Sample records for wake vortex decay

  1. Three-Phased Wake Vortex Decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; Switzer, George S.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed parametric study is conducted that examines vortex decay within turbulent and stratified atmospheres. The study uses a large eddy simulation model to simulate the out-of-ground effect behavior of wake vortices due to their interaction with atmospheric turbulence and thermal stratification. This paper presents results from a parametric investigation and suggests improvements for existing fast-time wake prediction models. This paper also describes a three-phased decay for wake vortices. The third phase is characterized by a relatively slow rate of circulation decay, and is associated with the ringvortex stage that occurs following vortex linking. The three-phased decay is most prevalent for wakes imbedded within environments having low-turbulence and near-neutral stratification.

  2. Wake Vortex Transport and Decay in Ground Effect: Vortex Linking with the Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Han, Jongil

    2000-01-01

    Numerical simulations are carried out with a three-dimensional Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) model to explore the sensitivity of vortex decay and transport in ground effect (IGE). The vortex decay rates are found to be strongly enhanced following maximum descent into ground effect. The nondimensional decay rate is found to be insensitive to the initial values of circulation, height, and vortex separation. The information gained from these simulations is used to construct a simple decay relationship. This relationship compares well with observed data from an IGE case study. Similarly, a relationship for lateral drift due to ground effect is constructed from the LES data. In the second part of this paper, vortex linking with the ground is investigated. Our numerical simulations of wake vortices for IGE show that a vortex may link with its image beneath the ground, if the intensity of the ambient turbulence is moderate to high. This linking with the ground (which is observed in real cases)gives the appearance of a vortex tube that bends to become vertically oriented and which terminates at the ground. From the simulations conducted, the linking time for vortices in the free atmosphere; i.e., a function of ambient turbulence intensity.

  3. Large Eddy Simulation of Aircraft Wake Vortices in a Homogeneous Atmospheric Turbulence: Vortex Decay and Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Jongil; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Proctor, Fred H.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of ambient turbulence on decay and descent of aircraft wake vortices are studied using a validated, three-dimensional: large-eddy simulation model. Numerical simulations are performed in order to isolate the effect of ambient turbulence on the wake vortex decay rate within a neutrally-stratified atmosphere. Simulations are conducted for a range of turbulence intensities, by injecting wake vortex pairs into an approximately homogeneous and isotropic turbulence field. The decay rate of the vortex circulation increases clearly with increasing ambient turbulence level, which is consistent with field observations. Based on the results from the numerical simulations, simple decay models are proposed as functions of dimensionless ambient turbulence intensity (eta) and dimensionless time (T) for the circulation averaged over a range of radial distances. With good agreement with the numerical results, a Gaussian type of vortex decay model is proposed for weak turbulence: while an exponential type of Tortex decay model can be applied for strong turbulence. A relationship for the vortex descent based on above vortex decay model is also proposed. Although the proposed models are based on simulations assuming neutral stratification, the model predictions are compared to Lidar vortex measurements observed during stable, neutral, and unstable atmospheric conditions. In the neutral and unstable atmosphere, the model predictions appear to be in reasonable agreement with the observational data, while in the stably-stratified atmosphere, they largely underestimate the observed circulation decay with consistent overestimation of the observed vortex descent. The underestimation of vortex decay during stably-stratified conditions suggests that stratification has an important influence on vortex decay when ambient levels of turbulence are weak.

  4. Wake Vortex Minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A status report is presented on research directed at reducing the vortex disturbances of aircraft wakes. The objective of such a reduction is to minimize the hazard to smaller aircraft that might encounter these wakes. Inviscid modeling was used to study trailing vortices and viscous effects were investigated. Laser velocimeters were utilized in the measurement of aircraft wakes. Flight and wind tunnel tests were performed on scale and full model scale aircraft of various design. Parameters investigated included the effect of wing span, wing flaps, spoilers, splines and engine thrust on vortex attenuation. Results indicate that vortives may be alleviated through aerodynamic means.

  5. Wake Vortex Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A 10% scale B-737-100 model was tested in the vicinity of a vortex wake generated by a wing mounted on a support in the forward section of the NASA-Langley 30 x 60 ft. Wind Tunnel. The wing span, angle of attack, and generating wing location were varied to provide vortex strengths consistent with a large variety of combinations of leader-follower aircraft pairs during vortex encounters. The test, conducted as part of the AST Terminal Area Productivity Program, will provide data for validation of aerodynamic models which will be used for developing safe separate standards to apply to aircraft in terminal areas while increasing airport capacity.

  6. Ground-based wake vortex monitoring, prediction, and ATC interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Steven D.; Evans, James E.

    1994-01-01

    This talk will discuss three elements of a proposed Wake Vortex Advisory Service: monitoring, prediction and ATC interface. The monitoring element is needed to ensure safety by warning controllers of hazardous wake vortex conditions. Such conditions exist when wake vortices persist in the approach/departure flight paths due to advection or to atmospheric conditions which prevent their decay. The prediction element is needed to provide ATC supervisors with advance warning that wake vortex separation conditions are about to change (i.e., require increased or decreased wake vortex separation). The ATC interface element is needed to provide controllers with adaptive wake vortex separations. The use of these adaptive wake vortex separations would lead to increased airport capacity under most conditions, while maintaining safety under conditions of wake vortex hazard.

  7. NASA Wake Vortex Research for Aircraft Spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, R. Brad; Hinton, David A.; Stuever, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several inter-related areas to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These areas include current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors, and operationally acceptable aircraft/wake interaction criteria. In today's ATC system, the AVOSS could inform ATC controllers when a fixed reduced separation becomes safe to apply to large and heavy aircraft categories. With appropriate integration into the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), AVOSS dynamic spacing could be tailored to actual generator/follower aircraft pairs rather than a few broad aircraft categories.

  8. Wake-Vortex Hazards During Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; James, Kevin D.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Even though the hazard posed by lift-generated wakes of subsonic transport aircraft has been studied extensively for approach and departure at airports, only a small amount of effort has gone into the potential hazard at cruise altitude. This paper reports on a studio of the wake-vortex hazard during cruise because encounters may become more prevalent when free-flight becomes available and each aircraft, is free to choose its own route between destinations. In order to address the problem, the various fluid-dynamic stages that vortex wakes usually go through as they age will be described along with estimates of the potential hazard that each stage poses. It appears that a rolling-moment hazard can be just as severe at cruise as for approach at airports, but it only persists for several minutes. However, the hazard posed by the downwash in the wake due to the lift on the generator aircraft persists for tens of minutes in a long narrow region behind the generating aircraft. The hazard consists of severe vertical loads when an encountering aircraft crosses the wake. A technique for avoiding vortex wakes at cruise altitude will be described. To date the hazard posed by lift-generated vortex wakes and their persistence at cruise altitudes has been identified and subdivided into several tasks. Analyses of the loads to be encounter and are underway and should be completed shortly. A review of published literature on the subject has been nearly completed (see text) and photographs of vortex wakes at cruise altitudes have been taken and the various stages of decay have been identified. It remains to study and sort the photographs for those that best illustrate the various stages of decay after they are shed by subsonic transport aircraft at cruise altitudes. The present status of the analysis and the paper are described.

  9. Evaluation of Fast-Time Wake Vortex Models using Wake Encounter Flight Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; VanValkenburg, Randal L.; Bowles, Roland L.; Limon Duparcmeur, Fanny M.; Gloudesman, Thijs; van Lochem, Sander; Ras, Eelco

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology for the integration and evaluation of fast-time wake models with flight data. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted detailed flight tests in 1995 and 1997 under the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System Program to characterize wake vortex decay and wake encounter dynamics. In this study, data collected during Flight 705 were used to evaluate NASA's fast-time wake transport and decay models. Deterministic and Monte-Carlo simulations were conducted to define wake hazard bounds behind the wake generator. The methodology described in this paper can be used for further validation of fast-time wake models using en-route flight data, and for determining wake turbulence constraints in the design of air traffic management concepts.

  10. Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS) Concept of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutishauser, David; Lohr, Gary; Hamilton, David; Powers, Robert; McKissick, Burnell; Adams, Catherine; Norris, Edward

    2003-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of aircraft wake vortex research, with the most recent accomplishment of demonstrating the Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS) at Dallas/Forth Worth International Airport in July 2000. The AVOSS was a concept for an integration of technologies applied to providing dynamic wake-safe reduced spacing for single runway arrivals, as compared to current separation standards applied during instrument approaches. AVOSS included state-of-the-art weather sensors, wake sensors, and a wake behavior prediction algorithm. Using real-time data AVOSS averaged a 6% potential throughput increase over current standards. This report describes a Concept of Operations for applying the technologies demonstrated in the AVOSS to a variety of terminal operations to mitigate wake vortex capacity constraints. A discussion of the technological issues and open research questions that must be addressed to design a Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS) is included.

  11. Wake Vortex Research in the USA (WakeNet-USA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Steve; Bryant, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the cooperative work that FAA and NASA are engaged in to safely increase the capacity of the National Airspace System by studying the wake vortex operations. Wake vortex avoidance is a limiting factor in defining separation standards in the airport terminal area and could become a reducing separation standards in en route airspace.

  12. Measurements of Vortex Shedding and Wake Decay Downstream of a Turbine Inlet Guide Vane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Contini; G. Manfrida; V. Michelassi; G. Riccio

    2000-01-01

    The flow in the second stage stator of a gas turbine with contoured end-wall is measured in a low speed wind tunnel. The investigation\\u000a is focused on the flow in proximity to the blade trailing edge and in the wake. The measurements include mean velocity, total\\u000a and static pressure at the cascade exit together with the analysis of intensity and

  13. Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don

    2014-01-01

    Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.

  14. Analysis of vortex wake encounter upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. A.; Teper, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of an airplane being upset by encountering the vortex wake of a large transport on takeoff or landing is currently receiving considerable attention. This report describes the technique and results of a study to assess the effectiveness of automatic control systems in alleviating vortex wake upsets. A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear digital simulation was used for this purpose. The analysis included establishing the disturbance input due to penetrating a vortex wake from an arbitrary position and angle. Simulations were computed for both a general aviation airplane and a commercial jet transport. Dynamic responses were obtained for the penetrating aircraft with no augmentation, and with various command augmentation systems, as well as with human pilot control. The results of this preliminary study indicate that attitude command augmentation systems can provide significant alleviation of vortex wake upsets; and can do it better than a human pilot.

  15. Updated Results for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robins, Robert E.; Lai, David Y.; Delisi, Donald P.; Mellman, George R.

    2008-01-01

    NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an Inverse Model for inverting aircraft wake vortex data. The objective of the inverse modeling is to obtain estimates of the vortex circulation decay and crosswind vertical profiles, using time history measurements of the lateral and vertical position of aircraft vortices. The Inverse Model performs iterative forward model runs using estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Outputs from an Inverse Model run are the best estimates of the time history of the vortex circulation derived from the observed data, the vertical crosswind profile, and several vortex parameters. The forward model, named SHRAPA, used in this inverse modeling is a modified version of the Shear-APA model, and it is described in Section 2 of this document. Details of the Inverse Model are presented in Section 3. The Inverse Model was applied to lidar-observed vortex data at three airports: FAA acquired data from San Francisco International Airport (SFO) and Denver International Airport (DEN), and NASA acquired data from Memphis International Airport (MEM). The results are compared with observed data. This Inverse Model validation is documented in Section 4. A summary is given in Section 5. A user's guide for the inverse wake vortex model is presented in a separate NorthWest Research Associates technical report (Lai and Delisi, 2007a).

  16. Vortex shedding in compressor blade wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, A. H.; Gertz, J. B.; Owen, P. R.; Giles, M. B.

    1987-01-01

    The wakes of highly loaded axial compressor blades were often considered to be turbulent, unstructured flows. Recent work has suggested that the blade wakes are in fact dominated by a vortex street-like structure. The work on the wake structure at MIT is reviewed, the results of a viscous numerical simulation are presented, the blade wake vortices are compared to those shed from a cylinder, and the implications of the wake structure on compressor performance are discussed. In particular, a two-dimensional, time accurate, viscous calculation shows both a periodic wake structure and time variations in the passage shock strength. The numerical calculations are compared to laser anemometer and high frequency response probe data. The effect of the wake structure on the entropy production and apparent adiabatic efficiency of the compressor rotor is discussed.

  17. Vortex research facility improvements and preliminary density stratification effects on vortex wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satran, D. R.; Holbrook, G. T.; Greene, G. C.; Neuhart, D.

    1985-01-01

    Recent modernization of NASA's Vortex Research Facility is described. The facility has a 300-ft test section, scheduled for a 300-ft extension, with constant test speeds of the model up to 100 ft/sec. The data acquisition hardware and software improvements included the installation of a 24-channel PCM system onboard the research vehicle, and a large dedicated 16-bit minicomputer. Flow visualization of the vortex wake in the test section is by particle seeding, and a thin sheet of argon laser light perpendicular to the line of flight; detailed flow field measurements are made with a laser velocimeter optics system. The improved experimental capabilities of the facility were used in a study of atmospheric stratification effects on wake vortex decay, showing that the effects of temperature gradient must be taken into account to avoid misleading conclusions in wake vortex research.

  18. A Candidate Wake Vortex Strength Definition for Application to the NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.; Tatnall, Chris R.

    1997-01-01

    A significant effort is underway at NASA Langley to develop a system to provide dynamical aircraft wake vortex spacing criteria to Air Traffic Control (ATC). The system under development, the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS), combines the inputs of multiple subsystems to provide separation matrices with sufficient stability for use by ATC and sufficient monitoring to ensure safety. The subsystems include a meteorological subsystem, a wake behavior prediction subsystem, a wake sensor subsystem, and system integration and ATC interfaces. The proposed AVOSS is capable of using two factors, singly or in combination, for reducing in-trail spacing. These factors are wake vortex motion out of a predefined approach corridor and wake decay below a strength that is acceptable for encounter. Although basic research into the wake phenomena has historically used wake total circulation as a strength parameter, there is a requirement for a more specific strength definition that may be applied across multiple disciplines and teams to produce a real-time, automated system. This paper presents some of the limitations of previous applications of circulation to aircraft wake observations and describes the results of a preliminary effort to bound a spacing system strength definition.

  19. The NASA-Langley Wake Vortex Modelling Effort in Support of an Operational Aircraft Spacing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    1998-01-01

    Two numerical modelling efforts, one using a large eddy simulation model and the other a numerical weather prediction model, are underway in support of NASA's Terminal Area Productivity program. The large-eddy simulation model (LES) has a meteorological framework and permits the interaction of wake vortices with environments characterized by crosswind shear, stratification, humidity, and atmospheric turbulence. Results from the numerical simulations are being used to assist in the development of algorithms for an operational wake-vortex aircraft spacing system. A mesoscale weather forecast model is being adapted for providing operational forecast of winds, temperature, and turbulence parameters to be used in the terminal area. This paper describes the goals and modelling approach, as well as achievements obtained to date. Simulation results will be presented from the LES model for both two and three dimensions. The 2-D model is found to be generally valid for studying wake vortex transport, while the 3-D approach is necessary for realistic treatment of decay via interaction of wake vortices and atmospheric boundary layer turbulence. Meteorology is shown to have an important affect on vortex transport and decay. Presented are results showing that wake vortex transport is unaffected by uniform fog or rain, but wake vortex transport can be strongly affected by nonlinear vertical change in the ambient crosswind. Both simulation and observations show that atmospheric vortices decay from the outside with minimal expansion of the core. Vortex decay and the onset three-dimensional instabilities are found to be enhanced by the presence of ambient turbulence.

  20. Vortex shedding in high-speed compressor blade wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, A. H.; Gertz, J. B.; Owen, P. R.; Giles, M. B.

    1988-01-01

    The wakes of highly loaded compressor blades are generally considered to be turbulent flows. Recent work has suggested that the blade wakes are dominated by a vortex streetlike structure. The experimental evidence supporting the wake vortex structure is reviewed. This structure is shown to redistribute thermal energy within the flowfield. The effect of the wake structure on conventional aerodynamic measurements of compressor performance is noted. A two-dimensional, time-accurate, viscous numerical simulation of the flow exhibits both vortex shedding in the wake and a lower-frequency flow instability that modulates the shedding. The numerical results are shown to agree quite well with the measurement from transonic compressor rotors.

  1. Turbulence Climatology at Dallas/Ft.Worth (DFW) Airport: Implications for a Departure Wake Vortex Spacing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perras, G. H.; Dasey, T. J.

    2000-01-01

    Potential adaptive wake vortex spacing systems may need to rely on wake vortex decay rather than wake vortex transport in reducing wake separations. A wake vortex takeoff-spacing system in particular will need to rely on wake decay. Ambient turbulence is the primary influence on wake decay away from the ground. This study evaluated 18 months of ambient turbulence measurements at Dallas/Ft. Worth (DFW) Airport. The measurements show minor variation in the turbulence levels at various times of the year or times of the day for time periods when a departure system could be used. Arrival system operation was also examined, and a slightly lower overall turbulence level was found as compared to departure system benefit periods. The Sarpkaya model, a validated model of wake vortex behavior, was applied to various turbulence levels and compared to the DFW turbulence statistics. The results show that wake vortices from heavy aircraft on takeoff should dissipate within one minute for the majority of the time and will rarely last two minutes. These results will need to be verified by wake vortex measurements on departure.

  2. Coherent Pulsed Lidar Sensing of Wake Vortex Position and Strength, Winds and Turbulence in the Terminal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockman, Philip; Barker, Ben C., Jr.; Koch, Grady J.; Nguyen, Dung Phu Chi; Britt, Charles L., Jr.; Petros, Mulugeta

    1999-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has field tested a 2.0 gm, 100 Hertz, pulsed coherent lidar to detect and characterize wake vortices and to measure atmospheric winds and turbulence. The quantification of aircraft wake-vortex hazards is being addressed by the Wake Vortex Lidar (WVL) Project as part of Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS), which is under the Reduced Spacing Operations Element of the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program. These hazards currently set the minimum, fixed separation distance between two aircraft and affect the number of takeoff and landing operations on a single runway under Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). The AVOSS concept seeks to safely reduce aircraft separation distances, when weather conditions permit, to increase the operational capacity of major airports. The current NASA wake-vortex research efforts focus on developing and validating wake vortex encounter models, wake decay and advection models, and wake sensing technologies. These technologies will be incorporated into an automated AVOSS that can properly select safe separation distances for different weather conditions, based on the aircraft pair and predicted/measured vortex behavior. The sensor subsystem efforts focus on developing and validating wake sensing technologies. The lidar system has been field-tested to provide real-time wake vortex trajectory and strength data to AVOSS for wake prediction verification. Wake vortices, atmospheric winds, and turbulence products have been generated from processing the lidar data collected during deployments to Norfolk (ORF), John F. Kennedy (JFK), and Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) International Airports.

  3. Vortex decay in the Kármán eddy street

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponta, Fernando L.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze the effect of viscosity on the vorticity distribution and its rate of decay in the Kármán vortex street behind a circular cylinder. We used direct numerical simulation data, which we compare to well-known experimental measurements. By decomposing the incompressible velocity field in a frame of reference attached to the cylinder into its solenoidal and harmonic components, we identify the eddy structures associated with the formation, shedding, and rearrangement of the vortices into the Kármán street, and study their subsequent decay. This allows us to extend the conclusions of the partially viscous model by Hooker ["On the action of viscosity in increasing the spacing ratio of a vortex street," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 154, 67 (1936)], who made several simplifying hypotheses: initial infinite-length filament-vortex wake, circular Lamb vortices of equal age at subsequent times, and no overlapping of the vortex cores. We show that the vortices have elliptical cores with an elliptical ratio that evolves downstream according to a systematic law. We also find that the vortex cores exhibit a Gaussian vorticity profile and a vorticity versus stream-function scatter plot clearly consistent with the Lamb-vortex model. The peak vorticity in the core decays downstream with a hyperbolic decay rate determined by the amount of circulation contained in the core at the early stages of the street, which is also consistent with Lamb's solution.

  4. Wake Vortex Inverse Model User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, David; Delisi, Donald

    2008-01-01

    NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an inverse model for inverting landing aircraft vortex data. The data used for the inversion are the time evolution of the lateral transport position and vertical position of both the port and starboard vortices. The inverse model performs iterative forward model runs using various estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Forward model predictions of lateral transport and altitude are then compared with the observed data. Differences between the data and model predictions guide the choice of vortex parameter values, crosswind profile and circulation evolution in the next iteration. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Currently, the inverse model is set to stop when the improvement in the rms deviation between the data and model predictions is less than 1 percent for two consecutive iterations. The forward model used in this inverse model is a modified version of the Shear-APA model. A detailed description of this forward model, the inverse model, and its validation are presented in a different report (Lai, Mellman, Robins, and Delisi, 2007). This document is a User's Guide for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model. Section 2 presents an overview of the inverse model program. Execution of the inverse model is described in Section 3. When executing the inverse model, a user is requested to provide the name of an input file which contains the inverse model parameters, the various datasets, and directories needed for the inversion. A detailed description of the list of parameters in the inversion input file is presented in Section 4. A user has an option to save the inversion results of each lidar track in a mat-file (a condensed data file in Matlab format). These saved mat-files can be used for post-inversion analysis. A description of the contents of the saved files is given in Section 5. An example of an inversion input file, with preferred parameters values, is given in Appendix A. An example of the plot generated at a normal completion of the inversion is shown in Appendix B.

  5. Flight safety, aircraft vortex wake and airport operation capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor V. Vyshinsky

    2001-01-01

    One of the major problems that challenge today's aeronautics is the problem of improving flight safety. A zone of increased hazard is the aerospace in the vicinity of an airport. Here, one of aircraft accidents' causes is wake turbulence generated by aircraft. The encountering of an aircraft on take-off or landing with the vortex wake of a preceding aircraft can

  6. Analog Processing Assembly for the Wake Vortex Lidar Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, Edwood G.

    1995-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and NASA have initiated a joint study in the development of reliable means of tracking, detecting, measuring, and predicting trailing wake-vortices of commercial aircraft. Being sought is an accurate model of the wake-vortex hazard, sufficient to increase airport capacity by reducing minimum safe spacings between planes. Several means of measurement are being evaluated for application to wake-vortex detection and tracking, including Doppler RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging) systems, 2-micron Doppler LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) systems, and SODAR (Sound Detection And Ranging) systems. Of specific interest there is the lidar system, which has demonstrated numerous valuable capabilities as a vortex sensor Aerosols entrained in the vortex flow make the wake velocity signature visible to the lidar, (the observable lidar signal is essentially a measurement of the line-of-sight velocity of the aerosols). Measurement of the occurrence of a wake vortex requires effective reception and monitoring of the beat signal which results from the frequency-offset between the transmitted pulse and the backscattered radiation. This paper discusses the mounting, analysis, troubleshooting, and possible use of an analog processing assembly designed for such an application.

  7. Simulation of Wake Vortex Radiometric Detection via Jet Exhaust Proxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Taumi S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of the potential of an airborne hyperspectral imaging IR instrument to infer wake vortices via turbine jet exhaust as a proxy. The goal was to determine the requirements for an imaging spectrometer or radiometer to effectively detect the exhaust plume, and by inference, the location of the wake vortices. The effort examines the gas spectroscopy of the various major constituents of turbine jet exhaust and their contributions to the modeled detectable radiance. Initially, a theoretical analysis of wake vortex proxy detection by thermal radiation was realized in a series of simulations. The first stage used the SLAB plume model to simulate turbine jet exhaust plume characteristics, including exhaust gas transport dynamics and concentrations. The second stage used these plume characteristics as input to the Line By Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) to simulate responses from both an imaging IR hyperspectral spectrometer or radiometer. These numerical simulations generated thermal imagery that was compared with previously reported wake vortex temperature data. This research is a continuation of an effort to specify the requirements for an imaging IR spectrometer or radiometer to make wake vortex measurements. Results of the two-stage simulation will be reported, including instrument specifications for wake vortex thermal detection. These results will be compared with previously reported results for IR imaging spectrometer performance.

  8. Evaluation of a Wake Vortex Upset Model Based on Simultaneous Measurements of Wake Velocities and Probe-Aircraft Accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, B. J.; Jacobsen, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements were made of the upset responses experienced and the wake velocities encountered by an instrumented Learjet probe aircraft behind a Boeing 747 vortex-generating aircraft. The vortex-induced angular accelerations experienced could be predicted within 30% by a mathematical upset response model when the characteristics of the wake were well represented by the vortex model. The vortex model used in the present study adequately represented the wake flow field when the vortices dissipated symmetrically and only one vortex pair existed in the wake.

  9. Vortex wake alleviation studies with a variable twist wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holbrook, G. T.; Dunham, D. M.; Greene, G. C.

    1985-01-01

    Vortex wake alleviation studies were conducted in a wind tunnel and a water towing tank using a multisegmented wing model which provided controlled and measured variations in span load. Fourteen model configurations are tested at a Reynolds number of one million and a lift coefficient of 0.6 in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel and the Hydronautics Ship Model Basin water tank at Hydronautics, Inc., Laurel, Md. Detailed measurements of span load and wake velocities at one semispan downstream correlate well with each other, with inviscid predictions of span load and wake roll up, and with peak trailing-wing rolling moments measured in the far wake. Average trailing-wing rolling moments are found to be an unreliable indicator of vortex wake intensity because vortex meander does not scale between test facilities and free-air conditions. A tapered-span-load configuration, which exhibits little or no drag penalty, is shown to offer significant downstream wake alleviation to a small trailing wing. The greater downstream wake alleviation achieved with the addition of spoilers to a flapped-wing configuration is shown to result directly from the high incremental drag and turbulence associated with the spoilers and not from the span load alteration they cause.

  10. Wake Vortex Alleviation Using Rapidly Actuated Segmented Gurney Flaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matalanis, Claude; Eaton, John

    2006-11-01

    A study to assess the potential for using rapidly actuated segmented Gurney flaps, also known as Miniature Trailing Edge Effectors (MiTEs), for active wake vortex alleviation is conducted using a half-span model wing with NACA 0012 shape and an aspect ratio of 4.1. All tests are performed with the wing at an 8.9 degree angle of attack and chord based Reynolds number around 350,000. The wing is equipped with an array of 13 MiTE pairs. Each MiTE has a flap that in the neutral position rests behind the blunt trailing edge of the wing, and in the down position extends 0.015 chord lengths perpendicular to the freestream on the pressure side of the wing. Dynamic PIV is used to measure the time dependent response of the vortex in the intermediate wake to various MiTE actuation schemes that deflect the vortex in both the spanwise and liftwise directions. A maximum spanwise deflection of 0.041 chord lengths is possible while nearly conserving lift. These intermediate wake results as well as pressure profile, five-hole probe, and static PIV measurements are used to form complete, experimentally-based initial conditions for vortex filament computations that are used to compute the far wake evolution. Results from these computations show that the perturbations created by MiTEs can be used to excite vortex instability.

  11. Rotor Wake Vortex Definition Using 3C-PIV Measurements: Corrected for Vortex Orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; vanderWall, Berend; Richard, Hughues Richard; Raffel, Markus; Beaumier, Philippe; Delrieux, Yves; Lim, Joon W.; Yu, Yung H.; Tung, Chee

    2003-01-01

    Three-component (3-C) particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements, within the wake across a rotor disk plane, are used to determine wake vortex definitions important for BVI (Blade Vortex Interaction) and broadband noise prediction. This study is part of the HART II test program conducted using a 40 percent scale BO-105 helicopter main rotor in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). In this paper, measurements are presented of the wake vortex field over the advancing side of the rotor operating at a typical descent landing condition. The orientations of the vortex (tube) axes are found to have non-zero tilt angles with respect to the chosen PIV measurement cut planes, often on the order of 45 degrees. Methods for determining the orientation of the vortex axis and reorienting the measured PIV velocity maps (by rotation/projection) are presented. One method utilizes the vortex core axial velocity component, the other utilizes the swirl velocity components. Key vortex parameters such as vortex core size, strength, and core velocity distribution characteristics are determined from the reoriented PIV velocity maps. The results are compared with those determined from velocity maps that are not corrected for orientation. Knowledge of magnitudes and directions of the vortex axial and swirl velocity components as a function of streamwise location provide a basis for insight into the vortex evolution.

  12. Wake vortex alleviation using rapidly actuated segmented Gurney flaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matalanis, Claude G.

    All bodies that generate lift also generate circulation. The circulation generated by large commercial aircraft remains in their wake in the form of trailing vortices. These vortices can be hazardous to following aircraft due to their strength and persistence. To account for this, airports abide by spacing rules which govern the frequency with which aircraft can use their runways when operating in instrument flight rules. These spacing rules are the limiting factor on increasing airport capacity. We conducted an experimental and computational study to assess the potential for using rapidly actuated segmented Gurney flaps, also known as Miniature Trailing Edge Effectors (MiTEs), for active wake vortex alleviation. Wind tunnel tests were performed on a half-span model NACA 0012 wing equipped with an array of 13 independent MITE pairs. The chord-based Reynolds number was around 350,000. Each MiTE could extend 0.015 chord lengths perpendicular to the freestream on the pressure side of the wing. Pressure profiles and a five-hole probe survey in the near wake were used to examine the influence that the MiTEs had upon the wing aerodynamics and the vortex rollup process. Particle image velocimetry was used to measure the static and time-dependent response of the vortex in the intermediate wake to various MiTE actuation schemes. These results were used to form complete initial conditions for vortex filament computations of the far wake evolution. Results from these computations showed that the perturbations created by MiTEs could be used to excite a variety of three-dimensional inviscid vortex instabilities. Finally, the research performed on MiTEs led to the invention of a more practical wake alleviation device: the spanwise actuating Gurney flap. Prototype tests showed that this device could produce similar perturbations to the MiTEs.

  13. Development of a rotor wake-vortex model, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majjigi, R. K.; Gliebe, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Certain empirical rotor wake and turbulence relationships were developed using existing low speed rotor wave data. A tip vortex model was developed by replacing the annulus wall with a row of image vortices. An axisymmetric turbulence spectrum model, developed in the context of rotor inflow turbulence, was adapted to predicting the turbulence spectrum of the stator gust upwash.

  14. WAKE VORTEX ALLEVIATION USING RAPIDLY ACTUATED SEGMENTED GURNEY FLAPS

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    WAKE VORTEX ALLEVIATION USING RAPIDLY ACTUATED SEGMENTED GURNEY FLAPS by Claude G. Matalanis significantly degrading aircraft performance. Rapidly actuated segmented Gurney flaps, also known as Miniature: the spanwise actuating Gurney flap. A prototype of this device was designed and tested. The tests showed

  15. ASSESSMENT OF WAKE VORTEX SEPARATION DISTANCES USING THE WAVIR TOOLSET

    E-print Network

    ASSESSMENT OF WAKE VORTEX SEPARATION DISTANCES USING THE WAVIR TOOLSET Lennaert Speijker and Gerben separation distances between aircraft in the arrival and departure flows. Traditionally three methods have, aircraft separation, and pilot/aircraft response to an encounter of varying magnitudes. The WAVIR tool

  16. Wake Vortex Influence on Ambient Potential Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two-dimensional version of the Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) was used to numerically simulate the interaction of wake vortices from closely separated aircraft. The aircraft parameters and separations are taken from observed data at an actual airport. The wake vortices are generated near the runway threshold for four successive aircraft. The ambient conditions are characterized by light crosswinds and stable stratification. This movie shows the effect that the vortices have upon the ambient potential temperature field.

  17. Experimental investigation of the asymmetric body vortex wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberkampf, W. L.; Shivananda, T. P.; Owen, F. K.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the asymmetric body vortex wake of a circular cylinder in high subsonic flow is presented. Laser velocimeter, force and moment, and surface hot wire measurements were obtained for a freestream Mach number of 0.6 and Reynolds number (based on body diameter) of 0.62 x 10 to the 6th. Two component laser velocimeter measurements were made at three body cross-flow planes, x/d = 4, 8, and 12, and angles of attack of 25, 35, and 45 deg. Laser vapor screen photographs were also obtained at these body stations and angles of attack. Surface hot wire measurements were used to determine if any vortex switching occurred at various angles of attack of the body. The laser velocimeter measurements are related to the vapor screen photographs and side force measurements. These results show that more than one asymmetric body vortex wake configuration can exist for the same angle of attack and body roll angle.

  18. Vortex Wake Geometry of a Model Tilt Rotor in Forward Flight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloria K. Yamauchi; Wayne Johnson; Alan J. Wadcock

    The vortex wake trajectory from one rotor of a 0.25-scale V-22 tiltrotor model was measured for four test conditions in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. Vortex wake images were acquired using a laser light sheet and video camera. Wake trajectories were constructed by extracting vortex positions from the video images. Wake trajectories were also calculated using the

  19. Viscous effects on a vortex wake in ground effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Z.; Ash, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    Wake vortex trajectories and strengths are altered radically by interactions with the ground plane. Prediction of vortex strength and location is especially important in the vicinity of airports. Simple potential flow methods have been found to yield reasonable estimates of vortex descent rates in an otherwise quiescent ambient background, but those techniques cannot be adjusted for more realistic ambient conditions and they fail to provide satisfactory estimates of ground-coupled behavior. The authors have been involved in a systematic study concerned with including viscous effects in a wake-vortex system which is near the ground plane. The study has employed numerical solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations, as well as perturbation techniques to study ground coupling with a descending vortex pair. Results of a two-dimensional, unsteady numerical-theoretical study are presented in this paper. A time-based perturbation procedure has been developed which permits the use of analytical solutions to an inner and outer flow domain for the initial flow field. Predictions have been compared with previously reported laminar experimental results. In addition, the influence of stratification and turbulence on vortex behavior near the ground plane has been studied.

