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1

Collinear wake field acceleration  

SciTech Connect

In the Voss-Weiland scheme of wake field acceleration a high current, ring-shaped driving bunch is used to accelerate a low current beam following along on axis. In such a structure, the transformer ratio, i.e., the ratio of maximum voltage that can be gained by the on-axis beam and the voltage lost by the driving beam, can be large. In contrast, it has been observed that for an arrangement in which driving and driven bunches follow the same path, and where the current distribution of both bunches is gaussian, the transformer ratio is not normally greater than two. This paper explores some of the possibilities and limitations of a collinear acceleration scheme. In addition to its application to wake field acceleration in structures, this study is also of interest for the understanding of the plasma wake field accelerator. 11 refs., 4 figs.

Bane, K.L.F.; Chen, P.; Wilson, P.B.

1985-04-01

2

Plasma wake field accelerator  

SciTech Connect

A new scheme of electron acceleration, employing relativistic electron bunches in a cold plasma, is analyzed. The wake field of a leading bunch is derived in a single-particle model. We then extend the model to include finite bunch length effect. In particular, we discuss the relation between the charge distributions of the driving bunch and the energies transformable to the trailing electrons. It is shown that for symmetric charge distribution of the driving bunches, the maximum energy gain for a driven electron is 2..gamma../sub 0/mc/sup 2/. This limitation can be overcome by introducing asymmetric charge distributions. 13 refs., 5 figs.

Chen, P.; Dawson, J.M.

1985-03-01

3

Vortex suppression in the wake of counter rotating cylinders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital particle image velocimetry is used to study the flow past a pair of counter rotating cylinders placed side-by-side normal to the freestream flow direction. The Reynolds numbers based on cylinder diameter is varied from 100 to 200 and gap-to-diameter ratios of 1, 3 and 5 are considered. An unsteady wake consisting of a pair of von K'arm'an vortex streets is present in the flow field when the cylinders are rotated below a critical value. Above this critical value, counter rotation of the cylinders suppresses vortex formation. The critical rotational speed varies only slightly with Reynolds number but exhibits a strong dependence on the gap-to-diameter ratio. As the gap-to-diameter ratio increases, the critical rotational speed approaches values expected to suppress vortex formation for a single rotating cylinder, indicating that the wakes of the cylinder pair have more interaction for small gap-to-diameter ratios. At sufficiently high rotational speeds the streamlines around the cylinder pair resemble a doublet potential flow. The experiments were inspired by the computations performed by Andy Chan and Antony Jameson at Stanford University.

Dewey, Peter; Smits, Alexander J.

2009-11-01

4

Wake fields and energy spread for the ERHIC ERL  

SciTech Connect

Wake fields in high-current ERLs can cause significant beam quality degradations. Here we summarize effects of coherent synchrotron radiation, resistive wall, accelerating cavities and wall roughness for ERL parameters of the eRHIC project. A possibility of compensation of such correlated energy spread is also presented. An emphasis in the discussion is made on the suppression of coherent synchrotron radiation due to shielding and a possible reduction of wall roughness effects for realistic surfaces.

Fedotov A. V.; Kayran& #44; D.

2011-10-16

5

Wake field in dielectric acceleration structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we present a general approach for the analysis of the wake field of a point charge moving in a vacuum tunnel bored in dielectric material that is uniform in the direction parallel to the motion of the bunch. In the transverse direction the structure surrounding the dielectric may have arbitrary geometry. A quasianalytic expression that relates the decelerating force with the first dielectric layer, the radius of the vacuum tunnel where the charge moves, and the reflection characteristics of the structure has been developed. Simulation results for a simple structure indicate that, if the effective location where the reflection occurs in the dielectric is sufficiently apart from the edge of the vacuum tunnel, it has no effect on the point charge. In fact, the decelerating field converges exponentially as this distance increases, to the asymptotic value determined by the first dielectric layer. An estimate of the trailing wake when the structure supports a specific mode is also provided.

Schächter, L.; Byer, R. L.; Siemann, R. H.

2003-09-01

6

Wake Fields in the Super B Factory Interaction Region  

SciTech Connect

The geometry of storage ring collider interaction regions present an impedance to beam fields resulting in the generation of additional electromagnetic fields (higher order modes or wake fields) which affect the beam energy and trajectory. These affects are computed for the Super B interaction region by evaluating longitudinal loss factors and averaged transverse kicks for short range wake fields. Results indicate at least a factor of 2 lower wake field power generation in comparison with the interaction region geometry of the PEP-II B-factory collider. Wake field reduction is a consderation in the Super B design. Transverse kicks are consistent with an attractive potential from the crotch nearest the beam trajectory. The longitudinal loss factor scales as the -2.5 power of the bunch length. A factor of 60 loss factor reduction is possible with crotch geometry based on an intersecting tubes model.

Weathersby, Stephen; /SLAC; Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC

2011-06-02

7

Plasma wake field XUV radiation source  

DOEpatents

A XUV radiation source uses an interaction of electron beam pulses with a gas to create a plasma radiator. A flowing gas system (10) defines a circulation loop (12) with a device (14), such as a high pressure pump or the like, for circulating the gas. A nozzle or jet (16) produces a sonic atmospheric pressure flow and increases the density of the gas for interacting with an electron beam. An electron beam is formed by a conventional radio frequency (rf) accelerator (26) and electron pulses are conventionally formed by a beam buncher (28). The rf energy is thus converted to electron beam energy, the beam energy is used to create and then thermalize an atmospheric density flowing gas to a fully ionized plasma by interaction of beam pulses with the plasma wake field, and the energetic plasma then loses energy by line radiation at XUV wavelengths Collection and focusing optics (18) are used to collect XUV radiation emitted as line radiation when the high energy density plasma loses energy that was transferred from the electron beam pulses to the plasma.

Prono, Daniel S. (Los Alamos, NM); Jones, Michael E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01

8

Excitation of large-amplitude ion-wave wake fields  

SciTech Connect

Plasma wake fields in the ion-wave regime have been excited by injecting ion bunches with a variety of shapes. An excited-wave amplitude ({delta}{ital n}/{ital n}{sub 0}) of up to 17% has been observed for a bunch falloff time less than the wake-field period. The large-amplitude wake wave damps out, along with oscillations of the wave envelope. A simple linear theoretical model is developed, which can explain most of the observed phenomena, except for the large-amplitude oscillations.

Nishida, Y.; Okazaki, T.; Yugami, N.; Nagasawa, T. (Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321, Japan (JP))

1991-05-06

9

Wake fields in a dielectric-lined waveguide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cylindrical waveguide of radius a is filled partially with an isotropic dielectric between radii bwake fields left behind are calculated. We find that the transverse wake forces do not vanish as ?-2=1-(v/c)2 or in any other way when v-->c. The longitudinal and transverse wake forces are evaluated as a function of b/a.

Ng, King-Yuen

1990-09-01

10

Wake fields and energy spread for the eRHIC ERL  

SciTech Connect

Wake fields in high-current ERLs can cause significant beam quality degradations. Here we summarize effects of coherent synchrotron radiation, resistive wall, accelerating cavities and wall roughness for ERL parameters of the eRHIC project. A possibility of compensation of such correlated energy spread is also presented. An emphasis in the discussion is made on the suppression of coherent synchrotron radiation due to shielding and a possible reduction of wall roughness effects for realistic surfaces. In this report we discuss the wake fields with a focus on their effect on the energy spread of the beam. Other effects of wake fields are addressed elsewhere. An energy spread builds up during a pass though a very long beam transport in the eRHIC ERL under design. Such energy spread become important when beam is decelerated to low energy, and needs to be corrected. Several effects, such as Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR), Resistive Wall (RW), accelerating RF cavities (RF) and Wall Roughness (WR) were considered. In this paper, we briefly summarize major contributions to energy spread from the wake fields for eRHIC parameters, and present possible energy spread compensation for decelerated beam. In the rest of the report we discuss effects which we believe are suppressed for the eRHIC parameters.

Fedotov, A.; Kayran, D.

2011-10-16

11

Recent modifications to WAKE and effect of plasma temperature on energy gain and spread in plasma wake field acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WAKE (previously 2D, now 2.5D) provides an efficient simulation platform for plasma wake field acceleration (PWFA) by utilizing the quasi-static approximation (QSA), in which the beam driver remains unchanged during the transit time of rest electrons. We implement 2.5D evolution and thermalization of the background plasma, driver beam evolution, and field ionization of plasma in WAKE. Simulations of PWFA are performed for a single bunch and two bunch (corresponding to experiments at FACET) electron beam driver. In two bunch experiments, the witness bunch behind the driver bunch flattens the axial wake field profile allowing for mono-energetic acceleration of the witness bunch. Finite plasma temperature modifies the wake field profile thereby affecting the energy gain and spread. Thermal modifications to plasma wake fields, and resulting energy gain and spread are examined for a range of temperatures relevant to experiments both for single and two bunch drivers.

Jain, Neeraj; Palastro, J. P.; Antonsen, T. M.

2011-11-01

12

Wake Vortex Field Measurement Program at Memphis, Tennessee: Data Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eliminating or reducing current restrictions in the air traffic control system due to wake vortex considerations would yield increased capacity, decreased delays, and cost savings. Current wake vortex separation standards are widely viewed as very conservative under most conditions. However, scientific uncertainty about wake vortex behavior under different atmospheric conditions remains a barrier to development of an adaptive vortex spacing system. The objective of the wake vortex field measurement efforts during December, 1994 and August, 1995 at Memphis, TN were to record wake vortex behavior for varying atmospheric conditions and types of aircraft. This effort is part of a larger effort by the NASA Langley Research Center to develop an Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) as an element of the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. The TAP program is being performed in concert with the FAA Terminal Air Traffic Control Automation (TATCA) program and ATC Automation. Wake vortex behavior was observed using a mobile continuous-wave (CW) coherent laser Doppler radar (lidar) developed at Lincoln Laboratory. This lidar features a number of improvements over previous systems, including the first-ever demonstration of an automatic wake vortex detection and tracking algorithm.

Campbell, S. D.; Dasey, T. J.; Freehart, R. E.; Heinrichs, R. M.; Mathews, M. P.; Perras, G. H.; Rowe, G. S.

1997-01-01

13

Mariner 10 magnetic field observations of the Venus wake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic field measurements made over a 21-hour interval during the Mariner 10 encounter with Venus were used to study the down-stream region of the solar wind-Venus interaction over a distance of approximately 100 R sub v. For most of the day before closest approach the spacecraft was located in a sheath-like region which was apparently bounded by planetary bow shock on the outer side and either a planetary wake boundary or transient boundary-like feature on the inner side. The spacecraft made multiple encounters with the wake-like boundary during the 21-hour interval with an increasing frequency as it approached the planet. Each pass into the wake boundary from the sheath region was consistently characterized by a slight decrease in magnetic field magnitude, a marked increase in the frequency and amplitude of field fluctuations, and a systematic clockwise rotation of the field direction when viewed from above the plane of the planet orbit.

Lepping, R. P.; Behannon, K. W.

1977-01-01

14

Wake-Field Reduction in Hybrid Photonic Crystal Cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photonic crystals (PhCs) have attractive properties for manipulating electromagnetic radiation. In one application, PhCs are composed of a number of dielectric rods that can be arranged to make an accelerator cavity. These structures trap an accelerating mode and allow higher order modes to propagate out. Previous work showed that PhC structures allow excitation of unwanted transverse wake-fields that can disrupt the beam and limit luminosity levels. This work focuses on optimizing PhC cavities to reduce transverse wake-fields by minimizing the Q-factor of unwanted modes, while keeping the Q-factor of the accelerating mode high. The transverse wake-fields in the new optimized structures are compared with previously optimized structures and the CLIC cavity with HOM damping.

Rehn, Danny; Werner, Greg; Bauer, Carl; Cary, John

2013-04-01

15

ARTEMIS observations of extreme diamagnetic fields in the lunar wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present two Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) observations of diamagnetic fields in the lunar wake at strengths exceeding twice the ambient magnetic field during high plasma beta conditions. The first observation was 350 km from the lunar surface while the Moon was located in the terrestrial magnetosheath with elevated particle temperatures. The second observation was in the solar wind ranging from 500 to 2000 km downstream, with a relatively low magnetic field strength of approximately 1.6 nT. In both cases, the plasma beta exceeded 10. We discuss the observations and compare the data to hybrid plasma simulations in order to validate the model under such extreme conditions and to elucidate the global structure of the lunar wake during these observations. The extreme nature of the diamagnetic field in the lunar wake provides an important end-member test case for theoretical and modeling studies of the various plasma processes operating in the lunar wake. could not parse page for

Poppe, A. R.; Fatemi, S.; Halekas, J. S.; Holmström, M.; Delory, G. T.

2014-06-01

16

LES Investigation of Near Field Wakes Behind Juncture of Wing and Plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a preliminary work on the numerical study of the near field wake and wingtip vortex behind the juncture of wing\\u000a and plate. The object is to develop a LES-based code to simulate the near field wake and wingtip vortex, which will help understanding\\u000a near field wakes and wake control.\\u000a \\u000a The filtered structure function subgrid model was applied

Jiangang Cai; Shutian Deng; Hua Shan; Li Jiang; Chaoqun Liu

17

Analytic and Quasi-Analytic Solutions of Wake-Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of wake-fields generated by moving charges in the vicinity of dielectric and metallic bodies is essential for the design of the next generation of optical acceleration structures. Recently, we have investigated analytically the wake-field associated with three different geometries. I. In the case of an electron bunch moving parallel to a dielectric cylinder, it was shown that for the relativistic regime (? >> 1) the circular harmonic of order zero contributes a decelerating force inversely proportional to ?, whereas the circular harmonics of nonzero order contribute a ?-independent force. II. For a line charge moving in the vicinity of a dielectric cylinder, it was shown that the emitted energy increases logarithmically with the kinetic energy (? - 1) of the line charge and its transverse kick is inversely proportional to the kinetic energy for the ultra-relativistic case. III. When an electron-bunch traverses a geometric discontinuity a time-domain method was developed for the evaluation of the wake-field employing the independence of the exponential functions, that control the temporal behavior of the field.

Banna, Samer; Schieber, David; Schächter, Levi

2002-12-01

18

High-Efficiency Absorber for Damping the Transverse Wake Fields  

SciTech Connect

Transverse wake fields generated by intense beams may propagate long distances in the vacuum chamber and dissipate power in different shielded elements such as bellows, vacuum valves or vacuum pumps. Induced heating in these elements may be high enough to deteriorate vacuum conditions. We have developed a broadband water-cooled bellows-absorber to capture and damp these harmful transverse fields without impacting the longitudinal beam impedance. Experimental results at the PEP-II SLAC B-factory demonstrate high efficiency of this device. This absorber may be useful in other machines like synchrotron light sources or International Linear Collider.

Novokhatski, A.; Seeman, J.; Weathersby, S.; /SLAC

2007-02-28

19

Direct simulation of single bubble motion under vertical magnetic field: Paths and wakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motion of single Ar bubbles rising in GaInSn under vertical magnetic fields is studied numerically using a volume-of-fluid method and adaptive mesh refinement technique for two-phase interface treatment; a consistent and conservative scheme calculates induced current density and Lorentz force. Numerical results are compared with published experimental data [C. Zhang, S. Eckert, and G. Gerbeth, "Experimental study of single bubble motion in a liquid metal column exposed to a DC magnetic field," Int. J. Multiphase Flow 31, 824-842 (2005)], where bubble diameters range from 2.5 to 6.4 mm, producing Reynolds numbers that vary between 2000 and 4000. Maximum experimental magnetic field strength was set to 0.3 T because of experimental restrictions, although we increased it to 0.5 T for firm conclusions. Apart from terminal rising velocity comparisons, we focused on variations in bubble motion paths and wake structures under magnetic fields, which cannot be observed experimentally because liquid metal is opaque. Magnetic field effects on bubble trajectory are exerted through vortex structure modification, which reinforced the conjecture that path instability is mainly attributed to wake instability. In bubble motion without magnetic fields, vortex threads in the bubble wake wrap around each other while vortex filaments incline parallel to the field with increasing magnetic intensity. Additionally, high magnetic fields will induce secondary bubble path instabilities, which contribute to the high Reynolds number flow that instabilities develop around the bubble, producing an asymmetrical Lorentz force distribution. This instability vanishes under higher magnetic intensities because flow instability is suppressed. Rising bubble aspect ratios decrease considerably under magnetic fields and may also contribute to smaller vorticities at the bubble surface. A close relationship between fluctuations in rising velocity and shape variations is found.

Zhang, Jie; Ni, Ming-Jiu

2014-10-01

20

A prescribed wake rotor inflow and flow field prediction analysis, user's manual and technical approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A user's manual is provided which includes the technical approach for the Prescribed Wake Rotor Inflow and Flow Field Prediction Analysis. The analysis is used to provide the rotor wake induced velocities at the rotor blades for use in blade airloads and response analyses and to provide induced velocities at arbitrary field points such as at a tail surface. This analysis calculates the distribution of rotor wake induced velocities based on a prescribed wake model. Section operating conditions are prescribed from blade motion and controls determined by a separate blade response analysis. The analysis represents each blade by a segmented lifting line, and the rotor wake by discrete segmented trailing vortex filaments. Blade loading and circulation distributions are calculated based on blade element strip theory including the local induced velocity predicted by the numerical integration of the Biot-Savart Law applied to the vortex wake model.

Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.

1982-01-01

21

Optical Injection in a Laser Wake Field Accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical injection of electrons into Laser Wakefield Accelerators (LWFA) could result in high quality, high energy electron beams. Large number of injected electrons can be generated using a combination of LIPA (Laser Ionization and Pondermotive Acceleration) and SM-LWFA (Self Modulated LWFA). These electrons are generated by the interaction of a 10 TW laser beam of the NRL T3 laser with a gas jet of high density Nitrogen. Injection of these electrons into a second stage of acceleration operating in the standard LWFA regime can lead to further acceleration. The wake field in the second stage acceleration is generated in Helium gas using a 2 TW laser beam of the NRL T3 laser. Experimental setup and properties of the injector will be presented, as well as preliminary results of the second stage acceleration.

Kaganovich, D.; Ting, A.; Gordon, D.; Jones, T. G.; Eldridge, E.; Hubbard, R.; Sprangle, P.

2003-10-01

22

COAXIAL TWO-CHANNEL DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR  

SciTech Connect

Theory, computations, and experimental apparatus are presented that describe and are intended to confirm novel properties of a coaxial two-channel dielectric wake field accelerator. In this configuration, an annular drive beam in the outer coaxial channel excites multimode wakefields which, in the inner channel, can accelerate a test beam to an energy much higher than the energy of the drive beam. This high transformer ratio is the result of judicious choice of the dielectric structure parameters, and of the phase separation between drive bunches and test bunches. A structure with cm-scale wakefields has been build for tests at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Laboratory, and a structure with mm-scale wakefields has been built for tests at the SLAC FACET facility. Both tests await scheduling by the respective facilities.

Hirshfield, Jay L. [Omega-P, Inc.

2013-04-30

23

Measurement of velocity and vorticity fields in the wake of an airfoil in periodic pitching motion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The velocity field created by the wake of an airfoil undergoing a prescribed pitching motion was sampled using hot wire anemometry. Data analysis methods concerning resolution of velocity components from cross wire data, computation of vorticity from velocity time history data, and calculation of vortex circulation from vorticity field data are discussed. These data analysis methods are applied to a flow field relevant to a two dimensional blade-vortex interaction study. Velocity time history data were differentiated to yield vorticity field data which are used to characterize the wake of the pitching airfoil. Measurement of vortex strength in sinusoidal and nonsinusoidal wakes show vortices in the sinusoidal wake have stronger circulation and more concentrated vorticity distributions than the tailored nonsinusoidal wake.

Booth, Earl R., Jr.

1987-01-01

24

Nonthermal Lorentzian wake-field effects on collision processes in complex dusty plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The influence of nonthermal Lorentzian wake-field on the electron-dust grain collision is investigated in complex dusty plasmas. The Eikonal method and the effective interaction potential are applied to obtain the Eikonal scattering phase shift, the differential Eikonal collision cross section, and the total Eikonal collision cross section as functions of the collision energy, the impact parameter, the Mach number, and the spectral index of Lorentzian plasma. It is found that the nonthermal effect enhances the Eikonal scattering phase shift and, however, suppresses the Eikonal collision cross section for the electron-dust grain in Lorentzian complex dusty plasmas. It is also found that the Eikonal scattering phase shift decreases with increasing Mach number and spectral index. In addition, the Eikonal collision cross section increases with an increase of the spectral index and Mach number in Lorentzian complex dusty plasmas.

Hong, Woo-Pyo [Department of Electronics Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Hayang 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-10-15

25

Clutter suppression and classification using twin inverted pulse sonar in ship wakes.  

PubMed

Twin inverted pulse sonar (TWIPS) is here deployed in the wake of a moored rigid inflatable boat (RIB) with propeller turning, and then in the wake of a moving tanker of 4580 dry weight tonnage (the Whitchallenger). This is done first to test its ability to distinguish between scatter from the wake and scatter from the seabed, and second to test its ability to improve detectability of the seabed through the wake, compared to conventional sonar processing techniques. TWIPS does this by distinguishing between linear and nonlinear scatterers and has the further property of distinguishing those nonlinear targets which scatter energy at the even-powered harmonics from those which scatter in the odd-powered harmonics. TWIPS can also, in some manifestations, require no range correction (and therefore does not require the a priori environment knowledge necessary for most remote detection technologies). PMID:22088017

Leighton, T G; Finfer, D C; Chua, G H; White, P R; Dix, J K

2011-11-01

26

Effect of nonlinear chirped Gaussian laser pulse on plasma wake field generation  

SciTech Connect

An ultrashort laser pulse propagating in plasma can excite a nonlinear plasma wake field which can accelerate charged particles up to GeV energies within a compact space compared to the conventional accelerator devices. In this paper, the effect of different kinds of nonlinear chirped Gaussian laser pulse on wake field generation is investigated. The numerical analysis of our results depicts that the excitation of plasma wave with large and highly amplitude can be accomplished by nonlinear chirped pulses. The maximum amplitude of excited wake in nonlinear chirped pulse is approximately three times more than that of linear chirped pulse. In order to achieve high wake field generation, chirp parameters and functions should be set to optimal values.

Afhami, Saeedeh; Eslami, Esmaeil, E-mail: eeslami@iust.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran, 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-08-15

27

Numerical Simulation of Wake Vortices Measured During the Idaho Falls and Memphis Field Programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical large-eddy simulation model is under modification and testing for application to aircraft wake vortices. The model, having a meteorological framework, permits the interaction of wake vortices with environments characterized by crosswind shear, stratification, and humidity. As part of the validation process, model results are compared with measured field data from the 1990 Idaho Falls and the 1994-1995 Memphis field experiments. Cases are selected that represent different aircraft and a cross section of meteorological environments. Also included is one case with wake vortex generation in ground effect. The model simulations are initialized with the appropriate meteorological conditions and a post roll-up vortex system. No ambient turbulence is assumed in our initial set of experiments, although turbulence can be self generated by the interaction of the model wakes with the ground and environment.

Proctor, Fred H.

1996-01-01

28

Measurements of aerodynamic noise and wake flow field in a cooling fan with winglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerodynamic noise and the wake flow field in a cooling fan under actual operating conditions are studied with and without\\u000a winglets on the fan blades. In order to understand the influence of the winglet, the aerodynamic noise and the wake velocity\\u000a distribution are measured. The results indicated that overall noise level decreased and the noise spectrum was changed in

A. Nashimoto; N. Fujisawa; T. Akuto; Y. Nagase

2004-01-01

29

Flow-field Survey of an Empennage Wake Interacting with a Pusher Propeller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flow field between a model empennage and a 591-mm-diameter pusher propeller was studied in the Ames 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel with directional pressure probes and hot-wire anemometers. The region probed was bounded by the empennage trailing edge and downstream propeller. The wake properties, including effects of propeller operation on the empennage wake, were investigated for two empennage geometries: one, a vertical tail fin, the other, a Y-tail with a 34 deg dihedral. Results showed that the effect of the propeller on the empennage wake upstream of the propeller was not strong. The flow upstream of the propeller was accelerated in the streamwise direction by the propeller, but the empennage wake width and velocity defect were relatively unaffected by the presence of the propeller. The peak turbulence in the wake near the propeller tip station, 0.66 diameter behind the vertical tail fin, was approximately 3 percent of the free-stream velocity. The velocity field data can be used in predictions of the acoustic field due to propeller-wake interaction.

Horne, W. Clifton; Soderman, Paul T.

1988-01-01

30

Electric field effects on ion currents in satellite wakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small currents associated with satellite spin, dielectric conduction, or trace concentrations of H+, can have a substantial effect on the potential of a satellite and the particle currents reaching its surface. The importance of such small currents at altitudes below about 300 km stems from the extremely small 0+ currents impinging on the wake-side of the spacecraft. The particle current on the downstream side of the AE-C satellite is considered. Theoretical estimates based on a newly described constant of the motion of a particle indicate that accounting for small concentrations of H+ remove a major discrepancy between calculated and measured currents.

Parks, D. E.; Katz, I.

1985-01-01

31

Blunt body near wake flow field at Mach 6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted in a Mach 6 flow to examine the reattachment process of an axisymmetric free shear layer associated with the near wake of a 70 deg. half angle, spherically blunted cone with a cylindrical after body. Model angle of incidence was fixed at 0 deg. and free-stream Reynolds numbers based on body diameter ranged from 0.5 x 10(exp 6) to 4 x 10(exp 6). The sensitivity of wake shear layer transition on reattachment heating was investigated. The present perfect gas study was designed to compliment results obtained previously in facilities capable of producing real gas effects. The instrumented blunted cone model was designed primarily for testing in high enthalpy hypervelocity shock tunnels in both this country and abroad but was amenable for testing in conventional hypersonic blowdown wind tunnels as well. Surface heating rates were inferred from temperature - time histories from coaxial surface thermocouples on the model forebody and thin film resistance gages along the model base and cylindrical after body. General flow feature (bow shock, wake shear layer, and recompression shock) locations were visually identified by schlieren photography. Mean shear layer position and growth were determined from intrusive pitot pressure surveys. In addition, wake surveys with a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer were utilized to qualitatively characterize the state of the shear layer prior to reattachment. Experimental results were compared to laminar perfect gas predictions provided by a 3-D Navier Stokes code (NSHYP). Shear layer impingement on the instrumented cylindrical after body resulted in a localized heating maximum that was 21 to 29 percent of the forebody stagnation point heating. Peak heating resulting from the reattaching shear layer was found to be a factor of 2 higher than laminar predictions, which suggested a transitional shear layer. Schlieren flow visualization and fluctuating voltage time histories and spectra from the hot wire surveys across the shear layer substantiate this observation. The sensitivity of surface heating to forebody roughness was characterized for a reattaching shear layer. For example, at R(sub infinity), d = 4 x 10(exp 6), when the shear layer was transitional, the magnitude of peak heating from shear layer impingement was reduced by approximately 24 percent when transition grit was applied to the forebody. The spatial location of the local peak, however, remained unchanged.

Horvath, Thomas J.; McGinley, Catherine B.; Hannemann, Klaus

1996-01-01

32

Wake field of an electron bunch moving parallel to a dielectric cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wake field of an electron bunch moving parallel to the axis of a dielectric cylinder is being considered. It is shown that for a relativistic bunch (?>>1) the circular harmonic of order zero contributes a decelerating force inversely proportional to ?, whereas the circular harmonics of nonzero order contribute a ?-independent force. Moreover, the wake linked to the circular harmonic of order zero may grow in space in case the dielectric cylinder consists of an active medium; however, this growth rate does not depend on the value of ?. On the other hand, no growth is anticipated for the case of circular harmonics of nonzero order.

Schieber, D.; Schächter, L.

2001-11-01

33

Simulation of Laser Wake Field Acceleration using a 2.5D PIC Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2.5D PIC simulation code is developed to study the LWFA( Laser WakeField Acceleration ). The electron self-injection and the generation of mono-energetic electron beam in LWFA is briefly discussed through the simulation. And the experiment of this year at SILEX-I laser facility is also introduced.

An, W. M.; Hua, J. F.; Huang, W. H.; Tang, Ch. X.; Lin, Y. Z.

2006-11-01

34

Exposure to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field during waking affects human sleep EEG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate whether the electro- magnetic field (EMF) emitted by digital radiotelephone handsets affects brain physiology. Healthy, young male subjects were exposed for 30 min to EMF (900 MHz; spatial peak specific absorption rate 1 W\\/kg) during the waking period preceding sleep. Compared with the control condition with sham exposure, spectral power of the

Reto Huber; Thomas Graf; Kimberly A. Cote; Lutz Wittmann; Eva Gallmann; Daniel Matter; Jürgen Schuderer; Niels Kuster; Alexander A. Borbély; Peter Achermann

2000-01-01

35

Full particle simulation of the electric field structure around the moon and the lunar wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electric field structure around the moon is studied by using a 2-dimensional electromagnetic full particle simulation. By considering absorption of the plasma particles at the surface of the moon, we obtain an intense electric field at the terminator region where the electric field produced by the negatively charged lunar surface and the ambipolar electric field at the wake boundary are in the same direction. The intensity of the electric field is 2.2 E0 , where E0 = m0 ve ?p /q0 , at the terminator. It corresponds to 3.5 [Vm-1 ] in the solar wind. It has a large horizontal component due to the potential difference between the negatively charged, antisolarside surface of the moon and the electrically neutral, solar-side surface, even though the emission of photoelectrons are not taken into consideration in this study. The half width of the electric field structure is of the order of Debye shielding length. The electric field at the downstream wake boundary at x = 6.5 RL is still as large as 0.1 E0 ˜ 0.16[Vm-1 ], which is strong enough to cause the pitch angle diffusion of the solar-wind electron beam as expected in the generation mechanism of the wake-related whistler wave. The ion acceleration occurs in the close vicinity of the moon. It is explained by the acceleration by the electric field produced by the surface charging of the moon.

Nakagawa, Tomoko

36

Electromagnetic full particle simulation of the electric field structure around the moon and the lunar wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electric field structure around the moon is studied using a 2-dimensional electromagnetic full particle simulation. By considering absorption of the plasma particles at the surface of the moon, we obtain an intense electric field at the terminator region where the electric field produced by the negatively charged lunar surface and the ambipolar electric field at the wake boundary are in the same direction. The intensity of the electric field is 2.2E0 (E0 = m0ve ?p /q0) at the terminator, corresponding to 3.5 V m-1 in the solar wind. It has a large horizontal component due to the potential difference between the negatively charged, antisolarside surface of the moon and the electrically neutral, solar-side surface, even though the emission of photoelectrons are not taken into consideration in this study. The half width of the electric field structure is of the order of Debye shielding length. The electric field at the downstream wake boundary at x = 6.5RL is still as large as 0.1E0 ~ 0.16 V m-1, which is strong enough to cause the pitch angle diffusion of the solar-wind electron beam, as is expected in the generation mechanism of the wake-related whistler wave. The ion acceleration occurs in the close vicinity of the moon and can be explained by the acceleration by the electric field produced by the surface charging of the moon.

Kimura, S.; Nakagawa, T.

2008-06-01

37

The effect of space-charge and wake fields in the Fermilab Booster  

SciTech Connect

We calculate the impedance and the wake functions for laminated structures with parallel-planes and circular geometries. We critically examine the approximations used in the literature for the coupling impedance in laminated chambers and find that most of them are not justified because the wall surface impedance is large. A comparison between the flat and the circular geometry impedance is presented. We use the wake fields calculated for the Fermilab Booster laminated magnets in realistic beam simulations using the Synergia code. We find good agreement between our calculation of the coherent tune shift at injection energy and the experimental measurements. In this paper we calculate the impedance and the wake functions for laminated structures with parallel-planes and circular geometries. First the coupling impedance is derived as a function of the wall surface impedance. Then the surface impedance is calculated by solving Maxwell's equations inside the lamination and the crack regions. We find that the commonly used resistive-wall approximations, good for metallic pipes with small surface impedance, are not valid in the laminated structures where the surface impedance is large. Realistic Synergia simulations of the Booster machine with wake fields predict transverse coherent tune shifts in good agreement with the experiment.

Macridin, Alexandru; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; Amundson, James; /Fermilab; Spentzouris, Linda; McCarron, Daniel; /IIT, Chicago

2011-03-01

38

Suppressive Surrounds of Receptive Fields In Monkey Frontal Eye Field  

PubMed Central

A critical step in determining how a neuron contributes to visual processing is determining its visual receptive field (RF). While recording from neurons in frontal eye field (FEF) of awake monkeys (Macaca mulatta), we probed the visual field with small spots of light and found excitatory RFs that decreased in strength from RF center to periphery. However, presenting stimuli with different diameters centered on the RF revealed suppressive surrounds that overlapped the previously determined excitatory RF, and reduced responses 84% on average. Consequently, in that overlap area, stimulation produced excitation or suppression, depending on the stimulus. Strong stimulation of the RF periphery with annular stimuli allowed us to quantify this effect. A modified Difference of Gaussians (DoG) model that independently varied center and surround activation accounted for the nonlinear activity in the overlap area. Our results suggest that: 1) the suppressive surrounds found in FEF are fundamentally the same as those in V1 except for the size and strength of excitatory and suppressive mechanisms, 2) methodically assaying suppressive surrounds in FEF is essential for correctly interpreting responses to large and/or peripheral stimuli and therefore understanding the effects of stimulus context, 3) regulating the relative strength of the surround clearly changes neuronal responses, and may therefore play a significant part in the neuronal changes resulting from visual attention and stimulus salience. PMID:22933810

Cavanaugh, James; Joiner, Wilsaan M.; Wurtz, Robert H.

2012-01-01

39

On the Production of Flat Electron Bunches for Laser Wake Field Acceleration  

SciTech Connect

We suggest a novel method for injection of electrons into the acceleration phase of particle accelerators, producing low emittance beams appropriate even for the demanding high energy Linear Collider specifications. In this paper we work out the injection into the acceleration phase of the wake field in a plasma behind a high intensity laser pulse, taking advantage of the laser polarization and focusing. With the aid of catastrophe theory we categorize the injection dynamics. The scheme uses the structurally stable regime of transverse wake wave breaking, when electron trajectory self-intersection leads to the formation of a flat electron bunch. As shown in three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the interaction of a laser pulse in a line-focus with an underdense plasma, the electrons, injected via the transverse wake wave breaking and accelerated by the wake wave, perform betatron oscillations with different amplitudes and frequencies along the two transverse coordinates. The polarization and focusing geometry lead to a way to produce relativistic electron bunches with asymmetric emittance (flat beam). An approach for generating flat laser accelerated ion beams is briefly discussed.

Kando, M.; Fukuda, Y.; Kotaki, H.; Koga, J.; Bulanov, S.V.; Tajima, T.; /JAERI, Kyoto; Chao, A.; Pitthan, R.; /SLAC; Schuler, K.-P.; /DESY; Zhidkov, A.G.; /CRIEPI, Tokyo; Nemoto, K.; /CRIEPI, Tokyo

2006-06-27

40

Generation of vortex rings by nonstationary laser wake field  

SciTech Connect

A new concept of generating quasistatic magnetic fields, vortex rings, and electron jets in an isotropic homogeneous plasma is presented. The propagation of plasma waves, generated by a relativistically intense short pulse laser, is investigated by using the kinetic model and a novel nonpotential, time-dependent ponderomotive force is derived by obtaining a hydrodynamic equation of motion. This force can in turn generate quasistatic magnetic fields, vortex rings, and electron jets. It is also shown that the vortex rings can become a means for accelerating electrons, which are initially in equilibrium. The conservation of canonical momentum circulation and the frozen-in condition for the vorticity is discussed. The excitation of the vortex waves by the modulation of the amplitude of the plasma waves is considered. These vortex waves, which generate a lower hybrid mode propagating across the generated magnetic field, are also investigated.

Tsintsadze, N.L.; Murtaza, G.; Shah, H.A. [Department of Physics, Tbilisi State University, Chavchavadze 3 (Georgia); National Centre for Mathematics, G.C. University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, G.C. University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

2006-01-15

41

Three-component velocity field measurements of propeller wake using a stereoscopic PIV technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stereoscopic PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) technique was used to measure the three-dimensional flow structure of the turbulent wake behind a marine propeller with five blades. The out-of-plane velocity component was determined using two CCD cameras with an angular displacement configuration. Four hundred instantaneous velocity fields were measured for each of four different blade phases, and ensemble averaged in order

SangJoon Lee; BuGeun Paik; JongHwan Yoon; ChoungMook Lee

2004-01-01

42

Numerical Simulation of Wake Vortices Measured During the Idaho Falls and Memphis Field Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical large-eddy simulation model isunder modification and testing for application to aircraftwake vortices. The model, having a meteorologicalframework, permits the interaction of wake vortices withenvironments characterized by crosswind shear, stratification,and humidity. As part of the validation process,model results are compared with measured field datafrom the 1990 Idaho Falls and the 1994-1995 Memphisfield experiments. Cases are selected that representdifferent aircraft...

Fred H. Proctor

1996-01-01

43

Unsteady RANS method for surface ship boundary layer and wake and wave field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported of an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) method for simulation of the boundary layer and wake and wave field for a surface ship advancing in regular head waves, but restrained from body motions. Second-order finite differences are used for both spatial and temporal discretization and a Poisson equation projection method is used for velocity-pressure coupling. The exact kinematic

Shin Hyung Rhee; Fred Stern

2001-01-01

44

Quantum ring solitons and nonlocal effects in plasma wake field excitations  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical investigation of the quantum transverse beam motion for a cold relativistic charged particle beam travelling in a cold, collisionless, strongly magnetized plasma is carried out. This is done by taking into account both the individual quantum nature of the beam particles (single-particle uncertainty relations and spin) and the self consistent interaction generated by the plasma wake field excitation. By adopting a fluid model of a strongly magnetized plasma, the analysis is carried out in the overdense regime (dilute beams) and in the long beam limit. It is shown that the quantum description of the collective transverse beam dynamics is provided by a pair of coupled nonlinear governing equations. It comprises a Poisson-like equation for the plasma wake potential (driven by the beam density) and a 2D spinorial Schroedinger equation for the wave function, whose squared modulus is proportional to the beam density, that is obtained in the Hartree's mean field approximation, after disregarding the exchange interactions. The analysis of this pair of equations, which in general exhibits a strong nonlocal character, is carried out analytically as well as numerically in both the linear and the nonlinear regimes, showing the existence of the quantum beam vortices in the form of Laguerre-Gauss modes and ring envelope solitons, respectively. In particular, when the relation between the plasma wake field response and the beam probability density is strictly local, the pair of the governing equations is reduced to the 2D Gross-Pitaevskii equation that allows one to establish the conditions for the self focusing and collapse. These conditions include the quantum nature of the beam particles. Finally, when the relation between the plasma wake field response and the beam probability density is moderately nonlocal, the above pair of equations permits to follow the spatio-temporal evolution of a quantum ring envelope soliton. Such a structure exhibits small or violent breathing, but it remains very stable for long time.

Fedele, R.; Tanjia, F. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli 'Federico II', and INFN, Napoli (Italy); De Nicola, S. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli 'Federico II', and INFN, Napoli (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ottica - C. N. R., Pozzuoli (Italy); Jovanovic, D. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Shukla, P. K. [Center of Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum (Germany)

2012-10-15

45

Teaching Biology Field Courses in the Wake of Environmental Disasters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A biology field course organized to study the effects of the June 1979 Mexican oil spill on the marine biology of the shores of south Texas and Mexico is described, demonstrating how to effectively couple a biology classroom course with a natural or human caused environmental disaster. (Author/DC)

Baca, Bart J.

1982-01-01

46

Matched Field Noise Suppression based on Matrix Filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tow-ship noise suppression is of the key of towed line array sonar system. Referencing to the novel concept matched field noise suppression (MFNS), the matched field noise suppression based on matrix filter, called MF-CBF in this paper, is proposed to suppress the tow-ship noise. The response of MF- CBF to tow-ship noise is set to be zero and unit

Bo Lei; Kunde Yang; Yuanliang Ma

2007-01-01

47

Effects of Magnetic Field on the Turbulent Wake of a Cylinder in MHD Channel Flow  

SciTech Connect

Results from a free-surface MHD flow experiment are presented detailing the modi cation of vortices in the wake of a circular cylinder with its axis parallel to the applied magnetic fi eld. Experiments were performed with a Reynolds number near Re ~ 104 as the interaction parameter, N = |j x#2; B| / |? (? ? ?), was increased through unity. By concurrently sampling the downstream fluid velocity at sixteen cross-stream locations in the wake, it was possible to extract an ensemble of azimuthal velocity profi les as a function of radius for vortices shed by the cylinder at varying strengths of magnetic field. Results indicate a signi cant change in vortex radius and rotation as N is increased. The lack of deviations from the vortex velocity pro file at high magnetic fi elds suggests the absence of small-scale turbulent features. By sampling the wake at three locations downstream in subsequent experiments, the decay of the vortices was examined and the effective viscosity was found to decrease as N-049±0.4. This reduction in effective viscosity is due to the modi cation of the small-scale eddies by the magnetic fi eld. The slope of the energy spectrum was observed to change from a k-1.8 power-law at low N to a k-3.5 power-law for N > 1. Together, these results suggest the flow smoothly transitioned to a quasi-two-dimensional state in the range 0 < N < 1.

John Rhoads, Eric Edlund and Hantao Ji

2013-04-17

48

Field investigation of a wake structure downwind of a VAWT in a windfarm array  

SciTech Connect

The effects of upwind turbine wakes on the performance of a FloWind 17-m VAWT were investigated through a series of field experiments conducted at the FloWind windfarm on Cameron Ridge, Tehachapi, California. The field experiment was conducted within a VAWT array consisting of more than nine VAWTs with separations 3D crosswised by 8D downwind (where D is the turbine diameter) in a staggered configuration. The array is the upwind three rows of VAWTS in a total of six rows that are on top of the Cameron Ridge plateau. The terrain features in the vicinity are reasonably regular, with an upslope of 7 deg on the average; however, several local irregularities are present. The annual hourly averaged wind speed exceeds 8 m/s at the site. The wind field and the power-outputs of nine turbines within the array were measured with wind sensors and power transducers. Nine Gill propeller and 18 Maximum cup anemometers and one direction sensor were mounted on portable and stack-up towers installed upwind and within the turbine array. From the field measurements, the velocity and power/energy deficits were derived under various turbine on/off configurations. Much information was provided to characterize the structure of VAWT wakes and to assess their effects on the performance of downwind turbines. Recommendations are made for optimizing windfarm design and operations as well as for wind energy management.

Liu, H.T.; Buck, J.W.; Germain, A.C.; Hinchee, M.E.; Solt, T.S.; LeRoy, G.M.; Srnsky, R.A.

1987-10-01

49

The velocity and vorticity fields of the turbulent near wake of a circular cylinder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this research is to provide a detailed experimental database of velocity and vorticity statistics in the very near wake (x/d less than 10) of a circular cylinder at Reynolds number of 3900. This study has determined that estimations of the streamwise velocity component in flow fields with large nonzero cross-stream components are not accurate. Similarly, X-wire measurements of the u and v velocity components in flows containing large w are also subject to the errors due to binormal cooling. Using the look-up table (LUT) technique, and by calibrating the X-wire probe used here to include the range of expected angles of attack (+/- 40 deg), accurate X-wire measurements of instantaneous u and v velocity components in the very near wake region of a circular cylinder has been accomplished. The approximate two-dimensionality of the present flow field was verified with four-wire probe measurements, and to some extent the spanwise correlation measurements with the multisensor rake. Hence, binormal cooling errors in the present X-wire measurements are small.

Wallace, James; Ong, Lawrence; Moin, Parviz

1995-01-01

50

Observation of high-resolution wind fields and offshore wind turbine wakes using TerraSAR-X imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Introduction Numerous large-scale offshore wind farms have been built in European waters and play an important role in providing renewable energy. Therefore, knowledge of behavior of wakes, induced by large wind turbines and their impact on wind power output is important. The spatial variation of offshore wind turbine wake is very complex, depending on wind speed, wind direction, ambient atmospheric turbulence and atmospheric stability. In this study we demonstrate the application of X-band TerraSAR-X (TS-X) data with high spatial resolution for studies on wind turbine wakes in the near and far field of the offshore wind farm Alpha Ventus, located in the North Sea. Two cases which different weather conditions and different wake pattern as observed in the TS-X image are presented. 2. Methods The space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a unique sensor that provides two-dimensional information on the ocean surface. Due to their high resolution, daylight and weather independency and global coverage, SARs are particularly suitable for many ocean and coastal applications. SAR images reveal wind variations on small scales and thus represent a valuable means in detailed wind-field analysis. The general principle of imaging turbine wakes is that the reduced wind speed downstream of offshore wind farms modulates the sea surface roughness, which in turn changes the Normalized Radar Cross Section (NRCS, denoted by ?0) in the SAR image and makes the wake visible. In this study we present two cases at the offshore wind farm Alpha Ventus to investigate turbine-induced wakes and the retrieved sea surface wind field. Using the wind streaks, visible in the TS-X image and the shadow behind the offshore wind farm, induced by turbine wake, the sea surface wind direction is derived and subsequently the sea surface wind speed is calculated using the latest generation of wind field algorithm XMOD2. 3. Case study alpha ventus Alpha Ventus is located approximately 45 km from the coast of Borkum, Germany, and consists of twelve 5-Megawatt wind power turbines. The retrieved results are validated by comparing with QuikSCAT measurements, the results of the German Weather Service (DWD) atmospheric model and in-situ measurements of wind speed and wind direction, obtained from the research platform FiNO1, installed 400 m west of Alpha Ventus. 4. Conclusion In the presented case study we quantify the wake characteristics of wake length, wake width, maximum velocity de?cit, wake merging and wake meandering. We show that SAR has the capability to map the sea surface two-dimensionally in high spatial resolution which provides a unique opportunity to observe spatial characteristics of offshore wind turbine wakes. The SAR derived information can support offshore wind farming with respect to optimal siting and design and help to estimate their effects on the environment.

Gies, Tobias; Jacobsen, Sven; Lehner, Susanne; Pleskachevsky, Andrey

2014-05-01

51

Strong-field-ionization suppression by light-field control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent attempts to control strong-field phenomena such as molecular dissociation, undesired ionization sometimes seriously limited the outcome. In this work we examine the capability of quantum optimal control theory to suppress the ionization by rational pulse shaping. Using a simple model system and the ground-state occupation as the target functional, we show that optimal control generally leads to a significant suppression of the ionization, although the fluence and the pulse length are kept fixed. In the low-frequency regime the ionization is reduced mainly by avoiding high peaks in the intensity and thus preventing tunneling. In contrast, at high frequencies in the extreme ultraviolet regime the optimized pulses strongly couple with the (de)-excitations of the system, which leads to different pulse characteristics. Finally, we show that the applied target functional works, to some extent, for the enhancement of the high-order-harmonic generation, although further developments in optimal control theory to find proper target functionals are required.

Räsänen, Esa; Madsen, Lars Bojer

2012-09-01

52

Plasma and fields in the wake of Rhea: 3-D hybrid simulation and comparison with Cassini data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rhea's magnetospheric interaction is simulated using a three-dimensional, hybrid plasma simulation code, where ions are treated as particles and electrons as a massless, charge-neutralizing fluid. In consistency with Cassini observations, Rhea is modeled as a plasma absorbing obstacle. This leads to the formation of a plasma wake (cavity) behind the moon. We find that this cavity expands with the ion sound speed along the magnetic field lines, resulting in an extended depletion region north and south of the moon, just a few Rhea radii (RRh) downstream. This is a direct consequence of the comparable thermal and bulk plasma velocities at Rhea. Perpendicular to the magnetic field lines the wake's extension is constrained by the magnetic field. A magnetic field compression in the wake and the rarefaction in the wake sides is also observed in our results. This configuration reproduces well the signature in the Cassini magnetometer data, acquired during the close flyby to Rhea on November 2005. Almost all plasma and field parameters show an asymmetric distribution along the plane where the corotational electric field is contained. A diamagnetic current system is found running parallel to the wake boundaries. The presence of this current system shows a direct corelation with the magnetic field configuration downstream of Rhea, while the resulting j×B forces on the ions are responsible for the asymmetric structures seen in the velocity and electric field vector fields in the equatorial plane. As Rhea is one of the many plasma absorbing moons of Saturn, we expect that this case study should be relevant for most lunar-type interactions at Saturn.

Roussos, E.; Müller, J.; Simon, S.; Bößwetter, A.; Motschmann, U.; Krupp, N.; Fränz, M.; Woch, J.; Khurana, K. K.; Dougherty, M. K.

2008-03-01

53

High-quality electron beam from laser wake-field acceleration in laser produced plasma plumes  

SciTech Connect

Generation of highly collimated ({theta}{sub div}{approx}10 mrad), quasi-monoenergetic electron beam with peak energy 12 MeV and charge {approx}50 pC has been experimentally demonstrated from self-guided laser wake-field acceleration (LWFA) in a plasma plume produced by laser ablation of solid nylon (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sub n} target. A 7 TW, 45 fs Ti:sapphire laser system was used for LWFA, and the plasma plume forming pulse was derived from the Nd:YAG pump laser of the same system. The results show that a reproducible, high quality electron beam could be produced from this scheme which is simple, low cost and has the capability for high repetition rate operation.

Sanyasi Rao, Bobbili; Moorti, Anand; Rathore, Ranjana; Ali Chakera, Juzer; Anant Naik, Prasad; Dass Gupta, Parshotam [Laser Plasma Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)] [Laser Plasma Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

2013-06-10

54

A Concept of Plasma Wake Field Acceleration Linear Collider (PWFA-LC)  

SciTech Connect

Plasma Wake-Field Acceleration (PWFA) has demonstrated acceleration gradients above 50 GeV/m. Simulations have shown drive/witness bunch configurations that yield small energy spreads in the accelerated witness bunch and high energy transfer efficiency from the drive bunch to the witness bunch, ranging from 30% for a Gaussian drive bunch to 95% for a shaped longitudinal profile. These results open the opportunity for a linear collider that could be compact, efficient and more cost effective that the present microwave technologies. A concept of a PWFA-based Linear Collider (PWFA-LC) has been developed and is described in this paper. The drive beam generation and distribution, requirements on the plasma cells, and optimization of the interaction region parameters are described in detail. The R&D steps needed for further development of the concept are also outlined.

