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1

Vortex interactions and decay in aircraft wakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamic interaction of aircraft wake vortices was investigated using both inviscid and viscous models. For the viscous model, a computer code was developed using a second-order closure model of turbulent transport. The phenomenon of vortex merging which results in the rapid aging of a vortex wake was examined in detail. It was shown that the redistribution of vorticity during merging results from both convective and diffusive mechanisms.

Bilanin, A. J.; Teske, M. E.; Dupdonaldson, C.; Williamson, G. G.

1977-01-01

2

Large Eddy Simulation of Aircraft Wake Vortices in a Homogeneous Atmospheric Turbulence: Vortex Decay and Descent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of ambient turbulence on decay and descent of aircraft wake vortices are studied using a validated, three-dimensional: large-eddy simulation model. Numerical simulations are performed in order to isolate the effect of ambient turbulence on the wake vortex decay rate within a neutrally-stratified atmosphere. Simulations are conducted for a range of turbulence intensities, by injecting wake vortex pairs into an approximately homogeneous and isotropic turbulence field. The decay rate of the vortex circulation increases clearly with increasing ambient turbulence level, which is consistent with field observations. Based on the results from the numerical simulations, simple decay models are proposed as functions of dimensionless ambient turbulence intensity (eta) and dimensionless time (T) for the circulation averaged over a range of radial distances. With good agreement with the numerical results, a Gaussian type of vortex decay model is proposed for weak turbulence: while an exponential type of Tortex decay model can be applied for strong turbulence. A relationship for the vortex descent based on above vortex decay model is also proposed. Although the proposed models are based on simulations assuming neutral stratification, the model predictions are compared to Lidar vortex measurements observed during stable, neutral, and unstable atmospheric conditions. In the neutral and unstable atmosphere, the model predictions appear to be in reasonable agreement with the observational data, while in the stably-stratified atmosphere, they largely underestimate the observed circulation decay with consistent overestimation of the observed vortex descent. The underestimation of vortex decay during stably-stratified conditions suggests that stratification has an important influence on vortex decay when ambient levels of turbulence are weak.

Han, Jongil; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Proctor, Fred H.

1999-01-01

3

Wake Vortex Prediction Models for Decay and Transport Within Stratified Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper proposes two simple models to predict vortex transport and decay. The models are determined empirically from results of three-dimensional large eddy simulations, and are applicable to wake vortices out of ground effect and not subjected to environmental winds. The results, from the large eddy simulations assume a range of ambient turbulence and stratification levels. The models and the results from the large eddy simulations support the hypothesis that the decay of the vortex hazard is decoupled from its change in descent rate.

Switzer, George F.; Proctor, Fred H.

2002-01-01

4

Wake Vortex Minimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A status report is presented on research directed at reducing the vortex disturbances of aircraft wakes. The objective of such a reduction is to minimize the hazard to smaller aircraft that might encounter these wakes. Inviscid modeling was used to study trailing vortices and viscous effects were investigated. Laser velocimeters were utilized in the measurement of aircraft wakes. Flight and wind tunnel tests were performed on scale and full model scale aircraft of various design. Parameters investigated included the effect of wing span, wing flaps, spoilers, splines and engine thrust on vortex attenuation. Results indicate that vortives may be alleviated through aerodynamic means.

1977-01-01

5

NASA Wake Vortex Research for Aircraft Spacing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several inter-related areas to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These areas include current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors, and operationally acceptable aircraft/wake interaction criteria. In today's ATC system, the AVOSS could inform ATC controllers when a fixed reduced separation becomes safe to apply to large and heavy aircraft categories. With appropriate integration into the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), AVOSS dynamic spacing could be tailored to actual generator/follower aircraft pairs rather than a few broad aircraft categories.

Perry, R. Brad; Hinton, David A.; Stuever, Robert A.

1996-01-01

6

Wake-Vortex Hazards During Cruise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Even though the hazard posed by lift-generated wakes of subsonic transport aircraft has been studied extensively for approach and departure at airports, only a small amount of effort has gone into the potential hazard at cruise altitude. This paper reports on a studio of the wake-vortex hazard during cruise because encounters may become more prevalent when free-flight becomes available and each aircraft, is free to choose its own route between destinations. In order to address the problem, the various fluid-dynamic stages that vortex wakes usually go through as they age will be described along with estimates of the potential hazard that each stage poses. It appears that a rolling-moment hazard can be just as severe at cruise as for approach at airports, but it only persists for several minutes. However, the hazard posed by the downwash in the wake due to the lift on the generator aircraft persists for tens of minutes in a long narrow region behind the generating aircraft. The hazard consists of severe vertical loads when an encountering aircraft crosses the wake. A technique for avoiding vortex wakes at cruise altitude will be described. To date the hazard posed by lift-generated vortex wakes and their persistence at cruise altitudes has been identified and subdivided into several tasks. Analyses of the loads to be encounter and are underway and should be completed shortly. A review of published literature on the subject has been nearly completed (see text) and photographs of vortex wakes at cruise altitudes have been taken and the various stages of decay have been identified. It remains to study and sort the photographs for those that best illustrate the various stages of decay after they are shed by subsonic transport aircraft at cruise altitudes. The present status of the analysis and the paper are described.

Rossow, Vernon J.; James, Kevin D.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

7

Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS) Concept of Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of aircraft wake vortex research, with the most recent accomplishment of demonstrating the Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS) at Dallas/Forth Worth International Airport in July 2000. The AVOSS was a concept for an integration of technologies applied to providing dynamic wake-safe reduced spacing for single runway arrivals, as compared to current separation standards applied during instrument approaches. AVOSS included state-of-the-art weather sensors, wake sensors, and a wake behavior prediction algorithm. Using real-time data AVOSS averaged a 6% potential throughput increase over current standards. This report describes a Concept of Operations for applying the technologies demonstrated in the AVOSS to a variety of terminal operations to mitigate wake vortex capacity constraints. A discussion of the technological issues and open research questions that must be addressed to design a Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS) is included.

Rutishauser, David; Lohr, Gary; Hamilton, David; Powers, Robert; McKissick, Burnell; Adams, Catherine; Norris, Edward

2003-01-01

8

Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.

Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don

2014-01-01

9

A flight evaluation of methods for predicting vortex wake effects on trailing aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of four current analytical methods for predicting wing vortex strength and decay rate are compared with the results of a flight investigation of the wake characteristics of several large jet transport aircraft. An empirical expression defining the strength and decay rate of wake vortices is developed that best represents most of the flight-test data. However, the expression is not applicable to small aircraft that would be immersed in the vortex wake of large aircraft.

Robinson, G. H.; Larson, R. R.

1972-01-01

10

Vortex Wakes of Subsonic Transport Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A historical overview will be presented of the research conducted on the structure and modification of the vortices generated by the lifting surfaces of subsonic transport aircraft. The seminar will describe the three areas of vortex research; namely, the magnitude of the hazard posed, efforts to reduce the hazard to an acceptable level, and efforts to develop a systematic means for avoiding vortex wakes. It is first pointed out that the characteristics of lift-generated vortices are related to the aerodynamic shapes that produce them and that various arrangements of surfaces can be used to produce different vortex structures. The largest portion of the research conducted to date has been directed at finding ways to reduce the hazard potential of lift-generated vortices shed by subsonic transport aircraft in the vicinity of airports during landing and takeoff operations. It is stressed that lift-generated vortex wakes are so complex that progress towards a solution requires application of a combined theoretical and experimental research program because either alone often leads to incorrect conclusions. It is concluded that a satisfactory aerodynamic solution to the wake-vortex problem at airports has not yet been found but a reduction in the impact of the wake-vortex hazard on airport capacity may become available in the foreseeable future through wake-vortex avoidance concepts currently under study. The material to be presented in this overview is drawn from articles published in aerospace journals that are available publicly.

Rossow, Vernon J.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

11

A Candidate Wake Vortex Strength Definition for Application to the NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A significant effort is underway at NASA Langley to develop a system to provide dynamical aircraft wake vortex spacing criteria to Air Traffic Control (ATC). The system under development, the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS), combines the inputs of multiple subsystems to provide separation matrices with sufficient stability for use by ATC and sufficient monitoring to ensure safety. The subsystems include a meteorological subsystem, a wake behavior prediction subsystem, a wake sensor subsystem, and system integration and ATC interfaces. The proposed AVOSS is capable of using two factors, singly or in combination, for reducing in-trail spacing. These factors are wake vortex motion out of a predefined approach corridor and wake decay below a strength that is acceptable for encounter. Although basic research into the wake phenomena has historically used wake total circulation as a strength parameter, there is a requirement for a more specific strength definition that may be applied across multiple disciplines and teams to produce a real-time, automated system. This paper presents some of the limitations of previous applications of circulation to aircraft wake observations and describes the results of a preliminary effort to bound a spacing system strength definition.

Hinton, David A.; Tatnall, Chris R.

1997-01-01

12

Recent NASA Wake-Vortex Flight Tests, Flow-Physics Database and Wake-Development Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of flight tests over the ocean of a four engine turboprop airplane in the cruise configuration have provided a data set for improved understanding of wake vortex physics and atmospheric interaction. An integrated database has been compiled for wake characterization and validation of wake-vortex computational models. This paper describes the wake-vortex flight tests, the data processing, the database development and access, and results obtained from preliminary wake-characterization analysis using the data sets.

Vicroy, Dan D.; Vijgen, Paul M.; Reimer, Heidi M.; Gallegos, Joey L.; Spalart, Philippe R.

1998-01-01

13

Passive propulsion in vortex wakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dead fish is propelled upstream when its flexible body resonates with oncoming vortices formed in the wake of a bluff cylinder, despite being well outside the suction region of the cylinder. Within this passive propulsion mode, the body of the fish extracts sufficient energy from the oncoming vortices to develop thrust to overcome its own drag. In a similar

D. N. Beal; F. S. Hover; M. S. Triantafyllou; J. C. Liao; G. V. Lauder

2006-01-01

14

Passive propulsion in vortex wakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dead fish is propelled upstream when its flexible body resonates with oncoming vortices formed in the wake of a bluff cylinder, despite being well outside the suction region of the cylinder. Within this passive propulsion mode, the body of the fish extracts sufficient energy from the oncoming vortices to develop thrust to overcome its own drag. In a similar turbulent wake and at roughly the same distance behind a bluff cylinder, a passively mounted high-aspect-ratio foil is also shown to propel itself upstream employing a similar flow energy extraction mechanism. In this case, mechanical energy is extracted from the flow at the same time that thrust is produced. These results prove experimentally that, under proper conditions, a body can follow at a distance or even catch up to another upstream body without expending any energy of its own. This observation is also significant in the development of low-drag energy harvesting devices, and in the energetics of fish dwelling in flowing water and swimming behind wake-forming obstacles.

Beal, D. N.; Hover, F. S.; Triantafyllou, M. S.; Liao, J. C.; Lauder, G. V.

15

Proceedings of the NASA First Wake Vortex Dynamic Spacing Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Government and Industry workshop on wake vortex dynamic spacing systems was conducted on May 13-15, 1997, at the NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of the workshop was to disclose the status of ongoing NASA wake vortex R&D to the international community and to seek feedback on the direction of future work to assure an optimized research approach. Workshop sessions examined wake vortex characterization and physics, wake sensor technologies, aircraft/wake encounters, terminal area weather characterization and prediction, and wake vortex systems integration and implementation. A final workshop session surveyed the Government and Industry perspectives on the NASA research underway and related international wake vortex activities. This document contains the proceedings of the workshop including the presenters' slides, the discussion following each presentation, the wrap-up panel discussion, and the attendees' evaluation feedback.

Creduer, Leonard (Editor); Perry, R. Brad (Editor)

1997-01-01

16

Vortex shedding in high-speed compressor blade wakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wakes of highly loaded compressor blades are generally considered to be turbulent flows. Recent work has suggested that the blade wakes are dominated by a vortex streetlike structure. The experimental evidence supporting the wake vortex structure is reviewed. This structure is shown to redistribute thermal energy within the flowfield. The effect of the wake structure on conventional aerodynamic measurements of compressor performance is noted. A two-dimensional, time-accurate, viscous numerical simulation of the flow exhibits both vortex shedding in the wake and a lower-frequency flow instability that modulates the shedding. The numerical results are shown to agree quite well with the measurement from transonic compressor rotors.

Epstein, A. H.; Gertz, J. B.; Owen, P. R.; Giles, M. B.

1988-01-01

17

Numerical Study of Wake Vortex Interaction with the Ground Using the Terminal Area Simulation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sensitivity study for the in-ground effect on aircraft wake vortices has been conducted using a validated large eddy simulation model. The numerical results are compared with observed data and show good agreement for vortex decay and lateral vortex transport. The vortex decay rate is strongly influenced by the ground, but appears somewhat insensitive to ambient turbulence. In addition, the results show that the ground can affect the trajectory and descent-rate of a wake vortex pair at elevations up to about 3 b(sub o) (where b(sub o) is the initial vortex separation). However, the ground does not influence the average circulation of the vortices until the cores descend to within about 0.6 b(sub o), after which time the ground greatly enhances their rate of demise. Vortex rebound occurs in the simulations, but is more subtle than shown in previous numerical studies.

Proctor, Fred H.; Han, Jongil

1999-01-01

18

Coherent Pulsed Lidar Sensing of Wake Vortex Position and Strength, Winds and Turbulence in the Terminal Area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has field tested a 2.0 gm, 100 Hertz, pulsed coherent lidar to detect and characterize wake vortices and to measure atmospheric winds and turbulence. The quantification of aircraft wake-vortex hazards is being addressed by the Wake Vortex Lidar (WVL) Project as part of Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS), which is under the Reduced Spacing Operations Element of the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program. These hazards currently set the minimum, fixed separation distance between two aircraft and affect the number of takeoff and landing operations on a single runway under Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). The AVOSS concept seeks to safely reduce aircraft separation distances, when weather conditions permit, to increase the operational capacity of major airports. The current NASA wake-vortex research efforts focus on developing and validating wake vortex encounter models, wake decay and advection models, and wake sensing technologies. These technologies will be incorporated into an automated AVOSS that can properly select safe separation distances for different weather conditions, based on the aircraft pair and predicted/measured vortex behavior. The sensor subsystem efforts focus on developing and validating wake sensing technologies. The lidar system has been field-tested to provide real-time wake vortex trajectory and strength data to AVOSS for wake prediction verification. Wake vortices, atmospheric winds, and turbulence products have been generated from processing the lidar data collected during deployments to Norfolk (ORF), John F. Kennedy (JFK), and Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) International Airports.

Brockman, Philip; Barker, Ben C., Jr.; Koch, Grady J.; Nguyen, Dung Phu Chi; Britt, Charles L., Jr.; Petros, Mulugeta

1999-01-01

19

Experimental investigation of wake vortex in a water towing tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wake vortex behind an aircraft would introduce great hazard to the following aircraft and threaten to the flight safety. Generic model using two rectangular airfoils was employed for generating wake vortex system to investigate the method of wake vortex alliviation. The investigation was carried out in a water towing tank equipt with Particle Image Velocimetry system. Characteristics of double-vortex flow were analyzed for selected cases, proving that the intensity of the vortex is reduced with respect to the interaction between the wake vortices. The study exhibited that the R-L instability was most effectively triggered with parameter combinations of ?1=10°, ?2=8°and b=50mm respectively. As a result, the circulation of the wake vortices was alleviated by nearly 40% accordingly.

Liu, Yue; Wang, Junwei; Liu, Zhirong; Bao, Feng

2012-10-01

20

Application of laser velocimetry to aircraft wake-vortex measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theory and use of a laser velocimeter that makes simultaneous measurements of vertical and longitudinal velocities while rapidly scanning a flow field laterally are described, and its direct application to trailing wake-vortex research is discussed. Pertinent measurements of aircraft wake-vortex velocity distributions obtained in a wind tunnel and water towing tank are presented. The utility of the velocimeter to quantitatively assess differences in wake velocity distributions due to wake dissipating devices and span loading changes on the wake-generating model is also demonstrated.

Ciffone, D. L.; Orloff, K. L.

1977-01-01

21

Dynamics of the vortex wakes of flying and swimming vertebrates.  

PubMed

The vortex wakes of flying and swimming animals provide evidence of the history of aero- and hydrodynamic force generation during the locomotor cycle. Vortex-induced momentum flux in the wake is the reaction of forces the animal imposes on its environment, which must be in equilibrium with inertial and external forces. In flying birds and bats, the flapping wings generate lift both to provide thrust and to support the weight. Distinct wingbeat and wake movement patterns can be identified as gaits. In flow visualization experiments, only two wake patterns have been identified: a vortex ring gait with inactive upstroke, and a continuous vortex gait with active upstroke. These gaits may be modelled theoretically by free vortex and lifting line theory to predict mechanical energy consumption, aerodynamic forces and muscle activity. Longer-winged birds undergo a distinct gait change with speed, but shorter-winged species use the vortex ring gait at all speeds. In swimming fish, the situation is more complex: the wake vortices form a reversed von Kármán vortex street, but little is known about the mechanism of generation of the wake, or about how it varies with speed and acceleration or with body form and swimming mode. An unresolved complicating factor is the interaction between the drag wake of the flapping fish body and the thrusting wake from the tail. PMID:8571221

Rayner, J M

1995-01-01

22

A Critical Review of the Transport and Decay of Wake Vortices in Ground Effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the transport and decay of wake vortices in ground effect and cites a need for a physics-based parametric model. The encounter of a vortex with a solid body is always a complex event involving turbulence enhancement, unsteadiness, and very large gradients of velocity and pressure. Wake counter in ground effect is the most dangerous of them all. The interaction of diverging, area-varying, and decaying aircraft wake vortices with the ground is very complex because both the vortices and the flow field generated by them are altered to accommodate the presence of the ground (where there is very little room to maneuver) and the background turbulent flow. Previous research regarding vortex models, wake vortex decay mechanisms, time evolution within in ground effect of a wake vortex pair, laminar flow in ground effect, and the interaction of the existing boundary layer with a convected vortex are reviewed. Additionally, numerical simulations, 3-dimensional large-eddy simulations, a probabilistic 2-phase wake vortex decay and transport model and a vortex element method are discussed. The devising of physics-based, parametric models for the prediction of (operational) real-time response, mindful of the highly three-dimensional and unsteady structure of vortices, boundary layers, atmospheric thermodynamics, and weather convective phenomena is required. In creating a model, LES and field data will be the most powerful tools.

Sarpkaya, T.

2004-01-01

23

Asymmetric vortex pair in the wake of a circular cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stationary configurations of two asymmetric point vortices in the wake of an infinite circular cylinder, spinning or not about its axis, are analytically investigated using an ideal fluid approximation. Four different vortex configurations (patterns) in the wake of a spinning cylinder are found in the case when vortex asymmetry is weak; each configuration is associated with a certain direction of the Magnus force. The qualitative relation between a pattern and a direction of the Magnus force is in agreement with experimental data. Also obtained are asymmetrical vortex configurations in the wake of a nonspinning cylinder.

Iosilevskii, G.; Seginer, A.

1994-10-01

24

Feasibility of wake vortex monitoring systems for air terminals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wake vortex monitoring systems, especially those using laser Doppler sensors, were investigated. The initial phases of the effort involved talking with potential users (air traffic controllers, pilots, etc.) of a wake vortex monitoring system to determine system requirements from the user's viewpoint. These discussions involved the volumes of airspace to be monitored for vortices, and potential methods of using the monitored vortex data once the data are available. A subsequent task led to determining a suitable mathematical model of the vortex phenomena and developing a mathematical model of the laser Doppler sensor for monitoring the vortex flow field. The mathematical models were used in combination to help evaluate the capability of laser Doppler instrumentation in monitoring vortex flow fields both in the near vicinity of the sensor (within 1 kilometer and at long ranges(10 kilometers).

Wilson, D. J.; Shrider, K. R.; Lawrence, T. R.

1972-01-01

25

Documentation for Three Wake Vortex Model Data Sets from Simulation of Flight 587 Wake Vortex Encounter Accident Case  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document contains a general description for data sets of a wake vortex system in a turbulent environment. The turbulence and thermal stratification of the environment are representative of the conditions on November 12, 2001 near John F. Kennedy International Airport. The simulation assumes no ambient winds. The full three dimensional simulation of the wake vortex system from a Boeing 747 predicts vortex circulation levels at 80% of their initial value at the time of the proposed vortex encounter. The linked vortex oval orientation showed no twisting, and the oval elevations at the widest point were about 20 meters higher than where the vortex pair joined. Fred Proctor of NASA?s Langley Research Center presented the results from this work at the NTSB public hearing that started 29 October 2002. This document contains a description of each data set including: variables, coordinate system, data format, and sample plots. Also included are instructions on how to read the data.

Switzer, George F.

2008-01-01

26

Numerical Study of a Long-Lived, Isolated Wake Vortex in Ground Effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines a case observed during the 1990 Idaho Falls Test program, in which a wake vortex having an unusually long lifetime was observed while in ground effect. A numerical simulation is performed with a Large Eddy Simulation model to understand the response of the environment in affecting this event. In the simulation, it was found that one of the vortices decayed quickly, with the remaining vortex persisting beyond the time-bound of typical vortex lifetimes. This unusual behavior was found to be related to the first and second vertical derivatives of the ambient crosswind.

Proctor, Fred H.

2014-01-01

27

An Operational Wake Vortex Sensor Using Pulsed Coherent Lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and FAA initiated a program in 1994 to develop methods of setting spacings for landing aircraft by incorporating information on the real-time behavior of aircraft wake vortices. The current wake separation standards were developed in the 1970's when there was relatively light airport traffic and a logical break point by which to categorize aircraft. Today's continuum of aircraft sizes and increased airport packing densities have created a need for re-evaluation of wake separation standards. The goals of this effort are to ensure that separation standards are adequate for safety and to reduce aircraft spacing for higher airport capacity. Of particular interest are the different requirements for landing under visual flight conditions and instrument flight conditions. Over the years, greater spacings have been established for instrument flight than are allowed for visual flight conditions. Preliminary studies indicate that the airline industry would save considerable money and incur fewer passenger delays if a dynamic spacing system could reduce separations at major hubs during inclement weather to the levels routinely achieved under visual flight conditions. The sensor described herein may become part of this dynamic spacing system known as the "Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System" (AVOSS) that will interface with a future air traffic control system. AVOSS will use vortex behavioral models and short-term weather prediction models in order to predict vortex behavior sufficiently into the future to allow dynamic separation standards to be generated. The wake vortex sensor will periodically provide data to validate AVOSS predictions. Feasibility of measuring wake vortices using a lidar was first demonstrated using a continuous wave (CW) system from NASA Marshall Space Flight Sensor and tested at the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center's wake vortex test site at JFK International Airport. Other applications of CW lidar for wake vortex measurement have been made more recently, including a system developed by the MIT Lincoln Laboratory. This lidar has been used for detailed measurements of wake vortex velocities in support of wake vortex model validation. The first measurements of wake vortices using a pulsed, lidar were made by Coherent Technologies, Inc. (CTI) using a 2 micron solid-state, flashlamp-pumped system operating at 5 Hz. This system was first deployed at Denver's Stapleton Airport. Pulsed lidar has been selected as the baseline technology for an operational sensor due to its longer range capability.

Barker, Ben C., Jr.; Koch, Grady J.; Nguyen, D. Chi

1998-01-01

28

Vortex wake alleviation studies with a variable twist wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vortex wake alleviation studies were conducted in a wind tunnel and a water towing tank using a multisegmented wing model which provided controlled and measured variations in span load. Fourteen model configurations are tested at a Reynolds number of one million and a lift coefficient of 0.6 in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel and the Hydronautics Ship Model Basin water tank at Hydronautics, Inc., Laurel, Md. Detailed measurements of span load and wake velocities at one semispan downstream correlate well with each other, with inviscid predictions of span load and wake roll up, and with peak trailing-wing rolling moments measured in the far wake. Average trailing-wing rolling moments are found to be an unreliable indicator of vortex wake intensity because vortex meander does not scale between test facilities and free-air conditions. A tapered-span-load configuration, which exhibits little or no drag penalty, is shown to offer significant downstream wake alleviation to a small trailing wing. The greater downstream wake alleviation achieved with the addition of spoilers to a flapped-wing configuration is shown to result directly from the high incremental drag and turbulence associated with the spoilers and not from the span load alteration they cause.

Holbrook, G. T.; Dunham, D. M.; Greene, G. C.

1985-01-01

29

Wake Vortex Transport in Proximity to the Ground  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sensitivity study for aircraft wake vortex transport has been conducted using a validated large eddy simulation (LES) model. The study assumes neutrally stratified and nonturbulent environments and includes the consequences of the ground. The numerical results show that the nondimensional lateral transport is primarily influenced by the magnitude of the ambient crosswind and is insensitive to aircraft type. In most of the simulations, the ground effect extends the lateral position of the downwind vortex about one initial vortex spacing (b(sub o)) in the downstream direction. Further extension by as much as one b(sub o) occurs when the downwind vortex remains 'in ground effect' (IGE) for relatively long periods of time. Results also show that a layer-averaged ambient wind velocity can be used to bound the time for lateral transport of wake vortices to insure safe operations on a parallel runway.

Hamilton, David W.; Proctor, Fred H.

2000-01-01

30

Feasibility of an onboard wake vortex avoidance system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was determined that an onboard vortex wake detection system using existing, proven instrumentation is technically feasible. This system might be incorporated into existing onboard systems such as a wind shear detection system, and might provide the pilot with the location of a vortex wake, as well as an evasive maneuver so that the landing separations may be reduced. It is suggested that this system might be introduced into our nation's commuter aircraft fleet and major air carrier fleet and permit a reduction of current landing separation standards, thereby reducing takeoff and departure delays.

Bilanin, Alan J.; Teske, Milton E.; Curtiss, Howard C., Jr.

1987-01-01

31

NWRA AVOSS Wake Vortex Prediction Algorithm. 3.1.1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides a detailed description of the wake vortex prediction algorithm used in the Demonstration Version of NASA's Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). The report includes all equations used in the algorithm, an explanation of how to run the algorithm, and a discussion of how the source code for the algorithm is organized. Several appendices contain important supplementary information, including suggestions for enhancing the algorithm and results from test cases.

Robins, R. E.; Delisi, D. P.; Hinton, David (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

32

Rotor Wake Vortex Definition Using 3C-PIV Measurements: Corrected for Vortex Orientation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-component (3-C) particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements, within the wake across a rotor disk plane, are used to determine wake vortex definitions important for BVI (Blade Vortex Interaction) and broadband noise prediction. This study is part of the HART II test program conducted using a 40 percent scale BO-105 helicopter main rotor in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). In this paper, measurements are presented of the wake vortex field over the advancing side of the rotor operating at a typical descent landing condition. The orientations of the vortex (tube) axes are found to have non-zero tilt angles with respect to the chosen PIV measurement cut planes, often on the order of 45 degrees. Methods for determining the orientation of the vortex axis and reorienting the measured PIV velocity maps (by rotation/projection) are presented. One method utilizes the vortex core axial velocity component, the other utilizes the swirl velocity components. Key vortex parameters such as vortex core size, strength, and core velocity distribution characteristics are determined from the reoriented PIV velocity maps. The results are compared with those determined from velocity maps that are not corrected for orientation. Knowledge of magnitudes and directions of the vortex axial and swirl velocity components as a function of streamwise location provide a basis for insight into the vortex evolution.

Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; vanderWall, Berend; Richard, Hughues Richard; Raffel, Markus; Beaumier, Philippe; Delrieux, Yves; Lim, Joon W.; Yu, Yung H.; Tung, Chee

2003-01-01

33

Assessment of a wake vortex flight test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed flight test program to measure the characteristics of wake vortices behind a T-33 aircraft was investigated. A number of facets of the flight tests were examined to define the parameters to be measured, the anticipated vortex characteristics, the mutual interference between the probe aircraft and the wake, the response of certain instruments to be used in obtaining measurements, the effect of condensation on the wake vortices, and methods of data reduction. Recommendations made as a result of the investigation are presented.

Spangler, S. B.; Dillenius, M. F. E.; Schwind, R. G.; Nielsen, J. N.

1974-01-01

34

Numerical Modeling Studies of Wake Vortex Transport and Evolution Within the Planetary Boundary Layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the wake vortex effect of the Terminal Area Productivity program, we have put forward four tasks to be accomplished in our proposal. The first task is validation of two-dimensional wake vortex-turbulence interaction. The second task is investigation of three-dimensional interaction between wake vortices and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) turbulence. The third task is ABL studies. The, fourth task is addition of a Klemp-Durran condition at the top boundary for TASS model. The accomplishment of these tasks will increase our understanding of the dynamics of wake vortex and improve forecasting systems responsible for air safety and efficiency. The first two tasks include following three parts: (a) Determine significant length scale for vortex decay and transport, especially the length scales associated with the onset of Crow instability (Crow, 1970); (b) Study the effects of atmospheric turbulence on the decay of the wake vortices; and (c) Determine the relationships between decay rate, transport properties and atmospheric parameters based on large eddy simulation (LES) results and the observational data. These parameters may include turbulence kinetic energy, dissipation rate, wind shear and atmospheric stratification. The ABL studies cover LES modeling of turbulence structure within planetary boundary layer under transition and stable stratification conditions. Evidences have shown that the turbulence in the stable boundary layer can be highly intermittent and the length scales of eddies are very small compared to those in convective case. We proposed to develop a nesting grid mesh scheme and a modified Klemp-Durran conditions (Klemp and Wilhelmson, 1978) at the top boundary for TASS model to simulate planetary boundary layer under stable stratification conditions. During the past year, our group has made great efforts to carry out the above mentioned four tasks simultaneously. The work accomplished in the last year will be described in the next section.

Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Kaplan, Michael L.; Shen, Shaohua

1998-01-01

35

Measurements of Aircraft Wake Vortex Separation at High Arrival Rates and a Proposed New Wake Vortex Separation Philosophy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents data and a proposed new aircraft wake vortex separation standard that argues for a fundamental re-thinking of international practice. The current static standard, under certain atmospheric conditions, presents an unnecessary restriction on system capacity. A new approach, that decreases aircraft separation when atmospheric conditions dictate, is proposed based upon the availability of new instrumentation and a better understanding of wake physics.

Rutishauser, David; Donohue, George L.; Haynie, Rudolph C.

2003-01-01

36

Wake Vortex Influence on Ambient Potential Temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two-dimensional version of the Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) was used to numerically simulate the interaction of wake vortices from closely separated aircraft. The aircraft parameters and separations are taken from observed data at an actual airport. The wake vortices are generated near the runway threshold for four successive aircraft. The ambient conditions are characterized by light crosswinds and stable stratification. This movie shows the effect that the vortices have upon the ambient potential temperature field.

1997-01-01

37

Aircraft Wake Vortex Measurements at Denver International Airport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airport capacity is constrained, in part, by spacing requirements associated with the wake vortex hazard. NASA's Wake Vortex Avoidance Project has a goal to establish the feasibility of reducing this spacing while maintaining safety. Passive acoustic phased array sensors, if shown to have operational potential, may aid in this effort by detecting and tracking the vortices. During August/September 2003, NASA and the USDOT sponsored a wake acoustics test at the Denver International Airport. The central instrument of the test was a large microphone phased array. This paper describes the test in general terms and gives an overview of the array hardware. It outlines one of the analysis techniques that is being applied to the data and gives sample results. The technique is able to clearly resolve the wake vortices of landing aircraft and measure their separation, height, and sinking rate. These observations permit an indirect estimate of the vortex circulation. The array also provides visualization of the vortex evolution, including the Crow instability.

Dougherty, Robert P.; Wang, Frank Y.; Booth, Earl R.; Watts, Michael E.; Fenichel, Neil; D'Errico, Robert E.

2004-01-01

38

WAKE VORTEX ALLEVIATION USING RAPIDLY ACTUATED SEGMENTED GURNEY FLAPS  

E-print Network

their runways when operating in instrument flight rules. These spacing rules have become the limiting factor the shape of a wing lift distribution. This suggests that they might also be useful for active wake of deflecting the vortex in both the spanwise and lift iii #12;directions. A maximum spanwise deflection of 0

Stanford University

39

Vortex Core Size in the Rotor Near-Wake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using a kinetic energy conservation approach, a number of simple analytic expressions are derived for estimating the core size of tip vortices in the near-wake of rotors in hover and axial-flow flight. The influence of thrust, induced power losses, advance ratio, and vortex structure on rotor vortex core size is assessed. Experimental data from the literature is compared to the analytical results derived in this paper. In general, three conclusions can be drawn from the work in this paper. First, the greater the rotor thrust, t h e larger the vortex core size in the rotor near-wake. Second, the more efficient a rotor is with respect to induced power losses, the smaller the resulting vortex core size. Third, and lastly, vortex core size initially decreases for low axial-flow advance ratios, but for large advance ratios core size asymptotically increases to a nominal upper limit. Insights gained from this work should enable improved modeling of rotary-wing aerodynamics, as well as provide a framework for improved experimental investigations of rotor a n d advanced propeller wakes.

Young, Larry A.

2003-01-01

40

Transitions in the vortex wake behind the plunging profile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we investigate numerically the vortex wake formation behind the profile performing simple harmonic motion known in the literature as plunging. This research was inspired by the flapping motion which is appropriate for birds, insects and fishes. We assume the two dimensional model of flow. Depending on the parameters such as plunging amplitude, frequency and the Reynolds number, we demonstrate many different types of vortex street behind the profile. It is well known that the type of vortex wake determines the hydrodynamic forces acting on the profile. Dependences of the plunging amplitude, the Strouhal number and various topology vortices are established by constructing the phase transition diagram. The areas in the diagram related to the drag, thrust, and lift force generation are captured. We notice also the areas where the vorticity field is disordered. The disordered vorticity field does not allow maintenance of the periodic forces on the profile. An increase in the Reynolds number leads to the transition of the vortex wake behind the profile. The transition is caused by the phenomenon of boundary layer eruption. Further increase of the Reynolds number causes the vortex street related to the generation of the lift force to vanish.

Koz?owski, Tomasz; Kudela, Henryk

2014-12-01

41

Near wake vortex dynamics of a hovering hawkmoth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical investigation of vortex dynamics in near wake of a hovering hawkmoth and hovering aerodynamics is conducted to support the development of a biology-inspired dynamic flight simulator for flapping wing-based micro air vehicles. Realistic wing-body morphologies and kinematics are adopted in the numerical simulations. The computed results show 3D mechanisms of vortical flow structures in hawkmoth-like hovering. A horseshoe-shaped primary vortex is observed to wrap around each wing during the early down- and upstroke; the horseshoe-shaped vortex subsequently grows into a doughnut-shaped vortex ring with an intense jet-flow present in its core, forming a downwash. The doughnut-shaped vortex rings of the wing pair eventually break up into two circular vortex rings as they propagate downstream in the wake. The aerodynamic yawing and rolling torques are canceled out due to the symmetric wing kinematics even though the aerodynamic pitching torque shows significant variation with time. On the other hand, the time-varying the aerodynamics pitching torque could make the body a longitudinal oscillation over one flapping cycle.

Aono, Hikaru; Shyy, Wei; Liu, Hao

2009-02-01

42

Viscous effects on a vortex wake in ground effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wake vortex trajectories and strengths are altered radically by interactions with the ground plane. Prediction of vortex strength and location is especially important in the vicinity of airports. Simple potential flow methods have been found to yield reasonable estimates of vortex descent rates in an otherwise quiescent ambient background, but those techniques cannot be adjusted for more realistic ambient conditions and they fail to provide satisfactory estimates of ground-coupled behavior. The authors have been involved in a systematic study concerned with including viscous effects in a wake-vortex system which is near the ground plane. The study has employed numerical solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations, as well as perturbation techniques to study ground coupling with a descending vortex pair. Results of a two-dimensional, unsteady numerical-theoretical study are presented in this paper. A time-based perturbation procedure has been developed which permits the use of analytical solutions to an inner and outer flow domain for the initial flow field. Predictions have been compared with previously reported laminar experimental results. In addition, the influence of stratification and turbulence on vortex behavior near the ground plane has been studied.

Zheng, Z.; Ash, Robert L.

1992-01-01

43

A preliminary study of a wake vortex encounter hazard boundary for a B737-100 airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary batch simulation study was conducted to define the wake decay required for a Boeing 737-100 airplane to safely encounter a Boeing 727 wake and land. The baseline six-degree-of-freedom B737 simulation was modified to include a wake model and the strip-theory calculation of the vortex-induced forces and moments. The guidance and control inputs for the airplane were provided by an autoland system. The wake strength and encounter altitude were varied to establish a safe encounter boundary. The wake was positioned such that the desired flight path traversed the core of the port Vortex. Various safe landing criteria were evaluated for defining a safe encounter boundary. A sensitivity study was also conducted to assess the effects of encounter model inaccuracies.

Reimer, Heidi M.; Vicroy, Dan D.

1996-01-01

44

Numerical Modeling Studies of Wake Vortex Transport and Evolution Within the Planetary Boundary Layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental objective of this research is study behavior of aircraft wake vortices within atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in support of developing the system, Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS), under NASA's Terminal Area Productivity (TAR) program that will control aircraft spacing within the narrow approach corridors of airports. The purpose of the AVOSS system is to increase airport capacity by providing a safe reduction in separation of aircraft compared to the now-existing flight rules. In our first funding period (7 January 19994 - 6 April 1997), we have accomplished extensive model development and validation of ABL simulations. Using the validated model, in our second funding period (7 April 1997 - 6 April 2000) we have investigated the effects of ambient atmospheric turbulence on vortex decay and descent, Crow instability, and wake vortex interaction with the ground. Recognizing the crucial influence of ABL turbulence on wake vortex behavior, we have also developed a software generating vertical profiles of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) or energy dissipation rate (EDR), which are, in turn, used as input data in the AVOSS prediction algorithms.

Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Kaplan, Michael L.; Han, Jongil

2000-01-01

45

The vortex wake of a 'hovering' model hawkmoth  

PubMed Central

Visualization experiments with Manduca sexta have revealed the presence of a leading-edge vortex and a highly three-dimensional flow pattern. To further investigate this important discovery, a scaled-up robotic insect was built (the 'flapper') which could mimic the complex movements of the wings of a hovering hawkmoth. Smoke released from the leading edge of the flapper wing revealed a small but strong leading-edge vortex on the downstroke. This vortex had a high axial flow velocity and was stable, separating from the wing at approximately 75 per cent of the wing length. It connected to a large, tangled tip vortex, extending back to a combining stopping and starting vortex from pronation. At the end of the downstroke, the wake could be approximated as one vortex ring per wing. Based on the size and velocity of the vortex rings, the mean lift force during the downstroke was estimated to be about 1.5 times the body weight of a hawkmoth, confirming that the downstroke is the main provider of lift force.

Berg, C. van den; Ellington, C. P.

1997-01-01

46

Periodicity of the density wake past a vortex ring in a stratified liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial coherent structure of the density wake past a vortex ring moving horizontally in viscid stratified liquid is experimentally revealed. It follows from analysis that repetition period of the structure is determined by rotation radial frequency (or mean vorticity) of the vortex core and toward speed of the vortex ring. The wake formation of the ring is considered in respect

V. Prokhorov

2009-01-01

47

Analysis of the Radar Reflectivity of Aircraft Vortex Wakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radar has been proposed as a way to track wake vortices to reduce aircraft spacing and tests have revealed radar echoes from aircraft wakes in clear air. The results are always interpreted qualitatively using Tatarski's theory of weak scattering by isotropic atmospheric turbulence. The goal of the present work was to predict the value of the radar cross-section (RCS) using simpler models. This is accomplished in two steps. First, the refractive index is obtained. Since the structure of the aircraft wakes is different from atmospheric turbulence, three simple mechanisms specific to vortex wakes are considered: (1) Radial density gradient in a two-dimensional vortex, (2) three-dimensional fluctuations in the vortex cores, and (3) Adiabatic transport of the atmospheric fluid in a two-dimensional oval surrounding the pair of vortices. The index of refraction is obtained more precisely for the two-dimensional mechanisms than for the three-dimensional ones. In the second step, knowing the index of refraction, a scattering analysis is performed. Tatarski's weak scattering approximation is kept but the usual assumptions of a far-field and a uniform incident wave are dropped. Neither assumption is generally valid for a wake that is coherent across the radar beam. For analytical insight, a simpler approximation that invokes, in addition to weak scattering, the far-field and wide cylindrical beam assumptions, is also developed and compared with the more general analysis. The predicted RCS values for the oval surround the vortices (mechanism C) agree with the experiments of Bilson conducted over a wide range of frequencies. However, the predictions have a cut-off away from normal incidence which is not present in the measurements. Estimates suggest that this is due to turbulence in the baroclinic vorticity generated at the boundary of the oval. The reflectivity of a vortex itself (mechanism A) is comparable to that of the oval (mechanism C) but cuts-off at frequencies lower than those considered in all the experiments to date. The RCS of a vortex happens to peak at the frequency (about 49 MHz) where atmospheric radars (known as ST radars) operate and so the present prediction could be verified in the future. Finally , we suggest that hot engine exhaust could increase RCE by 40 db and reveal vortex circulation, provided its mixing with the surroundings is prevented in the laminarising flow of the vortices.

Shariff, Karim; Wray, Alan; Yan, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

48

Near wake vortex dynamics of a hovering hawkmoth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical investigation of vortex dynamics in near wake of a hovering hawkmoth and hovering aerodynamics is conducted to support\\u000a the development of a biology-inspired dynamic flight simulator for flapping wing-based micro air vehicles. Realistic wing-body\\u000a morphologies and kinematics are adopted in the numerical simulations. The computed results show 3D mechanisms of vortical\\u000a flow structures in hawkmoth-like hovering. A horseshoe-shaped primary

Hikaru Aono; Wei Shyy; Hao Liu

2009-01-01

49

Vortex age as a wake turbulence scaling parameter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research which was conducted to determine the significance of vortex age as a scaling parameter in wake turbulence development and dissipation is reported. Tests were conducted at three angles of attack, three free stream speeds, and seven downstream positions from 2 to 30 chordlengths using an NACA 0012 wing and a five hole yawhead pitot probe. The end surface of the wing tip was flat. Speeds were selected to give a predetermined range of vortex ages. The complete velocity structure of the vortex was measured at each station and speed. The resulting plots of maximum tangential velocity and vortex core diameter versus downstream distance and vortex age indicate that vortex age is not a self sufficient scaling parameter. In addition to the expected effect of lift coefficient there is also a definite free stream speed influence at high wing angles of attack. The exact cause and nature of this effect is not fully understood, but it does not appear to be explainable in terms of Mach number or Reynolds number; however, the influence of tip edge shape on spanwise flow separation appears to be an important factor.

Marshall, J. R.; Marchman, J. F., III

1973-01-01

50

A new methodology for free wake analysis using curved vortex elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method using curved vortex elements was developed for helicopter rotor free wake calculations. The Basic Curve Vortex Element (BCVE) is derived from the approximate Biot-Savart integration for a parabolic arc filament. When used in conjunction with a scheme to fit the elements along a vortex filament contour, this method has a significant advantage in overall accuracy and efficiency when compared to the traditional straight-line element approach. A theoretical and numerical analysis shows that free wake flows involving close interactions between filaments should utilize curved vortex elements in order to guarantee a consistent level of accuracy. The curved element method was implemented into a forward flight free wake analysis, featuring an adaptive far wake model that utilizes free wake information to extend the vortex filaments beyond the free wake regions. The curved vortex element free wake, coupled with this far wake model, exhibited rapid convergence, even in regions where the free wake and far wake turns are interlaced. Sample calculations are presented for tip vortex motion at various advance ratios for single and multiple blade rotors. Cross-flow plots reveal that the overall downstream wake flow resembles a trailing vortex pair. A preliminary assessment shows that the rotor downwash field is insensitive to element size, even for relatively large curved elements.

Bliss, Donald B.; Teske, Milton E.; Quackenbush, Todd R.

1987-01-01

51

Wake Vortex Tracking Using a 35 GHz Pulsed Doppler Radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 35 GHz, pulsed-Doppler radar system has been designed and assembled for wake vortex detection and tracking in low visibility conditions. Aircraft wake vortices continue to be an important factor in determining safe following distances or spacings for aircraft in the terminal area. Currently, under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), aircraft adhere to conservative, fixed following-distance guidelines based primarily on aircraft weight classifications. When ambient conditions are such that vortices will either drift or dissipate, leaving the flight corridor clear, the prescribed spacings are unnecessarily long and result in decreased airport throughput. There is a potential for significant airport efficiency improvement, if a system can be employed to aid regulators and pilots in setting safe and efficient following distances based on airport conditions. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Federal Aviation Agency, and Volpe National Transportation Systems Center have promoted and worked to develop systems that would increase airport capacity and provide for safe reductions in aircraft separation. The NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS), a wake vortex spacing system that can provide dynamic adjustment of spacings based on real-time airport weather conditions, has demonstrated that Lidar systems can be successfully used to detect and track vortices in clear air conditions. To fill the need for detection capability in low-visibility conditions, a 35 GHz, pulsed-Doppler radar system is being investigated for use as a complimentary, low-visibility sensor for wake vortices. The radar sensor provides spatial and temporal information similar to that provided by Lidar, but under weather conditions that a Lidar cannot penetrate. Currently, we are analyzing the radar design based upon the data and experience gained during the wake vortex Lidar deployment with AVOSS at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. As part of this study, two numerical models were utilized in system simulations. The results of this study improve our understanding of the method of detection, resolution requirements for range and azimuth, pulse compression, and performance prediction. Simulations applying pulse compression techniques show that detection is good in heavy fog to greater than 2000 m. Both compressed and uncompressed short pulses show the vortex structure. To explore operational challenges, siting and scanning strategies were also analyzed. Simulation results indicate that excellent wake vortex detection, tracking and classification is possible in drizzle (+15 dBZ) and heavy fog (- 13 dBZ) using short pulse techniques (<99ns) at ranges on the order of 900 m, with a modest power of 500 W output. At 1600 m, detection can be expected at reflectivities as low as -13 dBZ (heavy fog). The radar system, as designed and built, has the potential to support field studies of a wake vortex spacing system in low-visibility conditions ranging from heavy fog to rain, when sited within 2000m of the flight path.

Neece, Robert T.; Britt, Charles L.; White, Joseph H.; Mudukutore, Ashok; Nguyen, Chi; Hooper, Bill

2005-01-01

52

Modeling of Wake-vortex Aircraft Encounters. Appendix B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are more people passing through the world's airports today than at any other time in history. With this increase in civil transport, airports are becoming capacity limited. In order to increase capacity and thus meet the demands of the flying public, the number of runways and number of flights per runway must be increased. In response to the demand, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in conjunction with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), airport operators, and the airline industry are taking steps to increase airport capacity without jeopardizing safety. Increasing the production per runway increases the likelihood that an aircraft will encounter the trailing wake-vortex of another aircraft. The hazard of a wake-vortex encounter is that heavy load aircraft can produce high intensity wake turbulence, through the development of its wing-tip vortices. A smaller aircraft following in the wake of the heavy load aircraft will experience redistribution of its aerodynamic load. This creates a safety hazard for the smaller aircraft. Understanding this load redistribution is of great importance, particularly during landing and take-off. In this research wake-vortex effects on an encountering 10% scale model of the B737-100 aircraft are modeled using both strip theory and vortex-lattice modeling methods. The models are then compared to wind tunnel data that was taken in the 30ft x 60ft wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Comparisons are made to determine if the models will have acceptable accuracy when parts of the geometry are removed, such as the horizontal stabilizer and the vertical tail. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to observe how accurately the models could match the experimental data if there was a 10% error in the circulation strength. It was determined that both models show accurate results when the wing, horizontal stabilizer, and vertical tail were a part of the geometry. When the horizontal stabilizer and vertical tail were removed there were difficulties modeling the sideforce coefficient and pitching moment. With the removal of only the vertical tail unacceptable errors occurred when modeling the sideforce coefficient and yawing moment. Lift could not be modeled with either the full geometry or the reduced geometry attempts.