  20. Numerical Modeling Studies of Wake Vortex Transport and Evolution Within the Planetary Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Kaplan, Michael L.; Han, Jongil

    2000-01-01

    The fundamental objective of this research is study behavior of aircraft wake vortices within atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in support of developing the system, Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS), under NASA's Terminal Area Productivity (TAR) program that will control aircraft spacing within the narrow approach corridors of airports. The purpose of the AVOSS system is to increase airport capacity by providing a safe reduction in separation of aircraft compared to the now-existing flight rules. In our first funding period (7 January 19994 - 6 April 1997), we have accomplished extensive model development and validation of ABL simulations. Using the validated model, in our second funding period (7 April 1997 - 6 April 2000) we have investigated the effects of ambient atmospheric turbulence on vortex decay and descent, Crow instability, and wake vortex interaction with the ground. Recognizing the crucial influence of ABL turbulence on wake vortex behavior, we have also developed a software generating vertical profiles of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) or energy dissipation rate (EDR), which are, in turn, used as input data in the AVOSS prediction algorithms.

  1. Experimental Study of Near Wake of Micro Vortex Generators in Supersonic Flow

    E-print Network

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    Experimental Study of Near Wake of Micro Vortex Generators in Supersonic Flow Frank K. Lu, Adam J and laser lightsheet visualizations of the near wake of micro vortex generator (MVG) revealed large MICRO vortex generators (MVGs), whose height is less than the boundary layer thickness, have been lately

  2. Analysis of the Radar Reflectivity of Aircraft Vortex Wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariff, Karim; Wray, Alan; Yan, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Radar has been proposed as a way to track wake vortices to reduce aircraft spacing and tests have revealed radar echoes from aircraft wakes in clear air. The results are always interpreted qualitatively using Tatarski's theory of weak scattering by isotropic atmospheric turbulence. The goal of the present work was to predict the value of the radar cross-section (RCS) using simpler models. This is accomplished in two steps. First, the refractive index is obtained. Since the structure of the aircraft wakes is different from atmospheric turbulence, three simple mechanisms specific to vortex wakes are considered: (1) Radial density gradient in a two-dimensional vortex, (2) three-dimensional fluctuations in the vortex cores, and (3) Adiabatic transport of the atmospheric fluid in a two-dimensional oval surrounding the pair of vortices. The index of refraction is obtained more precisely for the two-dimensional mechanisms than for the three-dimensional ones. In the second step, knowing the index of refraction, a scattering analysis is performed. Tatarski's weak scattering approximation is kept but the usual assumptions of a far-field and a uniform incident wave are dropped. Neither assumption is generally valid for a wake that is coherent across the radar beam. For analytical insight, a simpler approximation that invokes, in addition to weak scattering, the far-field and wide cylindrical beam assumptions, is also developed and compared with the more general analysis. The predicted RCS values for the oval surround the vortices (mechanism C) agree with the experiments of Bilson conducted over a wide range of frequencies. However, the predictions have a cut-off away from normal incidence which is not present in the measurements. Estimates suggest that this is due to turbulence in the baroclinic vorticity generated at the boundary of the oval. The reflectivity of a vortex itself (mechanism A) is comparable to that of the oval (mechanism C) but cuts-off at frequencies lower than those considered in all the experiments to date. The RCS of a vortex happens to peak at the frequency (about 49 MHz) where atmospheric radars (known as ST radars) operate and so the present prediction could be verified in the future. Finally , we suggest that hot engine exhaust could increase RCE by 40 db and reveal vortex circulation, provided its mixing with the surroundings is prevented in the laminarising flow of the vortices.

  3. Wake Vortex Control using Segmented Rapidly Actuated Gurney Flaps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Matalanis; John Eaton

    2004-01-01

    Gurney flaps are small flaps oriented perpendicular to the freestream at the trailing edge of a wing, which can increase the lift considerably with little drag penalty. Meso-scale trailing edge effectors (MiTEs) are segmented, rapidly actuated, independent Gurney flaps that have an analogous effect local to their spanwise position. MiTEs show great potential in helping to alleviate the wake vortex

  4. Wake Vortex Alleviation Using Rapidly Actuated Segmented Gurney Flaps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Matalanis; John Eaton

    2006-01-01

    A study to assess the potential for using rapidly actuated segmented Gurney flaps, also known as Miniature Trailing Edge Effectors (MiTEs), for active wake vortex alleviation is conducted using a half-span model wing with NACA 0012 shape and an aspect ratio of 4.1. All tests are performed with the wing at an 8.9 degree angle of attack and chord based

  5. A prediction model for the vortex shedding noise from the wake of an airfoil or axial flow fan blades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Lee; M. K. Chung; Y.-H. Kim

    1993-01-01

    An analytical model is presented for predicting the vortex shedding noise generated from the wake of axial flow fan blades. The downstream wake of a fan blade is assumed to be dominated by the von Karman vortex street, and the strength and the shedding frequency of the wake vortex are determined from the wake structure model. The fluctuating pressure and

  6. Wake Vortex Tracking Using a 35 GHz Pulsed Doppler Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neece, Robert T.; Britt, Charles L.; White, Joseph H.; Mudukutore, Ashok; Nguyen, Chi; Hooper, Bill

    2005-01-01

    A 35 GHz, pulsed-Doppler radar system has been designed and assembled for wake vortex detection and tracking in low visibility conditions. Aircraft wake vortices continue to be an important factor in determining safe following distances or spacings for aircraft in the terminal area. Currently, under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), aircraft adhere to conservative, fixed following-distance guidelines based primarily on aircraft weight classifications. When ambient conditions are such that vortices will either drift or dissipate, leaving the flight corridor clear, the prescribed spacings are unnecessarily long and result in decreased airport throughput. There is a potential for significant airport efficiency improvement, if a system can be employed to aid regulators and pilots in setting safe and efficient following distances based on airport conditions. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Federal Aviation Agency, and Volpe National Transportation Systems Center have promoted and worked to develop systems that would increase airport capacity and provide for safe reductions in aircraft separation. The NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS), a wake vortex spacing system that can provide dynamic adjustment of spacings based on real-time airport weather conditions, has demonstrated that Lidar systems can be successfully used to detect and track vortices in clear air conditions. To fill the need for detection capability in low-visibility conditions, a 35 GHz, pulsed-Doppler radar system is being investigated for use as a complimentary, low-visibility sensor for wake vortices. The radar sensor provides spatial and temporal information similar to that provided by Lidar, but under weather conditions that a Lidar cannot penetrate. Currently, we are analyzing the radar design based upon the data and experience gained during the wake vortex Lidar deployment with AVOSS at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. As part of this study, two numerical models were utilized in system simulations. The results of this study improve our understanding of the method of detection, resolution requirements for range and azimuth, pulse compression, and performance prediction. Simulations applying pulse compression techniques show that detection is good in heavy fog to greater than 2000 m. Both compressed and uncompressed short pulses show the vortex structure. To explore operational challenges, siting and scanning strategies were also analyzed. Simulation results indicate that excellent wake vortex detection, tracking and classification is possible in drizzle (+15 dBZ) and heavy fog (- 13 dBZ) using short pulse techniques (<99ns) at ranges on the order of 900 m, with a modest power of 500 W output. At 1600 m, detection can be expected at reflectivities as low as -13 dBZ (heavy fog). The radar system, as designed and built, has the potential to support field studies of a wake vortex spacing system in low-visibility conditions ranging from heavy fog to rain, when sited within 2000m of the flight path.

  7. Wake Vortex Control using Segmented Rapidly Actuated Gurney Flaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matalanis, Claude; Eaton, John

    2004-11-01

    Gurney flaps are small flaps oriented perpendicular to the freestream at the trailing edge of a wing, which can increase the lift considerably with little drag penalty. Meso-scale trailing edge effectors (MiTEs) are segmented, rapidly actuated, independent Gurney flaps that have an analogous effect local to their spanwise position. MiTEs show great potential in helping to alleviate the wake vortex hazard. By periodically varying the loading distribution across the span of a wing, it may be possible to excite natural instabilities that accelerate vortex destruction. The problem is to introduce large enough disturbances while holding the total lift of the wing nearly constant. The purpose of this work is to assess how different MiTE actuation patterns can alter the strength and position of the trailing vortex. Our experimental apparatus consists of an untapered NACA 0012 wing with a 30 cm chord length and an aspect ratio of 2 mounted in a wind tunnel. Reynolds numbers based on the chord are of order 105. The wing is equipped with an array of 14 MiTEs. PIV is used to measure tangential velocities of the trailing vortex roughly five chord lengths behind the wing. Data from static MiTE configurations show that the vortex core can be displaced by at least 0.01 chord lengths.

  8. Numerical modeling studies of wake vortex transport and evolution within the planetary boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Kaplan, Michael L.

    1994-01-01

    The proposed research involves four tasks. The first of these is to simulate accurately the turbulent processes in the atmospheric boundary layer. TASS was originally developed to study meso-gamma scale phenomena, such as tornadic storms, microbursts and windshear effects in terminal areas. Simulation of wake vortex evolution, however, will rely on appropriate representation of the physical processes in the surface layer and mixed layer. This involves two parts. First, a specified heat flux boundary condition must be implemented at the surface. Using this boundary condition, simulation results will be compared to experimental data and to other model results for validation. At this point, any necessary changes to the model will be implemented. Next, a surface energy budget parameterization will be added to the model. This will enable calculation of the surface fluxes by accounting for the radiative heat transfer to and from the ground and heat loss to the soil rather than simple specification of the fluxes. The second task involves running TASS with prescribed wake vortices in the initial condition. The vortex models will be supplied by NASA Langley Research Center. Sensitivity tests will be performed on different meteorological environments in the atmospheric boundary layer, which include stable, neutral, and unstable stratifications, calm and severe wind conditions, and dry and wet conditions. Vortex strength may be varied as well. Relevant non-dimensional parameters will include the following: Richardson number or Froude number, Bowen ratio, and height to length scale ratios. The model output will be analyzed and visualized to better understand the transport, decay, and growth rates of the wake vortices. The third task involves running simulations using observed data. MIT Lincoln Labs is currently planning field experiments at the Memphis airport to measure both meteorological conditions and wake vortex characteristics. Once this data becomes available, it can be used to validate the model for vortex behavior under different atmospheric conditions. The fourth task will be to simulate the wake in a more realistic environment covering a wider area. This will involve grid nesting, since high resolution will be required in the wake region but a larger total domain will be used. During the first allocation year, most of the first task will be accomplished.

  9. Modeling of Wake-vortex Aircraft Encounters. Appendix B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Sonya T.

    1999-01-01

    There are more people passing through the world's airports today than at any other time in history. With this increase in civil transport, airports are becoming capacity limited. In order to increase capacity and thus meet the demands of the flying public, the number of runways and number of flights per runway must be increased. In response to the demand, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in conjunction with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), airport operators, and the airline industry are taking steps to increase airport capacity without jeopardizing safety. Increasing the production per runway increases the likelihood that an aircraft will encounter the trailing wake-vortex of another aircraft. The hazard of a wake-vortex encounter is that heavy load aircraft can produce high intensity wake turbulence, through the development of its wing-tip vortices. A smaller aircraft following in the wake of the heavy load aircraft will experience redistribution of its aerodynamic load. This creates a safety hazard for the smaller aircraft. Understanding this load redistribution is of great importance, particularly during landing and take-off. In this research wake-vortex effects on an encountering 10% scale model of the B737-100 aircraft are modeled using both strip theory and vortex-lattice modeling methods. The models are then compared to wind tunnel data that was taken in the 30ft x 60ft wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Comparisons are made to determine if the models will have acceptable accuracy when parts of the geometry are removed, such as the horizontal stabilizer and the vertical tail. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to observe how accurately the models could match the experimental data if there was a 10% error in the circulation strength. It was determined that both models show accurate results when the wing, horizontal stabilizer, and vertical tail were a part of the geometry. When the horizontal stabilizer and vertical tail were removed there were difficulties modeling the sideforce coefficient and pitching moment. With the removal of only the vertical tail unacceptable errors occurred when modeling the sideforce coefficient and yawing moment. Lift could not be modeled with either the full geometry or the reduced geometry attempts.

  10. An Investigation of Candidate Sensor-Observable Wake Vortex Strength Parameters for the NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatnall, Chistopher R.

    1998-01-01

    The counter-rotating pair of wake vortices shed by flying aircraft can pose a threat to ensuing aircraft, particularly on landing approach. To allow adequate time for the vortices to disperse/decay, landing aircraft are required to maintain certain fixed separation distances. The Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS), under development at NASA, is designed to prescribe safe aircraft landing approach separation distances appropriate to the ambient weather conditions. A key component of the AVOSS is a ground sensor, to ensure, safety by making wake observations to verify predicted behavior. This task requires knowledge of a flowfield strength metric which gauges the severity of disturbance an encountering aircraft could potentially experience. Several proposed strength metric concepts are defined and evaluated for various combinations of metric parameters and sensor line-of-sight elevation angles. Representative populations of generating and following aircraft types are selected, and their associated wake flowfields are modeled using various wake geometry definitions. Strength metric candidates are then rated and compared based on the correspondence of their computed values to associated aircraft response values, using basic statistical analyses.

  11. Numerical Simulation of the Aircraft Wake Vortex Flowfield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Perry, R. Brad

    2013-01-01

    The near wake vortex flowfield from a NACA0012 half-wing was simulated using a fully unstructured Navier-Stokes flow solver in three dimensions at a chord Reynolds number of 4.6 million and a Mach number of approximately 0.15. Several simulations were performed to examine the effect of boundary conditions, mesh resolution and turbulence scheme on the formation of wingtip vortex and its downstream propagation. The standard Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model was compared with the Dacles-Mariani and Spalart-Shur corrections for rotation and curvature effects. The simulation results were evaluated using the data from experiment performed at NASA Ames' 32in x 48in low speed wind tunnel.

  12. Development of a Wake Vortex Spacing System for Airport Capacity Enhancement and Delay Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.; OConnor, Cornelius J.

    2000-01-01

    The Terminal Area Productivity project has developed the technologies required (weather measurement, wake prediction, and wake measurement) to determine the aircraft spacing needed to prevent wake vortex encounters in various weather conditions. The system performs weather measurements, predicts bounds on wake vortex behavior in those conditions, derives safe wake spacing criteria, and validates the wake predictions with wake vortex measurements. System performance to date indicates that the potential runway arrival rate increase with Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS), considering common path effects and ATC delivery variance, is 5% to 12% depending on the ratio of large and heavy aircraft. The concept demonstration system, using early generation algorithms and minimal optimization, is performing the wake predictions with adequate robustness such that only 4 hard exceedances have been observed in 1235 wake validation cases. This performance demonstrates the feasibility of predicting wake behavior bounds with multiple uncertainties present, including the unknown aircraft weight and speed, weather persistence between the wake prediction and the observations, and the location of the weather sensors several kilometers from the approach location. A concept for the use of the AVOSS system for parallel runway operations has been suggested, and an initial study at the JFK International Airport suggests that a simplified AVOSS system can be successfully operated using only a single lidar as both the weather sensor and the wake validation instrument. Such a selfcontained AVOSS would be suitable for wake separation close to the airport, as is required for parallel approach concepts such as SOIA.

  13. Meteorology and Wake Vortex Influence on American Airlines FL-587 Accident

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Rutishauser, David K.; Switzer, George F.

    2004-01-01

    The atmospheric environment surrounding the crash of American Airlines Flight 587 is investigated. Examined are evidence for any unusual atmospheric conditions and the potential for encounters with aircraft wake vortices. Computer simulations are carried out with two different vortex prediction models and a Large Eddy Simulation model. Wind models are proposed for studying aircraft and pilot response to the wake vortex encounter.

  14. Interaction of compressor rotor blade wake with wall boundary layer/vortex in the end-wall region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakshminarayana, B.; Ravindranath, A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports the experimental study of the three-dimensional characteristics of the mean velocity of the rotor wake inside the annulus- and hub-wall boundary layers. The measurements were taken with a rotating three-sensor hot wire behind the rotor. This set of measurements probably represents the first set of comprehensive measurements taken inside the annulus- and hub-wall boundary layers. The wake was surveyed at several radial locations inside the boundary layer region and at several axial locations. Interaction of the wake with the annulus-wall boundary layer, secondary flow, tip-leakage flow, and the trailing vortex system results in slower decay and larger width of the wake. The presence of a strong vortex and its merger with the wake is also observed. The end-wall boundary layers and the secondary flow were found to have a substantial effect on both the decay characteristics and the profile of the wake. These and other measurements are reported and interpreted in this paper.

  15. Coupling of a free wake vortex ring near-wake model with the Jensen and Larsen far-wake deficit models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heemst, J. W.; Baldacchino, D.; Mehta, D.; van Bussel, G. J. W.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a simple physical model to improve the currently used far-wake deficit models in the wind industry. The main improvement is deemed on the determination of the wake deficit in the near-wake. A Vortex Ring Model (VRM) is used to calculate the induced velocities in the near-wake, which are then coupled to the Jensen far-wake model and the Larsen far-wake model based on the concept of Eddy Viscosity (EV). The inviscid near-wake VRM is based on the shedding of discrete tip vortex rings released from a uniformly loaded actuator disc. The model is validated against wind tunnel measurements from experiments with a two- bladed turbine and a circular metal mesh with a uniform porosity to represent an actuator disc. The VRM shows a good agreement with the experimental data with respect to the wake deficit evolution. The VRM is coupled with two well-known engineering type far-wake models: the Jensen and Larsen wake deficit models. The results of the coupling of the VRM and the more elaborated Larsen far-wake model are compared against a 3D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) CFD model. This comparison shows the effect of different near-wake models on the development of centreline velocities in the far-wake. The centreline velocity deficit predicted by the VRM-Larsen model more closely matches LES calculations in comparison with the reference Larsen model.

  16. Numerical studies of three-dimensional breakdown in trailing vortex wakes. [between aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackett, J. E.; Evans, P. F.

    1976-01-01

    The development of dangerous vortex wakes trailing between aircraft for appreciable distance downstream, and posing hazards to following aircraft, is calculated using finite-element three-dimensional relaxation methods. Near-wake, middle-wake, and far-wake conditions are delineated. Vortex system finite lifetimes can be calculated with greater facility owing to the inclusion of a self-induction term in the solution dependent upon local curvature and vortex core radius. Looping and convergence phenomena are studied for single vortex pairs, twin pairs, and multiple pairs. Proportions of flap span and wing span are shown to affect the time to convergence of vortex pairs. The self-induction term renders the convergence time of vortices a sensitive function of wavelength. Wakes trailing between wide-body ('Jumbo') aircraft are also examined.

  17. Flight in a viscous fluid: Asymptotic theory of the vortex wake Yakov Afanasyeva

    E-print Network

    Afanassiev, Iakov

    American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.1855700 Compact vortex structures are generated in a viscous to a single force applied at a point, the generic types of vortex structures generated by the forceFlight in a viscous fluid: Asymptotic theory of the vortex wake Yakov Afanasyeva Department

  18. Design of airport wake vortex monitoring system based on 1.5-?m pulsed coherent Doppler lidar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Hua Wu; Yi-Hua Hu; Shi-Long Xu; Jin-Ming Li; Ding-Chuan Dai

    2011-01-01

    To shun the vortex hazard, the airport wake vortex monitoring system based on 1.5-?m pulsed coherent Doppler lidar is designed\\u000a successfully in this paper. Based on the realistic analytical model, the wake vortex generated by airbus A340 under typical\\u000a flight condition is simulated. Then the principle of airport wake vortex monitoring is introduced, and the work flow of the\\u000a monitoring

  19. Free Wake Techniques for Rotor Aerodynamic Analylis. Volume 2: Vortex Sheet Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanuwidjaja, A.

    1982-01-01

    Results of computations are presented using vortex sheets to model the wake and test the sensitivity of the solutions to various assumptions used in the development of the models. The complete codings are included.

  20. Development of a rotor wake/vortex model. Volume 2: User's manual for computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majjigi, R. K.; Gliebe, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    The principal objective was to establish a verified rotor wake/vortex model for specific application to fan and compressor rotor-stator interaction and resulting noise generation. A description and flow chart of the Rotor Wake/Vortex Model computer program, a listing of the program, definitions of the input/output parameters, a sample input/output case, and input files for Rotor 55, the JT15D rotor, and Rotor 67, Stage 1 are provided.

  1. Effect of velocity ratio on the streamwise vortex structures in the wake of a stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adaramola, M. S.; Sumner, D.; Bergstrom, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    The time-averaged velocity and streamwise vorticity fields within the wake of a stack were investigated in a low-speed wind tunnel using a seven-hole pressure probe. The experiments were conducted at a Reynolds number, based on the stack external diameter, of ReD=2.3×104. The stack, of aspect ratio AR=9, was mounted normal to a ground plane and was partially immersed in a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer, where the ratio of the boundary layer thickness to the stack height was ?/H?0.5. The jet-to-cross-flow velocity ratio was varied from R=0 to 3, which covered the downwash, crosswind-dominated and jet-dominated flow regimes. In the downwash and crosswind-dominated flow regimes, two pairs of counter-rotating streamwise vortex structures were identified within the stack wake. The tip vortex pair located close to the free end of the stack, and the base vortex pair located close to the ground plane within the flat-plate boundary layer, were similar to those found in the wake of a finite circular cylinder, and were associated with the upwash and downwash flow fields within the stack wake, respectively. In the jet-dominated flow regime, a third pair of streamwise vortex structures was observed, referred to as the jet-wake vortex pair, which occurred within the jet-wake region above the free end of the stack. The jet-wake vortex pair had the same orientation as the base vortex pair and was associated with the jet rise. The peak vorticity and strength of the streamwise vortex structures were functions of the jet-to-cross-flow velocity ratio. For the tip vortex structures, their peak vorticity and strength reduced as the jet-to-cross-flow velocity ratio increased.

  2. Simulation of Rotary-Wing Near-Wake Vortex Structures Using Navier-Stokes CFD Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenwright, David; Strawn, Roger; Ahmad, Jasim; Duque, Earl; Warmbrodt, William (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This paper will use high-resolution Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to model the near-wake vortex roll-up behind rotor blades. The locations and strengths of the trailing vortices will be determined from newly-developed visualization and analysis software tools applied to the CFD solutions. Computational results for rotor nearwake vortices will be used to study the near-wake vortex roll up for highly-twisted tiltrotor blades. These rotor blades typically have combinations of positive and negative spanwise loading and complex vortex wake interactions. Results of the computational studies will be compared to vortex-lattice wake models that are frequently used in rotorcraft comprehensive codes. Information from these comparisons will be used to improve the rotor wake models in the Tilt-Rotor Acoustic Code (TRAC) portion of NASA's Short Haul Civil Transport program (SHCT). Accurate modeling of the rotor wake is an important part of this program and crucial to the successful design of future civil tiltrotor aircraft. The rotor wake system plays an important role in blade-vortex interaction noise, a major problem for all rotorcraft including tiltrotors.

  3. The role of vortex wake dynamics in the flow-induced vibration of tube arrays

    E-print Network

    Kevlahan, Nicholas

    The role of vortex wake dynamics in the flow-induced vibration of tube arrays N.K.-R. Kevlahan­structure interaction Vortex-induced vibration Tube arrays Potential flow a b s t r a c t Potential flow and 2-D Navier of periodic tube arrays. This dual approach untangles the effects of potential and vortical flow. The negative

  4. Wake vortex detection at Denver Stapleton Airport with a pulsed 2-micron coherent lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannon, Stephen M.; Thomson, J. Alex

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the effort undertaken to relate aircraft wake history to the local environment. This involved the monitoring of the embedded windfield, monitoring of local meteorological parameters, a high-resolution velocity field analysis in vertical scan planes and measurement of the axial velocity signature. A flashlight pumped 2.09 micron solid state coherent laser radar system was used to detect and track wake vortices. Strong wake vortex signatures were measured for moderate to large aircraft at Denver's Stapleton airport and a large vortex database was compiled.

  5. Evolution and breakdown of helical vortex wakes behind a wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemes, A.; Sherry, M.; Lo Jacono, D.; Blackburn, H. M.; Sheridan, J.

    2014-12-01

    The wake behind a three-bladed Glauert model rotor in a water channel was investigated. Planar particle image velocimetry was used to measure the velocity fields on the wake centre-line, with snapshots phase-locked to blade position of the rotor. Phase- locked averages of the velocity and vorticity fields are shown, with tip vortex interaction and entanglement of the helical filaments elucidated. Proper orthogonal decomposition and topology-based vortex identification are used to filter the PIV images for coherent structures and locate vortex cores. Application of these methods to the instantaneous data reveals unsteady behaviour of the helical filaments that is statistically quantifiable.

  6. Periodicity of the density wake past a vortex ring in a stratified liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, V.

    2009-04-01

    Spatial coherent structure of the density wake past a vortex ring moving horizontally in viscid stratified liquid is experimentally revealed. It follows from analysis that repetition period of the structure is determined by rotation radial frequency (or mean vorticity) of the vortex core and toward speed of the vortex ring. The wake formation of the ring is considered in respect to vorticity shedding which produces velocity disturbances in ambient medium. In case of stratified liquid velocity fluctuations, in their turn, cause density field distortion. This process is superimposed by vortex core oscillations, and, in result, vorticity shedding will be not monotonous but modulated at some frequency. So, the density wake is periodically structured, and the spatial period is defined by intrinsic frequency of the core and forward speed of the ring. To support analysis, experiments were conducted in which vortex rings excited by spring-piston generator were observed with high-sensitive Schlieren instrument and computer-controlled camera. Experimental tank was filled with salt-stratified water of constant buoyancy period, vortex ring velocities range from 3 to 16 cm/s. Spatial period is derived from schlieren image using two independent methods, both 2D spectral analysis and geometry calculations of the vortex core. Spatial periods and vortex intrinsic frequencies calculated by both algorithms are in good agreement; they vary in power lows depending on vortex speed

  7. Initialization and Simulation of Three-Dimensional Aircraft Wake Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, Robert L.; Zheng, Z. C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of axial velocity profiles on vortex decay, in order to properly initialize and simulate three-dimensional wake vortex flow. Analytical relationships are obtained based on a single vortex model and computational simulations are performed for a rather practical vortex wake, which show that the single vortex analytical relations can still be applicable at certain streamwise sections of three-dimensional wake vortices.

  8. How to perform measurements in a hovering animal's wake: physical modelling of the vortex wake of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Tytell, Eric D; Ellington, Charles P

    2003-09-29

    The vortex wake structure of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, was investigated using a vortex ring generator. Based on existing kinematic and morphological data, a piston and tube apparatus was constructed to produce circular vortex rings with the same size and disc loading as a hovering hawkmoth. Results show that the artificial rings were initially laminar, but developed turbulence owing to azimuthal wave instability. The initial impulse and circulation were accurately estimated for laminar rings using particle image velocimetry; after the transition to turbulence, initial circulation was generally underestimated. The underestimate for turbulent rings can be corrected if the transition time and velocity profile are accurately known, but this correction will not be feasible for experiments on real animals. It is therefore crucial that the circulation and impulse be estimated while the wake vortices are still laminar. The scaling of the ring Reynolds number suggests that flying animals of about the size of hawkmoths may be the largest animals whose wakes stay laminar for long enough to perform such measurements during hovering. Thus, at low advance ratios, they may be the largest animals for which wake circulation and impulse can be accurately measured. PMID:14561347

  9. Progress Towards the Investigation of Technical Issues Relevant to the Design of an Aircraft Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutishauser, David K.

    2003-01-01

    Wake vortex separations applied to aircraft during instrument operations have been shown to potentially introduce inefficiencies in air traffic operations during certain weather conditions conducive to short duration wake hazards between pairs of landing aircraft. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) demonstrated an integration of technologies that provided real-time observations and predictions of aircraft wake behavior, from which reduced wake spacing from the current criteria was derived. In order to take this proof of concept to an operational prototype system, NASA has been working in cooperation with the FAA and other government and industry members to design operational concepts for a Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS). In addition to concept development, open research issues are being addressed and activities to quantify system requirements and specifications are currently underway. This paper describes the technological issues relevant to WakeVAS development and current NASA efforts to address these issues.

  10. Numerical Study of Wake Vortex Behavior in Turbulent Domains with Ambient Stratification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Switzer, George F.; Proctor, Fred H.

    2000-01-01

    A three-dimensional large eddy simulation model is used to investigate the sensitivity of ambient stratification with turbulence on the behavior of aircraft wake vortices. Modeled ambient turbulence levels range from very weak to moderate, and stratification levels range from strongly stable to unstable. The results of profound significance from this study are: 1) very little sensitivity between vortex linking time and the level of stratification, 2) the mean vortex separation remained nearly constant regardless of stratification and turbulence (at least prior to linking), 3) the wake vortices did not rise regardless of the level of stratification, and 4) for very strong stratification, the vortex stopped descending and quickly dissipated even before vortex linking could occur. These results are supported by experimental data and are contrary to conclusions from other numerical studies that assume laminar flow and/or relatively-low Reynolds numbers.

  11. Scanning laser-velocimeter surveys and analysis of multiple vortex wakes of an aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsiglia, V. R.; Orloff, K. L.

    1976-01-01

    A laser velocimeter capable of rapidly scanning a flow field while simultaneously sensing two components of the velocity was used to measure the vertical and streamwise velocity structure 1.5 spans downstream in the wake of a model typical of a large subsonic transport (Boeing 747). This flow field was modeled by a superposition of axisymmetric vortices with finite cores. This theoretical model was found to agree with the measured velocities everywhere except where two vortices were in close proximity. Vortex strengths derived from the span loading on the wing as predicted by vortex-lattice theory also agree with the present measurements. The axisymmetric vortex model used herein is a useful tool for analytically investigating the vortex wakes of aircraft.

  12. A mathematical model of 2P and 2C vortex wakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Stremler; Alireza Salmanzadeh; Saikat Basu; Charles H. K. Williamson

    2011-01-01

    We present a mathematical model of the vortex wake modes that appear behind neighboring and\\/or oscillating, flapping, and swimming bodies in which there are four vortices generated in an anti-symmetric pattern during each shedding cycle. The two-dimensional potential flow model consists of four point vortices with strengths ±Gamma in a spatially periodic domain. The relative vortex positions are restricted by

  13. A mathematical model of 2P and 2C vortex wakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Stremler; Alireza Salmanzadeh; Saikat Basu; Charles H. K. Williamson

    2011-01-01

    We present a mathematical model of the vortex wake modes that appear behind neighboring and\\/or oscillating, flapping, and swimming bodies in which there are four vortices generated in an anti-symmetric pattern during each shedding cycle. The two-dimensional potential flow model consists of four point vortices with strengths ±? in a spatially periodic domain. The relative vortex positions are restricted by

  14. Estimates of the effectiveness of automatic control in alleviating wake vortex induced roll excursions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinling, B. E.

    1977-01-01

    Estimates of the effectiveness of a model following type control system in reducing the roll excursion due to a wake vortex encounter were obtained from single degree of freedom computations with inputs derived from the results of wind tunnel, flight, and simulation experiments. The analysis indicates that the control power commanded by the automatic system must be roughly equal to the vortex induced roll acceleration if effective limiting of the maximum bank angle is to be achieved.

  15. A Parametric Study of Accelerations of an Airplane Due to a Wake Vortex System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted using strip theory to systematically investigate the effects of progressively more complete descriptions of the interaction of an airplane with a wake vortex system. The emphasis was in roll-dominant, parallel, vortex encounters. That is, the simulated airplane's longitudinal axis was nearly parallel to the rotation axis of the vortex system for most of the results presented. The study began with a drag-less rectangular wing in the flow field of a single vortex and progressed to a complete airplane with aerodynamic surfaces possessing taper, sweep, dihedral, and stalling and immersed in the flow field of a vortex pair in ground effect. The effects of the pitch, roll, and yaw attitudes of the airplane on the calculated accelerations were also investigated. The airplane had the nominal characteristics of a Boeing 757, and the vortex flow field had the nominal characteristics of the wake of a Boeing 767. The Bumham-Hallock model of a vortex flow field was used throughout the study. The data are presented mainly in terms of contours of equal acceleration in a two-dimensional area centered on the vortex pair and having dimensions of 300 feet by 300 feet.

  16. Analysis of the Vortex-Decay Process in the K'arm'an Street

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponta, Fernando

    2007-11-01

    In this talk we shall explore the effect of viscosity upon the vorticity distribution and rate of decay of vortex cores in the K'arm'an vortex street behind a circular cylinder. We used direct numerical simulation data, which we contrasted against well-known experimental measurements. By decomposing the incompressible velocity field in its solenoidal and harmonic components, we identified the eddy structures associated with the formation, shedding and rearrangement of the vortices into the K'arm'an street. We then follow their evolution during the subsequent decay process. This allowed us to extend the conclusions of the partially-viscous model of Hooker (1936), who assumed several simplifying hypothesis: initial infinite-length filament-vortex wake, circular Lamb vortices of equal age at subsequent times, and no overlapping of the vortex cores. We found that the vortex cores exhibit a Gaussian vorticity profile, and a vorticity-stream function scatter-plot clearly consistent with the Lamb-vortex model. The vorticity peak on the core decays downstream with the systematic hyperbolic law given by Lamb's solution, with a rate of decay determined by the amount of circulation contained into the core at the early stages of the street formation.

  17. Tomographic particle image velocimetry of desert locust wakes: instantaneous volumes combine to reveal hidden vortex elements and rapid wake deformation

    PubMed Central

    Bomphrey, Richard J.; Henningsson, Per; Michaelis, Dirk; Hollis, David

    2012-01-01

    Aerodynamic structures generated by animals in flight are unstable and complex. Recent progress in quantitative flow visualization has advanced our understanding of animal aerodynamics, but measurements have hitherto been limited to flow velocities at a plane through the wake. We applied an emergent, high-speed, volumetric fluid imaging technique (tomographic particle image velocimetry) to examine segments of the wake of desert locusts, capturing fully three-dimensional instantaneous flow fields. We used those flow fields to characterize the aerodynamic footprint in unprecedented detail and revealed previously unseen wake elements that would have gone undetected by two-dimensional or stereo-imaging technology. Vortex iso-surface topographies show the spatio-temporal signature of aerodynamic force generation manifest in the wake of locusts, and expose the extent to which animal wakes can deform, potentially leading to unreliable calculations of lift and thrust when using conventional diagnostic methods. We discuss implications for experimental design and analysis as volumetric flow imaging becomes more widespread. PMID:22977102

  18. Spectral Characteristics of Wake Vortex Sound During Roll-Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Earl R., Jr. (Technical Monitor); Zhang, Yan; Wang, Frank Y.; Hardin, Jay C.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the sound spectra generated by a trailing aircraft vortex during its rolling-up process. The study demonstrates that a rolling-up vortex could produce low frequency (less than 100 Hz) sound with very high intensity (60 dB above threshold of human hearing) at a distance of 200 ft from the vortex core. The spectrum then drops o rapidly thereafter. A rigorous analytical approach has been adopted in this report to derive the spectrum of vortex sound. First, the sound pressure was solved from an alternative treatment of the Lighthill s acoustic analogy approach [1]. After the application of Green s function for free space, a tensor analysis was applied to permit the removal of the source term singularity of the wave equation in the far field. Consequently, the sound pressure is expressed in terms of the retarded time that indicates the time history and spacial distribution of the sound source. The Fourier transformation is then applied to the sound pressure to compute its spectrum. As a result, the Fourier transformation greatly simplifies the expression of the vortex sound pressure involving the retarded time, so that the numerical computation is applicable with ease for axisymmetric line vortices during the rolling-up process. The vortex model assumes that the vortex circulation is proportional to the time and the core radius is a constant. In addition, the velocity profile is assumed to be self-similar along the aircraft flight path, so that a benchmark vortex velocity profile can be devised to obtain a closed form solution, which is then used to validate the numerical calculations for other more realistic vortex profiles for which no closed form solutions are available. The study suggests that acoustic sensors operating at low frequency band could be profitably deployed for detecting the vortex sound during the rolling-up process.

  19. Structure of the vortex wake in hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna)

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, M.; Ortega-Jimenez, V. M.; Dudley, R.

    2013-01-01

    Hummingbirds are specialized hoverers for which the vortex wake has been described as a series of single vortex rings shed primarily during the downstroke. Recent findings in bats and birds, as well as in a recent study on Anna's hummingbirds, suggest that each wing may shed a discrete vortex ring, yielding a bilaterally paired wake. Here, we describe the presence of two discrete rings in the wake of hovering Anna's hummingbirds, and also infer force production through a wingbeat with contributions to weight support. Using flow visualization, we found separate vortices at the tip and root of each wing, with 15% stronger circulation at the wingtip than at the root during the downstroke. The upstroke wake is more complex, with near-continuous shedding of vorticity, and circulation of approximately equal magnitude at tip and root. Force estimates suggest that the downstroke contributes 66% of required weight support, whereas the upstroke generates 35%. We also identified a secondary vortex structure yielding 8–26% of weight support. Lift production in Anna's hummingbirds is more evenly distributed between the stroke phases than previously estimated for Rufous hummingbirds, in accordance with the generally symmetric down- and upstrokes that characterize hovering in these birds. PMID:24174113

  20. Structure of the vortex wake in hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna).

    PubMed

    Wolf, M; Ortega-Jimenez, V M; Dudley, R

    2013-12-22

    Hummingbirds are specialized hoverers for which the vortex wake has been described as a series of single vortex rings shed primarily during the downstroke. Recent findings in bats and birds, as well as in a recent study on Anna's hummingbirds, suggest that each wing may shed a discrete vortex ring, yielding a bilaterally paired wake. Here, we describe the presence of two discrete rings in the wake of hovering Anna's hummingbirds, and also infer force production through a wingbeat with contributions to weight support. Using flow visualization, we found separate vortices at the tip and root of each wing, with 15% stronger circulation at the wingtip than at the root during the downstroke. The upstroke wake is more complex, with near-continuous shedding of vorticity, and circulation of approximately equal magnitude at tip and root. Force estimates suggest that the downstroke contributes 66% of required weight support, whereas the upstroke generates 35%. We also identified a secondary vortex structure yielding 8-26% of weight support. Lift production in Anna's hummingbirds is more evenly distributed between the stroke phases than previously estimated for Rufous hummingbirds, in accordance with the generally symmetric down- and upstrokes that characterize hovering in these birds. PMID:24174113

  1. Transient Vortex Structures in the Near Wake of a Wing during Pitch Up/Down Maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graff, Emilio; Grivel, Morgane; Williams, David

    2012-11-01

    The vorticity distribution in the wake of a thin airfoil reflects the lift and bound circulation history of the wing. During a pitch-up maneuver from 0 degrees to some higher angle of attack (assuming attached flow), a ``starting vortex'' is formed in the wake whose circulation is opposite in strength to the bound circulation in the wing. However, a finite time is required for the starting vortex to fully develop, and if the wing pitches down to a smaller angle of attack before the first starting vortex has reached full strength then an imbalance in the wake circulation occurs. The delay time between the up/down pitch motions and the maximum angle of attack determine which additional vortices must be formed to satisfy Kelvin's theorem. In addition to the irrotational flow vortices that form, vorticity associated with the viscous boundary layers also accumulates into discrete vortices that accompany each ``starting vortex.'' The complicated distributions of vortices and their evolution in the wake are examined with detailed PIV, smoke-visualization, and numerical simulations at Re = 240 to 70,000. The support for David Williams by AFOSR Grant FA9550-09-1-0189 is gratefully acknowledged.

  2. Relationship between vortex ring in tail fin wake and propulsive force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamura, Naoto; Matsuuchi, Kazuo

    2013-10-01

    Our aim was to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) vortex ring in the wake of a tail fin and to clarify the propulsion mechanism of dolphins and fish. In this study, we replaced a tail fin in pitching motion with an oscillating wing having a drive unit. The flow fields around the wing were measured by stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. To visualize the 3D structure of the vortex in the wake, we determined the flow fields in equally spaced cross-sectional planes. We reconstructed the 3D velocity fields from the velocity data with three components in two dimensions. We visualized the 3D vortex structure from these velocity data and plotted an iso-vorticity surface. As a result, we found that the vortex ring was generated by the kick-down and kick-up motions of the wing and that the wake structure was comparable with that obtained numerically. Moreover, we calculated the propulsive forces from the temporal variations in circulation and in the area surrounded by the vortex ring.

  3. Stability of a wind turbine wake subject to root vortex perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David; Blackburn, Hugh; Sheridan, John

    2013-11-01

    Results for DNS of a wind turbine wake will be presented. The Tjæborg wind turbine geometry is modelled using a spectral element solver in coupled to an actuator line model described by Sørensen and Shen (2002). The actuator line model considers the flow over the turbine by calculating body forces derived from two-dimensional airfoil data and flow velocity localised at the blade. Using such a model, Ivanell et al. (2010) identified instabilities in the tip vortex for sinusoidal perturbations that reduced the streamwise spacing between tip vortices. In work to be presented we consider perturbations to the blade-root vortex of the turbine. We examine whether perturbations to the root vortex can excite instability mechanisms in the tip vortex and potentially modify tip vortex downstream extents. We also explore how changes to the spacing between root and tip vortices modifies these effects. Ivanell et al. (2010) J Wind Energy 13, Sørensen and Shen. (2002) J Fluids Eng 124. Results for DNS of a wind turbine wake will be presented. The Tjæborg wind turbine geometry is modelled using a spectral element solver in coupled to an actuator line model described by Sørensen and Shen (2002). The actuator line model considers the flow over the turbine by calculating body forces derived from two-dimensional airfoil data and flow velocity localised at the blade. Using such a model, Ivanell et al. (2010) identified instabilities in the tip vortex for sinusoidal perturbations that reduced the streamwise spacing between tip vortices. In work to be presented we consider perturbations to the blade-root vortex of the turbine. We examine whether perturbations to the root vortex can excite instability mechanisms in the tip vortex and potentially modify tip vortex downstream extents. We also explore how changes to the spacing between root and tip vortices modifies these effects. Ivanell et al. (2010) J Wind Energy 13, Sørensen and Shen. (2002) J Fluids Eng 124. Supported by Australian Research Council grant DP1096444.

  4. Models of Wake-Vortex Spreading Mechanisms and Their Estimated Uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Meyn, Larry A.

    2006-01-01

    One of the primary constraints on the capacity of the nation's air transportation system is the landing capacity at its busiest airports. Many airports with nearly-simultaneous operations on closely-spaced parallel runways (i.e., as close as 750 ft (246m)) suffer a severe decrease in runway acceptance rate when weather conditions do not allow full utilization. The objective of a research program at NASA Ames Research Center is to develop the technologies needed for traffic management in the airport environment so that operations now allowed on closely-spaced parallel runways under Visual Meteorological Conditions can also be carried out under Instrument Meteorological Conditions. As part of this overall research objective, the study reported here has developed improved models for the various aerodynamic mechanisms that spread and transport wake vortices. The purpose of the study is to continue the development of relationships that increase the accuracy of estimates for the along-trail separation distances available before the vortex wake of a leading aircraft intrudes into the airspace of a following aircraft. Details of the models used and their uncertainties are presented in the appendices to the paper. Suggestions are made as to the theoretical and experimental research needed to increase the accuracy of and confidence level in the models presented and instrumentation required or more precise estimates of the motion and spread of vortex wakes. The improved wake models indicate that, if the following aircraft is upwind of the leading aircraft, the vortex wakes of the leading aircraft will not intrude into the airspace of the following aircraft for about 7s (based on pessimistic assumptions) for most atmospheric conditions. The wake-spreading models also indicate that longer time intervals before wake intrusion are available when atmospheric turbulence levels are mild or moderate. However, if the estimates for those time intervals are to be reliable, further study is necessary to develop the instrumentation and procedures needed to accurately define when the more benign atmospheric conditions exist.

  5. Wake vortex alleviation using rapidly actuated segmented Gurney flaps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude G. Matalanis

    2007-01-01

    All bodies that generate lift also generate circulation. The circulation generated by large commercial aircraft remains in their wake in the form of trailing vortices. These vortices can be hazardous to following aircraft due to their strength and persistence. To account for this, airports abide by spacing rules which govern the frequency with which aircraft can use their runways when

  6. Vortex suppression of the cylinder wake by deflectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Ozono

    2003-01-01

    The flow around a circular cylinder with a few interference elements shifted along the wake was investigated. This paper is mainly concerned with the case where a circular cylinder of the same diameter as that of the main cylinder was used as an interference element. In fact, this situation coincides with the flow around two circular cylinders in staggered arrangement

  7. Validation of Vortex-Lattice Method for Loads on Wings in Lift-Generated Wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    1995-01-01

    A study is described that evaluates the accuracy of vortex-lattice methods when they are used to compute the loads induced on aircraft as they encounter lift-generated wakes. The evaluation is accomplished by the use of measurements made in the 80 by 120 ft Wind Tunnel of the lift, rolling moment, and downwash in the wake of three configurations of a model of a subsonic transport aircraft. The downwash measurements are used as input for a vortex-lattice code in order to compute the lift and rolling moment induced on wings that have a span of 0.186, 0.510, or 1.022 times the span of the wake-generating model. Comparison of the computed results with the measured lift and rolling-moment distributions the vortex-lattice method is very reliable as long as the span of the encountering or following wing is less than about 0.2 of the generator span. As the span of the following wing increases above 0.2, the vortex-lattice method continues to correctly predict the trends and nature of the induced loads, but it overpredicts the magnitude of the loads by increasing amounts.

  8. Phase-resolved characterization of vortex shedding in the near wake of a square-section cylinder at incidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. W. van Oudheusden; F. Scarano; N. P. van Hinsberg; D. W. Watt

    2005-01-01

    The vortex formation and shedding process in the near wake region of a 2D square-section cylinder at incidence has been investigated by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV). Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is used to characterize the coherent large-scale flow unsteadiness that is associated with the wake vortex shedding process. A particular application of the POD analysis is to extract

  9. Wake Tracking and the Detection of Vortex Rings by the Canal Lateral Line of Fish Jan-Moritz P. Franosch,1

    E-print Network

    van Hemmen, J. Leo

    lateral-line signal, as shown by calculating pressure signals [18]. Artificially generated vortex ringsWake Tracking and the Detection of Vortex Rings by the Canal Lateral Line of Fish Jan-Moritz P objects. Yet many fish are able to track vortex wakes that arise from other fish. It is not yet known what

  10. Real-Time Visualization of Wake-Vortex Simulations Using Computational Steering and Beowulf Clusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anirudh Modi; Lyle N. Long; Paul E. Plassmann

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of POSSE, a new, lightweight computational steering system based on a client\\/server pro- gramming model. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this software system by illustrating its use for a visualization client designed for a particularly demand- ing real-time application—wake-vortex simulations for multiple aircraft running on a parallel Beowulf cluster. We describe

  11. Nested contour-dynamic models for axisymmetric vortex rings and vortex wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Farrell, Clara; Dabiri, John O.

    2013-11-01

    Jetting swimmers, such as squid and jellyfish, propel themselves by forming vortex rings. It is known that vortex rings cannot grow indefinitely, but rather ``pinch off'' once they reach their physical limit, and that a decrease in efficiency of fluid transport is associated with pinch-off. Previously, the Norbury family of vortices has been used as a model for axisymmetric vortex rings, and the response of this family to shape perturbations has been characterized. We improve upon the Norbury models, using nested patches of vorticity to construct a family of models for vortex rings generated by a piston-cylinder apparatus at different stroke ratios. The perturbation response of this family is considered by the introduction of a small region of vorticity at the rear of the vortex, which mimics the addition of circulation to a growing vortex ring by a feeding shear layer. Model vortex rings are found to either accept the additional circulation or shed it into a tail, depending on the perturbation size. A change in the behavior of the model vortex rings is identified at a stroke ratio of three. We hypothesize that this change in response is analogous to pinch-off, and that pinch-off might be understood and predicted based on the perturbation responses of model vortex rings.

  12. Prediction and control of vortex-dominated and vortex-wake flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama

    1993-01-01

    This progress report documents the accomplishments achieved in the period from December 1, 1992 until November 30, 1993. These accomplishments include publications, national and international presentations, NASA presentations, and the research group supported under this grant. Topics covered by documents incorporated into this progress report include: active control of asymmetric conical flow using spinning and rotary oscillation; supersonic vortex breakdown over a delta wing in transonic flow; shock-vortex interaction over a 65-degree delta wing in transonic flow; three dimensional supersonic vortex breakdown; numerical simulation and physical aspects of supersonic vortex breakdown; and prediction of asymmetric vortical flows around slender bodies using Navier-Stokes equations.

  13. Unsteady Vortex Structures in the Wake of a Piezoelectric Flapping Wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemons, Lucas; Igarashi, Hirofumi; Hu, Hui

    2009-11-01

    An experimental study was conducted to characterize the behavior of Unsteady Vortex Structures in the Wake of a piezoelectric flapping wing with miniaturized size (about 10mm in chord length), large flapping amplitude (up to 2.0 times of chord length) and high flapping frequency (60Hz) to explore the potential application of piezofans as the compact, gearless flapping-wings for the development of novel piezoelectric-flapping-wing-based Nano-Air-Vehicles (NAVs). The experimental investigation was performed in a low-speed wind tunnel. A digital particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to achieve phased-locked flow field measurements to quantify the transient behavior of the unsteady vortex structures in wake of the piezoelectric flapping wing. The effects of important parameters such as incoming flow velocity (i.e., forward flight speed), the flapping amplitude, and the incline angle of the flapping wing in relation to the incoming flow direction (i.e. the angle of attack) on the wake vortex shedding processes were examined to elucidate underlying physics in order to explore/optimize design paradigms for the development of novel piezoelectric-flapping-wing-based NAVs.

  14. A Vortex Array Model of the Unsteady Wake of a Two-dimensional Pitching Airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naguib, Ahmed; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr

    2008-11-01

    Motivated by recent interest in MAV aerodynamics, the present study is focused on obtaining a simplified, vortex-array model of the unsteady flow in the wake of an airfoil undergoing small-amplitude but high-reduced-frequency pitch oscillations. The model is used to predict the mean and unsteady velocity field in the wake of a NACA 0012 airfoil executing a sinusoidal as well as non-sinusoidal pitch oscillation. The model predictive accuracy is assessed by comparison to the LDV measurements of the streamwise velocity by Koochesfahani (AIAA J. 37, 1999) at a chord Reynolds number of 12,000 and a reduced frequency as high as 10. The results demonstrate the ability of the vortex-array model to successfully reproduce the experimentally measured mean and phase-averaged streamwise velocity profiles in the wake of the airfoil. Moreover, by using the model to reconstruct the complete velocity field in the wake, the mean streamwise force acting on the airfoil is computed for different frequencies, amplitudes and waveforms of the oscillation.

  15. Measurements of the trailing vortex formation, structure, and evolution in the wake of a hovering rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Preston Bradley

    2001-07-01

    High-resolution velocity field measurements and flow visualization images were acquired in the flow field near the tip of a rotor blade operating in hover. Using three-component laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), the measurements documented the trailing vortex formation, initial structure, and the viscous evolution of the core. The test conditions covered a range of wake ages from as young as one degree, up to about one rotor revolution. For each wake age, vortex core properties were estimated from the velocity field measurements. The test conditions also included different tip shapes including rectangular, tapered, swept, and a subwing tip. Preliminary measurements were used to refine the technique by understanding the sources of uncertainty and the spatial resolution requirements. This task included developing a new procedure for three-component laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) alignment using a laser beam profiler. A detailed uncertainty analysis of the LDV measurement technique was conducted and applied to helicopter rotor blade tip vortex measurements. Finally, spatial resolution requirements were formally established to enable a more accurate reconstruction of the velocity field associated with blade tip vortices. The accuracy of the LDV technique was further verified by an independent comparison with preliminary phase-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. The vortex velocity profiles were compared with three-dimensional LDV measurements using the same rotor test conditions and seeding medium. The various challenges of using PIV versus LDV to study the formation and evolution of helicopter tip vortices were also studied. A set of benchmark test cases was acquired using LDV for each of the tip shapes. The measurements were supported by detailed flow visualization. The high spatial resolution obtained with LDV has shown that the tip vortex core radius can be less than 3% chord at early wake-ages, but grows asymptotically as it ages. A significant axial velocity deficit existed in the vortex core that was of the order of the peak swirl velocity at early wake-ages, but which quickly diminished as the vortex aged. Using stability analysis combined with flow visualization, the results suggest that the inner core of the vortex is mostly laminar at the vortex Reynolds numbers tested in this experiment. The evidence suggests that the entire tip vortex structure is neither fully laminar or fully turbulent, but is instead in a continuous state of dynamic evolution with a region of relatively slow laminar diffusion and a region of accelerated turbulent diffusion. It is suggested that the variation of peak swirl velocity is the result of the competing influences of an inviscid roll-up process and viscous diffusion within the vortex. The primary effects of the tip shape modification were a change in the convection speed and direction of the vortex core trajectory and a change in the magnitude of the peak swirl velocity.

  16. Comparisons of Crosswind Velocity Profile Estimates Used in Fast-Time Wake Vortex Prediction Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruis, Mathew J.; Delisi, Donald P.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

    2011-01-01

    Five methods for estimating crosswind profiles used in fast-time wake vortex prediction models are compared in this study. Previous investigations have shown that temporal and spatial variations in the crosswind vertical profile have a large impact on the transport and time evolution of the trailing vortex pair. The most important crosswind parameters are the magnitude of the crosswind and the gradient in the crosswind shear. It is known that pulsed and continuous wave lidar measurements can provide good estimates of the wind profile in the vicinity of airports. In this study comparisons are made between estimates of the crosswind profiles from a priori information on the trajectory of the vortex pair as well as crosswind profiles derived from different sensors and a regional numerical weather prediction model.

  17. Modeling von Karman vortex shedding in cylinder wake to examine energetic coherent motions on hydrokinetic turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neary, V. S.; Gunawan, B.; Chamorro, L. P.; Stekovic, S.; Hill, C.

    2012-12-01

    Numerous investigators have examined vortex-shedding in the wake of cylinders. This is a classical flow problem that has many engineering applications, including pronounced flow disturbance, turbulence generation, and sediment scour in the wakes of in stream structures, e.g. bridge piers and towers for marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines. It is also important to understand the contribution of large coherent motions on the unsteady loading and performance of hydrokinetic turbines. Unsteady vortex shedding is caused by flow separation and detachment within the near-wall region along the cylinder surface. Our aim is to examine the unsteady flow field and von Karman vortex shedding resulting from unsteady turbulent flow around an emergent cylinder mounted perpendicular to a fixed surface by conducting physical and numerical modeling experiments. The numerical simulation emulates an open-channel flow experiment at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory at the University of Minnesota, where instantaneous velocity was measured using three synchronized acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs). The open-channel flume is 80 m long, and 2.75 m wide. The flow depth is 1.15 m. The cylinder diameter is 0.116 m. The flow is turbulent, with a cylinder Reynolds number equal to 5.44E4. We use the commercial CFD software, STAR-CCM+, to generate the computational mesh that models the flow geometry around the cylinder, and to numerically solve the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations. The generated mesh is fine enough (> 2 million elements) to resolve the coherent structures of vortex shedding. The Frost high-performance cluster (an ORNL supercomputer) is used to run the simulation. The results show how a validated CFD model can be used to design the layout and spacing of synchronized ADV point measurements to characterize essential features of the Karman shedding in the cylinder wake. A similar approach can be used to design field ADV arrays for measuring more complex vortex shedding, e.g. the tip vortices, occurring in the wakes of MHK turbine rotors.; Numerical simulation of Karman shedding in the wake of cylinder (diameter 0.116 m, Reynolds number, 5.44E4).

  18. Energy contents and vortex dynamics in Mode-C transition of wired-cylinder wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, I.; Rindt, C. C. M.; van Steenhoven, A. A.

    2013-05-01

    The 3D transition of the flow behind a circular cylinder with a near-wake wire disturbance has been investigated experimentally. The flow is oriented horizontally and the wire is positioned in the upper half of the wake. We performed flow visualization and particle image velocimetry experiments to investigate the influence of the wire on various properties of the flow, such as the dynamics of the spanwise structures. Experiments were performed in the Reynolds number range of Re = 165-300. It is shown that in Mode-C transition of the wired cylinder wake, some part of the streamwise vorticity content of the upper von Kármán vortices located at the perturbed side, is transferred to the secondary vortices. This vorticity transfer results in upper von Kármán vortices which are weaker than the lower ones. The analysis of the discrete energy content of the wake supports this analysis by showing that the energy intensity at von Kármán vortex shedding frequency f0 at the perturbed side of the wake is less than the energy intensity in the lower half. This leads to conclusion that the excess energy is transferred to the subharmonic frequency f1 ? f0/2.

  19. Effect of wake structure on blade-vortex interaction phenomena: Acoustic prediction and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallman, Judith M.; Tung, Chee; Schultz, Klaus J.; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Buchholz, Heino

    1995-01-01

    During the Higher Harmonic Control Aeroacoustic Rotor Test, extensive measurements of the rotor aerodynamics, the far-field acoustics, the wake geometry, and the blade motion for powered, descent, flight conditions were made. These measurements have been used to validate and improve the prediction of blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. The improvements made to the BVI modeling after the evaluation of the test data are discussed. The effects of these improvements on the acoustic-pressure predictions are shown. These improvements include restructuring the wake, modifying the core size, incorporating the measured blade motion into the calculations, and attempting to improve the dynamic blade response. A comparison of four different implementations of the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation is presented. A common set of aerodynamic input has been used for this comparison.

  20. Pulsed coherent fiber lidar transceiver for aircraft in-flight turbulence and wake-vortex hazard detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbulut, M.; Hwang, J.; Kimpel, F.; Gupta, S.; Verdun, H.

    2011-06-01

    We report on the development of a fiber-optic pulsed coherent lidar transceiver for wind-velocity and aircraft wake-vortex hazard detection. The all-fiber 1.5?m transmitter provides up to 560 ?J energy at 25 kHz with 800 ns pulse width (pump limited). Performance simulations indicate wake-vortex hazard signature detection up to ~2.5km range with a receiver sensitivity of ~2 fW (SNR=6), suited for an aircraft landing scenario. Furthermore, the transceiver is implemented using high-speed FPGA based control and digital-signal-processing, enabling its use as a flexible pulse-format multi-function in-flight lidar sensor. We present the latest laboratory results and preliminary testing of this pulsed coherent lidar transceiver, along with the lidar performance simulation of wake-vortex eddy models.

  1. Numerical Studies of Three-dimensional Breakdown in Trailing Vortex Wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, P. F.; Hackett, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Finite element, three dimensional relaxation methods are used to calculate the development of vortex wakes behind aircraft for a considerable downstream distance. The inclusion of a self-induction term in the solution, dependent upon local curvature and vortex core radius, permits calculation of finite lifetimes for systems for which infinite life would be predicted two dimensionally. The associated computer program is described together with single-pair, twin-pair, and multiple-pair studies carried out using it. It is found, in single-pair studies, that there is a lower limit to the wavelengths at which the Crow-type of instability can occur. Below this limit, self-induction effects cause the plane of the disturbance waves to rotate counter to the vortex direction. Self induction in two dimensionally generated twin spiral waves causes an increase in axial length which becomes more marked with decreasing initial wavelength. The time taken for vortex convergence toward the center plane is correspondingly increased. The limited parametric twin-pair study performed suggests that time-to-converge increases with increasing flap span. Limited studies of Boeing 747 configurations show correct qualitative response to removal of the outer flap and to gear deployment, as compared with wind tunnel and flight test experience.

  2. Two Dimensional Parametric Studies of Wake Vortex Interaction with the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred

    1997-01-01

    Results from parametric runs using two-dimensional TASS are presented. First, a set of experiments are presented that examine the sensitivity of the aircraft initiation height for an "in ground effect" case with weak crosswind. Interaction between the ground and the wake vortex produces an oscillatory rebound whose phase and amplitude are a function of the generation height. A second set of experiments are presented which examine the influence on crosswind shear. Shear layers, such as may be found between the nocturnal stable layer and the residual layer, can act to deflect vortices upward. Further investigation reveals that the second derivative of the crosswind can differentially reduce the descent speed of each member of a vortex pair, causing tilting of the vortex pair. If sufficiently large, the second derivative of crosswind can deflect the vortex pair upwards, with the sign of the second derivative determining which of the two vortices rises to a higher altitude. Linear shear, on the other hand, caused no change in the descent speed of the vortices; thus having no effect on the orientation of the vortices. Observed and model data from an actual case are presented in support of the conclusion regarding the influence of shear on rising vortices.

  3. Calculation of Rotor Blade?Vortex Interaction Airloads Using a Multiple-Trailer Free-Wake Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne Johnson; Yung H. Yu

    2003-01-01

    Analytical results of rotor blade- vortex interaction airloads are presented with two different wake models in the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II, and these calculated results are compared with the experimental data obtained from the higher-harmonic-control aeroacoustic rotor test (HART-I) program. The HART rotor was a 40%, Mach-scaled model of the hingeless BO-105 main rotor. Two wake models used in the

  4. Exploratory flight investigation of aircraft response to the wing vortex wake generated by the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, R. A.; Drinkwater, F. J., III

    1975-01-01

    A brief exploratory flight program was conducted at Ames Research Center to investigate the vortex wake hazard of a powered-lift STOL aircraft. The study was made by flying an instrumented Cessna 210 aircraft into the wake of the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft at separation distances from 1 to 4 n.mi. Characteristics of the wake were evaluated in terms of the magnitude of the upset of the probing aircraft. Results indicated that within 1 n.mi. separation the wake could cause rolling moments in excess of roll control power and yawing moments equivalent to rudder control power of the probe aircraft. Subjective evaluations by the pilots of the Cessna 210 aircraft, supported by response measurements, indicated that the upset caused by the wake of the STOL aircraft was comparable to that of a DC-9 in the landing configuration.

  5. A 3-D Vortex Dynamics Analysis in Intermediate Square Cylinder Wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobre, Adrian; Hangan, Horia

    2001-11-01

    Measurements in the near wake of a square cylinder are taken at 26 diameters downstream of a square cylinder to provide meaningful 3D information regarding the primary-secondary vortical structure interaction. The Reynolds number is 22,000 based on square cylinder edge dimension. 3D Velocity measurements are taken using a cross-holder with a 4 wire probe in the middle and six other X-wire probes in the vertical (y) and spanwise (z) directions. Spectral analysis based on Fourier and Wavelet transform is performed. It is shown that the most energetic scale in the spanwise velocity component (w) corresponds to the double frequency of vortex shedding. It can be inferred that the double frequency component is associated with the rib presence or/and with the roll deformation. These results along with Wavelet Pattern Recognition and instantaneous sectional streamlines analysis in both horizontal and vertical plane indicate that a rib arrangement that interconnects rolls on opposite sides of the wake is plausible. This analysis can be used to validate previously proposed wake topological models.

  6. Atmospheric Boundary Layer Sensors for Application in a Wake Vortex Advisory System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, J. Allen; Rutishauser, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Remote sensing of the atmospheric boundary layer has advanced in recent years with the development of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radar, sodar, and lidar wind profiling technology. Radio acoustic sounding systems for vertical temperature profiles of high temporal scales (when compared to routine balloon soundings- (radiosondes) have also become increasingly available as COTS capabilities. Aircraft observations during landing and departures are another source of available boundary layer data. This report provides an updated assessment of available sensors, their performance specifications and rough order of magnitude costs for a potential future aircraft Wake Vortex Avoidance System (WakeVAS). Future capabilities are also discussed. Vertical profiles of wind, temperature, and turbulence are anticipated to be needed at airports in any dynamic wake avoidance system. Temporal and spatial resolution are dependent on the selection of approach and departure corridors to be protected. Recommendations are made for potential configurations of near-term sensor technologies and for testing some of the sensor systems in order to validate performance in field environments with adequate groundtruth.

  7. Estimation of aircraft wake vortex parameters from data measured with a 1.5-?m coherent Doppler lidar.

    PubMed

    Smalikho, I N; Banakh, V A

    2015-07-15

    A strategy of measurement by a 1.5-?m pulsed coherent Doppler lidar "Stream Line" has been developed, and a method for estimation of aircraft wake vortices from the lidar data has been proposed. The principal possibility of obtaining the information about the vortex situation over an airport airfield with the Stream-Line lidar has been demonstrated. PMID:26176481

  8. Study of the feasibility of using a sailplane as an instrument platform for the study of wake vortex phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsbee, A. I.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing instrumentation mounted on a sailplane wing is investigated to determine vortex wakes from a large aircraft. The instrumentation consisted of static and total pressure tubes and a rotating vane vorticity meter mounted in a pod on the glider wing tip. It was concluded that the study was not feasible.

  9. Prospects for destructive self-induced interactions in a vortex pair due to sinusoidal disturbances. [of large transport aircraft wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, V. J.

    1986-01-01

    The vortex wakes of large transport aircraft can pose a hazard to smaller following aircraft in the vicinity of airports during landing and take-off operations if certain separation guidelines are not observed. In order to reduce the hazard potential, and thereby the separation distances, efforts are being made to find more rapid wake-dissipation mechanisms. In this paper numerical simulations are made of the three-dimensional time-dependent instabilities that might be initiated in a vortex pair by sinusoidal displacements of the filaments. The objective of the study was to find those displacements and phase angles that would produce the most rapid destruction of the vortices. It is concluded that, of the wave patterns tried on the one pair of wake filaments, the only instability mode that leads to destructive interactions of the vortices is the Scorer-Crow process.