Seryi, Andrei; Hogan, Mark; Pei, Shilun; Raubenheimer, Tor; Tenenbaum, Peter; /SLAC; Katsouleas, Tom; /Duke U.; Huang, Chengkun; Joshi, Chan; Mori, Warren; /UCLA; Muggli, Patric; /Southern California U.

2009-10-30

55

Electromagnetic wake-field due to surface roughness in an optical structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we investigate the properties of the electromagnetic wake-field generated by an electron bunch moving in the vicinity of an optical structure of finite roughness. The model employed consists of a metallic cylindrical waveguide to which grooves of random width, height, and location are attached. Based on this model analytic expressions have been developed for the average energy emitted per groove and for its standard deviation. As expected, both quantities are virtually independent of the momentum in a highly relativistic regime and the average energy emitted per groove is proportional to the roughness parameter. Moreover, it has been found that the standard deviation of the energy emitted per groove is proportional to the standard deviation of the roughness parameter to the power of 1/4. The cumulative effect of surface roughness was studied resorting to both periodic and quasiperiodic structures—significant differences in the spectrum have been observed only for low frequencies.

Banna, S.; Schieber, D.; Schächter, L.

2004-04-01

56

A multi-beam, multi-terawatt Ti:sapphire laser system for laser wake-field acceleration studies  

E-print Network

A multi-beam, multi-terawatt Ti:sapphire laser system for laser wake-field acceleration studies and remotely controlled Ti:sapphire chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser system that provides synchronized (CPA), Ti:sapphire laser system is a Kerr-lens mode-locked, chirped-mirror compensated master

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

57

Comparison of the Dynamic Wake Meandering Model, Large-Eddy Simulation, and Field Data at the Egmond aan Zee Offshore Wind Plant: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this work is the comparison of the dynamic wake meandering model and large-eddy simulation with field data from the Egmond aan Zee offshore wind plant composed of 36 3-MW turbines. The field data includes meteorological mast measurements, SCADA information from all turbines, and strain-gauge data from two turbines. The dynamic wake meandering model and large-eddy simulation are means of computing unsteady wind plant aerodynamics, including the important unsteady meandering of wakes as they convect downstream and interact with other turbines and wakes. Both of these models are coupled to a turbine model such that power and mechanical loads of each turbine in the wind plant are computed. We are interested in how accurately different types of waking (e.g., direct versus partial waking), can be modeled, and how background turbulence level affects these loads. We show that both the dynamic wake meandering model and large-eddy simulation appear to underpredict power and overpredict fatigue loads because of wake effects, but it is unclear that they are really in error. This discrepancy may be caused by wind-direction uncertainty in the field data, which tends to make wake effects appear less pronounced.

Churchfield, M. J.; Moriarty, P. J.; Hao, Y.; Lackner, M. A.; Barthelmie, R.; Lundquist, J.; Oxley, G. S.

2014-12-01

58

Proper orthogonal decomposition of velocity gradient fields in a simulated stratified turbulent wake: analysis of vorticity and internal waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of three-dimensional space and time-dependent coherent structures and internal waves in stratified environment is one of the most challenging tasks in geophysical fluid dynamics. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is applied to 2-D slices of vorticity and horizontal divergence obtained from 3-D DNS of a stratified turbulent wake of a towed sphere at Re=5x103 and Fr=4. The numerical method employed solves the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations under the Boussinesq approximation. The temporal discretization consists of three fractional steps: an explicit advancement of the nonlinear terms, an implicit solution of the Poisson equation for the pseudo-pressure (which enforces incompressibility), and an implicit solution of the Helmholtz equation for the viscous terms (where boundary conditions are imposed). The computational domain is assumed to be periodic in the horizontal direction and non-periodic in the vertical direction. The 2-D slices are sampled along the stream-depth (Oxz), span-depth (Oyz) and stream-span planes (Oxy) for 231 times during the interval, Nt ? [12,35] (N is the stratification frequency). During this interval, internal wave radiation from the wake is most pronounced and the vorticity field in the wake undergoes distinct structural transitions. POD was chosen amongst the available statistical tools due to its advantage in characterization of simulated and experimentally measured velocity gradient fields. The computational procedure, applied to any random vector field, finds the most coherent feature from the given ensemble of field realizations. The decomposed empirical eigenfunctions could be referred to as "coherent structures", since they are highly correlated in an average sense with the flow field. In our analysis, we follow the computationally efficient method of 'snapshots' to find the POD eigenfunctions of the ensemble of vorticity field realizations. The results contains of the separate POD modes, along with the reconstructed vorticity and horizontal divergence fields based on the linear combination of the eigenfunctions. Similar to applications of POD to the characterization of coherent structures in turbulent boundary layers, characteristic geometrical features for each eigenmode of vorticity and horizontal divergence are deduced. The results show that in the Oxz plane at the wake centerline the first, most energetic, modes of vorticity reveal a structure similar of the forward-inclined vertical shear layers typical of late-time stratified wakes. In Oxz planes, off-set from the wake centerline, the signature of internal waves in the form of forward-inclined coherent beams extending into the ambient becomes evident. The angle of inclination becomes progressively vertical with increasing POD mode. Lower POD modes on the Oyz planes show a layered structure in the wake core with coherent beams radiating out into the ambient at angles spanning 0 to 75 degrees. The POD analysis of horizontal divergence on the Oxz and Oyz planes reveals similar features with the results for the vorticity field. Two notable exceptions at lower modes are the less organized structure of the wake core and the predominance of beam-like structures in laterally offset Oxz planes. Furthermore, these differences are confirmed through the relative energy spectra distribution of the eigenmodes for the vorticity and the horizontal divergence. Qualitative comparison of the reconstructed low-order velocity gradient fields and the computed flow fields shows the relative contribution of the different mode combinations, to the various flow features such as internal waves and vorticity. It is shown that POD analysis has provided a statistical description of the geometrical features previously observed in instantaneous flow fields of stratified turbulent wake.

Gurka, R.; Diamessis, P.; Liberzon, A.

2009-04-01

59

Measurements of surface-pressure and wake-flow fluctuations in the flow field of a whitcomb supercritical airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of surface pressure and wake flow fluctuations were made as part of a transonic wind tunnel investigation into the nature of a supercritical airfoil flow field. Emphasis was on a range of high subsonic Mach numbers and moderate lift coefficients corresponding to the development of drag divergence and buffeting. Fluctuation data were analyzed statistically for intensity, frequency content, and spatial coherence. Variations in these parameters were correlated with changes in the mean airfoil flow field.

Roos, F. W.; Riddle, D. W.

1977-01-01

60

Vibration Suppression Effect of Liquid Crystal under Electromagnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experimental study on the vibration suppression of a laminated beam with a nematic liquid crystal under electric and magnetic fields. Firstly, a laminated beam is constructed with two thin nematic liquid crystal layers and a thin aluminum beam inside. The results under electric field show that the resonance point of the beam shifts higher, and the

Junji Tani; Toshiyuki Takagi; Hirofumi Nakaniwa; Kikuo Ohtomo; Kazuo Kosugo

1996-01-01

61

Controlling Wake Turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Letter introduces a control strategy for taming the wake turbulence behind a cylinder. An angular momentum injection scheme is proposed to synchronize the vertical velocity field. We show that the base suction, wake formation length, absolute instability, and the Kármán vortex street are effectively controlled by the angular momentum injection. A control equation is designed to implement the injection.

B. S. Patnaik; G. W. Wei

2002-01-01

62

Wake-field generated by a line charge moving in the vicinity of a dielectric cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wake-field generated by a moving line charge in the vicinity of a dielectric cylinder is analyzed. It is shown that the emitted energy increases logarithmically with the kinetic energy ( ?-1) of the line charge and decays exponentially as a function of the ratio h/ R, where R is the cylinder radius and h is the distance of the line charge from the cylinder's axis. Upon investigation of the angular distribution of the radiated energy we found it to be almost uniform in the non-relativistic case, whereas for the relativistic case most of the emitted energy is radiated parallel to the direction of motion of the line charge. For a relativistic regime, the emitted energy is almost independent of the cylinder dielectric coefficient ( ?r) provided the latter is frequency-independent. Frequency dependence of ?r reduces significantly the deceleration of the line charge. For the ultra-relativistic case the transverse kick is inversely proportional to the kinetic energy and, as expected, increases as the line charge gets closer to the cylinder. Finally, a finite size bunch has been considered. As the transverse width of the bunch is increased, the total emitted energy also increases and the spectrum is broadened.

Banna, S.; Schächter, L.; Schieber, D.

2002-08-01

63

Simulations of two-bunch Plasma Wake Field Accelerator on FACET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous experiments on FFTB at SLAC demonstrated that short electron bunches can produce accelerating gradient of 50 GeV/m over one meter[1]. These experiments provided the science case for the new FACET facility which will have 23 GeV high current beams. Two-bunch PWFA experiment has a second bunch appropriately loaded into the wake of the first bunch so that the second bunch maintains a narrow energy spread. Simulation results show that in possible two bunch scenarios the first bunch (with less current than that in the FFTB case) still can generate a meter long plasma column via field ionization with a density around 5x10^16cm-3 if a gas with lower ionization threshold is used. The trailing beam can gain ˜10 GeV with a very narrow energy spread. The energy gain can be increased to 25 GeV by using a pre-ionized plasma . The possibility of using a partially ionized pre-plasma instead of the fully pre-ionized plasma is also discussed.[4pt] [1] I. Blumenfeld et al., Nature 445, 741 (2007).

An, W.; Lu, W.; Joshi, C.; Mori, W. B.; Huang, C.; Hogan, M. J.; Martins, S. F.; Silva, L. O.

2010-11-01

64

Ionization effects in the generation of wake-fields by ultra-high contrast femtosecond laser pulses in argon gas  

SciTech Connect

Difference in mechanisms of wake-field generation and electron self-injection by high contrast femtosecond laser pulses in an initially neutral Argon gas and in pre-ionized plasma without ionization is studied via 2D particle-in-cell simulations including optical ionization of the media. For shorter laser pulses, 40 fs, ionization results only in an increase of the charge of accelerated electrons by factor of {approx}3 with qualitatively the same energy distribution. For longer pulses, 80 fs, a more stable wake field structure is observed in the neutral gas with the maximal energy of the accelerated electrons exceeding that in the fixed density plasma. In higher density Argon, an ionizing laser pulse converts itself to a complex system of solitons at a self-induced, critical density ramp.

Makito, K.; Shin, J.-H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Zhidkov, A.; Hosokai, T.; Masuda, S. [Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-8, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), CREST, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kodama, R. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-8, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), CREST, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

2012-10-15

65

Ion-wake-induced anomaly of dust lattice mode in the presence of an external magnetic field.  

PubMed

We report a theoretical investigation of the dust lattice (DL) mode in two-dimensional Yukawa crystals in the presence of asymmetric ion flow and an external magnetic field perpendicular to the crystal plane. Two mutually perpendicular modes are found to be coupled due to Lorentz force. Interaction among the dust grains along the vertical direction of ion flow is strongly affected due to the formation of an ion wake. This causes anisotropy in interaction strength along two mutually perpendicular directions. Both hybrid modes are studied as characteristics of different ion flow speeds and magnetic field strengths. The study shows a fluctuation in DL mode frequency driven by the strength of the particle-wake interaction. The effect of ion flow on polarization of the hybrid wave amplitudes is discussed in detail. Results show a possible mechanism of anomalous phase transition in dusty plasma. PMID:24229292

Bhattacharjee, Saurav; Das, Nilakshi

2013-10-01

66

Ion-wake-induced anomaly of dust lattice mode in the presence of an external magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a theoretical investigation of the dust lattice (DL) mode in two-dimensional Yukawa crystals in the presence of asymmetric ion flow and an external magnetic field perpendicular to the crystal plane. Two mutually perpendicular modes are found to be coupled due to Lorentz force. Interaction among the dust grains along the vertical direction of ion flow is strongly affected due to the formation of an ion wake. This causes anisotropy in interaction strength along two mutually perpendicular directions. Both hybrid modes are studied as characteristics of different ion flow speeds and magnetic field strengths. The study shows a fluctuation in DL mode frequency driven by the strength of the particle-wake interaction. The effect of ion flow on polarization of the hybrid wave amplitudes is discussed in detail. Results show a possible mechanism of anomalous phase transition in dusty plasma.

Bhattacharjee, Saurav; Das, Nilakshi

2013-10-01

67

Scaling of far-field wake angle of nonaxisymmetric pressure disturbance.  

PubMed

It has been recently emphasized that the angle of maximum wave amplitude ? in the wake of a disturbance of finite size can be significantly narrower than the maximum value ?_{K}=sin^{-1}(1/3)?19.47^{?} predicted by the classical analysis of Kelvin. For axisymmetric disturbance, a simple argument based on the Cauchy-Poisson initial-value problem suggests that the wake angle decreases following a Mach-like law at large velocity, ??Fr_{L}^{-1}, where Fr_{L}=U/sqrt[gL] is the Froude number based on the disturbance velocity U, its size L, and gravity g. In this paper we extend this analysis to the case of nonaxisymmetric disturbances, relevant to real ships. We find that, for intermediate Froude numbers, the wake angle follows an intermediate scaling law ??Fr_{L}^{-2}, in agreement with the recent prediction of Noblesse et al. [Eur. J. Mech. B/Fluids 46, 164 (2014)]. We show that beyond a critical Froude number, which scales as A^{1/2} (where A is the length-to-width aspect ratio of the disturbance), the asymptotic scaling ??Fr_{B}^{-1} holds, where now Fr_{B}=A^{1/2}Fr_{L} is the Froude number based on the disturbance width. We propose a simple model for this transition, and provide a regime diagram of the scaling of the wake angle as a function of parameters (A,Fr_{L}). PMID:25019876

Moisy, F; Rabaud, M

2014-06-01

68

Enhancement and suppression in the visual field under perceptual load  

PubMed Central

The perceptual load theory of attention proposes that the degree to which visual distractors are processed is a function of the attentional demands of a task—greater demands increase filtering of irrelevant distractors. The spatial configuration of such filtering is unknown. Here, we used steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) in conjunction with time-domain event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the distribution of load-induced distractor suppression and task-relevant enhancement in the visual field. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded while subjects performed a foveal go/no-go task that varied in perceptual load. Load-dependent distractor suppression was assessed by presenting a contrast reversing ring at one of three eccentricities (2, 6, or 11°) during performance of the go/no-go task. Rings contrast reversed at 8.3 Hz, allowing load-dependent changes in distractor processing to be tracked in the frequency-domain. ERPs were calculated to the onset of stimuli in the load task to examine load-dependent modulation of task-relevant processing. Results showed that the amplitude of the distractor SSVEP (8.3 Hz) was attenuated under high perceptual load (relative to low load) at the most proximal (2°) eccentricity but not at more eccentric locations (6 or 11°). Task-relevant ERPs revealed a significant increase in N1 amplitude under high load. These results are consistent with a center-surround configuration of load-induced enhancement and suppression in the visual field. PMID:23734135

Parks, Nathan A.; Beck, Diane M.; Kramer, Arthur F.

2013-01-01

69

Wake flowfields for Jovian probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wake flow field developed by the Galileo probe as it enters the Jovian atmosphere was modeled. The wake produced by the probe is highly energetic, yielding both convective and radiative heat inputs to the base of the probe. A component mathematical model for the inviscid near and far wake, the viscous near and far wake, and near wake recirculation zone was developed. Equilibrium thermodynamics were used for both the ablation and atmospheric species. Flow fields for three entry conditions were calculated. The near viscous wave was found to exhibit a variable axial pressure distribution with the neck pressure approximately three times the base pressure. Peak wake flow field temperatures were found to be in proportion to forebody post shock temperatures.

Engel, C. D.; Hair, L. M.

1980-01-01

70

HIGH-GRADIENT, HIGH-TRANSFORMER-RATIO, DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR  

SciTech Connect

The Phase I work reported here responds to DoE'ss stated need "...to develop improved accelerator designs that can provide very high gradient (>200 MV/m for electrons...) acceleration of intense bunches of particles." Omega-P'�s approach to this goal is through use of a ramped train of annular electron bunches to drive a coaxial dielectric wakefield accelerator (CDWA) structure. This approach is a direct extension of the CDWA concept from acceleration in wake fields caused by a single drive bunch, to the more efficient acceleration that we predict can be realized from a tailored (or ramped) train of several drive bunches. This is possible because of a much higher transformer ratio for the latter. The CDWA structure itself has a number of unique features, including: a high accelerating gradient G, potentially with G > 1 GeV/m; continuous energy coupling from drive to test bunches without transfer structures; inherent transverse focusing forces for particles in the accelerated bunch; highly stable motion of high charge annular drive bunches; acceptable alignment tolerances for a multi-section system. What is new in the present approach is that the coaxial dielectric structure is now to be energized by-not one-�but by a short train of ramped annular-shaped drive bunches moving in the outer coaxial channel of the structure. We have shown that this allows acceleration of an electron bunch traveling along the axis in the inner channel with a markedly higher transformer ratio T than for a single drive bunch. As described in this report, the structure will be a GHz-scale prototype with cm-scale transverse dimensions that is expected to confirm principles that can be applied to the design of a future THz-scale high gradient (> 500 MV/m) accelerator with mm-scale transverse dimensions. We show here a new means to significantly increase the transformer ratio T of the device, and thereby to significantly improve its suitability as a flexible and effective component in a future high energy, high gradient accelerator facility. We predict that the T of a high gradient CDWA can be increased by a substantial factor; this enhancement is dramatically greater than what has been demonstrated heretofore. This large enhancement in T that we predict arises from using a train of three or four drive bunches in which the spacing of the bunches and their respective charges are selected according to a simple principle that requires each bunch lose energy to the wakefields at the same rate, so as not to sacrifice drive beam efficiency�¢����as would be the case if one bunch exhausted its available energy while others had not. It is anticipated that results from the study proposed here can have a direct impact on design of the dielectric accelerator in a TeV-scale collider concept, and in the accelerator for an x-ray FEL.

Jay L. Hirshfield

2012-04-12

71

Effects of Search Efficiency on Surround Suppression During Visual Selection in Frontal Eye Field  

E-print Network

Effects of Search Efficiency on Surround Suppression During Visual Selection in Frontal Eye Field. Effects of search efficiency on surround suppression during visual selection in frontal eye field. J the target for a saccade during efficient, pop-out visual search through suppression of the representation

Schall, Jeffrey D.

72

Compression and Suppression of Shifting Receptive Field Activity in Frontal Eye Field Neurons  

PubMed Central

Before each saccade, neurons in frontal eye field anticipate the impending eye movement by showing sensitivity to stimuli appearing where the neuron's receptive field will be at the end of the saccade, referred to as the future field (FF) of the neuron. We explored the time course of this anticipatory activity in monkeys by briefly flashing stimuli in the FF at different times before saccades. Different neurons showed substantial variation in FF time course, but two salient observations emerged. First, when we compared the time span of stimulus probes before the saccade to the time span of FF activity, we found a striking temporal compression of FF activity, similar to compression seen for perisaccadic stimuli in human psychophysics. Second, neurons with distinct FF activity also showed suppression at the time of the saccade. The increase in FF activity and the decrease with suppression were temporally independent, making the patterns of activity difficult to separate. We resolved this by constructing a simple model with values for the start, peak, and duration of FF activity and suppression for each neuron. The model revealed the different time courses of FF sensitivity and suppression, suggesting that information about the impending saccade triggering suppression reaches the frontal eye field through a different pathway, or a different mechanism, than that triggering FF activity. Recognition of the variations in the time course of anticipatory FF activity provides critical information on its function and its relation to human visual perception at the time of the saccade. PMID:24227735

Cavanaugh, James; Wurtz, Robert H.

2013-01-01

73

Suppression of probe background signals via B(1) field inhomogeneity.  

PubMed

A new approach combining a long pulse with the DEPTH sequence (Cory and Ritchey, Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 1988) greatly improves the efficiency for suppressing probe background signals arising from spinning modules. By applying a long initial excitation pulse in the DEPTH sequence, instead of a ?/2 pulse, the inhomogeneous B(1) fields outside the coil can dephase the background coherence in the nutation frame. The initial long pulse and the following two consecutive EXORCYCLE ? pulses function complementarily and prove most effective in removing background signals from both strong and weak B? fields. Experimentally, the length of the long pulse can be optimized around odd multiples of the ?/2 pulse, depending on the individual probe design, to preserve signals inside the coil while minimizing those from probe hardware. This method extends the applicability of the DEPTH sequence to probes with small differences in B? field strength between the inside and outside of the coil, and can readily combine with well-developed double resonance experiments for quantitative measurement. In general, spin systems with weak internal interactions are required to attain efficient and uniform excitation for powder samples, and the principles to determine the applicability are discussed qualitatively in terms of the relative strength of spin interactions, r.f. power and spinning rate. PMID:21349751

Feng, Jian; Reimer, Jeffrey A

2011-04-01

74

2.5D Numerical Simulation of Excitation of Coherent Chain of Electron Wake-Field Bubbles by Optimal Non-Resonant Chain of Dense Relativistic Electron Bunches  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that optimal difference of frequencies of following of electron bunches and following of wake-field bubbles exists, so N-1 drive-bunches strengthen chain of wakefield bubbles and N-th bunch gets in maximal accelerating wakefield.

Maslov, V. I.; Lotov, K. V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Onishchenko, I. N.; Svistun, O. M. [Karazin Kharkov National University, Kharkov, 61108 (Ukraine)

2010-06-16

75

Wind turbine wake interactions at field scale: An LES study of the SWiFT facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Minnesota Virtual Wind Simulator (VWiS) code is employed to simulate turbine/atmosphere interactions in the Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility developed by Sandia National Laboratories in Lubbock, TX, USA. The facility presently consists of three turbines and the simulations consider the case of wind blowing from South such that two turbines are in the free stream and the third turbine in the direct wake of one upstream turbine with separation of 5 rotor diameters. Large-eddy simulation (LES) on two successively finer grids is carried out to examine the sensitivity of the computed solutions to grid refinement. It is found that the details of the break-up of the tip vortices into small-scale turbulence structures can only be resolved on the finer grid. It is also shown that the power coefficient CP of the downwind turbine predicted on the coarse grid is somewhat higher than that obtained on the fine mesh. On the other hand, the rms (root-mean-square) of the CP fluctuations are nearly the same on both grids, although more small-scale turbulence structures are resolved upwind of the downwind turbine on the finer grid.

Yang, Xiaolei; Boomsma, Aaron; Barone, Matthew; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

2014-06-01

76

Controlling wake turbulence.  

PubMed

This Letter introduces a control strategy for taming the wake turbulence behind a cylinder. An angular momentum injection scheme is proposed to synchronize the vertical velocity field. We show that the base suction, wake formation length, absolute instability, and the Kármán vortex street are effectively controlled by the angular momentum injection. A control equation is designed to implement the injection. The Navier-Stokes equations, along with the control equation, are solved. The occurrence of a new recirculation free zone is identified. PMID:11863732

Patnaik, B S V; Wei, G W

2002-02-01

77

Wake-field and space charge effects on high brightness beams calculations and measured results for the laser driven photoelectrons at BNL-ATF  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the formalism used to study the effects of the interactions between the highly charged particles and the fields in the accelerating structure, including space charge and wake fields. Some of our calculations and numerical simulation results obtained for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) high-brightness photoelectron beam at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) and the measured data at ATF are also included.

Parsa, Z.

1993-05-01

78

Wind farm array wake losses  

SciTech Connect

A wind turbine wake study was conducted in the summer of 1987 at an Altamont Pass wind electric generating facility. The wind speed deficits, turbulence, and power deficits from an array consisting of several rows of wind turbines is discussed. A total of nine different test configurations were evaluated for a downwind spacing ranging from 7 rotor diameters (RD) to 34 RD and a cross wind spacing of 1.3 RD and 2.7 RD. Wake power deficits of 15% were measured at 16 RD and power losses of a few percent were even measurable at 27 RD for the closer cross wind spacing. For several rows of turbines separated by 7-9 RD the wake zones overlapped and formed compound wakes with higher velocity deficits. The wind speed and direction turbulence in the wake was much higher than the ambient turbulence. The results from this study are compared to the findings from other similar field measurements.

Baker, R.W. [Impact Weather, Washougal, WA (United States); McCarthy, E.F. [Wind Economics & Technology, Inc., Martinez, CA (United States)

1997-12-31

79

Repetition suppression and expectation suppression are dissociable in time in early auditory evoked fields.  

PubMed

Repetition of a stimulus, as well as valid expectation that a stimulus will occur, both attenuate the neural response to it. These effects, repetition suppression and expectation suppression, are typically confounded in paradigms in which the nonrepeated stimulus is also relatively rare (e.g., in oddball blocks of mismatch negativity paradigms, or in repetition suppression paradigms with multiple repetitions before an alternation). However, recent hierarchical models of sensory processing inspire the hypothesis that the two might be separable in time, with repetition suppression occurring earlier, as a consequence of local transition probabilities, and suppression by expectation occurring later, as a consequence of learnt statistical regularities. Here we test this hypothesis in an auditory experiment by orthogonally manipulating stimulus repetition and stimulus expectation and, using magnetoencephalography, measuring the neural response over time in human subjects. We found that stimulus repetition (but not stimulus expectation) attenuates the early auditory response (40-60 ms), while stimulus expectation (but not stimulus repetition) attenuates the subsequent, intermediate stage of auditory processing (100-200 ms). These findings are well in line with hierarchical predictive coding models, which posit sequential stages of prediction error resolution, contingent on the level at which the hypothesis is generated. PMID:23015429

Todorovic, Ana; de Lange, Floris P

2012-09-26

80

A multi-beam, multi-terawatt Ti:sapphire laser system for laser wake-field acceleration studies  

SciTech Connect

The Lasers, Optical Accelerator Systems Integrated Studies (L'OASIS) Lab of LBNL operates a highly automated and remotely controlled Ti:sapphire chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser system that provides synchronized beams of 2x1.0 TW, 12 TW, and 100 TW peak-power, in a unique, radiation shielded facility. The system has been specially designed for studying high field laser-plasma interactions and particularly aimed for the investigations of laser wake-field particle acceleration. It generates and recombines multiple beams having different pulse durations, wavelengths, and pulse energies for various stages of plasma preparation, excitation, and diagnostics. The amplifier system is characterized and continuously monitored via local area network (LAN) from a radiation shielded control room by an array of diagnostics, including beam profile monitoring cameras, remote controlled alignment options, self-correcting beam-pointing stabilization loops, pulse measurement tools, such as single-shot autocorrelator for pulse duration and third-order correlator for contrast measurements, FROG for pulse shape studies.

Toth, Cs.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Tilborg, J. van; Leemans, W.P. [L'OASIS Group, Accelerator and Fusion Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, BLDG 71R0259, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2004-12-07

81

Wake fields from electron bunches in dielectric-lined waveguides, with applications to high-gradient acceleration and production of short-pulse radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Excitation of wake fields from a short charge bunch moving parallel to the axis of a dielectric-lined cylindrical waveguide is analyzed. This situation amounts to generation of Cerenkov radiation in a transversely-bounded system. Wake fields are expanded into an orthonormal set of hybrid electric-magnetic (HEM) eigenfunctions for this waveguide geometry. The orthonormalization relations for this system are obtained, evidently for the first time, both for a stationary source and for a localized moving source such as a charge bunch; it is shown that these orthonormalization relations differ. Forces arising from wake fields are found, valid within and behind a distributed bunch. Deviation of bunch distribution from axisymmetry leads to generation of dipole modes of significant amplitude that may lead to instability. Poynting's theorem is examined for this system, and it is shown that convected Coulomb field energy must be subtracted from the Poynting flux to obtain the radiation power. This power, which balances drag on the bunch as calculated directly from the fields, is shown to flow in a direction opposite to that of the charge bunch. The results are easily generalized to bunches of arbitrary length and charge distribution, and to a train of such bunches. Numerical examples are presented for monopole, dipole and quadrupole wake field forces, and sample electric field patterns are shown to assist in understanding the unusual nature of this type of Cerenkov radiation. For a 2 nC rectangular drive bunch of length 0.20 mm, moving along the axis of an alumina-lined waveguide with inner and outer radii 0.50 mm and 5.0 mm, a peak accelerating gradient behind the bunch of 155 MeV/m is predicted. This relatively high magnitude of accelerating gradient suggests that a simple uniform dielectric pipe could be the basis for the structure of a future high-gradient electron/positron linear accelerator. The results of theoretical prediction will compared with ANL experiment.

Park, Soo Yong

2000-10-01

82

Uniform distortion of a heated turbulent wake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital sampling and processing techniques are used to assess the effect of a uniform and constant strain rate on a slightly heated cylinder-generated wake which had undergone a prestrain development distance of 115 cylinder diameters. The wake is generated by a circular heating element (6.6-mm-diam cylinder) mounted horizontally in the center of a low-speed open return wind tunnel. The strain field is produced by a distortion duct oriented in such a way as to accentuate any periodic interface structure which might be present in the undistorted wake. Interface statistics are presented for both the undistorted (near) wake and the uniformly strained wake, and conditional (point) averages of the streamwise velocity and passive temperature fields of the strained wake. The results suggest that the interface thickness is fairly uniform along the back but decreases along the front with distance from the wake center.

Kawall, J. G.; Keffer, J. F.

1978-01-01

83

Maleic hydrazide: sprout suppression of potatoes in the field.  

PubMed

In 2005, the active substance maleic hydrazide was released on the Belgian market. Maleic hydrazide is authorized in potatoes as foliar treatment for instore sprout suppression and control of volunteers. The mode of action is based on blocking cell division whilst cell elongation is not affected. The product must be applied at once during the growing season, only after at least 80% of the tubers have reached 25 mm diameter and not later than 3 weeks before haulm killing. The first 24 h after application, no meaningful precipitation should occur to insure sufficiently uptake of the product by the crop. Field trials were set up for 4 years (2005-2008) and 4 locations per year with application of maleic hydrazide in four different cultivars (Bintje, Fontane, Asterix and Cilena). After application, the cultivar Asterix showed almost every year a temporarily phytotoxicity (bronze discoloration). On the first place yield was determined. When maleic hydrazide was applied too early (80% tubers % 25mm diameter) yield was negatively affected (3 years on 4) except for the cultivar Cilena (fresh market). Internal quality (dry matter and fry quality) was not influenced by the application of maleic hydrazide. Only Fontane had a slightly lower dry matter content. Maleic hydrazide also influenced appearance of secondary growth. However, the results were very variable depending on cultivar, location and time of application. After harvest, the tubers were kept in storage and assessed monthly on germination. Potatoes treated late in the growing season, showed a shorter dormancy period. A part of the tubers was replanted the following spring to verify volunteer control. Additional trials were set up by the Flemish government for two years (2010-2011). The results of previous trials were confirmed. Additional, the influence of maleic hydrazide on internal germination during storage was examined on the cultivar Innovator. The tests clearly showed a positive effect for this parameter. PMID:23878989

De Blauwer, V; Demeulemeester, K; Demeyere, A; Hofmans, E

2012-01-01

84

Control of focusing fields for positron acceleration in nonlinear plasma wakes using multiple laser modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Control of transverse wakefields in the nonlinear laser-driven bubble regime using a combination of Hermite-Gaussian laser modes is proposed. By controlling the relative intensity ratio of the two laser modes, the focusing force can be controlled, enabling matched beam propagation for emittance preservation. A ring bubble can be generated with a large longitudinal accelerating field and a transverse focusing field suitable for positron beam focusing and acceleration.

Yu, L.-L.; Schroeder, C. B.; Li, F.-Y.; Benedetti, C.; Chen, M.; Weng, S.-M.; Sheng, Z.-M.; Esarey, E.

2014-12-01

85

Evaluation of rhizobacterial indicators of tobacco black root rot suppressiveness in farmers' fields.  

PubMed

Very few soil quality indicators include disease-suppressiveness criteria. We assessed whether 64 16S rRNA microarray probes whose signals correlated with tobacco black root rot suppressiveness in greenhouse analysis could also discriminate suppressive from conducive soils under field conditions. Rhizobacterial communities of tobacco and wheat sampled in 2 years from four farmers' fields of contrasted suppressiveness status were compared. The 64 previously identified indicator probes correctly classified 72% of 29 field samples, with nine probes for Azospirillum, Gluconacetobacter, Sphingomonadaceae, Planctomycetes, Mycoplasma, Lactobacillus crispatus and Thermodesulforhabdus providing the best prediction. The whole probe set (1033 probes) revealed strong effects of plant, field location and year on rhizobacterial community composition, and a smaller (7% variance) but significant effect of soil suppressiveness status. Seventeen additional probes correlating with suppressiveness status in the field (noticeably for Agrobacterium, Methylobacterium, Ochrobactrum) were selected, and combined with the nine others, they improved correct sample classification from 72% to 79% (100% tobacco and 63% wheat samples). Pseudomonas probes were not informative in the field, even those targeting biocontrol pseudomonads producing 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, nor was quantitative polymerase chain reaction for 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-synthesis gene phlD. This study shows that a subset of 16S rRNA probes targeting diverse rhizobacteria can be useful as suppressiveness indicators under field conditions. PMID:24992533

Kyselková, Martina; Almario, Juliana; Kopecký, Jan; Ságová-Mare?ková, Markéta; Haurat, Jacqueline; Muller, Daniel; Grundmann, Geneviève L; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

2014-08-01

86

Edge Suppression by Gradient Field Transformation Using Cross-Projection Tensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new technique for edge-suppressing operations on images. We introduce cross projection tensors to achieve affine transformations of gradient fields. We use these tensors, for example, to remove edges in one image based on the edge-information in a second image. Tra- ditionally, edge suppression is acieved by setting image gradients to zero based on thresholds. A common application

Amit K. Agrawal; Ramesh Raskar; Rama Chellappa

2006-01-01

87

Study of electron trapping by a transversely ellipsoidal bubble in the laser wake-field acceleration  

SciTech Connect

We present electron trapping in an ellipsoidal bubble which is not well explained by the spherical bubble model by [Kostyukov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 175003 (2009)]. The formation of an ellipsoidal bubble, which is elongated transversely, frequently occurs when the spot size of the laser pulse is large compared to the plasma wavelength. First, we introduce the relation between the bubble size and the field slope inside the bubble in longitudinal and transverse directions. Then, we provide an ellipsoidal model of the bubble potential and investigate the electron trapping condition by numerical integration of the equations of motion. We found that the ellipsoidal model gives a significantly less restrictive trapping condition than that of the spherical bubble model. The trapping condition is compared with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations and the electron trajectory in test potential simulations.

Cho, Myung-Hoon [School of Natural Science, UNIST, BanYeon-Ri 100, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Natural Science, UNIST, BanYeon-Ri 100, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Kuk; Hur, Min Sup [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, UNIST, BanYeon-Ri 100, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, UNIST, BanYeon-Ri 100, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-09-15

88

2 and 3-D PIC simulations of laser guiding and wake-field acceleration of electrons to GeV levels in a preformed plasma channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been considerable recent interest in the guiding of ultrashort (50 femtosecond) laser pulses at high intensities ( ˜5 x 10^18 W/cm^2) for applications in laser plasma acceleration. PIC simulations using the codes OSIRIS and turboWAVE in two and three dimensions have shown that a resonant wake-field in a preformed plasma channel can self-trap and accelerate electrons to energies ˜1 GeV. Propagating the laser over 60 Rayleigh lengths produces a large amplitude wake-field that can self-trap and accelerate electrons for distances ˜1 cm. The simulations show that the pump depletion of the laser causes the wake to evolve significantly over 1 cm and that this can lead to acceleration beyond linear dephasing. The optimum plasma density in the channel for a given laser pulse-length and amplitude is determined. Simulations have also been done to follow the laser evolution inside of the plasma channel, as well as to estimate the electron energy spectrum that would be produced in an experiment.

Narang, Ritesh; Tsung, Frank; Joshi, Chan; Mori, Warren; Gordon, Daniel; Fonseca, Ricardo; Silva, Luis

2002-11-01

89

Characterization of cavity wakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scope and Method of Study. This research focused on flow over deep cavities at subsonic speeds with emphasis on the wake downstream of the cavity. Cavity wake behaviors have not been studied in detail and are a major concern for air vehicles with cavities and in particular for optical sensor systems installed in cavities. Other key behaviors for sensor survival and performance are cavity resonance and turbulence scales in the shear layer. A wind tunnel test apparatus was developed to explore cavity and wake characteristics. It consisted of a test section insert for the OSU Indraft Wind Tunnel with an additional contraction cone for significantly increased speed. The test section included a variable depth cavity in a boundary layer splitter plate/fairing assembly, a Y-Z traverse and pitot rake with in-situ pressure transducers for high frequency response. Flows were measured over clean cavities with length to depth (L/D) ratios of 4 to 1/2 and on cavities with a porous fence for resonance suppression. Measurements were taken in streamwise and cross-stream sections to three cavity lengths downstream of the cavity trailing edge. Flow visualization using laser sheet and smoke injection was also used. Findings and Conclusions. The high speed insert demonstrated a significant new capability for the OSU wind tunnel, reaching speeds of 0.35 Mach (390 feet/second) in a 14"x14" test section. Inlet room flow was found to be quite unsteady and recommendations are made for improved flow and quantitative visualization. Key findings for cavity wake flow include its highly three dimensional nature with asymmetric peaks in cross section with boundary layer thicknesses and integral length scales several times that of a normal flat plate turbulent boundary layer (TBL). Turbulent intensities (TI) of 35% to 55% of freestream speeds were measured for the clean configuration. Fence configuration TI's were 20% to 35% of free stream and, in both configurations, TI's decayed to approximately that of a flat plate TBL by 3 cavity lengths downstream from the cavity trailing edge. Fence flow visualization showed edge vortices and jets through the perforations that suggest the potential for minimizing turbulence intensity and scales while still suppressing cavity resonance.

Kidd, James A.

90

Wake properties of a stripline beam kicker  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport of a high current relativistic electron beam in a stripline beam kicker is strongly dependent on the wake properties of the structure. The effect of the beam-induced fields on the steering of the beam must be determined for a prescribed trajectory within the structure. A 3-D time domain electromagnetic code is used to determine the wake fields and

Brian Poole; George Caporaso; W. C. Ng

1997-01-01

91

Wake characteristics of a model ornithopter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper details unsteady wake measurements from a model Ornithopther flying in a wind tunnel at representative flight conditions. Testing over a range of Strouhal number, 0.1-0.3, shows that the unsteady wake is composed of coherent vortical structures that resemble vortex rings. A single ring is formed in the wake of each wing during one wing beat. Momentum balance from velocity field measurements are reconciled with unsteady lift and drag measurements from a drag balance.

Juarez, Alfredo; Harlow, Jacob; Allen, James; Ferreira de Sousa, Paulo

2006-03-01

92

Commercial aircraft wake vortices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the problem of wake vortices shed by commercial aircraft. It presents a consolidated European view on the current status of knowledge of the nature and characteristics of aircraft wakes and of technical and operational procedures of minimizing and predicting the vortex strength and avoiding wake encounters.Methodological aspects of data evaluation and interpretation, like the description of wake

Thomas Gerz; Frank Holzäpfel; Denis Darracq

2002-01-01

93

Dynamics and control of hydrofoil wakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of rotor-stator interaction (RSI) is an issue within the field of turbomachinery. The flow field entering the rotor cascade will depend on the stator blade to blade velocity distributions, and the viscous wake trailing cascade blades. This flow field is also dependent on the mode of operation, e.g by changing the angle of each blade in hydroturbines. Manipulating the stator viscous wakes is one method to minimize the problems associated RSI; i.e. noise and vibration. In order to explore this concept, a comprehensive experimental program was carried out in a high-speed water tunnel utilizing a series of NACA 0015 hydrofoils. Baseline wake data were collected with a hydraulically smooth foil and compared with two foils modified with two sizes of vortex generators (VG) positioned close to the leading edge of the foil. Not only was the effect of the modifications on wake spreading investigated but also the effect on wake dynamics such as vortex shedding was studied. A high frame-rate PIV system was used at recording rates of 1 and 10 kHz to map the near wake region, extending roughly 1 chord-length downstream the trailing edge, over a range of angles of attack and velocities. The results show that wake dynamics and wake characteristics, i.e. velocity deficit and width, scale with average drag. It was demonstrated that the use of VGs can improve both the dynamics and spreading characteristics of the wake.

Kjeldsen, Morten; Wosnik, Martin; Arndt, Roger

2008-11-01

94

Studies of aircraft wake chemistry and dispersion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Use of aerospace technology to study aircraft wakes is reviewed. It is shown how aerospace vehicles can be used to provide data for increased understanding of the atmosphere and of aircraft exhaust trails where knowledge is inadequate to evaluate fully the potential impact of the engine emissions. Models of aircraft near-field exhaust wakes are characterized by jet, vortex, and dispersion regimes. Wake growth in the jet regime is self-determined and rapid, whereas further spreading is inhibited in the vortex regime because of circulating vortex motion. Wake diffusion in the dispersion regime is initially influenced by aircraft induced turbulence but is dominated later by small-scale atmospheric turbulence. Computed fluid mechanical results show the importance of effects such as wake buoyancy, wind shear, turbulence, and traffic corridor exhaust buildup on dispersion of the wake. In the jet regime the exhaust characteristics and thermochemistry serve to illustrate initial chemical changes involving potential pollutant species.

Poppoff, I. G.; Farlow, N. H.; Anderson, L. B.

1974-01-01

95

Power suppression from disparate mass scales in effective scalar field theories of inflation and quintessence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scalar potential coupled to other fields of large disparate masses will exhibit power suppression of the quantum loop corrections from these massive fields. Quintessence fields in the dark energy regime and inflaton fields during inflation often have a very large background field value. Thus any other field with its mass dependent on the quintessence/inflaton background field value through a moderate coupling will become very massive during the dark energy/inflation phase and its quantum corrections to the scalar effective potential will be suppressed. This concept is developed in this paper using the decoupling theorem. The problem then reduces to a quantitative question of the size of suppression effects within the parameter space of coupling constants, scalar field background value and renormalization scale. Some numerical examples are presented both for inflation and quintessence, but the approach is general and can be applied to any scalar field effective potential. The consequences to dark energy of the decoupling effect developed here is that the quintessence field need not just be an incredibly weakly interacting field, often included as an add-on to generate dark energy and having no other purpose. Instead, this quintessence field could play a central role in the particle physics dynamics at early times and then the other fields simply decouple from it at late times before the onset of the dark energy phase. For inflation a consequence is coupling of the inflaton to other heavy fields can be much larger.

Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun; Jackson, Brendan M.

2011-07-01

96

Wake vortex characteristics of transport aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow and flight physics of wake vortex systems has been intensively investigated concentrating on a large variety of aspects. This paper gives a brief overview on past and present wake vortex research activities such as early studies, integrated programs, model and flight tests, numerical investigations, fundamental physical aspects and alleviation strategies. Then, detailed results of the properties of the wake near field and extended near field are presented addressing typical length and time scales and especially turbulence quantities. Progressing from the near field to the far field wake instability mechanisms are explained along with their relevance for wake vortex decay. Characteristic quantities are given for the short and long wave instabilities associated with vortex merging and wakes consisting of two and four trailing vortices. A non-dimensional frequency parameter is introduced to classify the main instability types. Means for wake vortex alleviation are described aimed at influencing the wake vortex turbulence field or triggering and amplifying the inherent instabilities. The methods discussed include passive means such as the effects of spoilers, differential flap setting and four-vortex systems and active means using oscillating flaps or auxiliary devices.

Breitsamter, C.

2011-02-01

97

Anisotropic Stark Effect and Electric-Field Noise Suppression for Phosphorus Donor Qubits in Silicon  

E-print Network

We report the use of novel, capacitively terminated coplanar waveguide (CPW) resonators to measure the quadratic Stark shift of phosphorus donor qubits in Si. We confirm that valley repopulation leads to an anisotropic spin-orbit Stark shift depending on electric and magnetic field orientations relative to the Si crystal. By measuring the linear Stark effect, we estimate the effective electric field due to strain in our samples. We show that in the presence of this strain, electric-field sources of decoherence can be non-negligible. Using our measured values for the Stark shift, we predict magnetic fields for which the spin-orbit Stark effect cancels the hyperfine Stark effect, suppressing decoherence from electric-field noise. We discuss the limitations of these noise-suppression points due to random distributions of strain and propose a method for overcoming them.

A. J. Sigillito; A. M. Tyryshkin; S. A. Lyon

2014-09-11

98

Commercial aircraft wake vortices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the problem of wake vortices shed by commercial aircraft. It presents a consolidated European view on the current status of knowledge of the nature and characteristics of aircraft wakes and of technical and operational procedures of minimizing and predicting the vortex strength and avoiding wake encounters. Methodological aspects of data evaluation and interpretation, like the description of

Thomas Gerza; Frank Holz

99

Wake-induced unsteady flows: Their impact on rotor performance and wake rectification  

SciTech Connect

The impact of wake-induced unsteady flows on blade row performance and the wake rectification process is examined by means of numerical simulation. The passage of a stator wake through a downstream rotor is first simulated using a three-dimensional unsteady viscous flow code. The results from this simulation are used to define two steady-state inlet conditions for a three-dimensional viscous flow simulation of a rotor operating in isolation. The results obtained from these numerical simulations are then compared to those obtained form the unsteady simulation both to quantify the impact of the wake-induced unsteady flow field on rotor performance and to identify the flow processes which impact wake rectification. Finally, the results from this comparison study are related to an existing model, which attempts to account for the impact of wake-induced unsteady flows on the performance of multistage turbomachinery.

Adamczyk, J.J. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Brook Park, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center; Celestina, M.L. [Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH (United States). Dept. of Aeromechanics; Chen, J.P. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States). NSF Engineering Research Center

1996-01-01

100

SURFACE FILMS TO SUPPRESS FIELD EMISSION IN HIGH-POWER MICROWAVE COMPONENTS  

SciTech Connect

Results are reported on attempts to reduce the RF breakdown probability on copper accelerator structures by applying thin surface films that could suppress field emission of electrons. Techniques for application and testing of copper samples with films of metals with work functions higher than copper are described, principally for application of platinum films, since platinum has the second highest work function of any metal. Techniques for application of insulating films are also described, since these can suppress field emission and damage on account of dielectric shielding of fields at the copper surface, and on account of the greater hardness of insulating films, as compared with copper. In particular, application of zirconium oxide films on high-field portions of a 11.424 GHz SLAC cavity structure for breakdown tests are described.

Hirshfield, Jay l

2014-02-07

101

Dynamics and control of hydrofoil wakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of rotor-stator interaction has been an issue in the turbomachinery field for more than forty years. Manipulation of the stator wakes is one method to minimize the problem. In order to explore this concept, a comprehensive experimental program was carried out in a water tunnel utilizing a series of NACA 0015 hydrofoils. Baseline wake data were collected with a hydraulically smooth foil and compared with various foil modifications including foils covered with riblet tape aligned both span wise and parallel to the main flow, and a foil modified with 3 mm high and 10 mm total length vortex generators (VG), spaced 10 mm apart span wise, that were positioned close to the trailing edge of the foil. Not only was the effect of the modifications on wake spreading investigated but also the effect on wake dynamics such as vortex shedding was studied. PIV has been used for mapping the near wake region extending roughly 1 chord-length (1c) downstream the trailing edge over a range of angle of attack. The results show, as expected, that wake dynamics and wake characteristics such as maximum deficit and width, scale with average drag. It was demonstrated that the use of vortex generators would improve both the dynamics and spreading characteristics of the wake.

Arndt, Roger; Kjeldsen, Morten; Wosnik, Martin

2006-11-01

102

Suppression of cooling by strong magnetic fields in white dwarf stars.  

PubMed

Isolated cool white dwarf stars more often have strong magnetic fields than young, hotter white dwarfs, which has been a puzzle because magnetic fields are expected to decay with time but a cool surface suggests that the star is old. In addition, some white dwarfs with strong fields vary in brightness as they rotate, which has been variously attributed to surface brightness inhomogeneities similar to sunspots, chemical inhomogeneities and other magneto-optical effects. Here we describe optical observations of the brightness and magnetic field of the cool white dwarf WD 1953-011 taken over about eight years, and the results of an analysis of its surface temperature and magnetic field distribution. We find that the magnetic field suppresses atmospheric convection, leading to dark spots in the most magnetized areas. We also find that strong fields are sufficient to suppress convection over the entire surface in cool magnetic white dwarfs, which inhibits their cooling evolution relative to weakly magnetic and non-magnetic white dwarfs, making them appear younger than they truly are. This explains the long-standing mystery of why magnetic fields are more common amongst cool white dwarfs, and implies that the currently accepted ages of strongly magnetic white dwarfs are systematically too young. PMID:25327247

Valyavin, G; Shulyak, D; Wade, G A; Antonyuk, K; Zharikov, S V; Galazutdinov, G A; Plachinda, S; Bagnulo, S; Machado, L Fox; Alvarez, M; Clark, D M; Lopez, J M; Hiriart, D; Han, Inwoo; Jeon, Young-Beom; Zurita, C; Mujica, R; Burlakova, T; Szeifert, T; Burenkov, A

2014-11-01

103

Commercial aircraft wake vortices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the problem of wake vortices shed by commercial aircraft. It presents a consolidated European view on the current status of knowledge of the nature and characteristics of aircraft wakes and of technical and operational procedures of minimizing and predicting the vortex strength and avoiding wake encounters. Methodological aspects of data evaluation and interpretation, like the description of wake ages, the characterization of wake vortices, and the proper evaluation of wake data from measurement and simulation, are addressed in the first part. In the second part an inventory of our knowledge is given on vortex characterization and control, prediction and monitoring of vortex decay, vortex detection and warning, vortex encounter models, and wake-vortex safety assessment. Each section is concluded by a list of questions and required actions which may help to guide further research activities. The primary objective of the joint international efforts in wake-vortex research is to avoid potentially hazardous wake encounters for aircraft. Shortened aircraft separations under appropriate meteorological conditions, whilst keeping or even increasing the safety level, is the ultimate goal. Reduced time delays on the tactical side and increased airport capacities on the strategic side will be the benefits of these ambitious ventures for the air transportation industry and services.

Gerz, Thomas; Holzäpfel, Frank; Darracq, Denis

2002-04-01

104

Unsteady wake structures in transverse jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unsteady vortex structures in the wake of a transverse jet were studied using a new laser scanning apparatus to obtain three-dimensional images of fluorescent dyes in a water channel flow. By scanning the laser at high repetition rates and by using a high-speed video camera to record the images, the three-dimensional, time-evolving concentration field in the wake can be obtained and later reconstructed. Using this system, the separation and roll-up of the flat plate boundary layer and the subsequent convection of that vorticity away from the wall can be visualized. The relationship between the separation and roll-up on the other side of the wake can also be studied. On the basis of the reconstructed concentration fields, an attempt is made to describe the mechanisms of wake vortex formation and explain the results of some previous authors.

Kelso, R. M.; Delo, C.; Smits, A. J.

1993-11-01

105

Wavelength-dependent ionization suppression of diatomic molecules in intense circularly polarized laser fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform an experimental study on comparison between the ionization of homonuclear diatomic molecules (O2 and N2) and their companion atoms (Xe and Ar) radiated by circularly polarized intense laser fields. We find that the ionization of O2 shows suppression with respect to its companion atom Xe, which exhibits a clear wavelength and intensity dependence similar to that in linearly polarized laser field, while the ionization of N2 behaves like its companion atom Ar. With the help of S -matrix theoretical analysis, our observations can be attributed to both the molecular orbital and the two-center interference effect in molecular ionization process.

Kang, HuiPeng; Lin, ZhiYang; Xu, SongPo; Wang, ChuanLiang; Quan, Wei; Lai, XuanYang; Liu, XiaoJun; Jia, XinYan; Hao, XiaoLei; Chen, Jing; Chu, Wei; Yao, JinPing; Zeng, Bin; Cheng, Ya; Xu, ZhiZhan

2014-12-01

106

Near-Field Analysis of Bright and Dark Modes on Plasmonic Metasurfaces Showing Extraordinary Suppressed Transmission  

E-print Network

Plasmonic metasurfaces are investigated that consist of a sub wavelength line pattern in an ultrathin (~ 10 nm) silver film, designed for extraordinarily suppressed transmission (EOST) in the visible spectral range. Measurements with a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) demonstrate that far field irradiation creates resonant excitations of antenna like (bright) modes that are localized on the metal ridges. In contrast, bound (dark) surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) launched from an NSOM tip propagate well across the metasurface, preferentially perpendicular to the grating lines.

Dobmann, Sabine; Ploss, Daniel; Peschel, Ulf

2014-01-01

107

Active control of a cylinder wake flow by using a streamwise oscillating foil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, numerical experiments are carried out to control the vortex shedding of a circular cylinder by utilizing an oscillating foil. The thin foil of elliptic shape undergoes prescribed harmonic oscillations in the streamwise direction in the near wake region. This simplified model is intended to study how wake dynamics are modified via localized wake disturbance, and then to stabilize the global wake instability. The results show that, at proper gap spacing, the oscillating foil can completely suppress the wake unsteadiness and recover the recirculating bubble type flow. The global instability suppression is then established on the imposition of local symmetry into the reversed flow behind the cylinder. It is revealed that the dynamic interaction between the main shears layer and oscillatory boundary layers is responsible for the wake stabilization mechanism. In addition, the kinematic/dynamic parameters related to foil motions and flow properties are widely discussed to reveal their effects on the performance of wake stabilization and drag reduction.

Bao, Y.; Tao, J.

2013-05-01

108

Cosmic string wakes  

SciTech Connect

Accretion of matter onto wakes left behind by horizon-sized pieces of cosmic string is investigated, and the effects of wakes on the large-scale structure of the universe are determined. Accretion of cold matter onto wakes, the effects of a long string on fluids with finite velocity dispersion or sound speeds, the interactions between loops and wakes, and the conditions for wakes to survive disruption by loops are discussed. It is concluded that the most important wakes are those which were formed at the time of equal matter and radiation density. This leads to sheetlike overdense regions of galaxies with a mean separation in agreement with the scale of the bubbles of de Lapparent, Geller, and Huchra (1986). However, for the value of G(mu) favored from galaxy formation considerations in a universe with cold dark matter, a wake accretes matter from a distance of only about 1.5 Mpc, which is much less than the distance between the wakes. 39 references.

Stebbins, A.; Veeraraghavan, S.; Silk, J.; Brandenberger, R.; Turok, N.

1987-11-01

109

Cosmic string wakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accretion of matter onto wakes left behind by horizon-sized pieces of cosmic string is investigated, and the effects of wakes on the large-scale structure of the universe are determined. Accretion of cold matter onto wakes, the effects of a long string on fluids with finite velocity dispersion or sound speeds, the interactions between loops and wakes, and the conditions for wakes to survive disruption by loops are discussed. It is concluded that the most important wakes are those which were formed at the time of equal matter and radiation density. This leads to sheetlike overdense regions of galaxies with a mean separation in agreement with the scale of the bubbles of de Lapparent, Geller, and Huchra (1986). However, for the value of G(mu) favored from galaxy formation considerations in a universe with cold dark matter, a wake accretes matter from a distance of only about 1.5 Mpc, which is much less than the distance between the wakes.

Stebbins, Albert; Veeraraghavan, Shoba; Silk, Joseph; Brandenberger, Robert; Turok, Neil

1987-01-01

110

Wake Studies of Ornithopters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details experiments using a mechanical ornithopter flying in a low speed wind tunnel. Experiments were conducted for a Strouhal number of 0.3 and Reynolds number of 2300, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and flow visualization was used to develop quantitative and qualitative information about the nature of the wake. The data shows that the wake is made of a

Alfredo Juarez; Jacob Harlow; James Allen; Paulo Ferreira de Sousa

2006-01-01

111

Trailing edge wake flow characteristics of upper surface blown configurations. [noise generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mean and fluctuating flow characteristics in the wake of upper surface blown flap configurations are presented. Relative importance of the longitudinal and the transverse components of the wake flow turbulence for noise generation are evaluated using correlation between the near-field noise and the wake turbulence. Effects of the jet velocity, the initial turbulence in the jet, and the flap deflection angle on noise and wake flow characteristics are studied. The far-field noise data is compared with the existing empirical prediction method. The measured wake flow properties are compared with an analytical model used in the existing USB wake flow noise theory. The detailed wake flow profiles, wake flow turbulence space-time correlations, wake flow turbulence cross-power spectra, and near-field noise third octave band spectra are presented in the appendices.

Reddy, N. N.

1978-01-01

112

Synergistic Effects of Turbine Wakes and Atmospheric Stability on Power Production at an Onshore Wind Farm  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the complex interactions between atmospheric stability and turbine-induced wakes on downwind turbine wind speed and power production at a West Coast North American multi-MW wind farm. Wakes are generated when the upwind flow field is distorted by the mechanical movement of the wind turbine blades. This has two consequences for downwind turbines: (1) the downwind turbine encounters wind flows with reduced velocity and (2) the downwind turbine encounters increased turbulence across multiple length scales via mechanical turbulence production by the upwind turbine. This increase in turbulence on top of ambient levels may increase aerodynamic fatigue loads on the blades and reduce the lifetime of turbine component parts. Furthermore, ambient atmospheric conditions, including atmospheric stability, i.e., thermal stratification in the lower boundary layer, play an important role in wake dissipation. Higher levels of ambient turbulence (i.e., a convective or unstable boundary layer) lead to higher turbulent mixing in the wake and a faster recovery in the velocity flow field downwind of a turbine. Lower levels of ambient turbulence, as in a stable boundary layer, will lead to more persistent wakes. The wake of a wind turbine can be divided into two regions: the near wake and far wake, as illustrated in Figure 1. The near wake is formed when the turbine structure alters the shape of the flow field and usually persists one rotor diameter (D) downstream. The difference between the air inside and outside of the near wake results in a shear layer. This shear layer thickens as it moves downstream and forms turbulent eddies of multiple length scales. As the wake travels downstream, it expands depending on the level of ambient turbulence and meanders (i.e., travels in non-uniform path). Schepers estimates that the wake is fully expanded at a distance of 2.25 D and the far wake region begins at 2-5 D downstream. The actual distance traveled before the wake recovers to its inflow velocity is dependent on the amount ambient turbulence, the amount of wind shear, and topographical and structural effects. The maximum velocity deficit is estimated to occur at 1-2 D but can be longer under low levels of ambient turbulence. Our understanding of turbine wakes comes from wind tunnel experiments, field experiments, numerical simulations, and from studies utilizing both experimental and modeling methods. It is well documented that downwind turbines in multi-Megawatt wind farms often produce less power than upwind turbine rows. These wake-induced power losses have been estimated from 5% to up to 40% depending on the turbine operating settings (e.g., thrust coefficient), number of turbine rows, turbine size (e.g., rotor diameter and hub-height), wind farm terrain, and atmospheric flow conditions (e.g., ambient wind speed, turbulence, and atmospheric stability). Early work by Elliott and Cadogan suggested that power data for different turbulent conditions be segregated to distinguish the effects of turbulence on wind farm power production. This may be especially important for downwind turbines within wind farms, as chaotic and turbulent wake flows increase stress on downstream turbines. Impacts of stability on turbine wakes and power production have been examined for a flat terrain, moderate size (43 turbines) wind farm in Minnesota and for an offshore, 80 turbine wind farm off the coast of Denmark. Conzemius found it difficult to distinguish wakes (i.e., downwind velocity deficits) when the atmosphere was convective as large amounts of scatter were present in the turbine nacelle wind speed data. This suggested that high levels of turbulence broke-up the wake via large buoyancy effects, which are generally on the order of 1 km in size. On the other hand, they found pronounced wake effects when the atmosphere was very stable and turbulence was either suppressed or the length scale was reduced as turbulence in this case was mechanically produced (i.e., friction forces). This led to larger reductions at downwind turbines and maximum ve

Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K; Marjanovic, N

2012-01-25

113

Dissipation of Turbulence in the Wake of a Wind Turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wake of a wind turbine is characterized by increased turbulence and decreased wind speed. Turbines are generally deployed in large groups in wind farms, and so the behaviour of an individual wake as it merges with other wakes and propagates downwind is critical in assessing wind-farm power production. This evolution depends on the rate of turbulence dissipation in the wind-turbine wake, which has not been previously quantified in field-scale measurements. In situ measurements of winds and turbulence dissipation from the wake region of a multi-MW turbine were collected using a tethered lifting system (TLS) carrying a payload of high-rate turbulence probes. Ambient flow measurements were provided from sonic anemometers on a meteorological tower located near the turbine. Good agreement between the tower measurements and the TLS measurements was established for a case without a wind-turbine wake. When an operating wind turbine is located between the tower and the TLS so that the wake propagates to the TLS, the TLS measures dissipation rates one to two orders of magnitude higher in the wake than outside of the wake. These data, collected between two and three rotor diameters downwind of the turbine, document the significant enhancement of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate within the wind-turbine wake. These wake measurements suggest that it may be useful to pursue modelling approaches that account for enhanced dissipation. Comparisons of wake and non-wake dissipation rates to mean wind speed, wind-speed variance, and turbulence intensity are presented to facilitate the inclusion of these measurements in wake modelling schemes.

Lundquist, J. K.; Bariteau, L.

2015-02-01

114

Wind and Wake Sensing with UAV Formation Flight: System Development and Flight Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind turbulence including atmospheric turbulence and wake turbulence have been widely investigated; however, only recently it become possible to use Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as a validation tool for research in this area. Wind can be a major contributing factor of adverse weather for aircraft. More importantly, it is an even greater risk towards UAVs because of their small size and weight. Being able to estimate wind fields and gusts can potentially provide substantial benefits for both unmanned and manned aviation. Possible applications include gust suppression for improving handling qualities, a better warning system for high wind encounters, and enhanced control for small UAVs during flight. On the other hand, the existence of wind can be advantageous since it can lead to fuel savings and longer duration flights through dynamic soaring or thermal soaring. Wakes are an effect of the lift distribution across an aircraft's wing or tail. Wakes can cause substantial disturbances when multiple aircraft are moving through the same airspace. In fact, the perils from an aircraft flying through the wake of another aircraft is a leading cause of the delay between takeoff times at airports. Similar to wind, though, wakes can be useful for energy harvesting and increasing an aircraft's endurance when flying in formation which can be a great advantage to UAVs because they are often limited in flight time due to small payload capacity. Formation flight can most often be seen in manned aircraft but can be adopted for use with unmanned systems. Autonomous flight is needed for flying in the "sweet spot" of the generated wakes for energy harvesting as well as for thermal soaring during long duration flights. For the research presented here formation flight was implemented for the study of wake sensing and gust alleviation. The major contributions of this research are in the areas of a novel technique to estimate wind using an Unscented Kalman filter and experimental wake sensing data using UAVs in formation flight. This has been achieved and well documented before in manned aircraft but very little work has been done on UAV wake sensing especially during flight testing. This document describes the development and flight testing of small unmanned aerial system (UAS) for wind and wake sensing purpose including a Ground Control Station (GCS) and UAVs. This research can be stated in four major components. Firstly, formation flight was obtained by integrating a formation flight controller on the WVU Phastball Research UAV aircraft platform from the Flight Control Systems Laboratory (FCSL) at West Virginia University (WVU). Second, a new approach to wind estimation using an Unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is discussed along with results from flight data. Third, wake modeling within a simulator and wake sensing during formation flight is shown. Finally, experimental results are used to discuss the "sweet spot" for energy harvesting in formation flight, a novel approach to cooperative wind estimation, and gust suppression control for a follower aircraft in formation flight.

Larrabee, Trenton Jameson

115

Outward expansion of the lunar wake: ARTEMIS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) predicts that lunar wake expands outward at magnetosonic velocities in all directions perpendicular to background solar wind; however, fluid theories emphasize that lunar wake expands outward at sound speeds mainly along the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Early observations supported the MHD predictions in the near-moon region despite lack of solar wind and IMF observations. Thanks to the special orbit design of the ARTEMIS mission, the solar wind conditions are well determined at the time of concurrent observations in the lunar wake. 164 wake crossings made by ARTEMIS are statistically studied in this paper. Observations indicated that, in either distant or near-Moon regions, the lunar wake expands outward at the fast MHD wave velocities. This simple model provides a powerful way to determine wake boundaries, particularly at large distances where the boundary signatures are indistinct, thus allowing further studies on the Moon-solar wind/crustal field-solar wind interactions.

Zhang, H.; Khurana, K. K.; Zong, Q.-G.; Kivelson, M. G.; Hsu, T.-S.; Wan, W. X.; Pu, Z. Y.; Angelopoulos, V.; Cao, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Shi, Q. Q.; Liu, W. L.; Tian, A. M.; Tang, C. L.

2012-09-01

116

Preliminary comparison of model and prototype wakes. [building wake effects on atmospheric boundary layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Velocity and turbulence profiles previously measured in the wake of a long building 3.2 m high, located in the field, transverse to the wind and in an atmospheric boundary layer several hundred meters thick are compared with wake profiles at corresponding longitudinal stations for a scale model of the building located in a large meteorological wind tunnel having a boundary layer thickness of 0.61 m to assess the accuracy of full scale wake profile predictions based on model tests. Results are presented which show that disparities in nondimensional profiles result from differences in relative depth of logarithmic layers and in surface conditions.

Logan, E., Jr.; Camp, D. W.

1978-01-01

117

Crosswind Shear Gradient Affect on Wake Vortices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric simulations with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model are used to explore the influence of crosswind shear on aircraft wake vortices. Previous studies based on field measurements, laboratory experiments, as well as LES, have shown that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, i.e. the second vertical derivative of the environmental crosswind, can influence wake vortex transport. The presence of nonlinear vertical shear of the crosswind velocity can reduce the descent rate, causing a wake vortex pair to tilt and change in its lateral separation. The LES parametric studies confirm that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear does influence vortex trajectories. The parametric results also show that vortex decay from the effects of shear are complex since the crosswind shear, along with the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, can affect whether the lateral separation between wake vortices is increased or decreased. If the separation is decreased, the vortex linking time is decreased, and a more rapid decay of wake vortex circulation occurs. If the separation is increased, the time to link is increased, and at least one of the vortices of the vortex pair may have a longer life time than in the case without shear. In some cases, the wake vortices may never link.

Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

2011-01-01

118

NASA wake vortex research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is conducting research that will enable safe improvements in the capacity of the nation's air transportation system. The wake-vortex hazard is a factor in establishing the minimum safe spacing between aircraft during landing and takeoff operations and, thus, impacts airport capacity. The ability to accurately model the wake hazard and determine safe separation distances for a wide range of aircraft and operational scenarios may provide the basis for significant increases in airport capacity. Current and planned NASA research is described which is focused on increasing airport capacity by safely reducing wake-hazard-imposed aircraft separations through advances in a number of technologies including vortex motion and decay prediction, vortex encounter modeling, wake-vortex hazard characterization, and in situ flow sensing.

Stough, H. P., III; Greene, George C.; Stewart, Eric C.; Stuever, Robert A.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.; Rivers, Robert A.; Vicroy, Dan D.

1993-01-01

119

Turbulent Plane Wakes Subjected to Successive Strains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six direct numerical simulations of turbulent time-evolving strained plane wakes have been examined to investigate the response of a wake to successive irrotational plane strains of opposite sign. The orientation of the applied strain field has been selected so that the flow is the time-developing analogue of a spatially developing wake evolving in the presence of either a favourable or an adverse streamwise pressure gradient. The magnitude of the applied strain rate a is constant in time t until the total strain e(sup at) reaches about four. At this point, a new simulation is begun with the sign of the applied strain being reversed (the original simulation is continued as well). When the total strain is reduced back to its original value of one, yet another simulation is begun with the sign of the strain being reversed again back to its original sign. This process is done for both initially "favourable" and initially "adverse" strains, providing simulations for each of these strain types from three different initial conditions. The evolution of the wake mean velocity deficit and width is found to be very similar for all the adversely strained cases, with both measures rapidly achieving exponential growth at the rate associated with the cross-stream expansive strain e(sup at). In the "favourably" strained cases, the wake widths approach a constant and the velocity deficits ultimately decay rapidly as e(sup -2at). Although all three of these cases do exhibit the same asymptotic exponential behaviour, the time required to achieve this is longer for the cases that have been previously adversely strained (by at approx. equals 1). These simulations confirm the generality of the conclusions drawn in Rogers (2002) regarding the response of plane wakes to strain. The evolution of strained wakes is not consistent with the predictions of classical self-similar analysis; a more general equilibrium similarity solution is required to describe the results. At least for the cases considered here, the wake Reynolds number and the ratio of the turbulent kinetic energy to the square of the wake mean velocity deficit are determined nearly entirely by the total strain. For these measures the order in which the strains are applied does not matter and the changes brought about by the strain are nearly reversible. The wake mean velocity deficit and width, on the other hand, differ by about a factor of three when the total strain returns to one, depending on whether the wake was first "favourably" or "adversely" strained. The strain history is important for predicting the evolution of these quantities.

Rogers, Michael M.

2003-01-01

120

Waking with the hypothalamus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An essential component of the whole-body homoeostasis provided by the hypothalamus is the management of available energy.\\u000a This includes the regulation of sleeping and waking, feeding and drinking, body temperature and activity, as well as the endocrinium.\\u000a The waking brain, in particular the cerebral cortex, needs to be activated through neuronal pathways ascending from the brainstem\\u000a reticular formation (ascending reticular

Helmut L. Haas; Jian-Sheng Lin

121

Wake vortex technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief overview of the highlights of NASA's wake vortex minimization program is presented. The significant results of this program are summarized as follows: (1) it is technically feasible to reduce significantly the rolling upset created on a trailing aircraft; (2) the basic principles or methods by which reduction in the vortex strength can be achieved have been identified; and (3) an analytical capability for investigating aircraft vortex wakes has been developed.

Dunham, R. E., Jr.; Barber, M. R.; Croom, D. R.

1978-01-01

122

Aircraft Wake RCS Measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of multi-frequency radar measurements of aircraft wakes at altitudes of 5,000 to 25,00 ft. were performed at Kwajalein, R.M.I., in May and June of 1990. Two aircraft were tested, a Learjet 35 and a Lockheed C-5A. The cross-section of the wake of the Learjet was too small for detection at Kwajalein. The wake of the C-5A, although also very small, was detected and measured at VHF, UHF, L-, S-, and C-bands, at distances behind the aircraft ranging from about one hundred meters to tens of kilometers. The data suggest that the mechanism by which aircraft wakes have detectable radar signatures is, contrary to previous expectations, unrelated to engine exhaust but instead due to turbulent mixing by the wake vortices of pre-existing index of refraction gradients in the ambient atmosphere. These measurements were of necessity performed with extremely powerful and sensitive instrumentation radars, and the wake cross-section is too small for most practical applications.

Gilson, William H.

1994-01-01

123

A Spontaneous Generation of the Magnetic Field and Suppression of the Heat Conduction in Cold Fronts  

E-print Network

We have determined the physical mechanism responsible for the plasma instabilities, which was first found by Ramani and Laval (1978), associated with anisotropic velocity distributions induced by the temperature gradient in which there are growing low frequency transverse magnetic waves, even in the absence of background magnetic fields. We have shown that the physical mechanism responsible for the growth of one of the modes is identical to the Weibel instability. The nonlinear saturation level of the instability is also provided by considering the wave-particle interactions. The non-linear evolutions of the magnetic fields after the saturation are speculated. The results are applied to the cold fronts which is one of the newly discovered structures in clusters of galaxies by the Chandra X-ray observatory. We predict the existence of the magnetic field of $\\sim 10\\mu$G tangential to the surface over the entire region of the cold front surface and that the heat conduction is significantly suppressed by the trapping of the electrons by the generated magnetic fields. The instability may provide a new possibility on the origin of cosmic magnetic field.

Nobuhiro Okabe; Makoto Hattori

2003-09-19

124

LOW-MASS PLANETS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS WITH NET VERTICAL MAGNETIC FIELDS: THE PLANETARY WAKE AND GAP OPENING  

SciTech Connect

Some regions in protoplanetary disks are turbulent, while some regions are quiescent (e.g. the dead zone). In order to study how planets open gaps in both inviscid hydrodynamic disk (e.g. the dead zone) and the disk subject to magnetorotational instability (MRI), we carried out both shearing box two-dimensional inviscid hydrodynamical simulations and three-dimensional unstratified magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations (having net vertical magnetic fields) with a planet at the box center. We found that, due to the nonlinear wave steepening, even a low mass planet can open gaps in both cases, in contradiction to the ''thermal criterion'' for gap opening. In order to understand if we can represent the MRI turbulent stress with the viscous {alpha} prescription for studying gap opening, we compare gap properties in MRI-turbulent disks to those in viscous HD disks having the same stress, and found that the same mass planet opens a significantly deeper and wider gap in net vertical flux MHD disks than in viscous HD disks. This difference arises due to the efficient magnetic field transport into the gap region in MRI disks, leading to a larger effective {alpha} within the gap. Thus, across the gap, the Maxwell stress profile is smoother than the gap density profile, and a deeper gap is needed for the Maxwell stress gradient to balance the planetary torque density. Comparison with previous results from net toroidal flux/zero flux MHD simulations indicates that the magnetic field geometry plays an important role in the gap opening process. We also found that long-lived density features (termed zonal flows) produced by the MRI can affect planet migration. Overall, our results suggest that gaps can be commonly produced by low mass planets in realistic protoplanetary disks, and caution the use of a constant {alpha}-viscosity to model gaps in protoplanetary disks.

Zhu Zhaohuan; Stone, James M.; Rafikov, Roman R., E-mail: zhzhu@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: jstone@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: rrr@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08544 (United States)

2013-05-10

125

Study on the effects of ion motion on laser-induced plasma wakes  

SciTech Connect

A 2D analytical model is presented for the generation of plasma wakes (or bubbles) with an ultra-intense laser pulse by taking into account the response of plasma ions. It is shown that the effect of ion motion becomes significant at the laser intensity exceeding 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2} and plasma background density below 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. In this regime, ion motion tends to suppress the electrostatic field induced by charge separation and makes the electron acceleration less effective. As a result, the assumption of immobile ions overestimates the efficiency of laser wake-field acceleration of electrons. Based on the analytical model, the dynamics of plasma ions in laser-induced wake field is investigated. It is found that only one bubble appears as the plasmas background density exceeds the resonant density and the deposited laser energy is concentrated into the bubble, resulting in the generation of an ion bunch with extremely high energy density.

Zhou Suyun [Institute of Modern Optical Technologies, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); School of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Yu Wei [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yuan Xiao [Institute of Modern Optical Technologies, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Xu Han [National Laboratory for Parallel and Distributed Processing, School of Computer Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Cao, L. H.; Cai, H. B.; Zhou, C. T. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

2012-09-15

126

Assimilation Experiment of Lidar Measurements for Wake Turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulation of wake turbulence was performed by integrating the lidar measurements using four-dimensional variational method. A bogus vortex technique was adopted to ensure the existence of wake vortices in the flow field. The validation of the method was performed by an idealized test case using virtual lidar measurement which was produced by the reference simulation of a vortex pair.

Takashi Misaka; Takeshi Ogasawara; Shigeru Obayashi; Izumi Yamada; Yoshinori Okuno

2008-01-01

127

Modeling Flow Suppression of Error-field-induced Magnetic Islands in Tokamaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small deviations from axisymmetry in applied tokamak magnetic fields can induce island formation at magnetic surfaces whose rotational transform resonates with the perturbation. These islands have a braking effect on plasma rotation that can destabilize resistive wall modes. The IPEC codefootnotetextJ.K. Park, et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 052110 (2007). is useful for computing plasma response to harmonic perturbations in the infinite-conducting limit, assuming perfect shielding at the resonant surface, but cannot predict the nonlinear effects of finite-sized islands. Using the nonlinear extended MHD code M3D,footnotetextW. Park, et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 1796 (1999). we explore the effects of a 2,1 perturbation on the nonlinear evolution of a family of equilibria with finite resistivity. Particular attention is paid to the effects of toroidal flow on suppressing island formation, making contact with the analytic theory of Fitzpatrick.footnotetextR. Fitzpatrick, Phys. Plasmas 5, 3325 (1998). Island suppression is shown to depend strongly on the tearing mode stability properties of the equilibrium.

Breslau, J. A.; Park, W.

2009-11-01

128

Local and Far-Field Effects of Commuter Ferry Wake in New York Harbor: Implications for Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic sources of waves in New York Harbor have grown in recent years to the point that they are presently the dominant source of wave energy. Small fast commuter ferries account for the bulk of this growth. Between 1996 and present, fast-ferry traffic across the Hudson has seen an order of magnitude increase in both ferry crossings and ferry routes. Pressure time series recorders were co-located with profiling acoustic Doppler current, turbidity, and conductivity meters, deployed synoptically in strategic harbor locales for seven-day periods in summer and fall of 2002. Analysis of the sea-surface elevation time series revealed a semi-diurnal increase in wave energy coinciding with peak ferry use during morning and evening rush-hours. The measured wave energy levels during rush-hours was well above the wave energy levels measured overnight, when ferries were no longer in use. During rush-hours, the time-series of sea surface elevation appeared as a persistent background of waves with periods between 1.5 and 4.5 seconds containing intermittent, well-defined packets of high amplitude waves which appeared to be coincident with local ferry passage. The temporal pattern of sea-surface elevation throughout the weekday was repeated throughout the workweek. However, during weekends, the magnitude of the background wave energy level was approximately one half the magnitude of the energy level measured during any given workweek day. The amplitude of waves within the intermittent packets remained nearly constant for the entire week. The local, near-field effect of ferry traffic is visible in the sea surface elevation time series as intermittent packets, whereas the far-field effects, integrated harbor-wide, is seen as the background sea-state. The dual nature of the wave energy creates an implication for efforts attempting to mitigate the wave conditions. For conditions when the background sea-state is acceptable, small adjustments to individual ferry tracks and speeds relative to a specific site within the Harbor can be an effective method for reducing the local wave energy at the site. If conditions persist where even the background sea-state is unacceptable, a more global approach (adjustments to the entire ferry system) would need to be implemented to reduce the background sea-state to acceptable levels. Alternatively, the wave energy tolerance for the specific sites would need to be increased.

Fullerton, B.

2002-12-01

129

Wake properties of a stripline beam kicker  

SciTech Connect

The transport of a high current relativistic electron beam in a stripline beam kicker is strongly dependent on the wake properties of the structure. The effect of the beam-induced fields on the steering of the beam must be determined for a prescribed trajectory within the structure. A 3-D time domain electromagnetic code is used to determine the wake fields and the resultant Lorentz force on the beam both for an ultra-relativistic electron beam moving parallel to the beamline axis as well as a beam that follows a curved trajectory through the structure. Usually in determining the wake properties of the structure, a wake impedance is found for a beam that is moving parallel to the beamline axis. However, we extend this concept to curved trajectories by calculating beam induced forces along the curved trajectory. Comparisons are made with simple transmission line models of the structure. The wake properties are used in models to transport the beam self-consistently through the structure.

Poole, B. R., LLNL

1997-05-08

130

Wake properties of a stripline beam kicker  

SciTech Connect

The transport of a high current relativistic electron beam in a stripline beam kicker is strongly dependent on the wake properties of the structure. The effect of the beam-induced fields on the steering of the beam must be determined for a prescribed trajectory within the structure. A 3-D time domain electromagnetic code is used to determine the wake fields and the resultant Lorentz force on the beam both for an ultra-relativistic electron beam moving parallel to the beamline axis as well as a beam that follows a curved trajectory through the structure. Usually in determining the wake properties of the structure, a wake impedance is found for a beam that is moving parallel to the beamline axis. However, we extend this concept to curved trajectories by calculating beam induced forces along the curved trajectory. Comparisons are made with simple transmission line models of the structure. The wake properties are used in models to transport the beam self-consistently through the structure.

Poole, B. R., LLNL

1997-05-27

131

The Human Aerodynamic Wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wake that trails behind a walking person in still air is, in effect, that of an irregular 3-D cylinder. At a brisk walking speed of 1.3 m/s (3 mph), the human wake is characterized by a Reynolds number of about 50,000. It is thus turbulent with underlying large-scale vortex motion. We show that buoyancy plays no role at this Reynolds number, even though it is dominant in the plume of a standing person. Computational Navier-Stokes solutions and laser-light-sheet experiments with a human subject reveal a large recirculation zone behind the torso and flow between the legs. The decay of a passive scalar introduced on the human body is found to be exponential with downstream distance. The volume flux in the human wake is roughly constant with downstream distance until the recirculation closes, whence it grows due to turbulent entrainment. Further experiments reveal the development of the wake from the human thermal plume as the Reynolds number (proportional to walking speed) is increased from zero to 50,000. These results pertain to the sensing of chemical traces in the wakes of walking persons for aviation security. Supported by FAA Grant 99-G-040.

Settles, Gary; Moyer, Zachary; Paterson, Eric; Edge, Brian

2003-11-01

132

Three Dimensional Lunar Wake Reconstructed by the ARTEMIS Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thanks to large data coverage of the ARTEMIS mission within the lunar wake, we reconstructed the lunar wake in a three dimensional manner by presenting distributions of key plasma and field parameters: the ion density, parallel and perpendicular temperatures, ion thermal pressure, magnetic pressure (field magnitude), total pressure, and field and flow perturbations. Our observations suggest that the wake is confined within a rarefaction front, which propagates at fast mode velocities in the rest frame of solar wind. When solar wind plasma is absorbed by the dayside lunar surface, a diamagnetic current system with thickness of ~2 ri forms on the surface of the Moon and initiates field disturbances there (bend and compression). These disturbances are controlled by the solar wind ion beta. In the wake behind the Moon, due to force unbalance, plasma reenters into the wake through perpendicular and parallel ways. In the perpendicular way, the inward flowing plasma continues to squeeze flux tubes in the wake, and thus enhances field magnitude there. In the parallel way, the refilling process presents more kinetic features, and leads to higher perpendicular temperature inside the wake. The refilling plasma from opposite sides of the wake may mix with each other significantly at ~6 RM downstream from the Moon, and the lunar wake is found to have fine structure within that distance. In addition, our data also shows that plasma may be decelerated by a total pressure gradient force in the direction against the background solar wind. Our observations thus establish a global lunar wake picture to be tested by theories or simulations.

Zhang, H.; Khurana, K. K.; Kivelson, M. G.; Angelopoulos, V.; Zong, Q.; Pu, Z.; Hsu, T.; Wan, W.; Shi, Q.; Liu, W.

2012-12-01

133

Wake survey techniques for objects with highly turbulent wakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study is to develop practical and accurate wake survey techniques for determining the drag of bluff bodies that have highly turbulent wakes. The commonly used wake survey method, the simplified Jones' equation with pneumatic probe measurements, was found to be inadequate in such cases. This study consisted of an experimental investigation of several wind-tunnel models,

Biao Lu

2003-01-01

134

Wake Studies of Ornithopters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper details experiments using a mechanical ornithopter flying in a low speed wind tunnel. Experiments were conducted for a Strouhal number of 0.3 and Reynolds number of 2300, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and flow visualization was used to develop quantitative and qualitative information about the nature of the wake. The data shows that the wake is made of a series of discrete vortex rings. The impulse of these rings has been estimated with PIV data and the results correlate well with the lift required to sustain the ornithopter in flight.

Juarez, Alfredo; Harlow, Jacob; Allen, James; Ferreira de Sousa, Paulo

2006-11-01

135

Spectral coherence in windturbine wakes  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an experiment at a Danish wind farm to investigate the lateral and vertical coherences in the nonequilibrium turbulence of a wind turbine wake. Two meteorological masts were instrumented for measuring profiles of mean speed, turbulence, and temperature. Results are provided graphically for turbulence intensities, velocity spectra, lateral coherence, and vertical coherence. The turbulence was somewhat influenced by the wake, or possibly from aggregated wakes further upstream, even at 14.5 diameters. Lateral coherence (separation 5m) seemed to be unaffected by the wake at 7.5 diameters, but the flow was less coherent in the near wake. The wake appeared to have little influence on vertical coherence (separation 13m). Simple, conventional models for coherence appeared to be adequate descriptions for wake turbulence except for the near wake situation. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Hojstrup, J. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

1996-12-31

136

Suppression of epileptiform activity by a single short-duration electric field in rat hippocampus in vitro.  

PubMed

The mechanisms behind the therapeutic effects of electrical stimulation of the brain in epilepsy and other disorders are poorly understood. Previous studies in vitro have shown that uniform electric fields can suppress epileptiform activity through a direct polarizing effect on neuronal membranes. Such an effect depends on continuous DC stimulation with unbalanced charge. Here we describe a suppressive effect of a brief (10 ms) DC field on stimulus-evoked epileptiform activity in rat hippocampal brain slices exposed to Cs(+) (3.5 mM). This effect was independent of field polarity, was uncorrelated to changes in synchronized population activity, and persisted during blockade of synaptic transmission with Cd(2+) (500 ?M). Antagonists of A(1), P(2X), or P(2Y) receptors were without effect. The suppressive effect depended on the alignment of the external field with the somato-dendritic axis of CA1 pyramidal cells; however, temporal coincidence with the epileptiform activity was not essential, as suppression was detectable for up to 1 s after the field. Pyramidal cells, recorded during epileptiform activity, showed decreased discharge duration and truncation of depolarizing plateau potentials in response to field application. In the absence of hyperactivity, the applied field was followed by slow membrane potential changes, accompanied by decreased input resistance and attenuation of the depolarizing afterpotential following action potentials. These effects recovered over a 1-s period. The study suggests that a brief electric field induces a prolonged suppression of epileptiform activity, which can be related to changes in neuronal membrane properties, including attenuation of signals depending on the persisting Na(+) current. PMID:23486200

Mikkelsen, Ronni; Andreasen, Mogens; Nedergaard, Steen

2013-06-01

137

Waking Up to Waste  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All homes and schools produce waste. Children may have been astonished at how much people throw away, and this could be the "wake-up call" that arouses their interest. At Carymoor Environmental Centre (an Eco-Centre in South Somerset) getting children involved in active waste reduction and recycling is a priority. Carymoor tries to model waste…

Vrdlovcova, Jill

2005-01-01

138

Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS) Concept of Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of aircraft wake vortex research, with the most recent accomplishment of demonstrating the Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS) at Dallas/Forth Worth International Airport in July 2000. The AVOSS was a concept for an integration of technologies applied to providing dynamic wake-safe reduced spacing for single runway arrivals, as compared to current separation standards applied during instrument approaches. AVOSS included state-of-the-art weather sensors, wake sensors, and a wake behavior prediction algorithm. Using real-time data AVOSS averaged a 6% potential throughput increase over current standards. This report describes a Concept of Operations for applying the technologies demonstrated in the AVOSS to a variety of terminal operations to mitigate wake vortex capacity constraints. A discussion of the technological issues and open research questions that must be addressed to design a Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS) is included.

Rutishauser, David; Lohr, Gary; Hamilton, David; Powers, Robert; McKissick, Burnell; Adams, Catherine; Norris, Edward

2003-01-01

139

Structure of the lunar wake: global hybrid simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the structure and properties of the lunar wake with these solar wind parameters: the angle ?sw between directions of the solar wind velocity \\boldsymbol{v}sw and the ambient interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) \\boldsymbol{B} ?sw=45° and 90° and vsw=6{v}A (where v_A denotes solar wind Alfvén velocity). We examine the structure of the wake-tail formed behind the obstacle. In agreement with in situ observations the lunar wake is formed by two counterstreaming beams which fill the wake with a relatively cold, inhomogeneous and highly anisotropic plasma. The results of this study suggest, that under the given solar wind conditions the downstream region of the lunar wake is dominated by an electromagnetic turbulence with the frequencies about the local proton gyrofrequency. The properties and possible generating mechanisms of the low-frequency electromagnetic turbulence are discussed.

Sulc, P.; Travnicek, P.; Hellinger, P.; Schriver, D.; Bale, S. D.

2006-12-01

140

Electromagnetic signature of human cortical dynamics during wakefulness and sleep  

E-print Network

Electromagnetic signature of human cortical dynamics during wakefulness and sleep Signature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2.5 Spatial reach of LFP & Electromagnetic Lead field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 2 Studies 45 4 Overview 47 4.1 Electromagnetic properties of the extracellular medium

Destexhe, Alain

141

Passive Wake Vortex Control  

SciTech Connect

The collapse of the Soviet Union and ending of the Cold War brought about many significant changes in military submarine operations. The enemies that the US Navy faces today and in the future will not likely be superpowers armed with nuclear submarines, but rather smaller, rogue nations employing cheaper diesel/electric submarines with advanced air-independent propulsion systems. Unlike Cold War submarine operations, which occurred in deep-water environments, future submarine conflicts are anticipated to occur in shallow, littoral regions that are complex and noisy. Consequently, non-acoustic signatures will become increasingly important and the submarine stealth technology designed for deep-water operations may not be effective in these environments. One such non-acoustic signature is the surface detection of a submarine's trailing vortex wake. If a submarine runs in a slightly buoyant condition, its diving planes must be inclined at a negative angle of attack to generate sufficient downforce, which keeps the submarine from rising to the surface. As a result, the diving planes produce a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices that propagate to the water surface. In previous deep-water operations, this was not an issue since the submarines could dive deep enough so that the vortex pair became incoherent before it reached the water surface. However, in shallow, littoral environments, submarines do not have the option of diving deep and, hence, the vortex pair can rise to the surface and leave a distinct signature that might be detectable by synthetic aperture radar. Such detection would jeopardize not only the mission of the submarine, but also the lives of military personnel on board. There has been another attempt to solve this problem and reduce the intensity of trailing vortices in the wakes of military submarines. The research of Quackenbush et al. over the past few years has been directed towards an idea called ''vortex leveraging.'' This active concept works by placing shape memory alloy (SMA) control surfaces on the submarine's diving planes and periodically oscillating them. The modulated control vortices generated by these surfaces interact with the tip vortices on the diving planes, causing an instability to rapidly occur. Though several numerical simulations have been presented, experimental verification does not appear to be available in the open literature. The authors address this problem through a concept called passive wake vortex control (PWVC), which has been demonstrated to rapidly break apart a trailing vortex wake and render it incoherent. PWVC functions by introducing unequal strength, counter-rotating control vortices next to the tip vortices. The presence of these control vortices destabilizes the vortex wake and produces a rapidly growing wake instability.

Ortega, J M

2001-10-18

142

Construction and analysis of gonad suppression subtractive hybridization libraries for the rice field eel, Monopterus albus.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate gene transcription profiles of the stage IV ovary and the ovotestis of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus) in an attempt to uncover genes involved in sex reversal and gonad development. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries were constructed using mRNA from the stage IV ovary and the ovotestis. In total 100 positive clones from the libraries were selected at random and sequenced, and then expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were used to search against sequences in the GenBank database using the BLASTn and BLASTx search algorithms. High quality SSH cDNA libraries and 90 ESTs were obtained. Of these ESTs, 43 showed high homology with genes of known function and these are associated with energy metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation and so on. The remaining 47 ESTs shared no homology with any genes in GenBank and are thus considered to be hypothetical genes. Furthermore, the four genes F11, F63, R11, and R47 from the forward and reverse libraries were analyzed in gonad, brain, heart, spleen, liver, kidney and muscle tissues. The results showed that the transcription of the F11 and F63 genes was significantly increased while the expression of the R11 and R47 genes was significantly decreased from IV or V ovary. In addition, the results also indicated that the four genes' expression was not gonad-tissue specific. This results strongly suggested that they may be involved in the rice field eel gonad development and/or sex reversal. PMID:24583172

Qu, Xiancheng; Jiang, Jiaoyun; Shang, Xiaoli; Cheng, Cui; Feng, Long; Liu, Qigen

2014-04-25

143

Particle Access and Charging Environments in the Lunar Wake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A plasma wake a region of low density, high temperature plasma forms on the far side of the Moon when solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetotail plasma flows past the Moon [Manka, 1973; Ogilvie et al., 1996; Farrell et al., 1998; Halekas et al., 2005]. Ion populations in these flows typically have much smaller thermal velocity than bulk speed and are therefore excluded from the plasma wake while the large thermal electron velocity allows the lighter negatively charged particles to stream ahead of the ions into the wake. Charge separation due to electrons streaming ahead of the ions into the wake from the wake boundary establishes an ambipolar electric field which impedes the motion of electron flow and accelerates ions into the wake [Ogilvie et al., 1996; Farrell et al., 1997]. We have conducted a theoretical study of acceleration (and deceleration) of charged particles in lunar plasma environments, which investigated the mechanisms responsible for allowing solar wind entry into the lunar wake, and for producing energetic particle distributions observed within the lunar wake. To this end, the investigation utilized a macroscale 3D hybrid particle-in-cell numerical model of the interaction of the Moon with external plasma environments to compute electric fields in the lunar environment for a variety of external plasma conditions and interplanetary magnetic field orientations. Ion dynamics were attained from the hybrid code while electron dynamics were determined by considering electron test particle trajectories through the fields established in the hybrid code. Results from the code will be presented to evaluate charging environments within the lunar wake.

Parker, Linda; Minow, Joseph; Singh, Nagendra; Araveti, Venkata S.; Venkiteswaran, Karthik

2010-01-01

144

Brain Wake-Ups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wake-Up_Brain - Fire up those synapses each Monday morning. It's Monday morning and caffeine is slowly percolating into your system but your brain is still covered with weekend sludge. You need something to get those synapses firing, a brain booster to stimulate those billions of gray matter cells. You need Good Morning Thinkers! ... an absolutely free brain wake-up service offered to you by the Innovative Thinking Network, a professional membership association of leaders forging the revitalization of organizations through the powerful use of Innovation, Creativity and Group Thinking Skills. Every Monday morning subscribers receive a short, light-hearted message designed to help wipe away the fog and open the door to more powerful, creative thinking.

145

Aircraft wake turbulence avoidance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical studies and flight tests are used to describe the formation and severity of trailing vortices and the spatial extent of their influence. This information is then used to outline procedures for ready application by pilots, tower operators, and others concerned with the flow of traffic. The procedures provide the necessary appreciation of the physical attributes of trailing vortices, the potential hazards involved when encountering them, and how best to avoid the dangerous portions of the wake during flight operations.

Mcgowan, W. A.

1971-01-01

146

First Lunar Wake Passage of ARTEMIS: Discrimination of Wake Effects and Solar Wind Fluctuations by 3D Hybrid Simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spacecraft P1 of the new ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun) mission passed the lunar wake for the first time on February 13, 2010. We present magnetic field and plasma data of this event and results of 3D hybrid simulations. As the solar wind magnetic field was highly dynamic during the passage, a simulation with stationary solar wind input cannot distinguish whether distortions were caused by these solar wind variations or by the lunar wake; therefore, a dynamic real-time simulation of the flyby has been performed. The input values of this simulation are taken from NASA OMNI data and adapted to the P1 data, resulting in a good agreement between simulation and measurements. Combined with the stationary simulation showing non-transient lunar wake structures, a separation of solar wind and wake effects is achieved. An anisotropy in the magnitude of the plasma bulk flow velocity caused by a non-vanishing magnetic field component parallel to the solar wind flow and perturbations created by counterstreaming ions in the lunar wake are observed in data and simulations. The simulations help to interpret the data granting us the opportunity to examine the entire lunar plasma environment and, thus, extending the possibilities of measurements alone: A comparison of a simulation cross section to theoretical predictions of MHD wave propagation shows that all three basic MHD modes are present in the lunar wake and that their expansion governs the lunar wake refilling process.

Wiehle, S.; Plaschke, F.; Motschmann, U.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Auster, H. U.; Angelopoulos, V.; Mueller, J.; Kriegel, H.; Georgescu, E.; Halekas, J.; Sibeck, D. G.; McFadden, J. P.

2011-01-01

147

First lunar wake passage of ARTEMIS: Discrimination of wake effects and solar wind fluctuations by 3D hybrid simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spacecraft P1 of the new ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun) mission passed the lunar wake for the first time on February 13, 2010. We present magnetic field and plasma data of this event and results of 3D hybrid simulations. As the solar wind magnetic field was highly dynamic during the passage, a simulation with stationary solar wind input cannot distinguish whether distortions were caused by these solar wind variations or by the lunar wake; therefore, a dynamic real-time simulation of the flyby has been performed. The input values of this simulation are taken from NASA OMNI data and adapted to the P1 data, resulting in a good agreement between simulation and measurements. Combined with the stationary simulation showing non-transient lunar wake structures, a separation of solar wind and wake effects is achieved. An anisotropy in the magnitude of the plasma bulk flow velocity caused by a non-vanishing magnetic field component parallel to the solar wind flow and perturbations created by counterstreaming ions in the lunar wake are observed in data and simulations. The simulations help to interpret the data granting us the opportunity to examine the entire lunar plasma environment and, thus, extending the possibilities of measurements alone: A comparison of a simulation cross section to theoretical predictions of MHD wave propagation shows that all three basic MHD modes are present in the lunar wake and that their expansion governs the lunar wake refilling process.

Wiehle, S.; Plaschke, F.; Motschmann, U.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Auster, H. U.; Angelopoulos, V.; Mueller, J.; Kriegel, H.; Georgescu, E.; Halekas, J.; Sibeck, D. G.; McFadden, J. P.

2011-06-01

148

Short bunch wake potentials for a chain of TESLA cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modification of wake fields from a single cavity to a quasi-periodic structure of cavities is of great concern, especially for applications using very short bunches. We extend our former study (Novokhatski, 1997 [1]). A strong modification of wake fields along a train of cavities was clearly found for bunch lengths lower than 1 mm. In particular, the wakes induced by the bunch, as it proceeds down the successive cavities, decrease in amplitude and become more linear around the bunch center, with a profile very close to the integral of the charge density. The loss factor, decreasing also with the number of cells, becomes independent of bunch length for very short bunches and tends asymptotically to a finite value. This nice behavior of wake fields for short bunches presents good opportunity for application of very short bunches in Linear Colliders and X-ray Free Electron Lasers.

Novokhatski, Alexander; Mosnier, Alban

2014-11-01

149

Aircraft Wake Vortices: From Fundamental Research to Operational Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aircraft trailing vortices constitute both a kaleidoscope of instructive fluid dynamics phenomena and a challenge for the sustained development of the safety and capacity of the air-transportation system. This section gives an overview of the wake vortex issue commencing at its historical roots, proceeding with a sketch of the nature and characteristics of wake vortices resulting from field measurement and numerical simulation, and concluding with a depiction of the design and performance of wake vortex simulation systems established for the prediction of dynamic aircraft separations in different flight phases and for sensitivity and risk analysis.

Holzäpfel, Frank; Gerz, Thomas

150

Wake-Up Call  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The main character of this case is Denise, who we first meet in the early morning hours as she wakes up in a cold sweat, gasping for breath. But it is her husband, Jeremy, who has been diagnosed with heart disease, not her. What’s going on? In this interrupted case study, in which the other main character is Denise’s heart (who we get to know through a series of “interior” monologues), students learn about the risk factors, symptoms, and consequences of a heart attack. The case is suitable for a course in pathophysiology, first year nursing, enzymology, advanced biology or anatomy, or nutrition.

Rubin, Lisa M.; Herreid, Clyde F.

2002-01-01

151

Wakes in inhomogeneous plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Debye shielding of a charge immersed in a flowing plasma is an old classic problem. It has been given renewed attention in the last two decades in view of experiments with complex plasmas, where charged dust particles are often levitated in a region with strong ion flow. Efforts to describe the shielding of the dust particles in such conditions have been focused on the homogeneous plasma approximation, which ignores the substantial inhomogeneity of the levitation region. We address the role of the plasma inhomogeneity by rigorously calculating the point charge potential in the collisionless Bohm sheath. We demonstrate that the inhomogeneity can dramatically modify the wake, making it nonoscillatory and weaker.

Kompaneets, Roman; Ivlev, Alexei V.; Nosenko, Vladimir; Morfill, Gregor E.

2014-04-01

152

Wake Measurements in ECN's Scaled Wind Farm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In ECN's scaled wind farm the wake evolution is studied in two different situations. A single wake is studied at two different locations downstream of a turbine and a single wake is studied in conjunction with a triple wake. Here, the wake is characterized by the relative wind speed, the turbulence intensity, the vertical wind speed and the turbulence (an)isotropy. Per situation all wake measurements are taken simultaneously together with the inflow conditions.

Wagenaar, J. W.; Schepers, J. G.