Smith, Sonya T.

1999-01-01

53

Numerical modeling studies of wake vortex transport and evolution within the planetary boundary layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed research involves four tasks. The first of these is to simulate accurately the turbulent processes in the atmospheric boundary layer. TASS was originally developed to study meso-gamma scale phenomena, such as tornadic storms, microbursts and windshear effects in terminal areas. Simulation of wake vortex evolution, however, will rely on appropriate representation of the physical processes in the surface layer and mixed layer. This involves two parts. First, a specified heat flux boundary condition must be implemented at the surface. Using this boundary condition, simulation results will be compared to experimental data and to other model results for validation. At this point, any necessary changes to the model will be implemented. Next, a surface energy budget parameterization will be added to the model. This will enable calculation of the surface fluxes by accounting for the radiative heat transfer to and from the ground and heat loss to the soil rather than simple specification of the fluxes. The second task involves running TASS with prescribed wake vortices in the initial condition. The vortex models will be supplied by NASA Langley Research Center. Sensitivity tests will be performed on different meteorological environments in the atmospheric boundary layer, which include stable, neutral, and unstable stratifications, calm and severe wind conditions, and dry and wet conditions. Vortex strength may be varied as well. Relevant non-dimensional parameters will include the following: Richardson number or Froude number, Bowen ratio, and height to length scale ratios. The model output will be analyzed and visualized to better understand the transport, decay, and growth rates of the wake vortices. The third task involves running simulations using observed data. MIT Lincoln Labs is currently planning field experiments at the Memphis airport to measure both meteorological conditions and wake vortex characteristics. Once this data becomes available, it can be used to validate the model for vortex behavior under different atmospheric conditions. The fourth task will be to simulate the wake in a more realistic environment covering a wider area. This will involve grid nesting, since high resolution will be required in the wake region but a larger total domain will be used. During the first allocation year, most of the first task will be accomplished.

Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Kaplan, Michael L.

1994-01-01

54

Model Validation of Wake-Vortex/Aircraft Encounters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wake-vortex effects on an 10% scale model of the B737-100 aircraft are calculated using both strip theory and vortex-lattice methods. The results are then compared to data taken in the 30ft x 60ft wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The accuracy of the models for a reduced geometry, such with the horizontal stabilizer and the vertical tail removed, is also investigated. Using a 10% error in the circulation strength and comparing the model's results with the experiment illustrates the sensitivity of the models to the vortex circulation strength. It was determined that both strip theory and the vortex lattice method give accurate results when all the geometrical information is used. When the horizontal stabilizer and vertical tail were removed there were difficulties modeling the sideforce coefficient and pitching moment. With the removal of only the vertical tail unacceptable errors occurred when modeling the sideforce coefficient and yawing moment. Lift could not be accurately modeled with either the full geometry or the reduced geometry.

Pete, Kimberly R.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Smith, Sonya T.

2000-01-01

55

Meteorology and Wake Vortex Influence on American Airlines FL-587 Accident  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The atmospheric environment surrounding the crash of American Airlines Flight 587 is investigated. Examined are evidence for any unusual atmospheric conditions and the potential for encounters with aircraft wake vortices. Computer simulations are carried out with two different vortex prediction models and a Large Eddy Simulation model. Wind models are proposed for studying aircraft and pilot response to the wake vortex encounter.

Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Rutishauser, David K.; Switzer, George F.

2004-01-01

56

Development of a Wake Vortex Spacing System for Airport Capacity Enhancement and Delay Reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Terminal Area Productivity project has developed the technologies required (weather measurement, wake prediction, and wake measurement) to determine the aircraft spacing needed to prevent wake vortex encounters in various weather conditions. The system performs weather measurements, predicts bounds on wake vortex behavior in those conditions, derives safe wake spacing criteria, and validates the wake predictions with wake vortex measurements. System performance to date indicates that the potential runway arrival rate increase with Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS), considering common path effects and ATC delivery variance, is 5% to 12% depending on the ratio of large and heavy aircraft. The concept demonstration system, using early generation algorithms and minimal optimization, is performing the wake predictions with adequate robustness such that only 4 hard exceedances have been observed in 1235 wake validation cases. This performance demonstrates the feasibility of predicting wake behavior bounds with multiple uncertainties present, including the unknown aircraft weight and speed, weather persistence between the wake prediction and the observations, and the location of the weather sensors several kilometers from the approach location. A concept for the use of the AVOSS system for parallel runway operations has been suggested, and an initial study at the JFK International Airport suggests that a simplified AVOSS system can be successfully operated using only a single lidar as both the weather sensor and the wake validation instrument. Such a selfcontained AVOSS would be suitable for wake separation close to the airport, as is required for parallel approach concepts such as SOIA.

Hinton, David A.; OConnor, Cornelius J.

2000-01-01

57

The challenges of simulating wake vortex encounters and assessing separation criteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During landings and take-offs, the longitudinal spacing between airplanes is in part determined by the safe separation required to avoid the trailing vortex wake of the preceding aircraft. Safe exploration of the feasibility of reducing longitudinal separation standards will require use of aircraft simulators. This paper discusses the approaches to vortex modeling, methods for modeling the aircraft/vortex interaction, some of the previous attempts of defining vortex hazard criteria, and current understanding of the development of vortex hazard criteria.

Dunham, R. E.; Stuever, Robert A.; Vicroy, Dan D.

1993-01-01

58

An experimental investigation of bending wave instability modes in a generic four-vortex wake  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study of a planar wake consisting of four vortices that simulate the trailing vortex wakes generated by transport airplanes in either takeoff or landing configurations is presented. The objective of this study was to examine naturally occurring wake instabilities. Specifically, the focus of the study was centered on bending wave instabilities of which the Crow instability represents a particular case. A unique method of generating a four-vortex wake was developed for this study. The four-vortex wake generating device permitted direct variation of the spacing between vortices as well as control over the vortex circulation strength. Two quantitative flow visualization experiments were instrumental in identifying wake configurations that were conducive to the rapid growth of bending wave modes and in the identification of the long-wavelength mode. Detailed experiments were also conducted to examine the flow structure in the near-field or roll-up region using a four sensor, hot-wire probe that could measure all three velocity components in the wake simultaneously. The results of both the flow visualization and hot-wire experiments indicate that the long-wavelength mode and the first short-wavelength mode likely dominate the far-field wake physics and may potentially be utilized in a wake control strategy.

Babie, Brian M.; Nelson, Robert C. [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

2010-07-15

59

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics An Experimental Study of Unsteady Vortex Structures in the Wake  

E-print Network

in relation to the phase angle (i.e., the positions of the flapping wing) during upstroke and down stroke flapping cycles. The evolutions of the wake vortex structures in the chordwise cross planes at different

Hu, Hui

60

Development of a rotor wake/vortex model. Volume 2: User's manual for computer program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal objective was to establish a verified rotor wake/vortex model for specific application to fan and compressor rotor-stator interaction and resulting noise generation. A description and flow chart of the Rotor Wake/Vortex Model computer program, a listing of the program, definitions of the input/output parameters, a sample input/output case, and input files for Rotor 55, the JT15D rotor, and Rotor 67, Stage 1 are provided.

Majjigi, R. K.; Gliebe, P. R.

1984-01-01

61

A comparison of airborne wake vortex detection measurements with values predicted from potential theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of flight measurements made near a wake vortex was conducted to explore the feasibility of providing a pilot with useful wake avoidance information. The measurements were made with relatively low cost flow and motion sensors on a light airplane flying near the wake vortex of a turboprop airplane weighing approximately 90000 lbs. Algorithms were developed which removed the response of the airplane to control inputs from the total airplane response and produced parameters which were due solely to the flow field of the vortex. These parameters were compared with values predicted by potential theory. The results indicated that the presence of the vortex could be detected by a combination of parameters derived from the simple sensors. However, the location and strength of the vortex cannot be determined without additional and more accurate sensors.

Stewart, Eric C.

1991-01-01

62

Helicopter blade-vortex interaction locations: Scale-model acoustics and free-wake analysis results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a model rotor acoustic test in the Langley 4by 7-Meter Tunnel are used to evaluate a free-wake analytical technique. An acoustic triangulation technique is used to locate the position in the rotor disk where the blade-vortex interaction noise originates. These locations, along with results of the rotor free-wake analysis, are used to define the geometry of the blade-vortex interaction noise phenomena as well as to determine if the free-wake analysis is a capable diagnostic tool. Data from tests of two teetering rotor systems are used in these analyses.

Hoad, Danny R.

1987-01-01

63

Periodicity of the density wake past a vortex ring in a stratified liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial coherent structure of the density wake past a vortex ring moving horizontally in viscid stratified liquid is experimentally revealed. It follows from analysis that repetition period of the structure is determined by rotation radial frequency (or mean vorticity) of the vortex core and toward speed of the vortex ring. The wake formation of the ring is considered in respect to vorticity shedding which produces velocity disturbances in ambient medium. In case of stratified liquid velocity fluctuations, in their turn, cause density field distortion. This process is superimposed by vortex core oscillations, and, in result, vorticity shedding will be not monotonous but modulated at some frequency. So, the density wake is periodically structured, and the spatial period is defined by intrinsic frequency of the core and forward speed of the ring. To support analysis, experiments were conducted in which vortex rings excited by spring-piston generator were observed with high-sensitive Schlieren instrument and computer-controlled camera. Experimental tank was filled with salt-stratified water of constant buoyancy period, vortex ring velocities range from 3 to 16 cm/s. Spatial period is derived from schlieren image using two independent methods, both 2D spectral analysis and geometry calculations of the vortex core. Spatial periods and vortex intrinsic frequencies calculated by both algorithms are in good agreement; they vary in power lows depending on vortex speed

Prokhorov, V.

2009-04-01

64

Application of Wind Tunnel Free-Flight Technique for Wake Vortex Encounters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind tunnel investigation was conducted in the Langley 30- by 60-Foot Tunnel to assess the free-flight test technique as a tool in research on wake vortex encounters. A typical 17.5-percent scale business-class jet airplane model was flown behind a stationary wing mounted in the forward portion of the wind tunnel test section. The span ratio (model span-generating wingspan) was 0.75. The wing angle of attack could be adjusted to produce a vortex of desired strength. The test airplane model was successfully flown in the vortex and through the vortex for a range of vortex strengths. Data obtained included the model airplane body axis accelerations, angular rates, attitudes, and control positions as a function of vortex strength and relative position. Pilot comments and video records were also recorded during the vortex encounters.

Brandon, Jay M.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.; Stuever, Robert A.; Buttrill, Catherine W.

1997-01-01

65

An investigation of the increase in vortex induced rolling moment associated with landing gear wake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight tests were conducted to verify the results found in ground base facilities of the effect of span lift load variation as well as the vortex attentuation of the high energy jet engine exhaust through proper thrust programming. During these flight tests a large increase in vortex strength was experienced as a result of extending the landing gear. Tests in the Langley Vortex Research Facility indicate that the wake produced by the landing gear may possibly form an aerodynamic endplate or reflection plane at the inboard edge of each inboard flap which increases the effective aspect ratio of the flap and thereby increases the strength of the flap outer edge vortex.

Patterson, J. C., Jr.; Jordan, F. L., Jr.

1975-01-01

66

Hot-wire and vorticity meter wake vortex surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vorticity meter used in the experiments consists of a paddle-wheel sensor mounted on a rotating shaft and fitted with a jeweled bearing. Vorticity data for a trailing vortex obtained with the vorticity meter are presented in a graph, taking into account an injected and a basic vortex. The tangential and axial velocity profile of a trailing vortex, as determined

A. D. Zalay

1976-01-01

67

Simulating Wake Vortex Detection with the Sensivu Doppler Wind Lidar Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of NASA's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies NRA research topic on Wake Vortex Hazard Investigation, Aerospace Innovations (AI) investigated a set of techniques for detecting wake vortex hazards from arbitrary viewing angles, including axial perspectives. This technical report describes an approach to this problem and presents results from its implementation in a virtual lidar simulator developed at AI. Threedimensional data volumes from NASA's Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) containing strong turbulent vortices were used as the atmospheric domain for these studies, in addition to an analytical vortex model in 3-D space. By incorporating a third-party radiative transfer code (BACKSCAT 4), user-defined aerosol layers can be incorporated into atmospheric models, simulating attenuation and backscatter in different environmental conditions and altitudes. A hazard detection algorithm is described that uses a twocomponent spectral model to identify vortex signatures observable from arbitrary angles.

Ramsey, Dan; Nguyen, Chi

2014-01-01

68

Progress Towards the Investigation of Technical Issues Relevant to the Design of an Aircraft Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wake vortex separations applied to aircraft during instrument operations have been shown to potentially introduce inefficiencies in air traffic operations during certain weather conditions conducive to short duration wake hazards between pairs of landing aircraft. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) demonstrated an integration of technologies that provided real-time observations and predictions of aircraft wake behavior, from which reduced wake spacing from the current criteria was derived. In order to take this proof of concept to an operational prototype system, NASA has been working in cooperation with the FAA and other government and industry members to design operational concepts for a Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS). In addition to concept development, open research issues are being addressed and activities to quantify system requirements and specifications are currently underway. This paper describes the technological issues relevant to WakeVAS development and current NASA efforts to address these issues.

Rutishauser, David K.

2003-01-01

69

Estimates of the effectiveness of automatic control in alleviating wake vortex induced roll excursions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Estimates of the effectiveness of a model following type control system in reducing the roll excursion due to a wake vortex encounter were obtained from single degree of freedom computations with inputs derived from the results of wind tunnel, flight, and simulation experiments. The analysis indicates that the control power commanded by the automatic system must be roughly equal to the vortex induced roll acceleration if effective limiting of the maximum bank angle is to be achieved.

Tinling, B. E.

1977-01-01

70

Spectral Characteristics of Wake Vortex Sound During Roll-Up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents an analysis of the sound spectra generated by a trailing aircraft vortex during its rolling-up process. The study demonstrates that a rolling-up vortex could produce low frequency (less than 100 Hz) sound with very high intensity (60 dB above threshold of human hearing) at a distance of 200 ft from the vortex core. The spectrum then drops o rapidly thereafter. A rigorous analytical approach has been adopted in this report to derive the spectrum of vortex sound. First, the sound pressure was solved from an alternative treatment of the Lighthill s acoustic analogy approach [1]. After the application of Green s function for free space, a tensor analysis was applied to permit the removal of the source term singularity of the wave equation in the far field. Consequently, the sound pressure is expressed in terms of the retarded time that indicates the time history and spacial distribution of the sound source. The Fourier transformation is then applied to the sound pressure to compute its spectrum. As a result, the Fourier transformation greatly simplifies the expression of the vortex sound pressure involving the retarded time, so that the numerical computation is applicable with ease for axisymmetric line vortices during the rolling-up process. The vortex model assumes that the vortex circulation is proportional to the time and the core radius is a constant. In addition, the velocity profile is assumed to be self-similar along the aircraft flight path, so that a benchmark vortex velocity profile can be devised to obtain a closed form solution, which is then used to validate the numerical calculations for other more realistic vortex profiles for which no closed form solutions are available. The study suggests that acoustic sensors operating at low frequency band could be profitably deployed for detecting the vortex sound during the rolling-up process.

Booth, Earl R., Jr. (Technical Monitor); Zhang, Yan; Wang, Frank Y.; Hardin, Jay C.

2003-01-01

71

Tomographic particle image velocimetry of desert locust wakes: instantaneous volumes combine to reveal hidden vortex elements and rapid wake deformation.  

PubMed

Aerodynamic structures generated by animals in flight are unstable and complex. Recent progress in quantitative flow visualization has advanced our understanding of animal aerodynamics, but measurements have hitherto been limited to flow velocities at a plane through the wake. We applied an emergent, high-speed, volumetric fluid imaging technique (tomographic particle image velocimetry) to examine segments of the wake of desert locusts, capturing fully three-dimensional instantaneous flow fields. We used those flow fields to characterize the aerodynamic footprint in unprecedented detail and revealed previously unseen wake elements that would have gone undetected by two-dimensional or stereo-imaging technology. Vortex iso-surface topographies show the spatio-temporal signature of aerodynamic force generation manifest in the wake of locusts, and expose the extent to which animal wakes can deform, potentially leading to unreliable calculations of lift and thrust when using conventional diagnostic methods. We discuss implications for experimental design and analysis as volumetric flow imaging becomes more widespread. PMID:22977102

Bomphrey, Richard J; Henningsson, Per; Michaelis, Dirk; Hollis, David

2012-12-01

72

Tomographic particle image velocimetry of desert locust wakes: instantaneous volumes combine to reveal hidden vortex elements and rapid wake deformation  

PubMed Central

Aerodynamic structures generated by animals in flight are unstable and complex. Recent progress in quantitative flow visualization has advanced our understanding of animal aerodynamics, but measurements have hitherto been limited to flow velocities at a plane through the wake. We applied an emergent, high-speed, volumetric fluid imaging technique (tomographic particle image velocimetry) to examine segments of the wake of desert locusts, capturing fully three-dimensional instantaneous flow fields. We used those flow fields to characterize the aerodynamic footprint in unprecedented detail and revealed previously unseen wake elements that would have gone undetected by two-dimensional or stereo-imaging technology. Vortex iso-surface topographies show the spatio-temporal signature of aerodynamic force generation manifest in the wake of locusts, and expose the extent to which animal wakes can deform, potentially leading to unreliable calculations of lift and thrust when using conventional diagnostic methods. We discuss implications for experimental design and analysis as volumetric flow imaging becomes more widespread. PMID:22977102

Bomphrey, Richard J.; Henningsson, Per; Michaelis, Dirk; Hollis, David

2012-01-01

73

Structure of the vortex wake in hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna).  

PubMed

Hummingbirds are specialized hoverers for which the vortex wake has been described as a series of single vortex rings shed primarily during the downstroke. Recent findings in bats and birds, as well as in a recent study on Anna's hummingbirds, suggest that each wing may shed a discrete vortex ring, yielding a bilaterally paired wake. Here, we describe the presence of two discrete rings in the wake of hovering Anna's hummingbirds, and also infer force production through a wingbeat with contributions to weight support. Using flow visualization, we found separate vortices at the tip and root of each wing, with 15% stronger circulation at the wingtip than at the root during the downstroke. The upstroke wake is more complex, with near-continuous shedding of vorticity, and circulation of approximately equal magnitude at tip and root. Force estimates suggest that the downstroke contributes 66% of required weight support, whereas the upstroke generates 35%. We also identified a secondary vortex structure yielding 8-26% of weight support. Lift production in Anna's hummingbirds is more evenly distributed between the stroke phases than previously estimated for Rufous hummingbirds, in accordance with the generally symmetric down- and upstrokes that characterize hovering in these birds. PMID:24174113

Wolf, M; Ortega-Jimenez, V M; Dudley, R

2013-12-22

74

FLUTTER CLEARANCE FLIGHT TESTS OF AN OV-10A AIRPLANE MODIFIED FOR WAKE VORTEX FLIGHT EXPERIMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Envelope expansion, flight flutter tests of a modified OV-10A aircraft are described. For a wake vortex research program, the airplane was modified to incorporate three, forward-extending instrumentation booms, one extending forward from each wing tip and one from the right side of the fuselage. The booms are instrumented with sensors to measure the velocity and direction of local air

Robert V. Doggett; Eric C. Stewart

75

History of Wake Vortex Research: Problems and Accomplishments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant progress has been made in understanding vortex behavior but much remains to be done. The primary challenge is to bring "science" into operational use. Success will require cooperation from a diverse group of organizations.

Greene, George C.

1997-01-01

76

Relationship between vortex ring in tail fin wake and propulsive force  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our aim was to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) vortex ring in the wake of a tail fin and to clarify the propulsion mechanism of dolphins and fish. In this study, we replaced a tail fin in pitching motion with an oscillating wing having a drive unit. The flow fields around the wing were measured by stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. To visualize the 3D structure of the vortex in the wake, we determined the flow fields in equally spaced cross-sectional planes. We reconstructed the 3D velocity fields from the velocity data with three components in two dimensions. We visualized the 3D vortex structure from these velocity data and plotted an iso-vorticity surface. As a result, we found that the vortex ring was generated by the kick-down and kick-up motions of the wing and that the wake structure was comparable with that obtained numerically. Moreover, we calculated the propulsive forces from the temporal variations in circulation and in the area surrounded by the vortex ring.

Imamura, Naoto; Matsuuchi, Kazuo

2013-10-01

77

Measurement of Vortex Strength and Core Diameter in the Wake of a Hovering Rotor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed hot wire measurements have been acquired in the tip vortex of a three-bladed model tilt rotor in hover. Testing was conducted at a rotor tip speed of 752 ft/sec, a Reynolds number (based on blade tip chord) of 1.77 x 10(exp 6), for thrust coefficients up to 0.0160. A figure shows the hot wire mounted above the inverted rotor at the Outside Aerodynamic Rotor Facility (OARF) at NASA Ames Research Center. Strobed shadowgraph flow visualization was used to define the vortex trajectory as an aid in hot wire positioning. Considerable variations in tip vortex structure with time were observed, even from the same blade, under essentially uniform test conditions. The only velocity signatures analyzed were those corresponding to passage of the probe directly through the center of the vortex. These time histories were ensemble averaged after compensating for jitter in the vortex arrival time at the probe, thereby retaining the core structure with minimal smearing. An example of a mean velocity signature, after ensemble averaging, is shown. The mean velocity signature was analyzed under the assumption of constant (unknown) translation speed of the vortex filament past the fixed probe. The translation speed of the vortex is deduced and the vortex strength and core diameter inferred. The results were highly unexpected. The indicated vortex strength is seen to decrease rapidly after first blade passage. In addition, the core radius is seen to decrease with increasing wake age, not increase as might be expected from simple diffusion.

Wadcock, Alan J.

1997-01-01

78

Vortex arrangement in the wake of rigid and flexible rapidly pitching airfoils at low Reynolds number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental investigation of the wake of an airfoil undergoing rapid pitch oscillation is conducted in a water tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of about 2000. Flow visualization is utilized to characterize the vortical patterns in the wake of the airfoil, which is constructed from a NACA 0036 profile fitted with an extended trailing edge with controllable flexibility. The spatial configuration of the vortices is extracted in terms of streamwise and cross-flow spacing over a range of pitching frequencies and amplitudes. We discuss how different levels of flexibility alter the vortex spacing parameters and the conditions under which the traditional Karman vortex pattern, corresponding to a wake profile, changes to the reverse Karman pattern associated with a jet profile.

Monnier, Bruno; Naguib, Ahmed; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr

2011-11-01

79

Implicit Euler calculation of supersonic vortex wake/engine plume interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the computational modeling of supersonic vortex wake/engine plume interaction. The evolution of the wake and plume was modeled in the Trefftz plane using the two-dimensional, unsteady Euler equations. Test cases varying the initial spanwise location of the plume were conducted. In all cases, the plume was seen to break apart into small bundles which then orbited the vortex core. Although the inward pressure gradient of the rolled-up vortex drove the hot effluent toward the center, the inward motion of the buoyant plume fluid was limited due to the lack of a diffusive model. The amount of effluent drawn tightly to the core increased as the initial plume location was moved outward along the span.

Cali, Philip; Drela, Mark

1993-01-01

80

Models of Wake-Vortex Spreading Mechanisms and Their Estimated Uncertainties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the primary constraints on the capacity of the nation's air transportation system is the landing capacity at its busiest airports. Many airports with nearly-simultaneous operations on closely-spaced parallel runways (i.e., as close as 750 ft (246m)) suffer a severe decrease in runway acceptance rate when weather conditions do not allow full utilization. The objective of a research program at NASA Ames Research Center is to develop the technologies needed for traffic management in the airport environment so that operations now allowed on closely-spaced parallel runways under Visual Meteorological Conditions can also be carried out under Instrument Meteorological Conditions. As part of this overall research objective, the study reported here has developed improved models for the various aerodynamic mechanisms that spread and transport wake vortices. The purpose of the study is to continue the development of relationships that increase the accuracy of estimates for the along-trail separation distances available before the vortex wake of a leading aircraft intrudes into the airspace of a following aircraft. Details of the models used and their uncertainties are presented in the appendices to the paper. Suggestions are made as to the theoretical and experimental research needed to increase the accuracy of and confidence level in the models presented and instrumentation required or more precise estimates of the motion and spread of vortex wakes. The improved wake models indicate that, if the following aircraft is upwind of the leading aircraft, the vortex wakes of the leading aircraft will not intrude into the airspace of the following aircraft for about 7s (based on pessimistic assumptions) for most atmospheric conditions. The wake-spreading models also indicate that longer time intervals before wake intrusion are available when atmospheric turbulence levels are mild or moderate. However, if the estimates for those time intervals are to be reliable, further study is necessary to develop the instrumentation and procedures needed to accurately define when the more benign atmospheric conditions exist.

Rossow, Vernon J.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Meyn, Larry A.

2006-01-01

81

Wake Vortex Acoustic Characteristics and SOCRATES Sensor Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an evaluation of the current state of the SOCRATES sensor and its readiness for use as an operational sensor for active monitoring of aircraft wake turbulence. SOCRATES is a laser opto-acoustic array designed to passively detect and t...

A. Gulsrud, F. Y. Wang, H. S. Wassaf, J. Dunkel, K. L. Clark

2007-01-01

82

Vortex Formation in the Wake of Dark Matter Propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future spaceflight will require a new theory of propulsion; specifically one that does not require mass ejection. A new theory is proposed that uses the general view that closed currents pervade the entire universe and, in particular, there is a cosmic mechanism to expel matter to large astronomical distances involving vortex currents as seen with blazars and blackholes. At the terrestrial level, force producing vortices have been related to the motion of wings (e.g., birds, duck paddles, fish's tail). In this paper, vortex structures are shown to exist in the streamlines aft of a spaceship moving at high velocity in the vacuum. This is accomplished using the density excitation method per a modified Chameleon Cosmology model. This vortex structure is then shown to have similarities to spacetime models as Warp-Drive and wormholes, giving rise to the natural extension of Hawking and Unruh radiation, which provides the propulsive method for space travel where virtual electron-positron pairs, absorbed by the gravitational expansion forward of the spaceship emerge from an annular vortex field aft of the spaceship as real particles, in-like to propellant mass ejection in conventional rocket theory.

Robertson, G. A.; Pinheiro, M. J.

83

Vortex Formation in the Wake of Dark Matter Propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future spaceflight will require a new theory of propulsion; specifically one that does not require mass ejection. A new theory is proposed that uses the general view that closed currents pervade the entire universe and, in particular, there is a cosmic mechanism to expel matter to large astronomical distances involving vortex currents as seen with blazars and blackholes. At the

G. A. Robertson; M. J. Pinheiro

2011-01-01

84

Vortex formation in the wake of an oscillating cylinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cross-flow oscillation of a cylinder on the formation of vortices in its wake are investigated experimentally by means of flow-visualization studies in a 4.57 x 1.07 x 1.07-m X-Y towing tank. The results are presented in extensive graphs, diagrams, and photographs and discussed in detail, with a focus on the evolution of several synchronization regions, in which

C. H. K. Williamson; A. Roshko

1988-01-01

85

Evaluation of Large-Scale Wing Vortex Wakes from Multi-Camera PIV Measurements in Free-Flight Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple-vortex systems of aircraft wakes have been investigated experimentally in a unique large-scale laboratory facility, the free-flight B20 catapult bench, ONERA Lille. 2D/2C PIV measurements have been performed in a translating reference frame, which provided time-resolved crossvelocity observations of the vortex systems in a Lagrangian frame normal to the wake axis. A PIV setup using a moving multiple-camera array and a variable double-frame time delay has been employed successfully. The large-scale quasi-2D structures of the wake-vortex system have been identified using the QW criterion based on the 2D velocity gradient tensor ?H u, thus illustrating the temporal development of unequal-strength corotating vortex pairs in aircraft wakes for nondimensional times tU0/b?45.

Carmer, Carl F. v.; Heider, André; Schröder, Andreas; Konrath, Robert; Agocs, Janos; Gilliot, Anne; Monnier, Jean-Claude

86

Prediction and control of vortex-dominated and vortex-wake flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This progress report documents the accomplishments achieved in the period from December 1, 1992 until November 30, 1993. These accomplishments include publications, national and international presentations, NASA presentations, and the research group supported under this grant. Topics covered by documents incorporated into this progress report include: active control of asymmetric conical flow using spinning and rotary oscillation; supersonic vortex breakdown over a delta wing in transonic flow; shock-vortex interaction over a 65-degree delta wing in transonic flow; three dimensional supersonic vortex breakdown; numerical simulation and physical aspects of supersonic vortex breakdown; and prediction of asymmetric vortical flows around slender bodies using Navier-Stokes equations.

Kandil, Osama

1993-01-01

87

Real-Time Visualization of Wake-Vortex Simulations Using Computational Steering and Beowulf Clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the design and implementation of POSSE, a new, lightweight computational steering system based on a client\\/server pro- gramming model. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this software system by illustrating its use for a visualization client designed for a particularly demand- ing real-time application—wake-vortex simulations for multiple aircraft running on a parallel Beowulf cluster. We describe

Anirudh Modi; Lyle N. Long; Paul E. Plassmann

2002-01-01

88

Wake Sensor Evaluation Program and Results of JFK-1 Wake Vortex Sensor Intercomparisons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall approach should be to: (1) Seek simplest, sufficiently robust, integrated ground based sensor systems (wakes and weather) for AVOSS; (2) Expand all sensor performance cross-comparisons and data mergings in on-going field deployments; and (3) Achieve maximal cost effectiveness through hardware/info sharing. An effective team is in place to accomplish the above tasks.

Barker, Ben C., Jr.; Burnham, David C.; Rudis, Robert P.

1997-01-01

89

Vortex Wake Geometry of a Model Tilt Rotor in Forward Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A full-span 0.25-scale V-22 tiltrotor was tested in the NASA Ames 40-by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel in November 2000. The main objective of the test was to acquire a comprehensive database to validate tiltrotor analyses. Figure 1 shows the model installed in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. Rotor and vehicle performance measurements were taken in addition to wing pressures, acoustics, and flow visualization. A dual acoustic traverse system was installed to measure blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise levels and directivity. Test conditions included hover and forward flight in helicopter mode. Angle-of-attack and thrust sweeps for three tunnel speeds were acquired before model problems caused the premature conclusion of the test. The test will resume in the Ames 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel in late 2001. This paper will focus on the wake geometry measurements that were acquired during the test. The wake geometry measurements were a small subset of a larger matrix of planned measurements designed to study the development and structure of the dual vortex system generated during BVI conditions. The present paper will provide wake geometry data for four test conditions. In addition, the data will be compared with previously acquired wake measurements from an isolated tiltrotor

Wadcock, Alan J.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

90

Flight test investigation of the vortex wake characteristics behind a Boeing 727 during two-segment and normal ILS approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of flight tests were performed to evaluate the vortex wake characteristics of a Boeing 727 (B727-200) aircraft during conventional and two-segment ILS approaches. Flights of the B727, equipped with smoke generators for vortex marking, were flown wherein its vortex wake was intentionally encountered by a Lear Jet model 23 (LR-23) or a Piper Twin Comanche (Pa-30); and its vortex location during landing approach was measured using a system of photo-theodolites. The tests showed that at a given separation distance there were no differences in the upsets resulting from deliberate vortex encounters during the two types of approaches. Timed mappings of the position of the landing configuration vortices showed that they tended to descend approximately 91 meters (300 feet) below the flight path of the B727. The flaps of the B727 have a dominant effect on the character of the trailed wake vortex. The clean wing produces a strong, concentrated vortex. As the flaps are lowered, the vortex system becomes more diffuse. Pilot opinion and roll acceleration data indicate that 4.5 nautical miles would be a minimum separation distance at which roll control could be maintained during parallel encounters of the B727's landing configuration wake by small aircraft.

Garodz, L. J.

1975-01-01

91

Comparisons of Crosswind Velocity Profile Estimates Used in Fast-Time Wake Vortex Prediction Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five methods for estimating crosswind profiles used in fast-time wake vortex prediction models are compared in this study. Previous investigations have shown that temporal and spatial variations in the crosswind vertical profile have a large impact on the transport and time evolution of the trailing vortex pair. The most important crosswind parameters are the magnitude of the crosswind and the gradient in the crosswind shear. It is known that pulsed and continuous wave lidar measurements can provide good estimates of the wind profile in the vicinity of airports. In this study comparisons are made between estimates of the crosswind profiles from a priori information on the trajectory of the vortex pair as well as crosswind profiles derived from different sensors and a regional numerical weather prediction model.

Pruis, Mathew J.; Delisi, Donald P.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

2011-01-01

92

Wake Similarity and Vortex Formation for Two-Dimensional Bluff Bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study of the flow around a cylinder with a single straight perturbation was conducted in a wind tunnel. With this bluff body, positioned in a uniform crossflow, the vortex shedding frequency and other flow characteristics could be manipulated. The Strouhal number has been shown to be a function of the perturbation angular position, theta _{rm p}, as well as the perturbation size and Reynolds number. As much as a 50% change in Strouhal number could be achieved, simply by changing theta _{rm p} by 1^ circ. The perturbation size compared to the boundary-layer thickness, delta, was varied from approximately 1delta to about 20delta. The Reynolds number was varied from 10,000 to 40,000. A detailed investigation of the characteristic Strouhal number variation has shown that varying theta_{rm p} had a significant influence on the boundary -layer separation and transition to turbulence. These significant changes occurring in the boundary-layer have been shown to cause variations in the spacing between the shear layers, base pressure, vortex formation length, drag, lift, and the longitudinal spacing between the vortices in the vortex street. The unique ability of the cylinder with a single straight perturbation to control the Strouhal number and other flow characteristics, was used to evaluate several previously proposed wake similarity concepts by Fage and Johansen(1927), Roshko(1955), Bearman(1967) and Griffin(1981). It was shown that these wake similarity concepts did not satisfactorily apply to the bluff body which was used in this study. The experimental results have shown that a wake similarity parameter, S_{rm M} = kf_{rm v}d*/U _infty has smaller variations from its mean values S_{rm Mo } = 0.39, when compared to previously proposed wake similarity parameters. The quantity, k, is the base pressure parameter, f_{rm v} , is the vortex shedding frequency, d*, is the spacing between the shear layers and U_infty , is the free stream velocity. The similarity parameter S_{rm M}, when applied to Fage and Johansen's measurements on a wide range of bluff bodies showed less variance and resulted in numbers near 0.39. The parameter, S_{rm M}, when used to evaluate the lateral-to-longitudinal stability of vortices in the vortex street was shown to favor von Karman's over Kronauer's wake stability criterion.

Nebres, Jose Luis Villafranca

93

Dynamic Simulation of Marine Risers Moving Relative to each Other due to Vortex and Wake Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a time domain simulator which simulates the dynamic interaction of two adjacent cylindrical risers moving relative to each other in an ambient steady flow. The main objective of the simulator is to assess whether adjacent marine risers moving in each other's wake will collide or not. The simulator named Time domain RIser Collision Evaluation (TRICE) uses drag and lift coefficients as well as excitation frequencies computed by an in-house developed numerical Navier-Stokes equation solver (CFD). The CFD program computes lift and drag forces, the standard deviation of the excitation forces and the dominant vortex shedding frequency as a function of the relative position of two cylinders restrained from motion. We propose, based on analysis and observations during experiments, that the wake induced oscillation (WIO) behaviour determines if the risers collide or not, and that the U001vortex-induced vibration (VIV) behaviour determines most of the energy in the collision. That is, the wake behaviour controls the gross motions of the risers relative to each other. The current version is limited to handle two cylindrical risers in staggered and tandem configurations. The results from the simulations are successfully compared with experimental data. TRICE predicts the minimum current when collisions occur with a deviation typically better than 8% for both tandem and staggered arrangements.

Sagatun, S. I.; Herfjord, K.; Holmås, T.

2002-04-01

94

Lidar and numerical studies on the different evolution of vortex pair and secondary wake in young contrails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vortex-regime evolution of contrails is investigated by focusing on the role of ambient humidity. Lidar cross-section measurements and observational analysis are combined with numerical simulations of fluid dynamics and microphysics. Contrail evolution behind four-turbofan aircraft is classified into three different scenarios. In the case of ice-subsaturated air, a visible pair of wingtip vortices is formed that disappears at the end of the vortex regime. In case of ice supersaturation, a diffuse secondary wake evolves above the wingtip vortices. It is due to detrainment of ice particles growing by sublimation of ambient humidity. A vertical wake-gap opens between the wingtip vortices and the secondary wake. It is due to subsaturated air moving upward along the outer edges of the sinking vortex tubes accumulating around the upper stagnation point of the vortex system. The vertical wake-gap preferably occurs in the wake of heavy (four turbofans) aircraft, since the vortices behind light aircraft migrate down too slowly. The secondary wake is composed of nonspherical particles larger than the ones in the wingtip vortices which are spherical particles and/or particles smaller than ?0.5 ?m. In most cases the secondary wake is the only part of a contrail that persists after vortex breakdown. This is because the ice in the vortex tubes evaporates due to adiabatic heating as the vortices travel downward. Only in the rare case of higher ambient ice supersaturation (>2%) do both parts of a contrail contribute to the persistent ice cloud. The number of ice crystals initially formed is typically reduced by a factor of 200 by evaporation (60% ambient humidity). This leads to a high population of interstitial particles. The results imply that formation of persistent contrails can be minimized by technical means.

Sussmann, Ralf; Gierens, Klaus M.

1999-01-01

95

Unsteady vortex lattice techniques applied to wake formation and performance of the statically thrusting propeller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application is considered of vortex lattice techniques to the problem of describing the aerodynamics and performance of statically thrusting propellers. A numerical lifting surface theory to predict the aerodynamic forces and power is performed. The chordwise and spanwise loading is modelled by bound vortices fixed to a twisted flat plate surface. In order to eliminate any apriori assumptions regarding the wake shape, it is assumed the propeller starts from rest. The wake is generated in time and allowed to deform under its own self-induced velocity field as the motion of the propeller progresses. The bound circulation distribution is then determined with time by applying the flow tangency boundary condition at certain selected control points on the blades. The aerodynamics of the infinite wing and finite wing are also considered. The details of wake formation and roll-up are investigated, particularly the localized induction effect. It is concluded that proper wake roll-up and roll-up rates can be established by considering the details of motion at the instant of start.

Hall, G. F.

1975-01-01

96

The free-wake prediction of rotor hover performance using a vortex embedding method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is developed to predict the rotor hover performance. This method solves the compressible mass conservation equation much like current full potential codes and can therefore predict the transonic flows on a rotor. However, the newly developed approach also allows for the free convection of shed vorticity and permits the computation of the entire hover wake system. The method uses a vortex embedding scheme in potential flow and has been implemented in a computer code, HELIX -I. To predict power we implement a simple boundary layer and two different induced-drag integration schemes. The induced-drag is obtained from surface pressure integration and an energy flux integral. Comparisons between computations and experiment show good agreement for the prediction of power polars, surface pressure distribution, and tip vortex geometry.

Ramachandran, K.; Tung, C.; Caradonna, F. X.

1989-01-01

97

Flutter clearance flight tests of an OV-10A airplane modified for wake vortex flight experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The envelope expansion, flight flutter tests of a modified OV-10A aircraft are described. For the wake vortex research program, the airplane was modified to incorporate three forward-extending instrumentation booms, one extending forward from each wing tip and one from the right side of the fuselage. The booms were instrumented with sensors to measure the velocity and direction of local air flow. The flutter test results show that the modified OV-10A aircraft is free from flutter at speeds up to 330 KEAS at 5000 feet altitude.

Doggett, Robert V., Jr.; Rivera, Jose A., Jr.; Stewart, Eric C.

1995-01-01

98

Secondary vortex street in the wake of two tandem circular cylinders at low Reynolds number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experiments on two tandem circular cylinders were conducted in a horizontal soap film tunnel for the Reynolds number Re=60 , 80, and 100 and the nondimensional center-to-center spacing ? ranging in 1˜12 . The flow patterns were recorded by a high-speed camera and the vortex shedding frequency was obtained by a spatiotemporal evolution method. The secondary vortex formation (SVF) mode characterized by the formation of a secondary vortex street in the wake of the downstream cylinder was found at large ? . Moreover, some typical modes predicted by previous investigations, including the single bluff-body, shear layer reattachment, and synchronization of vortex shedding modes, were also revisited in our experiments. Further, numerical simulations were carried out using a space-time finite-element method and the results confirmed the existence of the SVF mode. The mechanism of SVF mode was analyzed in terms of the numerical results. The dependence of the Strouhal number Sr on ? was given and the flow characteristics relevant to the critical spacing values and the hysteretic mode transitions were investigated.

Wang, Si-Ying; Tian, Fang-Bao; Jia, Lai-Bing; Lu, Xi-Yun; Yin, Xie-Zhen

2010-03-01

99

Information Requirements for Supervisory Air Traffic Controllers in Support of a Wake Vortex Departure System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Closely Space Parallel Runway (CSPR) configurations are capacity limited for departures due to the requirement to apply wake vortex separation standards from traffic departing on the adjacent parallel runway. To mitigate the effects of this constraint, a concept focusing on wind dependent departure operations has been developed, known as the Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Departures (WTMD). This concept takes advantage of the fact that crosswinds of sufficient velocity blow wakes generated by aircraft departing from the downwind runway away from the upwind runway. Consequently, under certain conditions, wake separations on the upwind runway would not be required based on wakes generated by aircraft on the downwind runway, as is currently the case. It follows that information requirements, and sources for this information, would need to be determined for airport traffic control tower (ATCT) supervisory personnel who would be charged with decisions regarding use of the procedure. To determine the information requirements, data were collected from ATCT supervisors and controller-in-charge qualified individuals at Lambert-St. Louis International Airport (STL) and George Bush Houston Intercontinental Airport (IAH). STL and IAH were chosen as data collection sites based on the implementation of a WTMD prototype system, operating in shadow mode, at these locations. The 17 total subjects (STL: 5, IAH: 12) represented a broad-base of air traffic experience. Results indicated that the following information was required to support the conduct of WTMD operations: current and forecast weather information, current and forecast traffic demand and traffic flow restrictions, and WTMD System status information and alerting. Subjects further indicated that the requisite information is currently available in the tower cab with the exception of the WTMD status and alerting. Subjects were given a demonstration of a display supporting the prototype systems and unanimously stated that the WTMD status information they felt important was represented. Overwhelmingly, subjects felt that approving, monitoring and terminating the WTMD procedure could be integrated into their supervisory workload.

Lohr, Gary W.; Williams, Daniel M.; Trujillo, Anna C.

2008-01-01

100

The vortex wake of the free-swimming larva and pupa of Culex pipiens (Diptera).  

PubMed

The kinematics and hydrodynamics of free-swimming pupal and larval (final-instar) culicids were investigated using videography and a simple wake-visualisation technique (dyes). In both cases, swimming is based on a technique of high-amplitude, side-to-side (larva) or up-and-down (pupa) bending of the body. The pupa possesses a pair of plate-like abdominal paddles; the larval abdominal paddle consists of a fan of closely spaced bristles which, at the Reynolds numbers involved, behaves like a continuous surface. Wake visualisation showed that each half-stroke of the swimming cycle produces a discrete ring vortex that is convected away from the body. Consecutive vortices are produced first to one side then to the other of the mean swimming path, the convection axis being inclined at approximately 25 degrees away from dead aft. Pupal and larval culicids therefore resemble fish in using the momentum injected into the water to generate thrust. Preliminary calculations for the pupa suggest that each vortex contains sufficient momentum to account for that added to the body with each half-stroke. The possibility is discussed that the side-to-side flexural technique may allow an interaction between body and tail flows in the production of vorticity. PMID:11441028

Brackenbury, J

2001-06-01

101

B-747 in Flight during Vortex Study with Learjet and T-37 Fly Through the Wake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this 1974 NASA Flight Research Center (FRC) photograph, the two chase aircraft, a Learjet and a Cessna T-37, are shown in formation off the right wing tip of the Boeing B-747 jetliner. The two chase aircraft were used to probe the trailing wake vortices generated by the airflow around the wings of the B-747 aircraft. The vortex trail behind the right wing tip was made visible by a smoke generator mounted under the wing of the B-747 aircraft. In 1974 the NASA Flight Research Center (later Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California) used a Boeing 747 as part of the overall NASA study of trailing vortices. Trailing vortices are the invisible flow of spiraling air that trails from the wings of large aircraft and can 'upset' smaller aircraft flying behind them. The 747 that NASA used was on loan from the Johnson Space Center where it was part of the Space Shuttle Program. The data gathered in the 747 studies complemented data from the previous (1973-74) joint NASA Flight Research Center and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Boeing727 wake vortices study. Six smoke generators were installed under the wings of the 747 to provide a visual image of the trailing vortices. The object of the experiments was to test different configurations and mechanical devices on the747 that could be used to break up or lessen the strength of the vortices. The results of the tests could lead to shorter spacing between landings and takeoffs, which, in turn, could alleviate air-traffic congestion. For approximately 30 flights the 747 was flown using various combinations of wing air spoilers in an attempt to reduce wake vortices. To evaluate the effectiveness of the different configurations, chase aircraft were flown into the vortex sheets to probe their strengths and patterns at different times. Two of the chase planes used were the Flight Research Center's Cessna T-37 and the NASA Ames Research Center's Learjet. These aircraft represented the types of smaller business jets and other small aircraft that might encounter large passenger aircraft on approach or landings around major airports or in flight. Tests without the 747's wing spoilers deployed produced violent 'upset' problems for the T-37 aircraft at a distance of approximately 3 miles. From the magnitude of the problems found, distances of as much as ten miles might be required if spoilers were not used. With two spoilers on the outer wing panels, the T-37 could fly at a distance of three miles and not experience the 'upset' problem. The wake vortex study continued even after the 747 was returned to its primary mission of carrying the Space Shuttle.