  10. Helicopter flight dynamics simulation with a time-accurate free-vortex wake model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribera, Maria

    This dissertation describes the implementation and validation of a coupled rotor-fuselage simulation model with a time-accurate free-vortex wake model capable of capturing the response to maneuvers of arbitrary amplitude. The resulting model has been used to analyze different flight conditions, including both steady and transient maneuvers. The flight dynamics model is based on a system of coupled nonlinear rotor-fuselage differential equations in first-order, state-space form. The rotor model includes flexible blades, with coupled flap-lag-torsion dynamics and swept tips; the rigid body dynamics are modeled with the non-linear Euler equations. The free wake models the rotor flow field by tracking the vortices released at the blade tips. Their behavior is described by the equations of vorticity transport, which is approximated using finite differences, and solved using a time-accurate numerical scheme. The flight dynamics model can be solved as a system of non-linear algebraic trim equations to determine the steady state solution, or integrated in time in response to pilot-applied controls. This study also implements new approaches to reduce the prohibitive computational costs associated with such complex models without losing accuracy. The mathematical model was validated for trim conditions in level flight, turns, climbs and descents. The results obtained correlate well with flight test data, both in level flight as well as turning and climbing and descending flight. The swept tip model was also found to improve the trim predictions, particularly at high speed. The behavior of the rigid body and the rotor blade dynamics were also studied and related to the aerodynamic load distributions obtained with the free wake induced velocities. The model was also validated in a lateral maneuver from hover. The results show improvements in the on-axis prediction, and indicate a possible relation between the off-axis prediction and the lack of rotor-body interaction aerodynamics. The swept blade model improves both the on-axis and off-axis response. An axial descent though the vortex ring state was simulated. As the?rtex ring" goes through the rotor, the unsteady loads produce large attitude changes, unsteady flapping, fluctuating thrust and an increase in power required. A roll reversal maneuver was found useful in understanding the cross-couplings effects found in rotorcraft, specifically the effect of the aerodynamic loading on the rotor orientation and the off-axis response.

  11. Investigation and Optimization of Blade Tip Winglets Using an Implicit Free Wake Vortex Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, Stephen; Crawford, Curran

    2014-06-01

    Novel outer-blade geometries such as tip winglets can increase the aerodynamic power that can be extracted from the wind by tailoring the relative position and strengths of trailed vorticity. This design space is explored using both parameter studies and gradient-based optimization, with the aerodynamic analysis carried out using LibAero, a free wake vortex-based code introduced in previous work. The starting design is the NREL 5MW reference turbine, which allows comparison of the aerodynamic simulation for the unmodified blade with other codes. The code uses a Prandtl-Weissinger lifting line model to represent the blade, and vortex filaments as the flow elements. A fast multipole method is implemented to accelerate the influence calculations and reduce the computational cost. This results in higher fidelity aerodynamic simulations that can capture the effects of novel geometries while maintaining sufficiently fast run-times (on the order of an hour) to allow the use of optimization. Gradients of the objective function with respect to design variables are calculated using the complex step method which is accurate and efficient. Since the vortex structure behind the rotor is being resolved in detail, insight is also gained into the mechanisms by which these new blade designs affect performance. It is found that adding winglets can increase the power extracted from the wind by around 2%, with a similar increase in thrust. It is also possible to create a winglet that slightly lowers the thrust while maintaining very similar power compared to the standard straight blade.

  12. Crosswind Shear Gradient Affect on Wake Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

    2011-01-01

    Parametric simulations with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model are used to explore the influence of crosswind shear on aircraft wake vortices. Previous studies based on field measurements, laboratory experiments, as well as LES, have shown that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, i.e. the second vertical derivative of the environmental crosswind, can influence wake vortex transport. The presence of nonlinear vertical shear of the crosswind velocity can reduce the descent rate, causing a wake vortex pair to tilt and change in its lateral separation. The LES parametric studies confirm that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear does influence vortex trajectories. The parametric results also show that vortex decay from the effects of shear are complex since the crosswind shear, along with the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, can affect whether the lateral separation between wake vortices is increased or decreased. If the separation is decreased, the vortex linking time is decreased, and a more rapid decay of wake vortex circulation occurs. If the separation is increased, the time to link is increased, and at least one of the vortices of the vortex pair may have a longer life time than in the case without shear. In some cases, the wake vortices may never link.

  13. Dynamic decay of a single vortex into vortex-antivortex pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Lendínez, Sergi [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Universidad Barcelona, Departamento Fisica Fonamental, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jain, Shikha; Novosad, Valentyn, E-mail: novosad@anl.gov; Fradin, Frank Y.; Pearson, John E. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Tejada, Javier [Universidad Barcelona, Departamento Fisica Fonamental, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bader, Samuel D. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    A variety of metastable states, including vortices, antivortices, and their combinations, is typical for magnetically soft, thin films and patterned structures. The physics of individual spin vortices in patterned structures has been rather extensively explored. In contrast, there are few studies of the vortex–antivortex–vortex (v-av-v) system, in part because the configuration is rather challenging to obtain experimentally. We demonstrate herein how a recently proposed resonant-spin-ordering technique can be used to induce the dynamic decay of a single vortex into v-av states in elongated elements. The approach is based on first driving the system from the linear regime of constant vortex gyrations to the non-linear regime of vortex-core reversals at a fixed excitation frequency, and then subsequently reducing the excitation field back to the linear regime. This procedure stabilizes the system into a v-av-v state that is completely decoupled from the initialization excitation frequency. The newly acquired state is stable in remanence. The dynamic response of this system is expected to demonstrate a number of collective modes, depending on the combination of the vortex core polarities, and/or the excitation field direction, and, hence, is of interest for future studies.

  14. Rotor Wake Vortex Definition: Initial Evaluation of 3-C PIV Results of the Hart-II Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; vanderWall, Berend; Richard, Hughes; Raffel, Markus; Beaumier, Philippe; Delrieux, Yves; Lim, Joon W.; Yu, Yung H.; Tung, Chee

    2002-01-01

    An initial evaluation is made of extensive three-component (3C) particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements within the wake across a rotor disk plane. The model is a 40 percent scale BO-105 helicopter main rotor in forward flight simulation. This study is part of the HART II test program conducted in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). Included are wake vortex field measurements over the advancing and retreating sides of the rotor operating at a typical descent landing condition important for impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. Also included are advancing side results for rotor angle variations from climb to steep descent. Using detailed PIV vector maps of the vortex fields, methods of extracting key vortex parameters are examined and a new method was developed and evaluated. An objective processing method, involving a center-of-vorticity criterion and a vorticity 'disk' integration, was used to determine vortex core size, strength, core velocity distribution characteristics, and unsteadiness. These parameters are mapped over the rotor disk and offer unique physical insight for these parameters of importance for rotor noise and vibration prediction.

  15. Control of wake and vortex shedding behind a porous circular obstacle by exerting an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovand, M.; Rashidi, S.; Dehghan, M.; Esfahani, J. A.; Valipour, M. S.

    2015-07-01

    In this article the finite volume method (FVM) is carried out to simulate the flow around and through a two-dimensional porous cylinder. An external magnetic field is used to control the wake behind the bluff body and also to suppress the vortex shedding phenomena. The Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model has been used for modeling the flow in the porous medium. Effects of Stuart (N), Reynolds (Re) and Darcy (Da) numbers on the flow behavior have been investigated. The results show that the critical Stuart number for suppress vortex shedding decreases with increasing the Darcy numbers. Also, the Stuart number for disappearance the re-circulating wake increases with increased Reynolds number for both porous and solid cylinders.

  16. Flight test investigation of the vortex wake characteristics behind a Boeing 727 during two-segment and normal ILS approaches (A joint NASA/FAA report)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, M. R.; Kurkowski, R. L.; Garodz, L. J.; Robinson, G. H.; Smith, H. J.; Jacobsen, R. A.; Stinnett, G. W., Jr.; Mcmurtry, T. C.; Tymczyszyn, J. J.; Devereaux, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Flight tests were performed to evaluate the vortex wake characteristics of a Boeing 727 aircraft during conventional and two-segment instrument landing approaches. Smoke generators were used for vortex marking. The vortex was intentionally intercepted by a Lear Jet and a Piper Comanche aircraft. The vortex location during landing approach was measured using a system of phototheodolites. The tests showed that at a given separation distance there are no readily apparent differences in the upsets resulting from deliberate vortex encounters during the two types of approaches. The effect of the aircraft configuration on the extent and severity of the vortices is discussed.

  17. Vortex dynamics and associated fluid forcing in the near wake of a light and heavy tethered sphere in uniform flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krakovich, A.; Eshbal, L.; van Hout, R.

    2013-11-01

    Time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of vortex-induced vibrations of a negatively ("heavy") and positively ("light") buoyant tethered sphere in uniform flow, and its wake characteristics were performed in a closed-loop water channel. Experiments for both spheres were performed at similar bulk velocities, ranging between 0.048 < U < 0.32 m/s, corresponding to reduced velocities, 2.2 < U * < 13.5. Initially stationary, with increasing U, the amplitude response displayed periodic oscillations beyond the Hopf bifurcation as a result of "lock-in" between vortex shedding and the natural structural frequency. However, while the heavy sphere's amplitude decreased beyond U * = 7.0, the light sphere's amplitude continuously increased. In the periodic oscillation region, flow field characteristics in the wakes of both spheres (at comparable U * ) were similar, characterized by alternately shed hairpin vortices having a horizontal symmetry plane. Primary vortex trajectories in the frame of reference of the sphere collapsed for different U * (but not for different m * ) when scaled by f 2,s/ U, where f 2,s is the sphere's transverse oscillation frequency. This allows determination of vortex positions based on sphere dynamics and bulk flow conditions only. Associated vortex convection velocities as a function of downstream position from the sphere also nearly collapsed when normalized by U. In addition, fluid forcing and energy transfer from fluid to sphere were estimated based on an analogy between aircraft trailing vortices and hairpin vortices. Maximum forcing occurred at vortex pinch-off. For the highest comparable U * , despite different amplitudes, total transferred energy during one oscillation period was similar for both spheres. Changes in sphere dynamics must therefore be related to differences in inertia.

  18. Wake Geometry Effects on Rotor Blade-Vortex Interaction Noise Directivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. M.; Marcolini, Michael A.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K.-J.

    1990-01-01

    Acoustic measurements from a model rotor wind tunnel test are presented which show that the directionality of rotor blade vortex interaction (BVI) noise is strongly dependent on the rotor advance ratio and disk attitude. A rotor free wake analysis is used to show that the general locus of interactions on the rotor disk is also strongly dependent on advance ratio and disk attitude. A comparison of the changing directionality of the BVI noise with changes in the interaction locations shows that the strongest noise radiation occurs in the direction of motion normal to the blade span at the time of interaction, for both advancing and retreating side BVI. For advancing side interactions, the BVI radiation angle down from the tip-path plane appears relatively insensitive to rotor operating condition and is typically between 40 and 55 deg below the disk. However, the azimuthal radiation direction shows a clear trend with descent speed, moving towards the right of the flight path with increasing descent speed. The movement of the strongest radiation direction is attributed to the movement of the interaction locations on the rotor disk with increasing descent speed.

  19. Decay of helical Kelvin waves on a quantum vortex filament

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gorder, Robert A., E-mail: rav@knights.ucf.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816-1364 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    We study the dynamics of helical Kelvin waves moving along a quantum vortex filament driven by a normal fluid flow. We employ the vector form of the quantum local induction approximation (LIA) due to Schwarz. For an isolated filament, this is an adequate approximation to the full Hall-Vinen-Bekarevich-Khalatnikov dynamics. The motion of such Kelvin waves is both translational (along the quantum vortex filament) and rotational (in the plane orthogonal to the reference axis). We first present an exact closed form solution for the motion of these Kelvin waves in the case of a constant amplitude helix. Such solutions exist for a critical wave number and correspond exactly to the Donnelly-Glaberson instability, so perturbations of such solutions either decay to line filaments or blow-up. This leads us to consider helical Kelvin waves which decay to line filaments. Unlike in the case of constant amplitude helical solutions, the dynamics are much more complicated for the decaying helical waves, owing to the fact that the rate of decay of the helical perturbations along the vortex filament is not constant in time. We give an analytical and numerical description of the motion of decaying helical Kelvin waves, from which we are able to ascertain the influence of the physical parameters on the decay, translational motion along the filament, and rotational motion, of these waves (all of which depend nonlinearly on time). One interesting finding is that the helical Kelvin waves do not decay uniformly. Rather, such waves decay slowly for small time scales, and more rapidly for large time scales. The rotational and translational velocity of the Kelvin waves depend strongly on this rate of decay, and we find that the speed of propagation of a helical Kelvin wave along a quantum filament is large for small time while the wave asymptotically slows as it decays. The rotational velocity of such Kelvin waves along the filament will increase over time, asymptotically reaching a finite value. These decaying Kelvin waves correspond to wave number below the critical value for the Donnelly-Glaberson instability, and hence our results on the Schwarz quantum LIA correspond exactly to what one would expect from prior work on the Donnelly-Glaberson instability.

  20. Vortex wakes generated by robins Erithacus rubecula during free flight in a wind tunnel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hedenström; M. Rosén; G. R. Spedding

    2006-01-01

    The wakes of two individual robins were measured in digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experiments conducted in the Lund wind tunnel. Wake measurements were compared with each other, and with previous studies in the same facility. There was no significant individual variation in any of the measured quantities. Qualitatively, the wake structure and its gradual variation with flight speed were

  1. Evaluation of the discrete vortex wake cross flow model using vector computers. Part 1: Theory and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The current program had the objective to modify a discrete vortex wake method to efficiently compute the aerodynamic forces and moments on high fineness ratio bodies (f approximately 10.0). The approach is to increase computational efficiency by structuring the program to take advantage of new computer vector software and by developing new algorithms when vector software can not efficiently be used. An efficient program was written and substantial savings achieved. Several test cases were run for fineness ratios up to f = 16.0 and angles of attack up to 50 degrees.

  2. A Scanning laser-velocimeter technique for measuring two-dimensional wake-vortex velocity distributions. [Langley Vortex Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gartrell, L. R.; Rhodes, D. B.

    1980-01-01

    A rapid scanning two dimensional laser velocimeter (LV) has been used to measure simultaneously the vortex vertical and axial velocity distributions in the Langley Vortex Research Facility. This system utilized a two dimensional Bragg cell for removing flow direction ambiguity by translating the optical frequency for each velocity component, which was separated by band-pass filters. A rotational scan mechanism provided an incremental rapid scan to compensate for the large displacement of the vortex with time. The data were processed with a digital counter and an on-line minicomputer. Vaporized kerosene (0.5 micron to 5 micron particle sizes) was used for flow visualization and LV scattering centers. The overall measured mean-velocity uncertainity is less than 2 percent. These measurements were obtained from ensemble averaging of individual realizations.

  3. Vortex-induced vibrations of two cylinders in tandem arrangement in the proximity–wake interference region

    PubMed Central

    BORAZJANI, IMAN; SOTIROPOULOS, FOTIS

    2009-01-01

    We investigate numerically vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of two identical two-dimensional elastically mounted cylinders in tandem in the proximity–wake interference regime at Reynolds number Re = 200 for systems having both one (transverse vibrations) and two (transverse and in-line) degrees of freedom (1-DOF and 2-DOF, respectively). For the 1-DOF system the computed results are in good qualitative agreement with available experiments at higher Reynolds numbers. Similar to these experiments our simulations reveal: (1) larger amplitudes of motion and a wider lock-in region for the tandem arrangement when compared with an isolated cylinder; (2) that at low reduced velocities the vibration amplitude of the front cylinder exceeds that of the rear cylinder; and (3) that above a threshold reduced velocity, large-amplitude VIV are excited for the rear cylinder with amplitudes significantly larger than those of the front cylinder. By analysing the simulated flow patterns we identify the VIV excitation mechanisms that lead to such complex responses and elucidate the near-wake vorticity dynamics and vortex-shedding modes excited in each case. We show that at low reduced velocities vortex shedding provides the initial excitation mechanism, which gives rise to a vertical separation between the two cylinders. When this vertical separation exceeds one cylinder diameter, however, a significant portion of the incoming flow is able to pass through the gap between the two cylinders and the gap-flow mechanism starts to dominate the VIV dynamics. The gap flow is able to periodically force either the top or the bottom shear layer of the front cylinder into the gap region, setting off a series of very complex vortex-to-vortex and vortex-to-cylinder interactions, which induces pressure gradients that result in a large oscillatory force in phase with the vortex shedding and lead to the experimentally observed larger vibration amplitudes. When the vortex shedding is the dominant mechanism the front cylinder vibration amplitude is larger than that of the rear cylinder. The reversing of this trend above a threshold reduced velocity is associated with the onset of the gap flow. The important role of the gap flow is further illustrated via a series of simulations for the 2-DOF system. We show that when the gap-flow mechanism is triggered, the 2-DOF system can develop and sustain large VIV amplitudes comparable to those observed in the corresponding (same reduced velocity) 1-DOF system. For sufficiently high reduced velocities, however, the two cylinders in the 2-DOF system approach each other, thus significantly reducing the size of the gap region. In such cases the gap flow is entirely eliminated, and the two cylinders vibrate together as a single body with vibration amplitudes up to 50% lower than the amplitudes of the corresponding 1-DOF in which the gap flow is active. Three-dimensional simulations are also carried out to examine the adequacy of two-dimensional simulations for describing the dynamic response of the tandem system at Re = 200. It is shown that even though the wake transitions to a weakly three-dimensional state when the gap flow is active, the three-dimensional modes are too weak to affect the dynamic response of the system, which is found to be identical to that obtained from the two-dimensional computations. PMID:19693281

  4. Wind-tunnel measurements in the wakes of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, H. G. C.; Peterka, J. A.; Cermak, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed measurements of longitudinal mean velocity, turbulence intensity, space correlations, and spectra made in the wake of two rectangular scaled models in simulated atmospheric boundary-layer winds are presented. The model buildings were 1:50 scale models of two trailers. Results of a flow visualization study of the wake geometry are analyzed with some singular point theorems. Two hypothetical flow patterns of the detailed wake geometry are proposed. Some preliminary studies of the vortex wake, effects of the model size, model aspect ratios, and boundary layer characteristics on the decay rate and extent of the wake are also presented and discussed.

  5. Analysis of the Relation between Vortex Generation in the Jet Wake and Induced Edgetone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taku Nonomura; Hiroko Muranaka; Kozo Fujii

    To reveal the relation between vortex generations and edgetones, DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation) is carried out. High-order compact difference scheme and four stage Runge-Kutta scheme are adopted for the space and time accuracy is maintained. The results show that jet-disturbance and vortex have strong relations. Vortex motions acts on the phase-lag of lateral velocity disturbance and force on the edge.

  6. An experimental study of the unsteady vortex structures in the wake of a root-fixed flapping wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hui; Clemons, Lucas; Igarashi, Hirofumi

    2011-08-01

    An experimental study was conducted to characterize the evolution of the unsteady vortex structures in the wake of a root-fixed flapping wing with the wing size, stroke amplitude, and flapping frequency within the range of insect characteristics for the development of novel insect-sized nano-air-vehicles (NAVs). The experiments were conducted in a low-speed wing tunnel with a miniaturized piezoelectric wing (i.e., chord length, C = 12.7 mm) flapping at a frequency of 60 Hz (i.e., f = 60 Hz). The non-dimensional parameters of the flapping wing are chord Reynolds number of Re = 1,200, reduced frequency of k = 3.5, and non-dimensional flapping amplitude at wingtip h = A/C = 1.35. The corresponding Strouhal number (Str) is 0.33 , which is well within the optimal range of 0.2 < Str < 0.4 used by flying insects and birds and swimming fishes for locomotion. A digital particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to achieve phased-locked and time-averaged flow field measurements to quantify the transient behavior of the wake vortices in relation to the positions of the flapping wing during the upstroke and down stroke flapping cycles. The characteristics of the wake vortex structures in the chordwise cross planes at different wingspan locations were compared quantitatively to elucidate underlying physics for a better understanding of the unsteady aerodynamics of flapping flight and to explore/optimize design paradigms for the development of novel insect-sized, flapping-wing-based NAVs.

  7. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine flows using a Vortex Particle-Mesh method: from near to very far wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backaert, Stephane; Chatelain, Philippe; Winckelmans, Gregoire; Kern, Stefan; Maeder, Thierry; von Terzi, Dominic; van Rees, Wim; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2012-11-01

    A Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method with immersed lifting lines has been developed and validated. The vorticity-velocity formulation of the NS equations is treated in a hybrid way: particles handle advection while the mesh is used to evaluate the differential operators and for the fast Poisson solvers (here a Fourier-based solver which simultaneously allows for unbounded directions and inlet/outlet boundaries). Both discretizations communicate through high order interpolation. The immersed lifting lines handle the creation of vorticity from the blade elements and its early development. LES of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) flows are performed, with a relatively fine resolution (128 and 160 grid points per blade) and for computational domains extending up to 6 D and 14 D downstream of the rotor. The wake complex development is captured in details, from the blades to the near wake coherent vortices, to the transitional ones, to the fully developed turbulent far wake. Mean flow statistics in planes (horizontal, vertical and cross) are also presented. A case with a realistic turbulent wind inflow is also considered. The physics are more complex than for HAWT flows. Computational resources provided by a PRACE award.

  8. NASA AVOSS Fast-Time Wake Prediction Models: User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nash'at N.; VanValkenburg, Randal L.; Pruis, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing and testing fast-time wake transport and decay models to safely enhance the capacity of the National Airspace System (NAS). The fast-time wake models are empirical algorithms used for real-time predictions of wake transport and decay based on aircraft parameters and ambient weather conditions. The aircraft dependent parameters include the initial vortex descent velocity and the vortex pair separation distance. The atmospheric initial conditions include vertical profiles of temperature or potential temperature, eddy dissipation rate, and crosswind. The current distribution includes the latest versions of the APA (3.4) and the TDP (2.1) models. This User's Guide provides detailed information on the model inputs, file formats, and the model output. An example of a model run and a brief description of the Memphis 1995 Wake Vortex Dataset is also provided.

  9. The Development of a Plan for the Assessment, Improvement and Deployment of a Radar Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) for Wake Vortex Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Philip J.; McLaughlin, Dennis K.; Gabrielson, Thomas B.; Boluriaan, Said

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the activities completed under a grant from the NASA Langley Research Center to develop a plan for the assessment, improvement, and deployment of a Radar Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) for the detection of wake vortices. A brief review is provided of existing alternative instruments for wake vortex detection. This is followed by a review of previous implementations and assessment of a RASS. As a result of this review, it is concluded that the basic features of a RASS have several advantages over other commonly used wake vortex detection and measurement systems. Most important of these features are the good fidelity of the measurements and the potential for all weather operation. To realize the full potential of this remote sensing instrument, a plan for the development of a RASS designed specifically for wake vortex detection and measurement has been prepared. To keep costs to a minimum, this program would start with the development an inexpensive laboratory-scale version of a RASS system. The new instrument would be developed in several stages, each allowing for a critical assessment of the instrument s potential and limitations. The instrument, in its initial stages of development, would be tested in a controlled laboratory environment. A jet vortex simulator, a prototype version of which has already been fabricated, would be interrogated by the RASS system. The details of the laboratory vortex would be measured using a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. In the early development stages, the scattered radar signal would be digitized and the signal post-processed to determine how extensively and accurately the RASS could measure properties of the wake vortex. If the initial tests prove to be successful, a real-time, digital signal processing system would be developed as a component of the RASS system. At each stage of the instrument development and testing, the implications of the scaling required for a full-scale instrument would be considered. It is concluded that a RASS system, developed for the specific application of wake vortex detection, could become part of a robust Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). This system, in turn, could contribute to Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) in US airports and improvements in Terminal Area productivity (TAP).

  10. Simulating Virtual Terminal Area Weather Data Bases for Use in the Wake Vortex Avoidance System (Wake VAS) Prediction Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Lin, Yuh-Lang

    2004-01-01

    During the research project, sounding datasets were generated for the region surrounding 9 major airports, including Dallas, TX, Boston, MA, New York, NY, Chicago, IL, St. Louis, MO, Atlanta, GA, Miami, FL, San Francico, CA, and Los Angeles, CA. The numerical simulation of winter and summer environments during which no instrument flight rule impact was occurring at these 9 terminals was performed using the most contemporary version of the Terminal Area PBL Prediction System (TAPPS) model nested from 36 km to 6 km to 1 km horizontal resolution and very detailed vertical resolution in the planetary boundary layer. The soundings from the 1 km model were archived at 30 minute time intervals for a 24 hour period and the vertical dependent variables as well as derived quantities, i.e., 3-dimensional wind components, temperatures, pressures, mixing ratios, turbulence kinetic energy and eddy dissipation rates were then interpolated to 5 m vertical resolution up to 1000 m elevation above ground level. After partial validation against field experiment datasets for Dallas as well as larger scale and much coarser resolution observations at the other 8 airports, these sounding datasets were sent to NASA for use in the Virtual Air Space and Modeling program. The application of these datasets being to determine representative airport weather environments to diagnose the response of simulated wake vortices to realistic atmospheric environments. These virtual datasets are based on large scale observed atmospheric initial conditions that are dynamically interpolated in space and time. The 1 km nested-grid simulated datasets providing a very coarse and highly smoothed representation of airport environment meteorological conditions. Details concerning the airport surface forcing are virtually absent from these simulated datasets although the observed background atmospheric processes have been compared to the simulated fields and the fields were found to accurately replicate the flows surrounding the airport where coarse verification data were available as well as where airport scale datasets were available.

  11. Flight test to determine feasibility of a proposed airborne wake vortex detection concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branstetter, James R.; Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Patterson, James C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to determine the radial extent at which aircraft mounted flow vanes or roll rate gyros can sense the circulatory flow field that exists around the lift induced vortex system generated by an aircraft in flight. The probe aircraft was equipped with wingtip sensors for measuring angle of attack and angle of sideslip, and with a fuselage mounted gyroscope for measuring roll rate. Analysis of flight test data indicated that the vortex was detectable at a lateral distance of about 105 feet (best results) using unsophisticated equipment. Measurements were made from the centerline of the probe aircraft to the center of the nearest vortex with the probe aircraft flying between one half and one and one half miles behind the vortex generating aircraft.

  12. Measurements and modeling of flow structure in the wake of a low profile wishbone vortex generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wendt, B. J.; Hingst, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    The results of an experimental examination of the vortex structures shed from a low profile 'wishbone' generator are presented. The vortex generator height relative to the turbulent boundary layer was varied by testing two differently sized models. Measurements of the mean three-dimensional velocity field were conducted in cross-stream planes downstream of the vortex generators. In all cases, a counter-rotating vortex pair was observed. Individual vortices were characterized by three descriptors derived from the velocity data; circulation, peak vorticity, and cross-stream location of peak vorticity. Measurements in the cross plane at two axial locations behind the smaller wishbone characterize the downstream development of the vortex pairs. A single region of stream wise velocity deficit is shared by both vortex cores. This is in contrast to conventional generators, where each core coincides with a region of velocity deficit. The measured cross-stream velocities for each case are compared to an Oseen model with matching descriptors. The best comparison occurs with the data from the larger wishbone.

  13. Computation of potential flows with embedded vortex rings and applications to helicopter rotor wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, T. W.

    1983-01-01

    A finite difference scheme for solving the motion of a number of vortex rings is developed. The method is an adaptation of the 'cloud-in-cell' technique to axisymmetric flows, and is thus a combined Eulerian-Lagrangian technique. A straightforward adaptation of the cloud-in-cell scheme to an axisymmetric flow field is shown to introduce a grid dependent self-induced velocity to each vortex ring. To correct this behavior the potential is considered to consist of two parts, a local and a global field. An improved difference formula is derived, allowing the accurate calculation of the potential at points near vortex locations. The local potential is then subtracted before calculating the velocity, leaving only the influences of the remaining vortices. The correct self-induced velocity is then explicitly added to the vortex velocity. Calculations of the motion of one and two vortex rings are performed, demonstrating the ability of the new method to eliminate the grid dependence of the self-induced velocity. The application of the method to the calculation of helicopter rotor flows in hover is attempted.

  14. Exploratory flight investigation of aircraft response to the wing vortex wake generated by jet transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, W. H.; Robinson, G. H.; Larson, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of intercepting wing tip vortices generated by large jet transports, including jumbo jets, over separation distances from 1 nautical mile to 15 nautical miles is evaluated on the basis of the response of a vortex probe airplane in the roil mode. The vortex probe test aircraft included a representative general aviation airplane, an executive jet, a fighter, and light and medium weight jet transports. The test conditions and airplane configurations were comparable to those normally used during takeoff, landing, or holding pattern operations. For flight safety the tests were performed at altitudes from 9500 feet to 12,500 feet. In addition to an evaluation of the probe airplane response, a flight test technique is suggested for determining minimum separation distance, using as variable the ratio of vortex-induced roll acceleration to maximum lateral control acceleration and the gross weight of the generating aircraft.

  15. Mean velocity and decay characteristics of the near- and far-wake of a compressor rotor blade of moderate loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindranath, A.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports the experimental study of the three-dimensional characteristics of the mean velocity in the wake of a moderately loaded compressor rotor blade. The measurements were taken with a three-sensor hot-wire probe rotating with the rotor. The wake was surveyed at several radial and axial stations. The loading was found to have substantial effect and this was reflected not only in the axial and tangential components, but also in the radial component. The radial velocities were found to be high very near the trailing-edge and this exhibits the characteristics prevalent in a trailing vortex system. The static pressures across the wake were measured using a direction insensitive spherical head static-stagnation pressure probe. The static pressure was found to be higher inside the wake. These and other measurements are reported and correlated in this paper.

  16. Effect of Wake Disturbance Frequency on the Secondary Flow Vortex Structure in a Turbine Blade Cascade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher G. Murawski; Kambiz Vafai

    2000-01-01

    An experimental study of the effect of wake disturbance frequency on the secondary flow vortices in a two-dimensional linear cascade is presented. The flow Reynolds numbers, based on exit velocity and suction side surface length were 25,000, 50,000 and 85,000. Secondary flow was visualized by injecting smoke into the boundary layer and illuminat- ing it with a laser light sheet

  17. The onset of oblique vortex shedding behind a heated circular cylinder in laminar wake regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ming-Hsun; Trávní?ek, Zden?k; Wang, An-Bang

    2012-01-01

    Oblique vortex shedding (OVS) behind a heated circular cylinder in air was experimentally investigated. Similar to that in the parallel vortex shedding (PVS), the results show that the non-dimensionalized shedding frequency, Strouhal number, decreases under the influence of cylinder heating for oblique shedding mode. Although the onset Reynolds number of OVS increases with the cylinder temperature, the onset effective Reynolds number remains 63.3 ± 1.3 regardless of the cylinder heating. A general Strouhal-Reynolds-number relationship for OVS has been found based on the effective temperature concept in the present study. The ratio of the critical Reynolds numbers for the onsets of OVS and PVS is found to be an invariant with value of 4/3 for both isothermal and non-isothermal cases despite different length/diameter ratios and end conditions.

  18. A Probabilistic Wake Vortex Lateral Transport Model Using Data from SFO and DEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellman, George R.; Delisi, Donald P.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous report, we considered the behavior of the lateral position of vortices as a function of time after vortex formation for Out of Ground Effects (OGE) data for aircraft landing at San Francisco International Airport (SFO). We quantified the spread in lateral position as a function of time and examined how predictable lateral position is under a variety of assumptions. The combination of spread and predictability allowed us to derive probability distribution functions (PDFs) for lateral position given observed crosswind (CW) velocities. In this study, we examine the portability of these PDFs with respect to other landing sites. To this end, we consider OGE data obtained by the Federal Aviation Administration for landings at Denver International Airport (DEN) between 04/05/2006 and 06/03/2006. We consider vortices from both B733 (Boeing 737 models 200-500) and B757 (Boeing 757) aircraft. The data set contains 635 B733 landings and 506 B757 landings. The glide slope altitude for these measurements was 280 m, determined by the average initial vortex observation adjusted for a 3-second delay in the initial observation. The comparable SFO altitude was 158 m. We note that the principal mechanism for lateral transport in the OGE regime is advection by the ambient wind. This implies that a simple crosswind correction may be effective in explaining much of the variation in the lateral transport data. In this study, we again consider the use of ASOS data and average Lidar crosswind data over the vortex altitude range to predict vortex location as a function of time.

  19. Airloads, wakes, and aeroelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    1990-01-01

    Fundamental considerations regarding the theory of modeling of rotary wing airloads, wakes, and aeroelasticity are presented. The topics covered are: airloads and wakes, including lifting-line theory, wake models and nonuniform inflow, free wake geometry, and blade-vortex interaction; aerodynamic and wake models for aeroelasticity, including two-dimensional unsteady aerodynamics and dynamic inflow; and airloads and structural dynamics, including comprehensive airload prediction programs. Results of calculations and correlations are presented.

  20. Oscillating pendulum decay by emission of vortex rings Diogo Bolster,1

    E-print Network

    Bolster, Diogo

    Oscillating pendulum decay by emission of vortex rings Diogo Bolster,1 Robert E. Hershberger,2 studied oscillation of a pendulum in water using spherical bobs. By measuring the loss in potential energy also studied the decay of amplitude of the pendulum over time. As observed previously, at small

  1. Vortex-dominated flow with viscous core structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. H.; Krause, E.; Ting, L.

    1985-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies of vortex-dominated flows are reviewed with special emphasis on those for which the viscous core structures play an important role. The problems to be described are: The interaction and merging of two-dimensional vortices and of curved vortex filaments, the roll-up and decay of trailing far wakes, and the initiation of vortex breakdown. The analysis utilizes finite-difference solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations complemented by asymptotic expansion techniques.

  2. The effect of asymmetric vortex wake characteristics on a slender delta wing undergoing wing rock motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arena, A. S., Jr.; Nelson, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental investigation into the fluid mechanisms responsible for wing rock on a slender delta wing with 80 deg leading edge sweep has been conducted. Time history and flow visualization data are presented for a wide angle-of-attack range. The use of an air bearing spindle has allowed the motion of the wing to be free from bearing friction or mechanical hysteresis. A bistable static condition has been found in vortex breakdown at an angle of attack of 40 deg which causes an overshoot of the steady state rocking amplitude. Flow visualization experiments also reveal a difference in static and dynamic breakdown locations on the wing. A hysteresis loop in dynamic breakdown location similar to that seen on pitching delta wings was observed as the wing was undergoing the limit cycle oscillation.

  3. Decay of vortex rings in a rotating fluid M. A. Brend and P. J. Thomas

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Peter J.

    Decay of vortex rings in a rotating fluid M. A. Brend and P. J. Thomas Fluid Dynamics Research on the Taylor­Proudman theorem it is observed that the value of xd decreases with decreasing Rossby number, Ro example is, for instance, the Taylor­Proudman theorem derived from the geostrophic approximation

  4. Decay of a potential vortex in a generalized Oldroyd-B fluid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corina Fetecau; M. Khan; D. Vieru

    2008-01-01

    The velocity field and the adequate shear stress corresponding to the decay of a potential vortex in a generalized Oldroyd-B fluid are determined by means of Hankel and Laplace transforms. The exact solutions, written in terms of the generalized G and R functions, are presented as a sum of the Newtonian solutions and the adequate non-Newtonian contributions. These solutions can

  5. A three dimensional unsteady iterative panel method with vortex particle wakes and boundary layer model for bio-inspired multi-body wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhruv, Akash; Blower, Christopher; Wickenheiser, Adam M.

    2015-03-01

    The ability of UAVs to operate in complex and hostile environments makes them useful in military and civil operations concerning surveillance and reconnaissance. However, limitations in size of UAVs and communication delays prohibit their operation close to the ground and in cluttered environments, which increase risks associated with turbulence and wind gusts that cause trajectory deviations and potential loss of the vehicle. In the last decade, scientists and engineers have turned towards bio-inspiration to solve these issues by developing innovative flow control methods that offer better stability, controllability, and maneuverability. This paper presents an aerodynamic load solver for bio-inspired wings that consist of an array of feather-like flaps installed across the upper and lower surfaces in both the chord- and span-wise directions, mimicking the feathers of an avian wing. Each flap has the ability to rotate into both the wing body and the inbound airflow, generating complex flap configurations unobtainable by traditional wings that offer improved aerodynamic stability against gusting flows and turbulence. The solver discussed is an unsteady three-dimensional iterative doublet panel method with vortex particle wakes. This panel method models the wake-body interactions between multiple flaps effectively without the need to define specific wake geometries, thereby eliminating the need to manually model the wake for each configuration. To incorporate viscous flow characteristics, an iterative boundary layer theory is employed, modeling laminar, transitional and turbulent regions over the wing's surfaces, in addition to flow separation and reattachment locations. This technique enables the boundary layer to influence the wake strength and geometry both within the wing and aft of the trailing edge. The results obtained from this solver are validated using experimental data from a low-speed suction wind tunnel operating at Reynolds Number 300,000. This method enables fast and accurate assessment of aerodynamic loads for initial design of complex wing configurations compared to other methods available.

  6. Spatial evolution of a quasi-two-dimensional Kármán vortex street subjected to a strong uniform magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Ahmad H. A.; Hussam, Wisam K.; Pothérat, Alban; Sheard, Gregory J.

    2015-05-01

    A vortex decay model for predicting spatial evolution of peak vorticity in a wake behind a cylinder is presented. For wake vortices in the stable region behind the formation region, results have shown that the presented model has a good capability of predicting spatial evolution of peak vorticity within an advecting vortex across 0.1 ? ? ? 0.4, 500 ? H ? 5000, and 1500 ? ReL ? 8250. The model is also generalized to predict the decay behaviour of wake vortices in a class of quasi-two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic duct flows. Comparison with published data demonstrates remarkable consistency.

  7. Numerical study of decay of vortex tangles in superfluid helium at zero temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondaurova, Luiza; Nemirovskii, Sergey K.

    2012-10-01

    We submit the results of the numerical experiment on the decay of the quantum turbulence in the absence of the normal component of the superfluid helium. Computations were fulfilled inside a fixed domain with the use of the vortex filament method. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the role of the various factors arising in the numerical procedure, such as change in length in the reconnection processes, the procedures regulating the amount of points on the lines, eliminations of very small loops below the space resolution as well as the evaporation of the loops from the volume. We would like to stress that the widely accepted mechanism—a cascadelike transfer of the energy by nonlinear Kelvin waves (and radiation of sound)—was not considered. One of the reasons is that the space resolution along the lines did not allow to detect generation of high harmonics, moreover, particularly to get harmonics, which really radiate sound. In addition, the use of the method assumes that the fluid is incompressible. Numerical simulations have been performed for the cubic domain with transparent walls embedded in an unbounded space, and for a cube with solid smooth walls. Calculations showed that in the case of unlimited space the decay of quantum turbulence caused by the evaporation of vortex loops, which is implemented in a diffusion-like manner. The rate of the attenuation of the vortex line density agrees with the one, predicted by the theory of diffusion of nonuniform vortex tangles. In the case of a cube with solid walls, the main decay is also due to the diffusion of the vortex loops to boundaries. The vortex loops, whose ends glide on a smooth wall, execute the sophisticated motion (especially when they jump from the one face to the other) with many subsequent reconnections. As a result, there appear smaller and smaller loops with a size of few spatial resolutions, which were removed from the calculation. Indirect comparison with the experiments shows that the time of decay agrees with the measured data.

  8. Vortex

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Exploratorium

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners create a tornado in a bottle to observe a spiraling, funnel-shaped vortex. A simple connector device allows water to drain from a 2-liter bottle into a second bottle. Learners can observe the whirling water and then repeat the process by inverting the bottle. Use this activity to talk about surface tension, pressure, gravity, friction, angular momentum, and centripetal force.

  9. Developments and Validations of Fully Coupled CFD and Practical Vortex Transport Method for High-Fidelity Wake Modeling in Fixed and Rotary Wing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anusonti-Inthra, Phuriwat

    2010-01-01

    A novel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) coupling framework using a conventional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (BANS) solver to resolve the near-body flow field and a Particle-based Vorticity Transport Method (PVTM) to predict the evolution of the far field wake is developed, refined, and evaluated for fixed and rotary wing cases. For the rotary wing case, the RANS/PVTM modules are loosely coupled to a Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD) module that provides blade motion and vehicle trim information. The PVTM module is refined by the addition of vortex diffusion, stretching, and reorientation models as well as an efficient memory model. Results from the coupled framework are compared with several experimental data sets (a fixed-wing wind tunnel test and a rotary-wing hover test).

  10. Information Requirements for Supervisory Air Traffic Controllers in Support of a Mid-Term Wake Vortex Departure System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Williams, Daniel M.; Trujillo, Anna C.; Johnson, Edward J.; Domino, David A.

    2008-01-01

    A concept focusing on wind dependent departure operations has been developed the current version of this concept is called the Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Departures (WTMD). This concept takes advantage the fact that cross winds of sufficient velocity blow wakes generated by "heavy" and B757 category aircraft on the downwind runway away from the upwind runway. Supervisory Air Traffic Controllers would be responsible for authorization of the Procedure. An investigation of the information requirements necessary to for Supervisors to approve monitor and terminate the Procedure was conducted. Results clearly indicated that the requisite information is currently available in air traffic control towers and that additional information was not required.

  11. Vortex dynamics during blade-vortex interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Di; Gregory, James W.

    2015-05-01

    Vortex dynamics during parallel blade-vortex interactions (BVIs) were investigated in a subsonic wind tunnel using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Vortices were generated by applying a rapid pitch-up motion to an airfoil through a pneumatic system, and the subsequent interactions with a downstream, unloaded target airfoil were studied. The blade-vortex interactions may be classified into three categories in terms of vortex behavior: close interaction, very close interaction, and collision. For each type of interaction, the vortex trajectory and strength variation were obtained from phase-averaged PIV data. The PIV results revealed the mechanisms of vortex decay and the effects of several key parameters on vortex dynamics, including separation distance (h/c), Reynolds number, and vortex sense. Generally, BVI has two main stages: interaction between vortex and leading edge (vortex-LE interaction) and interaction between vortex and boundary layer (vortex-BL interaction). Vortex-LE interaction, with its small separation distance, is dominated by inviscid decay of vortex strength due to pressure gradients near the leading edge. Therefore, the decay rate is determined by separation distance and vortex strength, but it is relatively insensitive to Reynolds number. Vortex-LE interaction will become a viscous-type interaction if there is enough separation distance. Vortex-BL interaction is inherently dominated by viscous effects, so the decay rate is dependent on Reynolds number. Vortex sense also has great impact on vortex-BL interaction because it changes the velocity field and shear stress near the surface.

  12. The effect of single-horn glaze ice on the vortex structures in the wake of a horizontal axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zhe-Yan; Dong, Qiao-Tian; Yang, Zhi-Gang

    2015-02-01

    The present study experimentally investigated the effect of a simulated single-horn glaze ice accreted on rotor blades on the vortex structures in the wake of a horizontal axis wind turbine by using the stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (Stereo-PIV) technique. During the experiments, four horizontal axis wind turbine models were tested, and both "free-run" and "phase-locked" Stereo-PIV measurements were carried out. Based on the "free-run" measurements, it was found that because of the simulated single-horn glaze ice, the shape, vorticity, and trajectory of tip vortices were changed significantly, and less kinetic energy of the airflow could be harvested by the wind turbine. In addition, the "phase-locked" results indicated that the presence of simulated single-horn glaze ice resulted in a dramatic reduction of the vorticity peak of the tip vortices. Moreover, as the length of the glaze ice increased, both root and tip vortex gaps were found to increase accordingly.

  13. Development and testing of laser Doppler system components for wake vortex monitoring. Volume 1: Scanner development, laboratory and field testing and system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. J.; Krause, M. C.; Coffey, E. W.; Huang, C. C.; Edwards, B. B.; Shrider, K. R.; Jetton, J. L.; Morrison, L. K.

    1974-01-01

    A servo-controlled range/elevation scanner for the laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) was developed and tested in the field to assess its performance in detecting and monitoring aircraft trailing vortices in an airport environment. The elevation scanner provides a capability to manually point the LDV telescope at operator chosen angles from 3.2 deg. to 89.6 deg within 0.2 deg, or to automatically scan the units between operator chosen limits at operator chosen rates of 0.1 Hz to 0.5 Hz. The range scanner provides a capability to manually adjust the focal point of the system from a range of 32 meters to a range of 896 meters under operator control, or to scan between operator chosen limits and at rates from 0.1 Hz to 6.9 Hz. The scanner controls are designed to allow simulataneous range and elevation scanning so as to provide finger scan patterns, arc scan patterns, and vertical line scan patterns. The development and testing of the unit is discussed, along with a fluid dynamic model of the wake vortex developed in a laser Doppler vortex sensor simulation program.

  14. Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Arrivals (WTMA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel M.; Lohr, Gary W.; Trujillo, Anna C.

    2008-01-01

    The preliminary Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Arrivals (WTMA) concept of operations is described in this paper. The WTMA concept provides further detail to work initiated by the Wake Vortex Avoidance System Concept Evaluation Team and is an evolution of the Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Departure concept. Anticipated benefits about reducing wake turbulence separation standards in crosswind conditions, and candidate WTMA system considerations are discussed.

  15. STATUS OF WAKE VORTEX ALLEVIATION IN THE FRAMEWORK OF EUROPEAN COLLABORATION: VALIDATION ATTEMPTS USING TESTS AND CFD RESULTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric COUSTOLS; Laurent JACQUIN; Geza SCHRAUF

    2006-01-01

    This document provides a synthesis of recent research studies that have been conducted in the last decade within several European projects from the 5 th and 6 th Framework Programmes. All these studies aimed at a better characterization of aircraft wake vortices and then at their subsequent control. In the latter case, the goal is to minimize the strength of

  16. Measurements of the vortex wakes of a subsonic and supersonic transport model in the 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, V. J.; Corsiglia, V. R.; Phillippe, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The rolling moment induced on aircraft models in the wake of a model of a subsonic transport and of a supersonic transport was measured as a function of angle of attack for several configurations. The tests are described and an analysis of the data is given in this memorandum.

  17. Evaluation of the discrete vortex wake cross flow model using vector computers. Part 2: User's manual for DIVORCE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deffenbaugh, F. D.; Vitz, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    The users manual for the Discrete Vortex Cross flow Evaluator (DIVORCE) computer program is presented. DIVORCE was developed in FORTRAN 4 for the DCD 6600 and CDC 7600 machines. Optimal calls to a NASA vector subroutine package are provided for use with the CDC 7600.

  18. Coalescing Wind Turbine Wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Churchfield, M.; Sirnivas, S.; Moriarty, P.; Nielsen, F. G.; Skaare, B.; Byklum, E.

    2015-06-01

    A team of researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Statoil used large-eddy simulations to numerically investigate the merging wakes from upstream offshore wind turbines. Merging wakes are typical phenomena in wind farm flows in which neighboring turbine wakes consolidate to form complex flow patterns that are as yet not well understood. In the present study, three 6-MW turbines in a row were subjected to a neutrally stable atmospheric boundary layer flow. As a result, the wake from the farthest upstream turbine conjoined the downstream wake, which significantly altered the subsequent velocity deficit structures, turbulence intensity, and the global meandering behavior. The complexity increased even more when the combined wakes from the two upstream turbines mixed with the wake generated by the last turbine, thereby forming a “triplet” structure. Although the influence of the wake generated by the first turbine decayed with downstream distance, the mutated wakes from the second turbine continued to influence the downstream wake. Two mirror-image angles of wind directions that yielded partial wakes impinging on the downstream turbines yielded asymmetric wake profiles that could be attributed to the changing flow directions in the rotor plane induced by the Coriolis force. The turbine wakes persisted for extended distances in the present study, which is a result of low aerodynamic surface roughness typically found in offshore conditions.

  19. Structure and decay characteristics of turbulence in the near- and far-wake of a moderately loaded compressor rotor-blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindranath, A.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1980-01-01

    The wake of a turbomachinery rotor-blade is turbulent, highly three-dimensional, and nonisotropic with appreciable curvature in the trailing-edge and near-wake regions. The characteristics of the turbulence vary considerably with radius, blade loading, free-stream turbulence, Reynolds number, and the rotor-blade geometry. This paper is concerned with the turbulence properties of a moderately loaded compressor blade, particularly near the blade trailing-edge. The tangential variation of the axial, tangential and radial intensities and stresses across the wake, as well as their decay characteristics were measured with a tri-axial hot-wire probe in the rotor frame of reference. The decay of intensities and stresses were found to be very rapid in the trailing-edge and near-wake regions and slow in the far-wake region. The effects of inlet-guide-vane and the hub-wall boundary layers on the rotor wake turbulence spectra are also discussed. Similarity rules for the three components of intensity are also derived and presented in this paper.

  20. A cockpit-display concept for executing a multiple glide-slope approach for wake-vortex avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, T. S.

    1984-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of utilizing a forward-looking display to provide information that would enable aircraft to rredue their in-trail separation interval, and hence increase airport capacity, through the application of multiple glide-path approach techniques. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether information could be satisfactorily provided on a head-up display (HUD) format to permit the pilot to conduct a multiple glide-slope approach while maintaining a prespecified in-trail separation interval. The tests were conducted in a motion-base cockpit simulator configured as a current-generation transport aircraft and included dynamic effects of the vortices generated by the lead aircraft. The information provided on the HUD included typical aircraft guidance information and the current and past positions of the lead aircraft. Additionally, the displayed information provided self-separation cues that allowed the pilot to maintain separation on the lead aircraft. Performance data and pilot subjective ratings and comments were obtained during the tests. The results of this study indicate that multiple glide-slope approaches, procedurally designed for vortex avoidance, are possible while maintaining pilot work load and performance within operationally acceptable limits. In general, it would seem that multiple glide-slope approaches are possible even under reduced in-trail separation conditions if the pilot is provided with adequate situational information.

  1. Three-Centimeter Doppler Radar Observations of Wingtip-Generated Wake Vortices in Clear Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Robert E.; Mudukutore, Ashok; Wissel, Vicki L. H.; Myers, Theodore

    1997-01-01

    This report documents a high risk, high pay-off experiment with the objective of detecting, for the first time, the presence of aircraft wake vortices in clear air using X-band Doppler radar. Field experiments were conducted in January 1995 at the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) to demonstrate the capability of the 9.33 GHz (I=3 cm) radar, which was assembled using an existing nine-meter parabolic antenna reflector at VVTT and the receiver/transmitter from the NASA Airborne Windshear Radar-Program. A C-130-aircraft, equipped with wingtip smoke generators, created visually marked wake vortices, which were recorded by video cameras. A C-band radar also observed the wake vortices during detection attempts with the X-band radar. Rawinsonde data was used to calculate vertical soundings of wake vortex decay time, cross aircraft bearing wind speed, and water vapor mixing ratio for aircraft passes over the radar measurement range. This experiment was a pathfinder in predicting, in real time, the location and persistence of C-130 vortices, and in setting the flight path of the aircraft to optimize X-band radar measurement of the wake vortex core in real time. This experiment was conducted in support of the NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS).

  2. Experiments on vortex stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Param Indar Singh; Mahinder S. Uberoi

    1976-01-01

    The tip vortex of a laminar flow wing was studied at a sectional lift-to-drag ratio of 60. The vortex Reynolds number was ?0\\/?=7.8×104, where ?0 is the total circulation and ? is the kinematic viscosity. At and near the wing the vortex core was turbulent with an axial jet. Downstream of the wing the jet rapidly dissipated and a wake

  3. Helicopter rotor wake geometry and its influence in forward flight. Volume 2: Wake geometry charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Isometric and projection view plots, inflow ratio nomographs, undistorted axial displacement nomographs, undistorted longitudinal and lateral coordinates, generalized axial distortion nomographs, blade/vortex passage charts, blade/vortex intersection angle nomographs, and fore and aft wake boundary charts are discussed. Example condition, in flow ratio, undistorted axial location, longitudinal and lateral coordinates, axial coordinates distortions, blade/tip vortex intersections, angle of intersection, and fore and aft wake boundaries are also discussed.

  4. Breather decay into a vortex/antivortex pair in a Josephson ladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segall, K.; Williams, P.; Svitelskiy, O.; Edwards, D.; Zhelev, N.; Brummer, G.; Mazo, J. J.

    2014-08-01

    We present experimental evidence for a behavior which involves discrete breathers and vortices in a Josephson ladder. Breathers can be visualized as the creation and subsequent annihilation of vortex/antivortex pairs. An externally applied magnetic field breaks the vortex/antivortex symmetry and causes the breather to split apart. The motion of the vortex or antivortex creates multisite breathers, which are always to one side or the other of the original breather depending on the sign of the applied field. This asymmetry in the applied field is experimentally observed.

  5. Numerical simulation of vortex shedding of flow over a circular cylinder at moderate Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chein, Reiyu-Ray

    1990-04-01

    The discrete vortex method is applied to predict the flow over a circular cylinder. The vortex shedding phenomenon at the separation points is simulated by vorticity creation technique according to the Kutta condition. A vorticity reduction model (Vortex strength decaying law) is introduced to account for the viscous diffusion on vorticity. It was found that this model is dependent upon the flow Reynolds number and only applicable for the Reynolds number of the order of 1000. For gross features of the flow, the current model closely predicts the trends of variation of many characteristics observed in experimental measurements. For the microscopic features in the wake flow, the predictions of the current model are in good agreement with the typical types of wake flows.

  6. Proceedings of the ARO Rotorcraft Wake Prediction Basic Research Workshop

    E-print Network

    Vortex Calculations To Wind Tunnel Measurements 5 S. P´eron, C. Benoit, G. Jeanfaivre ONERA High of the rotor wake continues to pose challenges in prediction and measurement. There have been advances Wake Structure Of A Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine 7 A.G. Brand BHTI The Nature Of Vortex Ring State 8 S

  7. Stratified wake of an accelerating hydrofoil

    E-print Network

    Ben-Gida, Hadar; Gurka, Roi

    2015-01-01

    Wakes of towed and self-propelled bodies in stratified fluids are significantly different from non-stratified wakes. Long time effects of stratification on the development of the wakes of bluff bodies moving at constant speed are well known. In this experimental study we demonstrate how buoyancy affects the initial growth of vortices developing in the wake of a hydrofoil accelerating from rest. Particle image velocimetry measurements were applied to characterize the wake evolution behind a NACA 0015 hydrofoil accelerating in water and for low Reynolds number and relatively strong and stably stratified fluid (Re=5,000, Fr~O(1)). The analysis of velocity and vorticity fields, following vortex identification and an estimate of the circulation, reveal that the vortices in the stratified fluid case are stretched along the streamwise direction in the near wake. The momentum thickness profiles show lower momentum thickness values for the stratified late wake compared to the non-stratified wake, implying that the dra...

  8. Effect of ambient turbulence on the evolution of a counter-rotating vortex pair.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Madiha; Hussain, Fazle

    2007-11-01

    In an attempt to explain and develop strategy for control of aircraft wake vortex in a turbulent atmosphere, the evolution of a vortex column dipole (a pair of counter-rotating vortices) in the presence of fine-scale (homogeneous and isotropic) freestream turbulence is studied via DNS of the Navier-Stokes equations. The freestream turbulence is found to significantly accelerate the vortex decay via a complex vortex-turbulence coupling scenario, which we study. External fine-scale turbulence is first stretched into azimuthal filaments (see also Melander & Hussain, PRE, vol 48 (1993)) which merge into threads through successive pairings and advect along the column dipole by self-induction. Oppositely-directed advection of opposite-signed threads forms thread dipoles which then move outward by mutual-induction and also eject column fluid (see also J. S. Marshall, JFM, vol 345 (1997)). This has the effect of enhancing both mixing with the ambient fluid and the nominally planar reconnection (cross-diffusion) between the column vortex pair. We then further explore the column vortex dipole-turbulence interaction scenario and vortex decay dependence on parameters like the column vortex Reynolds number, separation of the vortices, and the intensity and scale of freestream turbulence.

  9. Numerical Simulations of Wake/Boundary Layer Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piomelli, Ugo; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Ovchinnikov, Victor; Balaras, Elias

    2003-01-01

    Direct and large-eddy simulations of the interaction between the wake of a circular cylinder and a flat-plate boundary layer are conducted. Two Reynolds numbers are examined. The simulations indicate that at the lower Reynolds number the boundary layer is buffeted by the unsteady Karman vortex street shed by the cylinder. The fluctuations, however, cannot be self-sustained due to the low Reynolds-number, and the flow does not reach a turbulent state within the computational domain. In contrast, in the higher Reynolds-number case, boundary-layer fluctuations persist after the wake has decayed (due, in part, to the higher values of the local Reynolds number Re(sub theta) achieved in this case); some evidence could be observed that a self-sustaining turbulence generation cycle was beginning to be established.

  10. Aeroelastic large eddy simulations using vortex methods: unfrozen turbulent and sheared inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branlard, E.; Papadakis, G.; Gaunaa, M.; Winckelmans, G.; Larsen, T. J.

    2015-06-01

    Vortex particles methods are applied to the aeroelastic simulation of a wind turbine in sheared and turbulent inflow. The possibility to perform large-eddy simulations of turbulence with the effect of the shear vorticity is demonstrated for the first time in vortex methods simulations. Most vortex methods formulation of shear, including segment formulations, assume a frozen shear. It is here shown that these formulations omit two source terms in the vorticity equation. The current paper also present unfrozen simulation of shear. The infinite support of the shear vorticity is accounted for using a novel approach relying on a Neumann to Dirichlet map. The interaction of the sheared vorticity with the wind turbine is shown to have an important impact on the wake shape. The obtained wake shape are closer to the one obtained using traditional computational fluid dynamics: Results with unfrozen shear do not have the severe upward motion of the wake observed in vortex methods simulation with frozen shear. The interaction of the shear and turbulence vorticity is shown to reduce the turbulence decay otherwise observed. The vortex code implemented is coupled to an aeroelastic code and examples of aeroelastic simulations under sheared and turbulent inflow are presented.

  11. Wake structure of a deformable Joukowski airfoil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Ysasi; Eva Kanso; Paul K. Newton

    2011-01-01

    We examine the vortical wake structure shed from a deformable Joukowski airfoil in an unbounded volume of inviscid and incompressible fluid. The deformable airfoil is considered to model a flapping fish. The vortex shedding is accounted for using an unsteady point vortex model commonly referred to as the Brown–Michael model. The airfoil’s deformations and rotations are prescribed in terms of

  12. Decay of potential vortex for a viscoelastic fluid with fractional Maxwell model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Khan; S. Hyder Ali; C. Fetecau; Haitao Qi

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the exact analytic solutions for the velocity field and the associated tangential stress corresponding to a potential vortex for a fractional Maxwell fluid. The fractional calculus approach is taken into account in the constitutive relationship of a non-Newtonian fluid model. Exact analytic solutions are obtained by using the Hankel transform and the discrete Laplace transform

  13. Turbulence Measurements in the Near Field of a Wingtip Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Jim; Zilliac, Greg; Bradshaw, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The roll-up of a wingtip vortex, at Reynolds number based on chord of 4.6 million was studied with an emphasis on suction side and near wake measurements. The research was conducted in a 32 in. x 48 in. low-speed wind tunnel. The half-wing model had a semi-span of 36 in. a chord of 48 in. and a rounded tip. Seven-hole pressure probe measurements of the velocity field surrounding the wingtip showed that a large axial velocity of up to 1.77 U(sub infinity) developed in the vortex core. This level of axial velocity has not been previously measured. Triple-wire probes have been used to measure all components of the Reynolds stress tensor. It was determined from correlation measurements that meandering of the vortex was small and did not appreciably contribute to the turbulence measurements. The flow was found to be turbulent in the near-field (as high as 24 percent RMS w - velocity on the edge of the core) and the turbulence decayed quickly with streamwise distance because of the nearly solid body rotation of the vortex core mean flow. A streamwise variation of the location of peak levels of turbulence, relative to the core centerline, was also found. Close to the trailing edge of the wing, the peak shear stress levels were found at the edge of the vortex core, whereas in the most downstream wake planes they occurred at a radius roughly equal to one-third of the vortex core radius. The Reynolds shear stresses were not aligned with the mean strain rate, indicating that an isotropic-eddy-viscosity based prediction method cannot accurately model the turbulence in the cortex. In cylindrical coordinates, with the origin at the vortex centerline, the radial normal stress was found to be larger than the circumferential.

  14. Nonlinear vortex trail dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Chjan C.; Sirovich, Lawrence

    1988-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of periodic disturbances on vortex trails is considered. In addition to following small initial perturbations, large amplitude initial disturbances of the vortex trails are also studied. It is shown that the equations support a rich variety of essentially nonlinear solutions including unbounded and quasisteady ones. These solutions are found to correspond to various modes of vortex clustering in the physical plane. At the close of the paper, comparisons of these results with recent numerical and experimental findings on the wakes behind stationary cylinders, and also transversely oscillating bluff objects, are made.

  15. Nonlinear vortex trail dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Chjan C.; Sirovich, Lawrence

    1988-05-01

    The nonlinear evolution of periodic disturbances on vortex trails is considered. In addition to following small initial perturbations, large amplitude initial disturbances of the vortex trails are also studied. It is shown that the equations support a rich variety of essentially nonlinear solutions including unbounded and quasisteady ones. These solutions are found to correspond to various modes of vortex clustering in the physical plane. At the close of the paper, comparisons of these results with recent numerical and experimental findings on the wakes behind stationary cylinders, and also transversely oscillating bluff objects, are made.

  16. In-line and cross-flow multi-frequency vortex-induced vibrations of a long flexible cylinder are phase-locked under wake-body synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourguet, Remi; Karniadakis, George; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2012-11-01

    A slender flexible body with bluff cross-section immersed in cross-flow exhibits vortex-induced vibrations. The vibrations are excited by the flow under a condition of lock-in defined as the synchronization between vortex formation and body displacement. Within a sheared current, the possible occurrence of the lock-in condition at a number of different locations can lead to broadband vibrations involving a wide range of excited frequencies and structural wavenumbers. In a previous study focusing on the vortex-induced vibrations of a flexible cylinder at a single frequency in each direction, we have found that the lock-in condition is established through counter-clockwise figure-eight trajectories where the body moves upstream at the extremes of the cross-flow oscillation. In the present work, on the basis of direct numerical simulation results, we show that this mechanism can be generalized to multi-frequency responses: even if the trajectory shape substantially departs from a figure eight, the phase difference between the components of the in-line and cross-flow vibrations locally involved in the lock-in phenomenon remains within a particular range, associated with counter-clockwise figure-eight orbits in the mono-frequency case.

  17. Helicopter rotor wake geometry and its influence in forward flight. Volume 1: Generalized wake geometry and wake effect on rotor airloads and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    An analytic investigation to generalize wake geometry of a helicopter rotor in steady level forward flight and to demonstrate the influence of wake deformation in the prediction of rotor airloads and performance is described. Volume 1 presents a first level generalized wake model based on theoretically predicted tip vortex geometries for a selected representative blade design. The tip vortex distortions are generalized in equation form as displacements from the classical undistorted tip vortex geometry in terms of vortex age, blade azimuth, rotor advance ratio, thrust coefficient, and number of blades. These equations were programmed to provide distorted wake coordinates at very low cost for use in rotor airflow and airloads prediction analyses. The sensitivity of predicted rotor airloads, performance, and blade bending moments to the modeling of the tip vortex distortion are demonstrated for low to moderately high advance ratios for a representative rotor and the H-34 rotor. Comparisons with H-34 rotor test data demonstrate the effects of the classical, predicted distorted, and the newly developed generalized wake models on airloads and blade bending moments. Use of distorted wake models results in the occurrence of numerous blade-vortex interactions on the forward and lateral sides of the rotor disk. The significance of these interactions is related to the number and degree of proximity to the blades of the tip vortices. The correlation obtained with the distorted wake models (generalized and predicted) is encouraging.

  18. PREFACE: Wake Conference 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barney, Andrew; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Ivanell, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The 44 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the 2015 Wake Conference, held in Visby on the island of Gotland in Sweden. It is the fourth time this conference has been held. The Wake Conference series started in Visby, where it was held in 2009 and 2011. In 2013 it took place in Copenhagen where it was combined with the International Conference on Offshore Wind Energy and Ocean Energy. In 2015 it is back where it started in Visby, where it takes place at Uppsala University Campus Gotland, June 9th–11th. The global yearly production of electrical energy by wind turbines has grown tremendously in the past decade and it now comprises more than 3% of the global electrical power consumption. Today the wind power industry has a global annual turnover of more than 50 billion USD and an annual average growth rate of more than 20%. State-of-the-art wind turbines have rotor diameters of up to 150 m and 8 MW installed capacity. These turbines are often placed in large wind farms that have a total production capacity corresponding to that of a nuclear power plant. In order to make a substantial impact on one of the most significant challenges of our time, global warming, the industry's growth has to continue for a decade or two yet. This in turn requires research into the physics of wind turbine wakes and wind farms. Modern wind turbines are today clustered in wind farms in which the turbines are fully or partially influenced by the wake of upstream turbines. As a consequence, the wake behind the wind turbines has a lower mean wind speed and an increased turbulence level, as compared to the undisturbed flow outside the farm. Hence, wake interaction results in decreased total production of power, caused by lower kinetic energy in the wind, and an increase in the turbulence intensity. Therefore, understanding the physical nature of the vortices and their dynamics in the wake of a turbine is important for the optimal design of a wind farm. This conference is aimed at scientists and PhD students working in the field of wake dynamics. The conference covers the following subject areas: Wake and vortex dynamics, instabilities in trailing vortices and wakes, simulation and measurements of wakes, analytical approaches for modeling wakes, wake interaction and other wind farm investigations. Many people have been involved in producing the 2015 Wake Conference proceedings. The work by the more than 60 reviewers ensuring the quality of the papers is greatly appreciated. The timely evaluation and coordination of the reviews would not have been possible without the work of the section editors: Christian Masson, ÉTS, Fernando Porté-Agel, EPFL, Gerard Schepers, ECN Wind Energy, Gijs Van Kuik, Delft University, Gunner Larsen, DTU Wind Energy, Jakob Mann, DTU Wind Energy, Javier Sanz Rodrigo, CENER, Johan Meyers, KU Leuven, Rebecca Barthelmie, Cornell University, Sandrine Aubrun-Sanches, Université d'Orléans and Thomas Leweke, IRPHE-CNRS. We are also immensely indebted to the very responsive support from the editorial team at IOP Publishing, especially Sarah Toms, during the review process of these proceedings. Visby, Sweden, June 2015 Andrew Barney, Jens Nørkær Sørensen and Stefan Ivanell Uppsala University - Campus Gotland

  19. Mechanisms of perturbation growth and turbulence evolution in a columnar vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradeep, Dhoorjaty S.

    Some evolutionary mechanisms of coherent structures in turbulence are revealed by computations of (I) core dynamics (CD) in a vortex subjected to external straining; and (II) a vortex column embedded in finer-scaled turbulence. (I) CD evolves as a standing wave that grows when the vortex is externally strained and is damped when not. The instability results from resonance---at discrete wavelengths where the CD oscillation frequency matches the vortex's angular velocity---causing strain-vorticity locking. (II) Vortex-turbulence interaction---fundamental to turbulence modeling and to flows such as the aircraft wake---exhibits two distinct regions: (a) a vortex core with intense wave motions; and (b) a turbulent annulus containing coherent fine-scale filaments organized into dipoles. Mean momentum transport by the filaments causes an overshoot of the circulation profile, rendering the vortex centrifugally unstable, but having little effect on enhancing turbulence production. The turbulent vortex, remarkably, decays at a viscous rate: a consequence of core wave motions, which, though intense, generate little Reynolds stress. No self-similar state---assumed in theories---is found. Core fluctuation amplification---observed in vortex-turbulence interaction---is via transient growth: algebraic perturbation growth in a "stable" vortex. Energetically "optimal" perturbations---attaining up to a thousand-fold amplification at moderate vortex Reynolds numbers, Re ˜ 104---grow via two inviscid mechanisms: (a) two-dimensional perturbations with "positive-tilt" streamlines (contributing positive Reynolds stress) grow until the mean swirl transforms the streamlines to predominantly "negative tilt"; (b) three-dimensional perturbations grow through the tilting of radial vorticity to azimuthal, and concomitant vortex stretching. While the mean strain amplifies perturbations, mean vorticity promotes wave motions, which arrest growth. Strong transient growth of bending waves---through resonance with external filaments---explains their appearance on a vortex in a turbulent field. Nonlinear growth of optimal modes causes significant core distortion and, likely, core transition---hence rapid vortex decay---in high-Re practical flows, such as the aircraft trailing vortex. The failure of turbulence models to capture transient growth may be why predicted and experimentally-observed decay rates of turbulent vortices differ.

  20. Passive control of unsteady-wing tip vortex via a slender half-delta wing in both reverse and regular configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T.; Pereira, J.

    2013-07-01

    The passive control of the tip vortex generated by an oscillating NACA 0012 wing via a tip-mounted half-delta wing, in both regular and reverse configurations, was investigated experimentally at Re = 2.45 × 105. Velocity and vorticity measurements, performed using a miniature triple hot-wire probe, show that vortex breakdown occurred when the regular half-delta wing (HDW) was mounted, but not for the reverse half-delta wing (RHDW) configuration. The HDW vortex breakdown led to a rapidly diffused tip vortex, suggesting an enhanced wake-vortex decay. For the RHDW wing configuration, the tip vortex remained concentrated but had a smaller size and also a weaker strength and rotation compared to the oscillating baseline wing. In addition, the vortex center of the oscillating RHDW wing-generated tip vortex was also found to be greatly displaced, especially in the transverse direction, which could translate into an increased blade-vortex-impingement miss distance and, as a result, an alleviated blade-vortex interaction.

  1. Vortex Shedding From a Flexible Hydrofoil

    E-print Network

    Dreyer, Matthieu

    2011-01-01

    Video of vortex shedding in the wake of a Naca0009 hydrofoil made of polyoxymethylene type C (POM C). This video was submitted as part of the Gallery of Fluid Motion 2011 which is showcase of fluid dynamics videos.

  2. Vortex-Surface Collisions^

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conlisk, A. T.

    1998-11-01

    The interaction of vortices with solid surfaces occurs in many different situations including, but not limited to tornadoes, propeller wakes, flows over swept wings and missile forebodies, turbomachinery flows, blade-vortex interactions and tip vortex-surface interactions on helicopters. Often, parts of a system must operate within such flows and thus encounter these vortices. In the present paper we discuss the nature of a particular subset of interactions called ``collisions''. A ``collision'' is characterized by the fact that the core of the vortex is permanently altered; usually the core is locally destroyed. The focus is on fully three-dimensional collisions although two-dimensional collisions are discussed as well. Examples of collisions in helicopter aerodynamics and turbomachinery flows are discussed and the dynamics of the vortex core during a collision process are illustrated for a 90^o collision. ^Supported by the US Army Research Office

  3. Analysis of streamwise-oriented vortex interactions for two wings in close proximity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Caleb J.; Visbal, Miguel R.; Gordnier, Raymond E.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation addresses the impingement of the trailing vortex provided by a leader-wing upon a follower-wing operating in close proximity. Exploration of the relative spacing between the two wings reveals several distinct flow regimes occur within a small range of lateral positions of the incident vortex. These changes effectively alter the evolution of the follower-wing wake via mutual induction between the incident and trailing vortices. Several unsteady mechanisms impact the general flow field in each regime. The incident vortex for an inboard impingement rapidly decays over the wing due to transition to turbulence. A tip-aligned vortex results in a highly unsteady interaction and generates enhanced surface pressure fluctuations beneath the tip vortex. Placing the incident vortex outboard elicits mutual instability between the leader and follower-wing trailing vortices. While lift-enhancement was found to be dominated by an inviscid increase in effective angle of attack, viscous effects in the near-tip region alter the local surface force distribution and influence the rolling moment coefficient. These flow variations which occur over a small range of lateral positions could generate buffeting loads in the presence of a wandering streamwise vortex.

  4. Wake Instabilities Behind Bluff Bodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Provansal

    \\u000a The observation by Bénard of a vortex street in the wake of a circular cylinder has been commonly associated with the stability\\u000a analysis of the double alternate street proposed by von Kármán. After a short historical review of these studies, we present\\u000a the main progress in understanding this instability during the last decade. New experiments and the control of two-dimensional

  5. Oscillating airfoils and their wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Send, W.

    1985-01-01

    The unsteady phenomena in the wake of an oscillating wing or rotor blade are examined theoretically using the Prandtl approximation of the vortex-transport equation. A mathematical model is developed and applied to such problems as the effect of winglets on the performance of fixed wings and the possibly of employing similar designs in rotor blades. Model predictions for several profiles are compared with published and experimental measurements, and good agreement is found. Graphs and diagrams are provided.

  6. Formal optimization of hovering performance using free wake lifting surface theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, S. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Free wake techniques for performance prediction and optimization of hovering rotor are discussed. The influence functions due to vortex ring, vortex cylinder, and source or vortex sheets are presented. The vortex core sizes of rotor wake vortices are calculated and their importance is discussed. Lifting body theory for finite thickness body is developed for pressure calculation, and hence performance prediction of hovering rotors. Numerical optimization technique based on free wake lifting line theory is presented and discussed. It is demonstrated that formal optimization can be used with the implicit and nonlinear objective or cost function such as the performance of hovering rotors as used in this report.

  7. A simplified free wake method for horizontal-axis wind turbine performance prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Afjen, A.A.; Keith, T.G. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Based on the assumption that wake geometry of a horizontal-axis wind turbine closely resembles that of a hovering helicopter, a method is presented for predicting the performance of a horizontal-axis wind turbine. A vortex method is used in which the wake is composed of an intense tip-vortex and a diffused inboard wake. Performance parameters are calculated by application of the Bio-Savart law along with the Kutta-Joukowski theorem. Predictions are shown to compare favorably with values from a more complicated full free wake analysis and with existing experimental data, but require more computational effort than an existing fast free wake method.

  8. Fixed wake theory for vertical axis wind turbines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Wilson; S. N. Walker

    1983-01-01

    A theory for vertical axis wind turbines has been developed using a fixed wake approach. The theory combines some of the best features of vortex and streamtube approaches. This approach accounts for flow differences between fore-and-aft blade positions that are predicted by vortex methods while retaining the low computation costs associated with streamtube theories. The theory is applied to high

  9. Characterization of the Near Wake of a Helicopter Rotor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raghav Mahalingam; Narayanan Komerath

    Vortex characteristics in the near wake of a 2-bladed teetering rotor in steady forward flight are measured using a laser velocimeter. The vortex passage at a measurement point is seen to be repeatable to within 1? of rotor revolution. Velocity was measured in the planes intersected by the rotor-blade tip at the rotor azimuths of ? = 0?, 90?, 180?,

  10. Experimental Results on Rotor Wakes Narayanan Komerath

    E-print Network

    -Gray deconstruction of the hover wake structure into tip vortices and helical vortex sheets, done in the early 1960s through chaotic processes, even at high Reynolds number. Similarly, mysterious "jitter" phenomena have these advances, shown both experimentally and through analysis and computation, it has become possible

  11. Wake structure of a deformable Joukowski airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ysasi, Adam; Kanso, Eva; Newton, Paul K.

    2011-10-01

    We examine the vortical wake structure shed from a deformable Joukowski airfoil in an unbounded volume of inviscid and incompressible fluid. The deformable airfoil is considered to model a flapping fish. The vortex shedding is accounted for using an unsteady point vortex model commonly referred to as the Brown-Michael model. The airfoil’s deformations and rotations are prescribed in terms of a Jacobi elliptic function which exhibits, depending on a dimensionless parameter m, a range of periodic behaviors from sinusoidal to a more impulsive type flapping. Depending on the parameter m and the Strouhal number, one can identify five distinct wake structures, ranging from arrays of isolated point vortices to vortex dipoles and tripoles shed into the wake with every half-cycle of the airfoil flapping motion. We describe these regimes in the context of other published works which categorize wake topologies, and speculate on the importance of these wake structures in terms of periodic swimming and transient maneuvers of fish.

  12. Sound Generation by Aircraft Wake Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, Jay C.; Wang, Frank Y.

    2003-01-01

    This report provides an extensive analysis of potential wake vortex noise sources that might be utilized to aid in their tracking. Several possible mechanisms of aircraft vortex sound generation are examined on the basis of discrete vortex dynamic models and characteristic acoustic signatures calculated by application of vortex sound theory. It is shown that the most robust mechanisms result in very low frequency infrasound. An instability of the vortex core structure is discussed and shown to be a possible mechanism for generating higher frequency sound bordering the audible frequency range. However, the frequencies produced are still low and cannot explain the reasonably high-pitched sound that has occasionally been observed experimentally. Since the robust mechanisms appear to generate only very low frequency sound, infrasonic tracking of the vortices may be warranted.

  13. A free wake method for performance prediction of VAWT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilin, S.; Dumitrescu, H.; Cardos, V.; Dumitrache, A.

    2012-09-01

    Based on the lifting line theory and a free vortex wake model, a method including dynamic stall effects is presented for predicting the performance of a three-dimensional vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT). A vortex model is used in which the wake is composed of trailing streamwise and shedding spanwise vortices, whose strengths are equal to the change in the bound vortex strength as dictated by Helmholtz and Kelvin's theorems. Performance parameters are calculated by application of the Biot-Savart law along with the Kutta-Joukowski theorem and a semi-empirical dynamic stall model. Predictions are shown to compare favorably with existing experimental data.

  14. The effects of vortex modeling on blade-vortex interaction noise prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith M. Gallman; Chee Tung; Scott L. Low

    1995-01-01

    The use of a blade vortex interaction noise prediction scheme, based on CAMRAD\\/JA, FPR and RAPP, quantifies the effects of errors and assumptions in the modeling of the helicopter's shed vortex on the acoustic predictions. CAMRAD\\/JA computes the wake geometry and inflow angles that are used in FPR to solve for the aerodynamic surface pressures. RAPP uses these surface pressures

  15. Effects of incoming wind condition and wind turbine aerodynamics on the hub vortex instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashton, R.; Viola, F.; Gallaire, F.; Iungo, G. V.

    2015-06-01

    Dynamics and instabilities occurring in the near-wake of wind turbines have a crucial role for the wake downstream evolution, and for the onset of far-wake instabilities. Furthermore, wake dynamics significantly affect the intra-wind farm wake flow, wake interactions and potential power losses. Therefore, the physical understanding and predictability of wind turbine wake instabilities become a nodal point for prediction of wind power harvesting and optimization of wind farm layout. This study is focused on the prediction of the hub vortex instability encountered within wind turbine wakes under different operational conditions of the wind turbine. Linear stability analysis of the wake flow is performed by means of a novel approach that enables to take effects of turbulence on wake instabilities into account. Stability analysis is performed by using as base flow the time-averaged wake velocity field at a specific downstream location. The latter is modeled through Carton-McWilliams velocity profiles by mimicking the presence of the hub vortex and helicoidal tip vortices, and matching the wind turbine thrust coefficient predicted through the actuator disc model. The results show that hub vortex instability is promoted by increasing the turbine thrust coefficient. Indeed, a larger aerodynamic load produces an enhanced wake velocity deficit and axial shear, which are considered the main sources for the wake instability. Nonetheless, wake swirl also promotes hub vortex instability, and it can also affect the azimuthal wavenumber of the most unstable mode.

  16. Computation and analysis of a cylinder wake flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, J. C.; Rudy, D. H.; Sirovich, L.

    The Karman vortex wake of a circular cylinder at low Reynolds number was computed by a time-accurate, two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equation solver which uses the MacCormack predictor-corrector finite-difference scheme and a nonreflecting boundary condition on the outer flow boundary. The results from a large number of time steps were analyzed using Fast Fourier Transform techniques to identify the important frequency components for comparison with published experimental data. A strong low-frequency component was found below the vortex shedding frequency and not harmonically related to it. The experimentally discovered low-frequency fluctuations in the cylinder wake are considered possibly to be precursors to transition from laminar to turbulent flow conditions. The present finding of similar frequencies in a computed wake tends to confirm their existence as a real wake phenomenon. This computational work provides a complementary means to experimental investigations of wake phenomena.

  17. Computation and analysis of a cylinder wake flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, J. C.; Rudy, D. H.; Sirovich, L.

    1987-01-01

    The Karman vortex wake of a circular cylinder at low Reynolds number was computed by a time-accurate, two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equation solver which uses the MacCormack predictor-corrector finite-difference scheme and a nonreflecting boundary condition on the outer flow boundary. The results from a large number of time steps were analyzed using Fast Fourier Transform techniques to identify the important frequency components for comparison with published experimental data. A strong low-frequency component was found below the vortex shedding frequency and not harmonically related to it. The experimentally discovered low-frequency fluctuations in the cylinder wake are considered possibly to be precursors to transition from laminar to turbulent flow conditions. The present finding of similar frequencies in a computed wake tends to confirm their existence as a real wake phenomenon. This computational work provides a complementary means to experimental investigations of wake phenomena.

  18. Wake Geometry Measurements and Analytical Calculations on a Small-Scale Rotor Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghee, Terence A.; Berry, John D.; Zori, Laith A. J.; Elliott, Joe W.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to quantify the rotor wake behind a scale model helicopter rotor in forward level flight at one thrust level. The rotor system in this test consisted of a four-bladed fully articulated hub with blades of rectangular planform and an NACA 0012 airfoil section. A laser light sheet, seeded with propylene glycol smoke, was used to visualize the vortex geometry in the flow in planes parallel and perpendicular to the free-stream flow. Quantitative measurements of wake geometric proper- ties, such as vortex location, vertical skew angle, and vortex particle void radius, were obtained as well as convective velocities for blade tip vortices. Comparisons were made between experimental data and four computational method predictions of experimental tip vortex locations, vortex vertical skew angles, and wake geometries. The results of these comparisons highlight difficulties of accurate wake geometry predictions.

  19. Devices that Alter the Tip Vortex of a Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAlister, Kenneth W.; Tung, Chee; Heineck, James T.

    2001-01-01

    Small devices were attached near the tip of a hovering rotor blade 'in order to alter the structure and trajectory of the trailing vortex. Stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) images were used to quantify the wake behind the rotor blade during the first revolution. A procedure for analyzing the 3D-velocity field is presented that includes a method for accounting for vortex wander. The results show that a vortex generator can alter the trajectory of the trailing vortex and that a major change in the size and intensity of the trailing vortex can be achieved by introducing a high level of turbulence into the core of the vortex.

  20. Spur-type instability observed on numerically simulated vortex filaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    1988-01-01

    An instability observed on vortex filaments during numerical simulations of the three-dimensional, time-dependent dynamics of vortex wakes is studied to determine when and why it occurs. It is concluded that the observed instability is a consequence of the use of straight-line vortex segments of finite length to model continuously curving vortex filaments. The instability appears to occur only when the link length is a sizable fraction of the vortex span and, therefore, is not expected in an experiment. Guidelines are then given that help avoid numerical instabilities when vortex filaments are used in flow simulations.

  1. Theoretical study of lift generated vortex sheets designed to avoid roll up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, V. J.

    1973-01-01

    The random motions of the vortex elements behind a wing that sheds a disturbed, translating array of vortices are analyzed. The analysis indicates that the wake would diffuse and decay rapidly when viscosity is present and would produce small rolling moments on encountering aircraft. It was found that comparable results could also be achieved with an array consisting of vortices that are equal in magnitude but which alternate in sign. This observation indicates that random motion can probably be achieved with a variety of stepped loadings.

  2. On the characteristics of the wake meandering of a marine hydrokinetic turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, S.

    2013-12-01

    Recently Kang et al. (Journal of Fluid Mechanics, submitted) showed that the hub vortex breakdown occurring downstream of a hydrokinetic turbine plays an important role in enhancing wake meandering. In this study the hub vortex breakdown and wake meandering phenomena are further examined using large-eddy simulation (Kang et al., Advances in Water Resources, 2012). Specifically, the effect of the incoming turbulence, the presence of hub and nacelle geometries, and the tip speed ratio of the rotor on the wake meandering and the hub vortex breakdown are examined.

  3. Dynamics of non Newtonian vortex rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios-Morales, C. A.; Barbosa, C.; Zenit, R.

    2012-11-01

    The dynamics of formation and evolution of non-Newtonian vortex rings generated in a piston-cylinder arrangement are studied. The ratio of the piston displacement Lm to the internal cylinder diameter D0, the piston velocity Up and fluid properties determine the vortex properties and evolution. Measurements of the 2D velocity field were obtained with a PIV technique. The vortex circulation ? was computed considering a vortex identification scheme (Q criterion). Experiments with fluids with different rheological properties (shear thinning and viscoelastic) are presented. Our Newtonian experiments agree with previous investigations. For shear-thinning liquids, we observed that the final vortex circulation decreases with the fluid power index, n. We show that the total circulation ejected from the cylinder is reduced when the thinning property of the liquid increases; thus, the circulation confined inside the vortex ring, is reduced too. For vortex rings in a viscoelastic liquid, the formation of a `negative wake' (returning flow) and a second vortex ring with opposite whirl are observed. We show that the negative wake results from the high extension rates produced during the vortex formation.

  4. Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes calculations of multiple interacting vortex rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, J. P.; Weston, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    Results from a finite-difference Navier-Stokes code for three-dimensional, unsteady, vortical flows in unbounded domains are presented and analyzed in this paper. The vortical flows presented are representative of vortex rings and other closed vortical tubes or structures in fluid mechanics. Such structures are important elements in fluid flows such as jets, atmospheric turbulence, and the far-field wakes of aircraft, and studies of their interaction may aid in an understanding of complex fluid flows. The paper demonstrates that computational methods can be used as a viable alternative or supplement to experimental techniques for studying the physics of vortex flows. The separate visualization of vortex stretching, convection, and diffusion is presented in this paper for a single elliptical vortex ring.The calculations employ a truncated series expansion technique to simulate the unbounded nature of the fluid flow with a finite computational domain, which is a more accurate technique than the conventional freestream boundary specification. The numerical divergence of the three-dimensional vorticity field is considered as a useful estimate of truncation error, and the use of a kinetic energy decay law as a calculation check is demonstrated. Results from the Navier-Stokes code are presented for the unsteady motion of two and four vortex rings along parallel axes, and the results agree qualitatively with experimental flow visualization.

  5. Dynamics of wake structure in clapping propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daegyoum; Gharib, Morteza

    2009-11-01

    Some animals such as insects and frogs use a pair of symmetric flaps for locomotion. In some cases, these flappers operate in close proximity or even touch each other. In order to understand the underlying physics of these kinds of motion, we have studied the wake structures induced by clapping and their associated thrust performance. A simple mechanical model with two acrylic plates was used to simulate the power stroke of the clapping motion and three-dimensional flow fields were obtained using defocusing digital particle image velocimetry. Our studies show that the process of vortex connection plays a critical role in forming a downstream closed vortex loop. Under some kinematic conditions, this vortex loop changes its shape dynamically, which is analogous to the process of an elliptical vortex ring switching its minor and major axis. As the length of the plate along the rotating shaft decreases to change an aspect ratio, the downstream motion of the vortex is retarded due to the outward motion of side edge vortices and less propulsive force is generated per the surface area of the plate. The impact of compliance and stroke angle of the plate on wake structures and thrust magnitudes are also presented.

  6. Self-excited oscillations in the wake of two-dimensional bluff bodies and their control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumm, Michael; Berger, Eberhard; Monkewitz, Peter A.

    1994-07-01

    The onset of Karman-vortex shedding is studied experimentally in the wake of different two-dimensional bluff bodies, namely an oblong cylinder, circular cylinders, and plates of rectangular cross section. Different control measures, such as wake heating, transverse body oscillations, and base bleed are investigated. As the steady-periodic Karman shedding has previously been identified as a limit-cycle, i.e. as self-excited oscillations, the experiments are interpreted in the framework of the Stuart-Landau model. The coefficients of the Stuart-Landau equation for the characteristic vortex shedding amplitude, i.e. the linear temporal growth rate, linear frequency, and the Landau constant, are fully determined for the two cylinders and in part for the plate. For this purpose transients are generated by suddenly switching transverse body oscillations or base bleed on or off. The analysis of these transients by a refined method based on complex demodulation provides reliable estimates of the model coefficients and yields an experimental validation of the concept that a global instability mode grows or decays as a whole. Also, it is demonstrated that the coefficients of the Stuart-Landau equation are independent of the experimental technique used to produce the transients.

  7. On vortex bursting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werle, H.

    1984-01-01

    Vortex bursting is studied by means of visualization. The physical behavior of the phenomenon is emphasized, and its similarity with boundary layer separation or wake bursting becomes apparent. The essential influence of an increasing pressure gradient on the initiation, the position and the type of bursting is clearly confirmed. The evolution of the phenomena as a function of several parameters is analyzed in the case of delta wings, alone or installed on aircraft models, and compared with the results of similar wind tunnel or flight tests.

  8. Wake fields and wake field acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Wilson, P.B.; Weiland, T.

    1984-12-01

    In this lecture we introduce the concepts of wake fields and wake potentials, examine some basic properties of these functions, show how they can be calculated, and look briefly at a few important applications. One such application is wake field acceleration. The wake field accelerator is capable of producing the high gradients required for future very high energy e/sup +/e/sup -/ linear colliders. The principles of wake field acceleration, and a brief description of experiments in progress in this area, are presented in the concluding section. 40 references, 27 figures.

  9. The 3-D wake measurements near a hovering rotor for determining profile and induced drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcalister, K. W.; Schuler, C. A.; Branum, L.; Wu, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    Primarily an experimental effort, this study focuses on the velocity and vorticity fields in the near wake of a hovering rotor. Drag terminology is reviewed, and the theory for separately determining the profile-and-induced-drag components from wake quantities is introduced. Instantaneous visualizations of the flow field are used to center the laser velocimeter (LV) measurements on the vortex core and to assess the extent of the positional mandering of the trailing vortex. Velocity profiles obtained at different rotor speeds and distances behind the rotor blade clearly indicate the position, size, and rate of movement of the wake sheet and the core of the trailing vortex. The results also show the distribution of vorticity along the wake sheet and within the trailing vortex.

  10. Effect of the number of blades on propeller wake evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Felli; Giulio Guj; Roberto Camussi

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the number of blades on wake evolution was investigated on three propellers having the same blade geometry but\\u000a different numbers of blades. The experiments concerned velocity measurements along nine transversal planes of the wake by\\u000a LDV phase-sampling techniques. The study was performed with all the propellers having the same tip vortex intensity. In addition,\\u000a high-speed visualizations were

  11. Contrail Formation in Aircraft Wakes Using Large-Eddy Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paoli, R.; Helie, J.; Poinsot, T. J.; Ghosal, S.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we analyze the issue of the formation of condensation trails ("contrails") in the near-field of an aircraft wake. The basic configuration consists in an exhaust engine jet interacting with a wing-tip training vortex. The procedure adopted relies on a mixed Eulerian/Lagrangian two-phase flow approach; a simple micro-physics model for ice growth has been used to couple ice and vapor phases. Large eddy simulations have carried out at a realistic flight Reynolds number to evaluate the effects of turbulent mixing and wake vortex dynamics on ice-growth characteristics and vapor thermodynamic properties.

  12. Interactions between a Submesoscale Anticyclonic Vortex and a Front* CE DRIC CHAVANNE AND PIERRE FLAMENT

    E-print Network

    vortex was observed by high-frequency Doppler radio current meters and satellite radiometers. The vortex Current, and ocean eddies are generated by wake instability (Patzert 1969; Lumpkin 1998; Flament et al an extremum of 21.7f. The flow was ageostrophic near the center and around the periphery of the vortex

  13. Experimental investigation of a stratified buoyant wake 

    E-print Network

    Kraft, Wayne Neal

    2004-11-15

    , v?rms, in the wake of a cylinder with stable buoyancy (triangles), unstable buoyancy (squares), no buoyancy (circles), and a typical Rayleigh Taylor mixing layer for the same.... Decay of vertical velocity fluctuations, v?rms, in the very near wake of a cylinder with stable buoyancy, unstable buoyancy, and no buoyancy. .................36 12. Variation of the location of peak v?rms with mixing...

  14. Arctic Vortex

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-06-26

    ... to wind flow. These MISR images were captured on June 6, 2001, during Terra orbit 7808. The entire vortex street can be seen in the ... Other formats available at JPL June 6, 2001 - Marine stratocumulus clouds form vortex streets. ...

  15. Fixed-wake analysis of the Darrieus rotor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Wilson; S. N. Walker

    1981-01-01

    Development and validation of a Darrieus wind turbine aerodynamic performance prediction model is described. Using a fixed-wake approach, the model combines some of the more desirable features of vortex\\/lifting line and conservation of momentum\\/streamtube approaches. The model thus accounts for up- and downwind differences that are predicted by vortex approaches while retaining the short computer run times found with streamtube

  16. On vortex shedding from low aspect ratio dual step cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, C.; Yarusevych, S.

    2014-01-01

    A dual-step cylinder is comprised of two cylinders of different diameters. A large diameter cylinder (D) with low aspect ratio (L/D) is attached to the mid-span of a small diameter cylinder (d). The present study investigates the effect of Reynolds number (ReD) and L/D on dual step cylinder wake development for D/d=2, 0.2?L/D?3, and two Reynolds numbers, ReD=1050 and 2100. Experiments have been performed in a water flume facility utilizing flow visualization, Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The results show that vortex shedding occurs from both the large and small diameter cylinders for 1?L/D?3 at ReD=2100 and 2?L/D?3 at ReD=1050. At these conditions, large cylinder vortices predominantly form vortex loops in the wake and small cylinder vortices form half-loop vortex connections. At lower aspect ratios, vortex shedding from the large cylinder ceases, with the dominant frequency in the large cylinder wake attributed to the passage of vortex filaments connecting small cylinder vortices. At these lower aspect ratios, the presence of the large cylinder induces periodic vortex dislocations. Increasing L/D increases the frequency of occurrence of vortex dislocations and decreases the dominant frequency in the large cylinder wake. The identified changes in wake topology are related to substantial variations in the location of boundary layer separation on the large cylinder, and, consequently, changes in the size of the vortex formation region. The results also show that the Reynolds number has a substantial effect on wake vortex shedding frequency, which is more profound than that expected for a uniform cylinder.

  17. Island Wake Dynamics and Wake Influence on the Evaporation Duct and Radar Propagation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burk, S. D.; Haack, T.; Rogers, L. T.; Wagner, L. J.

    2003-03-01

    The conditions under which atmospheric island wakes form leeward of Kauai, Hawaii, are investigated using idealized numerical simulations and real data forecasts from the U.S. Navy's Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS). Nondimensional mountain height is varied in a series of idealized simulations by altering the island's terrain height; with increasing , the wake configuration varies from two small counterrotating vortices to a straight wake to a meandering wake to a von Kármán vortex street. In both the idealized and real data forecasts, stability changes across the wake alter the surface layer temperature and moisture profiles, thereby modifying the refractivity and evaporation duct height (EDH) fields. An electromagnetic (EM) propagation model and a radar clutter model are used to demonstrate that the alterations to the refractivity field created by the wake are capable of strongly affecting near-surface EM propagation. Substantial azimuthal variability in radar sea clutter was observed during radar performance tests conducted by the USS O'Kane leeward of Kauai in December of 1999; these anomalies were postulated to result from an island wake. Results from the linkage of COAMPS output with the two EM codes are compared with the radar returns collected aboard the O'Kane, and metrics are developed for comparing COAMPS forecast EDH values with those calculated directly from the shipboard observations.

  18. A new approach to the free wake problem for hovering rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, D. B.; Wachspress, D. A.; Quackenbush, T. R.

    1985-01-01

    In the present approach to the hovering rotor free wake problem, an influence coefficient solution method is used to find that rotor wake solution which is steady in a reference frame that rotates with the blades; this scheme solves directly for the conditions of free wake equilibrium by a procedure that does not involve time-stepping and the associated use of numerical damping or special convergence methods. The solution method has been implemented in a hover wake computer program having a three-part wake model for the tip vortex. All three wake regions are represented by the new Basic Curved Vortex Elements. Sample hover calculations are presented for single blade and multiblade rotors.

  19. A prescribed wake rotor inflow and flow field prediction analysis, user's manual and technical approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    A user's manual is provided which includes the technical approach for the Prescribed Wake Rotor Inflow and Flow Field Prediction Analysis. The analysis is used to provide the rotor wake induced velocities at the rotor blades for use in blade airloads and response analyses and to provide induced velocities at arbitrary field points such as at a tail surface. This analysis calculates the distribution of rotor wake induced velocities based on a prescribed wake model. Section operating conditions are prescribed from blade motion and controls determined by a separate blade response analysis. The analysis represents each blade by a segmented lifting line, and the rotor wake by discrete segmented trailing vortex filaments. Blade loading and circulation distributions are calculated based on blade element strip theory including the local induced velocity predicted by the numerical integration of the Biot-Savart Law applied to the vortex wake model.

  20. RESEARCH ARTICLE Dynamic wind loads and wake characteristics of a wind turbine

    E-print Network

    Hu, Hui

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Dynamic wind loads and wake characteristics of a wind turbine model of the unsteady vortex and turbulent flow structures in the near wake of a horizontal axis wind turbine model.e., aerodynamic forces and bending moments) acting on the wind turbine model by using a high-sensitive force

  1. Absolute instabilities and self-sustained oscillations in the wake of circular cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Triantafyllou, G.S.; Kupfer, K.; Bers, A.

    1987-10-26

    The Karman vortex street in the wake of a circular cylinder is shown to be due to an absolute instability of the flow in the near wake. A new means of instability analysis is used, involving mappings from the complex k plane to the complex ..omega.. plane.

  2. Rotating-blade vortex noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheiman, J.; Letko, W.; Shivers, J. P.; Hilton, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been made of the Langley full-scale tunnel and outdoors to investigate some of the characteristics of vortex noise generated on a rotating-blade system. Acoustic measurements were made at several microphone positions for two different blade sections with several tip shapes and spoiler configurations. The blades were operated only at zero lift at each radial station, both for operating in their own wake and for operating with the wake blown downstream. Rotors with cylindrical blades generally created more noise throughout the noise spectrum than the rotor with NACA 0012 blades. Blowing the shed wake from the rotor with cylindrical blades did not have an appreciable effect on the frequency-amplitude spectrum. The tip shape changes had very little effect on the frequency-amplitude spectrum of the noise. Spoilers applied to the rotor with NACA 0012 blades increased the amplitude of the spectrum and decreased the number of harmonics of blade passage frequency.

  3. Dynamics of Tab-Wake Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W.; Meng, H.

    1999-11-01

    The dynamics of vortex structures in the wake of surface-mounted trapezoidal tab at Re=600 based on tab height was studied in detail using time-series, 2D particle image velocimetry. From a total of over 20,000 PIV realizations acquired in x-y, x-z, and y-z planes, we successfully identified vortex structures using the methods proposed by Jeong and Hussain (JFM, vol 285, 1995) and proposed by Chong, Perry, and Cantwell (Phys. Fluids A2, 1990), and cross-checked them with conventional velocity subtraction. Similar to prior measurement at Re=2080, secondary vortices, reverse vortices, and tertiary vortices were observed frequently in the present study. Higher PIV spatial resolution and higher temporal resolution (relative to the flow periodicity) allow us to investigate these dynamical phenomena in much greater detail and confidence. Furthermore, y-z measurements demonstrate that hairpin vortex legs, taking the shape of streamwise vortices, pair with their neighbor counterparts while traveling downstream, and possibly merge with each other. Circulation distribution of the hairpin vortex heads along the x direction shows that it increases at the very near-tab region with the help of pressure induced counter-rotating vortex pairs, but gradually decreases very slowly with the increasing downstream distance, indicating that hairpin vortices are long-lived vortex structures.

  4. On the estimation of swimming and flying forces from wake measurements.

    PubMed

    Dabiri, John O

    2005-09-01

    The transfer of momentum from an animal to fluid in its wake is fundamental to many swimming and flying modes of locomotion. Hence, properties of the wake are commonly studied in experiments to infer the magnitude and direction of locomotive forces. The determination of which wake properties are necessary and sufficient to empirically deduce swimming and flying forces is currently made ad hoc. This paper systematically addresses the question of the minimum number of wake properties whose combination is sufficient to determine swimming and flying forces from wake measurements. In particular, it is confirmed that the spatial velocity distribution (i.e. the velocity field) in the wake is by itself insufficient to determine swimming and flying forces, and must be combined with the fluid pressure distribution. Importantly, it is also shown that the spatial distribution of rotation and shear (i.e. the vorticity field) in the wake is by itself insufficient to determine swimming and flying forces, and must be combined with a parameter that is analogous to the fluid pressure. The measurement of this parameter in the wake is shown to be identical to a calculation of the added-mass contribution from fluid surrounding vortices in the wake, and proceeds identically to a measurement of the added-mass traditionally associated with fluid surrounding solid bodies. It is demonstrated that the velocity/pressure perspective is equivalent to the vorticity/vortex-added-mass approach in the equations of motion. A model is developed to approximate the contribution of wake vortex added-mass to locomotive forces, given a combination of velocity and vorticity field measurements in the wake. A dimensionless parameter, the wake vortex ratio (denoted Wa), is introduced to predict the types of wake flows for which the contribution of forces due to wake vortex added-mass will become non-negligible. Previous wake analyses are re-examined in light of this parameter to infer the existence and importance of wake vortex added-mass in those cases. In the process, it is demonstrated that the commonly used time-averaged force estimates based on wake measurements are not sufficient to prove that an animal is generating the locomotive forces necessary to sustain flight or maintain neutral buoyancy. PMID:16155224

  5. Vortex structure for flow over a heaving cylinder with a flexible tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Pan, C.; Wang, J. J.

    2014-02-01

    Hydrogen-bubble visualization technique was applied in the investigation of vortex structure for flow over a heaving cylinder attached with a flexible tail along the wake central-line in a water channel. Wake structures have been mapped in the flexible tail length-frequency ( L/D, St) phase space with the flexible tail length of L/D = 2-5 and the oscillation Strouhal number of St = 0-0.34. Four wake modes were identified as: (1) 2S_Kármán vortex mode—a Kármán-vortex-like structure with two single vortices formed per cycle in the near wake; (2) 2S_reverse Kármán vortex mode—a reverse Kármán-vortex-like structure with two single vortices per cycle; (3) 2P mode—a bifurcated vortex pair structure with two pairs of vortices per cycle; (4) P + S mode—an unstable vortex structure with three vortices per cycle as a transient mode. Moreover, the typical case of each wake mode was further examined by particle image velocimetry, and the evolutions of vortex structures for the four wake modes were studied in detail.

  6. Numerical study on wake characteristics of high-speed trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Shuan-Bao; Sun, Zhen-Xu; Guo, Di-Long; Chen, Da-Wei; Yang, Guo-Wei

    2013-11-01

    Intensive turbulence exists in the wakes of high speed trains, and the aerodynamic performance of the trailing car could deteriorate rapidly due to complicated features of the vortices in the wake zone. As a result, the safety and amenity of high speed trains would face a great challenge. This paper considers mainly the mechanism of vortex formation and evolution in the train flow field. A real CRH2 model is studied, with a leading car, a middle car and a trailing car included. Different running speeds and cross wind conditions are considered, and the approaches of unsteady Reynold-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and detached eddy simulation (DES) are utilized, respectively. Results reveal that DES has better capability of capturing small eddies compared to URANS. However, for large eddies, the effects of two approaches are almost the same. In conditions without cross winds, two large vortex streets stretch from the train nose and interact strongly with each other in the wake zone. With the reinforcement of the ground, a complicated wake vortex system generates and becomes strengthened as the running speed increases. However, the locations of flow separations on the train surface and the separation mechanism keep unchanged. In conditions with cross winds, three large vortices develop along the leeward side of the train, among which the weakest one has no obvious influence on the wake flow while the other two stretch to the tail of the train and combine with the helical vortices in the train wake. Thus, optimization of the aerodynamic performance of the trailing car should be aiming at reducing the intensity of the wake vortex system.

  7. Numerical study on wake characteristics of high-speed trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Shuan-Bao; Sun, Zhen-Xu; Guo, Di-Long; Chen, Da-Wei; Yang, Guo-Wei

    2013-12-01

    Intensive turbulence exists in the wakes of high speed trains, and the aerodynamic performance of the trailing car could deteriorate rapidly due to complicated features of the vortices in the wake zone. As a result, the safety and amenity of high speed trains would face a great challenge. This paper considers mainly the mechanism of vortex formation and evolution in the train flow field. A real CRH2 model is studied, with a leading car, a middle car and a trailing car included. Different running speeds and cross wind conditions are considered, and the approaches of unsteady Reynold-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and detached eddy simulation (DES) are utilized, respectively. Results reveal that DES has better capability of capturing small eddies compared to URANS. However, for large eddies, the effects of two approaches are almost the same. In conditions without cross winds, two large vortex streets stretch from the train nose and interact strongly with each other in the wake zone. With the reinforcement of the ground, a complicated wake vortex system generates and becomes strengthened as the running speed increases. However, the locations of flow separations on the train surface and the separation mechanism keep unchanged. In conditions with cross winds, three large vortices develop along the leeward side of the train, among which the weakest one has no obvious influence on the wake flow while the other two stretch to the tail of the train and combine with the helical vortices in the train wake. Thus, optimization of the aerodynamic performance of the trailing car should be aiming at reducing the intensity of the wake vortex system.

  8. Characteristics of the wake of a lightly loaded compressor or fan rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, B. D.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate the properties of the rotor fan or compressor wake in order to understand the structure of the wake. This included a study of profile shape, decay characteristics, effects of rotation, and effects of varying blade loading on the wake. Rotating tri-axial hot-wire probe measurements were reported which represent the first systematic data in the near wake region of the rotor wake using this technique. It is found that the radial, tangential, and axial components of mean velocities and turbulence intensities decay very rapidly near the rotor blade trailing edge, and that increased blade loading reduces the decay rates of axial and tangential mean velocity defects and radial velocities in the wake. In particular, the presence of an almost constant wake width region for increasing axial distance shows the effects of three-dimensionality on the rotor wake flow. Other conclusions are also given.

  9. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Effects of Wake Vortices on Commercial Aircraft

    E-print Network

    Alonso, Juan J.

    Aircraft T. Economon+ University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, 46556 Commercial aircraft are becoming a trailing vortex which can linger behind the aircraft for miles. If a following aircraft penetrates the wake of roll which a penetrating aircraft will experience when passing through a vortex. In this study

  10. A Free Wake Numerical Simulation for Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Performance Prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radian Belu

    2010-01-01

    In the last four decades, several aerodynamic prediction models have been formulated for the Darrieus wind turbine performances and characteristics. We can identified two families: stream-tube and vortex. The paper presents a simplified numerical techniques for simulating vertical axis wind turbine flow, based on the lifting line theory and a free vortex wake model, including dynamic stall effects for predicting

  11. Wing tip vortex control using synthetic jets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Margaris; I. Gursul

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of synthetic jet (oscillatory, zero net mass flow jet) blowing near the wing tip, as a means of diffusing the trailing vortex. Velocity measurements were taken, using a Particle Image Velocimetry system, around the tip and in the near wake of a rectangular wing, which was equipped with several blowing slots.

  12. The effects of vortex modeling on blade-vortex interaction noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallman, Judith M.; Tung, Chee; Low, Scott L.

    1995-01-01

    The use of a blade vortex interaction noise prediction scheme, based on CAMRAD/JA, FPR and RAPP, quantifies the effects of errors and assumptions in the modeling of the helicopter's shed vortex on the acoustic predictions. CAMRAD/JA computes the wake geometry and inflow angles that are used in FPR to solve for the aerodynamic surface pressures. RAPP uses these surface pressures to predict the acoustic pressure. Both CAMRAD/JA and FPR utilize the Biot-Savart Law to determine the influence of the vortical velocities on the blade loading and both codes use an algebraic vortex model for the solid body rotation of the vortex core. Large changes in the specification of the vortex core size do not change the inplane wake geometry calculated by CAMRAD/JA and only slightly affect the out-of-plane wake geometry. However, the aerodynamic surface pressure calculated by FPR changes in both magnitude and character with small changes to the core size used by the FPR calculations. This in turn affects the acoustic predictions. Shifting the CAMRAD/JA wake geometry away from the rotor plane by 1/4 chord produces drastic changes in the acoustic predictions indicating that the prediction of acoustic pressure is extremely sensitive to the miss distance between the vortex and the blade and that this distance must be calculated as accurately as possible for acceptable noise predictions. The inclusion or exclusion of a vortex in the FPR-RAPP calculation allows for the determination of the relative importance of that vortex as a BVI noise source.

  13. The effects of vortex modeling on blade-vortex interaction noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallman, Judith M.; Tung, Chee; Low, Scott L.

    The use of a blade vortex interaction noise prediction scheme, based on CAMRAD/JA, FPR and RAPP, quantifies the effects of errors and assumptions in the modeling of the helicopter's shed vortex on the acoustic predictions. CAMRAD/JA computes the wake geometry and inflow angles that are used in FPR to solve for the aerodynamic surface pressures. RAPP uses these surface pressures to predict the acoustic pressure. Both CAMRAD/JA and FPR utilize the Biot-Savart Law to determine the influence of the vortical velocities on the blade loading and both codes use an algebraic vortex model for the solid body rotation of the vortex core. Large changes in the specification of the vortex core size do not change the inplane wake geometry calculated by CAMRAD/JA and only slightly affect the out-of-plane wake geometry. However, the aerodynamic surface pressure calculated by FPR changes in both magnitude and character with small changes to the core size used by the FPR calculations. This in turn affects the acoustic predictions. Shifting the CAMRAD/JA wake geometry away from the rotor plane by 1/4 chord produces drastic changes in the acoustic predictions indicating that the prediction of acoustic pressure is extremely sensitive to the miss distance between the vortex and the blade and that this distance must be calculated as accurately as possible for acceptable noise predictions. The inclusion or exclusion of a vortex in the FPR-RAPP calculation allows for the determination of the relative importance of that vortex as a BVI noise source.

  14. Meander of a fin trailing vortex and the origin of its turbulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Beresh; John F. Henfling; Russell W. Spillers

    2010-01-01

    The low-frequency meander of a trailing vortex shed from a tapered fin installed on a wind tunnel wall has been studied using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry in the near-wake at Mach 0.8. Distributions of the instantaneous vortex position reveal that the meander amplitude increases with downstream distance and decreases with vortex strength, indicating meander is induced external to the vortex.

  15. Meander of a fin trailing vortex and the origin of its turbulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. BereshJohn; John F. Henfling; Russell W. Spillers

    2010-01-01

    The low-frequency meander of a trailing vortex shed from a tapered fin installed on a wind tunnel wall has been studied using\\u000a stereoscopic particle image velocimetry in the near-wake at Mach 0.8. Distributions of the instantaneous vortex position reveal\\u000a that the meander amplitude increases with downstream distance and decreases with vortex strength, indicating meander is induced\\u000a external to the vortex.

  16. High Fidelity Numerical Investigation of Rotor Wake Dynamics in the Near Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Seth

    The near wake of a notional submarine propeller was investigated computationally to identify the evolution and interaction of key flow structures as they travel downstream from the propeller plane. The time accurate flow field was solved using a high-fidelity large eddy simulation method with the boundary conditions on the propeller enforced through the immersed boundary method. A series of instantaneous solutions were generated for the unsteady analysis as well as to calculate the phase-averaged solution and turbulence statistics. Specific emphasis was placed on studying the stability of the helical tip vortices generated by each propeller blade. The vortices visually manifested instability modes were illustrated and the unstable behavior was quantified for a range of propeller operating conditions. A dependence on this operating condition was seen for the degree of instability and subsequent location of breakdown for the vortices. Particularly, the stronger vortices of the more highly loaded case were showing greater instabilities and faster breakdown than the weaker vortices of the lightly loaded case. The wakes at different operating conditions were analyzed in detail to investigate the underlying causes of instabilities in the vortices. A strong interaction was found between neighboring blade vortex sheets and tip vortices for the highly loaded case. This interaction was caused by differences in the wake alignment, or the helical pitch angles of the flow structures for each loading condition. Consequences of the instability and eventual breakdown of the tip vortices were illustrated and quantified through turbulence in the wake. Due to the unstable behavior and the breakdown process, the tip vortices become an additional source of turbulence downstream of the propeller plane while the rest of the wake is decaying. Finally, a realistic scenario of disturbed flow upstream of the propeller was studied through a coupled simulation. A notional appendage was designed based on model scale geometry of a submerged body and simulated upstream of the operating propeller. The dynamics of the propeller tip vortices were compared between the disturbed and undisturbed flow scenarios. The consequences of the upstream disturbance were quantified through both the global propeller force coefficients and the detailed evolution of the tip vortices. The appendage was found to have a measurable impact on the instability of the tip vortices while the location of vortex breakdown remained constant.

  17. Numerical Study of Tip Vortex Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacles-Mariani, Jennifer; Hafez, Mohamed

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and summary of the many different research work related to tip vortex flows and wake/trailing vortices as applied to practical engineering problems. As a literature survey paper, it outlines relevant analytical, theoretical, experimental and computational study found in literature. It also discusses in brief some of the fundamental aspects of the physics and its complexities. An appendix is also included. The topics included in this paper are: 1) Analytical Vortices; 2) Experimental Studies; 3) Computational Studies; 4) Wake Vortex Control and Management; 5) Wake Modeling; 6) High-Lift Systems; 7) Issues in Numerical Studies; 8) Instabilities; 9) Related Topics; 10) Visualization Tools for Vertical Flows; 11) Further Work Needed; 12) Acknowledgements; 13) References; and 14) Appendix.

  18. Vortex rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariff, Karim; Leonard, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    The vortex-ring problem in fluid mechanics is examined generally in terms of formation, the steady state, the duration of the rings, and vortex interactions. The formation is studied by examining the generation of laminar and turbulent vortex rings and their resulting structures with attention given to the three stages of laminar ring development. Inviscid dynamics is addressed to show how core dynamics affects overall ring motion, and laminar vortex structures are described in two dimensions. Viscous and inviscid structures are related in terms of 'leapfrogging', head-on collisions, and collisions with a no-slip wall. Linear instability theory is shown to successfully describe observational data, although late stages in the breakdown are not completely understood. This study of vortex rings has important implications for key aerodynamic issues including sound generation, transport and mixing, and vortex interactions.

  19. Numerical modeling of initially turbulent wakes with net momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourlay, Michael J.; Arendt, S. C.; Fritts, D. C.; Werne, J.

    2001-12-01

    This paper presents results from the first fully three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of initially turbulent wakes with net momentum in unstratified and density stratified fluids. The initial conditions contain a super-position of an initially axisymmetric mean streamwise velocity profile plus a spectrally specified fluctuation velocity field with initially incoherent phases to model initial turbulence. To provide evidence in favor of their validity, we compare results from these simulations with previous measurements behind towed bodies in wind tunnels and towing tanks, and also compare with theories of turbulent wakes. Comparisons with laboratory flow experiments provide agreement, both with statistical quantities and vortex structures and evolution. We subsequently investigate open questions by analysis of the fully three-dimensional flow. Coherent vortices in stratified wakes have their origins in the vortex geometry of the mean wake flow, and do not require stratification or coherent seeding in the initial velocity fluctuations. We conclude that the simulations provide a trustworthy and valuable complement to wake research, and that the vortex structures result from a combination of the necessity that vortices form loops and diffusion of vorticity to smooth the loops into rings.

  20. Wind turbine wake aerodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Vermeer; J. N. Sørensen; A. Crespo

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed

  1. Flow visualization of the wake of a transport aircraft model with lateral-control oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, F. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An exploratory flow visualization study conducted in the Langley Vortex Research Facility to investigate the effectiveness of lateral control surface oscillations as a potential method for wake vortex attenuation on a 0.03 scale model of a wide body jet transport aircraft is described. Effects of both asymmetric surface oscillation (control surfaces move as with normal lateral control inputs) and symmetric surface oscillation (control surfaces move in phase) are presented. The asymmetric case simulated a flight maneuver which was previously investigated on the transport aircraft during NASA/FAA flight tests and which resulted in substantial wake vortex attenuation. Effects on the model wake vortex systems were observed by propelling the model through a two dimensional smoke screen perpendicular to the model flight path. Results are presented as photographic time histories of the wake characteristics recorded with high speed still cameras. Effects of oscillation on the wake roll up are described in some detail, and the amount of vortex attenuation observed is discussed in comparative terms. Findings were consistent with flight test results in that only a small amount of rotation was observed in the wake for the asymmetric case. A possible aerodynamic mechanism contributing to this attenuation is suggested.

  2. Direct Simulation and Theoretical Study of Sub- and Supersonic Wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, Jean-Pierre

    Wakes are constitutive components of engineering, aeronautical and geophysical flows. Despite their canonical nature, many fundamental questions surrounding wakes remain unanswered. The present work studies the nature of archetypal planar splitter-plate wakes in the sub- and supersonic regimes from a theoretical as well as a numerical perspective. A highly-parallelizable computational fluid dynamic solver was developed, from scratch, for the very-large scale direct numerical simulations of high-speed free shear flows. Wakes maintain a near indelible memory of their origins; thus, changes to the state of the flow on the generating body lead to multiple self-similar states in the far wake. To understand the source of the lack of universality, three distinct wake evolution scenarios are investigated in the incompressible limit: the Kelvin-Helmholtz transition, the bypass transition in an asymmetric wake and the initially turbulent wake. The multiplicity of self-similar states is the result of a plurality of far wake structural organizations, which maintains the memory of the flow. The structural organization is predicated on the presence or absence of near wake anti-symmetric perturbations (as a result of shedding, instability modes and/or trailing edge receptivity). The plurality of large-scale structural organization contrasts with the commonality observed in the mid-sized structures, which are dominated by inclined vortical rods, and not, as previously assumed, by horseshoe structures. The compressibility effects are a direct function of the maximal velocity defect in the wake and are therefore only important in the transitional region - the far wake having an essentially incompressible character. The compressibility simultaneously modifies the growth rate and wavelength of the primary instability mode with a concomitant effect on the emerging transitional structures. As a direct result, the spanwise rollers have an increasing ellipticity and cross-wake domain of influence with the increasing Mach number of the wake. Consequently, structural pairing - a key feature of wake transition - is inhibited at a critical Mach number, which greatly modifies the transitional dynamics. In idealized wakes, the increased stability caused by the compressibility effects leads to a vortex breakdown of secondary structures prior to the full transition of the principal mode. These findings open the door to novel mixing enhancement and flow control possibilities in the high-speed wake transition. Keywords: FLUID DYNAMICS, DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS, FREE SHEAR FLOWS, TURBULENCE, NUMERICAL METHODS

  3. Numerical investigations on the wake structures of micro-ramp and micro-vanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DaWen, Xue; ZhiHua, Chen; XiaoHai, Jiang; BaoChun, Fan

    2014-02-01

    Based on large eddy simulation, combined with the high-order WENO (weighted essentially non-oscillatory schemes) scheme, immersed boundary method and adaptive mesh refinement technique, the supersonic flow past a wall-mounted micro-ramp and two micro-vanes have been simulated. The different wake structures are presented and discussed. Our numerical results showed that wake structures behind the micro-ramp are more complicated, including ring-like vortex train, and streamwise vortex tubes etc. However, the wake structures of the micro-vanes are quite simple; they are mainly the two counter-rotating streamwise vortex tubes. The control of boundary flow of both is achieved through the energy exchange between the main stream and the boundary layer and is presented mainly by the upwash and downwash motion of gases under the entrainment of vortex tubes.

  4. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics An Experimental Study of the Stability of a Four-Vortex

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Robert C.

    trailing vortices was created in Notre Dame's atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel. The advantage of this tunnel is the long test section, which permits the observation of wake interactions at distances up programs can be divided into two categories, vortex detection and vortex alleviation. The vortex detection

  5. Inviscid Interactions Between Wake Vortices and Shear Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Z. C.; Baek, K.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft trailing vortices can be influenced significantly by atmospheric conditions such as crosswind, turbulence, and stratification. According to the NASA 1994 and 1995 field measurement program in Memphis, Tennessee, the descending aircraft wake vortices could stall or be deflected at the top of low-level temperature inversions that usually produce pronounced shear zones. Numerical simulations of vortex/shear interactions with ground effects have been performed by several groups. Burnham used a series of evenly spaced line vortices at a particular altitude to model the ground shear layer of the cross- wind. He found that the wind shear was swept up around the downwind vortex and caused the downwind vortex to move upward, and claimed that the effect was actually produced by the vertical gradient in the wind shear rather than by the wind shear directly, because uniformly distributed wind-shear vortices would have no effect on the trailing vortex vertical motion. Recently, Proctor et al. numerically tested the effects of narrow shear zones on the behavior of the vortex pair, motivated by the observation of the Memphis field data. The shear-layer sensitivity tests indicated that the downwind vortex was more sensitive and deflected to a higher altitude than its upwind counterpart. The downstream vortex contained vorticity of opposite sign to that of the shear. There was no detectable preference for the downwind vortex (or upwind vortex) to weaken (or strengthen) at a greater rate.

  6. Experimental study of the coupled wakes of two spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provansal, Michel; Schouveiler, Lionel

    1999-11-01

    We have studied the coupled wakes of two spheres (diameter d), separated by a transverse distance h between their centers and aligned normal to a uniform flow (velocity U). The dynamics of this system is controlled by the Reynolds number Re = Ud/nu, and the transverse spacing h/d. The vortex structures have been visualized by injection of dye in a small hole drilled downstream of the center of the spheres. Each sphere is hold by a thin pipe, slighty inclined on the flow direction in order to control the orientation of the wake[1]. The wake of a single sphere is periodic in the Reynolds number range [280, 400]. When the spacing h/d is much larger than 1, the vortices shed behind the spheres exhibit three-dimensional characteristic horeshoe shape. A small asymmetry, for instance due to the dye injection, might lead to different frequencies of vortex shedding. For intermediate values of h/d (e.g. between 1.3 and 2.5 for Re = 360) locked regimes of simultaneous or alternate vortex shedding have been observed. Finally, when h/d is lower than 1.3 (also for Re =360), the system behaves like a single wake and gives rise to a double alternate vortex street, similar to the Benard-von Karman street. In this case the two-sphere wake behave like a small aspect ratio cylinder. The coupling of these two oscillators along the spanwise direction is coherent with the Ginzburg-Landau model used to describe the vortex street behind a cylinder[2]. [1] Leweke T., Ormieres D., Provansal M., Schouveiler L. 1999, Proc. Fluvisu'99, Toulouse, France, 103 [2] Albarede P., Provansal M. 1995, J. Fluid Mech. 291, 191

  7. Application of Three-Component PIV to a Hovering Rotor Wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Lourenco, Luiz; Heineck, James T.; Wadcock, Alan J.; Abrego, Anita I.; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The key to accurate predictions of rotorcraft aerodynamics, acoustics, and dynamics lies in the accurate representation of the rotor wake. The vortical wake computed by rotorcraft CFD analyses typically suffer from numerical dissipation before the first blade passage. With some a priori knowledge of the wake trajectory, grid points can be concentrated along the trajectory to minimize the dissipation. Comprehensive rotorcraft analyses based on lifting-line theory rely on classical vortex models and/or semi-empirical information about the tip vortex structure. Until the location, size, and strength of the trailed tip vortex can be measured over a range of wake ages, the analyses will continue to be adjusted on a trial and error basis in order to correctly predict blade airloads, acoustics, dynamics, and performance. Using the laser light sheet technique, tip vortex location can be acquired in a straightforward manner. Measuring wake velocities and vortex core size, however, has been difficult and tedious using point-measurement techniques such as laser velocimetry. Recently, the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique has proven to be an efficient method for acquiring velocity measurements over relatively large areas and volumes of a rotor wake. The work reported to date, however, has been restricted to 2-component velocity measurements of the rotor wake. Three-component velocity measurements of a hovering rotor wake were acquired at NASA Ames Research Center in May 1999. This experiment represents a major step toward understanding the detailed structure of a rotor wake. This paper will focus primarily on the experimental technique used in acquiring this data. The accuracy and limitations of the current technique will also be discussed. Representative velocity field measurements will be included.

  8. Comparison of Lifting-line and Lifting-surface Blade Models for Rotor Wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kini, Santosh; Godavarty, Vishwanath; Conlisk, A. T.

    2001-11-01

    Rotor blades are often modeled using either the lifting-line or the lifting-surface approach. Classical lifting-line theory treats the case of a high aspect ratio blade where the blade is modeled by just a bound vortex line. The tip-vortex and the trailing vortex sheet are shed from the bound vortex line. The lifting-line approach will thus be expected to be accurate for large aspect ratio wings and blades. In the lifting-surface approach the blade is modeled by a thin lifting surface to more precisely understand the aerodynamic behavior of the chordwise flow close to the blade surface and its effect on the formation of the tip-vortex and consequently the entire wake. Due to the presence of a finite chord, this model seems to be more robust as far as chordwise changes in flow patterns are concerned. The objective of the present work is to compare results from two distinct vortex-wake models. The Wake Model with Lifting-Line has a robust model for the wake. The Lifting-Surface Model with Wake Effects has a robust model for the lifting-surface with additional terms in the governing equations representing a simplified model for the wake. Bound and tip-vortex strengths, tip-vortex trajectories and velocity profiles are evaluated using these models very close to the blade. It is observed that the results obtained from these models are comparable. The minor discrepancies observed are explained in terms of the assumptions made. To establish the validity of the models the results are also compared with experimental data. Sponsored by the Rotorcraft Center of Excellence at Georgia Institute of Technology and the Army Research Office.

  9. Influence of atmospheric boundary layer on turbulence in wind turbine wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, Mithu Chandra

    Full-scale wind turbines (WT) operate in the atmospheric boundary layer. The atmospheric boundary layer structure significantly influences the turbulence generated in the wake of the WT. As Atmospheric boundary layer structure is dictated by the stratification of the atmosphere, hence stratifications effects are critical in accurate representation of the turbine wake physics. Due to the dependency of several factors, such as turbulence scales, buoyancy flux, momentum flux, the atmospheric boundary layer turbulence capturing is really challenging. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) has been used as a tool to understand the effects of atmospheric stability on turbine wake turbulence. The differences between the stable and unstable atmosphere on wake of 5-MW turbine has been explored. Differences in tip and root vortex interactions, wake expansion and recovery have been analyzed. The study has revealed for stable ABL low level jets play an important role in wake dynamics and increasing stability delays the wake recovery. Tip vortex is unconditionally unstable in all stability conditions due to mutual inductance mode of stability leading to vortex merging. The study is one of the first studies that accounts for realistic atmospheric boundary turbulence on wake development.

  10. Vortex structure in strongly stratified flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdalena Matulka, Anna

    2010-05-01

    Turbulence decaying experiments have been performed, with the aim of focusing in the middle of a strongly stratified density interface. The experiments have been done under different external conditions[1]: Non-Rotating Decaying 2D Turbulence experiments , Rotating Decaying 2D Turbulence experiments, And steady rotating stratified experiments. Non-Rotating experiments were performed in a 1mx1m tank, while the Rotating experiments were performed in a rectangular tank of 4mx 2m; this rectangular tank was placed in the middle of the Coriolis Rotating platform at the Trondheim Marine Systems Research Infrastructure supported by the European Union TMR Project HydraLab. The set of stirred experiments is a compilation of several series of traversing grid mixing experiments, dependent on the initial interface Richardson number [2]. PIV was used to map the velocity and vorticity plots in time. The density of the brine used in the experiments to create a sharp density interface. The boundary conditions for all the rotating experiment are related to initial Reynolds Rer, Rossby Ro, Ekman Ek and Richardson gradient Rig numbers, the results are summarized and presented in a 3D parameter map using power relationships. The experimental results of the strongly non-homogeneous turbulent dynamics shows the different decay of the strongest vortices as a function of the local Richardson number and the interaction mechanisms between inertial and internal waves. A study of vortex decay number indicates a strong non linear relationship with a slower decay due to the internal wave activity at intermediate Richardson number experiments. The intermittency of the flow is studied using a generalized intermitency parameter family that depends on the order.[3,4] [1] Matulka A.M. PhD Thesis UPC, Barcelona 2010. [2]Matulka A.M., Redondo J.M. and Carrillo A. Experiments in rotating decaying 2D flows Il nuovo cimento C, 31, 5-6, 757-770. 2008. [3]Ben-Mahjoub O., Babiano A. y Redondo J.M. Velocity structure and Extended Self Similarity in nonhomogeneous Turbulent Jets and Wakes. Journal of flow turbulence and combustion. 59 , 299-313. 1998. [4]Ben-Mahjoub O., Redondo J.M., and R. Alami. Turbulent Structure Functions in Geophysical Flows, Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Medit., 35, 126-127. 1998 [3]Babiano, A., Dubrulle, B., Frick, P. Some properties of two-dimensional inverse energy cascade dynamics, Phys. Rev. E. 55, 2693, 1997. [4]Vindel J.M., Yague C. and J.M. Redondo, Structure function analysis and intermittency in the ABL, NonLin. Proc. Geophys. 15, 6. 915-929. 2009.

  11. The structure of vortex breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibovich, S.

    1978-01-01

    The term 'vortex breakdown', as used in the reported investigation, refers to a disturbance characterized by the formation of an internal stagnation point on the vortex axis, followed by reversed flow in a region of limited axial extent. Two forms of vortex breakdown, which predominate, are shown in photographs. One form is called 'near-axisymmetric' (sometimes 'axisymmetric'), and the other is called 'spiral'. A survey is presented of work published since the 1972 review by Hall. Most experimental data taken since Hall's review have been in tubes, and the survey deals primarily with such cases. It is found that the assumption of axial-symmetry has produced useful results. The classification of flows as supercritical or subcritical, a step that assumes symmetry, has proved universally useful. Experiments show that vortex breakdown is always preceded by an upstream supercritical flow and followed by a subcritical wake. However, a comparison between experiments and attempts at prediction is less than encouraging. For a satisfactory understanding of the structure of vortex breakdown it is apparently necessary to take into account also aspects of asymmetry.

  12. Experimental study of a vortex subjected to imposed strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panton, Ronald L.; Stifle, Kirk E.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental project was undertaken to investigate the character of vortex breakdown with particular regard to the waveguide theories of vortex breakdown. A rectangular wing based on the NACA 0012 airfoil was used to produce a trailing vortex which convected downstream without undergoing breakdown. Dye marked the vortex location. A disturbance was then introduced onto the vortex using a small moving wire to 'cut' the vortex. The development of upstream and downstream propagating disturbance waves was observed and the propagation velocities measured. The downstream traveling wave produced a structure similar in appearance to a vortex breakdown. The upstream wave produced a moving, swirling, turbulent region that was not a vortex breakdown. The waves moving in either direction have the same swirl velocity profiles but quite different axial velocity profiles. The upstream disturbance (turbulence) moved into a flow with an axial velocity profile that had a wake-like defect in the core region. The downstream moving vortex breakdown moved into a flow with a jet-like overshoot in the core region. The fact that no breakdown was observed for the wake-like defect and breakdown was observed for the jet-like overshoot is not consistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. Although there are not a lot of examples, CFD results show breakdown for both types of profiles. The longitudinal and swirl velocity profiles were documented by Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) measurement. Wave velocities, swirl angles, and swirl parameters are reported.

  13. Doppler radar detection of vortex hazard indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nespor, Jerald D.; Hudson, B.; Stegall, R. L.; Freedman, Jerome E.

    1994-01-01

    Wake vortex experiments were conducted at White Sands Missile Range, NM using the AN/MPS-39 Multiple Object Tracking Radar (MOTR). The purpose of these experiments was twofold. The first objective was to verify that radar returns from wake vortex are observed for some time after the passage of an aircraft. The second objective was to verify that other vortex hazard indicators such as ambient wind speed and direction could also be detected. The present study addresses the Doppler characteristics of wake vortex and clear air returns based upon measurements employing MOTR, a very sensitive C-Band phased array radar. In this regard, the experiment was conducted so that the spectral characteristics could be determined on a dwell to-dwell basis. Results are presented from measurements of the backscattered power (equivalent structure constant), radial velocity and spectral width when the aircraft flies transverse and axial to the radar beam. The statistics of the backscattered power and spectral width for each case are given. In addition, the scan strategy, experimental test procedure and radar parameters are presented.

  14. Turbulent Plane Wakes Subjected to Successive Strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    Six direct numerical simulations of turbulent time-evolving strained plane wakes have been examined to investigate the response of a wake to successive irrotational plane strains of opposite sign. The orientation of the applied strain field has been selected so that the flow is the time-developing analogue of a spatially developing wake evolving in the presence of either a favourable or an adverse streamwise pressure gradient. The magnitude of the applied strain rate a is constant in time t until the total strain e(sup at) reaches about four. At this point, a new simulation is begun with the sign of the applied strain being reversed (the original simulation is continued as well). When the total strain is reduced back to its original value of one, yet another simulation is begun with the sign of the strain being reversed again back to its original sign. This process is done for both initially "favourable" and initially "adverse" strains, providing simulations for each of these strain types from three different initial conditions. The evolution of the wake mean velocity deficit and width is found to be very similar for all the adversely strained cases, with both measures rapidly achieving exponential growth at the rate associated with the cross-stream expansive strain e(sup at). In the "favourably" strained cases, the wake widths approach a constant and the velocity deficits ultimately decay rapidly as e(sup -2at). Although all three of these cases do exhibit the same asymptotic exponential behaviour, the time required to achieve this is longer for the cases that have been previously adversely strained (by at approx. equals 1). These simulations confirm the generality of the conclusions drawn in Rogers (2002) regarding the response of plane wakes to strain. The evolution of strained wakes is not consistent with the predictions of classical self-similar analysis; a more general equilibrium similarity solution is required to describe the results. At least for the cases considered here, the wake Reynolds number and the ratio of the turbulent kinetic energy to the square of the wake mean velocity deficit are determined nearly entirely by the total strain. For these measures the order in which the strains are applied does not matter and the changes brought about by the strain are nearly reversible. The wake mean velocity deficit and width, on the other hand, differ by about a factor of three when the total strain returns to one, depending on whether the wake was first "favourably" or "adversely" strained. The strain history is important for predicting the evolution of these quantities.

  15. Point vortex dynamics: Recent results and open problems

    SciTech Connect

    Aref, H.; Kadtke, J.B.; Zawadzki, I.; Campbell, L.J.; Eckhardt, B.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of point vortex motion, a classical model in the theory of two-dimensional, incompressible fluid mechanics, was introduced by Helmholtz in 1858. Exploration of the solutions to these equations has made fitful progress since that time as the point vortex model has been brought to bear on various physical situations: atomic structure, large-scale weather patterns, ''vortex street'' wakes, vortex lattices in superfluids and superconductors, etc. The point vortex equations also provide an interesting example of transition to chaotic behavior. We give a brief historical introduction to these topics and develop two of them in particular to the point of current understanding: steadily moving configurations of point vortices; and collision dynamics of vortex pairs. 26 refs.

  16. The Interaction Vortex Flow Around Two Bluff Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Y.; Hirao, K.

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the interaction vortex flow features around a pair of parallel arranged bluff cylinders were observed by visualizing water flow experiment at the range of the gap ratio G/d=0~3. It was obtained that the result of established wind tunnel test and the result of this water tank test agreed about the characteristics of vortex shedding when varying the distance of circular cylinder gap. The flow pattern and vortex shedding frequency of another type bluff cylinder (triangular and square cylinder) were also investigated. As a result of the experiment, it was shown that the flow pattern of wake flow was divided into three kinds (coupled vortex streets, biased gap flow and single vortex street) regardless of the cylinder section shape and cylinder size. Then, the region of the appearance of flow pattern was shown about each case. In the case where two each other independent vortex streets were formed, three typical flow patterns of vortex formation (in-phase coupled vortex streets, out-of-phase coupled vortex streets and complication coupled vortex streets) were observed. It was known that three configuration of vortex formation appear intermittently and alternatively.

  17. Cosmic string wakes

    SciTech Connect

    Stebbins, A.; Veeraraghavan, S.; Silk, J.; Brandenberger, R.; Turok, N.

    1987-11-01

    Accretion of matter onto wakes left behind by horizon-sized pieces of cosmic string is investigated, and the effects of wakes on the large-scale structure of the universe are determined. Accretion of cold matter onto wakes, the effects of a long string on fluids with finite velocity dispersion or sound speeds, the interactions between loops and wakes, and the conditions for wakes to survive disruption by loops are discussed. It is concluded that the most important wakes are those which were formed at the time of equal matter and radiation density. This leads to sheetlike overdense regions of galaxies with a mean separation in agreement with the scale of the bubbles of de Lapparent, Geller, and Huchra (1986). However, for the value of G(mu) favored from galaxy formation considerations in a universe with cold dark matter, a wake accretes matter from a distance of only about 1.5 Mpc, which is much less than the distance between the wakes. 39 references.

  18. Cosmic string wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebbins, Albert; Veeraraghavan, Shoba; Silk, Joseph; Brandenberger, Robert; Turok, Neil

    1987-01-01

    Accretion of matter onto wakes left behind by horizon-sized pieces of cosmic string is investigated, and the effects of wakes on the large-scale structure of the universe are determined. Accretion of cold matter onto wakes, the effects of a long string on fluids with finite velocity dispersion or sound speeds, the interactions between loops and wakes, and the conditions for wakes to survive disruption by loops are discussed. It is concluded that the most important wakes are those which were formed at the time of equal matter and radiation density. This leads to sheetlike overdense regions of galaxies with a mean separation in agreement with the scale of the bubbles of de Lapparent, Geller, and Huchra (1986). However, for the value of G(mu) favored from galaxy formation considerations in a universe with cold dark matter, a wake accretes matter from a distance of only about 1.5 Mpc, which is much less than the distance between the wakes.

  19. Dispersion of aircraft emissions due to wake vortices in stratified shear flows: a two-dimensional numerical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Schilling; S. Siano; D. Etling

    1996-01-01

    The development of the wake vortex system behind an airplane (B-747) at cruising altitude (8-15 km) and the dispersion of the aircraft emissions due to this vortex system have been studied by means of a two-dimensional numerical model. Simulation experiments are presented which examine the influence of atmospheric stratification and vertical wind shear on the combined vortex-emission system. Although the

  20. Characteristics of the near wake of a compressor or fan rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, B.; Lakshminarayana, B.; Ravindranath, A.

    1978-01-01

    Research reported in this paper covers an experimental investigation of the rotor wake. The experimental investigation included a study of the mean velocity, turbulence intensity, and Reynolds stress variations across the wake of a lightly loaded rotor blade at various axial and radial locations. Only the mean velocity data and their interpretation is presented in this paper. Measurements were carried out with a triaxial probe; rotating with the rotor and stationary behind the rotor. Also, measurements were made with a spherical head static pressure probe rotating with the rotor. Wakes were measured at various incidences to discern the effect of blade loading on the rotor wake. The wake is found to be three dimensional in nature with appreciable radial velocity. The measurements close to the blade trailing edge indicate that the decay of the wake is rapid in this region. The wake data is correlated to derive expressions for the profile and decay of all the components.

  1. Time-dependent evolution of an optical vortex in photorefractive media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Mamaev; M. Saffman; A. A. Zozulya

    1997-01-01

    We study the transient decay and rotation of a singly charged optical vortex in media with a photorefractive nonlinearity under conditions where the light intensity is high compared to the saturation intensity. Transient decay of an initially circular vortex is characterized by charge-dependent rotation, and stretching of the vortex along the direction of the photogalvanic or externally applied field. When

  2. Vortex Evolution and Bound Pair Formation in Anisotropic Nonlinear Optical Media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Mamaev; M. Saffman; A. A. Zozulya

    1996-01-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of the propagation, decay, and interaction of optical vortices in media with an anisotropic nonlocal nonlinearity. The initial stage of decay of a circular vortex is characterized by charge dependent rotation, and stretching of the vortex. Our results suggest that a compact vortex of unit topological charge cannot exist in such media, but

  3. Fixed-wake analysis of the Darrieus rotor

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.E.; Walker, S.N.

    1981-07-01

    Development and validation of a Darrieus wind turbine aerodynamic performance prediction model is described. Using a fixed-wake approach, the model combines some of the more desirable features of vortex/lifting line and conservation of momentum/streamtube approaches. The model thus accounts for up- and downwind differences that are predicted by vortex approaches while retaining the short computer run times found with streamtube models. The model treats the effects of stall, curved blades, blade pitch, and blade attachment location. Results agree with those obtained with Sandia National Laboratories' 17-m-diameter Darrieus VAWT.

  4. Fixed wake theory for vertical axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.E.; Walker, S.N.

    1983-12-01

    A theory for vertical axis wind turbines has been developed using a fixed wake approach. The theory combines some of the best features of vortex and streamtube approaches. This approach accounts for flow differences between fore-and-aftblade positions that are predicted by vortex methods while retaining the low computation costs associated with streamtube theories. The theory is applied to high tip speed ratio operation of a Darrieus Rotor where the use of linear aerodynamics results in explicit calculation of the induced velocities. Comparison to test results shows good agreement.

  5. Fixed wake theory for vertical axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.E.; Walker, S.N.

    1983-11-01

    A theory for vertical axis wind turbines has been developed using a fixed wake approach. The theory combines some of the best features of vortex and streamtube approaches. This approach accounts for flow differences between fore-and-aft blade positions that are predicted by vortex methods while retaining the low computation costs associated with streamtube theories. The theory is applied to high tip speed ratio operation of a Darrieus Rotor where the use of linear aerodynamics results in explicit calculation of the induced velocities. Comparison to test results shows good agreement.

  6. Titan's Winter Polar Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F.M.; Achterberg, R.K.; Schinder, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Titan's atmosphere has provided an interesting study in contrasts and similarities with Earth's. While both have N$_2$ as the dominant constituent and comparable surface pressures $\\sim1$ bar, Titan's next most abundant molecule is CH$_4$, not O$_2$, and the dissociative breakup of CH$_4$ and N$_2$ by sunlight and electron impact leads to a suite of hydrocarbons and nitriles, and ultimately the photochemical smog that enshrouds the moon. In addition, with a 15.95-day period, Titan is a slow rotator compared to Earth. While the mean zonal terrestrial winds are geostrophic, Titan's are mostly cyclostrophic, whipping around the moon in as little as 1 day. Despite the different dynamical regime, Titan's winter stratosphere exhibits several characteristics that should be familiar to terrestrial meteorologists. The cold winter pole near the 1 -mbar level is circumscribed by strong winds (up to 190 m/s) that act as a barrier to mixing with airmasses at lower latitudes. There is evidence of enhancement of several organic species over the winter pole, indicating subsidence. The adiabatic heating associated with this subsidence gives rise to a warm anomaly at the 0.01-mbar level, raising the stratopause two scale heights above its location at equatorial latitudes. Condensate ices have been detected in Titan's lower stratosphere within the winter polar vortex from infrared spectra. Although not always unambiguously identified, their spatial distribution exhibits a sharp gradient, decreasing precipitously across the vortex away from the winter pole. The interesting question of whether there is important heterogeneous chemistry occurring within the polar vortex, analogous to that occurring in the terrestrial polar stratospheric clouds in the ozone holes, has not been addressed. The breakup of Titan's winter polar vortex has not yet been observed. On Earth, the polar vortex is nonlinearly disrupted by interaction with large-amplitude planetary waves. Large-scale waves have not been identified in Titan's atmosphere, so the decay of its polar vortex may be more gradual than on Earth. Observations from an extended Cassini mission into late northern spring should provide critical data indicating whether the vortex goes away with a bang or just fades away.

  7. Investigating three-dimensional wake topology of a low aspect ratio dual step cylinder with 2D PIV measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Chris; Yarusevych, Serhiy

    2013-11-01

    A dual step cylinder is composed of a large diameter cylinder (D) of small aspect ratio (L/D) attached to the mid-span of a small diameter cylinder (d). The present work investigates the flow past dual step cylinders for ReD = 2100, 0.2 <= L/D <= 3, and 1.33 <= D/d <= 2.67. Experiments are completed in a water flume facility employing Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and planar Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), as well as hydrogen bubble flow visualization. Turbulent vortex shedding occurs in the wake of the dual step cylinder for all the cases investigated. However, wake topology and vortex dynamics are influenced significantly by the geometrical parameters of the model, namely, L/D and D/d. A novel method is introduced for reconstructing salient features of the three-dimensional wake topology using phase-averaged 2D PIV measurements. The results show that flow development in the small cylinder wake away from the large cylinder is similar to that expected for a uniform cylinder of the same diameter. However, complex three-dimensional vortex deformations and splitting occur downstream of the large diameter cylinder. Four distinct flow regimes are identified based on changes in large cylinder wake development: (i) vortex shedding at a frequency lower than that expected for a uniform cylinder, (ii) irregular shedding, (iii) vortex shedding at a frequency higher than that for a uniform cylinder, and (iv) suppression of large cylinder vortex shedding.

  8. Wake Turbulence: An Obstacle to Increased Air Traffic Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Wingtip vortices were first described by British aerodynamicist F.W. Lanchester in 1907. A product of lift on a finite-span wing, these counterrotating masses of air trail behind an aircraft, gradually diffusing while convecting downward and moving about under mutual induction and the influence of wind and stratification. Should a smaller aircraft happen to be following the first aircraft, it could be buffeted and even flipped if it flew into the vortex, with dangerous consequences. Given the amount of air traffic in 1907, the wake vortex hazard was not initially much of a concern. The demand for air transportation continues to increase, and it is estimated that demand could double or even triple by 2025. One factor in the capacity of the air transportation system is wake turbulence and the consequent separation distances that must be maintained between aircraft to ensure safety.

  9. A Piloted Simulation Study of Wake Turbulence on Final Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    1998-01-01

    A piloted simulation study has been conducted in a research simulator to provide a means to estimate the effects of different levels of wake turbulence on final approach. A worst-case methodology was used to ensure conservative estimates. Fourteen airline pilots voluntarily participated in the study and flew almost 1000 approaches. The pilots rated the subjective severity of the disturbances using a special rating scale developed for this study. Several objective measures of the airplane/pilot response to the simulated wake turbulence were also made. All the data showed a large amount of variation between pilots and to a lesser extent for a given pilot. Therefore, the data were presented at 50, 70, 90 percentile levels as a function of vortex strength. The data allow estimates of the vortex strength for a given subjective or objective response and vice versa. The results of this study appear to be more conservative than the results of previous studies.

  10. A subvortex technique for the close approach to a discretized vortex sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maskew, B.

    1976-01-01

    The close-approach problem associated with vortex-lattice methods was examined numerically with the objective of calculating velocities at arbitrary points, not just at midpoints, between the vortices. The objective was achieved using a subvortex technique in which a vortex splits into an increasing number of subvortices as it is approached. The technique, incorporated in a two-dimensional potential flow method using "submerged" vortices and sources, was evaluated for a cambered Joukowski airfoil. The method could be extended to three dimensions, and should improve non-linear methods, which calculate interference effects between multiple wings and vortex wakes, and which include procedures for force-free wakes.

  11. Recent Developments on Airborne Forward Looking Interferometer for the Detection of Wake Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Taumi S.; Smith, William L.; Kirev, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    A goal of these studies was development of the measurement methods and algorithms necessary to detect wake vortex hazards in real time from either an aircraft or ground-based hyperspectral Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). This paper provides an update on research to model FTS detection of wake vortices. The Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) was used to generate wake vortex fields of 3-D winds, temperature, and absolute humidity. These fields were input to the Line by Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM), a hyperspectral radiance model in the infrared, employed for the FTS numerical modeling. An initial set of cases has been analyzed to identify a wake vortex IR signature and signature sensitivities to various state variables. Results from the numerical modeling case studies will be presented. Preliminary results indicated that an imaging IR instrument sensitive to six narrow bands within the 670 to 3150 per centimeter spectral region would be sufficient for wake vortex detection. Noise floor estimates for a recommended instrument are a current research topic.

  12. The ultra-low Reynolds number airfoil wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Md. Mahbub; Zhou, Y.; Yang, H. X.; Guo, H.; Mi, J.

    2010-01-01

    Lift force and the near wake of an NACA 0012 airfoil were measured over the angle (?) of attack of 0°-90° and the chord Reynolds number ( Re c ), 5.3 × 103-5.1 × 104, with a view to understand thoroughly the near wake of the airfoil at low- to ultra-low Re c . While the lift force is measured using a load cell, the detailed flow structure is captured using laser-Doppler anemometry, particle image velocimetry, and laser-induced fluorescence flow visualization. It has been found that the stall of an airfoil, characterized by a drop in the lift force, occurs at Re c ? 1.05 × 104 but is absent at Re c = 5.3 × 103. The observation is connected to the presence of the separation bubble at high Re c but absence of the bubble at ultra-low Re c , as evidenced in our wake measurements. The near-wake characteristics are examined and discussed in detail, including the vortex formation length, wake width, spanwise vorticity, wake bubble size, wavelength of K-H vortices, Strouhal numbers, and their dependence on ? and Re c .

  13. On the absence of asymmetric wakes for periodically plunging finite wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, D. E.; Cleaver, D. J.; Gursul, I.; Wang, Z.

    2014-07-01

    It has previously been shown that, at high Strouhal numbers, oscillating airfoils can produce deflected jets that can create very high lift-coefficients for otherwise symmetric scenarios. These deflected jets form through pairing of the trailing-edge vortices to create asymmetric vortex couples that self-propel at an angle to the freestream, resulting in an asymmetric flow field and non-zero lift. In this paper results are presented that indicate these high-lift deflected jets cannot form for finite wings. Instead of the straight vortex tubes that pair and convect at an angle to the freestream observed for effectively infinite wings, finite wings exhibit vortex tubes that break into two branches near the tip forming double helix structures. One branch connects with the last vortex; one branch connects with the next vortex. This creates a long "daisy chain" of interconnected trailing edge vortices forming a long series of vortex loops. These symmetric flow fields are shown to persist for finite wings even to Strouhal numbers more than twice those required to produce asymmetric wakes on plunging airfoils. Two contributing reasons are discussed for why deflected jets are not observed. First the tip vortex creates three-dimensionality that discourages vortex coupling. Second, the symmetry of the circulation of the interconnected vortex loops, which has been confirmed by the experiments, is a natural consequence of the vortex topology. Therefore, the asymmetry in trailing edge vortex strength previously observed as characteristic of deflected jets cannot be supported for finite wings.

  14. Computation of rotor aerodynamic loads in forward flight using a full-span free wake analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bliss, Donald B.; Wachspress, Daniel A.; Boschitsch, Alexander H.; Chua, Kiat

    1990-01-01

    The development of an advanced computational analysis of unsteady aerodynamic loads on isolated helicopter rotors in forward flight is described. The primary technical focus of the development was the implementation of a freely distorting filamentary wake model composed of curved vortex elements laid out along contours of constant vortex sheet strength in the wake. This model captures the wake generated by the full span of each rotor blade and makes possible a unified treatment of the shed and trailed vorticity in the wake. This wake model was coupled to a modal analysis of the rotor blade dynamics and a vortex lattice treatment of the aerodynamic loads to produce a comprehensive model for rotor performance and air loads in forward flight dubbed RotorCRAFT (Computation of Rotor Aerodynamics in Forward Flight). The technical background on the major components of this analysis are discussed and the correlation of predictions of performance, trim, and unsteady air loads with experimental data from several representative rotor configurations is examined. The primary conclusions of this study are that the RotorCRAFT analysis correlates well with measured loads on a variety of configurations and that application of the full span free wake model is required to capture several important features of the vibratory loading on rotor blades in forward flight.

  15. Comforters and night waking.

    PubMed Central

    Morley, R; Morley, C J; Lucas, P J; Lucas, A

    1989-01-01

    Among 320 low birthweight infants seen at nine months post term those using a soft object, thumb, or fingers as comforter were significantly less likely to wake at night (9/96, 9%) than those with no comforter or using a dummy (66/224, 29%). Dummy users were as likely to wake (27/93, 29%) as those without a comforter (39/131, 30%). PMID:2604424

  16. Downwash and Wake Behind Plain and Flapped Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Abe; Katzoff, S; Bullivant, W Kenneth

    1939-01-01

    Extensive experimental measurements have been made of the downwash angles and the wake characteristics behind airfoils with and without flaps and the data have been analyzed and correlated with the theory. A detailed study was made of the errors involved in applying lifting-line theory, such as the effects of a finite wing chord, the rolling-up of the trailing vortex sheet, and the wake. The downwash angles, as computed from the theoretical span load distribution by means of the Biot-Savart equation, were found to be in satisfactory agreement with the experimental results. The rolling-up of the trailing vortex sheet may be neglected, but the vertical displacement of the vortex sheet requires consideration. By the use of a theoretical treatment indicated by Prandtl, it has been possible to generalize the available experimental results so the predictions can be made of the important wake parameters in terms of the distance behind the airfoil trailing edge and the profile-drag coefficient. The method of application of the theory to design and the satisfactory agreement between predicted and experimental results when applied to an airplane are demonstrated.

  17. On the investigation of cascade and turbomachinery rotor wake characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, R.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1975-01-01

    The objective of the investigation reported in this thesis is to study the characteristics of a turbomachinery rotor wake, both analytically and experimentally. The constitutive equations for the rotor wake are developed using generalized tensors and a non-inertial frame of reference. Analytical and experimental investigation is carried out in two phases; the first phase involved the study of a cascade wake in the absence of rotation and three dimensionality. In the second phase the wake of a rotor is studied. Simplified two- and three-dimensional models are developed for the prediction of the mean velocity profile of the cascade and the rotor wake, respectively, using the principle of self-similarity. The effect of various major parameters of the rotor and the flow geometry is studied on the development of a rotor wake. Laws governing the decay of the wake velocity defect in a cascade and rotor wake as a function of downstream distance from the trailing edge, pressure gradient and other parameters are derived.

  18. Vortex induced vibrations in wind -- Design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Oppen, A.N. [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway); Kvitrud, A. [Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, Stavanger (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    A design procedure with criteria for vortex induced vibrations due to wind, based on DIN 4133/Eurocode-1 and adopted for offshore conditions, is introduced. The proposal contains criteria for avoiding vortex induced vibrations and a procedure for controlling fatigue damage. A comparison with some existing design codes is given. Parameters utilized in current design practice in Norway are reviewed and some recent developments discussed. Emphasis is put on investigating the interrelation between parameters and identifying the key parameters and criteria representing boundaries for avoiding vortex induced vibrations. Special design considerations, like vortex initiated global vibrations (frame vibrations) and wake induced vibrations, are discussed. This paper may be seen as a follow-up of the paper: Wind Induced Resonant Cross-Flow Vibrations on Norwegian Offshore Flare Booms, OMAE-95, by the same authors, in which the experienced problem area and a tentative solution strategy were presented. Recent experience with vortex mitigation devices applied on flare booms is included. As an introduction, a short description of the vortex shedding phenomena is given.

  19. Harbor seal whiskers synchronize with frequency of upstream wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beem, Heather; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Harbor seals are able to use their whiskers to track minute water movements, such as those left in the wake of a fish. The current study is a simple representation of what the whiskers experience as the seal chases a fish. A scaled whisker model (average cross-flow diameter: dw) is first tested in a towing tank by itself and then towed behind a larger cylinder (dc = 2 . 5dw), which serves as a wake generator. A flexing plate attached to the model base allows the whisker to freely vibrate in response to the flow. Measurements from strain gages on the plate are calibrated to tip deflections. While in the cylinder wake, the whisker vibrates with an amplitude up to ten times higher than it does on its own (A /dw = 0 . 15). Also, the whisker synchronizes with the vortex shedding frequency (fs =0/. 2 U dc) of the upstream cylinder over the range of reduced velocities tested, whereas on its own, the whisker oscillates around its own natural frequency in water. Seals may use the difference in vibration amplitude and frequency between these two cases to help detect the presence of a vortex wake.

  20. Enhanced Airport Capacity Through Safe, Dynamic Reductions in Aircraft Separation: NASA's Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OConnor, Cornelius J.; Rutishauser, David K.

    2001-01-01

    An aspect of airport terminal operations that holds potential for efficiency improvements is the separation criteria applied to aircraft for wake vortex avoidance. These criteria evolved to represent safe spacing under weather conditions conducive to the longest wake hazards, and are consequently overly conservative during a significant portion of operations. Under many ambient conditions, such as moderate crosswinds or turbulence, wake hazard durations are substantially reduced. To realize this reduction NASA has developed a proof-of-concept Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). Successfully operated in a real-time field demonstration during July 2000 at the Dallas Ft. Worth International Airport, AVOSS is a novel integration of weather sensors, wake sensors, and analytical wake prediction algorithms. Gains in airport throughput using AVOSS spacing as compared to the current criteria averaged 6%, with peak values approaching the theoretical maximum of 16%. The average throughput gain translates to 15-40% reductions in delay when applied to realistic capacity ratios at major airports.

  1. Vortex bursting and tracer transport of a counter-rotating vortex pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misaka, T.; Holzäpfel, F.; Hennemann, I.; Gerz, T.; Manhart, M.; Schwertfirm, F.

    2012-02-01

    Large-eddy simulations of a coherent counter-rotating vortex pair in different environments are performed. The environmental background is characterized by varying turbulence intensities and stable temperature stratifications. Turbulent exchange processes between the vortices, the vortex oval, and the environment, as well as the material redistribution processes along the vortex tubes are investigated employing passive tracers that are superimposed to the initial vortex flow field. It is revealed that the vortex bursting phenomenon, known from photos of aircraft contrails or smoke visualization, is caused by collisions of secondary vortical structures traveling along the vortex tube which expel material from the vortex but do not result in a sudden decay of circulation or an abrupt change of vortex core structure. In neutrally stratified and weakly turbulent conditions, vortex reconnection triggers traveling helical vorticity structures which is followed by their collision. A long-lived vortex ring links once again establishing stable double rings. Key phenomena observed in the simulations are supported by photographs of contrails. The vertical and lateral extents of the detrained passive tracer strongly depend on environmental conditions where the sensitivity of detrainment rates on initial tracer distributions appears to be low.

  2. 3D visualization of unsteady 2D airplane wake vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Kwan-Liu; Zheng, Z. C.

    1994-01-01

    Air flowing around the wing tips of an airplane forms horizontal tornado-like vortices that can be dangerous to following aircraft. The dynamics of such vortices, including ground and atmospheric effects, can be predicted by numerical simulation, allowing the safety and capacity of airports to be improved. In this paper, we introduce three-dimensional techniques for visualizing time-dependent, two-dimensional wake vortex computations, and the hazard strength of such vortices near the ground. We describe a vortex core tracing algorithm and a local tiling method to visualize the vortex evolution. The tiling method converts time-dependent, two-dimensional vortex cores into three-dimensional vortex tubes. Finally, a novel approach calculates the induced rolling moment on the following airplane at each grid point within a region near the vortex tubes and thus allows three-dimensional visualization of the hazard strength of the vortices. We also suggest ways of combining multiple visualization methods to present more information simultaneously.

  3. Optical Scully vortex and its spatial evolution.

    PubMed

    Aksenov, Valerii P; Pogutsa, Cheslav E

    2012-04-01

    The structure of an optical vortex formed in a partially coherent Laguerre-Gauss laser beam was considered. The main object of study was the recorded vector field of wavefront tilts that consisted of the vortical and potential components. It was found that the vortical motion weakened as the coherence decreased. Main regularities in the behavior of the vortical component can be described by the Scully vortex model of vortical liquid flow. In the spatial evolution, the potential component of tilts may alternate the sign, thus determining the direction of energy flow to the center or to the periphery of the vortex. Energy flow lines in the beam demonstrate the pattern of decay of an optical vortex similar to the pattern of decaying vortical motion in viscous liquid. PMID:22505091

  4. An integrated Navier-Stokes - full potential - free wake method for rotor flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkman, Mert Enis

    1998-12-01

    The strong wake shed from rotary wings interacts with almost all components of the aircraft, and alters the flow field thus causing performance and noise problems. Understanding and modeling the behavior of this wake, and its effect on the aerodynamics and acoustics of helicopters have remained as challenges. This vortex wake and its effect should be accurately accounted for in any technique that aims to predict rotor flow field and performance. In this study, an advanced and efficient computational technique for predicting three-dimensional unsteady viscous flows over isolated helicopter rotors in hover and in forward flight is developed. In this hybrid technique, the advantages of various existing methods have been combined to accurately and efficiently study rotor flows with a single numerical method. The flow field is viewed in three parts: (i) an inner zone surrounding each blade where the wake and viscous effects are numerically captured, (ii) an outer zone away from the blades where wake is modeled, and (iii) a Lagrangean wake which induces wake effects in the outer zone. This technique was coded in a flow solver and compared with experimental data for hovering and advancing rotors including a two-bladed rotor, the UH-60A rotor and a tapered tip rotor. Detailed surface pressure, integrated thrust and torque, sectional thrust, and tip vortex position predictions compared favorably against experimental data. Results indicated that the hybrid solver provided accurate flow details and performance information typically in one-half to one-eighth cost of complete Navier-Stokes methods.

  5. Laser Doppler velocimeter system simulation for sensing aircraft wake vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, J. A. L.; Meng, J. C. S.

    1974-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model of aircraft vortex wakes in an irregular wind shear field near the ground is developed and used as a basis for modeling the characteristics of a laser Doppler detection and vortex location system. The trailing vortex sheet and the wind shear are represented by discrete free vortices distributed over a two-dimensional grid. The time dependent hydrodynamic equations are solved by direct numerical integration in the Boussinesq approximation. The ground boundary is simulated by images, and fast Fourier Transform techniques are used to evaluate the vorticity stream function. The atmospheric turbulence was simulated by constructing specific realizations at time equal to zero, assuming that Kolmogoroff's law applies, and that the dissipation rate is constant throughout the flow field. The response of a simulated laser Doppler velocimeter is analyzed by simulating the signal return from the flow field as sensed by a simulation of the optical/electronic system.

  6. Stereo-Video Data Reduction of Wake Vortices and Trailing Aircrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel

    1998-01-01

    This report presents stereo image theory and the corresponding image processing software developed to analyze stereo imaging data acquired for the wake-vortex hazard flight experiment conducted at NASA Langley Research Center. In this experiment, a leading Lockheed C-130 was equipped with wing-tip smokers to visualize its wing vortices, while a trailing Boeing 737 flew into the wake vortices of the leading airplane. A Rockwell OV-10A airplane, fitted with video cameras under its wings, flew at 400 to 1000 feet above and parallel to the wakes, and photographed the wake interception process for the purpose of determining the three-dimensional location of the trailing aircraft relative to the wake. The report establishes the image-processing tools developed to analyze the video flight-test data, identifies sources of potential inaccuracies, and assesses the quality of the resultant set of stereo data reduction.

  7. Brownian vortexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Lin, Jiayi; Darby, Ellis; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Grier, David G.

    2009-07-01

    Mechanical equilibrium at zero temperature does not necessarily imply thermodynamic equilibrium at finite temperature for a particle confined by a static but nonconservative force field. Instead, the diffusing particle can enter into a steady state characterized by toroidal circulation in the probability flux, which we call a Brownian vortex. The circulatory bias in the particle’s thermally driven trajectory is not simply a deterministic response to the solenoidal component of the force but rather reflects interplay between advection and diffusion in which thermal fluctuations extract work from the nonconservative force field. As an example of this previously unrecognized class of stochastic heat engines, we consider a colloidal sphere diffusing in a conventional optical tweezer. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that nonconservative optical forces bias the particle’s fluctuations into toroidal vortexes whose circulation can reverse direction with temperature or laser power.

  8. Interaction of a Boundary Layer with a Turbulent Wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piomelli, Ugo

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this grant was to study the transition mechanisms on a flat-plate boundary layer interacting with the wake of a bluff body. This is a simplified configuration presented and designed to exemplify the phenomena that occur in multi-element airfoils, in which the wake of an upstream element impinges on a downstream one. Some experimental data is available for this configuration at various Reynolds numbers. The first task carried out was the implementation and validation of the immersed-boundary method. This was achieved by performing calculations of the flow over a cylinder at low and moderate Reynolds numbers. The low-Reynolds number results are discussed, which is enclosed as Appendix A. The high-Reynolds number results are presented in a paper in preparation for the Journal of Fluid Mechanics. We performed calculations of the wake-boundary-layer interaction at two Reynolds numbers, Re approximately equal to 385 and 1155. The first case is discussed and a comparison of the two calculations is reported. The simulations indicate that at the lower Reynolds number the boundary layer is buffeted by the unsteady Karman vortex street shed by the cylinder. This is shown: long streaky structures appear in the boundary layer in correspondence of the three-dimensionalities in the rollers. The fluctuations, however, cannot be self-sustained due to the low Reynolds-number, and the flow does not reach a turbulent state within the computational domain. In contrast, in the higher Reynolds-number case, boundary-layer fluctuations persist after the wake has decayed (due, in part, to the higher values of the local Reynolds number Re achieved in this case); some evidence could be observed that a self-sustaining turbulence generation cycle was beginning to be established. A third simulation was subsequently carried out at a higher Reynolds number, Re=3900. This calculation gave results similar to those of the Re=l155 case. Turbulence was established at fairly low Reynolds number, as a consequence of the high level of the free-stream perturbation. An instantaneous flow visualization for that case is shown. A detailed examination of flow statistics in the transitional and turbulent regions, including the evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget and frequency spectra showed the formation and evolution of turbulent spots characteristic of the bypass transition mechanism. It was also observed that the turbulent eddies achieved an equilibrium, fully developed turbulent states first, as evidenced by the early agreement achieved by the terms in the TKE budget with those observed in turbulent flows. Once a turbulent Reynolds stress profile had been established, the velocity profile began to resemble a turbulent one, first in the inner region and later in the outer region of the wall layer. An extensive comparison of the three cases, including budgets, mean velocity and Reynolds stress profiles and flow visualization, is included. The results obtained are also presented.

  9. Probabilistic Analysis of Impact of Wake Vortices on Closely-Spaced Parallel Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Gordon H.; Rossow, Vernon J.; Meyn, