parameter, the Mach number, and the spectral index of Lorentzian plasma. It is found that the nonthermal effect enhances the Eikonal scattering phase shift and, however, suppresses the Eikonal collision cross section for the electron-dust grain in Lorentzian complex dusty plasmas. It is also found that the Eikonal scattering phase shift decreases with increasing Mach number and spectral index. In addition, the Eikonal collision cross section increases with an increase of the spectral index and Mach number in Lorentzian complex dusty plasmas.

  1. Comparison of the plasma beat wave accelerator and the plasma wake field accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.; Ruth, R.D.

    1985-03-01

    In this paper we compare the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator and Plasma Wake Field Accelerator. We show that the electric fields in the plasma for both schemes are very similar, and thus the dynamics of the driven beams are very similar. The differences appear in the parameters associated with the driving beams. In particular to obtain a given accelerating gradient, the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator has a higher efficiency and a lower total energy for the driving beam. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Electrons on closed field lines of lunar crustal fields in the solar wind wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Masaki N.; Saito, Yoshifumi; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Takahashi, Futoshi; Fujimoto, Masaki; Harada, Yuki; Yokota, Shoichiro; Matsushima, Masaki; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi

    2015-04-01

    Plasma signature around crustal magnetic fields is one of the most important topics of the lunar plasma sciences. Although recent spacecraft measurements are revealing solar-wind interaction with the lunar crustal fields on the dayside, plasma signatures around crustal fields on the night side have not been fully studied yet. Here we show evidence of plasma trapping on the closed field lines of the lunar crustal fields in the solar-wind wake, using SELENE (Kaguya) plasma and magnetic field data obtained at 14-15 km altitude from the lunar surface. In contrast to expectation on plasma cavity formation at the strong crustal fields, electron flux is enhanced above Crisium Antipode (CA) anomaly which is one of the strongest lunar crustal fields. The enhanced electron fluxes above CA are characterised by (1) occasional bi-directional field-aligned beams in the lower energy range (< 150 eV) and (2) a medium energy component (150-300 eV) that has a double loss-cone distribution representing bounce motion between the two footprints of the crustal magnetic fields. The low-energy electrons on the closed field lines may come from the lunar night side surface, while supply mechanism of medium-energy electrons on the closed field line remains to be solved. We also report that a density cavity in the wake is observed not above the strongest magnetic field but in its vicinity.

  3. Electrons on closed field lines of lunar crustal fields in the solar wind wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, M. N.; Saito, Y.; Tsunakawa, H.; Takahashi, F.; Fujimoto, M.; Yokota, S.; Harada, Y.; Matsushima, M.; Shibuya, H.; Shimizu, H.

    2014-12-01

    Plasma signature around crustal magnetic fields is one of the most important topics of the lunar plasma sciences. Although recent spacecraft measurements are revealing solar-wind interaction with the lunar crustal fields on the dayside, plasma signatures around crustal fields on the night side have not been fully studied yet. Here we show evidence of plasma trapping on the closed field lines of the lunar crustal fields in the solar-wind wake, using SELENE (Kaguya) plasma and magnetic field data obtained at 14-15 km altitude from the lunar surface. In contrast to expectation on plasma cavity formation at the strong crustal fields, electron flux is enhanced over Crisium Antipode (CA) anomaly which is one of the strongest lunar crustal fields. The enhanced electron fluxes over the CA anomaly are characterised by (1) occasional bi-directional field-aligned beams in the lower energy range (< 150 eV) and (2) a medium energy component (150-300 eV) that has a double loss-cone distribution that represents bounce motion between the two footprints of the crustal magnetic fields. The low-energy electrons on the closed field lines may come from the lunar night side surface, while supply mechanism of medium-energy electrons on the closed field line remains to be solved. We also report that a density cavity in the wake is observed not above the strongest magnetic field but in its vicinity.

  4. Electrons on closed field lines of lunar crustal fields in the solar wind wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Masaki N.; Saito, Yoshifumi; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Takahashi, Futoshi; Fujimoto, Masaki; Harada, Yuki; Yokota, Shoichiro; Matsushima, Masaki; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi

    2015-04-01

    Plasma signature around crustal magnetic fields is one of the most important topics of the lunar plasma sciences. Although recent spacecraft measurements are revealing solar-wind interaction with the lunar crustal fields on the dayside, plasma signatures around crustal fields on the night side have not been fully studied yet. Here we show evidence of plasma trapping on the closed field lines of the lunar crustal fields in the solar-wind wake, using SELENE (Kaguya) plasma and magnetic field data obtained at 14-15 km altitude from the lunar surface. In contrast to expectation on plasma cavity formation at the strong crustal fields, electron flux is enhanced above Crisium Antipode (CA) anomaly which is one of the strongest lunar crustal fields. The enhanced electron fluxes above CA are characterised by (1) occasional bi-directional field-aligned beams in the lower energy range (<150 eV) and (2) a medium energy component (150-300 eV) that has a double loss-cone distribution representing bounce motion between the two footprints of the crustal magnetic fields. The low-energy electrons on the closed field lines may come from the lunar night side surface, while supply mechanism of medium-energy electrons on the closed field line remains to be solved. We also report that a density cavity in the wake is observed not above the strongest magnetic field but in its vicinity.

  5. Near-field structures in three-dimensional spatially-developing wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buell, Jeffrey C.; Mansour, Nagi N.

    The effects of three-dimensional perturbations on a spatially-developing plane Gaussian wake are studied and quantified using a new numerical code. Results are presented for a elatively simple case since it appears that no 3-D spatially-developing simulations of plane wakes have been performed in the past. The inlet perturbation consists of a 2-D time-periodic forcing plus a spanwise-periodic array of steady streamwise vortices. The distortion of the 2-D vortices caused by the streamwise vortices will be discussed. The vorticity fields are compared to passive scalar fields which simulate the injection of smoke or low heat into the wake.

  6. Clutter suppression and classification using twin inverted pulse sonar in ship wakes.

    PubMed

    Leighton, T G; Finfer, D C; Chua, G H; White, P R; Dix, J K

    2011-11-01

    Twin inverted pulse sonar (TWIPS) is here deployed in the wake of a moored rigid inflatable boat (RIB) with propeller turning, and then in the wake of a moving tanker of 4580 dry weight tonnage (the Whitchallenger). This is done first to test its ability to distinguish between scatter from the wake and scatter from the seabed, and second to test its ability to improve detectability of the seabed through the wake, compared to conventional sonar processing techniques. TWIPS does this by distinguishing between linear and nonlinear scatterers and has the further property of distinguishing those nonlinear targets which scatter energy at the even-powered harmonics from those which scatter in the odd-powered harmonics. TWIPS can also, in some manifestations, require no range correction (and therefore does not require the a priori environment knowledge necessary for most remote detection technologies). PMID:22088017

  7. Effect of nonlinear chirped Gaussian laser pulse on plasma wake field generation

    SciTech Connect

    Afhami, Saeedeh; Eslami, Esmaeil

    2014-08-15

    An ultrashort laser pulse propagating in plasma can excite a nonlinear plasma wake field which can accelerate charged particles up to GeV energies within a compact space compared to the conventional accelerator devices. In this paper, the effect of different kinds of nonlinear chirped Gaussian laser pulse on wake field generation is investigated. The numerical analysis of our results depicts that the excitation of plasma wave with large and highly amplitude can be accomplished by nonlinear chirped pulses. The maximum amplitude of excited wake in nonlinear chirped pulse is approximately three times more than that of linear chirped pulse. In order to achieve high wake field generation, chirp parameters and functions should be set to optimal values.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Wake Vortices Measured During the Idaho Falls and Memphis Field Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    1996-01-01

    A numerical large-eddy simulation model is under modification and testing for application to aircraft wake vortices. The model, having a meteorological framework, permits the interaction of wake vortices with environments characterized by crosswind shear, stratification, and humidity. As part of the validation process, model results are compared with measured field data from the 1990 Idaho Falls and the 1994-1995 Memphis field experiments. Cases are selected that represent different aircraft and a cross section of meteorological environments. Also included is one case with wake vortex generation in ground effect. The model simulations are initialized with the appropriate meteorological conditions and a post roll-up vortex system. No ambient turbulence is assumed in our initial set of experiments, although turbulence can be self generated by the interaction of the model wakes with the ground and environment.

  9. Flow-field Survey of an Empennage Wake Interacting with a Pusher Propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. Clifton; Soderman, Paul T.

    1988-01-01

    The flow field between a model empennage and a 591-mm-diameter pusher propeller was studied in the Ames 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel with directional pressure probes and hot-wire anemometers. The region probed was bounded by the empennage trailing edge and downstream propeller. The wake properties, including effects of propeller operation on the empennage wake, were investigated for two empennage geometries: one, a vertical tail fin, the other, a Y-tail with a 34 deg dihedral. Results showed that the effect of the propeller on the empennage wake upstream of the propeller was not strong. The flow upstream of the propeller was accelerated in the streamwise direction by the propeller, but the empennage wake width and velocity defect were relatively unaffected by the presence of the propeller. The peak turbulence in the wake near the propeller tip station, 0.66 diameter behind the vertical tail fin, was approximately 3 percent of the free-stream velocity. The velocity field data can be used in predictions of the acoustic field due to propeller-wake interaction.

  10. 3D Analysis of Wake Field Excitation in a Dielectric Loaded Rectangular Resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Sotnikov, Gennadij V.; Onishchenko, Ivan N.; Marshall, Thomas C.

    2006-11-27

    The results of a three-dimensional analysis of wake field excitation in a slab-symmetric dielectric-loaded resonator by rigid electron bunches are presented. The complete set of solutions, including the solenoidal and potential parts of the electromagnetic field, consists of LSM and LSE modes. Each of the LSM and LSE modes contains odd and even waves. A numerical analysis of wake field excitation by symmetric electron bunches is carried out. The three-dimensional spatial structure of the longitudinal electric field is investigated. The influence of the drift vacuum channel on the wake field amplitude and on the coherent summation of wakefields for a regular sequence of bunches is studied.

  11. Proton entry into the near-lunar plasma wake for magnetic field aligned flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanya, M. B.; Bhardwaj, A.; Futaana, Y.; Fatemi, S.; HolmströM, M.; Barabash, S.; Wieser, M.; Wurz, P.; Alok, A.; Thampi, R. S.

    2013-06-01

    We report the first observation of protons in the near-lunar (100-200 km from the surface) and deeper (near anti-subsolar point) plasma wake when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and solar wind velocity (vsw) are parallel (aligned flow; angle between IMF and vsw≤10°). More than 98% of the observations during aligned flow condition showed the presence of protons in the wake. These observations are obtained by the Solar Wind Monitor sensor of the Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyser experiment on Chandrayaan-1. The observation cannot be explained by the conventional fluid models for aligned flow. Back tracing of the observed protons suggests that their source is the solar wind. The larger gyroradii of the wake protons compared to that of solar wind suggest that they were part of the tail of the solar wind velocity distribution function. Such protons could enter the wake due to their large gyroradii even when the flow is aligned to IMF. However, the wake boundary electric field may also play a role in the entry of the protons into the wake.

  12. Electric field effects on ion currents in satellite wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, D. E.; Katz, I.

    1985-01-01

    Small currents associated with satellite spin, dielectric conduction, or trace concentrations of H+, can have a substantial effect on the potential of a satellite and the particle currents reaching its surface. The importance of such small currents at altitudes below about 300 km stems from the extremely small 0+ currents impinging on the wake-side of the spacecraft. The particle current on the downstream side of the AE-C satellite is considered. Theoretical estimates based on a newly described constant of the motion of a particle indicate that accounting for small concentrations of H+ remove a major discrepancy between calculated and measured currents.

  13. Wake-field and fast head-tail instability caused by an electron cloud.

    PubMed

    Ohmi, K; Zimmermann, F; Perevedentsev, E

    2002-01-01

    In positron and proton storage rings, electrons produced by photoemission, ionization, and secondary emission accumulate in the vacuum chamber during multibunch operation with close spacing. A positron or proton bunch passing through this "electron cloud" experiences a force similar to a short-range wake field. This effective wake field can cause a transverse-mode-coupling instability, if the electron-cloud density exceeds a threshold value. In this report, we compute the electron-cloud induced wake in a region without external magnetic field both analytically and via computer simulation, for parameters representing the low-energy positron ring of KEKB and the LHC proton beam in the CERN SPS. We study the linearity and time dependence of the wake function and its variation with the size of the electron cloud. Using a broadband resonator model for the electron-cloud wake field, we then evaluate theoretical expressions for the transverse-mode-coupling instability based on the linearized Vlasov equation, and for the instability threshold of fast transverse blow up including its dependence on chromaticity. PMID:11800799

  14. A non-geometrically similar model for predicting the wake field of full-scale ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chunyu; Zhang, Qi; Shen, Yu

    2015-07-01

    The scale effect leads to large discrepancies between the wake fields of model-scale and actual ships, and causes differences in cavitation performance and exciting forces tests in predicting the performance of actual ships. Therefore, when test data from ship models are directly applied to predict the performance of actual ships, test results must be subjected to empirical corrections. This study proposes a method for the reverse design of the hull model. Compared to a geometrically similar hull model, the wake field generated by the modified model is closer to that of an actual ship. A non- geometrically similar model of a Korean Research Institute of Ship and Ocean Engineering (KRISO)'s container ship (KCS) was designed. Numerical simulations were performed using this model, and its results were compared with full-scale calculation results. The deformation method of getting the wake field of full-scale ships by the non-geometrically similar model is applied to the KCS successfully.

  15. Effect of wake potential on Coulomb crystallization in the presence of magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, Saurav; Das, Nilakshi

    2012-10-15

    The formation of dust crystal in plasma under the influence of repulsive Yukawa (Debye-Hueckel) potential is a well known phenomenon. The regular structure of dust particles is affected by anisotropic ion flow near the sheath region. The bombardment of the ions over dust grains distorts their Debye sphere by overshielding the dust cloud and gives rise to an attractive oscillatory wake potential. In this paper, we have obtained an expression for wake potential along with the Yukawa type of potential in a complex plasma in the presence of magnetic field, for subsonic ion flow towards the plasma sheath. In the presence of magnetic field, interaction potential gets modified and becomes anisotropic. We have studied the combined effect of the attractive wake potential as well as repulsive Yukawa potential on a 2D dust crystal, both in the presence and absence of magnetic field, using molecular dynamic simulation.

  16. Silicon oxynitride: A field emission suppression coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodore, Nimel D.

    We have studied coatings deposited using our inductively-coupled RF plasma ion implantation and desposition system to suppress field emission from large, 3-D electrode structures used in high voltage applications, like those used by Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in their DC-field photoelectron gun. Currently time and labor-intensive hand-polishing procedures are used to minimize field emission from these structures. Previous work had shown that the field emission from polished stainless steel (27 muA of field-emitted current at 15 MV/m) could be drastically reduced with simultaneous deposition of sputtered silicon dioxide during nitrogen implantation (167 pA of field-emitted current at 30 MV/m). We have determined that this unique implantation and deposition procedure produces high-purity silicon oxynitride films that can suppress field emission from stainless steel regardless of their initial surface polish. However, when this implantation procedure was applied to large, 3-D substrates, arcs occurred, damaging the coating and causing unreliable and unrepeatable field emission suppression. We have developed a novel reactive sputtering procedure to deposit high-purity silicon oxynitride coatings without nitrogen ion implantation. We can control the stoichometry and deposition rate of these coatings by adjusting the nitrogen pressure and incident RF-power. Using profilometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, elastic recoil detection analysis, and current-voltage measurements, we have determined that the elemental composition, chemical bonding, density, and electrical properties of the reactively-sputtered silicon oxynitride coatings are similar to those produced by nitrogen implantation during silicon dioxide deposition. Furthermore, high voltage tests determined that both coatings similarly suppress field emission from 6" diameter, polished stainless steel electrodes. We determined a quantitative, predictive electron emission model to describe electron emission from our silicon oxynitride coatings. Although Fowler-Nordheim theory adequately describes field emission from metals, it does not apply to our dielectric coatings. Several models exist in the literature to describe electron emission from dielectrics. Based upon our high voltage field emission results, electron emission from our silicon oxynitride coatings is described by the Schottky and Poole-Frenkel emission models. These models predict that increasing the band gap, dielectric constant, and electron affinity of our silicon oxynitride coatings would further reduce field emission.

  17. The influence of magnetic fields on the wake field and stopping power of an ion-beam pulse in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiao-ying; Zhang, Ling-yu; Zhang, Ya-ling; Duan, Wen-shan; Qi, Xin; Yang, Lei; Shi, Jian

    2015-09-01

    We performed two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations to investigate how a magnetic field affects the wake field and stopping power of an ion-beam pulse moving in plasmas. The corresponding density of plasma electrons is investigated. At a weak magnetic field, the wakes exhibit typical V-shaped cone structures. As the magnetic field strengthens, the wakes spread and lose their typical V-shaped structures. At a sufficiently strong magnetic field, the wakes exhibit conversed V-shaped structures. Additionally, strengthening the magnetic field reduces the stopping power in regions of low and high beam density. However, the influence of the magnetic field becomes complicated in regions of moderate beam density. The stopping power increases in a weak magnetic field, but it decreases in a strong magnetic field. At high beam density and moderate magnetic field, two low-density channels of plasma electrons appear on both sides of the incident beam pulse trajectory. This is because electrons near the beam pulses will be attracted and move along with the beam pulses, while other electrons nearby are restricted by the magnetic field and cannot fill the gap.

  18. Blunt Body Near-Wake Flow Field at Mach 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas; Hannemann, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    Tests were conducted in a Mach 10 air flow to examine the reattachment process of a free shear layer associated with the near wake of a 70 deg half angle, spherically blunted cone having a cylindrical after body. The nominal free-stream Reynolds number based on model diameter ranged from 0.25 x l0(exp 6) to 1 x l0(exp 6) and the angle of incidence set at 0 and +/- 20 deg. The present study was designed to complement previously reported Mach 6 perfect air tests as well as results obtained in several hypervelocity facilities capable of producing real gas effects. Surface heating rates were inferred from temperature time histories from coaxial surface thermocouples on the model forebody and thin film resistance gages along the model base and cylindrical after body. Limited forebody, base, and support sting surface pressures were obtained with piezoresistive Experimental results are compared to laminar perfect gas predictions provided by a 3-0 Navier Stokes code (NSHYP). Shear layer impingement on the instrumented cylindrical after body resulted in a localized heating maximum that was 16 to 18percent of the forebody stagnation point and a factor of 2 higher than laminar predictions, suggesting a transitional or turbulent shear layer. transducers.

  19. Amplitudes and Spectra of Wake Fields in a Planar Dielectric Resonator with Finite Q-Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Onishchenko, Nikolay I.; Sotnikov, Gennadij V.; Marshall, Thomas C.

    2006-11-27

    The influence of dielectric losses upon the amplitude and spectrum of the wake fields excited by a train of electron bunches in a planar dielectric resonator is investigated. Analytical expressions for the wakefields in a planar dielectric resonator with finite value of Q-factor are obtained. Numerical calculations using various values of the dielectric resonator Q-factor are carried out.

  20. Characterizing rotor stator interaction (RSI) using CFD and experimentally obtained wake flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjeldsen, Morten; Finstad, Pal H. E.; Arndt, Roger E. A.

    2010-11-01

    RSI is a major reason for noise and vibration, and reduced performance of turbomachinery. The stationary cascade upstream of the impeller stage is a source of variations in velocity due to angular momentum transfer, creating a cascade blade-to-blade variation. In addition a number of secondary flow fields due to boundary layer dynamics, such as wake flows, emerge from the cascade. At UMN a number of TR PIV fields have been captured downstream of a hydrofoil in liquid water, c=81mm and Re,c= (5 to 8)e5, for different AoAs and for selected passive flow control techniques. The wake trailing the foil is characterized by swirling structures, albeit far from regular shedding. One line of analysis of the captured wake flow fields has been to characterize the structures by a statistical averaged energy analysis over the structures. A second approach has been to use the experimentally obtained data as input in CFD analysis of the impingement of the wake on a rotating vane. Both the procedure and results are described.

  1. The effect of space-charge and wake fields in the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Macridin, Alexandru; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; Amundson, James; Spentzouris, Linda; McCarron, Daniel; /IIT, Chicago

    2011-03-01

    We calculate the impedance and the wake functions for laminated structures with parallel-planes and circular geometries. We critically examine the approximations used in the literature for the coupling impedance in laminated chambers and find that most of them are not justified because the wall surface impedance is large. A comparison between the flat and the circular geometry impedance is presented. We use the wake fields calculated for the Fermilab Booster laminated magnets in realistic beam simulations using the Synergia code. We find good agreement between our calculation of the coherent tune shift at injection energy and the experimental measurements. In this paper we calculate the impedance and the wake functions for laminated structures with parallel-planes and circular geometries. First the coupling impedance is derived as a function of the wall surface impedance. Then the surface impedance is calculated by solving Maxwell's equations inside the lamination and the crack regions. We find that the commonly used resistive-wall approximations, good for metallic pipes with small surface impedance, are not valid in the laminated structures where the surface impedance is large. Realistic Synergia simulations of the Booster machine with wake fields predict transverse coherent tune shifts in good agreement with the experiment.

  2. Generation of vortex rings by nonstationary laser wake field

    SciTech Connect

    Tsintsadze, N.L.; Murtaza, G.; Shah, H.A.

    2006-01-15

    A new concept of generating quasistatic magnetic fields, vortex rings, and electron jets in an isotropic homogeneous plasma is presented. The propagation of plasma waves, generated by a relativistically intense short pulse laser, is investigated by using the kinetic model and a novel nonpotential, time-dependent ponderomotive force is derived by obtaining a hydrodynamic equation of motion. This force can in turn generate quasistatic magnetic fields, vortex rings, and electron jets. It is also shown that the vortex rings can become a means for accelerating electrons, which are initially in equilibrium. The conservation of canonical momentum circulation and the frozen-in condition for the vorticity is discussed. The excitation of the vortex waves by the modulation of the amplitude of the plasma waves is considered. These vortex waves, which generate a lower hybrid mode propagating across the generated magnetic field, are also investigated.

  3. Volumetric visualization of the near and far field wake in flapping wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun; Cheng, Bo; Deng, Xinyan; Bio-Robotics Lab Team

    2013-11-01

    The flapping wings of flying animals create complex vortex wake structure, understanding its spatial and temporal distribution is fundamental to animal flight theory. In this study, we applied the volumetric 3-component velocimetry to capture both the near- and far-field flow generated by a pair of mechanical flapping wings. For the first time, the complete three-dimensional wake structure and its evolution throughout a wing stroke were quantified and presented. The general vortex wake structure maintains a quite consistent form: vortex rings in the near-field and two shear layers in the far-field. In specific, vortex rings shed periodically from the wings and are linked to each other in successive strokes. In the far-field, the shed vortex rings evolve into two parallel shear layers with dominant vorticity convected from tip and root vortices. The shear layers are nearly stationary in space compared to the periodic vortex rings shed in the near field. In addition, downwash passes through the centers of the vortex rings and extends downward between the two shear layers. This work is supported by AFOSR.

  4. Teaching Biology Field Courses in the Wake of Environmental Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baca, Bart J.

    1982-01-01

    A biology field course organized to study the effects of the June 1979 Mexican oil spill on the marine biology of the shores of south Texas and Mexico is described, demonstrating how to effectively couple a biology classroom course with a natural or human caused environmental disaster. (Author/DC)

  5. On the Production of Flat Electron Bunches for Laser Wake Field Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Kando, M.; Fukuda, Y.; Kotaki, H.; Koga, J.; Bulanov, S.V.; Tajima, T.; Chao, A.; Pitthan, R.; Schuler, K.-P.; Zhidkov, A.G.; Nemoto, K.; /CRIEPI, Tokyo

    2006-06-27

    We suggest a novel method for injection of electrons into the acceleration phase of particle accelerators, producing low emittance beams appropriate even for the demanding high energy Linear Collider specifications. In this paper we work out the injection into the acceleration phase of the wake field in a plasma behind a high intensity laser pulse, taking advantage of the laser polarization and focusing. With the aid of catastrophe theory we categorize the injection dynamics. The scheme uses the structurally stable regime of transverse wake wave breaking, when electron trajectory self-intersection leads to the formation of a flat electron bunch. As shown in three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the interaction of a laser pulse in a line-focus with an underdense plasma, the electrons, injected via the transverse wake wave breaking and accelerated by the wake wave, perform betatron oscillations with different amplitudes and frequencies along the two transverse coordinates. The polarization and focusing geometry lead to a way to produce relativistic electron bunches with asymmetric emittance (flat beam). An approach for generating flat laser accelerated ion beams is briefly discussed.

  6. Saturation of a longitudinal instability due to nonlinearity of the wake field

    SciTech Connect

    Krinsky, S.

    1985-01-01

    Self-sustained synchrotron oscillations are observed in electron storage rings. In general the theoretical description of the saturation of an instability for large oscillation amplitude is a difficult problem, and techniques have not yet been developed which yield analytic approximations to the appropriate nonlinear Vlasov or Fokker-Planck equations. In this paper, a single point bunch interacting with the wake field from a single resonant mode of an rf cavity is considered, and the averaging method of Bogoliubov and Mitropolsky is used to study the saturation of the initial exponential growth of the oscillation amplitude, due to the nonlinearity of the wake field. The determination of the limiting amplitude of oscillation is discussed both in the presence and in the absence of radiation damping.

  7. Orientation of planetary O/plus/ fluxes and magnetic field lines in the Venus wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-De-tejada, H.; Intriligator, D. S.; Russell, C. T.

    1982-01-01

    The presence of 'contaminant' heavy ions of planetary origin in the solar wind has long been the subject of intense theoretical and experimental research. Studies of their abundance, acceleration, and direction of motion are important because of their implications on the composition and dynamics of planetary and cometary plasma wakes. The plasma and magnetic field observations made with the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) at Venus have provided the opportunity to examine the conditions in which planetary ions are picked up by the solar wind. We show here that in the outer regions of the Venusian far wake the displacement of planetary O(plus) particles, characteristic of the Venus upper ionosphere, does not occur necessarily along the magnetic field lines but approximately in the direction of the shocked solar wind.

  8. Far-Field Turbulent Vortex-Wake/Exhaust Plume Interaction for Subsonic and HSCT Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Adam, Ihab; Wong, Tin-Chee

    1996-01-01

    Computational study of the far-field turbulent vortex-wake/exhaust plume interaction for subsonic and high speed civil transport (HSCT) airplanes is carried out. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are solved using the implicit, upwind, Roe-flux-differencing, finite-volume scheme. The two-equation shear stress transport model of Menter is implemented with the NS solver for turbulent-flow calculation. For the far-field study, the computations of vortex-wake interaction with the exhaust plume of a single engine of a Boeing 727 wing in a holding condition and two engines of an HSCT in a cruise condition are carried out using overlapping zonal method for several miles downstream. These results are obtained using the computer code FTNS3D. The results of the subsonic flow of this code are compared with those of a parabolized NS solver known as the UNIWAKE code.

  9. Electro-optic Measurement of the Wake Fields of a Relativistic Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, M. J.; Melissinos, A. C.; Colestock, P. L.; Carneiro, J.-P.; Edwards, H. T.; Hartung, W. H.

    2001-07-16

    When a relativistic electron bunch traverses a structure, strong electromagnetic fields are induced in its wake. For a 12 nC bunch of duration 4.2ps FWHM, the peak field is measured >0.5 MV/m . Time resolution of {approx}5 ps is achieved using electro-optic sampling with a lithium tantalate (LiTaO{sub 3}) crystal and a short-pulse infrared laser synchronized to the beam. We present measurements for both the longitudinal and radial components of the field and relate them to the wall impedance.

  10. Investigation of Beam Instability Under the Effects of Long-Range Transverse Wake Fields in the Berkeley Future Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Kur, Eugene; Zholents, Alexander A.

    2008-08-31

    An ultra-relativistic charged particle bunch moving through a resonator cavity leaves behind a wake field that will affect subsequent bunches (if the bunch is not ultra-relativistic, the wake field will not be exclusively behind it). If the initial bunch enters the cavity off-axis, it will produce a transverse wake field that can then kick later bunches off the axis. Thus, even bunches that were initially traveling on axis could be displaced and, in turn, produce their own transverse wake fields, affecting following bunches. The offsets obtained by bunches could increase along the bunch train, leading to the so-called multi-bunch beam break-up instability [1]. The purpose of our investigation is to see whether such instability will occur in the superconducting, 1.3 GHz, 2.5GeV linac (see Table 1) planned for the Berkeley future light source (BFLS). We assume an initial steady-state situation established for machine operation; i.e. a continuous process where every bunch follows the same trajectory through the linac, with only small deviations from the axis of the rf structures. We will look at a possible instability arising from a bunch having a small deviation from the established trajectory. Such a deviation would produce a wake field that is slightly different from the one produced by the bunches following the established trajectory. This could lead to subsequent bunches deviating further from the established trajectory. We will assume the deviations are small (at first) and so the difference in the wake field caused by a bunch not traveling along the established trajectory is well approximated by a long-range transverse dipole wake. We are concerned only with deviations from the established trajectory; thus, in our models, a transverse position of zero corresponds to the bunch traveling along the established trajectory. Under this assumption, only the additional long-range transverse dipole wake remains in our models.

  11. Effects of Magnetic Field on the Turbulent Wake of a Cylinder in MHD Channel Flow

    SciTech Connect

    John Rhoads, Eric Edlund and Hantao Ji

    2013-04-17

    Results from a free-surface MHD flow experiment are presented detailing the modi cation of vortices in the wake of a circular cylinder with its axis parallel to the applied magnetic fi eld. Experiments were performed with a Reynolds number near Re ~ 104 as the interaction parameter, N = |j x#2; B| / |? (? ?), was increased through unity. By concurrently sampling the downstream fluid velocity at sixteen cross-stream locations in the wake, it was possible to extract an ensemble of azimuthal velocity profi les as a function of radius for vortices shed by the cylinder at varying strengths of magnetic field. Results indicate a signi cant change in vortex radius and rotation as N is increased. The lack of deviations from the vortex velocity pro file at high magnetic fi elds suggests the absence of small-scale turbulent features. By sampling the wake at three locations downstream in subsequent experiments, the decay of the vortices was examined and the effective viscosity was found to decrease as N-0490.4. This reduction in effective viscosity is due to the modi cation of the small-scale eddies by the magnetic fi eld. The slope of the energy spectrum was observed to change from a k-1.8 power-law at low N to a k-3.5 power-law for N > 1. Together, these results suggest the flow smoothly transitioned to a quasi-two-dimensional state in the range 0 < N < 1.

  12. Velocity field in the wake of a hydropower farm equipped with Achard turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, A.-M.; Georgescu, S. C.; Cosoiu, C. I.; Alboiu, N.; Hamzu, Al

    2010-08-01

    The study consists of experimental and numerical investigations related to the water flow in the wake of a hydropower farm, equipped with three Achard turbines. The Achard turbine is a French concept of vertical axis cross-flow marine current turbine, with three vertical delta-blades, which operates irrespective of the water flow direction. A farm model built at 1:5 scale has been tested in a water channel. The Achard turbines run in stabilized current, so the flow can be assumed to be almost unchanged in horizontal planes along the vertical z-axis, thus allowing 2D numerical modelling, for different farm configurations: the computational domain is a cross-section of all turbines at a certain z-level. The two-dimensional numerical model of that farm has been used to depict the velocity field in the wake of the farm, with COMSOL Multiphysics and FLUENT software, to compute numerically the overall farm efficiency. The validation of the numerical models with experimental results is performed via the measurement of velocity distribution, by Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry, in the wake of the middle turbine within the farm. Three basic configurations were studied experimentally and numerically, namely: with all turbines aligned on a row across the upstream flow direction; with turbines in an isosceles triangular arrangement pointing downstream; with turbines in an isosceles triangular arrangement pointing upstream. As long as the numerical flow in the wake fits the experiments, the numerical results for the power coefficient (turbine efficiency) are trustworthy. The farm configuration with all turbines aligned on a same row leads to lower values of the experimental velocities than the numerical ones, while the farm configurations where the turbines are in isosceles triangular arrangement, pointing downstream or upstream, present a better match between numerical and experimental data.

  13. Field investigation of a wake structure downwind of a VAWT in a windfarm array

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.T.; Buck, J.W.; Germain, A.C.; Hinchee, M.E.; Solt, T.S.; LeRoy, G.M.; Srnsky, R.A.

    1987-10-01

    The effects of upwind turbine wakes on the performance of a FloWind 17-m VAWT were investigated through a series of field experiments conducted at the FloWind windfarm on Cameron Ridge, Tehachapi, California. The field experiment was conducted within a VAWT array consisting of more than nine VAWTs with separations 3D crosswised by 8D downwind (where D is the turbine diameter) in a staggered configuration. The array is the upwind three rows of VAWTS in a total of six rows that are on top of the Cameron Ridge plateau. The terrain features in the vicinity are reasonably regular, with an upslope of 7 deg on the average; however, several local irregularities are present. The annual hourly averaged wind speed exceeds 8 m/s at the site. The wind field and the power-outputs of nine turbines within the array were measured with wind sensors and power transducers. Nine Gill propeller and 18 Maximum cup anemometers and one direction sensor were mounted on portable and stack-up towers installed upwind and within the turbine array. From the field measurements, the velocity and power/energy deficits were derived under various turbine on/off configurations. Much information was provided to characterize the structure of VAWT wakes and to assess their effects on the performance of downwind turbines. Recommendations are made for optimizing windfarm design and operations as well as for wind energy management.

  14. Comments on the impedances of the SSC shielded bellows at low frequencies due to the truncation of the wake fields

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.

    1986-09-01

    The behavior of the longitudinal impedance of the SSC shielded bellow at low frequencies depends very much on the length of the wake field used in the Fourier transformation. We show analytically and numerically that, regardless of the difference, single-bunch effects are independent of the actual shape of the impedance when the length of the wake used is bigger than the bunch length.

  15. Wakeatron: acceleration of electrons on the wake field of a proton bunch

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    We explore in this note the idea of accelerating a low intensity electron or positron bunch, travelling through a linear rf structure, following at a short distance an intense proton bunch which leaves behind a wake field. This device acts like a transformer where two beams are involved: one made of protons at high current and low energy, the other made of either electrons or positrons, at low current and high energy. The two beams are coupled electromagnetically to each other by a specially designed rf structure made of a long sequence of cavities.

  16. Observation of high-resolution wind fields and offshore wind turbine wakes using TerraSAR-X imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gies, Tobias; Jacobsen, Sven; Lehner, Susanne; Pleskachevsky, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    1. Introduction Numerous large-scale offshore wind farms have been built in European waters and play an important role in providing renewable energy. Therefore, knowledge of behavior of wakes, induced by large wind turbines and their impact on wind power output is important. The spatial variation of offshore wind turbine wake is very complex, depending on wind speed, wind direction, ambient atmospheric turbulence and atmospheric stability. In this study we demonstrate the application of X-band TerraSAR-X (TS-X) data with high spatial resolution for studies on wind turbine wakes in the near and far field of the offshore wind farm Alpha Ventus, located in the North Sea. Two cases which different weather conditions and different wake pattern as observed in the TS-X image are presented. 2. Methods The space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a unique sensor that provides two-dimensional information on the ocean surface. Due to their high resolution, daylight and weather independency and global coverage, SARs are particularly suitable for many ocean and coastal applications. SAR images reveal wind variations on small scales and thus represent a valuable means in detailed wind-field analysis. The general principle of imaging turbine wakes is that the reduced wind speed downstream of offshore wind farms modulates the sea surface roughness, which in turn changes the Normalized Radar Cross Section (NRCS, denoted by σ0) in the SAR image and makes the wake visible. In this study we present two cases at the offshore wind farm Alpha Ventus to investigate turbine-induced wakes and the retrieved sea surface wind field. Using the wind streaks, visible in the TS-X image and the shadow behind the offshore wind farm, induced by turbine wake, the sea surface wind direction is derived and subsequently the sea surface wind speed is calculated using the latest generation of wind field algorithm XMOD2. 3. Case study alpha ventus Alpha Ventus is located approximately 45 km from the coast of Borkum, Germany, and consists of twelve 5-Megawatt wind power turbines. The retrieved results are validated by comparing with QuikSCAT measurements, the results of the German Weather Service (DWD) atmospheric model and in-situ measurements of wind speed and wind direction, obtained from the research platform FiNO1, installed 400 m west of Alpha Ventus. 4. Conclusion In the presented case study we quantify the wake characteristics of wake length, wake width, maximum velocity de?cit, wake merging and wake meandering. We show that SAR has the capability to map the sea surface two-dimensionally in high spatial resolution which provides a unique opportunity to observe spatial characteristics of offshore wind turbine wakes. The SAR derived information can support offshore wind farming with respect to optimal siting and design and help to estimate their effects on the environment.

  17. A Concept of Plasma Wake Field Acceleration Linear Collider (PWFA-LC)

    SciTech Connect

    Seryi, Andrei; Hogan, Mark; Pei, Shilun; Raubenheimer, Tor; Tenenbaum, Peter; Katsouleas, Tom; Huang, Chengkun; Joshi, Chan; Mori, Warren; Muggli, Patric; /Southern California U.

    2009-10-30

    Plasma Wake-Field Acceleration (PWFA) has demonstrated acceleration gradients above 50 GeV/m. Simulations have shown drive/witness bunch configurations that yield small energy spreads in the accelerated witness bunch and high energy transfer efficiency from the drive bunch to the witness bunch, ranging from 30% for a Gaussian drive bunch to 95% for a shaped longitudinal profile. These results open the opportunity for a linear collider that could be compact, efficient and more cost effective that the present microwave technologies. A concept of a PWFA-based Linear Collider (PWFA-LC) has been developed and is described in this paper. The drive beam generation and distribution, requirements on the plasma cells, and optimization of the interaction region parameters are described in detail. The R&D steps needed for further development of the concept are also outlined.

  18. High-quality electron beam from laser wake-field acceleration in laser produced plasma plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanyasi Rao, Bobbili; Moorti, Anand; Rathore, Ranjana; Ali Chakera, Juzer; Anant Naik, Prasad; Dass Gupta, Parshotam

    2013-06-01

    Generation of highly collimated (?div 10 mrad), quasi-monoenergetic electron beam with peak energy 12 MeV and charge 50 pC has been experimentally demonstrated from self-guided laser wake-field acceleration (LWFA) in a plasma plume produced by laser ablation of solid nylon (C12H22N2O2)n target. A 7 TW, 45 fs Ti:sapphire laser system was used for LWFA, and the plasma plume forming pulse was derived from the Nd:YAG pump laser of the same system. The results show that a reproducible, high quality electron beam could be produced from this scheme which is simple, low cost and has the capability for high repetition rate operation.

  19. High-quality electron beam from laser wake-field acceleration in laser produced plasma plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyasi Rao, Bobbili; Moorti, Anand; Rathore, Ranjana; Ali Chakera, Juzer; Anant Naik, Prasad; Dass Gupta, Parshotam

    2013-06-10

    Generation of highly collimated ({theta}{sub div}{approx}10 mrad), quasi-monoenergetic electron beam with peak energy 12 MeV and charge {approx}50 pC has been experimentally demonstrated from self-guided laser wake-field acceleration (LWFA) in a plasma plume produced by laser ablation of solid nylon (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sub n} target. A 7 TW, 45 fs Ti:sapphire laser system was used for LWFA, and the plasma plume forming pulse was derived from the Nd:YAG pump laser of the same system. The results show that a reproducible, high quality electron beam could be produced from this scheme which is simple, low cost and has the capability for high repetition rate operation.

  20. Critical suppression of spin Seebeck effect by magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikkawa, Takashi; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Daimon, Shunsuke; Qiu, Zhiyong; Shiomi, Yuki; Saitoh, Eiji

    2015-08-01

    The longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) in Pt /Y3Fe5O12(YIG ) junction systems has been investigated at various magnetic fields and temperatures. We found that the LSSE voltage in a Pt/YIG-slab system is suppressed by applying high magnetic fields and this suppression is critically enhanced at low temperatures. The field-induced suppression of the LSSE in the Pt/YIG-slab system is too large at around room temperature to be explained simply by considering the effect of the Zeeman gap in magnon excitation. This result requires us to introduce a magnon-frequency-dependent mechanism into the scenario of LSSE; low-frequency magnons dominantly contribute to the LSSE. The magnetic field dependence of the LSSE voltage was observed to change by changing the thickness of YIG, suggesting that the thermospin conversion by the low-frequency magnons is suppressed in thin YIG films due to the long characteristic lengths of such magnons.

  1. Generating ``Superponderomotive'' Electrons due to a Non-Wake-Field Interaction between a Laser Pulse and a Longitudinal Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. P. L.; Arefiev, A. V.; Neely, D.

    2013-08-01

    It is shown that electrons with momenta exceeding the free electron limit of meca02/2 can be produced when a laser pulse and a longitudinal electric field interact with an electron via a non-wake-field mechanism. The mechanism consists of two stages: the reduction of the electron dephasing rate ?-px/mec by an accelerating region of electric field and electron acceleration by the laser via the Lorentz force. This mechanism can, in principle, produce electrons that have longitudinal momenta that is a significant multiple of meca02/2. 2D particle-in-cell simulations of a relatively simple laser-plasma interaction indicate that the generation of superponderomotive electrons is strongly affected by this antidephasing mechanism.

  2. Sandia Wake Imaging System Field Test Report: 2015 Deployment at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) Facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Naughton, Brian Thomas; Herges, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    This report presents the objectives, configuration, procedures, reporting , roles , and responsibilities and subsequent results for the field demonstration of the Sandia Wake Imaging System (SWIS) at the Sandia Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility near Lubbock, Texas in June and July 2015.

  3. Comparison of observed plasma and magnetic field structures in the wakes of Mars and Venus

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinin, E. ); Lundin, R. ); Riedler, W.; Schwingenschuh, K. ); Luhmann, J.G.; Russell, C.T. ); Brace, L.H. )

    1991-07-01

    Plasma and magnetic field observations from the Phobos 2 spacecraft at Mars and the Pioneer Venus orbiter (PVO) at Venus show that there are some notable similarities in the structure of the low-altitude magnetotails at both of these weakly magnetized planets. In particular, it is found that when conditions in the interplanetary medium are steady and the orbit sampling geometry is appropriate, two magnetic tail lobes, with an intervening plasma sheet or central tail ray in the approximate location of the dividing current sheet, are present. This behavior is seen in both the Phobos 2 ASPERA plasma analyzer data and in the PVO Langmuir probe data. In the Phobos 2 data, the tail ray is found to be composed primarily of antisunward streaming oxygen (O{sup +}) plasma which has a bulk velocity consistent with an energy close to that of the upstream solar wind plasma. The PVO Langmuir probe experiment also detected two (or more) additional cold plasma structures flanking the central figure; Phobos 2 data, on the other hand, show a proton plasma boundary layer flanking the central (mostly O{sup +}) tail ray or plasma sheet, with sporadic fluxes or rays of O{sup +} ions. If the latter considered is to be the magnetosheath (solar wind plasma) at the tail boundary, it is mainly the common central tail O{sup +} features that suggest that there are common planetary ion acceleration and magnetotail formation processes at work in the low-altitude wakes of Mars and Venus. On the other hand, an important contribution from picked-up exospheric hydrogen in the wake at Mars cannot be ruled out.

  4. Comparison of the Dynamic Wake Meandering Model, Large-Eddy Simulation, and Field Data at the Egmond aan Zee Offshore Wind Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Churchfield, M. J.; Moriarty, P. J.; Hao, Y.; Lackner, M. A.; Barthelmie, R.; Lundquist, J.; Oxley, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    The focus of this work is the comparison of the dynamic wake meandering model and large-eddy simulation with field data from the Egmond aan Zee offshore wind plant composed of 36 3-MW turbines. The field data includes meteorological mast measurements, SCADA information from all turbines, and strain-gauge data from two turbines. The dynamic wake meandering model and large-eddy simulation are means of computing unsteady wind plant aerodynamics, including the important unsteady meandering of wakes as they convect downstream and interact with other turbines and wakes. Both of these models are coupled to a turbine model such that power and mechanical loads of each turbine in the wind plant are computed. We are interested in how accurately different types of waking (e.g., direct versus partial waking), can be modeled, and how background turbulence level affects these loads. We show that both the dynamic wake meandering model and large-eddy simulation appear to underpredict power and overpredict fatigue loads because of wake effects, but it is unclear that they are really in error. This discrepancy may be caused by wind-direction uncertainty in the field data, which tends to make wake effects appear less pronounced.

  5. Generation of parallel electric fields in the Jupiter-Io torus wake region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergun, R. E.; Ray, L.; Delamere, P. A.; Bagenal, F.; Dols, V.; Su, Y.-J.

    2009-05-01

    Infrared and ultraviolet images have established that auroral emissions at Jupiter caused by the electromagnetic interaction with Io not only produce a bright spot, but an emission trail that extends in longitude from Io's magnetic footprint. Electron acceleration that produces the bright spot is believed to be dominated by Alfvn waves whereas we argue that the trail or wake aurora results from quasi-static parallel electric fields associated with large-scale, field-aligned currents between the Io torus and Jupiter's ionosphere. These currents ultimately transfer angular momentum from Jupiter to the Io torus. We examine the generation and the impact of the quasi-static parallel electric fields in the Io trail aurora. A critical component to our analysis is a current-voltage relation that accounts for the low-density plasma along the magnetic flux tubes that connect the Io torus and Jupiter. This low-density region, 2 R J from Jupiter's center, can significantly limit the field-aligned current, essentially acting as a high-latitude current choke. Once parallel electric fields are introduced, the governing equations that couple Jupiter's ionosphere to the Io torus become nonlinear and, while the large-scale behavior is similar to that expected with no parallel electric field, there are substantial deviations on smaller scales. The solutions, bound by properties of the Io torus and Jupiter's ionosphere, indicate that the parallel potentials are on the order of 1 kV when constrained by peak energy fluxes of a few milliwatts per square meter. The parallel potentials that we predict are significantly lower than earlier reports.

  6. Modeling Laser Wake Field Acceleration with the Quasi-Static PIC Code QuickPIC

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, J.; Antonsen, T. Jr.; Cooley, J.; Silva, L. O.

    2006-11-27

    We use the Quasi-static Particle-In-Cell code QuickPIC to model laser wake field acceleration, in both uniform and parabolic plasma channels within current state of the art experimental laser and plasma parameters. QuickPIC uses the quasi-static approximation, which allows the separation of the plasma and laser evolution, as they respond in different time scales. The laser is evolved with a larger time step, that correctly resolves distances of the order of the Rayleigh length, according to the ponderomotive guiding center approximation, while the plasma response is calculated through a quasi-static field solver for each transverse 2d slice. We have performed simulations that show very good agreement between QuickPIC and three dimensional simulations using the full PIC code OSIRIS. We have scanned laser intensities from those for which linear plasma waves are excited to those for which the plasma response is highly nonlinear. For these simulations, QuickPIC was 2-3 orders of magnitude faster than OSIRIS.

  7. Quasi-static Modeling of Plasma Wake Field Acceleration of Electron/Positron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Miaomiao; Huang, Chengkun; Lu, Wei; Tsung, Frank; Decyk, Viktor; Down, Adrian; Joshi, Chan; Mori, Warren

    2006-10-01

    A quasi-static particle in cell code QuickPIC is used to model Plasma Wake Field Acceleration (PWFA) by a relativistic electron or positron beam. Field-ionization, synchrotron radiation effects are included in the model. For an electron beam driver, the parameters in recent afterburner relevant experiments (E167) are used. Head erosion turns out to be a key factor limiting further energy gain for these parameters. The erosion speed in the simulation are compared with a simple theoretical calculation. The final energy spectrum measured in the experiment agreed very well with simulation predictions. For a positron beam driver, beam parameters relevant to the future SABER facilities are considered. Simulations show a pattern of positron beam evolution, i.e. a rapid modulation followed by an envelope stabilization. Up to 5.7 GeV energy gain were observed within 39 centimeters of plasma. At the end, a method of including the trapped particles into the quasi-static model will be described. Preliminary results will be shown.

  8. The Role of Turbulence in Chemical and Dynamical Processes in the Near-Field Wake of Subsonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewellen, D. C.; Lewellen, W. Steve

    2002-01-01

    During this grant, covering the period from September 1998 to December 2001, we continued the investigation of the role of turbulent mixing in the wake of subsonic aircraft initiated in 1994 for NASA's Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project. The goal of the research has been to provide sufficient understanding and quantitative analytical capability to assess the dynamical, chemical, and microphysical interactions in the near-field wake that have the greatest potential to influence the global atmospheric impact of the projected fleet of subsonic aircraft. Through large-eddy simulations we have shown that turbulence in the early wake dynamics can have a strong effect on both the ice microphysics of contrail evolution and on wake chemistry. The wake vortex dynamics are the primary determinant of the vertical extent of the contrail; this together with the local wind shear largely determines the horizontal extent. The fraction of the initial ice crystals surviving the wake vortex dynamics, their spatial distribution, and the ice mass distribution are all sensitive to the aircraft type, assumed initial ice crystal number, and ambient humidity and turbulence conditions. Our model indicates that there is a significant range of conditions for which a smaller aircraft such as a B737 produces as significant a persistent contrail as a larger aircraft such as a B747, even though the latter consumes almost five times as much fuel. Large-eddy simulations of the near wake of a B757 provided a fine-grained chemical-dynamical representation of simplified NOx - HOx chemistry in wakes of ages from a few seconds to several minutes. By sampling the simulated data in a manner similar to that of in situ aircraft measurements it was possible to provide a likely explanation for a puzzle uncovered in the 1996 SUCCESS flight measurements of OH and HO2 The results illustrate the importance of considering fluid dynamics effects in interpreting chemistry results when mixing rates and species fluctuations are large, and demonstrate the feasibility of using 3D unsteady LES with coupled chemistry to study such phenomena.

  9. Analysis of the wake field effects in the PEP-II storage rings with extremely high currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novokhatski, A.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present the history and analysis of different wake field effects throughout the operational life of the PEP-II SLAC B-factory. Although the impedance of the high and low energy rings is small, the intense high-current beams generated a lot of power. The effects from these wake fields are: heating and damage of vacuum beam chamber elements like RF seals, vacuum valves, shielded bellows, BPM buttons and ceramic tiles; vacuum spikes, vacuum instabilities and high detector background; and beam longitudinal and transverse instabilities. We also discuss the methods used to eliminate these effects. Results of this analysis and the PEP-II experience may be very useful in the design of new storage rings and light sources.

  10. Ionization effects in the generation of wake-fields by ultra-high contrast femtosecond laser pulses in argon gas

    SciTech Connect

    Makito, K.; Shin, J.-H.; Zhidkov, A.; Hosokai, T.; Masuda, S.; Kodama, R.

    2012-10-15

    Difference in mechanisms of wake-field generation and electron self-injection by high contrast femtosecond laser pulses in an initially neutral Argon gas and in pre-ionized plasma without ionization is studied via 2D particle-in-cell simulations including optical ionization of the media. For shorter laser pulses, 40 fs, ionization results only in an increase of the charge of accelerated electrons by factor of {approx}3 with qualitatively the same energy distribution. For longer pulses, 80 fs, a more stable wake field structure is observed in the neutral gas with the maximal energy of the accelerated electrons exceeding that in the fixed density plasma. In higher density Argon, an ionizing laser pulse converts itself to a complex system of solitons at a self-induced, critical density ramp.

  11. Preliminary Analysis on Linac Oscillation Data LI05-19 and Wake Field Energy Loss in FACET Commissioning 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yipeng; /SLAC

    2012-07-23

    In this note, preliminary analysis on linac ocsillation data in FACET linac LI05-09 plus LI11-19 is presented. Several quadrupoles are identified to possibly have different strength, compared with their designed strength in the MAD optics model. The beam energy loss due to longitudinal wake fields in the S-band linac is also analytically calculated, also by LITRACK numerical simulations.

  12. Scaling of far-field wake angle of nonaxisymmetric pressure disturbance.

    PubMed

    Moisy, F; Rabaud, M

    2014-06-01

    It has been recently emphasized that the angle of maximum wave amplitude ? in the wake of a disturbance of finite size can be significantly narrower than the maximum value ?_{K}=sin^{-1}(1/3)?19.47^{?} predicted by the classical analysis of Kelvin. For axisymmetric disturbance, a simple argument based on the Cauchy-Poisson initial-value problem suggests that the wake angle decreases following a Mach-like law at large velocity, ??Fr_{L}^{-1}, where Fr_{L}=U/sqrt[gL] is the Froude number based on the disturbance velocity U, its size L, and gravity g. In this paper we extend this analysis to the case of nonaxisymmetric disturbances, relevant to real ships. We find that, for intermediate Froude numbers, the wake angle follows an intermediate scaling law ??Fr_{L}^{-2}, in agreement with the recent prediction of Noblesse et al. [Eur. J. Mech. B/Fluids 46, 164 (2014)]. We show that beyond a critical Froude number, which scales as A^{1/2} (where A is the length-to-width aspect ratio of the disturbance), the asymptotic scaling ??Fr_{B}^{-1} holds, where now Fr_{B}=A^{1/2}Fr_{L} is the Froude number based on the disturbance width. We propose a simple model for this transition, and provide a regime diagram of the scaling of the wake angle as a function of parameters (A,Fr_{L}). PMID:25019876

  13. Experimental study of plane turbulent wakes in a shallow water layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daoyi; Jirka, Gerhard H.

    1995-07-01

    Shallow two-dimensional turbulent wake flows have been studied experimentally on a large water table. In the experiments, the ambient Reynolds number Re h = UaH/ ?, in which Ua is the depth-averaged ambient velocity, H the water depth, and ? the kinematic viscosity, is large, well above a lower critical value of the order of 500 for open-channel flows so that the ambient base flow is fully turbulent. Different types of blunt bodies extending over the full depth are inserted in that base flow, including cylinders and flat solid and porous plates oriented transversely to the ambient flow. In all cases, the transverse body dimension D greatly exceeds the water depthy, D/H ? 1 . With that condition, the wake Reynolds number Re d = UaD/ ? is very large, greater than 10 4. The shallow near-wake characteristics of plane wakes from blunt bodies extending over the full water depth have been found to fall into one of three classes: (i) the vortex street (VS) type with an oscillating vortex shedding mechanism, (ii) the unsteady bubble (UB) wake type with flow instabilities growing downstream of a recirculating bubble attached to the body, and (iii) the steady bubble (SB) wake type with an attached bubble followed by a turbulent wake that contains no growing instabilities. When Re h > 1500, the flow classification is uniquely dependent on a shallow wake parameter, S = c fD/H in which cf is a quadratic law friction coefficient. For circular cylindrical bodies the VS-UB transition is characterized by a critical value, Sca ? 0.2, and the UB-SB transition by Scc ? 0.5. Solid plates, oriented transversely, differ by a factor of 1.25. The shallow far-wake behavior has been investigated with a special variable porosity wake device that reduces the wake velocity deficit and completely suppresses the VS instabilities in the near-field. Thus, only UB and SB wake types are found in that case. Furthermore, the shallow plane wake is obsserved to "stabilize" for large downstream distances, x/H, in the sense that the growth and maintenance of the large scale structures in the wake flow become suppressed and the wake collapses into a more ordered flow that, however, still contains small scale (of scale H) turbulence. This wake stabilization is controlled by two factors: first, the usual evolution in a turbulent wake that reduces the velocity deficit while increasing the wake parameter S, and secondly, the exponential loss of the momentum deficit flux in the wake due to bottom friction.

  14. Electric field suppression of ultracold confined chemical reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Quemener, Goulven; Bohn, John L.

    2010-06-15

    We consider ultracold collisions of polar molecules confined in a one-dimensional optical lattice. Using a quantum scattering formalism and a frame transformation method, we calculate elastic and chemical quenching rate constants for fermionic molecules. Taking {sup 40}K{sup 87}Rb molecules as a prototype, we find that the rate of quenching collisions is enhanced at zero electric field as the confinement is increased but that this rate is suppressed when the electric field is turned on. For molecules with 500 nK of collision energy, for realistic molecular densities, and for achievable experimental electric fields and trap confinements, we predict lifetimes for KRb molecules to be 1 s. We find a ratio of elastic to quenching collision rates of about 100, which may be sufficient to achieve efficient evaporative cooling of polar KRb molecules.

  15. HIGH-GRADIENT, HIGH-TRANSFORMER-RATIO, DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-04-12

    The Phase I work reported here responds to DoE'ss stated need "...to develop improved accelerator designs that can provide very high gradient (>200 MV/m for electrons...) acceleration of intense bunches of particles." Omega-P'™s approach to this goal is through use of a ramped train of annular electron bunches to drive a coaxial dielectric wakefield accelerator (CDWA) structure. This approach is a direct extension of the CDWA concept from acceleration in wake fields caused by a single drive bunch, to the more efficient acceleration that we predict can be realized from a tailored (or ramped) train of several drive bunches. This is possible because of a much higher transformer ratio for the latter. The CDWA structure itself has a number of unique features, including: a high accelerating gradient G, potentially with G > 1 GeV/m; continuous energy coupling from drive to test bunches without transfer structures; inherent transverse focusing forces for particles in the accelerated bunch; highly stable motion of high charge annular drive bunches; acceptable alignment tolerances for a multi-section system. What is new in the present approach is that the coaxial dielectric structure is now to be energized by-not one-”but by a short train of ramped annular-shaped drive bunches moving in the outer coaxial channel of the structure. We have shown that this allows acceleration of an electron bunch traveling along the axis in the inner channel with a markedly higher transformer ratio T than for a single drive bunch. As described in this report, the structure will be a GHz-scale prototype with cm-scale transverse dimensions that is expected to confirm principles that can be applied to the design of a future THz-scale high gradient (> 500 MV/m) accelerator with mm-scale transverse dimensions. We show here a new means to significantly increase the transformer ratio T of the device, and thereby to significantly improve its suitability as a flexible and effective component in a future high energy, high gradient accelerator facility. We predict that the T of a high gradient CDWA can be increased by a substantial factor; this enhancement is dramatically greater than what has been demonstrated heretofore. This large enhancement in T that we predict arises from using a train of three or four drive bunches in which the spacing of the bunches and their respective charges are selected according to a simple principle that requires each bunch lose energy to the wakefields at the same rate, so as not to sacrifice drive beam efficiency—as would be the case if one bunch exhausted its available energy while others had not. It is anticipated that results from the study proposed here can have a direct impact on design of the dielectric accelerator in a TeV-scale collider concept, and in the accelerator for an x-ray FEL.

  16. Topology of the vorticity field in three-dimensional shear layers and wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiburg, Eckart; Lasheras, Juan C.; Ashurst, W. T.

    1988-09-01

    An experimental and numerical study of the three-dimensional transition of plane wakes and shear layers behind a flat plate is presented. Flow visualization techniques are used to monitor the response of laminar flows at moderate Reynolds numbers (about 100) to perturbations periodically distributed along the span. In this way, the formation and evolution of streamwise vortex tubes and their interaction with the spanwise vortices are analyzed. The flow was studied numerically by means of three-dimensional inviscid vortex dynamics. Comparison between experiment and visualization indicates that important features of the three-dimensional evolution can be reproduced by inviscid vortex dynamics.

  17. Generation and Suppression of E Region Artificial Field Aligned Irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miceli, R. J.; Hysell, D. L.; Munk, J.; Han, S.

    2012-12-01

    Artificial field-aligned plasma density irregularities (FAIs) were generated in the E region of the ionosphere above the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility during campaigns in May and August of 2012 and were quantified using a 30 MHz coherent scatter radar in Homer, Alaska. The purpose of the experiment was to analyze the X-mode suppression of FAIs generated from O-mode heating and to measure the threshold required to excite thermal parametric instabilities. The irregularities were excited by gradually increasing the power of a zenith pointing O-mode emission transmitted at a frequency of 2.75 MHz. To suppress the irregularities, a second X-mode emission at a higher frequency was added on alternating power cycles. The Homer radar measured the signal-to-noise ratio, Doppler shift, and spectral width of echoes reflected from the irregularities. We will calculate the threshold electric field required to excite the irregularities and compare with similar experiments in order to better understand the thermal parametric instability.

  18. Wake flowfields for Jovian probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, C. D.; Hair, L. M.

    1980-01-01

    The wake flow field developed by the Galileo probe as it enters the Jovian atmosphere was modeled. The wake produced by the probe is highly energetic, yielding both convective and radiative heat inputs to the base of the probe. A component mathematical model for the inviscid near and far wake, the viscous near and far wake, and near wake recirculation zone was developed. Equilibrium thermodynamics were used for both the ablation and atmospheric species. Flow fields for three entry conditions were calculated. The near viscous wave was found to exhibit a variable axial pressure distribution with the neck pressure approximately three times the base pressure. Peak wake flow field temperatures were found to be in proportion to forebody post shock temperatures.

  19. A large-domain approach for calculating ship boundary layers and wakes and wave fields for nonzero Froude number

    SciTech Connect

    Tahara, Y.; Stern, F.

    1996-09-01

    A large-domain approach is developed for calculating ship boundary layers and wakes and wave fields for nonzero Froude number. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and continuity equations are solved with the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model, exact nonlinear kinematic and approximate dynamic free-surface boundary conditions, and a body/free-surface conforming grid. The results are validated through comparisons with data for the Series 60 C{sub B} = 0.6 ship model at low and high Froude numbers and results of a precursory interactive approach. Both approaches yield satisfactory results; however, the large-domain results indicate improved resolution of the flow close to the hull and wake centerplane and of the Froucle number differences due to near-wall turbulence modeling and non-linear free-surface boundary conditions. Additional evaluation is provided through discussion of the recent CFD Workshop Tokyo 1994, where both methods were among the best. Last, some concluding remarks are made. 20 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Suppression of probe background signals via B1 field inhomogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jian; Reimer, Jeffrey

    2011-01-27

    A new approach combining a long pulse with the DEPTH sequence (Cory and Ritchey, Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 1988) greatly improves the efficiency for suppressing probe background signals arising from spinning modules. By applying a long initial excitation pulse in the DEPTH sequence, instead of a {pi}/2 pulse, the inhomogeneous B{sub 1} fields outside the coil can dephase the background coherence in the nutation frame. The initial long pulse and the following two consecutive EXORCYCLE {pi} pulses function complementarily and prove most effective in removing background signals from both strong and weak B{sub 1} fields. Experimentally, the length of the long pulse can be optimized around odd multiples of the {pi}/2 pulse, depending on the individual probe design, to preserve signals inside the coil while minimizing those from probe hardware. This method extends the applicability of the DEPTH sequence to probes with small differences in B{sub 1} field strength between the inside and outside of the coil, and can readily combine with well-developed double resonance experiments for quantitative measurement. In general, spin systems with weak internal interactions are required to attain efficient and uniform excitation for powder samples, and the principles to determine the applicability are discussed qualitatively in terms of the relative strength of spin interactions, r.f. power and spinning rate.

  1. Suppression of probe background signals via B(1) field inhomogeneity.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jian; Reimer, Jeffrey A

    2011-04-01

    A new approach combining a long pulse with the DEPTH sequence (Cory and Ritchey, Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 1988) greatly improves the efficiency for suppressing probe background signals arising from spinning modules. By applying a long initial excitation pulse in the DEPTH sequence, instead of a ?/2 pulse, the inhomogeneous B(1) fields outside the coil can dephase the background coherence in the nutation frame. The initial long pulse and the following two consecutive EXORCYCLE ? pulses function complementarily and prove most effective in removing background signals from both strong and weak B? fields. Experimentally, the length of the long pulse can be optimized around odd multiples of the ?/2 pulse, depending on the individual probe design, to preserve signals inside the coil while minimizing those from probe hardware. This method extends the applicability of the DEPTH sequence to probes with small differences in B? field strength between the inside and outside of the coil, and can readily combine with well-developed double resonance experiments for quantitative measurement. In general, spin systems with weak internal interactions are required to attain efficient and uniform excitation for powder samples, and the principles to determine the applicability are discussed qualitatively in terms of the relative strength of spin interactions, r.f. power and spinning rate. PMID:21349751

  2. Wind turbine wake interactions at field scale: An LES study of the SWiFT facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaolei; Boomsma, Aaron; Barone, Matthew; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2014-06-01

    The University of Minnesota Virtual Wind Simulator (VWiS) code is employed to simulate turbine/atmosphere interactions in the Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility developed by Sandia National Laboratories in Lubbock, TX, USA. The facility presently consists of three turbines and the simulations consider the case of wind blowing from South such that two turbines are in the free stream and the third turbine in the direct wake of one upstream turbine with separation of 5 rotor diameters. Large-eddy simulation (LES) on two successively finer grids is carried out to examine the sensitivity of the computed solutions to grid refinement. It is found that the details of the break-up of the tip vortices into small-scale turbulence structures can only be resolved on the finer grid. It is also shown that the power coefficient CP of the downwind turbine predicted on the coarse grid is somewhat higher than that obtained on the fine mesh. On the other hand, the rms (root-mean-square) of the CP fluctuations are nearly the same on both grids, although more small-scale turbulence structures are resolved upwind of the downwind turbine on the finer grid.

  3. Flow field behind a fixed bluff body in a vertical pipe simulating a wake of a Taylor bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babin, V.; Barnea, D.; Shemer, L.

    2013-10-01

    The hydrodynamic structure of the wake of an axisymmetric bluff body that simulates the shape of a moving elongated (Taylor) bubble in a vertical pipe was studied using Particle Image Velocimetry in laminar and turbulent background flows. The distribution of the mean axial and radial velocity components in the wake, as well as the spatial variation of the normal and shear stresses are presented and compared with the corresponding quantities in the wake of the gas bubble. The accumulated results enable estimates of the spatial variation of turbulent energy production term in the undeveloped separated flow in the wake of the bluff body.

  4. Simulation of Time-Dependent Energy Modulation by Wake Fields and its Impact on Gain in the VUV free Electron Laser of the TESLA Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiche, S.; Schlarb, H.

    2000-05-01

    For shorter bunches and narrower undulator gaps the interaction between the electrons in the bunch and the wake fields becomes so large that the FEL amplification is affected. For a typical vacuum chamber of an X-ray or VUV Free Electron Laser three major sources of wake fields exist: a resistance of the beam pipe, a change in the geometric aperture and the surface roughness of the beam pipe. The generated wake fields, which move along with the electrons, change the electron energy and momentum, depending on the electron longitudinal and transverse position. In particular, the accumulated energy modulation shifts the electrons away from the resonance condition. Based on an analytic model the energy loss by the wake fields has been incorporated into the time-dependent FEL simulation code GENESIS 1.3. For the parameters of the TESLA Test Facility the influence of the bunch length, beam pipe diameter and surface roughness has been studied. The results are presented in this paper.

  5. Measurements of fish's wake by PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuemin; Wu, Yanfeng; Lu, Xiyun; Yin, Xiezhen

    2003-04-01

    In this paper an experiment on measurements of the wake of Goldfish carassius auratus swimming unrestricted was conducted in a water tunnel. Color liquid was used to visualize the wake of the fish and PIV was used to measure velocity field of the wake. Results show that there is reverse Karman vortex street in symmetrical plane of the fish's wake and the Strouhal frequency of the fish is about 0.35 udner the different experimental conditions. The distribution of velocity and vorticity in the wake of Goldfish was measured by PIV and formation of reverse Karman vortex street in the wake was studied in a model experiment.

  6. Jovian Plasmas Torus Interaction with Europa. Plasma Wake Structure and Effect of Inductive Magnetic Field: 3D Hybrid Kinetic Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Cooper, J F.; Paterson, W. R.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.; Simpson, David G.

    2013-01-01

    The hybrid kinetic model supports comprehensive simulation of the interaction between different spatial and energetic elements of the Europa moon-magnetosphere system with respect to a variable upstream magnetic field and flux or density distributions of plasma and energetic ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. This capability is critical for improving the interpretation of the existing Europa flyby measurements from the Galileo Orbiter mission, and for planning flyby and orbital measurements (including the surface and atmospheric compositions) for future missions. The simulations are based on recent models of the atmosphere of Europa (Cassidy et al., 2007; Shematovich et al., 2005). In contrast to previous approaches with MHD simulations, the hybrid model allows us to fully take into account the finite gyroradius effect and electron pressure, and to correctly estimate the ion velocity distribution and the fluxes along the magnetic field (assuming an initial Maxwellian velocity distribution for upstream background ions). Photoionization, electron-impact ionization, charge exchange and collisions between the ions and neutrals are also included in our model. We consider the models with Oþ þ and Sþ þ background plasma, and various betas for background ions and electrons, and pickup electrons. The majority of O2 atmosphere is thermal with an extended non-thermal population (Cassidy et al., 2007). In this paper, we discuss two tasks: (1) the plasma wake structure dependence on the parameters of the upstream plasma and Europa's atmosphere (model I, cases (a) and (b) with a homogeneous Jovian magnetosphere field, an inductive magnetic dipole and high oceanic shell conductivity); and (2) estimation of the possible effect of an induced magnetic field arising from oceanic shell conductivity. This effect was estimated based on the difference between the observed and modeled magnetic fields (model II, case (c) with an inhomogeneous Jovian magnetosphere field, an inductive magnetic dipole and low oceanic shell conductivity).

  7. A multi-beam, multi-terawatt Ti:sapphire laser system for laser wake-field acceleration studies

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, Cs.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Tilborg, J. van; Leemans, W.P.

    2004-12-07

    The Lasers, Optical Accelerator Systems Integrated Studies (L'OASIS) Lab of LBNL operates a highly automated and remotely controlled Ti:sapphire chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser system that provides synchronized beams of 2x1.0 TW, 12 TW, and 100 TW peak-power, in a unique, radiation shielded facility. The system has been specially designed for studying high field laser-plasma interactions and particularly aimed for the investigations of laser wake-field particle acceleration. It generates and recombines multiple beams having different pulse durations, wavelengths, and pulse energies for various stages of plasma preparation, excitation, and diagnostics. The amplifier system is characterized and continuously monitored via local area network (LAN) from a radiation shielded control room by an array of diagnostics, including beam profile monitoring cameras, remote controlled alignment options, self-correcting beam-pointing stabilization loops, pulse measurement tools, such as single-shot autocorrelator for pulse duration and third-order correlator for contrast measurements, FROG for pulse shape studies.

  8. PREFACE: Wake Conference 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barney, Andrew; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Ivanell, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The 44 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the 2015 Wake Conference, held in Visby on the island of Gotland in Sweden. It is the fourth time this conference has been held. The Wake Conference series started in Visby, where it was held in 2009 and 2011. In 2013 it took place in Copenhagen where it was combined with the International Conference on Offshore Wind Energy and Ocean Energy. In 2015 it is back where it started in Visby, where it takes place at Uppsala University Campus Gotland, June 9th-11th. The global yearly production of electrical energy by wind turbines has grown tremendously in the past decade and it now comprises more than 3% of the global electrical power consumption. Today the wind power industry has a global annual turnover of more than 50 billion USD and an annual average growth rate of more than 20%. State-of-the-art wind turbines have rotor diameters of up to 150 m and 8 MW installed capacity. These turbines are often placed in large wind farms that have a total production capacity corresponding to that of a nuclear power plant. In order to make a substantial impact on one of the most significant challenges of our time, global warming, the industry's growth has to continue for a decade or two yet. This in turn requires research into the physics of wind turbine wakes and wind farms. Modern wind turbines are today clustered in wind farms in which the turbines are fully or partially influenced by the wake of upstream turbines. As a consequence, the wake behind the wind turbines has a lower mean wind speed and an increased turbulence level, as compared to the undisturbed flow outside the farm. Hence, wake interaction results in decreased total production of power, caused by lower kinetic energy in the wind, and an increase in the turbulence intensity. Therefore, understanding the physical nature of the vortices and their dynamics in the wake of a turbine is important for the optimal design of a wind farm. This conference is aimed at scientists and PhD students working in the field of wake dynamics. The conference covers the following subject areas: Wake and vortex dynamics, instabilities in trailing vortices and wakes, simulation and measurements of wakes, analytical approaches for modeling wakes, wake interaction and other wind farm investigations. Many people have been involved in producing the 2015 Wake Conference proceedings. The work by the more than 60 reviewers ensuring the quality of the papers is greatly appreciated. The timely evaluation and coordination of the reviews would not have been possible without the work of the section editors: Christian Masson, ÉTS, Fernando Porté-Agel, EPFL, Gerard Schepers, ECN Wind Energy, Gijs Van Kuik, Delft University, Gunner Larsen, DTU Wind Energy, Jakob Mann, DTU Wind Energy, Javier Sanz Rodrigo, CENER, Johan Meyers, KU Leuven, Rebecca Barthelmie, Cornell University, Sandrine Aubrun-Sanches, Université d'Orléans and Thomas Leweke, IRPHE-CNRS. We are also immensely indebted to the very responsive support from the editorial team at IOP Publishing, especially Sarah Toms, during the review process of these proceedings. Visby, Sweden, June 2015 Andrew Barney, Jens Nørkær Sørensen and Stefan Ivanell Uppsala University - Campus Gotland

  9. Wake-field and space charge effects on high brightness beams calculations and measured results for the laser driven photoelectrons at BNL-ATF

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    1993-05-01

    We discuss the formalism used to study the effects of the interactions between the highly charged particles and the fields in the accelerating structure, including space charge and wake fields. Some of our calculations and numerical simulation results obtained for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) high-brightness photoelectron beam at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) and the measured data at ATF are also included.

  10. A far-field non-reflecting boundary condition for two-dimensional wake flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danowitz, Jeffrey S.; Abarbanel, Saul A.; Turkel, Eli

    1995-01-01

    Far-field boundary conditions for external flow problems have been developed based upon long-wave perturbations of linearized flow equations about a steady state far field solution. The boundary improves convergence to steady state in single-grid temporal integration schemes using both regular-time-stepping and local-time-stepping. The far-field boundary may be near the trailing edge of the body which significantly reduces the number of grid points, and therefore the computational time, in the numerical calculation. In addition the solution produced is smoother in the far-field than when using extrapolation conditions. The boundary condition maintains the convergence rate to steady state in schemes utilizing multigrid acceleration.

  11. Control of focusing fields for positron acceleration in nonlinear plasma wakes using multiple laser modes

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, L.-L. Li, F.-Y.; Chen, M.; Weng, S.-M.; Schroeder, C. B.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; Sheng, Z.-M.

    2014-12-15

    Control of transverse wakefields in the nonlinear laser-driven bubble regime using a combination of Hermite-Gaussian laser modes is proposed. By controlling the relative intensity ratio of the two laser modes, the focusing force can be controlled, enabling matched beam propagation for emittance preservation. A ring bubble can be generated with a large longitudinal accelerating field and a transverse focusing field suitable for positron beam focusing and acceleration.

  12. Maleic hydrazide: sprout suppression of potatoes in the field.

    PubMed

    De Blauwer, V; Demeulemeester, K; Demeyere, A; Hofmans, E

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, the active substance maleic hydrazide was released on the Belgian market. Maleic hydrazide is authorized in potatoes as foliar treatment for instore sprout suppression and control of volunteers. The mode of action is based on blocking cell division whilst cell elongation is not affected. The product must be applied at once during the growing season, only after at least 80% of the tubers have reached 25 mm diameter and not later than 3 weeks before haulm killing. The first 24 h after application, no meaningful precipitation should occur to insure sufficiently uptake of the product by the crop. Field trials were set up for 4 years (2005-2008) and 4 locations per year with application of maleic hydrazide in four different cultivars (Bintje, Fontane, Asterix and Cilena). After application, the cultivar Asterix showed almost every year a temporarily phytotoxicity (bronze discoloration). On the first place yield was determined. When maleic hydrazide was applied too early (80% tubers % 25mm diameter) yield was negatively affected (3 years on 4) except for the cultivar Cilena (fresh market). Internal quality (dry matter and fry quality) was not influenced by the application of maleic hydrazide. Only Fontane had a slightly lower dry matter content. Maleic hydrazide also influenced appearance of secondary growth. However, the results were very variable depending on cultivar, location and time of application. After harvest, the tubers were kept in storage and assessed monthly on germination. Potatoes treated late in the growing season, showed a shorter dormancy period. A part of the tubers was replanted the following spring to verify volunteer control. Additional trials were set up by the Flemish government for two years (2010-2011). The results of previous trials were confirmed. Additional, the influence of maleic hydrazide on internal germination during storage was examined on the cultivar Innovator. The tests clearly showed a positive effect for this parameter. PMID:23878989

  13. Shaping of pulses in optical grating-based laser systems for optimal control of electrons in laser plasma wake-field accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, Cs.; Faure, J.; Geddes, C.G.R.; van Tilborg, J.; Leemans, W.P.

    2003-05-01

    In typical chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems, scanning the grating separation in the optical compressor causes the well know generation of linear chirp of frequency vs. time in a laser pulse, as well as a modification of all the higher order phase terms. By setting the compressor angle slightly different from the optimum value to generate the shortest pulse, a typical scan around this value will produce significant changes to the pulse shape. Such pulse shape changes can lead to significant differences in the interaction with plasmas such as used in laser wake-field accelerators. Strong electron yield dependence on laser pulse shape in laser plasma wake-field electron acceleration experiments have been observed in the L'OASIS Lab of LBNL [1]. These experiments show the importance of pulse skewness parameter, S, defined here on the basis of the ratio of the ''head-width-half-max'' (HWHM) and the ''tail-width-halfmax'' (TWHM), respectively.

  14. Study of electron trapping by a transversely ellipsoidal bubble in the laser wake-field acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Myung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Kuk; Hur, Min Sup

    2013-09-15

    We present electron trapping in an ellipsoidal bubble which is not well explained by the spherical bubble model by [Kostyukov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 175003 (2009)]. The formation of an ellipsoidal bubble, which is elongated transversely, frequently occurs when the spot size of the laser pulse is large compared to the plasma wavelength. First, we introduce the relation between the bubble size and the field slope inside the bubble in longitudinal and transverse directions. Then, we provide an ellipsoidal model of the bubble potential and investigate the electron trapping condition by numerical integration of the equations of motion. We found that the ellipsoidal model gives a significantly less restrictive trapping condition than that of the spherical bubble model. The trapping condition is compared with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations and the electron trajectory in test potential simulations.

  15. Suppression of sound radiation to far field of near-field acoustic communication system using evanescent sound field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Ayaka; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Mizutani, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    A method of suppressing sound radiation to the far field of a near-field acoustic communication system using an evanescent sound field is proposed. The amplitude of the evanescent sound field generated from an infinite vibrating plate attenuates exponentially with increasing a distance from the surface of the vibrating plate. However, a discontinuity of the sound field exists at the edge of the finite vibrating plate in practice, which broadens the wavenumber spectrum. A sound wave radiates over the evanescent sound field because of broadening of the wavenumber spectrum. Therefore, we calculated the optimum distribution of the particle velocity on the vibrating plate to reduce the broadening of the wavenumber spectrum. We focused on a window function that is utilized in the field of signal analysis for reducing the broadening of the frequency spectrum. The optimization calculation is necessary for the design of window function suitable for suppressing sound radiation and securing a spatial area for data communication. In addition, a wide frequency bandwidth is required to increase the data transmission speed. Therefore, we investigated a suitable method for calculating the sound pressure level at the far field to confirm the variation of the distribution of sound pressure level determined on the basis of the window shape and frequency. The distribution of the sound pressure level at a finite distance was in good agreement with that obtained at an infinite far field under the condition generating the evanescent sound field. Consequently, the window function was optimized by the method used to calculate the distribution of the sound pressure level at an infinite far field using the wavenumber spectrum on the vibrating plate. According to the result of comparing the distributions of the sound pressure level in the cases with and without the window function, it was confirmed that the area whose sound pressure level was reduced from the maximum level to ?50 dB was extended. Additionally, we designed a sound insulator so as to realize a similar distribution of the particle velocity to that obtained using the optimized window function. Sound radiation was suppressed using a sound insulator put above the vibrating surface in the simulation using the three-dimensional finite element method. On the basis of this finding, it was suggested that near-field acoustic communication which suppressed sound radiation can be realized by applying the optimized window function to the particle velocity field.

  16. Evaluation of rhizobacterial indicators of tobacco black root rot suppressiveness in farmers' fields.

    PubMed

    Kyselkov, Martina; Almario, Juliana; Kopeck, Jan; Sgov-Mare?kov, Markta; Haurat, Jacqueline; Muller, Daniel; Grundmann, Genevive L; Monne-Loccoz, Yvan

    2014-08-01

    Very few soil quality indicators include disease-suppressiveness criteria. We assessed whether 64 16S rRNA microarray probes whose signals correlated with tobacco black root rot suppressiveness in greenhouse analysis could also discriminate suppressive from conducive soils under field conditions. Rhizobacterial communities of tobacco and wheat sampled in 2 years from four farmers' fields of contrasted suppressiveness status were compared. The 64 previously identified indicator probes correctly classified 72% of 29 field samples, with nine probes for Azospirillum, Gluconacetobacter, Sphingomonadaceae, Planctomycetes, Mycoplasma, Lactobacillus crispatus and Thermodesulforhabdus providing the best prediction. The whole probe set (1033 probes) revealed strong effects of plant, field location and year on rhizobacterial community composition, and a smaller (7% variance) but significant effect of soil suppressiveness status. Seventeen additional probes correlating with suppressiveness status in the field (noticeably for Agrobacterium, Methylobacterium, Ochrobactrum) were selected, and combined with the nine others, they improved correct sample classification from 72% to 79% (100% tobacco and 63% wheat samples). Pseudomonas probes were not informative in the field, even those targeting biocontrol pseudomonads producing 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, nor was quantitative polymerase chain reaction for 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-synthesis gene phlD. This study shows that a subset of 16S rRNA probes targeting diverse rhizobacteria can be useful as suppressiveness indicators under field conditions. PMID:24992533

  17. On the surface manifestations of ship wakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapustin, Ivan; Ermakov, Stanislav; Lazareva, Tatyana

    2010-05-01

    During the field experiments on the Black Sea and on the Gorky Reservoir for the last 4 years the widening of the turbulent region generated by surface ships and the surface manifestations of the ship wakes has been studied. Measurements of currents in ship wakes have been made using ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) deployed from a motor boat. It was obtained that the time dependence of the wake width could be described approximately by a 0.4-power function, and the depth of wake remained constant at its initial stage, the latter allowed one to consider the wake widening as a one-dimensional process. We have developed a simple one-dimensional model of ship wake evolution using the semi-empirical theory of turbulence, and the initial stage of the wake widening (when neglecting dissipation) was described by the equation of turbulent energy balance with the pulse initial condition. We also observed in experiment mean circulating currents in the wake region resulting in the wind wave intensification on the boundaries of the wake region. It was shown that the later stage of the wake evolution is characterized by the presence of slicks bands on the edges of the wake. The slick bands formation is a result of the surfactants transport due to air bubbles in the turbulent wake and their compression by the mean currents. The work was supported by RFBR (projects 08-05-00634, 08-05-97011), the Program RAN Radiophysics, and the IPY THORPEX Project.

  18. Self-modulation of a long externally injected relativistic charged-particle beam in a laser wake field acceleration scheme. A preliminary quantum-like investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedele, Renato; Jovanovi?, Dusan; Tanjia, Fatema; De Nicola, Sergio

    2014-03-01

    Recent investigations indicate that sufficiently long beams of charged particles, travelling in a plasma, experience the phenomenon of self-modulation. The self-modulation is driven by the plasma wake field excitation due to the beam itself, and it may become unstable under certain conditions. A preliminary theoretical investigation of the self-modulation of a relativistic charged-particle beam in overdense plasma in the presence of a preformed plasma wave is carried out, within the quantum-like description of charged particle beams provided by the Thermal Wave Model. A simple physical model for the self-modulation is put forward, described by a nonlinear Schrdinger equation coupled with the Poisson-like equation for the plasma wake potential (so-called Fedele-Shukla equations). The physical mechanism is based on the interplay of three concomitant effects, the radial thermal dispersion (associated with the emittance ?), the radial ponderomotive effects of a preexisting plasma wave (which provides the guidance for the beam), and the self-interaction of the plasma wake field generated by the beam itself.

  19. Near wakes of advanced turbopropellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, D. B.; Patrick, W. P.

    1989-01-01

    The flow in the wake of a model single rotation Prop-Fan rotor operating in a wind tunnel was traversed with a hot-wire anemometer system designed to determine the 3 periodic velocity components. Special data acquisition and data reduction methods were required to deal with the high data frequency, narrow wakes, and large fluctuating air angles in the tip vortex region. The model tip helical Mach number was 1.17, simulating the cruise condition. Although the flow field is complex, flow features such as viscous velocity defects, vortex sheets, tip vortices, and propagating acoustic pulses are clearly identified with the aid of a simple analytical wake theory.

  20. Effect of wakes from moving upstream rods on boundary layer separation from a high lift airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volino, Ralph J.

    2011-11-01

    Highly loaded airfoils in turbines allow power generation using fewer airfoils. High loading, however, can cause boundary layer separation, resulting in reduced lift and increased aerodynamic loss. Separation is affected by the interaction between rotating blades and stationary vanes. Wakes from upstream vanes periodically impinge on downstream blades, and can reduce separation. The wakes include elevated turbulence, which can induce transition, and a velocity deficit, which results in an impinging flow on the blade surface known as a ``negative jet.'' In the present study, flow through a linear cascade of very high lift airfoils is studied experimentally. Wakes are produced with moving rods which cut through the flow upstream of the airfoils, simulating the effect of upstream vanes. Pressure and velocity fields are documented. Wake spacing and velocity are varied. At low Reynolds numbers without wakes, the boundary layer separates and does not reattach. At high wake passing frequencies separation is largely suppressed. At lower frequencies, ensemble averaged velocity results show intermittent separation and reattachment during the wake passing cycle. Supported by NASA.

  1. The suppression effect of external magnetic field on the high-power microwave window multipactor phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xue Wang, Yong; Fan, Junjie

    2015-02-15

    To suppress the surface multipactor phenomenon and improve the transmitting power of the high-power microwave window, the application of external magnetic fields is theoretically analyzed and simulated. A Monte Carlo algorithm is used to track the secondary electron trajectories and study the multipactor scenario on the surface of a cylinder window. It is confirmed that over-resonant magnetic fields (an external magnetic field whose magnitude is slightly greater than that of a resonant magnetic field) will generate a compensating trajectory and collision, which can suppress the secondary electron avalanche. The optimal value of this external magnetic field that will avoid the multipactor phenomenon on cylinder windows is discussed.

  2. Neurometabolic coupling differs for suppression within and beyond the classical receptive field in visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Li, Baowang; Freeman, Ralph D

    2011-07-01

    Neurons in visual cortex exhibit two major types of stimulus elicited suppression. One, cross-orientation suppression, occurs within the classical receptive field (CRF) when an orthogonal grating is superposed on one at optimal orientation. The second, surround suppression, occurs when the size of an optimally oriented grating extends beyond the CRF. Previous proposals suggest that intracortical inhibition is responsible for surround suppression whereas feedforward processes may underlie cross-orientation suppression. To gain more insight concerning these types of suppression, we have included measurements of metabolic function in addition to neural responses. We made co-localized measurements of multiple unit neural activity and tissue oxygen concentrations in the striate cortex of anaesthetized cats while using visual stimuli to activate the two kinds of suppression. Results show that the amplitude of the initial negative oxygen response increases with stimulus size but neural responses decrease as size extends beyond the CRF. This shows that oxygen consumption increases with stimulus size regardless of reduced neural response. On the other hand, amplitudes of both the initial negative oxygen component and the neural responses are simultaneously attenuated by the orthogonal mask in cross-orientation suppression. These different neurometabolic response patterns are consistent with suggestions that the two types of suppressive processes arise from different neural mechanisms. PMID:21558164

  3. Magnetic Field Suppression of Flow in Semiconductor Melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedoseyev, A. I.; Kansa, E. J.; Marin, C.; Volz, M. P.; Ostrogorsky, A. G.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most promising approaches for the reduction of convection during the crystal growth of conductive melts (semiconductor crystals) is the application of magnetic fields. Current technology allows the experimentation with very intense static fields (up to 80 KGauss) for which nearly convection free results are expected from simple scaling analysis in stabilized systems (vertical Bridgman method with axial magnetic field). However, controversial experimental results were obtained. The computational methods are, therefore, a fundamental tool in the understanding of the phenomena accounting during the solidification of semiconductor materials. Moreover, effects like the bending of the isomagnetic lines, different aspect ratios and misalignments between the direction of the gravity and magnetic field vectors can not be analyzed with analytical methods. The earliest numerical results showed controversial conclusions and are not able to explain the experimental results. Although the generated flows are extremely low, the computational task is a complicated because of the thin boundary layers. That is one of the reasons for the discrepancy in the results that numerical studies reported. Modeling of these magnetically damped crystal growth experiments requires advanced numerical methods. We used, for comparison, three different approaches to obtain the solution of the problem of thermal convection flows: (1) Spectral method in spectral superelement implementation, (2) Finite element method with regularization for boundary layers, (3) Multiquadric method, a novel method with global radial basis functions, that is proven to have exponential convergence. The results obtained by these three methods are presented for a wide region of Rayleigh and Hartman numbers. Comparison and discussion of accuracy, efficiency, reliability and agreement with experimental results will be presented as well.

  4. Low frequency magnetic field suppression in an atomic spin co-magnetometer with a large electron magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jiancheng; Chen, Yao; Zou, Sheng; Liu, Xuejing; Hu, Zhaohui; Quan, Wei; Yuan, Heng; Ding, Ming

    2016-03-01

    In a K-Rb-21Ne co-magnetometer, the Rb electron magnetic field which is experienced by the nuclear spin is about 100 times larger than that of the K in a K-3He co-magnetometer. The large electron magnetic field which is neglected in the K-3He co-magnetometer coupled Bloch equations model is considered here in the K-Rb-21Ne co-magnetometer to study the low frequency magnetic field suppression effect. Theoretical analysis and experimental results shows that in the K-Rb-21Ne spin co-magnetometer, not only the nuclear spin but also the large electron spin magnetic field compensate the external magnetic field noise. By comparison, only the 3He nuclear spins mainly compensate the external magnetic field noise in a K-3He co-magnetometer. With this study, in addition to just increasing the magnetic field of the nuclear spins, we can suppress the magnetic field noise by increasing the density of the electron spin. We also studied how the magnetic field suppression effect relates to the scale factor of the K-Rb-21Ne co-magnetometer and we compared the scale factor with that of the K-3He co-magnetometer. Lastly, we show the sensitivity of our co-magnetometer. The magnetic field noise, the air density fluctuation noise and pumping power optimization are studied to improve the sensitivity of the co-magnetometer.

  5. Suppression of Magnetic Relaxation Processes by a Transverse ac Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, L. M.; Kalinov, A. V.; Voloshin, I. F.; Yampol'skii, V. A.

    2006-09-01

    The effect of the transverse ac magnetic field on relaxation process in YBa2Cu3Ox melt-textured superconductor was studied. A factor of 50 suppression of the relaxation rate could be achieved at the expense of some reduction in the maximum trapped field, with the magnetic-induction gradient being unchanged. This phenomenon is interpreted as a result of an increase of the pinning force after the action of the transverse ac magnetic field.

  6. Studies of aircraft wake chemistry and dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppoff, I. G.; Farlow, N. H.; Anderson, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    Use of aerospace technology to study aircraft wakes is reviewed. It is shown how aerospace vehicles can be used to provide data for increased understanding of the atmosphere and of aircraft exhaust trails where knowledge is inadequate to evaluate fully the potential impact of the engine emissions. Models of aircraft near-field exhaust wakes are characterized by jet, vortex, and dispersion regimes. Wake growth in the jet regime is self-determined and rapid, whereas further spreading is inhibited in the vortex regime because of circulating vortex motion. Wake diffusion in the dispersion regime is initially influenced by aircraft induced turbulence but is dominated later by small-scale atmospheric turbulence. Computed fluid mechanical results show the importance of effects such as wake buoyancy, wind shear, turbulence, and traffic corridor exhaust buildup on dispersion of the wake. In the jet regime the exhaust characteristics and thermochemistry serve to illustrate initial chemical changes involving potential pollutant species.

  7. Anisotropic Stark Effect and Electric-Field Noise Suppression for Phosphorus Donor Qubits in Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigillito, A. J.; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Lyon, S. A.

    2015-05-01

    We report the use of novel, capacitively terminated coplanar waveguide resonators to measure the quadratic Stark shift of phosphorus donor qubits in Si. We confirm that valley repopulation leads to an anisotropic spin-orbit Stark shift depending on electric and magnetic field orientations relative to the Si crystal. By measuring the linear Stark effect, we estimate the effective electric field due to strain in our samples. We show that in the presence of this strain, electric-field sources of decoherence can be non-negligible. Using our measured values for the Stark shift, we predict magnetic fields for which the spin-orbit Stark effect cancels the hyperfine Stark effect, suppressing decoherence from electric-field noise. We discuss the limitations of these noise-suppression points due to random distributions of strain and propose a method for overcoming them.

  8. Anisotropic stark effect and electric-field noise suppression for phosphorus donor qubits in silicon.

    PubMed

    Sigillito, A J; Tyryshkin, A M; Lyon, S A

    2015-05-29

    We report the use of novel, capacitively terminated coplanar waveguide resonators to measure the quadratic Stark shift of phosphorus donor qubits in Si. We confirm that valley repopulation leads to an anisotropic spin-orbit Stark shift depending on electric and magnetic field orientations relative to the Si crystal. By measuring the linear Stark effect, we estimate the effective electric field due to strain in our samples. We show that in the presence of this strain, electric-field sources of decoherence can be non-negligible. Using our measured values for the Stark shift, we predict magnetic fields for which the spin-orbit Stark effect cancels the hyperfine Stark effect, suppressing decoherence from electric-field noise. We discuss the limitations of these noise-suppression points due to random distributions of strain and propose a method for overcoming them. PMID:26066457

  9. Coalescing Wind Turbine Wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Churchfield, M.; Sirnivas, S.; Moriarty, P.; Nielsen, F. G.; Skaare, B.; Byklum, E.

    2015-06-01

    A team of researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Statoil used large-eddy simulations to numerically investigate the merging wakes from upstream offshore wind turbines. Merging wakes are typical phenomena in wind farm flows in which neighboring turbine wakes consolidate to form complex flow patterns that are as yet not well understood. In the present study, three 6-MW turbines in a row were subjected to a neutrally stable atmospheric boundary layer flow. As a result, the wake from the farthest upstream turbine conjoined the downstream wake, which significantly altered the subsequent velocity deficit structures, turbulence intensity, and the global meandering behavior. The complexity increased even more when the combined wakes from the two upstream turbines mixed with the wake generated by the last turbine, thereby forming a “triplet” structure. Although the influence of the wake generated by the first turbine decayed with downstream distance, the mutated wakes from the second turbine continued to influence the downstream wake. Two mirror-image angles of wind directions that yielded partial wakes impinging on the downstream turbines yielded asymmetric wake profiles that could be attributed to the changing flow directions in the rotor plane induced by the Coriolis force. The turbine wakes persisted for extended distances in the present study, which is a result of low aerodynamic surface roughness typically found in offshore conditions.

  10. Caught in the act: a field gone suppressive for common scab?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato varieties are evaluated for resistance to common scab (CS) in fields with high CS disease pressure. Occasionally, disease pressure naturally declines in a CS nursery; this is termed disease suppression. We have data on severity of potato CS in a scab nursery in Maine for 6 years between 2001...

  11. Emergence of spatially heterogeneous burst suppression in a neural field model of electrocortical activity

    PubMed Central

    Bojak, Ingo; Stoyanov, Zhivko V.; Liley, David T. J.

    2015-01-01

    Burst suppression in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is a well-described phenomenon that occurs during deep anesthesia, as well as in a variety of congenital and acquired brain insults. Classically it is thought of as spatially synchronous, quasi-periodic bursts of high amplitude EEG separated by low amplitude activity. However, its characterization as a “global brain state” has been challenged by recent results obtained with intracranial electrocortigraphy. Not only does it appear that burst suppression activity is highly asynchronous across cortex, but also that it may occur in isolated regions of circumscribed spatial extent. Here we outline a realistic neural field model for burst suppression by adding a slow process of synaptic resource depletion and recovery, which is able to reproduce qualitatively the empirically observed features during general anesthesia at the whole cortex level. Simulations reveal heterogeneous bursting over the model cortex and complex spatiotemporal dynamics during simulated anesthetic action, and provide forward predictions of neuroimaging signals for subsequent empirical comparisons and more detailed characterization. Because burst suppression corresponds to a dynamical end-point of brain activity, theoretically accounting for its spatiotemporal emergence will vitally contribute to efforts aimed at clarifying whether a common physiological trajectory is induced by the actions of general anesthetic agents. We have taken a first step in this direction by showing that a neural field model can qualitatively match recent experimental data that indicate spatial differentiation of burst suppression activity across cortex. PMID:25767438

  12. SURFACE FILMS TO SUPPRESS FIELD EMISSION IN HIGH-POWER MICROWAVE COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, Jay l

    2014-02-07

    Results are reported on attempts to reduce the RF breakdown probability on copper accelerator structures by applying thin surface films that could suppress field emission of electrons. Techniques for application and testing of copper samples with films of metals with work functions higher than copper are described, principally for application of platinum films, since platinum has the second highest work function of any metal. Techniques for application of insulating films are also described, since these can suppress field emission and damage on account of dielectric shielding of fields at the copper surface, and on account of the greater hardness of insulating films, as compared with copper. In particular, application of zirconium oxide films on high-field portions of a 11.424 GHz SLAC cavity structure for breakdown tests are described.

  13. Suppression of chaotic oscillations in a solid-state ring laser by a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Kravtsov, Nikolai V; Firsov, V V; Pashinin, Pavel P; Sidorov, S S; Chekina, S N

    2003-04-30

    The possibility of suppressing chaotic oscillations in a bidirectional Nd{sup 3+} : YAG ring laser with the help of a constant magnetic field is considered. It is shown that the application of a constant magnetic field of a few tens of oersted on the active medium transfers the laser from the synchronous chaos regime to pulsed quasi-periodic generation. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  14. Suppression of Arabidopsis flowering by near-null magnetic field is affected by light.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunxiao; Li, Yue; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Yuxia; Wei, Shufeng

    2015-09-01

    We previously reported that a near-null magnetic field suppressed Arabidopsis flowering in white light, which might be related to the function modification of cryptochrome (CRY). To further demonstrate that the effect of near-null magnetic field on Arabidopsis flowering is associated with CRY, Arabidopsis wild type and CRY mutant plants were grown in the near-null magnetic field under blue or red light with different light cycle and photosynthetic photon flux density. We found that Arabidopsis flowering was significantly suppressed by near-null magnetic field in blue light with lower intensity (10 µmol/m(2) /s) and shorter cycle (12 h period: 6 h light/6 h dark). However, flowering time of CRY1/CRY2 mutants did not show any difference between plants grown in near-null magnetic field and in local geomagnetic field under detected light conditions. In red light, no significant difference was shown in Arabidopsis flowering between plants in near-null magnetic field and local geomagnetic field under detected light cycles and intensities. These results suggest that changes of blue light cycle and intensity alter the effect of near-null magnetic field on Arabidopsis flowering, which is mediated by CRY. PMID:26095447

  15. BISTRO: an outer-volume suppression method that tolerates RF field inhomogeneity.

    PubMed

    Luo, Y; de Graaf, R A; DelaBarre, L; Tanns, A; Garwood, M

    2001-06-01

    A technique is described for performing frequency-selective signal suppression with a high degree of tolerance to RF field inhomogeneity. The method is called B1-insensitive train to obliterate signal (BISTRO). BISTRO consists of multiple amplitude- and frequency-modulated (FM) pulses interleaved with spoiler gradients. BISTRO was developed for the purpose of accomplishing band-selective signal removal, as in water suppression and outer-volume suppression (OVS), in applications requiring the use of an inhomogeneous RF transmitter, such as a surface coil. In the present work, Bloch simulations were used to illustrate the principles and theoretical performance of BISTRO. Its performance for OVS was evaluated experimentally using MRI and spectroscopic imaging of phantoms and in vivo animal and human brain. By using FM pulses featuring offset-independent adiabaticity, BISTRO permitted high-quality, broadband suppression with one (or two) discrete borders demarcating the edge(s) of the suppression band. Simulations and experiments demonstrated the ability to operate BISTRO with reasonably attainable peak RF power levels and with average RF energy deposition similar to other multipulse OVS techniques. PMID:11378888

  16. Suppression of cooling by strong magnetic fields in white dwarf stars.

    PubMed

    Valyavin, G; Shulyak, D; Wade, G A; Antonyuk, K; Zharikov, S V; Galazutdinov, G A; Plachinda, S; Bagnulo, S; Machado, L Fox; Alvarez, M; Clark, D M; Lopez, J M; Hiriart, D; Han, Inwoo; Jeon, Young-Beom; Zurita, C; Mujica, R; Burlakova, T; Szeifert, T; Burenkov, A

    2014-11-01

    Isolated cool white dwarf stars more often have strong magnetic fields than young, hotter white dwarfs, which has been a puzzle because magnetic fields are expected to decay with time but a cool surface suggests that the star is old. In addition, some white dwarfs with strong fields vary in brightness as they rotate, which has been variously attributed to surface brightness inhomogeneities similar to sunspots, chemical inhomogeneities and other magneto-optical effects. Here we describe optical observations of the brightness and magnetic field of the cool white dwarf WD 1953-011 taken over about eight years, and the results of an analysis of its surface temperature and magnetic field distribution. We find that the magnetic field suppresses atmospheric convection, leading to dark spots in the most magnetized areas. We also find that strong fields are sufficient to suppress convection over the entire surface in cool magnetic white dwarfs, which inhibits their cooling evolution relative to weakly magnetic and non-magnetic white dwarfs, making them appear younger than they truly are. This explains the long-standing mystery of why magnetic fields are more common amongst cool white dwarfs, and implies that the currently accepted ages of strongly magnetic white dwarfs are systematically too young. PMID:25327247

  17. Wake-induced unsteady flows: Their impact on rotor performance and wake rectification

    SciTech Connect

    Adamczyk, J.J.; Celestina, M.L.; Chen, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of wake-induced unsteady flows on blade row performance and the wake rectification process is examined by means of numerical simulation. The passage of a stator wake through a downstream rotor is first simulated using a three-dimensional unsteady viscous flow code. The results from this simulation are used to define two steady-state inlet conditions for a three-dimensional viscous flow simulation of a rotor operating in isolation. The results obtained from these numerical simulations are then compared to those obtained form the unsteady simulation both to quantify the impact of the wake-induced unsteady flow field on rotor performance and to identify the flow processes which impact wake rectification. Finally, the results from this comparison study are related to an existing model, which attempts to account for the impact of wake-induced unsteady flows on the performance of multistage turbomachinery.

  18. Experimental evaluation of a flat wake theory for predicting rotor inflow-wake velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John C.

    1992-01-01

    The theory for predicting helicopter inflow-wake velocities called flat wake theory was correlated with several sets of experimental data. The theory was developed by V. E. Baskin of the USSR, and a computer code known as DOWN was developed at Princeton University to implement the theory. The theory treats the wake geometry as rigid without interaction between induced velocities and wake structure. The wake structure is assumed to be a flat sheet of vorticity composed of trailing elements whose strength depends on the azimuthal and radial distributions of circulation on a rotor blade. The code predicts the three orthogonal components of flow velocity in the field surrounding the rotor. The predictions can be utilized in rotor performance and helicopter real-time flight-path simulation. The predictive capability of the coded version of flat wake theory provides vertical inflow patterns similar to experimental patterns.

  19. Dynamics and control of hydrofoil wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Roger; Kjeldsen, Morten; Wosnik, Martin

    2006-11-01

    The problem of rotor-stator interaction has been an issue in the turbomachinery field for more than forty years. Manipulation of the stator wakes is one method to minimize the problem. In order to explore this concept, a comprehensive experimental program was carried out in a water tunnel utilizing a series of NACA 0015 hydrofoils. Baseline wake data were collected with a hydraulically smooth foil and compared with various foil modifications including foils covered with riblet tape aligned both span wise and parallel to the main flow, and a foil modified with 3 mm high and 10 mm total length vortex generators (VG), spaced 10 mm apart span wise, that were positioned close to the trailing edge of the foil. Not only was the effect of the modifications on wake spreading investigated but also the effect on wake dynamics such as vortex shedding was studied. PIV has been used for mapping the near wake region extending roughly 1 chord-length (1c) downstream the trailing edge over a range of angle of attack. The results show, as expected, that wake dynamics and wake characteristics such as maximum deficit and width, scale with average drag. It was demonstrated that the use of vortex generators would improve both the dynamics and spreading characteristics of the wake.

  20. Slow-roll suppression of adiabatic instabilities in coupled scalar field-dark matter models

    SciTech Connect

    Corasaniti, Pier Stefano

    2008-10-15

    We study the evolution of linear density perturbations in the context of interacting scalar field-dark matter cosmologies, where the presence of the coupling acts as a stabilization mechanism for the runaway behavior of the scalar self-interaction potential as in the case of the chameleon model. We show that, in the 'adiabatic' background regime of the system, the rise of unstable growing modes of the perturbations is suppressed by the slow-roll dynamics of the field. Furthermore, the coupled system behaves as an inhomogeneous adiabatic fluid. In contrast, instabilities may develop for large values of the coupling constant, or along nonadiabatic solutions, characterized by a period of high-frequency dumped oscillations of the scalar field. In the latter case, the dynamical instabilities of the field fluctuations, which are typical of oscillatory scalar field regimes, are amplified and transmitted by the coupling to dark matter perturbations.

  1. Wavelength-dependent ionization suppression of diatomic molecules in intense circularly polarized laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, HuiPeng; Lin, ZhiYang; Xu, SongPo; Wang, ChuanLiang; Quan, Wei; Lai, XuanYang; Liu, XiaoJun; Jia, XinYan; Hao, XiaoLei; Chen, Jing; Chu, Wei; Yao, JinPing; Zeng, Bin; Cheng, Ya; Xu, ZhiZhan

    2014-12-01

    We perform an experimental study on comparison between the ionization of homonuclear diatomic molecules (O2 and N2) and their companion atoms (Xe and Ar) radiated by circularly polarized intense laser fields. We find that the ionization of O2 shows suppression with respect to its companion atom Xe, which exhibits a clear wavelength and intensity dependence similar to that in linearly polarized laser field, while the ionization of N2 behaves like its companion atom Ar. With the help of S -matrix theoretical analysis, our observations can be attributed to both the molecular orbital and the two-center interference effect in molecular ionization process.

  2. Wake ingestion propulsion benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Leroy H., Jr.

    1991-06-01

    It is well known that the efficiency of propulsion is improved if part or all of the propulsive fluid comes from the wake of the craft being propelled. In this paper this propulsion benefit is quantified in terms of wake parameters and propulsor properties. The formulations apply directly to unducted fans or propellers, but the conclusions are also relevant to ducted propulsors. It is found that the power saving is greatest when the propulsor disk loading is high, when the wake form factor is high (flow near separation), and when the propulsor design is such that the wake profile tends to be flattened as it passes through the propulsor (high wake recovery). Examples are given showing that the benefit can be in the 20 percent range in some cases. Propeller design parameters that lead to high wake recovery are also given.

  3. Effective field theory during inflation. II. Stochastic dynamics and power spectrum suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyanovsky, D.

    2016-02-01

    We obtain the nonequilibrium effective action of an inflatonlike scalar field—the system—by tracing over sub-Hubble degrees of freedom of "environmental" light scalar fields. The effective action is stochastic leading to effective Langevin equations of motion for the fluctuations of the inflatonlike field, with self-energy corrections and stochastic noise correlators that obey a de Sitter space-time analog of a fluctuation dissipation relation. We solve the Langevin equation implementing a dynamical renormalization group resummation of the leading secular terms and obtain the corrections to the power spectrum of super-Hubble fluctuations of the inflaton field, P (k ;η )=P0(k )e-γ (k ;η ) where P0(k ) is the nearly scale invariant power spectrum in absence of coupling. γ (k ;η )>0 describes the suppression of the power spectrum; it features Sudakov-type double logarithms and entails violations of scale invariance. We also obtain the effective action for the case of a heavy scalar field of mass M ≫H ; this case yields a local "Fermi" limit with a very weak self-interaction of the inflatonlike field and dissipative terms that are suppressed by powers of H /M . We conjecture on the possibility that the large scale anomalies in the cosmic microwave background may originate in dissipative processes from inflaton coupling to sub-Hubble degrees of freedom.

  4. Study on suppression of decay of trapped magnetic field in HTS bulk subject to AC magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zushi, Y.; Asaba, I.; Ogawa, J.; Yamagishi, K.; Tsukamoto, O.; Murakami, M.; Tomita, M.

    2004-10-01

    The trapped magnetic field in a bulk is decayed and even erased by the application of the AC external magnetic field whose amplitude is much smaller than the trapped magnetic field. In the previous work, an experimental result showed that the decay of the trapped magnetic field was due to temperature rise of the bulk caused by the AC losses. Based on this result, it is considered that the decay can be suppressed by (a) improvement of the cooling of the bulk and (b) reduction of the AC losses. We verified the effectiveness of these methods by conducting an experiment using a recently developed metal impregnated bulk which has high critical current density and improved thermal conductivity.

  5. Visualization on fish's wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuemin; Lu, Xiyun; Yin, Xiezhen

    2002-05-01

    In this paper an experiment on wake of Goldfish swimming unrestricted was conducted in a water tunnel. Method of color liquid was used to visualize the wake. Results show that there is reverse Karman vortex street in symmetrical plane of the wake and the Strouhal frequency of the fish is in the range 0.25-0.35. A 3D vortex ring chain model was presented.

  6. Comparing satellite SAR and wind farm wake models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasager, C. B.; Vincent, P.; Husson, R.; Mouche, A.; Badger, M.; Pea, A.; Volker, P.; Badger, J.; Di Bella, A.; Palomares, A.; Cantero, E.; Correia, P. M. F.

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the paper is to present offshore wind farm wake observed from satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) wind fields from RADARSAT-1/-2 and Envisat and to compare these wakes qualitatively to wind farm wake model results. From some satellite SAR wind maps very long wakes are observed. These extend several tens of kilometres downwind e.g. 70 km. Other SAR wind maps show near-field fine scale details of wake behind rows of turbines. The satellite SAR wind farm wake cases are modelled by different wind farm wake models including the PARK microscale model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in high resolution and WRF with coupled microscale parametrization.

  7. Application of laser velocimetry to aircraft wake-vortex measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciffone, D. L.; Orloff, K. L.

    1977-01-01

    The theory and use of a laser velocimeter that makes simultaneous measurements of vertical and longitudinal velocities while rapidly scanning a flow field laterally are described, and its direct application to trailing wake-vortex research is discussed. Pertinent measurements of aircraft wake-vortex velocity distributions obtained in a wind tunnel and water towing tank are presented. The utility of the velocimeter to quantitatively assess differences in wake velocity distributions due to wake dissipating devices and span loading changes on the wake-generating model is also demonstrated.

  8. Commercial aircraft wake vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerz, Thomas; Holzpfel, Frank; Darracq, Denis

    2002-04-01

    This paper discusses the problem of wake vortices shed by commercial aircraft. It presents a consolidated European view on the current status of knowledge of the nature and characteristics of aircraft wakes and of technical and operational procedures of minimizing and predicting the vortex strength and avoiding wake encounters. Methodological aspects of data evaluation and interpretation, like the description of wake ages, the characterization of wake vortices, and the proper evaluation of wake data from measurement and simulation, are addressed in the first part. In the second part an inventory of our knowledge is given on vortex characterization and control, prediction and monitoring of vortex decay, vortex detection and warning, vortex encounter models, and wake-vortex safety assessment. Each section is concluded by a list of questions and required actions which may help to guide further research activities. The primary objective of the joint international efforts in wake-vortex research is to avoid potentially hazardous wake encounters for aircraft. Shortened aircraft separations under appropriate meteorological conditions, whilst keeping or even increasing the safety level, is the ultimate goal. Reduced time delays on the tactical side and increased airport capacities on the strategic side will be the benefits of these ambitious ventures for the air transportation industry and services.

  9. Vibrational phase imaging in wide-field CARS for nonresonant background suppression.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Juanjuan; Akimov, Denis; Heuke, Sandro; Schmitt, Michael; Yao, Baoli; Ye, Tong; Lei, Ming; Gao, Peng; Popp, Jrgen

    2015-04-20

    Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy is a valuable tool for label-free imaging of biological samples. As a major drawback quantification based on CARS images is compromised by the appearance of a nonresonant background. In this paper we propose and demonstrate a wide-field CARS vibrational phase imaging scheme that allows for nonresonant background suppression. Several CARS images at a few consecutive planes perpendicular to the propagation direction were recorded to reconstruct a phase map utilizing the iteration phase retrieval method. Experimental results verify that the CARS background is efficiently suppressed by the phase imaging approach, as compared to traditional CARS imaging without background correction. The proposed background correction method is robust against environmental disturbance, since the experimental implementation of the suggested detection scheme requires no reference beam. PMID:25969113

  10. A sidelobe suppressing near-field beamforming approach for ultrasound array imaging.

    PubMed

    He, Zhengyao; Zheng, Fan; Ma, Yuanliang; Kim, Hyung Ham; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk

    2015-05-01

    A method is proposed to suppress sidelobe level for near-field beamforming in ultrasound array imaging. An optimization problem is established, and the second-order cone algorithm is used to solve the problem to obtain the weight vector based on the near-field response vector of a transducer array. The weight vector calculation results show that the proposed method can be used to suppress the sidelobe level of the near-field beam pattern of a transducer array. Ultrasound images following the application of weight vector to the array of a wire phantom are obtained by simulation with the Field II program, and the images of a wire phantom and anechoic sphere phantom are obtained experimentally with a 64-element 26?MHz linear phased array. The experimental and simulation results agree well and show that the proposed method can achieve a much lower sidelobe level than the conventional delay and sum beamforming method. The wire phantom image is demonstrated to focus much better and the contrast of the anechoic sphere phantom image improved by applying the proposed beamforming method. PMID:25994706

  11. Population-wide bias of surround suppression in auditory spatial receptive fields of the owl's midbrain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunyan; Shanbhag, Sharad J; Fischer, Brian J; Pea, Jos L

    2012-08-01

    The physical arrangement of receptive fields (RFs) within neural structures is important for local computations. Nonuniform distribution of tuning within populations of neurons can influence emergent tuning properties, causing bias in local processing. This issue was studied in the auditory system of barn owls. The owl's external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICx) contains a map of auditory space in which the frontal region is overrepresented. We measured spatiotemporal RFs of ICx neurons using spatial white noise. We found a population-wide bias in surround suppression such that suppression from frontal space was stronger. This asymmetry increased with laterality in spatial tuning. The bias could be explained by a model of lateral inhibition based on the overrepresentation of frontal space observed in ICx. The model predicted trends in surround suppression across ICx that matched the data. Thus, the uneven distribution of spatial tuning within the map could explain the topography of time-dependent tuning properties. This mechanism may have significant implications for the analysis of natural scenes by sensory systems. PMID:22855796

  12. Ship Wakes and Solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchsbaum, Steven Bruce

    1990-01-01

    Observations of ship wakes have exhibited a compact steep ray within the diverging portion of the traditional Kelvin wake. This ray typically consists of four to eight wave crest contained within an oblique packet profile. This profile does not appear to disperse as rapidly as would be anticipated for linear gravity waves. Quantitative observations of these rays in the wake of the coast guard cutter Point Brower, and model ships during a tank towing experiment, have shown these features to be oblique packet solitons. I use the term soliton to describe a wave packet for which nonlinearities act to balance linear dispersion, rather than the strict mathematical definition. The measured angular position within the wake of these solitons is observed to be a function of speed. It is shown that a ship modeled by a pressure source at the bow, and a pressure sink at the stern can account for the observed speed dependence. Numerical integration of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation has demonstrated that the small deviations of our observations from exact soliton profiles are consistent with soliton like behavior. Indeed these near soliton solutions are shown to be a better match to our observations than exact soliton solutions. Thus I would conclude that a solitary wake feature is a possible explanation for the bright lines observed in sun glitter photos of ship wakes taken from the space shuttle. Solitary wake features may also contribute to the explanation of some of the long bright lines observed in ship wake SAR images observed from SEASAT.

  13. Cosmic string wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebbins, Albert; Veeraraghavan, Shoba; Silk, Joseph; Brandenberger, Robert; Turok, Neil

    1987-01-01

    Accretion of matter onto wakes left behind by horizon-sized pieces of cosmic string is investigated, and the effects of wakes on the large-scale structure of the universe are determined. Accretion of cold matter onto wakes, the effects of a long string on fluids with finite velocity dispersion or sound speeds, the interactions between loops and wakes, and the conditions for wakes to survive disruption by loops are discussed. It is concluded that the most important wakes are those which were formed at the time of equal matter and radiation density. This leads to sheetlike overdense regions of galaxies with a mean separation in agreement with the scale of the bubbles of de Lapparent, Geller, and Huchra (1986). However, for the value of G(mu) favored from galaxy formation considerations in a universe with cold dark matter, a wake accretes matter from a distance of only about 1.5 Mpc, which is much less than the distance between the wakes.

  14. Wake Vortex Influence on Ambient Potential Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two-dimensional version of the Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) was used to numerically simulate the interaction of wake vortices from closely separated aircraft. The aircraft parameters and separations are taken from observed data at an actual airport. The wake vortices are generated near the runway threshold for four successive aircraft. The ambient conditions are characterized by light crosswinds and stable stratification. This movie shows the effect that the vortices have upon the ambient potential temperature field.

  15. Status of wake and array loss research

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.L.

    1991-09-01

    In recent years, many projects have evaluated wind turbine wake effects and resultant array losses in both Europe and the United States. This paper examines the status of current knowledge about wake effects and array losses and suggests future research. Single-turbine wake characteristics have been studied extensively and are generally described well by existing theoretical models. Field measurements of wake effects in wind turbine arrays are largely limited to small arrays, with 2 to 4 rows of turbines. Few data have been published on wake effects within large arrays. Measurements of wake deficits downwind of large arrays that deficits are substantially larger and extend farther downwind than expected. Although array design models have been developed, these models have been tested and verified using only limited data from a few rows of wind turbines in complex terrain, whereas some of the largest arrays have more than 40 rows of wind turbines. Planned cooperative efforts with the wind industry will obtain existing data relevant to analyzing energy deficits within large arrays and identifying data sets for potential use in array model verification efforts. Future research being considered include a cooperative research experiment to obtain more definitive data on wake deficits and turbulence within and downwind of large arrays. 16 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Cavities of Weak Magnetic Field Strength in the Wake of FTEs: Results from Global Magnetospheric MHD Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetsova, M. M.; Sibeck, D. G.; Hesse, M.; Wang, Y.; Rastaetter, L.; Toth, G.; Ridley, A.

    2009-01-01

    We use the global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code BATS-R-US to model multipoint observations of Flux Transfer Event (FTE) signatures. Simulations with high spatial and temporal resolution predict that cavities of weak magnetic field strength protruding into the magnetosphere trail FTEs. These predictions are consistent with recently reported multi-point Cluster observations of traveling magnetopause erosion regions (TMERs).

  17. Development and testing of laser Doppler system components for wake vortex monitoring. Volume 1: Scanner development, laboratory and field testing and system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. J.; Krause, M. C.; Coffey, E. W.; Huang, C. C.; Edwards, B. B.; Shrider, K. R.; Jetton, J. L.; Morrison, L. K.

    1974-01-01

    A servo-controlled range/elevation scanner for the laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) was developed and tested in the field to assess its performance in detecting and monitoring aircraft trailing vortices in an airport environment. The elevation scanner provides a capability to manually point the LDV telescope at operator chosen angles from 3.2 deg. to 89.6 deg within 0.2 deg, or to automatically scan the units between operator chosen limits at operator chosen rates of 0.1 Hz to 0.5 Hz. The range scanner provides a capability to manually adjust the focal point of the system from a range of 32 meters to a range of 896 meters under operator control, or to scan between operator chosen limits and at rates from 0.1 Hz to 6.9 Hz. The scanner controls are designed to allow simulataneous range and elevation scanning so as to provide finger scan patterns, arc scan patterns, and vertical line scan patterns. The development and testing of the unit is discussed, along with a fluid dynamic model of the wake vortex developed in a laser Doppler vortex sensor simulation program.

  18. Laser wake-field acceleration in pre-formed plasma channel created by pre-pulse pedestal of terawatt laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyasi Rao, Bobbili; Chakera, Juzer Ali; Naik, Prasad Anant; Kumar, Mukund; Gupta, Parshotam Dass

    2011-09-15

    The role of nanosecond duration pre-pulse pedestal (Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) pre-pulse) in the propagation of 45 fs, 4 TW Ti:Sapphire laser pulse through a helium gas jet target has been investigated. We observed that the pre-pulse pedestal of about 1 ns duration and intensity 3 x 10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2} creates pre-formed plasma with optical guiding channel like structure in the gas-jet at density around 3 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. Guiding of the 45 fs laser pulse (I{sub L} = 3 x 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) in the pre-formed plasma channel, over a distance much longer than the Rayleigh length was also observed. The guiding of the laser pulse resulted in the generation of high energy electron beam by laser wake-field acceleration of self-injected electrons. The accelerated electron beam was quasi-monoenergetic with peak energy up to 50 MeV, low divergence in the range of 3-6 mrad, and bunch charge up to 100 pC.

  19. Wind tunnel measurements for dispersion modelling of vehicle wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpentieri, Matteo; Kumar, Prashant; Robins, Alan

    2012-12-01

    Wind tunnel measurements downwind of reduced scale car models have been made to study the wake regions in detail, test the usefulness of existing vehicle wake models, and draw key information needed for dispersion modelling in vehicle wakes. The experiments simulated a car moving in still air. This is achieved by (i) the experimental characterisation of the flow, turbulence and concentration fields in both the near and far wake regions, (ii) the preliminary assessment of existing wake models using the experimental database, and (iii) the comparison of previous field measurements in the wake of a real diesel car with the wind tunnel measurements. The experiments highlighted very large gradients of velocities and concentrations existing, in particular, in the near-wake. Of course, the measured fields are strongly dependent on the geometry of the modelled vehicle and a generalisation for other vehicles may prove to be difficult. The methodology applied in the present study, although improvable, could constitute a first step towards the development of mathematical parameterisations. Experimental results were also compared with the estimates from two wake models. It was found that they can adequately describe the far-wake of a vehicle in terms of velocities, but a better characterisation in terms of turbulence and pollutant dispersion is needed. Parameterised models able to predict velocity and concentrations with fine enough details at the near-wake scale do not exist.

  20. LOW-MASS PLANETS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS WITH NET VERTICAL MAGNETIC FIELDS: THE PLANETARY WAKE AND GAP OPENING

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Zhaohuan; Stone, James M.; Rafikov, Roman R. E-mail: jstone@astro.princeton.edu

    2013-05-10

    Some regions in protoplanetary disks are turbulent, while some regions are quiescent (e.g. the dead zone). In order to study how planets open gaps in both inviscid hydrodynamic disk (e.g. the dead zone) and the disk subject to magnetorotational instability (MRI), we carried out both shearing box two-dimensional inviscid hydrodynamical simulations and three-dimensional unstratified magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations (having net vertical magnetic fields) with a planet at the box center. We found that, due to the nonlinear wave steepening, even a low mass planet can open gaps in both cases, in contradiction to the ''thermal criterion'' for gap opening. In order to understand if we can represent the MRI turbulent stress with the viscous {alpha} prescription for studying gap opening, we compare gap properties in MRI-turbulent disks to those in viscous HD disks having the same stress, and found that the same mass planet opens a significantly deeper and wider gap in net vertical flux MHD disks than in viscous HD disks. This difference arises due to the efficient magnetic field transport into the gap region in MRI disks, leading to a larger effective {alpha} within the gap. Thus, across the gap, the Maxwell stress profile is smoother than the gap density profile, and a deeper gap is needed for the Maxwell stress gradient to balance the planetary torque density. Comparison with previous results from net toroidal flux/zero flux MHD simulations indicates that the magnetic field geometry plays an important role in the gap opening process. We also found that long-lived density features (termed zonal flows) produced by the MRI can affect planet migration. Overall, our results suggest that gaps can be commonly produced by low mass planets in realistic protoplanetary disks, and caution the use of a constant {alpha}-viscosity to model gaps in protoplanetary disks.

  1. Anomalous and neoclassical transport suppression by the radial electric field, induced by Alfvn waves in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsypin, V. S.; Nascimento, I. C.; Galvo, R. M. O.; Elfimov, A. G.; Amarante Segundo, G. S.; Tendler, M.

    1999-09-01

    The suppression of anomalous transport and/or reduction of neoclassical transport caused by the Alfvn-wave-induced shear of the radial electric field in tokamaks is investigated. The simple quantitative estimates reported in previous papers are checked by a consistent evaluation of the profile of the radial electric field created by the resonant absorption of Alfvn waves. The radial variations of the ion viscosity and heat conductivity across the mode conversion layer are evaluated both in the banana and potato regions. In agreement with previous analytical results, it is shown that the kinetic Alfvn waves may play the role of a convenient mechanism for reduction of anomalous and neoclassical transport and formation of transport barriers in tokamaks.

  2. High suppression in strong-field ionization of laser-irradiated molecule C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usachenko, Vladimir; Kim, Vyacheslav; Pyak, Pavel

    2015-05-01

    We report about the results of our theoretical study of strong-field (multiphoton) above-threshold ionization (ATI) in laser-irradiated carbon fullerene molecule C60 under condition of relevant experiment. The problem is addressed within the velocity-gauge (VG) formulation of molecular strong-field approximation (SFA) essentially exploiting the density-functional-theory (DFT) method for numerical composition of initial (laser-free) molecular state using the routines of GAUSSIAN-03 code. The results of our present VG-SFA calculation demonstrate that ionization of C60 is to be highly suppressed and reaches saturation at laser peak intensity I ~ 2 1014 W /cm2, in a perfect consistence with relevant experiment.

  3. Suppression of inelastic collisions of polar {sup 1}{sigma} state molecules in an electrostatic field

    SciTech Connect

    Avdeenkov, Alexander V.; Kajita, Masatoshi; Bohn, John L.

    2006-02-15

    Collisions of polar {sup 1}{sigma} state molecules at ultralow energies are considered, within a model that accounts for long-range dipole-dipole interactions, plus rotation of the molecules. We predict a substantial suppression of dipole-driven inelastic collisions at high values of the applied electric field, namely, field values of several times B{sub 0}/{mu}. Here B{sub 0} is the rotational constant, and {mu} is the electric dipole moment of molecules. The sudden large drop in the inelastic cross section is attributed to the onset of degeneracy between molecular rotational levels, which dramatically alters the scattering Hamiltonian. This capability could, in principle, be used to stabilize ultracold gases against collisional losses.

  4. Secondary energy growth and turbulence suppression in conducting channel flow with streamwise magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shuai; Krasnov, Dmitry; Boeck, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    The effects of a streamwise magnetic field on conducting channel flow are studied by analyzing secondary linear perturbations evolving on streamwise streaks and by direct numerical simulations of relaminarization. By means of an optimal perturbation approach, magnetic damping is found to increase the streamwise wavelength of the most amplified secondary perturbations and to reduce their amplification level. Complete suppression of secondary instability is observed at a critical magnetic interaction parameter that depends on the streak amplitude and on the Reynolds number when the transient evolution of the streaky basic flow is taken into account. Relaminarization in the direct numerical simulation occurs at lower values of the interaction parameter than the critical values from the stability computations for the streak amplitudes considered. The dependence of these threshold values of the interaction parameters on the Reynolds number is fairly similar between simulations and stability analysis. Relaminarization thresholds from the simulations are also in good agreement with experiments on pipe flow with streamwise magnetic field.

  5. Power spectrum oscillations from Planck-suppressed operators in effective field theory motivated monodromy inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Layne C.

    2015-11-01

    We consider a phenomenological model of inflation where the inflaton is the phase of a complex scalar field Φ . Planck-suppressed operators of O (f5/Mpl) modify the geometry of the vev ⟨Φ ⟩ at first order in the decay constant f , which adds a first-order periodic term to the definition of the canonically normalized inflaton ϕ . This correction to the inflaton induces a fixed number of extra oscillatory terms in the potential V ˜θp. We derive the same result in a toy scenario where the vacuum ⟨Φ ⟩ is an ellipse with an arbitrarily large eccentricity. These extra oscillations change the form of the power spectrum as a function of scale k and provide a possible mechanism for differentiating effective field theory motivated inflation from models where the angular shift symmetry is a gauge symmetry.

  6. Trailing edge wake flow characteristics of upper surface blown configurations. [noise generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, N. N.

    1978-01-01

    Mean and fluctuating flow characteristics in the wake of upper surface blown flap configurations are presented. Relative importance of the longitudinal and the transverse components of the wake flow turbulence for noise generation are evaluated using correlation between the near-field noise and the wake turbulence. Effects of the jet velocity, the initial turbulence in the jet, and the flap deflection angle on noise and wake flow characteristics are studied. The far-field noise data is compared with the existing empirical prediction method. The measured wake flow properties are compared with an analytical model used in the existing USB wake flow noise theory. The detailed wake flow profiles, wake flow turbulence space-time correlations, wake flow turbulence cross-power spectra, and near-field noise third octave band spectra are presented in the appendices.

  7. Wake Vortex Minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A status report is presented on research directed at reducing the vortex disturbances of aircraft wakes. The objective of such a reduction is to minimize the hazard to smaller aircraft that might encounter these wakes. Inviscid modeling was used to study trailing vortices and viscous effects were investigated. Laser velocimeters were utilized in the measurement of aircraft wakes. Flight and wind tunnel tests were performed on scale and full model scale aircraft of various design. Parameters investigated included the effect of wing span, wing flaps, spoilers, splines and engine thrust on vortex attenuation. Results indicate that vortives may be alleviated through aerodynamic means.

  8. Dissipation of Turbulence in the Wake of a Wind Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Bariteau, L.

    2015-02-01

    The wake of a wind turbine is characterized by increased turbulence and decreased wind speed. Turbines are generally deployed in large groups in wind farms, and so the behaviour of an individual wake as it merges with other wakes and propagates downwind is critical in assessing wind-farm power production. This evolution depends on the rate of turbulence dissipation in the wind-turbine wake, which has not been previously quantified in field-scale measurements. In situ measurements of winds and turbulence dissipation from the wake region of a multi-MW turbine were collected using a tethered lifting system (TLS) carrying a payload of high-rate turbulence probes. Ambient flow measurements were provided from sonic anemometers on a meteorological tower located near the turbine. Good agreement between the tower measurements and the TLS measurements was established for a case without a wind-turbine wake. When an operating wind turbine is located between the tower and the TLS so that the wake propagates to the TLS, the TLS measures dissipation rates one to two orders of magnitude higher in the wake than outside of the wake. These data, collected between two and three rotor diameters downwind of the turbine, document the significant enhancement of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate within the wind-turbine wake. These wake measurements suggest that it may be useful to pursue modelling approaches that account for enhanced dissipation. Comparisons of wake and non-wake dissipation rates to mean wind speed, wind-speed variance, and turbulence intensity are presented to facilitate the inclusion of these measurements in wake modelling schemes.

  9. Synergistic Effects of Turbine Wakes and Atmospheric Stability on Power Production at an Onshore Wind Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K; Marjanovic, N

    2012-01-25

    This report examines the complex interactions between atmospheric stability and turbine-induced wakes on downwind turbine wind speed and power production at a West Coast North American multi-MW wind farm. Wakes are generated when the upwind flow field is distorted by the mechanical movement of the wind turbine blades. This has two consequences for downwind turbines: (1) the downwind turbine encounters wind flows with reduced velocity and (2) the downwind turbine encounters increased turbulence across multiple length scales via mechanical turbulence production by the upwind turbine. This increase in turbulence on top of ambient levels may increase aerodynamic fatigue loads on the blades and reduce the lifetime of turbine component parts. Furthermore, ambient atmospheric conditions, including atmospheric stability, i.e., thermal stratification in the lower boundary layer, play an important role in wake dissipation. Higher levels of ambient turbulence (i.e., a convective or unstable boundary layer) lead to higher turbulent mixing in the wake and a faster recovery in the velocity flow field downwind of a turbine. Lower levels of ambient turbulence, as in a stable boundary layer, will lead to more persistent wakes. The wake of a wind turbine can be divided into two regions: the near wake and far wake, as illustrated in Figure 1. The near wake is formed when the turbine structure alters the shape of the flow field and usually persists one rotor diameter (D) downstream. The difference between the air inside and outside of the near wake results in a shear layer. This shear layer thickens as it moves downstream and forms turbulent eddies of multiple length scales. As the wake travels downstream, it expands depending on the level of ambient turbulence and meanders (i.e., travels in non-uniform path). Schepers estimates that the wake is fully expanded at a distance of 2.25 D and the far wake region begins at 2-5 D downstream. The actual distance traveled before the wake recovers to its inflow velocity is dependent on the amount ambient turbulence, the amount of wind shear, and topographical and structural effects. The maximum velocity deficit is estimated to occur at 1-2 D but can be longer under low levels of ambient turbulence. Our understanding of turbine wakes comes from wind tunnel experiments, field experiments, numerical simulations, and from studies utilizing both experimental and modeling methods. It is well documented that downwind turbines in multi-Megawatt wind farms often produce less power than upwind turbine rows. These wake-induced power losses have been estimated from 5% to up to 40% depending on the turbine operating settings (e.g., thrust coefficient), number of turbine rows, turbine size (e.g., rotor diameter and hub-height), wind farm terrain, and atmospheric flow conditions (e.g., ambient wind speed, turbulence, and atmospheric stability). Early work by Elliott and Cadogan suggested that power data for different turbulent conditions be segregated to distinguish the effects of turbulence on wind farm power production. This may be especially important for downwind turbines within wind farms, as chaotic and turbulent wake flows increase stress on downstream turbines. Impacts of stability on turbine wakes and power production have been examined for a flat terrain, moderate size (43 turbines) wind farm in Minnesota and for an offshore, 80 turbine wind farm off the coast of Denmark. Conzemius found it difficult to distinguish wakes (i.e., downwind velocity deficits) when the atmosphere was convective as large amounts of scatter were present in the turbine nacelle wind speed data. This suggested that high levels of turbulence broke-up the wake via large buoyancy effects, which are generally on the order of 1 km in size. On the other hand, they found pronounced wake effects when the atmosphere was very stable and turbulence was either suppressed or the length scale was reduced as turbulence in this case was mechanically produced (i.e., friction forces). This led to larger reductions at downwind turbines and maximum velocity (power) deficits reached up to 50% (70%) during strongly stable conditions. At an offshore Danish wind farm, Hansen et al. found a strong negative correlation between power deficit and ambient turbulence intensity (i.e., atmospheric stability). Under convective conditions, when turbulence levels were relatively high, smallest power deficits were observed. Power deficits approaching 35 to 40% were found inside the wind farm during stable conditions.

  10. Wake Signature Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spedding, Geoffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    An accumulated body of quantitative evidence shows that bluff-body wakes in stably stratified environments have an unusual degree of coherence and organization, so characteristic geometries such as arrays of alternating-signed vortices have very long lifetimes, as measured in units of buoyancy timescales, or in the downstream distance scaled by a body length. The combination of pattern geometry and persistence renders the detection of these wakes possible in principle. It now appears that identifiable signatures can be found from many disparate sources: Islands, fish, and plankton all have been noted to generate features that can be detected by climate modelers, hopeful navigators in open oceans, or hungry predators. The various types of wakes are reviewed with notes on why their signatures are important and to whom. A general theory of wake pattern formation is lacking and would have to span many orders of magnitude in Reynolds number.

  11. NASA wake vortex research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. P., III; Greene, George C.; Stewart, Eric C.; Stuever, Robert A.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.; Rivers, Robert A.; Vicroy, Dan D.

    1993-01-01

    NASA is conducting research that will enable safe improvements in the capacity of the nation's air transportation system. The wake-vortex hazard is a factor in establishing the minimum safe spacing between aircraft during landing and takeoff operations and, thus, impacts airport capacity. The ability to accurately model the wake hazard and determine safe separation distances for a wide range of aircraft and operational scenarios may provide the basis for significant increases in airport capacity. Current and planned NASA research is described which is focused on increasing airport capacity by safely reducing wake-hazard-imposed aircraft separations through advances in a number of technologies including vortex motion and decay prediction, vortex encounter modeling, wake-vortex hazard characterization, and in situ flow sensing.

  12. Wind and Wake Sensing with UAV Formation Flight: System Development and Flight Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrabee, Trenton Jameson

    Wind turbulence including atmospheric turbulence and wake turbulence have been widely investigated; however, only recently it become possible to use Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as a validation tool for research in this area. Wind can be a major contributing factor of adverse weather for aircraft. More importantly, it is an even greater risk towards UAVs because of their small size and weight. Being able to estimate wind fields and gusts can potentially provide substantial benefits for both unmanned and manned aviation. Possible applications include gust suppression for improving handling qualities, a better warning system for high wind encounters, and enhanced control for small UAVs during flight. On the other hand, the existence of wind can be advantageous since it can lead to fuel savings and longer duration flights through dynamic soaring or thermal soaring. Wakes are an effect of the lift distribution across an aircraft's wing or tail. Wakes can cause substantial disturbances when multiple aircraft are moving through the same airspace. In fact, the perils from an aircraft flying through the wake of another aircraft is a leading cause of the delay between takeoff times at airports. Similar to wind, though, wakes can be useful for energy harvesting and increasing an aircraft's endurance when flying in formation which can be a great advantage to UAVs because they are often limited in flight time due to small payload capacity. Formation flight can most often be seen in manned aircraft but can be adopted for use with unmanned systems. Autonomous flight is needed for flying in the "sweet spot" of the generated wakes for energy harvesting as well as for thermal soaring during long duration flights. For the research presented here formation flight was implemented for the study of wake sensing and gust alleviation. The major contributions of this research are in the areas of a novel technique to estimate wind using an Unscented Kalman filter and experimental wake sensing data using UAVs in formation flight. This has been achieved and well documented before in manned aircraft but very little work has been done on UAV wake sensing especially during flight testing. This document describes the development and flight testing of small unmanned aerial system (UAS) for wind and wake sensing purpose including a Ground Control Station (GCS) and UAVs. This research can be stated in four major components. Firstly, formation flight was obtained by integrating a formation flight controller on the WVU Phastball Research UAV aircraft platform from the Flight Control Systems Laboratory (FCSL) at West Virginia University (WVU). Second, a new approach to wind estimation using an Unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is discussed along with results from flight data. Third, wake modeling within a simulator and wake sensing during formation flight is shown. Finally, experimental results are used to discuss the "sweet spot" for energy harvesting in formation flight, a novel approach to cooperative wind estimation, and gust suppression control for a follower aircraft in formation flight.

  13. Study on vibration suppression based on particle damping in centrifugal field of gear transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wangqiang; Li, Jiani; Wang, Sheng; Fang, Xiaomeng

    2016-03-01

    Though particle damping technology has been applied to vibration suppression in steady state, there are few reports about the study of particle dampers in centrifugal fields because of its nonlinear damping performance and complex mechanism. Introducing particle damping technology into gear transmission will effectively reduce the vibration from gear engaging, especially for harsh working conditions, such as high temperature and oil lubrication. In this paper, we have explored the mechanism of gear excitation and determined the relationship between the rotational speed and gear's modal parameters in centrifugal fields. A mechanical model of the particle damper based on the discrete element method (DEM) in centrifugal fields has been established. Furthermore, the DEM model has been verified by comparing simulation data with experimental data. Based on the model, we have discussed the particle damper's energy dissipation mechanism in centrifugal fields, as well as the calculation method of energy dissipation. Moreover, the influence of the particle size on energy dissipation characteristics has been analyzed. The results can provide theoretical guidance for vibration and noise reduction of the gear transmission.

  14. Azimuth sidelobe suppression technique for near-field MIMO radar imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongze; Xu, Xiaojian

    2015-10-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar is getting more and more applications over the last decade. In near field imaging using a linear MIMO array, the azimuth sampling is non-uniform, resulting in spatially variant point spread function (PSF) over a large imaging zone. In this work, an azimuth sidelobe suppression technique is proposed where apodization or complex amplitude weighting is applied to the multiple channel data prior to image reconstruction. For best sidelobe suppression, the optimal channel weights wopt are obtained through mathematical optimization. The overall process mainly includes three steps. Firstly, the expression of PSF in azimuth is acquired by the azimuth focusing process; Secondly, based on the fact that, for an ideal PSF the maximum value of the mainlobe should be one and the values of sidelobes should be zeros, the problem of finding wopt is mathematically fomulated as an optimization problem; Lastly, by setting proper mainlobe width and sidelobe level, the optimal weights can be solved through convex optimization algorithm. Simulations of a MIMO radar system where channel amplitude-phase error and antenna elements position deviation exist are presented and the performance of the proposed technique is studied.

  15. Fast fat-suppressed reduced field-of-view temperature mapping using 2DRF excitation pulses.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Mei, Chang-Sheng; Madore, Bruno; McDannold, Nathan J; Panych, Lawrence P

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a fast and accurate temperature mapping method capable of both fat suppression and reduced field-of-view (rFOV) imaging, using a two-dimensional spatially-selective RF (2DRF) pulse. Temperature measurement errors caused by fat signals were assessed, through simulations. An 111140?s echo-planar 2DRF pulse was developed and incorporated into a gradient-echo sequence. Temperature measurements were obtained during focused ultrasound (FUS) heating of a fat-water phantom. Experiments both with and without the use of a 2DRF pulse were performed at 3T, and the accuracy of the resulting temperature measurements were compared over a range of TE values. Significant inconsistencies in terms of measured temperature values were observed when using a regular slice-selective RF excitation pulse. In contrast, the proposed 2DRF excitation pulse suppressed fat signals by more than 90%, allowing good temperature consistency regardless of TE settings. Temporal resolution was also improved, from 12 frames per minute (fpm) with the regular pulse to 28 frames per minute with the rFOV excitation. This technique appears promising toward the MR monitoring of temperature in moving adipose organs, during thermal therapies. PMID:21371923

  16. The effects of aging on the strength of surround suppression of receptive field of V1 cells in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Fu, Y; Wang, X S; Wang, Y C; Zhang, J; Liang, Z; Zhou, Y F; Ma, Y Y

    2010-08-25

    The surround suppression of the receptive field is important for basic visual information processing, such as orientation specificity. To date, the effects of aging on the strength of surround suppression are not clear. To address this issue, we carried out extracellular single-unit studies of the receptive field properties of cells in the primary visual cortex (area V1) in young and old rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys. When presented with the oriented central stimulus, we found that cells in old animals showed reduced orientation and direction selectivity compared with those in young animals. When presented with the oriented central stimulus together with the optimal surround stimulus, more selective cells {orientation bias (OB) >/=0.1; a bias of 0.1 is significant at the P<0.005 level} in animals of both ages showed reduced orientation selectivity compared with the experiment that presented only the oriented central stimulus. When presented with the optimal central stimulus together with the oriented surround stimulus, cells in old animals showed reduced orientation and direction selectivity compared with young animals. Moreover, broadly tuned cells (OB<0.1) in old animals exhibited significantly reduced suppression indices that quantified the strength of the surround suppression of the receptive field, when compared with those in young animals. These results suggest that aging may seriously affect the surround suppression of the receptive field of V1 cells. Thus, the decreased strength of surround suppression of the receptive field may be one possible reason for the decreased stimulus selectivity of V1 cells previously found in the senescent brain. This work will contribute to an understanding of the physiological mechanisms mediating surround suppression of the receptive field. PMID:20472034

  17. Cancellation of the ion deflection due to electron-suppression magnetic field in a negative-ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Chitarin, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Aprile, D.; Marconato, N.; Veltri, P.

    2014-02-15

    A new magnetic configuration is proposed for the suppression of co-extracted electrons in a negative-ion accelerator. This configuration is produced by an arrangement of permanent magnets embedded in one accelerator grid and creates an asymmetric local magnetic field on the upstream and downstream sides of this grid. Thanks to the “concentration” of the magnetic field on the upstream side of the grid, the resulting deflection of the ions due to magnetic field can be “intrinsically” cancelled by calibrating the configuration of permanent magnets. At the same time, the suppression of co-extracted electrons can be improved.

  18. Preliminary comparison of model and prototype wakes. [building wake effects on atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, E., Jr.; Camp, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Velocity and turbulence profiles previously measured in the wake of a long building 3.2 m high, located in the field, transverse to the wind and in an atmospheric boundary layer several hundred meters thick are compared with wake profiles at corresponding longitudinal stations for a scale model of the building located in a large meteorological wind tunnel having a boundary layer thickness of 0.61 m to assess the accuracy of full scale wake profile predictions based on model tests. Results are presented which show that disparities in nondimensional profiles result from differences in relative depth of logarithmic layers and in surface conditions.

  19. Crosswind Shear Gradient Affect on Wake Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

    2011-01-01

    Parametric simulations with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model are used to explore the influence of crosswind shear on aircraft wake vortices. Previous studies based on field measurements, laboratory experiments, as well as LES, have shown that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, i.e. the second vertical derivative of the environmental crosswind, can influence wake vortex transport. The presence of nonlinear vertical shear of the crosswind velocity can reduce the descent rate, causing a wake vortex pair to tilt and change in its lateral separation. The LES parametric studies confirm that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear does influence vortex trajectories. The parametric results also show that vortex decay from the effects of shear are complex since the crosswind shear, along with the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, can affect whether the lateral separation between wake vortices is increased or decreased. If the separation is decreased, the vortex linking time is decreased, and a more rapid decay of wake vortex circulation occurs. If the separation is increased, the time to link is increased, and at least one of the vortices of the vortex pair may have a longer life time than in the case without shear. In some cases, the wake vortices may never link.

  20. Turbulent Plane Wakes Subjected to Successive Strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    Six direct numerical simulations of turbulent time-evolving strained plane wakes have been examined to investigate the response of a wake to successive irrotational plane strains of opposite sign. The orientation of the applied strain field has been selected so that the flow is the time-developing analogue of a spatially developing wake evolving in the presence of either a favourable or an adverse streamwise pressure gradient. The magnitude of the applied strain rate a is constant in time t until the total strain e(sup at) reaches about four. At this point, a new simulation is begun with the sign of the applied strain being reversed (the original simulation is continued as well). When the total strain is reduced back to its original value of one, yet another simulation is begun with the sign of the strain being reversed again back to its original sign. This process is done for both initially "favourable" and initially "adverse" strains, providing simulations for each of these strain types from three different initial conditions. The evolution of the wake mean velocity deficit and width is found to be very similar for all the adversely strained cases, with both measures rapidly achieving exponential growth at the rate associated with the cross-stream expansive strain e(sup at). In the "favourably" strained cases, the wake widths approach a constant and the velocity deficits ultimately decay rapidly as e(sup -2at). Although all three of these cases do exhibit the same asymptotic exponential behaviour, the time required to achieve this is longer for the cases that have been previously adversely strained (by at approx. equals 1). These simulations confirm the generality of the conclusions drawn in Rogers (2002) regarding the response of plane wakes to strain. The evolution of strained wakes is not consistent with the predictions of classical self-similar analysis; a more general equilibrium similarity solution is required to describe the results. At least for the cases considered here, the wake Reynolds number and the ratio of the turbulent kinetic energy to the square of the wake mean velocity deficit are determined nearly entirely by the total strain. For these measures the order in which the strains are applied does not matter and the changes brought about by the strain are nearly reversible. The wake mean velocity deficit and width, on the other hand, differ by about a factor of three when the total strain returns to one, depending on whether the wake was first "favourably" or "adversely" strained. The strain history is important for predicting the evolution of these quantities.

  1. Experimental study on unsteady wake impacting effect in axial-flow compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-ping; Li, Qiu-shi; Yuan, Wei; Hou, An-ping; Lu, Ya-jun; Wu, Yu-lin

    2009-08-01

    In the present study, the specific wake impacting effect (WIE) in compressors was used to control unsteady separated flows inside axial-flow compressors. Time-averaged performances were analyzed, key factors affecting the positive effects of WIE were studied and perspectives of engineering applications were discussed. Experiment results showed that when the compressor was working under near stall conditions, separated flows over rotor blade rows could be remarkably suppressed by utilizing WIE and properly adjusting two important parameters of impacting frequency and impacting intensity (wake defect). Under near stall condition, the flow-field structure inside the compressor was significantly improved and time-averaged performances were boosted, e.g. when n¯=85%n0 the total pressure increment was increased by 5.4%, the efficiency of the compressor was increased by 5.5% and the stall margin was increased by 30.7% under the condition of optimal impacting frequency and optimal impacting intensity.

  2. Acceleration of nonmonoenergetic electron bunches injected into a wake wave

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, S. V.

    2012-07-15

    The trapping and acceleration of nonmonoenergetic electron bunches in a wake field wave excited by a laser pulse in a plasma channel is studied. Electrons are injected into the region of the wake wave potential maximum at a velocity lower than the phase velocity of the wave. The paper analyzes the grouping of bunch electrons in the energy space emerging in the course of acceleration under certain conditions of their injection into the wake wave and minimizing the energy spread for such electrons. The factors determining the minimal energy spread between bunch electrons are analyzed. The possibility of monoenergetic acceleration of electron bunches generated by modern injectors in a wake wave is analyzed.

  3. Engineering models for merging wakes in wind farm optimization applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machefaux, E.; Larsen, G. C.; Murcia Leon, J. P.

    2015-06-01

    The present paper deals with validation of 4 different engineering wake superposition approaches against detailed CFD simulations and covering different turbine interspacing, ambient turbulence intensities and mean wind speeds. The first engineering model is a simple linear superposition of wake deficits as applied in e.g. Fuga. The second approach is the square root of sums of squares approach, which is applied in the widely used PARK program. The third approach, which is presently used with the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model, assumes that the wake affected downstream flow field to be determined by a superposition of the ambient flow field and the dominating wake among contributions from all upstream turbines at any spatial position and at any time. The last approach developed by G.C. Larsen is a newly developed model based on a parabolic type of approach, which combines wake deficits successively. The study indicates that wake interaction depends strongly on the relative wake deficit magnitude, i.e. the deficit magnitude normalized with respect to the ambient mean wind speed, and that the dominant wake assumption within the DWM framework is the most accurate.

  4. The Human Aerodynamic Wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settles, Gary; Moyer, Zachary; Paterson, Eric; Edge, Brian

    2003-11-01

    The wake that trails behind a walking person in still air is, in effect, that of an irregular 3-D cylinder. At a brisk walking speed of 1.3 m/s (3 mph), the human wake is characterized by a Reynolds number of about 50,000. It is thus turbulent with underlying large-scale vortex motion. We show that buoyancy plays no role at this Reynolds number, even though it is dominant in the plume of a standing person. Computational Navier-Stokes solutions and laser-light-sheet experiments with a human subject reveal a large recirculation zone behind the torso and flow between the legs. The decay of a passive scalar introduced on the human body is found to be exponential with downstream distance. The volume flux in the human wake is roughly constant with downstream distance until the recirculation closes, whence it grows due to turbulent entrainment. Further experiments reveal the development of the wake from the human thermal plume as the Reynolds number (proportional to walking speed) is increased from zero to 50,000. These results pertain to the sensing of chemical traces in the wakes of walking persons for aviation security. Supported by FAA Grant 99-G-040.

  5. Evaluation of a Wake Vortex Upset Model Based on Simultaneous Measurements of Wake Velocities and Probe-Aircraft Accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, B. J.; Jacobsen, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements were made of the upset responses experienced and the wake velocities encountered by an instrumented Learjet probe aircraft behind a Boeing 747 vortex-generating aircraft. The vortex-induced angular accelerations experienced could be predicted within 30% by a mathematical upset response model when the characteristics of the wake were well represented by the vortex model. The vortex model used in the present study adequately represented the wake flow field when the vortices dissipated symmetrically and only one vortex pair existed in the wake.

  6. Studies of a flat wake rotor theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtiss, H. C., Jr.; Mckillip, R. M., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A computer code was developed at Princeton University to calculate the velocity components in the flow field near a lifting rotor. The induced velocity components in the rotor flow field predicted by this theory are compared with experiment. It appears that on balance, this relatively simple theory gives a reasonable prediction of the average induced velocities in a rotor flow and is quite suitable for such applications as estimating the influence of the rotor wake on the tail surfaces of rotorcraft. The theory predicts that significant induced velocity components are present in all three flow directions in the wake at a lifting rotor. It should be noted , however, that there are a few experimental measurements of the longitudinal and lateral induced velocity components in the rotor wake. This theory, known as the flat wake theory, is essentially the rotary wing analog of Prandtl's lifting line theory. The theory is described in this report. Calculations based on the theory are presented and compared with a modern free wake theory.

  7. An iterative methodology for the computation of perturbation fields induced by harmonic forcing of the linearised Navier-Stokes equations in complex geometries and application to forced cylinder wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadakis, George; Lu, Liang

    2013-11-01

    An efficient, iterative methodology is developed for the computation of the perturbation fields induced by harmonic forcing of the linearised Navier-Stokes equations in complex geometries. The problem is formulated in the frequency domain and the resulting system of equations is solved iteratively until convergence. This approach offers distinct advantages: convergence is monitored easily, and the solution from one value of frequency can be used as a restart field for another, nearby, frequency. It is also straightforward to implement in any implicit code that solves the steady Navier-Stokes equations iteratively. The method can be extended to solve the optimal forcing problem, i.e. to find the forcing fields that will maximise the energy of the flow perturbations for a particular frequency. In the present study, the method is applied to investigate the wake behind a cylinder with pulsating approaching flow. The perturbation velocity and pressure fields induced by external forcing are computed and the mechanisms that drive the energy growth of the developed structures in the wake are examined. It is shown that perturbations grow by extracting energy from two sources: the underlying base flow field and the externally provided energy that maintains the imposed oscillation. Part of this work was supported by EPSRC EP/I016015/1.

  8. Wakes of Maneuvering Bodies in Stratified Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voropayev, S. I.; Fernando, H. J.

    2007-05-01

    We present the results of experimental/theoretical studies on large momentum eddies generated in late wakes of unsteady moving self-propelled bodies in stratified fluids. The experiments were conducted with scaled submarine model at high Reynolds numbers (50,000), corresponding to the fully turbulent flow regime. Dye visualization and PIV were used for flow diagnostics. When a self-propelled body makes a maneuver, e.g. accelerates, it imparts net momentum on the surrounding fluid. We show that in a stratified fluid this leads to impulsive momentum wakes with large, long-lived coherent vortices in the late flows, which may be used as a signature for identification of submarine wakes in oceanic thermocline. First, we consider dynamics and properties of such wakes in a linearly stratified fluid and present a model that permits to predict the main flow characteristics. Second, we consider wakes in a two layer stratified fluid (analog of the upper ocean) and show that such wakes may penetrate to the water surface; we present a model for this phenomenon and propose criteria for the penetration of wake signatures to the water surface in terms of main governing parameters (signature contrast versus confinement number). Finally, we consider the evolution of such momentum wake eddies in the field of decaying background turbulence, which mimics the oceanic thermocline, and show that for the flow configuration studied the contrast number remains sufficiently large and detectable wake imprints survive for a long period of time. Some pertinent estimates for submarines cruising in the upper ocean are also given. For more details see [1-3]. This study was supported by grant from the Office of Naval Research. 1. Voropayev S.I., Fernando H.J.S., Smirnov S.A. & Morrison R.J. 2006. On surface signatures generated by submersed momentum sources. Phys. Fluids, under revision. 2. Voropayev S.I., Fernando H.J.S. & Morrison R.J. 2006. Dipolar eddies in a stratified turbulent flow. J. Fluid Mech., submitted. 3. Voropayev S.I., Smirnov S.A. & Fernando H.J.S. 2007. Late-wake vortices of maneuvering bodies in stratified fluids. J. Fluid Mech., submitted.

  9. Study on the effects of ion motion on laser-induced plasma wakes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Suyun; Yu Wei; Yuan Xiao; Xu Han; Cao, L. H.; Cai, H. B.; Zhou, C. T.

    2012-09-15

    A 2D analytical model is presented for the generation of plasma wakes (or bubbles) with an ultra-intense laser pulse by taking into account the response of plasma ions. It is shown that the effect of ion motion becomes significant at the laser intensity exceeding 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2} and plasma background density below 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. In this regime, ion motion tends to suppress the electrostatic field induced by charge separation and makes the electron acceleration less effective. As a result, the assumption of immobile ions overestimates the efficiency of laser wake-field acceleration of electrons. Based on the analytical model, the dynamics of plasma ions in laser-induced wake field is investigated. It is found that only one bubble appears as the plasmas background density exceeds the resonant density and the deposited laser energy is concentrated into the bubble, resulting in the generation of an ion bunch with extremely high energy density.

  10. Hypersonic rarefied wake characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, E. B.

    1993-01-01

    Results of a numerical study using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method are presented for hypersonic rarefied flow over an aeroassisted space transfer vehicle (ASTV). The emphasis of the study is the characterization of the near wake region which includes the ASTV payload. The study covered the transitional flow regime from near continuum to free molecular. Calculations show that the character of the near wake is significantly affected by the presence of the payload. Flow separation occurs when an afterbody is present throughout the transitional flow regime. In contrast, when no afterbody is present, no separation is observed until the flow approaches continuum.

  11. Near wake features of a flying European Starling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhefer, Adam; Kopp, Gregory; Gurka, Roi

    2013-11-01

    A great deal of research focusing on flapping wings has been motivated by their high performance capabilities, especially in low Reynolds number configurations where static wing performance typically suffers. The approaches to studying flapping wings have taken different forms. One form has been the systematic investigation of the parameters that influence the relationship between flapping wings and their wake. The other form, and the approach used in the present work, is the investigation of flapping wings in nature. While the earliest work on the flapping wings of animals consists of observations of bird flight by Leonardo DaVinci, advances in technology have allowed for quantitative measurements of the wake. The near wake of a freely flying European starling has been measured using high speed, time-resolved, particle image velocimetry, simultaneously with high speed cameras which imaged the bird. These have been used to measure the near wake two-dimensional velocity field that can be associated with the bird's location and wing configuration in an avian wind tunnel. Time series of the velocities have been expressed as composite wake plots, which depict segments of the wing beat cycle for various spanwise locations in the wake. Measurements indicate that downwash is not produced during the upstroke, suggesting that the upstroke does not generate lift. As well, the wake velocities imply the presence of streamwise vortical structures, in addition to tip vortices. These two characteristics indicate similarities between the wake of a bird and the wake of a bat.

  12. RF interference suppression in a cardiac synchronization system operating in a high magnetic field NMR imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Damji, A.A.; Snyder, R.E.; Ellinger, D.C.; Witkowski, F.X.; Allen, P.S.

    1988-11-01

    An electrocardiographic (ECG) unit suitable for cardiac-synchronized nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in high magnetic fields is presented. The unit includes lossy transmission lines as ECG leads in order to suppress radio frequency (RF) interference in the electrocardiogram. The unit's immunity to RF interference is demonstrated.

  13. Suppression of Low-Frequency Electronic Noise in Polymer Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Lezzi, Francesca; Ferrari, Giorgio; Pennetta, Cecilia; Pisignano, Dario

    2015-11-11

    The authors report on the reduction of low-frequency noise in semiconductor polymer nanowires with respect to thin-films made of the same organic material. Flicker noise is experimentally investigated in polymer nanowires in the range of 10-10(5) Hz by means of field-effect transistor architectures. The noise in the devices is well described by the Hooge empirical model and exhibits an average Hooge constant, which describes the current power spectral density of fluctuations, suppressed by 1-2 orders of magnitude compared to thin-film devices. To explain the Hooge constant reduction, a resistor network model is developed, in which the organic semiconducting nanostructures or films are depicted through a two-dimensional network of resistors with a square-lattice structure, accounting for the different anisotropy and degree of structural disorder of the active nanowires and films. Results from modeling agree well with experimental findings. These results support enhanced structural order through size-confinement in organic nanostructures as effective route to improve the noise performance in polymer electronic devices. PMID:26479330

  14. Cylinder wakes in flowing soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobieff, Peter; Ecke, Robert E.

    1999-09-01

    We present an experimental characterization of cylinder wakes in flowing soap films. From instantaneous velocity and thickness fields, we find the vortex-shedding frequency, mean-flow velocity, and mean-film thickness. Using the empirical relationship between the Reynolds and Strouhal numbers obtained for cylinder wakes in three dimensions, we estimate the effective soap-film viscosity and its dependence on film thickness. We also compare the decay of vorticity with that in a simple Rankine vortex model with a dissipative term to account for air drag.

  15. Cylinder wakes in flowing soap films

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobieff, P.; Ecke, R.E. ); Vorobieff, P. )

    1999-09-01

    We present an experimental characterization of cylinder wakes in flowing soap films. From instantaneous velocity and thickness fields, we find the vortex-shedding frequency, mean-flow velocity, and mean-film thickness. Using the empirical relationship between the Reynolds and Strouhal numbers obtained for cylinder wakes in three dimensions, we estimate the effective soap-film viscosity and its dependence on film thickness. We also compare the decay of vorticity with that in a simple Rankine vortex model with a dissipative term to account for air drag. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

  16. Waking Up to Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrdlovcova, Jill

    2005-01-01

    All homes and schools produce waste. Children may have been astonished at how much people throw away, and this could be the "wake-up call" that arouses their interest. At Carymoor Environmental Centre (an Eco-Centre in South Somerset) getting children involved in active waste reduction and recycling is a priority. Carymoor tries to model waste

  17. Waking Up to Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrdlovcova, Jill

    2005-01-01

    All homes and schools produce waste. Children may have been astonished at how much people throw away, and this could be the "wake-up call" that arouses their interest. At Carymoor Environmental Centre (an Eco-Centre in South Somerset) getting children involved in active waste reduction and recycling is a priority. Carymoor tries to model waste…

  18. Photon acceleration in plasma wake wave

    SciTech Connect

    Bu, Zhigang; Shen, Baifei Yi, Longqing; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Shan; Li, Shun

    2015-04-15

    The photon acceleration effect in a laser wake field is investigated based on photon Hamiltonian dynamics. A test laser pulse is injected into a plasma wave at an incident angle θ{sub i}, which could slow down the photon velocity along the propagating direction of the wake wave so as to increase the acceleration distance for the photons. The photon trapping condition is analyzed in detail, and the maximum frequency shift of the trapped photon is obtained. The acceleration gradient and dephasing length are emphatically studied. The compression of the test laser pulse is examined and used to interpret the acceleration process. The limit of finite transverse width of the wake wave on photon acceleration is also discussed.

  19. Photon acceleration in plasma wake wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Zhigang; Shen, Baifei; Yi, Longqing; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Shan; Li, Shun

    2015-04-01

    The photon acceleration effect in a laser wake field is investigated based on photon Hamiltonian dynamics. A test laser pulse is injected into a plasma wave at an incident angle θi , which could slow down the photon velocity along the propagating direction of the wake wave so as to increase the acceleration distance for the photons. The photon trapping condition is analyzed in detail, and the maximum frequency shift of the trapped photon is obtained. The acceleration gradient and dephasing length are emphatically studied. The compression of the test laser pulse is examined and used to interpret the acceleration process. The limit of finite transverse width of the wake wave on photon acceleration is also discussed.

  20. Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS) Concept of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutishauser, David; Lohr, Gary; Hamilton, David; Powers, Robert; McKissick, Burnell; Adams, Catherine; Norris, Edward

    2003-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of aircraft wake vortex research, with the most recent accomplishment of demonstrating the Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS) at Dallas/Forth Worth International Airport in July 2000. The AVOSS was a concept for an integration of technologies applied to providing dynamic wake-safe reduced spacing for single runway arrivals, as compared to current separation standards applied during instrument approaches. AVOSS included state-of-the-art weather sensors, wake sensors, and a wake behavior prediction algorithm. Using real-time data AVOSS averaged a 6% potential throughput increase over current standards. This report describes a Concept of Operations for applying the technologies demonstrated in the AVOSS to a variety of terminal operations to mitigate wake vortex capacity constraints. A discussion of the technological issues and open research questions that must be addressed to design a Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS) is included.

  1. Wake-promoting pharmacotherapy for psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Dobrea, Cristina; Cremaschi, Laura; Arici, Chiara; Altamura, A Carlo

    2014-12-01

    Medications promoting wakefulness are currently used in psychopharmacology in different contexts and with different objectives. In particular, they may be used for the treatment of syndromes that primarily show significant impairment in alertness/wakefulness (e.g., excessive sleepiness and other sleep disorders) as well as for the symptomatic treatment of different neuropsychiatric disorders that, in turn, are not exclusively characterized by sleep-wake disturbances (like mood disorders, for instance). In addition, several psychotropic compounds, including some antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, antidepressants, and anxiolytics have well-established sedating side effects that may go beyond the therapeutic target and require the symptomatic use of wake-promoting agents. Even though such a clinical scenario reflects millions of individuals affected (alterations of wakefulness have a prevalence rate of 20-43% in the general population), relatively few pharmacotherapies are available, mainly including compounds with psychostimulating effects, such as methylphenidate, modafinil, and armodafinil and some amphetaminic agents. In light of their side effects and potential for abuse, such compounds have received FDA approval only for a limited number of psychiatric disorders. Nonetheless, their clinical application has recently become more widespread, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, narcolepsy, treatment-resistant depression, bipolar disorder, shift work sleep disorder, schizophrenia, and addictions. Wake-promoting agents have different mechanisms of action, peculiar clinical strengths and specific limitations, with novel drugs in the field under extensive investigation. The present review is aimed to provide an updated overview of the aforementioned compounds as well as investigational drugs in the field, in terms of mechanism of action, indications and use in clinical practice. PMID:25312027

  2. Characterization of an Actively Controlled Three-Dimensional Turret Wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, Patrick; Glauser, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Three-dimensional turrets are commonly used for housing optical systems on airborne platforms. As bluff bodies, these geometries generate highly turbulent wakes that decrease the performance of the optical systems and the aircraft. The current experimental study looked to use dynamic suction in both open and closed-loop control configurations to actively control the turret wake. The flow field was characterized using dynamic pressure and stereoscopic PIV measurements in the wake of the turret. Results showed that the suction system was able to manipulate the wake region of the turret and could alter not only the spatial structure of the wake, but also the temporal behavior of the wake flow field. Closed-loop, feedback control techniques were used to determine a more optimal control input for the flow control. Similar control effects were seen for both the steady open-loop control case and the closed-loop feedback control configuration with a 45% reduction in the suction levels when comparing the closed-loop to the open-loop case. These results provide unique information regarding the development of the baseline three-dimensional wake and the wake with three different active flow control configurations.

  3. Passive Wake Vortex Control

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, J M

    2001-10-18

    The collapse of the Soviet Union and ending of the Cold War brought about many significant changes in military submarine operations. The enemies that the US Navy faces today and in the future will not likely be superpowers armed with nuclear submarines, but rather smaller, rogue nations employing cheaper diesel/electric submarines with advanced air-independent propulsion systems. Unlike Cold War submarine operations, which occurred in deep-water environments, future submarine conflicts are anticipated to occur in shallow, littoral regions that are complex and noisy. Consequently, non-acoustic signatures will become increasingly important and the submarine stealth technology designed for deep-water operations may not be effective in these environments. One such non-acoustic signature is the surface detection of a submarine's trailing vortex wake. If a submarine runs in a slightly buoyant condition, its diving planes must be inclined at a negative angle of attack to generate sufficient downforce, which keeps the submarine from rising to the surface. As a result, the diving planes produce a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices that propagate to the water surface. In previous deep-water operations, this was not an issue since the submarines could dive deep enough so that the vortex pair became incoherent before it reached the water surface. However, in shallow, littoral environments, submarines do not have the option of diving deep and, hence, the vortex pair can rise to the surface and leave a distinct signature that might be detectable by synthetic aperture radar. Such detection would jeopardize not only the mission of the submarine, but also the lives of military personnel on board. There has been another attempt to solve this problem and reduce the intensity of trailing vortices in the wakes of military submarines. The research of Quackenbush et al. over the past few years has been directed towards an idea called ''vortex leveraging.'' This active concept works by placing shape memory alloy (SMA) control surfaces on the submarine's diving planes and periodically oscillating them. The modulated control vortices generated by these surfaces interact with the tip vortices on the diving planes, causing an instability to rapidly occur. Though several numerical simulations have been presented, experimental verification does not appear to be available in the open literature. The authors address this problem through a concept called passive wake vortex control (PWVC), which has been demonstrated to rapidly break apart a trailing vortex wake and render it incoherent. PWVC functions by introducing unequal strength, counter-rotating control vortices next to the tip vortices. The presence of these control vortices destabilizes the vortex wake and produces a rapidly growing wake instability.

  4. [Wake disorders. I. Primary wake disorders].

    PubMed

    Billiard, M; Carlander, B

    1998-02-01

    Primary wake disorders encompass various conditions of excessive daytime sleepiness and/or increased nighttime sleep, of unknown origin beginning most often in adolescence and of chronic or recurrent natural history. The best known of these conditions is narcolepsy associating two major clinical features, irresistible episodes of sleep, sleep onset REM periods and an almost constant association with HLA DR2-DQ1. The prevalence of the condition is close to the one of multiple sclerosis but positive diagnosis requires most often over 10 years to be made. The treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness has recently benefited from a new non-amphetamine awakening compound, modafinil, active in 60 to 70 p. 100 of the cases. The treatment of cataplexy still relies on antidepressants, tricyclics or selective serotonin reuptake blockers. Major advances in pathophysiology and pathogeny have been obtained through a natural model of the disease, canine narcolepsy. Pharmacological studies point to the importance of alpha-1 b adrenergic mechanisms in cataplexy, while dopaminergic systems seem more involved in excessive daytime sleepiness. As concerns genetics, the HLA DQB1*0602 gene predisposes to narcolepsy. In the canine model it is mirrored by an autosomal recessive gene showing a strong homology with the human immunoglobulin gene mu-switch. Familial studies have shown that besides typical phenotypes, attenuated forms of the condition characterized by isolated recurrent daytime naps and/or lapses into sleep do exist. In addition one or several other genes may be involved. Narcolepsy is multifactorial, including one or several genes as well as environmental factors. Idiopathic hypersomnia is noted for very long night sleep, difficulty waking up and more or less constant excessive daytime sleepiness. In contrast with narcolepsy sleep in not refreshing. There is no polysomnographic or immunogenetic special feature. Idiopathic hypersomnia is 10 times less frequent than narcolepsy. It is often overdiagnosed due to insufficient knowledge of other causes of excessive daytime sleepiness such as the upper airway resistance syndrome. Modafinil is also of great value in the treatment of idiopathic hypersomnia. In the absence of an animal model, pathophysiology and pathogeny are still poorly understood. Even rarer is the Kleine-Levin syndrome which is easily distinguishable through its recurrent character and its tendency to progressively disappear. It mainly occurs in early adolescent males. Its main features are episodes of sleep of a week duration recurring at a several months' interval along with disturbances of alimentary and sexual behavior. There is no satisfactory treatment of hypersomniac episodes. On the other hand a prophylactic treatment with carbamazepine or lithium may be active. Pathophysiology remains unsettled in spite of some evidence of a hypothalamic functional disturbance. PMID:9773032

  5. Sleep-waking discharge patterns of neurons recorded in the rat perifornical lateral hypothalamic area

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Md Noor; Gong, Hui; Alam, Tarannum; Jaganath, Rajesh; McGinty, Dennis; Szymusiak, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    The perifornical lateral hypothalamic area (PF-LHA) has been implicated in the control of several waking behaviours, including feeding, motor activity and arousal. Several cell types are located in the PF-LHA, including projection neurons that contain the hypocretin peptides (also known as orexins). Recent findings suggest that hypocretin neurons are involved in sleep-wake regulation. Loss of hypocretin neurons in the human disorder narcolepsy is associated with excessive somnolence, cataplexy and increased propensity for rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. However, the relationship of PF-LHA neuronal activity to different arousal states is unknown. We recorded neuronal activity in the PF-LHA of rats during natural sleep and waking. Neuronal discharge rates were calculated during active waking (waking accompanied by movement), quiet waking, non-REM sleep and REM sleep. Fifty-six of 106 neurons (53 %) were classified as wake/REM-related. These neurons exhibited peak discharge rates during waking and REM sleep and reduced discharge rates during non-REM sleep. Wake-related neurons (38 %) exhibited reduced discharge rates during both non-REM and REM sleep when compared to that during waking. Wake-related neurons exhibited significantly higher discharge rates during active waking than during quiet waking. The discharge of wake-related neurons was positively correlated with muscle activity across all sleep-waking states. Recording sites were located within the hypocretin-immunoreactive neuronal field of the PF-LHA. Although the neurotransmitter phenotype of recorded cells was not determined, the prevalence of neurons with wake-related discharge patterns is consistent with the hypothesis that the PF-LHA participates in the regulation of arousal, muscle activity and sleep-waking states. PMID:11790824

  6. Speech-induced suppression of evoked auditory fields in children who stutter

    PubMed Central

    Beal, Deryk S.; Quraan, Maher A.; Cheyne, Douglas O.; Taylor, Margot J.; Gracco, Vincent L.; De Nil, Luc F.

    2011-01-01

    Auditory responses to speech sounds that are self-initiated are suppressed compared to responses to the same speech sounds during passive listening. This phenomenon is referred to as speech-induced suppression, a potentially important feedback-mediated speech-motor control process. In an earlier study, we found that both adults who do and do not stutter demonstrated reduced amplitude of the auditory M50 and M100 responses to speech during active production relative to passive listening. It is unknown if auditory responses to self-initiated speech-motor acts are suppressed in children or if the phenomenon differs between children who do and do not stutter. As stuttering is a developmental speech disorder, examining speech-induced suppression in children may identify possible neural differences underlying stuttering close to its time of onset. We used magnetoencephalography to determine the presence of speech-induced suppression in children and to characterize the properties of speech-induced suppression in children who stutter. We examined the auditory M50 as this was the earliest robust response reproducible across our child participants and the most likely to reflect a motor-to-auditory relation. Both children who do and do not stutter demonstrated speech-induced suppression of the auditory M50. However, children who stutter had a delayed auditory M50 peak latency to vowel sounds compared to children who do not stutter indicating a possible deficiency in their ability to efficiently integrate auditory speech information for the purpose of establishing neural representations of speech sounds. PMID:21095231

  7. Pedestal Bifurcation and Resonant Field Penetration at the Threshold of Edge-Localized Mode Suppression in the DIII-D Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazikian, R.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Callen, J. D.; deGrassie, J. S.; Eldon, D.; Evans, T. E.; Ferraro, N. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Groebner, R. J.; Haskey, S. R.; Hegna, C. C.; King, J. D.; Logan, N. C.; McKee, G. R.; Moyer, R. A.; Okabayashi, M.; Orlov, D. M.; Osborne, T. H.; Park, J.-K.; Rhodes, T. L.; Shafer, M. W.; Snyder, P. B.; Solomon, W. M.; Strait, E. J.; Wade, M. R.

    2015-03-01

    Rapid bifurcations in the plasma response to slowly varying n =2 magnetic fields are observed as the plasma transitions into and out of edge-localized mode (ELM) suppression. The rapid transition to ELM suppression is characterized by an increase in the toroidal rotation and a reduction in the electron pressure gradient at the top of the pedestal that reduces the perpendicular electron flow there to near zero. These events occur simultaneously with an increase in the inner-wall magnetic response. These observations are consistent with strong resonant field penetration of n =2 fields at the onset of ELM suppression, based on extended MHD simulations using measured plasma profiles. Spontaneous transitions into (and out of) ELM suppression with a static applied n =2 field indicate competing mechanisms of screening and penetration of resonant fields near threshold conditions. Magnetic measurements reveal evidence for the unlocking and rotation of tearinglike structures as the plasma transitions out of ELM suppression.

  8. Direct Numerical Simulation of a Weakly Stratified Turbulent Wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redford, J. A.; Lund, T. S.; Coleman, Gary N.

    2014-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to investigate a time-dependent turbulent wake evolving in a stably stratified background. A large initial Froude number is chosen to allow the wake to become fully turbulent and axisymmetric before stratification affects the spreading rate of the mean defect. The uncertainty introduced by the finite sample size associated with gathering statistics from a simulation of a time-dependent flow is reduced, compared to earlier simulations of this flow. The DNS reveals the buoyancy-induced changes to the turbulence structure, as well as to the mean-defect history and the terms in the mean-momentum and turbulence-kinetic-energy budgets, that characterize the various states of this flow - namely the three-dimensional (essentially unstratified), non-equilibrium (or 'wake-collapse') and quasi-two-dimensional (or 'two-component') regimes observed elsewhere for wakes embedded in both weakly and strongly stratified backgrounds. The wake-collapse regime is not accompanied by transfer (or 'reconversion') of the potential energy of the turbulence to the kinetic energy of the turbulence, implying that this is not an essential feature of stratified-wake dynamics. The dependence upon Reynolds number of the duration of the wake-collapse period is demonstrated, and the effect of the details of the initial/near-field conditions of the wake on its subsequent development is examined.

  9. Interaction of Aircraft Wakes From Laterally Spaced Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    Large Eddy Simulations are used to examine wake interactions from aircraft on closely spaced parallel paths. Two sets of experiments are conducted, with the first set examining wake interactions out of ground effect (OGE) and the second set for in ground effect (IGE). The initial wake field for each aircraft represents a rolled-up wake vortex pair generated by a B-747. Parametric sets include wake interactions from aircraft pairs with lateral separations of 400, 500, 600, and 750 ft. The simulation of a wake from a single aircraft is used as baseline. The study shows that wake vortices from either a pair or a formation of B-747 s that fly with very close lateral spacing, last longer than those from an isolated B-747. For OGE, the inner vortices between the pair of aircraft, ascend, link and quickly dissipate, leaving the outer vortices to decay and descend slowly. For the IGE scenario, the inner vortices ascend and last longer, while the outer vortices decay from ground interaction at a rate similar to that expected from an isolated aircraft. Both OGE and IGE scenarios produce longer-lasting wakes for aircraft with separations less than 600 ft. The results are significant because concepts to increase airport capacity have been proposed that assume either aircraft formations and/or aircraft pairs landing on very closely spaced runways.