1974-01-01

102

Vortex wake, downwash distribution, aerodynamic performance and wingbeat kinematics in slow-flying pied flycatchers  

PubMed Central

Many small passerines regularly fly slowly when catching prey, flying in cluttered environments or landing on a perch or nest. While flying slowly, passerines generate most of the flight forces during the downstroke, and have a ‘feathered upstroke’ during which they make their wing inactive by retracting it close to the body and by spreading the primary wing feathers. How this flight mode relates aerodynamically to the cruising flight and so-called ‘normal hovering’ as used in hummingbirds is not yet known. Here, we present time-resolved fluid dynamics data in combination with wingbeat kinematics data for three pied flycatchers flying across a range of speeds from near hovering to their calculated minimum power speed. Flycatchers are adapted to low speed flight, which they habitually use when catching insects on the wing. From the wake dynamics data, we constructed average wingbeat wakes and determined the time-resolved flight forces, the time-resolved downwash distributions and the resulting lift-to-drag ratios, span efficiencies and flap efficiencies. During the downstroke, slow-flying flycatchers generate a single-vortex loop wake, which is much more similar to that generated by birds at cruising flight speeds than it is to the double loop vortex wake in hovering hummingbirds. This wake structure results in a relatively high downwash behind the body, which can be explained by the relatively active tail in flycatchers. As a result of this, slow-flying flycatchers have a span efficiency which is similar to that of the birds in cruising flight and which can be assumed to be higher than in hovering hummingbirds. During the upstroke, the wings of slowly flying flycatchers generated no significant forces, but the body–tail configuration added 23 per cent to weight support. This is strikingly similar to the 25 per cent weight support generated by the wing upstroke in hovering hummingbirds. Thus, for slow-flying passerines, the upstroke cannot be regarded as inactive, and the tail may be of importance for flight efficiency and possibly manoeuvrability. PMID:21676971

Muijres, Florian T.; Bowlin, Melissa S.; Johansson, L. Christoffer; Hedenström, Anders

2012-01-01

103

Atmospheric Boundary Layer Sensors for Application in a Wake Vortex Advisory System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing of the atmospheric boundary layer has advanced in recent years with the development of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radar, sodar, and lidar wind profiling technology. Radio acoustic sounding systems for vertical temperature profiles of high temporal scales (when compared to routine balloon soundings- (radiosondes) have also become increasingly available as COTS capabilities. Aircraft observations during landing and departures are another source of available boundary layer data. This report provides an updated assessment of available sensors, their performance specifications and rough order of magnitude costs for a potential future aircraft Wake Vortex Avoidance System (WakeVAS). Future capabilities are also discussed. Vertical profiles of wind, temperature, and turbulence are anticipated to be needed at airports in any dynamic wake avoidance system. Temporal and spatial resolution are dependent on the selection of approach and departure corridors to be protected. Recommendations are made for potential configurations of near-term sensor technologies and for testing some of the sensor systems in order to validate performance in field environments with adequate groundtruth.

Zak, J. Allen; Rutishauser, David (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

104

An experimental and analytical study of the stability of counter-rotating vortex pairs with applications for aircraft wake turbulence control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft trailing vortex wakes are commonly referred to as `wake turbulence' and may pose a flight safety hazard to other aircraft that may encounter the wake. This hazard is of critical interest during the take-off and landing stages of flight, where aircraft are in the closest proximity to one another. During these flight stages, it is common for transport aircraft

Brian Matthew Babie

2008-01-01

105

Decay of helical Kelvin waves on a quantum vortex filament  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the dynamics of helical Kelvin waves moving along a quantum vortex filament driven by a normal fluid flow. We employ the vector form of the quantum local induction approximation (LIA) due to Schwarz. For an isolated filament, this is an adequate approximation to the full Hall-Vinen-Bekarevich-Khalatnikov dynamics. The motion of such Kelvin waves is both translational (along the quantum vortex filament) and rotational (in the plane orthogonal to the reference axis). We first present an exact closed form solution for the motion of these Kelvin waves in the case of a constant amplitude helix. Such solutions exist for a critical wave number and correspond exactly to the Donnelly-Glaberson instability, so perturbations of such solutions either decay to line filaments or blow-up. This leads us to consider helical Kelvin waves which decay to line filaments. Unlike in the case of constant amplitude helical solutions, the dynamics are much more complicated for the decaying helical waves, owing to the fact that the rate of decay of the helical perturbations along the vortex filament is not constant in time. We give an analytical and numerical description of the motion of decaying helical Kelvin waves, from which we are able to ascertain the influence of the physical parameters on the decay, translational motion along the filament, and rotational motion, of these waves (all of which depend nonlinearly on time). One interesting finding is that the helical Kelvin waves do not decay uniformly. Rather, such waves decay slowly for small time scales, and more rapidly for large time scales. The rotational and translational velocity of the Kelvin waves depend strongly on this rate of decay, and we find that the speed of propagation of a helical Kelvin wave along a quantum filament is large for small time while the wave asymptotically slows as it decays. The rotational velocity of such Kelvin waves along the filament will increase over time, asymptotically reaching a finite value. These decaying Kelvin waves correspond to wave number below the critical value for the Donnelly-Glaberson instability, and hence our results on the Schwarz quantum LIA correspond exactly to what one would expect from prior work on the Donnelly-Glaberson instability.

Van Gorder, Robert A.

2014-07-01

106

Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulations Title: Wakes and vortex streets behind a localized force: numerical simulations  

E-print Network

Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulations Title: Wakes and vortex streets behind a localized force: numerical simulations Article Type: Research Paper Section/Category: Keywords a body force acting inside a small circular area are investigated using direct numerical simulations

Afanassiev, Iakov

107

Investigation and Optimization of Blade Tip Winglets Using an Implicit Free Wake Vortex Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel outer-blade geometries such as tip winglets can increase the aerodynamic power that can be extracted from the wind by tailoring the relative position and strengths of trailed vorticity. This design space is explored using both parameter studies and gradient-based optimization, with the aerodynamic analysis carried out using LibAero, a free wake vortex-based code introduced in previous work. The starting design is the NREL 5MW reference turbine, which allows comparison of the aerodynamic simulation for the unmodified blade with other codes. The code uses a Prandtl-Weissinger lifting line model to represent the blade, and vortex filaments as the flow elements. A fast multipole method is implemented to accelerate the influence calculations and reduce the computational cost. This results in higher fidelity aerodynamic simulations that can capture the effects of novel geometries while maintaining sufficiently fast run-times (on the order of an hour) to allow the use of optimization. Gradients of the objective function with respect to design variables are calculated using the complex step method which is accurate and efficient. Since the vortex structure behind the rotor is being resolved in detail, insight is also gained into the mechanisms by which these new blade designs affect performance. It is found that adding winglets can increase the power extracted from the wind by around 2%, with a similar increase in thrust. It is also possible to create a winglet that slightly lowers the thrust while maintaining very similar power compared to the standard straight blade.

Lawton, Stephen; Crawford, Curran

2014-06-01

108

Crosswind Shear Gradient Affect on Wake Vortices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric simulations with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model are used to explore the influence of crosswind shear on aircraft wake vortices. Previous studies based on field measurements, laboratory experiments, as well as LES, have shown that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, i.e. the second vertical derivative of the environmental crosswind, can influence wake vortex transport. The presence of nonlinear vertical shear of the crosswind velocity can reduce the descent rate, causing a wake vortex pair to tilt and change in its lateral separation. The LES parametric studies confirm that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear does influence vortex trajectories. The parametric results also show that vortex decay from the effects of shear are complex since the crosswind shear, along with the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, can affect whether the lateral separation between wake vortices is increased or decreased. If the separation is decreased, the vortex linking time is decreased, and a more rapid decay of wake vortex circulation occurs. If the separation is increased, the time to link is increased, and at least one of the vortices of the vortex pair may have a longer life time than in the case without shear. In some cases, the wake vortices may never link.

Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

2011-01-01

109

Rotor Wake Vortex Definition: Initial Evaluation of 3-C PIV Results of the Hart-II Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An initial evaluation is made of extensive three-component (3C) particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements within the wake across a rotor disk plane. The model is a 40 percent scale BO-105 helicopter main rotor in forward flight simulation. This study is part of the HART II test program conducted in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). Included are wake vortex field measurements over the advancing and retreating sides of the rotor operating at a typical descent landing condition important for impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. Also included are advancing side results for rotor angle variations from climb to steep descent. Using detailed PIV vector maps of the vortex fields, methods of extracting key vortex parameters are examined and a new method was developed and evaluated. An objective processing method, involving a center-of-vorticity criterion and a vorticity 'disk' integration, was used to determine vortex core size, strength, core velocity distribution characteristics, and unsteadiness. These parameters are mapped over the rotor disk and offer unique physical insight for these parameters of importance for rotor noise and vibration prediction.

Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; vanderWall, Berend; Richard, Hughes; Raffel, Markus; Beaumier, Philippe; Delrieux, Yves; Lim, Joon W.; Yu, Yung H.; Tung, Chee

2002-01-01

110

3D Structure of the Inverse Karman Vortex Street in the Wake of a Flapping Foil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flapping foils are being considered for lift generation and/or propulsion in Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs). In the present study, a DNS/LES solver that is capable of simulating these flows in all their complexity will be used. The flow around a NACA 0012 foil undergoing pitch oscillation at a chord Reynolds number of 12600 has been investigated and the comparison of mean thrust coefficient results with the experiment has indicated significant under-prediction of the thrust although good match is observed with a 2D RANS calculation. This discrepancy could be related to the absence of 3D effects in both numerical simulations. Although this conclusion has also been reached in other studies, the details of the physical mechanism that lead to inaccurate prediction of surface pressure and ultimately to thrust force for pitching and heaving flapping foils have not been clarified yet. In this study, the streamwise (secondary) vortical structures in the inverse Karman Vortex Street generated in the wake of a thrust producing flapping foil will be studied.

Bozkurttas, Meliha; Mittal, Rajat; Dong, Haibo

2004-11-01

111

A numerical study of the laminar necklace vortex system and its effect on the wake for a circular cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large eddy simulation (LES) is used to investigate the structure of the laminar horseshoe vortex (HV) system and the dynamics of the necklace vortices as they fold around the base of a circular cylinder mounted on the flat bed of an open channel for Reynolds numbers defined with the cylinder diameter, D, smaller than 4460. The study concentrates on the analysis of the structure of the HV system in the periodic breakaway sub-regime, which is characterized by the formation of three main necklace vortices. Over one oscillation cycle of the previously observed breakaway sub-regime, the corner vortex and the primary vortex merge (amalgamate) and a developing vortex separates from the incoming laminar boundary layer (BL) to become the new primary vortex. Results show that while the classical breakaway sub-regime, in which one amalgamation event occurs per oscillation cycle, is present when the nondimensional displacement thickness of the incoming BL at the location of the cylinder is relatively large (?*/D > 0.1), a new type of breakaway sub-regime is present for low values of ?*/D. This sub-regime, which we call the double-breakaway sub-regime, is characterized by the occurrence of two amalgamation events over one full oscillation cycle. LES results show that when the HV system is in one of the breakaway sub-regimes, the interactions between the highly coherent necklace vortices and the eddies shed inside the separated shear layers (SSLs) are very strong. For the relatively shallow flow conditions considered in this study (H/D ? 1, H is the channel depth), at times, the disturbances induced by the legs of the necklace vortices do not allow the SSLs on the two sides of the cylinder to interact in a way that allows the vorticity redistribution mechanism to lead to the formation of a new wake roller. As a result, the shedding of large-scale rollers in the turbulent wake is suppressed for relatively large periods of time. Simulation results show that the wake structure changes randomly between time intervals when large-scale rollers are forming and are convected in the wake (von Karman regime), and time intervals when the rollers do not form. When the wake is in the von Karman regime, the shedding frequency of the rollers is close to that observed for flow past infinitely long cylinders.

Kirkil, Gokhan; Constantinescu, George

2012-07-01

112

Three-dimensional vortex wake structure of a flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle in forward flight configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the formation and evolution of the unsteady three-dimensional wake structures generated by the flapping wings of the DelFly II micro aerial vehicle in forward flight configuration. Time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (Stereo-PIV) measurements were carried out at several spanwise-aligned planes in the wake, so as to allow a reconstruction of the temporal development of the wake of the flapping wings throughout the complete flapping cycle. Simultaneous thrust-force measurements were performed to explore the relation between the wake formation and the aerodynamic force generation mechanisms. The three-dimensional wake configuration was subsequently reconstructed from the planar PIV measurements by two different approaches: (1) a spatiotemporal wake reconstruction obtained by convecting the time-resolved, three-component velocity field data of a single measurement plane with the free-stream velocity; (2) for selected phases in the flapping cycle a direct three-dimensional spatial wake reconstruction is interpolated from the data of the different measurement planes, using a Kriging regression technique. Comparing the results derived from both methods in terms of the behavior of the wake formations, their phase and orientation indicate that the spatiotemporal reconstruction method allows to characterize the general three-dimensional structure of the wake, but that the spatial reconstruction method can reveal more details due to higher streamwise resolution. Comparison of the wake reconstructions for different values of the reduced frequency allows assessing the impact of the flapping frequency on the formation and interaction characteristics of the vortical structures. For low values of the reduced frequency, it is observed that the vortex structure formation of instroke and outstroke is relatively independent of each other, but that increasing interaction occurs at higher reduced frequencies. It is further shown that there is a phase lag in the appearance of the structures for increasing flapping frequency, which is in correlation with the generation of the forces. Comparison of thrust generated during the instroke and the outstroke phases of the flapping motion in conjunction with the development of the wake structures indicates that wing-wing interaction at the start of outstroke (peel motion) becomes a dominant feature for reduced frequencies greater than 0.62.

Percin, M.; van Oudheusden, B. W.; Eisma, H. E.; Remes, B. D. W.

2014-09-01

113

Locomotor forces on a swimming fish: three-dimensional vortex wake dynamics quantified using digital particle image velocimetry.  

PubMed

Quantifying the locomotor forces experienced by swimming fishes represents a significant challenge because direct measurements of force applied to the aquatic medium are not feasible. However, using the technique of digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), it is possible to quantify the effect of fish fins on water movement and hence to estimate momentum transfer from the animal to the fluid. We used DPIV to visualize water flow in the wake of the pectoral fins of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) swimming at speeds of 0.5-1.5 L s(-)(1), where L is total body length. Velocity fields quantified in three perpendicular planes in the wake of the fins allowed three-dimensional reconstruction of downstream vortex structures. At low swimming speed (0.5 L s(-)(1)), vorticity is shed by each fin during the downstroke and stroke reversal to generate discrete, roughly symmetrical, vortex rings of near-uniform circulation with a central jet of high-velocity flow. At and above the maximum sustainable labriform swimming speed of 1.0 L s(-)(1), additional vorticity appears on the upstroke, indicating the production of linked pairs of rings by each fin. Fluid velocity measured in the vicinity of the fin indicates that substantial spanwise flow during the downstroke may occur as vortex rings are formed. The forces exerted by the fins on the water in three dimensions were calculated from vortex ring orientation and momentum. Mean wake-derived thrust (11.1 mN) and lift (3.2 mN) forces produced by both fins per stride at 0.5 L s(-)(1) were found to match closely empirically determined counter-forces of body drag and weight. Medially directed reaction forces were unexpectedly large, averaging 125 % of the thrust force for each fin. Such large inward forces and a deep body that isolates left- and right-side vortex rings are predicted to aid maneuverability. The observed force balance indicates that DPIV can be used to measure accurately large-scale vorticity in the wake of swimming fishes and is therefore a valuable means of studying unsteady flows produced by animals moving through fluids. PMID:10460729

Drucker; Lauder

1999-01-01

114

Waking.  

PubMed

An indubitable aspect of laboring in the realm of hospice care is the "everydayness" of human loss or the stark encounter of death in the human experience. This can pose as opportunity to adopt each day in a particular manner. As such, the focus of my reflection is on transposing certain dynamics of a (funeral) wake to broader professional and personal socioexistential processes. PMID:22811212

Moon, Paul J

2013-09-01

115

Vortex wakes generated by robins Erithacus rubecula during free flight in a wind tunnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wakes of two individual robins were measured in digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experiments conducted in the Lund wind tunnel. Wake measurements were compared with each other, and with previous studies in the same facility. There was no significant individual variation in any of the measured quantities. Qualitatively, the wake structure and its gradual variation with flight speed were

A. Hedenström; M. Rosén; G. R. Spedding

2006-01-01

116

Vortex-Body Interactions: A Critical Assessment. Coupled Gap-Wake Instabilities/Turbulence: A Source of Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program has involved, first of all, a critical state-of-the-art assessment of vortex-body interactions. Then, efforts were focused on experimental investigation on coupled-wake instabilities and turbulence occurring in a two-cylinder system. An extensive review was undertaken on the effect of incident vortices on various types of bodies. These incident vortices have a length scale of the same order of magnitude as the scale of the body. The body can take on various forms, including, for example, a circular cylinder, a blade or a wing. The classes of vortex-body interaction that were critically assessed include: (1) Periodic distortion of the incident (primary) vortex and shedding of secondary vorticity from the surface of the body. (2) Modulated vortex distortion and shedding at a leading-edge or surface due to incidence of a complex system of vortices. (3) Vortex distortion and shedding in presence of body oscillation. (4) Three-dimensional vortex interaction and shedding. For all of these classes of vortex-body interaction, quantitative topologies of the vorticity distributions and streamline patterns were found to be central to a unified description of mechanisms of vortex distortion and shedding. In most cases, it was possible to define relationships between vortex interactions and unsteady loading at the body surface. This phase of the program was an experimental investigation of a two-cylinder system, which simulated a central aspect of a four-wheel bogie on a large-scale commercial aircraft. The overall aim of this experimental research program was to determine the crucial elements of the unsteadiness in the gap and near-wake regions as a function of time using cinema-based techniques. During the research program, various image evaluation techniques were employed. They involved assessment of instantaneous velocity fields, streamline topology and patterns of vorticity. Experiments were performed in a large-scale water channel using a high-resolution version of digital particle image velocimetry. The program has focused on acquisition of images of velocity and vorticity for varying gap widths between the two-cylinder system. As a result of analysis of a relatively large number of images, it is demonstrated that low frequency instabilities can occur in the gap region between the cylinder. These low frequency instabilities are hypothesized to influence the near-wake structure of the entire two-cylinder system. The nature of the unstable shear layers in the gap region involves generation of small-scale Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. These unsteady shear layers then impinge upon the upper and lower surfaces of the cylinders, thereby influencing both the unsteady structure and the time-averaged patterns of the near-wake. Initial efforts have focused on characterization of the patterns of instantaneous and averaged streamlines using topological concepts. The end result of this investigation is a series of documented instantaneous images. They will serve as a basis for various types of post-processing, which will lead to a fuller understanding of the instantaneous and time-averaged unstable-turbulent fields in the gap region and downstream of the two-cylinder system. This further assessment is the focus of a subsequent program.

Rockwell, Donald

1999-01-01

117

Self-Consistent Mean Flow Description of the Nonlinear Saturation of the Vortex Shedding in the Cylinder Wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bénard-von Kármán vortex shedding instability in the wake of a cylinder is perhaps the best known example of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation in fluid dynamics. However, a simplified physical description that accurately accounts for the saturation amplitude of the instability is still missing. Here, we present a simple self-consistent model that provides a clear description of the saturation mechanism and quantitatively predicts the saturated amplitude and flow fields. The model is formally constructed by a set of coupled equations governing the mean flow together with its most unstable eigenmode with finite size. The saturation amplitude is determined by requiring the mean flow to be neutrally stable. Without requiring any input from numerical or experimental data, the resolution of the model provides a good prediction of the amplitude and frequency of the vortex shedding as well as the spatial structure of the mean flow and the Reynolds stress.

Manti?-Lugo, Vladislav; Arratia, Cristóbal; Gallaire, François

2014-08-01

118

Self-consistent mean flow description of the nonlinear saturation of the vortex shedding in the cylinder wake.  

PubMed

The Bénard-von Kármán vortex shedding instability in the wake of a cylinder is perhaps the best known example of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation in fluid dynamics. However, a simplified physical description that accurately accounts for the saturation amplitude of the instability is still missing. Here, we present a simple self-consistent model that provides a clear description of the saturation mechanism and quantitatively predicts the saturated amplitude and flow fields. The model is formally constructed by a set of coupled equations governing the mean flow together with its most unstable eigenmode with finite size. The saturation amplitude is determined by requiring the mean flow to be neutrally stable. Without requiring any input from numerical or experimental data, the resolution of the model provides a good prediction of the amplitude and frequency of the vortex shedding as well as the spatial structure of the mean flow and the Reynolds stress. PMID:25192100

Manti?-Lugo, Vladislav; Arratia, Cristóbal; Gallaire, François

2014-08-22

119

Characterizing the wake vortex signature for an active line of sight remote sensor. M.S. Thesis Technical Report No. 19  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recurring phenomenon, described as a wake vortex, develops as an aircraft approaches the runway to land. As the aircraft moves along the runway, each of the wing tips generates a spiraling and expanding cone of air. During the lifetime of this turbulent event, conditions exist over the runway which can be hazardous to following aircraft, particularly when a small aircraft is following a large aircraft. Left to themselves, these twin vortex patterns will converge toward each other near the center of the runway, harmlessly dissipating through interaction with each other or by contact with the ground. Unfortunately, the time necessary to disperse the vortex is often not predictable, and at busy airports can severely impact terminal area productivity. Rudimentary methods of avoidance are in place. Generally, time delays between landing aircraft are based on what is required to protect a small aircraft. Existing ambient wind conditions can complicate the situation. Reliable detection and tracking of a wake vortex hazard is a major technical problem which can significantly impact runway productivity. Landing minimums could be determined on the basis of the actual hazard rather than imposed on the basis of a worst case scenario. This work focuses on using a windfield description of a wake vortex to generate line-of-sight Doppler velocity truth data appropriate to an arbitrarily located active sensor such as a high resolution radar or lidar. The goal is to isolate a range Doppler signature of the vortex phenomenon that can be used to improve detection. Results are presented based on use of a simplified model of a wake vortex pattern. However, it is important to note that the method of analysis can easily be applied to any vortex model used to generate a windfield snapshot. Results involving several scan strategies are shown for a point sensor with a range resolution of 1 to 4 meters. Vortex signatures presented appear to offer potential for detection and tracking.

Heil, Robert Milton

1994-01-01

120

A Scanning laser-velocimeter technique for measuring two-dimensional wake-vortex velocity distributions. [Langley Vortex Research Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rapid scanning two dimensional laser velocimeter (LV) has been used to measure simultaneously the vortex vertical and axial velocity distributions in the Langley Vortex Research Facility. This system utilized a two dimensional Bragg cell for removing flow direction ambiguity by translating the optical frequency for each velocity component, which was separated by band-pass filters. A rotational scan mechanism provided an incremental rapid scan to compensate for the large displacement of the vortex with time. The data were processed with a digital counter and an on-line minicomputer. Vaporized kerosene (0.5 micron to 5 micron particle sizes) was used for flow visualization and LV scattering centers. The overall measured mean-velocity uncertainity is less than 2 percent. These measurements were obtained from ensemble averaging of individual realizations.

Gartrell, L. R.; Rhodes, D. B.

1980-01-01

121

Vortex-induced vibrations of two cylinders in tandem arrangement in the proximity-wake interference region  

PubMed Central

We investigate numerically vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of two identical two-dimensional elastically mounted cylinders in tandem in the proximity–wake interference regime at Reynolds number Re = 200 for systems having both one (transverse vibrations) and two (transverse and in-line) degrees of freedom (1-DOF and 2-DOF, respectively). For the 1-DOF system the computed results are in good qualitative agreement with available experiments at higher Reynolds numbers. Similar to these experiments our simulations reveal: (1) larger amplitudes of motion and a wider lock-in region for the tandem arrangement when compared with an isolated cylinder; (2) that at low reduced velocities the vibration amplitude of the front cylinder exceeds that of the rear cylinder; and (3) that above a threshold reduced velocity, large-amplitude VIV are excited for the rear cylinder with amplitudes significantly larger than those of the front cylinder. By analysing the simulated flow patterns we identify the VIV excitation mechanisms that lead to such complex responses and elucidate the near-wake vorticity dynamics and vortex-shedding modes excited in each case. We show that at low reduced velocities vortex shedding provides the initial excitation mechanism, which gives rise to a vertical separation between the two cylinders. When this vertical separation exceeds one cylinder diameter, however, a significant portion of the incoming flow is able to pass through the gap between the two cylinders and the gap-flow mechanism starts to dominate the VIV dynamics. The gap flow is able to periodically force either the top or the bottom shear layer of the front cylinder into the gap region, setting off a series of very complex vortex-to-vortex and vortex-to-cylinder interactions, which induces pressure gradients that result in a large oscillatory force in phase with the vortex shedding and lead to the experimentally observed larger vibration amplitudes. When the vortex shedding is the dominant mechanism the front cylinder vibration amplitude is larger than that of the rear cylinder. The reversing of this trend above a threshold reduced velocity is associated with the onset of the gap flow. The important role of the gap flow is further illustrated via a series of simulations for the 2-DOF system. We show that when the gap-flow mechanism is triggered, the 2-DOF system can develop and sustain large VIV amplitudes comparable to those observed in the corresponding (same reduced velocity) 1-DOF system. For sufficiently high reduced velocities, however, the two cylinders in the 2-DOF system approach each other, thus significantly reducing the size of the gap region. In such cases the gap flow is entirely eliminated, and the two cylinders vibrate together as a single body with vibration amplitudes up to 50% lower than the amplitudes of the corresponding 1-DOF in which the gap flow is active. Three-dimensional simulations are also carried out to examine the adequacy of two-dimensional simulations for describing the dynamic response of the tandem system at Re = 200. It is shown that even though the wake transitions to a weakly three-dimensional state when the gap flow is active, the three-dimensional modes are too weak to affect the dynamic response of the system, which is found to be identical to that obtained from the two-dimensional computations. PMID:19693281

BORAZJANI, IMAN; SOTIROPOULOS, FOTIS

2009-01-01

122

Vortex wakes generated by robins Erithacus rubecula during free flight in a wind tunnel  

PubMed Central

The wakes of two individual robins were measured in digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experiments conducted in the Lund wind tunnel. Wake measurements were compared with each other, and with previous studies in the same facility. There was no significant individual variation in any of the measured quantities. Qualitatively, the wake structure and its gradual variation with flight speed were exactly as previously measured for the thrush nightingale. A procedure that accounts for the disparate sources of circulation spread over the complex wake structure nevertheless can account for the vertical momentum flux required to support the weight, and an example calculation is given for estimating drag from the components of horizontal momentum flux (whose net value is zero). The measured circulations of the largest structures in the wake can be predicted quite well by simple models, and expressions are given to predict these and other measurable quantities in future bird flight experiments. PMID:16849236

Hedenstrom, A; Rosen, M; Spedding, G.R

2005-01-01

123

An experimental study of the unsteady vortex structures in the wake of a root-fixed flapping wing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study was conducted to characterize the evolution of the unsteady vortex structures in the wake of a root-fixed flapping wing with the wing size, stroke amplitude, and flapping frequency within the range of insect characteristics for the development of novel insect-sized nano-air-vehicles (NAVs). The experiments were conducted in a low-speed wing tunnel with a miniaturized piezoelectric wing (i.e., chord length, C = 12.7 mm) flapping at a frequency of 60 Hz (i.e., f = 60 Hz). The non-dimensional parameters of the flapping wing are chord Reynolds number of Re = 1,200, reduced frequency of k = 3.5, and non-dimensional flapping amplitude at wingtip h = A/C = 1.35. The corresponding Strouhal number (Str) is 0.33 , which is well within the optimal range of 0.2 < Str < 0.4 used by flying insects and birds and swimming fishes for locomotion. A digital particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to achieve phased-locked and time-averaged flow field measurements to quantify the transient behavior of the wake vortices in relation to the positions of the flapping wing during the upstroke and down stroke flapping cycles. The characteristics of the wake vortex structures in the chordwise cross planes at different wingspan locations were compared quantitatively to elucidate underlying physics for a better understanding of the unsteady aerodynamics of flapping flight and to explore/optimize design paradigms for the development of novel insect-sized, flapping-wing-based NAVs.

Hu, Hui; Clemons, Lucas; Igarashi, Hirofumi

2011-08-01

124

Time-resolved vortex wake of a common swift flying over a range of flight speeds  

PubMed Central

The wake of a freely flying common swift (Apus apus L.) is examined in a wind tunnel at three different flight speeds, 5.7, 7.7 and 9.9 m s?1. The wake of the bird is visualized using high-speed stereo digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). Wake images are recorded in the transverse plane, perpendicular to the airflow. The wake of a swift has been studied previously using DPIV and recording wake images in the longitudinal plane, parallel to the airflow. The high-speed DPIV system allows for time-resolved wake sampling and the result shows features that were not discovered in the previous study, but there was approximately a 40 per cent vertical force deficit. As the earlier study also revealed, a pair of wingtip vortices are trailing behind the wingtips, but in addition, a pair of tail vortices and a pair of ‘wing root vortices’ are found that appear to originate from the wing/body junction. The existence of wing root vortices suggests that the two wings are not acting as a single wing, but are to some extent aerodynamically detached from each other. It is proposed that this is due to the body disrupting the lift distribution over the wing by generating less lift than the wings. PMID:21131333

Henningsson, P.; Muijres, F. T.; Hedenstrom, A.

2011-01-01

125

Time-resolved vortex wake of a common swift flying over a range of flight speeds.  

PubMed

The wake of a freely flying common swift (Apus apus L.) is examined in a wind tunnel at three different flight speeds, 5.7, 7.7 and 9.9 m s(-1). The wake of the bird is visualized using high-speed stereo digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). Wake images are recorded in the transverse plane, perpendicular to the airflow. The wake of a swift has been studied previously using DPIV and recording wake images in the longitudinal plane, parallel to the airflow. The high-speed DPIV system allows for time-resolved wake sampling and the result shows features that were not discovered in the previous study, but there was approximately a 40 per cent vertical force deficit. As the earlier study also revealed, a pair of wingtip vortices are trailing behind the wingtips, but in addition, a pair of tail vortices and a pair of 'wing root vortices' are found that appear to originate from the wing/body junction. The existence of wing root vortices suggests that the two wings are not acting as a single wing, but are to some extent aerodynamically detached from each other. It is proposed that this is due to the body disrupting the lift distribution over the wing by generating less lift than the wings. PMID:21131333

Henningsson, P; Muijres, F T; Hedenström, A

2011-06-01

126

Measurements and modeling of flow structure in the wake of a low profile wishbone vortex generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an experimental examination of the vortex structures shed from a low profile 'wishbone' generator are presented. The vortex generator height relative to the turbulent boundary layer was varied by testing two differently sized models. Measurements of the mean three-dimensional velocity field were conducted in cross-stream planes downstream of the vortex generators. In all cases, a counter-rotating vortex pair was observed. Individual vortices were characterized by three descriptors derived from the velocity data; circulation, peak vorticity, and cross-stream location of peak vorticity. Measurements in the cross plane at two axial locations behind the smaller wishbone characterize the downstream development of the vortex pairs. A single region of stream wise velocity deficit is shared by both vortex cores. This is in contrast to conventional generators, where each core coincides with a region of velocity deficit. The measured cross-stream velocities for each case are compared to an Oseen model with matching descriptors. The best comparison occurs with the data from the larger wishbone.

Wendt, B. J.; Hingst, W. R.

1994-01-01

127

Computation of potential flows with embedded vortex rings and applications to helicopter rotor wakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A finite difference scheme for solving the motion of a number of vortex rings is developed. The method is an adaptation of the 'cloud-in-cell' technique to axisymmetric flows, and is thus a combined Eulerian-Lagrangian technique. A straightforward adaptation of the cloud-in-cell scheme to an axisymmetric flow field is shown to introduce a grid dependent self-induced velocity to each vortex ring. To correct this behavior the potential is considered to consist of two parts, a local and a global field. An improved difference formula is derived, allowing the accurate calculation of the potential at points near vortex locations. The local potential is then subtracted before calculating the velocity, leaving only the influences of the remaining vortices. The correct self-induced velocity is then explicitly added to the vortex velocity. Calculations of the motion of one and two vortex rings are performed, demonstrating the ability of the new method to eliminate the grid dependence of the self-induced velocity. The application of the method to the calculation of helicopter rotor flows in hover is attempted.

Roberts, T. W.

1983-01-01

128

Exploratory flight investigation of aircraft response to the wing vortex wake generated by jet transport aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of intercepting wing tip vortices generated by large jet transports, including jumbo jets, over separation distances from 1 nautical mile to 15 nautical miles is evaluated on the basis of the response of a vortex probe airplane in the roil mode. The vortex probe test aircraft included a representative general aviation airplane, an executive jet, a fighter, and light and medium weight jet transports. The test conditions and airplane configurations were comparable to those normally used during takeoff, landing, or holding pattern operations. For flight safety the tests were performed at altitudes from 9500 feet to 12,500 feet. In addition to an evaluation of the probe airplane response, a flight test technique is suggested for determining minimum separation distance, using as variable the ratio of vortex-induced roll acceleration to maximum lateral control acceleration and the gross weight of the generating aircraft.

Andrews, W. H.; Robinson, G. H.; Larson, R. R.

1972-01-01

129

Analyzing the vortex dynamics in bluff-body wakes by Helmholtz decomposition of the velocity field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The velocity field in the wake of a bluff body is calculated by a novel procedure for the Navier–Stokes equations in the vorticity–velocity formulation. The time evolution of the vorticity is solved as an ODE problem on each node of the spatial discretization, using at each step of the time discretization the spatial solution for the velocity field provided by

F. L. Ponta

2006-01-01

130

Analyzing the vortex dynamics in bluff-body wakes by Helmholtz decomposition of the velocity field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The velocity field in the wake of a bluff body is calculated by a novel procedure for the Navier-Stokes equations in the vorticity-velocity formulation. The time evolution of the vorticity is solved as an ODE problem on each node of the spatial discretization, using at each step of the time discretization the spatial solution for the velocity field provided by

F. L. Ponta

2006-01-01

131

QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF WAKE VORTEX SAFETY USING THE P2P MODEL  

E-print Network

Shortle, jshortle@gmu.edu, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, U.S.A Peter Choroba, peter of a few slots per day at a busy airport would be of great value. Kos and Blom (et al. [5]) warn that wake

132

Numerical analysis of the tip and root vortex position in the wake of a wind turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of tip and root vortices are studied numerically in order to analyse the basic mechanism behind the break down of tip and root vortices. The simulations are performed using the CFD program "EllipSys3D". In the computations the so-called Actuator Line Method is used, where the blades are represented by lines of body forces representing the loading. The forces on the lines are implemented using tabulated aerodynamic aerofoil data. In this way, computer resources are used more efficiently since the number of mesh points locally around the blade is decreased, and they are instead concentrated in the wake behind the blades. We here present results of computed flow fields and evaluate the flow behaviour in the wake. In particular we compare the position of the root vortices as to the azimuthal position of the tip votices.

Ivanell, S.; Sørensen, J. N.; Mikkelsen, R.; Henningson, D.

2007-07-01

133

A Lagrangian approach to vortex identification in swimming and flying animal wakes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluid wakes of swimming and flying animals are generally time-dependent. The Eulerian velocity field, which can be measured by existing DPIV measurement techniques, does not directly indicate the flow geometry in this type of unsteady flows. In this study, a Lagrangian approach is developed to determine the Lagrangian Coherent Structures, which are physical boundaries separating flow regions with distinct dynamics, including vortices. The determination of morphology and kinematics of vortices is necessary in estimating time-dependent locomotive forces (Dabiri, J. Exp. Bio., 2006). It also provides information in studying fluid transport in animal swimming and flying. The application of the method is demonstrated by studying the wake of a bluegill sunfish pectoral fin and that of a free-swimming jellyfish.

Peng, Jifeng; Dabiri, John

2006-11-01

134

Vortex-dominated flow with viscous core structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent theoretical studies of vortex-dominated flows are reviewed with special emphasis on those for which the viscous core structures play an important role. The problems to be described are: The interaction and merging of two-dimensional vortices and of curved vortex filaments, the roll-up and decay of trailing far wakes, and the initiation of vortex breakdown. The analysis utilizes finite-difference solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations complemented by asymptotic expansion techniques.

Liu, C. H.; Krause, E.; Ting, L.

1985-01-01

135

Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) Concept and Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The AVOSS goal is to: (1) Support TAP goal of improving instrument operations capacity 12-15% while maintaining safety; (2) Provide dynamical aircraft wake vortex spacing criteria to ATC systems at capacity limited facilities with required lead time and stability for use in establishing aircraft arrival scheduling; and (3) System development and concept demonstration. The AVOSS system concept is to separate aircraft from encounters with wake vortices of an operationally unacceptable strength. In doing so, define protected corridor from outer marker to runway and predict time for vortex to clear ("Transport Time"), define operationally unacceptable wake strength and predict time to decay ("Decay Time"), combine and provide to ATC automation ("Residence Time"), and monitor safety and provide predictor feedback with wake vortex detection subsystem.

Hinton, David A.

1997-01-01

136

Secondary frequencies in the wake of a circular cylinder with vortex shedding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed numerical study of two-dimensional flow past a circular cylinder at moderately low Reynolds numbers was conducted using three different numerical algorithms for solving the time-dependent compressible Navier-Stokes equations. It was found that if the algorithm and associated boundary conditions were consistent and stable, then the major features of the unsteady wake were well-predicted. However, it was also found that even stable and consistent boundary conditions could introduce additional periodic phenomena reminiscent of the type seen in previous wind-tunnel experiments. However, these additional frequencies were eliminated by formulating the boundary conditions in terms of the characteristic variables. An analysis based on a simplified model provides an explanation for this behavior.

Abarbanel, Saul S.; Don, Wai Sun; Gottlieb, David; Rudy, David H.; Townsend, James C.

1990-01-01

137

Secondary frequencies in the wake of a circular cylinder with vortex shedding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed numerical study of two-dimensional flow past a circular cylinder at moderately low Reynolds numbers was conducted using three different numerical algorithms for solving the time-dependent compressible Navier-Stokes equations. It was found that if the algorithm and associated boundary conditions were consistent and stable, then the major features of the unsteady wake were well-predicted. However, it was also found that even stable and consistent boundary conditions could introduce additional periodic phenomena reminiscent of the type seen in previous wind-tunnel experiments. However, these additional frequencies were eliminated by formulating the boundary conditions in terms of the characteristic variables. An analysis based on a simplified model provides an explanation for this behavior.

Abarbanel, Saul S.; Don, Wai Sun; Gottlieb, David; Rudy, David H.; Townsend, James C.

1991-01-01

138

Airloads, wakes, and aeroelasticity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fundamental considerations regarding the theory of modeling of rotary wing airloads, wakes, and aeroelasticity are presented. The topics covered are: airloads and wakes, including lifting-line theory, wake models and nonuniform inflow, free wake geometry, and blade-vortex interaction; aerodynamic and wake models for aeroelasticity, including two-dimensional unsteady aerodynamics and dynamic inflow; and airloads and structural dynamics, including comprehensive airload prediction programs. Results of calculations and correlations are presented.

Johnson, Wayne

1990-01-01

139

Visualization on fish's wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper an experiment on wake of Goldfish swimming unrestricted was conducted in a water tunnel. Method of color liquid was used to visualize the wake. Results show that there is reverse Karman vortex street in symmetrical plane of the wake and the Strouhal frequency of the fish is in the range 0.25-0.35. A 3D vortex ring chain model was presented.

Li, Xuemin; Lu, Xiyun; Yin, Xiezhen

2002-05-01

140

A Validation of the Viscous Dissipation Model for Fast Vortex Methods in Simulations of Decaying Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For realistic turbulent flow simulations, quantitative representation of turbulent flow dynamics is desired. In the present study, two-dimensional homogeneous isotropic turbulence is simulated by using a grid-free vortex method to focus on the viscous dissipation process. The results are compared with those of spectral DNS. Two viscous diffusion models, i.e., a core spreading model and Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) Laplacian model, are compared. For the former model, merging and insertion of particles are incorporated to ensure uniform distribution of vortex elements. It is shown that the MPS Laplacian model is superior to the conventional core spreading model in terms of the decay rate of enstrophy and energy spectra. Furthermore, the computational time is remarkably reduced by using a Fast Multipole Method (FMM), while retaining accuracy.

Totsuka, Yoshitaka; Obi, Shinnosuke

141

VORTEX ASSYMETRY IN ISLAND WAKES Ayah Lazar (1); Alexandre Stegner (2); Rui Caldeira (3); Romain Pennel (4); Changming Dong (5);  

E-print Network

Pennel (4); Changming Dong (5); H.Didelle (6) and S.Viboud (7) (1) Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, Tel-field wake one or two diameter behind the island. The stabilizing impact of the stratification may lead islands wakes in the biological enrichment and the retention of surface pollutants is an area of growing

Stegner Alexandre

142

Passive Wake Vortex Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collapse of the Soviet Union and ending of the Cold War brought about many significant changes in military submarine operations. The enemies that the US Navy faces today and in the future will not likely be superpowers armed with nuclear submarines, but rather smaller, rogue nations employing cheaper diesel\\/electric submarines with advanced air-independent propulsion systems. Unlike Cold War submarine

2001-01-01

143

Time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of vortex and shear layer dynamics in the near wake of a tethered sphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coupling between shear layer, near wake dynamics, and structural oscillations downstream of a tethered spherical pendulum undergoing vortex induced vibrations (VIV) has been experimentally investigated using time-resolved particle image velocimetry in a wind tunnel. One quarter of the sphere was imaged in the field of view (spatial resolution 0.043D) that extended to 1.17D from the sphere's center (D is the sphere diameter). Reynolds numbers based on D, ranged between 493 ? Re ? 2218 and reduced velocities between 3.18 ? U* ? 14.1, covering a non-oscillating sphere, periodic oscillations, and the onset of non-stationary sphere oscillations. After the first Hopf bifurcation, the sphere exhibited large amplitude periodic oscillations and the near-wake vortices periodically interacted with the sphere and flapping shear layer. At U* = 5.97, a "secondary" counterclockwise rotating vortex seemed to facilitate shear layer pinch-off. In agreement with the onset of shear layer instabilities for a stationary sphere, only at Re = 2218 power spectra of velocity fluctuations inside the shear layer indicated a weak, broad frequency peak centered at 15 Hz similar as those measured for stationary cylinders and spheres. This peak was consistent with the results of linear instability theory indicating that despite the inherent three-dimensionality of the shear layer, its instability characteristics (at least for the Re investigated here) can be considered to be quasi-two-dimensional. Small-scale, near-wake structures were observed in the instantaneous swirling strength maps at all U* and it is conjectured here that their interaction with the sphere and separating shear layer is the feedback mechanism through which VIV occurs and is sustained.

van Hout, R.; Katz, A.; Greenblatt, D.

2013-07-01

144

NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System Development Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several systems to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These systems provide current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, and real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors. The goal of the NASA program is to provide the research and development to demonstrate an engineering model AVOSS in real-time operation at a major airport. The demonstration is only of concept feasibility, and additional effort is required to deploy an operational system for actual aircraft spacing reduction. This paper describes the AVOSS system architecture, a wake vortex facility established at the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW), initial operational experience with the AVOSS system, and emerging considerations for subsystem requirements. Results of the initial system operation suggest a significant potential for reduced spacing.

Hinton, David A.; Charnock, James K.; Bagwell, Donald R.; Grigsby, Donner

1999-01-01

145

Rotor Vortex Filaments: Living on the Slipstream's Edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to gain a better understanding of rotor wake evolution in hover and axial flow by deriving an analytical solution for the time dependent behavior of vortex filament circulation and core size. This solution is applicable only for vortex filaments in the rotor far-wake. A primarily inviscid vortex/shear layer interaction (where the slipstream boundary is modeled as a shear layer) has been identified in this analytical treatment. This vortex/shear layer interaction results in decreasing, vortex filament circulation and core size with time. The inviscid vortex/shear layer interaction is shown, in a first-order treatment, to be of greater magnitude than viscous diffusion effects. The rate of contraction, and ultimate collapse, of the vortex filament core is found to be directly proportional to the rotor inflow velocity. This new insight into vortex filament decay promises to help reconcile several disparate observations made in the literature and will, hopefully, promote new advances in theoretical modeling of rotor wakes.

Young, Larry A.

1997-01-01

146

Developments and Validations of Fully Coupled CFD and Practical Vortex Transport Method for High-Fidelity Wake Modeling in Fixed and Rotary Wing Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) coupling framework using a conventional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (BANS) solver to resolve the near-body flow field and a Particle-based Vorticity Transport Method (PVTM) to predict the evolution of the far field wake is developed, refined, and evaluated for fixed and rotary wing cases. For the rotary wing case, the RANS/PVTM modules are loosely coupled to a Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD) module that provides blade motion and vehicle trim information. The PVTM module is refined by the addition of vortex diffusion, stretching, and reorientation models as well as an efficient memory model. Results from the coupled framework are compared with several experimental data sets (a fixed-wing wind tunnel test and a rotary-wing hover test).

Anusonti-Inthra, Phuriwat

2010-01-01

147

Development and testing of laser Doppler system components for wake vortex monitoring. Volume 1: Scanner development, laboratory and field testing and system modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A servo-controlled range/elevation scanner for the laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) was developed and tested in the field to assess its performance in detecting and monitoring aircraft trailing vortices in an airport environment. The elevation scanner provides a capability to manually point the LDV telescope at operator chosen angles from 3.2 deg. to 89.6 deg within 0.2 deg, or to automatically scan the units between operator chosen limits at operator chosen rates of 0.1 Hz to 0.5 Hz. The range scanner provides a capability to manually adjust the focal point of the system from a range of 32 meters to a range of 896 meters under operator control, or to scan between operator chosen limits and at rates from 0.1 Hz to 6.9 Hz. The scanner controls are designed to allow simulataneous range and elevation scanning so as to provide finger scan patterns, arc scan patterns, and vertical line scan patterns. The development and testing of the unit is discussed, along with a fluid dynamic model of the wake vortex developed in a laser Doppler vortex sensor simulation program.

Wilson, D. J.; Krause, M. C.; Coffey, E. W.; Huang, C. C.; Edwards, B. B.; Shrider, K. R.; Jetton, J. L.; Morrison, L. K.

1974-01-01

148

Evaluation of the discrete vortex wake cross flow model using vector computers. Part 2: User's manual for DIVORCE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The users manual for the Discrete Vortex Cross flow Evaluator (DIVORCE) computer program is presented. DIVORCE was developed in FORTRAN 4 for the DCD 6600 and CDC 7600 machines. Optimal calls to a NASA vector subroutine package are provided for use with the CDC 7600.

Deffenbaugh, F. D.; Vitz, J. F.

1979-01-01

149

Vortex dynamics and scalar transport in the wake of a bluff body driven through a steady recirculating flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air ventilation system in wide-body aircraft cabins provides passengers with a healthy breathing environment. In recent years, the increase in global air traffic has amplified contamination risks by airborne flu-like diseases and terrorist threats involving the onboard release of noxious materials. In particular, passengers moving through a ventilated cabin may transport infectious pathogens in their wake. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the wake produced by a bluff body driven through a steady recirculating flow. Data were obtained in a water facility using particle image velocimetry and planar laser induced fluorescence. Ventilation attenuated the downward convection of counter-rotating vortices produced near the free-end corners of the body and decoupled the downwash mechanism from forward entrainment, creating stagnant contaminant regions.

Poussou, Stephane B.; Plesniak, Michael W.

2012-09-01

150

Lidar and numerical studies on the different evolution of vortex pair and secondary wake in young contrails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vortex-regime evolution of contrails is investigated by focusing on the role of ambient humidity. Lidar cross-section measurements and observational analysis are combined with numerical simulations of fluid dynamics and microphysics. Contrail evolution behind four-turbofan aircraft is classified into three different scenarios. In the case of ice-subsaturated air, a visible pair of wingtip vortices is formed that disappears at the end

Ralf Sussmann; Klaus M. Gierens

1999-01-01

151

Measurements of fish's wake by PIV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper an experiment on measurements of the wake of Goldfish carassius auratus swimming unrestricted was conducted in a water tunnel. Color liquid was used to visualize the wake of the fish and PIV was used to measure velocity field of the wake. Results show that there is reverse Karman vortex street in symmetrical plane of the fish's wake and the Strouhal frequency of the fish is about 0.35 udner the different experimental conditions. The distribution of velocity and vorticity in the wake of Goldfish was measured by PIV and formation of reverse Karman vortex street in the wake was studied in a model experiment.

Li, Xuemin; Wu, Yanfeng; Lu, Xiyun; Yin, Xiezhen

2003-04-01

152

Remote measurement utilizing NASA's scanning laser Doppler systems. Volume 1. Laser Doppler wake vortex tracking at Kennedy Airport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test operations of the Scanning Laser Doppler System (SLDS) at Kennedy International Airport (KIA) during August 1974 through June 1975 are reported. A total of 1,619 data runs was recorded with a totally operational system during normal landing operations at KIA. In addition, 53 data runs were made during cooperative flybys with the C880 for a grand total of 1672 recorded vortex tracks. Test crews were in attendance at KIA for 31 weeks, of which 25 weeks were considered operational and the other six were packing, unpacking, setup and check out. Although average activity equates to 67 recorded landing operations per week, two periods of complete runway inactivity spanned 20 days and 13 days, respectively. The operation frequency therefore averaged about 88 operations per week.

Krause, M. C.; Wilson, D. J.; Howle, R. E.; Edwards, B. B.; Craven, C. E.; Jetton, J. L.

1976-01-01

153

A cockpit-display concept for executing a multiple glide-slope approach for wake-vortex avoidance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A piloted simulation study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of utilizing a forward-looking display to provide information that would enable aircraft to rredue their in-trail separation interval, and hence increase airport capacity, through the application of multiple glide-path approach techniques. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether information could be satisfactorily provided on a head-up display (HUD) format to permit the pilot to conduct a multiple glide-slope approach while maintaining a prespecified in-trail separation interval. The tests were conducted in a motion-base cockpit simulator configured as a current-generation transport aircraft and included dynamic effects of the vortices generated by the lead aircraft. The information provided on the HUD included typical aircraft guidance information and the current and past positions of the lead aircraft. Additionally, the displayed information provided self-separation cues that allowed the pilot to maintain separation on the lead aircraft. Performance data and pilot subjective ratings and comments were obtained during the tests. The results of this study indicate that multiple glide-slope approaches, procedurally designed for vortex avoidance, are possible while maintaining pilot work load and performance within operationally acceptable limits. In general, it would seem that multiple glide-slope approaches are possible even under reduced in-trail separation conditions if the pilot is provided with adequate situational information.

Abbott, T. S.

1984-01-01

154

Proceedings of the ARO Rotorcraft Wake Prediction Basic Research Workshop  

E-print Network

In Hovering Rotor Tip Vortex Dynamics 3 H.Tadghighi Boeing Current Assessments Of Boeing-Mesa CFD Tools Vortex Calculations To Wind Tunnel Measurements 5 S. P´eron, C. Benoit, G. Jeanfaivre ONERA High Free-wake coupled with Vortex-lattice, Potential-panel and CFD method 9 A.Wissink AFDD Wake Prediction

155

Helicopter rotor wake geometry and its influence in forward flight. Volume 2: Wake geometry charts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isometric and projection view plots, inflow ratio nomographs, undistorted axial displacement nomographs, undistorted longitudinal and lateral coordinates, generalized axial distortion nomographs, blade/vortex passage charts, blade/vortex intersection angle nomographs, and fore and aft wake boundary charts are discussed. Example condition, in flow ratio, undistorted axial location, longitudinal and lateral coordinates, axial coordinates distortions, blade/tip vortex intersections, angle of intersection, and fore and aft wake boundaries are also discussed.

Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.

1983-01-01

156

Simulation of transition and turbulence decay in the Taylor–Green vortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional large-eddy simulation (LES) and monotone integrated LES (MILES) are tested in emulating the dynamics of transition to turbulence in the Taylor–Green vortex (TGV). A variety of subgrid scale (SGS) models and high-resolution numerical methods are implemented in the framework of both incompressible and compressible fluid flow equations. Comparisons of the evolution of characteristic TGV integral measures are made with

Dimitris Drikakis; Christer Fureby; Fernando F. Grinstein; David Youngs

2007-01-01

157

Conference on Capacity and Wake Vortices Held in Imperial College of Science, London on 11-14 September 2001. Abstracts of Presentations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Partial Contents: The Effect of Aircraft Wake Vortex Separation on Air Transportation Capacity; The Pilots View of Wake Vortices - Capacity vs. Safety; Runway Capacity Constraints at Heathrow Airport; FAA's Research Strategy; Increasing Capacity by Wake Turbulence Avoidance Systems at Frankfurt/Main Airport; Improving Airport Capacity Using Vertical Flight; Recent Developments in Industrial Wake Vortex Research; Vortex Evolution and Characterization; PIV -Survey of the Vortex Wake Structure behind an Airbus A340 in a Towing Tank.

Whitelaw, J. H.

2001-01-01

158

The vortex merger rate in freely decaying, two-dimensional turbulence J. H. LaCascea  

E-print Network

the vortices do not and act more like molecules in a kinetic gas. The focus of the present article-dimensional turbulence are examined, with a focus on the statistics of the coherent vortices. The number of vortices experiments, the decay rate is greater because the dissipation increases lateral extent of the vortices

LaCasce, Joseph H.

159

Three dimensional mean flow and turbulence characteristics of the near wake of a compressor rotor blade  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigation was carried out using the rotating hot wire technique. Measurements were taken inside the end wall boundary layer to discern the effect of annulus and hub wall boundary layer, secondary flow, and tip leakage on the wake structure. Static pressure gradients across the wake were measured using a static stagnation pressure probe insensitive to flow direction changes. The axial and the tangential velocity defects, the radial component of velocity, and turbulence intensities were found to be very large as compared to the near and far wake regions. The radial velocities in the trailing edge region exhibited characteristics prevalent in a trailing vortex system. Flow near the blade tips found to be highly complex due to interaction of the end wall boundary layers, secondary flows, and tip leakage flow with the wake. The streamwise curvature was found to be appreciable near the blade trailing edge. Flow properties in the trailing edge region are quite different compared to that in the near and far wake regions with respect to their decay characteristics, similarity, etc. Fourier decomposition of the rotor wake revealed that for a normalized wake only the first three coefficients are dominant.

Ravindranath, A.; Lakshminarayana, B.

1980-01-01

160

Numerical Simulations of Wake/Boundary Layer Interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct and large-eddy simulations of the interaction between the wake of a circular cylinder and a flat-plate boundary layer are conducted. Two Reynolds numbers are examined. The simulations indicate that at the lower Reynolds number the boundary layer is buffeted by the unsteady Karman vortex street shed by the cylinder. The fluctuations, however, cannot be self-sustained due to the low Reynolds-number, and the flow does not reach a turbulent state within the computational domain. In contrast, in the higher Reynolds-number case, boundary-layer fluctuations persist after the wake has decayed (due, in part, to the higher values of the local Reynolds number Re(sub theta) achieved in this case); some evidence could be observed that a self-sustaining turbulence generation cycle was beginning to be established.

Piomelli, Ugo; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Ovchinnikov, Victor; Balaras, Elias

2003-01-01

161

Propeller tip vortex interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Propeller wakes interacting with aircraft aerodynamic surfaces are a source of noise and vibration. For this reason, flow visualization work on the motion of the helical tip vortex over a wing and through the second stage of a counterrotation propeller (CRP) has been pursued. Initially, work was done on the motion of a propeller helix as it passes over the center of a 9.0 aspect ratio wing. The propeller tip vortex experiences significant spanwise displacements when passing across a lifting wing. A stationary propeller blade or stator was installed behind the rotating propeller to model the blade vortex interaction in a CRP. The resulting vortex interaction was found to depend on the relative vortex strengths and vortex sign.

Johnston, Robert T.; Sullivan, John P.

1990-01-01

162

Wake structure of a deformable Joukowski airfoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the vortical wake structure shed from a deformable Joukowski airfoil in an unbounded volume of inviscid and incompressible fluid. The deformable airfoil is considered to model a flapping fish. The vortex shedding is accounted for using an unsteady point vortex model commonly referred to as the Brown–Michael model. The airfoil’s deformations and rotations are prescribed in terms of

Adam Ysasi; Eva Kanso; Paul K. Newton

2011-01-01

163

Holographic flow visualization. [of aircraft wakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Holographic visualization techniques are presented of the vortex wake of a lifting wing. The motions of tracer particles in vortical flows are described along with the development of a liquid-drop tracer generator. An analysis is presented of the motion of particles of arbitrary density and size in solid body and potential vortex flows.

Charwat, A. F.; Fourney, M. E.

1976-01-01

164

Decay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Decay is the process of organic rotting. Decay can take many different forms, such as tooth decay. Many times, you can see the visible effects of decay. Some types of decay can be prevented or can be fought against; others are inevitable. Microbes are responsible for decay in fruits, vegetables, and other organisms and products.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-16

165

Thrust-augmented vortex attenuation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the vortex attenuating effect of engine thrust. Tests were made using a 0.03-scale model of the Boeing 747 transport aircraft as a vortex generating model. A Learjet-class probe model was used to measure the vortex induced rolling moment at a scale separation distance of 1.63 km. These tests were conducted at a lift coefficient of 1.4 at a model velocity of 30.48 m/s. The data presented indicate that engine thrust is effective as a vortex attenuating device when the engines are operated at high thrust levels and are positioned to direct the high energy engine wake into the core of the vortex. The greatest thrust vortex attenuation was obtained by operating the inboard engine thrust reversers at one-quarter thrust and the outboard engines at maximum forward thrust.

Patterson, J. C., Jr.; Jordan, F. L., Jr.

1977-01-01

166

Control of submersible vortex flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vortex flows produced by submersibles typically unfavorably influence key figures of merit such as acoustic and nonacoustic stealth, control effectiveness/maneuverability, and propulsor efficiency/body drag. Sources of such organized, primarily longitudinal, vorticity include the basic body (nose and sides) and appendages (both base/intersection and tip regions) such as the fairwater, dive planes, rear control surfaces, and propulsor stators/tips. Two fundamentally different vortex control approaches are available: (1) deintensification of the amplitude and/or organization of the vortex during its initiation process; and (2) downstream vortex disablement. Vortex control techniques applicable to the initiation region (deintensification approach) include transverse pressure gradient minimization via altered body cross section, appendage dillets, fillets, and sweep, and various appendage tip and spanload treatment along with the use of active controls to minimize control surface size and motions. Vortex disablement can be accomplished either via use of control vortices (which can also be used to steer the vortices off-board), direct unwinding, inducement of vortex bursting, or segmentation/tailoring for enhanced dissipation. Submersible-applicable vortex control technology is also included derived from various aeronautical applications such as mitigation of the wing wake vortex hazard and flight aircraft maneuverability at high angle of attack as well as the status of vortex effects upon, and mitigation of, nonlinear control forces on submersibles. Specific suggestions for submersible-applicable vortex control techniques are presented.

Bushnell, D. M.; Donaldson, C. D.

1990-01-01

167

Effects of Magnetic Field on the Turbulent Wake of a Cylinder in MHD Channel Flow  

SciTech Connect

Results from a free-surface MHD flow experiment are presented detailing the modi cation of vortices in the wake of a circular cylinder with its axis parallel to the applied magnetic fi eld. Experiments were performed with a Reynolds number near Re ~ 104 as the interaction parameter, N = |j x#2; B| / |? (? ? ?), was increased through unity. By concurrently sampling the downstream fluid velocity at sixteen cross-stream locations in the wake, it was possible to extract an ensemble of azimuthal velocity profi les as a function of radius for vortices shed by the cylinder at varying strengths of magnetic field. Results indicate a signi cant change in vortex radius and rotation as N is increased. The lack of deviations from the vortex velocity pro file at high magnetic fi elds suggests the absence of small-scale turbulent features. By sampling the wake at three locations downstream in subsequent experiments, the decay of the vortices was examined and the effective viscosity was found to decrease as N-049±0.4. This reduction in effective viscosity is due to the modi cation of the small-scale eddies by the magnetic fi eld. The slope of the energy spectrum was observed to change from a k-1.8 power-law at low N to a k-3.5 power-law for N > 1. Together, these results suggest the flow smoothly transitioned to a quasi-two-dimensional state in the range 0 < N < 1.

John Rhoads, Eric Edlund and Hantao Ji

2013-04-17

168

Formal optimization of hovering performance using free wake lifting surface theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Free wake techniques for performance prediction and optimization of hovering rotor are discussed. The influence functions due to vortex ring, vortex cylinder, and source or vortex sheets are presented. The vortex core sizes of rotor wake vortices are calculated and their importance is discussed. Lifting body theory for finite thickness body is developed for pressure calculation, and hence performance prediction of hovering rotors. Numerical optimization technique based on free wake lifting line theory is presented and discussed. It is demonstrated that formal optimization can be used with the implicit and nonlinear objective or cost function such as the performance of hovering rotors as used in this report.

Chung, S. Y.

1986-01-01

169

AIAA 98-0692 MEASUREMENTS OF THE NEAR WAKE OF A ROTOR IN FORWARD FLIGHT  

E-print Network

describes initial measurements of the near wake of a 2-bladed teetering, untwisted, square- tipped rotor-wake of a helicopter rotor. Blade Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise is one of the biggest obstacles in community1 AIAA 98-0692 MEASUREMENTS OF THE NEAR WAKE OF A ROTOR IN FORWARD FLIGHT Raghav Mahalingam

170

Recent Laboratory and Numerical Trailing Vortex Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from two laboratory studies and two numerical studies are presented. In the first laboratory study, measurements of the strength of vortices from a three-dimensional (3-D) model wing are presented. The measurements follow the vortices as they evolve in time from a two-dimensional (2-D) line vortex pair to the development and migration of 3-D vortex rings. It is shown that the resulting vortex rings can contain up to 40 percent of the initial vortex circulation. Thus, the formation of vortex rings may not necessarily signal the end of the wake hazard to following aircraft. In the second laboratory study, we present the results of an experiment which shows how the spanwise drag distribution affects wake-vortex evolution. In this experiment, we modified the spanwise drag distribution on a model wing while keeping the total lift and drag constant. The results show that adding drag on or near the centerline of the wing has a larger effect than adding drag at or near the wingtips. These measurements complement the results of NASA studies in the 1970s. In the first numerical study, results of 3-D numerical calculations are presented which show that the vortex Reynolds number has a significant influence on the evolution and migration of wake vortices. When the Reynolds number is large, 3-D vortex rings evolve from the initially 2-D line vortex pairs. These vortex rings then migrate vertically. When the Reynolds number is lower, the transition of vorticity from 2-D to 3-D is delayed. When the Reynolds number is very low, the vortices never transition to 3-D, and the vertical migration is significantly reduced. It is suggested that this effect may have been important in previous laboratory wake-evolution studies. A second numerical study shows the influence that vertical wind shear can have on trailing vortex evolution.

Delisi, Donald P.; Greene, George C.; Robins, Robert E.; Singh, Raminder

1996-01-01

171

Numerical Simulation of Wakes in a Weakly Stratified Fluid  

E-print Network

This paper describes some preliminary numerical studies using large eddy simulation of full-scale submarine wakes. Submarine wakes are a combination of the wake generated by a smooth slender body and a number of superimposed vortex pairs generated by various control surfaces and other body appendages. For this preliminary study, we attempt to gain some insight into the behavior of full-scale submarine wakes by computing separately the evolution the self-propelled wake of a slender body and the motion of a single vortex pair in both a non-stratified and a stratified environment. An important aspect of the simulations is the use of an iterative procedure to relax the initial turbulence field so that turbulent production and dissipation are in balance.

Rottman, James W; Innis, George E; O'Shea, Thomas T; Novikov, Evgeny

2014-01-01

172

Devices that Alter the Tip Vortex of a Rotor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small devices were attached near the tip of a hovering rotor blade 'in order to alter the structure and trajectory of the trailing vortex. Stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) images were used to quantify the wake behind the rotor blade during the first revolution. A procedure for analyzing the 3D-velocity field is presented that includes a method for accounting for vortex wander. The results show that a vortex generator can alter the trajectory of the trailing vortex and that a major change in the size and intensity of the trailing vortex can be achieved by introducing a high level of turbulence into the core of the vortex.

McAlister, Kenneth W.; Tung, Chee; Heineck, James T.

2001-01-01

173

Wake Geometry Measurements and Analytical Calculations on a Small-Scale Rotor Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to quantify the rotor wake behind a scale model helicopter rotor in forward level flight at one thrust level. The rotor system in this test consisted of a four-bladed fully articulated hub with blades of rectangular planform and an NACA 0012 airfoil section. A laser light sheet, seeded with propylene glycol smoke, was used to visualize the vortex geometry in the flow in planes parallel and perpendicular to the free-stream flow. Quantitative measurements of wake geometric proper- ties, such as vortex location, vertical skew angle, and vortex particle void radius, were obtained as well as convective velocities for blade tip vortices. Comparisons were made between experimental data and four computational method predictions of experimental tip vortex locations, vortex vertical skew angles, and wake geometries. The results of these comparisons highlight difficulties of accurate wake geometry predictions.

Ghee, Terence A.; Berry, John D.; Zori, Laith A. J.; Elliott, Joe W.

1996-01-01

174

Vortex equations: Singularities, numerical solution, and axisymmetric vortex breakdown  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of weighted residuals for the computation of rotationally symmetric quasi-cylindrical viscous incompressible vortex flow is presented and used to compute a wide variety of vortex flows. The method approximates the axial velocity and circulation profiles by series of exponentials having (N + 1) and N free parameters, respectively. Formal integration results in a set of (2N + 1) ordinary differential equations for the free parameters. The governing equations are shown to have an infinite number of discrete singularities corresponding to critical values of the swirl parameters. The computations point to the controlling influence of the inner core flow on vortex behavior. They also confirm the existence of two particular critical swirl parameter values: one separates vortex flow which decays smoothly from vortex flow which eventually breaks down, and the second is the first singularity of the quasi-cylindrical system, at which point physical vortex breakdown is thought to occur.

Bossel, H. H.

1972-01-01

175

On the characteristics of the wake meandering of a marine hydrokinetic turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently Kang et al. (Journal of Fluid Mechanics, submitted) showed that the hub vortex breakdown occurring downstream of a hydrokinetic turbine plays an important role in enhancing wake meandering. In this study the hub vortex breakdown and wake meandering phenomena are further examined using large-eddy simulation (Kang et al., Advances in Water Resources, 2012). Specifically, the effect of the incoming turbulence, the presence of hub and nacelle geometries, and the tip speed ratio of the rotor on the wake meandering and the hub vortex breakdown are examined.

Kang, S.

2013-12-01

176

Hybrid vortex method for lifting surfaces with free-vortex flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Nonlinear Hybrid Vortex method (NHV-method) has been developed for predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of wings exhibiting leading- and side-edge separations. This method alleviates the drawbacks of the Nonlinear Discrete Vortex method (NDV-method, also known as the multiple line vortex method.) The NHV-method combines continuous-vorticity and vortex-line representations of the wing and its separated free shear layers. Continuous vorticity is used in the near-field calculations, while discrete vortex-lines are used in the far-field calculations. The wing and its free shear layers are divided into quadrilateral vortex panels having second-order vorticity distributions. The aerodynamic boundary conditions and continuity of the vorticity distributions are satisfied at certain nodal points on the vortex panels. An iterative technique is used to satisfy these conditions in order to obtain the vorticity distribution and the wake shape. Distributed and total aerodynamic loads are then calculated.

Kandil, O. A.; Chu, L.-C.; Yates, E. C., Jr.

1980-01-01

177

The 3-D wake measurements near a hovering rotor for determining profile and induced drag  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Primarily an experimental effort, this study focuses on the velocity and vorticity fields in the near wake of a hovering rotor. Drag terminology is reviewed, and the theory for separately determining the profile-and-induced-drag components from wake quantities is introduced. Instantaneous visualizations of the flow field are used to center the laser velocimeter (LV) measurements on the vortex core and to assess the extent of the positional mandering of the trailing vortex. Velocity profiles obtained at different rotor speeds and distances behind the rotor blade clearly indicate the position, size, and rate of movement of the wake sheet and the core of the trailing vortex. The results also show the distribution of vorticity along the wake sheet and within the trailing vortex.

Mcalister, K. W.; Schuler, C. A.; Branum, L.; Wu, J. C.

1995-01-01

178

The Effects of Aircraft Wake Dynamics on Contrail Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of large-eddy simulations of the development of young persistent ice contrails are presented, con- centrating on the interactions between the aircraft wake dynamics and the ice cloud evolution over ages from a few seconds to ;30 min. The 3D unsteady evolution of the dispersing engine exhausts, trailing vortex pair interaction and breakup, and subsequent Brunt-Vaisalaoscillations of the older wake

D. C. Lewellen; W. S. Lewellen

2001-01-01

179

Measurement of velocity and vorticity fields in the wake of an airfoil in periodic pitching motion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The velocity field created by the wake of an airfoil undergoing a prescribed pitching motion was sampled using hot wire anemometry. Data analysis methods concerning resolution of velocity components from cross wire data, computation of vorticity from velocity time history data, and calculation of vortex circulation from vorticity field data are discussed. These data analysis methods are applied to a flow field relevant to a two dimensional blade-vortex interaction study. Velocity time history data were differentiated to yield vorticity field data which are used to characterize the wake of the pitching airfoil. Measurement of vortex strength in sinusoidal and nonsinusoidal wakes show vortices in the sinusoidal wake have stronger circulation and more concentrated vorticity distributions than the tailored nonsinusoidal wake.

Booth, Earl R., Jr.

1987-01-01

180

Toward Understanding Wake Vortices and Atmospheric Turbulence Interactions Using Large-Eddy Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vortices produced by an aircraft in flight are a complex phenomena created from a 'sheet of vorticity' leaving the trailing edge of the aircraft surfaces. This sheet tends to roll-up into two counter-rotating vortices. After a few spans downstream of the aircraft, the roll-up process is complete and the vortex pair may be characterized in a simple manner for modeling purposes. Our research will focus on what happens to these post roll-up vortices in the vicinity of an airport terminal. As the aircraft wake vortices descend, they are transported by the air mass which they are embedded and are decayed by both internal and external processes. In the vicinity of the airport, these external influences are usually due to planetary boundary layer (PBL) turbulence. Using large-eddy simulation (LES), one may simulate a variety of PBL conditions. In the LES method, turbulence is generated in the PBL as a response to surface heat flux, horizontal pressure gradient, wind shear, and/or stratification, and may produce convective or unstably stratified, neutral, or stably stratified PBL's. Each of these PBL types can occur during a typical diurnal cycle of the PBL. Thus it is important to be able to characterize these conditions with the LES method. Once this turbulent environment has been generated, a vortex pair will be introduced and the interactions are observed. The objective is to be able to quantify the PBL turbulence vortex interaction and be able to draw some conclusions of vortex behavior from the various scale interactions. This research is ongoing, and we will focus on what has been accomplished to date and the future direction of this research. We will discuss the model being used, show results that validate its use in the PBL, and present a nested-grid method proposed to analyze the entire PBL and vortex pair simultaneously.

DeCroix, David; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Kao, C.-T.; Shen, S.

1997-01-01

181

Characterization of cavity wakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scope and Method of Study. This research focused on flow over deep cavities at subsonic speeds with emphasis on the wake downstream of the cavity. Cavity wake behaviors have not been studied in detail and are a major concern for air vehicles with cavities and in particular for optical sensor systems installed in cavities. Other key behaviors for sensor survival and performance are cavity resonance and turbulence scales in the shear layer. A wind tunnel test apparatus was developed to explore cavity and wake characteristics. It consisted of a test section insert for the OSU Indraft Wind Tunnel with an additional contraction cone for significantly increased speed. The test section included a variable depth cavity in a boundary layer splitter plate/fairing assembly, a Y-Z traverse and pitot rake with in-situ pressure transducers for high frequency response. Flows were measured over clean cavities with length to depth (L/D) ratios of 4 to 1/2 and on cavities with a porous fence for resonance suppression. Measurements were taken in streamwise and cross-stream sections to three cavity lengths downstream of the cavity trailing edge. Flow visualization using laser sheet and smoke injection was also used. Findings and Conclusions. The high speed insert demonstrated a significant new capability for the OSU wind tunnel, reaching speeds of 0.35 Mach (390 feet/second) in a 14"x14" test section. Inlet room flow was found to be quite unsteady and recommendations are made for improved flow and quantitative visualization. Key findings for cavity wake flow include its highly three dimensional nature with asymmetric peaks in cross section with boundary layer thicknesses and integral length scales several times that of a normal flat plate turbulent boundary layer (TBL). Turbulent intensities (TI) of 35% to 55% of freestream speeds were measured for the clean configuration. Fence configuration TI's were 20% to 35% of free stream and, in both configurations, TI's decayed to approximately that of a flat plate TBL by 3 cavity lengths downstream from the cavity trailing edge. Fence flow visualization showed edge vortices and jets through the perforations that suggest the potential for minimizing turbulence intensity and scales while still suppressing cavity resonance.

Kidd, James A.

182

On vortex shedding from low aspect ratio dual step cylinders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dual-step cylinder is comprised of two cylinders of different diameters. A large diameter cylinder (D) with low aspect ratio (L/D) is attached to the mid-span of a small diameter cylinder (d). The present study investigates the effect of Reynolds number (ReD) and L/D on dual step cylinder wake development for D/d=2, 0.2?L/D?3, and two Reynolds numbers, ReD=1050 and 2100. Experiments have been performed in a water flume facility utilizing flow visualization, Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The results show that vortex shedding occurs from both the large and small diameter cylinders for 1?L/D?3 at ReD=2100 and 2?L/D?3 at ReD=1050. At these conditions, large cylinder vortices predominantly form vortex loops in the wake and small cylinder vortices form half-loop vortex connections. At lower aspect ratios, vortex shedding from the large cylinder ceases, with the dominant frequency in the large cylinder wake attributed to the passage of vortex filaments connecting small cylinder vortices. At these lower aspect ratios, the presence of the large cylinder induces periodic vortex dislocations. Increasing L/D increases the frequency of occurrence of vortex dislocations and decreases the dominant frequency in the large cylinder wake. The identified changes in wake topology are related to substantial variations in the location of boundary layer separation on the large cylinder, and, consequently, changes in the size of the vortex formation region. The results also show that the Reynolds number has a substantial effect on wake vortex shedding frequency, which is more profound than that expected for a uniform cylinder.

Morton, C.; Yarusevych, S.

2014-01-01

183

Analysis of unsteady wake of a circular cylinder using Navier-Stokes equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An unsteady Navier-Stokes analysis of the separated flow in the wake of a circular cylinder is presented in order to study the wake structure and the various interactions between its scales at low Re. The quasi-periodic and chaotic flows noted by Sreenivasan (1985) are searched for. The analysis is used to characterize the secondary vortex formation in the early stages of the flow development and its interaction with the primary vortex.

Ghia, K. N.; Liu, C. A.; Ghia, U.; Osswald, G. A.

1987-01-01

184

VORTEX MIGRATION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS  

SciTech Connect

We consider the radial migration of vortices in two-dimensional isothermal gaseous disks. We find that a vortex core, orbiting at the local gas velocity, induces velocity perturbations that propagate away from the vortex as density waves. The resulting spiral wave pattern is reminiscent of an embedded planet. There are two main causes for asymmetries in these wakes: geometrical effects tend to favor the outer wave, while a radial vortensity gradient leads to an asymmetric vortex core, which favors the wave at the side that has the lowest density. In the case of asymmetric waves, which we always find except for a disk of constant pressure, there is a net exchange of angular momentum between the vortex and the surrounding disk, which leads to orbital migration of the vortex. Numerical hydrodynamical simulations show that this migration can be very rapid, on a timescale of a few thousand orbits, for vortices with a size comparable to the scale height of the disk. We discuss the possible effects of vortex migration on planet formation scenarios.

Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan; Lesur, Geoffroy; Papaloizou, John C. B., E-mail: S.Paardekooper@damtp.cam.ac.u [DAMTP, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

2010-12-10

185

A prescribed wake rotor inflow and flow field prediction analysis, user's manual and technical approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A user's manual is provided which includes the technical approach for the Prescribed Wake Rotor Inflow and Flow Field Prediction Analysis. The analysis is used to provide the rotor wake induced velocities at the rotor blades for use in blade airloads and response analyses and to provide induced velocities at arbitrary field points such as at a tail surface. This analysis calculates the distribution of rotor wake induced velocities based on a prescribed wake model. Section operating conditions are prescribed from blade motion and controls determined by a separate blade response analysis. The analysis represents each blade by a segmented lifting line, and the rotor wake by discrete segmented trailing vortex filaments. Blade loading and circulation distributions are calculated based on blade element strip theory including the local induced velocity predicted by the numerical integration of the Biot-Savart Law applied to the vortex wake model.

Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.

1982-01-01

186

Vortex interactions with flapping wings and fins can be unpredictable  

PubMed Central

As they fly or swim, many animals generate a wake of vortices with their flapping fins and wings that reveals the dynamics of their locomotion. Previous studies have shown that the dynamic interaction of vortices in the wake with fins and wings can increase propulsive force. Here, we explore whether the dynamics of the vortex interactions could affect the predictability of propulsive forces. We studied the dynamics of the interactions between a symmetrically and periodically pitching and heaving foil and the vortices in its wake, in a soap-film tunnel. The phase-locked movie sequences reveal that abundant chaotic vortex-wake interactions occur at high Strouhal numbers. These high numbers are representative for the fins and wings of near-hovering animals. The chaotic wake limits the forecast horizon of the corresponding force and moment integrals. By contrast, we find periodic vortex wakes with an unlimited forecast horizon for the lower Strouhal numbers (0.2–0.4) at which many animals cruise. These findings suggest that swimming and flying animals could control the predictability of vortex-wake interactions, and the corresponding propulsive forces with their fins and wings. PMID:20129947

Lentink, David; Van Heijst, GertJan F.; Muijres, Florian T.; Van Leeuwen, Johan L.

2010-01-01

187

A Theoretical Study of the Aerodynamics of Slender Cruciform-Wing Arrangements and Their Wakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical study is made of the pressures, loadings, forces, and vortex wake associated with certain cruciform wing arrangements. For 45 degree bank, the wake of a cruciform wing is treated numerically with 40 vortices and analytically with 4 vortices. Comparisons are made with water-tank measurements, and the calculation of loads on cruciform tails by reverse flow considered.

Spreiter, John R; Sacks, Alvin H

1957-01-01

188

RESEARCH ARTICLE Dynamic wind loads and wake characteristics of a wind turbine  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Dynamic wind loads and wake characteristics of a wind turbine model of the unsteady vortex and turbulent flow structures in the near wake of a horizontal axis wind turbine model.e., aerodynamic forces and bending moments) acting on the wind turbine model by using a high-sensitive force

Hu, Hui

189

Rotor Wake Development During the First Revolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wake behind a two-bladed model rotor in light climb was measured using particle image velocimetry, with particular emphasis on the development of the trailing vortex during the first revolution of the rotor. The distribution of vorticity was distinguished from the slightly elliptical swirl pattern. Peculiar dynamics within the void region may explain why the peak vorticity appeared to shift away from the center as the vortex aged, suggesting the onset of instability. The swirl and axial velocities (which reached 44 and 12 percent of the rotor-tip speed, respectively) were found to be asymmetric relative to the vortex center. In particular, the axial flow was composed of two concentrated zones moving in opposite directions. The radial distribution of the circulation rapidly increased in magnitude until reaching a point just beyond the core radius, after which the rate of growth decreased significantly. The core-radius circulation increased slightly with wake age, but the large-radius circulation appeared to remain relatively constant. The radial distributions of swirl velocity and vorticity exhibit self-similar behaviors, especially within the core. The diameter of the vortex core was initially about 10 percent of the rotor-blade chord, but more than doubled its size after one revolution of the rotor. According to vortex models that approximate the measured data, the core-radius circulation was about 79 percent of the large-radius circulation, and the large-radius circulation was about 67 percent of the maximum bound circulation on the rotor blade. On average, about 53 percent of the maximum bound circulation resides within the vortex core during the first revolution of the rotor.

McAlister, Kenneth W.

2003-01-01

190

Vortex structure for flow over a heaving cylinder with a flexible tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen-bubble visualization technique was applied in the investigation of vortex structure for flow over a heaving cylinder attached with a flexible tail along the wake central-line in a water channel. Wake structures have been mapped in the flexible tail length-frequency ( L/D, St) phase space with the flexible tail length of L/D = 2-5 and the oscillation Strouhal number of St = 0-0.34. Four wake modes were identified as: (1) 2S_Kármán vortex mode—a Kármán-vortex-like structure with two single vortices formed per cycle in the near wake; (2) 2S_reverse Kármán vortex mode—a reverse Kármán-vortex-like structure with two single vortices per cycle; (3) 2P mode—a bifurcated vortex pair structure with two pairs of vortices per cycle; (4) P + S mode—an unstable vortex structure with three vortices per cycle as a transient mode. Moreover, the typical case of each wake mode was further examined by particle image velocimetry, and the evolutions of vortex structures for the four wake modes were studied in detail.

Hu, Y.; Pan, C.; Wang, J. J.

2014-02-01

191

Flow visualizations of perpendicular blade vortex interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Helium bubble flow visualizations have been performed to study perpendicular interaction of a turbulent trailing vortex and a rectangular wing in the Virginia Tech Stability Tunnel. Many combinations of vortex strength, vortex-blade separation (Z(sub s)) and blade angle of attack were studied. Photographs of representative cases are presented. A range of phenomena were observed. For Z(sub s) greater than a few percent chord the vortex is deflected as it passes the blade under the influence of the local streamline curvature and its image in the blade. Initially the interaction appears to have no influence on the core. Downstream, however, the vortex core begins to diffuse and grow, presumably as a consequence of its interaction with the blade wake. The magnitude of these effects increases with reduction in Z(sub s). For Z(sub s) near zero the form of the interaction changes and becomes dependent on the vortex strength. For lower strengths the vortex appears to split into two filaments on the leading edge of the blade, one passing on the pressure and one passing on the suction side. At higher strengths the vortex bursts in the vicinity of the leading edge. In either case the core of its remnants then rapidly diffuse with distance downstream. Increase in Reynolds number did not qualitatively affect the flow apart from decreasing the amplitude of the small low-frequency wandering motions of the vortex. Changes in wing tip geometry and boundary layer trip had very little effect.

Rife, Michael C.; Davenport, William J.

1992-01-01

192

Numerical Study of Tip Vortex Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an overview and summary of the many different research work related to tip vortex flows and wake/trailing vortices as applied to practical engineering problems. As a literature survey paper, it outlines relevant analytical, theoretical, experimental and computational study found in literature. It also discusses in brief some of the fundamental aspects of the physics and its complexities. An appendix is also included. The topics included in this paper are: 1) Analytical Vortices; 2) Experimental Studies; 3) Computational Studies; 4) Wake Vortex Control and Management; 5) Wake Modeling; 6) High-Lift Systems; 7) Issues in Numerical Studies; 8) Instabilities; 9) Related Topics; 10) Visualization Tools for Vertical Flows; 11) Further Work Needed; 12) Acknowledgements; 13) References; and 14) Appendix.

Dacles-Mariani, Jennifer; Hafez, Mohamed

1998-01-01

193

Wind turbine wake aerodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed

L. J. Vermeer; J. N. Sørensen; A. Crespo

2003-01-01

194

Meander of a fin trailing vortex and the origin of its turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-frequency meander of a trailing vortex shed from a tapered fin installed on a wind tunnel wall has been studied using\\u000a stereoscopic particle image velocimetry in the near-wake at Mach 0.8. Distributions of the instantaneous vortex position reveal\\u000a that the meander amplitude increases with downstream distance and decreases with vortex strength, indicating meander is induced\\u000a external to the vortex.

Steven J. BereshJohn; John F. Henfling; Russell W. Spillers

2010-01-01

195

Wake of forced flow around elliptical leading edge plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous investigations have shown that flows around rectangular plates with transverse forcing involve interactions between vortices shed from the leading and trailing edges and vortex merging in the wakes. The Strouhal number of vortex shedding at which peak base drag occurs varies with chord-to-thickness ratio in a stepwise fashion, similar to the self-sustained oscillations at low Reynolds number for unforced flows. In the present study, the leading edge flow separation and vortex shedding is eliminated by using plates with elliptical leading edges, and the trailing edge flow is examined through particle image velocimetry. In particular, the response of the trailing-edge vortex shedding and the base pressure coefficient to applied transverse oscillations of different Strouhal number and amplitude is measured. Substantial variation in the base pressure coefficient is found, with peaks appearing at the natural shedding frequency and at a harmonic. The effect of the forcing on the wake dimension and the strength of the wake vortices is quantified using particle image velocimetry. Three-dimensional structures in addition to the two-dimensional Kármán vortices in the wake are also visualized.

Mills, R.; Sheridan, J.; Hourigan, K.

2005-02-01

196

The structure of vortex breakdown  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The term 'vortex breakdown', as used in the reported investigation, refers to a disturbance characterized by the formation of an internal stagnation point on the vortex axis, followed by reversed flow in a region of limited axial extent. Two forms of vortex breakdown, which predominate, are shown in photographs. One form is called 'near-axisymmetric' (sometimes 'axisymmetric'), and the other is called 'spiral'. A survey is presented of work published since the 1972 review by Hall. Most experimental data taken since Hall's review have been in tubes, and the survey deals primarily with such cases. It is found that the assumption of axial-symmetry has produced useful results. The classification of flows as supercritical or subcritical, a step that assumes symmetry, has proved universally useful. Experiments show that vortex breakdown is always preceded by an upstream supercritical flow and followed by a subcritical wake. However, a comparison between experiments and attempts at prediction is less than encouraging. For a satisfactory understanding of the structure of vortex breakdown it is apparently necessary to take into account also aspects of asymmetry.

Leibovich, S.

1978-01-01

197

Analysis of Wake VAS Benefits Using ACES Build 3.2.1: VAMS Type 1 Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The FAA and NASA are currently engaged in a Wake Turbulence Research Program to revise wake turbulence separation standards, procedures, and criteria to increase airport capacity while maintaining or increasing safety. The research program is divided into three phases: Phase I near term procedural enhancements; Phase II wind dependent Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS) Concepts of Operations (ConOps); and Phase III farther term ConOps based on wake prediction and sensing. The Phase III Wake VAS ConOps is one element of the Virtual Airspace Modelling and Simulation (VAMS) program blended concepts for enhancing the total system wide capacity of the National Airspace System (NAS). This report contains a VAMS Program Type 1 (stand-alone) assessment of the expected capacity benefits of Wake VAS at the 35 FAA Benchmark Airports and determines the consequent reduction in delay using the Airspace Concepts Evaluation System (ACES) Build 3.2.1 simulator.

Smith, Jeremy C.

2005-01-01

198

Active control of a cylinder wake flow by using a streamwise oscillating foil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, numerical experiments are carried out to control the vortex shedding of a circular cylinder by utilizing an oscillating foil. The thin foil of elliptic shape undergoes prescribed harmonic oscillations in the streamwise direction in the near wake region. This simplified model is intended to study how wake dynamics are modified via localized wake disturbance, and then to stabilize the global wake instability. The results show that, at proper gap spacing, the oscillating foil can completely suppress the wake unsteadiness and recover the recirculating bubble type flow. The global instability suppression is then established on the imposition of local symmetry into the reversed flow behind the cylinder. It is revealed that the dynamic interaction between the main shears layer and oscillatory boundary layers is responsible for the wake stabilization mechanism. In addition, the kinematic/dynamic parameters related to foil motions and flow properties are widely discussed to reveal their effects on the performance of wake stabilization and drag reduction.

Bao, Y.; Tao, J.

2013-05-01

199

A full potential rotor analysis with wake influence using an inner-outer domain technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-dimensional, quasi-steady, full potential flow solver was adapted to include realistic rotor wake influence for the aerodynamic analysis of helicopter rotors. The method uses an inner/outer domain technique to accommodate wake effects. Nonlinear flow is computed in the inner domain using a finite difference solution method. The wake is modeled using prescribed wake techniques to allow for the inclusion of realistic wake geometries. Portions of the wake passing inside the inner domain are treated using an embedded vortex technique. The procedure couples the wake influence with the inner domain solution in a consistent and efficient solution process. Correlation with measured lifting transonic data in hover and forward flight is shown which demonstrates the merits of the approach.

Egolf, T. A.; Sparks, S. P.

1986-01-01

200

Linear feedback stabilization of laminar vortex shedding based on a point vortex model  

E-print Network

as flow actuation, the linearized Föppl system is shown to be stabilizable, but not controllable and limitations of flow control strategies based on point vortex systems as reduced-order models are discussed- inder wake flow has also been an appealing testbed for ex- ploration of various flow control strategies

Protas, Bartosz

201

Comparison of Lifting-line and Lifting-surface Blade Models for Rotor Wakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotor blades are often modeled using either the lifting-line or the lifting-surface approach. Classical lifting-line theory treats the case of a high aspect ratio blade where the blade is modeled by just a bound vortex line. The tip-vortex and the trailing vortex sheet are shed from the bound vortex line. The lifting-line approach will thus be expected to be accurate for large aspect ratio wings and blades. In the lifting-surface approach the blade is modeled by a thin lifting surface to more precisely understand the aerodynamic behavior of the chordwise flow close to the blade surface and its effect on the formation of the tip-vortex and consequently the entire wake. Due to the presence of a finite chord, this model seems to be more robust as far as chordwise changes in flow patterns are concerned. The objective of the present work is to compare results from two distinct vortex-wake models. The Wake Model with Lifting-Line has a robust model for the wake. The Lifting-Surface Model with Wake Effects has a robust model for the lifting-surface with additional terms in the governing equations representing a simplified model for the wake. Bound and tip-vortex strengths, tip-vortex trajectories and velocity profiles are evaluated using these models very close to the blade. It is observed that the results obtained from these models are comparable. The minor discrepancies observed are explained in terms of the assumptions made. To establish the validity of the models the results are also compared with experimental data. Sponsored by the Rotorcraft Center of Excellence at Georgia Institute of Technology and the Army Research Office.

Kini, Santosh; Godavarty, Vishwanath; Conlisk, A. T.

2001-11-01

202

Experimental study of a vortex subjected to imposed strain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental project was undertaken to investigate the character of vortex breakdown with particular regard to the waveguide theories of vortex breakdown. A rectangular wing based on the NACA 0012 airfoil was used to produce a trailing vortex which convected downstream without undergoing breakdown. Dye marked the vortex location. A disturbance was then introduced onto the vortex using a small moving wire to 'cut' the vortex. The development of upstream and downstream propagating disturbance waves was observed and the propagation velocities measured. The downstream traveling wave produced a structure similar in appearance to a vortex breakdown. The upstream wave produced a moving, swirling, turbulent region that was not a vortex breakdown. The waves moving in either direction have the same swirl velocity profiles but quite different axial velocity profiles. The upstream disturbance (turbulence) moved into a flow with an axial velocity profile that had a wake-like defect in the core region. The downstream moving vortex breakdown moved into a flow with a jet-like overshoot in the core region. The fact that no breakdown was observed for the wake-like defect and breakdown was observed for the jet-like overshoot is not consistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. Although there are not a lot of examples, CFD results show breakdown for both types of profiles. The longitudinal and swirl velocity profiles were documented by Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) measurement. Wave velocities, swirl angles, and swirl parameters are reported.

Panton, Ronald L.; Stifle, Kirk E.

1991-01-01

203

Vortex-Based Aero- and Hydrodynamic Estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow control strategies often require knowledge of unmeasurable quantities, thus presenting a need to reconstruct flow states from measurable ones. In this thesis, the modeling, simulation, and estimator design aspects of flow reconstruction are considered. First, a vortex-based aero- and hydrodynamic estimation paradigm is developed to design a wake sensing algorithm for aircraft formation flight missions. The method assimilates wing distributed pressure measurements with a vortex-based wake model to better predict the state of the flow. The study compares Kalman-type algorithms with particle filtering algorithms, demonstrating that the vortex nonlinearities require particle filters to yield adequate performance. Furthermore, the observability structure of the wake is shown to have a negative impact on filter performance regardless of the algorithm applied. It is demonstrated that relative motions can alleviate the filter divergence issues associated with this observability structure. In addition to estimator development, the dissertation addresses the need for an efficient unsteady multi-body aerodynamics testbed for estimator and controller validation studies. A pure vortex particle implementation of a vortex panel-particle method is developed to satisfy this need. The numerical method is demonstrated on the impulsive startup of a flat plate as well as the impulsive startup of a multi-wing formation. It is clear, from these validation studies, that the method is able to accommodate the unsteady wake effects that arise in formation flight missions. Lastly, successful vortex-based estimation is highly dependent on the reliability of the low-order vortex model used in representing the flow of interest. The present treatise establishes a systematic framework for vortex model improvement, grounded in optimal control theory and the calculus of variations. By minimizing model predicted errors with respect to empirical data, the shortcomings of the baseline vortex model can be revealed and reconciled. Here, the method is demonstrated on an impulse matching model for canonical unsteady wing maneuvers and reveals the shortcomings of the Kutta condition in such flows. The resulting analysis sheds light on the governing physical processes and provides guidance for model improvement for the unsteady aerodynamics associated with these canonical wing maneuvers.

Hemati, Maziar Sam

204

High lift wake investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavior of wakes in adverse pressure gradients is critical to the performance of high-lift systems for transport aircraft. Wake deceleration is known to lead to sudden thickening and the onset of reversed flow; this 'wake bursting' phenomenon can occur while surface flows remain attached. Although known to be important for high-lift systems, few studies of such decelerated wakes exist. In this study, the wake of a flat plate has been subjected to an adverse pressure gradient in a two-dimensional diffuser, whose panels were forced to remain attached by use of slot blowing. Pitot probe surveys, L.D.V. measurements, and flow visualization have been used to investigate the physics of this decelerated wake, through the onset of reversed flow.

Sullivan, J. P.; Schneider, S. P.; Hoffenberg, R.

1996-01-01

205

Doppler radar detection of vortex hazard indicators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wake vortex experiments were conducted at White Sands Missile Range, NM using the AN/MPS-39 Multiple Object Tracking Radar (MOTR). The purpose of these experiments was twofold. The first objective was to verify that radar returns from wake vortex are observed for some time after the passage of an aircraft. The second objective was to verify that other vortex hazard indicators such as ambient wind speed and direction could also be detected. The present study addresses the Doppler characteristics of wake vortex and clear air returns based upon measurements employing MOTR, a very sensitive C-Band phased array radar. In this regard, the experiment was conducted so that the spectral characteristics could be determined on a dwell to-dwell basis. Results are presented from measurements of the backscattered power (equivalent structure constant), radial velocity and spectral width when the aircraft flies transverse and axial to the radar beam. The statistics of the backscattered power and spectral width for each case are given. In addition, the scan strategy, experimental test procedure and radar parameters are presented.

Nespor, Jerald D.; Hudson, B.; Stegall, R. L.; Freedman, Jerome E.

1994-01-01

206

Vortex methods and vortex statistics  

SciTech Connect

Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible, inviscid, isentropic flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus if the vorticity is known at time t = 0, one can deduce the flow at a later time by simply following it around. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that makes use of this observation. Even more generally, the analysis of vortex methods leads, to problems that are closely related to problems in quantum physics and field theory, as well as in harmonic analysis. A broad enough definition of vortex methods ends up by encompassing much of science. Even the purely computational aspects of vortex methods encompass a range of ideas for which vorticity may not be the best unifying theme. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (``blobs``) and those whose understanding contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Vortex methods for inviscid flow lead to systems of ordinary differential equations that can be readily clothed in Hamiltonian form, both in three and two space dimensions, and they can preserve exactly a number of invariants of the Euler equations, including topological invariants. Their viscous versions resemble Langevin equations. As a result, they provide a very useful cartoon of statistical hydrodynamics, i.e., of turbulence, one that can to some extent be analyzed analytically and more importantly, explored numerically, with important implications also for superfluids, superconductors, and even polymers. In the authors view, vortex ``blob`` methods provide the most promising path to the understanding of these phenomena.

Chorin, A.J.

1993-05-01

207

Titan's Winter Polar Vortex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Titan's atmosphere has provided an interesting study in contrasts and similarities with Earth's. While both have N$_2$ as the dominant constituent and comparable surface pressures $\\sim1$ bar, Titan's next most abundant molecule is CH$_4$, not O$_2$, and the dissociative breakup of CH$_4$ and N$_2$ by sunlight and electron impact leads to a suite of hydrocarbons and nitriles, and ultimately the photochemical smog that enshrouds the moon. In addition, with a 15.95-day period, Titan is a slow rotator compared to Earth. While the mean zonal terrestrial winds are geostrophic, Titan's are mostly cyclostrophic, whipping around the moon in as little as 1 day. Despite the different dynamical regime, Titan's winter stratosphere exhibits several characteristics that should be familiar to terrestrial meteorologists. The cold winter pole near the 1 -mbar level is circumscribed by strong winds (up to 190 m/s) that act as a barrier to mixing with airmasses at lower latitudes. There is evidence of enhancement of several organic species over the winter pole, indicating subsidence. The adiabatic heating associated with this subsidence gives rise to a warm anomaly at the 0.01-mbar level, raising the stratopause two scale heights above its location at equatorial latitudes. Condensate ices have been detected in Titan's lower stratosphere within the winter polar vortex from infrared spectra. Although not always unambiguously identified, their spatial distribution exhibits a sharp gradient, decreasing precipitously across the vortex away from the winter pole. The interesting question of whether there is important heterogeneous chemistry occurring within the polar vortex, analogous to that occurring in the terrestrial polar stratospheric clouds in the ozone holes, has not been addressed. The breakup of Titan's winter polar vortex has not yet been observed. On Earth, the polar vortex is nonlinearly disrupted by interaction with large-amplitude planetary waves. Large-scale waves have not been identified in Titan's atmosphere, so the decay of its polar vortex may be more gradual than on Earth. Observations from an extended Cassini mission into late northern spring should provide critical data indicating whether the vortex goes away with a bang or just fades away.

Flasar, F.M.; Achterberg, R.K.; Schinder, P.J.

2008-01-01

208

Stabilization of vortices in the wake of a circular cylinder using harmonic forcing.  

PubMed

We explore whether vortex flows in the wake of a fixed circular cylinder can be stabilized using harmonic forcing. We use Föppl's point vortex model augmented with a harmonic point source-sink mechanism which preserves conservation of mass and leaves the system Hamiltonian. We discover a region of Lyapunov-stable vortex motion for an appropriate selection of parameters. We identify four unique parameters that affect the stability of the vortices: the uniform flow velocity, vortex equilibrium positions, forcing amplitude, and forcing frequency. We assess the robustness of the controller using a Poincaré section. PMID:21797478

Chamoun, Georges C; Schilder, Frank; Brøns, Morten

2011-06-01

209

Stabilization of vortices in the wake of a circular cylinder using harmonic forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore whether vortex flows in the wake of a fixed circular cylinder can be stabilized using harmonic forcing. We use Föppl’s point vortex model augmented with a harmonic point source-sink mechanism which preserves conservation of mass and leaves the system Hamiltonian. We discover a region of Lyapunov-stable vortex motion for an appropriate selection of parameters. We identify four unique parameters that affect the stability of the vortices: the uniform flow velocity, vortex equilibrium positions, forcing amplitude, and forcing frequency. We assess the robustness of the controller using a Poincaré section.

Chamoun, Georges C.; Schilder, Frank; Brøns, Morten

2011-06-01

210

Experimental investigation of the vortical activity in the close wake of a simplified military transport aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the experimental characterization of the vortex structures that develop in the aft fuselage region and in the wake of a simplified geometry of a military transport aircraft. It comes within the framework of the military applications of airflow influence on airdrop operations. This work relies on particle image velocimetry measurements combined with a vortex-tracking approach. Complex vortex dynamics is revealed, in terms of vortex positions, intensities, sizes, shapes and fluctuation levels, for both closed and opened cargo-door and ramp airdrop configurations.

Bury, Yannick; Jardin, Thierry; Klöckner, Andreas

2013-05-01

211

Prediction and measurement of blade-vortex interaction loading  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive quantity of airload measurements was obtained for a pressure-instrumented model of the BO-105 main rotor for a large number of higher-harmonic control (HHC) settings at Duits-Nederlandse Wind Tunnel (DNW). The wake geometry, vortex strength, and vortex core size were also measured through a laser light sheet technique and LDV. These results are used to verify the BVI airload prediction methodologies developed by AFDD, DLR, NASA Langley, and ONERA. The comparisons show that an accurate prediction of the blade motion and the wake geometry is the most important aspect of the BVI airload predictions.

Tung, Chee; Gallman, Judith M.; Kube, Roland; Brooks, Thomas F.; Rahier, Gilles

1995-01-01

212

Messung von Geschwindigkeitsfeldern bei Wirbelstrukturen (Measurement of Velocity Fields in Vortex Structures).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The quantitative determination of velocity structures in a decaying vortex was studied. The measurements were performed as a clean flow experiment, i.e., in an apparatus producing a reproducable model vortex. Using holographically produced optical element...

R. M. Oebels, H. S. Buchkremer

1988-01-01

213

Vortex methods  

SciTech Connect

Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible inviscid flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus, if the vorticity is known at time t=0, one can find the flow at a later time by simply following the vorticity. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that follows vorticity. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (blobs) and those whose analysis contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Blob methods started in the 1930`s.

Chorin, A.J. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1993-06-01

214

Analytical model of rotor wake aerodynamics in ground effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The model and the computer program developed provides the velocity, location, and circulation of the tip vortices of a two-blade helicopter in and out of the ground effect. Comparison of the theoretical results with some experimental measurements for the location of the wake indicate that there is excellent accuracy in the vicinity of the rotor and fair amount of accuracy far from it. Having the location of the wake at all times enables us to compute the history of the velocity and the location of any point in the flow. The main goal of out study, induced velocity at the rotor, can also be calculated in addition to stream lines and streak lines. Since the wake location close to the rotor is known more accurately than at other places, the calculated induced velocity over the disc should be a good estimate of the real induced velocity, with the exception of the blade location, because each blade was replaced only by a vortex line. Because no experimental measurements of the wake close to the ground were available to us, quantitative evaluation of the theoretical wake was not possible. But qualitatively we have been able to show excellent agreement. Comparison of flow visualization with out results has indicated the location of the ground vortex is estimated excellently. Also the flow field in hover is well represented.

Saberi, H. A.

1983-01-01

215

Propulsive force calculations in swimming frogs : II. Application of a vortex ring model to DPIV data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frogs propel themselves by kicking water backwards using a synchronised extension of their hind limbs and webbed feet. To understand this propulsion process, we quantified the water movements and displacements resulting from swimming in the green frog Rana esculenta, applying digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) to the frog's wake. The wake showed two vortex rings left behind by the two

Eize J. Stamhuis; Sandra Nauwelaerts

2005-01-01

216

Prediction of vortex shedding from forebodies with chines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An engineering prediction method to calculate vortex shedding from noncircular forebodies with sharp chine edges in subsonic flow at large incidence angles is presented. The forebody is represented by two- and three-dimensional singularities, and the lee side vortex wake is modeled by discrete vortices in crossflow planes along the body. The computational procedure is described, and comparisons of measured and predicted surface pressure distributions and predicted flow field vectors are presented to illustrate the method.

Mendenhall, Michael R.; Lesieutre, Daniel J.

1990-01-01

217

Wake structure and wing motion in bat flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on experiments concerning the wake structure and kinematics of bat flight, conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel using time-resolved PIV (200Hz) and 4 high-speed cameras to capture wake and wing motion simultaneously. 16 Lesser dog-faced fruit bats (C. brachyotis) were trained to fly in the wind tunnel at 3-6.5m/s. The PIV recordings perpendicular to the flow stream allowed observing the development of the tip vortex and circulation over the wing beat cycle. Each PIV acquisition sequence is correlated with the respective kinematic history. Circulation within wing beat cycles were often quite repeatable, however variations due to maneuvering of the bat are clearly visible. While no distinct vortex structure was observed at the upper reversal point (defined according the vertical motion of the wrist) a tip vortex was observed to develop in the first third of the downstroke, growing in strength, and persisting during much of the upstroke. Correlated to the presence of a strong tip vortex the circulation has almost constant strength over the middle half of the wing beat. At relatively low flight speeds (3.4 m/s), a closed vortex structure behind the bat is postulated.

Hubel, Tatjana; Breuer, Kenneth; Swartz, Sharon

2008-11-01

218

Axisymmetric turbulent wakes with new nonequilibrium similarity scalings.  

PubMed

The recently discovered nonequilibrium turbulence dissipation law implies the existence of axisymmetric turbulent wake regions where the mean flow velocity deficit decays as the inverse of the distance from the wake-generating body and the wake width grows as the square root of that distance. This behavior is different from any documented boundary-free turbulent shear flow to date. Its existence is confirmed in wind tunnel experiments of wakes generated by plates with irregular edges placed normal to an incoming free stream. The wake characteristics of irregular bodies such as buildings, bridges, mountains, trees, coral reefs, and wind turbines are critical in many areas of environmental engineering and fluid mechanics. PMID:24138244

Nedi?, J; Vassilicos, J C; Ganapathisubramani, B

2013-10-01

219

Supersonic shock wave/vortex interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although shock wave/vortex interaction is a basic and important fluid dynamics problem, very little research has been conducted on this topic. Therefore, a detailed experimental study of the interaction between a supersonic streamwise turbulent vortex and a shock wave was carried out at the Penn State Gas Dynamics Laboratory. A vortex is produced by replaceable swirl vanes located upstream of the throat of various converging-diverging nozzles. The supersonic vortex is then injected into either a coflowing supersonic stream or ambient air. The structure of the isolated vortex is investigated in a supersonic wind tunnel using miniature, fast-response, five-hole and total temperature probes and in a free jet using laser Doppler velocimetry. The cases tested have unit Reynolds numbers in excess of 25 million per meter, axial Mach numbers ranging from 2.5 to 4.0, and peak tangential Mach numbers from 0 (i.e., a pure jet) to about 0.7. The results show that the typical supersonic wake-like vortex consists of a non-isentropic, rotational core, where the reduced circulation distribution is self similar, and an outer isentropic, irrotational region. The vortex core is also a region of significant turbulent fluctuations. Radial profiles of turbulent kinetic energy and axial-tangential Reynolds stress are presented. The interactions between the vortex and both oblique and normal shock waves are investigated using nonintrusive optical diagnostics (i.e. schlieren, planar laser scattering, and laser Doppler velocimetry). Of the various types, two Mach 2.5 overexpanded-nozzle Mach disc interactions are examined in detail. Below a certain vortex strength, a 'weak' interaction exists in which the normal shock is perturbed locally into an unsteady 'bubble' shock near the vortex axis, but vortex breakdown (i.e., a stagnation point) does not occur. For stronger vortices, a random unsteady 'strong' interaction results that causes vortex breakdown. The vortex core reforms downstream of the rear stagnation point, and the reduced circulation distribution once again becomes self-similar in this region. A-new model of this interaction is proposed. Finally, a curve defining the approximate limits of supersonic vortex breakdown is presented.

Settles, G. S.; Cattafesta, L.

1993-01-01

220

Effect of leading-edge vortex flaps on aerodynamic performance of delta wings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of leading-edge vortex flaps on the aerodynamic characteristics of highly swept-back wings is analytically investigated, using the free vortex sheet method. The method, based on a three-dimensional inviscid flow model, is an advanced panel type employing quadratic doublet distributions to represent the wing surface, rolled-up vortex sheet and wake and is capable of computing forces, moments and surface pressures.

Reddy, C. S.

1981-01-01

221

On the evolution of the wake structure produced by a low-aspect-ratio pitching panel  

PubMed Central

Flow visualization is used to interrogate the wake structure produced by a rigid flat panel of aspect ratio (span/chord) 0.54 pitching in a free stream at a Strouhal number of 0.23. At such a low aspect ratio, the streamwise vorticity generated by the plate tends to dominate the formation of the wake. Nevertheless, the wake has the appearance of a three-dimensional von Kármán vortex street, as observed in a wide range of other experiments, and consists of horseshoe vortices of alternating sign shed twice per flapping cycle. The legs of each horseshoe interact with the two subsequent horseshoes in an opposite-sign, then like-sign interaction in which they become entrained. A detailed vortex skeleton model is proposed for the wake formation. PMID:19746198

BUCHHOLZ, JAMES H. J.; SMITS, ALEXANDER J.

2009-01-01

222

Numerical Simulation of Wake Vortices Measured During the Idaho Falls and Memphis Field Programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical large-eddy simulation model is under modification and testing for application to aircraft wake vortices. The model, having a meteorological framework, permits the interaction of wake vortices with environments characterized by crosswind shear, stratification, and humidity. As part of the validation process, model results are compared with measured field data from the 1990 Idaho Falls and the 1994-1995 Memphis field experiments. Cases are selected that represent different aircraft and a cross section of meteorological environments. Also included is one case with wake vortex generation in ground effect. The model simulations are initialized with the appropriate meteorological conditions and a post roll-up vortex system. No ambient turbulence is assumed in our initial set of experiments, although turbulence can be self generated by the interaction of the model wakes with the ground and environment.

Proctor, Fred H.

1996-01-01

223

Schlieren investigation of the square cylinder wake: Joint influence of buoyancy and orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work examines the combined influence of orientation and buoyancy on vortex shedding from a heated square cylinder with the main flow in the vertically upward direction in the aiding buoyancy configuration. The wake of the cylinder is imaged by a schlieren technique. The study investigates the effect of buoyancy, Reynolds number, and angle of incidence of square cylinder with respect to the incoming flow. The Reynolds numbers based on the cylinder edge have been set equal to 56, 87, and 100. Eight different orientations (? =0°, 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, 30°, 40°, and 45°) and a Richardson number range of 0.031-0.291 have been considered. Instantaneous as well as time-averaged schlieren images, velocity profiles, vortex formation length, Strouhal number, and power spectra are reported. Results show that there is no vortex shedding at Re=56 for the zero angle of incidence. Vortex shedding is initiated at this Reynolds number for a higher angle of incidence, indicating that cylinder orientation plays a favoring role in destabilizing the wake. For orientations other than 0° and 45°, the time-averaged wake is asymmetric. With an increase in the angle of incidence, the shear layers roll up over a shorter distance. With heating, the fluid particles in the shear layer are further accelerated and a marginal increase in Strouhal number with Richardson number is observed. As the heating level increases to a higher value, buoyancy delivers sufficient momentum into the wake, diminishes the velocity deficit, and completely eliminates vortex shedding. Suppression of vortex shedding is observed at a certain critical Richardson number that depends on Reynolds number and the angle of incidence. The approach toward complete suppression and the corresponding wake structures are of interest. The present study demonstrates that the properties of the cylinder wake are intricately related to both the heating level and its orientation relative to the incoming flow.

Kakade, A. A.; Singh, S. K.; Panigrahi, P. K.; Muralidhar, K.

2010-05-01

224

A Piloted Simulation Study of Wake Turbulence on Final Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A piloted simulation study has been conducted in a research simulator to provide a means to estimate the effects of different levels of wake turbulence on final approach. A worst-case methodology was used to ensure conservative estimates. Fourteen airline pilots voluntarily participated in the study and flew almost 1000 approaches. The pilots rated the subjective severity of the disturbances using a special rating scale developed for this study. Several objective measures of the airplane/pilot response to the simulated wake turbulence were also made. All the data showed a large amount of variation between pilots and to a lesser extent for a given pilot. Therefore, the data were presented at 50, 70, 90 percentile levels as a function of vortex strength. The data allow estimates of the vortex strength for a given subjective or objective response and vice versa. The results of this study appear to be more conservative than the results of previous studies.

Stewart, Eric C.

1998-01-01

225

Wake Turbulence: An Obstacle to Increased Air Traffic Capacity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wingtip vortices were first described by British aerodynamicist F.W. Lanchester in 1907. A product of lift on a finite-span wing, these counterrotating masses of air trail behind an aircraft, gradually diffusing while convecting downward and moving about under mutual induction and the influence of wind and stratification. Should a smaller aircraft happen to be following the first aircraft, it could be buffeted and even flipped if it flew into the vortex, with dangerous consequences. Given the amount of air traffic in 1907, the wake vortex hazard was not initially much of a concern. The demand for air transportation continues to increase, and it is estimated that demand could double or even triple by 2025. One factor in the capacity of the air transportation system is wake turbulence and the consequent separation distances that must be maintained between aircraft to ensure safety.

2008-01-01

226

A subvortex technique for the close approach to a discretized vortex sheet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The close-approach problem associated with vortex-lattice methods was examined numerically with the objective of calculating velocities at arbitrary points, not just at midpoints, between the vortices. The objective was achieved using a subvortex technique in which a vortex splits into an increasing number of subvortices as it is approached. The technique, incorporated in a two-dimensional potential flow method using "submerged" vortices and sources, was evaluated for a cambered Joukowski airfoil. The method could be extended to three dimensions, and should improve non-linear methods, which calculate interference effects between multiple wings and vortex wakes, and which include procedures for force-free wakes.

Maskew, B.

1976-01-01

227

Vortex bursting and tracer transport of a counter-rotating vortex pair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-eddy simulations of a coherent counter-rotating vortex pair in different environments are performed. The environmental background is characterized by varying turbulence intensities and stable temperature stratifications. Turbulent exchange processes between the vortices, the vortex oval, and the environment, as well as the material redistribution processes along the vortex tubes are investigated employing passive tracers that are superimposed to the initial vortex flow field. It is revealed that the vortex bursting phenomenon, known from photos of aircraft contrails or smoke visualization, is caused by collisions of secondary vortical structures traveling along the vortex tube which expel material from the vortex but do not result in a sudden decay of circulation or an abrupt change of vortex core structure. In neutrally stratified and weakly turbulent conditions, vortex reconnection triggers traveling helical vorticity structures which is followed by their collision. A long-lived vortex ring links once again establishing stable double rings. Key phenomena observed in the simulations are supported by photographs of contrails. The vertical and lateral extents of the detrained passive tracer strongly depend on environmental conditions where the sensitivity of detrainment rates on initial tracer distributions appears to be low.

Misaka, T.; Holzäpfel, F.; Hennemann, I.; Gerz, T.; Manhart, M.; Schwertfirm, F.

2012-02-01

228

Investigation of the near wake of a propeller using particle image velocimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation of a propeller wake is carried out in a cavitation tunnel using particle image velocimetry. To achieve\\u000a high spatial resolution, a multigrid adaptive cross-correlation algorithm is used for image analysis. The contributions of\\u000a the viscous wake, originated by the boundary layer on the blades of the trailing vortex sheets, as well as of the vorticity\\u000a distribution are resolved

A. Cotroni; F. Di Felice; G. P. Romano; M. Elefante

2000-01-01

229

Recent Developments on Airborne Forward Looking Interferometer for the Detection of Wake Vortices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A goal of these studies was development of the measurement methods and algorithms necessary to detect wake vortex hazards in real time from either an aircraft or ground-based hyperspectral Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). This paper provides an update on research to model FTS detection of wake vortices. The Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) was used to generate wake vortex fields of 3-D winds, temperature, and absolute humidity. These fields were input to the Line by Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM), a hyperspectral radiance model in the infrared, employed for the FTS numerical modeling. An initial set of cases has been analyzed to identify a wake vortex IR signature and signature sensitivities to various state variables. Results from the numerical modeling case studies will be presented. Preliminary results indicated that an imaging IR instrument sensitive to six narrow bands within the 670 to 3150 per centimeter spectral region would be sufficient for wake vortex detection. Noise floor estimates for a recommended instrument are a current research topic.

Daniels, Taumi S.; Smith, William L.; Kirev, Stanislav

2012-01-01

230

The interaction of helical tip and root vortices in a wind turbine wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the helical vortices measured behind a model wind turbine in a water channel are reported. Phase-locked measurements using planar particle image velocimetry are taken behind a Glauert rotor to investigate the evolution and breakdown of the helical vortex structures. Existing linear stability theory predicts helical vortex filaments to be susceptible to three unstable modes. The current work presents tip and root vortex evolution in the wake for varying tip speed ratio and shows a breaking of the helical symmetry and merging of the vortices due to mutual inductance between the vortical filaments. The merging of the vortices is shown to be steady with rotor phase, however, small-scale non-periodic meander of the vortex positions is also observed. The generation of the helical wake is demonstrated to be closely coupled with the blade aerodynamics, strongly influencing the vortex properties which are shown to agree with theoretical predictions of the circulation shed into the wake by the blades. The mutual inductance of the helices is shown to occur at the same non-dimensional wake distance.

Sherry, Michael; Nemes, András; Lo Jacono, David; Blackburn, Hugh M.; Sheridan, John

2013-11-01

231

Computation of rotor aerodynamic loads in forward flight using a full-span free wake analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of an advanced computational analysis of unsteady aerodynamic loads on isolated helicopter rotors in forward flight is described. The primary technical focus of the development was the implementation of a freely distorting filamentary wake model composed of curved vortex elements laid out along contours of constant vortex sheet strength in the wake. This model captures the wake generated by the full span of each rotor blade and makes possible a unified treatment of the shed and trailed vorticity in the wake. This wake model was coupled to a modal analysis of the rotor blade dynamics and a vortex lattice treatment of the aerodynamic loads to produce a comprehensive model for rotor performance and air loads in forward flight dubbed RotorCRAFT (Computation of Rotor Aerodynamics in Forward Flight). The technical background on the major components of this analysis are discussed and the correlation of predictions of performance, trim, and unsteady air loads with experimental data from several representative rotor configurations is examined. The primary conclusions of this study are that the RotorCRAFT analysis correlates well with measured loads on a variety of configurations and that application of the full span free wake model is required to capture several important features of the vibratory loading on rotor blades in forward flight.

Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bliss, Donald B.; Wachspress, Daniel A.; Boschitsch, Alexander H.; Chua, Kiat

1990-01-01

232

Effects of wake passing on stagnation region heat transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the present experimental study, an annular-flow wind tunnel fitted with a spoked-wheel wake generator was used to ascertain both time-averaged and time-resolved effects of wake passing in a cylinder stagnation region; the cylindrical spokes generated wakes simulating those of a turbine inlet guide vanes. The time-averaged heat transfer results obtained indicate an asymmetric heat-transfer coefficient distribution about the stagnation line, with higher heat-transfer coefficients on the side corresponding to the suction side of the turbine blade. Spectra of the hot-film records indicate that vortex-shedding is a major contributor to the unsteady buffeting of the test-cylinder boundary layer at circumferential stations located at both + and -60 deg from the stagnation line, despite making only a minor contribution to the stagnation line itself.

O'Brien, J. E.

1988-01-01

233

Effects of wake passing on stagnation region heat transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present experimental study, an annular-flow wind tunnel fitted with a spoked-wheel wake generator was used to ascertain both time-averaged and time-resolved effects of wake passing in a cylinder stagnation region; the cylindrical spokes generated wakes simulating those of a turbine inlet guide vanes. The time-averaged heat transfer results obtained indicate an asymmetric heat-transfer coefficient distribution about the stagnation line, with higher heat-transfer coefficients on the side corresponding to the suction side of the turbine blade. Spectra of the hot-film records indicate that vortex-shedding is a major contributor to the unsteady buffeting of the test-cylinder boundary layer at circumferential stations located at both + and -60 deg from the stagnation line, despite making only a minor contribution to the stagnation line itself.

O'Brien, J. E.

234

Hypersonic rarefied flow past spheres including wake structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a numerical study using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method are presented for hypersonic rarefied flow past spheres. The flow conditions considered are those corresponding to low density wind tunnel test conditions. The set of the experimental conditions for the calculations encompasses the transitional to near-continuum flow regimes. Comparison of the calculated drag with experimental results shows good agreement to well within the experimental error. Particular attention is focused on the wake structure. Calculations show that the wake is very rarefied with considerable thermal nonequilibrium for all the cases considered. No flow separation is observed in the wake for the near-continuum case where a vortex has been predicted by Navier-Stokes type calculations.

Dogra, Virendra K.; Moss, James N.; Wilmoth, Richard G.; Price, Joseph M.

1992-01-01

235

Determination of Wind Turbine Near-Wake Length Based on Stability Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical study on the wake behind a wind turbine is carried out focusing on determining the length of the near-wake based on the instability onset of the trailing tip vortices shed from the turbine blades. The numerical model is based on large-eddy simulations (LES) of the Navier-Stokes equations using the actuator line (ACL) method. The wake is perturbed by applying stochastic or harmonic excitations in the neighborhood of the tips of the blades. The flow field is then analyzed to obtain the stability properties of the tip vortices in the wake of the wind turbine. As a main outcome of the study it is found that the amplification of specific waves (traveling structures) along the tip vortex spirals is responsible for triggering the instability leading to wake breakdown. The presence of unstable modes in the wake is related to the mutual inductance (vortex pairing) instability where there is an out-of-phase displacement of successive helix turns. Furthermore, using the non-dimensional growth rate, it is found that the pairing instability has a universal growth rate equal to ?/2. Using this relationship, and the assumption that breakdown to turbulence occurs once a vortex has experienced sufficient growth, we provide an analytical relationship between the turbulence intensity and the stable wake length. The analysis leads to a simple expression for determining the length of the near wake. This expression shows that the near wake length is inversely proportional to thrust, tip speed ratio and the logarithmic of the turbulence intensity.

Sørensen, Jens N.; Mikkelsen, Robert; Sarmast, Sasan; Ivanell, Stefan; Henningson, Dan

2014-06-01

236

3D visualization of unsteady 2D airplane wake vortices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air flowing around the wing tips of an airplane forms horizontal tornado-like vortices that can be dangerous to following aircraft. The dynamics of such vortices, including ground and atmospheric effects, can be predicted by numerical simulation, allowing the safety and capacity of airports to be improved. In this paper, we introduce three-dimensional techniques for visualizing time-dependent, two-dimensional wake vortex computations, and the hazard strength of such vortices near the ground. We describe a vortex core tracing algorithm and a local tiling method to visualize the vortex evolution. The tiling method converts time-dependent, two-dimensional vortex cores into three-dimensional vortex tubes. Finally, a novel approach calculates the induced rolling moment on the following airplane at each grid point within a region near the vortex tubes and thus allows three-dimensional visualization of the hazard strength of the vortices. We also suggest ways of combining multiple visualization methods to present more information simultaneously.

Ma, Kwan-Liu; Zheng, Z. C.

1994-01-01

237

Numerical modeling of the vortex/airfoil interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modeling of the vortex-airfoil interaction is presented in which the finite-area of the real vortices is taken into consideration. Two vortex models are used. In the first, a disturbed piece of vorticity layer is simulated by four rows of discrete vortices of small strength. In the second, a number of discrete vortices is arranged within a circle. The first model may simulate a shear layer or a wake, while the second, a well-formed vortex. The method was applied to the calculation of the pressure induced on the surface of the airfoil by the interacting vortex. Both models give similar results. It was found that for large distances of the vortex from the surface of the airfoil, the consideration or not of the finite-area of the vortex is not a significant factor in determining the induced pressure field. However, when the distance of the vortex from the surface is reduced, its shape is distorted and the induced pressure pulses have lower amplitude than the ones induced by an equivalent point vortex. In the limit, where the vortex impinges on the leading edge of the airfoil, it is split into two and the time dependent pressure coefficient takes even negative values at some time intervals.

Panaras, Argyris G.

1987-01-01

238

Laser Doppler velocimeter system simulation for sensing aircraft wake vortices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hydrodynamic model of aircraft vortex wakes in an irregular wind shear field near the ground is developed and used as a basis for modeling the characteristics of a laser Doppler detection and vortex location system. The trailing vortex sheet and the wind shear are represented by discrete free vortices distributed over a two-dimensional grid. The time dependent hydrodynamic equations are solved by direct numerical integration in the Boussinesq approximation. The ground boundary is simulated by images, and fast Fourier Transform techniques are used to evaluate the vorticity stream function. The atmospheric turbulence was simulated by constructing specific realizations at time equal to zero, assuming that Kolmogoroff's law applies, and that the dissipation rate is constant throughout the flow field. The response of a simulated laser Doppler velocimeter is analyzed by simulating the signal return from the flow field as sensed by a simulation of the optical/electronic system.

Thomson, J. A. L.; Meng, J. C. S.

1974-01-01

239

Wake Interactions for Flight in Complex Conditions A.T. Conlisk, Ohio State University, N. M. Komerath, Georgia Institute of Technology  

E-print Network

multiple rotor wakes (main/tail or main/main), and the modeling of wakes from rotors with several blades to aerodynamicists. Rotor aerodynamics calculations focus their resources on capturing blade loads Engineering Outline · Vortex Origing · IA: In-Ground-Effect (IGE) · IA: Three-bladed rotor and interactions

240

The Spectral and Statistical Properties of Turbulence Generated by a Vortex/Blade-Tip Interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The perpendicular interaction of a streamwise vortex with the tip of a lifting blade was studied in incompressible flow to provide information useful to the accurate prediction of helicopter rotor noise and the understanding of vortex dominated turbulent flows. The vortex passed 0.3 chord lengths to the suction side of the blade tip, providing a weak interaction. Single and two-point turbulence measurements were made using sub-miniature four sensor hot-wire probes 15 chord lengths downstream of the blade trailing edge; revealing the mean velocity and Reynolds stress tensor distributions of the turbulence, as well as its spanwise length scales as a function of frequency. The single point measurements show the flow downstream of the blade to be dominated by the interaction of the original tip vortex and the vortex shed by the blade. These vortices rotate about each other under their mutual induction, winding up the turbulent wakes of the blades. This interaction between the vortices appears to be the source of new turbulence in their cores and in the region between them. This turbulence appears to be responsible for some decay in the core of the original vortex, not seen when the blade is removed. The region between the vortices is not only a region of comparatively large stresses, but also one of intense turbulence production. Velocity autospectra measured near its center suggests the presence quasi-periodic large eddies with axes roughly parallel to a line joining the vortex cores. Detailed two-point measurements were made on a series of spanwise cuts through the flow so as to reveal the turbulence scales as they would be seen along the span of an intersecting airfoil. The measurements were made over a range of probe separations that enabled them to be analyzed not only in terms of coherence and phase spectra but also in terms of wave-number frequency (kappa-omega) spectra, computed by transforming the measured cross-spectra with respect to the spanwise separation of the probes. These data clearly show the influence of the coherent eddies in the spiral wake and the turbulent region between the cores. These eddies produce distinct peaks in the upwash velocity kappa-omega spectra, and strong anisotropy manifested both in the decay of the kappa-omega spectrum at larger wave-numbers and in differences between the kappa-omega spectra of different components. None of these features are represented in the von Karman spectrum for isotropic turbulence that is often used in broadband noise computations. Wave-number frequency spectra measured in the cores appear to show some evidence that the turbulence outside sets tip core waves, as has previously been hypothesized. These spectra also provide for the first time a truly objective method for distinguishing velocity fluctuations produced by core wandering from other motions.

Devenport, William J.; Wittmer, Kenneth S.; Wenger, Christian W.

1997-01-01

241

Aerodynamic interaction between vortical wakes and the viscous flow about a circular cylinder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the design analysis of conventional aircraft configurations, the prediction of the strong interaction between vortical wakes and the viscous flow field about bodies is of considerable importance. Interactions between vortical wakes and aircraft components are even more common on rotorcraft and configurations with lifting surfaces forward of the wing. An accurate analysis of the vortex-wake interaction with aircraft components is needed for the optimization of the payload and the reduction of vibratory loads. However, the three-dimensional flow field beneath the rotor disk and the interaction of the rotor wake with solid bodies in the flow field are highly complex. The present paper has the objective to provide a basis for the considered interactions by studying a simpler problem. This problem involves the two-dimensional interaction of external wakes with the viscous flow about a circular cylinder.

Stremel, P. M.

1985-01-01

242

Influence of Initial Vorticity Distribution on Axisymmetric Vortex Breakdown and Reconnection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical treatment has been developed to study some of the axisymmetric vortex breakdown and reconnection fluid dynamic processes underlying body-vortex interactions that are frequently manifested in rotorcraft and propeller-driven fixed-wing aircraft wakes. In particular, the presence of negative vorticity in the inner core of a vortex filament (one example of which is examined in this paper) subsequent to "cutting" by a solid body has a profound influence on the vortex reconnection, leading to analog flow behavior similar to vortex breakdown phenomena described in the literature. Initial vorticity distributions (three specific examples which are examined) without an inner core of negative vorticity do not exhibit vortex breakdown and instead manifest diffusion-like properties while undergoing vortex reconnection. Though this work focuses on laminar vortical flow, this work is anticipated to provide valuable insight into rotary-wing aerodynamics as well as other types of vortical flow phenomena.

Young, Larry A.

2007-01-01

243

Implementation of Parallel Computing Technology to Vortex Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mainframe supercomputers such as the Cray C90 was invaluable in obtaining large scale computations using several millions of grid points to resolve salient features of a tip vortex flow over a lifting wing. However, real flight configurations require tracking not only of the flow over several lifting wings but its growth and decay in the near- and intermediate- wake regions, not to mention the interaction of these vortices with each other. Resolving and tracking the evolution and interaction of these vortices shed from complex bodies is computationally intensive. Parallel computing technology is an attractive option in solving these flows. In planetary science vortical flows are also important in studying how planets and protoplanets form when cosmic dust and gases become gravitationally unstable and eventually form planets or protoplanets. The current paradigm for the formation of planetary systems maintains that the planets accreted from the nebula of gas and dust left over from the formation of the Sun. Traditional theory also indicate that such a preplanetary nebula took the form of flattened disk. The coagulation of dust led to the settling of aggregates toward the midplane of the disk, where they grew further into asteroid-like planetesimals. Some of the issues still remaining in this process are the onset of gravitational instability, the role of turbulence in the damping of particles and radial effects. In this study the focus will be with the role of turbulence and the radial effects.

Dacles-Mariani, Jennifer

1999-01-01

244

Probabilistic Analysis of Impact of Wake Vortices on Closely-Spaced Parallel Approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the primary constraints on the capacity of the nation's air transportation system is the landing capacity of its largest airports. Many airports with closely spaced parallel runways suffer a severe runway acceptance rate when the weather conditions do not allow full utilization of these parallel runways. The present requirement for simultaneous independent landings in Instrument Meteorological Conditions, IMC, is at least 4300 feet of lateral runway spacing (as close as 3000 feet for runways with a Precision Runway Monitor). Operations in Visual Meteorological Conditions, VMC, to Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches only require a lateral runway spacing greater than 750 feet. A study by Hardy and Lewis integrated and extended earlier studies and concepts in lateral traffic separation, longitudinal station keeping, wake prediction, wake display, and the concepts of R N P into a preliminary system concept for Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches in IMC. This system allows IMC airport acceptance rates to approach those for VMC. The system concept that was developed, presented traffic and wake information on the NAVigation Display, NAV, and developed operational procedures for a mix of conventional and Runway Independent Aircraft with different approach speeds to Closely Spaced Parallel Runways. This paper first describes some improvements made on the technology needed to better predict and formulate a probabilistic representation for the time-dependent motion and spreading of the hazardous region associated with the lift-generated vortex wakes of preceding aircraft. In this way, the time at which the vortex wakes of leading aircraft intrude into the airspace of adjacent flight-corridor/runway combinations can be more reliably predicted. Such a prediction is needed because it determines restraints to be placed on in-trail separation distances; or, the allowable time intervals between aircraft executing nearly simultaneous landings or takeoffs on very closely-spaced runways. Improved estimates of wake spreading are achieved by inclusion of representations in the equations for wake spreading due to ambient turbulence and due to the long-wave instability of a vortex pair. Wake motion and spreading due to the time-averaged wind and its variations with time, are retained. The more detailed representation of wake spreading presented here permits the development of probabilistically-based uncertainty estimates for wake spreading. Measurements needed within actual aircraft wake vortices to validate and support this analysis are also described. The second part of the paper uses the improvements in the accuracy of the location of wake vortices to extend the preliminary system concept for Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches described earlier with more robust operational procedures. Additionally, improvements in longitudinal station keeping, wake display, and risk assessment methodologies are incorporated and described.

Hardy, Gordon H.; Rossow, Vernon J.; Meyn, Larry A.

2005-01-01

245

Demonstration of rapid-scan two-dimensional laser velocimetry in the Langley Vortex Research Facility for research in aerial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted to demonstrate a rapid scan two dimensional laser velocimeter (LV) measurement technique for aerial applications research. The LV system is capable of simultaneously measuring both vertical and axial flow velocity components in a near or far field vortex system. Velocity profiles were successfully measured in the wake vortex of a representative agricultural aircraft model, with the vortex system rapidly transporting in ground effect. Results indicate that the laser velocimetry technique can provide quantitative information of wake vortex characteristics in ground effect.

Gartrell, L. R.; Jordan, F. L., Jr.

1977-01-01

246

Exploration of Terminal Procedures Enabled by NASA Wake VAS Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) tasked The MITRE Corporation's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (CAASD) to investigate potential air traffic control (ATC) procedures that could benefit from technology used or developed in NASA's Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS). The task also required developing an estimate of the potential benefits of the candidate procedures. The main thrust of the investigation was to evaluate opportunities for improved capacity and efficiency in airport arrival and departure operations. Other procedures that would provide safety enhancements were also considered. The purpose of this investigation was to provide input to the WakeVAS program office regarding the most promising areas of development for the program. A two-fold perspective was desired: First, identification of benefits from possible procedures enabled by both incremental components and the mature state of WakeVAS technology; second identification of procedures that could be expected to evolve from the current Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) procedures. The evolution of procedures should provide meaningful increments of benefit and a low risk implementation of the WakeVAS technologies.

Lunsford, Clark R.; Smith, Arthur P., III; Cooper, Wayne W., Jr.; Mundra, Anand D.; Gross, Amy E.; Audenaerd, Laurence F.; Killian, Bruce E.

2004-01-01

247

Radar Reflectivity in Wingtip-Generated Wake Vortices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents new predictive models of radar reflectivity, with meter-scale resolution, for aircraft wakes in clear air and fog. The models result from a radar design program to locate and quantify wake vortices from commercial aircraft in support of the NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). The radar reflectivity model for clear air assumes: 1) turbulent eddies in the wake produce small discontinuities in radar refractive index; and 2) these turbulent eddies are in the 'inertial subrange' of turbulence. From these assumptions, the maximum radar frequency for detecting a particular aircraft wake, as well as the refractive index structure constant and radar volume reflectivity in the wake can be obtained from the NASA Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) output. For fog conditions, an empirical relationship is used to calculate radar reflectivity factor from TASS output of bulk liquid water. Currently, two models exist: 1) Atlas-based on observations of liquid water and radar reflectivity factor in clouds; and 2) de Wolf- specifically tailored to a specific measured dataset (1992 Vandenberg Air Force Base).

Marshall, Robert E.; Mudukutore, Ashok; Wissel, Vicki

1997-01-01

248

Turbulent Wake Profiles of an Aeroelastic Wind Energy Converter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ahmadi (1979), used the principle of torsional aeroelastic instability and created the Aeroelastic Wind Energy Converter. This Converter is an H-section prism with a pendulum to increase the mass and lowering the natural frequency of the system. By placing a rectifier on the system a small amount of electrical power can be created to power remote equipment i.e., remote sensors. This device has the ability to create power at very low wind speeds when ordinary wind turbines are unproductive. By modulating the torsional frequency, the frequency of the vortex shedding and amplitude of the system can be changed to maximize the power output as the air speed changes. To improve the design, a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system was used to study the turbulent wake profile of the converter. In the first case that was studied, the H- section’s steady wake profile was examined, i.e., no torsional vibration occured, but the angle of attack was changed from -30 deg. to 30 deg. at 5 deg intervals. In the second case, the H section’s unsteady wake profile was examined, i.e., a torsional vibration was produced with an angle of attack ranging from -30 deg. to 30 deg. A comparison between the turbulent wake profiles, at the same angle of attack, was made to understand the difference between theses cases. Also a comparison between the angle of attack and direction of travel was made to understand the unsteady wake better.

Schmit, Ryan; Glauser, Mark; Ahmadi, Goodarz

1999-11-01

249

Passive control of wake flow by two small control cylinders at Reynolds number 80  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive control of the wake behind a circular cylinder in uniform flow is studied by numerical simulation at ReD=80. Two small control cylinders are placed symmetrically along the separating shear layers at various stream locations. In the present study, the detailed flow mechanisms that lead to a significant reduction in the fluctuating lift but maintain the shedding vortex street are

C.-H. Kuo; C.-C. Chen

2009-01-01

250

A Study of Slender Bluff-Body Reacting Wakes Formed by Concurrent or Countercurrent Fuel Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presents an investigation of turbulent propane flames stabilized by planar injection across the span of a square cylinder, either from its leading face against the approach flow or directly into its vortex formation region. The non-premixed or partially premixed reacting wakes were studied by regulating the fuel injection level and position. Turbulent velocities, temperatures, CH*, flame images, and

P. Koutmos; K. Souflas

2012-01-01

251

Measurement of parallel blade-vortex interaction at low Reynolds numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study parallel blade-vortex interaction for a Schmidt-propeller configuration has been examined using particle image velocimetry (PIV). This tandem configuration consists of a leading airfoil (forefoil), used to generate a vortical wake of leading-edge vortices (LEVs) and trailing-edge vortices (TEVs) through a pitching or plunging motion, and a trailing airfoil (hindfoil), held fixed with a specified angle of attack and vertical spacing in its wake. The hindfoil incidence (loading) and not the vertical spacing to the incoming vortical wake has been found to dictate the nature of the interaction (inviscid vs. viscous). For cases where the vortex-blade offset is small and the hindfoil is loaded, vortex distortion and vortex-induced separations are observed. By tracking the circulation of the LEV and TEV, it has been found that the vortices are strengthened for the tandem arrangement and in certain cases dissipate quicker in the wake when interacting with the hindfoil. Time-averaged forces obtained using a standard control-volume analysis are then obtained and used to evaluate these vortex-interaction cases. A subsequent analysis of the varying pressure distribution over the suction side of the hindfoil is performed by integrating the Navier-Stokes equations through the velocity field. This allows for a direct comparison of the vortex-induced loading for the various configurations.

Rival, David; Manejev, Roland; Tropea, Cam

2010-07-01

252

Efficient Prediction of Helicopter BVI Noise under Different Conditions of Wake and Blade Deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predictions of helicopter BVI noise using three-dimensional Euler code with a single blade grid are conducted under three different conditions: BVI noise caused by (1) interaction between rotating blades and vortex shed from fixed wing vortex generator, (2) interaction between rotating blades and tip vortices shed from preceding blades, and (3) interaction between rotating blades with elastic deformation and shed tip vortices. In the CFD calculation, the Field Velocity Approach (FVA) and Scully’s vortex model are used to import the wake information into the calculation grid and to determine the induced velocity made by tip vortices, respectively (cases 1 3). Beddoes generalized wake model is used to prescribe the tip vortices position in the wake (cases 2 and 3). Information about blade elastic deformation is imported from HART II project experimental data into the calculation (case 3). Acoustic analyses based on Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) equation are conducted subsequently in each case. The results from the calculations show good agreement with experiments in all three cases, indicating that application of FVA, Scully’s model, and Beddoes generalized wake model is effective for BVI noise prediction in this study, which is intended for low calculation cost using a single blade grid. Also, use of blade elastic deformation data in the calculation shows marked improvement in calculation precision. Consequently, the method used in this study can predict BVI noise under various conditions of wake or blade deformation with acceptable precision and low calculation cost.

Inada, Yoshinobu; Yang, Choongmo; Iwanaga, Noriki; Aoyama, Takashi

253

Flicker vortex structures in multiferroic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer simulation of ferroelastic materials reveals dynamic polar vortex structures related to flexo-electricity between cation and anion lattices. At finite temperatures, the vortices are found to flicker in time and space. Widely spaced ferroelastic twin boundaries nucleate vortices while dense twin boundaries suppress them. The time averaged number of vortices at any site decays exponentially, indicating the highly mobile dynamics of the vortex lattice. Applied electric fields break the rotational symmetry of vortices and finally destroy them. The total number density of vortices follows a field and temperature dependence as N(E)=N0/[1+A exp(E/k(T-TVF))] with TVF < 0. The observed vortex structures are akin to those observed in magnetic and superconducting disordered vortex lattices.

Zhao, Z.; Ding, X.; Salje, E. K. H.

2014-09-01

254

Wind tunnel investigation on wind turbine wakes and wind farms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between atmospheric boundary layer and wind farms leads to flow modifications, which need to be deeply characterized in order to relate them to wind farm performance. The wake flow produced from a wind farm is the result of a strong interaction between multiple turbine wakes, so that the wind farm configuration turns out to be one of the dominant features to enhance power production. For the present work a wind tunnel investigation was carried out with hot-wire anemometry and velocity measurements performed with multi-hole pressure probes. The tested wind farms consist of miniature three-bladed wind turbine models. Preliminarily, the wake flow generated from a single wind turbine is surveyed, which is characterized by a strong velocity defect lying in proximity of the wind turbine hub height. The wake gradually recovers by moving downstream; the characteristics of the incoming boundary layer and wind turbulence intensity can strongly affect the wake recovery, and thus performance of following wind turbines. An increased turbulence level is typically detected downstream of each wind turbine for heights comparable to the wind turbine blade top-tip. These wake flow fluctuations produce increased fatigue loads on the following wind turbines within a wind farm, which could represent a significant hazard for real wind turbines. Dynamics of vorticity structures present in wind turbine wakes are also investigated; particular attention is paid to the downstream evolution of the tip helicoidal vortices and to oscillations of the hub vortex. The effect of wind farm layout on power production is deeply investigated. Particular emphasis is placed on studying how the flow adjusts as it moves inside the wind farm and can affect the power production. Aligned and staggered wind farm configurations are analysed, also with varying separation distances in the streamwise and spanwise directions. The present experimental results are being used to test and guide the development of improved parameterizations of wind turbines in high-resolution numerical models, such as large-eddy simulations (LES).

Iungo, G. V.; Coëffé, J.; Porté-Agel, F.

2012-04-01

255

Measured Changes in C-Band Radar Reflectivity of Clear Air Caused by Aircraft Wake Vortices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wake vortices from a C-130 airplane were observed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility with a ground-based, monostatic C-band radar and an antenna-mounted boresight video camera. The airplane wake was viewed from a distance of approximately 1 km, and radar scanning was adjusted to cross a pair of marker smoke trails generated by the C-130. For each airplane pass, changes in radar reflectivity were calculated by subtracting the signal magnitudes during an initial clutter scan from the signal magnitudes during vortex-plus-clutter scans. The results showed both increases and decreases in reflectivity on and near the smoke trails in a characteristic sinusoidal pattern of heightened reflectivity in the center and lessened reflectivity at the sides. Reflectivity changes in either direction varied from -131 to -102 dBm(exp -1); the vortex-plus-clutter to noise ratio varied from 20 to 41 dB. The radar recordings lasted 2.5 min each; evidence of wake vortices was found for up to 2 min after the passage of the airplane. Ground and aircraft clutter were eliminated as possible sources of the disturbance by noting the occurrence of vortex signatures at different positions relative to the ground and the airplane. This work supports the feasibility of vortex detection by radar, and it is recommended that future radar vortex detection be done with Doppler systems.

Mackenzie, Anne I.

1997-01-01

256

POD analysis of a finite-length cylinder near wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The near wake of a wall-mounted finite-length square cylinder with an aspect ratio of 7 is investigated based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the PIV data measured in three spanwise planes, i.e., z/ d = 6, 3.5 and 1.0, near the cylinder free end, mid-span and fixed end (wall), respectively. The Reynolds number based on free-stream velocity ( U ?) and cylinder width ( d) is 9,300. A two-dimensional (2D) square cylinder wake is also measured and analyzed at the same Reynolds number for the purpose of comparison. The structures of various POD modes show marked differences between the two flows. While the coefficients, a 1 and a 2, of the POD modes 1 and 2 occur within an annular area centered at a 1 = a 2 = 0 in the 2D wake, their counterparts are scattered all over the entire circular plane at z/ d = 1.0 and 3.5 of the finite-length cylinder wake. Flow at z/ d = 6 is dominated by POD mode 1, which corresponds to symmetrical vortex shedding and accounts for 54.0 % of the total turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). On the other hand, the POD modes 1 and 2, corresponding to anti-symmetrical vortex shedding, are predominant, accounting for about 45.0 % of the total TKE, at z/ d = 3.5 and 1. It has been found that the flow structure may be qualitatively and quantitatively characterized by the POD coefficients. For example, at z/ d = 6, a larger a 1 corresponds to a smaller length of flow reversal zone and a stronger downwash flow. At z/ d = 3.5 and 1, two typical flow modes can be identified from a 1 and a 2. While large a 1 and/or a 2 correspond to anti-symmetrical vortex shedding, as in a 2D cylinder wake, small a 1 and a 2 lead to symmetrical vortex shedding. Any values between the large and small a 1 and/or a 2 correspond to the flow structure between these two typical flow modes. As such, the probability of occurrence of a flow structure may be determined from the distribution of the POD coefficients.

Wang, H. F.; Cao, H. L.; Zhou, Y.

2014-08-01

257

Effects of Chemistry on Blunt-Body Wake Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a numerical study are presented for hypersonic low-density flow about a 70-deg blunt cone using direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) and Navier-Stokes calculations. Particular emphasis is given to the effects of chemistry on the near-wake structure and on the surface quantities and the comparison of the DSMC results with the Navier-Stokes calculations. The flow conditions simulated are those experienced by a space vehicle at an altitude of 85 km and a velocity of 7 km/s during Earth entry. A steady vortex forms in the near wake for these freestream conditions for both chemically reactive and nonreactive air gas models. The size (axial length) of the vortex for the reactive air calculations is 25% larger than that of the nonreactive air calculations. The forebody surface quantities are less sensitive to the chemistry than the base surface quantities. The presence of the afterbody has no effect on the forebody flow structure or the surface quantities. The comparisons of DSMC and Navier-Stokes calculations show good agreement for the wake structure and the forebody surface quantities.

Dogra, Virendra K.; Moss, James N.; Wilmoth, Richard G.; Taylor, Jeff C.; Hassan, H. A.

1995-01-01

258

Vortex Flow Aerodynamics, volume 1  

SciTech Connect

Vortex modeling techniques and experimental studies of research configurations utilizing vortex flows are discussed. Also discussed are vortex flap investigations using generic and airplane research models and vortex flap theoretical analysis and design studies.

Campbell, J.F.; Osborn, R.F.; Foughner, J.T. Jr.

1986-07-01

259

Brain Wake-Ups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wake-Up_Brain - Fire up those synapses each Monday morning. It's Monday morning and caffeine is slowly percolating into your system but your brain is still covered with weekend sludge. You need something to get those synapses firing, a brain booster to stimulate those billions of gray matter cells. You need Good Morning Thinkers! ... an absolutely free brain wake-up service offered to you by the Innovative Thinking Network, a professional membership association of leaders forging the revitalization of organizations through the powerful use of Innovation, Creativity and Group Thinking Skills. Every Monday morning subscribers receive a short, light-hearted message designed to help wipe away the fog and open the door to more powerful, creative thinking.

1997-01-01

260

Wake field acceleration experiments  

SciTech Connect

Where and how will wake field acceleration devices find use for other than, possibly, accelerators for high energy physics. I don't know that this can be responsibly answered at this time. What I can do is describe some recent results from an ongoing experimental program at Argonne which support the idea that wake field techniques and devices are potentially important for future accelerators. Perhaps this will spawn expanded interest and even new ideas for the use of this new technology. The Argonne program, and in particular the Advanced Accelerator Test Facility (AATF), has been reported in several fairly recent papers and reports. But because this is a substantially new audience for the subject, I will include a brief review of the program and the facility before describing experiments. 10 refs., 7 figs.

Simpson, J.D.

1988-01-01

261

A full potential flow analysis with realistic wake influence for helicopter rotor airload prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 3-D, quasi-steady, full potential flow solver was adapted to include realistic wake influence for the aerodynamic analysis of helicopter rotors. The method is based on a finite difference solution of the full potential equation, using an inner and outer domain procedure for the blade flowfield to accommodate wake effects. The nonlinear flow is computed in the inner domain region using a finite difference solution method. The wake is modeled by a vortex lattice using prescribed geometry techniques to allow for the inclusion of realistic rotor wakes. The key feature of the analysis is that vortices contained within the finite difference mesh (inner domain) were treated with a vortex embedding technique while the influence of the remaining portion of the wake (in the outer domain) is impressed as a boundary condition on the outer surface of the finite difference mesh. The solution procedure couples the wake influence with the inner domain solution in a consistent and efficient solution process. The method has been applied to both hover and forward flight conditions. Correlation with subsonic and transonic hover airload data is shown which demonstrates the merits of the approach.

Egolf, T. Alan; Sparks, S. Patrick

1987-01-01

262

Large-scale structures in dipole and quadrupole wakes of a wall-mounted finite rectangular cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale quasi-periodic vortex structures shed behind a wall-mounted rectangular cylinder were reconstructed from conditional averaging of several planar particle image velocimetry measurements based on the phase of the pressure at the cylinder surface. The measurements were taken for a square cross-section cylinder with height-to-width ratio of h/d = 8 partially immersed in two nominally thin turbulent boundary layers of thickness-to-height ratios of ?/h = 0.09 and 0.32. The Reynolds number based on the diameter was 12,000. For the thinner boundary layer in the time-averaged wake, one stream wise vortex pair was present at the free end (dipole wake) while for the thicker boundary layer, another pair was also observed at the wall junction (quadrupole wake). The detailed description of the shed structures giving rise to these time-averaged vortex pairs indicates more complex connections than previously proposed arch-type structures, which implies different vortex dynamic processes in the wake. The structures obtained for the dipole and quadrupole wakes were similar at the free end but significantly different at the junction resulting in distinct imprint on the mean and turbulent fields.

Hosseini, Z.; Bourgeois, J. A.; Martinuzzi, R. J.

2013-09-01

263

Dynamics of A Vortex Pair In Shear Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics (more specifically, stability) of infinite sequences of such vortex pairs that initially have the form of a Karman street in a jet-type shear flow is investigated Such a geometry is most directly related to the wake behind a streamlined cylinder We assume that the characteristic scale of velocity variation in a shear flow is much larger than the sizes of vortex spots. This means that each vortex spot during its evolution is always in a flow with an almost linear velocity distribution and first of all undergoes general drift and weak (primarily elliptic due to its linear profile of the flow veloc- ity) deformation of its shape. In this formulation the problem can be solved using a previously developed perturbation theory for hydrodynamic vortices. It is shown that variations of the parameters of the chess structure and the value of the velocity of the jet are interdependent. For instance, at short times when the jet velocity is relative large , all vortices remain almost on the same line while in the late wake, when the jet slows down, the vortices form the chess structure.. Such vortex sheets were indeed observed in [[ Spedding G. R., Browand F. K., Fincham A. M. Turbulence, similar- ity scaling and vortex geometry in the wake of a towed sphere in a stably stratified fluid. J. Fluid Mech., 1996, v.31410]. Note that possible initial, short-lived large-scale perturbations were not realised under the experimental conditions of. , presumably because of the limited size of the tank. This in itself implies a concentration of flow in horizontal plane. Still, to make a positive conclusion, a more thorough analysis is needed including study of the effect of the vortex sheet onto the jet flow.

Gorshkov, K. A.; Soustova, I. A.

264

B-747 in Flight during Vortex Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this 1974 NASA Flight Research Center photograph, a Boeing B-747 jetliner is shown taking part in the trailing wake vortex study. In the photograph, the two wing tip vortex trails, being the strongest, stay in tight cylindrical rolls. The 'strength' of the vortices decreases toward the midspan of each wing, and the trails become less defined. In 1974 the NASA Flight Research Center (later Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California) used a Boeing 747 as part of the overall NASA study of trailing vortices. Trailing vortices are the invisible flow of spiraling air that trails from the wings of large aircraft and can 'upset' smaller aircraft flying behind them. The 747 that NASA used was on loan from the Johnson Space Center where it was part of the Space Shuttle Program. The data gathered in the 747 studies complemented data from the previous (1973-74) joint NASA Flight Research Center and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Boeing727 wake vortices study. Six smoke generators were installed under the wings of the 747 to provide a visual image of the trailing vortices. The object of the experiments was to test different configurations and mechanical devices on the747 that could be used to break up or lessen the strength of the vortices. The results of the tests could lead to shorter spacing between landings and takeoffs, which, in turn, could alleviate air-traffic congestion. For approximately 30 flights the 747 was flown using various combinations of wing air spoilers in an attempt to reduce wake vortices. To evaluate the effectiveness of the different configurations, chase aircraft were flown into the vortex sheets to probe their strengths and patterns at different times. Two of the chase planes used were the Flight Research Center's Cessna T-37 and the NASA Ames Research Center's Learjet. These aircraft represented the types of smaller business jets and other small aircraft that might encounter large passenger aircraft on approach or landings around major airports or in flight. Tests without the 747's wing spoilers deployed produced violent 'upset' problems for the T-37 aircraft at a distance of approximately 3 miles. From the magnitude of the problems found, distances of as much as ten miles might be required if spoilers were not used. With two spoilers on the outer wing panels, the T-37 could fly at a distance of three miles and not experience the 'upset' problem. The wake vortex study continued even after the 747 was returned to its primary mission of carrying the Space Shuttle.

1974-01-01

265

The propeller tip vortex. A possible contributor to aircraft cabin noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the assumption is generally made that cabin noise levels are governed by the transmission of propeller generated noise through the fuselage sidewall, it was postulated that the propeller wake striking the wing, in particular pressure disturbances generated downstream of the propeller by the action of the propeller tip vortex, could be strong enough to excite the aircraft structure and contribute to the cabin noise level. Tests conducted to measure the strength of the propeller tip vortex support this hypothesis. It was found that the propeller tip vortex can produce a fluctuation pressure on a simulated wing surface in the wake of a propeller that exceeds by more than 15 dB the maximum direct noise that would strike the fuselage. Wing surface response to propeller tip vortex induced excitations, and the effectiveness of this response in radiating noise to the cabin interior, must be established to assess the full significance of these results.

Miller, B. A.; Dittmar, J. H.; Jeracki, R. J.

1981-01-01

266

Predicted vortex shedding from noncircular bodies in supersonic flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method to predict nose vortex shedding from circular and noncircular bodies in supersonic flow at angles of attack and roll is presented. The body is represented by a supersonic panel method, and the lee side vortex wake is modeled by discrete vortices in crossflow planes. The three-dimensional steady flow problem is reduced to a two-dimensional, unsteady, separated flow problem for solution. Comparison of measured and predicted surface pressure distributions, flow field surveys, and aerodynamic characteristics are presented for circular and elliptic bodies.

Mendenhall, M. R.

1980-01-01

267

Wake in faint television meteors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two component dustball model was used in numerical lag computation. Detached grain lag is typically less than 2 km, with expected wakes of a few hundred meters. True wake in television meteors is masked by apparent wake due to the combined effects of image persistence and blooming. To partially circumvent this problem, we modified a dual MCP intensified CID video system by addition of a rotating shutter to reduce the effective exposure time to about 2.0 ms. Preliminary observations showed that only 2 of 27 analyzed meteors displayed statistically significant wake.

Robertson, M. C.; Hawkes, Robert L.

1992-01-01

268

The Effects of Aircraft Wake Dynamics on Contrail Development.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of large-eddy simulations of the development of young persistent ice contrails are presented, concentrating on the interactions between the aircraft wake dynamics and the ice cloud evolution over ages from a few seconds to 30 min. The 3D unsteady evolution of the dispersing engine exhausts, trailing vortex pair interaction and breakup, and subsequent Brunt-Väisälä oscillations of the older wake plume are modeled in detail in high-resolution simulations, coupled with a bulk microphysics model for the contrail ice development. The simulations confirm that the early wake dynamics can have a strong influence on the properties of persistent contrails even at late times. The vortex dynamics are the primary determinant of the vertical extent of the contrail (until precipitation becomes significant); and this together with the local wind shear largely determines the horizontal extent. The ice density, ice crystal number density, and a conserved exhaust tracer all develop and disperse in different fashions from each other. The total ice crystal number can be significantly reduced due to adiabatic compression resulting from the downward motion of the vortex system, even for ambient conditions that are substantially supersaturated with respect to ice. The fraction of the initial ice crystals surviving, their spatial distribution, and the ice mass distribution are all sensitive to the aircraft type, ambient humidity, assumed initial ice crystal number, and ambient turbulence conditions. There is a significant range of conditions for which a smaller transport such as a B737 produces as significant a persistent contrail as a larger transport such as a B747, even though the latter consumes almost five times as much fuel. The difficulties involved in trying to minimize persistent contrail production are discussed.

Lewellen, D. C.; Lewellen, W. S.

2001-02-01

269

Suppression of Kelvon-induced decay of quantized vortices in oblate Bose-Einstein Condensates  

E-print Network

We study the Kelvin mode excitations on a vortex line in a three-dimensional trapped Bose-Einstein condensate at finite temperature. Our stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii simulations show that the activation of these modes can be suppressed by tightening the confinement along the direction of the vortex line, leading to a strong suppression in the vortex decay rate as the system enters a regime of two-dimensional vortex dynamics. As the system approaches the condensation transition temperature we find that the vortex decay rate is strongly sensitive to dimensionality and temperature, observing a large enhancement for quasi-two-dimensional traps. Three-dimensional simulations of the recent vortex dipole decay experiment of Neely et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 160401 (2010)] confirm two-dimensional vortex dynamics, and predict a dipole lifetime consistent with experimental observations and suppression of Kelvon-induced vortex decay in highly oblate condensates.

S. J. Rooney; P. B. Blakie; B. P. Anderson; A. S. Bradley

2011-05-05

270

Wake-Up Call  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The main character of this case is Denise, who we first meet in the early morning hours as she wakes up in a cold sweat, gasping for breath. But it is her husband, Jeremy, who has been diagnosed with heart disease, not her. What’s going on? In this interrupted case study, in which the other main character is Denise’s heart (who we get to know through a series of “interior” monologues), students learn about the risk factors, symptoms, and consequences of a heart attack. The case is suitable for a course in pathophysiology, first year nursing, enzymology, advanced biology or anatomy, or nutrition.

Rubin, Lisa M.; Herreid, Clyde F.

2002-01-01

271

New free-wake analysis of rotorcraft hover performance using influence coefficients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Free-wake analyses of helicopter rotor wakes in hover using time stepping have been shown to encounter instabilities which preclude convergence to valid free-vortex solutions for rotor-wake geometries. Previous work has demonstrated that these convergence difficulties can be overcome by implementing a new free-wake analysis method based on the use of influence coefficients. The present paper reviews this approach and documents its incorporation into a hover performance analysis called Evaluation of Hover Performance using Influence Coefficients (EHPIC). The technical principles underlying the EHPIC code are described with emphasis on steps taken to develop the single-filament wake models used in previous work into a multifilament wake valid for realistic hover performance predictions. The coupling of the wake model to a lifting surface loads analysis is described, and sample problems are solved that illustrate the robustness of the method. Performance calculations are also undertaken for hover to illustrate the utility of EHPIC in the analysis of rotorcraft performance.

Quackenbush, Todd R.; Wachspress, Daniel A.; Bliss, Donald B.

1989-01-01

272

Effect of forcing on the vorticity field in a confined wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recent studies have found that when a low Reynolds number, plane wake is forced with sufficient amplitude, the normalized mixing product, measured as the amount of mixed fluid per unit width of the wake, can be increased to levels larger than those seen in high Reynolds number mixing layers. However, no studies examining the velocity and vorticity fields of this flow have been conducted. The present study examines the velocity and vorticity field of a low Reynolds number plane wake within a confining channel in order to better understand the vortex-vortex and vortex-wall interactions in order to shed light on the mechanisms which lead to increases in the amount of mixed fluid within the wake. Molecular Tagging Velocimetry (MTV) is used to measure the velocity field in both the streamwise (u, v velocities in x, y plane) and cross-stream (v, w velocities in y, z plane) measurement planes. The spanwise and streamwise vorticity components are then computed from their respective velocity fields. Measurements in the streamwise plane have found that a distinct spatial periodicity exists in the urms field that is not found in either the unforced case or in unconfined forced flows. A model was developed which relates this spatial periodicity to the phase difference between the forcing input and the rolling up of the vorticity shed from the splitter plate. From these data, it was also determined that the phase at which vorticity is shed is dependent upon the forcing amplitude. The forced wake flow is dominated by the shedding of concentrated, spanwise vortex core rollers. As these cores develop downstream, the levels of peak vorticity within the core decrease. A very small amount of -6w/6z is sufficient to generate a very large decrease in peak vorticity levels. This same quantity has also been found to be a good predictor of the spatial location where mixing enhancement will occur in the forced wake. Mixing enhancement is accomplished by the generation of regions of streamwise vorticity from the reorientation of the primary spanwise vortex cores. A model was developed which describes how these cores develop. The multiple regions of streamwise vorticity are the result of the passage and reorientation of multiple spanwise rollers. These reoriented "legs" of streamwise vorticity interact with the regions of streamwise vorticity resulting from the passage of previous spanwise vortex rollers to generate the additional surface area necessary for mixing enhancement. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Cohn, Richard Keith

1999-11-01

273

Effect of ground and ceiling planes on shape of energized wakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Energized wakes expelled by devices like thrust augmentors, propellers and rotors are studied theoretically in order to explore how their shape changes as they interact with ground and ceiling planes. It is found that when the airstream is stationary and the vehicle in hover, the presence of a ceiling plane causes an energized wake to constrict even more than when in an unbounded medium. The presence of a ground plane is found to cause the wake to constrict less than in free space. The computations also show that the vortex sheets first move inward before moving downward. Along their trajectory, the vortex sheets that separate the energized fluid from the ambient fluid have a nearly constant strength and velocity which indicates that the velocity just inside the wake is approximately constant. When a velocity is given to the wind tunnel airstream, the forward edge of the wake first rises and then descends so that it spends more time in the vicinity of the actuator disk. Implications of these results on measurements obtained in wind tunnels are discussed.

Rossow, Vernon J.

1993-01-01

274

Electron vortex orbits and merger  

SciTech Connect

Pure electron plasma columns are contained inside hollow conducting cylinders in an axial magnetic field. In the 2D {ital E}{bold {times}}{ital B} drift approximation, an electron column is a vortex evolving in ({ital r},{theta}) according to the Euler equation. First the center-of-mass orbits of two vortices sufficiently well-separated to be stable to merger are characterized. Equilibria are observed in which the vortices orbit about the center of the cylinder, with either oscillations about stable equilibria or exponential divergence away from unstable equilibria. The equilibrium positions, oscillation frequencies, and instability rates for these spatially extended vortices agree well with the predictions of point vortex theory, apparently because surface waves and shape distortions do not couple significantly to the center-of-mass motion. Next, the merger of two vortices with unequal radii is quantified. Merger is accompanied by the formation of filamentary arms, and results ultimately in an axisymmetric central core surrounded by a lower density halo. The self-energy of the merged core is found to be roughly the sum of the self-energy of the merging vortices. The fraction of the total circulation entrained into the core varies from 70{percent} to 90{percent} as the ratio of the initial vortex radii is varied from 1:1 to 2:1. The point-like vortex dynamics and the circulation loss with merger are both consistent with the {open_quote}{open_quote}punctuated Hamiltonian{close_quote}{close_quote} models of decaying turbulence. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Mitchell, T.B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Driscoll, C.F. [Department of Physics 0319, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0319 (United States)] [Department of Physics 0319, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0319 (United States)

1996-07-01

275

Vortex Tilting and the Enhancement of Spanwise Flow in Flapping Flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The leading edge vortex is key in lift generation on flapping wings. Its stability depends on the transport of the entrained vorticity into the wake via spanwise flow. This study investigates the generation and enhancement of spanwise flow based on the chordwise vorticity that results from the tilting of the leading edge vortex and trailing edge vortex. Two dynamically scaled robotic model wings, one rectangular and one insect wing shaped based on Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), are submerged in a tank of mineral oil and actuated into flapping motion. The overall flow structure was visualized and measured by a Volumetric 3-component Velocimetry (V3V) system (TSI, Inc.). From the three dimensional flow measurements obtained, the chordwise vorticity resulting from the vortex tilting is shown. The distribution of the resulting spanwise flow induced by the vortex tilting is shown using isosurfaces and on a planar cross section downstream of the leading edge. It is observed that the largest spanwise flow is located in the area between the tilted leading edge vortex and the tilted trailing edge vortex, supporting our hypothesis that the vortex tilting enhances the spanwise flow. This vortex tilting mechanisms helps to explain the overall flow structure and the stability of the leading edge vortex.

Frank, Spencer; Barbera, Giovanni; Cheng, Bo; Deng, Xinyan

2011-11-01

276

Development and application of a method for predicting rotor free wake positions and resulting rotor blade air loads. Volume 1: Model and results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rotor wake geometries are predicted by a process similar to the startup of a rotor in a free stream. An array of discrete trailing and shed vortices is generated with vortex strengths corresponding to stepwise radial and azimuthal blade circulations. The array of shed and trailing vortices is limited to an arbitrary number of azimuthal steps behind each blade. The remainder of the wake model of each blade is an arbitrary number of trailing vortices. Vortex element end points were allowed to be transported by the resultant velocity of the free stream and vortex-induced velocities. Wake geometry, wake flow, and wake-induced velocity influence coefficients are generated by this program for use in the blade loads portion of the calculations. Blade loads computations include the effects of nonuniform inflow due to a free wake, nonlinear airfoil characteristics, and response of flexible blades to the applied loads. Computed wake flows and blade loads are compared with experimentally measured data. Predicted blade loads, response and shears and moments are obtained for a model rotor system having two independent rotors. The effects of advance ratio, vertical separation of rotors, different blade radius ratios, and different azimuthal spacing of the blades of one rotor with respect to the other are investigated.

Sadler, S. G.

1971-01-01

277

B-747 in Flight during Vortex Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two chase aircraft, a Learjet and a Cessna T-37, are shown in formation with a Boeing B-747 jetliner in this 1974 NASA Flight Research Center (FRC) photograph. The two chase aircraft were used to probe the trailing wake vortices generated by the airflow around the wings of the B-747 aircraft. The vortex trails were made visible by smoke generators mounted under the wings of the B-747 aircraft. In 1974 the NASA Flight Research Center (later Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California) used a Boeing 747 as part of the overall NASA study of trailing vortices. Trailing vortices are the invisible flow of spiraling air that trails from the wings of large aircraft and can 'upset' smaller aircraft flying behind them. The 747 that NASA used was on loan from the Johnson Space Center where it was part of the Space Shuttle Program. The data gathered in the 747 studies complemented data from the previous (1973-74) joint NASA Flight Research Center and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Boeing727 wake vortices study. Six smoke generators were installed under the wings of the 747 to provide a visual image of the trailing vortices. The object of the experiments was to test different configurations and mechanical devices on the747 that could be used to break up or lessen the strength of the vortices. The results of the tests could lead to shorter spacing between landings and takeoffs, which, in turn, could alleviate air-traffic congestion. For approximately 30 flights the 747 was flown using various combinations of wing air spoilers in an attempt to reduce wake vortices. To evaluate the effectiveness of the different configurations, chase aircraft were flown into the vortex sheets to probe their strengths and patterns at different times. Two of the chase planes used were the Flight Research Center's Cessna T-37 and the NASA Ames Research Center's Learjet. These aircraft represented the types of smaller business jets and other small aircraft that might encounter large passenger aircraft on approach or landings around major airports or in flight. Tests without the 747's wing spoilers deployed produced violent 'upset' problems for the T-37 aircraft at a distance of approximately 3 miles. From the magnitude of the problems found, distances of as much as ten miles might be required if spoilers were not used. With two spoilers on the outer wing panels, the T-37 could fly at a distance of three miles and not experience the 'upset' problem. The wake vortex study continued even after the 747 was returned to its primary mission of carrying the Space Shuttle.

1974-01-01

278

Effect of nonharmonic forcing on bluff-body vortex dynamics.  

PubMed

Forced nonharmonic excitation of the two-dimensional flow about a circular cylinder is studied by numerical simulations at mean Reynolds numbers of 180 and 150. Moderate deviations of the forced inflow velocity waveform from a pure harmonic generate different modes of phase-locked vortex formation in the cylinder wake, involving combinations of single and/or pairs of vortices for the same forcing frequency and peak-to-peak amplitude. The dynamical response of the wake oscillator is studied by employing phase portraits of the drag and lift coefficients that display modified limit-cycle behavior due to nonharmonic excitation. It is further shown that changing solely the velocity waveform can incite transition from a quasiperiodic state to a phase-locked state. The findings demonstrate that the wake oscillator is admissible to an infinite number of phase-locked and/or modulated states characterized by a single point on the frequency-amplitude plane. PMID:19518288

Konstantinidis, E; Bouris, D

2009-04-01

279

Interaction of a streamwise vortex with a turbulent mixing layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction of a single streamwise vortex with a plane turbulent mixing layer is experimentally studied. Initially, near the mixing layer origin, the vortex rides just below the layer and only affects the mixing layer properties near the bottom side of the mixing layer. Once the vortex starts to become embedded within the mixing layer and active interaction has begun, the effect of the vortex is to grossly distort the mean velocity and turbulence contours over the whole width of the mixing layer. The induced cross-flow velocities in the mixing layer result in the production of additional normal Reynolds stresses which in turn act with mean flow gradients to generate extra shear stresses. In particular, the secondary shear stress (SSS) achieves an absolute peak value equivalent to about 40 percent of the maximum primary shear stress. The position and decay of the SSS peak are then found to be strongly correlated with those of the streamwise vortex.

Bell, James H.; Mehta, Rabindra D.

1990-01-01

280

Exploratory wind-tunnel investigation of the effect of the main rotor wake on tail rotor noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approaches to minimizing the noise generated by the interaction of the tail rotor blades with the wake of the main rotor considered include repositioning of the tail rotor with respect to the main rotor, changes in the rotational direction of the tail rotor, and modification of the main rotor tip vortex. A variable geometry model was built which had the

R. J. Pegg; P. A. Shidler

1978-01-01

281

A Study of Slender Bluff Body Reacting Wakes Formed by ConCurrent or Counter-Current Fuel Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presents an investigation of turbulent propane flames stabilized by planar injection across the span of a square cylinder, either from its leading face against the approach flow or directly into its vortex formation region. The non- or partially- premixed reacting wakes were studied by regulating the fuel injection level and position. Turbulent velocities, temperatures, CH* and flame images

P. Koutmos; K. Souflas

2012-01-01

282

Wakes in inhomogeneous plasmas  

E-print Network

The Debye shielding of a charge immersed in a flowing plasma is an old classic problem in plasma physics. It has been given renewed attention in the last two decades in view of experiments with complex plasmas, where charged dust particles are often levitated in a region with strong ion flow. Efforts to describe the shielding of the dust particles in such conditions have been focused on the homogeneous plasma approximation, which ignores the substantial inhomogeneity of the levitation region. We address the role of the plasma inhomogeneity by rigorously calculating the point charge potential in the collisionless Bohm sheath. We demonstrate that the inhomogeneity can dramatically modify the wake, making it non-oscillatory and weaker.

Kompaneets, Roman; Nosenko, Vladimir; Morfill, Gregor E

2014-01-01

283

WEST SIDE OF WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WEST SIDE OF WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHEAST AT SOUTHWEST CORNER SHOWING OVERHANGS (01/02/2008) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

284

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT NORTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT NORTHWEST CORNER FROM ACROSS TARMAC (12/25/2007) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

285

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SOUTHEAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SOUTHEAST CORNER OF LOBBY OF BUILDING (12/29/2007) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

286

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHEAST AT WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHEAST AT WEST SIDE SHOWING FLAG, GUN, ENGINES (12/29/2007) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

287

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHEAST AT SOUTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHEAST AT SOUTHWEST CORNER FROM BEHIND CONTROL TOWER (12/28/2007) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

288

SOUTHWEST CORNER OF WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTHWEST CORNER OF WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST AT WEST FAÇADE WITH SCALE POLE (01/02/2008) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

289

Effects of impurities on wake chemical kinetics and electron density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper studies the effects of impurities on wake chemical kinetics and wake ionization. Such effects are examined through computation of wake flows composed of H2O, F2, CaF4, and Na-containing species added to the air constituents. A 26-species, 36-reaction chemical system is considered. An exact finite difference method for solving the axisymmetric boundary layer equations for chemical nonequilibrium wake flow is employed for both laminar and turbulent flows regions. In order to ascertain a variety of effects separately. nine different chemical subsystems of increasing complexity are treated. These are pure air, air-Na, air-F2, air-C2F4, air-F2-C2F4, air-H2O-Na, air-F2-Na, air-C2F4-Na, and air-C2F4-F2-Na. Calculated results demonstrate that impurities exert significant influences on wake ionization. Sodium can enhance electron concentration of pure air by 1-3 orders of magnitude and the electron decay mechanism of the air-C2F4 chemical subsystem results in production of negative F ions and removes most of the electrons.

Zhou, Xuehua

1992-09-01

290

Direct Monte Carlo Simulations of Hypersonic Low-Density Flows about an ASTV Including Wake Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a numerical study concerning flow past a 70-deg blunted cone in hypersonic low-density flow environments are presented using the direct simulation Monte-Carlo method. The flow conditions simulated are those that can be obtained in existing low-density hypersonic wind tunnels. Results indicate that a stable vortex forms in the near wake at and below a freestream Knudsen number (based on cone diameter) of 0.01 and the size of the vortex increases with decreasing Knudsen number. The base region of the flow remains in thermal nonequilibrium for all cases considered herein.

Dogra, V. K.; Moss, J. N.; Wilmoth, R. G.; Price, J. M.

1992-01-01

291

Unsteady inflow effects on the wake shed from a high-lift LPT blade subjected to boundary layer laminar separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental investigation on the near and far wake of a cascade of high-lift low-pressure turbine blades subjected to boundary layer separation over the suction side surface has been carried out, under steady and unsteady inflows. Two Reynolds number conditions, representative of take-off/landing and cruise operating conditions of the real engine, have been tested. The effect of upstream wake-boundary layer interaction on the wake shed from the profile has been investigated in a three-blade large-scale linear turbine cascade. The comparison between the wakes shed under steady and unsteady inflows has been performed through the analysis of mean velocity and Reynolds stress components measured at midspan of the central blade by means of a two-component crossed miniature hot-wire probe. The wake development has been analyzed in the region between 2% and 100% of the blade chord from the central blade trailing edge, aligned with the blade exit direction. Wake integral parameters, half-width and maximum velocity defects have been evaluated from the mean velocity distributions to quantify the modifications induced on the vane wake by the upstream wake. Moreover the thicknesses of the two wake shear layers have been considered separately in order to identify the effects of Reynolds number and incoming flow on the wake shape. The self-preserving state of the wake has been looked at, taking into account the different thicknesses of the two shear layers. The evaluation of the power density spectra of the velocity fluctuations allowed the study of the wake unsteady behavior, and the detection of the effects induced by the different operating conditions on the trailing edge vortex shedding.

Satta, Francesca; Ubaldi, Marina; Zunino, Pietro

2012-04-01

292

Effect of upstream rotor vortical disturbances on the time-averaged performance of axial compressor stators. Part 2: Rotor tip vortex/streamwise vortex-stator blade interactions  

SciTech Connect

In a two-part paper, key computed results from a set of first-of-a-kind numerical simulations on the unsteady interaction of axial compressor stator with upstream rotor wakes and tip leakage vortices are employed to elucidate their impact on the time-averaged performance of the stator. Detailed interrogation of the computed flowfield showed that for both wakes and tip leakage vortices, the impact of these mechanisms can be described on the same physical basis. Specifically, there are two generic mechanisms with significant influence on performance: reversible recovery of the energy in the wakes/tip vortices (beneficial) and the associated nontransitional boundary layer response (detrimental). In the presence of flow unsteadiness associated with rotor wakes and tip vortices, the efficiency of the stator under consideration is higher than that obtained using a mixed-out steady flow approximation. The effects of tip vortices and wakes are of comparable importance. The impact of stator interaction with upstream wakes and vortices depends on the following parameters: axial spacing, loading, and the frequency of wake fluctuations in the rotor frame. At reduced spacing, this impact becomes significant. The most important aspect of the tip vortex is the relative velocity defect and the associated relative total pressure defect, which is perceived by the stator in the same manner as a wake. In Part 2, the focus will be on the interaction of stator with the moving upstream rotor tip and streamwise vortices, the controlling parametric trends, and implications on design.

Valkov, T.V. [Shell International Gas Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Tan, C.S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Gas Turbine Lab.

1999-07-01

293

The wake structure and thrust performance of a rigid low-aspect-ratio pitching panel  

PubMed Central

Thrust performance and wake structure were investigated for a rigid rectangular panel pitching about its leading edge in a free stream. For ReC = O(104), thrust coefficient was found to depend primarily on Strouhal number St and the aspect ratio of the panel AR. Propulsive efficiency was sensitive to aspect ratio only for AR less than 0.83; however, the magnitude of the peak efficiency of a given panel with variation in Strouhal number varied inversely with the amplitude to span ratio A/S, while the Strouhal number of optimum efficiency increased with increasing A/S. Peak efficiencies between 9 % and 21 % were measured. Wake structures corresponding to a subset of the thrust measurements were investigated using dye visualization and digital particle image velocimetry. In general, the wakes divided into two oblique jets; however, when operating at or near peak efficiency, the near wake in many cases represented a Kármán vortex street with the signs of the vortices reversed. The three-dimensional structure of the wakes was investigated in detail for AR = 0.54, A/S = 0.31 and ReC = 640. Three distinct wake structures were observed with variation in Strouhal number. For approximately 0.20 < St < 0.25, the main constituent of the wake was a horseshoe vortex shed by the tips and trailing edge of the panel. Streamwise variation in the circulation of the streamwise horseshoe legs was consistent with a spanwise shear layer bridging them. For St > 0.25, a reorganization of some of the spanwise vorticity yielded a bifurcating wake formed by trains of vortex rings connected to the tips of the horseshoes. For St > 0.5, an additional structure formed from a perturbation of the streamwise leg which caused a spanwise expansion. The wake model paradigm established here is robust with variation in Reynolds number and is consistent with structures observed for a wide variety of unsteady flows. Movies are available with the online version of the paper. PMID:19746195

BUCHHOLZ, JAMES H. J.; SMITS, ALEXANDER J.

2009-01-01

294

Vortex-induced vibration effect on fatigue life estimate of turbine blades  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of a turbine blade fatigue life that includes the physics of fluid–structure interaction on the high cycle fatigue (HCF) life estimate of turbine blades is carried out. The rotor wake excitation is modeled by rows of Karman vortices superimposed on an inviscid uniform flow. The vortex-induced vibration problem is modeled by a linear cascade composed of five turbine

Y. L. Lau; R. C. K. Leung; R. M. C. So

2007-01-01

295

A constrained vortex model with relevance to helicopter vorte x ring state  

Microsoft Academic Search

A planar model of a lifting surface descending into its ow n wake is constructed with the aim of demonstrating some underlying mechanisms of the 'vortex ring' state that may be entered by a rotary wing aircraft during a vertical descent. The model uses line vortices that are periodically released from a point in space and then all owed to

N. D. Sandham

296

The propeller tip vortex. A possible contributor to aircraft cabin noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the assumption is generally made that cabin noise levels are governed by the transmission of propeller generated noise through the fuselage sidewall, it was postulated that the propeller wake striking the wing, in particular pressure disturbances generated downstream of the propeller by the action of the propeller tip vortex, could be strong enough to excite the aircraft structure and

B. A. Miller; J. H. Dittmar; R. J. Jeracki

1981-01-01

297

Suppression of the Karman vortex street and reduction in the frontal drag of a circular cylinder with two vortex cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical analysis of an unsteady-state two-dimensional incompressible flow at a Reynolds number of 40000 around a circular cylinder with two vortex cells is carried out on the basis of the finite-volume solution of the Reynolds equations closed by the Menter's shear-stress transport model. The vortex cells are fitted with slots that ensure suction into the central channel via a fan located and through outflow of a low-pressure jet. It is shown that the suction in small-size cells intensifies the circulatory flow inside it and leads to the rearrangement of a large-scale structure of the flow around the cylinder accompanied by suppression of the Karman vortex street and a slightly symmetrical stabilization of the wake. The frontal drag of the cylinder decreases almost by three times with an optimal coefficient of the sucked air rate.

Isaev, S. A.; Baranov, P. A.; Vatin, N. I.; Zhukova, Yu. V.; Sudakov, A. G.

2014-08-01

298

Wake patterns of the wings and tail of hovering hummingbirds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow fields of slowly flying bats and fasterflying birds differ in that bats produce two vortex loops during each stroke, one per wing, and birds produce a single vortex loop per stroke. In addition, the circulation at stroke transition approaches zero in bats but remains strong in birds. It is unknown if these difference derive from fundamental differences in wing morphology or are a consequence of flight speed. Here, we present an analysis of the horizontal flow field underneath hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) to describe the wake of a bird flying at zero forward velocity. We also consider how the hummingbird tail interacts with the wake generated by the wings. High-speed image recording and analysis from three orthogonal perspectives revealed that the wing tips reach peak velocities in the middle of each stroke and approach zero velocity at stroke transition. Hummingbirds use complex tail kinematic patterns ranging from in phase to antiphase cycling with respect to the wings, covering several phase shifted patterns. We employed particle image velocimetry to attain detailed horizontal flow measurements at three levels with respect to the tail: in the tail, at the tail tip, and just below the tail. The velocity patterns underneath the wings indicate that flow oscillates along the ventral-dorsal axis in response to the down- and up-strokes and that the sideways flows with respect to the bird are consistently from the lateral to medial. The region around the tail is dominated by axial flows in dorsal to ventral direction. We propose that these flows are generated by interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and that the tail actively defects flows to generate moments that contribute to pitch stability. The flow fields images also revealed distinct vortex loops underneath each wing, which were generated during each stroke. From these data, we propose a model for the primary flow structures of hummingbirds that more strongly resembles the bat model. Thus, pairs of unconnected vortex loops may be shared features of different animals during hovering and slow forward flight.

Altshuler, Douglas L.; Princevac, Marko; Pan, Hansheng; Lozano, Jesse

299

Wake patterns of the wings and tail of hovering hummingbirds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow fields of slowly flying bats and faster-flying birds differ in that bats produce two vortex loops during each stroke, one per wing, and birds produce a single vortex loop per stroke. In addition, the circulation at stroke transition approaches zero in bats but remains strong in birds. It is unknown if these difference derive from fundamental differences in wing morphology or are a consequence of flight speed. Here, we present an analysis of the horizontal flow field underneath hovering Anna’s hummingbirds ( Calypte anna) to describe the wake of a bird flying at zero forward velocity. We also consider how the hummingbird tail interacts with the wake generated by the wings. High-speed image recording and analysis from three orthogonal perspectives revealed that the wing tips reach peak velocities in the middle of each stroke and approach zero velocity at stroke transition. Hummingbirds use complex tail kinematic patterns ranging from in phase to antiphase cycling with respect to the wings, covering several phase shifted patterns. We employed particle image velocimetry to attain detailed horizontal flow measurements at three levels with respect to the tail: in the tail, at the tail tip, and just below the tail. The velocity patterns underneath the wings indicate that flow oscillates along the ventral-dorsal axis in response to the down- and up-strokes and that the sideways flows with respect to the bird are consistently from the lateral to medial. The region around the tail is dominated by axial flows in dorsal to ventral direction. We propose that these flows are generated by interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and that the tail actively defects flows to generate moments that contribute to pitch stability. The flow fields images also revealed distinct vortex loops underneath each wing, which were generated during each stroke. From these data, we propose a model for the primary flow structures of hummingbirds that more strongly resembles the bat model. Thus, pairs of unconnected vortex loops may be shared features of different animals during hovering and slow forward flight.

Altshuler, Douglas L.; Princevac, Marko; Pan, Hansheng; Lozano, Jesse

2009-05-01

300

Kelvin-Tkachenko waves of few-vortex arrays in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates  

SciTech Connect

We have calculated the low-lying elementary excitations of three-dimensional few-vortex arrays in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates. The number of different Kelvin-Tkachenko vortex wave branches found matches the number of vortices in the condensate. The lowest odd-parity modes exhibit superfluid gyroscopic vortex motion. Experimentally, these modes could be excited and observed individually or in connection with the formation and decay of quantum turbulence.

Simula, T. P. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Machida, K. [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

2010-12-15

301

Numerical prediction of wakes in cascades and compressor rotors including the effects of mixing. II - Rotor passage flow and wakes including the effects of spanwise mixing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a numerical investigation to predict the flow field including wakes and mixing in axial-flow compressor rotors are presented. The wake behavior in a moderately loaded compressor rotor is studied numerically using a 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes solver with a high Reynolds number form of a turbulence model. The equations are solved using a time dependent implicit technique. The agreement between the measured data and the predictions is good; including the blade boundary-layer profiles, wake mean-velocity profiles, and decay. The ability of the pseudocompressibility scheme to predict the entire flow field including the near and far wake profiles and its decay characteristics, effect of loading, and the viscous losses of a 3D rotor flow field are demonstrated. The mixing in the downstream regions away from the hub and annulus walls is dominated by wake diffusion. In regions away from the walls the radial mixing is predominantly caused by the transport of mass, momentum, and energy by the radial component of velocity in the wake.

Lakshminarayana, B.; Suryavamshi, N.

1991-01-01

302

Numerical simulation of the postformation evolution of a laminar vortex ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct numerical simulations are used to study the postformation evolution of a laminar vortex ring. The vortex structure is described by calculating the embedded boundaries of the vortex inner core, vortex core, and vortex bubble. The topology of the vortex ring is found to be self-similar during the entire postformation phase. We also show that extracting the vortex inner core provides an objective method in setting the upper value for the cutoff vorticity level separating the vortex from its tail. The computed power laws describing the decay of the translation velocity and integrals of motion (circulation, impulse, and energy) are shown to be consistent with both studies of Dabiri and Gharib [J. Fluid Mech. 511, 311 (2004)] and Maxworthy [J. Fluid Mech. 51, 15 (1972)]. We prove that the apparently different scaling laws reported in these two studies collapse if a virtual time origin is properly defined. Finally, the computationally generated vortex rings are matched to the classical Norbury-Fraenkel model and the recent model proposed by Kaplanski and Rudi [Phys. Fluids 17, 087101 (2005)]. The former model provides not only a good prediction of normalized energy and circulation but also a good estimation of individual integrals of motion. The latter model offers, in addition to a good prediction of integral quantities, a more accurate description of the vortex ring topology when comparing the contours of the inner cores or vortex signatures. Both models underestimate the volume of fluid carried inside the vortex bubble.

Danaila, Ionut; Hélie, Jérôme

2008-07-01

303

Wake and aerodynamics loads in multiple bodies—application to turbomachinery blade rows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-dimensional, unsteady flow around bodies of complex geometry (or multiple bodies) at high Reynolds number is simulated using the vortex method. This method is modified to take into account the sub-grid scale phenomena through a second order velocity structure function model adapted to the Lagrangian scheme. The dynamics of the body wake is computed using the convection–diffusion splitting algorithm; the

Luiz Antonio Alcântara Pereira; Miguel Hiroo Hirata; Nelson Manzanares Filho

2004-01-01

304

Hydrofoil near-wake sound sources at high Reynolds number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important hydroacoustic noise source from a fully submerged noncavitating hydrofoil is often the unsteady separated turbulent flow near its trailing edge. Here, hydroacoustic noise may be produced by boundary layer turbulence swept past and scattered from the foils trailing edge, and by coherent vortices formed in the foils near-wake. Such vortices may generate an energetic tonal component that rises above the broadband trailing-edge hydroacoustic noise. This presentation describes results of an experimental effort to identify and measure vortical flow features in the near-wake of a two-dimensional hydrofoil at chord-based Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.5 to 60 million. The experiments were conducted at the U.S. Navy's William B. Morgan Large Cavitation Channel with a test-section-spanning hydrofoil (2.1 m chord, 3.0 m span) at flow speeds from 0.25 to 18.3 m/s. Two trailing-edge shapes were investigated, and foil-internal accelerometers were used to monitor structural vibration. Velocity fluctuation spectra were measured in the foils near-wake with a two-component LDV system, and dynamic surface pressures were measured near the foils trailing edge with flush-mounted transducer arrays. Both indicate Reynolds number and trailing-edge shape-dependent vortex shedding. [Significant assistance provided by personnel from NSWC-CD. Work sponsored by Code 333 of ONR.

Bourgoyne, Dwayne A.; Hamel, Joshua M.; Judge, Carolyn Q.; Ceccio, Steve L.; Dowling, David R.

2002-05-01

305

Anisotropic and long-range vortex interactions in two-dimensional dipolar Bose gases.  

PubMed

We perform a theoretical study into how dipole-dipole interactions modify the properties of superfluid vortices within the context of a two-dimensional atomic Bose gas of co-oriented dipoles. The reduced density at a vortex acts like a giant antidipole, changing the density profile and generating an effective dipolar potential centred at the vortex core whose most slowly decaying terms go as 1/?(2) and ln(?)/?(3). These effects modify the vortex-vortex interaction which, in particular, becomes anisotropic for dipoles polarized in the plane. Striking modifications to vortex-vortex dynamics are demonstrated, i.e., anisotropic corotation dynamics and the suppression of vortex annihilation. PMID:24206463

Mulkerin, B C; van Bijnen, R M W; O'Dell, D H J; Martin, A M; Parker, N G

2013-10-25

306

Lift and wakes of flying snakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flying snakes use a unique method of aerial locomotion: they jump from tree branches, flatten their bodies, and undulate through the air to produce a glide. The shape of their body cross-section during the glide plays an important role in generating lift. This paper presents a computational investigation of the aerodynamics of the cross-sectional shape. Two-dimensional simulations of incompressible flow past the anatomically correct cross-section of the species Chrysopelea paradisi show that a significant enhancement in lift appears at a 35° angle of attack, above Reynolds numbers 2000. Previous experiments on physical models also obtained an increased lift, at the same angle of attack. The flow is inherently three-dimensional in physical experiments, due to fluid instabilities, and it is thus intriguing that the enhanced lift also appears in the two-dimensional simulations. The simulations point to the lift enhancement arising from the early separation of the boundary layer on the dorsal surface of the snake profile, without stall. The separated shear layer rolls up and interacts with secondary vorticity in the near-wake, inducing the primary vortex to remain closer to the body and thus cause enhanced suction, resulting in higher lift.

Krishnan, Anush; Socha, John J.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.; Barba, L. A.

2014-03-01

307

GPU Based Fast Free-Wake Calculations For Multiple Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Rotors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unsteady free-wake solutions of wind turbine flow fields involve computationally intensive interaction calculations, which generally limit the total amount of simulation time or the number of turbines that can be simulated by the method. This problem, however, can be addressed easily using high-level of parallelization. Especially when exploited with a GPU, a Graphics Processing Unit, this property can provide a significant computational speed-up, rendering the most intensive engineering problems realizable in hours of computation time. This paper presents the results of the simulation of the flow field for the NREL Phase VI turbine using a GPU-based in-house free-wake panel method code. Computational parallelism involved in the free-wake methodology is exploited using a GPU, allowing thousands of similar operations to be performed simultaneously. The results are compared to experimental data as well as to those obtained by running a corresponding CPU-based code. Results show that the GPU based code is capable of producing wake and load predictions similar to the CPU- based code and in a substantially reduced amount of time. This capability could allow free- wake based analysis to be used in the possible design and optimization studies of wind farms as well as prediction of multiple turbine flow fields and the investigation of the effects of using different vortex core models, core expansion and stretching models on the turbine rotor interaction problems in multiple turbine wake flow fields.

Türkal, M.; Novikov, Y.; Ü?enmez, S.; Sezer-Uzol, N.; Uzol, O.

2014-06-01

308

Analysis of WakeVAS Benefits Using ACES Build 3.2.1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The FAA and NASA are currently engaged in a Wake Turbulence Research Program to revise wake turbulence separation standards, procedures, and criteria to increase airport capacity while maintaining or increasing safety. The research program is divided into three phases: Phase I near term procedural enhancements; Phase II wind dependent Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS) Concepts of Operations (ConOps); and Phase III farther term ConOps based on wake prediction and sensing. This report contains an analysis that evaluates the benefits of a closely spaced parallel runway (CSPR) Phase I ConOps, a single runway and CSPR Phase II ConOps and a single runway Phase III ConOps. A series of simulation runs were performed using the Airspace Concepts Evaluation System (ACES) Build 3.21 air traffic simulator to provide an initial assessment of the reduction in delay and cost savings obtained by the use of a WakeVAS at selected U.S. airports. The ACES simulator is being developed by NASA Ames Research Center as part of the Virtual Airspace Modelling and Simulation (VAMS) program.

Smith, Jeremy C.

2005-01-01

309

A Family of Vortices to Study Axisymmetric Vortex Breakdown and Reconnection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new analytic model describing a family of vortices has been developed to study some of the axisymmetric vortex breakdown and reconnection fluid dynamic processes underlying body-vortex interactions that are frequently manifested in rotorcraft and propeller-driven fixed-wing aircraft wakes. The family of vortices incorporates a wide range of prescribed initial vorticity distributions -- including single or dual-core vorticity distributions. The result is analytical solutions for the vorticity and velocities for each member of the family of vortices. This model is of sufficient generality to further illustrate the dependence of vortex reconnection and breakdown on initial vorticity distribution as was suggested by earlier analytical work. This family of vortices, though laminar in nature, is anticipated to provide valuable insight into the vortical evolution of large-scale rotor and propeller wakes.

Young, Larry A.

2007-01-01

310

Electrostatically Enhanced Vortex Separator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed device removes fine particles from high-pressure exhaust gas of chemical reactor. Negatively charged sectors on rotating disks in vortex generator attracts positively charged particles from main stream of exhaust gas. Electrostatic charge enhances particle-separating action of vortex. Gas without particles released to atmosphere.

Collins, Earl R.

1993-01-01

311

Vortex shedding from a hydrofoil at high Reynolds number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Reynolds number (Re) wall-bounded turbulent flows occur in many hydro- and aerodynamic applications. However, the limited amount of high-Re experimental data has hampered the development and validation of scaling laws and modelling techniques applicable to such flows. This paper presents measurements of the turbulent flow near the trailing edge of a two-dimensional lifting surface at chord-based Reynolds numbers, Re_{C}, typical of heavy-lift aircraft wings and full-scale ship propellers. The experiments were conducted in the William B. Morgan Large Cavitation Channel at flow speeds from 0.50 to 18.3ms(-1) with a cambered hydrofoil having a 3.05m span and a 2.13m chord that generated 60 metric tons of lift at the highest flow speed, Re_{C}{?}50{×}10(6) . Flow-field measurements concentrated on the foil's near wake and include results from trailing edges having terminating bevel angles of 44(°) and 56(°) . Although generic turbulent boundary layer and wake characteristics were found at any fixed Re_{C} in the trailing-edge region, the variable strength of near-wake vortex shedding caused the flow-field fluctuations to be Reynolds-number and trailing-edge-geometry dependent. In the current experiments, vortex-shedding strength peaked at Re_{C}{=}4{×}10(6) with the 56(°) bevel-angle trailing edge. A dimensionless scaling for this phenomenon constructed from the free-stream speed, the wake thickness, and an average suction-side shear-layer vorticity at the trailing edge collapses the vortex-shedding strength measurements for 1.4{×}10(6}{?) Re_{C}{?}50{×}10(6) from both trailing edges and from prior measurements on two-dimensional struts at Re_{C}{˜}2{×}10(6) with asymmetrical trailing edges.

Bourgoyne, Dwayne A.; Ceccio, Steven L.; Dowling, David R.

2005-05-01

312

Investigation on 3D t wake flow structures of swimming bionic fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bionic experimental platform was designed for the purpose of investigating time accurate three-dimensional flow field, using digital particle image velocimetry (DSPIV). The wake behind the flapping trail of a robotic fish model was studied at high spatial resolution. The study was performed in a water channel. A robot fish model was designed and built. The model was fixed onto a rigid support framework using a cable-supporting method, with twelve stretched wires. The entire tail of the model can perform prescribed motions in two degrees of freedom, mainly in carangiform mode, by driving its afterbody and lunate caudal fin respectively. The DSPIV system was set up to operate in a translational manner, measuring velocity field in a series of parallel slices. Phase locked measurements were repeated for a number of runs, allowing reconstruction of phase average flow field. Vortex structures with phase history of the wake were obtained. The study reveals some new and complex three-dimensional flow structures in the wake of the fish, including "reverse hairpin vortex" and "reverse Karman S-H vortex rings", allowing insight into physics of this complex flow.

Shen, G.-X.; Tan, G.-K.; Lai, G.-J.

2012-10-01

313

Flow around a circular cylinder—structure of the near wake shear layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The separated shear layer in the near wake of a circular cylinder was investigated using a single hot wire probe, with special attention given to the shear layer instability characteristics. Without end plates to force parallel vortex shedding, the critical Reynolds number for the onset of the instability was 740. The present data, together with all previously published data, show that the ratio of the instability frequency fsl to the vortex shedding frequency fv varies as Re0.65, which is in agreement with the Re0.67 dependence obtained by Prasad and Williamson [1997, J Fluid Mech 333:375-402]. However, the distribution of fsl/fv and the spectra of the longitudinal velocity fluctuation (u) suggest that, on either side of Re=5,000, the shear layer exhibits lower and upper subcritical regimes, in support of the observations by Norberg [1987, publication no. 87/2, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden] and Prasad and Williamson [1997, J Fluid Mech 343:235-265]. The spectra of u provide strong evidence for the occurrence of vortex pairing in wake shear layers, suggesting that the near wake develops in a similar manner to a mixing layer.

Rajagopalan, S.; Antonia, R. A.

2005-04-01

314

Wake Effects on Drift in Two-Dimensional Inviscid Incompressible Flows  

E-print Network

This investigation analyzes the effect of vortex wakes on the Lagrangian displacement of particles induced by the passage of an obstacle in a two-dimensional incompressible and inviscid fluid. In addition to the trajectories of individual particles, we also study their drift and the corresponding total drift areas in the F\\"oppl and Kirchhoff potential flow models. Our findings, which are obtained numerically and in some regimes are also supported by asymptotic analysis, are compared to the wakeless potential flow which serves as a reference. We show that in the presence of the F\\"oppl vortex wake some of the particles follow more complicated trajectories featuring a second loop. The appearance of an additional stagnation point in the F\\"oppl flow is identified as a source of this effect. It is also demonstrated that, while the total drift area increases with the size of the wake for large vortex strengths, it is actually decreased for small circulation values. On the other hand, the Kirchhoff flow model is s...

Melkoumian, Sergei

2014-01-01

315

Vortex control: Further encounters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The progress of continuing investigations on vortex control techniques is updated. The following topics are briefly discussed: (1) vortex flaps adapted for high-alpha control; (2) alleviation of leading edge extension (LEX) vortex induced twin-tail buffet; (3) controlled decoupling of interactive forebody chine and wing vortices; (4) forebody vortex manipulation by mechanical and pneumatic techniques; and (5) stall-departure alleviation of high aspect-ratio wings. Salient results of exploratory low speed wind tunned experiments are presented. The investigations, primarily aimed at concept validation, were performed on generic configurations utilizing flow visualizations and pressure and balance measurements. Selected results illustrate the efficacy and potential for development of specific vortex control concepts for improved high-alpha configuration aerodynamics.

Rao, Dhanvada M.

1991-01-01

316

Microscopic Investigation of Vortex-Vortex Interaction in Conventional Superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quasi-particle structures around a pair of vortices and its effect on the vortex-vortex interaction are investigated. For this purpose, a new numerical method is developed. This method uses the elliptic coordinate and (modified) Mathieu functions. Using this method and solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation, we analyse how quasi-particle structures change with the vortex-vortex distance.

Kato, Masaru; Niwa, Yuhei

2012-12-01

317

High Speed Vortex Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the research conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Langley Research Center (LaRC) into high-speed vortex flows during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s is presented. The data reviewed is for flat plates, cavities, bodies, missiles, wings, and aircraft. These data are presented and discussed relative to the design of future vehicles. Also presented is a brief historical review of the extensive body of high-speed vortex flow research from the 1940s to the present in order to provide perspective of the NASA LaRC's high-speed research results. Data are presented which show the types of vortex structures which occur at supersonic speeds and the impact of these flow structures to vehicle performance and control is discussed. The data presented shows the presence of both small- and large scale vortex structures for a variety of vehicles, from missiles to transports. For cavities, the data show very complex multiple vortex structures exist at all combinations of cavity depth to length ratios and Mach number. The data for missiles show the existence of very strong interference effects between body and/or fin vortices and the downstream fins. It was shown that these vortex flow interference effects could be both positive and negative. Data are shown which highlights the effect that leading-edge sweep, leading-edge bluntness, wing thickness, location of maximum thickness, and camber has on the aerodynamics of and flow over delta wings. The observed flow fields for delta wings (i.e. separation bubble, classical vortex, vortex with shock, etc.) are discussed in the context of' aircraft design. And data have been shown that indicate that aerodynamic performance improvements are available by considering vortex flows as a primary design feature. Finally a discussing of a design approach for wings which utilize vortex flows for improved aerodynamic performance at supersonic speed is presented.

Wood, Richard M.; Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Allen, Jerry M.

2000-01-01

318

Laser Doppler anemometry measurements in the near-wake of an isolated Formula One wheel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to identify the main structures in the near wake of an isolated Formula One wheel rotating in ground contact. A 50 percent-scale isolated wheel assembly, geometrically similar to the configuration mounted on a Formula One racing car, was tested in a closed-return three-quarter open-jet wind tunnel. The test Reynolds number, based on wheel diameter was 6.8 × 105. Using laser doppler anemometry, three velocity components were measured with a total of 1966 data points across four planes and within one diameter downstream of the wheel axis. Based on analysis of these data, the main characteristics of the near-wake of an isolated wheel rotating in ground contact are presented. A revised model of the trailing vortex system induced in the wake of such a wheel is proposed, which clarifies the contradictory ones published in the literature to date.

Saddington, A. J.; Knowles, R. D.; Knowles, K.

2007-05-01

319

Thrust production and wake structure of a batoid-inspired oscillating fin  

PubMed Central

Experiments are reported on the hydrodynamic performance of a flexible fin. The fin replicates some features of the pectoral fin of a batoid fish (such as a ray or skate) in that it is actuated in a travelling wave motion, with the amplitude of the motion increasing linearly along the span from root to tip. Thrust is found to increase with non-dimensional frequency, and an optimal oscillatory gait is identified. Power consumption measurements lead to the computation of propulsive efficiency, and an optimal efficiency condition is evaluated. Wake visualizations are presented, and a vortex model of the wake near zero net thrust is suggested. Strouhal number effects on the wake topology are also illustrated. PMID:19746188

CLARK, R. P.; SMITS, A. J.

2009-01-01

320

A note on the propagation of quantized vortex rings through a quantum turbulence tangle: Energy transport or dissipation?  

E-print Network

We investigate the the role of vortex ring emission in the decay of quantum turbulence. Through geometric arguments and high resolution numerical simulations we study the effectiveness of vortex rings emission as a potential energy dissipation mechanism. We show the typical mean free path estimate for the distance a vortex ring propagates before reabsorption should be considered as a mean free path before reconnection. Furthermore, we provide evidence, supported by numerical simulations, to indicate that upon reconnection with a vortex line, a vortex ring will, on average, retain approximately $75\\%$ of its energy. This leads to the much greater estimates for the distance energy can be transported by a vortex ring through a quantum turbulence tangle. Indeed, using typical experimental measurements, we conclude that a large proportion of the energy of the vortex ring will be dissipated at the boundaries. Ultimately, this provides evidence supporting the notion that vortex ring emission in quantum turbulence co...

Laurie, Jason

2014-01-01

321

An experimental investigation of propeller wakes using a laser Doppler velocimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of experimental investigations on three single rotation propellers are summarized in this paper. Force measurements showed a definite improvement in efficiency at low advance ratios and in static operation due to use of proplets. Extensive velocity measurements were made using a LDV system. The large amounts of data gathered are presented to reveal clearly the tip vortex streaming back from the propeller. The velocities were also processed using momentum theorem to obtain the thrust and power radial distributions as well as the integrated thrust and power coefficients. The thrust coefficient compared well with force measurements and theoretical prediction from vortex lattice and Goldstein analysis. However, the power coefficient calculated from the momentum analysis was consistently lower than the theoretical or measured values. The measured velocities were also used to compute the vorticity and the trajectory of the tip vortex in the wake behind the propeller.

Sundar, R. M.; Sullivan, J. P.

1986-01-01

322

Improving actuator disk wake model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wind energy industry has traditionally relied on simple wake models for estimating Wind Turbine (WT) wake losses. Despite limitations, low requirements in terms of detailed rotor information makes their use feasible, unlike more complex models, such as Blade Element Method (BEM) or Actuator Line. Froude's Actuator Disk (AD) does not suffer the simpler model's limitation of prescribing the wake through a closed set of equations, while sharing with them the low rotor data requirements. On the other hand they require some form of parametrization to close the model and calculate total thrust acting on the flow. An Actuator Disk model was developed, using an iterative algorithm based on Froude's one-dimensional momentum theory to determine the WT's performance, proving to be successful in estimating the performance of both machines in undisturbed flow and in the wake of an upstream machines. Before Froude's AD limitations compared to more complex rotor models, load distributions emulating those of a BEM model were tested. The results show that little impact is obtained at 3 rotor diameters downstream and beyond, agreeing with common definition of a far-wake that starts at 1-2 diameters downstream, where rotor characteristics become negligible and atmospheric flow effects dominate.

Costa Gomes, V. M. M. G.; Palma, J. M. L. M.; Silva Lopes, A.

2014-06-01

323

Point vortex model for prediction of sound generated by a wing with flap interacting with a passing vortex.  

PubMed

Acoustic signature of a rigid wing, equipped with a movable downstream flap and interacting with a line vortex, is studied in a two-dimensional low-Mach number flow. The flap is attached to the airfoil via a torsion spring, and the coupled fluid-structure interaction problem is analyzed using thin-airfoil methodology and application of the emended Brown and Michael equation. It is found that incident vortex passage above the airfoil excites flap motion at the system natural frequency, amplified above all other frequencies contained in the forcing vortex. Far-field radiation is analyzed using Powell-Howe analogy, yielding the leading order dipole-type signature of the system. It is shown that direct flap motion has a negligible effect on total sound radiation. The characteristic acoustic signature of the system is dominated by vortex sound, consisting of relatively strong leading and trailing edge interactions of the airfoil with the incident vortex, together with late-time wake sound resulting from induced flap motion. In comparison with the counterpart rigid (non-flapped) configuration, it is found that the flap may act as sound amplifier or absorber, depending on the value of flap-fluid natural frequency. The study complements existing analyses examining sound radiation in static- and detached-flap configurations. PMID:23556563

Manela, A; Huang, L

2013-04-01

324

HART-II: Prediction of Blade-Vortex Interaction Loading  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the HART-I data analysis, the need for comprehensive wake data was found including vortex creation and aging, and its re-development after blade-vortex interaction. In October 2001, US Army AFDD, NASA Langley, German DLR, French ONERA and Dutch DNW performed the HART-II test as an international joint effort. The main objective was to focus on rotor wake measurement using a PIV technique along with the comprehensive data of blade deflections, airloads, and acoustics. Three prediction teams made preliminary correlation efforts with HART-II data: a joint US team of US Army AFDD and NASA Langley, German DLR, and French ONERA. The predicted results showed significant improvements over the HART-I predicted results, computed about several years ago, which indicated that there has been better understanding of complicated wake modeling in the comprehensive rotorcraft analysis. All three teams demonstrated satisfactory prediction capabilities, in general, though there were slight deviations of prediction accuracies for various disciplines.

Lim, Joon W.; Tung, Chee; Yu, Yung H.; Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas; Boyd, Doug; vanderWall, Berend; Schneider, Oliver; Richard, Hugues; Raffel, Markus

2003-01-01

325

Vortex Molecules in Thin Films of Layered Superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In bulk layered superconductors the vortices tilted with respect to the anisotropy axes attract each other at long distance, which leads to the vortex chains structures. In thin film the intervortex interaction is modified by an extremely slow decay of the supercurrent induced by a single vortex line (Pearl's effect). The interplay between these interactions in thin films is responsible for a formation of a minimum of the interaction potential vs. the intervortex distance. This minimum exists only for relatively strong tilting. Depending on the strength and the tilt of the magnetic field we may expect the formation of the vortex molecules rearranging in multiquanta flux lattices. The increase in the field tilting should be accompanied by the series of the phase transitions between the vortex lattices with different number of vortices per unit cell. The Lorentz microscopy technique seems to be an ideal tool to observe such effects.

Buzdin, Alexander I.

2014-01-01

326

Laminar vortex shedding behind a cooled circular cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the functional demonstration of a hot air flow generator driven by convective heat transfer and the airflow behind a cooled circular cylinder in cross flow in the low velocity range. The wake flow was investigated experimentally using flow visualization, hot-wire anemometry, and laser Doppler anemometry. An evaluation of the free-stream velocity from the vortex shedding frequency was derived for the isothermal and non-isothermal cases and demonstrated using simple stroboscope measurements. The results confirm that cylinder cooling destabilizes the wake flow in air, i.e., the laminar steady regime can be changed into the vortex shedding regime, and the vortex shedding frequency increases as the cylinder temperature decreases. This thermal effect of cylinder cooling is consistent with its counterpart, the known effect of flow stabilization by cylinder heating. The effective temperature and effective Reynolds number concept have been further quantitatively evaluated, and the extension of their validity to the case of cooled cylinders has been confirmed.

Trávní?ek, Zden?k; Wang, An-Bang; Tu, Wen-Yun

2014-02-01

327

Characteristics of methane diffusion flame in a reacting vortex ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct numerical simulations of non-premixed methane flame vortex ring interactions are performed. The methane combustion was modelled using a detailed kinetic mechanism which consists of 36 species and 217 elementary reactions and involves C1, C2, and a small set of C3 kinetics. The vortex ring is generated by a brief discharge of cold fuel into a quiescent oxidizer ambient. The much higher oxidizer temperature leads to the auto-ignition of the vortex ring. The effects of fuel and oxidizer dilution and vortex ring strength on the dynamics of the interaction are studied. Three flame regions, front, top, and wake, are identified. Several combustion regimes are defined in the reacting vortex ring configuration. For the range of parameters accessible, unsteady, curvature and thickening effects on the flame structure are observed. Flame structure comparisons with steady counterflow diffusion flame (CFDF) results show that for a Damköhler number greater than 25, the unsteady effects on the flame become small. The contributions of time varying straining, fuel temperature and concentration to the unsteady effects on the front flame structure are separated through comparisons with unsteady CFDF simulations. For high initial Damköhler number simulations, none of these contributions are important since the flame becomes quasi-steady shortly after ignition. For intermediate initial Damköhler number simulations the unsteady effects are important at early times. At later times, a decrease in the straining and an increase in the fuel temperature reduce these effects. However, a decrease in the fuel concentration extends the duration for which the unsteady effects are important. If the initial Damköhler number is sufficiently low, the decrease in the fuel concentration overcomes the effects of straining and fuel temperature, and the flame remains unsteady for the entire simulation. Thickening and curvature effects on the flame structure are observed for the intermediate and low Damköhler number simulations. For runs with the flame close to the vortex ring, the curvature effects on the flame are important in the wake of the ring while the thickening effects are small. The curvature effects are small and the wake flame is thicker for the runs with the flame far from the ring. This article was chosen from Selected Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena (Sendai, Japan, 24 27 June 2003) ed N Kasagi et al.

Safta, C.; Madnia, C. K.

2004-09-01

328

Overview of helicopter wake and airloads technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of helicopter aerodynamics technology is presented with emphasis on rotor wake and airloads methodology developed at the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC). The evolution over the past twenty years of various levels of computerized wake geometry models at UTRC, such as undistorted wake, prescribed empirical wake, predicted distorted wake, and generalized wake models for the hover and forward flight regimes, is reviewed. The requirement for accurate wake modeling for flow field and airload prediction is demonstrated by comparisons of theoretical and experimental results. These results include blade pressure distributions predicted from a recently developed procedure for including the rotor wake influence in a full potential flow analysis. Predictions of the interactional aerodynamics of various helicopter components (rotor, fuselage, and tail) are also presented. It is concluded that, with advanced computers and the rapidly progressing computational aerodynamics technology, significant progress toward reliable prediction of helicopter airloads is forseeable in the near future.

Landgrebe, A. J.

1985-01-01

329

The Holographic Superconductor Vortex  

E-print Network

A gravity dual of a superconductor at finite temperature has been recently proposed. We present the vortex configuration of this model and study its properties. In particular, we calculate the free energy as a function of an external magnetic field, the magnetization and the superconducting density. We also find the two critical magnetic fields that define the region in which the vortex configurations are energetically favorable.

Marc Montull; Alex Pomarol; Pedro J. Silva

2009-06-12

330

Behavior of Vortex Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progressive application of the Kutta-Joukowsky theorem to the relationship between airfoil lift and circulation affords a number of formulas concerning the conduct of vortex systems. The application of this line of reasoning to several problems of airfoil theory yields an insight into many hitherto little observed relations. This report is confined to plane flow, hence all vortex filaments are straight and mutually parallel (perpendicular to the plane of flow).

Betz, A

1933-01-01

331

Wakes in Inertial Fusion Plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma wave wakes, which are the collective oscillatory response near the plasma frequency to the propagation of particles or electromagnetic waves through a plasma, play a critical role in many plasma processes. New results from backwards stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS), in which wakes with phase velocities much less than the speed of light are induced by the beating of counter-propagating light waves, and from electron beam stopping, in which the wakes are produced by the motion of relativistically propagating electrons through the dense plasma, are discussed. Both processes play important roles in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). In BSRS, laser light is scattered backwards out of the plasma, decreasing the energy available to compress the ICF capsule and affecting the symmetry of where the laser energy hits the hohlraum wall in indirect drive ICF. The plasma wave wake can also generate superthermal electrons that can preheat the core and/or the ablator. Electron beam stopping plays a critical role in the Fast Ignition (FI) ICF concept, in which a beam of relativistic electrons is used to heat the target core to ignition temperatures after the compression stage. The beam stopping power determines the effectiveness of the heating process. This dissertation covers new discoveries on the importance of plasma wave wakes in both BSRS and electron beam stopping. In the SRS studies, 1D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations using OSIRIS are performed, which model a short-duration (˜500/?0 --1FWHM) counter-propagating scattered light seed pulse in the presence of a constant pump laser with an intensity far below the absolute instability threshold for plasma waves undergoing Landau damping. The seed undergoes linear convective Raman amplification and dominates over the amplification of fluctuations due to particle discreteness. The simulation results are in good agreement with results from a coupled-mode solver when special relativity and the effects of finite size PIC simulation particles are accounted for. Linear gain spectra including both effects are discussed. Extending the PIC simulations past when the seed exits the simulation domain reveals bursts of large-amplitude scattering in many cases, which do not occur in simulations without the seed pulse. These bursts can have amplitudes several times greater than the amplified seed pulse, and an examination of the orbits of particles trapped in the wake illustrates that the bursts are caused by a reduction of Landau damping due to particle trapping. This large-amplitude scattering is caused by the seed inducing a wake earlier in the simulation, thus modifying the distribution function. Performing simulations with longer duration seeds leads to parts of the seeds reaching amplitudes several times more than the steady-state linear theory results, similarly caused by a reduction of Landau damping. Simulations with continuous seeds demonstrate that the onset of inflation depends on the seed wavelength and incident intensity, and oscillations in the reflectivity are observed at a frequency equal to the difference between the seed frequency and the frequency at which the inflationary SRS grows. In the electron beam stopping studies, 3D PIC simulations are performed of relativistic electrons with a momentum of 10mec propagating in a cold FI core plasma. Some of the simulations use one simulation particle per real particle, and particle sizes much smaller than the interparitcle spacing. The wake made by a single electron is compared against that calculated using cold fluid theory assuming the phase velocity of the wake is near the speed of light. The results agree for the first wavelength of the wake. However, the shape of the wake changes for succeeding wavelengths and depends on the background plasma temperature, with the concavity pointing in the direction the electron is moving in cold plasmas and in the opposite direction as the plasma temperature increases. In the warm plasma the curvature is described by electrostatic Vlasov theory (for vparticle >> vth) and is due

Ellis, Ian Norman

332

Experimental investigation on the wing-wake interaction at the mid stroke in hovering flight of dragonfly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on flow structures of the wing-wake interaction between the hind wing and the wake of the forewing in hovering flight of a dragonfly since there are arguments whether the wing-wake interaction is useful or not. A mechanical flapping model with two tandem wings is used to study the interaction. In the device, two identical simplified model wings are mounted to the flapping model and they are both scaled up to keep the Reynolds number similar to those of dragonfly in hovering flight since our experiment is conducted in a water tank. The kinetic pattern of dragonfly ( Aeschna juncea) is chosen because of its special interesting asymmetry. A multi-slice phase-locked stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) system is used to record flow structures around the hind wing at the mid downstroke ( t/ T=0.25) and the mid upstroke ( t/ T=0.75). To make comparison of the flow field between with and without the influence of the wake, flow structures around a single flapping wing (hind wing without the existence of the forewing) at these two stroke phases are also recorded. A local vortex identification scheme called swirling strength is applied to determine the vortices around the wing and they are visualized with the iso-surface of swirling strength. This paper also presents contour lines of ? z at each spanwise position of the hind wing, the vortex core position of the leading edge vortex (LEV) of hind wing with respect to the upper surface of hind wing, the circulation of the hind wing LEV at each spanwise position and so on. Experimental results show that dimension and strength of the hind wing LEV are impaired at the mid stroke in comparison with the single wing LEV because of the downwash from the forewing. Our results also reveal that a wake vortex from the forewing traverses the upper surface of the hind wing at the mid downstroke and its distance to the upper surface is about 40% of the wing chord length. At the instant, the distance of the hind wing LEV to the upper surface is about 20% of the wing chord length. Thus, there must be a wing-wake interaction mechanism that makes the wake vortex become an additional LEV of the hind wing and it can partly compensate the hind wing for its lift loss caused by the downwash from the forewing.

Lai, GuoJun; Shen, GongXin

2012-11-01

333

Wake structure measurements at the Mod-2 cluster test facility at Goodnoe Hills  

SciTech Connect

A field measurement progam was carried out at the cluster of three MOD-2 wind turbines located at Goodnoe Hills, Washington, to determine the rate of decay of wake velocity deficit with downwind distance in various meteorological conditions. Measurements were taken at hub height (200 ft) between July 12 and August 1, 1982. Wake wind speeds were measured using a radiosonde suspended from a tethered balloon, its position being determined from a grid of ground stakes. Measurments were also made downwind with the turbine off to determine the magnitude of terrain-induced variations in wind speed. The balloon system used to measure downstream wind data proved to be reliable and convenient. Downstream distances of 900, 1500, 2100, and 2700 ft from the turbine were investigated. Differences between the instrumentation systems required that corrections be made to the data. After correction, averaged terrain-induced wind speed variations were regarded as insignificant. Turbine-on velocity ratios showed scatter, suggesting that only some measurements were, in fact, representative of wake centerline velocities, and that others were made off centerline due to wake meander or wind shift. Isolation of the high wind speed (30 to 45 mph) velocity ratios, however, revealed velocity deficits downstream. Measurements at greater downstream distances showed no wake deficit within the limits of resolution of the experiment, indicating that the wake had recovered to free stream conditions. Comparison with the AeroVironment wake model using common values for rotor drag coefficient and turbulence showed similar trends.

Lissaman, P.B.S.; Zambrano, T.G.; Gyatt, G.W.

1983-03-01

334

Island wakes in the Southern California Bight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind- and current-induced island wakes were investigated using a multiplatform approach of in situ, remote sensing, and numerical model simulations for the Southern California Bight (SCB). Island wind wakes are a result of sheltering from the wind, with weak wind mixing, strong heat storage, and consequent high sea surface temperature (SST). Wind wakes around Santa Catalina Island are most persistent

R. M. A. Caldeira; P. Marchesiello; N. P. Nezlin; P. M. DiGiacomo; J. C. McWilliams

2005-01-01

335

Cooling Signs in Wake Debate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than a year after dismantling a student-assignment policy based on socioeconomic diversity and setting off a wave of reaction that drew national attention, the Wake County, North Carolina, school board took a step that may turn down the temperature of the intense debate. The board, which has been deeply split on an assignment plan for the…

Samuels, Christina A.

2011-01-01

336

CONTROL OF SLEEP AND WAKEFULNESS  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes the brain mechanisms controlling sleep and wakefulness. Wakefulness promoting systems cause low-voltage, fast activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Multiple interacting neurotransmitter systems in the brain stem, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain converge onto common effector systems in the thalamus and cortex. Sleep results from the inhibition of wake-promoting systems by homeostatic sleep factors such as adenosine and nitric oxide and GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, resulting in large-amplitude, slow EEG oscillations. Local, activity-dependent factors modulate the amplitude and frequency of cortical slow oscillations. Non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep results in conservation of brain energy and facilitates memory consolidation through the modulation of synaptic weights. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep results from the interaction of brain stem cholinergic, aminergic, and GABAergic neurons which control the activity of glutamatergic reticular formation neurons leading to REM sleep phenomena such as muscle atonia, REMs, dreaming, and cortical activation. Strong activation of limbic regions during REM sleep suggests a role in regulation of emotion. Genetic studies suggest that brain mechanisms controlling waking and NREM sleep are strongly conserved throughout evolution, underscoring their enormous importance for brain function. Sleep disruption interferes with the normal restorative functions of NREM and REM sleep, resulting in disruptions of breathing and cardiovascular function, changes in emotional reactivity, and cognitive impairments in attention, memory, and decision making. PMID:22811426

Brown, Ritchie E.; Basheer, Radhika; McKenna, James T.; Strecker, Robert E.; McCarley, Robert W.

2013-01-01

337

Proceedings of the 46th Annual Forum of the American Helicopter Society, Washington, D.C., Correlations of Rotor/Wake -Airframe Interactions  

E-print Network

/(R) Density of air Rotor azimuth, measured from downstream position Rotor blade angular velocity Vortex, producing a non-steady wake that is dominated by regions of concentrated vorticity. Also, the rotor blade moment on the associated airframe. Trept4 conducted wind tunnel tests on a 0.15-scale Bell 222 main rotor

338

Controlling vortex motion and vortex kinetic friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We summarize some recent results of vortex motion control and vortex kinetic friction. (1) We describe a device [J.E. Villegas, S. Savel’ev, F. Nori, E.M. Gonzalez, J.V. Anguita, R. Garcìa, J.L. Vicent, Science 302 (2003) 1188] that can easily control the motion of flux quanta in a Niobium superconducting film on an array of nanoscale triangular magnets. Even though the input ac current has zero average, the resulting net motion of the vortices can be directed along either one direction, the opposite direction, or producing zero net motion. We also consider layered strongly anisotropic superconductors, with no fixed spatial asymmetry, and show [S. Savel’ev, F. Nori, Nature Materials 1 (2002) 179] how, with asymmetric drives, the ac motion of Josephson and/or pancake vortices can provide a net dc vortex current. (2) In analogy with the standard macroscopic friction, we present [A. Maeda, Y. Inoue, H. Kitano, S. Savel’ev, S. Okayasu, I. Tsukada, F. Nori , Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 077001] a comparative study of the friction force felt by vortices in superconductors and charge density waves.

Nori, Franco; Savel'ev, Sergey

2006-05-01

339

Analysis of unstable vortical structure in a propeller wake affected by a simulated hull wake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-frame PIV (particle image velocimetry) technique was used to investigate the flow characteristics of a complicated propeller\\u000a wake influenced by a hull wake. As the propeller is significantly affected by the hull wake of a marine vessel, measurements\\u000a of the propeller wake under the hull wake are certainly needed for more reliable validation of numerical predictions. Velocity\\u000a field measurements

Bu-Geun Paik; Kyung-Youl Kim; Jung-Yeop Lee; Sang-Joon Lee

2010-01-01

340

Self-similar vortex clusters in the turbulent logarithmic region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The organization of vortex clusters above the buffer layer of turbulent channels is analysed using direct numerical simulations at friction Reynolds numbers up to Re_{tau} {=} 1900. Especial attention is paid to a family of clusters that reach from the logarithmic layer to the near-wall region below y(+ {=} 20) . These tall attached clusters are markers of structures of the turbulent fluctuating velocity that are more intense than their background. Their lengths and widths are proportional to their heights Delta_y and grow self-similarly with time after originating at different wall-normal positions in the logarithmic layer. Their influence on the outer region is measured by the variation of their volume density with Delta_y. That influence depends on the vortex identification threshold, and becomes independent of the Reynolds number if the threshold is low enough. The clusters are parts of larger structures of the streamwise velocity fluctuations whose average geometry is consistent with a cone tangent to the wall along the streamwise axis. They form groups of a few members within each cone, with the larger individuals in front of the smaller ones. This behaviour is explained considering that the streamwise velocity cones are ‘wakes’ left behind by the clusters, while the clusters themselves are triggered by the wakes left by yet larger clusters in front of them. The whole process repeats self-similarly in a disorganized version of the vortex-streak regeneration cycle of the buffer layer, in which the clusters and the wakes spread linearly under the effect of the background turbulence. These results characterize for the first time the structural organization of the self-similar range of the turbulent logarithmic region.

Del Álamo, Juan C.; Jiménez, Javier; Zandonade, Paulo; Moser, Robert D.

2006-08-01

341

Wind-Turbine Wakes in a Convective Boundary Layer: A Wind-Tunnel Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal stability changes the properties of the turbulent atmospheric boundary layer, and in turn affects the behaviour of wind-turbine wakes. To better understand the effects of thermal stability on the wind-turbine wake structure, wind-tunnel experiments were carried out with a simulated convective boundary layer (CBL) and a neutral boundary layer. The CBL was generated by cooling the airflow to 12-15 °C and heating up the test section floor to 73-75 °C. The freestream wind speed was set at about 2.5 m s-1, resulting in a bulk Richardson number of -0.13. The wake of a horizontal-axis 3-blade wind-turbine model, whose height was within the lowest one third of the boundary layer, was studied using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (S-PIV) and triple-wire (x-wire/cold-wire) anemometry. Data acquired with the S-PIV were analyzed to characterize the highly three-dimensional turbulent flow in the near wake (0.2-3.2 rotor diameters) as well as to visualize the shedding of tip vortices. Profiles of the mean flow, turbulence intensity, and turbulent momentum and heat fluxes were measured with the triple-wire anemometer at downwind locations from 2-20 rotor diameters in the centre plane of the wake. In comparison with the wake of the same wind turbine in a neutral boundary layer, a smaller velocity deficit (about 15 % at the wake centre) is observed in the CBL, where an enhanced radial momentum transport leads to a more rapid momentum recovery, particularly in the lower part of the wake. The velocity deficit at the wake centre decays following a power law regardless of the thermal stability. While the peak turbulence intensity (and the maximum added turbulence) occurs at the top-tip height at a downwind distance of about three rotor diameters in both cases, the magnitude is about 20 % higher in the CBL than in the neutral boundary layer. Correspondingly, the turbulent heat flux is also enhanced by approximately 25 % in the lower part of the wake, compared to that in the undisturbed CBL inflow. This study represents the first controlled wind-tunnel experiment to study the effects of the CBL on wind-turbine wakes. The results on decreased velocity deficit and increased turbulence in wind-turbine wakes associated with atmospheric thermal stability are important to be taken into account in the design of wind farms, in order to reduce the impact of wakes on power output and fatigue loads on downwind wind turbines.

Zhang, Wei; Markfort, Corey D.; Porté-Agel, Fernando

2013-02-01

342

Flow structure generated by perpendicular blade-vortex interaction and implications for helicopter noise prediction. Volume 1: Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The perpendicular interaction of a streamwise vortex with an infinite span helicopter blade was modeled experimentally in incompressible flow. Three-component velocity and turbulence measurements were made using a sub-miniature four sensor hot-wire probe. Vortex core parameters (radius, peak tangential velocity, circulation, and centerline axial velocity deficit) were determined as functions of blade-vortex separation, streamwise position, blade angle of attack, vortex strength, and vortex size. The downstream development of the flow shows that the interaction of the vortex with the blade wake is the primary cause of the changes in the core parameters. The blade sheds negative vorticity into its wake as a result of the induced angle of attack generated by the passing vortex. Instability in the vortex core due to its interaction with this negative vorticity region appears to be the catalyst for the magnification of the size and intensity of the turbulent flowfield downstream of the interaction. In general, the core radius increases while peak tangential velocity decreases with the effect being greater for smaller separations. These effects are largely independent of blade angle of attack; and if these parameters are normalized on their undisturbed values, then the effects of the vortex strength appear much weaker. Two theoretical models were developed to aid in extending the results to other flow conditions. An empirical model was developed for core parameter prediction which has some rudimentary physical basis, implying usefulness beyond a simple curve fit. An inviscid flow model was also created to estimate the vorticity shed by the interaction blade, and to predict the early stages of its incorporation into the interacting vortex.

Wittmer, Kenneth S.; Devenport, William J.

1996-01-01

343

Prediction of vortex shedding from forebodies with chines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An engineering prediction method and associated computer code VTXCHN to predict nose vortex shedding from circular and noncircular forebodies with sharp chines edges in subsonic flow at angles of attack and roll are presented. Axisymmetric bodies are represented by point sources and doublets, and noncircular cross sections are transformed to a circle by either analytical or numerical conformal transformations. The lee side vortex wake is modeled by discrete vortices in crossflow planes along the body; thus the three-dimensional steady flow problem is reduced to a two-dimensional, unsteady, separated flow problem for solution. Comparison of measured and predicted pressure distributions, flow field surveys, and aerodynamic characteristics are presented for noncircular bodies alone and forebodies with sharp chines.

Mendenhall, Michael R.; Lesieutre, Daniel J.

1992-01-01

344

Prediction of subsonic vortex shedding from forebodies with chines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An engineering prediction method and associated computer code VTXCHN to predict nose vortex shedding from circular and noncircular forebodies with sharp chine edges in subsonic flow at angles of attack and roll are presented. Axisymmetric bodies are represented by point sources and doublets, and noncircular cross sections are transformed to a circle by either analytical or numerical conformal transformations. The lee side vortex wake is modeled by discrete vortices in crossflow planes along the body; thus the three-dimensional steady flow problem is reduced to a two-dimensional, unsteady, separated flow problem for solution. Comparison of measured and predicted surface pressure distributions, flow field surveys, and aerodynamic characteristics are presented for noncircular bodies alone and forebodies with sharp chines.

Mendenhall, Michael R.; Lesieutre, Daniel J.

1990-01-01

345

Vortex dynamics studies in supersonic flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation covers the study of selected vortex interaction scenarios both in cold and high enthalpy reacting flows. Specifically, the experimental results and the analysis of the flowfields resulting from two selected supersonic vortex interaction modes in a Mach 2.5 cold flow are presented. Additionally, the experiment design, based on vortex dynamics concepts, and the reacting plume survey of two pylon injectors in a Mach 2.4 high enthalpy flow are shown. All the cold flow experiments were conducted in the supersonic wind tunnel of the Aerodynamics Research Center at the University of Texas at Arlington. A strut injector equipped with specified ramp configurations was designed and used to produce the flowfields of interest. The reacting flow experiments were conducted in the the Expansion Tube Facility located in the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory of Stanford University. A detailed description of the supersonic wind tunnel, the instrumentation, the strut injector and the supersonic wake flow downstream is shown as part of the characterization of the facility. As Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry was the principal flow measurement technique used in this work to probe the streamwise vortices shed from ramps mounted on the strut, this dissertation provides a deep overview of the challenges and the application of the aforementioned technique to the survey of vortical flows. Moreover, the dissertation provides the comprehensive analysis of the mean and fluctuating velocity flowfields associated with two distinct vortex dynamics scenarios, as chosen by means of the outcomes of the simulations of a reduced order model developed in the research group. Specifically, the same streamwise vortices (strength, size and Reynolds number) were used experimentally to investigate both a case in which the resulting dynamics evolve in a vortex merging scenario and a case where the merging process is voluntarily avoided in order to focus the analysis on the fundamental differences associated with the amalgamation processes alone. The results from the mean flow highlight major differences between the two cases and will justify the use of the inviscid reduced order model used to predict the main flow physics. The analysis of the turbulence quantities based on concepts borrowed from incompressible turbulence theory explains interesting features of the fluctuating flowfields, suggesting that turbulence associated with the inspected flow conditions is essentially incompressible. Once the interactions among the vortical structures in cold flow were assessed, these vortex dynamics concepts were probed in a reacting environment. The dissertation describes the design phase of two pylon injectors based on the prediction capabilities of the aforementioned model. Then, the results of a set of combustion experiments conducted utilizing hydrogen fuel injected into Mach 2.4, high-enthalpy (2.8˜MJ/kg) air flow are discussed. The results show that, for the heat release levels considered in this study, the morphology of the plume and its evolution is very similar to the results produced by the code, enabling an interpretation of the phenomena based on vortex dynamics considerations. The persistence of the streamwise vortical structures created by the selected ramp configurations is shown together with the effectiveness of the coherent structures in successfully anchoring the flame very close to the injection point. The work shows the possibility of a new approach in the design of injection strategies (i.e., not limited to injection devices) suitable for adoption in scramjet combustors based on the ability to predict, with basic vortex dynamics concepts and a highly reduced computational cost, the main features of flows of technological interest.

Vergine, Fabrizio

346

Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

1987-01-01

347

Wake shed by an accelerating carangiform fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reveal an important fact that momentum change observed in the wake of an accelerating carangiform fish does not necessarily elucidate orientations of propulsive forces produced. An accelerating Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) was found to shed a wake with net forward fluid momentum, which seemed drag-producing. Based on Newton's law, however, an accelerating fish is expected to shed a thrust wake with net rearward fluid momentum, rather than a drag wake. The unusual wake pattern observed is considered to be resulted primarily from the effect of pressure gradient created by accelerating movements of the fish. Ambient fluids tend to be sucked into low pressure zones behind an accelerating fish, resulting in forward orientations of jets recognizable in the wake. Accordingly, as to an accelerating fish, identifying force orientations from the wake requires considering also the effect of pressure gradient.

Ting, Shang-Chieh; Yang, Jing-Tang

2008-11-01

348

Reduction of vortex shedding intensity from a cylinder using semi-active flow control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were performed in the open water channel at the Waterpower Laboratory, NTNU, Norway, with the aim of reducing vortex shedding intensity by semi-active flow control. The test rig consisted of a perforated steel tube lined by a rubber bellows. The holes (d/D=0.6) formed a line at the leading edge, one tube diameter apart. Two flow control modes were attainable; (1) lining being flush with the cylinder wall, and (2) pressurized lining creating leading edge bumps. Upstream flow conditions were monitored, and used as input for the control loop governing the pressure of the lining. A flat metal rod, onto which strain gauges were glued, was positioned in the wake. It was assumed that the motion of the rod corresponded to the velocity components normal to the main flow direction. Thus the motion of the rod described the vortex shedding from the tube. Strouhal numbers were found to be approximately 0.3. It was the assumption that the bumps would disrupt vortex formation and reduce the vortex intensity. Tests showed that the assumption was plausible, with observed intensity reductions of 15-30% for ReD ˜ [20000 to 50000]. Plots also appear to show a breakdown of organization in the wake when the tube is in activated mode. It was shown that semi-active control of vortex shedding behind a cylinder is achievable.

Ekanger, Jarle V.; Kjeldsen, Morten

2011-11-01

349

Vortex soliton motion and steering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental demonstration of the steering of an optical vortex soliton by the superposition of a weak coherent background field is presented. A model to account for vortex motion is derived, and its validity is verified experimentally and numerically.

Christou, Jason; Tikhonenko, Vladimir; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Luther-Davies, Barry

1996-10-01

350

Research Paper Meteor Wake in High Frame-Rate Images— Implications for the Chemistry of Ablated Organic Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraterrestrial organic matter may have been chemically altered into forms more ameanable for prebiotic chemistry in the wake of a meteor after ablation. We measured the rate of cool- ing of the plasma in the meteor wake from the intensity decay just behind a meteoroid by freezing its motion in high frame-rate 1,000 frames\\/s video images, with an intensified cam-

PETER JENNISKENS; HANS C. STENBAEK-NIELSEN

351

The Acoustically Driven Vortex Cannon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vortex cannons have been used by physics teachers for years, mostly to teach the continuity principle. In its simplest form, a vortex cannon is an empty coffee can with a hole cut in the bottom and the lid replaced. More elaborate models can be purchased through various scientific suppliers under names such as "Air Cannon"2 and "Airzooka."3 We will briefly discuss the uses of a vortex cannon in teaching and a new type of vortex cannon for teaching.

Perry, Spencer B.; Gee, Kent L.

2014-03-01

352

Vortex Characterization for Engineering Applications  

SciTech Connect

Realistic engineering simulation data often have features that are not optimally resolved due to practical limitations on mesh resolution. To be useful to application engineers, vortex characterization techniques must be sufficiently robust to handle realistic data with complex vortex topologies. In this paper, we present enhancements to the vortex topology identification component of an existing vortex characterization algorithm. The modified techniques are demonstrated by application to three realistic data sets that illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of our approach.

Jankun-Kelly, M; Thompson, D S; Jiang, M; Shannahan, B; Machiraju, R

2008-01-30

353

Prediction of vortex shedding from circular and noncircular bodies in supersonic flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An engineering prediction method and associated computer code NOZVTX to predict nose vortex shedding from circular and noncircular bodies in supersonic flow at angles of attack and roll are presented. The body is represented by either a supersonic panel method for noncircular cross sections or line sources and doublets for circular cross sections, and the lee side vortex wake is modeled by discrete vortices in crossflow planes. The three-dimensional steady flow problem is reduced to a two-dimensional, unsteady, separated flow problem for solution. Comparison of measured and predicted surface pressure distributions, flow field surveys, and aerodynamic characteristics is presented for bodies with circular and noncircular cross-sectional shapes.

Mendenhall, M. R.; Perkins, S. C., Jr.

1984-01-01

354

Spanwise pressure distribution on delta wing with leading-edge vortex flap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic characteristics of a highly swept planar delta wing employing conical leading edge flaps are numerically investigated, using a free vortex sheet method that is based on an advanced, three-dimensional inviscid flow panel method employing quadratic doublet distributions to represent the wing surface and the rolled-up vortex sheet and wake. Upward flap deflection shifts the negative pressure peak inboard of the basic wing and develops a significant suction pressure on the flap that then produces thrust component in the direction of flight; overall drag is thereby reduced.

Reddy, C. S.

1987-01-01

355

Aerodynamic analysis of a horizontal axis wind turbine by use of helical vortex theory, volume 2: Computer program users manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description of a computer program entitled VORTEX that may be used to determine the aerodynamic performance of horizontal axis wind turbines is given. The computer code implements a vortex method from finite span wind theory and determines the induced velocity at the rotor disk by integrating the Biot-Savart law. It is assumed that the trailing helical vortex filaments form a wake of constant diameter (the rigid wake assumption) and travel downstream at the free stream velocity. The program can handle rotors having any number of blades which may be arbitrarily shaped and twisted. Many numerical details associated with the program are presented. A complete listing of the program is provided and all program variables are defined. An example problem illustrating input and output characteristics is solved.

Keith, T. G., Jr.; Afjeh, A. A.; Jeng, D. R.; White, J. A.

1985-01-01

356

Self-similarity and turbulence characteristics of wind turbine wakes via large-eddy simulation (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a new large-eddy simulation code, the Wind Turbine and Turbulence Simulator (WiTTS), is developed to study the wake generated from a single wind turbine in the neutral ABL. The WiTTS formulation is based on a scale-dependent Lagrangian dynamical model of the sub-grid shear stress and uses actuator lines to simulate the effects of the rotating blades. WiTTS is first tested against wind tunnel experiments and then used to study the commonly-used assumptions of self-similarity and axis-symmetry of the wake under neutral conditions for a variety of wind speeds and turbine properties. The mean velocity deficit shows good self-similarity properties following a normal distribution in the horizontal plane at the hub-height level. Self-similarity is a less valid approximation in the vertical near the ground, due to strong wind shear and ground effects. The mean velocity deficit is strongly dependent on the thrust coefficient or induction factor. A new relationship is proposed to model the mean velocity deficit along the centerline at the hub-height level to fit the LES results piecewise throughout the wake. A logarithmic function is used in the near and intermediate wake regions whereas a power function is used in the far-wake. These two functions provide a better fit to both simulated and observed wind velocity deficits than other functions previously used in wake models such as WAsP. The wind shear and impact with the ground cause an anisotropy in the expansion of the wake such that the wake grows faster horizontally than vertically. The wake deforms upon impact with the ground and spreads laterally. WiTTS is also used to study the turbulence characteristics in the wake. Aligning with the mean wind direction, the streamwise component of turbulence intensity is the dominant among the three components and thus it is further studied. The highest turbulence intensity occurs near the top-tip level. The added turbulence intensity increases fast in the near-wake and reaches its maximum at about x/D ~ 5, then it gradually decreases further downstream. In the far-wake, the added turbulence intensity is primarily dependent on the induction factor and the ambient turbulence: it increases with the induction factor and ambient turbulence and it decays exponentially downstream. An analysis of the added TKE budget shows that production by shear and advection by the mean flow dominate throughout the wake, whereas dissipation and turbulent transport are less important. In the near-wake, TKE is entrained from the upper regions of the annular shear layer into the center of the wake. The nacelle causes a significant increase of production, advection, and dissipation in the near-wake. Wind shear and momentum fluxes are reduced in the lower part of the wake, thus TKE production is reduced at the bottom-tip level. In summary, we find that the WiTTS model, although applied to a simplified case of neutral stability with a single wind turbine, was able to offer new insights into wake properties, including non-symmetric wake growth and reduced vertical mixing near the ground.

Xie, S.; Archer, C. L.

2013-12-01

357

Atom vortex beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept that all de Broglie particles can form vortex beams is analyzed for neutral atoms. It is shown how atoms diffracted from a suitably constructed optical mask configuration employing light of l units of orbital angular momentum and at far-off resonance with an atomic transition can lead to the generation of a discrete set of atom vortex beams each endowed with the property of quantized orbital angular momentum about the beam axis in units of ?l. Selection criteria of atom vortex beams are derived and the functioning of the mask configuration for angular dispersion of beams in terms of de Broglie wavelength is analyzed. Prospects of applications in the areas of atom interferometry and dispersion, and quantum information processing via atom vortices are pointed out.

Lembessis, V. E.; Ellinas, D.; Babiker, M.; Al-Dossary, O.

2014-05-01

358

Aircraft vortex marking program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple, reliable device for identifying atmospheric vortices, principally as generated by in-flight aircraft and with emphasis on the use of nonpolluting aerosols for marking by injection into such vortex (-ices) is presented. The refractive index and droplet size were determined from an analysis of aerosol optical and transport properties as the most significant parameters in effecting vortex optimum light scattering (for visual sighting) and visual persistency of at least 300 sec. The analysis also showed that a steam-ejected tetraethylene glycol aerosol with droplet size near 1 micron and refractive index of approximately 1.45 could be a promising candidate for vortex marking. A marking aerosol was successfully generated with the steam-tetraethylene glycol mixture from breadboard system hardware. A compact 25 lb/f thrust (nominal) H2O2 rocket chamber was the key component of the system which produced the required steam by catalytic decomposition of the supplied H2O2.

Pompa, M. F.

1979-01-01

359

Electric vortex in MHD flow  

SciTech Connect

An electric vortex is the circulation of electron space charge about a magnetic field line that is transported by ion momentum. In cold, or low {beta} flow the vortex diameter is the minimum length scale of charge neutrality. The distinctive feature of the vortex is its radial electric field which manifests the interplay of electrostatics, magnetism, and motion.

Garcia, M.

1995-05-01

360

Contrail formation in aircraft wakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of the formation and early evolution of a condensation trail (`contrail') in the near field of an aircraft wake was numerically studied by means of a mixed Eulerian\\/Lagrangian two-phase flow approach. Large-eddy simulations were used for the carrier phase, while, for the dispersed phase, a Lagrangian particle tracking method was used, coupled with a microphysics model to account

Roberto Paoli; Jerome Hélie; Thierry Poinsot

2004-01-01

361

Numerical Simulations of Vortex Generator Vanes and Jets on a Flat Plate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical simulations of a single low-profile vortex generator vane, which is only a small fraction of the boundary-layer thickness, and a vortex generating jet have been performed for flows over a flat plate. The numerical simulations were computed by solving the steady-state solution to the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The vortex generating vane results were evaluated by comparing the strength and trajectory of the streamwise vortex to experimental particle image velocimetry measurements. From the numerical simulations of the vane case, it was observed that the Shear-Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model resulted in a better prediction of the streamwise peak vorticity and trajectory when compared to the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) turbulence model. It is shown in this investigation that the estimation of the turbulent eddy viscosity near the vortex core, for both the vane and jet simulations, was higher for the SA model when compared to the SST model. Even though the numerical simulations of the vortex generating vane were able to predict the trajectory of the stream-wise vortex, the initial magnitude and decay of the peak streamwise vorticity were significantly under predicted. A comparison of the positive circulation associated with the streamwise vortex showed that while the numerical simulations produced a more diffused vortex, the vortex strength compared very well to the experimental observations. A grid resolution study for the vortex generating vane was also performed showing that the diffusion of the vortex was not a result of insufficient grid resolution. Comparisons were also made between a fully modeled trapezoidal vane with finite thickness to a simply modeled rectangular thin vane. The comparisons showed that the simply modeled rectangular vane produced a streamwise vortex which had a strength and trajectory very similar to the fully modeled trapezoidal vane.

Allan, Brian G.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Lin, John C.

2002-01-01

362

Effect of self-issuing jets along the span on the near-wake of a square cylinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study herein focuses on the vortex shedding characteristics and near-wake vorticity patterns of a square cylinder having\\u000a self-issuing jets through holes along its span. Three different values of spacing between the consecutive holes ? with respect\\u000a to the cylinder diameter D, i.e., ?\\/D = 1.5, 3 and 4 are studied experimentally via Digital Particle Image Velocimetry for the Reynolds number range

B. T. Ayd?n; O. Cetiner; M. F. Unal

2010-01-01

363

Vortex patterns in a fast rotating Bose-Einstein condensate  

SciTech Connect

For a fast rotating condensate in a harmonic trap, we investigate the structure of the vortex lattice using wave functions minimizing the Gross-Pitaevskii energy in the lowest Landau level. We find that the minimizer of the energy in the rotating frame has a distorted vortex lattice for which we plot the typical distribution. We compute analytically the energy of an infinite regular lattice and of a class of distorted lattices. We find the optimal distortion and relate it to the decay of the wave function. Finally, we generalize our method to other trapping potentials.

Aftalion, Amandine; Blanc, Xavier; Dalibard, Jean [Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, Universite Paris 6, 175 rue du Chevaleret, 75013 Paris (France); Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France)

2005-02-01

364

Experimental study of vortex diffusers  

SciTech Connect

This report documents experimental research performed on vortex diffusers used in ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The main objectives of the research were (1) to study the flow characteristics of isothermal jets issuing from vortex diffusers, (2) to compare the vortex diffuser`s performance with that of a conventional diffuser, and (3) to prepare a report that disseminates the results to the designers of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The researchers considered three diffusers: a conventional round ceiling diffuser and two different styles of vortex diffusers. Overall, the vortex diffusers create slightly more induction of ambient air in comparison to the conventional diffuser.

Shakerin, S.; Miller, P.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-11-01

365

Vortex dynamics in mesoscopic strips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flux penetration and vortex patterns in narrow superconducting strips are studied. The edge barrier, vortex-vortex interactions, and the position dependent effective flux are calculated assuming the high-? limit and strip width ??W??, where ? is the effective penetration depth and ? the coherence length. Vortex penetration and time-evolution inside the sample, as an external magnetic field is looped, are simulated by numerically solving the coupled Langevin equations of motion. The edge barrier shows to have an important role on the system dynamics, producing metastable vortex-chain states.

de Souza Silva, Clécio C.; Albino Aguiar, J.

2003-05-01

366

Heat transfer in a two-pass internally ribbed turbine blade coolant channel with cylindrical vortex generators  

SciTech Connect

The effect of vortex generators on the mass (heat) transfer from the ribbed passage of a two pass turbine blade coolant channel is investigated with the intent of optimizing the vortex generator geometry so that significant enhancements in mass/heat transfer can be achieved. In the experimental configuration considered, ribs are mounted on two opposite walls; all four walls along each pass are active and have mass transfer from their surfaces but the ribs are non-participating. Mass transfer measurements, in the form of Sherwood number ratios, are made along the centerline and in selected inter-rib modules. Results are presented for Reynolds number in the range of 5,000 to 40,000, pitch to rib height ratios of 10.5 and 21, and vortex generator-rib spacing to rib height ratios of 0.55, and 1.5. Centerline and spanwise averaged Sherwood number ratios are presented along with contours of the Sherwood number ratios. Results indicate that the vortex generators induce substantial increases in the local mass transfer rates, particularly along the side walls, and modest increases in the average mass transfer rates. The vortex generators have the effect of making the inter-rib profiles along the ribbed walls more uniform. Along the side walls, horse-shoe vortices that characterize the vortex generator wake are associated with significant mass transfer enhancements. The wake effects and the levels of enhancement decrease somewhat with increasing Reynolds number and decreasing pitch.

Hibbs, R.; Acharya, S.; Chen, Y. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

367

Behavior of Vortex Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Application of the Kutta-Joukowski theorem to the relationship between airfoil lift and circulation is described. A number of formulas concerning the conduct of vortex systems derived from the theorem are presented. The application of this line of reasoning to several problems of airfoil theory and the observed relations are discussed.

Betz, A.

1979-01-01

368

Vortex Apparatus and Demonstrations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vortex flow, from millimeter to kilometer in scale, is important in many scientific and technological areas. Examples are seen in water strider locomotion, from industrial pipe flow (wastewater treatment) to air traffic control (safe distance between aircrafts on a runway ready for takeoff) to atmospheric studies. In this paper, we focus on a…

Shakerin, Said

2010-01-01

369

Rotor-vortex interaction noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical and experimental study was conducted to develop a validated first principles analysis for predicting noise generated by helicopter main-rotor shed vortices interacting with the tail rotor. The generalized prediction procedure requires a knowledge of the incident vortex velocity field, rotor geometry, and rotor operating conditions. The analysis includes compressibility effects, chordwise and spanwise noncompactness, and treats oblique intersections with the blade planform. Assessment of the theory involved conducting a model rotor experiment which isolated the blade-vortex interaction noise from other rotor noise mechanisms. An isolated tip vortex, generated by an upstream semispan airfoil, was convected into the model tail rotor. Acoustic spectra, pressure signatures, and directivity were measured. Since assessment of the acoustic prediction required a knowledge of the vortex properties, blade-vortes intersection angle, intersection station, vortex stength, and vortex core radius were documented. Ingestion of the vortex by the rotor was experimentally observed to generate harmonic noise and impulsive waveforms.

Schlinker, R. H.; Amiet, R. K.

1983-01-01

370

Properties of the mean recirculation region in the wakes of two-dimensional bluff bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of the time- and span-averaged mean wake recirculation region are investigated in separated flows over several different two-dimensional bluff bodies. Ten different cases are considered and they divide into two groups: cylindrical geometries of circular, elliptic and square cross-sections and the normal plate. A wide Reynolds number range from 250 to 140000 is considered, but in all the cases the attached portion of the boundary layer remains laminar until separation. The lower Reynolds number data are from direct numerical simulations, while the data at the higher Reynolds number are obtained from large-eddy simulation and the experimental work of Cantwell & Coles (1983), Krothapalli (1996, personal communication), Leder (1991) and Lyn et al. (1995). Unlike supersonic and subsonic separations with a splitter plate in the wake, in all the cases considered here there is strong interaction between the shear layers resulting in Kármán vortex shedding. The impact of this fundamental difference on the distribution of Reynolds stress components and pressure in relation to the mean wake recirculation region (wake bubble) is considered. It is observed that in all cases the contribution from Reynolds normal stress to the force balance of the wake bubble is significant. In fact, in the cylinder geometries this contribution can outweigh the net force from the shear stress, so that the net pressure force tends to push the bubble away from the body. In contrast, in the case of normal plate, owing to the longer wake, the net contribution from shear stress outweighs that from the normal stress. At higher Reynolds numbers, separation of the Reynolds stress components into incoherent contributions provides more insight. The behaviour of the coherent contribution, arising from the dominant vortex shedding, is similar to that at lower Reynolds numbers. The incoherent contribution to Reynolds stress, arising from small-scale activity, is compared with that of a canonical free shear layer. Based on these observations a simple extension of the wake model (Sychev 1982; Roshko 1993a, b) is proposed.

Balachandar, S.; Mittal, R.; Najjar, F. M.

1997-11-01

371

Evolution of Rotor Wake in Swirling Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theory is presented for modeling the evolution of rotor wakes as a function of axial distance in swirling mean flows. The theory, which extends an earlier work to include arbitrary radial distributions of mean swirl, indicates that swirl can significantly alter the wake structure of the rotor especially at large downstream distances (i.e., for moderate to large rotor-stator spacings). Using measured wakes of a representative scale model fan stage to define the mean swirl and initial wake perturbations, the theory is used to predict the subsequent evolution of the wakes. The results indicate the sensitivity of the wake evolution to the initial profile and the need to have complete and consistent initial definition of both velocity and pressure perturbations.

El-Haldidi, Basman; Atassi, Hafiz; Envia, Edmane; Podboy, Gary

2000-01-01

372

Flows about a rotating circular cylinder by the discrete-vortex method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical study has been conducted for flows past a rotating circular cylinder at high Reynolds numbers, using the discrete-vortex method. It is noted that the reverse Magnus effect is caused by the retreat of the separation point on the acceleration side. At high rotating speed, the nascent vortices of opposite directions are mixed faster, the wake becomes narrower, and predominating frequencies in the lift force disappear.

Kimura, Takeyoshi; Tsutahara, Michihisa

1987-01-01

373

Measurement of parallel blade–vortex interaction at low Reynolds numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study parallel blade–vortex interaction for a Schmidt-propeller configuration has been examined using particle image\\u000a velocimetry (PIV). This tandem configuration consists of a leading airfoil (forefoil), used to generate a vortical wake of\\u000a leading-edge vortices (LEVs) and trailing-edge vortices (TEVs) through a pitching or plunging motion, and a trailing airfoil\\u000a (hindfoil), held fixed with a specified angle of attack

David Rival; Roland Manejev; Cam Tropea

2010-01-01

374

Time resolved measurements of vortex-induced vibrations of a positively buoyant tethered sphere in uniform water flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of a positively buoyant (light) tethered sphere in uniform flow as well as its wake characteristics were measured in a closed loop water channel. Experiments were performed at free stream velocities ranging between 0.048 and 0.22 m/s, corresponding to sphere Reynolds numbers ranging from ReD=430 to 1925. The measurements were done using high-speed sphere tracking as well as time resolved particle image velocimetry in a horizontal plane located at the sphere's center. Until the Hopf bifurcation, the sphere remained stationary and the wake was characterized by a train of hairpin vortices exhibiting near-symmetry in the vertical plane similar to stationary sphere visualization results. For our limited parameter range, the amplitude response of two different data sets (same sphere and free stream velocity but different water viscosity) collapsed better when plotted versus ReD than when plotted versus the reduced velocity, U*. The amplitude response beyond the first bifurcation displayed continuously increasing rms amplitudes in agreement with the sphere's small mass parameter (Vortex shedding characteristics were analyzed using the directional swirling strength in conjunction with the vorticity as the former enables vortex identification. Vortex shedding dynamics were similar over the whole ReD range. However, for low ReD clear counter-rotating vortex pairs were observed, at the highest ReD the spatio-temporal vortex shedding pattern in the far wake was characterized by high frequency, fragmented vortical structures organized in a low frequency 'saw tooth' pattern, the latter associated with the sphere's oscillation frequency. Furthermore, phase averaged results showed a decreasing vortex pinch-off phase as ReD increased.

Eshbal, L.; Krakovich, A.; van Hout, R.

2012-11-01

375

Vorticity Field from Successive Wake Vortices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two-dimensional version of the Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) was used to numerically simulate the interaction of wake vortices from closely separated aircraft. The aircraft parameters and separations are taken from observed data at an actual airport. The wake vortices are generated near the runway threshold for four successive aircraft. The ambient conditions are characterized by light crosswinds and stable stratification. This movie shows the time sequence of the vorticity field from the successive wake vortices. Apparent are the interactions between each pair of successive wake vortices and the ground.

1997-01-01

376

Direct simulation of single bubble motion under vertical magnetic field: Paths and wakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motion of single Ar bubbles rising in GaInSn under vertical magnetic fields is studied numerically using a volume-of-fluid method and adaptive mesh refinement technique for two-phase interface treatment; a consistent and conservative scheme calculates induced current density and Lorentz force. Numerical results are compared with published experimental data [C. Zhang, S. Eckert, and G. Gerbeth, "Experimental study of single bubble motion in a liquid metal column exposed to a DC magnetic field," Int. J. Multiphase Flow 31, 824-842 (2005)], where bubble diameters range from 2.5 to 6.4 mm, producing Reynolds numbers that vary between 2000 and 4000. Maximum experimental magnetic field strength was set to 0.3 T because of experimental restrictions, although we increased it to 0.5 T for firm conclusions. Apart from terminal rising velocity comparisons, we focused on variations in bubble motion paths and wake structures under magnetic fields, which cannot be observed experimentally because liquid metal is opaque. Magnetic field effects on bubble trajectory are exerted through vortex structure modification, which reinforced the conjecture that path instability is mainly attributed to wake instability. In bubble motion without magnetic fields, vortex threads in the bubble wake wrap around each other while vortex filaments incline parallel to the field with increasing magnetic intensity. Additionally, high magnetic fields will induce secondary bubble path instabilities, which contribute to the high Reynolds number flow that instabilities develop around the bubble, producing an asymmetrical Lorentz force distribution. This instability vanishes under higher magnetic intensities because flow instability is suppressed. Rising bubble aspect ratios decrease considerably under magnetic fields and may also contribute to smaller vorticities at the bubble surface. A close relationship between fluctuations in rising velocity and shape variations is found.

Zhang, Jie; Ni, Ming-Jiu

2014-10-01

377

Median fin function in bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus: streamwise vortex structure during steady swimming.  

PubMed

Fishes have an enormous diversity of body shapes and fin morphologies. From a hydrodynamic standpoint, the functional significance of this diversity is poorly understood, largely because the three-dimensional flow around swimming fish is almost completely unknown. Fully three-dimensional volumetric flow measurements are not currently feasible, but measurements in multiple transverse planes along the body can illuminate many of the important flow features. In this study, I analyze flow in the transverse plane at a range of positions around bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus, from the trailing edges of the dorsal and anal fins to the near wake. Simultaneous particle image velocimetry and kinematic measurements were performed during swimming at 1.2 body lengths s(-1) to describe the streamwise vortex structure, to quantify the contributions of each fin to the vortex wake, and to assess the importance of three-dimensional flow effects in swimming. Sunfish produce streamwise vortices from at least eight distinct places, including both the dorsal and ventral margins of the soft dorsal and anal fins, and the tips and central notched region of the caudal fin. I propose a three-dimensional structure of the vortex wake in which these vortices from the caudal notch are elongated by the dorso-ventral cupping motion of the tail, producing a structure like a hairpin vortex in the caudal fin vortex ring. Vortices from the dorsal and anal fin persist into the wake, probably linking up with the caudal fin vortices. These dorsal and anal fin vortices do not differ significantly in circulation from the two caudal fin tip vortices. Because the circulations are equal and the length of the trailing edge of the caudal fin is approximately equal to the combined trailing edge length of the dorsal and anal fins, I argue that the two anterior median fins produce a total force that is comparable to that of the caudal fin. To provide additional detail on how different positions contribute to total force along the posterior body, the change in vortex circulation as flow passes down the body is also analyzed. The posterior half of the caudal fin and the dorsal and anal fins add vortex circulation to the flow, but circulation appears to decrease around the peduncle and anterior caudal fin. Kinematic measurements indicate that the tail is angled correctly to enhance thrust through this interaction. Finally, the degree to which the caudal fin acts like a idealized two-dimensional plate is examined: approximately 25% of the flow near the tail is accelerated up and down, rather than laterally, producing wasted momentum, a loss not present in ideal two-dimensional theories. PMID:16574809

Tytell, Eric D

2006-04-01

378

The evolution of microphysical and optical properties of an A380 contrail in the vortex phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A contrail from a large-body A380 aircraft at cruise in the humid upper troposphere has been probed with in-situ instruments onboard the DLR research aircraft Falcon. The contrail was sampled during 700 s measurement time at contrail ages of about 1-4 min. The contrail was in the vortex regime during which the primary wake vortices were sinking 270 m below the A380 flight level while the secondary wake remained above. Contrail properties were sampled separately in the primary wake at 90 and 115 s contrail age and nearly continously in the secondary wake at contrail ages from 70 s to 220 s. The scattering phase functions of the contrail particles were measured with a polar nephelometer. The asymmetry parameter derived from these data is used to distinguish between quasi-spherical and aspherical ice particles. In the primary wake, quasi-spherical ice particles were found with concentrations up to 160 cm-3, mean effective diameter Deff of 3.7 ?m, maximum extinction of 7.0 km-1, and ice water content (IWC) of 3 mg m-3 at slightly ice-subsaturated conditions. The secondary and primary wakes were separated by an almost particle-free wake vortex gap. The secondary wake contained clearly aspherical contrail ice particles with mean Deff of 4.8 ?m, mean (maximum) concentration, extinction, and IWC of 80 (350) cm-3, 1.6 (5.0) km-1, and 2.5 (10) mg m-3, respectively, at conditions apparently above ice-saturation. The asymmetry parameter in the secondary wake decreased with contrail age from 0.87 to 0.80 on average indicating a preferential aspherical ice crystal growth. A retrieval of ice particle habit and size with an inversion code shows that the number fraction of aspherical ice crystals increased from 2% initially to 56% at 4 min contrail age. The observed crystal size and habit differences in the primary and secondary wakes of an up to 4 min old contrail are of interest for understanding ice crystal growth in contrails and their climate impact. Aspherical contrail ice particles cause less radiative forcing than spherical ones.

Gayet, J.-F.; Shcherbakov, V.; Voigt, C.; Schumann, U.; Schäuble, D.; Jessberger, P.; Petzold, A.; Minikin, A.; Schlager, H.; Dubovik, O.; Lapyonok, T.

2012-07-01

379

Histaminergic Control of Sleep-Wake Cycles: Recent Therapeutic Advances for Sleep and Wake Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of histaminergic neurotransmission in the promotion of waking has been extensively studied in pre- clinical species. Appreciation for the role of histamine continues to expand with increasing understanding of the interac- tion of histamine within the broad network of neuromodulators that regulate sleep and wake. The effects of histamine on waking are transduced through the H1 and the

A. J. Barbier; M. J. Bradbury

2007-01-01

380

System identification of the kinematics of an oscillating cylinder using wake velocities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A classical problem in vortex-induced vibration is to know the flow field past an oscillating cylinder. In this paper we use system theory to identify the oscillatory behaviour of a circular cylinder from flow variables in the wake. We use numerical simulations (CFD) of the flow past a cylinder oscillating in the cross-flow direction at different oscillation frequencies and amplitudes to construct a transfer function that relates the displacement of the cylinder and the resulting flow field. This transfer function can then be inverted to 'predict' the displacement of the cylinder given the flow field (as determined by simulations or measurements). We investigate this technique in the so-called lock-in region, where the vortex shedding frequency is synchronised with the oscillation frequency of the cylinder.

Runacres, M. C.; De Troyer, T.; Shirzadeh, R.; Guillaume, P.

2013-08-01

381

Correcting vortex splitting in higher order vortex beams.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a general method for the first order compensation of singularity splitting in a vortex beam at a single plane. By superimposing multiple forked holograms on the SLM used to generate the vortex beam, we are able to compensate vortex splitting and generate beams with desired phase singularities of order ? = 0, 1, 2, and 3 in one plane. We then extend this method by application of a radial phase, in order to simultaneously compensate the observed vortex splitting at two planes (near and far field) for an ? = 2 beam. PMID:24787874

Neo, Richard; Tan, Shiaw Juen; Zambrana-Puyalto, Xavier; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

2014-04-21

382

Dynamic behavior of the vortex ring formed on a butterfly wing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-air-vehicles (MAVs) and micro-flight robots that mimic the flight mechanisms of insects have attracted significant attention in recent years. A number of MAVs and micro-flight robots that use various devices have been reported. However, these robots were not practical. One of the reasons for this is that the flying mechanism of insects has not yet been clarified sufficiently. In particular, the dynamic behavior of the vortex formed on the insect wing and its growth process have not been clarified. The purpose of the present study is to clarify the dynamic behavior and the detailed structure of the vortices of the flapping butterfly wing. The authors conducted a particle image velocimetry measurement around the flapping butterfly wing of Cynthia cardui and Idea leuconoe and investigated the vortex structure of the wing and its dynamic behavior. A vortex ring is formed over the butterfly wings when the wings flap downward to the bottom dead position. The vortex ring then passes over the butterfly completely and grows until reaching the wake at the bottom dead position. The vortex ring is formed over the wings regardless of the type of butterfly, although the scale of the vortex ring varies with the butterfly type.

Fuchiwaki, Masaki; Kuroki, Taichi; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Tababa, Takahide

2013-01-01

383

Dynamic behavior of the vortex ring formed on a butterfly wing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-air-vehicles (MAVs) and micro-flight robots that mimic the flight mechanisms of insects have attracted significant attention in recent years. A number of MAVs and micro-flight robots that use various devices have been reported. However, these robots were not practical. One of the reasons for this is that the flying mechanism of insects has not yet been clarified sufficiently. In particular, the dynamic behavior of the vortex formed on the insect wing and its growth process have not been clarified. The purpose of the present study is to clarify the dynamic behavior and the detailed structure of the vortices of the flapping butterfly wing. The authors conducted a particle image velocimetry measurement around the flapping butterfly wing of Cynthia cardui and Idea leuconoe and investigated the vortex structure of the wing and its dynamic behavior. A vortex ring is formed over the butterfly wings when the wings flap downward to the bottom dead position. The vortex ring then passes over the butterfly completely and grows until reaching the wake at the bottom dead position. The vortex ring is formed over the wings regardless of the type of butterfly, although the scale of the vortex ring varies with the butterfly type.

Fuchiwaki, Masaki; Kuroki, Taichi; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Tababa, Takahide

2012-12-01

384

Cosmic string catalysis of skyrmion decay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Callan-Witten picture is developed for monopole catalyzed skyrmion decay in order to analyze the corresponding cosmic string scenario. It is discovered that cosmic strings (both ordinary and superconducting) can catalyze proton decay, but that this catalysis only occurs on the scale of the core of the string. In order to do this we have to develop a vortex model for the superconducting string. An argument is also given for the difference in the enhancement factors for monopoles and strings.

Gregory, Ruth; Davis, Anne-Christine; Brandenberger, Robert

1988-01-01

385

Vortex flow aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal emphasis of the meeting was to be on the understanding and prediction of separation-induced vortex flows and their effects on vehicle performance, stability, control, and structural design loads. This report shows that a substantial amount of the papers covering this area were received from a wide range of countries, together with an attendance that was even more diverse. In itself, this testifies to the current interest in the subject and to the appropriateness of the Panel's choice of topic and approach. An attempt is made to summarize each paper delivered, and to relate the contributions made in the papers and in the discussions to some of the important aspects of vortex flow aerodynamics. This reveals significant progress and important clarifications, but also brings out remaining weaknesses in predictive capability and gaps in understanding. Where possible, conclusions are drawn and areas of continuing concern are identified.

Smith, J. H. B.; Campbell, J. F.; Young, A. D. (editor)

1992-01-01

386

Supercritical Helical Vortex Flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The countercurrent flow driven by the rotation of a doubly helical screw within a stationary co-axial cylinder with fixed end walls is investigated experimentally using laser Doppler velocimetry and streak visualization. As the rotational Reynolds number increases, the flow undergoes a sequence of instabilities that are manifested by the appearance of coherent vortical structures within the screw flights and the gap. The primary transitions include the appearance of a single helical vortex that winds along the full length of the cylinder (90 < Re < 105) and a counter-rotating pair of vortices of unequal strength (Re > 105), and breakdown of the vortical structures and the onset of chaotic flow (Re > 130). The helical vortices are affected by a hierarchy of instabilities that are manifested by the appearance of spiral waves along their cores and localized merging. Vortex interactions result in localized breakdown and the appearance of turbulent spots.

Vukasinovic, Jelena; Glezer, Ari

2000-11-01

387

Isolated optical vortex knots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural and artificially created light fields in three-dimensional space contain lines of zero intensity, known as optical vortices. Here, we describe a scheme to create optical beams with isolated optical vortex loops in the forms of knots and links using algebraic topology. The required complex fields with fibred knots and links are constructed from abstract functions with braided zeros and the knot function is then embedded in a propagating light beam. We apply a numerical optimization algorithm to increase the contrast in light intensity, enabling us to observe several optical vortex knots. These knotted nodal lines, as singularities of the wave's phase, determine the topology of the wave field in space, and should have analogues in other three-dimensional wave systems such as superfluids and Bose-Einstein condensates.

Dennis, Mark R.; King, Robert P.; Jack, Barry; O'Holleran, Kevin; Padgett, Miles J.

2010-02-01

388

Confined vortex scrubber  

SciTech Connect

The program objective is to demonstrate efficient removal of fine particulates to sufficiently low levels to meet proposed small scale coal combustor emission standards using a cleanup technology appropriate to small scale coal combustors. This to be accomplished using a novel particulate removal device, the Confined Vortex Scrubber (CVS), which consists of a cylindrical vortex chamber with tangential flue gas inlets. The clean gas exit is via vortex finder outlets, one at either end of the tube. Liquid is introduced into the chamber and is confined within the vortex chamber by the centrifugal force generated by the gas flow itself. This confined liquid forms a layer through which the flue gas is then forced to bubble, producing a strong gas/liquid interaction, high inertial separation forces and efficient particulate cleanup. During this quarter a comprehensive series of cleanup experiments have been made for three CVS configurations. The first CVS configuration tested gave very efficient fine particulate removal at the design air mass flow rate (1 MM BUT/hr combustor exhaust flow), but had over 20{double prime}WC pressure drop. The first CVS configuration was then re-designed to produce the same very efficient particulate collection performance at a lower pressure drop. The current CVS configuration produces 99.4 percent cleanup of ultra-fine fly ash at the design air mass flow at a pressure drop of 12 {double prime}WC with a liquid/air flow ratio of 0.31/m{sup 3}. Unlike venturi scrubbers, the collection performance of the CVS is insensitive to dust loading and to liquid/air flow ratio.

Not Available

1990-07-01

389

The vortex flap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vortex Flap is a new type of mechanically driven high-lift device consisting of a rotating cylinder placed underneath and near the trailing edge of an airfoil. Wind tunnel tests were designed and conducted in the Washington University Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. Wind tunnel tests indicate that the Vortex Flap produces notable lift coefficient increments and increases maximum lift coefficients, particularly for the low Reynolds number range tested. The best configurations of the configurations investigated (not necessarily optimal) produce lift increments of 300-900% at low-to-moderate angles of attack, and increase the maximum lift coefficient on the order of 200%. The large lift increments found, particularly at low angles of attack, underscore the ability to drive the airfoil to high lift coefficients even at low angles of attack, a potentially useful characteristic for certain flight maneuvers. Regions of fairly high L/D (on the order of 10) as well as low L/D performance were identified. The nondimensional cylinder rotation speed was found to be the most important experimental parameter. Methods for correcting wind tunnel data were developed and outlined, and a Response Surface Method was applied to the corrected data for ease of interpretation. Performance comparisons between the Vortex Flap and other trailing-edge high-lift devices are included. To demonstrate the potential of the device, a Navy mission specification for a VTOL ship-borne UAV, currently filled by a rotary-wing aircraft, is analyzed using a hypothetical fixed wing aircraft and the Vortex Flap. It is demonstrated that, under certain reasonable wind-over-deck conditions, such an aircraft could hypothetically fill a VTOL mission.

Buerge, Brandon T.

390

On the formation of the counter-rotating vortex pair in transverse jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the important physical phenomena associated with the jet in crossflow is the formation and evolution of vortical structures in the flow field, in particular the counter-rotating vortex pair (CVP) associated with the jet cross-section. The present computational study focuses on the mechanisms for the dynamical generation and evolution of these vortical structures. Transient numerical simulations of the flow field are performed using three-dimensional vortex elements. Vortex ring rollup, interactions, tilting, and folding are observed in the near field, consistent with the ideas described in the experimental work of Kelso, Lim & Perry (1996), for example. The time-averaged effect of these jet shear layer vortices, even over a single period of their evolution, is seen to result in initiation of the CVP. Further insight into the topology of the flow field, the formation of wake vortices, the entrainment of crossflow, and the effect of upstream boundary layer thickness is also provided in this study.

Cortelezzi, L.; Karagozian, A. R.

2001-11-01

391

Fear in the Wake of Terror  

E-print Network

Fear in the Wake of Terror PSYCHOLOGY Fear in the Wake of Terror Only the Big Bang Was More facing our society, as reflected in their titles: the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious will concentrate on the change in religious attitudes, social structures and identities in immigrant communities

Falge, Eva

392

Dream bizarreness and waking thought in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Dream diaries and reports of daytime waking thought were collected from five schizophrenia patients and matched controls. It was more difficult for blind judges to differentiate the patients' than the controls' dream reports from reports of waking thought, and patients reported shorter but more bizarre dreams than did the controls. PMID:20471693

Noreika, Valdas; Valli, Katja; Markkula, Juha; Seppälä, Katriina; Revonsuo, Antti

2010-08-15

393

Confined vortex scrubber  

SciTech Connect

The program objective is to demonstrate efficient removal of fine particulates to sufficiently low levels to meet proposed small scale coal combustor emission standards. This is to be accomplished using a novel particulate removal device, the Confined Vortex Scrubber (CVS). The CVS consists of a cylindrical vortex chamber with tangential flue gas inlets. The clean gas exit is via tangent slots in a central tube. Liquid is introduced into the chamber and is confined with the vortex chamber by the centrifugal force generated by the gas flow itself. This confined liquid forms a layer through which the flue gas is then forced to bubble, producing a strong gas/liquid interaction, high inertial separation forces and efficient particulate cleanup. In effect, each of the sub-millimeter diameter gas bubbles in the liquid layer acts as a micro-cyclone, inertially separating particles into the surrounding liquid. The CVS thus obtains efficient particle removal by forcing intimate and vigorous interaction between the particle laden flue gas and the liquid scrubbing medium.

Not Available

1990-05-01

394

Helicopter tail rotor blade-vortex interaction noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study is made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to the interactions with main rotor tip vortices. Summarized here are present analysis, the computer codes, and the results of several test cases. Amiet's unsteady thin airfoil theory is used to calculate the acoustics of blade-vortex interaction. The noise source is modelled as a force dipole resulting from an airfoil of infinite span chopping through a skewed line vortex. To analyze the interactions between helicopter tail rotor and main rotor tip vortices, we developed a two-step approach: (1) the main rotor tip vortex system is obtained through a free wake geometry calculation of the main rotor using CAMRAD code; (2) acoustic analysis takes the results from the aerodynamic interaction analysis and calculates the farfield pressure signatures for the interactions. It is found that under a wide range of helicopter flight conditions, acoustic pressure fluctuations of significant magnitude can be generated by tail rotors due to a series of interactions with main rotor tip vortices. This noise mechanism depends strongly on the helicopter flight conditions and the relative location and phasing of the main and tail rotors. fluctuations of significant magnitude can be generated by tail rotors due to a series of interactions with main rotor tip vortices. This noise mechanism depends strongly upon the helicopter flight conditions and the relative location and phasing of the main and tail rotors.

George, Albert R.; Chou, S.-T.

1987-01-01

395

Vortex–Vortex Interactions in the Winter Stratosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the interaction of oppositely signed vortices in the compressible (non-Boussinesq) quasigeostrophic system, with a view to understanding vortex interactions in the polar winter stratosphere. A series of simplifying approximations leads to a two-vortex system whose dynamical properties are de- termined principally by two parameters: the ratio of the circulation of the vortices and the vertical sepa- ration

R. K. Scott; D. G. Dritschel

2006-01-01

396

An examination of wake effects and power production for a group of large wind turbines  

SciTech Connect

Data from a group of three MOD-2 wind turbines and two meteorological towers at Goodnoe Hills were analyzed to evaluate turbine power output and wake effects (losses in power production due to operation of upwind turbines), and atmospheric factors influencing them. The influences of variations in the ambient wind speed, wind direction, and turbulence intensity were the primary factors evaluated. Meteorological and turbine data collected at the Goodnoe Hills site from April 1 to October 17, 1985, were examined to select the data sets for these analyses. Wind data from the two meteorological towers were evaluated to estimate the effect of a wake from an upwind turbine on the wind flow measured at the downwind tower. Maximum velocity deficits were about 25% and 12% at downwind distances of 5.8 and 8.3 rotor diameters (D), respectively. However, the maximum deficits at 5.8 D were about 14/degree/ off the centerline orientation between the turbine and the tower, indicating significant wake curvature. Velocity deficits were found to depend on the ambient wind speed, ranging from 27% at lower speeds (15 to 25 mph) to 20% at higher speeds (30 to 35 mph). Turbulence intensity increases dramatically in the wake by factors of about 2.3 and 1.5 over ambient conditions at 5.8 D and 8.3 D, respectively. An analysis of the ambient (non-wake) power production for all three turbines showed that the MOD-2 power output depends, not only on wind speed, but also on the turbulence intensity. At wind speeds below rated, there was a dramatic difference in turbine power output between low and high turbulence intensities for the same wind speed. One of the turbines had vortex generators on the blades. This turbine produced from 10% to 13% more power than the other two turbines when speeds were from 24 to 31 mph. 11 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

Elliott, D.L.; Buck, J.W.; Barnard, J.C.

1988-04-01

397

Wake development behind paired wings with tip and root trailing vortices: consequences for animal flight force estimates.  

PubMed

Recent experiments on flapping flight in animals have shown that a variety of unrelated species shed a wake behind left and right wings consisting of both tip and root vortices. Here we present an investigation using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) of the behaviour and interaction of trailing vortices shed by paired, fixed wings that simplify and mimic the wake of a flying animal with a non-lifting body. We measured flow velocities at five positions downstream of two adjacent NACA 0012 aerofoils and systematically varied aspect ratio, the gap between the wings (corresponding to the width of a non-lifting body), angle of attack, and the Reynolds number. The range of aspect ratios and Reynolds number where chosen to be relevant to natural fliers and swimmers, and insect flight in particular. We show that the wake behind the paired wings deformed as a consequence of the induced flow distribution such that the wingtip vortices convected downwards while the root vortices twist around each other. Vortex interaction and wake deformation became more pronounced further downstream of the wing, so the positioning of PIV measurement planes in experiments on flying animals has an important effect on subsequent force estimates due to rotating induced flow vectors. Wake deformation was most severe behind wings with lower aspect ratios and when the distance between the wings was small, suggesting that animals that match this description constitute high-risk groups in terms of measurement error. Our results, therefore, have significant implications for experimental design where wake measurements are used to estimate forces generated in animal flight. In particular, the downstream distance of the measurement plane should be minimised, notwithstanding the animal welfare constraints when measuring the wake behind flying animals. PMID:24632825

Horstmann, Jan T; Henningsson, Per; Thomas, Adrian L R; Bomphrey, Richard J

2014-01-01

398

Wake Development behind Paired Wings with Tip and Root Trailing Vortices: Consequences for Animal Flight Force Estimates  

PubMed Central

Recent experiments on flapping flight in animals have shown that a variety of unrelated species shed a wake behind left and right wings consisting of both tip and root vortices. Here we present an investigation using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) of the behaviour and interaction of trailing vortices shed by paired, fixed wings that simplify and mimic the wake of a flying animal with a non-lifting body. We measured flow velocities at five positions downstream of two adjacent NACA 0012 aerofoils and systematically varied aspect ratio, the gap between the wings (corresponding to the width of a non-lifting body), angle of attack, and the Reynolds number. The range of aspect ratios and Reynolds number where chosen to be relevant to natural fliers and swimmers, and insect flight in particular. We show that the wake behind the paired wings deformed as a consequence of the induced flow distribution such that the wingtip vortices convected downwards while the root vortices twist around each other. Vortex interaction and wake deformation became more pronounced further downstream of the wing, so the positioning of PIV measurement planes in experiments on flying animals has an important effect on subsequent force estimates due to rotating induced flow vectors. Wake deformation was most severe behind wings with lower aspect ratios and when the distance between the wings was small, suggesting that animals that match this description constitute high-risk groups in terms of measurement error. Our results, therefore, have significant implications for experimental design where wake measurements are used to estimate forces generated in animal flight. In particular, the downstream distance of the measurement plane should be minimised, notwithstanding the animal welfare constraints when measuring the wake behind flying animals. PMID:24632825

Horstmann, Jan T.; Henningsson, Per; Thomas, Adrian L. R.; Bomphrey, Richard J.

2014-01-01

399

The Acoustically Driven Vortex Cannon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vortex cannons have been used by physics teachers for years, mostly to teach the continuity principle. In its simplest form, a vortex cannon is an empty coffee can with a hole cut in the bottom and the lid replaced. More elaborate models can be purchased through various scientific suppliers under names such as "Air Cannon" and…

Perry, Spencer B.; Gee, Kent L.

2014-01-01

400

Large HAWT wake measurement and analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the theoretical fluid dynamics point of view, the wake region of a large horizontal-axis wind turbine has been defined and described, and numerical models of wake behavior have been developed. Wind tunnel studies of single turbine wakes and turbine array wakes have been used to verify the theory and further refine the numerical models. However, the effects of scaling, rotor solidity, and topography on wake behavior are questions that remain unanswered. In the wind tunnel studies, turbines were represented by anything from scaled models to tea strainers or wire mesh disks whose solidity was equivalent to that of a typical wind turbine. The scale factor compensation for the difference in Reynolds number between the scale model and an actual turbine is complex, and not typically accounted for. Though it is wise to study the simpler case of wakes in flat topography, which can be easily duplicated in the wind tunnel, current indications are that wind turbine farm development is actually occurring in somewhat more complex terrain. Empirical wake studies using large horizontal-axis wind turbines have not been thoroughly composited, and, therefore, the results have not been applied to the well-developed theory of wake structure. The measurement programs have made use of both in situ sensor systems, such as instrumented towers, and remote sensors, such as kites and tethered, balloonborne anemometers. We present a concise overview of the work that has been performed, including our own, which is based on the philosophy that the MOD-2 turbines are probably their own best detector of both the momentum deficit and the induced turbulence effect downwind. Only the momentum deficit as