2014-12-01

153

Evidence of Magnetic Breakdown on the Defects With Thermally Suppressed Critical Field in High Gradient SRF Cavities  

SciTech Connect

At SRF 2011 we presented the study of quenches in high gradient SRF cavities with dual mode excitation technique. The data differed from measurements done in 80's that indicated thermal breakdown nature of quenches in SRF cavities. In this contribution we present analysis of the data that indicates that our recent data for high gradient quenches is consistent with the magnetic breakdown on the defects with thermally suppressed critical field. From the parametric fits derived within the model we estimate the critical breakdown fields.

Eremeev, Grigory [JLAB; Palczewski, Ari [JLAB

2013-09-01

154

Interplay between Kondo suppression and Lifshitz transitions in YbRh2Si2 at high magnetic fields.  

PubMed

We investigate the magnetic field dependent thermopower, thermal conductivity, resistivity, and Hall effect in the heavy fermion metal YbRh2Si2. In contrast to reports on thermodynamic measurements, we find in total three transitions at high fields, rather than a single one at 10 T. Using the Mott formula together with renormalized band calculations, we identify Lifshitz transitions as their origin. The predictions of the calculations show that all experimental results rely on an interplay of a smooth suppression of the Kondo effect and the spin splitting of the flat hybridized bands. PMID:23829750

Pfau, H; Daou, R; Lausberg, S; Naren, H R; Brando, M; Friedemann, S; Wirth, S; Westerkamp, T; Stockert, U; Gegenwart, P; Krellner, C; Geibel, C; Zwicknagl, G; Steglich, F

2013-06-21

155

A new methodology for free wake analysis using curved vortex elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method using curved vortex elements was developed for helicopter rotor free wake calculations. The Basic Curve Vortex Element (BCVE) is derived from the approximate Biot-Savart integration for a parabolic arc filament. When used in conjunction with a scheme to fit the elements along a vortex filament contour, this method has a significant advantage in overall accuracy and efficiency when compared to the traditional straight-line element approach. A theoretical and numerical analysis shows that free wake flows involving close interactions between filaments should utilize curved vortex elements in order to guarantee a consistent level of accuracy. The curved element method was implemented into a forward flight free wake analysis, featuring an adaptive far wake model that utilizes free wake information to extend the vortex filaments beyond the free wake regions. The curved vortex element free wake, coupled with this far wake model, exhibited rapid convergence, even in regions where the free wake and far wake turns are interlaced. Sample calculations are presented for tip vortex motion at various advance ratios for single and multiple blade rotors. Cross-flow plots reveal that the overall downstream wake flow resembles a trailing vortex pair. A preliminary assessment shows that the rotor downwash field is insensitive to element size, even for relatively large curved elements.

Bliss, Donald B.; Teske, Milton E.; Quackenbush, Todd R.

1987-01-01

156

Drag measurement through wake analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements are presented showing the influence of the trunk length of a road vehicle on drag coefficient. The experiments were made in the ''Politecnico di Torino'' wind tunnel on a 1\\/5 scale model. Data from balance measurements, body-surface pressure and wake flow surveys are reported. A method is shown for correlating to the aerodynamic drag data from wake survey.

M. Onorato; A. F. Costelli; A. Garrone

1984-01-01

157

Drag measurement through wake analysis  

SciTech Connect

Measurements are presented showing the influence of the trunk length of a road vehicle on drag coefficient. The experiments were made in the ''Politecnico di Torino'' wind tunnel on a 1/5 scale model. Data from balance measurements, body-surface pressure and wake flow surveys are reported. A method is shown for correlating to the aerodynamic drag data from wake survey.

Onorato, M.; Costelli, A.F.; Garrone, A.

1984-01-01

158

NICKEL SUPPRESSES DAYLILY RUST, PUCCINIA HEMEROCALLIDIS ON SUSCEPTIBLE DAYLILIES, HEMEROCALLIS SPP. IN GREENHOUSE AND FIELD TRIALS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The recent discovery at the ARS Byron laboratory that nickel (Ni) salts reverse mouse ear disorder of pecan and river birch stimulated interest in its effect on disease suppression. Reports indicated that pathogens of several plant species, especially the rust fungi, were sensitive to Ni salts. Da...

159

Detection of Suppressiveness against Rotylenchulus reniformis in Soil from Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) Fields in Texas and Louisiana  

PubMed Central

Rotylenchulus reniformis is a major problem confronting cotton production in the central part of the cotton belt of the United States of America. In this study, the hypothesis that natural antagonists in some cases are responsible for unusually low densities of the nematode in certain fields was tested by assaying soils from 22 selected fields for the presence of transferable agents in pots containing cotton plants. In one field, soil from four different depth ranges was tested. In the first of two types of assays, 1 part nematode infested soil was added to 9 parts test soil that was left untreated or autoclaved before mixing; this mixture was used to fill pots. In the second type of assay, 1 part test soil was added to 9 or 19 parts pasteurized fine sand, and nematodes were introduced in aqueous suspension. In three experiments representing both types of assay, transferable or autoclavable agent(s) from four fields in South Texas suppressed nematode populations by 48, 78, 90 and 95%. In one experiment, transferable agents in five fields in Louisiana suppressed populations from 37 to 66%. Identification and evaluation of these agents for biological control of R. reniformis merits further study. PMID:19259517

Robinson, A. Forest; Westphal, Andreas; Overstreet, Charles; Padgett, G. Boyd; Greenberg, Shoil M.; Wheeler, Terry A.; Stetina, Salliana R.

2008-01-01

160

LIDAR nleasurenlents of \\vind turbine wake Ineanderi ng J)l'j',lillllL'nl ul \\kcl1~lI1i('al Engineering. Fluid \\kchanic~. \\ills Koppcls /l.ik. DTU-I)uildll1,lC ..jil3.ll'llJ:1il':i1  

E-print Network

rclationshil) bet ween the down stream wake meandering and thc large scale part of thc turbulent innow field~lsi-steady wake characteristics both in terms of wake deficit and wake generated turbulence. As part of the EULIDAR nleasurenlents of \\vind turbine wake Ineanderi ng J)l'j',lillllL'nl ul \\kcl1~lI1i

161

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT NORTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT NORTHWEST FAÇADE AND BLAST WALL, DATE UNKNOWN - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

162

Mesoscale Simulation Data for Initializing Fast-Time Wake Transport and Decay Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fast-time wake transport and decay models require vertical profiles of crosswinds, potential temperature and the eddy dissipation rate as initial conditions. These inputs are normally obtained from various field sensors. In case of data-denied scenarios or operational use, these initial conditions can be provided by mesoscale model simulations. In this study, the vertical profiles of potential temperature from a mesoscale model were used as initial conditions for the fast-time wake models. The mesoscale model simulations were compared against available observations and the wake model predictions were compared with the Lidar measurements from three wake vortex field experiments.

Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Vanvalkenburg, Randal L.; Pruis, Mathew J.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.

2012-01-01

163

Probing Neutrino Hierarchy and Chirality via Wakes  

E-print Network

The relic neutrinos are expected to acquire a bulk relative velocity with respect to the dark matter at low redshifts, and downstream of dark matter halos neutrino wakes are expected to develop. We propose a method of measuring the neutrino mass based on this mechanism. The neutrino wake will cause a dipole distortion of the galaxy-galaxy lensing pattern. This effect could be detected by combining upcoming lensing surveys, e.g. the LSST and Euclid surveys with a low redshift galaxy survey or a 21cm intensity mapping survey which can map the neutrino flow field. The data obtained with LSST and Euclid should enable us to make positive detection if the three neutrino masses are Quasi-Degenerate, and a future high precision 21cm lensing survey would allow the normal hierarchy and inverted hierarchy cases to be distinguished, and even the right handed Dirac neutrinos may be detectable.

Hong-Ming Zhu; Ue-Li Pen; Xuelei Chen; Derek Inman

2014-12-04

164

Wakefield suppression using beatwave structures  

SciTech Connect

A proposed method of suppressing transverse wakefields in an accelerating structure makes use of the fact that superposition of long-range wakes excited by an electron bunch transversing a series of accelerating cells with different transverse frequencies can produce interference cancellation, thereby significantly reducing the magnitudes of the harmful wake potentials. Analytic calculations as well as time-domain and modal sum simulations are performed to the beatwave effects produced by detuned, disk-loaded cavities as function of their transverse frequency spread and the population density.

Yu, D.; Kim, J.S.

1991-12-31

165

Wakes in inhomogeneous plasmas.  

PubMed

The Debye shielding of a charge immersed in a flowing plasma is an old classic problem. It has been given renewed attention in the last two decades in view of experiments with complex plasmas, where charged dust particles are often levitated in a region with strong ion flow. Efforts to describe the shielding of the dust particles in such conditions have been focused on the homogeneous plasma approximation, which ignores the substantial inhomogeneity of the levitation region. We address the role of the plasma inhomogeneity by rigorously calculating the point charge potential in the collisionless Bohm sheath. We demonstrate that the inhomogeneity can dramatically modify the wake, making it nonoscillatory and weaker. PMID:24827356

Kompaneets, Roman; Ivlev, Alexei V; Nosenko, Vladimir; Morfill, Gregor E

2014-04-01

166

Wakes in inhomogeneous plasmas  

E-print Network

The Debye shielding of a charge immersed in a flowing plasma is an old classic problem in plasma physics. It has been given renewed attention in the last two decades in view of experiments with complex plasmas, where charged dust particles are often levitated in a region with strong ion flow. Efforts to describe the shielding of the dust particles in such conditions have been focused on the homogeneous plasma approximation, which ignores the substantial inhomogeneity of the levitation region. We address the role of the plasma inhomogeneity by rigorously calculating the point charge potential in the collisionless Bohm sheath. We demonstrate that the inhomogeneity can dramatically modify the wake, making it non-oscillatory and weaker.

Kompaneets, Roman; Nosenko, Vladimir; Morfill, Gregor E

2014-01-01

167

Movie 1. Time-resolved (1 kHz sampling rate) PIV measured velocity fields, overlaid with vorticity isocontours, for an angle of attack of 15 deg and Reynolds number of 13,000. Note the asymmetry of the wake, which occurs as the lead-  

E-print Network

Movie 1. Time-resolved (1 kHz sampling rate) PIV measured velocity fields, overlaid with vorticity of the rib; lower right). The wake displays an alternating pattern of vor- tex shedding. Movie 2. Time closer to the suc- tion side (dorsal) of the body. #12;Movie 3. Time-resolved (1 kHz sampling rate) PIV

Socha, Jake

168

Proper orthogonal decomposition of wall-pressure fluctuations under the constrained wake of a square cylinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis of the wall-pressure fluctuations below the constrained wake of a two-dimensional square cylinder in proximity to a plane wall was made on two systems, i.e., G\\/D=0.25 and 0.5, which corresponds to the wakes with and without suppression of the vortex shedding, respectively. Here, G is the gap distance and D is the width of

Ying Zheng Liu; Liu Liu Shi; Qing Shan Zhang

2011-01-01

169

Wake survey techniques for objects with highly turbulent wakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of this study is to develop practical and accurate wake survey techniques for determining the drag of bluff bodies that have highly turbulent wakes. The commonly used wake survey method, the simplified Jones' equation with pneumatic probe measurements, was found to be inadequate in such cases. This study consisted of an experimental investigation of several wind-tunnel models, a theoretical analysis of turbulence effects on pressure measurements, and an analysis of wake drag equations. The experimental investigation was performed in the Illinois 3- by 4-foot low-speed wind tunnel. In the test, the wake of a 1-inch diameter cylinder and two airfoils, an S809 and NACA 0012, with and without various ice simulations were surveyed in detail using several Pitot-static probes with different nose shapes and an X-hotwire. The cylinder results were used to validate the wake survey techniques. The drag of the airfoils with and without ice accretions was determined using the validated wake survey techniques. A theoretical analysis of the turbulence effect on total and static pressure measurements was presented and compared with experimental data. Methods for correcting the turbulence effect on pressure measurements were provided, and a technique for estimating the turbulence kinetic pressure using the uncorrected pressure measurements was developed. Turbulence was also found to play an important role in drag determination through Reynolds stresses and static pressure deficit in the wake. A new wake drag equation was derived to include the turbulence effects. It was found the turbulence contribution to profile drag was over 17% in the cylinder test, and over 10% in the test of airfoils with ice accretions. This dissertation for the first time analyzed the turbulence effect on the simplified Jones' equation with measurements using a Pitot probe, and found that this method includes a portion of the turbulence effect into account implicitly, depending on the nose shape of the probe. A method for estimating this implicit correction was developed. Finally, wake survey techniques for determining the drag of objects with highly turbulent wakes were recommended.

Lu, Biao

170

Phantom for assessment of fat suppression in large field-of-view diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the development and application of a phantom for assessment and optimization of fat suppression over a large field-of-view in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T and 3 T. A Perspex cylinder (inner diameter 185 mm, height 300 mm) which contains a second cylinder (inner diameter 140 mm) was constructed. The inner cylinder was filled with water doped with copper sulphate and sodium chloride and the annulus was filled with corn oil, which closely matches the spectrum and longitudinal relaxation times of subcutaneous abdominal fat. Placement of the phantom on the couch at 45° to the z-axis presented an elliptical cross-section, which was of a similar size and shape to axial abdominal images. The use of a phantom for optimization of fat suppression allowed quantitative comparison between studies without the differences introduced by variability between human subjects. We have demonstrated that the phantom is suitable for selection of inversion delay times, spectral adiabatic inversion recovery delays and assessment of combinatorial methods of fat suppression. The phantom is valuable in protocol development and the assessment of new techniques, particularly in multi-centre trials.

Winfield, J. M.; Douglas, N. H. M.; deSouza, N. M.; Collins, D. J.

2014-05-01

171

Population-wide bias of surround suppression in auditory spatial receptive fields of the owl’s midbrain  

PubMed Central

The physical arrangement of receptive fields (RFs) within neural structures is important for local computations. Nonuniform distribution of tuning within populations of neurons can influence emergent tuning properties, causing bias in local processing. This issue was studied in the auditory system of barn owls. The owl’s external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICx) contains a map of auditory space where the frontal region is overrepresented. We measured spatiotemporal RFs of ICx neurons using spatial white noise. We found a population-wide bias in surround suppression such that suppression from frontal space was stronger. This asymmetry increased with laterality in spatial tuning. The bias could be explained by a model of lateral inhibition based on the overrepresentation of frontal space observed in ICx. The model predicted trends in surround suppression across ICx that matched the data. Thus, the uneven distribution of spatial tuning within the map could explain the topography of time-dependent tuning properties. This mechanism may have significant implications for the analysis of natural scenes by sensory systems. PMID:22855796

Wang, Yunyan; Shanbhag, Sharad J.; Fischer, Brian J.; Peña, José L

2012-01-01

172

Chitin amendment increases soil suppressiveness toward plant pathogens and modulates the actinobacterial and oxalobacteraceal communities in an experimental agricultural field.  

PubMed

A long-term experiment on the effect of chitin addition to soil on the suppression of soilborne pathogens was set up and monitored for 8 years in an experimental field, Vredepeel, The Netherlands. Chitinous matter obtained from shrimps was added to soil top layers on two different occasions, and the suppressiveness of soil toward Verticillium dahliae, as well as plant-pathogenic nematodes, was assessed, in addition to analyses of the abundances and community structures of members of the soil microbiota. The data revealed that chitin amendment had raised the suppressiveness of soil, in particular toward Verticillium dahliae, 9 months after the (second) treatment, extending to 2 years following treatment. Moreover, major effects of the added chitin on the soil microbial communities were detected. First, shifts in both the abundances and structures of the chitin-treated soil microbial communities, both of total soil bacteria and fungi, were found. In addition, the abundances and structures of soil actinobacteria and the Oxalobacteraceae were affected by chitin. At the functional gene level, the abundance of specific (family-18 glycoside hydrolase) chitinase genes carried by the soil bacteria also revealed upshifts as a result of the added chitin. The effects of chitin noted for the Oxalobacteraceae were specifically related to significant upshifts in the abundances of the species Duganella violaceinigra and Massilia plicata. These effects of chitin persisted over the time of the experiment. PMID:23811512

Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Korthals, Gerard W; Visser, Johnny H M; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

2013-09-01

173

Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Arrivals (WTMA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Arrivals (WTMA) concept of operations is described in this paper. The WTMA concept provides further detail to work initiated by the Wake Vortex Avoidance System Concept Evaluation Team and is an evolution of the Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Departure concept. Anticipated benefits about reducing wake turbulence separation standards in crosswind conditions, and candidate WTMA system considerations are discussed.

Williams, Daniel M.; Lohr, Gary W.; Trujillo, Anna C.

2008-01-01

174

Observation of multipactor suppression in a dielectric-loaded accelerating structure using an applied axial magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Efforts by a number of institutions to develop a Dielectric-Loaded Accelerating (DLA) structure capable of supporting high gradient acceleration when driven by an external radio frequency source have been ongoing over the past decade. Single surface resonant multipactor has been previously identified as one of the major limitations on the practical application of DLA structures in electron accelerators. In this paper, we report the results of an experiment that demonstrated suppression of multipactor growth in an X-band DLA structure through the use of an applied axial magnetic field. This represents an advance toward the practical use of DLA structures in many accelerator applications.

Jing, C.; Konecny, R.; Antipov, S. [Euclid Techlabs, LLC, 5900 Harper Rd., Solon, Ohio 44139 (United States) [Euclid Techlabs, LLC, 5900 Harper Rd., Solon, Ohio 44139 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Chang, C. [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Xi'an City 710024 (China) [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Xi'an City 710024 (China); Institute of Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gold, S. H. [Naval Research Laboratory, Plasma Physics Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)] [Naval Research Laboratory, Plasma Physics Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Schoessow, P.; Kanareykin, A. [Euclid Techlabs, LLC, 5900 Harper Rd., Solon, Ohio 44139 (United States)] [Euclid Techlabs, LLC, 5900 Harper Rd., Solon, Ohio 44139 (United States); Gai, W. [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2013-11-18

175

Wakes and differential charging of large bodies in low Earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highlights of earlier results using the Inside-Out WAKE code on wake structures of LEO spacecraft are reviewed. For conducting bodies of radius large compared with the Debye length, a high Mach number wake develops a negative potential well. Quasineutrality is violated in the very near wake region, and the wake is relatively empty for a distance downstream of about one half of a Mach number of radii. There is also a suggestion of a core of high density along the axis. A comparison of rigorous numerical solutions with in situ wake data from the AE-C satellite suggests that the so called neutral approximation for ions (straight line trajectories, independent of fields) may be a reasonable approximation except near the center of the near wake. This approximation is adopted for very large bodies. Work concerned with the wake point potential of very large nonconducting bodies such as the shuttle orbiter is described. Using a cylindrical model for bodies of this size or larger in LEO (body radius up to 10 to the 5th power Debye lengths), approximate solutions are presented based on the neutral approximation (but with rigorous trajectory calculations for surface current balance). There is a negative potential well if the body is conducting, and no well if the body is nonconducting. In the latter case the wake surface itself becomes highly negative. The wake point potential is governed by the ion drift energy.

Parker, L. W.

1985-01-01

176

Atmospheric-wake vortex interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interactions of a vortex wake with a turbulent stratified atmosphere are investigated with the computer code WAKE. It is shown that atmospheric shear, turbulence, and stratification can provide the dominant mechanisms by which vortex wakes decay. Computations included the interaction of a vortex wake with a viscous ground plane. The observed phenomenon of vortex bounce is explained in terms of secondary vorticity produced on the ground. This vorticity is swept off the ground and advected about the vortex pair, thereby altering the classic hyperbolic trajectory. The phenomenon of the solitary vortex is explained as an interaction of a vortex with crosswind shear. Here, the vortex having the sign opposite that of the sign of the vorticity in the shear is dispersed by a convective instability. This instability results in the rapid production of turbulence which in turn disperses the smoke marking the vortex.

Bilanin, A. J.; Hirsh, J. E.; Teske, M. E.; Hecht, A. M.

1978-01-01

177

Mach-like capillary-gravity wakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine experimentally the angle ? of maximum wave amplitude in the far-field wake behind a vertical surface-piercing cylinder translated at constant velocity U for Bond numbers BoD=D/?c ranging between 0.1 and 4.2, where D is the cylinder diameter and ?c the capillary length. In all cases the wake angle is found to follow a Mach-like law at large velocity, ? ˜U-1, but with different prefactors depending on the value of BoD. For small BoD (large capillary effects), the wake angle approximately follows the law ? ?cg ,min/U, where cg ,min is the minimum group velocity of capillary-gravity waves. For larger BoD (weak capillary effects), we recover a law ? ˜?gD /U similar to that found for ship wakes at large velocity [Rabaud and Moisy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 214503 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.214503]. Using the general property of dispersive waves that the characteristic wavelength of the wave packet emitted by a disturbance is of order of the disturbance size, we propose a simple model that describes the transition between these two Mach-like regimes as the Bond number is varied. We show that the new capillary law ? ?cg ,min/U originates from the presence of a capillary cusp angle (distinct from the usual gravity cusp angle), along which the energy radiated by the disturbance accumulates for Bond numbers of order of unity. This model, complemented by numerical simulations of the surface elevation induced by a moving Gaussian pressure disturbance, is in qualitative agreement with experimental measurements.

Moisy, Frédéric; Rabaud, Marc

2014-08-01

178

Mach-like capillary-gravity wakes.  

PubMed

We determine experimentally the angle ? of maximum wave amplitude in the far-field wake behind a vertical surface-piercing cylinder translated at constant velocity U for Bond numbers Bo(D)=D/?(c) ranging between 0.1 and 4.2, where D is the cylinder diameter and ?(c) the capillary length. In all cases the wake angle is found to follow a Mach-like law at large velocity, ??U(-1), but with different prefactors depending on the value of Bo(D). For small Bo(D) (large capillary effects), the wake angle approximately follows the law ??c(g,min)/U, where c(g,min) is the minimum group velocity of capillary-gravity waves. For larger Bo(D) (weak capillary effects), we recover a law ???[gD]/U similar to that found for ship wakes at large velocity [Rabaud and Moisy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 214503 (2013)]. Using the general property of dispersive waves that the characteristic wavelength of the wave packet emitted by a disturbance is of order of the disturbance size, we propose a simple model that describes the transition between these two Mach-like regimes as the Bond number is varied. We show that the new capillary law ??c(g,min)/U originates from the presence of a capillary cusp angle (distinct from the usual gravity cusp angle), along which the energy radiated by the disturbance accumulates for Bond numbers of order of unity. This model, complemented by numerical simulations of the surface elevation induced by a moving Gaussian pressure disturbance, is in qualitative agreement with experimental measurements. PMID:25215822

Moisy, Frédéric; Rabaud, Marc

2014-08-01

179

The waking brain: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wakefulness and consciousness depend on perturbation of the cortical soliloquy. Ascending activation of the cerebral cortex\\u000a is characteristic for both waking and paradoxical (REM) sleep. These evolutionary conserved activating systems build a network\\u000a in the brainstem, midbrain, and diencephalon that contains the neurotransmitters and neuromodulators glutamate, histamine,\\u000a acetylcholine, the catecholamines, serotonin, and some neuropeptides orchestrating the different behavioral states. Inhibition

Jian-Sheng Lin; Christelle Anaclet; Olga A. Sergeeva; Helmut L. Haas

2011-01-01

180

Gravitational wakes in Saturn's rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulations, including both gravitational interactions and dissipative impacts between particles, are used here to study realistic models for Saturn's rings. For the C-ring there is no instability, but for the B- and A-rings gravitational wakes form. In the A-ring these wakes are so strong that particles trapped in them from meter-sized aggregate particles, which themselves lead to further instability.

H. Salo

1992-01-01

181

Binocular Neurons in Parastriate Cortex: Interocular ‘Matching’ of Receptive Field Properties, Eye Dominance and Strength of Silent Suppression  

PubMed Central

Spike-responses of single binocular neurons were recorded from a distinct part of primary visual cortex, the parastriate cortex (cytoarchitectonic area 18) of anaesthetized and immobilized domestic cats. Functional identification of neurons was based on the ratios of phase-variant (F1) component to the mean firing rate (F0) of their spike-responses to optimized (orientation, direction, spatial and temporal frequencies and size) sine-wave-luminance-modulated drifting grating patches presented separately via each eye. In over 95% of neurons, the interocular differences in the phase-sensitivities (differences in F1/F0 spike-response ratios) were small (?0.3) and in over 80% of neurons, the interocular differences in preferred orientations were ?10°. The interocular correlations of the direction selectivity indices and optimal spatial frequencies, like those of the phase sensitivies and optimal orientations, were also strong (coefficients of correlation r ?0.7005). By contrast, the interocular correlations of the optimal temporal frequencies, the diameters of summation areas of the excitatory responses and suppression indices were weak (coefficients of correlation r ?0.4585). In cells with high eye dominance indices (HEDI cells), the mean magnitudes of suppressions evoked by stimulation of silent, extra-classical receptive fields via the non-dominant eyes, were significantly greater than those when the stimuli were presented via the dominant eyes. We argue that the well documented ‘eye-origin specific’ segregation of the lateral geniculate inputs underpinning distinct eye dominance columns in primary visual cortices of mammals with frontally positioned eyes (distinct eye dominance columns), combined with significant interocular differences in the strength of silent suppressive fields, putatively contribute to binocular stereoscopic vision. PMID:24927276

Wang, Chun; Dreher, Bogdan

2014-01-01

182

Total Suppression of Superconductivity by High Magnetic Fields in YBa2Cu3O6.6  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the variation of transverse magnetoresistance of underdoped YBCO6.6 crystals, either pure or with reduced Tc down to 3.5 K by electron irradiation, in fields up to 60 T. We find evidence that the superconducting fluctuation contribution to the conductivity is suppressed only above a threshold field Hc'(T), which is found to vanish at Tc'>Tc. In the pure YBCO6.6 sample, Hc' is already 50 T at Tc. We find that increasing disorder weakly depresses Hc'(0), Tc', and T?, the onset of the Nernst signal. Thus, these energy scales appear more characteristic of the 2D local pairing than the pseudogap temperature which is not modified by disorder.

Rullier-Albenque, F.; Alloul, H.; Proust, Cyril; Lejay, P.; Forget, A.; Colson, D.

2007-07-01

183

The Computer Code NOVO for the Calculation of Wake Potentials of the Very Short Ultra-relativistic Bunches  

SciTech Connect

The problem of electromagnetic interaction of a beam and accelerator elements is very important for linear colliders, electron-positron factories, and free electron lasers. Precise calculation of wake fields is required for beam dynamics study in these machines. We describe a method which allows computation of wake fields of the very short bunches. Computer code NOVO was developed based on this method. This method is free of unphysical solutions like ''self-acceleration'' of a bunch head, which is common to well known wake field codes. Code NOVO was used for the wake fields study for many accelerator projects all over the world.

Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC

2005-12-01

184

An optically modulated zero-field atomic magnetometer with suppressed spin-exchange broadening  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate an optically pumped {sup 87}Rb magnetometer in a microfabricated vapor cell based on a zero-field dispersive resonance generated by optical modulation of the {sup 87}Rb ground state energy levels. The magnetometer is operated in the spin-exchange relaxation-free regime where high magnetic field sensitivities can be achieved. This device can be useful in applications requiring array-based magnetometers where radio frequency magnetic fields can induce cross-talk among adjacent sensors or affect the source of the magnetic field being measured.

Jiménez-Martínez, R. [Time and Frequency Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States) [Time and Frequency Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Knappe, S.; Kitching, J. [Time and Frequency Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)] [Time and Frequency Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

2014-04-15

185

An optically modulated zero-field atomic magnetometer with suppressed spin-exchange broadening  

E-print Network

We demonstrate an optically pumped $^{87}$Rb magnetometer in a microfabricated vapor cell based on a zero-field dispersive resonance generated by optical modulation of the $^{87}$Rb ground state energy levels. The magnetometer is operated in the spin-exchange relaxation-free regime where high magnetic field sensitivities can be achieved. This device can be useful in applications requiring array-based magnetometers where radio frequency magnetic fields can induce cross-talk among adjacent sensors or affect the source of the magnetic field being measured.

Jimenez-Martinez, Ricardo; Kitching, John

2014-01-01

186

A Study of Wake Development and Structure in Constant Pressure Gradients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Motivated by the application to high-lift aerodynamics for commercial transport aircraft, a systematic investigation into the response of symmetric/asymmetric planar turbulent wake development to constant adverse, zero, and favorable pressure gradients has been conducted. The experiments are performed at a Reynolds number of 2.4 million based on the chord of the wake generator. A unique feature of this wake study is that the pressure gradients imposed on the wake flow field are held constant. The experimental measurements involve both conventional LDV and hot wire flow field surveys of mean and turbulent quantities including the turbulent kinetic energy budget. In addition, similarity analysis and numerical simulation have also been conducted for this wake study. A focus of the research has been to isolate the effects of both pressure gradient and initial wake asymmetry on the wake development. Experimental results reveal that the pressure gradient has a tremendous influence on the wake development, despite the relatively modest pressure gradients imposed. For a given pressure gradient, the development of an initially asymmetric wake is different from the initially symmetric wake. An explicit similarity solution for the shape parameters of the symmetric wake is obtained and agrees with the experimental results. The turbulent kinetic energy budget measurements of the symmetric wake demonstrate that except for the convection term, the imposed pressure gradient does not change the fundamental flow physics of turbulent kinetic energy transport. Based on the turbulent kinetic energy budget measurements, an approach to correct the bias error associated with the notoriously difficult dissipation estimate is proposed and validated through the comparison of the experimental estimate with a direct numerical simulation result.

Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, R. C.; Liu, Xiaofeng

2000-01-01

187

Suppressing decoherence of spin waves in a warm atomic vapor by applying a guiding magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an experimental and theoretical investigation to extend lifetimes of light storages by applying guiding magnetic fields in a room-temperature atomic vapor. The storages are based on dynamic electromagnetically induced transparency. Retrieval efficiencies versus storage time are experimentally measured for different strengths of the guiding magnetic fields. The measured results show that the 1/e storage times are ?6 ?s and ?59 ?s for the guiding field B0z = 0 and B0z = 93 mG, respectively. Physical processes causing decoherence in an atomic ensemble have been discussed and analyzed. A theory model which is used to evaluate the decoherence caused by fluctuations of transverse magnetic fields is developed. Based on this evaluation, the fact that storage lifetimes can be increased by applying guiding magnetic fields is well explained.

Tian, Long; Li, Shujing; Zhang, Zhiying; Wang, Hai

2015-02-01

188

Coherent Pulsed Lidar Sensing of Wake Vortex Position and Strength, Winds and Turbulence in the Terminal Area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has field tested a 2.0 gm, 100 Hertz, pulsed coherent lidar to detect and characterize wake vortices and to measure atmospheric winds and turbulence. The quantification of aircraft wake-vortex hazards is being addressed by the Wake Vortex Lidar (WVL) Project as part of Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS), which is under the Reduced Spacing Operations Element of the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program. These hazards currently set the minimum, fixed separation distance between two aircraft and affect the number of takeoff and landing operations on a single runway under Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). The AVOSS concept seeks to safely reduce aircraft separation distances, when weather conditions permit, to increase the operational capacity of major airports. The current NASA wake-vortex research efforts focus on developing and validating wake vortex encounter models, wake decay and advection models, and wake sensing technologies. These technologies will be incorporated into an automated AVOSS that can properly select safe separation distances for different weather conditions, based on the aircraft pair and predicted/measured vortex behavior. The sensor subsystem efforts focus on developing and validating wake sensing technologies. The lidar system has been field-tested to provide real-time wake vortex trajectory and strength data to AVOSS for wake prediction verification. Wake vortices, atmospheric winds, and turbulence products have been generated from processing the lidar data collected during deployments to Norfolk (ORF), John F. Kennedy (JFK), and Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) International Airports.

Brockman, Philip; Barker, Ben C., Jr.; Koch, Grady J.; Nguyen, Dung Phu Chi; Britt, Charles L., Jr.; Petros, Mulugeta

1999-01-01

189

Wake II model for hydrodynamic forces on marine pipelines for the wave plus current case  

E-print Network

's equation. In the Wake II model the velocity is modified to include the pipe's encounter with the wake flow when the velocity reverses. The model also uses time dependent drag and lift coefficients. For the wave plus current case, the flow field is assumed...

Ramirez Sabag, Said

1999-01-01

190

Kirchhoff's Integral Representation and a Cavity Wake Potential  

SciTech Connect

A method is proposed for the calculation of the short-range wake field potentials of an ultra-relativistic bunch passing near some irregularities in a beam pipe. The method is based on the space-time domain integration of Maxwell's equations using Kirchhoff's formulation. We demonstrate this method on two cases where we obtain the wake potentials for the energy loss of a bunch traversing an iris-collimator in a beam pipe and for a cavity. Likewise, formulas are derived for Green's functions that describe the transverse force action of wake fields. Simple formulas for the total energy loss of a bunch with a Gaussian charge density distribution are derived as well. The derived estimates are compared with computer results and predictions of other models.

Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC

2012-02-17

191

The computation of induced drag with nonplanar and deformed wakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The classical calculation of inviscid drag, based on far field flow properties, is reexamined with particular attention to the nonlinear effects of wake roll-up. Based on a detailed look at nonlinear, inviscid flow theory, it is concluded that many of the classical, linear results are more general than might have been expected. Departures from the linear theory are identified and design implications are discussed. Results include the following: Wake deformation has little effect on the induced drag of a single element wing, but introduces first order corrections to the induced drag of a multi-element lifting system. Far field Trefftz-plane analysis may be used to estimate the induced drag of lifting systems, even when wake roll-up is considered, but numerical difficulties arise. The implications of several other approximations made in lifting line theory are evaluated by comparison with more refined analyses.

Kroo, Ilan; Smith, Stephen

1991-01-01

192

Canopy wake measurements using multiple scanning wind LiDARs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canopy wakes have been shown, in controlled wind tunnel experiments, to significantly affect the fluxes of momentum, heat and other scalars at the land and water surface over distances of ~O(1 km), see Markfort et al. (EFM, 2013). However, there are currently no measurements of the velocity field downwind of a full-scale forest canopy. Point-based anemometer measurements of wake turbulence provide limited insight into the extent and details of the wake structure, whereas scanning Doppler wind LiDARs can provide information on how the wake evolves in space and varies over time. For the first time, we present measurements of the velocity field in the wake of a tall patch of forest canopy. The patch consists of two uniform rows of 35-meter tall deciduous, plane trees, which border either side of the Allée de Dorigny, near the EPFL campus. The canopy is approximately 250 m long, and it is 35 m wide, along the direction of the wind. A challenge faced while making field measurements is that the wind rarely intersects a canopy normal to the edge. The resulting wake flow may be deflected relative to the mean inflow. Using multiple LiDARs, we measure the evolution of the wake due to an oblique wind blowing over the canopy. One LiDAR is positioned directly downwind of the canopy to measure the flow along the mean wind direction and the other is positioned near the canopy to evaluate the transversal component of the wind and how it varies with downwind distance from the canopy. Preliminary results show that the open trunk space near the base of the canopy results in a surface jet that can be detected just downwind of the canopy and farther downwind dissipates as it mixes with the wake flow above. A time-varying recirculation zone can be detected by the periodic reversal of the velocity vector near the surface, downwind of the canopy. The implications of canopy wakes for measurement and modeling of surface fluxes will be discussed.

Markfort, Corey D.; Carbajo Fuertes, Fernando; Valerio Iungo, Giacomo; Stefan, Heinz; Porté-Agel, Fernando

2014-05-01

193

Improving actuator disk wake model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wind energy industry has traditionally relied on simple wake models for estimating Wind Turbine (WT) wake losses. Despite limitations, low requirements in terms of detailed rotor information makes their use feasible, unlike more complex models, such as Blade Element Method (BEM) or Actuator Line. Froude's Actuator Disk (AD) does not suffer the simpler model's limitation of prescribing the wake through a closed set of equations, while sharing with them the low rotor data requirements. On the other hand they require some form of parametrization to close the model and calculate total thrust acting on the flow. An Actuator Disk model was developed, using an iterative algorithm based on Froude's one-dimensional momentum theory to determine the WT's performance, proving to be successful in estimating the performance of both machines in undisturbed flow and in the wake of an upstream machines. Before Froude's AD limitations compared to more complex rotor models, load distributions emulating those of a BEM model were tested. The results show that little impact is obtained at 3 rotor diameters downstream and beyond, agreeing with common definition of a far-wake that starts at 1-2 diameters downstream, where rotor characteristics become negligible and atmospheric flow effects dominate.

Costa Gomes, V. M. M. G.; Palma, J. M. L. M.; Silva Lopes, A.

2014-06-01

194

Tomographic particle image velocimetry of desert locust wakes: instantaneous volumes combine to reveal hidden vortex elements and rapid wake deformation  

PubMed Central

Aerodynamic structures generated by animals in flight are unstable and complex. Recent progress in quantitative flow visualization has advanced our understanding of animal aerodynamics, but measurements have hitherto been limited to flow velocities at a plane through the wake. We applied an emergent, high-speed, volumetric fluid imaging technique (tomographic particle image velocimetry) to examine segments of the wake of desert locusts, capturing fully three-dimensional instantaneous flow fields. We used those flow fields to characterize the aerodynamic footprint in unprecedented detail and revealed previously unseen wake elements that would have gone undetected by two-dimensional or stereo-imaging technology. Vortex iso-surface topographies show the spatio-temporal signature of aerodynamic force generation manifest in the wake of locusts, and expose the extent to which animal wakes can deform, potentially leading to unreliable calculations of lift and thrust when using conventional diagnostic methods. We discuss implications for experimental design and analysis as volumetric flow imaging becomes more widespread. PMID:22977102

Bomphrey, Richard J.; Henningsson, Per; Michaelis, Dirk; Hollis, David

2012-01-01

195

Recent results about fan noise: Its generation, radiation and suppression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fan noise including its generation, radiation characteristics, and suppression by acoustic treatment is studied. In fan noise generation, results from engine and fan experiments, using inflow control measures to suppress noise sources related to inflow distortion and turbulence, are described. The suppression of sources related to inflow allows the experiments to focus on the fan or engine internal sources. Some of the experiments incorporated pressure sensors on the fan blades to sample the flow disturbances encountered by the blades. From these data some inferences can be drawn about the origins of the disturbances. Also, hot wire measurements of a fan rotor wake field are presented and related to the fan's noise signature. The radiation and the suppression of fan noise are dependent on the acoustic modes generated by the fan. Fan noise suppression and radiation is described by relating these phenomena to the mode cutoff ratio parameter. In addition to its utility in acoustic treatment design and performance prediction, cutoff ratio was useful in developing a simple description of the radiation pattern for broadband fan noise. Some of the findings using the cutoff ratio parameter are presented.

Feiler, C. E.

1982-01-01

196

Comparing offshore wind farm wake observed from satellite SAR and wake model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Offshore winds can be observed from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In the FP7 EERA DTOC project, the European Energy Research Alliance project on Design Tools for Offshore Wind Farm Clusters, there is focus on mid- to far-field wind farm wakes. The more wind farms are constructed nearby other wind farms, the more is the potential loss in annual energy production in all neighboring wind farms due to wind farm cluster effects. It is of course dependent upon the prevailing wind directions and wind speed levels, the distance between the wind farms, the wind turbine sizes and spacing. Some knowledge is available within wind farm arrays and in the near-field from various investigations. There are 58 offshore wind farms in the Northern European seas grid connected and in operation. Several of those are spaced near each other. There are several twin wind farms in operation including Nysted-1 and Rødsand-2 in the Baltic Sea, and Horns Rev 1 and Horns Rev 2, Egmond aan Zee and Prinses Amalia, and Thompton 1 and Thompton 2 all in the North Sea. There are ambitious plans of constructing numerous wind farms - great clusters of offshore wind farms. Current investigation of offshore wind farms includes mapping from high-resolution satellite SAR of several of the offshore wind farms in operation in the North Sea. Around 20 images with wind farm wake cases have been retrieved and processed. The data are from the Canadian RADARSAT-1/-2 satellites. These observe in microwave C-band and have been used for ocean surface wind retrieval during several years. The satellite wind maps are valid at 10 m above sea level. The wakes are identified in the raw images as darker areas downwind of the wind farms. In the SAR-based wind maps the wake deficit is found as areas of lower winds downwind of the wind farms compared to parallel undisturbed flow in the flow direction. The wind direction is clearly visible from lee effects and wind streaks in the images. The wind farm wake cases are modeled by various types of wake models. In the EERA DTOC project the model suite consists of engineering models (Ainslie, DWM, GLC, PARK, WASP/NOJ), simplified CFD models (FUGA, FarmFlow), full CFD models (CRES-flowNS, RANS), mesoscale model (SKIRON, WRF) and coupled meso-scale and microscale models. The comparison analysis between the satellite wind wake and model results will be presented and discussed. It is first time a comprehensive analysis is performed on this subject. The topic gains increasing importance because there is a growing need to precisely model also mid- and far-field wind farms wakes for development and planning of offshore wind farm clusters.

Bay Hasager, Charlotte

2014-05-01

197

Study of a Wake Recovery Mechanism in a High-Speed Axial Compressor Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work addresses the significant differences in compressor rotor wake mixing loss which exist in a stage environment relative to a rotor in isolation. The wake decay for a rotor in isolation is due solely to viscous dissipation which is an irreversible process and thus leads to a loss in both total pressure and efficiency. Rotor wake decay in the stage environment is due to both viscous mixing and the inviscid strain imposed on the wake fluid particles by the stator velocity field. This straining process, referred to by Smith (1993) as recovery, is reversible and for a 2D rotor wake leads to an inviscid reduction of the velocity deficit of the wake. A model for the rotor wake decay process is developed and used to quantify the viscous dissipation effects relative to those of inviscid wake stretching. The model is verified using laser anemometer measurements acquired in the wake of a transonic rotor operated in isolation and in a stage configuration at near peak efficiency and near stall operating conditions. Additional insight is provided by a time-accurate 3D Navier-Stokes simulation of the compressor stator flow field at the corresponding stage loading levels. Results from the wake decay model exhibit good agreement with the experimental data. Data from the model, laser anemometer measurements, and numerical simulations indicate that for the rotor/stator spacing used in this work, which is typical of core compressors, rotor wake straining (stretching) is the primary decay process in the stator passage with viscous mixing playing only a minor role. The implications of these results on compressor stage design are discussed.

VanZante, Dale E.

1998-01-01

198

Suppression of hidden order in URu2Si2 under pressure and restoration in magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe here recent inelastic neutron scattering experiments on the heavy fermion compound URu2Si2 realized in order to clarify the nature of the hidden order (HO) phase which occurs below T0 = 17.5 K at ambient pressure. The choice was to measure at a given pressure P where the system will go, by lowering the temperature, successively from paramagnetic (PM) to HO and then to antiferromagnetic phase (AF). Furthermore, in order to verify the selection of the pressure, a macroscopic detection of the phase transitions was also achieved in situ via its thermal expansion response detected by a strain gauge glued on the crystal. Just above Px = 0.5 GPa, where the ground state switches from HO to AF, the Q0 = (1,0,0) excitation disappears while the excitation at the incommensurate wavevector Q1 = (1.4, 0, 0) remains. Thus, the Q0 = (1, 0, 0) excitation is intrinsic only in the HO phase. This result is reinforced by studies where now pressure and magnetic field H can be used as tuning variable. Above Px, the AF phase at low temperature is destroyed by a magnetic field larger than HAF (collapse of the AF Q0 = (1, 0,0) Bragg reflection). The field reentrance of the HO phase is demonstrated by the reappearance of its characteristic Q0 = (1, 0, 0) excitation. The recovery of a PM phase will only be achieved far above HAF at HM approx 35 T. To determine the P-H-T phase diagram of URu2Si2, macroscopic measurements of the thermal expansion were realized with a strain gauge. The reentrant magnetic field increases strongly with pressure. Finally, to investigate the interplay between superconductivity (SC) and spin dynamics, new inelastic neutron scattering experiments are reported down to 0.4 K, far below the superconducting critical temperature TSC approx 1.3 K as measured on our crystal by diamagnetic shielding.

Hassinger, E.; Aoki, D.; Bourdarot, F.; Knebel, G.; Taufour, V.; Raymond, S.; Villaume, A.; Flouquet, J.

2010-11-01

199

Field tests of environmentally friendly malathion replacements to suppress wild Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations.  

PubMed

This article reports a large-scale field test of two environmentally friendly malathion replacements on wild populations of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratatis capitata (Wiedemann): spinosad, a bacteria-derived toxin, and phloxine B, a red dye with phototoxic properties. The comparison test was conducted on 11 coffee fields infested with wild populations of Mediterranean fruit fly on the Hawaiian island of Kauai with 8-wk protein bait sprays with and without toxicants. To assess effectiveness, adults were trapped and larval infestation levels were evaluated with fruit collections. Malathion was found to be the most effective treatment. However, the two replacements gave significant levels of control, and because they are environmentally safer, should be considered for eradicating incipient populations of this invasive species of fruit fly. Cage tests were also conducted to ensure that the wild flies consumed the bait and to assess how long the bait-toxicant combination remained effective in the field. Although spinosad and phloxine B were found to be effective up to 1 wk, malathion remained effective at least 2 wk. PMID:10826173

Peck, S L; McQuate, G T

2000-04-01

200

Comparison of Wake Model Simulations with Offshore Wind Turbine Wake Profiles Measured by Sodar  

E-print Network

to be gained from accurate modeling of wind turbine wakes in wind farm design to minimize both power lossesComparison of Wake Model Simulations with Offshore Wind Turbine Wake Profiles Measured by Sodar R of most of the commonly used models for predicting wind speed decrease (wake) downstream of a wind turbine

Pryor, Sara C.

201

Analytical model of rotor wake aerodynamics in ground effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The model and the computer program developed provides the velocity, location, and circulation of the tip vortices of a two-blade helicopter in and out of the ground effect. Comparison of the theoretical results with some experimental measurements for the location of the wake indicate that there is excellent accuracy in the vicinity of the rotor and fair amount of accuracy far from it. Having the location of the wake at all times enables us to compute the history of the velocity and the location of any point in the flow. The main goal of out study, induced velocity at the rotor, can also be calculated in addition to stream lines and streak lines. Since the wake location close to the rotor is known more accurately than at other places, the calculated induced velocity over the disc should be a good estimate of the real induced velocity, with the exception of the blade location, because each blade was replaced only by a vortex line. Because no experimental measurements of the wake close to the ground were available to us, quantitative evaluation of the theoretical wake was not possible. But qualitatively we have been able to show excellent agreement. Comparison of flow visualization with out results has indicated the location of the ground vortex is estimated excellently. Also the flow field in hover is well represented.

Saberi, H. A.

1983-01-01

202

Contrail Formation in Aircraft Wakes Using Large-Eddy Simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this work we analyze the issue of the formation of condensation trails ("contrails") in the near-field of an aircraft wake. The basic configuration consists in an exhaust engine jet interacting with a wing-tip training vortex. The procedure adopted relies on a mixed Eulerian/Lagrangian two-phase flow approach; a simple micro-physics model for ice growth has been used to couple ice and vapor phases. Large eddy simulations have carried out at a realistic flight Reynolds number to evaluate the effects of turbulent mixing and wake vortex dynamics on ice-growth characteristics and vapor thermodynamic properties.

Paoli, R.; Helie, J.; Poinsot, T. J.; Ghosal, S.

2002-01-01

203

Magnetic Fluctuations and Turbulence in the Venus Magnetosheath and Wake  

E-print Network

Recent research has shown that distinct physical regions in the Venusian induced magnetosphere are recognizable from the variations of strength and of wave/fluctuation activity of the magnetic field. In this paper the statistical properties of magnetic fluctuations are investigated in the Venusian magnetosheath, terminator, and wake regions. The latter two regions were not visited by previous missions. We found 1/f fluctuations in the magnetosheath, large-scale structures near the terminator and more developed turbulence further downstream in the wake. Location independent short-tailed non-Gaussian statistics was observed.

Z. Vörös; T. L. Zhang; M. P. Leubner; M. Volwerk; M. Delva; W. Baumjohann; K. Kudela

2008-06-11

204

Magnetic Fluctuations and Turbulence in the Venus Magnetosheath and Wake  

E-print Network

Recent research has shown that distinct physical regions in the Venusian induced magnetosphere are recognizable from the variations of strength and of wave/fluctuation activity of the magnetic field. In this paper the statistical properties of magnetic fluctuations are investigated in the Venusian magnetosheath, terminator, and wake regions. The latter two regions were not visited by previous missions. We found 1/f fluctuations in the magnetosheath, large-scale structures near the terminator and more developed turbulence further downstream in the wake. Location independent short-tailed non-Gaussian statistics was observed.

Vörös, Z; Leubner, M P; Volwerk, M; Delva, M; Baumjohann, W; Kudela, K

2008-01-01

205

NASA Langley Research Center Wake Vortex Research Supporting VAMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA researchers have designed a system to predict aircraft wake turbulence on final approach, so airliners can be spaced more safely and efficiently. This technology, known as the Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS), demonstrates an integration of technologies that provides weather-dependent dynamic aircraft spacing for wake avoidance in a real-time relevant environment. AVOSS was successfully demonstrated at Dallas Fort-Worth Airport in July 2000. The demonstration represented the culmination of 6 years of field-testing, data collection, and development.

Rutishauser, David

2002-01-01

206

Ballistic Wake of Turbulence in a Plasma Shock Wave  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of ballistic term in the turbulence that occurs in plasma shock waves is discussed. For electrostatic turbulence these terms are shown to give rise to a wake behind a shock wave in which the energy density in the fluctuating fields decays spatially as x?3 for a class of distribution functions including resonance functions. The importance of the ballistic

Nicholas A. Krall; Derek A. Tidman

1969-01-01

207

Wake characteristics of a model ornithopter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details unsteady wake measurements from a model Ornithopther flying in a wind tunnel at representative flight conditions. Testing over a range of Strouhal number, 0.1-0.3, shows that the unsteady wake is composed of coherent vortical structures that resemble vortex rings. A single ring is formed in the wake of each wing during one wing beat. Momentum balance from

Alfredo Juarez; Jacob Harlow; James Allen; Paulo Ferreira de Sousa

2006-01-01

208

Recent NASA Wake-Vortex Flight Tests, Flow-Physics Database and Wake-Development Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of flight tests over the ocean of a four engine turboprop airplane in the cruise configuration have provided a data set for improved understanding of wake vortex physics and atmospheric interaction. An integrated database has been compiled for wake characterization and validation of wake-vortex computational models. This paper describes the wake-vortex flight tests, the data processing, the database development and access, and results obtained from preliminary wake-characterization analysis using the data sets.

Vicroy, Dan D.; Vijgen, Paul M.; Reimer, Heidi M.; Gallegos, Joey L.; Spalart, Philippe R.

1998-01-01

209

CONTROL OF SLEEP AND WAKEFULNESS  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes the brain mechanisms controlling sleep and wakefulness. Wakefulness promoting systems cause low-voltage, fast activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Multiple interacting neurotransmitter systems in the brain stem, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain converge onto common effector systems in the thalamus and cortex. Sleep results from the inhibition of wake-promoting systems by homeostatic sleep factors such as adenosine and nitric oxide and GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, resulting in large-amplitude, slow EEG oscillations. Local, activity-dependent factors modulate the amplitude and frequency of cortical slow oscillations. Non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep results in conservation of brain energy and facilitates memory consolidation through the modulation of synaptic weights. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep results from the interaction of brain stem cholinergic, aminergic, and GABAergic neurons which control the activity of glutamatergic reticular formation neurons leading to REM sleep phenomena such as muscle atonia, REMs, dreaming, and cortical activation. Strong activation of limbic regions during REM sleep suggests a role in regulation of emotion. Genetic studies suggest that brain mechanisms controlling waking and NREM sleep are strongly conserved throughout evolution, underscoring their enormous importance for brain function. Sleep disruption interferes with the normal restorative functions of NREM and REM sleep, resulting in disruptions of breathing and cardiovascular function, changes in emotional reactivity, and cognitive impairments in attention, memory, and decision making. PMID:22811426

Brown, Ritchie E.; Basheer, Radhika; McKenna, James T.; Strecker, Robert E.; McCarley, Robert W.

2013-01-01

210

Structure of the martian wake  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first results from the ion mass analyzer IMA of the ASPERA-3 instrument on-board of Mars Express. More than 200 orbits for May 2004–September 2004 time interval have been selected for the statistical study of the distribution of the atmospheric origin ions in the planetary wake. This study shows that the martian magnetotail consists of two different ion

A. Fedorov; E. Budnik; J.-A. Sauvaud; C. Mazelle; S. Barabash; R. Lundin; M. Acuña; M. Holmström; A. Grigoriev; M. Yamauchi; H. Andersson; J.-J. Thocaven; D. Winningham; R. Frahm; J. R. Sharber; J. Scherrer; A. J. Coates; D. R. Linder; D. O. Kataria; E. Kallio; H. Koskinen; T. Säles; P. Riihelä; W. Schmidt; J. Kozyra; J. Luhmann; E. Roelof; D. Williams; S. Livi; C. C. Curtis; K. C. Hsieh; B. R. Sandel; M. Grande; M. Carter; S. McKenna-Lawler; S. Orsini; R. Cerulli-Irelli; M. Maggi; P. Wurz; P. Bochsler; N. Krupp; J. Woch; M. Fränz; K. Asamura; C. Dierker

2006-01-01

211

JOURNAL OF AIRCRAFT Vol. 46, No. 6, November–December 2009 Behaviors of Vortex Wake in Random Atmospheric Turbulence  

E-print Network

Atmospheric turbulence has significant influences on both the trajectories and strengths of wake vortices. In this paper, a quasi-wavelet method is used to generate a random atmospheric turbulence field based on the von Kármán spectrum, in which atmospheric turbulence is represented by groups of random eddies. An inviscid wake vortex system, out-of-ground effect or in-ground effect, is immersed in the generated turbulence background to study the effects of random turbulence on wake vortices. The simulated wake trajectories are compared with literature data from several current prediction models as well as from field measurement. I.

Z. C. Zheng; Ying Xu; D. K. Wilson

212

Suppression of Amblyomma americanum (Ixodida: Ixodidae) for short-term field operations utilizing cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin.  

PubMed

Tick-borne diseases pose significant risks to U.S. military personnel who conduct operations, both domestic and abroad. To determine the feasibility of protecting personnel from tick vectors during short-term field deployments, acaricides cypermethrin (Demon WP, Syngenta, Greensboro, NC) and lambda-cyhalothrin (Surrender Pestabs, CSI, Pasadena, TX) were applied to plots within two separate field sites on Camp Blanding Joint Training Center in Starke, FL, from May to June 2011. We analyzed their effectiveness in reducing tick counts for 6 wk after application. In total, 8,193 ticks were identified and counted, of which > 99% were a mix of nymphs and adult-stage Amblyomma americanum (L.). Our results indicate that both cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin were effective in significantly reducing tick numbers and preventing entry into treated plots for 6 wk after application. Thus, these two acaracides can be used to effectively suppress tick populations and provide residual protection in small geographic areas of recreation or public health significance. PMID:24897866

Hughes, Tony H; Richardson, Alec G; Hoel, David F; Mejeoumov, Tracy; Farooq, Mohammad; Stoops, Craig A

2014-05-01

213

Verification and validation studies of the time-averaged velocity field in the very near-wake of a finite elliptical cylinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents verification and validation results for the time-averaged, three-dimensional velocity field immediately downstream of a finite elliptic cylinder at a Reynolds number of 1.35×104. Numerical simulations were performed with the finite element package, Fidap, using the steady state, standard k-epsilon model. The ratio of the cylinder height to the major axis of the elliptical cross section is 5.0;

Michael R. Flynn; Alfred D. Eisner

2004-01-01

214

Verification and validation studies of the time-averaged velocity field in the very near-wake of a finite elliptical cylinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents verification and validation results for the time-averaged, three-dimensional velocity field immediately downstream of a finite elliptic cylinder at a Reynolds number of 1.35 × 104. Numerical simulations were performed with the finite element package, Fidap, using the steady state, standard k-epsilon model. The ratio of the cylinder height to the major axis of the elliptical cross section

Michael R. Flynn; Alfred D. Eisner

2004-01-01

215

Normal Component of Induced Velocity for Entire Field of a Uniformly Loaded Lifting Rotor with Highly Swept Wake as Determined by Electromagnetic Analog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Values of the normal component of induced velocity throughout the entire field of a uniformly loaded r(rotor at high high speed are presented in the form of charts and tables. Many points were found by an electromagnetic analog, details of which are given. Comparisons of computed and analog values for the induced velocity indicate that the latter are sufficiently accurate for engineering purposes.

Castles, Walter, Jr.; Durham, Howard L., Jr.; Kevorkian, Jirair

1959-01-01

216

Suppressing feedback in a distributed video coding system by employing real field codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-view distributed video coding (DVC) is a video compression method that allows for the computational complexity of the system to be shifted from the encoder to the decoder. The reduced encoding complexity makes DVC attractive for use in systems where processing power or energy use at the encoder is constrained, for example, in wireless devices and surveillance systems. One of the biggest challenges in implementing DVC systems is that the required rate must be known at the encoder. The conventional approach is to use a feedback channel from the decoder to control the rate. Feedback channels introduce their own difficulties such as increased latency and buffering requirements, which makes the resultant system unsuitable for some applications. Alternative approaches, which do not employ feedback, suffer from either increased encoder complexity due to performing motion estimation at the encoder, or an inaccurate rate estimate. Inaccurate rate estimates can result in a reduced average rate-distortion performance, as well as unpleasant visual artifacts. In this paper, the authors propose a single-view DVC system that does not require a feedback channel. The consequences of inaccuracies in the rate estimate are addressed by using codes defined over the real field and a decoder employing successive refinement. The result is a codec with performance that is comparable to that of a feedback-based system at low rates without the use of motion estimation at the encoder or a feedback path. The disadvantage of the approach is a reduction in average rate-distortion performance in the high-rate regime for sequences with significant motion.

Louw, Daniel J.; Kaneko, Haruhiko

2013-12-01

217

Wind tunnel measurements in the wake of a simple structure in a simulated atmospheric flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of longitudinal mean velocity and turbulence intensity were made in the wake of a rectangular model building in a simulated atmospheric boundary-layer wind. The model building was a 1:50 scale model of a structure used in a wake measurement program at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center 8-tower boundary-layer facility. The approach wind profile and measurement locations were chosen to match the field site conditions. The wakes of the building in winds from azimuths of 0 and 47 degrees referenced to the normal to the building long axis were examined. The effect of two lines of trees upwind of the building on the wake and the importance of the ratio of the building height to boundary-layer thickness on the extent of the wake were determined.

Hansen, A. C.; Peterka, J. A.; Cermak, J. E.

1975-01-01

218

Vortex wake and exhaust plume interaction, including ground effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational modeling and studies of the near-field wake-vortex turbulent flows, far-field turbulent wake- vortex/exhaust-plume interaction for subsonic and High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) airplane, and wake- vortex/exhaust-plume interaction with the ground are carried out. The three-dimensional, compressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are solved using the implicit, upwind, Roe-flux-differencing, finite-volume scheme. The turbulence models of Baldwin and Lomax, one-equation model of Spalart and Allmaras and two-equation shear stress transport model of Menter are implemented with the RANS solver for turbulent-flow modeling. For the near-field study, computations are carried out on a fine grid for a rectangular wing with a NACA-0012 airfoil section and a rounded tip. The focus of study is the tip-vortex development, the near-wake-vortex roll-up, and validation of the results with the available experimental data. For the far-field study, the computations of wake-vortex interaction with the exhaust-plume of a single engine of a medium-size subsonic aircraft in a holding condition and two engines of a HSCT in a cruise condition are carried out using an overlapping zonal method for several miles downstream. The overlapping zonal method has been carefully developed and investigated for accurate and efficient calculations of the far-field wake-vortex flow. The results of the subsonic flow are compared with those of a Parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) solver known as the UNIWAKE code. Next, the problem of wake-vortex/ground interaction is investigated. For the simulation of this problem, typical velocity profiles of a tip vortex with and without the exhaust-plume temperature profiles are used for inflow boundary conditions and the computations are carried out using the overlapping zonal method for long distances downstream. The effects of the exhaust-plume temperature on the vortex descent, ground boundary-layer separation, vortex rebound and vortex decay are studied and validated with the available experimental data. A parametric study, which covers the effects of atmospheric conditions such as axial wind, crosswind, wind shear, turbulence and, Reynolds number on vortex motion and dynamics near the ground, is also carried out.

Adam, Ihab Gaber

219

Journal of Superconductivity: Incorporating Novel Magnetism, Vol. 16, No. 1, February 2003 ( C 2003) Electric Field Induced Suppression of the Magnetoresistance  

E-print Network

) Electric Field Induced Suppression of the Magnetoresistance of Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor Trilayers Z. G reduce the magnetoresistance observable in a recent experiment on magnetic-semiconductor­ nonmagnetic-semiconductor­magnetic-semiconductor trilayers. KEY WORDS: magnetoresistance; semiconductor spintronics; spin transport. 1. INTRODUCTION

Flatte, Michael E.

220

Prediction and Control of Vortex Dominated and Vortex-wake Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the activities and accomplishments under this research grant, including a list of publications and dissertations, produced in the field of prediction and control of vortex dominated and vortex wake flows.

Kandil, Osama

1996-01-01

221

Brain mechanisms that control sleep and waking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review paper presents a brief historical survey of the technological and early research that laid the groundwork for recent advances in sleep-waking research. A major advance in this field occurred shortly after the end of World War II with the discovery of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) as the neural source in the brain stem of the waking state. Subsequent research showed that the brain stem activating system produced cortical arousal via two pathways: a dorsal route through the thalamus and a ventral route through the hypothalamus and basal forebrain. The nuclei, pathways, and neurotransmitters that comprise the multiple components of these arousal systems are described. Sleep is now recognized as being composed of two very different states: rapid eye movements (REMs) sleep and non-REM sleep. The major findings on the neural mechanisms that control these two sleep states are presented. This review ends with a discussion of two current views on the function of sleep: to maintain the integrity of the immune system and to enhance memory consolidation.

Siegel, Jerome

222

Non-linear Plasma Wake Growth of Electron Holes  

E-print Network

An object's wake in a plasma with small Debye length that drifts \\emph{across} the magnetic field is subject to electrostatic electron instabilities. Such situations include, for example, the moon in the solar wind wake and probes in magnetized laboratory plasmas. The instability drive mechanism can equivalently be considered drift down the potential-energy gradient or drift up the density-gradient. The gradients arise because the plasma wake has a region of depressed density and electrostatic potential into which ions are attracted along the field. The non-linear consequences of the instability are analysed in this paper. At physical ratios of electron to ion mass, neither linear nor quasilinear treatment can explain the observation of large-amplitude perturbations that disrupt the ion streams well before they become ion-ion unstable. We show here, however, that electron holes, once formed, continue to grow, driven by the drift mechanism, and if they remain in the wake may reach a maximum non-linearly stable...

Hutchinson, I H; Zhou, C

2015-01-01

223

Carbon nanotube feedback-gate field-effect transistor: suppressing current leakage and increasing on/off ratio.  

PubMed

Field-effect transistors (FETs) based on moderate or large diameter carbon nanotubes (CNTs) usually suffer from ambipolar behavior, large off-state current and small current on/off ratio, which are highly undesirable for digital electronics. To overcome these problems, a feedback-gate (FBG) FET structure is designed and tested. This FBG FET differs from normal top-gate FET by an extra feedback-gate, which is connected directly to the drain electrode of the FET. It is demonstrated that a FBG FET based on a semiconducting CNT with a diameter of 1.5 nm may exhibit low off-state current of about 1 × 10(-13) A, high current on/off ratio of larger than 1 × 10(8), negligible drain-induced off-state leakage current, and good subthreshold swing of 75 mV/DEC even at large source-drain bias and room temperature. The FBG structure is promising for CNT FETs to meet the standard for low-static-power logic electronics applications, and could also be utilized for building FETs using other small band gap semiconductors to suppress leakage current. PMID:25545108

Qiu, Chenguang; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhong, Donglai; Si, Jia; Yang, Yingjun; Peng, Lian-Mao

2015-01-27

224

Suppression of weak antilocalization in an AlxGa1-xN/GaN two-dimensional electron gas by an in-plane magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the suppression of weak antilocalization in an AlxGa1-xN/GaN two-dimensional electron gas in the presence of an additional in-plane magnetic field. By comparing our experimental data to a theoretical model, we concluded that the suppression can be attributed mainly to the Zeeman effect, while the contribution due to disorder at the AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterointerface is considerably smaller. Furthermore, our results give further evidence for the value of spin-orbit scattering length determined from weak antilocalization measurements.

Cabañas, S.; Schäpers, Th.; Thillosen, N.; Kaluza, N.; Guzenko, V. A.; Hardtdegen, H.

2007-05-01

225

Compressor and fan wake characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A triaxial probe and a rotating conventional probe, mounted on a traverse gear operated by two step motors were used to measure the mean velocities and turbulence quantities across a rotor wake at various radial locations and downstream stations. The data obtained was used in an analytical model developed to study how rotor flow and blade parameters and turbulence properties such as energy, velocity correlations, and length scale affect the rotor wake characteristics and its diffusion properties. The model, includes three dimensional attributes, can be used in predicting the discrete as well as broadband noise generated in a fan rotor, as well as in evaluating the aerodynamic losses, efficiency and optimum spacing between a rotor and stator in turbomachinery.

Reynolds, B.; Hah, C.; Lakshminarayana, B.; Ravindranath, A.

1978-01-01

226

Wake Characteristics of a Single Turbine During the CWEX-10/11 Crop Wind-Energy EXperiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 2010 and 2011 for the Crop Wind-energy EXperiment (CWEX), flux stations measured differences in micrometeorology upstream and downstream of a single turbine within a large wind farm in Iowa. Profiling LiDARs were positioned upwind and downwind of a single turbine for two months in 2011 to document the wake profiles of mean wind speed and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). Nacelle-based measurements of wind speed, wind direction, and power produced verified the likely presence of a wake above the downwind flux station. As described in the CWEX overview paper (Rajewski et al. 2013) the flux stations detected (1) turbine-wake events for wakes overhead but not intersecting the surface, (2) wakes with a direct surface influence, and (3) flow perturbations caused by the static pressure field around a line of turbines. We refine our conceptual model of wind turbine flow by comparing downwind-upwind flux and profile station differences for categories of waked and non-waked flow according to turbine hub-height speed and direction, ambient thermal stratification, and the operating status of the turbines. For nighttime stable conditions (some for which a low level jet is present) we measured both within the rotor depth and at the surface higher turbulence and stronger intermittency of the flow on the wake edges as compared to the wake core. We additionally observe frequent periods with 20-30° of directional shear from the surface to the top of the rotor as evidenced by a downwind flux station in non-waked flow with concurrent LiDAR measurement of a wake in the rotor layer. Momentum power spectra and co-spectra of 20-Hz surface data corroborate with previous wind tunnel and numerical simulations of wake turbulence with higher energy intensity but at reduced scales than for non-waked conditions. The spectra demonstrate a return to ambient flow when the wind farm is brought offline.

Rajewski, D. A.; Takle, E. S.; Lundquist, J. K.; Rhodes, M. E.; Prueger, J. H.; Oncley, S. O.; Horst, T. W.; Pfeiffer, R.; Hatfield, J.; Spoth, K. K.; Doorenbos, R. K.

2013-12-01

227

Neurons containing orexin or melanin concentrating hormone reciprocally regulate wake and sleep  

PubMed Central

Neurons containing orexin (hypocretin), or melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) are intermingled with each other in the perifornical and lateral hypothalamus. Each is a separate and distinct neuronal population, but they project to similar target areas in the brain. Orexin has been implicated in regulating arousal since loss of orexin neurons is associated with the sleep disorder narcolepsy. Microinjections of orexin into the brain or optogenetic stimulation of orexin neurons increase waking. Orexin neurons are active in waking and quiescent in sleep, which is consistent with their role in promoting waking. On the other hand, the MCH neurons are quiet in waking but active in sleep, suggesting that they could initiate sleep. Recently, for the first time the MCH neurons were stimulated optogenetically and it increased sleep. Indeed, optogenetic activation of MCH neurons induced sleep in both mice and rats at a circadian time when they should be awake, indicating the powerful effect that MCH neurons have in suppressing the wake-promoting effect of not only orexin but also of all of the other arousal neurotransmitters. Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is coexpressed with MCH in the MCH neurons, although MCH is also inhibitory. The inhibitory tone of the MCH neurons is opposite to the excitatory tone of the orexin neurons. We hypothesize that strength in activity of each determines wake vs. sleep. PMID:25620917

Konadhode, Roda Rani; Pelluru, Dheeraj; Shiromani, Priyattam J.

2015-01-01

228

Ship wake signatures in radar/optical images of the sea surface: observations and physical mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ship wakes can be clearly seen in satellite radar and optical images of the sea surface, and understanding of physical mechanisms responsible for the wake signatures is very important to develop methods of ship detection/identification. The wake surface signatures at small and intermediate stages are characterized by a smooth centerline area where surface waves are depressed due to the vessel turbulence and by a pair of rough bands at the sides of the centerline wake. At large wake ages two slick bands (a "railroad track" wake) appear instead of the rough bands, while the smooth centerline band is practically absent. In this paper results of field studies of the mean flow structure near the wake are presented. It is shown that two mean circulating currents ("rolls") rotating in the opposite directions are formed at two sides of the median vertical plane of the wake. Near the water surface the rolls result in diverging horizontal flows, decreasing near the wake edges. Wind waves propagating against the diverging currents are amplified due to a wave straining mechanism thus increasing the surface roughness. Film sampling was carried out when crossing the wakes and analysis of films collected within the "railroad" slick bands and outside the bands has revealed enhanced surface wave damping, obviously due to accumulation of surfactants in the slick bands; the surfactant compression is explained by the action of the diverging currents. The diverging currents as part of the rolls and the surfactant transport to the water surface are supposed to be associated with air bubbles generated by ship propellers.

Ermakov, S.; Kapustin, I.; Lazareva, T.

2014-10-01

229

Neurophysiology of sleep and wakefulness.  

PubMed

Wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep are three distinct states of existence. Each state has characteristic behavioral and physiologic patterns,and each has specific neurophysiologic mechanisms associated with its generation and control. Structures in the brainstem use various neurotransmitters to influence higher brain structures in the midbrain and cortex. The ARAS provides cholinergic, noradrenergic, and glutaminergic stimulation to the thalamus, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain resulting in cholinergic and glutaminergic excitation of the cortex. An active cortex that exhibits a characteristic pattern of desynchronized EEG manifests wakefulness. Various factors affect the need and timing of sleep onset. These factors influence the nucleus tractus solitarius, causing its noradrenergic projections to midbrain and forebrain structures to inhibit activity in the ARAS, resulting inactivation of inhibitory GABAergic thalamocortical projections to the cor-tex. During a state of decreased activation, the cortex exhibits a pattern of synchronized EEG. Transition between NREM sleep and REM sleep is controlled by noradrenergic neurons in the loci coeruleus and serotoninergic neurons in the raphe called REM-off cells and cholinergic neurons in the nucleus reticularis pontis oralis called REM-on cells. Other brain structures are involved in generation and control of REM sleep-related phenomena, such as eye movement and muscle atonia. During wakefulness, there is increased sympathetic tone and decreased parasympathetic tone that maintains most organ systems in a state of action or readiness. During NREM sleep, there is decreased sympathetic tone and increased parasympathetic activity that creates a state of reduced activity. REM sleep is characterized by increased parasympathetic activity and variable sympathetic activity associated with increased activation of certain brain functions. The states of wakefulness and sleep are characterized as stages that are defined by stereotypical EEG, EMG, and EOG patterns. Wakefulness stage has an EEG pattern predominated by the alpha rhythm. With onset of stage 1 sleep, the alpha rhythm attenuates, and an EEG pattern of relatively low voltage and mixed frequency is seen. Progression to stage 2 sleep is defined by the appearance of sleep spindles or K-complexes. Further progression into the deepest sleep stages 3 and 4 is defined by the occurrence of high-amplitude, low-frequency EEG activity. The progression of sleep stages occurs in cycles of 60 to 120 minutes throughout the sleep period. Various circadian environmental and ontologic factors affect the pattern of sleep stage occurrence. PMID:16303589

Harris, Cameron D

2005-12-01

230

Wind-Tunnel Simulation of the Wake of a Large Wind Turbine in a Stable Boundary Layer: Part 2, the Wake Flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements have been made in the wake of a model wind turbine in both a neutral and a stable atmospheric boundary layer, in the EnFlo stratified-flow wind tunnel, between 0.5 and 10 rotor diameters from the turbine, as part of an investigation of wakes in offshore winds. In the stable case the velocity deficit decreased more slowly than in the neutral case, partly because the boundary-layer turbulence levels are lower and the consequentially reduced level of mixing, an `indirect' effect of stratification. A correlation for velocity deficit showed the effect of stratification to be the same over the whole of the measured extent, following a polynomial form from about five diameters. After about this distance (for the present stratification) the vertical growth of the wake became almost completely suppressed, though with an increased lateral growth; the wake in effect became `squashed', with peaks of quantities occurring at a lower height, a `direct' effect of stratification. Generally, the Reynolds stresses were lower in magnitude, though the effect of stratification was larger in the streamwise fluctuation than on the vertical fluctuations. The vertical heat flux did not change much from the undisturbed level in the first part of the wake, but became much larger in the later part, from about five diameters onwards, and exceeded the surface level at a point above hub height.

Hancock, Philip E.; Pascheke, Frauke

2014-04-01

231

Statistical axisymmetry of the turbulent sphere wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The turbulent sphere wake is studied experimentally at using an axisymmetric support that holds the body from upstream. This setup allows the axisymmetry of the mean wake and preserves the global mode activity at . The analysis of the PIV snapshots in a cross-flow plane indicates that this axisymmetry is due to an equal exploration of all the azimuths by the instantaneous wake. Using conditional averaging techniques, we extract the flow topology associated with one azimuthal direction; the obtained wake shows strong similarities with the unsteady planar symmetric flow reported in the laminar regime. In addition, the use of perturbations of the axisymmetry leads to modifications of the azimuthal statistics: The periodicity of the perturbation is recovered in the wake since one or several preferred orientations are identified. Hence, such statistics pave the way to multi-stable behaviors in three-dimensional wakes.

Grandemange, M.; Gohlke, M.; Cadot, O.

2014-11-01

232

Evaluation of Fast-Time Wake Vortex Models using Wake Encounter Flight Test Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a methodology for the integration and evaluation of fast-time wake models with flight data. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted detailed flight tests in 1995 and 1997 under the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System Program to characterize wake vortex decay and wake encounter dynamics. In this study, data collected during Flight 705 were used to evaluate NASA's fast-time wake transport and decay models. Deterministic and Monte-Carlo simulations were conducted to define wake hazard bounds behind the wake generator. The methodology described in this paper can be used for further validation of fast-time wake models using en-route flight data, and for determining wake turbulence constraints in the design of air traffic management concepts.

Ahmad, Nashat N.; VanValkenburg, Randal L.; Bowles, Roland L.; Limon Duparcmeur, Fanny M.; Gloudesman, Thijs; van Lochem, Sander; Ras, Eelco

2014-01-01

233

Towards a Simplified Dynamic Wake Model using POD Analysis  

E-print Network

We apply the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to large eddy simulation data of a wind turbine wake in a turbulent atmospheric boundary layer. The turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. Our analyis mainly focuses on the question whether POD could be a useful tool to develop a simplified dynamic wake model. The extracted POD modes are used to obtain approximate descriptions of the velocity field. To assess the quality of these POD reconstructions, we define simple measures which are believed to be relevant for a sequential turbine in the wake such as the energy flux through a disk in the wake. It is shown that only a few modes are necessary to capture basic dynamical aspects of these measures even though only a small part of the turbulent kinetic energy is restored. Furthermore, we show that the importance of the individual modes depends on the measure chosen. Therefore, the optimal choice of modes for a possible model could in principle depend on the application of interest. We additionally present a pos...

Bastine, David; Wächter, Matthias; Peinke, Joachim

2014-01-01

234

Detection of wind wakes offshore from satellite SAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study is presented on the mapping of ocean wind fields for detection of wind wakes downstream of an offshore wind farm. The study is based on ERS-2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) scenes obtained in 2003 over Horns Reef in the North Sea. A large offshore wind farm (80 wind turbines) is located 14-20 km offshore of Denmark on this submerged reef. Meteorological observations are available from an offshore mast; wind speed is measured at four heights up to 62 m and wind direction is measured at 60 m. Maps of wind speed are generated from geophysical model functions (CMOD-4, CMOD-IFR2) with a resolution of 400 m by 400 m using wind direction obtained from in-situ measurements as model input. The wind maps display zones of reduced mean wind speed downstream of the wind farm compared to upwind conditions. The reduction is approximately 10 % immediately behind the wind farm and the wake effect is vanishing over distances in the order of 10 km downstream. This is consistent with wake model predictions. Satellite SAR provides a good estimate of the propagation of wind wakes. Information on how structures affect the local wind climate is useful for wind energy purposes, particularly for siting of future offshore wind farms.

Christiansen, M. B.; Hasager, C. B.

235

Effect of differential spoiler settings (DSS) on the wake vortices of a wing at high-lift-configuration (HLC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation has been carried out to evaluate the capabilities of differential spoiler setting (DSS) in modifying the wingspan loading. The particle image velocimetery (PIV) technique was used in a low speed wind tunnel facility to measure wake velocities at four locations downstream of the half model in the near wake field. The model was investigated at a high

Omer A. Elsayed; Ashraf A. Omar; Waqar Asrar; Kijung Kwon

2011-01-01

236

Wake effects and Mach cones behind objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wake formation behind objects in flowing plasmas is studied for supersonic flow velocities by numerical simulations. The objects are charged self-consistently by plasma currents. The wake structures and Mach cones are studied for various system conditions in the context of wake interactions with other objects, such as dust grains. Additional photoemission currents can lead to a positive charge on the object and significantly modify the wake. The analysis is carried out in two and three dimensions with particle-in-cell numerical codes.

Miloch, Wojciech J.

2010-12-01

237

Electromagnetic scattering model of the Kelvin wake and turbulent wake by a moving ship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking the attenuation character of the Kelvin wake and the limitation of the traditional two-scale method into account, the practical electromagnetic (EM) scattering model of the Kelvin wake is obtained by using a facet-based model; and for a turbulent ship wake, it is produced by dealing with the wave energy loss rate due to turbulence with the width of turbulent

Rong-Qing Sun; Gen Luo; Min Zhang; Chao Wang

2011-01-01

238

GPU Based Fast Free-Wake Calculations For Multiple Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Rotors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unsteady free-wake solutions of wind turbine flow fields involve computationally intensive interaction calculations, which generally limit the total amount of simulation time or the number of turbines that can be simulated by the method. This problem, however, can be addressed easily using high-level of parallelization. Especially when exploited with a GPU, a Graphics Processing Unit, this property can provide a significant computational speed-up, rendering the most intensive engineering problems realizable in hours of computation time. This paper presents the results of the simulation of the flow field for the NREL Phase VI turbine using a GPU-based in-house free-wake panel method code. Computational parallelism involved in the free-wake methodology is exploited using a GPU, allowing thousands of similar operations to be performed simultaneously. The results are compared to experimental data as well as to those obtained by running a corresponding CPU-based code. Results show that the GPU based code is capable of producing wake and load predictions similar to the CPU- based code and in a substantially reduced amount of time. This capability could allow free- wake based analysis to be used in the possible design and optimization studies of wind farms as well as prediction of multiple turbine flow fields and the investigation of the effects of using different vortex core models, core expansion and stretching models on the turbine rotor interaction problems in multiple turbine wake flow fields.

Türkal, M.; Novikov, Y.; Ü?enmez, S.; Sezer-Uzol, N.; Uzol, O.

2014-06-01

239

The 3-D wake measurements near a hovering rotor for determining profile and induced drag  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Primarily an experimental effort, this study focuses on the velocity and vorticity fields in the near wake of a hovering rotor. Drag terminology is reviewed, and the theory for separately determining the profile-and-induced-drag components from wake quantities is introduced. Instantaneous visualizations of the flow field are used to center the laser velocimeter (LV) measurements on the vortex core and to assess the extent of the positional mandering of the trailing vortex. Velocity profiles obtained at different rotor speeds and distances behind the rotor blade clearly indicate the position, size, and rate of movement of the wake sheet and the core of the trailing vortex. The results also show the distribution of vorticity along the wake sheet and within the trailing vortex.

Mcalister, K. W.; Schuler, C. A.; Branum, L.; Wu, J. C.

1995-01-01

240

Laser Wake Field Accelerator with Optical Injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical injection of electrons into laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) could result in high quality, high energy electron beams. Two different experimental schemes of electron injector for LWFA are presented. The first one is to use the electrons accelerated from a self modulated LWFA as injector to a second LWFA. A low dispersion system of solenoidal and dipole magnets is used to select a mono-energetic electron beam for injection from the 1 to 10 MeV electrons generated by the SM-LWFA. The second scheme is to use the laser ionization and pondermotive acceleration (LIPA) electrons as the injector. The laser pulses that generate the injection electrons and the laser wakefield are derived from the NRL chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser using two different compressors. A 2 TW beam and a 10 TW beam will be derived and recombined at the injection and acceleration chamber. The energy of the accelerated electrons will be measured with a magnetic electron spectrometer. The experimental setup and the preliminary results of the experiments will be presented.

Kaganovich, D.; Ting, A.; Jones, T.; Gordon, D.; Eldridge, E.; Hubbard, R.; Sprangle, P.

2002-11-01

241

The interaction of a bluff body with a vortex wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical, experimental and numerical study is presented of the interaction of a vortex-wake created by an upstream blade with a downstream prismatic block. The aim of the study is to investigate the fundamentals of force and noise generation for this type of flow and explain how inter-object spacing affects the far-field noise level. A theoretical model, based on a compact form of Curle's formulation, is developed and shows that acoustically constructive or destructive interference is determined by the amplitude and phase of the forces on each object. Experimental and two-dimensional, unsteady numerical results of the vortex-wake interaction case are presented for several blade-block separation distances. Using a combination of experimental and numerical data, the theoretical model is able to explain observed variations in far-field noise level with blade-block separation distance. The numerical model accurately predicts the phase relationship between the unsteady forces on each object.

Leclercq, D. J. J.; Doolan, C. J.

2009-07-01

242

Investigation of the cylinder wake under spanwise periodic forcing with a segmented plasma actuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wake response to three-dimensional forcing of flow over a circular cylinder was studied. Spanwise-segmented dielectric-barrier discharge plasma actuators were mounted on the cylinder in a square wave pattern for active forcing of the cylinder wake. The buried electrodes were placed periodically to create a spanwise-modulated blowing profile, with the aim of targeting three-dimensional instabilities in the wake. Considerable spanwise variation in the wake was achieved, which was a direct consequence of the difference in the location of shed spanwise vortices from the cylinder, along with the generation of streamwise vorticity. Two distinct power levels were used for forcing the flow, with different flow response observed between the two conditions. With low power, the segmented forcing caused the large-scale spanwise structures in the forcing region to lead those in the no-forcing region, with an accompanying shift away from the centerline and generation of streamwise vorticity. While vortex shedding was not substantially attenuated with low-power forcing, the shedding in the near wake was significantly attenuated with high-power forcing. This attenuation in the shedding strength was accompanied by a decrease in the peak shedding frequency, indicating an increase in the formation length. High-power forcing caused elongation of the Kármán vortices due to the induced strain field and strong differential development of the wake shedding frequency. In both forcing regimes, the wake three-dimensionality increased as shown by the increased width of the spectral peaks.

Bhattacharya, S.; Gregory, James W.

2015-01-01

243

Kinetic energy entrainment in wind turbine and actuator disc wakes: an experimental analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present experimental study focuses on the comparison between the wake of a two-bladed wind turbine and the one of an actuator disk. The flow field at the middle plane of the wake is measured with a stereoscopic particle image velocimetry setup, in the low-speed Open Jet Facility wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology. The wind turbine wake is characterized by the complex dynamics of the tip vortex development and breakdown. Analysis of the flow statistics show anisotropic turbulent fluctuations in the turbine wake, with stronger components in the radial direction. The wake of the actuator disc is instead characterized by isotropic random fluctuations. The mixing process in the shear layer is further analysed in terms of flux of mean flow kinetic energy, to show the main differences between the kinetic energy entrainment in the actuator and the turbine wake. This project is intended to provide the basis for understanding the origin of the limitations of the current wake models based on the actuator disc assumption.

Lignarolo, L. E. M.; Ragni, D.; Simão Ferreira, C. J.; van Bussel, G. J. W.

2014-06-01

244

A Statistical Study of the Lunar Plasma Wake using ARTEMIS Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon does not have an intrinsic magnetic field and lacks the conductivity necessary to develop an induced magnetosphere. Therefore, the interaction of the Moon with the solar wind is dominated by impact absorption on the day side and the generation of a plasma wake on the night side. The ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun) spacecraft mission is a two-probe lunar mission derived from the THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions During Substorms) mission, repurposed to study the lunar space and planetary environment. Over the course of the mission there have been numerous passes of the ARTEMIS spacecraft through the lunar wake, starting on February 13, 2010. The wake fly-bys have occurred in a variety of orbit geometries and distances from the planet, ranging up to many lunar radii downstream. They have also occurred for a variety of external conditions. In this presentation, we will share a statistical study of the numerous wake-crossing events of the ARTEMIS probes, using data primarily from the ARTEMIS fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) and electrostatic analyzers (ESAs) to identify when the spacecraft entered and exited the wake. Using the morphology of the wake boundary, we will determine the spatial extent of the lunar wake as a function of distance behind the Moon and its response to external conditions.

Ames, W. F.; Brain, D.; Poppe, A.; Halekas, J. S.; Bonnell, J. W.; McFadden, J. P.; Glassmeier, K.; Angelopoulos, V.

2011-12-01

245

Wake structure measurements at the Mod-2 cluster test facility at Goodnoe Hills  

SciTech Connect

A field measurement progam was carried out at the cluster of three MOD-2 wind turbines located at Goodnoe Hills, Washington, to determine the rate of decay of wake velocity deficit with downwind distance in various meteorological conditions. Measurements were taken at hub height (200 ft) between July 12 and August 1, 1982. Wake wind speeds were measured using a radiosonde suspended from a tethered balloon, its position being determined from a grid of ground stakes. Measurments were also made downwind with the turbine off to determine the magnitude of terrain-induced variations in wind speed. The balloon system used to measure downstream wind data proved to be reliable and convenient. Downstream distances of 900, 1500, 2100, and 2700 ft from the turbine were investigated. Differences between the instrumentation systems required that corrections be made to the data. After correction, averaged terrain-induced wind speed variations were regarded as insignificant. Turbine-on velocity ratios showed scatter, suggesting that only some measurements were, in fact, representative of wake centerline velocities, and that others were made off centerline due to wake meander or wind shift. Isolation of the high wind speed (30 to 45 mph) velocity ratios, however, revealed velocity deficits downstream. Measurements at greater downstream distances showed no wake deficit within the limits of resolution of the experiment, indicating that the wake had recovered to free stream conditions. Comparison with the AeroVironment wake model using common values for rotor drag coefficient and turbulence showed similar trends.

Lissaman, P.B.S.; Zambrano, T.G.; Gyatt, G.W.

1983-03-01

246

Field Evaluations of Augmentative Releases of Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) for Suppression of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) Infesting Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1992 and 1993, field evaluations were conducted to determine the efficacy of Delphastus catalinae (Horn) releases for the suppression of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring infesting cotton in the Imperial Valley of California. Augmentative releases of adult beetles, totaling 3.5 and 5.5 beetles per plant for 1992 and 1993, respectively, were made into four 0.2-hectare cotton plots and four

Kevin M. Heinz; James R. Brazzle; Michael P. Parrella; Charles H. Pickett

1999-01-01

247

Effects of Solar Wind Conditions on the Plasma Wake Within a Polar Crater: Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the solar wind sweeps horizontally past a shadowed lunar crater it simultaneously diffuses toward the surface through an ambipolar process, forming a plasma wake (e.g., Figure 1). Importantly, the resulting electric field structure diverts solar wind protons toward the cold crater floor where they may represent a source of surficial hydrogen. We present a handful of two-dimensional kinetic simulations exploring the range of wake structures and surface particle fluxes possible under various background plasma conditions.

Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.

2011-01-01

248

Near-wake vortex motions behind a circular cylinder at low Reynolds number  

Microsoft Academic Search

A topological point of view is taken to investigate vortex motions in the near-wake region of a circular cylinder, where the Taylor hypothesis does not hold. Three-dimensional flow fields in the wake-transition regime are constructed by synthesizing time-resolved PIV data obtained in several planes of view. The convection velocities of the Kármán and secondary vortices are evaluated from the trajectories

J. Sung; J. Y. Yoo

2003-01-01

249

Experimental study of low precessing frequencies in the wake of a turbulent annular jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the flow structure in the wake behind the centrebody of an annular jet using time-resolved stereoscopic\\u000a PIV measurements. Although the time-averaged flow field is symmetric, the instantaneous wake is asymmetric. It consists of\\u000a a central toroidal vortex (CTV), which closes downstream at the stagnation point. This stagnation point lies off-axis and\\u000a hence the axis of the CTV

Maarten Vanierschot; Eric Van den Bulck

2011-01-01

250

Pluto's Plasma Wake Oriented Away from the Ecliptic Plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conditions similar to those observed in the solar wind interaction with Venus and Mars with a planetary atmosphere and in the absence of an intrinsic magnetic field should also be applicable to Pluto. With up to 24 ?bars inferred for the Pluto atmosphere it is possible that the feeble solar photon radiation flux that reaches by its orbit, equivalent to ~10-3 of that at earth, is sufficient to produce an ionization component that can be eroded by the solar wind. In view of the reduced solar wind density (~ 10-3 with respect to that by 1 AU) that should be available by Pluto its kinetic energy will be significantly smaller than that by earth. However, the parameter values that are implied for the interaction process between the solar wind and the local upper ionosphere are sufficient to produce a plasma wake that should extend downstream from Pluto. In view of its low gravity force the plasma wake should have a wider cross-section than that in the Venus and Mars plasma environment. Since Pluto rotates with its rotational axis tilted close to its orbital plane the plasma wake will be influenced by a Magnus force that is nearly north-south oriented. That force will be responsible for propelling the plasma wake with a component that can be directed away from the ecliptic plane. It is estimated that transport of solar wind momentum to the upper Pluto's ionosphere implies rotation periods smaller than that of the solid body, and thus larger values of the Magnus force that can increase the orientation of the plasma wake away from the ecliptic plane.

Perez De Tejada, H. A.; Durand-Manterola, H.; Lundin, R. N.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.

2013-12-01

251

Pluto's plasma wake oriented away from the ecliptic plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conditions similar to those observed in the solar wind interaction with Venus and Mars where there is a planetary atmosphere in the absence of a global intrinsic magnetic field may also be applicable to Pluto. With up to 24 ?bars inferred for the Pluto atmosphere it is possible that the feeble solar photon radiation flux that reaches by its orbit, equivalent to ?10-3 that at Earth, is sufficient to produce an ionization component that can be eroded by the solar wind. In view of the reduced solar wind density (?10-3 with respect to that at 1 AU) that should be available by Pluto its total kinetic energy will be significantly smaller than that at Earth. However, the parameter values that are implied for the interaction process between the solar wind and the local upper ionosphere are sufficient to produce a plasma wake that should extend downstream from Pluto. In view of its low gravity force the plasma wake should have a wider cross-section than that in the Venus and Mars plasma environment. Since Pluto rotates with the axis tilted ?30° away from the ecliptic plane the plasma wake will be influenced by a Magnus force that has a large component is the north-south solar polar direction. That force will be responsible for propelling the plasma wake with a component that can be directed away from that plane. It is estimated that transport of solar wind momentum to the upper Pluto's ionosphere implies rotation periods smaller than that of the solid body, and thus large values of the Magnus force that can increase the orientation of the plasma wake away from the ecliptic plane.

Pérez-de-Tejada, H.; Durand-Manterola, H.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.; Lundin, R.

2015-01-01

252

The Effect of Wake Passing on Turbine Blade Film Cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of upstream blade row wake passing on the showerhead film cooling performance of a downstream turbine blade has been investigated through a combination of experimental and computational studies. The experiments were performed in a steady-flow annular turbine cascade facility equipped with an upstream rotating row of cylindrical rods to produce a periodic wake field similar to that found in an actual turbine. Spanwise, chordwise, and temporal resolution of the blade surface temperature were achieved through the use of an array of nickel thin-film surface gauges covering one unit cell of showerhead film hole pattern. Film effectiveness and Nusselt number values were determined for a test matrix of various injectants, injectant blowing ratios, and wake Strouhal numbers. Results indicated a demonstratable reduction in film effectiveness with increasing Strouhal number, as well as the expected increase in film effectiveness with blowing ratio. An equation was developed to correlate the span-average film effectiveness data. The primary effect of wake unsteadiness was found to be correlated well by a chordwise-constant decrement of 0.094-St. Measurable spanwise film effectiveness variations were found near the showerhead region, but meaningful unsteady variations and downstream spanwise variations were not found. Nusselt numbers were less sensitive to wake and injection changes. Computations were performed using a three-dimensional turbulent Navier-Stokes code which was modified to model wake passing and film cooling. Unsteady computations were found to agree well with steady computations provided the proper time-average blowing ratio and pressure/suction surface flow split are matched. The remaining differences were isolated to be due to the enhanced mixing in the unsteady solution caused by the wake sweeping normally on the pressure surface. Steady computations were found to be in excellent agreement with experimental Nusselt numbers, but to overpredict experimental film effectiveness values. This is likely due to the inability to match actual hole exit velocity profiles and the absence of a credible turbulence model for film cooling.

Heidmann, James David

1996-01-01

253

Thrust Production and Wake Structure of an Actuated Lamprey Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thrust generation is studied for a flexible lamprey model which is actuated periodically to produce a streamwise traveling wave. Shape memory alloy actuators are used to achieve this deformation. The flow field is investigated using DPIV and flow visualization for a range of Strouhal numbers based on peak-to-peak amplitude of the trailing edge. The vortex kinematics in the spanwise and streamwise planes are examined, and a three-dimensional unsteady vortex model of the wake will be discussed.

Buchholz, James; Smits, Alexander

2004-11-01

254

Aircraft wake turbulence minimization by aerodynamic means  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper reviews NASA's efforts on wake vortex turbulence minimization by aerodynamic design or retrofit modifications to large transport aircraft. Theoretical and experimental (ground-based and flight) results are presented which show that the adverse effects of a vortex wake produced by a large aircraft on a small following aircraft can be reduced significantly.

Gessow, A.

1974-01-01

255

Periodic Wake Effects on Turbulent Juncture Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The horseshoe vortex (HV) that develops in juncture geometries with a turbulent approach flow has been shown to exhibit a periodic behavior that correlates with the bursting frequency of the impinging turbulent boundary layer. To examine the additional complication of impinging blade wakes on such juncture flows, as encountered in turbomachinery environments, periodic wakes were systematically introduced upstream of a

Daniel Sabatino; Charles Smith

2000-01-01

256

Determination of Wind Turbine Near-Wake Length Based on Stability Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical study on the wake behind a wind turbine is carried out focusing on determining the length of the near-wake based on the instability onset of the trailing tip vortices shed from the turbine blades. The numerical model is based on large-eddy simulations (LES) of the Navier-Stokes equations using the actuator line (ACL) method. The wake is perturbed by applying stochastic or harmonic excitations in the neighborhood of the tips of the blades. The flow field is then analyzed to obtain the stability properties of the tip vortices in the wake of the wind turbine. As a main outcome of the study it is found that the amplification of specific waves (traveling structures) along the tip vortex spirals is responsible for triggering the instability leading to wake breakdown. The presence of unstable modes in the wake is related to the mutual inductance (vortex pairing) instability where there is an out-of-phase displacement of successive helix turns. Furthermore, using the non-dimensional growth rate, it is found that the pairing instability has a universal growth rate equal to ?/2. Using this relationship, and the assumption that breakdown to turbulence occurs once a vortex has experienced sufficient growth, we provide an analytical relationship between the turbulence intensity and the stable wake length. The analysis leads to a simple expression for determining the length of the near wake. This expression shows that the near wake length is inversely proportional to thrust, tip speed ratio and the logarithmic of the turbulence intensity.

Sørensen, Jens N.; Mikkelsen, Robert; Sarmast, Sasan; Ivanell, Stefan; Henningson, Dan

2014-06-01

257

Large-scale vortex structures in turbulent wakes behind bluff bodies. I - Vortex formation processes. II - Far-wake structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase-averaged vector fields and the associated streamline patterns are presented for flow in the nominal plane of symmetry of the near wake of some nominally two-dimensional bluff bodies. Patterns in the cavity region are produced using data obtained with reasonably high resolution for 16 phases of the vortex-shedding cycle. The flows encountered are always three-dimensional, and mean flow patterns in

A. E. Perry; T. R. Steiner

1987-01-01

258

Monitoring Wake Vortices for More Efficient Airports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wake vortices are generated by all aircraft during flight. The larger the aircraft, the stronger the wake, so the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) separates aircraft to ensure wake turbulence has no effect on approaching aircraft. Currently, though, the time between planes is often larger than it needs to be for the wake to dissipate. This unnecessary gap translates into arrival and departure delays, but since the wakes are invisible, the delays are nearly inevitable. If, however, the separation between aircraft can be reduced safely, then airport capacity can be increased without the high cost of additional runways. Scientists are currently studying these patterns to identify and introduce new procedures and technologies that safely increase airport capacity. NASA, always on the cutting edge of aerospace research, has been contributing knowledge and testing to these endeavors.

2005-01-01

259

Bacillus megaterium A6 suppresses Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in the field and promotes oilseed rape growth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in The People’s Republic of China and other regions of the world. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the plant-growth promoting bacterium Bacillus megaterium A6 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen on oilseed rap...

260

Study for prediction of rotor/wake/fuselage interference. Part 2: Program users guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method was developed which permits the fully coupled calculation of fuselage and rotor airloads for typical helicopter configurations in forward flight. To do this, an iterative solution is carried out based on a conventional panel representation of the fuselage and a blade element representation of the rotor where fuselage and rotor singularity strengths are determined simultaneously at each step and the rotor wake is allowed to relax (deform) in response to changes in rotor wake loading and fuselage presence. On completion of the iteration, rotor loading and inflow, fuselage singularity strength (and, hence, pressure and velocity distributions) and rotor wake are all consistent. The results of a fully coupled calculation of the flow around representative helicopter configurations are presented. The effect of fuselage components on the rotor flow field and the overall wake structure is discussed as well as the aerodynamic interference between the different parts of the aircraft. Details of the computer program are given.

Clark, D. R.; Maskew, B.

1985-01-01

261

Study for prediction of rotor/wake/fuselage interference, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method was developed which allows the fully coupled calculation of fuselage and rotor airloads for typical helicopter configurations in forward flight. To do this, an iterative solution is carried out based on a conventional panel representation of the fuselage and a blade element representation of the rotor where fuselage and rotor singularity strengths are determined simultaneously at each step and the rotor wake is allowed to relax (deform) in response to changes in rotor wake loading and fuselage presence. On completion of the iteration, rotor loading and inflow, fuselage singularity strength (and, hence, pressure and velocity distributions) and rotor wake are all consistent. The results of a fully coupled calculation of the flow around representative helicopter configurations are presented. The effect of fuselage components on the rotor flow field and the overall wake structure is detailed and the aerodynamic interference between the different parts of the aircraft is discussed.

Clark, D. R.; Maskew, B.

1985-01-01

262

POD Analysis of a Wind Turbine Wake in a Turbulent Atmospheric Boundary Layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wake of a single wind turbine is modeled using an actuator disk model and large eddy simulations. As inflow condition a numerically generated turbulent atmospheric boundary layer is used. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is applied to a plane perpendicular to the main flow in the far wake of the turbine. Reconstructions of the field are investigated depending on the numbers of POD modes used. Even though a great number of modes is needed to recover a great part of the turbulent kinetic energy, our results indicate that relevant aspects of a wake flow can be recovered using only a few modes. Particularly, the dynamics of the average velocity over a potential disk in the wake can partially be captured using only three modes.

Bastine, D.; Witha, B.; Wächter, M.; Peinke, J.

2014-06-01

263

A Critical Review of the Transport and Decay of Wake Vortices in Ground Effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the transport and decay of wake vortices in ground effect and cites a need for a physics-based parametric model. The encounter of a vortex with a solid body is always a complex event involving turbulence enhancement, unsteadiness, and very large gradients of velocity and pressure. Wake counter in ground effect is the most dangerous of them all. The interaction of diverging, area-varying, and decaying aircraft wake vortices with the ground is very complex because both the vortices and the flow field generated by them are altered to accommodate the presence of the ground (where there is very little room to maneuver) and the background turbulent flow. Previous research regarding vortex models, wake vortex decay mechanisms, time evolution within in ground effect of a wake vortex pair, laminar flow in ground effect, and the interaction of the existing boundary layer with a convected vortex are reviewed. Additionally, numerical simulations, 3-dimensional large-eddy simulations, a probabilistic 2-phase wake vortex decay and transport model and a vortex element method are discussed. The devising of physics-based, parametric models for the prediction of (operational) real-time response, mindful of the highly three-dimensional and unsteady structure of vortices, boundary layers, atmospheric thermodynamics, and weather convective phenomena is required. In creating a model, LES and field data will be the most powerful tools.

Sarpkaya, T.

2004-01-01

264

Wake instabilities of a blunt trailing edge profiled body at intermediate Reynolds numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments have been conducted to identify and characterize the instabilities in the wake of a blunt trailing edge profiled body, comprised of an elliptical leading edge and a rectangular trailing edge, for a broad range of Reynolds numbers ( based on the thickness of the body). These experiments, which include measurements of the wake velocity field using hot-wire anemometry and particle image velocimetry, complement previous studies of the wake flow for the same geometry at lower and higher Reynolds numbers. The spatial characteristics of the primary wake instability (the von Kármán vortex street) are found to have relatively little variation in the range of Reynolds numbers investigated, in spite of the transition of the boundary layer upstream of the trailing edge from a laminar to a turbulent state. The dominant secondary instability, identified based on the structure of velocity and vorticity fields in the wake extracted using proper orthogonal decomposition, is found to have features similar to the ones described numerically and experimentally by Ryan et al. (J Fluid Mech 538:1-29, 2005), and Naghib-Lahouti et al. (Exp Fluids 52:1547-1566, 2012) at lower Reynolds numbers. The findings suggest that the spatial characteristics of the dominant primary and secondary wake flow instabilities have little dependence on the state of the flow upstream of the separation points, in spite of the distinct change in the normalized vortex shedding frequency upon the transition of the boundary layer.

Naghib-Lahouti, A.; Lavoie, P.; Hangan, H.

2014-07-01

265

Dynamic Hybrid Simulation of the Lunar Wake During ARTEMIS Crossing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of the highly dynamic solar wind with the Moon is simulated with the A.I.K.E.F. (Adaptive Ion Kinetic Electron Fluid) code for the ARTEMIS P1 flyby on February 13, 2010. The A.I.K.E.F. hybrid plasma simulation code is the improved version of the Braunschweig code. It is able to automatically increase simulation grid resolution in areas of interest during runtime, which greatly increases resolution as well as performance. As the Moon has no intrinsic magnetic field and no ionosphere, the solar wind particles are absorbed at its surface, resulting in the formation of the lunar wake at the nightside. The solar wind magnetic field is basically convected through the Moon and the wake is slowly filled up with solar wind particles. However, this interaction is strongly influenced by the highly dynamic solar wind during the flyby. This is considered by a dynamic variation of the upstream conditions in the simulation using OMNI solar wind measurement data. By this method, a very good agreement between simulation and observations is achieved. The simulations show that the stationary structure of the lunar wake constitutes a tableau vivant in space representing the well-known Friedrichs diagram for MHD waves.

Wiehle, S.; Plaschke, F.; Angelopoulos, V.; Auster, H.; Glassmeier, K.; Kriegel, H.; Motschmann, U. M.; Mueller, J.

2010-12-01

266

Computational Simulation of a Heavy Vehicle Trailer Wake  

SciTech Connect

To better understand the flow mechanisms that contribute to the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles, unsteady large-eddy simulations are performed to model the wake of a truncated trailer geometry above a no-slip surface. The truncation of the heavy vehicle trailer is done to reduce the computational time needed to perform the simulations. Both unsteady and time-averaged results are presented from these simulations for two grids. A comparison of velocity fields with those obtained from a wind tunnel study demonstrate that there is a distinct di.erence in the separated wake of the experimental and computational results, perhaps indicating the influence of the geometry simplification, turbulence model, boundary conditions, or other aspects of the chosen numerical approach.

Ortega, J M; Dunn, T; McCallen, R; Salari, K

2002-12-04

267

Three-dimensional lunar wake reconstructed from ARTEMIS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

from the two-spacecraft Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun mission to the Moon have been exploited to characterize the lunar wake with unprecedented fidelity. The differences between measurements made by a spacecraft in the solar wind very near the Moon and concurrent measurements made by a second spacecraft in the near lunar wake are small but systematic. They enabled us to establish the perturbations of plasma density, temperature, thermal, magnetic and total pressure, field, and flow downstream of the Moon to distances of 12 lunar radii (RM). The wake disturbances are initiated immediately behind the Moon by the diamagnetic currents at the lunar terminator. Rarefaction waves propagate outward at fast MHD wave velocities. Beyond ~6.5 RM, all plasma and field parameters are poorly structured which suggests the presence of instabilities excited by counter-streaming particles. Inward flowing plasma accelerated through pressure gradient force and ambipolar electric field compresses the magnetic field and leads to continuous increase in magnitude of magnetic perturbations. Besides the downstream distance, the field perturbation magnitude is also a function of the solar wind ion beta and the angle between the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Both ion and electron temperatures increase as a consequence of an energy dispersion effect, whose explanation requires fully kinetic models. Downstream of the Moon, the IMF field lines are observed to bulge toward the Moon, which is unexpected and may be caused by a plasma pressure gradient force or/and the pickup of heavy charged dust grains behind the Moon.

Zhang, H.; Khurana, K. K.; Kivelson, M. G.; Angelopoulos, V.; Wan, W. X.; Liu, L. B.; Zong, Q.-G.; Pu, Z. Y.; Shi, Q. Q.; Liu, W. L.

2014-07-01

268

Characterization of a Three-Dimensional Turret Wake for Active Flow Control Part II: Experimental Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental measurements have been performed to characterize the wake of a three-dimensional, non-conformal turret. Experiments were performed in a low-speed wind tunnel at Syracuse University using particle image velocimetry, hotwire anemometry and dynamic and static pressure measurements. The objective of the study was to characterize the spatial and temporal nature of the wake region as well as to investigate the importance of the incoming flow field. Computational studies have been performed in conjunction with this work to help guide the experimental study and offer insight into the complex three-dimensional flow field. With a better understanding of the wake and three-dimensional characteristics of the turret flow field, closed-loop, active flow control systems will be developed to help reduce fluctuating loading and aero-optical distortions associated with the turbulent flow field.

Shea, Patrick; Ruscher, Christopher; Wallace, Ryan; Glauser, Mark; Dannenhoffer, John, III

2010-11-01

269

Wake formation behind a rolling sphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental flow visualizations are presented depicting the flow behind a spherical body moving on a plane wall. In the Reynolds number range of 100wake modes occur which are dependent on the imposed rotation rate of the body. Five different rotation rates are examined: two with forward rolling, one with pure translation (zero rotation), and two with reversed rolling. As the sphere undergoes forward rolling, steady and unsteady wake modes are observed which bear similarities to the flow behind an isolated sphere in a free stream. However, for cases with reversed and zero rotation of the sphere, a new antisymmetric wake mode is discovered.

Stewart, B. E.; Leweke, T.; Hourigan, K.; Thompson, M. C.

2008-07-01

270

Aircraft control in wake vortex wind shear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the past, there have been a number of fatal incidents attributable to wake vortex encounters, involving both general aviation and commercial aircraft. In fact, the wake vortex hazard is considered to be the single dominant safety issue determining the aircraft spacing requirements at airports. As the amount of air traffic increases, the number of dangerous encounters is likely only to increase. It is therefore imperative that a means be found to reduce the danger. That is the purpose of this research: to use nonlinear inverse dynamic (NID) control methods in the design of an aircraft control system which can improve the safety margin in a wake vortex encounter.

Wold, Gregory R.

1995-01-01

271

Interaction of wake turbulence with a free surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The turbulent wake of a flat plate aligned with a uniform water flow and extending through the free surface was investigated experimentally. Laser-Doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements show good agreement with published data for a two-dimensional wake, except in a shallow layer near the free surface. In this surface layer, the wake width is observed to double while the wake centerline

Larry M. Logory; Amir Hirsa; Douglas G. Anthony

1996-01-01

272

Exploring a flight deck based wake turbulence situational awareness tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

As NextGen concepts move toward increasing en route and terminal throughput, wake turbulence separation may become a limiting factor in the pursuit of capacity improvements. Better knowledge of the probable location of wakes (for air traffic controllers as well as pilots) could help provide safe separation from wake turbulence while avoiding unnecessary restrictions to operations. The Wake Turbulence Avoidance Automation

Clark Lunsford; Marshall Koch; H. Peter Stassen; Steven Estes; Brendan Hogan

2012-01-01

273

Scattering mechanism of aircraft wake vortices generated in clear air  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to provide help to the development of radar detection technology on wake vortices, the scattering mechanism of wake vortices is studied. The dielectric constant of wake vortices is divided into two terms regarding the density variation and water vapor variation, respectively. The effects of these two variations on the RCS of wake vortices are investigated to find the

Jianbing Li; Xuesong Wang; Tao Wang

2010-01-01

274

A new solution to waveguide excitation suppressing the effects of the radiated field. Application to the Y-junction  

Microsoft Academic Search

When an integrated optical component is asymmetrically excited, a radiated field is generated. Most of the time, the energy carried by the radiated field is lost. However, with high-level integration structures, this field can couple back into another waveguide and then disturb the operating conditions of the whole component. An original waveguide geometry that rapidly removes this radiated field is

Philippe Gérard; Alain Morand; Pierre Lemaître-Auger

1998-01-01

275

Results from the first lunar-wake flyby of ARTEMIS on wake potential, electron beams, and electrostatic waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon’s Interaction with the Sun) mission is a new two-probe lunar mission derived from the THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions During Substorms) mission. On Feb 13, 2010, one of the two probes, ARTEMIS P1 (formerly THEMIS-B), made the first lunar-wake flyby of the mission. Halekas et al. [2010] reported observations of electron beams and derived the wake potential along this flyby. They suggested that the electron beams result from the net potential across the wake. In this presentation, we will show that the net potential is a result of the asymmetric electron distribution function of the solar wind and the quasi-neutrality condition. The electric field waveforms of both low-frequency and high-frequency electrostatic waves associated with the electron beams from the on-board Electric Field Instrument (EFI) will be reported. The low-frequency waves around ion cyclotron frequency showed oblique propagation, and seemed to be associated with the deceleration of the electron beams. The high-frequency electrostatic waves had a broadband spectrogram that is consistent with beam mode. We derived the wave number of the high-frequency waves using high time-resolution EFI data, and performed 1D Vlasov simulations to study the generation mechanism of the high-frequency waves. The results of the simulations are consistent with the observations of the electron beams and the derived potential structure by Halekas, et al. [2010]. Reference: Halekas, et al., 2010. First results from ARTEMIS, a new two-spacecraft lunar mission: Counter-streaming plasma populations in the lunar plasma wake. Space Sci. Rev., submitted.

Tao, J.; Ergun, R. E.; Andersson, L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bonnell, J. W.; Newman, D. L.; McFadden, J. P.; Halekas, J. S.; Cully, C. M.; Glassmeier, K.; Roux, A.; Lecontel, O.; Larson, D. E.; Baumjohann, W.; Goldman, M. V.; Auster, H.

2010-12-01

276

Measurements on a wind turbine wake: 3D effects and bluff body vortex shedding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The velocity field in the wake of a two-bladed wind turbine model (diameter 180 mm) has been studied under different conditions using a two-component hot wire. All three velocity components were measured both for the turbine rotor normal to the oncoming flow as well as with the turbine inclined to the freestream direction (the yaw angle was varied from 0° to 20°). The measurements showed, as expected, a wake rotation in the opposite direction to that of the turbine. A yawed turbine is found to clearly deflect the wake flow to the side, showing the potential of controlling the wake by yawing the turbine. An unexpected feature of the flow was that spectra from the time signals showed the appearance of a low-frequency fluctuation both in the wake and in the flow outside the wake. This fluctuation was found both with and without freestream turbulence and also with a yawed turbine. The frequency expressed as a Strouhal number was shown to be independent of the freestream velocity or turbulence level, but the low frequency was only observed when the tip speed ratio (or equivalently the drag coefficient) was high. The shedding frequency changed also with the yaw angle. This is in agreement with the idea that the turbine sheds structures as a bluff body. The phenomenon, noticeable in all the velocity components, was further investigated using two-point cross-correlations of the velocity signals. Copyright

Medici, D.; Alfredsson, P. H.

2006-05-01

277

Effect of Velocity Ratio on the Streamwise Vortex Structures in the Wake of a Stack  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time-averaged velocity and streamwise vorticity fields within the wake of a short stack were investigated in a low-speed wind tunnel using a seven-hole pressure probe. The stack was mounted normal to a ground plane and was partially immersed in a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. The jet-to-cross-flow velocity ratio was varied from R = 0 to 3, which covered the downwash, cross-wind-dominated and jet-dominated flow regimes. In the downwash and cross-wind-dominated flow regimes, two pairs of counter-rotating streamwise vortex structures were identified within the stack wake. The tip-vortex pair and base-vortex pair were similar to those found in the wake of a finite circular cylinder, located close to the free end and the base of the stack, respectively. In the jet-dominated flow regime, a third pair of streamwise vortex structures was observed, referred to as the jet-wake vortex pair, which occurred within the jet-wake region above the free end of the stack. The jet-wake vortex pair has the same orientation as the base vortex pair and is associated with the jet rise.

Adaramola, M. S.; Sumner, D.; Bergstrom, D. J.

278

Analysis of long distance wakes behind a row of turbines - a parameter study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of the long distance wake behind a row of 10 turbines are conducted to predict wake recovery. The Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys3D is used in combination with the actuator disc concept. Neutral atmospheric conditions are assumed in combination with synthetic turbulence using the Mann method. Both the wind shear profile and turbulence are introduced into the flow field using body forces. Previous simulations using the same simulation method to model the Horns Rev wind farm showed a higher wake recovery at long distances compared to measurements. The current study investigates further the sensitivity to parameters such as the grid resolution, Reynolds number, the turbulence characteristics as well as the impact of using different internal turbine spacings. The clearest impact on the recovery behind the farm could be seen from the turbulence intensity of the incoming flow. The impact of the wind shear on the turbulence intensity in the domain needs further studies. A lower turbulence level gives slower wake recovery as expected. A slower wake recovery can also be seen for a higher grid resolution. The Reynolds number, apart from when using a very low value, has a small impact on the result. The variation of the internal spacing is seen to have a relatively minor impact on the farm wake recovery.

Eriksson, O.; Nilsson, K.; Breton, S.-P.; Ivanell, S.

2014-06-01

279

First lunar wake passage of ARTEMIS: Discrimination of wake effects and solar wind fluctuations by 3D hybrid simulations  

E-print Network

, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun) mission passed the lunar wakeFirst lunar wake passage of ARTEMIS: Discrimination of wake effects and solar wind fluctuations 17 January 2011 Accepted 20 January 2011 Available online 31 January 2011 Keywords: Moon Lunar wake

California at Berkeley, University of

280

PIV and LDA measurements of the wake behind a wind turbine model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work we review the results of a series of measurements of the flow behind a model scale of a horizontal axis wind turbine rotor carried out at the water flume at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The rotor is three-bladed and designed using Glauert theory for tip speed ratio ? =5 with a constant design lift coefficient along the span, CLdesign= 0.8. The measurements include dye visualization, Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser Doppler Anemometry. The wake instability has been studied in the range ? =3 - 9 at different cross-sections from the very near wake up to 10 rotor diameters downstream from the rotor. The initial flume flow was subject to a very low turbulence level with a uniform velocity profile, limiting the influence of external disturbances on the development of the inherent vortex instability. Using PIV measurements and visualizations, special attention was paid to detect and categorize different types of wake instabilities and the development of the flow in the near and the far wake. In parallel to PIV, LDA measurements provided data for various rotor regimes, revealing the existence of three main regular frequencies governing the development of different processes and instabilities in the rotor wake. In the far wake a constant frequency corresponding to the Strouhal number was found for the long-scale instabilities. This Strouhal number is in good agreement with the well-known constant that usually characterizes the oscillation in wakes behind bluff bodies. From associated visualizations and reconstructions of the flow field, it was found that the dynamics of the far wake is associated with the precession (rotation) of a helical vortex core. The data indicate that Strouhal number of this precession is independent of the rotor angular speed.

Naumov, I. V.; Mikkelsen, R. F.; Okulov, V. L.; Sørensen, J. N.

2014-06-01

281

Analysis of vortex wake encounter upsets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of an airplane being upset by encountering the vortex wake of a large transport on takeoff or landing is currently receiving considerable attention. This report describes the technique and results of a study to assess the effectiveness of automatic control systems in alleviating vortex wake upsets. A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear digital simulation was used for this purpose. The analysis included establishing the disturbance input due to penetrating a vortex wake from an arbitrary position and angle. Simulations were computed for both a general aviation airplane and a commercial jet transport. Dynamic responses were obtained for the penetrating aircraft with no augmentation, and with various command augmentation systems, as well as with human pilot control. The results of this preliminary study indicate that attitude command augmentation systems can provide significant alleviation of vortex wake upsets; and can do it better than a human pilot.

Johnson, W. A.; Teper, G. L.

1974-01-01

282

NASA Wake Vortex Research for Aircraft Spacing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several inter-related areas to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These areas include current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors, and operationally acceptable aircraft/wake interaction criteria. In today's ATC system, the AVOSS could inform ATC controllers when a fixed reduced separation becomes safe to apply to large and heavy aircraft categories. With appropriate integration into the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), AVOSS dynamic spacing could be tailored to actual generator/follower aircraft pairs rather than a few broad aircraft categories.

Perry, R. Brad; Hinton, David A.; Stuever, Robert A.

1996-01-01

283

Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.

Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don

2014-01-01

284

Investigation of aircraft vortex wake structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we analyze the mechanisms of formation of the vortex wake structure of aircraft with different wing shape in the plan flying close to or away from the underlying surface cleaned or released mechanization wing.

Baranov, N. A.; Turchak, L. I.

2014-11-01

285

Use of Individual Flight Corridors to Avoid Vortex Wakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vortex wakes of aircraft pose a hazard to following aircraft until the energetic parts of their flow fields have decayed to a harmless level. It is suggested here that in-trail spacings between aircraft can be significantly and safely reduced by designing an individual, vortex-free flight corridor for each aircraft. Because each aircraft will then have its own flight corridor, which is free of vortex wakes while in use by the assigned aircraft, the time intervals between aircraft operations can be safely reduced to the order of seconds. The productivity of airports can then be substantially increased. How large the offset distances between operational corridors need to be to have them vortex free, and how airports need to be changed to accommodate an individual flight-corridor process for landing and takeoff operations, are explored. Estimates are then made of the productivity of an individual flight-corridor system as a function of the in-trail time interval between operations for various values of wake decay time, runway width, and the velocity of a sidewind. The results confirm the need for short time intervals between aircraft operations if smaller offset distances and increased productivity are to be achieved.

Rossow, Vernon J.

2001-01-01

286

Mesoscale wake clouds in Skylab pictures.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recognition of cloud patterns formed in the wake of orographic obstacles was investigated using pictures from Skylab, for the purpose of estimating atmospheric motions. The existence of ship-wake-type wave clouds in contrast to vortex sheets were revealed during examination of the pictures, and an attempt was made to characterize the pattern of waves as well as the transition between waves and vortices. Examples of mesoscale cloud patterns which were analyzed photogrammetrically and meteorologically are presented.

Fujita, T. T.; Tecson, J. J.

1974-01-01

287

Wake-Vortex Hazards During Cruise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Even though the hazard posed by lift-generated wakes of subsonic transport aircraft has been studied extensively for approach and departure at airports, only a small amount of effort has gone into the potential hazard at cruise altitude. This paper reports on a studio of the wake-vortex hazard during cruise because encounters may become more prevalent when free-flight becomes available and each aircraft, is free to choose its own route between destinations. In order to address the problem, the various fluid-dynamic stages that vortex wakes usually go through as they age will be described along with estimates of the potential hazard that each stage poses. It appears that a rolling-moment hazard can be just as severe at cruise as for approach at airports, but it only persists for several minutes. However, the hazard posed by the downwash in the wake due to the lift on the generator aircraft persists for tens of minutes in a long narrow region behind the generating aircraft. The hazard consists of severe vertical loads when an encountering aircraft crosses the wake. A technique for avoiding vortex wakes at cruise altitude will be described. To date the hazard posed by lift-generated vortex wakes and their persistence at cruise altitudes has been identified and subdivided into several tasks. Analyses of the loads to be encounter and are underway and should be completed shortly. A review of published literature on the subject has been nearly completed (see text) and photographs of vortex wakes at cruise altitudes have been taken and the various stages of decay have been identified. It remains to study and sort the photographs for those that best illustrate the various stages of decay after they are shed by subsonic transport aircraft at cruise altitudes. The present status of the analysis and the paper are described.

Rossow, Vernon J.; James, Kevin D.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

288

Vortex interactions and decay in aircraft wakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamic interaction of aircraft wake vortices was investigated using both inviscid and viscous models. For the viscous model, a computer code was developed using a second-order closure model of turbulent transport. The phenomenon of vortex merging which results in the rapid aging of a vortex wake was examined in detail. It was shown that the redistribution of vorticity during merging results from both convective and diffusive mechanisms.

Bilanin, A. J.; Teske, M. E.; Dupdonaldson, C.; Williamson, G. G.

1977-01-01

289

Response of a circular cylinder wake to a symmetric actuation by non-thermal plasma discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the flow past a circular cylinder is manipulated by two plasma discharges placed on both sides of the model (at ±50°). A parametric investigation by force balance is conducted to define the sensitivity of the flow field to unsteady perturbations imparted by plasma actuators (dielectric barrier discharge) at 15.6 m/s ( Re D = 40,000). Effects of simple sinusoidal waveform, burst modulation and amplitude modulation are compared for low-frequency excitations. Regardless of the excitation mode, the cylinder experiences a large increase in the drag coefficient. The larger drag increase is observed for excitation related to the lock-on regime. Fast PIV measurements and triple decomposition by proper orthogonal decomposition are performed to extract the dynamical changes in the cylinder wake and to discriminate the control effects on the coherent and fluctuating turbulence. As expected, the control principally acts on the coherent flow structures. When forced, the vortices form closer to the base of the cylinder regardless of the actuation mode. This results in the drag increase observed by force measurements. The effectiveness of burst modulation is also due to the suppression of irregular shedding that is observed in the natural flow sequence and to a high level of correlation between the upper and lower vortex shedding. Finally, flow visualizations indicate that similar results can be obtained at higher Reynolds number ( Re D = 128,000, 50 m/s).

Benard, N.; Moreau, E.

2013-02-01

290

Wake-up effects in Si-doped hafnium oxide ferroelectric thin films  

SciTech Connect

Hafnium oxide based ferroelectric thin films have shown potential as a promising alternative material for non-volatile memory applications. This work reports the switching stability of a Si-doped HfO{sub 2} film under bipolar pulsed-field operation. High field cycling causes a “wake-up” in virgin “pinched” polarization hysteresis loops, demonstrated by an enhancement in remanent polarization and a shift of negative coercive voltage. The rate of wake-up is accelerated by either reducing the frequency or increasing the amplitude of the cycling field. We suggest de-pinning of domains due to reduction of the defect concentration at bottom electrode interface as origin of the wake-up.

Zhou, Dayu, E-mail: zhoudayu@dlut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory for Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Xu, Jin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Dalian Neusoft University of Information, Dalian 116023 (China)] [Department of Electronic Engineering, Dalian Neusoft University of Information, Dalian 116023 (China); Li, Qing; Guan, Yan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Cao, Fei; Dong, Xianlin [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Müller, Johannes [Fraunhofer IPMS-CNT, Koengisbruecker Strasse 180, 01109 Dresden (Germany)] [Fraunhofer IPMS-CNT, Koengisbruecker Strasse 180, 01109 Dresden (Germany); Schenk, Tony; Schröder, Uwe [Namlab gGmbH/TU Dresden, Noethnitzer Strasse 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany)] [Namlab gGmbH/TU Dresden, Noethnitzer Strasse 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

2013-11-04

291

An overview of experimental results and dispersion modelling of nanoparticles in the wake of moving vehicles.  

PubMed

Understanding the transformation of nanoparticles emitted from vehicles is essential for developing appropriate methods for treating fine scale particle dynamics in dispersion models. This article provides an overview of significant research work relevant to modelling the dispersion of pollutants, especially nanoparticles, in the wake of vehicles. Literature on vehicle wakes and nanoparticle dispersion is reviewed, taking into account field measurements, wind tunnel experiments and mathematical approaches. Field measurements and modelling studies highlighted the very short time scales associated with nanoparticle transformations in the first stages after the emission. These transformations strongly interact with the flow and turbulence fields immediately behind the vehicle, hence the need of characterising in detail the mixing processes in the vehicle wake. Very few studies have analysed this interaction and more research is needed to build a basis for model development. A possible approach is proposed and areas of further investigation identified. PMID:21193254

Carpentieri, Matteo; Kumar, Prashant; Robins, Alan

2011-03-01

292

Wakes in viscous quark-gluon plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the dielectric function derived from the chromohydrodynamic approach, we investigate wakes in induced charge density and wake potential induced by a fast parton traveling through the viscous quark-gluon plasma (QGP). When the fast parton moves with a speed v = 0.55c which is less than the phase velocity of plasmon vp in QGP, the equicharge lines show a sign flip in the backward-forward spaces. While for v = 0.99c which is larger than vp, the equicharge lines show an oscillatory behavior. A Lennard-Jones potential and an oscillatory wake potential are found in the backward direction for v = 0.55c and v = 0.99c respectively. In addition, the viscous effect on wakes is also speed-dependent. When v = 0.55c, shear viscosity has a trivial impact on the wakes. While for v = 0.99c, shear viscosity modifies the strength and structure of the wakes significantly.

Jiang, Bing-Feng; Hou, De-Fu; Li, Jia-Rong

2014-04-01

293

HISTAMINE IN THE REGULATION OF WAKEFULNESS  

PubMed Central

The histaminergic system is exclusively localized within the posterior hypothalamus with projection to almost all the major regions of the central nervous system. Strong and consistent evidence exist to suggest that histamine, acting via H1 and/or H3 receptor has a pivotal role in the regulation of sleep-wakefulness. Administration of histamine or H1 receptor agonists induced wakefulness, whereas administration of H1 receptor antagonists promoted sleep. The H3 receptor functions as an auto-receptor and regulates the synthesis and release of histamine. Activation of H3 receptor decreased histamine release and promoted sleep. Conversely, blockade of H3 receptor promoted wakefulness. Histamine release in the hypothalamus and other target regions was highest during wakefulness. The histaminergic neurons displayed maximal activity during the state of vigilance, and cease their activity during NREM and REM sleep. The cerebrospinal levels of histamine were reduced in diseased states where hypersomnolence was a major symptom. The histamine deficient HDC KO mice displayed sleep fragmentation and increased REM sleep during the light period along with profound wakefulness deficit at dark onset, and in novel environment. Similar results were obtained when histamine neurons were lesioned. These studies strongly implicate the histaminergic neurons of the TMN to play a critical role in the maintenance of high vigilance state during wakefulness. PMID:20851648

Thakkar, Mahesh M.

2010-01-01

294

Waking dreams and other metachoric experiences.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes the development of the concept of metachoric experiences from 1961 onwards. The name of metachoric experience was given to one in which the whole of the environment was replaced by a hallucinatory one, although this may provide a precise replica of the physical world and appear to be completely continuous with normal experience. Prior to 1968 three types of metachoric experiences had been recognized; lucid dreams, out-of-the-body experiences (OBEs) and false awakenings, all of which showed interrelationships. The Institute's 1968 appeal for apparitional experiences led to a recognition that many of these were probably metachoric. This was suggested among other things by certain cases in which the lighting of the whole field of view changes, thus indicating that the experience was completely hallucinatory. The study of apparitions led also to the concept of waking dreams, i.e. completely hallucinatory experiences which may be initiated and terminated without any awareness of discontinuity on the part of the subject. These experiences seem to be capable of considerable apparent extension in time, thus providing a possible explanation of some reports of UFO sightings and of some of the more anomalous experiences of psychical research. In this connection the paper discusses the well-known Versailles experience of Miss Moberly and Miss Jourdain, and a published case of C.G. Jung. In conclusion some of the most obvious similarities and differences between the different types of metachoric experiences are discussed. PMID:2374788

Green, C

1990-06-01

295

Abstract--This paper presents the comparison of sleep-wake classification using electroencephalogram (EEG) and  

E-print Network

/wake identification has been used both in clinical fields and personal health/wellness fields. Clinically, polysomnography (PSG) has been used to monitor sleep and identify sleep disorders in sleep labs as a gold standard multiple sensors (accelerometer, photoplethysmogram, etc). Due to advances in device technology, more

296

Comparison of an ARTEMIS lunar wake fly-by with a 1-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On February 13, 2010, the ARTEMIS P1 spacecraft flew through the lunar wake at approximately 3.5 lunar radii downstream from the Moon. Detailed measurements were made of the plasma and electromagnetic field environment, including a density depletion in the wake, counter-streaming ion beams, and electrostatic wave activity. Additionally, the combination of a tilted interplanetary magnetic field orientation and an asymmetric solar wind electron distribution caused a resulting spatial asymmetry in the generation of electron beams and electrostatic waves [Halekas et al, SSR, 2011]. Here, we simulate the ARTEMIS P1 wake crossing with a one-dimensional, electrostatic particle-in-cell code in order to (1) reproduce the general characteristics of the lunar wake fly-by, (2) include the effect of the asymmetric nature of the interplanetary magnetic field and electron distribution, and (3) study the effect of these asymmetries on the generation of electron beams and electrostatic waves.

Poppe, A.; Halekas, J. S.; Delory, G. T.; Angelopoulos, V.; Farrell, W. M.

2011-12-01

297

Analysis of the Radar Reflectivity of Aircraft Vortex Wakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radar has been proposed as a way to track wake vortices to reduce aircraft spacing and tests have revealed radar echoes from aircraft wakes in clear air. The results are always interpreted qualitatively using Tatarski's theory of weak scattering by isotropic atmospheric turbulence. The goal of the present work was to predict the value of the radar cross-section (RCS) using simpler models. This is accomplished in two steps. First, the refractive index is obtained. Since the structure of the aircraft wakes is different from atmospheric turbulence, three simple mechanisms specific to vortex wakes are considered: (1) Radial density gradient in a two-dimensional vortex, (2) three-dimensional fluctuations in the vortex cores, and (3) Adiabatic transport of the atmospheric fluid in a two-dimensional oval surrounding the pair of vortices. The index of refraction is obtained more precisely for the two-dimensional mechanisms than for the three-dimensional ones. In the second step, knowing the index of refraction, a scattering analysis is performed. Tatarski's weak scattering approximation is kept but the usual assumptions of a far-field and a uniform incident wave are dropped. Neither assumption is generally valid for a wake that is coherent across the radar beam. For analytical insight, a simpler approximation that invokes, in addition to weak scattering, the far-field and wide cylindrical beam assumptions, is also developed and compared with the more general analysis. The predicted RCS values for the oval surround the vortices (mechanism C) agree with the experiments of Bilson conducted over a wide range of frequencies. However, the predictions have a cut-off away from normal incidence which is not present in the measurements. Estimates suggest that this is due to turbulence in the baroclinic vorticity generated at the boundary of the oval. The reflectivity of a vortex itself (mechanism A) is comparable to that of the oval (mechanism C) but cuts-off at frequencies lower than those considered in all the experiments to date. The RCS of a vortex happens to peak at the frequency (about 49 MHz) where atmospheric radars (known as ST radars) operate and so the present prediction could be verified in the future. Finally , we suggest that hot engine exhaust could increase RCE by 40 db and reveal vortex circulation, provided its mixing with the surroundings is prevented in the laminarising flow of the vortices.

Shariff, Karim; Wray, Alan; Yan, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

298

[Sleep-wake regulation by prostaglandin D2 and adenosine].  

PubMed

Prostaglandin (PG) D2 and adenosine are potent endogenous somnogens that accumulate in the brain during prolonged wakefulness. Lipocalin-type PGD synthase (L-PGDS) catalyzes the isomerization of PGH2, a common precursor of various prostanoids, to produce PGD2. L-PGDS is localized in the leptomeninges, choroid plexus, and oligodendrocytes of the central nervous system. PGD2 stimulates DP1 receptors localized in the basal forebrain and increases the local extracellular concentration of adenosine, a paracrine signaling molecule, to promote sleep. Adenosine activates adenosine A2A receptor-expressing neurons in the basal forebrain and ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) and inhibits adenosine A1 receptor-possessing arousal neurons. Sleep-promoting neurons in the VLPO send inhibitory signals to suppress the histaminergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN); the histaminergic neurons contribute to arousal through histamine H1 receptors. GABAergic inhibition of TMN is involved in the induction of non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep by PGD2 and adenosine A2A agonists. The neural network between the VLPO and TMN is considered to play a key role in regulation of vigilance states. Administering an L-PGD inhibitor (SeCl4), DP1 antagonist (ONO-4127Na), or adenosine A2A receptor antagonist (caffeine) suppresses both non-REM and REM sleep, indicating that the PGD2-adenosine system is crucial for maintaining physiological sleep. Selective gene-deletion strategies based on Cre/loxP technology and focal RNA interference have been used for silencing the expression of the A2A receptor by local infection with adeno-associated virus carrying Cre-recombinase or short hairpin RNA. The results of these studies have shown that the A2Asubreceptors in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens are responsible for the effect of caffeine on wakefulness. PMID:22647469

Nagata, Nanae; Urade, Yoshihiro

2012-06-01

299

Do trout swim better than eels? Challenges for estimating performance based on the wake of self-propelled bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineers and biologists have long desired to compare propulsive performance for fishes and underwater vehicles of different sizes, shapes, and modes of propulsion. Ideally, such a comparison would be made on the basis of either propulsive efficiency, total power output or both. However, estimating the efficiency and power output of self-propelled bodies, and particularly fishes, is methodologically challenging because it requires an estimate of thrust. For such systems traveling at a constant velocity, thrust and drag are equal, and can rarely be separated on the basis of flow measured in the wake. This problem is demonstrated using flow fields from swimming American eels, Anguilla rostrata, measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and high-speed video. Eels balance thrust and drag quite evenly, resulting in virtually no wake momentum in the swimming (axial) direction. On average, their wakes resemble those of self-propelled jet propulsors, which have been studied extensively. Theoretical studies of such wakes may provide methods for the estimation of thrust separately from drag. These flow fields are compared with those measured in the wakes of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. In contrast to eels, these fishes produce wakes with axial momentum. Although the net momentum flux must be zero on average, it is neither spatially nor temporally homogeneous; the heterogeneity may provide an alternative route for estimating thrust. This review shows examples of wakes and velocity profiles from the three fishes, indicating challenges in estimating efficiency and power output and suggesting several routes for further experiments. Because these estimates will be complicated, a much simpler method for comparing performance is outlined, using as a point of comparison the power lost producing the wake. This wake power, a component of the efficiency and total power, can be estimated in a straightforward way from the flow fields. Although it does not provide complete information about the performance, it can be used to place constraints on the relative efficiency and cost of transport for the fishes.

Tytell, Eric D.

2007-11-01

300

Do trout swim better than eels? Challenges for estimating performance based on the wake of self-propelled bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineers and biologists have long desired to compare propulsive performance for fishes and underwater vehicles of different sizes, shapes, and modes of propulsion. Ideally, such a comparison would be made on the basis of either propulsive efficiency, total power output or both. However, estimating the efficiency and power output of self-propelled bodies, and particularly fishes, is methodologically challenging because it requires an estimate of thrust. For such systems traveling at a constant velocity, thrust and drag are equal, and can rarely be separated on the basis of flow measured in the wake. This problem is demonstrated using flow fields from swimming American eels, Anguilla rostrata, measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and high-speed video. Eels balance thrust and drag quite evenly, resulting in virtually no wake momentum in the swimming (axial) direction. On average, their wakes resemble those of self-propelled jet propulsors, which have been studied extensively. Theoretical studies of such wakes may provide methods for the estimation of thrust separately from drag. These flow fields are compared with those measured in the wakes of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. In contrast to eels, these fishes produce wakes with axial momentum. Although the net momentum flux must be zero on average, it is neither spatially nor temporally homogeneous; the heterogeneity may provide an alternative route for estimating thrust. This review shows examples of wakes and velocity profiles from the three fishes, indicating challenges in estimating efficiency and power output and suggesting several routes for further experiments. Because these estimates will be complicated, a much simpler method for comparing performance is outlined, using as a point of comparison the power lost producing the wake. This wake power, a component of the efficiency and total power, can be estimated in a straightforward way from the flow fields. Although it does not provide complete information about the performance, it can be used to place constraints on the relative efficiency and cost of transport for the fishes.

Tytell, Eric D.

301

Effect of velocity ratio on the streamwise vortex structures in the wake of a stack  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time-averaged velocity and streamwise vorticity fields within the wake of a stack were investigated in a low-speed wind tunnel using a seven-hole pressure probe. The experiments were conducted at a Reynolds number, based on the stack external diameter, of ReD=2.3×104. The stack, of aspect ratio AR=9, was mounted normal to a ground plane and was partially immersed in a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer, where the ratio of the boundary layer thickness to the stack height was ?/H?0.5. The jet-to-cross-flow velocity ratio was varied from R=0 to 3, which covered the downwash, crosswind-dominated and jet-dominated flow regimes. In the downwash and crosswind-dominated flow regimes, two pairs of counter-rotating streamwise vortex structures were identified within the stack wake. The tip vortex pair located close to the free end of the stack, and the base vortex pair located close to the ground plane within the flat-plate boundary layer, were similar to those found in the wake of a finite circular cylinder, and were associated with the upwash and downwash flow fields within the stack wake, respectively. In the jet-dominated flow regime, a third pair of streamwise vortex structures was observed, referred to as the jet-wake vortex pair, which occurred within the jet-wake region above the free end of the stack. The jet-wake vortex pair had the same orientation as the base vortex pair and was associated with the jet rise. The peak vorticity and strength of the streamwise vortex structures were functions of the jet-to-cross-flow velocity ratio. For the tip vortex structures, their peak vorticity and strength reduced as the jet-to-cross-flow velocity ratio increased.

Adaramola, M. S.; Sumner, D.; Bergstrom, D. J.

2010-01-01

302

Four-dimensional characterization of inflow to and wakes from a multi-MW turbine: overview of the Turbine Wake and Inflow Characterization Study (TWICS2011)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To support substantial deployment of renewably-generated electricity from the wind, critical information about the variability of wind turbine wakes in the real atmosphere from multi-MW turbines is required. The assessment of the velocity deficit and turbulence associated with industrial-scale turbines is a major issue for wind farm design, particularly with respect to the optimization of the spacing between turbines. The significant velocity deficit and turbulence generated by upstream turbines can reduce the power production and produce harmful vibrations in downstream turbines, which can lead to excess maintenance costs. The complexity of wake effects depends on many factors arising from both hardware (turbine size, rotor speed, and blade geometry, etc.) and from meteorological considerations such as wind velocity, gradients of wind across the turbine rotor disk, atmospheric stability, and atmospheric turbulence. To characterize the relationships between the meteorological inflow and turbine wakes, a collaborative field campaign was designed and carried out at the Department of Energy's National Wind Technology Center (NREL/NWTC) in south Boulder, Colorado, in spring 2011. This site often experiences channeled flow with a consistent wind direction, enabling robust statistics of wake velocity deficits and turbulence enhancements. Using both in situ and remote sensing instrumentation, measurements upwind and downwind of multi-megawatt wind turbine in complex terrain quantified the variability of wind turbine inflow and wakes from an industrial-scale turbine. The turbine of interest has a rated power of 2.3 MW, a rotor diameter of 100m, and a hub height of 80m. In addition to several meteorological towers, one extending to hub height (80m) and another extending above the top of the rotor disk (135m), a Triton mini-sodar and a Windcube lidar characterized the inflow to the turbine and the variability across the site. The centerpiece instrument of the TWICS campaign was the NOAA High Resolution Doppler lidar (HRDL), a scanning lidar which captured three-dimensional images of the turbine inflow and wake. Over several weeks, 48+ hours of HRDL observations during a variety of wind speed and atmospheric stability conditions were collected using three scanning strategies. Wake features such as lofting, meandering, intersection with the ground, and expansion factors are identified and discussed. Observations of a remarkably long-distance wake are presented and compared with existing wake models.

Lundquist, J. K.; Banta, R. M.; Pichugina, Y.; Brewer, A.; Alvarez, R. J.; Sandberg, S. P.; Kelley, N. D.; Aitken, M.; Clifton, A.; Mirocha, J. D.

2011-12-01

303

Recalibrating Wind Turbine Wake Model Parameters - Validating the Wake Model Performance for Large Offshore Wind Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary As part of the Danish PSO sponsored project 'The Necessary Distance between Large Wind Farms at Sea ' EMD International A\\/S has implemented a number of wake models in the WindPRO software. In this paper we report the preliminary results of a case study on Horns Rev offshore wind farm, where the actual observed wake losses are compared with

Thomas Sørensen; Per Nielsen; Morten Lybech Thøgersen

304

User's guide for a flat wake rotor inflow/wake velocity prediction code, DOWN  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer code named DOWN was created to implement a flat wake theory for the calculation of rotor inflow and wake velocities. A brief description of the code methodology and instructions for its use are given. The code will be available from NASA's Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC).

Wilson, John C.

1991-01-01

305

Dynamic wake prediction and visualization with uncertainty analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dynamic wake avoidance system utilizes aircraft and atmospheric parameters readily available in flight to model and predict airborne wake vortices in real time. A novel combination of algorithms allows for a relatively simple yet robust wake model to be constructed based on information extracted from a broadcast. The system predicts the location and movement of the wake based on the nominal wake model and correspondingly performs an uncertainty analysis on the wake model to determine a wake hazard zone (no fly zone), which comprises a plurality of wake planes, each moving independently from another. The system selectively adjusts dimensions of each wake plane to minimize spatial and temporal uncertainty, thereby ensuring that the actual wake is within the wake hazard zone. The predicted wake hazard zone is communicated in real time directly to a user via a realistic visual representation. In an example, the wake hazard zone is visualized on a 3-D flight deck display to enable a pilot to visualize or see a neighboring aircraft as well as its wake. The system substantially enhances the pilot's situational awareness and allows for a further safe decrease in spacing, which could alleviate airport and airspace congestion.

Holforty, Wendy L. (Inventor); Powell, J. David (Inventor)

2005-01-01

306

Suppression of quantum decoherence via infrared-driven coherent exciton-plasmon coupling: Undamped field and Rabi oscillations  

SciTech Connect

We show that when a semiconductor quantum dot is in the vicinity of a metallic nanoparticle and driven by a mid-infrared laser field, its coherent dynamics caused by interaction with a visible laser field can become free of quantum decoherence. We demonstrate that this process, which can offer undamped Rabi and field oscillations, is the result of coherent normalization of the “effective” polarization dephasing time of the quantum dot (T{sub 2}{sup *}). This process indicates formation of infrared-induced coherently forced oscillations, which allows us to control the value of T{sub 2}{sup *} using the infrared laser. The results offer decay-free ultrafast modulation of the effective field experienced by the quantum dot when neither the visible laser field nor the infrared laser changes with time.

Sadeghi, S. M., E-mail: seyed.sadeghi@uah.edu [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States); Nano and Micro Device Center, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States); Patty, K. D. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States)

2014-02-24

307

Wind tunnel simulation of a wind turbine wake in neutral, stable and unstable wind flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of mean velocity, Reynolds stresses, temperature and heat flux have been made in the wake of a model wind turbine in the EnFlo meteorology wind tunnel, for three atmospheric boundary layer states: the base-line neutral case, stable and unstable. The full-to-model scale is approximately 300:1. Primary instrumentation is two-component LDA combine with cold-wire thermometry to measure heat flux. In terms of surface conditions, the stratified cases are weak, but there is a strong 'imposed' condition in the stable case. The measurements were made between 0.5D and 10D, where D is the turbine disk diameter. In the stable case the velocity deficit decreases more slowly; more quickly in the unstable case. Heights at which quantities are maximum or minimum are greater in the unstable case and smaller in the stable case. In the stable case the wake height is suppressed but the width is increased, while in the unstable case the height is increased and the width (at hub height) reaches a maximum and then decreases. The turbulence in the wake behaves in a complex way. Further work needs to be done, to cover stronger levels of surface condition, requiring more extensive measurements to properly capture the wake development.

Hancock, P. E.; Zhang, S.; Pascheke, F.; Hayden, P.

2014-12-01

308

Separation control in low pressure turbines using plasma actuators with passing wakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuator is operated in flow over the suction surface of a Pack-B Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) airfoil at a Reynolds number of 50,000 (based on exit velocity and suction surface length) and inlet free-stream turbulence intensity of 2.5%. Preliminary characterization studies were made of the effect of varying actuator pulsing frequency and duty cycle, actuator edge effects, and orientation of the actuator with the flow. Flow control was demonstrated with the actuator imparting momentum opposite to the stream-wise flow direction, showing that it is possible to use disturbances alone to destabilize the flow and effect transition. No frequencies of strong influence were found over the range tested, indicating that a broad band of effective frequencies exists. Edge effects were found to considerably enhance separation control. Total pressure measurements of the flow without passing wakes were taken using a glass total-pressure tube. Corrections for streamline displacement due to shear and wall effects were made, and comparisons with previous hot-wire measurements were used to validate data. Performance features of conventional two-electrode and a novel three-electrode actuator configuration were compared. Hot-wire anemometry was used to take time-varying ensemble-averaged near-wall velocity measurements of the flow with periodic passing wakes. Corrections were made for near-wall effects, temperature effects, and interference of the electric field. The wakes were generated by a wake generator mechanism located upstream of the airfoil passage. The near-suction-surface total pressure field (flow without wakes) and velocity field (flow with wakes) in the trailing part of the airfoil passage, and the wall-normal gradient of these quantities, were used to demonstrate effective prevention of flow separation using the plasma actuator. Both flows (with and without passing wakes) showed fully attached flow (or very thin separation zones) when the actuator was activated. The flow with passing wakes and the actuator on showed relatively little time variation in the boundary layer, and qualitative similarities to the corresponding flow without passing wakes and with the actuator on were noted.

Burman, Debashish

309

Increase in the mitotic recombination frequency in Drosophila melanogaster by magnetic field exposure and its suppression by vitamin E supplement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to estimate possible mutagenic and\\/or carcinogenic activity of electromagnetic fields, wing spot tests were performed in Drosophila melanogaster. A DNA repair defective mutation mei-41D5 was introduced into the conventional mwh\\/flr test system to enhance mutant spot frequency. Third instar larvae were exposed to a 5-Tesla static magnetic field for 24 h, and after molting, wings were examined under

Takao Koana; Mikie O Okada; Masateru Ikehata; Masayoshi Nakagawa

1997-01-01

310

A multi-element vortex lattice method for calculating the geometry and effects of a helicopter rotor wake in forward flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for the analysis of the unsteady, incompressible potential flow associated with a helicopter rotor and it's wake in forward flight. This method is particularly useful in low advance ratio flight due to the major contribution, in the near field, of the deformed wake. The rotor geometry is prescribed and the unsteady wake geometry is computed from the local flow perturbation velocities. The wake is modeled as a full vortex lattice. The rotor geometry is arbitrary and several rotor blades can be represented. The unsteady airloads on the rotor blades are computed in the presence of the deformed rotor wake by a time-stepping technique. Solution for the load distribution on the blade surfaces is found by prescribing boundary conditions in a reference system which rotates with the blade tips. Transformation tensors are used to describe the contribution of the wake in the inertial system to the rotor in the rotating reference system. The effects of blade cyclic pitch variation are computed using a rotation tensor. The deformation of the wake is computed in the inertial frame. The wake is started impulsively from rest, allowing a natural convection of the wake with time.

Berry, John D.

1988-01-01

311

Spatial characterization of vortical structures and internal waves in a stratified turbulent wake using proper orthogonal decomposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) has been applied to two-dimensional transects of vorticity obtained from numerical simulations of the stratified turbulent wake of a towed sphere at a Reynolds number Re=(UD)/? =5×103 and Froude number Fr=2U/(ND)=4 (U and D are characteristic velocity and length scales and N is the stratification frequency). At 231 times during the interval 12field inside the wake core in terms of the relative influence of buoyancy on flow dynamics. The geometry of the individual eigenmodes shows a vorticity structure that is buoyancy-controlled at the lowest modes and is increasingly more actively turbulent as modal index is increased. In the wake ambient, i.e., the initially quiescent region outside the turbulent wake, the geometry of the POD modes consists of distinct internal wave rays whose angle to the horizontal is strongly dependent on modal index. Reconstruction of vorticity fields from subranges of POD modes indicates that, both inside the wake core but also in the wave-dominated ambient, each modal subrange is not only associated with a particular flow structure but also a characteristic timescale of motion. These preliminary findings suggest that POD may be a highly suitable alternative to globally defined basis functions in analyzing spatially localized internal wave fields emitted from a turbulent source that are also localized in space. In particular, it may serve as a platform toward an improved understanding of two fundamental questions associated with the nonequilibrium regime of stratified wake evolution: the structural transitions of the vorticity field within the wake core and the radiation of internal waves by the wake.

Diamessis, Peter J.; Gurka, Roi; Liberzon, Alex

2010-08-01

312

Voyager 2 encounter with Ganymede's wake: hydromagnetic and electrodynamic processes  

SciTech Connect

Voyager 2's passage through corotation wake region of Ganymede found disturbances in the energetic particle and magnetic field data. To explain the nature of disturbances, an investigation of the interaction of the Jovian plasma with Ganymede is carried out. A series of computer simulations, supported by appropriate theories, are made. Three different aspects of the interaction are studied: (i) A magnetic field model is proposed to describe Alfvenic disturbances caused by Ganymede. Numerical simulations show that the interaction of ensembles of ions with perturbed fields modulates the energies of the ions. The amount of modulation depends on the Alfven mach number of the ambient plasma, the ion energy, and the pitch angle of the ions. (ii) The electrodynamic processes associated with the plasma-Ganymede interaction and the plasma expansion into the cavity are simulated using a particle-in-cell method. The distribution of ions, potentials, ion and electron thermal and drift energies in the wake region are obtained. (iii) Using linear MHD theory, conditions for excitation and growth of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability are investigated. Theoretical conditions for the existence of magnetosonic waves and transverse Alfven waves are also examined.

Tariq, G.F.

1984-01-01

313

Wake Vortex Tracking Using a 35 GHz Pulsed Doppler Radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 35 GHz, pulsed-Doppler radar system has been designed and assembled for wake vortex detection and tracking in low visibility conditions. Aircraft wake vortices continue to be an important factor in determining safe following distances or spacings for aircraft in the terminal area. Currently, under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), aircraft adhere to conservative, fixed following-distance guidelines based primarily on aircraft weight classifications. When ambient conditions are such that vortices will either drift or dissipate, leaving the flight corridor clear, the prescribed spacings are unnecessarily long and result in decreased airport throughput. There is a potential for significant airport efficiency improvement, if a system can be employed to aid regulators and pilots in setting safe and efficient following distances based on airport conditions. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Federal Aviation Agency, and Volpe National Transportation Systems Center have promoted and worked to develop systems that would increase airport capacity and provide for safe reductions in aircraft separation. The NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS), a wake vortex spacing system that can provide dynamic adjustment of spacings based on real-time airport weather conditions, has demonstrated that Lidar systems can be successfully used to detect and track vortices in clear air conditions. To fill the need for detection capability in low-visibility conditions, a 35 GHz, pulsed-Doppler radar system is being investigated for use as a complimentary, low-visibility sensor for wake vortices. The radar sensor provides spatial and temporal information similar to that provided by Lidar, but under weather conditions that a Lidar cannot penetrate. Currently, we are analyzing the radar design based upon the data and experience gained during the wake vortex Lidar deployment with AVOSS at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. As part of this study, two numerical models were utilized in system simulations. The results of this study improve our understanding of the method of detection, resolution requirements for range and azimuth, pulse compression, and performance prediction. Simulations applying pulse compression techniques show that detection is good in heavy fog to greater than 2000 m. Both compressed and uncompressed short pulses show the vortex structure. To explore operational challenges, siting and scanning strategies were also analyzed. Simulation results indicate that excellent wake vortex detection, tracking and classification is possible in drizzle (+15 dBZ) and heavy fog (- 13 dBZ) using short pulse techniques (<99ns) at ranges on the order of 900 m, with a modest power of 500 W output. At 1600 m, detection can be expected at reflectivities as low as -13 dBZ (heavy fog). The radar system, as designed and built, has the potential to support field studies of a wake vortex spacing system in low-visibility conditions ranging from heavy fog to rain, when sited within 2000m of the flight path.

Neece, Robert T.; Britt, Charles L.; White, Joseph H.; Mudukutore, Ashok; Nguyen, Chi; Hooper, Bill

2005-01-01

314

Wake interference for a heated oscillating cylinder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Penney and Jefferson (1966) have studied heat transfer from an oscillating, horizontal wire. The present investigation has the objective to determine the governing parameters which indicate when interaction between an oscillating circular cylinder and its wake will reduce the apparent heat transfer coefficient in quasi-steady conditions, taking into account, if possible, also the determination of the approximate magnitude of the reduction. A definition is provided of a nondimensional vertical mass flux, representing the induced flow due to heating of the stagnant fluid. It is hypothesized that the flux is related to a natural convection parameter which describes the heating of the wake. For oscillation of a circular cylinder in air under the conditions studied, it is found that the application of a cross-flow correlation in a quasi-steady, transient analysis predicts heat transfer parameters in close agreement with experiment over a certain range, provided interaction with the heated wake is avoided.

Mceligot, D. M.; Smith, S. B.; Verity, R. L.

1982-01-01

315

Anderson lattice with explicit Kondo coupling revisited: metamagnetism and the field-induced suppression of the heavy fermion state.  

PubMed

We apply the extended (statistically consistent, SCA) Gutzwiller-type approach to the periodic Anderson model (PAM) in an applied magnetic field and in the strong-correlation limit. The finite-U corrections are included systematically by transforming the PAM into the form with the Kondo-type interaction and the residual hybridization, both appearing at the same time and on equal footing. This effective Hamiltonian represents the essence of our Anderson-Kondo lattice model. We show that in ferromagnetic phases the low-energy single-particle states are strongly affected by the presence of the applied magnetic field. We also find that for large values of hybridization strength the system enters the so-called locked heavy fermion state introduced earlier. In this state the chemical potential lies in the majority-spin hybridization gap and, as a consequence, the system evolution is insensitive to further increase of the applied field. However, for a sufficiently strong magnetic field, the system transforms from the locked state to the fully spin-polarized phase. This is accompanied by a metamagnetic transition, as well as by a drastic reduction of the effective mass of the quasiparticles. In particular, we observe no effective mass enhancement in the fully polarized state. The findings are in overall agreement with experimental results for the Ce compounds in high magnetic fields. The mass enhancement for the spin-minority electrons may also diminish with the increasing field, unlike for the quasiparticle states in a single narrow band in the same limit of strong correlations. PMID:22510783

Howczak, Olga; Spa?ek, Jozef

2012-05-23

316

EVALUATION OF FIELD PENNYCRESS AS AN OVERWINTER GREEN MANURE CROP IN CORN FOR SUPPRESSION OF WESTERN CORN ROOTWORM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field pennycress (FP; Thlaspi arvense L.) is a winter annual species of the Brassicaceae which is a native of Europe but has a wide distribution throughout temperate North America. FP tissues contain the glucosinolate sinigrin, and release a mixture of the biocides allyl thiocyanate and allyl isoth...

317

Ship wakes: Kelvin or Mach angle?  

E-print Network

From the analysis of a set of airborne images of ship wakes, we show that the wake angles decrease as $U^{-1}$ at large velocities, in a way similar to the Mach cone for supersonic airplanes. This previously unnoticed Mach-like regime is in contradiction with the celebrated Kelvin prediction of a constant angle of $19.47\\degree$ independent of the ship's speed. We propose here a model, confirmed by numerical simulations, in which the finite size of the disturbance explains this transition between the Kelvin and Mach regimes at a Froude number $Fr = U/\\sqrt{gL} \\simeq 0.5$, where $L$ is the hull ship length.

Rabaud, Marc

2013-01-01

318

On point vortex models of exotic bluff body wakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exotic vortex wakes, in which three or more vortices are generated during each shedding cycle, are frequently found in the wake of an oscillating bluff body. Two common examples are P+S wakes (with 3 vortices) and 2P wakes (with 4 vortices). We consider mathematical models of these wakes consisting of N = 3 or 4 point vortices with constant strengths in an inviscid fluid that is otherwise at rest in a singly-periodic domain. By enforcing constraints on the vortex strengths and, in the case of N = 4, on the symmetry of the vortex locations, the mathematical models reduce to integrable Hamiltonian systems. We compare the point vortex trajectories with two exotic wake patterns reported in the literature. Results support the use of point vortex modeling to investigate vortex dynamics in exotic wakes and suggest the need for additional classification of experimental wake patterns.

Stremler, Mark A.; Basu, Saikat

2014-12-01

319

Wake measurements in a strong adverse pressure gradient  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavior of wakes in adverse pressure gradients is critical to the performance of high-lift systems for transport aircraft. Wake deceleration is known to lead to sudden thickening and the onset of reversed flow; this 'wake bursting' phenomenon can occur while surface flows remain attached. Although 'wake bursting' is known to be important for high-lift systems, no detailed measurements of 'burst' wakes have ever been reported. Wake bursting has been successfully achieved in the wake of a flat plate as it decelerated in a two-dimensional diffuser, whose sidewalls were forced to remain attached by use of slot blowing. Pilot probe surveys, L.D.V. measurements, and flow visualization have been used to investigate the physics of this decelerated wake, through the onset of reversed flow.

Hoffenberg, R.; Sullivan, John P.; Schneider, S. P.

1994-01-01

320

Full-potential circular wake solution of a twisted rotor blade in hover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solution for transonic flow past a twisted rotor blade in hover is obtained using a modified version of the full-potential code ROT22 and a circular wake. The flow is also evaluated for a fixed-wing-type straight wake. The solutions for the straight wake and circular wake, and the circular wake and a two-dimensional wake are compared. The data reveal that the circular wake and the general two-dimensional wake solutions have similar characteristics.

Aggarwal, Hans R.

1986-01-01

321

Effects of incoming surface wind conditions on the wake characteristics and dynamic wind loads acting on a wind turbine model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to examine the effects of incoming surface wind conditions on the wake characteristics and dynamic wind loads acting on a wind turbine model. The experimental study was performed in a large-scale wind tunnel with a scaled three-blade Horizontal Axial Wind Turbine model placed in two different types of Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) winds with distinct mean and turbulence characteristics. In addition to measuring dynamic wind loads acting on the model turbine by using a force-moment sensor, a high-resolution Particle Image Velocimetry system was used to achieve detailed flow field measurements to characterize the turbulent wake flows behind the model turbine. The measurement results reveal clearly that the discrepancies in the incoming surface winds would affect the wake characteristics and dynamic wind loads acting on the model turbine dramatically. The dynamic wind loads acting on the model turbine were found to fluctuate much more significantly, thereby, much larger fatigue loads, for the case with the wind turbine model sited in the incoming ABL wind with higher turbulence intensity levels. The turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress levels in the wake behind the model turbine were also found to be significantly higher for the high turbulence inflow case, in comparison to those of the low turbulence inflow case. The flow characteristics in the turbine wake were found to be dominated by the formation, shedding, and breakdown of various unsteady wake vortices. In comparison with the case with relatively low turbulence intensities in the incoming ABL wind, much more turbulent and randomly shedding, faster dissipation, and earlier breakdown of the wake vortices were observed for the high turbulence inflow case, which would promote the vertical transport of kinetic energy by entraining more high-speed airflow from above to re-charge the wake flow and result in a much faster recovery of the velocity deficits in the turbine wake.

Tian, Wei; Ozbay, Ahmet; Hu, Hui

2014-12-01

322

Three-Centimeter Doppler Radar Observations of Wingtip-Generated Wake Vortices in Clear Air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents a high risk, high pay-off experiment with the objective of detecting, for the first time, the presence of aircraft wake vortices in clear air using X-band Doppler radar. Field experiments were conducted in January 1995 at the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) to demonstrate the capability of the 9.33 GHz (I=3 cm) radar, which was assembled using an existing nine-meter parabolic antenna reflector at VVTT and the receiver/transmitter from the NASA Airborne Windshear Radar-Program. A C-130-aircraft, equipped with wingtip smoke generators, created visually marked wake vortices, which were recorded by video cameras. A C-band radar also observed the wake vortices during detection attempts with the X-band radar. Rawinsonde data was used to calculate vertical soundings of wake vortex decay time, cross aircraft bearing wind speed, and water vapor mixing ratio for aircraft passes over the radar measurement range. This experiment was a pathfinder in predicting, in real time, the location and persistence of C-130 vortices, and in setting the flight path of the aircraft to optimize X-band radar measurement of the wake vortex core in real time. This experiment was conducted in support of the NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS).

Marshall, Robert E.; Mudukutore, Ashok; Wissel, Vicki L. H.; Myers, Theodore

1997-01-01

323

DES evaluation of near-wake characteristics in a shallow flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional numerical modeling using Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) based on unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) with the k-? SST (Shear-Stress Transport) turbulence model has been carried out to evaluate the characteristics of a shallow wake flow. The shallow wake is generated by inserting a sharp-edged bluff body in the open channel flow. A horseshoe vortex is captured in front of the body, which stretches downstream and envelops the vortices that form part of the shear layers. The mean and instantaneous flow field characteristics in the wake are examined and compared at different downstream locations to evaluate the three-dimensional features in the flow. Streamwise positive directed velocity is observed in the wake centerline at horizontal planes close to the bed. Flow features hitherto not captured in experimental studies can be identified in sections parallel to the bed and body. A typical signature of three-dimensionality, upward ejection of fluid elements from the bed towards the free surface, is also observed in the wake.

Nasif, G.; Barron, R. M.; Balachandar, R.

2014-02-01

324

Thrust Production and Wake Structure of an Actuated Three-Dimensional Manta Ray Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thrust generation and wake structure is studied for a flexible manta ray model. The three-dimensional model is actuated periodically to produce a streamwise traveling wave, where the phase of the wave varies with spanwise distance. Mechanical actuators are used to achieve this deformation. The flow field is investigated using DPIV and flow visualization for a range of Strouhal numbers based on peak-to-peak amplitude of the trailing edge. The vortex kinematics in the spanwise and streamwise planes are examined, and a three-dimensional unsteady vortex model of the wake will be discussed.

Clark, Rick; Yungster, Nir; Smits, Alexander

2004-11-01

325

Vortex wake investigation behind a wing-flap model with jet simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

To get a better insight in the effect of jets on vortex development and decay, stereo-PIV measurements were performed in a towing tank behind a flapped aircraft model. The experimental data set yields the wake vortex behavior in a range that extends from the vortex formation stage up to the mid-field (approximately t* =2 corresponding to 100 wingspans for a

L. L. M. Veldhuis; R. De Kat

2008-01-01

326

Stability characteristics of counter-rotating vortex pairs in the wakes of triangular-flapped airfoils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapidly growing instability is observed to develop between unequal strength, counter-rotating vortex pairs in the wakes of airfoils with outboard triangular flaps. To investigate the physical mechanisms for this instability, a linear stability analysis is performed on a single vortex pair. This analytical model reveals that the instability is driven by the strain rate field from one vortex acting

Jason Marc Ortega

2001-01-01

327

Demo Abstract: A Sensornet-inspired Underwater Acoustic Modem for Wake-up and Data  

E-print Network

Demo Abstract: A Sensornet-inspired Underwater Acoustic Modem for Wake-up and Data Affan A. Syed most radio frequencies. Acoustic modems are a viable alternative, but most commercial acoustic modems. While matched for some vertical applications that are fielded today, these modems are the antithesis

Heidemann, John

328

Measurements on a wind turbine wake: 3D effects and bluff body vortex shedding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The velocity field in the wake of a two-bladed wind turbine model (diameter 180 mm) has been studied under different conditions using a two-component hot wire. All three velocity components were measured both for the turbine rotor normal to the oncoming flow as well as with the turbine inclined to the freestream direction (the yaw angle was varied from 0°

D. Medici; P. H. Alfredsson

2006-01-01

329

LOOK AT THE INFLUENCE OF BUILDING ORIENTATION ON PLUME DISPERSION IN THE WAKE OF A BUILDING  

EPA Science Inventory

Observations of mean pollutant concentration profiles downwind of a block-sized model building are reported. These data are part of a more comprehensive field model study of building wake effects conducted in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Fluid Modeling Facility. The...

330

Experimental Study of the Temporal Nature of an Actively Controlled Three Dimensional Turret Wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental measurements have been performed to characterize the actively controlled wake of a three-dimensional, non- conformal turret which is a bluff body commonly used for housing optical systems on airborne platforms. As a bluff body, turrets can generate strong turbulent flow fields that degrade the performance of the optical systems and the aircraft. Experiments were performed in a low-speed wind tunnel at Syracuse University using particle image velocimetry and dynamic pressure measurements with the objective of developing a better understanding of the spatial and temporal nature of the wake flow field. Active control was achieved using dynamic suction in the vicinity of the turret aperture and was found to have a significant impact on the structure of the wake as well as the temporal characteristics of the flow field. With a better understanding of the wake characteristics, closed-loop, active flow control systems will be developed to help reduce fluctuating loading and aero- optical distortions associated with the turbulent flow field.

Shea, Patrick; Glauser, Mark

2011-11-01

331

Laser Doppler velocimeter system simulation for sensing aircraft wake vortices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hydrodynamic model of aircraft vortex wakes in an irregular wind shear field near the ground is developed and used as a basis for modeling the characteristics of a laser Doppler detection and vortex location system. The trailing vortex sheet and the wind shear are represented by discrete free vortices distributed over a two-dimensional grid. The time dependent hydrodynamic equations are solved by direct numerical integration in the Boussinesq approximation. The ground boundary is simulated by images, and fast Fourier Transform techniques are used to evaluate the vorticity stream function. The atmospheric turbulence was simulated by constructing specific realizations at time equal to zero, assuming that Kolmogoroff's law applies, and that the dissipation rate is constant throughout the flow field. The response of a simulated laser Doppler velocimeter is analyzed by simulating the signal return from the flow field as sensed by a simulation of the optical/electronic system.

Thomson, J. A. L.; Meng, J. C. S.

1974-01-01

332

ADVANCED CONCEPTS: 1D theory of laser plasma wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we get the 1D approximate analytical solution of the plasma electrostatic wake driven by the laser, and get the modified oscillating frequency of this wake. Finally we analyze the longitudinal beam dynamics in this electrostatic wake, and find that the high order terms don't change the topology of the longitudinal phase space.

Zhu, Xiong-Wei; Gao, Jie; He, An; Li, Da-Zhang

2009-06-01

333

Ris-R-1415(EN) Wake Effects on Middelgrund  

E-print Network

effects and turbulence intensities within the wind farm when maximum wake effects are present. The data the array. The turbulence intensity is enhanced up to 0.3 due to the wake effects. The analysis has shown deficits 11 2.2 Turbulence intensities in the wake 12 2.3 Wind speed deficit as function of turbulence

334

HIGH ORDER LES OF THE TURBULENT 'AHMED BODY' WAKE FLOW  

E-print Network

HIGH ORDER LES OF THE TURBULENT 'AHMED BODY' WAKE FLOW M. Minguez1,2 , R. Pasquetti2 and E. Serre1 of the turbulent wake of a classical car model, the Ahmed body, is addressed. The nu- merical solver makes use different values of the Reynolds number, Re = 768000 and Re = 8322. 1 Introduction The Ahmed body wake flow

Pasquetti, Richard

335

Dynamic wake meandering Gunner C. Larsen, Helge Aa. Madsen, Ferhat  

E-print Network

deficit as well as the added wake turbulence, described in the meandering frame of reference of the added wake turbulence, generated by the up-stream turbine in the form of shed and trailed vorticity, has turbulence and wake meandering. Information Service Department Risø National Laboratory Technical University

336

Evaluation of Detached Eddy Simulation for Turbulent Wake Applications  

E-print Network

Evaluation of Detached Eddy Simulation for Turbulent Wake Applications Matthew F. Barone Sandia, Alabama 36849 DOI: 10.2514/1.22359 Simulations of a low-speed square cylinder wake and a supersonic axisymmetric base wake are performed using the detached eddy simulation model. A reduced-dissipation form

Roy, Chris

337

Wake-mediated synchronization and drafting in coupled flags  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent experiment has shown ``inverted drafting'' in flags: the drag force on one flag is increased by excitation from the wake of another. Here we use vortex sheet simulations to show that inverted drafting occurs when the flag wakes add coherently to form strong vortices. By contrast, normal drafting occurs for higher-frequency oscillations, when the vortex wake becomes more

Silas Alben

2009-01-01

338

Active Wake Redirection Control to Improve Energy Yield (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

Wake effects can dramatically reduce the efficiency of waked turbines relative to the unwaked turbines. Wakes can be deflected, or 'redirected,' by applying yaw misalignment to the turbines. Yaw misalignment causes part of the rotor thrust vector to be pointed in the cross-stream direction, deflecting the flow and the wake. Yaw misalignment reduces power production, but the global increase in wind plant power due to decreased wake effect creates a net increase in power production. It is also a fairly simple control idea to implement at existing or new wind plants. We performed high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics simulations of the wake flow of the proposed Fishermen's Atlantic City Windfarm (FACW) that predict that under certain waking conditions, wake redirection can increase plant efficiency by 10%. This means that by applying wake redirection control, for a given watersheet area, a wind plant can either produce more power, or the same amount of power can be produced with a smaller watersheet area. With the power increase may come increased loads, though, due to the yaw misalignment. If misalignment is applied properly, or if layered with individual blade pitch control, though, the load increase can be mitigated. In this talk we will discuss the concept of wake redirection through yaw misalignment and present our CFD results of the FACW project. We will also discuss the implications of wake redirection control on annual energy production, and finally we will discuss plans to implement wake redirection control at FACW when it is operational.

Churchfield, M. J.; Fleming, P.; DeGeorge, E.; Bulder, B; White, S. M.

2014-10-01

339

Wake pattern and wave resistance for anisotropic moving disturbances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a theoretical study of gravity waves generated by an anisotropic moving disturbance. We model the disturbance by an elliptical pressure field of given aspect ratio W. We study the wake pattern as a function of W and the longitudinal hull Froude number Fr = V/sqrt{gL}, where V is the velocity, g is the acceleration of gravity, and L is the size of the disturbance in the direction of motion. For large hull Froude numbers, we analytically show that the rescaled surface profiles for which sqrt{W}/Fr is kept constant coincide. In particular, the angle outside which the surface is essentially flat remains constant and equal to the Kelvin angle, and the angle corresponding to the maximum amplitude of the waves scales as sqrt{W}/Fr, thus showing that previous work on the wake's angle for isotropic objects can be extended to anisotropic objects of given aspect ratio. We then focus on the wave resistance and discuss its properties in the case of an elliptical Gaussian pressure field. We derive an analytical expression for the wave resistance in the limit of very elongated objects and show that the position of the speed corresponding to the maximum wave resistance scales as sqrt{gL}/sqrt{W}.

Benzaquen, Michael; Darmon, Alexandre; Raphaël, Elie

2014-09-01

340

A New Green's Function for the Wake Potential Calculation of the SLAC S-band Constant Gradient Accelerating Section  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of the longitudinal wake fields excited by a very short bunch in the SLAC S-band constant gradient accelerating structures has been studied. Wake potential calculations were performed for a bunch length of 10 microns using the author's code to obtain a numerical solution of Maxwell's equations in the time domain. We have calculated six accelerating sections in the series (60-ft) to find the stationary solution. While analyzing the computational results we have found a new formula for the Green's function. Wake potentials, which are calculated using this Green's function are in amazingly good agreement with numerical results over a wide range of bunch lengths. The Green's function simplifies the wake potential calculations and can be easily incorporated into the tracking codes. This is very useful for beam dynamics studies of the linear accelerators of LCLS and FACET.

Novokhatski, A,; /SLAC

2012-02-17

341

A new Green's function for the wake potential calculation of the SLAC S-band constant gradient accelerating section  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of the longitudinal wake fields excited by a very short bunch in the SLAC S-band constant gradient accelerating structures has been studied. Wake potential calculations were performed for a bunch length of 10 ?m using the author's code to obtain a numerical solution of Maxwell's equations in the time domain. We have calculated six accelerating sections in the series (60-ft) to find the stationary solution. While analyzing the computational results we have found a new formula for Green's function. Wake potentials, which are calculated using this Green's function are in amazingly good agreement with numerical results over a wide range of bunch lengths. Green's function simplifies the wake potential calculations and can be easily incorporated into the tracking codes. This is very useful for beam dynamics studies of the linear accelerators of LCLS [1] and FACET [2].

Novokhatski, A.

2012-08-01

342

In situ and remotely-sensed mean and turbulence characteristics of wind turbine wakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With increasing deployment of wind turbines around the world, understanding how turbines extract energy from the wind is critical for estimating any limits to wind energy production and in understanding downstream impacts. High-resolution measurements of wind speed, temperature, and turbulence across the entire turbine rotor disk are essential to evaluate the effects of shear, stratification, and turbulence on turbine power performance. Energy dissipation rate measurements are also required for insight into wake dissipation processes. These data are lacking from current measurement practices, thereby limiting our understanding of atmosphere-turbine interactions and wake dynamics. The University of Colorado at Boulder's Tethered Lifting System (TLS) is a unique state-of-the-art tethersonde, proven in numerous boundary-layer field experiments to be able to measure turbulence kinetic energy dissipation rates. In Fall 2012, two TLS will be deployed at NREL's National Wind Technology Center to collect simultaneous measurements of the inflow and outflow characteristics around the DOE 1.5 MW turbine. These measurements will enable us to study the effects of shear, stratification, and turbulence on turbine power production and wake dynamics, and compare our results with other measurement systems and wake models. In addition to these in situ measurements, the experimental design requires accurate and timely information on the location of the turbine wake, which will be provided by a Leosphere 200S scanning lidar deployed nearby. This presentation will highlight some of the observations from this field campaign on wake wind speed deficits (observed with both in situ and remotely sensed instrumentation), turbulence enhancement (observed with the remote sensing instruments), and turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate (observed with the in situ instruments).

Lundquist, J. K.; Bariteau, L.; Boquet, M.; Clifton, A.; Rhodes, M. E.

2012-12-01

343

Neurovascular saturation thresholds under high intensity auditory stimulation during wake.  

PubMed

Coupling between neural activity and hemodynamic responses is important in understanding brain function, interpreting brain-imaging signals, and assessing pathological conditions. Tissue state is a major factor in neurovascular coupling and may alter the relationship between neural and hemodynamic activity. However, most neurovascular-coupling studies are performed under anesthetized or sedated states which may have severe consequences on coupling mechanisms. Our previous studies showed that following prolonged periods of sleep deprivation, evoked hemodynamic responses were muted despite consistent electrical responses, suggesting that sustained neural activity may decrease vascular compliance and limit blood perfusion. To investigate potential perfusion limitations during natural waking conditions, we simultaneously measured evoked response potentials (ERPs) and evoked hemodynamic responses using optical-imaging techniques to increase intensity auditory stimulation. The relationship between evoked hemodynamic responses and integrated ERPs followed a sigmoid relationship where the hemodynamic response approached saturation at lower stimulus intensities than the ERP. If limits in blood perfusion are caused by stretching of the vessel wall, then these results suggest there may be decreased vascular compliance due to sustained neural activity during wake, which could limit vascular responsiveness and local blood perfusion. Conditions that stress cerebral vasculature, such as sleep deprivation and some pathologies (e.g., epilepsy), may further decrease vascular compliance, limit metabolic delivery, and cause tissue trauma. While ERPs and evoked hemodynamic responses provide an indication of the correlated neural activity and metabolic demand, the relationship between these two responses is complex and the different measurement techniques are not directly correlated. Future studies are required to verify these findings and further explore neurovascular coupling during wake by assessing local field potentials, vascular expansion, hemodynamic response localization. PMID:23041761

Schei, J L; Van Nortwick, A S; Meighan, P C; Rector, D M

2012-12-27

344

Experiments in Waking Hypnosis for Instructional Purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author discusses the theory of hypnotism and the possibility of employing it for experimental purposes in the class-room. He distinguishes between sleeping and waking hypnosis, justifying his use of the latter term with a wealth of historical and contemporary evidence. He reports the success of class experiments in both types of hypnosis, particularly the latter which he describes minutely.

W. R. Wells

1924-01-01

345

Radiative Forcing Over Ocean by Ship Wakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes in surface albedo represent one of the main forcing agents that can counteract, to some extent, the positive forcing from increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Here, we report on enhanced ocean reflectance from ship wakes over the Pacific Ocean near the California coast, where we determined, based on airborne radiation measurements that ship wakes can increase reflected sunlight by more than 100%. We assessed the importance of this increase to climate forcing, where we estimated the global radiative forcing of ship wakes to be -0.00014 plus or minus 53% Watts per square meter assuming a global distribution of 32331 ships of size of greater than or equal to 100000 gross tonnage. The forcing is smaller than the forcing of aircraft contrails (-0.007 to +0.02 Watts per square meter), but considering that the global shipping fleet has rapidly grown in the last five decades and this trend is likely to continue because of the need of more inter-continental transportation as a result of economic globalization, we argue that the radiative forcing of wakes is expected to be increasingly important especially in harbors and coastal regions.

Gatebe, Charles K.; Wilcox, E.; Poudyal, R.; Wang, J.

2011-01-01

346

Holographic flow visualization. [of aircraft wakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Holographic visualization techniques are presented of the vortex wake of a lifting wing. The motions of tracer particles in vortical flows are described along with the development of a liquid-drop tracer generator. An analysis is presented of the motion of particles of arbitrary density and size in solid body and potential vortex flows.

Charwat, A. F.; Fourney, M. E.

1976-01-01

347

Computation of rotor wake turbulence noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major source of fan broadband noise is the interaction of rotor wake turbulence with the fan outlet guide vanes. A broadband noise model that utilizes computed rotor flow turbulence from a Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes code is used to predict fan broadband noise spectra. The noise model is employed to examine the broadband noise characteristics of the 22-in source diagnostic

M. Nallasamy; E. Envia

2005-01-01

348

Linear instability of supersonic plane wakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we present a theoretical and numerical study of the growth of linear disturbances in the high-Reynolds-number and laminar compressible wake behind a flat plate which is aligned with a uniform stream. No ad hoc assumptions are made as to the nature of the undisturbed flow (in contrast to previous investigations) but instead the theory is developed rationally by use of proper wake-profiles which satisfy the steady equations of motion. The initial growth of near wake perturbation is governed by the compressible Rayleigh equation which is studied analytically for long- and short-waves. These solutions emphasize the asymptotic structures involved and provide a rational basis for a nonlinear development. The evolution of arbitrary wavelength perturbations is addressed numerically and spatial stability solutions are presented that account for the relative importance of the different physical mechanisms present, such as three-dimensionality, increasing Mach numbers enough (subsonic) Mach numbers, there exists a region of absolute instability very close to the trailing-edge with the majority of the wake being convectively unstable. At higher Mach numbers (but still not large-hypersonic) the absolute instability region seems to disappear and the maximum available growth-rates decrease considerably. Three-dimensional perturbations provide the highest spatial growth-rates.

Papageorgiou, D. T.

1989-01-01

349

First results from ARTEMIS lunar wake crossing: observations and hybrid simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon does not have an intrinsic magnetic field and its conductivity is not sufficient to facilitate the development of an induced magnetosphere. The interaction of the Moon with the unperturbed solar wind (SW) is, hence, dominated by the absorption of SW particles on its surface and the consequent generation of a lunar wake on the night side. The SW magnetic field is basically convected through the Moon; the pressure imbalance in lunar wake, however, accounts for a slight increase in magnetic pressure in the lunar wake center. The wake is slowly filled up with SW particles due to their thermal motion, which generates a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) rarefaction wave propagating away from the wake in the SW frame of reference. Over the last 3 years the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions During Substorms (THEMIS) mission provided excellent data helping the scientific community in drawing a detailed picture of the physical processes associated with the development of substorms in the terrestrial magnetotail. Two of the five THEMIS spacecraft are currently being sent into stationary orbits around the Moon in a follow-up mission called Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS). The ARTEMIS P1 spacecraft (formerly THEMIS-B) has recently passed through the lunar wake in a flyby maneuver on February 13, 2010. We show first results of two hybrid code simulations with static and, for the first time, dynamically changing SW input. Adapted SW monitor data of the NASA OMNI database is used as input for the simulations. During the wake crossing the spin stabilized spacecraft P1 was in lunar shadow and, hence, its spin period cannot be determined from sun sensor data. Therefore, an eclipse-spin model is applied to bridge the gap of missing spin period data in order to recover vector measurements. A comparison of the simulation results with correctly despun magnetic field and particle measurements of ARTEMIS P1 allows for a separation of static lunar wake and, due to SW variations, transient features in the observations.

Plaschke, F.; Wiehle, S.; Angelopoulos, V.; Auster, H.; Georgescu, E.; Glassmeier, K.; Motschmann, U. M.; Sibeck, D. G.

2010-12-01

350

Electrically-activated source extension graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor: Novel attributes and design considerations for suppressing short channel effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a double gate graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor with electrically-activated source extension is proposed. Source region of the proposed structure includes two sections, an electrically-activated extension and a doped section. The electrically extension, which is located between doped source section and gate region, is biased independent of the gate to form a virtual extension for source. The electrically-activated extension creates a step in potential profile which increases the horizontal distance between conduction and valance bands at channel to source junction. This step reduces the probability of band to band tunneling, lowers the leakage current and improves drain induced barrier lowering. The devices have been simulated based on self consistent solution of Poisson and Schrodinger equations within non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. In addition, the effects of the edge and third nearest neighbor are included for more accurate outcomes. Simulations show that the proposed structure is a more reliable device because of its higher ON/Off current ratio, shorter delay time, and smaller power delay product beside lower subthreshold swing than conventional graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor.

Naderi, Ali; Keshavarzi, Parviz

2014-08-01

351

Exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields suppresses x-ray-induced transformation in mouse C3H10T1/2 cells.  

PubMed

We designed and manufactured equipment for exposure of cultured cells to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELFMF) at 5, 50, and 400 mT and examined the effect of ELFMF on cellular transformation in mouse C3H10T1/2 cells (clone 8). Transformed foci, Type II and Type III, were independently counted as transformants. The cells were exposed to ELFMF alone at 5, 50, and 400 mT for 24 h or X-irradiated with 3 Gy followed by the ELFMF exposure. No significant difference in the transformation was observed between sham-exposed control and the ELFMF exposure from 5 to 400 mT. The transformation frequency for X-rays plus ELFMF was decreasing compared with X-rays alone. When 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was contained in the medium throughout the experiment, the transformation frequency by X-rays alone was elevated more. In the combined treatment with X-rays followed by ELFMF, the transformation frequency was slightly decreased at 50 and 400 mT even in the medium containing TPA. The long-term exposure at 5 mT suppressed both spontaneous and X-ray-induced transformations significantly. It is well known that overexpressing protein kinase C (PKC) failed to yield identifiable transformation of foci induced by ionizing radiation. We demonstrated previously that exposure to high-density ELFMF induced expression of several genes through an increase in PKC activity. From these results, it is suggested that ELFMF might suppress X-ray-induced transformation through activation of PKC by ELFMF. PMID:10799295

Miyakoshi, J; Yoshida, M; Yaguchi, H; Ding, G R

2000-05-10

352

Auditory evoked fields measured noninvasively with small-animal MEG reveal rapid repetition suppression in the guinea pig.  

PubMed

In animal models, single-neuron response properties such as stimulus-specific adaptation have been described as possible precursors to mismatch negativity, a human brain response to stimulus change. In the present study, we attempted to bridge the gap between human and animal studies by characterising responses to changes in the frequency of repeated tone series in the anesthetised guinea pig using small-animal magnetoencephalography (MEG). We showed that 1) auditory evoked fields (AEFs) qualitatively similar to those observed in human MEG studies can be detected noninvasively in rodents using small-animal MEG; 2) guinea pig AEF amplitudes reduce rapidly with tone repetition, and this AEF reduction is largely complete by the second tone in a repeated series; and 3) differences between responses to the first (deviant) and later (standard) tones after a frequency transition resemble those previously observed in awake humans using a similar stimulus paradigm. PMID:25231619

Christianson, G Björn; Chait, Maria; de Cheveigné, Alain; Linden, Jennifer F

2014-12-15

353

Axisymmetric Turbulent Wakes with New Nonequilibrium Similarity Scalings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently discovered nonequilibrium turbulence dissipation law implies the existence of axisymmetric turbulent wake regions where the mean flow velocity deficit decays as the inverse of the distance from the wake-generating body and the wake width grows as the square root of that distance. This behavior is different from any documented boundary-free turbulent shear flow to date. Its existence is confirmed in wind tunnel experiments of wakes generated by plates with irregular edges placed normal to an incoming free stream. The wake characteristics of irregular bodies such as buildings, bridges, mountains, trees, coral reefs, and wind turbines are critical in many areas of environmental engineering and fluid mechanics.

Nedi?, J.; Vassilicos, J. C.; Ganapathisubramani, B.

2013-10-01

354

Wind-tunnel measurements in the wakes of structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed measurements of longitudinal mean velocity, turbulence intensity, space correlations, and spectra made in the wake of two rectangular scaled models in simulated atmospheric boundary-layer winds are presented. The model buildings were 1:50 scale models of two trailers. Results of a flow visualization study of the wake geometry are analyzed with some singular point theorems. Two hypothetical flow patterns of the detailed wake geometry are proposed. Some preliminary studies of the vortex wake, effects of the model size, model aspect ratios, and boundary layer characteristics on the decay rate and extent of the wake are also presented and discussed.

Woo, H. G. C.; Peterka, J. A.; Cermak, J. E.

1977-01-01

355

EEG Power During Waking and NREM Sleep in Primary Insomnia  

PubMed Central

Objective: Pathophysiological models of insomnia invoke the concept of 24-hour hyperarousal, which could lead to symptoms and physiological findings during waking and sleep. We hypothesized that this arousal could be seen in the waking electroencephalogram (EEG) of individuals with primary insomnia (PI), and that waking EEG power would correlate with non-REM (NREM) EEG. Methods: Subjects included 50 PI and 32 good sleeper controls (GSC). Five minutes of eyes closed waking EEG were collected at subjects' usual bedtimes, followed by polysomnography (PSG) at habitual sleep times. An automated algorithm and visual editing were used to remove artifacts from waking and sleep EEGs, followed by power spectral analysis to estimate power from 0.5–32 Hz. Results: We did not find significant differences in waking or NREM EEG spectral power of PI and GSC. Significant correlations between waking and NREM sleep power were observed across all frequency bands in the PI group and in most frequency bands in the GSC group. Conclusions: The absence of significant differences between groups in waking or NREM EEG power suggests that our sample was not characterized by a high degree of cortical arousal. The consistent correlations between waking and NREM EEG power suggest that, in samples with elevated NREM EEG beta activity, waking EEG power may show a similar pattern. Citation: Wu YM; Pietrone R; Cashmere JD; Begley A; Miewald JM; Germain A; Buysse DJ. EEG power during waking and NREM sleep in primary insomnia. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(10):1031-1037. PMID:24127147

Wu, You Meme; Pietrone, Regina; Cashmere, J. David; Begley, Amy; Miewald, Jean M.; Germain, Anne; Buysse, Daniel J.

2013-01-01

356

Cosmic string wakes and large-scale structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The formation of structure from infinite cosmic string wakes is modeled for a universe dominated by cold dark matter (CDM). Cross-sectional slices through the wake distribution tend to outline empty regions with diameters which are not inconsistent with the range of sizes of the voids in the CfA slice of the universe. The topology of the wake distribution is found to be spongy rather than cell-like. Correlations between CDM wakes do not extend much beyond a horizon length, so it is unlikely that CDM wakes are responsible for the correlations between clusters of galaxies. An estimate of the fraction of matter to accrete onto CDM wakes indicates that wakes could be more important in galaxy formation than previously anticipated.

Charlton, Jane C.

1988-01-01

357

The near wake of a freely flying European starling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wake of a freely flying European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) has been measured using high speed, time-resolved, particle image velocimetry, simultaneously with high speed cameras which imaged the bird. These have been used to generate vector maps that can be associated with the bird's location and wing configuration in the wind tunnel. Time series of measurements have been expressed as composite wake plots which depict segments of the wing beat cycle for various spanwise locations in the wake. Measurements indicate that downwash is not produced during the upstroke, suggesting that the upstroke does not generate lift. As well, the wake velocities imply the presence of streamwise vortical structures, in addition to tip vortices. These two characteristics indicate similarities between the wake of a bird and the wake of a bat, which may be general features of the wakes of flapping wings.

Kirchhefer, Adam J.; Kopp, Gregory A.; Gurka, Roi

2013-05-01

358

Experimental investigation of an actively controlled three-dimensional turret wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hemispherical turrets are bluff bodies commonly used to house optical systems on airborne platforms. These bluff bodies develop complex, three-dimensional flow fields that introduce high mean and fluctuating loads to the turret as well as the airframe support structure which reduce the performance of both the optical systems and the aircraft. An experimental investigation of the wake of a three-dimensional, non-conformal turret was performed in a low-speed wind tunnel at Syracuse University to develop a better understanding of the fundamental flow physics associated with the turret wake. The flow field was studied at a diameter based Reynolds number of 550,000 using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry and dynamic pressure measurements both with and without active flow control. Pressure measurements were simultaneously sampled with the PIV measurements and taken on the surrounding boundary layer plate and at several locations on the turret geometry. Active flow control of the turret wake was performed around the leading edge of the turret aperture using dynamic suction in steady open-loop, unsteady open-loop, and simple closed-loop configurations. Analysis of the uncontrolled wake provided insight into the complex three-dimensional wake when evaluated spatially using PIV measurements and temporally using spectral analysis of the pressure measurements. Steady open-loop suction was found to significantly alter the spatial and temporal nature of the turret wake despite the control being applied locally to the aperture region of the turret. Unsteady open-loop and simple closed-loop control were found to provide similar levels of control to the steady open-loop forcing with a 45% reduction in the control input as calculated using the jet momentum coefficient. The data set collected provides unique information regarding the development of the baseline three-dimensional wake and the wake with three different active flow control configurations. These data can be used to help guide future studies, both experimental and computational, of similar geometries and to provide insight for developing active control systems for complex, three-dimensional flows.

Shea, Patrick R.

359

Beam loading by electrons in nonlinear plasma wakes  

SciTech Connect

An analytical theory for the interaction of an electron bunch with a nonlinear plasma wave is developed to make it possible to design efficient laser- and/or beam-driven accelerators that generate high quality monoenergetic electron beams. This theory shows how to choose the charge, the shape, and the placing of the bunch so that the conversion efficiency from the fields of the bubble to the accelerating electrons reaches nearly 100% and the beam quality is optimized. For intense drivers the nonlinear wake is described by the shape of the bubble and beam loading arises when the radial space-charge force of the beam acts back on the electron sheath surrounding the ion channel. The modification of the wake due to the presence of flat-top electron bunches is studied and it is shown that the energy spread of an externally injected flat-top electron bunch can be kept low. The bunch profile that leads to zero energy spread is also derived.

Tzoufras, M. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Lu, W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Tsung, F. S.; Huang, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Mori, W. B. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Katsouleas, T. [Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Vieira, J.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

2009-05-15

360

The aging brain, neuroinflammatory signaling and sleep-wake regulation.  

PubMed

Tissues and organs change over time, regulated by intrinsic (genetic) determinants and environmental (and microenvironmental) adaptation. Brain changes during lifetime are especially critical, as the brain is the effector of cognition and the vast majority of neurons live throughout the life of the individual. In addition, brain aging mechanisms are especially critical for disease vulnerability, given the aging-related prevalence of pathologies that include neurodegenerative diseases. In this context, the present contribution concisely highlights data yielded by recent trends of research on the normal aging brain, and specifically: the occurrence of synaptic changes (rather than neuronal loss) and the altered regulation of adult neurogenesis (which represents a novel exciting field of knowledge); the development of a low-grade chronic inflammatory state which primes glial cells and may lead to changes in intercellular crosstalk, thus playing a potential role in the brain susceptibility to neurodegeneration; changes occurring in state-dependent behavior, sleep and wake, which are products of global brain functioning and underlie consciousness and cognitive performance; changes in the biological clock, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, which regulates sleep-wake alternation and other endogenous rhythms. Altogether, the present synopsis of recent studies at the molecular, cellular, and functional levels emphasizes the idea that the normal aging brain should be viewed as an example of adaptation and plasticity rather than as an obligatory decline. PMID:21072987

Bertini, Giuseppe; Colavito, Valeria; Tognoli, Cristina; Seke Etet, Paul F; Bentivoglio, Marina

2010-01-01

361

Viscous effects on a vortex wake in ground effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wake vortex trajectories and strengths are altered radically by interactions with the ground plane. Prediction of vortex strength and location is especially important in the vicinity of airports. Simple potential flow methods have been found to yield reasonable estimates of vortex descent rates in an otherwise quiescent ambient background, but those techniques cannot be adjusted for more realistic ambient conditions and they fail to provide satisfactory estimates of ground-coupled behavior. The authors have been involved in a systematic study concerned with including viscous effects in a wake-vortex system which is near the ground plane. The study has employed numerical solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations, as well as perturbation techniques to study ground coupling with a descending vortex pair. Results of a two-dimensional, unsteady numerical-theoretical study are presented in this paper. A time-based perturbation procedure has been developed which permits the use of analytical solutions to an inner and outer flow domain for the initial flow field. Predictions have been compared with previously reported laminar experimental results. In addition, the influence of stratification and turbulence on vortex behavior near the ground plane has been studied.

Zheng, Z.; Ash, Robert L.

1992-01-01

362

A CFD code comparison of wind turbine wakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison is made between the EllipSys3D and SnS CFD codes. Both codes are used to perform Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of single wind turbine wakes, using the actuator disk method. The comparison shows that both LES models predict similar velocity deficits and stream-wise Reynolds-stresses for four test cases. A grid resolution study, performed in EllipSys3D and SnS, shows that a minimal uniform cell spacing of 1/30 of the rotor diameter is necessary to resolve the wind turbine wake. In addition, the LES-predicted velocity deficits are also compared with Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes simulations using EllipSys3D for a test case that is based on field measurements. In these simulations, two eddy viscosity turbulence models are employed: the k-epsilon model and the k-epsilon-fp model. Where the k-epsilon model fails to predict the velocity deficit, the results of the k-epsilon-fP model show good agreement with both LES models and measurements.

van der Laan, M. P.; Storey, R. C.; Sørensen, N. N.; Norris, S. E.; Cater, J. E.

2014-06-01

363

Kinetic instabilities in the lunar wake: ARTEMIS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) mission is a new two-probe lunar mission derived from the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) mission. On 13 February 2010, one of the two probes, ARTEMIS P1 (formerly THEMIS-B), made the first lunar wake flyby of the mission. We present detailed analysis of the electrostatic waves observed on the outbound side of the flyby that were associated with electron beams. Halekas et al. (2011) derived a net potential across the lunar wake from observations and suggested that the net potential generated the observed electron beams and the electron beams in turn excited the observed electrostatic waves due to kinetic instabilities. The wavelengths and velocities of the electrostatic waves are estimated, using high-resolution electric field instrument data with cross-spectrum analysis and cross-correlation analysis. In general, the estimated wavelengths vary from a few hundred meters to a couple of thousand meters. The estimated phase velocities are on the order of 1000 km s-1. In addition, we perform 1-D Vlasov simulations to help identify the mode of the observed electrostatic waves. We conclude that the observed electrostatic waves are likely on the electron beam mode branch.

Tao, J. B.; Ergun, R. E.; Newman, D. L.; Halekas, J. S.; Andersson, L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bonnell, J. W.; McFadden, J. P.; Cully, C. M.; Auster, H.-U.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Larson, D. E.; Baumjohann, W.; Goldman, M. V.

2012-03-01

364

A comparison of dispersion calculations in bluff body wakes using LES and unsteady RANS  

SciTech Connect

Accurate modeling of the dispersion behavior of sprays or particles is critical for a variety of problems including combustion, urban pollution or release events, and splash and spray transport around heavy vehicles. Bluff body wakes are particularly challenging since these flows are both highly separated and strongly unsteady. Attempting to model the dispersion of droplets or particles interacting with bluff body wakes is even more difficult since small differences in the flow field encountered by particles can lead to large differences in the dispersion behavior. Particles with finite inertia can exhibit additional complicating effects such as preferential concentration. In this preliminary study, we consider the dispersion of solid particles in the wake of a rectangular plane at a Reynolds number (Re) of 10000 and that of droplets in the wake of a simplified tractor-trailer geometry at Re = 2 x 10{sup 6} using both the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) turbulence modeling approaches. The calculations were performed using identical meshes for both the LES and URANS models. Particle stresses are not backcoupled to the carrier fluid velocity solution. In the case of the rectangular plane wake, the LES calculation predicts a finer-scale and more persistent wake structure than the URANS one; the resulting particle dispersion is considerably ({approx} 40%) underpredicted for low inertia particles. For the case of the simplified tractor-trailer geometry, although the LES is underresolved, similar trends are observed with strong differences in the vertical and horizontal dispersion of the smallest particles. These results suggest that it may be necessary to use LES to accurately capture the dispersion behavior of small, low inertia particles or droplets, but that URANS may be sufficient for problems in which only large particles with substantial inertia are of primary concern.

Paschkewitz, J S

2006-01-19

365

Separation of circadian and wake duration-dependent modulation of EEG activation during wakefulness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The separate contribution of circadian rhythmicity and elapsed time awake on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during wakefulness was assessed. Seven men lived in an environmental scheduling facility for 4 weeks and completed fourteen 42.85-h 'days', each consisting of an extended (28.57-h) wake episode and a 14.28-h sleep opportunity. The circadian rhythm of plasma melatonin desynchronized from the 42.85-h day. This allowed quantification of the separate contribution of circadian phase and elapsed time awake to variation in EEG power spectra (1-32 Hz). EEG activity during standardized behavioral conditions was markedly affected by both circadian phase and elapsed time awake in an EEG frequency- and derivation-specific manner. The nadir of the circadian rhythm in alpha (8-12 Hz) activity in both fronto-central and occipito-parietal derivations occurred during the biological night, close to the crest of the melatonin rhythm. The nadir of the circadian rhythm of theta (4.5-8 Hz) and beta (20-32 Hz) activity in the fronto-central derivation was located close to the onset of melatonin secretion, i.e. during the wake maintenance zone. As time awake progressed, delta frequency (1-4.5 Hz) and beta (20-32 Hz) activity rose monotonically in frontal derivations. The interaction between the circadian and wake-dependent increase in frontal delta was such that the intrusion of delta was minimal when sustained wakefulness coincided with the biological day, but pronounced during the biological night. Our data imply that the circadian pacemaker facilitates frontal EEG activation during the wake maintenance zone, by generating an arousal signal that prevents the intrusion of low-frequency EEG components, the propensity for which increases progressively during wakefulness.

Cajochen, C.; Wyatt, J. K.; Czeisler, C. A.; Dijk, D. J.

2002-01-01

366

Volumetric imaging of shark tail hydrodynamics reveals a three-dimensional dual-ring vortex wake structure  

PubMed Central

Understanding how moving organisms generate locomotor forces is fundamental to the analysis of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic flow patterns that are generated during body and appendage oscillation. In the past, this has been accomplished using two-dimensional planar techniques that require reconstruction of three-dimensional flow patterns. We have applied a new, fully three-dimensional, volumetric imaging technique that allows instantaneous capture of wake flow patterns, to a classic problem in functional vertebrate biology: the function of the asymmetrical (heterocercal) tail of swimming sharks to capture the vorticity field within the volume swept by the tail. These data were used to test a previous three-dimensional reconstruction of the shark vortex wake estimated from two-dimensional flow analyses, and show that the volumetric approach reveals a different vortex wake not previously reconstructed from two-dimensional slices. The hydrodynamic wake consists of one set of dual-linked vortex rings produced per half tail beat. In addition, we use a simple passive shark-tail model under robotic control to show that the three-dimensional wake flows of the robotic tail differ from the active tail motion of a live shark, suggesting that active control of kinematics and tail stiffness plays a substantial role in the production of wake vortical patterns. PMID:21543357

Flammang, Brooke E.; Lauder, George V.; Troolin, Daniel R.; Strand, Tyson

2011-01-01

367

IEA-Task 31 WAKEBENCH: Towards a protocol for wind farm flow model evaluation. Part 2: Wind farm wake models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers within the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 31: Wakebench have created a framework for the evaluation of wind farm flow models operating at the microscale level. The framework consists of a model evaluation protocol integrated with a web-based portal for model benchmarking (www.windbench.net). This paper provides an overview of the building-block validation approach applied to wind farm wake models, including best practices for the benchmarking and data processing procedures for validation datasets from wind farm SCADA and meteorological databases. A hierarchy of test cases has been proposed for wake model evaluation, from similarity theory of the axisymmetric wake and idealized infinite wind farm, to single-wake wind tunnel (UMN-EPFL) and field experiments (Sexbierum), to wind farm arrays in offshore (Horns Rev, Lillgrund) and complex terrain conditions (San Gregorio). A summary of results from the axisymmetric wake, Sexbierum, Horns Rev and Lillgrund benchmarks are used to discuss the state-of-the-art of wake model validation and highlight the most relevant issues for future development.

Moriarty, Patrick; Sanz Rodrigo, Javier; Gancarski, Pawel; Chuchfield, Matthew; Naughton, Jonathan W.; Hansen, Kurt S.; Machefaux, Ewan; Maguire, Eoghan; Castellani, Francesco; Terzi, Ludovico; Breton, Simon-Philippe; Ueda, Yuko

2014-06-01

368

Introduction to wakefields and wake potentials  

SciTech Connect

What are wakefields and wake potentials, and why are these concepts useful in the physics of linear accelerators and storage rings We approach this question by first reviewing the basic physical concepts which underlie the mathematical formalism. We then present a summary of the various techniques that have been developed to make detailed calculations of wake potentials. Finally, we give some applications to current problems of interest in accelerator physics. No attempt at completeness can be made in an introductory article of modest length. Rather, we try to give a broad overview and to list key references for more detailed study. It will also be apparent that the last chapter on this subject, with all the loose ends neatly tied up, has yet to be written. There are subtle points, there are controversial questions, and active calculations to resolve these questions are continuing at the time of this writing. 61 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Wilson, P.B.

1989-01-01

369

Wake patterns of the wings and tail of hovering hummingbirds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow fields of slowly flying bats and faster-flying birds differ in that bats produce two vortex loops during each stroke, one per wing, and birds produce a single vortex loop per stroke. In addition, the circulation at stroke transition approaches zero in bats but remains strong in birds. It is unknown if these difference derive from fundamental differences in wing morphology or are a consequence of flight speed. Here, we present an analysis of the horizontal flow field underneath hovering Anna’s hummingbirds ( Calypte anna) to describe the wake of a bird flying at zero forward velocity. We also consider how the hummingbird tail interacts with the wake generated by the wings. High-speed image recording and analysis from three orthogonal perspectives revealed that the wing tips reach peak velocities in the middle of each stroke and approach zero velocity at stroke transition. Hummingbirds use complex tail kinematic patterns ranging from in phase to antiphase cycling with respect to the wings, covering several phase shifted patterns. We employed particle image velocimetry to attain detailed horizontal flow measurements at three levels with respect to the tail: in the tail, at the tail tip, and just below the tail. The velocity patterns underneath the wings indicate that flow oscillates along the ventral-dorsal axis in response to the down- and up-strokes and that the sideways flows with respect to the bird are consistently from the lateral to medial. The region around the tail is dominated by axial flows in dorsal to ventral direction. We propose that these flows are generated by interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and that the tail actively defects flows to generate moments that contribute to pitch stability. The flow fields images also revealed distinct vortex loops underneath each wing, which were generated during each stroke. From these data, we propose a model for the primary flow structures of hummingbirds that more strongly resembles the bat model. Thus, pairs of unconnected vortex loops may be shared features of different animals during hovering and slow forward flight.

Altshuler, Douglas L.; Princevac, Marko; Pan, Hansheng; Lozano, Jesse

2009-05-01

370

Wake patterns of the wings and tail of hovering hummingbirds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow fields of slowly flying bats and fasterflying birds differ in that bats produce two vortex loops during each stroke, one per wing, and birds produce a single vortex loop per stroke. In addition, the circulation at stroke transition approaches zero in bats but remains strong in birds. It is unknown if these difference derive from fundamental differences in wing morphology or are a consequence of flight speed. Here, we present an analysis of the horizontal flow field underneath hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) to describe the wake of a bird flying at zero forward velocity. We also consider how the hummingbird tail interacts with the wake generated by the wings. High-speed image recording and analysis from three orthogonal perspectives revealed that the wing tips reach peak velocities in the middle of each stroke and approach zero velocity at stroke transition. Hummingbirds use complex tail kinematic patterns ranging from in phase to antiphase cycling with respect to the wings, covering several phase shifted patterns. We employed particle image velocimetry to attain detailed horizontal flow measurements at three levels with respect to the tail: in the tail, at the tail tip, and just below the tail. The velocity patterns underneath the wings indicate that flow oscillates along the ventral-dorsal axis in response to the down- and up-strokes and that the sideways flows with respect to the bird are consistently from the lateral to medial. The region around the tail is dominated by axial flows in dorsal to ventral direction. We propose that these flows are generated by interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and that the tail actively defects flows to generate moments that contribute to pitch stability. The flow fields images also revealed distinct vortex loops underneath each wing, which were generated during each stroke. From these data, we propose a model for the primary flow structures of hummingbirds that more strongly resembles the bat model. Thus, pairs of unconnected vortex loops may be shared features of different animals during hovering and slow forward flight.

Altshuler, Douglas L.; Princevac, Marko; Pan, Hansheng; Lozano, Jesse

371

Suppression of unimolecular decay of laser desorbed peptide and protein ions by entrainment in rarefied supersonic gas jets under weak electric fields.  

PubMed

Unimolecular decay of sample ions imposes a limit on the usable laser fluence in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) ion sources. Traditionally, some modest degree of collisional sample ion cooling has been achieved by connecting MALDI ion sources directly to gas-filled radio frequency (RF) multipoles. It was also discovered in the early 1990s that gas-filled RF multipoles exhibit increased ion transmission efficiency due to collisional ion focusing effects. This unexpected experimental finding was later supported by elementary Monte Carlo simulations. Both experiments and simulations assumed a resting background gas with typical pressures of the order of 1 Pa. However, considerable additional improvements can be achieved if laser desorbed sample ions are introduced immediately after desorption, still within the ion source, in an axisymmetric rarefied supersonic gas jet with peak pressure of the order of 100 Pa and flow velocities >300 m/s, and under weak electric fields. We describe here the design principle and report performance data of an ion source coined "MALDI-2," which incorporates elements of both rarefied aerodynamics and particle optics. Such a design allows superb suppression of metastable fragmentation due to rapid collisional cooling in <10 ?s and nearly perfect injection efficiency into the attached RF ion guide, as numerous experiments have confirmed. PMID:25669372

Hieke, Andreas

2014-01-21

372

Suppression of unimolecular decay of laser desorbed peptide and protein ions by entrainment in rarefied supersonic gas jets under weak electric fields  

SciTech Connect

Unimolecular decay of sample ions imposes a limit on the usable laser fluence in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) ion sources. Traditionally, some modest degree of collisional sample ion cooling has been achieved by connecting MALDI ion sources directly to gas-filled radio frequency (RF) multipoles. It was also discovered in the early 1990s that gas-filled RF multipoles exhibit increased ion transmission efficiency due to collisional ion focusing effects. This unexpected experimental finding was later supported by elementary Monte Carlo simulations. Both experiments and simulations assumed a resting background gas with typical pressures of the order of 1 Pa. However, considerable additional improvements can be achieved if laser desorbed sample ions are introduced immediately after desorption, still within the ion source, in an axisymmetric rarefied supersonic gas jet with peak pressure of the order of 100 Pa and flow velocities >300 m/s, and under weak electric fields. We describe here the design principle and report performance data of an ion source coined “MALDI-2,” which incorporates elements of both rarefied aerodynamics and particle optics. Such a design allows superb suppression of metastable fragmentation due to rapid collisional cooling in <10 ?s and nearly perfect injection efficiency into the attached RF ion guide, as numerous experiments have confirmed.

Hieke, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.hieke@stanford.edu [Department of Structural Biology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive West, Fairchild Building, 148, Stanford, California 94305-5126 (United States)] [Department of Structural Biology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive West, Fairchild Building, 148, Stanford, California 94305-5126 (United States)

2014-01-21

373

Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS) Evaluation of Impacts on the National Airspace System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is one of a series that describes an ongoing effort in high-fidelity modeling/simulation, evaluation and analysis of the benefits and performance metrics of the Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS) Concept of Operations being developed as part of the Virtual Airspace Modeling and Simulation (VAMS) project. A previous study, determined the overall increases in runway arrival rates that could be achieved at 12 selected airports due to WakeVAS reduced aircraft spacing under Instrument Meteorological Conditions. This study builds on the previous work to evaluate the NAS wide impacts of equipping various numbers of airports with WakeVAS. A queuing network model of the National Airspace System, built by the Logistics Management Institute, Mclean, VA, for NASA (LMINET) was used to estimate the reduction in delay that could be achieved by using WakeVAS under non-visual meteorological conditions for the projected air traffic demand in 2010. The results from LMINET were used to estimate the total annual delay reduction that could be achieved and from this, an estimate of the air carrier variable operating cost saving was made.

Smith, Jeremy C.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.

2005-01-01

374

Experimental investigation of a stratified buoyant wake  

E-print Network

for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Malcolm Andrews (Chair of Committee) Gerald Morrison (Member) Paul Cizmas (Member) Dennis O?Neal (Head of Department) August 2004 Major Subject...: Mechanical Engineering iii ABSTRACT Experimental Investigation of a Stratified Buoyant Wake. (August 2004) Wayne N. Kraft, B.S., Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Malcolm Andrews An existing water channel facility at Texas A...

Kraft, Wayne Neal

2004-11-15

375

Computer models of the spacecraft wake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Until recently, computations of space plasma flow over a spacecraft have been unstable for ratios of spacecraft dimension to Debye length typical of the low Earth orbit environment. Calculations are presented of the spacecraft/environment interaction based on two computer codes, MACH and POLAR. MACH, an inside-out particle tracking code, was developed for the purpose of validating the physics of POLAR in regimes where these are no comprehensive theoretical or experimental results. While the spacecraft which can be treated by MACH are restricted to simple geometries, the methodology is more fundamental than POLAR. MACH generates self-consistent solutions within the context of quasisteady Vlasov plasma flow and achieves Debye ratios previously unobtainable. POLAR uses a three-dimensional finite-element representation of the vehicle in a staggered mesh. The plasma sheath is modeled by outside-in particle tracking. Solutions for the plasma flow, wake and vehicle charging are obtained by Vlasov-Poisson iteration; charge stabilization techniques make the results virtually insensitive to the Debye ratio. POLAR reproduces the Laframboise static plasma solutions for sperical probes and fits the Makita-Kuriki probe data for spheres in a flowing plasma in regions where comparisons are valid. POLAR and MACH solutions for the particle and electrostatic potential structure of the wake of a charged disk in a low-altitude flow are shown for Mach numbers 4, 5, and 8. New features of the solutions include ion focussing in the wake and a definitive determination of the sheath edge in the wake which shows that the sheath is not an equipotential.

Rubin, A. G.; Heinemann, M.; Tautz, M.; Cooke, D.

1986-01-01

376

Wake development in turbulent subsonic axisymmetric flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the wake velocity and turbulence profiles behind a cylindrical blunt based body aligned with a subsonic\\u000a uniform stream was experimentally investigated as a function of the momentum thickness of the approaching boundary layer and\\u000a the transfer of mass into the recirculating region. Measurements were made just outside of the recirculating region at distances\\u000a of 1.5, 2 and

J. L. F. Porteiro; V. Perez-Villar

1996-01-01

377

Stability characteristics of counter-rotating vortex pairs in the wakes of triangular-flapped airfoils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rapidly growing instability is observed to develop between unequal strength, counter-rotating vortex pairs in the wakes of airfoils with outboard triangular flaps. To investigate the physical mechanisms for this instability, a linear stability analysis is performed on a single vortex pair. This analytical model reveals that the instability is driven by the strain rate field from one vortex acting on the perturbations of its neighboring vortex. Another linear stability analysis is conducted to include the effects of the other counter-rotating vortex pair. The qualitative features of the instability, such as its wavelength and non-linear evolution, are examined by flow visualization measurements that are made in a towing tank facility at a chord-based Reynolds number of O(105). From these observations, a sinuous instability is seen to develop on the weaker flap vortices and have a wavelength of order one wingspan. The instability wavelengths that are observed in the flow visualization data compare favorably with those predicted by the two- and four-vortex linear stability analyses, demonstrating that the analytical models capture the essential physics of the instability growth. Quantitative measurements of the vortex wakes are made with a PIV technique, allowing the vortex structure, trajectories, kinetic energy, and distribution to be assessed up to several hundred wingspans downstream of the airfoils. Additionally, the circulation-based Reynolds number is seen to be of O(105). The PIV data indicate that the wake's two-dimensional kinetic energy decreases substantially as the instability transforms the two-dimensional nature of the wake into a three- dimensional one. Finally, the wake alleviation properties of this instability are measured by computing the maximum rolling moment and downwash that a following wing might experience if it were placed in the wakes of these airfoils. These calculations show that by 75 wingspans, the wakes of the triangular-flapped airfoils have rolling moments and downwash that are always less than those of a conventional rectangular airfoil. This rapid reduction in the rolling moment and downwash leads to the conclusion that this instability between unequal strength, counter- rotating vortex pairs has the potential to solve the wake hazard problem.

Ortega, Jason Marc

378

Identification of characteristic properties in different vessel wake signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential threat in terms of environmental protection and safe navigation posed by wake waves from high-speed ferries and fast conventional ships is well documented. Vessels that travel in the near-critical regime (depth Froude number ? 1) at some sections along their ship tracks can generate packets of large, solitonic, very long and long crested waves. The heights and periods of the leading waves, excited at near-critical speeds, may be much larger than those of conventional ferries or vessels travelling at even slightly slower speeds. However, it is difficult to determine a general characterization of such wakes at the coast, due to the transient and nonlinear nature of this phenomenon, and the fact that wake impact is influenced by the local bathymetry and coastline configuration. Such a characterization is required in order to set reasonable limits to wake wash that are sufficient for protection but not excessively restrictive for ship navigation. This paper investigates the potential benefits of wake analysis by means of a time-frequency technique (windowed Fourier transform), which is well known in signal analysis but has only recently been applied in wake analysis. Analysis of ship wakes have been performed based on instrumental data of sea surface elevation recorded at different sites in Tallinn Bay, the Baltic Sea, which is characterized by very intense ship traffic and provides a very rich collection of vessel-wake signals. Results show that the wake signals are easily identified in spectrograms. The method is particularly useful for identification of low frequency signals that may easily be masked by high frequency noise in the wave record. Furthermore, the spectrogram provides an image of the wake that makes it possible to associate wake events with individual ships at a given location. This approach also opens a new direction for the statistical description of wakes, applicable to the characterization of the "wake climate" for sites with intense vessel traffic.

Didenkulova, Ira; Sheremet, Alex; Torsvik, Tomas; Soomere, Tarmo

2013-04-01

379

Surface circulation in a Caribbean island wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow disturbances caused by islands can have important biological effects on coastal marine ecosystems. In order to measure the surface current circulation in the lee of the Caribbean island of St. Croix, we deployed a high-frequency radar system for approximately 3 months which provided hourly current vectors, obtained over approximately 600 km 2 with 1 km resolution. Here, we report two of the principal physical observations. First, contrary to expectations from computed Reynolds numbers, no wake eddies were formed. Using a horizontal eddy viscosity of 100 m 2 s -1, Reynolds numbers often exceeded 80, large enough to produce wake eddies in rotating laboratory flow studies and in numerical modelling experiments. Although no wake eddy formation was observed, a persistent nearshore convergence region of weak currents off the northwest coast was present. This suggests that slightly larger values of horizontal eddy viscosity may be appropriate for circulation models of this region. Second, anomalously strong eastward flows were occasionally observed that were not driven by any local wind change. We present evidence from satellite altimetry which indicates that this type of event is caused by an anticyclonic mesoscale eddy centered south of the island. Such nearshore convergence regions and anticyclonic eddies may have strong effects on the retention and dispersal of larvae of coral reef fishes among islands within the Caribbean region.

Harlan, J. A.; Swearer, S. E.; Leben, R. R.; Fox, C. A.

2002-02-01

380

Counterpropagating Rossby waves in confined plane wakes  

PubMed Central

In the present work, we revisit the temporal and the spatio-temporal stability of confined plane wakes under the perspective of the counterpropagating Rossby waves (CRWs). Within the context of broken line velocity profiles, each vorticity discontinuity can be associated to a counterpropagating Rossby wave. In the case of a wake modeled by a broken line profile, the interaction of two CRWs is shown to originate in a shear instability. Following this description, we first recover the stability results obtained by Juniper [J. Fluid Mech. 590, 163–185 (2007)]10.1017/S0022112007007975 and Biancofiore and Gallaire [Phys. Fluids 23, 034103 (2011)]10.1063/1.3554764 by means of the classical normal mode analysis. In this manner, we propose an explanation of the stabilizing influence of the confinement on the temporal stability properties. The CRW description further allows us to propose a new interpretation of the counterintuitive spatio-temporal destabilization in wake flows at moderate confinement noticed by Juniper [J. Fluid Mech. 565, 171–195 (2006)]10.1017/S0022112006001558: it is well predicted by the mean group velocity of the uncoupled CRWs. PMID:22865998

Biancofiore, L.; Gallaire, F.

2012-01-01

381

Near Wake Flow Topology of a Blunt Trailing Edge Profiled Flat Plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wake flows behind two dimensional bodies are unstable due to formation of spanwise von Karman vortices accompanied by three dimensional streamwise instabilities, also referred to as rolls and ribs, respectively. These three dimensional instabilities lead to two distinct instability modes (Mode A and Mode B), or a combination of the two, depending on the flow Reynolds number and the profile geometry. It has been observed that the ribs wrap around the rolls, progressively distorting them. Therefore, enhancing the action of streamwise vortices can lead to early suppression of the spanwise von Karman vortices accompanied by the reduction of fluctuating lift and base drag. The present investigation seeks to better understand these near wake instabilities for blunt trailing edge profiled bodies of various aspect ratios, for flow Reynolds numbers ranging from Re(d)=500 to Re(d)=2200, and various inlet conditions. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) visualizations and measurements are performed in the near wake to study and characterize the topology of streamwise and spanwise vortices.

Sampat Doddipatla, Lakshmana; Naghib Lahouti, Arash; Hangan, Horia; Siddiqui, Kamran

2009-11-01

382

Direct Simulation and Theoretical Study of Sub- and Supersonic Wakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wakes are constitutive components of engineering, aeronautical and geophysical flows. Despite their canonical nature, many fundamental questions surrounding wakes remain unanswered. The present work studies the nature of archetypal planar splitter-plate wakes in the sub- and supersonic regimes from a theoretical as well as a numerical perspective. A highly-parallelizable computational fluid dynamic solver was developed, from scratch, for the very-large scale direct numerical simulations of high-speed free shear flows. Wakes maintain a near indelible memory of their origins; thus, changes to the state of the flow on the generating body lead to multiple self-similar states in the far wake. To understand the source of the lack of universality, three distinct wake evolution scenarios are investigated in the incompressible limit: the Kelvin-Helmholtz transition, the bypass transition in an asymmetric wake and the initially turbulent wake. The multiplicity of self-similar states is the result of a plurality of far wake structural organizations, which maintains the memory of the flow. The structural organization is predicated on the presence or absence of near wake anti-symmetric perturbations (as a result of shedding, instability modes and/or trailing edge receptivity). The plurality of large-scale structural organization contrasts with the commonality observed in the mid-sized structures, which are dominated by inclined vortical rods, and not, as previously assumed, by horseshoe structures. The compressibility effects are a direct function of the maximal velocity defect in the wake and are therefore only important in the transitional region - the far wake having an essentially incompressible character. The compressibility simultaneously modifies the growth rate and wavelength of the primary instability mode with a concomitant effect on the emerging transitional structures. As a direct result, the spanwise rollers have an increasing ellipticity and cross-wake domain of influence with the increasing Mach number of the wake. Consequently, structural pairing - a key feature of wake transition - is inhibited at a critical Mach number, which greatly modifies the transitional dynamics. In idealized wakes, the increased stability caused by the compressibility effects leads to a vortex breakdown of secondary structures prior to the full transition of the principal mode. These findings open the door to novel mixing enhancement and flow control possibilities in the high-speed wake transition. Keywords: FLUID DYNAMICS, DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS, FREE SHEAR FLOWS, TURBULENCE, NUMERICAL METHODS

Hickey, Jean-Pierre

383

On the helical behavior of turbulence in the ship wake  

E-print Network

Turbulent ship wake conservation at a long distance is one of unsolved problems at present. It is well known that wakes have a rotational structure and slowly expand with distance. Nevertheless, experimental data on their structure and properties are not sufficient. On the other hand, these experimental data show that the divergence of wakes does not change according to the law 1/5, as predicted by the theory. In our work we study the effect of helicity on the parameters of a turbulent ship wake. Taking into account the helical nature of the wake, we can clarify the difference between turbulence inside and outside of the wake on the one hand, and slow its expansion with time.

Golbraikh, E; Soloviev, A

2010-01-01

384

Unsteady vortex lattice techniques applied to wake formation and performance of the statically thrusting propeller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application is considered of vortex lattice techniques to the problem of describing the aerodynamics and performance of statically thrusting propellers. A numerical lifting surface theory to predict the aerodynamic forces and power is performed. The chordwise and spanwise loading is modelled by bound vortices fixed to a twisted flat plate surface. In order to eliminate any apriori assumptions regarding the wake shape, it is assumed the propeller starts from rest. The wake is generated in time and allowed to deform under its own self-induced velocity field as the motion of the propeller progresses. The bound circulation distribution is then determined with time by applying the flow tangency boundary condition at certain selected control points on the blades. The aerodynamics of the infinite wing and finite wing are also considered. The details of wake formation and roll-up are investigated, particularly the localized induction effect. It is concluded that proper wake roll-up and roll-up rates can be established by considering the details of motion at the instant of start.

Hall, G. F.

1975-01-01

385

Three-dimensional vortex wake structure of flapping wings in hovering flight  

PubMed Central

Flapping wings continuously create and send vortices into their wake, while imparting downward momentum into the surrounding fluid. However, experimental studies concerning the details of the three-dimensional vorticity distribution and evolution in the far wake are limited. In this study, the three-dimensional vortex wake structure in both the near and far field of a dynamically scaled flapping wing was investigated experimentally, using volumetric three-component velocimetry. A single wing, with shape and kinematics similar to those of a fruitfly, was examined. The overall result of the wing action is to create an integrated vortex structure consisting of a tip vortex (TV), trailing-edge shear layer (TESL) and leading-edge vortex. The TESL rolls up into a root vortex (RV) as it is shed from the wing, and together with the TV, contracts radially and stretches tangentially in the downstream wake. The downwash is distributed in an arc-shaped region enclosed by the stretched tangential vorticity of the TVs and the RVs. A closed vortex ring structure is not observed in the current study owing to the lack of well-established starting and stopping vortex structures that smoothly connect the TV and RV. An evaluation of the vorticity transport equation shows that both the TV and the RV undergo vortex stretching while convecting downwards: a three-dimensional phenomenon in rotating flows. It also confirms that convection and secondary tilting and stretching effects dominate the evolution of vorticity. PMID:24335561

Cheng, Bo; Roll, Jesse; Liu, Yun; Troolin, Daniel R.; Deng, Xinyan

2014-01-01

386

Trailing Vortex Measurements in the Wake of a Hovering Rotor Blade with Various Tip Shapes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work examined the wake aerodynamics of a single helicopter rotor blade with several tip shapes operating on a hover test stand. Velocity field measurements were conducted using three-component laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). The objective of these measurements was to document the vortex velocity profiles and then extract the core properties, such as the core radius, peak swirl velocity, and axial velocity. The measured test cases covered a wide range of wake-ages and several tip shapes, including rectangular, tapered, swept, and a subwing tip. One of the primary differences shown by the change in tip shape was the wake geometry. The effect of blade taper reduced the initial peak swirl velocity by a significant fraction. It appears that this is accomplished by decreasing the vortex strength for a given blade loading. The subwing measurements showed that the interaction and merging of the subwing and primary vortices created a less coherent vortical structure. A source of vortex core instability is shown to be the ratio of the peak swirl velocity to the axial velocity deficit. The results show that if there is a turbulence producing region of the vortex structure, it will be outside of the core boundary. The LDV measurements were supported by laser light-sheet flow visualization. The results provide several benchmark test cases for future validation of theoretical vortex models, numerical free-wake models, and computational fluid dynamics results.

Martin, Preston B.; Leishman, J. Gordon

2003-01-01

387

Three-dimensional structures and turbulence closure of the wake developing in a wall shear layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The turbulent wake interacting with the rotating wall shear layer is investigated analytically and numerically. The turbulent wakes of the rotating blades in a compressor which are interacting with the rotating hub-wall boundary layer are analyzed. A modified version of the closure model of the pressure-strain correlation term in the Reynolds stress transport equation is developed to predict the effect of rotation, which is appreciable for the present flow because the thick hub-wall boundary layer is interacting with the rotor wake. It is noted that the Poisson type equation for the pressure-strain correlation has an extra rotation term when the entire flow field is rotating. This extra rotation term is modeled to accommodate the effect of rotation. In addition, the standard correction for the wall effect is incorporated for the utilized Reynolds stress closure model. The rotation-modified Reynolds stress closure model is used to predict the present flow, and the predictions are compared with the experimental data. The experimental data reveal that the characteristics of the three-dimensional turbulent wake interacting with the wall shear layer are considerably altered by the effects of the wall and the rotation. These features are predicted with good accuracy by the turbulence closure model developed.

Hah, C.

1981-01-01

388

Initialization and Simulation of Three-Dimensional Aircraft Wake Vortices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper studies the effects of axial velocity profiles on vortex decay, in order to properly initialize and simulate three-dimensional wake vortex flow. Analytical relationships are obtained based on a single vortex model and computational simulations are performed for a rather practical vortex wake, which show that the single vortex analytical relations can still be applicable at certain streamwise sections of three-dimensional wake vortices.

Ash, Robert L.; Zheng, Z. C.

1997-01-01

389

Enhanced Cherenkov-Wake Amplification by an Active Medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Cherenkov wake confined by perfectly reflecting transverse walls is amplified if the dielectric medium is active. Because of the multiple-reflections process, the effective gain of the wake is enhanced compared to a ray propagating in a straight line. Higher enhancement occurs when the electron velocity is close to the Cherenkov velocity. This Cherenkov wake can then accelerate a second bunch of electrons trailing the first. Gradients larger than 1 GV/m are predicted before saturation becomes a major impediment

Voin, Miron; Schächter, Levi

2014-02-01

390

Transient Resistive Wall Wake for Very Short Bunches  

SciTech Connect

The catch up distance for the resistive wall wake in a round pipe is approximately equal to the square of the pipe radius divided by the bunch length. The standard formulae for this wake are applicable at distances much larger than the catch up distance. In this paper, we calculate the resistive wall wake at distances compared with the catch up distance assuming a constant wall conductivity.

Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

2005-05-13

391

Federal Aviation Administration Wake Turbulence Program- Recent Highlights  

E-print Network

Aircraft-generated wake turbulence has for years been a major factor in the air-traffic-control-imposed separations between aircraft during departure, transit and arrival operations conducted at airports and air corridors of high volume. Applied research at a global level aimed to mitigate the adverse effect of wake turbulence traces back to the 1970s, although fundamental research related to the wake turbulence dates

Jeffery A. Tittsworth; Steven R. Lang; Edward J. Johnson; Stephen Barnes

392

The laminar axisymmetric wake for power-law fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An analytic solution is given for the asymptotic structure of the axisymmetric laminar wake of a power-law fluid valid for rheological indicesn>1\\/3. For dilatant fluids (n>1) the lateral extent of the wake is finite, a feature not found in Newtonian fluid flows. Velocity profiles are compared with previously published results for two-dimensional laminar wakes of power-law fluids at selected

P. D. Weidman; C. W. Van Atta

2001-01-01

393

Quantitative three-dimensional low-speed wake surveys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical and practical aspects of conducting three-dimensional wake measurements in large wind tunnels are reviewed with emphasis on applications in low-speed aerodynamics. Such quantitative wake surveys furnish separate values for the components of drag, such as profile drag and induced drag, but also measure lift without the use of a balance. In addition to global data, details of the wake flowfield as well as spanwise distributions of lift and drag are obtained. The paper demonstrates the value of this measurement technique using data from wake measurements conducted by Boeing on a variety of low-speed configurations including the complex high-lift system of a transport aircraft.

Brune, G. W.

1992-01-01

394

Flight test techniques for wake-vortex minimization studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight test techniques developed for use in a study of wake turbulence and used recently in flight studies of wake minimization methods are discussed. Flow visualization was developed as a technique for qualitatively assessing minimization methods and is required in flight test procedures for making quantitative measurements. The quantitative techniques are the measurement of the upset dynamics of an aircraft encountering the wake and the measurement of the wake velocity profiles. Descriptions of the instrumentation and the data reduction and correlation methods are given.

Jacobsen, R. A.; Barber, M. R.

1977-01-01

395

The three-dimensional evolution of a plane wake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the past three decades, linear stability analysis has led to a comprehensive understanding of the linear stages of transition in plane wakes. Our understanding of the nonlinear and turbulent stages is less developed. Nonlinear theory developed by Papageorgiou and Smith was used to study the long-wavelength regime in wakes. The nonlinear and turbulent stages were investigated experimentally, and few numerical studies examined the early nonlinear stages of forced wakes. The evolution of three dimensional disturbances in an incompressible wake is investigated using direct numerical simulations. The instantaneous three-dimaensional structures and corresponding statistics are presented.

Maekawa, H.; Moser, R. D.; Mansour, N. N.

1993-01-01

396

Optimization of Source/Drain Doping Level of Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors to Suppress OFF-State Leakage Current while Keeping Ideal ON-State Current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of doping concentration variation in source/drain junctions on the characteristics of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) have been studied in order to realize high performance CNFETs, where suppressed OFF-state leakage current and ideal maximum ON-state current were obtained. The characteristics of CNFETs with doped source/drain regions have been studied by solving the Poisson and carrier transport equations self-consistently. The transmission coefficient through the bandgap (Eg) has been calculated using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation in order to take into account the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) leakage current. The doping is characterized by the Fermi level (Ed) in a doped region which is measured from the conduction band edge. In this study, it is demonstrated that, when the power supply voltage (Vdd) is greater than the bandgap of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), optimized doping level Ed of Vdd-Eg shows the lowest OFF-state current (IOFF). On the other hand, when Vdd is smaller than Eg, IOFF monotonically decreases as Ed decreases, although the aggressively lowered doping concentration results in lower ON-state current. We also demonstrated that CNFETs with low source/drain doping concentration exhibit current saturation at higher gate voltages. The current saturation results from the fact that the injection velocity to the channel is limited by the velocity in the source region which is determined by the source doping level. We showed that, in order to avoid the current saturation, doping level should be higher than 0.3 eV, regardless of carbon nanotube diameter.

Pinar Algul, Berrin; Uchida, Ken

2012-06-01

397

Optimization of Source/Drain Doping Level of Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors to Suppress OFF-State Leakage Current while Keeping Ideal ON-State Current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of doping concentration variation in source/drain junctions on the characteristics of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) have been studied in order to realize high performance CNFETs, where suppressed OFF-state leakage current and ideal maximum ON-state current were obtained. The characteristics of CNFETs with doped source/drain regions have been studied by solving the Poisson and carrier transport equations self-consistently. The transmission coefficient through the bandgap (Eg) has been calculated using the Wentzel--Kramers--Brillouin (WKB) approximation in order to take into account the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) leakage current. The doping is characterized by the Fermi level (Ed) in a doped region which is measured from the conduction band edge. In this study, it is demonstrated that, when the power supply voltage (Vdd) is greater than the bandgap of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), optimized doping level Ed of Vdd-Eg shows the lowest OFF-state current (IOFF). On the other hand, when Vdd is smaller than Eg, IOFF monotonically decreases as Ed decreases, although the aggressively lowered doping concentration results in lower ON-state current. We also demonstrated that CNFETs with low source/drain doping concentration exhibit current saturation at higher gate voltages. The current saturation results from the fact that the injection velocity to the channel is limited by the velocity in the source region which is determined by the source doping level. We showed that, in order to avoid the current saturation, doping level should be higher than 0.3 eV, regardless of carbon nanotube diameter.

Algul, Berrin Pinar; Uchida, Ken

2012-06-01

398

The structure of three-dimensional turbulent wakes \\/Case - Turbulent wake behind a crossed circular cylinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the mean flow properties of the crossed circular cylinder wake. The U-component velocity distribution was determined from the momentum equation on the basis of local similarity, confirming that this profile almost coincided with the experimental value in the region beyond the value of x\\/d of 130. The dependence of reference scale of velocity and length on x

H. Osaka; H. Yamada; Y. Kageyama

1979-01-01

399

Helicopter rotor wake geometry and its influence in forward flight. Volume 1: Generalized wake geometry and wake effect on rotor airloads and performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytic investigation to generalize wake geometry of a helicopter rotor in steady level forward flight and to demonstrate the influence of wake deformation in the prediction of rotor airloads and performance is described. Volume 1 presents a first level generalized wake model based on theoretically predicted tip vortex geometries for a selected representative blade design. The tip vortex distortions are generalized in equation form as displacements from the classical undistorted tip vortex geometry in terms of vortex age, blade azimuth, rotor advance ratio, thrust coefficient, and number of blades. These equations were programmed to provide distorted wake coordinates at very low cost for use in rotor airflow and airloads prediction analyses. The sensitivity of predicted rotor airloads, performance, and blade bending moments to the modeling of the tip vortex distortion are demonstrated for low to moderately high advance ratios for a representative rotor and the H-34 rotor. Comparisons with H-34 rotor test data demonstrate the effects of the classical, predicted distorted, and the newly developed generalized wake models on airloads and blade bending moments. Use of distorted wake models results in the occurrence of numerous blade-vortex interactions on the forward and lateral sides of the rotor disk. The significance of these interactions is related to the number and degree of proximity to the blades of the tip vortices. The correlation obtained with the distorted wake models (generalized and predicted) is encouraging.

Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.

1983-01-01

400

Geometrical Wake of a Smooth Flat Collimator  

SciTech Connect

A transverse geometrical wake generated by a beam passing through a smooth flat collimator with a gradually varying gap between the upper and lower walls is considered. Based on generalization of the approach recently developed for a smooth circular taper we reduce the electromagnetic problem of the impedance calculation to the solution of two much simpler static problems - a magnetostatic and an electrostatic ones. The solution shows that in the limit of not very large frequencies, the impedance increases with the ratio h/d where h is the width and d is the distance between the collimating jaws. Numerical results are presented for the NLC Post Linac collimator.

Stupakov, G.V.; /SLAC

2011-09-09

401

Wake Forest University Physics Demonstration Videos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physics is plenty exciting on its own, but this clutch of physics demonstration videos offered up by Wake Forest University's Physics departments will probably have students running out to learn more about string theory and cosmology. Teachers will definitely appreciate this resource, as they can use these videos in the classroom or just recommend to their students. Visitors can view the videos in their entirety by subject headings, which include "Motion", "Heat", "Optics", and not surprisingly, "Newton". All told there are dozens of videos, including "Bed of Nails", "Cartesian Diver", and the surreal yet appropriately titled "Marshmallow Man". Overall, this resource is a delightful find.

402

Inviscid double wake model for stalled airfoils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inviscid double wake model based on a steady two-dimensional panel method has been developed to predict aerodynamic loads of wind turbine airfoils in the deep stall region. The separated flow is modelled using two constant vorticity sheets which are released at the trailing edge and at the separation point. A calibration of the code through comparison with experiments has been performed using one set of airfoils. A second set of airfoils has been used for the validation of the calibrated model. Predicted aerodynamic forces for a wide range of angles of attack (0 to 90 deg) are in overall good agreement with wind tunnel measurements.

Marion, L.; Ramos-García, N.; Sørensen, J. N.

2014-06-01

403

Recent wake turbulence flight test programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In early flight tests the size and intensity of the wake vortexes generated by aircraft ranging in size from the Learjet to the C-5A and the B-747 were studied to determine the effects of aircraft configuration, weight, and speed. Early problems were related to vortex marking, the measurement of separation distance, and test techniques. Recent tests conducted with B-747 showed that vortexes were alleviated by reducing the deflection of the outboard flaps. It was found that a more rapid dissipation of the vortex system can be obtained through alterations in the span lift distribution.

Tymczyszyn, J. J.; Barber, M. R.

1974-01-01

404

Thermal wake/vessel detection technique  

DOEpatents

A computer-automated method for detecting a vessel in water based on an image of a portion of Earth includes generating a thermal anomaly mask. The thermal anomaly mask flags each pixel of the image initially deemed to be a wake pixel based on a comparison of a thermal value of each pixel against other thermal values of other pixels localized about each pixel. Contiguous pixels flagged by the thermal anomaly mask are grouped into pixel clusters. A shape of each of the pixel clusters is analyzed to determine whether each of the pixel clusters represents a possible vessel detection event. The possible vessel detection events are represented visually within the image.

Roskovensky, John K. (Albuquerque, NM); Nandy, Prabal (Albuquerque, NM); Post, Brian N (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-01-10

405

Suppression of the metal-insulator transition by magnetic field in (Pr{sub 1?y}Y{sub y}){sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}CoO{sub 3} (y?=?0.0625)  

SciTech Connect

The (Pr{sub 1?y}Y{sub y}){sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}CoO{sub 3} compound (y?=?0.0625, T{sub MI-SS}=40?K), at the lower limit for occurrence of the first-order metal-insulator (MI) and simultaneous spin-state (SS) transitions, has been studied using electrical resistivity and magnetization measurements in magnetic fields up to 17?T. The isothermal experiments demonstrate that the low-temperature insulating phase can be destabilized by an applied field and the metallic phase returns well below the transition temperature T{sub MI-SS}. The reverse process with decreasing field occurs with a significant hysteresis. The temperature scans taken at fixed magnetic fields reveal a parabolic-like decrease in T{sub MI-SS} with increasing field strength and a complete suppression of the MI-SS transition in fields above 9?T.

Naito, Tomoyuki, E-mail: tnaito@iwate-u.ac.jp; Fujishiro, Hiroyuki [Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Nishizaki, Terukazu; Kobayashi, Norio [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Hejtmánek, Ji?í; Knížek, Karel; Jirák, Zden?k [Institute of Physics, ASCR, Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

2014-06-21

406

Near-Wake Turbulence Properties around a Circular Cylinder at High Reynolds Number  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the turbulent properties of the flow around a circular cylinder in the near-wake and in the\\u000a near-wall upstream region at the Reynolds number 140,000. A detailed cartography of the mean and turbulent velocity fields\\u000a using a moderate blockage and aspect ratio is provided in order to use the present results for direct comparisons with realisable\\u000a 3D

H. Djeridi; M. Braza; R. Perrin; G. Harran; E. Cid; S. Cazin

2003-01-01

407

Transition and Turbulence Modeling for Blunt-Body Wake Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerobraking has been proposed as an efficient means of decelerating spacecraft for planetary missions. Most current aerobrake designs feature a blunt forebody shielding the payload from the intense heat generated during atmospheric entry. Although this forebody will absorb the largest portion of the heat pulse, accurate prediction of heating in the near wake is of great importance, since large local heating values can occur at points of shear-layer impingement. In order to address the various issues associated with these blunt-body wake flowfields, the Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) formed Working Group 18 in 1992. One of the objectives of this activity was to examine real-gas effects in high-speed flow fields around a 70 deg. blunted cone. To date, many researchers have conducted experiments using this geometry in various facilities, such as the Large Energy National Shock (LENS) tunnel at Cubric/Calspan and the HEG shock tunnel at DLR-Goettingen. Several computational studies have also been conducted in concert with these tests. Many of the experimental results have indicated the possible presence of a transitional shear layer through a large increase in heat transfer downstream of the reattachment point. The presence of transition could in fact lead to much higher peak heating than if the separated flow is entirely laminar or turbulent. In the shock-tunnel tests, however, it is difficult to separate such viscous-flow phenomena from real-gas effects. In order to help make this distinction, Horvath et al. recently conducted a set of experiments in the NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel, and compared the results to laminar Navier-Stokes calculations. They found heat-transfer distributions similar to those obtained in the high-enthalpy facilities, with the measured peak heating along the sting support markedly greater than that predicted by the laminar computations. These trends point to the need to find transitional and turbulent computational solutions for these flowfields.

Nance, Robert P.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Hassan, H. A.

1997-01-01

408

Direct Numerical Simulation of a Temporally Evolving Incompressible Plane Wake: Effect of Initial Conditions on Evolution and Topology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct numerical simulations have been used to examine the effect of the initial disturbance field on the development of three-dimensionality and the transition to turbulence in the incompressible plane wake. The simulations were performed using a new numerical method for solving the time-dependent, three-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in flows with one infinite and two periodic directions. The method uses standard Fast Fourier Transforms and is applicable to cases where the vorticity field is compact in the infinite direction. Initial disturbances fields examined were combinations of two-dimensional waves and symmetric pairs of 60 deg oblique waves at the fundamental, subharmonic, and sub-subharmonic wavelengths. The results of these simulations indicate that the presence of 60 deg disturbances at the subharmonic streamwise wavelength results in the development of strong coherent three-dimensional structures. The resulting strong three-dimensional rate-of-strain triggers the growth of intense fine scale motions. Wakes initiated with 60 deg disturbances at the fundamental streamwise wavelength develop weak coherent streamwise structures, and do not develop significant fine scale motions, even at high Reynolds numbers. The wakes which develop strong three-dimensional structures exhibit growth rates on par with experimentally observed turbulent plane wakes. Wakes which develop only weak three-dimensional structures exhibit significantly lower late time growth rates. Preliminary studies of wakes initiated with an oblique fundamental and a two-dimensional subharmonic, which develop asymmetric coherent oblique structures at the subharmonic wavelength, indicate that significant fine scale motions only develop if the resulting oblique structures are above an angle of approximately 45 deg.

Sondergaard, R.; Cantwell, B.; Mansour, N.

1997-01-01

409

The structure of cosmic string wakes  

SciTech Connect

The clustering of baryons and cold dark matter induced by a single moving string is analyzed numerically, making use of the new three-dimensional Eulerian cosmological hydrocode of Sornborger {ital et al.}, which uses the piecewise parabolic method to track the baryons and the particle-in-cell method to evolve the dark matter particles. A long straight string moving with a speed comparable to c induces a planar overdensity (a {open_quotes}wake{close_quotes}). Since the initial perturbation is a velocity kick toward the plane behind the string and there is no initial Newtonian gravitational line source, the baryons are trapped in the center of the wake, leading to an enhanced baryon to dark matter ratio. The cold coherent flow leads to very low postshock temperatures of the baryonic fluid. In contrast, long strings with small-scale structure (which can be described by adding a Newtonian gravitational line source) move slowly and form filamentary objects. The large central pressure due to the gravitational potential causes the baryons to be expelled from the central regions and leads to a relative deficit in the baryon to dark matter ratio. In this case, the velocity of the baryons is larger, leading to high postshock temperatures. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

Sornborger, A. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, 3 Silver Street, Cambridge CB3 9EW, England (United Kingdom)] [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, 3 Silver Street, Cambridge CB3 9EW, England (United Kingdom); Brandenberger, R. [Physics Department, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)] [Physics Department, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Fryxell, B.; Olson, K. [Institute for Computational Science and Informatics, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States)] [Institute for Computational Science and Informatics, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States)

1997-06-01

410

Using satellite data for mapping offshore wind resources and wakes  

E-print Network

Using satellite data for mapping offshore wind resources and wakes Charlotte Bay Hasager, Merete Energy Department, Denmark Copenhagen Offshore Wind, Conference and Exhibition 26-28 October 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark #12;· Offshore winds from satellites · Wind ressource estimation · Wake estimation

411

Experimental study on wake structure of single rising clean bubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wake structure of clean bubble rising in quiescent silicone oil solution of photochromic dye is experimentally studied. A single bubble is generated, immediately after UV sheet light illuminates the part of the liquid just above the bubble generation nozzle in order to activate photochromic dye. Once the bubble passes across the colored part of the liquid, the bubble is accompanied by some portion of activated dye tracers; hence the flow structure in the rear of the single rising bubble is visualized. We capture stereo images of both wake structure and bubble motion. We study how wake structure changes with the increase in bubble size. We observe the stable axisymmetric wake structure, which is called `standing eddy' when bubble size is relatively small, and then wake structure becomes unstable and starts to oscillate with the increase in bubble size. With further increase in bubble size, a pair of streamwise vortices, which is called `double thread', is observed. We discuss in detail this transition from the steady wake to unsteady wake structure, especially double thread wake development and hairpin vortices shedding, in relation to the transition from rectilinear to spiral or zigzag bubble motions.

Sato, Ayaka; Takedomi, Yuta; Shirota, Minori; Sanada, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Masao

2007-11-01

412

An Experimental Study of Wake Vortex Instabilities Brian M. Babie  

E-print Network

poses a flight safety hazard to other aircraft that may encounter this wake. This flight safety threat of axial bending mode = azimuthal coordinate x = mean axial vorticity I. Introduction LL aircraft create a trailing vortex wake that may persist for several miles behind the generating aircraft, dependent

Nelson, Robert C.

413

The Comprehensive Cancer Center of Wake Forest University  

Cancer.gov

The Wake Forest University (WFU) School of Medicine was founded in 1902 and has grown into a large academic medical center with 900 faculty and over 100 buildings. The Comprehensive Cancer Center of Wake Forest University (CCCWFU) became an NCI-designated cancer center in 1974 and a comprehensive center in 1990.

414

Wake Forest U. Joins Ranks of Test-Optional Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wake Forest University will no longer require applicants to submit standardized test scores, the university announced last week. The move makes Wake Forest, in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, one of the most prominent institutions with a "test optional" admissions policy. The university's decision reveals the increasing complexity of the national…

Hoover, Eric; Supiano, Beckie

2008-01-01

415

On the investigation of cascade and turbomachinery rotor wake characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the investigation reported in this thesis is to study the characteristics of a turbomachinery rotor wake, both analytically and experimentally. The constitutive equations for the rotor wake are developed using generalized tensors and a non-inertial frame of reference. Analytical and experimental investigation is carried out in two phases; the first phase involved the study of a cascade wake in the absence of rotation and three dimensionality. In the second phase the wake of a rotor is studied. Simplified two- and three-dimensional models are developed for the prediction of the mean velocity profile of the cascade and the rotor wake, respectively, using the principle of self-similarity. The effect of various major parameters of the rotor and the flow geometry is studied on the development of a rotor wake. Laws governing the decay of the wake velocity defect in a cascade and rotor wake as a function of downstream distance from the trailing edge, pressure gradient and other parameters are derived.

Raj, R.; Lakshminarayana, B.

1975-01-01

416

Narcolepsy: regional cerebral blood flow during sleep and wakefulness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serial measurements of regional cerebral blood flow were made by the 135Xe inhalation method during the early stages of sleep and wakefulness in eight normal volunteers and 12 patients with narcolepsy. Electroencephalogram, electro-oculogram, and submental electromyogram were recorded simultaneously. In normals, mean hemispheric gray matter blood flow (Fg) during stages I and II sleep was significantly less than waking values.

F. Sakai; J. S. Meyer; I. Karacan; F. Yamaguchi; M. Yamamoto

1979-01-01

417

Modulation of sleep and waking states by D-1 receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes pharmacological studies showing that the dopamine D-1 receptor subtype is involved in the modulation of states of sleep and wakefulness. Stimulation of D-1 receptors by SKF 38393 produces electro encephalographic (EEG) arousal, enhances duration of wakefulness and markedly reduces the stage of rapid eye movement sleep (REM). Importantly, all these effects occur in the absence of the

Ennio Ongini; Maria Trampus

1992-01-01

418

Characteristics of lightly loaded fan rotor blade wakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low subsonic and incompressible wake flow downstream of lightly loaded rotor was studied. Measurements of mean velocity, turbulence intensity, Reynolds stress, and static variations across the rotor wake at various axial and radial locations were investigated. Wakes were measured at various rotor blade incidences to discern the effect of blade loading on the rotor wake. Mean velocity and turbulence measurements were carried out with a triaxial hot wire probe both rotating with the rotor and stationary behind the rotor. Results indicate that increased loading slows the decay rates of axial and tangential mean velocity defects and radial velocities in the wake. The presence of large radial velocities in the rotor wake indicate the extent of the interactions between one radius and another. Appreciable static pressure variations across the rotor wake were found in the near wake region. Similarity in the profile shape was found for the axial and tangential components of the mean velocity and in the outer layer for axial, tangential, and radial turbulence intensities.

Reynolds, B.; Lakshminarayana, B.

1979-01-01

419

A modified law of the wake for turbulent shear layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple polynomial expression is proposed for the modification to the wake function for turbulent shear layers that satisfies the condition of zero slope of the velocity profile at the outer edge of the shear layer. The modified and unmodified law of the wake are compared with some experimental cases, and it is seen that the present modified law of

P. S. Granville