  10. Suppression of guidance force decay of HTS bulk exposed to AC magnetic field perturbation in a maglev vehicle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Longcai; Wang, Suyu; Wang, Jiasu

    2009-07-01

    Superconducting maglev vehicle was one of the most promising applications of HTS bulks. In such a system, the HTS bulks were always exposed to AC external magnetic field, which was generated by the inhomogeneous surface magnetic field of the NdFeB guideway. In our previous work, it was observed that the guidance force of the YBCO bulk over the NdFdB guideway used in the high-temperature superconducting maglev vehicle system was decayed by the application of the AC external magnetic field. In this paper, we adopted a method to suppress the decay by altering the field-cooled height of the bulk. From the experimental results, it was found that the decay rate of the guidance force was smaller at lower field-cooled height. So we could suppress the guidance force decay of HTS bulk exposed to AC external magnetic field perturbation in the maglev vehicle system by reducing the field-cooled height of the bulk. Furthermore, all the experimental results in this paper were explained based on Bean critical-state model.

  11. Speckle suppression via sparse representation for wide-field imaging through turbid media.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hwanchol; Yoon, Changhyeong; Chung, Euiheon; Choi, Wonshik; Lee, Heung-No

    2014-06-30

    Speckle suppression is one of the most important tasks in the image transmission through turbid media. Insufficient speckle suppression requires an additional procedure such as temporal ensemble averaging over multiple exposures. In this paper, we consider the image recovery process based on the so-called transmission matrix (TM) of turbid media for the image transmission through the media. We show that the speckle left unremoved in the TM-based image recovery can be suppressed effectively via sparse representation (SR). SR is a relatively new signal reconstruction framework which works well even for ill-conditioned problems. This is the first study to show the benefit of using the SR as compared to the phase conjugation (PC) a de facto standard method to date for TM-based imaging through turbid media including a live cell through tissue slice. PMID:24977910

  12. Particle Access and Charging Environments in the Lunar Wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Linda; Minow, Joseph; Singh, Nagendra; Araveti, Venkata S.; Venkiteswaran, Karthik

    2010-01-01

    A plasma wake a region of low density, high temperature plasma forms on the far side of the Moon when solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetotail plasma flows past the Moon [Manka, 1973; Ogilvie et al., 1996; Farrell et al., 1998; Halekas et al., 2005]. Ion populations in these flows typically have much smaller thermal velocity than bulk speed and are therefore excluded from the plasma wake while the large thermal electron velocity allows the lighter negatively charged particles to stream ahead of the ions into the wake. Charge separation due to electrons streaming ahead of the ions into the wake from the wake boundary establishes an ambipolar electric field which impedes the motion of electron flow and accelerates ions into the wake [Ogilvie et al., 1996; Farrell et al., 1997]. We have conducted a theoretical study of acceleration (and deceleration) of charged particles in lunar plasma environments, which investigated the mechanisms responsible for allowing solar wind entry into the lunar wake, and for producing energetic particle distributions observed within the lunar wake. To this end, the investigation utilized a macroscale 3D hybrid particle-in-cell numerical model of the interaction of the Moon with external plasma environments to compute electric fields in the lunar environment for a variety of external plasma conditions and interplanetary magnetic field orientations. Ion dynamics were attained from the hybrid code while electron dynamics were determined by considering electron test particle trajectories through the fields established in the hybrid code. Results from the code will be presented to evaluate charging environments within the lunar wake.

  13. 3D Field-Induced Transport and Plasma Response Leading to ELM Suppression in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. P.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Groebner, R. J.; Meneghini, O.; Nazikian, R.; Grierson, B. A.; Austin, M. E.; Callen, J. D.; Davis, E. M.; Moyer, R. A.; Rhodes, T. L.; Wang, G.; Zeng, L.

    2014-10-01

    A clear increase in trapped electron mode (TEM) scale density fluctuation levels ne is seen at the top of the pedestal as the plasma transitions from edge localized mode (ELM)ing to ELM suppression with applied 3D resonant fields. Additional increases in Te fluctuations and line-integrated ne at the top of the pedestal are seen as the 3D field strength is increased. High resolution Te and ne profile measurements near the top of the pedestal show strong transport scaling with the applied field (l /LTe , 1 /Lne ~Ic2) during ELM suppression. These latter results are consistent with the magnetic flutter model regulating transport at the top of the pedestal, possibly driven by kink mode coupling, however the former results support a 3D modification of microturbulence stability as the process by which ELMs are suppressed. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-FG03-97ER54415, DE-FG02-92ER54139, DE-FG02-94ER54235, DE-FG02-07ER44917, and DE-FG02-08ER54984.

  14. First Lunar Wake Passage of ARTEMIS: Discrimination of Wake Effects and Solar Wind Fluctuations by 3D Hybrid Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiehle, S.; Plaschke, F.; Motschmann, U.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Auster, H. U.; Angelopoulos, V.; Mueller, J.; Kriegel, H.; Georgescu, E.; Halekas, J.; Sibeck, D. G.; McFadden, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The spacecraft P1 of the new ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun) mission passed the lunar wake for the first time on February 13, 2010. We present magnetic field and plasma data of this event and results of 3D hybrid simulations. As the solar wind magnetic field was highly dynamic during the passage, a simulation with stationary solar wind input cannot distinguish whether distortions were caused by these solar wind variations or by the lunar wake; therefore, a dynamic real-time simulation of the flyby has been performed. The input values of this simulation are taken from NASA OMNI data and adapted to the P1 data, resulting in a good agreement between simulation and measurements. Combined with the stationary simulation showing non-transient lunar wake structures, a separation of solar wind and wake effects is achieved. An anisotropy in the magnitude of the plasma bulk flow velocity caused by a non-vanishing magnetic field component parallel to the solar wind flow and perturbations created by counterstreaming ions in the lunar wake are observed in data and simulations. The simulations help to interpret the data granting us the opportunity to examine the entire lunar plasma environment and, thus, extending the possibilities of measurements alone: A comparison of a simulation cross section to theoretical predictions of MHD wave propagation shows that all three basic MHD modes are present in the lunar wake and that their expansion governs the lunar wake refilling process.

  15. Statistical Study of the Lunar Plasma Wake Outer Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, W. F.; Brain, D. A.; Poppe, A.; Halekas, J. S.; McFadden, J. P.; Glassmeier, K.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Moon does not have an intrinsic magnetic field and lacks the conductivity necessary to develop an induced magnetosphere. Therefore, the interaction of the Moon with the solar wind is dominated by impact absorption of solar wind particles on the day side and the generation of a plasma wake on the night side. A plasma density gradient forms between the flowing solar wind and the plasma wake, causing solar wind plasma to gradually refill the wake region. Electrons fill the wake first, pulling ions in after them via ambi-polar diffusion. Despite the existence of comprehensive new plasma measurements of the lunar wake region, relatively little attention has been devoted to the shape and variability in location of its outer boundary. Improved knowledge of this boundary condition for the physical processes associated with wake refilling would provide useful tests for simulations and theoretical models of the lunar plasma interaction. The ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun) spacecraft mission is a two-probe lunar mission derived from the THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions During Substorms) mission, repurposed to study the lunar space and planetary environment. Over the course of the mission there have been numerous passes of the ARTEMIS spacecraft through the lunar wake, at distances of up to seven lunar radii from the Moon. They have occurred for a variety of external conditions. We present a statistical study of tens of selected wake-crossing events of the ARTEMIS probes in 2011, using data primarily from the ARTEMIS fluxgate magnetometers (FGMs) and electrostatic analyzers (ESAs) to identify when the spacecraft entered and exited the wake. We study the shape of the outer wake boundary and its response to external conditions using two different techniques: one defines the wake boundary by a sharp decrease in ion density, the other by a decrease in magnetic field magnitude. We investigate how the wake boundary changes in response to solar wind parameters such as plasma beta, ion velocity, ion temperature, and magnetic field cone and clock angles. These results are compared with earlier wake crossing studies and computational modeling.

  16. Molecular wake shield gas analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques for measuring and characterizing the ultrahigh vacuum in the wake of an orbiting spacecraft are studied. A high sensitivity mass spectrometer that contains a double mass analyzer consisting of an open source miniature magnetic sector field neutral gas analyzer and an identical ion analyzer is proposed. These are configured to detect and identify gas and ion species of hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, nitric oxide, and carbon dioxide and any other gas or ion species in the 1 to 46 amu mass range. This range covers the normal atmospheric constituents. The sensitivity of the instrument is sufficient to measure ambient gases and ion with a particle density of the order of one per cc. A chemical pump, or getter, is mounted near the entrance aperture of the neutral gas analyzer which integrates the absorption of ambient gases for a selectable period of time for subsequent release and analysis. The sensitivity is realizable for all but rare gases using this technique.

  17. Finite element modeling study of the suppression effect of external high magnetic field on the heat transfer of tungsten melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, S.; Jia, Y.; Gao, S.; Yuan, Y.; Li, C.; Lian, Y.; Liu, X.; Liu, W.

    2016-02-01

    Finite element modeling analysis has been employed to simulate the melt layer motion of tungsten and tungsten-based materials under high magnetic field. High heat flux of 2 GW m‑2 was loaded for 3 ms at 1000 K and provided a molten bath. Meanwhile, high magnetic field from 0 to 8 T was loaded during the simulation. Both positive and negative surface tension temperature coefficient was tested. The result shows that the convention forced by the surface tension is suppressed by the magnetic field. The high magnetic field performs as a resistance of the heat transfer, leading to a reduced molten bath. The magnetic field mitigates the melting behaviur of the tungsten materials.

  18. Short bunch wake potentials for a chain of TESLA cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novokhatski, Alexander; Mosnier, Alban

    2014-11-01

    The modification of wake fields from a single cavity to a quasi-periodic structure of cavities is of great concern, especially for applications using very short bunches. We extend our former study (Novokhatski, 1997 [1]). A strong modification of wake fields along a train of cavities was clearly found for bunch lengths lower than 1 mm. In particular, the wakes induced by the bunch, as it proceeds down the successive cavities, decrease in amplitude and become more linear around the bunch center, with a profile very close to the integral of the charge density. The loss factor, decreasing also with the number of cells, becomes independent of bunch length for very short bunches and tends asymptotically to a finite value. This nice behavior of wake fields for short bunches presents good opportunity for application of very short bunches in Linear Colliders and X-ray Free Electron Lasers.

  19. Evidence of Magnetic Breakdown on the Defects With Thermally Suppressed Critical Field in High Gradient SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Eremeev, Grigory; Palczewski, Ari

    2013-09-01

    At SRF 2011 we presented the study of quenches in high gradient SRF cavities with dual mode excitation technique. The data differed from measurements done in 80's that indicated thermal breakdown nature of quenches in SRF cavities. In this contribution we present analysis of the data that indicates that our recent data for high gradient quenches is consistent with the magnetic breakdown on the defects with thermally suppressed critical field. From the parametric fits derived within the model we estimate the critical breakdown fields.

  20. Interplay between Kondo suppression and Lifshitz transitions in YbRh2Si2 at high magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Pfau, H; Daou, R; Lausberg, S; Naren, H R; Brando, M; Friedemann, S; Wirth, S; Westerkamp, T; Stockert, U; Gegenwart, P; Krellner, C; Geibel, C; Zwicknagl, G; Steglich, F

    2013-06-21

    We investigate the magnetic field dependent thermopower, thermal conductivity, resistivity, and Hall effect in the heavy fermion metal YbRh2Si2. In contrast to reports on thermodynamic measurements, we find in total three transitions at high fields, rather than a single one at 10 T. Using the Mott formula together with renormalized band calculations, we identify Lifshitz transitions as their origin. The predictions of the calculations show that all experimental results rely on an interplay of a smooth suppression of the Kondo effect and the spin splitting of the flat hybridized bands. PMID:23829750

  1. Wake in faint television meteors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, M. C.; Hawkes, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    The two component dustball model was used in numerical lag computation. Detached grain lag is typically less than 2 km, with expected wakes of a few hundred meters. True wake in television meteors is masked by apparent wake due to the combined effects of image persistence and blooming. To partially circumvent this problem, we modified a dual MCP intensified CID video system by addition of a rotating shutter to reduce the effective exposure time to about 2.0 ms. Preliminary observations showed that only 2 of 27 analyzed meteors displayed statistically significant wake.

  2. Induction of Beet-Cyst Nematode Suppressiveness by the Fungi Dactylella oviparasitica and Fusarium oxysporum in Field Microplots.

    PubMed

    Olatinwo, Rabiu; Borneman, James; Becker, J Ole

    2006-08-01

    ABSTRACT The ability of Dactylella oviparasitica and Fusarium oxysporum to suppress Heterodera schachtii numbers was examined in field microplots. Fungi were individually added to fumigated field soil that was seeded with sugar beet. Four weeks later, soils were infested with H. schachtii second-stage juveniles (J2). At two harvests, 11 weeks and 19 weeks (1,469 and 2,547 degree days (base 8 degrees C), respectively) after nematode-infestation, H. schachtii cyst and egg numbers were assessed. At both time points, D. oviparasitica reduced H. schachtii population densities to those in the naturally suppressive soil, even when additional H. schachtii J2 were added to the microplots after the first harvest. Although F. oxy-sporum did not alter H. schachtii population densities after 11 weeks, significant reductions were detected after 19 weeks. The sustainability of the H. schachtii suppressiveness created by single applications of the fungi at the beginning of the microplot trials was further examined in a greenhouse study. Soil collected at the completion of the microplot trials was potted and seeded with sugar beet. Four weeks later, each pot was infested with H. schachtii J2. Approximately 16 weeks (1,389 degree days) after seeding, the D. oviparasitica-amended soil produced greater fresh root weights and considerably smaller nematode population densities than the nonamended control. PMID:18943750

  3. Noise generated by a propeller in a wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, P. J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Propeller performance and noise were measured on two model scale propellers operating in an anechoic flow environment with and without a wake. Wake thickness of one and three propeller chords were generated by an airfoil which spanned the full diameter of the propeller. Noise measurements were made in the relative near field of the propeller at three streamwise and three azimuthal positions. The data show that as much as 10 dB increase in the OASPL results when a wake is introduced into an operating propeller. Performance data are also presented for completeness.

  4. Wake Vortex Research in the USA (WakeNet-USA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Steve; Bryant, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the cooperative work that FAA and NASA are engaged in to safely increase the capacity of the National Airspace System by studying the wake vortex operations. Wake vortex avoidance is a limiting factor in defining separation standards in the airport terminal area and could become a reducing separation standards in en route airspace.

  5. Wake Measurements in ECN's Scaled Wind Farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenaar, J. W.; Schepers, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    In ECN's scaled wind farm the wake evolution is studied in two different situations. A single wake is studied at two different locations downstream of a turbine and a single wake is studied in conjunction with a triple wake. Here, the wake is characterized by the relative wind speed, the turbulence intensity, the vertical wind speed and the turbulence (an)isotropy. Per situation all wake measurements are taken simultaneously together with the inflow conditions.

  6. massive plasma refilling the lunar wake by Eath's bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaojun; Wong, Hon-Cheng; Ma, Yonghui

    2015-04-01

    By using measurements from the "Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun" (ARTEMIS) spacecraft, we report the first observations of massive plasma refilling the near lunar wake (< 1 lunar radius from the surface), which is associated with a quasi-perpendicular bow shock (BS) of the Earth at the dusk side. As expected, the shock was greatly broadened into a magnetic ramp in the lunar wake. However, a small magnetic bifurcation in the shock ramp has been amplified remarkably in the lunar wake. Meanwhile, the local wake density increased so intensively that it surprisingly reached up to the value comparable to that in the solar wind. The density enhancement in the lunar wake is well associated with the magnetic ramp. Pitch angle distributions show that the refilling electrons are perpendicular to and the ions are quasi-parallel to the magnetic field. They are unlikely to enter the lunar wake via any known ways, i.e., drift or gyration. Analysis shows that they are most probably injected by the drift motion due to the magnetic strength gradient within the ramp of the BS outside the lunar wake.

  7. Phantom for assessment of fat suppression in large field-of-view diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winfield, J. M.; Douglas, N. H. M.; deSouza, N. M.; Collins, D. J.

    2014-05-01

    We present the development and application of a phantom for assessment and optimization of fat suppression over a large field-of-view in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T and 3 T. A Perspex cylinder (inner diameter 185 mm, height 300 mm) which contains a second cylinder (inner diameter 140 mm) was constructed. The inner cylinder was filled with water doped with copper sulphate and sodium chloride and the annulus was filled with corn oil, which closely matches the spectrum and longitudinal relaxation times of subcutaneous abdominal fat. Placement of the phantom on the couch at 45° to the z-axis presented an elliptical cross-section, which was of a similar size and shape to axial abdominal images. The use of a phantom for optimization of fat suppression allowed quantitative comparison between studies without the differences introduced by variability between human subjects. We have demonstrated that the phantom is suitable for selection of inversion delay times, spectral adiabatic inversion recovery delays and assessment of combinatorial methods of fat suppression. The phantom is valuable in protocol development and the assessment of new techniques, particularly in multi-centre trials.

  8. Phantom for assessment of fat suppression in large field-of-view diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Winfield, J M; Douglas, N H M; deSouza, N M; Collins, D J

    2014-05-01

    We present the development and application of a phantom for assessment and optimization of fat suppression over a large field-of-view in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T and 3 T. A Perspex cylinder (inner diameter 185 mm, height 300 mm) which contains a second cylinder (inner diameter 140 mm) was constructed. The inner cylinder was filled with water doped with copper sulphate and sodium chloride and the annulus was filled with corn oil, which closely matches the spectrum and longitudinal relaxation times of subcutaneous abdominal fat. Placement of the phantom on the couch at 45° to the z-axis presented an elliptical cross-section, which was of a similar size and shape to axial abdominal images. The use of a phantom for optimization of fat suppression allowed quantitative comparison between studies without the differences introduced by variability between human subjects. We have demonstrated that the phantom is suitable for selection of inversion delay times, spectral adiabatic inversion recovery delays and assessment of combinatorial methods of fat suppression. The phantom is valuable in protocol development and the assessment of new techniques, particularly in multi-centre trials. PMID:24710825

  9. Chitin amendment increases soil suppressiveness toward plant pathogens and modulates the actinobacterial and oxalobacteraceal communities in an experimental agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Korthals, Gerard W; Visser, Johnny H M; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2013-09-01

    A long-term experiment on the effect of chitin addition to soil on the suppression of soilborne pathogens was set up and monitored for 8 years in an experimental field, Vredepeel, The Netherlands. Chitinous matter obtained from shrimps was added to soil top layers on two different occasions, and the suppressiveness of soil toward Verticillium dahliae, as well as plant-pathogenic nematodes, was assessed, in addition to analyses of the abundances and community structures of members of the soil microbiota. The data revealed that chitin amendment had raised the suppressiveness of soil, in particular toward Verticillium dahliae, 9 months after the (second) treatment, extending to 2 years following treatment. Moreover, major effects of the added chitin on the soil microbial communities were detected. First, shifts in both the abundances and structures of the chitin-treated soil microbial communities, both of total soil bacteria and fungi, were found. In addition, the abundances and structures of soil actinobacteria and the Oxalobacteraceae were affected by chitin. At the functional gene level, the abundance of specific (family-18 glycoside hydrolase) chitinase genes carried by the soil bacteria also revealed upshifts as a result of the added chitin. The effects of chitin noted for the Oxalobacteraceae were specifically related to significant upshifts in the abundances of the species Duganella violaceinigra and Massilia plicata. These effects of chitin persisted over the time of the experiment. PMID:23811512

  10. Observation of multipactor suppression in a dielectric-loaded accelerating structure using an applied axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, C.; Konecny, R.; Antipov, S.; High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 ; Chang, C.; Institute of Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 ; Gold, S. H.; Schoessow, P.; Kanareykin, A.; Gai, W.

    2013-11-18

    Efforts by a number of institutions to develop a Dielectric-Loaded Accelerating (DLA) structure capable of supporting high gradient acceleration when driven by an external radio frequency source have been ongoing over the past decade. Single surface resonant multipactor has been previously identified as one of the major limitations on the practical application of DLA structures in electron accelerators. In this paper, we report the results of an experiment that demonstrated suppression of multipactor growth in an X-band DLA structure through the use of an applied axial magnetic field. This represents an advance toward the practical use of DLA structures in many accelerator applications.

  11. A new methodology for free wake analysis using curved vortex elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, Donald B.; Teske, Milton E.; Quackenbush, Todd R.

    1987-01-01

    A method using curved vortex elements was developed for helicopter rotor free wake calculations. The Basic Curve Vortex Element (BCVE) is derived from the approximate Biot-Savart integration for a parabolic arc filament. When used in conjunction with a scheme to fit the elements along a vortex filament contour, this method has a significant advantage in overall accuracy and efficiency when compared to the traditional straight-line element approach. A theoretical and numerical analysis shows that free wake flows involving close interactions between filaments should utilize curved vortex elements in order to guarantee a consistent level of accuracy. The curved element method was implemented into a forward flight free wake analysis, featuring an adaptive far wake model that utilizes free wake information to extend the vortex filaments beyond the free wake regions. The curved vortex element free wake, coupled with this far wake model, exhibited rapid convergence, even in regions where the free wake and far wake turns are interlaced. Sample calculations are presented for tip vortex motion at various advance ratios for single and multiple blade rotors. Cross-flow plots reveal that the overall downstream wake flow resembles a trailing vortex pair. A preliminary assessment shows that the rotor downwash field is insensitive to element size, even for relatively large curved elements.

  12. WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST WITH PHOTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST WITH PHOTO SCALE CENTERED ON BUILDING (12/30/2008) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  13. An optically modulated zero-field atomic magnetometer with suppressed spin-exchange broadening

    SciTech Connect

    Jiménez-Martínez, R.; Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 ; Knappe, S.; Kitching, J.

    2014-04-15

    We demonstrate an optically pumped {sup 87}Rb magnetometer in a microfabricated vapor cell based on a zero-field dispersive resonance generated by optical modulation of the {sup 87}Rb ground state energy levels. The magnetometer is operated in the spin-exchange relaxation-free regime where high magnetic field sensitivities can be achieved. This device can be useful in applications requiring array-based magnetometers where radio frequency magnetic fields can induce cross-talk among adjacent sensors or affect the source of the magnetic field being measured.

  14. Thermal surface signatures of ship propeller wakes in stratified waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voropayev, S. I.; Nath, C.; Fernando, H. J. S.

    2012-11-01

    When a ship moves in temperature stratified water, e.g., in the ocean diurnal thermocline, the propeller(s) as well as the turbulent boundary layer of the hull mix the surface water with underlying colder fluid. As a result, when observed from above, a temperature "wake signature" of 1-2 C may be detected at the water surface. To quantify this phenomenon, theoretical modeling and physical experiments were conducted. The dominant processes responsible for thermal wake generation were identified and parameterized. Most important similarity parameters were derived and estimates for wake signature contrast were made. To verify model predictions, scaled experiments were conducted, with the water surface temperature measured using a sensitive infrared camera. Comparison of laboratory measurements with model estimates has shown satisfactory agreement, both qualitative and quantitatively. Estimates for ocean ship-wake scenarios are also given, which are supported by available field observations.

  15. Binocular Neurons in Parastriate Cortex: Interocular ‘Matching’ of Receptive Field Properties, Eye Dominance and Strength of Silent Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun; Dreher, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Spike-responses of single binocular neurons were recorded from a distinct part of primary visual cortex, the parastriate cortex (cytoarchitectonic area 18) of anaesthetized and immobilized domestic cats. Functional identification of neurons was based on the ratios of phase-variant (F1) component to the mean firing rate (F0) of their spike-responses to optimized (orientation, direction, spatial and temporal frequencies and size) sine-wave-luminance-modulated drifting grating patches presented separately via each eye. In over 95% of neurons, the interocular differences in the phase-sensitivities (differences in F1/F0 spike-response ratios) were small (≤0.3) and in over 80% of neurons, the interocular differences in preferred orientations were ≤10°. The interocular correlations of the direction selectivity indices and optimal spatial frequencies, like those of the phase sensitivies and optimal orientations, were also strong (coefficients of correlation r ≥0.7005). By contrast, the interocular correlations of the optimal temporal frequencies, the diameters of summation areas of the excitatory responses and suppression indices were weak (coefficients of correlation r ≤0.4585). In cells with high eye dominance indices (HEDI cells), the mean magnitudes of suppressions evoked by stimulation of silent, extra-classical receptive fields via the non-dominant eyes, were significantly greater than those when the stimuli were presented via the dominant eyes. We argue that the well documented ‘eye-origin specific’ segregation of the lateral geniculate inputs underpinning distinct eye dominance columns in primary visual cortices of mammals with frontally positioned eyes (distinct eye dominance columns), combined with significant interocular differences in the strength of silent suppressive fields, putatively contribute to binocular stereoscopic vision. PMID:24927276

  16. Suppression of a Field Population of Aedes aegypti in Brazil by Sustained Release of Transgenic Male Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Garziera, Luiza; Lacroix, Renaud; Donnelly, Christl A.; Alphey, Luke; Malavasi, Aldo; Capurro, Margareth L.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing burden of dengue, and the relative failure of traditional vector control programs highlight the need to develop new control methods. SIT using self-limiting genetic technology is one such promising method. A self-limiting strain of Aedes aegypti, OX513A, has already reached the stage of field evaluation. Sustained releases of OX513A Ae. aegypti males led to 80% suppression of a target wild Ae. aegypti population in the Cayman Islands in 2010. Here we describe sustained series of field releases of OX513A Ae. aegypti males in a suburb of Juazeiro, Bahia, Brazil. This study spanned over a year and reduced the local Ae. aegypti population by 95% (95% CI: 92.2%-97.5%) based on adult trap data and 81% (95% CI: 74.9-85.2%) based on ovitrap indices compared to the adjacent no-release control area. The mating competitiveness of the released males (0.031; 95% CI: 0.025-0.036) was similar to that estimated in the Cayman trials (0.059; 95% CI: 0.011 – 0.210), indicating that environmental and target-strain differences had little impact on the mating success of the OX513A males. We conclude that sustained release of OX513A males may be an effective and widely useful method for suppression of the key dengue vector Ae. aegypti. The observed level of suppression would likely be sufficient to prevent dengue epidemics in the locality tested and other areas with similar or lower transmission. PMID:26135160

  17. The transitional wake behind an inclined prolate spheroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Fengjian; Gallardo, José P.; Andersson, Helge I.; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2015-09-01

    The wake behind a 6:1 prolate spheroid at 45° incidence has been studied by means of direct numerical simulations (DNSs). The Reynolds number based on the minor axis of the spheroid was 3000 as compared to 1000 in our preceding study [Jiang et al., "The laminar wake behind a 6:1 prolate spheroid at 45° incidence angle," Phys. Fluids 26, 113602 (2014)]. The resulting wake is no longer laminar and the transitional wake is fundamentally unsteady and highly asymmetric from the very beginning. A substantial side force resulted from the asymmetric pressure field. No signs of vortex shedding could be observed. The forces and the flow field around the spheroid exhibited a dominant periodicity with a surprisingly low Strouhal number of 0.0733. One part of the counter-rotating vortex pair which dominated the near-wake broke down into small-scale vortices as soon as the vortex left the shadow behind the spheroid. The other part appeared as a helical vortex inside which the mechanical energy was conserved over a substantial length. The axial flow within this vortex tube experienced a sudden change from having maximum to minimum at the vortex center while maintaining the sign of the circulation. The severe asymmetry of the wake is ascribed to a global instability and may impact on submarine maneuverability.

  18. Bubbly wake of surface vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillé, François; Magnaudet, Jacques; Clanet, Christophe

    2006-11-01

    We study the length of the bubbly wake of surface vessels. This wake is important for the boat security since it can extend to several ship length and thus increases the detectability of the ship by torpedoes. The image analysis of the wake of real scale ships reveals the sensitivity of the length to propellers. We have thus conducted a systematic study in the laboratory of the interaction bubble/propeller, trying to address several questions:- what is the role of cavitation?- is the propeller able to attract the bubbles present along the ship at the sea surface?- if attracted, can these bubble be broken by the propeller?

  19. Mesoscale Simulation Data for Initializing Fast-Time Wake Transport and Decay Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Vanvalkenburg, Randal L.; Pruis, Mathew J.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    The fast-time wake transport and decay models require vertical profiles of crosswinds, potential temperature and the eddy dissipation rate as initial conditions. These inputs are normally obtained from various field sensors. In case of data-denied scenarios or operational use, these initial conditions can be provided by mesoscale model simulations. In this study, the vertical profiles of potential temperature from a mesoscale model were used as initial conditions for the fast-time wake models. The mesoscale model simulations were compared against available observations and the wake model predictions were compared with the Lidar measurements from three wake vortex field experiments.

  20. Suppression of Secondary Emission in a Magnetic Field Using a Sawtooth and Isosceles Triangle Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

    2006-09-26

    The effect of surface roughness on the secondary electron emission from a sawtooth and isosceles triangle surface in a magnetic field under electron bombardment is investigated using a Monte-Carlo method. Some of the secondary electrons emitted from the surface return to the surface within their first few gyrations, resulting in a low effective secondary electron yield. Both sawtooth and isosceles triangle surface in magnetic field can significantly reduce the secondary emission yield below the multipacting threshold with weak dependence on the size of surface and magnetic field.

  1. Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Arrivals (WTMA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel M.; Lohr, Gary W.; Trujillo, Anna C.

    2008-01-01

    The preliminary Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Arrivals (WTMA) concept of operations is described in this paper. The WTMA concept provides further detail to work initiated by the Wake Vortex Avoidance System Concept Evaluation Team and is an evolution of the Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Departure concept. Anticipated benefits about reducing wake turbulence separation standards in crosswind conditions, and candidate WTMA system considerations are discussed.

  2. Irregular sleep-wake syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Sleep-wake syndrome - irregular ... routine during the day. The amount of total sleep time is normal, but the body clock loses ... have a different condition, such as shift work sleep disorder or jet lag syndrome.

  3. Field Balancing and Harmonic Vibration Suppression in Rigid AMB-Rotor Systems with Rotor Imbalances and Sensor Runout.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangbo; Chen, Shao

    2015-01-01

    Harmonic vibrations of high-speed rotors in momentum exchange devices are primary disturbances for attitude control of spacecraft. Active magnetic bearings (AMBs), offering the ability to control the AMB-rotor dynamic behaviors, are preferred in high-precision and micro-vibration applications, such as high-solution Earth observation satellites. However, undesirable harmonic displacements, currents, and vibrations also occur in the AMB-rotor system owing to the mixed rotor imbalances and sensor runout. To compensate the rotor imbalances and to suppress the harmonic vibrations, two control methods are presented. Firstly, a four degrees-of-freedom AMB-rotor model with the static imbalance, dynamic imbalance, and the sensor runout are described. Next, a synchronous current reduction approach with a variable-phase notch feedback is proposed, so that the rotor imbalances can be identified on-line through the analysis of the synchronous displacement relationships of the geometric, inertial, and rotational axes of the rotor. Then, the identified rotor imbalances, which can be represented at two prescribed balancing planes of the rotor, are compensated by discrete add-on weights whose masses are calculated in the vector form. Finally, a repetitive control algorithm is utilized to suppress the residual harmonic vibrations. The proposed field balancing and harmonic vibration suppression strategies are verified by simulations and experiments performed on a control moment gyro test rig with a rigid AMB-rotor system. Compared with existing methods, the proposed strategies do not require trial weights or an accurate model of the AMB-rotor system. Moreover, the harmonic displacements, currents, and vibrations can be well-attenuated simultaneously. PMID:26334281

  4. Field Balancing and Harmonic Vibration Suppression in Rigid AMB-Rotor Systems with Rotor Imbalances and Sensor Runout

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiangbo; Chen, Shao

    2015-01-01

    Harmonic vibrations of high-speed rotors in momentum exchange devices are primary disturbances for attitude control of spacecraft. Active magnetic bearings (AMBs), offering the ability to control the AMB-rotor dynamic behaviors, are preferred in high-precision and micro-vibration applications, such as high-solution Earth observation satellites. However, undesirable harmonic displacements, currents, and vibrations also occur in the AMB-rotor system owing to the mixed rotor imbalances and sensor runout. To compensate the rotor imbalances and to suppress the harmonic vibrations, two control methods are presented. Firstly, a four degrees-of-freedom AMB-rotor model with the static imbalance, dynamic imbalance, and the sensor runout are described. Next, a synchronous current reduction approach with a variable-phase notch feedback is proposed, so that the rotor imbalances can be identified on-line through the analysis of the synchronous displacement relationships of the geometric, inertial, and rotational axes of the rotor. Then, the identified rotor imbalances, which can be represented at two prescribed balancing planes of the rotor, are compensated by discrete add-on weights whose masses are calculated in the vector form. Finally, a repetitive control algorithm is utilized to suppress the residual harmonic vibrations. The proposed field balancing and harmonic vibration suppression strategies are verified by simulations and experiments performed on a control moment gyro test rig with a rigid AMB-rotor system. Compared with existing methods, the proposed strategies do not require trial weights or an accurate model of the AMB-rotor system. Moreover, the harmonic displacements, currents, and vibrations can be well-attenuated simultaneously. PMID:26334281

  5. Suppression of the n=2 rotational instability in field-reversed configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Alan L.; Slough, J.; Harding, Dennis G.

    1983-06-01

    Compact toroid plasmas formed in field-reversed theta pinches are generally destroyed after 30-50 ?sec by a rotating n=2 instability. In the reported experiment, instability is controlled, and the plasma destruction is avoided in the TRX-1 theta pinch through the application of octopole magnetic fields. The decay times for loss of poloidal flux and particles are unaffected by the octopole fields. These decay times are about 100 ?sec based on inferences from interferometry and excluded flux measurements. The weak, rotating elliptical disturbance (controlled n=2 mode) also made possible a novel determination of the density profile near the separatrix using single-chord interferometry. The local density gradient scale length in this region is found to be about one ion gyrodiameter.

  6. Contrail formation in aircraft wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoli, Roberto; Hlie, Jerome; Poinsot, Thierry

    2004-03-01

    The process of the formation and early evolution of a condensation trail (contrail) in the near field of an aircraft wake was numerically studied by means of a mixed Eulerian/Lagrangian two-phase flow approach. Large-eddy simulations were used for the carrier phase, while, for the dispersed phase, a Lagrangian particle tracking method was used, coupled with a microphysics model to account for ice nucleation. The basic configuration was an exhaust engine jet loaded with soot particles and water vapour and interacting with a wing-tip trailing vortex. The thermodynamic conditions for contrail formation were identified by tracking the spatial distribution of supersaturation around particles. A strong mass coupling between the two phases was demonstrated by the simulations: the condensation of water vapour over soot particles, induced by exhaust dispersion into cold ambient air, leads to the formation of ice crystals whose size grows until thermodynamic equilibrium between the two phases is reached. Finally, local vapour depletion causes significant deviation from the classical mixing line theory and is also responsible for polydispersion of particle radii.

  7. Suppressing the Folding of Flowing Viscous Jets Using an Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Tiantian; Liu, Zhou; Wang, Liqiu; Shum, Ho Cheung

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we study the folding and unfolding of flowing viscous jets by imposing an electric field. We demonstrate that a folded viscous jet can be induced to unfold through jet widening in a sufficiently strong electric field. The folded jets unfold above a critical slenderness, which increases as the jet capillary number increases. Our systematic elucidation of the mechanisms behind the controlled folding has important implications on processes such as nozzle designs for industrial applications that rely on the manipulation of high-speed viscous jets, including liquid dispensing, printing, and food processing.

  8. Mach-like capillary-gravity wakes.

    PubMed

    Moisy, Frdric; Rabaud, Marc

    2014-08-01

    We determine experimentally the angle ? of maximum wave amplitude in the far-field wake behind a vertical surface-piercing cylinder translated at constant velocity U for Bond numbers Bo(D)=D/?(c) ranging between 0.1 and 4.2, where D is the cylinder diameter and ?(c) the capillary length. In all cases the wake angle is found to follow a Mach-like law at large velocity, ??U(-1), but with different prefactors depending on the value of Bo(D). For small Bo(D) (large capillary effects), the wake angle approximately follows the law ??c(g,min)/U, where c(g,min) is the minimum group velocity of capillary-gravity waves. For larger Bo(D) (weak capillary effects), we recover a law ???[gD]/U similar to that found for ship wakes at large velocity [Rabaud and Moisy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 214503 (2013)]. Using the general property of dispersive waves that the characteristic wavelength of the wave packet emitted by a disturbance is of order of the disturbance size, we propose a simple model that describes the transition between these two Mach-like regimes as the Bond number is varied. We show that the new capillary law ??c(g,min)/U originates from the presence of a capillary cusp angle (distinct from the usual gravity cusp angle), along which the energy radiated by the disturbance accumulates for Bond numbers of order of unity. This model, complemented by numerical simulations of the surface elevation induced by a moving Gaussian pressure disturbance, is in qualitative agreement with experimental measurements. PMID:25215822

  9. Mach-like capillary-gravity wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisy, Frdric; Rabaud, Marc

    2014-08-01

    We determine experimentally the angle ? of maximum wave amplitude in the far-field wake behind a vertical surface-piercing cylinder translated at constant velocity U for Bond numbers BoD=D/?c ranging between 0.1 and 4.2, where D is the cylinder diameter and ?c the capillary length. In all cases the wake angle is found to follow a Mach-like law at large velocity, ? U-1, but with different prefactors depending on the value of BoD. For small BoD (large capillary effects), the wake angle approximately follows the law ? ?cg ,min/U, where cg ,min is the minimum group velocity of capillary-gravity waves. For larger BoD (weak capillary effects), we recover a law ? ?gD /U similar to that found for ship wakes at large velocity [Rabaud and Moisy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 214503 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.214503]. Using the general property of dispersive waves that the characteristic wavelength of the wave packet emitted by a disturbance is of order of the disturbance size, we propose a simple model that describes the transition between these two Mach-like regimes as the Bond number is varied. We show that the new capillary law ? ?cg ,min/U originates from the presence of a capillary cusp angle (distinct from the usual gravity cusp angle), along which the energy radiated by the disturbance accumulates for Bond numbers of order of unity. This model, complemented by numerical simulations of the surface elevation induced by a moving Gaussian pressure disturbance, is in qualitative agreement with experimental measurements.

  10. Wind Turbine Wake Experiment - Wieringermeer (WINTWEX-W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumer, Valerie; Reuder, Joachim; Svardal, Benny; Eecen, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Wind Turbine Wake Experiment - Wieringermeer (WINTWEX-W) is a cooperative wake measurement campaign conducted by the Norwegian Centre of Offshore Wind Energy (Norcowe) and the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN). A scanning, four static Windcubes as well as a downstream looking nacelle LiDAR are placed for half a year downstream of one of five research wind turbines in ECNs' wind turbine test farm Wieringermeer. In order to capture wake characteristics under different weather conditions a 60° sector for three different elevations and two vertical cross-sections are scanned every minute with additional wind profile information every second at 2, 5 and 12 rotor diameter distances. Another static Windcube, a forward-looking nacelle LiDAR and three Sonics are placed upstream to measure the undisturbed approaching flow field. During the campaign several scanning algorithms are tested to capture most wake features. The aim of the campaign is a qualitative and quantitative description of single wind turbine wake evolution, propagation and persistency, as well as to improve CFD wake models by delivering a detailed data set of several real atmospheric conditions.

  11. Nodal metastasis in cervical cancer occurs in clearly delineated fields of immune suppression in the pelvic lymph catchment area

    PubMed Central

    Heeren, A. Marijne; de Boer, Eline; Bleeker, Maaike C.G.; Musters, René J.P.; Buist, Marrije R.; Kenter, Gemma G.; de Gruijl, Tanja D.; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.

    2015-01-01

    In cervical cancer, high frequencies of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and immunosuppressive PD-L1+CD14+ antigen-presenting cells dominate the microenvironment of tumor-positive lymph nodes (LN+). It is unknown whether this is restricted to LN+ or precedes metastasis, emanating from the primary tumor and spreading through tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs). To investigate immunosuppression in the lymphatic basin of cervical tumors, all dissected TDLNs of five cervical cancer patients (in total 9 LN+ and 74 tumor-negative lymph nodes (LN−)) were analyzed for FoxP3+ Tregs, CD8+ T cells, HLA-DR+- and PD-L1+ myeloid cells by immunohistochemistry. Tregs and PD-L1+ cells were found to form an immunosuppressive cordon around metastatic tumor cells. Importantly, whereas high HLA-DR+- and PD-L1+ cell rates were strongly associated with LN+, elevated Treg levels and decreased CD8+ T cell/Treg ratios were found similar in LN+ and adjacent LN−, as compared to LN− at more distant anatomical localizations. These data suggest that delineated fields of Treg-associated immune suppression in anatomically co-localized TDLNs enable metastasis by creating metastatic niches. This may be of importance for decision-making regarding (surgical) intervention in cervical cancer. Future efforts should include the implementation of immunotherapeutic regimens to overcome this immune suppression, establish loco-regional control and halt systemic tumor spread. PMID:26431490

  12. Wake potentials of the ILC Interaction Region

    SciTech Connect

    Novokhatski, A.; /SLAC

    2011-08-16

    The vacuum chamber of the ILC Interaction Region (IR) is optimized for best detector performance. It has special shaping to minimize additional backgrounds due to the metal part of the chamber. Also, for the same reason this thin vacuum chamber does not have water cooling. Therefore, small amounts of power, which may be deposited in the chamber, can be enough to raise the chamber to a high temperature. One of the sources of 'heating' power is the electromagnetic field of the beam. This field diffracts by non-regularities of the beam pipe and excites free-propagating fields, which are then absorbed by the pipe wall. In addition we have a heating power of the image currents due to finite conductivity of the metallic wall. We will discuss these effects as updating the previous results. The conclusions of this report are: (1) The amount of the beam energy loss in IR is almost equal to the energy loss in one ILC (TESLA) accelerating cryo-module; (2) Addition energy spread at IR is very small; (3) Spectrum of the wake fields is limited 300 GHz; (4) Average power of the wake fields excited in IR is 30 W for nominal ILC parameters; and (5) Pulse power in this case is 6 kilowatts.

  13. Wakes and differential charging of large bodies in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    Highlights of earlier results using the Inside-Out WAKE code on wake structures of LEO spacecraft are reviewed. For conducting bodies of radius large compared with the Debye length, a high Mach number wake develops a negative potential well. Quasineutrality is violated in the very near wake region, and the wake is relatively empty for a distance downstream of about one half of a Mach number of radii. There is also a suggestion of a core of high density along the axis. A comparison of rigorous numerical solutions with in situ wake data from the AE-C satellite suggests that the so called neutral approximation for ions (straight line trajectories, independent of fields) may be a reasonable approximation except near the center of the near wake. This approximation is adopted for very large bodies. Work concerned with the wake point potential of very large nonconducting bodies such as the shuttle orbiter is described. Using a cylindrical model for bodies of this size or larger in LEO (body radius up to 10 to the 5th power Debye lengths), approximate solutions are presented based on the neutral approximation (but with rigorous trajectory calculations for surface current balance). There is a negative potential well if the body is conducting, and no well if the body is nonconducting. In the latter case the wake surface itself becomes highly negative. The wake point potential is governed by the ion drift energy.

  14. Suppressing Multi-Channel Ultra-Low-Field MRI Measurement Noise Using Data Consistency and Image Sparsity

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Vesanen, Panu T.; Hsu, Yi-Cheng; Nieminen, Jaakko O.; Zevenhoven, Koos C. J.; Dabek, Juhani; Parkkonen, Lauri T.; Simola, Juha; Ahonen, Antti I.; Ilmoniemi, Risto J.

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-low-field (ULF) MRI (B0?=?10100 T) typically suffers from a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). While SNR can be improved by pre-polarization and signal detection using highly sensitive superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors, we propose to use the inter-dependency of the k-space data from highly parallel detection with up to tens of sensors readily available in the ULF MRI in order to suppress the noise. Furthermore, the prior information that an image can be sparsely represented can be integrated with this data consistency constraint to further improve the SNR. Simulations and experimental data using 47 SQUID sensors demonstrate the effectiveness of this data consistency constraint and sparsity prior in ULF-MRI reconstruction. PMID:23626710

  15. Large-Eddy Simulations of Wind Turbine Wakes Subject to Different Atmospheric Stabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchfield, M.; Lundquist, J. K.; Lee, S.; Clifton, A.

    2014-12-01

    As a byproduct of energy extraction, wind turbines create a low-speed, turbulent wake that propagate downwind. When wind turbines are situated in a group, as in a wind plant, the interactions of these wakes with other turbines are important because wake effects decrease the efficiency of the wind plant, and they increase mechanical loads on individual turbines. Wakes propagate downstream differently depending on the inflow conditions, and these conditions are heavily dominated by atmospheric stability. For example, we know that wakes are more persistent in stable conditions than in unstable conditions. Also, stable conditions often have significant wind veer which skews wakes laterally. Different levels of turbulence intensity are associated with different atmospheric stability levels, and turbulence intensity acts to diffuse wakes and to cause wake meandering. Wake physics are complex, and to understand them better, a high-resolution representation of the flow is necessary. Measurements are difficult with current sensing equipment because of the sheer size of wakes and the unsteady atmospheric environment in which they are found. Numerical simulations complement measurements and provide a high-resolution representation of the entire three-dimensional, unsteady flow field. In this work, we use large-eddy simulation (LES), the highest fidelity type of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) feasible for high-Reynolds-number wake flow. LES directly resolves the larger, energy-containing turbulent scales and models the effects of the subgrid scales that the computational mesh cannot resolve. Our solver is based on the OpenFOAM open-source CFD toolbox. Turbines are modeled using rotating actuator lines. Here, we present our LES of the wake behind a modern 1.5 MW turbine subject to different inflow atmospheric stability. We will present results of wakes subject to stable (strongly and weakly stable), neutral, and unstable conditions. We are particularly interested in how stability affects wake recovery, wake skewing, and wake meandering. Figure 1 shows horizontal slices of instantaneous contours of vorticity magnitude in the computed wake of a turbine subject to weakly stable atmospheric inflow. A multi-resolution mesh is used with the finest region of 1.25 m resolution surrounding the turbine and the wake.

  16. Symmetry-suppressed two-photon transitions induced by hyperfine interactions and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, M. G.; English, D.; Budker, D.

    2009-10-01

    Two-photon transitions between atomic states of total electronic angular-momentum Ja=0 and Jb=1 are forbidden when the photons are of the same energy. This selection rule is analogous to the Landau-Yang theorem in particle physics that forbids decays of vector particle into two photons. It arises because it is impossible to construct a total angular-momentum J2?=1 quantum-mechanical state of two photons that is permutation symmetric, as required by Bose-Einstein statistics. In atoms with nonzero nuclear spin, the selection rule can be violated due to hyperfine interactions. Two distinct mechanisms responsible for the hyperfine-induced two-photon transitions are identified, and the hyperfine structure of the induced transitions is evaluated. The selection rule is also relaxed, even for zero-nuclear-spin atoms, by application of an external magnetic field. Once again, there are two similar mechanisms at play: Zeeman splitting of the intermediate-state sublevels, and off-diagonal mixing of states with different total electronic angular momentum in the final state. The present theoretical treatment is relevant to the ongoing experimental search for a possible Bose-Einstein-statistics violation using two-photon transitions in barium, where the hyperfine-induced transitions have been recently observed, and the magnetic-field-induced transitions are being considered both as a possible systematic effect, and as a way to calibrate the measurement.

  17. Observations of current sheets associated with solar wind reconnection exhausts passing through the near lunar wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaojun; Wong, Hon-Cheng; Ma, Yonghui; Wang, Yi; Zuo, Pingbing; Zhou, Meng; Deng, Xiaohua

    2015-11-01

    Two reconnection exhausts were detected by one of the dual ARTEMIS orbiters in the solar wind near the Moon. Almost meanwhile, the other ARTEMIS orbiter encountered the two corresponding current sheets at the relatively marginal and central locations in the near lunar wake. Due to the Moon's direct absorption, the current density of the current sheet disappears within the wake. As a result, the wake magnetic field around the current sheets is changed. It is found that the variations of the magnetic field in the wake are primarily governed by two factors: diamagnetic current system at the wake boundary and the dropout of M direction currents (jM) within the wake. Instead of being almost unaltered as commonly assumed in the study of lunar wake, the magnetic field of the current sheets becomes potential with almost zero current density. With respect to the solar wind magnetic field, this potential magnetic field is weaker in the center and has an X line-like configuration with significant normal components in the marginal portions of the wake. Our result may be applicable to nonconducting or weakly conducting contexts widely existing in the universe.

  18. An experimental investigation of bending wave instability modes in a generic four-vortex wake

    SciTech Connect

    Babie, Brian M.; Nelson, Robert C.

    2010-07-15

    An experimental study of a planar wake consisting of four vortices that simulate the trailing vortex wakes generated by transport airplanes in either takeoff or landing configurations is presented. The objective of this study was to examine naturally occurring wake instabilities. Specifically, the focus of the study was centered on bending wave instabilities of which the Crow instability represents a particular case. A unique method of generating a four-vortex wake was developed for this study. The four-vortex wake generating device permitted direct variation of the spacing between vortices as well as control over the vortex circulation strength. Two quantitative flow visualization experiments were instrumental in identifying wake configurations that were conducive to the rapid growth of bending wave modes and in the identification of the long-wavelength mode. Detailed experiments were also conducted to examine the flow structure in the near-field or roll-up region using a four sensor, hot-wire probe that could measure all three velocity components in the wake simultaneously. The results of both the flow visualization and hot-wire experiments indicate that the long-wavelength mode and the first short-wavelength mode likely dominate the far-field wake physics and may potentially be utilized in a wake control strategy.

  19. Distributed control in a mean-field cortical network model: Implications for seizure suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, ShiNung; Brown, Emery N.; Kramer, Mark A.

    2012-08-01

    Brain electrical stimulation (BES) has long been suggested as a means of controlling pathological brain activity. In epilepsy, control of a spatially localized source, the seizure focus, may normalize neuronal dynamics. Consequently, most BES research has been directed at controlling small, local, neuronal populations. At a higher level, pathological seizure activity can be viewed as a network event that may begin without a clear spatial focus or in multiple sites and spread rapidly through a distributed cortical network. In this paper, we begin to address the implications of local control in a network scenario. To do so, we explore the efficacy of local BES when deployed over a larger-scale neuronal network, for instance, using a grid of stimulating electrodes on the cortex. By introducing a mean-field model of neuronal interactions we are able to identify limitations in network controllability based on physiological constraints that suggest the need for more nuanced network control strategies.

  20. The Computer Code NOVO for the Calculation of Wake Potentials of the Very Short Ultra-relativistic Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC

    2005-12-01

    The problem of electromagnetic interaction of a beam and accelerator elements is very important for linear colliders, electron-positron factories, and free electron lasers. Precise calculation of wake fields is required for beam dynamics study in these machines. We describe a method which allows computation of wake fields of the very short bunches. Computer code NOVO was developed based on this method. This method is free of unphysical solutions like ''self-acceleration'' of a bunch head, which is common to well known wake field codes. Code NOVO was used for the wake fields study for many accelerator projects all over the world.

  1. A Study of Wake Development and Structure in Constant Pressure Gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, R. C.; Liu, Xiaofeng

    2000-01-01

    Motivated by the application to high-lift aerodynamics for commercial transport aircraft, a systematic investigation into the response of symmetric/asymmetric planar turbulent wake development to constant adverse, zero, and favorable pressure gradients has been conducted. The experiments are performed at a Reynolds number of 2.4 million based on the chord of the wake generator. A unique feature of this wake study is that the pressure gradients imposed on the wake flow field are held constant. The experimental measurements involve both conventional LDV and hot wire flow field surveys of mean and turbulent quantities including the turbulent kinetic energy budget. In addition, similarity analysis and numerical simulation have also been conducted for this wake study. A focus of the research has been to isolate the effects of both pressure gradient and initial wake asymmetry on the wake development. Experimental results reveal that the pressure gradient has a tremendous influence on the wake development, despite the relatively modest pressure gradients imposed. For a given pressure gradient, the development of an initially asymmetric wake is different from the initially symmetric wake. An explicit similarity solution for the shape parameters of the symmetric wake is obtained and agrees with the experimental results. The turbulent kinetic energy budget measurements of the symmetric wake demonstrate that except for the convection term, the imposed pressure gradient does not change the fundamental flow physics of turbulent kinetic energy transport. Based on the turbulent kinetic energy budget measurements, an approach to correct the bias error associated with the notoriously difficult dissipation estimate is proposed and validated through the comparison of the experimental estimate with a direct numerical simulation result.

  2. Suppression of magnetic levitation force in melt-textured YBa2Cu3O7-x superconductors by a transverse AC magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnev, I. A.; Ermolaev, Yu S.

    2008-02-01

    We have studied experimentally the influence of transverse ac magnetic fields on the levitation force arising between a permanent NdFeB magnet and a bulk melt-textured HTSC YBCO superconducting sample. The axes of superconducting disc and cylindrical magnet were coinciding while the transverse ac magnetic field generated by resistive coil was directed parallel to surface of a disc i.e., perpendicular to the disc axis. We found that application of both impulse and alternative transverse magnetic fields results in suppression of the value of levitation force and its relaxation rate. Namely, the variable magnetic field with amplitude 12 mT, that approximately in 20 times is less than field of a constant magnet, causes suppression of force more than twice. Monotonous behavior of value of levitation force reduction with the increase in transverse magnetic field amplitude was observed. The possible origin of observed phenomenon is discussed.

  3. Strongly Nonlinear Effect in Unstable Wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinska, B. J.; Goujon-Durand, S.; Dus?ek, J.; Wesfreid, J. E.

    1997-11-01

    We perform experiments and numerical simulations on the mean streamwise velocity field of an unstable cylinder wake. We show that the mean velocity exhibits two weak secondary minima as the consequence of nonlinear interactions, resulting in a strong mean flow correction of the unstable mode. This correction, dominating the basic flow, governs the decrease in the length of the recirculation region ?Lr in the supercritical regime. This explains the early classical observations of M. Nishioka and H. Sato [J. Fluid Mech. 89, 49 (1978)].

  4. Echo characteristic analysis of the nonequilibrium wakes of reentry vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiayu, Niu

    1992-01-01

    The article makes use of a method to calculate the flow fields of pure air nonequilibrium reentry vehicle wakes. It analyzes the effects of wake plasma body fields on radar wave frequencies. In conjunction with this, it takes a step further in calculations of radar scattering cross sections under several types of elevation conditions. It explains several important factors influencing cross section size and distribution. Analyses and calculations clearly show that, after taking the Reynolds number, which is verified with the diameter of the bottom section or base of the object and environmental parameters, and arriving at turning point or transition values in fully developed turbulent flow wakes, it is possible to show the appearance of the phenomenon of abrupt increase in scattering cross sections.

  5. The computation of induced drag with nonplanar and deformed wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroo, Ilan; Smith, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    The classical calculation of inviscid drag, based on far field flow properties, is reexamined with particular attention to the nonlinear effects of wake roll-up. Based on a detailed look at nonlinear, inviscid flow theory, it is concluded that many of the classical, linear results are more general than might have been expected. Departures from the linear theory are identified and design implications are discussed. Results include the following: Wake deformation has little effect on the induced drag of a single element wing, but introduces first order corrections to the induced drag of a multi-element lifting system. Far field Trefftz-plane analysis may be used to estimate the induced drag of lifting systems, even when wake roll-up is considered, but numerical difficulties arise. The implications of several other approximations made in lifting line theory are evaluated by comparison with more refined analyses.

  6. Kirchhoff's Integral Representation and a Cavity Wake Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    A method is proposed for the calculation of the short-range wake field potentials of an ultra-relativistic bunch passing near some irregularities in a beam pipe. The method is based on the space-time domain integration of Maxwell's equations using Kirchhoff's formulation. We demonstrate this method on two cases where we obtain the wake potentials for the energy loss of a bunch traversing an iris-collimator in a beam pipe and for a cavity. Likewise, formulas are derived for Green's functions that describe the transverse force action of wake fields. Simple formulas for the total energy loss of a bunch with a Gaussian charge density distribution are derived as well. The derived estimates are compared with computer results and predictions of other models.

  7. Spin-dependent and photon-assisted transmission enhancement and suppression in a magnetic-field tunable ZnSe/Zn1-xMnxSe heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Lei; Yuan, Rui-Yang; Guo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Using the effective-mass approximation and Floquet theory, we theoretically investigate the terahertz photon-assisted transport through a ZnSe/Zn1-xMnxSe heterostructure under an external magnetic field, an electric field, and a spatially homogeneous oscillatory field. The results show that both amplitude and frequency of the oscillatory field can accurately manipulate the magnitude of the spin-dependent transmission probability and the positions of the Fano-type resonance due to photon absorption and emission processes. Transmission resonances can be enhanced to optimal resonances or drastically suppressed for spin-down electrons tunneling through the heterostructure and for spin-up ones tunneling through the same structure, resonances can also be enhanced or suppressed, but the intensity is less than the spin-down ones. Furthermore, it is important to note that transmission suppression can be clearly seen from both the spin-down component and the spin-up component of the current density at low magnetic field; at the larger magnetic field, however, the spin-down component is suppressed, and the spin-up component is enhanced. These interesting properties may provide an alternative method to develop multi-parameter modulation electron-polarized devices.

  8. Normal Component of Induced Velocity for Entire Field of a Uniformly Loaded Lifting Rotor with Highly Swept Wake as Determined by Electromagnetic Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castles, Walter, Jr.; Durham, Howard L., Jr.; Kevorkian, Jirair

    1959-01-01

    Values of the normal component of induced velocity throughout the entire field of a uniformly loaded r(rotor at high high speed are presented in the form of charts and tables. Many points were found by an electromagnetic analog, details of which are given. Comparisons of computed and analog values for the induced velocity indicate that the latter are sufficiently accurate for engineering purposes.

  9. Suppression of Amblyomma americanum (Ixodida: Ixodidae) for short-term field operations utilizing cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Tony H; Richardson, Alec G; Hoel, David F; Mejeoumov, Tracy; Farooq, Mohammad; Stoops, Craig A

    2014-05-01

    Tick-borne diseases pose significant risks to U.S. military personnel who conduct operations, both domestic and abroad. To determine the feasibility of protecting personnel from tick vectors during short-term field deployments, acaricides cypermethrin (Demon WP, Syngenta, Greensboro, NC) and lambda-cyhalothrin (Surrender Pestabs, CSI, Pasadena, TX) were applied to plots within two separate field sites on Camp Blanding Joint Training Center in Starke, FL, from May to June 2011. We analyzed their effectiveness in reducing tick counts for 6 wk after application. In total, 8,193 ticks were identified and counted, of which > 99% were a mix of nymphs and adult-stage Amblyomma americanum (L.). Our results indicate that both cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin were effective in significantly reducing tick numbers and preventing entry into treated plots for 6 wk after application. Thus, these two acaracides can be used to effectively suppress tick populations and provide residual protection in small geographic areas of recreation or public health significance. PMID:24897866

  10. Canopy wake measurements using multiple scanning wind LiDARs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markfort, Corey D.; Carbajo Fuertes, Fernando; Valerio Iungo, Giacomo; Stefan, Heinz; Port-Agel, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Canopy wakes have been shown, in controlled wind tunnel experiments, to significantly affect the fluxes of momentum, heat and other scalars at the land and water surface over distances of ~O(1 km), see Markfort et al. (EFM, 2013). However, there are currently no measurements of the velocity field downwind of a full-scale forest canopy. Point-based anemometer measurements of wake turbulence provide limited insight into the extent and details of the wake structure, whereas scanning Doppler wind LiDARs can provide information on how the wake evolves in space and varies over time. For the first time, we present measurements of the velocity field in the wake of a tall patch of forest canopy. The patch consists of two uniform rows of 35-meter tall deciduous, plane trees, which border either side of the Alle de Dorigny, near the EPFL campus. The canopy is approximately 250 m long, and it is 35 m wide, along the direction of the wind. A challenge faced while making field measurements is that the wind rarely intersects a canopy normal to the edge. The resulting wake flow may be deflected relative to the mean inflow. Using multiple LiDARs, we measure the evolution of the wake due to an oblique wind blowing over the canopy. One LiDAR is positioned directly downwind of the canopy to measure the flow along the mean wind direction and the other is positioned near the canopy to evaluate the transversal component of the wind and how it varies with downwind distance from the canopy. Preliminary results show that the open trunk space near the base of the canopy results in a surface jet that can be detected just downwind of the canopy and farther downwind dissipates as it mixes with the wake flow above. A time-varying recirculation zone can be detected by the periodic reversal of the velocity vector near the surface, downwind of the canopy. The implications of canopy wakes for measurement and modeling of surface fluxes will be discussed.

  11. Canopy wake measurements using multiple scanning wind LiDARs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markfort, C. D.; Carbajo Fuertes, F.; Iungo, V.; Stefan, H. G.; Porte-Agel, F.

    2014-12-01

    Canopy wakes have been shown, in controlled wind tunnel experiments, to significantly affect the fluxes of momentum, heat and other scalars at the land and water surface over distances of O(1 km), see Markfort et al. (EFM, 2013). However, there are currently no measurements of the velocity field downwind of a full-scale forest canopy. Point-based anemometer measurements of wake turbulence provide limited insight into the extent and details of the wake structure, whereas scanning Doppler wind LiDARs can provide information on how the wake evolves in space and varies over time. For the first time, we present measurements of the velocity field in the wake of a tall patch of forest canopy. The patch consists of two uniform rows of 40-meter tall deciduous, plane trees, which border either side of the Alle de Dorigny, near the EPFL campus. The canopy is approximately 250 m long, and it is approximately 40 m wide, along the direction of the wind. A challenge faced while making field measurements is that the wind rarely intersects a canopy normal to the edge. The resulting wake flow may be deflected relative to the mean inflow. Using multiple LiDARs, we measure the evolution of the wake due to an oblique wind blowing over the canopy. One LiDAR is positioned directly downwind of the canopy to measure the flow along the mean wind direction and the other is positioned near the canopy to evaluate the transversal component of the wind and how it varies with downwind distance from the canopy. Preliminary results show that the open trunk space near the base of the canopy results in a surface jet that can be detected just downwind of the canopy and farther downwind dissipates as it mixes with the wake flow above. A time-varying recirculation zone can be detected by the periodic reversal of the velocity near the surface, downwind of the canopy. The implications of canopy wakes for measurement and modeling of surface fluxes will be discussed.

  12. Suppressing feedback in a distributed video coding system by employing real field codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louw, Daniel J.; Kaneko, Haruhiko

    2013-12-01

    Single-view distributed video coding (DVC) is a video compression method that allows for the computational complexity of the system to be shifted from the encoder to the decoder. The reduced encoding complexity makes DVC attractive for use in systems where processing power or energy use at the encoder is constrained, for example, in wireless devices and surveillance systems. One of the biggest challenges in implementing DVC systems is that the required rate must be known at the encoder. The conventional approach is to use a feedback channel from the decoder to control the rate. Feedback channels introduce their own difficulties such as increased latency and buffering requirements, which makes the resultant system unsuitable for some applications. Alternative approaches, which do not employ feedback, suffer from either increased encoder complexity due to performing motion estimation at the encoder, or an inaccurate rate estimate. Inaccurate rate estimates can result in a reduced average rate-distortion performance, as well as unpleasant visual artifacts. In this paper, the authors propose a single-view DVC system that does not require a feedback channel. The consequences of inaccuracies in the rate estimate are addressed by using codes defined over the real field and a decoder employing successive refinement. The result is a codec with performance that is comparable to that of a feedback-based system at low rates without the use of motion estimation at the encoder or a feedback path. The disadvantage of the approach is a reduction in average rate-distortion performance in the high-rate regime for sequences with significant motion.

  13. Formation and Recovery of Cold Wake during Typhoon Fanapi (2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Jin, H.; Black, P. G.; Chen, S.; Doyle, J.; O'Neill, L. W.

    2012-12-01

    Cold anomaly of sea surface temperature (SST) is often created after the passage of a moving hurricane or typhoon. The SST reduction within these cold anomalies or cold wakes may reach 2C to 4C. The cold wakes may have important impact on the development of a tropical cyclone due to their control on the surface energy fluxes. This work is aimed at understanding the evolution of cold wake and its impacts on the boundary layers on both sides of the air-sea interface. During 2010 typhoon season, coupled Naval Research Laboratory COAMPS-Tropical Cyclone was used to provide real-time forecasts for ITOP (Impact of Typhoons on the Ocean in the Pacific) field experiment. Typhoon Fanapi started as a tropical depression on September 14, and turned into a Category 4 typhoon on September 18. Along its passage, Typhoon Fanapi produced a large area of cold wake, leading to about 2 degree C reductions in SST. The coupled COAMPS-TC realistically predicted the cold wake formation and recovery as well as the typhoon's track and intensity in general. We use combined coupled COAMPS-TC prediction and observation data collected during the ITOP IOP to investigate the characteristics of the cold wake evolution, evolution of atmospheric as well as oceanic boundary layers. The cold wake was predicted by the model on the right hand side of the storm track; it is driven by the strong shear mixing in the ocean mixed layer. The predicted maximum SST reduction within the wake is 2.5 C, a value very close to the AXBT and satellite observations. Because of this decrease in SST, a stable atmospheric boundary layer is formed, leading to decreases in the surface wind speed, sensible and latent heat fluxes. The predicted warming rate in the cold wake recovery process is comparable with the satellite observation, even though diurnal signal is much more significant in the model prediction. An important question is what determines the recovery time scale. Given the similar solar warming rate between the cold wake and undisturbed environment, this time scale should depend on the differences in the surface turbulence and longwave radiative fluxes and the depth of the ocean surface layer. Currently, we are investigating this issue by analyzing surface energy budget from observation data and model results.

  14. Coherent Pulsed Lidar Sensing of Wake Vortex Position and Strength, Winds and Turbulence in the Terminal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockman, Philip; Barker, Ben C., Jr.; Koch, Grady J.; Nguyen, Dung Phu Chi; Britt, Charles L., Jr.; Petros, Mulugeta

    1999-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has field tested a 2.0 gm, 100 Hertz, pulsed coherent lidar to detect and characterize wake vortices and to measure atmospheric winds and turbulence. The quantification of aircraft wake-vortex hazards is being addressed by the Wake Vortex Lidar (WVL) Project as part of Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS), which is under the Reduced Spacing Operations Element of the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program. These hazards currently set the minimum, fixed separation distance between two aircraft and affect the number of takeoff and landing operations on a single runway under Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). The AVOSS concept seeks to safely reduce aircraft separation distances, when weather conditions permit, to increase the operational capacity of major airports. The current NASA wake-vortex research efforts focus on developing and validating wake vortex encounter models, wake decay and advection models, and wake sensing technologies. These technologies will be incorporated into an automated AVOSS that can properly select safe separation distances for different weather conditions, based on the aircraft pair and predicted/measured vortex behavior. The sensor subsystem efforts focus on developing and validating wake sensing technologies. The lidar system has been field-tested to provide real-time wake vortex trajectory and strength data to AVOSS for wake prediction verification. Wake vortices, atmospheric winds, and turbulence products have been generated from processing the lidar data collected during deployments to Norfolk (ORF), John F. Kennedy (JFK), and Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) International Airports.

  15. Tomographic particle image velocimetry of desert locust wakes: instantaneous volumes combine to reveal hidden vortex elements and rapid wake deformation.

    PubMed

    Bomphrey, Richard J; Henningsson, Per; Michaelis, Dirk; Hollis, David

    2012-12-01

    Aerodynamic structures generated by animals in flight are unstable and complex. Recent progress in quantitative flow visualization has advanced our understanding of animal aerodynamics, but measurements have hitherto been limited to flow velocities at a plane through the wake. We applied an emergent, high-speed, volumetric fluid imaging technique (tomographic particle image velocimetry) to examine segments of the wake of desert locusts, capturing fully three-dimensional instantaneous flow fields. We used those flow fields to characterize the aerodynamic footprint in unprecedented detail and revealed previously unseen wake elements that would have gone undetected by two-dimensional or stereo-imaging technology. Vortex iso-surface topographies show the spatio-temporal signature of aerodynamic force generation manifest in the wake of locusts, and expose the extent to which animal wakes can deform, potentially leading to unreliable calculations of lift and thrust when using conventional diagnostic methods. We discuss implications for experimental design and analysis as volumetric flow imaging becomes more widespread. PMID:22977102

  16. Numerical study on wake characteristics of high-speed trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Shuan-Bao; Sun, Zhen-Xu; Guo, Di-Long; Chen, Da-Wei; Yang, Guo-Wei

    2013-12-01

    Intensive turbulence exists in the wakes of high speed trains, and the aerodynamic performance of the trailing car could deteriorate rapidly due to complicated features of the vortices in the wake zone. As a result, the safety and amenity of high speed trains would face a great challenge. This paper considers mainly the mechanism of vortex formation and evolution in the train flow field. A real CRH2 model is studied, with a leading car, a middle car and a trailing car included. Different running speeds and cross wind conditions are considered, and the approaches of unsteady Reynold-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and detached eddy simulation (DES) are utilized, respectively. Results reveal that DES has better capability of capturing small eddies compared to URANS. However, for large eddies, the effects of two approaches are almost the same. In conditions without cross winds, two large vortex streets stretch from the train nose and interact strongly with each other in the wake zone. With the reinforcement of the ground, a complicated wake vortex system generates and becomes strengthened as the running speed increases. However, the locations of flow separations on the train surface and the separation mechanism keep unchanged. In conditions with cross winds, three large vortices develop along the leeward side of the train, among which the weakest one has no obvious influence on the wake flow while the other two stretch to the tail of the train and combine with the helical vortices in the train wake. Thus, optimization of the aerodynamic performance of the trailing car should be aiming at reducing the intensity of the wake vortex system.

  17. Numerical study on wake characteristics of high-speed trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Shuan-Bao; Sun, Zhen-Xu; Guo, Di-Long; Chen, Da-Wei; Yang, Guo-Wei

    2013-11-01

    Intensive turbulence exists in the wakes of high speed trains, and the aerodynamic performance of the trailing car could deteriorate rapidly due to complicated features of the vortices in the wake zone. As a result, the safety and amenity of high speed trains would face a great challenge. This paper considers mainly the mechanism of vortex formation and evolution in the train flow field. A real CRH2 model is studied, with a leading car, a middle car and a trailing car included. Different running speeds and cross wind conditions are considered, and the approaches of unsteady Reynold-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and detached eddy simulation (DES) are utilized, respectively. Results reveal that DES has better capability of capturing small eddies compared to URANS. However, for large eddies, the effects of two approaches are almost the same. In conditions without cross winds, two large vortex streets stretch from the train nose and interact strongly with each other in the wake zone. With the reinforcement of the ground, a complicated wake vortex system generates and becomes strengthened as the running speed increases. However, the locations of flow separations on the train surface and the separation mechanism keep unchanged. In conditions with cross winds, three large vortices develop along the leeward side of the train, among which the weakest one has no obvious influence on the wake flow while the other two stretch to the tail of the train and combine with the helical vortices in the train wake. Thus, optimization of the aerodynamic performance of the trailing car should be aiming at reducing the intensity of the wake vortex system.

  18. Wakes in Inertial Fusion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Ian Norman

    Plasma wave wakes, which are the collective oscillatory response near the plasma frequency to the propagation of particles or electromagnetic waves through a plasma, play a critical role in many plasma processes. New results from backwards stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS), in which wakes with phase velocities much less than the speed of light are induced by the beating of counter-propagating light waves, and from electron beam stopping, in which the wakes are produced by the motion of relativistically propagating electrons through the dense plasma, are discussed. Both processes play important roles in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). In BSRS, laser light is scattered backwards out of the plasma, decreasing the energy available to compress the ICF capsule and affecting the symmetry of where the laser energy hits the hohlraum wall in indirect drive ICF. The plasma wave wake can also generate superthermal electrons that can preheat the core and/or the ablator. Electron beam stopping plays a critical role in the Fast Ignition (FI) ICF concept, in which a beam of relativistic electrons is used to heat the target core to ignition temperatures after the compression stage. The beam stopping power determines the effectiveness of the heating process. This dissertation covers new discoveries on the importance of plasma wave wakes in both BSRS and electron beam stopping. In the SRS studies, 1D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations using OSIRIS are performed, which model a short-duration (500/?0 --1FWHM) counter-propagating scattered light seed pulse in the presence of a constant pump laser with an intensity far below the absolute instability threshold for plasma waves undergoing Landau damping. The seed undergoes linear convective Raman amplification and dominates over the amplification of fluctuations due to particle discreteness. The simulation results are in good agreement with results from a coupled-mode solver when special relativity and the effects of finite size PIC simulation particles are accounted for. Linear gain spectra including both effects are discussed. Extending the PIC simulations past when the seed exits the simulation domain reveals bursts of large-amplitude scattering in many cases, which do not occur in simulations without the seed pulse. These bursts can have amplitudes several times greater than the amplified seed pulse, and an examination of the orbits of particles trapped in the wake illustrates that the bursts are caused by a reduction of Landau damping due to particle trapping. This large-amplitude scattering is caused by the seed inducing a wake earlier in the simulation, thus modifying the distribution function. Performing simulations with longer duration seeds leads to parts of the seeds reaching amplitudes several times more than the steady-state linear theory results, similarly caused by a reduction of Landau damping. Simulations with continuous seeds demonstrate that the onset of inflation depends on the seed wavelength and incident intensity, and oscillations in the reflectivity are observed at a frequency equal to the difference between the seed frequency and the frequency at which the inflationary SRS grows. In the electron beam stopping studies, 3D PIC simulations are performed of relativistic electrons with a momentum of 10mec propagating in a cold FI core plasma. Some of the simulations use one simulation particle per real particle, and particle sizes much smaller than the interparitcle spacing. The wake made by a single electron is compared against that calculated using cold fluid theory assuming the phase velocity of the wake is near the speed of light. The results agree for the first wavelength of the wake. However, the shape of the wake changes for succeeding wavelengths and depends on the background plasma temperature, with the concavity pointing in the direction the electron is moving in cold plasmas and in the opposite direction as the plasma temperature increases. In the warm plasma the curvature is described by electrostatic Vlasov theory (for vparticle >> vth) and is due

  19. Comparing offshore wind farm wake observed from satellite SAR and wake model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bay Hasager, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    Offshore winds can be observed from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In the FP7 EERA DTOC project, the European Energy Research Alliance project on Design Tools for Offshore Wind Farm Clusters, there is focus on mid- to far-field wind farm wakes. The more wind farms are constructed nearby other wind farms, the more is the potential loss in annual energy production in all neighboring wind farms due to wind farm cluster effects. It is of course dependent upon the prevailing wind directions and wind speed levels, the distance between the wind farms, the wind turbine sizes and spacing. Some knowledge is available within wind farm arrays and in the near-field from various investigations. There are 58 offshore wind farms in the Northern European seas grid connected and in operation. Several of those are spaced near each other. There are several twin wind farms in operation including Nysted-1 and Rødsand-2 in the Baltic Sea, and Horns Rev 1 and Horns Rev 2, Egmond aan Zee and Prinses Amalia, and Thompton 1 and Thompton 2 all in the North Sea. There are ambitious plans of constructing numerous wind farms - great clusters of offshore wind farms. Current investigation of offshore wind farms includes mapping from high-resolution satellite SAR of several of the offshore wind farms in operation in the North Sea. Around 20 images with wind farm wake cases have been retrieved and processed. The data are from the Canadian RADARSAT-1/-2 satellites. These observe in microwave C-band and have been used for ocean surface wind retrieval during several years. The satellite wind maps are valid at 10 m above sea level. The wakes are identified in the raw images as darker areas downwind of the wind farms. In the SAR-based wind maps the wake deficit is found as areas of lower winds downwind of the wind farms compared to parallel undisturbed flow in the flow direction. The wind direction is clearly visible from lee effects and wind streaks in the images. The wind farm wake cases are modeled by various types of wake models. In the EERA DTOC project the model suite consists of engineering models (Ainslie, DWM, GLC, PARK, WASP/NOJ), simplified CFD models (FUGA, FarmFlow), full CFD models (CRES-flowNS, RANS), mesoscale model (SKIRON, WRF) and coupled meso-scale and microscale models. The comparison analysis between the satellite wind wake and model results will be presented and discussed. It is first time a comprehensive analysis is performed on this subject. The topic gains increasing importance because there is a growing need to precisely model also mid- and far-field wind farms wakes for development and planning of offshore wind farm clusters.

  20. The Role of Mesopontine NGF in Sleep and Wakefulness

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Oscar V.; Torterolo, Pablo; Lim, Vincent; Chase, Michael H.; Sampogna, Sharon; Yamuy, Jack

    2011-01-01

    The microinjection of nerve growth factor (NGF) into the cat pontine tegmentum rapidly induces rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. To determine if NGF is involved in naturally-occurring REM sleep, we examined whether it is present in mesopontine cholinergic structures that promote the initiation of REM sleep, and whether the blockade of NGF production in these structures suppresses REM sleep. We found that cholinergic neurons in the cat dorsolateral mesopontine tegmentum exhibited NGF-like immunoreactivity. In addition, the microinjection of an oligodeoxyribonucleotide (OD) directed against cat NGF mRNA into this region resulted in a reduction in the time spent in REM sleep in conjunction with an increase in the time spent in wakefulness. Sleep and wakefulness returned to baseline conditions 2 to 5 days after antisense OD administration. The preceding antisense OD-induced effects occurred in conjunction with the suppression of NGF-like immunoreactivity within the site of antisense OD injection. These data support the hypothesis that NGF is involved in the modulation of naturally-occurring sleep and wakefulness. PMID:21840513

  1. Measuring bubbles in a bubbly wake flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Kawakami, Ellison; Arndt, Roger E. A.

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents measurements of the velocity and size distribution of bubbles in a bubbly wake. This was carried out by utilizing particle shadow velocimetry (PSV). This technique is a non-scattering approach that relies on direct in-line volume illumination by a pulsed source such as a light-emitting diode (LED). A narrow depth-of-field (DoF) is required for imaging a 2-dimensional plane within a flow volume. Shadows of the bubbles were collected by a high-speed camera. Once a reference image, taken when no bubbles were present in the flow, was subtracted from the images, the image was segmented using an edge detection technique. The Canny algorithm was determined to be best suited for this application. A curvature profile method was employed to distinguish individual bubbles within a cluster of highly overlapping bubbles. The utilized algorithm was made to detect partly overlapping bubbles and reconstruct the missing parts. The movement of recognized individual bubbles was tracked on a two dimensional plane within a flow volume. In order to obtain quantitative results, the wake of a ventilated hydrofoil was investigated by applying the shadowgraphy technique and the described bubble detection algorithm. These experiments were carried out in the high speed cavitation tunnel at Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL) of the University of Minnesota. This research is jointly sponsored by the Office of Naval Re- search, Dr. Ron Joslin, program manager, and the Department of Energy, Golden Field Office.

  2. Numerical simulation of supersonic wake flow with parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.C.; Soetrisno, M.

    1995-07-01

    Simulating a supersonic wake flow field behind a conical body is a computing intensive task. It requires a large number of computational cells to capture the dominant flow physics and a robust numerical algorithm to obtain a reliable solution. High performance parallel computers with unique distributed processing and data storage capability can provide this need. They have larger computational memory and faster computing time than conventional vector computers. We apply the PINCA Navier-Stokes code to simulate a wind-tunnel supersonic wake experiment on Intel Gamma, Intel Paragon, and IBM SP2 parallel computers. These simulations are performed to study the mean flow in the near wake region of a sharp, 7-degree half-angle, adiabatic cone at Mach number 4.3 and freestream Reynolds number of 40,600. Overall the numerical solutions capture the general features of the hypersonic laminar wake flow and compare favorably with the wind tunnel data. With a refined and clustering grid distribution in the recirculation zone, the calculated location of the rear stagnation point is consistent with the 2D axisymmetric and 3D experiments. In this study, we also demonstrate the importance of having a large local memory capacity within a computer node and the effective utilization of the number of computer nodes to achieve good parallel performance when simulating a complex, large-scale wake flow problem.

  3. Analytical model of rotor wake aerodynamics in ground effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saberi, H. A.

    1983-01-01

    The model and the computer program developed provides the velocity, location, and circulation of the tip vortices of a two-blade helicopter in and out of the ground effect. Comparison of the theoretical results with some experimental measurements for the location of the wake indicate that there is excellent accuracy in the vicinity of the rotor and fair amount of accuracy far from it. Having the location of the wake at all times enables us to compute the history of the velocity and the location of any point in the flow. The main goal of out study, induced velocity at the rotor, can also be calculated in addition to stream lines and streak lines. Since the wake location close to the rotor is known more accurately than at other places, the calculated induced velocity over the disc should be a good estimate of the real induced velocity, with the exception of the blade location, because each blade was replaced only by a vortex line. Because no experimental measurements of the wake close to the ground were available to us, quantitative evaluation of the theoretical wake was not possible. But qualitatively we have been able to show excellent agreement. Comparison of flow visualization with out results has indicated the location of the ground vortex is estimated excellently. Also the flow field in hover is well represented.

  4. Contrail Formation in Aircraft Wakes Using Large-Eddy Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paoli, R.; Helie, J.; Poinsot, T. J.; Ghosal, S.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we analyze the issue of the formation of condensation trails ("contrails") in the near-field of an aircraft wake. The basic configuration consists in an exhaust engine jet interacting with a wing-tip training vortex. The procedure adopted relies on a mixed Eulerian/Lagrangian two-phase flow approach; a simple micro-physics model for ice growth has been used to couple ice and vapor phases. Large eddy simulations have carried out at a realistic flight Reynolds number to evaluate the effects of turbulent mixing and wake vortex dynamics on ice-growth characteristics and vapor thermodynamic properties.

  5. NASA Langley Research Center Wake Vortex Research Supporting VAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutishauser, David

    2002-01-01

    NASA researchers have designed a system to predict aircraft wake turbulence on final approach, so airliners can be spaced more safely and efficiently. This technology, known as the Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS), demonstrates an integration of technologies that provides weather-dependent dynamic aircraft spacing for wake avoidance in a real-time relevant environment. AVOSS was successfully demonstrated at Dallas Fort-Worth Airport in July 2000. The demonstration represented the culmination of 6 years of field-testing, data collection, and development.

  6. Cooling Signs in Wake Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    More than a year after dismantling a student-assignment policy based on socioeconomic diversity and setting off a wave of reaction that drew national attention, the Wake County, North Carolina, school board took a step that may turn down the temperature of the intense debate. The board, which has been deeply split on an assignment plan for the

  7. CONTROL OF SLEEP AND WAKEFULNESS

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ritchie E.; Basheer, Radhika; McKenna, James T.; Strecker, Robert E.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the brain mechanisms controlling sleep and wakefulness. Wakefulness promoting systems cause low-voltage, fast activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Multiple interacting neurotransmitter systems in the brain stem, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain converge onto common effector systems in the thalamus and cortex. Sleep results from the inhibition of wake-promoting systems by homeostatic sleep factors such as adenosine and nitric oxide and GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, resulting in large-amplitude, slow EEG oscillations. Local, activity-dependent factors modulate the amplitude and frequency of cortical slow oscillations. Non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep results in conservation of brain energy and facilitates memory consolidation through the modulation of synaptic weights. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep results from the interaction of brain stem cholinergic, aminergic, and GABAergic neurons which control the activity of glutamatergic reticular formation neurons leading to REM sleep phenomena such as muscle atonia, REMs, dreaming, and cortical activation. Strong activation of limbic regions during REM sleep suggests a role in regulation of emotion. Genetic studies suggest that brain mechanisms controlling waking and NREM sleep are strongly conserved throughout evolution, underscoring their enormous importance for brain function. Sleep disruption interferes with the normal restorative functions of NREM and REM sleep, resulting in disruptions of breathing and cardiovascular function, changes in emotional reactivity, and cognitive impairments in attention, memory, and decision making. PMID:22811426

  8. A digital photography and analysis system for estimation of root and shoot development in rice weed suppression studies in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice germplasm with an inherent ability to suppress weeds can potentially improve the economics and sustainability of weed control in rice. We devised a simple, rapid, and inexpensive digital imaging system to quantify several shoot and root growth characteristics in field-grown rice plants that ha...

  9. Formulations of the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape and improve plant vigor in field trials conducted at separate locations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in The Peoples Republic of China. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen in field trials conducted at two independent locations....

  10. Recent results about fan noise: Its generation, radiation and suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiler, C. E.

    Fan noise including its generation, radiation characteristics, and suppression by acoustic treatment is studied. In fan noise generation, results from engine and fan experiments, using inflow control measures to suppress noise sources related to inflow distortion and turbulence, are described. The suppression of sources related to inflow allows the experiments to focus on the fan or engine internal sources. Some of the experiments incorporated pressure sensors on the fan blades to sample the flow disturbances encountered by the blades. From these data some inferences can be drawn about the origins of the disturbances. Also, hot wire measurements of a fan rotor wake field are presented and related to the fan's noise signature. The radiation and the suppression of fan noise are dependent on the acoustic modes generated by the fan. Fan noise suppression and radiation is described by relating these phenomena to the mode cutoff ratio parameter. In addition to its utility in acoustic treatment design and performance prediction, cutoff ratio was useful in developing a simple description of the radiation pattern for broadband fan noise. Some of the findings using the cutoff ratio parameter are presented.

  11. Study of a Wake Recovery Mechanism in a High-Speed Axial Compressor Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale E.

    1998-01-01

    This work addresses the significant differences in compressor rotor wake mixing loss which exist in a stage environment relative to a rotor in isolation. The wake decay for a rotor in isolation is due solely to viscous dissipation which is an irreversible process and thus leads to a loss in both total pressure and efficiency. Rotor wake decay in the stage environment is due to both viscous mixing and the inviscid strain imposed on the wake fluid particles by the stator velocity field. This straining process, referred to by Smith (1993) as recovery, is reversible and for a 2D rotor wake leads to an inviscid reduction of the velocity deficit of the wake. A model for the rotor wake decay process is developed and used to quantify the viscous dissipation effects relative to those of inviscid wake stretching. The model is verified using laser anemometer measurements acquired in the wake of a transonic rotor operated in isolation and in a stage configuration at near peak efficiency and near stall operating conditions. Additional insight is provided by a time-accurate 3D Navier-Stokes simulation of the compressor stator flow field at the corresponding stage loading levels. Results from the wake decay model exhibit good agreement with the experimental data. Data from the model, laser anemometer measurements, and numerical simulations indicate that for the rotor/stator spacing used in this work, which is typical of core compressors, rotor wake straining (stretching) is the primary decay process in the stator passage with viscous mixing playing only a minor role. The implications of these results on compressor stage design are discussed.

  12. Selective activation of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons induces immediate sleep-wake transitions.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong; Shi, Yu-feng; Xi, Wang; Zhou, Rui; Tan, Zhi-bing; Wang, Hao; Li, Xiao-ming; Chen, Zhong; Feng, Guoping; Luo, Minmin; Huang, Zhi-li; Duan, Shumin; Yu, Yan-qin

    2014-03-17

    The basal forebrain (BF) plays a crucial role in cortical activation [1, 2]. However, the exact role of cholinergic BF (ch-BF) neurons in the sleep-wake cycle remains unclear [3, 4]. We demonstrated that photostimulation of ch-BF neurons genetically targeted with channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2) was sufficient to induce an immediate transition to waking or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep from slow-wave sleep (SWS). Light stimulation was most likely to induce behavioral arousal during SWS, but not during REM sleep, a result in contrast to the previously reported photostimulation of noradrenergic or hypocretin neurons that induces wake transitions from both SWS and REM sleep. Furthermore, the ratio of light-induced transitions from SWS to wakefulness or to REM sleep did not significantly differ from that of natural transitions, suggesting that activation of ch-BF neurons facilitates the transition from SWS but does not change the direction of the transition. Excitation of ch-BF neurons during wakefulness or REM sleep sustained the cortical activation. Stimulation of these neurons for 1 hr induced a delayed increase in the duration of wakefulness in the subsequent inactive period. Our results suggest that activation of ch-BF neurons alone is sufficient to suppress SWS and promote wakefulness and REM sleep. PMID:24613308

  13. Reexamining X-mode suppression and fine structure in artificial E region field-aligned plasma density irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miceli, R. J.; Hysell, D. L.; Munk, J.; McCarrick, M.; Huba, J. D.

    2013-09-01

    Artificial field-aligned plasma density irregularities (FAIs) were generated in the E region of the ionosphere above the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program facility during campaigns in May and August of 2012 and observed using a 30 MHz coherent scatter radar imager in Homer, Alaska. The purpose of this ionospheric modification experiment was to measure the threshold pump power required to excite thermal parametric instabilities by O-mode heating and to investigate the suppression of the FAIs by simultaneous X-mode heating. We find that the threshold pump power for irregularity excitation was consistent with theoretical predictions and increased by approximately a factor of 2 when X-mode heating was present. A modified version of the Another Model of the Ionosphere (SAMI2) ionospheric model was used to simulate the threshold experiments and suggested that the increase was entirely due to enhanced D region absorption associated with X-mode heating. Additionally, a remarkable degree of fine structure possibly caused by natural gradient drift instability in the heater-modified volume was observed in experiments performed during geomagnetically active conditions.

  14. Stark interaction of identical particles with the vacuum electromagnetic field as quantum Poisson process suppressing collective spontaneous emission

    SciTech Connect

    Basharov, A. M.

    2011-07-15

    The effective Hamiltonian describing resonant interaction of an ensemble of identical quantum particles with a photon-free vacuum electromagnetic field has been obtained with allowance for terms of second order in the coupling constant (the Stark interaction) by means of the perturbation theory on the basis of the unitary transformation of the system quantum state. It has been shown that in the Markov approximation the effective Hamiltonian terms of first order in the coupling constant are represented by the quantum Wiener process, whereas terms of second order are expressed by the quantum Poisson process. During the course of the investigation, it was established that the Stark interaction played a significant role in the ensemble dynamics, thus influencing the collective spontaneous decay of the ensemble of an appreciably high number of identical particles. Fundamental effects have been discovered, i.e., the excitation conservation in a sufficiently dense ensemble of identical particles and superradiance suppression in the collective decaying process of an excited ensemble with a determined number of particles.

  15. An Improved Wake Vortex Tracking Algorithm for Multiple Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Switzer, George F.; Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.

    2010-01-01

    The accurate tracking of vortex evolution from Large Eddy Simulation (LES) data is a complex and computationally intensive problem. The vortex tracking requires the analysis of very large three-dimensional and time-varying datasets. The complexity of the problem is further compounded by the fact that these vortices are embedded in a background turbulence field, and they may interact with the ground surface. Another level of complication can arise, if vortices from multiple aircrafts are simulated. This paper presents a new technique for post-processing LES data to obtain wake vortex tracks and wake intensities. The new approach isolates vortices by defining "regions of interest" (ROI) around each vortex and has the ability to identify vortex pairs from multiple aircraft. The paper describes the new methodology for tracking wake vortices and presents application of the technique for single and multiple aircraft.

  16. Recent NASA Wake-Vortex Flight Tests, Flow-Physics Database and Wake-Development Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.; Vijgen, Paul M.; Reimer, Heidi M.; Gallegos, Joey L.; Spalart, Philippe R.

    1998-01-01

    A series of flight tests over the ocean of a four engine turboprop airplane in the cruise configuration have provided a data set for improved understanding of wake vortex physics and atmospheric interaction. An integrated database has been compiled for wake characterization and validation of wake-vortex computational models. This paper describes the wake-vortex flight tests, the data processing, the database development and access, and results obtained from preliminary wake-characterization analysis using the data sets.

  17. ASRS Reports on Wake Vortex Encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda J.; Taube, Elisa Ann; Drew, Charles Robert; Barclay, Tommy Earl

    2010-01-01

    ASRS is conducting a structured callback research project of wake vortex incidents reported to the ASRS at all US airports, as well as wake encounters in the enroute environment. This study has three objectives: (1) Utilize the established ASRS supplemental data collection methodology and provide ongoing analysis of wake vortex encounter reports; (2) Document event dynamics and contributing factors underlying wake vortex encounter events; and (3) Support ongoing FAA efforts to address pre-emptive wake vortex risk reduction by utilizing ASRS reporting contributions.

  18. Wake shed by an accelerating carangiform fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Shang-Chieh; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2008-11-01

    We reveal an important fact that momentum change observed in the wake of an accelerating carangiform fish does not necessarily elucidate orientations of propulsive forces produced. An accelerating Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) was found to shed a wake with net forward fluid momentum, which seemed drag-producing. Based on Newton's law, however, an accelerating fish is expected to shed a thrust wake with net rearward fluid momentum, rather than a drag wake. The unusual wake pattern observed is considered to be resulted primarily from the effect of pressure gradient created by accelerating movements of the fish. Ambient fluids tend to be sucked into low pressure zones behind an accelerating fish, resulting in forward orientations of jets recognizable in the wake. Accordingly, as to an accelerating fish, identifying force orientations from the wake requires considering also the effect of pressure gradient.

  19. Brain mechanisms that control sleep and waking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Jerome

    This review paper presents a brief historical survey of the technological and early research that laid the groundwork for recent advances in sleep-waking research. A major advance in this field occurred shortly after the end of World War II with the discovery of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) as the neural source in the brain stem of the waking state. Subsequent research showed that the brain stem activating system produced cortical arousal via two pathways: a dorsal route through the thalamus and a ventral route through the hypothalamus and basal forebrain. The nuclei, pathways, and neurotransmitters that comprise the multiple components of these arousal systems are described. Sleep is now recognized as being composed of two very different states: rapid eye movements (REMs) sleep and non-REM sleep. The major findings on the neural mechanisms that control these two sleep states are presented. This review ends with a discussion of two current views on the function of sleep: to maintain the integrity of the immune system and to enhance memory consolidation.

  20. Dynamics of wake structure in clapping propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daegyoum; Gharib, Morteza

    2009-11-01

    Some animals such as insects and frogs use a pair of symmetric flaps for locomotion. In some cases, these flappers operate in close proximity or even touch each other. In order to understand the underlying physics of these kinds of motion, we have studied the wake structures induced by clapping and their associated thrust performance. A simple mechanical model with two acrylic plates was used to simulate the power stroke of the clapping motion and three-dimensional flow fields were obtained using defocusing digital particle image velocimetry. Our studies show that the process of vortex connection plays a critical role in forming a downstream closed vortex loop. Under some kinematic conditions, this vortex loop changes its shape dynamically, which is analogous to the process of an elliptical vortex ring switching its minor and major axis. As the length of the plate along the rotating shaft decreases to change an aspect ratio, the downstream motion of the vortex is retarded due to the outward motion of side edge vortices and less propulsive force is generated per the surface area of the plate. The impact of compliance and stroke angle of the plate on wake structures and thrust magnitudes are also presented.

  1. Effects of atmospheric stability on the evolution of wind turbine wakes: Volumetric LiDAR scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valerio Iungo, Giacomo; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Aerodynamic optimization of wind farm layout is a fundamental task to reduce wake effects on downstream wind turbines, thus to maximize wind power harvesting. However, downstream evolution and recovery of wind turbine wakes are strongly affected by the characteristics of the incoming atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow, like the vertical profiles of the mean wind velocity and the turbulence intensity, which are in turn affected by the ABL stability regime. Therefore, the characterization of the variability of wind turbine wakes under different ABL stability regimes becomes fundamental to better predict wind power harvesting and improve wind farm efficiency. To this aim, wind velocity measurements of the wake produced by a 2 MW Enercon E-70 wind turbine were performed with three scanning Doppler wind Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) instruments. One LiDAR was typically devoted to the characterization of the incoming wind, in particular wind velocity, shear and turbulence intensity at the height of the rotor disc. The other two LiDARs performed scans in order to characterize the wake velocity field produced by the tested wind turbine. The main challenge in performing field measurements of wind turbine wakes is represented by the varying wind conditions, and by the consequent adjustments of the turbine yaw angle needed to maximize power production. Consequently, taking into account possible variations of the relative position between LiDAR measurement volume and wake location, different LiDAR measurement procedures were carried out in order to perform 2-D and 3-D characterizations of the mean wake velocity field. However, larger measurement volumes and higher spatial resolution require longer sampling periods; thus, to investigate wake turbulence tests were also performed by staring the LiDAR laser beam over fixed directions and with the maximum sampling frequency. Furthermore, volumetric scans of the wind turbine wake were performed under different wind conditions via two simultaneous LiDARs. Through the evaluation of the minimum wake velocity deficit as a function of the downstream distance, it is shown that the stability regime of the ABL has a significant effect on the wake evolution; specifically the wake recovers faster under convective conditions. This result suggests that atmospheric inflow conditions, and particularly thermal stability, should be considered for improved wake models and predictions of wind power harvesting.

  2. Vortex wake and exhaust plume interaction, including ground effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Ihab Gaber

    Computational modeling and studies of the near-field wake-vortex turbulent flows, far-field turbulent wake- vortex/exhaust-plume interaction for subsonic and High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) airplane, and wake- vortex/exhaust-plume interaction with the ground are carried out. The three-dimensional, compressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are solved using the implicit, upwind, Roe-flux-differencing, finite-volume scheme. The turbulence models of Baldwin and Lomax, one-equation model of Spalart and Allmaras and two-equation shear stress transport model of Menter are implemented with the RANS solver for turbulent-flow modeling. For the near-field study, computations are carried out on a fine grid for a rectangular wing with a NACA-0012 airfoil section and a rounded tip. The focus of study is the tip-vortex development, the near-wake-vortex roll-up, and validation of the results with the available experimental data. For the far-field study, the computations of wake-vortex interaction with the exhaust-plume of a single engine of a medium-size subsonic aircraft in a holding condition and two engines of a HSCT in a cruise condition are carried out using an overlapping zonal method for several miles downstream. The overlapping zonal method has been carefully developed and investigated for accurate and efficient calculations of the far-field wake-vortex flow. The results of the subsonic flow are compared with those of a Parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) solver known as the UNIWAKE code. Next, the problem of wake-vortex/ground interaction is investigated. For the simulation of this problem, typical velocity profiles of a tip vortex with and without the exhaust-plume temperature profiles are used for inflow boundary conditions and the computations are carried out using the overlapping zonal method for long distances downstream. The effects of the exhaust-plume temperature on the vortex descent, ground boundary-layer separation, vortex rebound and vortex decay are studied and validated with the available experimental data. A parametric study, which covers the effects of atmospheric conditions such as axial wind, crosswind, wind shear, turbulence and, Reynolds number on vortex motion and dynamics near the ground, is also carried out.

  3. TWO-CHANNEL DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-05-30

    Experimental results are reported for test beam acceleration and deflection in a two-channel, cm-scale, rectangular dielectric-lined wakefield accelerator structure energized by a 14-MeV drive beam. The dominant waveguide mode of the structure is at {approx}30 GHz, and the structure is configured to exhibit a high transformer ratio ({approx}12:1). Accelerated bunches in the narrow secondary channel of the structure are continuously energized via Cherenkov radiation that is emitted by a drive bunch moving in the wider primary channel. Observed energy gains and losses, transverse deflections, and changes in the test bunch charge distribution compare favorably with predictions of theory.

  4. Evidence for oxygen vacancies movement during wake-up in ferroelectric hafnium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starschich, S.; Menzel, S.; Böttger, U.

    2016-01-01

    The wake-up effect which is observed in ferroelectric hafnium oxide is investigated in yttrium doped hafnium oxide prepared by chemical solution deposition. It can be shown that not the amount of cycles but the duration of the applied electrical field is essential for the wake-up. Temperature dependent wake-up cycling in a range of -160 °C to 100 °C reveals a strong temperature activation of the wake-up, which can be attributed to ion rearrangement during cycling. By using asymmetrical electrodes, resistive valence change mechanism switching can be observed coincident with ferroelectric switching. From the given results, it can be concluded that redistribution of oxygen vacancies is the origin of the wake-up effect.

  5. Wind tunnel measurements in the wake of a simple structure in a simulated atmospheric flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, A. C.; Peterka, J. A.; Cermak, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements of longitudinal mean velocity and turbulence intensity were made in the wake of a rectangular model building in a simulated atmospheric boundary-layer wind. The model building was a 1:50 scale model of a structure used in a wake measurement program at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center 8-tower boundary-layer facility. The approach wind profile and measurement locations were chosen to match the field site conditions. The wakes of the building in winds from azimuths of 0 and 47 degrees referenced to the normal to the building long axis were examined. The effect of two lines of trees upwind of the building on the wake and the importance of the ratio of the building height to boundary-layer thickness on the extent of the wake were determined.

  6. Compressor and fan wake characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, B.; Hah, C.; Lakshminarayana, B.; Ravindranath, A.

    1978-01-01

    A triaxial probe and a rotating conventional probe, mounted on a traverse gear operated by two step motors were used to measure the mean velocities and turbulence quantities across a rotor wake at various radial locations and downstream stations. The data obtained was used in an analytical model developed to study how rotor flow and blade parameters and turbulence properties such as energy, velocity correlations, and length scale affect the rotor wake characteristics and its diffusion properties. The model, includes three dimensional attributes, can be used in predicting the discrete as well as broadband noise generated in a fan rotor, as well as in evaluating the aerodynamic losses, efficiency and optimum spacing between a rotor and stator in turbomachinery.

  7. Ventilation of an hydrofoil wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Roger; Lee, Seung Jae; Monson, Garrett

    2013-11-01

    Ventilation physics plays a role in a variety of important engineering applications. For example, hydroturbine ventilation is used for control of vibration and cavitation erosion and more recently for improving the dissolved oxygen content of the flow through the turbine. The latter technology has been the focus of an ongoing study involving the ventilation of an hydrofoil wake to determine the velocity and size distribution of bubbles in a bubbly wake. This was carried out by utilizing particle shadow velocimetry (PSV). This technique is a non-scattering approach that relies on direct in-line volume illumination by a pulsed source such as a light-emitting diode (LED). The data are compared with previous studies of ventilated flow. The theoretical results of Hinze suggest that a scaling relationship is possible that can lead to developing appropriate design parameters for a ventilation system. Sponsored by ONR and DOE.

  8. Prediction and Control of Vortex Dominated and Vortex-wake Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the activities and accomplishments under this research grant, including a list of publications and dissertations, produced in the field of prediction and control of vortex dominated and vortex wake flows.

  9. Turbulent wakes of fractal objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staicu, Adrian; Mazzi, Biagio; Vassilicos, J. C.; van de Water, Willem

    2003-06-01

    Turbulence of a windtunnel flow is stirred using objects that have a fractal structure. The strong turbulent wakes resulting from three such objects which have different fractal dimensions are probed using multiprobe hot-wire anemometry in various configurations. Statistical turbulent quantities are studied within inertial and dissipative range scales in an attempt to relate changes in their self-similar behavior to the scaling of the fractal objects.

  10. Turbulent wakes of fractal objects.

    PubMed

    Staicu, Adrian; Mazzi, Biagio; Vassilicos, J C; van de Water, Willem

    2003-06-01

    Turbulence of a windtunnel flow is stirred using objects that have a fractal structure. The strong turbulent wakes resulting from three such objects which have different fractal dimensions are probed using multiprobe hot-wire anemometry in various configurations. Statistical turbulent quantities are studied within inertial and dissipative range scales in an attempt to relate changes in their self-similar behavior to the scaling of the fractal objects. PMID:16241347

  11. Suppression of magnetic relaxation processes in melt-textured Y Ba2 Cu3 Ox superconductors by a transverse ac magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, L. M.; Kalinov, A. V.; Voloshin, I. F.; Yampol'Skii, V. A.

    2005-04-01

    The effect of the transverse ac magnetic field on the relaxation process in YBa2Cu3Ox melt-textured superconductors was studied. A factor of 50 suppression of the relaxation rate could be achieved at the expense of some reduction in the maximum trapped field, with the magnetic-induction gradient being unchanged. This phenomenon is interpreted as a result of an increase of the pinning force after the action of the transverse ac magnetic field that is confirmed by the measurement of the trapped-induction distribution.

  12. Caffeine promotes wakefulness via dopamine signaling in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Nall, Aleksandra H; Shakhmantsir, Iryna; Cichewicz, Karol; Birman, Serge; Hirsh, Jay; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely-consumed psychoactive drug in the world, but our understanding of how caffeine affects our brains is relatively incomplete. Most studies focus on effects of caffeine on adenosine receptors, but there is evidence for other, more complex mechanisms. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which shows a robust diurnal pattern of sleep/wake activity, caffeine reduces nighttime sleep behavior independently of the one known adenosine receptor. Here, we show that dopamine is required for the wake-promoting effect of caffeine in the fly, and that caffeine likely acts presynaptically to increase dopamine signaling. We identify a cluster of neurons, the paired anterior medial (PAM) cluster of dopaminergic neurons, as the ones relevant for the caffeine response. PAM neurons show increased activity following caffeine administration, and promote wake when activated. Also, inhibition of these neurons abrogates sleep suppression by caffeine. While previous studies have focused on adenosine-receptor mediated mechanisms for caffeine action, we have identified a role for dopaminergic neurons in the arousal-promoting effect of caffeine. PMID:26868675

  13. Caffeine promotes wakefulness via dopamine signaling in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Nall, Aleksandra H.; Shakhmantsir, Iryna; Cichewicz, Karol; Birman, Serge; Hirsh, Jay; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely-consumed psychoactive drug in the world, but our understanding of how caffeine affects our brains is relatively incomplete. Most studies focus on effects of caffeine on adenosine receptors, but there is evidence for other, more complex mechanisms. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which shows a robust diurnal pattern of sleep/wake activity, caffeine reduces nighttime sleep behavior independently of the one known adenosine receptor. Here, we show that dopamine is required for the wake-promoting effect of caffeine in the fly, and that caffeine likely acts presynaptically to increase dopamine signaling. We identify a cluster of neurons, the paired anterior medial (PAM) cluster of dopaminergic neurons, as the ones relevant for the caffeine response. PAM neurons show increased activity following caffeine administration, and promote wake when activated. Also, inhibition of these neurons abrogates sleep suppression by caffeine. While previous studies have focused on adenosine-receptor mediated mechanisms for caffeine action, we have identified a role for dopaminergic neurons in the arousal-promoting effect of caffeine. PMID:26868675

  14. Optimal perturbations of non-parallel wakes and their stabilizing effect on the global instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Guercio, Gerardo; Cossu, Carlo; Pujals, Gregory

    2014-02-01

    We compute the spatial optimal energy amplification of steady inflow perturbations in a non-parallel wake and analyse their stabilizing action on the global mode instability. The optimal inflow perturbations, which are assumed spanwise periodic and varicose, consist in streamwise vortices that induce the downstream spatial transient growth of streamwise streaks. The maximum energy amplification of the streaks increases with the spanwise wavelength of the perturbations, in accordance with previous results obtained for the temporal energy growth supported by parallel wakes. A family of increasingly streaky wakes is obtained by forcing optimal inflow perturbations of increasing amplitude and then solving the nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations. We show that the linear global instability of the wake can be completely suppressed by forcing optimal perturbations of sufficiently large amplitude. The attenuation and suppression of self-sustained oscillations in the wake by optimal 3D perturbations is confirmed by fully nonlinear numerical simulations. We also show that the amplitude of optimal spanwise periodic (3D) perturbations of the basic flow required to stabilize the global instability is much smaller than the one required by spanwise uniform (2D) perturbations despite the fact that the first order sensitivity of the global eigenvalue to basic flow modifications is zero for 3D spanwise periodic modifications and non-zero for 2D modifications. We therefore conclude that first-order sensitivity analyses can be misleading if used far from the instability threshold, where higher order terms are the most relevant.

  15. Computation of high resolution unsteady airloads using a constant vorticity contour free wake model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, T. R.; Lam, C.-M. G.; Bliss, D. B.

    1992-01-01

    Recent work in the study of helicopter aerodynamic loading for acoustics applications has involved research on the development of an exceptionally efficient simulation of the velocity field induced by the rotor's vortex wake. This paper summarizes the work to date on the development of this analysis, which builds on the refined constant vorticity contour (CVC) free wake model recently developed for application to the study of vibratory loading. The particular focus of this paper is on demonstrations of a reconstruction approach that efficiently computes both the flow fields and airloads induced by CVC wakes on lifting rotor blades. Results of recent calculations on both main rotor and tail rotors are presented. These calculations show that by employing flow field reconstruction it is possible to apply the CVC wake analysis with temporal and spatial resolution suitable for acoustics applications while reducing the computation time required by one to two orders of magnitude relative to the direct calculations used in traditional methods.

  16. Large-Eddy Simulations and Lidar Measurements of Vortex-Pair Breakup in Aircraft Wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewellen, D. C.; Lewellen, W. S.; Poole, L. R.; DeCoursey, R. J.; Hansen, G. M.; Hostetler, C. A.; Kent, G. S.

    1998-01-01

    Results of large-eddy simulations of an aircraft wake are compared with results from ground-based lidar measurements made at NASA Langley Research Center during the Subsonic Assessment Near-Field Interaction Flight Experiment field tests. Brief reviews of the design of the field test for obtaining the evolution of wake dispersion behind a Boeing 737 and of the model developed for simulating such wakes are given. Both the measurements and the simulations concentrate on the period from a few seconds to a few minutes after the wake is generated, during which the essentially two-dimensional vortex pair is broken up into a variety of three-dimensional eddies. The model and experiment show similar distinctive breakup eddies induced by the mutual interactions of the vortices, after perturbation by the atmospheric motions.

  17. Aerial observations of Hawaii`s wake

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.B.; Grubisic, V.

    1993-11-01

    Under the influence of the east-northeasterly trade winds, the island of Hawaii generates a wake that extends about 200 km to the west-southwest. During the Hawaiian Rain Band Project (NCAR) Electra. The patterns of wind aerosol concentration revealed by these flights suggest that Hawaii`s wake consists of two large quasi-steady conterrotating eddies. The southern clockwise-rotating eddy carries a heavy aerosol load due to input from the Kilauea volcano. At the eastern end of the wake, the eddies are potentially warmer and more humid than the surrounding trade wind air. Several other features are discussed: sharp shear lines near the northern and southern tips of the island, dry and warm air bands along the shear lines, a small embedded wake behind the Kohala peninsula, wake centerline clouds, hydraulic jumps to the north and south of the island, a descending inversion connected with accelerating trade winds, and evidence for side-to-side wake movement.

  18. Evolution of Rotor Wake in Swirling Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Haldidi, Basman; Atassi, Hafiz; Envia, Edmane; Podboy, Gary

    2000-01-01

    A theory is presented for modeling the evolution of rotor wakes as a function of axial distance in swirling mean flows. The theory, which extends an earlier work to include arbitrary radial distributions of mean swirl, indicates that swirl can significantly alter the wake structure of the rotor especially at large downstream distances (i.e., for moderate to large rotor-stator spacings). Using measured wakes of a representative scale model fan stage to define the mean swirl and initial wake perturbations, the theory is used to predict the subsequent evolution of the wakes. The results indicate the sensitivity of the wake evolution to the initial profile and the need to have complete and consistent initial definition of both velocity and pressure perturbations.

  19. Neurons containing orexin or melanin concentrating hormone reciprocally regulate wake and sleep

    PubMed Central

    Konadhode, Roda Rani; Pelluru, Dheeraj; Shiromani, Priyattam J.

    2015-01-01

    Neurons containing orexin (hypocretin), or melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) are intermingled with each other in the perifornical and lateral hypothalamus. Each is a separate and distinct neuronal population, but they project to similar target areas in the brain. Orexin has been implicated in regulating arousal since loss of orexin neurons is associated with the sleep disorder narcolepsy. Microinjections of orexin into the brain or optogenetic stimulation of orexin neurons increase waking. Orexin neurons are active in waking and quiescent in sleep, which is consistent with their role in promoting waking. On the other hand, the MCH neurons are quiet in waking but active in sleep, suggesting that they could initiate sleep. Recently, for the first time the MCH neurons were stimulated optogenetically and it increased sleep. Indeed, optogenetic activation of MCH neurons induced sleep in both mice and rats at a circadian time when they should be awake, indicating the powerful effect that MCH neurons have in suppressing the wake-promoting effect of not only orexin but also of all of the other arousal neurotransmitters. Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is coexpressed with MCH in the MCH neurons, although MCH is also inhibitory. The inhibitory tone of the MCH neurons is opposite to the excitatory tone of the orexin neurons. We hypothesize that strength in activity of each determines wake vs. sleep. PMID:25620917

  20. Wake Characteristics of a Single Turbine During the CWEX-10/11 Crop Wind-Energy EXperiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajewski, D. A.; Takle, E. S.; Lundquist, J. K.; Rhodes, M. E.; Prueger, J. H.; Oncley, S. O.; Horst, T. W.; Pfeiffer, R.; Hatfield, J.; Spoth, K. K.; Doorenbos, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    In the summer of 2010 and 2011 for the Crop Wind-energy EXperiment (CWEX), flux stations measured differences in micrometeorology upstream and downstream of a single turbine within a large wind farm in Iowa. Profiling LiDARs were positioned upwind and downwind of a single turbine for two months in 2011 to document the wake profiles of mean wind speed and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). Nacelle-based measurements of wind speed, wind direction, and power produced verified the likely presence of a wake above the downwind flux station. As described in the CWEX overview paper (Rajewski et al. 2013) the flux stations detected (1) turbine-wake events for wakes overhead but not intersecting the surface, (2) wakes with a direct surface influence, and (3) flow perturbations caused by the static pressure field around a line of turbines. We refine our conceptual model of wind turbine flow by comparing downwind-upwind flux and profile station differences for categories of waked and non-waked flow according to turbine hub-height speed and direction, ambient thermal stratification, and the operating status of the turbines. For nighttime stable conditions (some for which a low level jet is present) we measured both within the rotor depth and at the surface higher turbulence and stronger intermittency of the flow on the wake edges as compared to the wake core. We additionally observe frequent periods with 20-30 of directional shear from the surface to the top of the rotor as evidenced by a downwind flux station in non-waked flow with concurrent LiDAR measurement of a wake in the rotor layer. Momentum power spectra and co-spectra of 20-Hz surface data corroborate with previous wind tunnel and numerical simulations of wake turbulence with higher energy intensity but at reduced scales than for non-waked conditions. The spectra demonstrate a return to ambient flow when the wind farm is brought offline.

  1. Evaluation of Fast-Time Wake Vortex Models using Wake Encounter Flight Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; VanValkenburg, Randal L.; Bowles, Roland L.; Limon Duparcmeur, Fanny M.; Gloudesman, Thijs; van Lochem, Sander; Ras, Eelco

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology for the integration and evaluation of fast-time wake models with flight data. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted detailed flight tests in 1995 and 1997 under the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System Program to characterize wake vortex decay and wake encounter dynamics. In this study, data collected during Flight 705 were used to evaluate NASA's fast-time wake transport and decay models. Deterministic and Monte-Carlo simulations were conducted to define wake hazard bounds behind the wake generator. The methodology described in this paper can be used for further validation of fast-time wake models using en-route flight data, and for determining wake turbulence constraints in the design of air traffic management concepts.

  2. Aerodynamic interaction between vortical wakes and lifting two-dimensional bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stremel, Paul M.

    1989-03-01

    Unsteady rotor wake interactions with the empennage, tail boom, and other aerodynamic surfaces of a helicopter have a significant influence on its aerodynamic performance, the ride quality, and vibration. A numerical method for computing the aerodynamic interaction between an interacting vortex wake and the viscous flow about arbitrary two-dimensional bodies was developed to address this helicopter problem. The method solves for the flow field velocities on a body-fitted computational mesh using finite-difference techniques. The interacting vortex wake is represented by an array of discrete vortices which, in turn, are represented by a finite-core model. The evolution of the interacting vortex wake is calculated by Lagrangian techniques. The viscous flow field of the two-dimensional body is calculated on an Eulerian grid. The flow around circular and elliptic cylinders in the absence of an interacting vortex wake was calculated. These results compare very well with other numerical results and with results obtained from experiment and thereby demonstrate the accuracy of the viscous solution. The interaction of a rotor wake with the flow about a 4 to 1 elliptic cylinder at 45 degree incidence was calculated for a Reynolds number of 3000. The results demonstrate the significant variations in the lift and drag on the elliptic cylinder in the presence of the interacting rotor wake.

  3. Flow visualization of vortex interactions in multiple vortex wakes behind aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciffone, D. L.; Lonzo, C., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A flow visualization technique was developed which allows the nature of lift-generated wakes behind aircraft models to be investigated. The technique was applied to models being towed underwater in a ship model basin. Seven different configurations of a small-scale model of a 747 transport aircraft were used to allow observation of typical vortex interactions and merging in multiple vortex wakes. It was established that the motion of the wake vortices is often sensitive to small changes in either wing span loading or model attitude. Landing gear deployement was found to cause a far-field reformation of vorticity behind a model configuration which dissipated concentrated vorticity in the near-field wake. Alleviation of wake vorticity is achievable by configuring the wing span loading to cause the wake vortices to move in paths that result in their interactions and merging. The vortices shed from the horizontal stabilizer always moved down rapidly into the wake and merged with the other vortices, primarily the inboard flap vortices.

  4. 32 CFR 935.60 - Wake Island Judicial Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wake Island Judicial Authority. 935.60 Section... INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary 935.60 Wake Island Judicial Authority. (a) The judicial authority under this part is vested in the Wake Island Court and the Wake Island Court of Appeals. (b)...

  5. 32 CFR 935.60 - Wake Island Judicial Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wake Island Judicial Authority. 935.60 Section... INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary 935.60 Wake Island Judicial Authority. (a) The judicial authority under this part is vested in the Wake Island Court and the Wake Island Court of Appeals. (b)...

  6. 32 CFR 935.60 - Wake Island Judicial Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wake Island Judicial Authority. 935.60 Section... INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary 935.60 Wake Island Judicial Authority. (a) The judicial authority under this part is vested in the Wake Island Court and the Wake Island Court of Appeals. (b)...

  7. 32 CFR 935.60 - Wake Island Judicial Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wake Island Judicial Authority. 935.60 Section... INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary 935.60 Wake Island Judicial Authority. (a) The judicial authority under this part is vested in the Wake Island Court and the Wake Island Court of Appeals. (b)...

  8. 32 CFR 935.60 - Wake Island Judicial Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wake Island Judicial Authority. 935.60 Section... INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary 935.60 Wake Island Judicial Authority. (a) The judicial authority under this part is vested in the Wake Island Court and the Wake Island Court of Appeals. (b)...

  9. The physical and biological impact of a small island wake in the deep ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutis, P. F.; Middleton, J. H.

    2002-08-01

    A primitive equation numerical model is used to systematically investigate wake formations at Cato Island (15532'E, 2315'S) under a variety of realistic flow conditions. The model faithfully reproduces the key features of data obtained in the vicinity of the island under conditions of "strong" ( 0.7 m s -1) and "weak" ( 0.3 m s -1) incident currents. For the strong inflow study, a vortex shedding wake is indicated, with an eddy shedding period of approximately 36 h. Interaction between wake and free stream currents produces strong downwelling and upwelling in regions of flow convergence and divergence, respectively. For the weak inflow case, a Lagrangian analysis of wake currents shows strong particle retention properties and vertical pumping in the wake; these results are consistent with observations of nutrient uplift and biological enhancement (the "island mass effect") in the vicinity of the island in February, 1993. Numerical sensitivity experiments demonstrate that incident flow speed, background rotation rate and coastal island geometry each have a strong controlling influence on wake formations. Increasing the background rotation rate reduces the frequency of eddy shedding, while disproportionately increasing the circulation strength within shed eddies. For the biologically important non-shedding flow scenario, Lagrangian wake characteristics are examined in detail using the float-tracking scheme of the numerical model. It is found that unsteadiness severely compromises wake retention of passively drifting particles. Coastal geometry also has a strong controlling influence on wake retention. The numerical experiments suggest that particle retention in island wakes has a "hair trigger" characteristic controlled by incident flow speed and direction. This simple but powerful observation is used as the basis for a new proposal to explain the long-standing recruitment problem of biological oceanography. Good overall agreement between field data and numerical predictions further establishes two-dimensional representations of island topography as a viable and computationally efficient alternative to full, three-dimensional modelling, when the modelled flows are "dynamically deep".

  10. Ship wake signatures in radar/optical images of the sea surface: observations and physical mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, S.; Kapustin, I.; Lazareva, T.

    2014-10-01

    Ship wakes can be clearly seen in satellite radar and optical images of the sea surface, and understanding of physical mechanisms responsible for the wake signatures is very important to develop methods of ship detection/identification. The wake surface signatures at small and intermediate stages are characterized by a smooth centerline area where surface waves are depressed due to the vessel turbulence and by a pair of rough bands at the sides of the centerline wake. At large wake ages two slick bands (a "railroad track" wake) appear instead of the rough bands, while the smooth centerline band is practically absent. In this paper results of field studies of the mean flow structure near the wake are presented. It is shown that two mean circulating currents ("rolls") rotating in the opposite directions are formed at two sides of the median vertical plane of the wake. Near the water surface the rolls result in diverging horizontal flows, decreasing near the wake edges. Wind waves propagating against the diverging currents are amplified due to a wave straining mechanism thus increasing the surface roughness. Film sampling was carried out when crossing the wakes and analysis of films collected within the "railroad" slick bands and outside the bands has revealed enhanced surface wave damping, obviously due to accumulation of surfactants in the slick bands; the surfactant compression is explained by the action of the diverging currents. The diverging currents as part of the rolls and the surfactant transport to the water surface are supposed to be associated with air bubbles generated by ship propellers.

  11. Sleep Pharmacogenetics: Personalized Sleep-Wake Therapy.

    PubMed

    Holst, Sebastian C; Valomon, Amandine; Landolt, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Research spanning (genetically engineered) animal models, healthy volunteers, and sleep-disordered patients has identified the neurotransmitters and neuromodulators dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, histamine, hypocretin, melatonin, glutamate, acetylcholine, ?-amino-butyric acid, and adenosine as important players in the regulation and maintenance of sleep-wake-dependent changes in neuronal activity and the sleep-wake continuum. Dysregulation of these neurochemical systems leads to sleep-wake disorders. Most currently available pharmacological treatments are symptomatic rather than causal, and their beneficial and adverse effects are often variable and in part genetically determined. To evaluate opportunities for evidence-based personalized medicine with present and future sleep-wake therapeutics, we review here the impact of known genetic variants affecting exposure of and sensitivity to drugs targeting the neurochemistry of sleep-wake regulation and the pathophysiology of sleep-wake disturbances. Many functional polymorphisms modify drug response phenotypes relevant for sleep. To corroborate the importance of these and newly identified variants for personalized sleep-wake therapy, human sleep pharmacogenetics should be complemented with pharmacogenomic investigations, research about sleep-wake-dependent pharmacological actions, and studies in mice lacking specific genes. These strategies, together with future knowledge about epigenetic mechanisms affecting sleep-wake physiology and treatment outcomes, may lead to potent and safe novel therapies for the increasing number of sleep-disordered patients (e.g., in aged populations). PMID:26527070

  12. Wind Turbine Wake Experiment - Wieringermeer (WINTWEX-W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumer, V. M.; Reuder, J.; Svardal, B.; Eecen, P.

    2014-12-01

    WINTWEX-W is a cooperative wake measurement campaign conducted by the Norwegian Centre of Offshore Wind Energy (Norcowe) and the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN). A scanning, four static Windcubes as well as a downstream looking nacelle LiDAR were placed for half a year downstream of one of five research wind turbines in ECNs' wind turbine test farm Wieringermeer. In order to capture wake characteristics under different weather conditions we scanned a 60˚ sector at three different elevations and two vertical cross-sections every minute. Windcubes v1 measured wind profiles every second at 2, 5 and 12 rotor diameter downstream distances. Another static Windcube, a forward-looking nacelle LiDAR and three Sonics were placed upstream to measure the undisturbed approaching flow field. The aim of the campaign is a qualitative and quantitative description of single wind turbine wake propagation and persistency, as well as to improve CFD wake models by delivering a detailed data set of several real atmospheric conditions.

  13. RWF rotor-wake-fuselage code software reference guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, John D.

    1991-01-01

    The RWF (Rotor-Wake-Fuselage) code was developed from first principles to compute the aerodynamics associated with the complex flow field of helicopter configurations. The code is sized for a single, multi-bladed main rotor and any configuration of non-lifting fuselage. The mathematical model for the RWF code is based on the integration of the momentum equations and Green's theorem. The unknowns in the problem are the strengths of prescribed singularity distributions on the boundaries of the flow. For the body (fuselage) a surface of constant strength source panels is used. For the rotor blades and rotor wake a surface of constant strength doublet panels is used. The mean camber line of the rotor airfoil is partitioned into surface panels. The no-flow boundary condition at the panel centroids is modified at each azimuthal step to account for rotor blade cyclic pitch variation. The geometry of the rotor wake is computers at each time step of the solution. The code produces rotor and fuselage surface pressures, as well as the complex geometry of the evolving rotor wake.

  14. Preliminary rotor wake measurements with a laser velocimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoad, D. R.; Rhodes, D. B.; Meyers, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    A laser velocimeter (LV) was used to determine rotor wake characteristics. The effect of various fuselage widths and rotor-fuselage spacings on time averaged and detailed time dependent rotor wake velocity characteristics was defined. Definition of time dependent velocity characteristics was attempted with the LV by associating a rotor azimuth position with each velocity measurement. Results were discouraging in that no apparent time dependent velocity characteristics could be discerned from the LV measurements. Since the LV is a relatively new instrument in the rotor wake measurement field, the cause of this lack of periodicity is as important as the basic research objectives. An attempt was made to identify the problem by simulated acquisition of LV-type data for a predicted rotor wake velocity time history. Power spectral density and autocorrelation function estimation techniques were used to substantiate the conclusion that the primary cause of the lack of time dependent velocity characteristics was the nonstationary flow condition generated by the periodic turbulence level that currently exists in the open throat configuration of the wind tunnel.

  15. Bacillus megaterium A6 suppresses Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in the field and promotes oilseed rape growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in The Peoples Republic of China and other regions of the world. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the plant-growth promoting bacterium Bacillus megaterium A6 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen on oilseed rap...

  16. Comparison of application methods for suppressing the pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) with Beauveria bassiana under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecans. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana is pathogenic to C. caryae. Our objective was to compare different application methods for suppression of C. caryae adults. Treatments included direct application of B. bassiana (GHA...

  17. Neuropharmacology of Sleep and Wakefulness

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Christopher J.; Baghdoyan, Helen A.; Lydic, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis The development of sedative/hypnotic molecules has been empiric rather than rational. The empiric approach has produced clinically useful drugs but for no drug is the mechanism of action completely understood. All available sedative/hypnotic medications have unwanted side effects and none of these medications creates a sleep architecture that is identical to the architecture of naturally occurring sleep. This chapter reviews recent advances in research aiming to elucidate the neurochemical mechanisms regulating sleep and wakefulness. One promise of rational drug design is that understanding the mechanisms of sedative/hypnotic action will significantly enhance drug safety and efficacy. PMID:21278831

  18. Wake vortex detection at Denver Stapleton Airport with a pulsed 2-micron coherent lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannon, Stephen M.; Thomson, J. Alex

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the effort undertaken to relate aircraft wake history to the local environment. This involved the monitoring of the embedded windfield, monitoring of local meteorological parameters, a high-resolution velocity field analysis in vertical scan planes and measurement of the axial velocity signature. A flashlight pumped 2.09 micron solid state coherent laser radar system was used to detect and track wake vortices. Strong wake vortex signatures were measured for moderate to large aircraft at Denver's Stapleton airport and a large vortex database was compiled.

  19. Imaging analysis of clock neurons reveals light buffers the wake-promoting effect of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yuhua; Haynes, Paula; Prez, Nicols; Harrington, Kyle I; Guo, Fang; Pollack, Jordan; Hong, Pengyu; Griffith, Leslie C; Rosbash, Michael

    2011-07-01

    How animals maintain proper amounts of sleep yet remain flexible to changes in environmental conditions remains unknown. We found that environmental light suppressed the wake-promoting effects of dopamine in fly brains. The ten large lateral-ventral neurons (l-LNvs), a subset of clock neurons, are wake-promoting and respond to dopamine, octopamine and light. Behavioral and imaging analyses suggested that dopamine is a stronger arousal signal than octopamine. Notably, light exposure not only suppressed l-LNv responses, but also synchronized responses of neighboring l-LNvs. This regulation occurred by distinct mechanisms: light-mediated suppression of octopamine responses was regulated by the circadian clock, whereas light regulation of dopamine responses occurred by upregulation of inhibitory dopamine receptors. Plasticity therefore alters the relative importance of diverse cues on the basis of the environmental mix of stimuli. The regulatory mechanisms described here may contribute to the control of sleep stability while still allowing behavioral flexibility. PMID:21685918

  20. Linear and nonlinear auditory response properties of interneurons in a high-order avian vocal motor nucleus during wakefulness

    PubMed Central

    Raksin, Jonathan N.; Glaze, Christopher M.; Smith, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Motor-related forebrain areas in higher vertebrates also show responses to passively presented sensory stimuli. However, sensory tuning properties in these areas, especially during wakefulness, and their relation to perception, are poorly understood. In the avian song system, HVC (proper name) is a vocal-motor structure with auditory responses well defined under anesthesia but poorly characterized during wakefulness. We used a large set of stimuli including the bird's own song (BOS) and many conspecific songs (CON) to characterize auditory tuning properties in putative interneurons (HVCIN) during wakefulness. Our findings suggest that HVC contains a diversity of responses that vary in overall excitability to auditory stimuli, as well as bias in spike rate increases to BOS over CON. We used statistical tests to classify cells in order to further probe auditory responses, yielding one-third of neurons that were either unresponsive or suppressed and two-thirds with excitatory responses to one or more stimuli. A subset of excitatory neurons were tuned exclusively to BOS and showed very low linearity as measured by spectrotemporal receptive field analysis (STRF). The remaining excitatory neurons responded well to CON stimuli, although many cells still expressed a bias toward BOS. These findings suggest the concurrent presence of a nonlinear and a linear component to responses in HVC, even within the same neuron. These characteristics are consistent with perceptual deficits in distinguishing BOS from CON stimuli following lesions of HVC and other song nuclei and suggest mirror neuronlike qualities in which “self” (here BOS) is used as a referent to judge “other” (here CON). PMID:22205651

  1. Plasma wakefield acceleration studies using the quasi-static code WAKE

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Neeraj; Palastro, John; Antonsen, T. M.; Mori, Warren B.; An, Weiming

    2015-02-15

    The quasi-static code WAKE [P. Mora and T. Antonsen, Phys. Plasmas 4, 217 (1997)] is upgraded to model the propagation of an ultra-relativistic charged particle beam through a warm background plasma in plasma wakefield acceleration. The upgraded code is benchmarked against the full particle-in-cell code OSIRIS [Hemker et al., Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams 3, 061301 (2000)] and the quasi-static code QuickPIC [Huang et al., J. Comput. Phys. 217, 658 (2006)]. The effect of non-zero plasma temperature on the peak accelerating electric field is studied for a two bunch electron beam driver with parameters corresponding to the plasma wakefield acceleration experiments at Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test Beams. It is shown that plasma temperature does not affect the energy gain and spread of the accelerated particles despite suppressing the peak accelerating electric field. The role of plasma temperature in improving the numerical convergence of the electric field with the grid resolution is discussed.

  2. Feasibility of wake vortex monitoring systems for air terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. J.; Shrider, K. R.; Lawrence, T. R.

    1972-01-01

    Wake vortex monitoring systems, especially those using laser Doppler sensors, were investigated. The initial phases of the effort involved talking with potential users (air traffic controllers, pilots, etc.) of a wake vortex monitoring system to determine system requirements from the user's viewpoint. These discussions involved the volumes of airspace to be monitored for vortices, and potential methods of using the monitored vortex data once the data are available. A subsequent task led to determining a suitable mathematical model of the vortex phenomena and developing a mathematical model of the laser Doppler sensor for monitoring the vortex flow field. The mathematical models were used in combination to help evaluate the capability of laser Doppler instrumentation in monitoring vortex flow fields both in the near vicinity of the sensor (within 1 kilometer and at long ranges(10 kilometers).

  3. The 3-D wake measurements near a hovering rotor for determining profile and induced drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcalister, K. W.; Schuler, C. A.; Branum, L.; Wu, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    Primarily an experimental effort, this study focuses on the velocity and vorticity fields in the near wake of a hovering rotor. Drag terminology is reviewed, and the theory for separately determining the profile-and-induced-drag components from wake quantities is introduced. Instantaneous visualizations of the flow field are used to center the laser velocimeter (LV) measurements on the vortex core and to assess the extent of the positional mandering of the trailing vortex. Velocity profiles obtained at different rotor speeds and distances behind the rotor blade clearly indicate the position, size, and rate of movement of the wake sheet and the core of the trailing vortex. The results also show the distribution of vorticity along the wake sheet and within the trailing vortex.

  4. Suppression of Divergence of Low Energy Ion Beams by Space Charge Neutralization with Low Energy Electrons Emitted from Field Emitter Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Junzo; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Taguchi, Shuhei; Nicolaescu, Dan; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kimoto, Tsunenobu; Takeuchi, Mitsuaki; Sakai, Shigeki

    2011-01-07

    Suppression of divergence of low energy neon ion beam was experimentally demonstrated by neutralizing the space charge of ion beam with low energy electrons emitted from silicon field emitter arrays (Si-FEAs). Treatment of the FEAs with trifluoromethane plasma realized surface carbonization which was efficient to elongate the lifetime of the FEA and to improve the electron energy distribution. Together with the improvement of the performance of Si-FEA, we have developed a novel electron deceleration system to produce low energy electrons. A low energy neon ion beam was produced and the beam property was investigated with and without the electron supply from surface carbonized Si-FEA (Si:C-FEA). As a result, the divergence of the neon ion beam was largely suppressed with presence of the electrons.

  5. Pluto's plasma wake oriented away from the ecliptic plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prez-de-Tejada, H.; Durand-Manterola, H.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.; Lundin, R.

    2015-01-01

    Conditions similar to those observed in the solar wind interaction with Venus and Mars where there is a planetary atmosphere in the absence of a global intrinsic magnetic field may also be applicable to Pluto. With up to 24 ?bars inferred for the Pluto atmosphere it is possible that the feeble solar photon radiation flux that reaches by its orbit, equivalent to ?10-3 that at Earth, is sufficient to produce an ionization component that can be eroded by the solar wind. In view of the reduced solar wind density (?10-3 with respect to that at 1 AU) that should be available by Pluto its total kinetic energy will be significantly smaller than that at Earth. However, the parameter values that are implied for the interaction process between the solar wind and the local upper ionosphere are sufficient to produce a plasma wake that should extend downstream from Pluto. In view of its low gravity force the plasma wake should have a wider cross-section than that in the Venus and Mars plasma environment. Since Pluto rotates with the axis tilted ?30 away from the ecliptic plane the plasma wake will be influenced by a Magnus force that has a large component is the north-south solar polar direction. That force will be responsible for propelling the plasma wake with a component that can be directed away from that plane. It is estimated that transport of solar wind momentum to the upper Pluto's ionosphere implies rotation periods smaller than that of the solid body, and thus large values of the Magnus force that can increase the orientation of the plasma wake away from the ecliptic plane.

  6. Pluto's Plasma Wake Oriented Away from the Ecliptic Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez De Tejada, H. A.; Durand-Manterola, H.; Lundin, R. N.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.

    2013-12-01

    Conditions similar to those observed in the solar wind interaction with Venus and Mars with a planetary atmosphere and in the absence of an intrinsic magnetic field should also be applicable to Pluto. With up to 24 μbars inferred for the Pluto atmosphere it is possible that the feeble solar photon radiation flux that reaches by its orbit, equivalent to ~10-3 of that at earth, is sufficient to produce an ionization component that can be eroded by the solar wind. In view of the reduced solar wind density (~ 10-3 with respect to that by 1 AU) that should be available by Pluto its kinetic energy will be significantly smaller than that by earth. However, the parameter values that are implied for the interaction process between the solar wind and the local upper ionosphere are sufficient to produce a plasma wake that should extend downstream from Pluto. In view of its low gravity force the plasma wake should have a wider cross-section than that in the Venus and Mars plasma environment. Since Pluto rotates with its rotational axis tilted close to its orbital plane the plasma wake will be influenced by a Magnus force that is nearly north-south oriented. That force will be responsible for propelling the plasma wake with a component that can be directed away from the ecliptic plane. It is estimated that transport of solar wind momentum to the upper Pluto's ionosphere implies rotation periods smaller than that of the solid body, and thus larger values of the Magnus force that can increase the orientation of the plasma wake away from the ecliptic plane.

  7. The Effect of Wake Passing on Turbine Blade Film Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidmann, James David

    1996-01-01

    The effect of upstream blade row wake passing on the showerhead film cooling performance of a downstream turbine blade has been investigated through a combination of experimental and computational studies. The experiments were performed in a steady-flow annular turbine cascade facility equipped with an upstream rotating row of cylindrical rods to produce a periodic wake field similar to that found in an actual turbine. Spanwise, chordwise, and temporal resolution of the blade surface temperature were achieved through the use of an array of nickel thin-film surface gauges covering one unit cell of showerhead film hole pattern. Film effectiveness and Nusselt number values were determined for a test matrix of various injectants, injectant blowing ratios, and wake Strouhal numbers. Results indicated a demonstratable reduction in film effectiveness with increasing Strouhal number, as well as the expected increase in film effectiveness with blowing ratio. An equation was developed to correlate the span-average film effectiveness data. The primary effect of wake unsteadiness was found to be correlated well by a chordwise-constant decrement of 0.094-St. Measurable spanwise film effectiveness variations were found near the showerhead region, but meaningful unsteady variations and downstream spanwise variations were not found. Nusselt numbers were less sensitive to wake and injection changes. Computations were performed using a three-dimensional turbulent Navier-Stokes code which was modified to model wake passing and film cooling. Unsteady computations were found to agree well with steady computations provided the proper time-average blowing ratio and pressure/suction surface flow split are matched. The remaining differences were isolated to be due to the enhanced mixing in the unsteady solution caused by the wake sweeping normally on the pressure surface. Steady computations were found to be in excellent agreement with experimental Nusselt numbers, but to overpredict experimental film effectiveness values. This is likely due to the inability to match actual hole exit velocity profiles and the absence of a credible turbulence model for film cooling.

  8. Wake Vortex Detection: Phased Microphone vs. Linear Infrasonic Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Sullivan, Nicholas T.; Knight, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    Sensor technologies can make a significant impact on the detection of aircraft-generated vortices in an air space of interest, typically in the approach or departure corridor. Current state-of-the art sensor technologies do not provide three-dimensional measurements needed for an operational system or even for wake vortex modeling to advance the understanding of vortex behavior. Most wake vortex sensor systems used today have been developed only for research applications and lack the reliability needed for continuous operation. The main challenges for the development of an operational sensor system are reliability, all-weather operation, and spatial coverage. Such a sensor has been sought for a period of last forty years. Acoustic sensors were first proposed and tested by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) early in 1970s for tracking wake vortices but these acoustic sensors suffered from high levels of ambient noise. Over a period of the last fifteen years, there has been renewed interest in studying noise generated by aircraft wake vortices, both numerically and experimentally. The German Aerospace Center (DLR) was the first to propose the application of a phased microphone array for the investigation of the noise sources of wake vortices. The concept was first demonstrated at Berlins Airport Schoenefeld in 2000. A second test was conducted in Tarbes, France, in 2002, where phased microphone arrays were applied to study the wake vortex noise of an Airbus 340. Similarly, microphone phased arrays and other opto-acoustic microphones were evaluated in a field test at the Denver International Airport in 2003. For the Tarbes and Denver tests, the wake trajectories of phased microphone arrays and lidar were compared as these were installed side by side. Due to a built-in pressure equalization vent these microphones were not suitable for capturing acoustic noise below 20 Hz. Our group at NASA Langley Research Center developed and installed an infrasonic array at the Newport News-Williamsburg International Airport early in the year 2013. A pattern of pressure burst, high-coherence intervals, and diminishing-coherence intervals was observed for all takeoff and landing events without exception. The results of a phased microphone vs. linear infrasonic array comparison will be presented.

  9. The effect of wake passing on turbine blade film cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidmann, James David

    The effect of upstream blade row wake passing on the showerhead film cooling performance of a downstream turbine blade has been investigated through a combination of experimental and computational studies. The experiments were performed in a steady-flow annular turbine cascade facility equipped with an upstream rotating row of cylindrical rods to produce a periodic wake field similar to that found in an actual turbine. Spanwise, chordwise, and temporal resolution of the blade surface temperature were achieved through the use of an array of nickel thin-film surface gauges covering one unit cell of showerhead film hole pattern. Film effectiveness and Nusselt number values were determined for a test matrix of various injectants, injectant blowing ratios, and wake Strouhal numbers. Results indicated a demonstrable reduction in film effectiveness with increasing Strouhal number, as well as the expected increase in film effectiveness with blowing ratio. An equation was developed to correlate the span-average film effectiveness data. The primary effect of wake unsteadiness was found to be correlated well by a chordwise-constant decrement of 0.094*St. Measurable spanwise film effectiveness variations were found near the showerhead region, but meaningful unsteady variations and downstream spanwise variations were not found. Nusselt numbers were less sensitive to wake and injection changes. Computations were performed using a three-dimensional turbulent Navier-Stokes code which was modified to model wake passing and film cooling. Unsteady computations were found to agree well with steady computations provided the proper time-average blowing ratio and pressure/suction surface flow split are matched. The remaining differences were isolated to be due to the enhanced mixing in the unsteady solution caused by the wake sweeping normally on the pressure surface. Steady computations were found to be in excellent agreement with experimental Nusselt numbers, but to overpredict experimental film effectiveness values. This is likely due to the inability to match actual hole exit velocity profiles and the absence of a credible turbulence model for film cooling.

  10. Thrust Production and Wake Structure of an Actuated Lamprey Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, James; Smits, Alexander

    2004-11-01

    Thrust generation is studied for a flexible lamprey model which is actuated periodically to produce a streamwise traveling wave. Shape memory alloy actuators are used to achieve this deformation. The flow field is investigated using DPIV and flow visualization for a range of Strouhal numbers based on peak-to-peak amplitude of the trailing edge. The vortex kinematics in the spanwise and streamwise planes are examined, and a three-dimensional unsteady vortex model of the wake will be discussed.

  11. Effects of Solar Wind Conditions on the Plasma Wake Within a Polar Crater: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.

    2011-01-01

    As the solar wind sweeps horizontally past a shadowed lunar crater it simultaneously diffuses toward the surface through an ambipolar process, forming a plasma wake (e.g., Figure 1). Importantly, the resulting electric field structure diverts solar wind protons toward the cold crater floor where they may represent a source of surficial hydrogen. We present a handful of two-dimensional kinetic simulations exploring the range of wake structures and surface particle fluxes possible under various background plasma conditions.

  12. Investigation of the cylinder wake under spanwise periodic forcing with a segmented plasma actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Gregory, James W.

    2015-01-01

    The wake response to three-dimensional forcing of flow over a circular cylinder was studied. Spanwise-segmented dielectric-barrier discharge plasma actuators were mounted on the cylinder in a square wave pattern for active forcing of the cylinder wake. The buried electrodes were placed periodically to create a spanwise-modulated blowing profile, with the aim of targeting three-dimensional instabilities in the wake. Considerable spanwise variation in the wake was achieved, which was a direct consequence of the difference in the location of shed spanwise vortices from the cylinder, along with the generation of streamwise vorticity. Two distinct power levels were used for forcing the flow, with different flow response observed between the two conditions. With low power, the segmented forcing caused the large-scale spanwise structures in the forcing region to lead those in the no-forcing region, with an accompanying shift away from the centerline and generation of streamwise vorticity. While vortex shedding was not substantially attenuated with low-power forcing, the shedding in the near wake was significantly attenuated with high-power forcing. This attenuation in the shedding strength was accompanied by a decrease in the peak shedding frequency, indicating an increase in the formation length. High-power forcing caused elongation of the Krmn vortices due to the induced strain field and strong differential development of the wake shedding frequency. In both forcing regimes, the wake three-dimensionality increased as shown by the increased width of the spectral peaks.

  13. Wake structure measurements at the Mod-2 cluster test facility at Goodnoe Hills

    SciTech Connect

    Lissaman, P.B.S.; Zambrano, T.G.; Gyatt, G.W.

    1983-03-01

    A field measurement progam was carried out at the cluster of three MOD-2 wind turbines located at Goodnoe Hills, Washington, to determine the rate of decay of wake velocity deficit with downwind distance in various meteorological conditions. Measurements were taken at hub height (200 ft) between July 12 and August 1, 1982. Wake wind speeds were measured using a radiosonde suspended from a tethered balloon, its position being determined from a grid of ground stakes. Measurments were also made downwind with the turbine off to determine the magnitude of terrain-induced variations in wind speed. The balloon system used to measure downstream wind data proved to be reliable and convenient. Downstream distances of 900, 1500, 2100, and 2700 ft from the turbine were investigated. Differences between the instrumentation systems required that corrections be made to the data. After correction, averaged terrain-induced wind speed variations were regarded as insignificant. Turbine-on velocity ratios showed scatter, suggesting that only some measurements were, in fact, representative of wake centerline velocities, and that others were made off centerline due to wake meander or wind shift. Isolation of the high wind speed (30 to 45 mph) velocity ratios, however, revealed velocity deficits downstream. Measurements at greater downstream distances showed no wake deficit within the limits of resolution of the experiment, indicating that the wake had recovered to free stream conditions. Comparison with the AeroVironment wake model using common values for rotor drag coefficient and turbulence showed similar trends.

  14. Kinetic energy entrainment in wind turbine and actuator disc wakes: an experimental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lignarolo, L. E. M.; Ragni, D.; Simo Ferreira, C. J.; van Bussel, G. J. W.

    2014-06-01

    The present experimental study focuses on the comparison between the wake of a two-bladed wind turbine and the one of an actuator disk. The flow field at the middle plane of the wake is measured with a stereoscopic particle image velocimetry setup, in the low-speed Open Jet Facility wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology. The wind turbine wake is characterized by the complex dynamics of the tip vortex development and breakdown. Analysis of the flow statistics show anisotropic turbulent fluctuations in the turbine wake, with stronger components in the radial direction. The wake of the actuator disc is instead characterized by isotropic random fluctuations. The mixing process in the shear layer is further analysed in terms of flux of mean flow kinetic energy, to show the main differences between the kinetic energy entrainment in the actuator and the turbine wake. This project is intended to provide the basis for understanding the origin of the limitations of the current wake models based on the actuator disc assumption.

  15. On the statistics of wind turbine wake meandering: An experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Kevin B.; Singh, Arvind; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Guala, Michele

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of the instantaneous wake flow from a model wind turbine placed in a turbulent boundary layer were obtained by wall-parallel oriented particle image velocimetry (PIV) in the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory wind tunnel. PIV velocity vector fields were used to investigate mean (expansion angle, wavelength, and wake velocity) and higher order statistics (local slope, curvature, and correlation) describing meandering motions in the turbine wake. These statistics were used to compare the wakes produced by four different wind turbine operating configurations, which include a single turbine operating at two different tip-speed ratios and two turbines aligned with the mean flow. The origin of meandering motions was identified for all cases in the hub vortex signature, which evolved into a stretched or compressed low speed meander in the wall parallel plane, depending on the turbine operating conditions and on the interaction with the wake shear layer. Finally, both autocorrelation and scale-dependent statistics on the velocity minima fluctuations about the meander signature suggest that small scale vortices, found in the hub shear layer and in the wake shear layer, interact with the hub vortex and govern its spatial evolution into large scale wake meandering.

  16. The Neurobiology of Sleep and Wakefulness.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Michael D; Kilduff, Thomas S

    2015-12-01

    Cortical electroencephalographic activity arises from corticothalamocortical interactions, modulated by wake-promoting monoaminergic and cholinergic input. These wake-promoting systems are regulated by hypothalamic hypocretin/orexins, while GABAergic sleep-promoting nuclei are found in the preoptic area, brainstem and lateral hypothalamus. Although pontine acetylcholine is critical for REM sleep, hypothalamic melanin-concentrating hormone/GABAergic cells may "gate" REM sleep. Daily sleep-wake rhythms arise from interactions between a hypothalamic circadian pacemaker and a sleep homeostat whose anatomical locus has yet to be conclusively defined. Control of sleep and wakefulness involves multiple systems, each of which presents vulnerability to sleep/wake dysfunction that may predispose to physical and/or neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26600100

  17. Dreaming and waking: similarities and differences revisited.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Tracey L; LaBerge, Stephen P

    2011-09-01

    Dreaming is often characterized as lacking high-order cognitive (HOC) skills. In two studies, we test the alternative hypothesis that the dreaming mind is highly similar to the waking mind. Multiple experience samples were obtained from late-night REM sleep and waking, following a systematic protocol described in Kahan (2001). Results indicated that reported dreaming and waking experiences are surprisingly similar in their cognitive and sensory qualities. Concurrently, ratings of dreaming and waking experiences were markedly different on questions of general reality orientation and logical organization (e.g., the bizarreness or typicality of the events, actions, and locations). Consistent with other recent studies (e.g., Bulkeley & Kahan, 2008; Kozmov & Wolman, 2006), experiences sampled from dreaming and waking were more similar with respect to their process features than with respect to their structural features. PMID:20933437

  18. Monitoring Wake Vortices for More Efficient Airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Wake vortices are generated by all aircraft during flight. The larger the aircraft, the stronger the wake, so the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) separates aircraft to ensure wake turbulence has no effect on approaching aircraft. Currently, though, the time between planes is often larger than it needs to be for the wake to dissipate. This unnecessary gap translates into arrival and departure delays, but since the wakes are invisible, the delays are nearly inevitable. If, however, the separation between aircraft can be reduced safely, then airport capacity can be increased without the high cost of additional runways. Scientists are currently studying these patterns to identify and introduce new procedures and technologies that safely increase airport capacity. NASA, always on the cutting edge of aerospace research, has been contributing knowledge and testing to these endeavors.

  19. Implications of MAVEN Mars near-wake measurements and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Dong, Chuanfei; Ma, Yingjuan; Curry, S. M.; Mitchell, D.; Espley, J.; Connerney, J.; Halekas, J.; Brain, D. A.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mazelle, C.

    2015-11-01

    Mars is typically viewed as a member of the category of weakly magnetized planets, with a largely induced magnetosphere and magnetotail produced by the draped fields of the solar wind interaction. However, selected Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN Mission (MAVEN) suprathermal electron and magnetic field observations in the near wake, sampled along its elliptical orbit during the early prime mission at altitudes ranging from its ~150 km periapsis to the tail magnetosheath, reinforce a picture seen in an MHD model where magnetic fields are rooted in the planet throughout much of the Martian magnetotail.

  20. Site Suitability Assessment with Dynamic Wake Meandering Model. A Certification Point of View.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomas Bayo, Ricard; Parro, Gema

    2015-04-01

    Establishment of large wind farms requires enormous investments putting steadily greater emphasis on optimal topology design and control of these. This requires not only an optimization of the power output, but also the development of strategies to cope with the higher loading expected. The cornerstone of such strategies is a realistic characterization and modelling of the wake flow field inside the wind farm, beyond Frandsen's equivalent turbulence method. Whereas Frandsen model has been mostly considered in the industry so far, it has not proved completely satisfactory when facing current problems such as wake effects on turbines placed at short distances or consequences of half wake for turbine loading. The objective of the present work is to address these questions from a certification point of view within the framework of Risoe's Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model. The DWM model is based on the combination of three parts: modeling of quasi-steady wake deficits, a stochastic model of the downwind wake meandering and an added or self-generated wake turbulence. The analysis carried out is two-fold: First, a comparative study of the wake effects generated in Frandsen model as well as in various realizations of the DWM model is performed. For this purpose wake-induced loads are calculated using two different aeroelastic codes: HAWC2 and Bladed. Second, the applicability of DWM for the assessment of wind turbines under site-specific conditions is discussed and the conclusions summarized in a Recommended Practice. Clear prescriptions are thereby provided for the use of DWMM for site suitability assessments, including the aforementioned extreme situations, along with the interpretation of the future version of the IEC 61400-1 standards.

  1. Application of Three-Component PIV to a Hovering Rotor Wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Lourenco, Luiz; Heineck, James T.; Wadcock, Alan J.; Abrego, Anita I.; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The key to accurate predictions of rotorcraft aerodynamics, acoustics, and dynamics lies in the accurate representation of the rotor wake. The vortical wake computed by rotorcraft CFD analyses typically suffer from numerical dissipation before the first blade passage. With some a priori knowledge of the wake trajectory, grid points can be concentrated along the trajectory to minimize the dissipation. Comprehensive rotorcraft analyses based on lifting-line theory rely on classical vortex models and/or semi-empirical information about the tip vortex structure. Until the location, size, and strength of the trailed tip vortex can be measured over a range of wake ages, the analyses will continue to be adjusted on a trial and error basis in order to correctly predict blade airloads, acoustics, dynamics, and performance. Using the laser light sheet technique, tip vortex location can be acquired in a straightforward manner. Measuring wake velocities and vortex core size, however, has been difficult and tedious using point-measurement techniques such as laser velocimetry. Recently, the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique has proven to be an efficient method for acquiring velocity measurements over relatively large areas and volumes of a rotor wake. The work reported to date, however, has been restricted to 2-component velocity measurements of the rotor wake. Three-component velocity measurements of a hovering rotor wake were acquired at NASA Ames Research Center in May 1999. This experiment represents a major step toward understanding the detailed structure of a rotor wake. This paper will focus primarily on the experimental technique used in acquiring this data. The accuracy and limitations of the current technique will also be discussed. Representative velocity field measurements will be included.

  2. Determination of Wind Turbine Near-Wake Length Based on Stability Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srensen, Jens N.; Mikkelsen, Robert; Sarmast, Sasan; Ivanell, Stefan; Henningson, Dan

    2014-06-01

    A numerical study on the wake behind a wind turbine is carried out focusing on determining the length of the near-wake based on the instability onset of the trailing tip vortices shed from the turbine blades. The numerical model is based on large-eddy simulations (LES) of the Navier-Stokes equations using the actuator line (ACL) method. The wake is perturbed by applying stochastic or harmonic excitations in the neighborhood of the tips of the blades. The flow field is then analyzed to obtain the stability properties of the tip vortices in the wake of the wind turbine. As a main outcome of the study it is found that the amplification of specific waves (traveling structures) along the tip vortex spirals is responsible for triggering the instability leading to wake breakdown. The presence of unstable modes in the wake is related to the mutual inductance (vortex pairing) instability where there is an out-of-phase displacement of successive helix turns. Furthermore, using the non-dimensional growth rate, it is found that the pairing instability has a universal growth rate equal to ?/2. Using this relationship, and the assumption that breakdown to turbulence occurs once a vortex has experienced sufficient growth, we provide an analytical relationship between the turbulence intensity and the stable wake length. The analysis leads to a simple expression for determining the length of the near wake. This expression shows that the near wake length is inversely proportional to thrust, tip speed ratio and the logarithmic of the turbulence intensity.

  3. SAR observation and numerical modeling of tidal current wakes at the East China Sea offshore wind farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, XiaoMing; Chi, Lequan; Chen, Xueen; Ren, YongZheng; Lehner, Susanne

    2014-08-01

    A TerraSAR-X (TS-X) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image acquired at the East China Sea offshore wind farm presents distinct wakes at a kilometer scale on the lee of the wind turbines. The presumption was that these wakes were caused by wind movement around turbine blades. However, wind analysis using spaceborne radiometer data, numerical weather prediction, and in situ measurements suggest that the prevailing wind direction did not align with the wakes. By analyzing measurement at the tidal gauge station and modeling of the tidal current field, these trailing wakes are interpreted to have formed when a strong tidal current impinged on the cylindrical monopiles of the wind turbines. A numerical simulation was further conducted to reproduce the tidal current wake under such conditions. Comparison of the simulated surface velocity in the wake region with the TS-X sea surface backscatter intensity shows a similar trend. Consequently, turbulence intensity (T.I.) of the tidal current wakes over multiple piles is studied using the TS-X observation. It is found that the T.I. has a logarithmic relation with distance. Furthermore, another case study showing wakes due to wind movement around turbine blades is presented to discuss the differences in the tidal current wakes and wind turbine wakes. The conclusion is drawn that small-scale wakes formed by interaction of the tidal current and the turbine piles could be also imaged by SAR when certain conditions are satisfied. The study is anticipated to draw more attentions to the impacts of offshore wind foundations on local hydrodynamic field.

  4. Transitions in the vortex wake behind the plunging profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koz?owski, Tomasz; Kudela, Henryk

    2014-12-01

    In this study we investigate numerically the vortex wake formation behind the profile performing simple harmonic motion known in the literature as plunging. This research was inspired by the flapping motion which is appropriate for birds, insects and fishes. We assume the two dimensional model of flow. Depending on the parameters such as plunging amplitude, frequency and the Reynolds number, we demonstrate many different types of vortex street behind the profile. It is well known that the type of vortex wake determines the hydrodynamic forces acting on the profile. Dependences of the plunging amplitude, the Strouhal number and various topology vortices are established by constructing the phase transition diagram. The areas in the diagram related to the drag, thrust, and lift force generation are captured. We notice also the areas where the vorticity field is disordered. The disordered vorticity field does not allow maintenance of the periodic forces on the profile. An increase in the Reynolds number leads to the transition of the vortex wake behind the profile. The transition is caused by the phenomenon of boundary layer eruption. Further increase of the Reynolds number causes the vortex street related to the generation of the lift force to vanish.

  5. Non-linear plasma wake growth of electron holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, I. H.; Haakonsen, C. B.; Zhou, C.

    2015-03-01

    An object's wake in a plasma with small Debye length that drifts across the magnetic field is subject to electrostatic electron instabilities. Such situations include, for example, the moon in the solar wind and probes in magnetized laboratory plasmas. The instability drive mechanism can equivalently be considered drift down the potential-energy gradient or drift up the density-gradient. The gradients arise because the plasma wake has a region of depressed density and electrostatic potential into which ions are attracted along the field. The non-linear consequences of the instability are analysed in this paper. At physical ratios of electron to ion mass, neither linear nor quasilinear treatment can explain the observation of large-amplitude perturbations that disrupt the ion streams well before they become ion-ion unstable. We show here, however, that electron holes, once formed, continue to grow, driven by the drift mechanism, and if they remain in the wake may reach a maximum non-linearly stable size, beyond which their uncontrolled growth disrupts the ions. The hole growth calculations provide a quantitative prediction of hole profile and size evolution. Hole growth appears to explain the observations of recent particle-in-cell simulations.

  6. Wave Activity in Europa's Wake: Implications for Ion Pickup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volwerk, M.; Kivelson, M. G.; Khurana, K. K.

    2001-01-01

    Intense wave power at frequencies near and below the cyclotron frequencies of heavy ions was detected in Europa's wake during the E11 and E15 flybys. The fluctuations are mainly transverse to the background magnetic field. Wave characteristics indicate that they are ion cyclotron waves driven by positively charged pickup ions. In both flybys there is evidence, derived from the wave polarization, for pickup of negatively charged chlorine ions. When the moon is near the center of the Jovian current sheet, the pickup rate inferred for the E15 flyby is larger than that for the E11 flyby, when the moon is outside the Jovian current sheet. The wave power does not provide exact pickup density values because the waves are observed in regions where their growth has not yet fully developed. At the edges of the wake region, low-frequency (< K+ gyrofrequency) magnetohydrodynamic waves are also present. We identify magnetic field signatures that are reminiscent of interchange/ballooning of mass-loaded flux tubes from the wake/pickup region expanding into ambient medium that is less dense.

  7. Non-linear plasma wake growth of electron holes

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, I. H.; Haakonsen, C. B.; Zhou, C.

    2015-03-15

    An object's wake in a plasma with small Debye length that drifts across the magnetic field is subject to electrostatic electron instabilities. Such situations include, for example, the moon in the solar wind and probes in magnetized laboratory plasmas. The instability drive mechanism can equivalently be considered drift down the potential-energy gradient or drift up the density-gradient. The gradients arise because the plasma wake has a region of depressed density and electrostatic potential into which ions are attracted along the field. The non-linear consequences of the instability are analysed in this paper. At physical ratios of electron to ion mass, neither linear nor quasilinear treatment can explain the observation of large-amplitude perturbations that disrupt the ion streams well before they become ion-ion unstable. We show here, however, that electron holes, once formed, continue to grow, driven by the drift mechanism, and if they remain in the wake may reach a maximum non-linearly stable size, beyond which their uncontrolled growth disrupts the ions. The hole growth calculations provide a quantitative prediction of hole profile and size evolution. Hole growth appears to explain the observations of recent particle-in-cell simulations.

  8. Wake evolution and trailing vortex instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odemark, Ylva; Fransson, Jens H. M.

    2011-11-01

    The production losses and inhomogeneous loads of wind power turbines placed in the wake of another turbine is a well-known problem when building new wind power farms, and a subject of intensive research. The present work aims at developing an increased understanding of the behaviour of turbine wakes, with special regard to wake evolution and the stability of the trailing vortices. Single point velocity measurements with hot-wire anemometry were performed in the wake of a small-scale model turbine. The model was placed in the middle of the wind tunnel test section, outside the boundary layers from the wind tunnel walls. In order to study the stability of the wake and the trailing vortices, a disturbance was introduced at the end of the nacelle. This was accomplished through two orifices perpendicular to the main flow, which were connected to a high-pressure tank and two fast-switching valves. Both varicose and sinusoidal modes of different frequencies could be triggered. By also triggering the measurements on the blade passage, the meandering of the wake and the disturbance frequency, phase averaged results could be computed. The results for different frequencies as well as studies of wake evolution will be presented.

  9. Two-fluid jets and wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herczynski, Andrzej; Weidman, Patrick D.; Burde, Georgy I.

    2004-04-01

    Similarity solutions for laminar two-fluid jets and wakes are derived in the boundary-layer approximation. Planar and axisymmetric fan jets as well as classical and momentumless planar wakes are considered. The interface between the immiscible fluids is stabilized by the action of gravity, with the heavier fluid, taken to be a liquid, placed beneath the lighter fluid. Velocity profiles for the jets and the classical wake depend intimately, but differently, on the parameter ?=?1?1/?2?2, where ?i and ?i are, respectively, the density and absolute viscosity of the fluid in the upper (i=1) and lower (i=2) fluid domains, while the momentumless wake profile depends on the parameter ?=?1?23/?2?13. Generally, all interfaces deflect from horizontal except the fan jet. However, while the interface for the classical planar two-fluid wake is never flat, the interfaces for the planar jet and the momentumless wake become flat in the particular case ?1=?2. Velocity profiles illustrating the strongly asymmetrical jet and wake profiles that arise in air-over-water, oil-over-water, and air-over-oil flows are presented.

  10. Study for prediction of rotor/wake/fuselage interference. Part 2: Program users guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, D. R.; Maskew, B.

    1985-01-01

    A method was developed which permits the fully coupled calculation of fuselage and rotor airloads for typical helicopter configurations in forward flight. To do this, an iterative solution is carried out based on a conventional panel representation of the fuselage and a blade element representation of the rotor where fuselage and rotor singularity strengths are determined simultaneously at each step and the rotor wake is allowed to relax (deform) in response to changes in rotor wake loading and fuselage presence. On completion of the iteration, rotor loading and inflow, fuselage singularity strength (and, hence, pressure and velocity distributions) and rotor wake are all consistent. The results of a fully coupled calculation of the flow around representative helicopter configurations are presented. The effect of fuselage components on the rotor flow field and the overall wake structure is discussed as well as the aerodynamic interference between the different parts of the aircraft. Details of the computer program are given.

  11. Are the wake angles of a duck and a ship really the same?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabaud, Marc; Moisy, Frederic

    2012-11-01

    The wake of a disturbance moving at the water surface, like a ship or a duck, owes its shape to the dispersive property of surface gravity waves. According to Kelvin's theory, it is widely accepted, and sometimes observed, that the wake angle is independent of the disturbance velocity, and given by sin-1 (1 / 3) = 19 . 4 degrees. However, field observations often show much smaller angles for fast ships, down to 5 - 10 degrees. The angle of these narrow wakes is actually found to decrease as the inverse of the disturbance velocity, similarly to the Mach cone of a supersonic disturbance in a non-dispersive medium. We propose here a simple model for this transition from a Kelvin regime (at low Froude number) to a Mach regime (at large Froude number) -- where the Froude number is based on the disturbance length. This model is confirmed by numerical simulations, reproducing the variety of wake patterns observed for disturbances of various size and velocity.

  12. Computation of rotor aerodynamic loads with a constant vorticity contour free wake model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Wachspress, Daniel A.; Boschitsch, Alexander H.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical method is presented which facilitates the study of isolated rotors with an improved approach to wake simulation. Vortex filaments are simulated along contours of constant sheet strength for the sheet of vorticity resulting from each rotor blade. Curved vortex elements comprise the filaments which can be distorted by the local velocity field. Called the Constant Vorticity Contour wake model, the approach permits the simulation of the blades' wakes corresponding to the full span of the rotor blade. The discretization of the wake of the rotor blade produces spacing and structure that are consistent with the spatial and temporal variations in the loading. A vortex-lattice aerodynamic model of the blade is also included which introduces a finite-element structural model of the blade and consideration of the force and moment trim analysis. Results of the present version of the simulation, called RotorCRAFT, are found to correlate well with H-34 flight-test data.

  13. Large HAWT wake measurement and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A. H.; Wegley, H. L.; Buck, J. W.

    1995-05-01

    From the theoretical fluid dynamics point of view, the wake region of a large horizontal-axis wind turbine has been defined and described, and numerical models of wake behavior have been developed. Wind tunnel studies of single turbine wakes and turbine array wakes have been used to verify the theory and further refine the numerical models. However, the effects of scaling, rotor solidity, and topography on wake behavior are questions that remain unanswered. In the wind tunnel studies, turbines were represented by anything from scaled models to tea strainers or wire mesh disks whose solidity was equivalent to that of a typical wind turbine. The scale factor compensation for the difference in Reynolds number between the scale model and an actual turbine is complex, and not typically accounted for. Though it is wise to study the simpler case of wakes in flat topography, which can be easily duplicated in the wind tunnel, current indications are that wind turbine farm development is actually occurring in somewhat more complex terrain. Empirical wake studies using large horizontal-axis wind turbines have not been thoroughly composited, and, therefore, the results have not been applied to the well-developed theory of wake structure. The measurement programs have made use of both in situ sensor systems, such as instrumented towers, and remote sensors, such as kites and tethered, balloonborne anemometers. We present a concise overview of the work that has been performed, including our own, which is based on the philosophy that the MOD-2 turbines are probably their own best detector of both the momentum deficit and the induced turbulence effect downwind. Only the momentum deficit aspects of the wake/machine interactions have been addressed. Both turbine power output deficits and wind energy deficits as measured by the onsite meteorological towers have been analyzed from a composite data set. The analysis has also evidenced certain topographic influences on the operation of spatially diverse wind turbines.

  14. Large HAWT wake measurement and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. H.; Wegley, H. L.; Buck, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    From the theoretical fluid dynamics point of view, the wake region of a large horizontal-axis wind turbine has been defined and described, and numerical models of wake behavior have been developed. Wind tunnel studies of single turbine wakes and turbine array wakes have been used to verify the theory and further refine the numerical models. However, the effects of scaling, rotor solidity, and topography on wake behavior are questions that remain unanswered. In the wind tunnel studies, turbines were represented by anything from scaled models to tea strainers or wire mesh disks whose solidity was equivalent to that of a typical wind turbine. The scale factor compensation for the difference in Reynolds number between the scale model and an actual turbine is complex, and not typically accounted for. Though it is wise to study the simpler case of wakes in flat topography, which can be easily duplicated in the wind tunnel, current indications are that wind turbine farm development is actually occurring in somewhat more complex terrain. Empirical wake studies using large horizontal-axis wind turbines have not been thoroughly composited, and, therefore, the results have not been applied to the well-developed theory of wake structure. The measurement programs have made use of both in situ sensor systems, such as instrumented towers, and remote sensors, such as kites and tethered, balloonborne anemometers. We present a concise overview of the work that has been performed, including our own, which is based on the philosophy that the MOD-2 turbines are probably their own best detector of both the momentum deficit and the induced turbulence effect downwind. Only the momentum deficit aspects of the wake/machine interactions have been addressed. Both turbine power output deficits and wind energy deficits as measured by the onsite meteorological towers have been analyzed from a composite data set. The analysis has also evidenced certain topographic influences on the operation of spatially diverse wind turbines.

  15. Island wakes in the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, R. M. A.; Marchesiello, P.; Nezlin, N. P.; Digiacomo, P. M.; McWilliams, J. C.

    2005-11-01

    Wind- and current-induced island wakes were investigated using a multiplatform approach of in situ, remote sensing, and numerical model simulations for the Southern California Bight (SCB). Island wind wakes are a result of sheltering from the wind, with weak wind mixing, strong heat storage, and consequent high sea surface temperature (SST). Wind wakes around Santa Catalina Island are most persistent during spring and summer months. Current wakes, caused by the disruption of the poleward traveling California Countercurrent, induce eddies to form off the north end of Catalina Island, and these move poleward every 9-12 days. Current wake eddies induce strong mixing, with low SST and high-density sea surface signatures, whereas wind wakes induce high sea surface temperature signatures associated with the formation of a well-defined shallow thermocline. Current wake eddies vary from 1 to 30 km in diameter. From numerical solutions we predicted the frequency of occurrence of current-induced wakes off Santa Catalina Island. Wind wakes were also observed off all the other islands of the SCB as seen from the analysis of synthetic aperture radar data. Time series analysis of the island mass effect phenomenon has shown a concurrence of low SST and high sea surface chlorophyll for Santa Catalina, San Nicholas, and San Clemente islands that might be related to the seasonality of the California Current and California Countercurrent. Future oceanographic research in the SCB should not ignore the occurrence of wind- and current-induced island features since they may be important in the transport and/or retention of nutrients, pollutants, and plankton.

  16. Wake interaction and power production of variable height model wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vested, M. H.; Hamilton, N.; Srensen, J. N.; Cal, R. B.

    2014-06-01

    Understanding wake dynamics is an ongoing research topic in wind energy, since wakes have considerable effects on the power production when wind turbines are placed in a wind farm. Wind tunnel experiments have been conducted to study the wake to wake interaction in a model wind farm in tandem with measurements of the extracted power. The aim is to investigate how alternating mast height influences the interaction of the wakes and the power production. Via the use of stereo-particle image velocimetry, the flow field was obtained in the first and last rows of the wind turbine array as a basis of comparison. It was found that downstream of the exit row wind turbine, the power was increased by 25% in the case of a staggered height configuration. This is partly due to the fact that the taller turbines reach into a flow area with a softened velocity gradient. Another aspect is that the wake downstream of a tall wind turbine to some extent passes above the standard height wind turbine. Overall the experiments show that the velocity field downstream of the exit row changes considerably when the mast height is alternating.

  17. A Critical Review of the Transport and Decay of Wake Vortices in Ground Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarpkaya, T.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the transport and decay of wake vortices in ground effect and cites a need for a physics-based parametric model. The encounter of a vortex with a solid body is always a complex event involving turbulence enhancement, unsteadiness, and very large gradients of velocity and pressure. Wake counter in ground effect is the most dangerous of them all. The interaction of diverging, area-varying, and decaying aircraft wake vortices with the ground is very complex because both the vortices and the flow field generated by them are altered to accommodate the presence of the ground (where there is very little room to maneuver) and the background turbulent flow. Previous research regarding vortex models, wake vortex decay mechanisms, time evolution within in ground effect of a wake vortex pair, laminar flow in ground effect, and the interaction of the existing boundary layer with a convected vortex are reviewed. Additionally, numerical simulations, 3-dimensional large-eddy simulations, a probabilistic 2-phase wake vortex decay and transport model and a vortex element method are discussed. The devising of physics-based, parametric models for the prediction of (operational) real-time response, mindful of the highly three-dimensional and unsteady structure of vortices, boundary layers, atmospheric thermodynamics, and weather convective phenomena is required. In creating a model, LES and field data will be the most powerful tools.

  18. Bubbly wake: the role of the propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caille, Francois

    2005-11-01

    We study the length of the bubbly wake of surface vessels. This wake is important for the boat security since it can extend to several ship length and thus increases the detectability of the ship by torpedoes. The image analysis of the wake of real scale ships reveals the sensitivity of the length to propellers. We have thus conducted a systematic study in the laboratory of the interaction bubble/propeller, trying to address several questions:- what is the role of cavitation?- is the propeller able to attract the bubbles present along the ship at the sea surface?- if attracted, can these bubble be broken by the propeller?

  19. Wake dynamics behind a seal-vibrissa-shaped cylinder: a comparative study by time-resolved particle velocimetry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaofei; Liu, Yingzheng

    2016-03-01

    The wake dynamics behind a seal-vibrissa-shaped cylinder, which are closely related to the seal's extraordinary ability to faithfully track the hydrodynamic trails of its upstream prey, were extensively studied by using time-resolved particle image velocity. Four cylindrical configurations that shared the same hydrodynamic diameter (i.e., a circular cylinder, an elliptical cylinder, a wavy cylinder, and a vibrissa-shaped cylinder) were chosen for the comparative study at the Reynolds number 1.8 × 103. The instantaneous flow fields behind the cylinders were measured along their vertical and horizontal planes. The distinct global differences between the wakes were determined from the streamline patterns, the reverse-flow intermittences, and both the streamwise and longitudinal velocity fluctuation intensities. Compared to the other three systems tested, the vibrissa-shaped cylinder system was characterized by a considerably reduced recirculation zone in the nodal plane, the existence of a very stably reversed flow, and substantial reductions in the streamwise and longitudinal velocity fluctuation intensities. Further cross-correlation of the fluctuating longitudinal velocities showed that the unsteady events behind the vibrissa-shaped cylinder were poorly organized by sequence and considerably constrained in their spatial extent. Finally, a dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) was performed on the instantaneously varying wake flows. In the wavy cylinder system, a single dominant DMD mode at St = 0.2 (corresponding to Karman vortex street) was detected in both the saddle and nodal planes. Although the dominant DMD modes at St = 0.23 and 0.3 were determined in the saddle and nodal planes of the vibrissa-shaped cylinder system, respectively, the spatial pattern of these two DMD modes showed resolved vortical structures that were highly distorted and constrained to an extremely limited space. These DMD modes had much less energy than those in the other three systems. The phase-dependent variations of the wake flows disclosed that the complex unsteady behavior at distinctly different frequencies in the saddle and nodal planes disrupted the regular vortex shedding process, suppressing the vortex-induced vibration of the vibrissa-shaped cylinder.

  20. Characterization of a Three-Dimensional Turret Wake for Active Flow Control Part II: Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, Patrick; Ruscher, Christopher; Wallace, Ryan; Glauser, Mark; Dannenhoffer, John, III

    2010-11-01

    Experimental measurements have been performed to characterize the wake of a three-dimensional, non-conformal turret. Experiments were performed in a low-speed wind tunnel at Syracuse University using particle image velocimetry, hotwire anemometry and dynamic and static pressure measurements. The objective of the study was to characterize the spatial and temporal nature of the wake region as well as to investigate the importance of the incoming flow field. Computational studies have been performed in conjunction with this work to help guide the experimental study and offer insight into the complex three-dimensional flow field. With a better understanding of the wake and three-dimensional characteristics of the turret flow field, closed-loop, active flow control systems will be developed to help reduce fluctuating loading and aero-optical distortions associated with the turbulent flow field.

  1. A new solution to waveguide excitation suppressing the effects of the radiated field. Application to the Y-junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grard, Philippe; Morand, Alain; Lematre-Auger, Pierre

    1998-07-01

    When an integrated optical component is asymmetrically excited, a radiated field is generated. Most of the time, the energy carried by the radiated field is lost. However, with high-level integration structures, this field can couple back into another waveguide and then disturb the operating conditions of the whole component. An original waveguide geometry that rapidly removes this radiated field is thus proposed here. The study of a specific Y-junction shows that it is possible to reduce by a factor of at least 30 the length of the Y-junction's straight waveguide. Computer modelling was performed with the radiation spectrum method (RSM), a new beam propagation method, perfectly suited to dealing with the field coming from guided and radiation modes. It gives us a good physical understanding of the light propagation.

  2. Suppression of quantum decoherence via infrared-driven coherent exciton-plasmon coupling: Undamped field and Rabi oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghi, S. M.; Patty, K. D.

    2014-02-24

    We show that when a semiconductor quantum dot is in the vicinity of a metallic nanoparticle and driven by a mid-infrared laser field, its coherent dynamics caused by interaction with a visible laser field can become free of quantum decoherence. We demonstrate that this process, which can offer undamped Rabi and field oscillations, is the result of coherent normalization of the effective polarization dephasing time of the quantum dot (T{sub 2}{sup *}). This process indicates formation of infrared-induced coherently forced oscillations, which allows us to control the value of T{sub 2}{sup *} using the infrared laser. The results offer decay-free ultrafast modulation of the effective field experienced by the quantum dot when neither the visible laser field nor the infrared laser changes with time.

  3. Wake vortex measurements of bodies at high angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, F. K.; Johnson, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Three-dimensional laser velocimeter measurements have been made of the wake vortices of a slender tangent-ogive body which had nose and body fineness ratios of 3.5 and 12, respectively. Data were obtained for an angle of attack to seminose angle ratio of 2.3 at a free-stream Mach number of 0.6 and unit Reynolds number of 2 million/ft. Details of the mean flow field are presented and features of the turbulent and unsteady nature of the vortex flow field are discussed. Problems associated with obtaining meaningful vortex measurements in high-speed flows are addressed.

  4. Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don

    2014-01-01

    Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.

  5. A wake detector for wind farm control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottasso, C. L.; Cacciola, S.; Schreiber, J.

    2015-06-01

    The paper describes an observer capable of detecting the impingement on a wind turbine rotor of the wake of an upstream machine. The observer estimates the local wind speed and turbulence intensity on the left and right parts of the rotor disk. The estimation is performed based on blade loads measured by strain gages or optical fibers, sensors which are becoming standard equipment on many modern machines. A lower wind speed and higher turbulence intensity on one part of the rotor, possibly in conjunction with other information, can then be used to infer the presence of a wake impinging on the disk. The wake state information is useful for wind plant control strategies, as for example wake deflection by active yawing. In addition, the local wind speed estimates may be used for a rough evaluation of the vertical wind shear.

  6. Characterizing Wake Turbulence with Staring Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastine, D.; Wchter, M.; Peinke, J.; Trabucchi, D.; Khn, M.

    2015-06-01

    Lidar measurements in the German offshore wind farm Alpha Ventus were performed to investigate the turbulence characteristics of wind turbine wakes. In particular, we compare measurements of the free flow in the surroundings of the wind turbines with measurements in the inner region of a wake flow behind one turbine. Our results indicate that wind turbines modulate the turbulent structures of the flow on a wide range of scales. For the data of the wake flow, the power spectrum as well as the multifractal intermittency coefficient reveal features of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Thus, we conjecture that on scales of the rotor a new turbulent cascade is initiated, which determines the features of the turbulent wake flow quite independently from the more complex wind flow in the surroundings of the turbine.

  7. Three-Phased Wake Vortex Decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; Switzer, George S.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed parametric study is conducted that examines vortex decay within turbulent and stratified atmospheres. The study uses a large eddy simulation model to simulate the out-of-ground effect behavior of wake vortices due to their interaction with atmospheric turbulence and thermal stratification. This paper presents results from a parametric investigation and suggests improvements for existing fast-time wake prediction models. This paper also describes a three-phased decay for wake vortices. The third phase is characterized by a relatively slow rate of circulation decay, and is associated with the ringvortex stage that occurs following vortex linking. The three-phased decay is most prevalent for wakes imbedded within environments having low-turbulence and near-neutral stratification.

  8. Analysis of vortex wake encounter upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. A.; Teper, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of an airplane being upset by encountering the vortex wake of a large transport on takeoff or landing is currently receiving considerable attention. This report describes the technique and results of a study to assess the effectiveness of automatic control systems in alleviating vortex wake upsets. A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear digital simulation was used for this purpose. The analysis included establishing the disturbance input due to penetrating a vortex wake from an arbitrary position and angle. Simulations were computed for both a general aviation airplane and a commercial jet transport. Dynamic responses were obtained for the penetrating aircraft with no augmentation, and with various command augmentation systems, as well as with human pilot control. The results of this preliminary study indicate that attitude command augmentation systems can provide significant alleviation of vortex wake upsets; and can do it better than a human pilot.

  9. On the wake of a Darrieus turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Base, T. E.; Phillips, P.; Robertson, G.; Nowak, E. S.

    1981-05-01

    The theory and experimental measurements on the aerodynamic decay of a wake from high performance vertical axis wind turbine are discussed. In the initial experimental study, the wake downstream of a model Darrieus rotor, 28 cm diameter and a height of 45.5 cm, was measured in a Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel. The wind turbine was run at the design tip speed ratio of 5.5. It was found that the wake decayed at a slower rate with distance downstream of the turbine, than a wake from a screen with similar troposkein shape and drag force characteristics as the Darrieus rotor. The initial wind tunnel results indicated that the vertical axis wind turbines should be spaced at least forty diameters apart to avoid mutual power depreciation greater than ten per cent.

  10. On the wake of a Darrieus turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Base, T. E.; Phillips, P.; Robertson, G.; Nowak, E. S.

    1981-01-01

    The theory and experimental measurements on the aerodynamic decay of a wake from high performance vertical axis wind turbine are discussed. In the initial experimental study, the wake downstream of a model Darrieus rotor, 28 cm diameter and a height of 45.5 cm, was measured in a Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel. The wind turbine was run at the design tip speed ratio of 5.5. It was found that the wake decayed at a slower rate with distance downstream of the turbine, than a wake from a screen with similar troposkein shape and drag force characteristics as the Darrieus rotor. The initial wind tunnel results indicated that the vertical axis wind turbines should be spaced at least forty diameters apart to avoid mutual power depreciation greater than ten per cent.

  11. Field-induced suppression of the ?-band superconductivity and magnetic hysteresis in the microwave surface resistance of MgB2 at temperatures near Tc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonura, M.; Agliolo Gallitto, A.; Li Vigni, M.; Ummarino, G. A.

    2009-05-01

    We report on the magnetic-field-induced variations of the microwave surface resistance, Rs, in a polycrystalline MgB2 sample, at different values of temperature. We have detected a magnetic hysteresis in Rs, which exhibits an unexpected plateau on decreasing the DC magnetic field below a certain value. In particular, at temperatures near Tc the hysteresis manifests itself only through the presence of the plateau. Although we do not quantitatively justify the anomalous shape of the magnetic hysteresis, we show that the results obtained in the reversible region of the Rs(H) curve can be quite well accounted for by supposing that, in this range of magnetic field, the ? gap is almost suppressed by the applied field and, consequently, all the ?-band charge carriers are quasiparticles. On this hypothesis, we have calculated Rs(H) supposing that fluxons assume a conventional (single core) structure and the flux dynamics can be described in the framework of conventional models. From the fitting of the experimental results, we determine the values of Hc2?(T) at temperatures near Tc. In our opinion, the most important result of our investigation is that, at least at temperatures near Tc, the value of the applied field that separates the reversible and irreversible regions of the Rs(H) curves is just Hc2?(T) a qualitative discussion of the possible reasons for this finding is given.

  12. Suppression of antiferromagnetic ordering by magnetic field in Ce0.6La0.4In3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, T.; Silhanek, A. V.; Jaime, M.; Harrison, N.

    2015-03-01

    Electrical resistivity and specifc heat measurements were performed at high magnetic fields up to 45 T in Ce0.6La0.4In3, which is the La-substituted material to heavy fermion antiferromagnet CeIn3. In Ce0.6La0.4In3, the H-T phase diagram was drawn and the critical magnetic field was estimated to be approximately at 39 T. The critical field of Ce0.6La0.4In3 is about 20 T lower than that at 60 T of CeIn3. Lower critical field facilitates observing Fermi surfaces when crossing phase boundary between antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases. Thus, the phase diagram obtained from our results should be a guide when we compare the Fermi surface topology in antiferromagnetic phase to that in paramagnetic phase.

  13. Persistence and decay of wake vorticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, L.

    1976-01-01

    Some recent research relating to the nature of the lift-induced vortex wakes behind large aircraft was reviewed and the scaling laws that permit a comparison of results from ground facilities with those from flight test were provided. The maximum rotational velocities in the wake are shown to depend on a span loading shape parameter and on a characteristic length of persistence behind the aircraft. The effects of Reynolds number are also shown.

  14. Mesoscale wake clouds in Skylab pictures.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T. T.; Tecson, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The recognition of cloud patterns formed in the wake of orographic obstacles was investigated using pictures from Skylab, for the purpose of estimating atmospheric motions. The existence of ship-wake-type wave clouds in contrast to vortex sheets were revealed during examination of the pictures, and an attempt was made to characterize the pattern of waves as well as the transition between waves and vortices. Examples of mesoscale cloud patterns which were analyzed photogrammetrically and meteorologically are presented.

  15. Wake-Vortex Hazards During Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; James, Kevin D.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Even though the hazard posed by lift-generated wakes of subsonic transport aircraft has been studied extensively for approach and departure at airports, only a small amount of effort has gone into the potential hazard at cruise altitude. This paper reports on a studio of the wake-vortex hazard during cruise because encounters may become more prevalent when free-flight becomes available and each aircraft, is free to choose its own route between destinations. In order to address the problem, the various fluid-dynamic stages that vortex wakes usually go through as they age will be described along with estimates of the potential hazard that each stage poses. It appears that a rolling-moment hazard can be just as severe at cruise as for approach at airports, but it only persists for several minutes. However, the hazard posed by the downwash in the wake due to the lift on the generator aircraft persists for tens of minutes in a long narrow region behind the generating aircraft. The hazard consists of severe vertical loads when an encountering aircraft crosses the wake. A technique for avoiding vortex wakes at cruise altitude will be described. To date the hazard posed by lift-generated vortex wakes and their persistence at cruise altitudes has been identified and subdivided into several tasks. Analyses of the loads to be encounter and are underway and should be completed shortly. A review of published literature on the subject has been nearly completed (see text) and photographs of vortex wakes at cruise altitudes have been taken and the various stages of decay have been identified. It remains to study and sort the photographs for those that best illustrate the various stages of decay after they are shed by subsonic transport aircraft at cruise altitudes. The present status of the analysis and the paper are described.

  16. Waking dreams and other metachoric experiences.

    PubMed

    Green, C

    1990-06-01

    This paper summarizes the development of the concept of metachoric experiences from 1961 onwards. The name of metachoric experience was given to one in which the whole of the environment was replaced by a hallucinatory one, although this may provide a precise replica of the physical world and appear to be completely continuous with normal experience. Prior to 1968 three types of metachoric experiences had been recognized; lucid dreams, out-of-the-body experiences (OBEs) and false awakenings, all of which showed interrelationships. The Institute's 1968 appeal for apparitional experiences led to a recognition that many of these were probably metachoric. This was suggested among other things by certain cases in which the lighting of the whole field of view changes, thus indicating that the experience was completely hallucinatory. The study of apparitions led also to the concept of waking dreams, i.e. completely hallucinatory experiences which may be initiated and terminated without any awareness of discontinuity on the part of the subject. These experiences seem to be capable of considerable apparent extension in time, thus providing a possible explanation of some reports of UFO sightings and of some of the more anomalous experiences of psychical research. In this connection the paper discusses the well-known Versailles experience of Miss Moberly and Miss Jourdain, and a published case of C.G. Jung. In conclusion some of the most obvious similarities and differences between the different types of metachoric experiences are discussed. PMID:2374788

  17. Use of Individual Flight Corridors to Avoid Vortex Wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    2001-01-01

    Vortex wakes of aircraft pose a hazard to following aircraft until the energetic parts of their flow fields have decayed to a harmless level. It is suggested here that in-trail spacings between aircraft can be significantly and safely reduced by designing an individual, vortex-free flight corridor for each aircraft. Because each aircraft will then have its own flight corridor, which is free of vortex wakes while in use by the assigned aircraft, the time intervals between aircraft operations can be safely reduced to the order of seconds. The productivity of airports can then be substantially increased. How large the offset distances between operational corridors need to be to have them vortex free, and how airports need to be changed to accommodate an individual flight-corridor process for landing and takeoff operations, are explored. Estimates are then made of the productivity of an individual flight-corridor system as a function of the in-trail time interval between operations for various values of wake decay time, runway width, and the velocity of a sidewind. The results confirm the need for short time intervals between aircraft operations if smaller offset distances and increased productivity are to be achieved.

  18. Visualization of airflow in the wake of a ship superstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownell, C. J.; Stillman, W. P.; Golden, J. H.; Simpson, S. A.; Luznik, L.; Miklosovic, D. S.; White, G.; Burks, J. S.; Snyder, M. R.

    2009-11-01

    Helicopter landings on naval surface ships, such as cruisers and destroyers, must take place in the presence of an air wake created by flow over the ship superstructure. Wake turbulence over the flight deck makes piloted landings dangerous and difficult, and poses significant problems for the use of unmanned rotorcraft. To address this problem, a comprehensive set of experimental and simulation data are being collected via concurrent field tests, wind tunnel measurements, and CFD simulations. These data will facilitate an understanding of the wake turbulence produced under a variety of weather conditions, and will allow assessment of the fidelity of lower order flowfield estimates. A U.S. Navy Auxiliary Patrol (YP) Craft is used as a representative ship platform. The YP is over 100 ft long, has a similar shape to a modern destroyer, and has been modified to include a flight deck and hangar-like superstructure. Presented here are preliminary CFD results along with results from a large-scale flow visualization experiment. Qualitative information gleaned from the flow visualization is being used in the experimental design of upcoming quantitative air velocity measurements.

  19. Electrostatic instabilities induced by counter streaming ions in supersonic wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuteng; Hutchinson, I. H.; Haakonsen, Christian Bernt

    2014-10-01

    The wake behind an object moving at supersonic speed in a plasma contains a region of depleted density into which the plasma expands. This replenishing mechanism results in counter streaming ion beams accelerated by ambipolar electric fields, which can be inherently unstable. It is widely believed, for example, that the intense electrostatic noise in the central lunar wake arises from such instabilities. To understand better this and related phenomena, a code has been developed to calculate the linear wave growth rates in the Vlasov-Poisson system for arbitrary ion distribution functions. The research aims to give a comprehensive description of the electrostatic instabilities and their parametric dependences. A contour plot of maximum growth rates in parameter space will be presented in cases where the ion distribution function can be represented by a sum of Gaussians. Our calculations consider unequal beams and oblique modes in contrast to previous published results, which mostly treat equal beams and parallel propagation. We further apply our methods to investigate the regions of electrostatic instabilities in the wake of high Mach number plasma flow. Supported in part by NSF/DOE Grant DE-SC0010491.

  20. Accelerated Destruction of Aircraft Wake Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennich, Steven C.; Lele, Sanjiva K.

    1996-11-01

    footnotetext [1] Supported by Boeing and NSF under PYI award. We investigate how disturbances to aircraft vortex wakes, applied at the wing, survive the roll-up process and eventually lead to the destruction of the wake. The problem is studied using temporal slices of a vortex wake in a domain that is large enough in the axial direction to contain the most unstable wavelength (as predicted by Crow) and is unbounded in the cross stream directions. A new numerical method solves the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in vorticity form treating the unbounded character analytically, using spectral methods in space and RK4 time advancement. Studies of the growth of perturbations on a counter-rotating columnar vortex pair reproduced Crow's linear, inviscid, vortex filament results well for high Reynolds number. The 3-D roll-up of perturbed plane wakes were studied at Re = ?/? = 10,000 using a 1/2% oscillation in the spanwise location of the semi-span centroid of vorticity as the perturbation. Perturbed wakes due to elliptically loaded wings show a short period of rapid growth before evolving into the Crow instability which then grows at the predicted rate. Perturbed wakes due to idealized flapped wings, formed by the superposition of two elliptical lift distributions, perturbed in a similar manner, display more complex initial behavior before evolving into the Crow instability.

  1. Coupling of a free wake vortex ring near-wake model with the Jensen and Larsen far-wake deficit models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heemst, J. W.; Baldacchino, D.; Mehta, D.; van Bussel, G. J. W.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a simple physical model to improve the currently used far-wake deficit models in the wind industry. The main improvement is deemed on the determination of the wake deficit in the near-wake. A Vortex Ring Model (VRM) is used to calculate the induced velocities in the near-wake, which are then coupled to the Jensen far-wake model and the Larsen far-wake model based on the concept of Eddy Viscosity (EV). The inviscid near-wake VRM is based on the shedding of discrete tip vortex rings released from a uniformly loaded actuator disc. The model is validated against wind tunnel measurements from experiments with a two- bladed turbine and a circular metal mesh with a uniform porosity to represent an actuator disc. The VRM shows a good agreement with the experimental data with respect to the wake deficit evolution. The VRM is coupled with two well-known engineering type far-wake models: the Jensen and Larsen wake deficit models. The results of the coupling of the VRM and the more elaborated Larsen far-wake model are compared against a 3D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) CFD model. This comparison shows the effect of different near-wake models on the development of centreline velocities in the far-wake. The centreline velocity deficit predicted by the VRM-Larsen model more closely matches LES calculations in comparison with the reference Larsen model.

  2. Multi-Point Velocity Correlations in the Wake of a Three-Dimensional Bluff Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, Patrick; Glauser, Mark

    2013-11-01

    Three-dimensional bluff-bodies known as turrets are commonly used for housing optical systems on airborne platforms. These geometries generate highly turbulent wakes that decrease the performance of the optical systems and the aircraft. The current experimental study used dynamic suction in both open and closed-loop control configurations to actively control the wake turret. The experiments were carried out at a Reynolds number of 5 105, and the flow field was characterized using stereoscopic PIV measurements acquired in the wake of the turret. These data were processed using traditional single-point statistics which showed that the active control system was able to significantly alter the wake of the turret. Using multi-point correlations, turbulent characteristics such as the integral length scale can be calculated. For the turret wake, estimates of the integral length scales were found to be highly dependent upon the region of the flow that was evaluated, especially when comparing the shear layers to the center of the wake. With the application of the active control, the integral length scales were generally found to increase.

  3. Analysis of long distance wakes behind a row of turbines - a parameter study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, O.; Nilsson, K.; Breton, S.-P.; Ivanell, S.

    2014-06-01

    Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of the long distance wake behind a row of 10 turbines are conducted to predict wake recovery. The Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys3D is used in combination with the actuator disc concept. Neutral atmospheric conditions are assumed in combination with synthetic turbulence using the Mann method. Both the wind shear profile and turbulence are introduced into the flow field using body forces. Previous simulations using the same simulation method to model the Horns Rev wind farm showed a higher wake recovery at long distances compared to measurements. The current study investigates further the sensitivity to parameters such as the grid resolution, Reynolds number, the turbulence characteristics as well as the impact of using different internal turbine spacings. The clearest impact on the recovery behind the farm could be seen from the turbulence intensity of the incoming flow. The impact of the wind shear on the turbulence intensity in the domain needs further studies. A lower turbulence level gives slower wake recovery as expected. A slower wake recovery can also be seen for a higher grid resolution. The Reynolds number, apart from when using a very low value, has a small impact on the result. The variation of the internal spacing is seen to have a relatively minor impact on the farm wake recovery.

  4. Wind tunnel simulations of wind turbine wake interactions in neutral and stratified wind flow.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, P. E.; Pascheke, F.

    2010-09-01

    A second programme of work is about to commence as part of a further four years of funding for the UK-EPSRC SUPERGEN-Wind large-wind-farm consortium. The first part of the initial programme at Surrey was to establish and set up appropriate techniques for both on- and off-shore boundary layers (though with an emphasis on the latter) at a suitable scale, and to build suitable rotating model wind turbines. The EnFlo wind tunnel, a UK-NCAS special facility, is capable of creating scaled neutral, stable and unstable boundary layers in its 20m long working section. The model turbines are 1/300-scale of 5MW-size, speed controlled with phase-lock measurement capability, and the blade design takes into account low Reynolds-number effects. Velocity measurements are primarily made using two-component LDA, combined with a ‘cold-wire' probe in order to measure the local turbulent heat flux. Simulation of off-shore wakes is particularly constrained because i) at wind tunnel scale the inherently low surface roughness can be below that for fully rough conditions, ii) the power required to stratify the flow varies as the square of the flow speed, and could easily be impractically large, iii) low blade Reynolds number. The boundary layer simulations, set up to give near-equilibrium conditions in terms of streamwise development, and the model turbines have been designed against these constraints, but not all constraints can be always met simultaneously in practice. Most measurements so far have been made behind just one or two turbines in neutral off- and on-shore boundary layers, at stations up to 12 disk diameters downstream. These show how, for example, the wake of a turbine affects the development of the wake of a downwind turbine that is laterally off-set by say half or one diameter, and how the unaffected part from the first turbine merges with the affected wake of the second. As expected a lower level of atmospheric turbulence causes the wakes to develop and fill-in more slowly compared with the on-shore case. A turbine can also suppress the level of atmospheric turbulence below hub height. In neutral flow, the wakes grow in width and height. However, even in mild stable stratification the vertical development of the wake deficit can be completely inhibited; at least some reduction would be expected arising from the stabilizing influence on vertical fluctuations. The width in contrast develops at about the same rate. As anticipated, the wake development is slower still in the stable case because of the lower level ambient turbulence. The maximum deficit is at a lower height than it is for neutral flow. Various aspects of the turbulence in the wake have been investigated. Second-phase work will examine a larger number of wake-turbine and wake-wake interactions, make a more detailed study of how turbines alter the atmospheric turbulence, and examine more cases of stratification. Work is also in hand related to turbines in or near forested regions, and it is expected that aspects of the physics will have links with the effect a large wind farm will have on the ABL and on the wind resource for a downwind farm. The work will produce a series of test cases to assist in the development of better wake and wind resource prediction models as well as a better understanding of wake physics.

  5. Efficacy and residues of phloxine B and uranine for the suppression of Mediterranean fruit fly in coffee fields.

    PubMed

    Licudine, Jocelyn A; McQuate, Grant T; Cunningham, Roy T; Liquido, Nicanor J; Li, Qing X

    2002-01-01

    The field efficacy of a bait containing phloxine B, uranine and Provesta 621 protein was tested against Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata; Medfly) by aerial and ground spraying in about 84 ha of coffee fields in Kauai, Hawaii, USA. Concurrently, soil and crop samples were collected from the aerially sprayed field and its unsprayed control field for residue studies. Efficacy of the sprays was assessed through trapping with both protein-baited and trimedlure-baited traps and through the infestation level of coffee cherries collected at least three-quarters ripe. The C capitata population was low at the start of the aerial and ground spray studies, but dramatically increased in the control fields. This increase coincided with initial ripening of coffee cherries. During times of peak population levels, C capitata populations were reduced by more than 91% in the ground-sprayed field and 99% in the aerial-sprayed field, relative to the populations in their respective control fields and based on protein-baited trap catches. Results of residue analyses indicated that uranine dissipated quickly compared with phloxine B on coffee and soil. Coffee samples collected at pre-spray periods had phloxine B residues of 7.2-25.5 ng g-1 on berries. Phloxine B concentrations were much higher on coffee leaves (163-1120 ng g-1). Lower concentrations of the dye were found from coffee samples collected during rainy days. Average phloxine B concentrations immediately after spraying were 56 and 2840 ng g-1 in coffee berries and leaves, respectively. Dissipation of phloxine B on berries was fast, with a half-life (t1/2) of 3 days. Dissipation of phloxine B on leaves was fitted to two linear phases: the initial (0-4 days) with a shorter t1/2 of 3 days and the later phase (4-28 days) with a longer t1/2 of 15 days. Average concentrations of phloxine B in the top soil ranged from 50 to 590 ng g-1 at pre-spray. Phloxine B initial concentration (770 ng g-1) reached a plateau immediately after the last spraying, but showed a steady decline over time with t1/2 of 16 days. Fast dissipation of the dyes in the field indicates that these chemicals may be environmentally compatible and therefore a promising alternative for fruit fly control. PMID:11838283

  6. Wake-up effects in Si-doped hafnium oxide ferroelectric thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Dayu; Key Laboratory for Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024; State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 ; Xu, Jin; Li, Qing; Guan, Yan; Cao, Fei; Dong, Xianlin; Müller, Johannes; Schenk, Tony; Schröder, Uwe

    2013-11-04

    Hafnium oxide based ferroelectric thin films have shown potential as a promising alternative material for non-volatile memory applications. This work reports the switching stability of a Si-doped HfO{sub 2} film under bipolar pulsed-field operation. High field cycling causes a “wake-up” in virgin “pinched” polarization hysteresis loops, demonstrated by an enhancement in remanent polarization and a shift of negative coercive voltage. The rate of wake-up is accelerated by either reducing the frequency or increasing the amplitude of the cycling field. We suggest de-pinning of domains due to reduction of the defect concentration at bottom electrode interface as origin of the wake-up.

  7. Detailed investigation of thermal convection in a liquid metal under a horizontal magnetic field: Suppression of oscillatory flow observed by velocity profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Takatoshi; Yamagishi, Yasuko; Hamano, Yozo; Tasaka, Yuji; Yano, Kanako; Takahashi, Jumpei; Takeda, Yasushi

    2010-11-01

    Thermal convection experiments in a liquid gallium layer were carried out with various intensities of uniform horizontal magnetic fields. The gallium layer was in a rectangular vessel with a 4:1:1 length ratio (1 is the height), where the magnetic field is applied in the direction normal to the longest vertical wall. An ultrasonic velocity profiling method was used to visualize the spatiotemporal variations in the flow pattern, and the temperature fluctuations in the gallium layer were also monitored. The observed flow pattern without a magnetic field shows oscillating rolls with axes normal to the longest vertical wall of the vessel. The oscillatory motion of the flow pattern was suppressed when increasing the applied magnetic field. The flow behavior was characterized by the fluctuation amplitude of the oscillation and the frequency in the range of Rayleigh numbers from 9.3103 to 3.5105 and Chandrasekhar numbers 0-1900. The effect of the horizontal magnetic field on the flow pattern may be summarized into three regimes with increases in the magnetic intensity: (1) no effect of the magnetic field, (2) a decrease in the oscillation of the roll structure, and (3) a steady two-dimensional roll structure with no oscillation. These regimes may be explained as a result of an increase in the dominance of Lorentz forces over inertial forces. The power spectrum from the temperature time series showed the presence of a convective-inertial subrange above Rayleigh numbers of 7104 , which suggests that turbulence has developed, and such a subrange was commonly observed above this Rayleigh number even with applied magnetic fields when the rolls oscillate.

  8. Detailed investigation of thermal convection in a liquid metal under a horizontal magnetic field: suppression of oscillatory flow observed by velocity profiles.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Takatoshi; Yamagishi, Yasuko; Hamano, Yozo; Tasaka, Yuji; Yano, Kanako; Takahashi, Jumpei; Takeda, Yasushi

    2010-11-01

    Thermal convection experiments in a liquid gallium layer were carried out with various intensities of uniform horizontal magnetic fields. The gallium layer was in a rectangular vessel with a 4:1:1 length ratio (1 is the height), where the magnetic field is applied in the direction normal to the longest vertical wall. An ultrasonic velocity profiling method was used to visualize the spatiotemporal variations in the flow pattern, and the temperature fluctuations in the gallium layer were also monitored. The observed flow pattern without a magnetic field shows oscillating rolls with axes normal to the longest vertical wall of the vessel. The oscillatory motion of the flow pattern was suppressed when increasing the applied magnetic field. The flow behavior was characterized by the fluctuation amplitude of the oscillation and the frequency in the range of Rayleigh numbers from 9.3 x 10 to 3.5 x 10? and Chandrasekhar numbers 0-1900. The effect of the horizontal magnetic field on the flow pattern may be summarized into three regimes with increases in the magnetic intensity: (1) no effect of the magnetic field, (2) a decrease in the oscillation of the roll structure, and (3) a steady two-dimensional roll structure with no oscillation. These regimes may be explained as a result of an increase in the dominance of Lorentz forces over inertial forces. The power spectrum from the temperature time series showed the presence of a convective-inertial subrange above Rayleigh numbers of 7 x 10?, which suggests that turbulence has developed, and such a subrange was commonly observed above this Rayleigh number even with applied magnetic fields when the rolls oscillate. PMID:21230575

  9. Analysis of the Radar Reflectivity of Aircraft Vortex Wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariff, Karim; Wray, Alan; Yan, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Radar has been proposed as a way to track wake vortices to reduce aircraft spacing and tests have revealed radar echoes from aircraft wakes in clear air. The results are always interpreted qualitatively using Tatarski's theory of weak scattering by isotropic atmospheric turbulence. The goal of the present work was to predict the value of the radar cross-section (RCS) using simpler models. This is accomplished in two steps. First, the refractive index is obtained. Since the structure of the aircraft wakes is different from atmospheric turbulence, three simple mechanisms specific to vortex wakes are considered: (1) Radial density gradient in a two-dimensional vortex, (2) three-dimensional fluctuations in the vortex cores, and (3) Adiabatic transport of the atmospheric fluid in a two-dimensional oval surrounding the pair of vortices. The index of refraction is obtained more precisely for the two-dimensional mechanisms than for the three-dimensional ones. In the second step, knowing the index of refraction, a scattering analysis is performed. Tatarski's weak scattering approximation is kept but the usual assumptions of a far-field and a uniform incident wave are dropped. Neither assumption is generally valid for a wake that is coherent across the radar beam. For analytical insight, a simpler approximation that invokes, in addition to weak scattering, the far-field and wide cylindrical beam assumptions, is also developed and compared with the more general analysis. The predicted RCS values for the oval surround the vortices (mechanism C) agree with the experiments of Bilson conducted over a wide range of frequencies. However, the predictions have a cut-off away from normal incidence which is not present in the measurements. Estimates suggest that this is due to turbulence in the baroclinic vorticity generated at the boundary of the oval. The reflectivity of a vortex itself (mechanism A) is comparable to that of the oval (mechanism C) but cuts-off at frequencies lower than those considered in all the experiments to date. The RCS of a vortex happens to peak at the frequency (about 49 MHz) where atmospheric radars (known as ST radars) operate and so the present prediction could be verified in the future. Finally , we suggest that hot engine exhaust could increase RCE by 40 db and reveal vortex circulation, provided its mixing with the surroundings is prevented in the laminarising flow of the vortices.

  10. Detection of Suppressiveness against Rotylenchulus reniformis in Soil from Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fields in Texas and Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rotylenchulus reniformis is a major problem confronting cotton production in the central part of the cotton belt of the United States of America. In this study, the hypothesis that natural antagonists in some cases are responsible for unusually low densities of the nematode in certain fields was te...

  11. EVALUATION OF FIELD PENNYCRESS AS AN OVERWINTER GREEN MANURE CROP IN CORN FOR SUPPRESSION OF WESTERN CORN ROOTWORM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pennycress (FP; Thlaspi arvense L.) is a winter annual species of the Brassicaceae which is a native of Europe but has a wide distribution throughout temperate North America. FP tissues contain the glucosinolate sinigrin, and release a mixture of the biocides allyl thiocyanate and allyl isoth...

  12. Force estimation and turbulence in the wake of a freely flying European Starling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Gida, Hadar; Kirchhefer, Adam; Kopp, Gregory; Gurka, Roi

    2011-11-01

    Flapping wings are one of the most complex yet widespread propulsion method found in nature. Although aeronautical technology has advanced rapidly over the past 100 years, natural flyers, which have evolved over millions of years, still feature higher efficiency and represent one of nature's finest locomotion methods. One of the key questions is the role of the unsteady motion in the flow due to the wing flapping and its contribution to the forces acting on a bird during downstroke and upstroke. The wake of a freely flying European Starling is investigated as a case study of unsteady wing aerodynamics. Measurements of the near wake have been taken using long duration high-speed PIV in the wake behind a freely flying bird in a specially designed avian wind tunnel. The wake has been characterized by means of velocity and vorticity fields. The measured flow field is decomposed based on the wing position phases. Drag and lift have been estimated using the mean velocity deficit and the circulation at the wake region. In addition, kinematic analysis of the wing motion and the body has been performed using additional high-speed cameras that recorded the bird movement simultaneously with the PIV. Correlations between the wing kinematics and the flow field characteristics are presented as well as the time evolution of the velocity, vorticity and additional turbulence parameters.

  13. Acoustic measurements of the sound-speed profile in the bubbly wake formed by a small motor boat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagle, Svein; Burch, Holly

    2005-01-01

    In situ measurements of the bubble field within wakes generated by a small motorboat show that the bubble field, shortly after the initial turbulent generation period, consists mainly of bubbles with radii between 20 and 200 ?m. The subsequent dispersion of the wake field can be described using a model that includes bubble buoyancy and dissolution only, and the air volume fraction within the wakes decay exponentially with an e-folding time of between 40 and 60 s. Simultaneous measurements of sound propagating through the bubbly wake exhibit spectral banding due to waveguide propagation. Inversions using the inverse-square theory developed by Buckingham [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 335, 513-555 (1991)] show that this acoustic inversion technique provide a viable means of estimating the low-frequency sound-speed profile in an upward refractive bubble layer when dispersion can be neglected. .

  14. Acoustic measurements of the sound-speed profile in the bubbly wake formed by a small motor boat.

    PubMed

    Vagle, Svein; Burch, Holly

    2005-01-01

    In situ measurements of the bubble field within wakes generated by a small motorboat show that the bubble field, shortly after the initial turbulent generation period, consists mainly of bubbles with radii between 20 and 200 microm. The subsequent dispersion of the wake field can be described using a model that includes bubble buoyancy and dissolution only, and the air volume fraction within the wakes decay exponentially with an e-folding time of between 40 and 60 s. Simultaneous measurements of sound propagating through the bubbly wake exhibit spectral banding due to waveguide propagation. Inversions using the inverse-square theory developed by Buckingham [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 335, 513-555 (1991)] show that this acoustic inversion technique provide a viable means of estimating the low-frequency sound-speed profile in an upward refractive bubble layer when dispersion can be neglected. PMID:15704408

  15. Technologies for suppressing charge-traps in novel p-channel Field-MOSFET with thick gate oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Tomoyuki; Oshima, Takayuki; Noguchi, Junji

    2015-05-01

    High voltage laterally diffused MOS (LDMOS) FETs are widely used in analog applications. A Field-MOSFET with a thick gate oxide is one of the best ways of achieving a simpler design and smaller circuit footprint for high-voltage analog circuits. This paper focuses on an approach to improving the reliability of p-channel Field-MOSFETs. By introducing a fluorine implantation process and terminating fluorine at the LOCOS birds beak, the gate oxide breakdown voltage could be raised to 350 V at a high-slew rate and the negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) shift could be kept to within 15% over a products lifetime. By controlling the amount of charge in the insulating layer through improving the interlayer dielectric (ILD) deposition processes, a higher BVDSS of 370 V and 10-year tolerability of 300 V were obtained with an assisted reduced surface electric field (RESURF) effect. These techniques can supply an efficient solution for ensuring reliable high-performance applications.

  16. Thermoelectric effects in the field-suppressed superconducting state of quasi-one-dimensional Li0.9Mo6O17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, Joshua L.; Dos Santos, Carlos A. M.; Neumeier, John J.

    2015-03-01

    We present resistivity, thermopower (S), and Nernst (?) measurements in the range 0 . 4 K <= T <= 20 K on single crystals of the quasi-one-dimensional (q1D) metal, Li0.9Mo6O17 (LiPB) along the q1D metallic chains. The low- T limits of S / T and ? / T , determined in the magnetic-field suppressed superconducting state (Tc = 2 K), indicate a very small Fermi temperature (TF ~ 30 K), contrary to expectations from prior work including photoemission. Possible insights from these results into the nature of the mysterious density-wave order, responsible for the upturn in resistivity below ~ 25 K will be discussed. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences (DE-FG02-12ER46888, Univ. Miami), the National Science Foundation (DMR-0907036, Mont. St. Univ.), and in Lorena by the CNPq (308162/2013-7) and FAPESP (2009/54001-2).

  17. Chronic Decrease in Wakefulness and Disruption of Sleep-Wake Behavior after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Skopin, Mark D.; Kabadi, Shruti V.; Viechweg, Shaun S.; Mong, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can cause sleep-wake disturbances and excessive daytime sleepiness. The pathobiology of sleep disorders in TBI, however, is not well understood, and animal models have been underused in studying such changes and potential underlying mechanisms. We used the rat lateral fluid percussion (LFP) model to analyze sleep-wake patterns as a function of time after injury. Rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, non-REM (NREM) sleep, and wake bouts during light and dark phases were measured with electroencephalography and electromyography at an early as well as chronic time points after LFP. Moderate TBI caused disturbances in the ability to maintain consolidated wake bouts during the active phase and chronic loss of wakefulness. Further, TBI resulted in cognitive impairments and depressive-like symptoms, and reduced the number of orexin-A-positive neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. PMID:25242371

  18. Wake deficit measurements on the Jess and Souza Ranches, Altamont Pass

    SciTech Connect

    Nierenburg, R. )

    1990-04-01

    This report is ninth in a series of documents presenting the findings of field test under DOE's Cooperative Field Test Program (CFTP) with the wind industry. This report provides results of a project conducted by Altamont Energy Corp. (AEC) to measure wake deficits on the Jess and Sousa Ranches in Altamont Pass, CA. This research enhances and complements other DOE-funded projects to refine estimates of wind turbine array effects. This project will help explain turbine performance variability caused by wake effects. 4 refs., 28 figs., 106 tabs.

  19. Evolution and breakdown of helical vortex wakes behind a wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemes, A.; Sherry, M.; Lo Jacono, D.; Blackburn, H. M.; Sheridan, J.

    2014-12-01

    The wake behind a three-bladed Glauert model rotor in a water channel was investigated. Planar particle image velocimetry was used to measure the velocity fields on the wake centre-line, with snapshots phase-locked to blade position of the rotor. Phase- locked averages of the velocity and vorticity fields are shown, with tip vortex interaction and entanglement of the helical filaments elucidated. Proper orthogonal decomposition and topology-based vortex identification are used to filter the PIV images for coherent structures and locate vortex cores. Application of these methods to the instantaneous data reveals unsteady behaviour of the helical filaments that is statistically quantifiable.

  20. Simulation of wind turbine wakes using the actuator line technique

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Jens N.; Mikkelsen, Robert F.; Henningson, Dan S.; Ivanell, Stefan; Sarmast, Sasan; Andersen, Søren J.

    2015-01-01

    The actuator line technique was introduced as a numerical tool to be employed in combination with large eddy simulations to enable the study of wakes and wake interaction in wind farms. The technique is today largely used for studying basic features of wakes as well as for making performance predictions of wind farms. In this paper, we give a short introduction to the wake problem and the actuator line methodology and present a study in which the technique is employed to determine the near-wake properties of wind turbines. The presented results include a comparison of experimental results of the wake characteristics of the flow around a three-bladed model wind turbine, the development of a simple analytical formula for determining the near-wake length behind a wind turbine and a detailed investigation of wake structures based on proper orthogonal decomposition analysis of numerically generated snapshots of the wake. PMID:25583862

  1. Simulation of wind turbine wakes using the actuator line technique.

    PubMed

    Srensen, Jens N; Mikkelsen, Robert F; Henningson, Dan S; Ivanell, Stefan; Sarmast, Sasan; Andersen, Sren J

    2015-02-28

    The actuator line technique was introduced as a numerical tool to be employed in combination with large eddy simulations to enable the study of wakes and wake interaction in wind farms. The technique is today largely used for studying basic features of wakes as well as for making performance predictions of wind farms. In this paper, we give a short introduction to the wake problem and the actuator line methodology and present a study in which the technique is employed to determine the near-wake properties of wind turbines. The presented results include a comparison of experimental results of the wake characteristics of the flow around a three-bladed model wind turbine, the development of a simple analytical formula for determining the near-wake length behind a wind turbine and a detailed investigation of wake structures based on proper orthogonal decomposition analysis of numerically generated snapshots of the wake. PMID:25583862

  2. Do trout swim better than eels? Challenges for estimating performance based on the wake of self-propelled bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tytell, Eric D.

    2007-11-01

    Engineers and biologists have long desired to compare propulsive performance for fishes and underwater vehicles of different sizes, shapes, and modes of propulsion. Ideally, such a comparison would be made on the basis of either propulsive efficiency, total power output or both. However, estimating the efficiency and power output of self-propelled bodies, and particularly fishes, is methodologically challenging because it requires an estimate of thrust. For such systems traveling at a constant velocity, thrust and drag are equal, and can rarely be separated on the basis of flow measured in the wake. This problem is demonstrated using flow fields from swimming American eels, Anguilla rostrata, measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and high-speed video. Eels balance thrust and drag quite evenly, resulting in virtually no wake momentum in the swimming (axial) direction. On average, their wakes resemble those of self-propelled jet propulsors, which have been studied extensively. Theoretical studies of such wakes may provide methods for the estimation of thrust separately from drag. These flow fields are compared with those measured in the wakes of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. In contrast to eels, these fishes produce wakes with axial momentum. Although the net momentum flux must be zero on average, it is neither spatially nor temporally homogeneous; the heterogeneity may provide an alternative route for estimating thrust. This review shows examples of wakes and velocity profiles from the three fishes, indicating challenges in estimating efficiency and power output and suggesting several routes for further experiments. Because these estimates will be complicated, a much simpler method for comparing performance is outlined, using as a point of comparison the power lost producing the wake. This wake power, a component of the efficiency and total power, can be estimated in a straightforward way from the flow fields. Although it does not provide complete information about the performance, it can be used to place constraints on the relative efficiency and cost of transport for the fishes.

  3. Do trout swim better than eels? Challenges for estimating performance based on the wake of self-propelled bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tytell, Eric D.

    Engineers and biologists have long desired to compare propulsive performance for fishes and underwater vehicles of different sizes, shapes, and modes of propulsion. Ideally, such a comparison would be made on the basis of either propulsive efficiency, total power output or both. However, estimating the efficiency and power output of self-propelled bodies, and particularly fishes, is methodologically challenging because it requires an estimate of thrust. For such systems traveling at a constant velocity, thrust and drag are equal, and can rarely be separated on the basis of flow measured in the wake. This problem is demonstrated using flow fields from swimming American eels, Anguilla rostrata, measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and high-speed video. Eels balance thrust and drag quite evenly, resulting in virtually no wake momentum in the swimming (axial) direction. On average, their wakes resemble those of self-propelled jet propulsors, which have been studied extensively. Theoretical studies of such wakes may provide methods for the estimation of thrust separately from drag. These flow fields are compared with those measured in the wakes of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. In contrast to eels, these fishes produce wakes with axial momentum. Although the net momentum flux must be zero on average, it is neither spatially nor temporally homogeneous; the heterogeneity may provide an alternative route for estimating thrust. This review shows examples of wakes and velocity profiles from the three fishes, indicating challenges in estimating efficiency and power output and suggesting several routes for further experiments. Because these estimates will be complicated, a much simpler method for comparing performance is outlined, using as a point of comparison the power lost producing the wake. This wake power, a component of the efficiency and total power, can be estimated in a straightforward way from the flow fields. Although it does not provide complete information about the performance, it can be used to place constraints on the relative efficiency and cost of transport for the fishes.

  4. Dynamic wake prediction and visualization with uncertainty analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holforty, Wendy L. (Inventor); Powell, J. David (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic wake avoidance system utilizes aircraft and atmospheric parameters readily available in flight to model and predict airborne wake vortices in real time. A novel combination of algorithms allows for a relatively simple yet robust wake model to be constructed based on information extracted from a broadcast. The system predicts the location and movement of the wake based on the nominal wake model and correspondingly performs an uncertainty analysis on the wake model to determine a wake hazard zone (no fly zone), which comprises a plurality of wake planes, each moving independently from another. The system selectively adjusts dimensions of each wake plane to minimize spatial and temporal uncertainty, thereby ensuring that the actual wake is within the wake hazard zone. The predicted wake hazard zone is communicated in real time directly to a user via a realistic visual representation. In an example, the wake hazard zone is visualized on a 3-D flight deck display to enable a pilot to visualize or see a neighboring aircraft as well as its wake. The system substantially enhances the pilot's situational awareness and allows for a further safe decrease in spacing, which could alleviate airport and airspace congestion.

  5. Four-dimensional characterization of inflow to and wakes from a multi-MW turbine: overview of the Turbine Wake and Inflow Characterization Study (TWICS2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Banta, R. M.; Pichugina, Y.; Brewer, A.; Alvarez, R. J.; Sandberg, S. P.; Kelley, N. D.; Aitken, M.; Clifton, A.; Mirocha, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    To support substantial deployment of renewably-generated electricity from the wind, critical information about the variability of wind turbine wakes in the real atmosphere from multi-MW turbines is required. The assessment of the velocity deficit and turbulence associated with industrial-scale turbines is a major issue for wind farm design, particularly with respect to the optimization of the spacing between turbines. The significant velocity deficit and turbulence generated by upstream turbines can reduce the power production and produce harmful vibrations in downstream turbines, which can lead to excess maintenance costs. The complexity of wake effects depends on many factors arising from both hardware (turbine size, rotor speed, and blade geometry, etc.) and from meteorological considerations such as wind velocity, gradients of wind across the turbine rotor disk, atmospheric stability, and atmospheric turbulence. To characterize the relationships between the meteorological inflow and turbine wakes, a collaborative field campaign was designed and carried out at the Department of Energy's National Wind Technology Center (NREL/NWTC) in south Boulder, Colorado, in spring 2011. This site often experiences channeled flow with a consistent wind direction, enabling robust statistics of wake velocity deficits and turbulence enhancements. Using both in situ and remote sensing instrumentation, measurements upwind and downwind of multi-megawatt wind turbine in complex terrain quantified the variability of wind turbine inflow and wakes from an industrial-scale turbine. The turbine of interest has a rated power of 2.3 MW, a rotor diameter of 100m, and a hub height of 80m. In addition to several meteorological towers, one extending to hub height (80m) and another extending above the top of the rotor disk (135m), a Triton mini-sodar and a Windcube lidar characterized the inflow to the turbine and the variability across the site. The centerpiece instrument of the TWICS campaign was the NOAA High Resolution Doppler lidar (HRDL), a scanning lidar which captured three-dimensional images of the turbine inflow and wake. Over several weeks, 48+ hours of HRDL observations during a variety of wind speed and atmospheric stability conditions were collected using three scanning strategies. Wake features such as lofting, meandering, intersection with the ground, and expansion factors are identified and discussed. Observations of a remarkably long-distance wake are presented and compared with existing wake models.

  6. Experimental heat transfer rates of natural convection of molten gallium suppressed under an external magnetic field in either the x, y, or z direction

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, K.; Ozoe, H. )

    1992-02-01

    The heat transfer rates of natural convection of molten gallium were measured under various strengths of heating rates and three coordinate directional magnetic fields. Molten gallium (Pr = 0.024) was filled in a cubic enclosure of 30 mm {times} 30 mm {times} 30 mm whose one vertical wall was uniformly heated and an opposing wall was isothermally cooled, with otherwise insulated walls. An external magnetic field was impressed either perpendicular and horizontal to the heated wall (x direction) or in parallel and horizontal to the heated wall (y direction) of the enclosure or in a vertical direction (z direction). For the modified Grashof number, based on the heat flux, less than 4.24 {times} 10{sup 6} and the Hartmann number less than 461, the average Nusselt numbers were measured. These results proved that our previous three-dimensional numerical analyses for an isothermal hot wall boundary were in good qualitative agreement. A much higher suppression effect is given in the x- and z-directional magnetic fields than that in the y-directional one.

  7. Wake Dynamics in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Over Complex Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markfort, Corey D.

    The goal of this research is to advance our understanding of atmospheric boundary layer processes over heterogeneous landscapes and complex terrain. The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is a relatively thin ( 1 km) turbulent layer of air near the earth's surface, in which most human activities and engineered systems are concentrated. Its dynamics are crucially important for biosphere-atmosphere couplings and for global atmospheric dynamics, with significant implications on our ability to predict and mitigate adverse impacts of land use and climate change. In models of the ABL, land surface heterogeneity is typically represented, in the context of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, as changes in aerodynamic roughness length and surface heat and moisture fluxes. However, many real landscapes are more complex, often leading to massive boundary layer separation and wake turbulence, for which standard models fail. Trees, building clusters, and steep topography produce extensive wake regions currently not accounted for in models of the ABL. Wind turbines and wind farms also generate wakes that combine in complex ways to modify the ABL. Wind farms are covering an increasingly significant area of the globe and the effects of large wind farms must be included in regional and global scale models. Research presented in this thesis demonstrates that wakes caused by landscape heterogeneity must be included in flux parameterizations for momentum, heat, and mass (water vapor and trace gases, e.g. CO2 and CH4) in ABL simulation and prediction models in order to accurately represent land-atmosphere interactions. Accurate representation of these processes is crucial for the predictions of weather, air quality, lake processes, and ecosystems response to climate change. Objectives of the research reported in this thesis are: 1) to investigate turbulent boundary layer adjustment, turbulent transport and scalar flux in wind farms of varying configurations and develop an improved modeling framework for wind farm - atmosphere interaction, 2) to determine how heterogeneous patches of forest affect the structure of the ABL and its interactions with clearings and water bodies, 3) to investigate how landscape heterogeneity, including wakes, may be parameterized in regional-scale weather and climate models to improve the representation of surface fluxes, e.g. from lakes/wetlands and forest clearings. To achieve these objectives, this research employs an interdisciplinary strategy, utilizing concepts and methods from fluid mechanics, micrometeorology, ecosystem ecology and environmental sciences, and combines laboratory and field experiments. In particular, a) wind tunnel experiments of flow through and over model wind farms and model forest canopies were used to improve our fundamental understanding of how wakes affect land-atmosphere coupling, including surface fluxes, after wind farm installation and for heterogeneous landscapes of canopies and clearings or lakes, and b) extensive field studies over lakes and wetlands were undertaken to study the effects of wakes downwind of forest canopies and the effect of wind sheltering on lake stratification dynamics and gas fluxes. These experiments were also used to improve and validate numerical simulation techniques for the atmospheric boundary layer, specifically the large eddy simulation technique, which is used to simulate flow in wind farms and flow over heterogeneous terrain.

  8. Infrared imaging simulation and detection of ship wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Chen, Xuan; Chang, Shizheng; Xu, Enchi; Wang, Xingyu; Wang, Ye; Zhao, Xiaolong; Du, Yongchen; Kou, Wei; Fan, Chunli

    2015-10-01

    The thermal wake would be formed owing to the cooling water or exhaust heat discharged by ship, and the cold wake could be formed by the cool water in the lower part of sea stirred up by the ship propeller or vortexes. Owing to the difference of surface temperature and emissivity between the ship wake and the surrounding ocean the ship wake will be easily detected by the infrared detecting system. The wave of wake also could be detected by the difference of reflected radiance between the background and the Kelvin wake of ship. In this paper the simulating models of infrared imaging of ship wake are developed based on the selfradiation of wake, the reflected radiance of the sky and sun and the transmitted radiance of atmosphere, and the infrared imaging signatures of ship wake are investigated. The results show that the infrared imaging signatures of ship wake can be really simulated by the models proposed in this paper. The effects of the detecting height, the angle of view, the NETD of detector and the temperature of wake on the infrared imaging signatures of ship wake are studied. The temperature difference between the ship wake and surrounding ocean is a main fact which effects on the detecting distance. The infrared imaging signatures of ship wake in 8-14?m wave band is stronger than that in 2-5?m wave band whenever the temperature of ship wake is warmer or cooler than the surrounding ocean. Further, the infrared imaging of thermal wake is investigated in the homogenous water and temperature stratified water at different speed of a ship and different flow rate and depth of the discharged water in a water tank. The spreading and decaying laws of infrared signature of ship wake are obtained experimentally. The results obtained in this paper have an important application in the infrared remote sensing of ship wake.

  9. Measurements in a High Reynolds Number Wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultmark, Marcus; Jimenez, Juan; Bailey, Sean; Smits, Alexander

    2008-11-01

    Experiments were conducted in the Princeton/ONR HRTF windtunnel with highly pressurized air. The wake of a DARPA SUBOFF submarine model was measured over a large range of Reynolds numbers at 5 different downstream locations. The model is an axisymmetric body without appendages (fins) supported by a streamlined support, mimicking a semi-infinite sail. For all Reynolds numbers studied, the mean velocity distribution becomes self-similar between 3 and 6 diameters, D, downstream for the side where the support is not located. In contrast, self-similarity in the Reynolds stresses is not reached at the furthest downstream location (x/D=15). The spectra reveal two peaks in the near-wake. The lower wavenumber peak corresponds to a Strouhal number based on diameter and freestream velocity of about 0.22, suggesting that it is associated with an azimuthal or helical shedding mode in the wake. This mode is evident at all Reynolds numbers, at all cross-stream positions, indicating that it is unlikely to be due to the interference of the support wake with the model wake. The mode is seen only for x/D<15, suggesting that it plays a partial role in the approach to self-similarity of the turbulent stresses.

  10. The wake of hovering flight in bats.

    PubMed

    Hkansson, Jonas; Hedenstrm, Anders; Winter, York; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-08-01

    Hovering means stationary flight at zero net forward speed, which can be achieved by animals through muscle powered flapping flight. Small bats capable of hovering typically do so with a downstroke in an inclined stroke plane, and with an aerodynamically active outer wing during the upstroke. The magnitude and time history of aerodynamic forces should be reflected by vorticity shed into the wake. We thus expect hovering bats to generate a characteristic wake, but this has until now never been studied. Here we trained nectar-feeding bats, Leptonycteris yerbabuenae, to hover at a feeder and using time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry in conjunction with high-speed kinematic analysis we show that hovering nectar-feeding bats produce a series of bilateral stacked vortex loops. Vortex visualizations suggest that the downstroke produces the majority of the weight support, but that the upstroke contributes positively to the lift production. However, the relative contributions from downstroke and upstroke could not be determined on the basis of the wake, because wake elements from down- and upstroke mix and interact. We also use a modified actuator disc model to estimate lift force, power and flap efficiency. Based on our quantitative wake-induced velocities, the model accounts for weight support well (108%). Estimates of aerodynamic efficiency suggest hovering flight is less efficient than forward flapping flight, while the overall energy conversion efficiency (mechanical power output/metabolic power) was estimated at 13%. PMID:26179990

  11. Meteorological Controls on Wind Turbine Wakes

    SciTech Connect

    Barthelmie, RJ; Hansen, KS; Pryor, SC

    2013-04-01

    The primary control on the magnitude of the power losses induced by wind turbine wakes in large wind farms is the hub-height wind speed via its link to the turbine thrust coefficient. Hence, at low to moderate wind speeds (between cut-in and rated turbine wind speeds) when the thrust coefficient is high, wake losses are proportionally larger and decrease to be virtually undetectable at wind speeds above rated wind speeds. Wind direction is also critical. Not only does it determine the effective spacing between turbines but also the wind speed distribution is primarily determined by synoptic forcing and typically has a predominant direction from which wind speeds tend to be higher (from southwest for much of the central United States and northern Europe). Two other interlinked variables, turbulence intensity (TI), and atmospheric stability also dictate wake losses. Quantifying, understanding, modeling, and predicting this complex and interdependent system is therefore critical to understanding and modeling wind farm power losses due to wakes, and to optimizing wind farm layout. This paper quantifies the impact of these variables on the power loss due to wakes using data from the large offshore wind farms located at Horns Rev and Nysted in Denmark.

  12. A Mechanistic Neural Field Theory of How Anesthesia Suppresses Consciousness: Synaptic Drive Dynamics, Bifurcations, Attractors, and Partial State Equipartitioning.

    PubMed

    Hou, Saing Paul; Haddad, Wassim M; Meskin, Nader; Bailey, James M

    2015-12-01

    With the advances in biochemistry, molecular biology, and neurochemistry there has been impressive progress in understanding the molecular properties of anesthetic agents. However, there has been little focus on how the molecular properties of anesthetic agents lead to the observed macroscopic property that defines the anesthetic state, that is, lack of responsiveness to noxious stimuli. In this paper, we use dynamical system theory to develop a mechanistic mean field model for neural activity to study the abrupt transition from consciousness to unconsciousness as the concentration of the anesthetic agent increases. The proposed synaptic drive firing-rate model predicts the conscious-unconscious transition as the applied anesthetic concentration increases, where excitatory neural activity is characterized by a Poincaré-Andronov-Hopf bifurcation with the awake state transitioning to a stable limit cycle and then subsequently to an asymptotically stable unconscious equilibrium state. Furthermore, we address the more general question of synchronization and partial state equipartitioning of neural activity without mean field assumptions. This is done by focusing on a postulated subset of inhibitory neurons that are not themselves connected to other inhibitory neurons. Finally, several numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the different aspects of the proposed theory. PMID:26438186

  13. Electrically-activated source extension graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor: Novel attributes and design considerations for suppressing short channel effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naderi, Ali; Keshavarzi, Parviz

    2014-08-01

    In this paper a double gate graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor with electrically-activated source extension is proposed. Source region of the proposed structure includes two sections, an electrically-activated extension and a doped section. The electrically extension, which is located between doped source section and gate region, is biased independent of the gate to form a virtual extension for source. The electrically-activated extension creates a step in potential profile which increases the horizontal distance between conduction and valance bands at channel to source junction. This step reduces the probability of band to band tunneling, lowers the leakage current and improves drain induced barrier lowering. The devices have been simulated based on self consistent solution of Poisson and Schrodinger equations within non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. In addition, the effects of the edge and third nearest neighbor are included for more accurate outcomes. Simulations show that the proposed structure is a more reliable device because of its higher ON/Off current ratio, shorter delay time, and smaller power delay product beside lower subthreshold swing than conventional graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor.

  14. Wake-shock interaction at a Mach number of 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of mean pitot pressure, static pressure, and total temperature were made in the two dimensional turbulent mixing region of a wake downstream of an interaction with a shock-expansion wave system. The results indicated that: (1) the shock increased the mixing, and (2) the expansion field that followed the shock decreased the turbulent mixing. The overall effect of the shock-expansion wave interaction was dependent on the orientation of the expansion wave with respect to the intersecting shock wave. These data could be used to validate nonequilibrium turbulence modeling and numerical solution of the time averaged Navier-Stokes equations.

  15. Imaging doppler lidar for wind turbine wake profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, David J.

    2015-11-19

    An imaging Doppler lidar (IDL) enables the measurement of the velocity distribution of a large volume, in parallel, and at high spatial resolution in the wake of a wind turbine. Because the IDL is non-scanning, it can be orders of magnitude faster than conventional coherent lidar approaches. Scattering can be obtained from naturally occurring aerosol particles. Furthermore, the wind velocity can be measured directly from Doppler shifts of the laser light, so the measurement can be accomplished at large standoff and at wide fields-of-view.

  16. Progress toward 3D wake structure measurements of aquatic animals using SCUVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabiri, John; Katija, Kakani

    2007-11-01

    Recent developments in multi-camera DPIV techniques now enable measurement of three-dimensional wake structure in aquatic animals. The present goal is to integrate those techniques with a self-contained underwater velocimetry apparatus (SCUVA), in order to facilitate in situ measurements of 3D wake structure by SCUBA divers in the field. SCUVA presents an additional constraint in that the flow imaging must be accomplished by a single camera viewing the flow from a single direction. We present progress toward the incorporation of 3D wake measurement techniques into a single-camera platform. The approach relies on the image defocusing concept and calculation of Lagrangian coherent structures directly from fluid particle trajectories. The results may benefit laboratory methods as well as the field techniques that are the present focus.

  17. Enhancement of high-energy electron generation through suppression of Raman backscattering

    SciTech Connect

    Trines, R.M.G.M.; Kamp, L.P.J.; Schep, T.J.; Leemans, W.P.; Esarey, E.H.; Sluijter, F.W.

    2004-05-27

    The effect of Raman backscattering (RBS) on high-energy electron generation in laser-plasma interaction has been investigated for laser intensities well above the wave breaking and electron trapping threshold. One-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that suppression of RBS increases the high-energy electron yield in this regime. RBS-induced heating causes heavy beam loading and damping of the laser wake. Its suppression leads to higher wake amplitudes and higher particle energies. RBS suppression through direct stimulation of Raman forward scatter is demonstrated. The implications for high-energy electron production through laser-plasma interaction are discussed.

  18. Phosphorylation of CaMKII in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus plays an important role in sleep-wake regulation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Su-Ying; Li, Sheng-Jie; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Xue-Qiong; Yu, Bin; Sheng, Zhao-Fu; Huang, Yuan-Li; Cao, Qing; Xu, Ya-Ping; Lin, Zhi-Ge; Yang, Guang; Song, Jin-Zhi; Ding, Hui; Wang, Zi-Jun; Zhang, Yong-He

    2016-02-01

    The Ca(2+) modulation in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) plays an important role in sleep-wake regulation. Calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) is an important signal-transducing molecule that is activated by Ca(2+) . This study investigated the effects of intracellular Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling in the DRN on sleep-wake states in rats. Maximum and minimum CaMKII phosphorylation was detected at Zeitgeber time 21 (ZT 21; wakefulness state) and ZT 3 (sleep state), respectively, across the light-dark rhythm in the DRN in rats. Six-hour sleep deprivation significantly reduced CaMKII phosphorylation in the DRN. Microinjection of the CAMKII activation inhibitor KN-93 (5 or 10 nmol) into the DRN suppressed wakefulness and enhanced rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REM sleep (NREMS). Application of a high dose of KN-93 (10 nmol) increased slow-wave sleep (SWS) time, SWS bouts, the mean duration of SWS, the percentage of SWS relative to total sleep, and delta power density during NREMS. Microinjection of CaCl2 (50 nmol) in the DRN increased CaMKII phosphorylation and decreased NREMS, SWS, and REMS. KN-93 abolished the inhibitory effects of CaCl2 on NREMS, SWS, and REMS. These data indicate a novel wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing role for the Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling pathway in DRN neurons. We propose that the intracellular Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) plays wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing role in rats. Intra-DRN application of KN-93 (CaMKII activation inhibitor) suppressed wakefulness and enhanced rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REMS (NREMS). Intra-DRN application of CaCl2 attenuated REMS and NREMS. We think these findings should provide a novel cellular and molecular mechanism of sleep-wake regulation. PMID:26558357

  19. Recent Developments on Airborne Forward Looking Interferometer for the Detection of Wake Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Taumi S.; Smith, William L.; Kirev, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    A goal of these studies was development of the measurement methods and algorithms necessary to detect wake vortex hazards in real time from either an aircraft or ground-based hyperspectral Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). This paper provides an update on research to model FTS detection of wake vortices. The Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) was used to generate wake vortex fields of 3-D winds, temperature, and absolute humidity. These fields were input to the Line by Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM), a hyperspectral radiance model in the infrared, employed for the FTS numerical modeling. An initial set of cases has been analyzed to identify a wake vortex IR signature and signature sensitivities to various state variables. Results from the numerical modeling case studies will be presented. Preliminary results indicated that an imaging IR instrument sensitive to six narrow bands within the 670 to 3150 per centimeter spectral region would be sufficient for wake vortex detection. Noise floor estimates for a recommended instrument are a current research topic.

  20. Auditory evoked fields measured noninvasively with small-animal MEG reveal rapid repetition suppression in the guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    Christianson, G. Bjrn; Chait, Maria; de Cheveign, Alain

    2014-01-01

    In animal models, single-neuron response properties such as stimulus-specific adaptation have been described as possible precursors to mismatch negativity, a human brain response to stimulus change. In the present study, we attempted to bridge the gap between human and animal studies by characterising responses to changes in the frequency of repeated tone series in the anesthetised guinea pig using small-animal magnetoencephalography (MEG). We showed that 1) auditory evoked fields (AEFs) qualitatively similar to those observed in human MEG studies can be detected noninvasively in rodents using small-animal MEG; 2) guinea pig AEF amplitudes reduce rapidly with tone repetition, and this AEF reduction is largely complete by the second tone in a repeated series; and 3) differences between responses to the first (deviant) and later (standard) tones after a frequency transition resemble those previously observed in awake humans using a similar stimulus paradigm. PMID:25231619

  1. Hypocretin/Orexin neuropeptides: participation in the control of sleep-wakefulness cycle and energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, A; Rodrigo-Angulo, M L; Andrés, I De; Garzón, M

    2009-03-01

    Hypocretins or orexins (Hcrt/Orx) are hypothalamic neuropeptides that are synthesized by neurons located mainly in the perifornical area of the posterolateral hypothalamus. These hypothalamic neurons are the origin of an extensive and divergent projection system innervating numerous structures of the central nervous system. In recent years it has become clear that these neuropeptides are involved in the regulation of many organic functions, such as feeding, thermoregulation and neuroendocrine and cardiovascular control, as well as in the control of the sleep-wakefulness cycle. In this respect, Hcrt/Orx activate two subtypes of G protein-coupled receptors (Hcrt/Orx1R and Hcrt/Orx2R) that show a partly segregated and prominent distribution in neural structures involved in sleep-wakefulness regulation. Wakefulness-enhancing and/or sleep-suppressing actions of Hcrt/Orx have been reported in specific areas of the brainstem. Moreover, presently there are animal models of human narcolepsy consisting in modifications of Hcrt/Orx receptors or absence of these peptides. This strongly suggests that narcolepsy is the direct consequence of a hypofunction of the Hcrt/Orx system, which is most likely due to Hcrt/Orx neurons degeneration.The main focus of this review is to update and illustrate the available data on the actions of Hcrt/Orx neuropeptides with special interest in their participation in the control of the sleep-wakefulness cycle and the regulation of energy homeostasis. Current pharmacological treatment of narcolepsy is also discussed. PMID:19721817

  2. Wake dynamics and hydrodynamic forces on a perforated circular plate in cross-flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huera-Huarte, Francisco

    2012-11-01

    The cross-flow past a perforated plate is known to become steady, if certain critical porosity or number of holes is imposed to the plate. This happens because the air bleed in the near wake, disrupts the vortex street formation behind the plate, and leads to suppression of the near wake shear layer interaction, forcing the instabilities to take place further away from the disk. This phenomenon is accompanied by a drag reduction. It is not clear however, what is the effect of the porosity distribution used in the plate, neither the effect of the angle of attack on the wake dynamics and the force coefficients. The experimental apparatus consists of an acrylic model in which different number and configuration of holes can be used. The disk hangs upside down from a 2-axis balance, in a way that it is being exposed to a uniform water current generated in a free surface channel. Angles of attack, porosity and its distribution on the disk, can be easily changed. Measurements of force coefficients for different angles of attack, and porosities have been taken. Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) has been used to quantify the wake and to investigate the flow structures past the disk. Funding provided by the Spanish Ministry of Science through grant DPI2009-07104 is acknowledged.

  3. Wake Vortex Tracking Using a 35 GHz Pulsed Doppler Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neece, Robert T.; Britt, Charles L.; White, Joseph H.; Mudukutore, Ashok; Nguyen, Chi; Hooper, Bill

    2005-01-01

    A 35 GHz, pulsed-Doppler radar system has been designed and assembled for wake vortex detection and tracking in low visibility conditions. Aircraft wake vortices continue to be an important factor in determining safe following distances or spacings for aircraft in the terminal area. Currently, under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), aircraft adhere to conservative, fixed following-distance guidelines based primarily on aircraft weight classifications. When ambient conditions are such that vortices will either drift or dissipate, leaving the flight corridor clear, the prescribed spacings are unnecessarily long and result in decreased airport throughput. There is a potential for significant airport efficiency improvement, if a system can be employed to aid regulators and pilots in setting safe and efficient following distances based on airport conditions. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Federal Aviation Agency, and Volpe National Transportation Systems Center have promoted and worked to develop systems that would increase airport capacity and provide for safe reductions in aircraft separation. The NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS), a wake vortex spacing system that can provide dynamic adjustment of spacings based on real-time airport weather conditions, has demonstrated that Lidar systems can be successfully used to detect and track vortices in clear air conditions. To fill the need for detection capability in low-visibility conditions, a 35 GHz, pulsed-Doppler radar system is being investigated for use as a complimentary, low-visibility sensor for wake vortices. The radar sensor provides spatial and temporal information similar to that provided by Lidar, but under weather conditions that a Lidar cannot penetrate. Currently, we are analyzing the radar design based upon the data and experience gained during the wake vortex Lidar deployment with AVOSS at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. As part of this study, two numerical models were utilized in system simulations. The results of this study improve our understanding of the method of detection, resolution requirements for range and azimuth, pulse compression, and performance prediction. Simulations applying pulse compression techniques show that detection is good in heavy fog to greater than 2000 m. Both compressed and uncompressed short pulses show the vortex structure. To explore operational challenges, siting and scanning strategies were also analyzed. Simulation results indicate that excellent wake vortex detection, tracking and classification is possible in drizzle (+15 dBZ) and heavy fog (- 13 dBZ) using short pulse techniques (<99ns) at ranges on the order of 900 m, with a modest power of 500 W output. At 1600 m, detection can be expected at reflectivities as low as -13 dBZ (heavy fog). The radar system, as designed and built, has the potential to support field studies of a wake vortex spacing system in low-visibility conditions ranging from heavy fog to rain, when sited within 2000m of the flight path.

  4. Coupled wakes behind two circular cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gal, P.; Chauve, M. P.; Lima, R.; Rezende, J.

    1990-04-01

    The wake of a pair of identical cylinders placed side by side in a uniform flow is visualized. Different flows appear when the distance between the cylinders is decreased. For large gaps, the study of the phase difference between the vortex shedding shows that locking occurs and can be associated with asymmetric flows. For small gaps, a new vortex pattern with a separated stagnant zone is visualized. Finally, a classical alternate vortex street is observed at very small gaps. An analogy with coupled oscillators is then presented in order to interpret the asymmetric regimes as beats between the wakes.

  5. Accelerated destruction of aircraft wake vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennich, Steven Carl

    1997-11-01

    All aircraft shed a wake of vorticity which typically rolls up to form a trailing counter-rotating vortex pair. When encountered by following aircraft, these vortices can cause a substantial loss of altitude which is especially hazardous during takeoff and landing. Since avoiding this wake vortex hazard currently determines the spacing between aircraft on approach to land, accelerating the destruction of these vortices could lead to greater safety and increased airport utilization. In practice, an aircraft's vortex wake often breaks down via the Crow instability. No other instability has been found which is more rapidly growing or shows a greater ability to mix vorticity of opposite sign. Thus, the objective of this research is to investigate alleviation schemes by which perturbations, applied to the wake at the wing, survive the roll-up process, excite the Crow instability at large amplitude and lead to accelerated destruction of the wake vortices. To carry out this research, a new numerical method has been developed which solves the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in vorticity form in a domain which is periodic in one direction and unbounded in the other two. For problems requiring high accuracy, this method has been shown to be orders of magnitude more efficient than existing schemes. A code using this method has been used to fully characterize the Crow instability as it exists in a 3D, viscous environment and validate the analytical models of this instability. Other simulations have studied the evolution of the Crow instability in perturbed wakes shed by elliptically loaded and high-lift wings. Finally, a new mechanism to be used in accelerating the destruction of aircraft wake vortices is proposed. Its behavior is investigated using both Navier-Stokes and vortex filament methods. The results indicate that the time required for vortex linking can be reduced by as much as a factor of seven when compared to the time required for equivalent growth via the linear Crow instability. This mechanism shows significant potential for use in a wake vortex hazard alleviation scheme.

  6. Irregular Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Sabra M; Zee, Phyllis C

    2015-12-01

    Irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder is a circadian rhythm disorder characterized by multiple bouts of sleep within a 24-hour period. Patients present with symptoms of insomnia, including difficulty either falling or staying asleep, and daytime excessive sleepiness. The disorder is seen in a variety of individuals, ranging from children with neurodevelopmental disorders, to patients with psychiatric disorders, and most commonly in older adults with neurodegenerative disorders. Treatment of irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder requires a multimodal approach aimed at strengthening circadian synchronizing agents, such as daytime exposure to bright light, and structured social and physical activities. In addition, melatonin may be useful in some patients. PMID:26568126

  7. Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Sabra M; Reid, Kathryn J; Zee, Phyllis C

    2015-12-01

    The circadian system regulates the timing and expression of nearly all biological processes, most notably, the sleep-wake cycle, and disruption of this system can result in adverse effects on both physical and mental health. The circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWDs) consist of 5 disorders that are due primarily to pathology of the circadian clock or to a misalignment of the timing of the endogenous circadian rhythm with the environment. This article outlines the nature of these disorders, the association of many of these disorders with psychiatric illness, and available treatment options. PMID:26600110

  8. Dopamine agonist suppression of rapid-eye-movement sleep is secondary to sleep suppression mediated via limbic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Miletich, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of pergolide, a direct dopamine receptor agonist, on sleep and wakefulness, motor behavior and /sup 3/H-spiperone specific binding in limbic structures and striatum in rats was studied. The results show that pergolide induced a biphasic dose effect, with high doses increasing wakefulness and suppressing sleep while low dose decreased wakefulness, but increased sleep. It was shown that pergolide-induced sleep suppression was blocked by ..cap alpha..-glupenthixol and pimozide, two dopamine receptor antagonists. It was further shown that pergolide merely delayed the rebound resulting from rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep deprivation, that dopamine receptors stimulation had no direct effect on the period, phase or amplitude of the circadian rhythm of REM sleep propensity and that there was no alteration in the coupling of REM sleep episodes with S/sub 2/ episodes. Rapid-eye-movement sleep deprivation resulted in increased sensitivity to the pergolide-induced wakefulness stimulation and sleep suppression and pergolide-induced motor behaviors of locomotion and head bobbing. /sup 3/H-spiperone specific binding to dopamine receptors was shown to be altered by REM sleep deprivation in the subcortical limbic structures. It is concluded that the REM sleep suppressing action of dopamine receptor stimulation is secondary to sleep suppression per se and not secondary to a unique effect on the REM sleep. Further, it is suggested that the wakefulness stimulating action of dopamine receptor agonists is mediated by activation of the dopamine receptors in the terminal areas of the mesolimbocortical dopamine projection system.

  9. Suppressing of slow magnetic relaxation in tetracoordinate Co(II) field-induced single-molecule magnet in hybrid material with ferromagnetic barium ferrite.

    PubMed

    Nemec, Ivan; Herchel, Radovan; Trvn?ek, Zden?k

    2015-01-01

    The novel field-induced single-molecule magnet based on a tetracoordinate mononuclear heteroleptic Co(II) complex involving two heterocyclic benzimidazole (bzi) and two thiocyanido ligands, [Co(bzi)2(NSC)2], (CoL4), was prepared and thoroughly characterized. The analysis of AC susceptibility data resulted in the spin reversal energy barrier U = 14.7 cm(-1), which is in good agreement with theoretical prediction, U(theor).?= 20.2 cm(-1), based on axial zero-field splitting parameter D =?-10.1 cm(-1) fitted from DC magnetic data. Furthermore, mutual interactions between CoL4 and ferromagnetic barium ferrite BaFe12O19 (BaFeO) in hybrid materials resulted in suppressing of slow relaxation of magnetization in CoL4 for 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 mass ratios of CoL4 and BaFeO despite the lack of strong magnetic interactions between two magnetic phases. PMID:26039085

  10. Magnetoelectric phenomena in manganites R0.6Ca0.4MnO3(R = Pr, Nd) with charge ordering suppressed by a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadomtseva, A. M.; Popov, Yu. F.; Vorob'ev, G. P.; Kamilov, K. I.; Ivanov, V. Yu.; Mukhin, A. A.; Balbashov, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    A change in electric polarization (up to 300 ?C/m2) upon magnetic-field suppression of a charge-ordered antiferromagnetic state upon a transition to the ferromagnetic conducting phase ( H cr 65-80 kOe at 4.2 K) is discovered in Pr0.6Ca0.4MnO3 and Nd0.6Ca0.4MnO3 single crystals. The transition is also accompanied by a jump in magnetization and magnetostriction. The dependence of the induced polarization sign on the polarity of the electric field in which the sample was preliminarily cooled indicates the existence of spontaneous electric polarization. The effect is the strongest in Nd0.6Ca0.4MnO3 and is weaker by a factor of 5-10 in Pr0.6Ca0.4MnO3, for which the tolerance factor is higher. The observed effect may be associated with recently predicted noncentrosymmetric structures in doped manganites with x 0.5 (see D.V. Efremov, J. van den Brink, and D.I. Khomskii, Nature Materials 3, 853 (2004)), in which e g electrons are not localized upon charge and orbital ordering at one manganese ion, but are distributed among neighboring ions, thus forming an ordered polar dimer structure.

  11. Suppressing of slow magnetic relaxation in tetracoordinate Co(II) field-induced single-molecule magnet in hybrid material with ferromagnetic barium ferrite

    PubMed Central

    Nemec, Ivan; Herchel, Radovan; Trvn?ek, Zden?k

    2015-01-01

    The novel field-induced single-molecule magnet based on a tetracoordinate mononuclear heteroleptic Co(II) complex involving two heterocyclic benzimidazole (bzi) and two thiocyanido ligands, [Co(bzi)2(NSC)2], (CoL4), was prepared and thoroughly characterized. The analysis of AC susceptibility data resulted in the spin reversal energy barrier U?=?14.7?cm?1, which is in good agreement with theoretical prediction, Utheor.?=?20.2?cm?1, based on axial zero-field splitting parameter D?=??10.1?cm?1 fitted from DC magnetic data. Furthermore, mutual interactions between CoL4 and ferromagnetic barium ferrite BaFe12O19 (BaFeO) in hybrid materials resulted in suppressing of slow relaxation of magnetization in CoL4 for 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 mass ratios of CoL4 and BaFeO despite the lack of strong magnetic interactions between two magnetic phases. PMID:26039085

  12. Characterization of wake effects and loading status of wind turbine arrays under different inflow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiangyu

    The objective of the present work is to improve the accuracy of Actuator Line Modeling (ALM) in predicting the unsteady aerodynamic loadings on turbine blades and turbine wake by assessing different methods used to determine the relative velocity between the rotating blades and wind. ALM is incorporated into a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) solver in OpenFOAM (Open Field Operations and Manipulations). The aerodynamic loadings are validated by experiment results from National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Turbine wakes are validated by predictions of large eddy simulation using exact 3D blade geometries from a two-blade NREL Phase VI turbine. Three different relative velocity calculation methods are presented: iterative process in Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory, local velocity sampling, and Lagrange-Euler Interpolation (LEI). Loadings and wakes obtained from these three methods are compared. It is discovered that LEI functions better than the conventional BEM with iterative process in both loading and wake prediction. Then LES-ALM with LEI is performed on a small wind farm deploying five NREL Phase VI turbines in full wake setting. The power outputs and force coefficients of downstream turbines are evaluated. The LES-ALM with LEI is also performed on a small wind farm deploying 25 NREL Phase VI turbines with different inflow angles (from full wake setting to partial wake setting). The power outputs and force coefficients of each turbine are evaluated under different inflow angles (the angle the rotor has to turn to make the rotor plane face the incoming wind) (0, 5, 15, 30 and 45 degree). The power coefficient distributions and thrust coefficient distributions of the wind farm under each inflow angle are compared. The range of inflow angle which is best for power generation is also discussed. The results demonstrate that the LES-ALM with LEI has the potential to optimize wind farm arrangement and pitch angle of individual turbines.

  13. On point vortex models of exotic bluff body wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stremler, Mark A.; Basu, Saikat

    2014-12-01

    Exotic vortex wakes, in which three or more vortices are generated during each shedding cycle, are frequently found in the wake of an oscillating bluff body. Two common examples are P+S wakes (with 3 vortices) and 2P wakes (with 4 vortices). We consider mathematical models of these wakes consisting of N = 3 or 4 point vortices with constant strengths in an inviscid fluid that is otherwise at rest in a singly-periodic domain. By enforcing constraints on the vortex strengths and, in the case of N = 4, on the symmetry of the vortex locations, the mathematical models reduce to integrable Hamiltonian systems. We compare the point vortex trajectories with two exotic wake patterns reported in the literature. Results support the use of point vortex modeling to investigate vortex dynamics in exotic wakes and suggest the need for additional classification of experimental wake patterns.

  14. Laser Doppler velocimeter system simulation for sensing aircraft wake vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, J. A. L.; Meng, J. C. S.

    1974-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model of aircraft vortex wakes in an irregular wind shear field near the ground is developed and used as a basis for modeling the characteristics of a laser Doppler detection and vortex location system. The trailing vortex sheet and the wind shear are represented by discrete free vortices distributed over a two-dimensional grid. The time dependent hydrodynamic equations are solved by direct numerical integration in the Boussinesq approximation. The ground boundary is simulated by images, and fast Fourier Transform techniques are used to evaluate the vorticity stream function. The atmospheric turbulence was simulated by constructing specific realizations at time equal to zero, assuming that Kolmogoroff's law applies, and that the dissipation rate is constant throughout the flow field. The response of a simulated laser Doppler velocimeter is analyzed by simulating the signal return from the flow field as sensed by a simulation of the optical/electronic system.

  15. POD Analysis of Jet-Plume/Afterbody-Wake Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Nathan E.; Seiner, John M.; Jansen, Bernard J.; Gui, Lichuan; Sockwell, Shuan; Joachim, Matthew

    2009-11-01

    The understanding of the flow physics in the base region of a powered rocket is one of the keys to designing the next generation of reusable launchers. The base flow features affect the aerodynamics and the heat loading at the base of the vehicle. Recent efforts at the National Center for Physical Acoustics at the University of Mississippi have refurbished two models for studying jet-plume/afterbody-wake interactions in the NCPA's 1-foot Tri-Sonic Wind Tunnel Facility. Both models have a 2.5 inch outer diameter with a nominally 0.5 inch diameter centered exhaust nozzle. One of the models is capable of being powered with gaseous H2 and O2 to study the base flow in a fully combusting senario. The second model uses hi-pressure air to drive the exhaust providing an unheated representative flow field. This unheated model was used to acquire PIV data of the base flow. Subsequently, a POD analysis was performed to provide a first look at the large-scale structures present for the interaction between an axisymmetric jet and an axisymmetric afterbody wake. PIV and Schlieren data are presented for a single jet-exhaust to free-stream flow velocity along with the POD analysis of the base flow field.

  16. Efficient Prediction of Helicopter BVI Noise under Different Conditions of Wake and Blade Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Yoshinobu; Yang, Choongmo; Iwanaga, Noriki; Aoyama, Takashi

    Predictions of helicopter BVI noise using three-dimensional Euler code with a single blade grid are conducted under three different conditions: BVI noise caused by (1) interaction between rotating blades and vortex shed from fixed wing vortex generator, (2) interaction between rotating blades and tip vortices shed from preceding blades, and (3) interaction between rotating blades with elastic deformation and shed tip vortices. In the CFD calculation, the Field Velocity Approach (FVA) and Scullys vortex model are used to import the wake information into the calculation grid and to determine the induced velocity made by tip vortices, respectively (cases 1 3). Beddoes generalized wake model is used to prescribe the tip vortices position in the wake (cases 2 and 3). Information about blade elastic deformation is imported from HART II project experimental data into the calculation (case 3). Acoustic analyses based on Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) equation are conducted subsequently in each case. The results from the calculations show good agreement with experiments in all three cases, indicating that application of FVA, Scullys model, and Beddoes generalized wake model is effective for BVI noise prediction in this study, which is intended for low calculation cost using a single blade grid. Also, use of blade elastic deformation data in the calculation shows marked improvement in calculation precision. Consequently, the method used in this study can predict BVI noise under various conditions of wake or blade deformation with acceptable precision and low calculation cost.

  17. Study of the Mutual Interaction Between a Wing Wake and an Encountering Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walden, A. B.; vanDam, C. P.

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to increase airport productivity, several wind-tunnel and flight-test programs are currently underway to determine safe reductions in separation standards between aircraft. These programs are designed to study numerous concepts from the characteristics and detection of wake vortices to the wake-vortex encounter phenomenon. As part of this latter effort, computational tools are being developed and utilized as a means of modeling and verifying wake-vortex hazard encounters. The objective of this study is to assess the ability of PMARC, a low-order potential-flow panel method, to predict the forces and moments imposed on a following business-jet configuration by a vortex interaction. Other issues addressed include the investigation of several wake models and their ability to predict wake shape and trajectory, the validity of the velocity field imposed on the following configuration, modeling techniques and the effect of the high-lift system and the empennage. Comparisons with wind-tunnel data reveal that PMARC predicts the characteristics for the clean wing-body following configuration fairly well. Non-linear effects produced by the addition of the high-lift system and empennage, however, are not so well predicted.

  18. Three-Centimeter Doppler Radar Observations of Wingtip-Generated Wake Vortices in Clear Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Robert E.; Mudukutore, Ashok; Wissel, Vicki L. H.; Myers, Theodore

    1997-01-01

    This report documents a high risk, high pay-off experiment with the objective of detecting, for the first time, the presence of aircraft wake vortices in clear air using X-band Doppler radar. Field experiments were conducted in January 1995 at the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) to demonstrate the capability of the 9.33 GHz (I=3 cm) radar, which was assembled using an existing nine-meter parabolic antenna reflector at VVTT and the receiver/transmitter from the NASA Airborne Windshear Radar-Program. A C-130-aircraft, equipped with wingtip smoke generators, created visually marked wake vortices, which were recorded by video cameras. A C-band radar also observed the wake vortices during detection attempts with the X-band radar. Rawinsonde data was used to calculate vertical soundings of wake vortex decay time, cross aircraft bearing wind speed, and water vapor mixing ratio for aircraft passes over the radar measurement range. This experiment was a pathfinder in predicting, in real time, the location and persistence of C-130 vortices, and in setting the flight path of the aircraft to optimize X-band radar measurement of the wake vortex core in real time. This experiment was conducted in support of the NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS).

  19. Detectability of the infrared surface features of the wake behind a moving underwater body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhi-guang; Li, Ji-cheng

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, by using the theoretical analysis and computer simulation method, the lower boundary requirements of the infrared imaging sensor are analyzed when detecting the thermal surface features of the wake behind a moving underwater body. Firstly, the computer simulation model of the underwater body wake's surface temperature field and the corresponding surface infrared features are established. Secondly, the measures of the sensor's detection performance and the computation method of these measures are described. Thirdly, by using the infrared features' simulation model and the performance measures, we have done simulation tests to analyze the given infrared imaging sensor's detection ability for detecting underwater body wake, and the requirements of infrared sensor to detect the wake's infrared surface feature under some given working states are also investigated. Lastly, the simulation results and the conclusions of the paper are given. The problem-solving flow chart and the simulation results on underwater object wake's detectability given in this paper may be useful for the designment and performance evaluation of the infrared imaging sensors.

  20. Linear instability of supersonic plane wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papageorgiou, D. T.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we present a theoretical and numerical study of the growth of linear disturbances in the high-Reynolds-number and laminar compressible wake behind a flat plate which is aligned with a uniform stream. No ad hoc assumptions are made as to the nature of the undisturbed flow (in contrast to previous investigations) but instead the theory is developed rationally by use of proper wake-profiles which satisfy the steady equations of motion. The initial growth of near wake perturbation is governed by the compressible Rayleigh equation which is studied analytically for long- and short-waves. These solutions emphasize the asymptotic structures involved and provide a rational basis for a nonlinear development. The evolution of arbitrary wavelength perturbations is addressed numerically and spatial stability solutions are presented that account for the relative importance of the different physical mechanisms present, such as three-dimensionality, increasing Mach numbers enough (subsonic) Mach numbers, there exists a region of absolute instability very close to the trailing-edge with the majority of the wake being convectively unstable. At higher Mach numbers (but still not large-hypersonic) the absolute instability region seems to disappear and the maximum available growth-rates decrease considerably. Three-dimensional perturbations provide the highest spatial growth-rates.

  1. Wake County Public School System Design Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake County Public School System, Raleigh, NC.

    The Wake County Public School System has published its guidelines for planning and design of functional, cost effective, and durable educational facilities that are attractive and enhance the students' educational experience. The guidelines present basic planning requirement and design criteria for the entire construction process, including: codes

  2. Holographic flow visualization. [of aircraft wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charwat, A. F.; Fourney, M. E.

    1976-01-01

    Holographic visualization techniques are presented of the vortex wake of a lifting wing. The motions of tracer particles in vortical flows are described along with the development of a liquid-drop tracer generator. An analysis is presented of the motion of particles of arbitrary density and size in solid body and potential vortex flows.

  3. Radiative Forcing Over Ocean by Ship Wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Wilcox, E.; Poudyal, R.; Wang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in surface albedo represent one of the main forcing agents that can counteract, to some extent, the positive forcing from increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Here, we report on enhanced ocean reflectance from ship wakes over the Pacific Ocean near the California coast, where we determined, based on airborne radiation measurements that ship wakes can increase reflected sunlight by more than 100%. We assessed the importance of this increase to climate forcing, where we estimated the global radiative forcing of ship wakes to be -0.00014 plus or minus 53% Watts per square meter assuming a global distribution of 32331 ships of size of greater than or equal to 100000 gross tonnage. The forcing is smaller than the forcing of aircraft contrails (-0.007 to +0.02 Watts per square meter), but considering that the global shipping fleet has rapidly grown in the last five decades and this trend is likely to continue because of the need of more inter-continental transportation as a result of economic globalization, we argue that the radiative forcing of wakes is expected to be increasingly important especially in harbors and coastal regions.

  4. Explicit expressions of impedances and wake functions

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; Bane, K,; /SLAC

    2010-10-01

    Sections 3.2.4 and 3.2.5 of the Handbook of Accelerator Physics and Engineering on Landau damping are combined and updated. The new addition includes impedances and wakes for multi-layer beam pipe, optical model, diffraction model, and cross-sectional transition.

  5. Explicit Expressions of Impedances and Wake Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; Bane, K,; /SLAC

    2012-06-11

    Sections 3.2.4 and 3.2.5 of the Handbook of Accelerator Physics and Engineering on Landau damping are combined and updated. The new addition includes impedances and wakes for multi-layer beam pipe, optical model, diffraction model, and cross-sectional transition.

  6. Space shuttle molecular and wake vacuum measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.; Carignan, G. R.; Miller, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    The wake environment of the space shuttle is analyzed to determine whether it is feasible to perform ultrahigh vacuum experiments in or near the payload bay with the shuttle oriented such that the payload bay faces the antivelocity direction. Several mechanisms were considered by which molecules could approach the payload bay from this direction and their relative contributions to the wake environment are estimated. These mechanisms include ambient atmospheric molecules that have velocities in excess of the orbital velocity which can overtake the shuttle, ambient atmospheric molecules that are backscattered by collisions with the shuttle induced atmosphere, and self scattering from the induced atmosphere. These estimates are compared with the measurements made with the collimated mass spectrometer which was part of the Induced Environment Contamination Monitor flown on several of the early shuttle flights. Although the collimated mass spectrometer was not designed for this purpose and the instrument background for the species for which the collimator is effective is above the expected levels, upper limits can be established for these species in the wake environment which are consistent with the analysis. There was considerably more helium and argon observed in the wake direction than was predicted, however. Possible origins of these gases are discussed.

  7. Ram side of Wake Shield Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The ram side of the Wake Shield Facility (WSF) is in the grasp of the Space Shuttle Discovery's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm in this 70mm frame. Clouds over the Atlantic Ocean and the blackness of space share the backdrop for the picture.

  8. Active Wake Redirection Control to Improve Energy Yield (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Churchfield, M. J.; Fleming, P.; DeGeorge, E.; Bulder, B; White, S. M.

    2014-10-01

    Wake effects can dramatically reduce the efficiency of waked turbines relative to the unwaked turbines. Wakes can be deflected, or 'redirected,' by applying yaw misalignment to the turbines. Yaw misalignment causes part of the rotor thrust vector to be pointed in the cross-stream direction, deflecting the flow and the wake. Yaw misalignment reduces power production, but the global increase in wind plant power due to decreased wake effect creates a net increase in power production. It is also a fairly simple control idea to implement at existing or new wind plants. We performed high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics simulations of the wake flow of the proposed Fishermen's Atlantic City Windfarm (FACW) that predict that under certain waking conditions, wake redirection can increase plant efficiency by 10%. This means that by applying wake redirection control, for a given watersheet area, a wind plant can either produce more power, or the same amount of power can be produced with a smaller watersheet area. With the power increase may come increased loads, though, due to the yaw misalignment. If misalignment is applied properly, or if layered with individual blade pitch control, though, the load increase can be mitigated. In this talk we will discuss the concept of wake redirection through yaw misalignment and present our CFD results of the FACW project. We will also discuss the implications of wake redirection control on annual energy production, and finally we will discuss plans to implement wake redirection control at FACW when it is operational.

  9. 32 CFR 707.10 - Wake illumination light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wake illumination light. 707.10 Section 707.10... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.10 Wake illumination light. Naval vessels may display a white spot light located near the stern to illuminate the wake....

  10. 32 CFR 707.10 - Wake illumination light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wake illumination light. 707.10 Section 707.10... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.10 Wake illumination light. Naval vessels may display a white spot light located near the stern to illuminate the wake....

  11. 32 CFR 707.10 - Wake illumination light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wake illumination light. 707.10 Section 707.10... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.10 Wake illumination light. Naval vessels may display a white spot light located near the stern to illuminate the wake....

  12. 32 CFR 707.10 - Wake illumination light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wake illumination light. 707.10 Section 707.10... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.10 Wake illumination light. Naval vessels may display a white spot light located near the stern to illuminate the wake....

  13. Effects of incoming surface wind conditions on the wake characteristics and dynamic wind loads acting on a wind turbine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Wei; Ozbay, Ahmet; Hu, Hui

    2014-12-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to examine the effects of incoming surface wind conditions on the wake characteristics and dynamic wind loads acting on a wind turbine model. The experimental study was performed in a large-scale wind tunnel with a scaled three-blade Horizontal Axial Wind Turbine model placed in two different types of Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) winds with distinct mean and turbulence characteristics. In addition to measuring dynamic wind loads acting on the model turbine by using a force-moment sensor, a high-resolution Particle Image Velocimetry system was used to achieve detailed flow field measurements to characterize the turbulent wake flows behind the model turbine. The measurement results reveal clearly that the discrepancies in the incoming surface winds would affect the wake characteristics and dynamic wind loads acting on the model turbine dramatically. The dynamic wind loads acting on the model turbine were found to fluctuate much more significantly, thereby, much larger fatigue loads, for the case with the wind turbine model sited in the incoming ABL wind with higher turbulence intensity levels. The turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress levels in the wake behind the model turbine were also found to be significantly higher for the high turbulence inflow case, in comparison to those of the low turbulence inflow case. The flow characteristics in the turbine wake were found to be dominated by the formation, shedding, and breakdown of various unsteady wake vortices. In comparison with the case with relatively low turbulence intensities in the incoming ABL wind, much more turbulent and randomly shedding, faster dissipation, and earlier breakdown of the wake vortices were observed for the high turbulence inflow case, which would promote the vertical transport of kinetic energy by entraining more high-speed airflow from above to re-charge the wake flow and result in a much faster recovery of the velocity deficits in the turbine wake.

  14. Experimental Study of the Temporal Nature of an Actively Controlled Three Dimensional Turret Wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, Patrick; Glauser, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Experimental measurements have been performed to characterize the actively controlled wake of a three-dimensional, non- conformal turret which is a bluff body commonly used for housing optical systems on airborne platforms. As a bluff body, turrets can generate strong turbulent flow fields that degrade the performance of the optical systems and the aircraft. Experiments were performed in a low-speed wind tunnel at Syracuse University using particle image velocimetry and dynamic pressure measurements with the objective of developing a better understanding of the spatial and temporal nature of the wake flow field. Active control was achieved using dynamic suction in the vicinity of the turret aperture and was found to have a significant impact on the structure of the wake as well as the temporal characteristics of the flow field. With a better understanding of the wake characteristics, closed-loop, active flow control systems will be developed to help reduce fluctuating loading and aero- optical distortions associated with the turbulent flow field.

  15. LOOK AT THE INFLUENCE OF BUILDING ORIENTATION ON PLUME DISPERSION IN THE WAKE OF A BUILDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Observations of mean pollutant concentration profiles downwind of a block-sized model building are reported. These data are part of a more comprehensive field model study of building wake effects conducted in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Fluid Modeling Facility. The...

  16. 19. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated July6, 1987, Goudreau/Wakely ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated July6, 1987, Goudreau/Wakely Associates, Mt. Pleasant, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. ARCHITECTURAL, DEMOLITION PLANS EXISTING HANGAR (566 (4 OF 15). - Selfridge Field, Building No. 3566, Ammo Road northeast of Taxiway A, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  17. Local Experience-Dependent Changes in the Wake EEG after Prolonged Wakefulness

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ching-Sui; Sarasso, Simone; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Riedner, Brady; Ghilardi, M. Felice; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Prolonged wakefulness leads to a progressive increase in sleep pressure, reflected in a global increase in slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4.5 Hz) in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG). A global increase in wake theta activity (5-9 Hz) also occurs. Recently, it was shown that prolonged wakefulness in rodents leads to signs of local sleep in an otherwise awake brain, accompanied by a slow/theta wave (2-6 Hz) in the local EEG that occurs at different times in different cortical areas. Compelling evidence in animals and humans also indicates that sleep is locally regulated by the amount of experience-dependent plasticity. Here, we asked whether the extended practice of tasks that involve specific brain circuits results in increased occurrence of local intermittent theta waves in the human EEG, above and beyond the global EEG changes previously described. Design: Participants recorded with high-density EEG completed 2 experiments during which they stayed awake ? 24 h practicing a language task (audiobook listening [AB]) or a visuomotor task (driving simulator [DS]). Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients or Participants: 16 healthy participants (7 females). Interventions: Two extended wake periods. Measurements and Results: Both conditions resulted in global increases in resting wake EEG theta power at the end of 24 h of wake, accompanied by increased sleepiness. Moreover, wake theta power as well as the occurrence and amplitude of theta waves showed regional, task-dependent changes, increasing more over left frontal derivations in AB, and over posterior parietal regions in DS. These local changes in wake theta power correlated with similar local changes in sleep low frequencies including SWA. Conclusions: Extended experience-dependent plasticity of specific circuits results in a local increase of the wake theta EEG power in those regions, followed by more intense sleep, as reflected by SWA, over the same areas. Citation: Hung CS; Sarasso S; Ferrarelli F; Riedner B; Ghilardi MF; Cirelli C; Tononi G. Local experience-dependent changes in the wake EEG after prolonged wakefulness. SLEEP 2013;36(1):5972. PMID:23288972

  18. A comparison of airborne wake vortex detection measurements with values predicted from potential theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of flight measurements made near a wake vortex was conducted to explore the feasibility of providing a pilot with useful wake avoidance information. The measurements were made with relatively low cost flow and motion sensors on a light airplane flying near the wake vortex of a turboprop airplane weighing approximately 90000 lbs. Algorithms were developed which removed the response of the airplane to control inputs from the total airplane response and produced parameters which were due solely to the flow field of the vortex. These parameters were compared with values predicted by potential theory. The results indicated that the presence of the vortex could be detected by a combination of parameters derived from the simple sensors. However, the location and strength of the vortex cannot be determined without additional and more accurate sensors.

  19. Effect of object potentials on the wake of a flowing plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, I.; Mandell, M. J.; Parks, D. E.; Wright, K.; Stone, N. H.

    1987-01-01

    The structure of the electric potential and ion density of the ion front in the near wake created by the flow of synthetic plasma past a conducting plate was investigated experimentally and numerically, with particular attention given to the effect of plate potential on the structure of the ion front. Results were obtained for a molecular nitrogen plasma with ambient electron densities of about 100,000/cu cm, ion temperatures of about 0.025 eV, electron temperatures of about 0.3 eV, and plasma flow velocities of about 10,000 m/s. Two-dimensional simulations of the laboratory experiments were performed by using a multiple waterbag technique. The calculated and experimental results show that wake closure is well described by the acceleration of ions in the plasma steady-state electric field. However, the ion-front motion is strongly affected by the imposed potential of the object creating the wake.

  20. Helicopter rotor wake geometry and its influence in forward flight. Volume 2: Wake geometry charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Isometric and projection view plots, inflow ratio nomographs, undistorted axial displacement nomographs, undistorted longitudinal and lateral coordinates, generalized axial distortion nomographs, blade/vortex passage charts, blade/vortex intersection angle nomographs, and fore and aft wake boundary charts are discussed. Example condition, in flow ratio, undistorted axial location, longitudinal and lateral coordinates, axial coordinates distortions, blade/tip vortex intersections, angle of intersection, and fore and aft wake boundaries are also discussed.

  1. To what extent do neurobiological sleep-waking processes support psychoanalysis?

    PubMed

    Gottesmann, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Sigmund Freud's thesis was that there is a censorship during waking that prevents memory of events, drives, wishes, and feelings from entering the consciousness because they would induce anxiety due to their emotional or ethical unacceptability. During dreaming, because the efficiency of censorship is decreased, latent thought contents can, after dream-work involving condensation and displacement, enter the dreamer's consciousness under the figurative form of manifest content. The quasi-closed dogma of psychoanalytic theory as related to unconscious processes is beginning to find neurobiological confirmation during waking. Indeed, there are active processes that suppress (repress) unwanted memories from entering consciousness. In contrast, it is more difficult to find neurobiological evidence supporting an organized dream-work that would induce meaningful symbolic content, since dream mentation most often only shows psychotic-like activities. PMID:20870071

  2. An exploratory investigation of a wake disruption technique for studying wake reestablishment time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, L. E.; Jones, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    An exploratory investigation was made of a wake disruption technique for studying the hypersonic-wake reestablishment time in a blowdown wind tunnel. In this technique, a highly underexpanded jet issuing from the base of a 10 deg half-angle cone totally disrupts and displaces the conventional wake. The jet was rapidly shut off by an explosively actuated valve and the time for wake reestablishment was measured. The tests were conducted in the Mach 6 high Reynolds number tunnel at a stagnation temperature of 506 K and stagnation pressure of 2.86 MPa. The model base jet stagnation pressure was 3.55 MPa at room temperature. High-speed schlieren motion pictures indicated that disappearance of the disrupting jet and reestablishment of the wake-recompression shock were probably occurring simultaneously and that the time disruptive-jet-air shutoff to wake recompression shock reestablishment was probably between 200 and 450 microseconds (flow lengths from 1.8 to 4.2). The values of flow lengths are about one-thord to one-half the values measured in impulse facilities in a previous study. This shorter time is believed to be largely due to difference in flow conditions between the jet disruption technique and impulse facilities.

  3. Suppression of unimolecular decay of laser desorbed peptide and protein ions by entrainment in rarefied supersonic gas jets under weak electric fields.

    PubMed

    Hieke, Andreas

    2014-01-21

    Unimolecular decay of sample ions imposes a limit on the usable laser fluence in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) ion sources. Traditionally, some modest degree of collisional sample ion cooling has been achieved by connecting MALDI ion sources directly to gas-filled radio frequency (RF) multipoles. It was also discovered in the early 1990s that gas-filled RF multipoles exhibit increased ion transmission efficiency due to collisional ion focusing effects. This unexpected experimental finding was later supported by elementary Monte Carlo simulations. Both experiments and simulations assumed a resting background gas with typical pressures of the order of 1 Pa. However, considerable additional improvements can be achieved if laser desorbed sample ions are introduced immediately after desorption, still within the ion source, in an axisymmetric rarefied supersonic gas jet with peak pressure of the order of 100 Pa and flow velocities >300 m/s, and under weak electric fields. We describe here the design principle and report performance data of an ion source coined "MALDI-2," which incorporates elements of both rarefied aerodynamics and particle optics. Such a design allows superb suppression of metastable fragmentation due to rapid collisional cooling in <10 ?s and nearly perfect injection efficiency into the attached RF ion guide, as numerous experiments have confirmed. PMID:25669372

  4. Suppression of unimolecular decay of laser desorbed peptide and protein ions by entrainment in rarefied supersonic gas jets under weak electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hieke, Andreas

    2014-01-21

    Unimolecular decay of sample ions imposes a limit on the usable laser fluence in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) ion sources. Traditionally, some modest degree of collisional sample ion cooling has been achieved by connecting MALDI ion sources directly to gas-filled radio frequency (RF) multipoles. It was also discovered in the early 1990s that gas-filled RF multipoles exhibit increased ion transmission efficiency due to collisional ion focusing effects. This unexpected experimental finding was later supported by elementary Monte Carlo simulations. Both experiments and simulations assumed a resting background gas with typical pressures of the order of 1 Pa. However, considerable additional improvements can be achieved if laser desorbed sample ions are introduced immediately after desorption, still within the ion source, in an axisymmetric rarefied supersonic gas jet with peak pressure of the order of 100 Pa and flow velocities >300 m/s, and under weak electric fields. We describe here the design principle and report performance data of an ion source coined “MALDI-2,” which incorporates elements of both rarefied aerodynamics and particle optics. Such a design allows superb suppression of metastable fragmentation due to rapid collisional cooling in <10 μs and nearly perfect injection efficiency into the attached RF ion guide, as numerous experiments have confirmed.

  5. Sleep-wake behavior in the rat: ultradian rhythms in a light-dark cycle and continuous bright light.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Richard; Lim, Joonbum; Famina, Svetlana; Caron, Aimee M; Dowse, Harold B

    2012-12-01

    Ultradian rhythms are a prominent but little-studied feature of mammalian sleep-wake and rest-activity patterns. They are especially evident in long-term records of behavioral state in polyphasic animals such as rodents. However, few attempts have been made to incorporate ultradian rhythmicity into models of sleep-wake dynamics, and little is known about the physiological mechanisms that give rise to ultradian rhythms in sleep-wake state. This study investigated ultradian dynamics in sleep and wakefulness in rats entrained to a 12-h:12-h light-dark cycle (LD) and in rats whose circadian rhythms were suppressed and free-running following long-term exposure to uninterrupted bright light (LL). We recorded sleep-wake state continuously for 7 to 12 consecutive days and used time-series analysis to quantify the dynamics of net cumulative time in each state (wakefulness [WAKE], rapid eye movement sleep [REM], and non-REM sleep [NREM]) in each animal individually. Form estimates and autocorrelation confirmed the presence of significant ultradian and circadian rhythms; maximum entropy spectral analysis allowed high-resolution evaluation of multiple periods within the signal, and wave-by-wave analysis enabled a statistical evaluation of the instantaneous period, peak-trough range, and phase of each ultradian wave in the time series. Significant ultradian periodicities were present in all 3 states in all animals. In LD, ultradian range was approximately 28% of circadian range. In LL, ultradian range was slightly reduced relative to LD, and circadian range was strongly attenuated. Ultradian rhythms were found to be quasiperiodic in both LD and LL. That is, ultradian period varied randomly around a mean of approximately 4 h, with no relationship between ultradian period and time of day. PMID:23223374

  6. A New Green's Function for the Wake Potential Calculation of the SLAC S-band Constant Gradient Accelerating Section

    SciTech Connect

    Novokhatski, A,; /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    The behavior of the longitudinal wake fields excited by a very short bunch in the SLAC S-band constant gradient accelerating structures has been studied. Wake potential calculations were performed for a bunch length of 10 microns using the author's code to obtain a numerical solution of Maxwell's equations in the time domain. We have calculated six accelerating sections in the series (60-ft) to find the stationary solution. While analyzing the computational results we have found a new formula for the Green's function. Wake potentials, which are calculated using this Green's function are in amazingly good agreement with numerical results over a wide range of bunch lengths. The Green's function simplifies the wake potential calculations and can be easily incorporated into the tracking codes. This is very useful for beam dynamics studies of the linear accelerators of LCLS and FACET.

  7. Axisymmetric Turbulent Wakes with New Nonequilibrium Similarity Scalings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedi?, J.; Vassilicos, J. C.; Ganapathisubramani, B.

    2013-10-01

    The recently discovered nonequilibrium turbulence dissipation law implies the existence of axisymmetric turbulent wake regions where the mean flow velocity deficit decays as the inverse of the distance from the wake-generating body and the wake width grows as the square root of that distance. This behavior is different from any documented boundary-free turbulent shear flow to date. Its existence is confirmed in wind tunnel experiments of wakes generated by plates with irregular edges placed normal to an incoming free stream. The wake characteristics of irregular bodies such as buildings, bridges, mountains, trees, coral reefs, and wind turbines are critical in many areas of environmental engineering and fluid mechanics.

  8. Wind-tunnel measurements in the wakes of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, H. G. C.; Peterka, J. A.; Cermak, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed measurements of longitudinal mean velocity, turbulence intensity, space correlations, and spectra made in the wake of two rectangular scaled models in simulated atmospheric boundary-layer winds are presented. The model buildings were 1:50 scale models of two trailers. Results of a flow visualization study of the wake geometry are analyzed with some singular point theorems. Two hypothetical flow patterns of the detailed wake geometry are proposed. Some preliminary studies of the vortex wake, effects of the model size, model aspect ratios, and boundary layer characteristics on the decay rate and extent of the wake are also presented and discussed.

  9. Pulsed radio frequency radiation affects cognitive performance and the waking electroencephalogram.

    PubMed

    Regel, Sabine J; Gottselig, Julie M; Schuderer, Jrgen; Tinguely, Gilberte; Rtey, Julia V; Kuster, Niels; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Achermann, Peter

    2007-05-28

    We investigated the effects of radio frequency electromagnetic fields on brain physiology. Twenty-four healthy young men were exposed for 30 min to pulse-modulated or continuous-wave radio frequency electromagnetic fields (900 MHz; peak specific absorption rate 1 W/kg), or sham exposed. During exposure, participants performed cognitive tasks. Waking electroencephalogram was recorded during baseline, immediately after, and 30 and 60 min after exposure. Pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure reduced reaction speed and increased accuracy in a working-memory task. It also increased spectral power in the waking electroencephalogram in the 10.5-11 Hz range 30 min after exposure. No effects were observed for continuous-wave radio frequency electromagnetic fields. These findings provide further evidence for a nonthermal biological effect of pulsed radio frequency electromagnetic fields. PMID:17471070

  10. Storm-centric view of Tropical Cyclone oceanic wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentemann, C. L.; Scott, J. P.; Smith, D.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) have a dramatic impact on the upper ocean. Storm-generated oceanic mixing, high amplitude near-inertial currents, upwelling, and heat fluxes often warm or cool the surface ocean temperatures over large regions near tropical cyclones. These SST anomalies occur to the right (Northern Hemisphere) or left (Southern Hemisphere) of the storm track, varying along and across the storm track. These wide swaths of temperature change have been previously documented by in situ field programs as well as IR and visible satellite data. The amplitude, temporal and spatial variability of these surface temperature anomalies depend primarily upon the storm size, storm intensity, translational velocity, and the underlying ocean conditions. Tropical cyclone 'cold wakes' are usually 2 - 5 C cooler than pre-storm SSTs, and persist for days to weeks. Since storms that occur in rapid succession typically follow similar paths, the cold wake from one storm can affect development of subsequent storms. Recent studies, on both warm and cold wakes, have mostly focused on small subsets of global storms because of the amount of work it takes to co-locate different data sources to a storm's location. While a number of hurricane/typhoon websites exist that co-locate various datasets to TC locations, none provide 3-dimensional temporal and spatial structure of the ocean-atmosphere necessary to study cold/warm wake development and impact. We are developing a global 3-dimensional storm centric database for TC research. The database we propose will include in situ data, satellite data, and model analyses. Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) has a widely-used storm watch archive which provides the user an interface for visually analyzing collocated NASA Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) winds with GHRSST microwave SSTs and SSM/I, TMI or AMSR-E rain rates for all global tropical cyclones 1999-2009. We will build on this concept of bringing together different data near storm locations when developing the storm-centric database. This database will be made available to researchers via the web display tools previously developed for RSS web pages. The database will provide scientists with a single data format collection of various atmospheric and oceanographic data, and will include all tropical storms since 1998, when the passive MW SSTs from the TMI instrument first became available. Initial results showing an analysis of Typhoon Man-Yi will be presented.

  11. Wind turbine wake detection with a single Doppler wind lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Barthelmie, R. J.

    2015-06-01

    Using scanning lidar wind turbine wakes can be probed in three dimensions to produce a wealth of temporally and spatially irregular data that can be used to characterize the wakes. Unlike data from a meteorological mast or upward pointing lidar, the spatial coordinates of the measurements are not fixed and the location of the wake also varies in three dimensions. Therefore the challenge is to provide automated detection algorithms to identify wakes and quantify wake characteristics from this type of dataset. Here an algorithm is developed and evaluated on data from a large wind farm in the Midwest. A scanning coherent Doppler wind lidar was configured to measure wind speed in the wake of a continuously yawing wind turbine for two days during the experiment and wake profiles were retrieved with input of wind direction information from the nearby meteorological mast. Additional challenges to the analysis include incomplete coverage of the entire wake due to the limited scanning domain, and large wind shear that can contaminate the wake estimate because of the height variation along the line-of-sight. However, the algorithm developed in this paper is able to automatically capture wakes in lidar data from Plan Position Indicator (PPI) scans and the resultant wake statistics are consistent with previous experiment's results.

  12. The near wake of a freely flying European starling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhefer, Adam J.; Kopp, Gregory A.; Gurka, Roi

    2013-05-01

    The wake of a freely flying European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) has been measured using high speed, time-resolved, particle image velocimetry, simultaneously with high speed cameras which imaged the bird. These have been used to generate vector maps that can be associated with the bird's location and wing configuration in the wind tunnel. Time series of measurements have been expressed as composite wake plots which depict segments of the wing beat cycle for various spanwise locations in the wake. Measurements indicate that downwash is not produced during the upstroke, suggesting that the upstroke does not generate lift. As well, the wake velocities imply the presence of streamwise vortical structures, in addition to tip vortices. These two characteristics indicate similarities between the wake of a bird and the wake of a bat, which may be general features of the wakes of flapping wings.

  13. Cosmic string wakes and large-scale structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlton, Jane C.

    1988-01-01

    The formation of structure from infinite cosmic string wakes is modeled for a universe dominated by cold dark matter (CDM). Cross-sectional slices through the wake distribution tend to outline empty regions with diameters which are not inconsistent with the range of sizes of the voids in the CfA slice of the universe. The topology of the wake distribution is found to be spongy rather than cell-like. Correlations between CDM wakes do not extend much beyond a horizon length, so it is unlikely that CDM wakes are responsible for the correlations between clusters of galaxies. An estimate of the fraction of matter to accrete onto CDM wakes indicates that wakes could be more important in galaxy formation than previously anticipated.

  14. Proceedings of the NASA First Wake Vortex Dynamic Spacing Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creduer, Leonard (Editor); Perry, R. Brad (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    A Government and Industry workshop on wake vortex dynamic spacing systems was conducted on May 13-15, 1997, at the NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of the workshop was to disclose the status of ongoing NASA wake vortex R&D to the international community and to seek feedback on the direction of future work to assure an optimized research approach. Workshop sessions examined wake vortex characterization and physics, wake sensor technologies, aircraft/wake encounters, terminal area weather characterization and prediction, and wake vortex systems integration and implementation. A final workshop session surveyed the Government and Industry perspectives on the NASA research underway and related international wake vortex activities. This document contains the proceedings of the workshop including the presenters' slides, the discussion following each presentation, the wrap-up panel discussion, and the attendees' evaluation feedback.

  15. ELF magnetic fluctuations detected by Kaguya in deepest lunar wake associated with type-II protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Tomoko; Nakashima, Tatsuya; Wada, Takuya; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Takahashi, Futoshi; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Matsushima, Masaki; Saito, Yoshifumi

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic fluctuations in the extremely low-frequency (ELF) range from 0.1 to 10 Hz were found by the Lunar Magnetometer (LMAG) of the magnetic field and plasma experiment (MAP) on board the spacecraft Kaguya in the deepest wake behind the moon, where the magnetic field is usually quiet. The fluctuations were compressional and non-monochromatic, showing no preferred polarization. They were often accompanied by "type-II entry" solar wind protons that were reflected by the dayside lunar surface or crustal magnetic field, gyrated around the solar wind magnetic field, then entered the deepest wake. The ELF waves persisted for 30 s to several minutes. The duration was often shorter than that of the type-II protons. Most of the waves were detected on the magnetic field lines disconnected from the lunar surface, along which the solar wind electrons were injected into the wake. Since a large cross-field velocity difference is expected between the type-II protons and the solar wind electrons injected along the magnetic field, some cross-field current-driven instability such as the lower hybrid two-stream instability is expected to be responsible for the generation of the waves.

  16. Viscous effects on a vortex wake in ground effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Z.; Ash, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    Wake vortex trajectories and strengths are altered radically by interactions with the ground plane. Prediction of vortex strength and location is especially important in the vicinity of airports. Simple potential flow methods have been found to yield reasonable estimates of vortex descent rates in an otherwise quiescent ambient background, but those techniques cannot be adjusted for more realistic ambient conditions and they fail to provide satisfactory estimates of ground-coupled behavior. The authors have been involved in a systematic study concerned with including viscous effects in a wake-vortex system which is near the ground plane. The study has employed numerical solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations, as well as perturbation techniques to study ground coupling with a descending vortex pair. Results of a two-dimensional, unsteady numerical-theoretical study are presented in this paper. A time-based perturbation procedure has been developed which permits the use of analytical solutions to an inner and outer flow domain for the initial flow field. Predictions have been compared with previously reported laminar experimental results. In addition, the influence of stratification and turbulence on vortex behavior near the ground plane has been studied.

  17. A CFD code comparison of wind turbine wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Laan, M. P.; Storey, R. C.; Srensen, N. N.; Norris, S. E.; Cater, J. E.

    2014-06-01

    A comparison is made between the EllipSys3D and SnS CFD codes. Both codes are used to perform Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of single wind turbine wakes, using the actuator disk method. The comparison shows that both LES models predict similar velocity deficits and stream-wise Reynolds-stresses for four test cases. A grid resolution study, performed in EllipSys3D and SnS, shows that a minimal uniform cell spacing of 1/30 of the rotor diameter is necessary to resolve the wind turbine wake. In addition, the LES-predicted velocity deficits are also compared with Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes simulations using EllipSys3D for a test case that is based on field measurements. In these simulations, two eddy viscosity turbulence models are employed: the k-epsilon model and the k-epsilon-fp model. Where the k-epsilon model fails to predict the velocity deficit, the results of the k-epsilon-fP model show good agreement with both LES models and measurements.

  18. The Role of Wakes in Modelling Tidal Current Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, Daniel; Roc, Thomas; Greaves, Deborah

    2010-05-01

    The eventual proper development of arrays of Tidal Current Turbines (TCT) will require a balance which maximizes power extraction while minimizing environmental impacts. Idealized analytical analogues and simple 2-D models are useful tools for investigating questions of a general nature but do not represent a practical tool for application to realistic cases. Some form of 3-D numerical simulations will be required for such applications and the current project is designed to develop a numerical decision-making tool for use in planning large scale TCT projects. The project is predicated on the use of an existing regional ocean modelling framework (the Regional Ocean Modelling System - ROMS) which is modified to enable the user to account for the effects of TCTs. In such a framework where mixing processes are highly parametrized, the fidelity of the quantitative results is critically dependent on the parameter values utilized. In light of the early stage of TCT development and the lack of field scale measurements, the calibration of such a model is problematic. In the absence of explicit calibration data sets, the device wake structure has been identified as an efficient feature for model calibration. This presentation will discuss efforts to design an appropriate calibration scheme which focuses on wake decay and the motivation for this approach, techniques applied, validation results from simple test cases and limitations shall be presented.

  19. Practical Use and Risk of Modafinil, a Novel Waking Drug

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Modafinil is a waking drug prescribed to narcolepsy patients, but its usage among healthy individuals is increasing to enhance their alertness or to mitigate fatigue. This study was conducted to investigate practical use and toxic effects on neuro-immune interaction of modafinil. Methods This study reviewed the significance of psychoactive drugs, and discussed the benefits and risks of the application of modafinil, which seems to be ideal as an anti-psychotic or anti-fatigue agent. Results Modafinil is known to have less or no adverse effects than those found in traditional psychostimulants such as amphetamine, methylphenidate or cocaine. It can be applied as an anti-psychotic or anti-fatigue agent. However, the waking mechanism of modafinil is yet to be fully revealed. Recent studies reported that modafinil may be subject to abuse and addiction. In addition prolonged sleeplessness induces stress responses and impairs immune function. Conclusions Modafinil can be used by anyone, who wishes to work late, stay awake, enhance their cognitive reactions, or brighten their moods. Users may already be under a great level of stress, i.e. cancer patients or soldiers in a battle field. A psychoneuroimmunological approach is thus needed to investigate the multi-functional effects of modafinil. PMID:22375280

  20. Kinetic instabilities in the lunar wake: ARTEMIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, J. B.; Ergun, R. E.; Newman, D. L.; Halekas, J. S.; Andersson, L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bonnell, J. W.; McFadden, J. P.; Cully, C. M.; Auster, H.-U.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Larson, D. E.; Baumjohann, W.; Goldman, M. V.

    2012-03-01

    The Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) mission is a new two-probe lunar mission derived from the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) mission. On 13 February 2010, one of the two probes, ARTEMIS P1 (formerly THEMIS-B), made the first lunar wake flyby of the mission. We present detailed analysis of the electrostatic waves observed on the outbound side of the flyby that were associated with electron beams. Halekas et al. (2011) derived a net potential across the lunar wake from observations and suggested that the net potential generated the observed electron beams and the electron beams in turn excited the observed electrostatic waves due to kinetic instabilities. The wavelengths and velocities of the electrostatic waves are estimated, using high-resolution electric field instrument data with cross-spectrum analysis and cross-correlation analysis. In general, the estimated wavelengths vary from a few hundred meters to a couple of thousand meters. The estimated phase velocities are on the order of 1000 km s-1. In addition, we perform 1-D Vlasov simulations to help identify the mode of the observed electrostatic waves. We conclude that the observed electrostatic waves are likely on the electron beam mode branch.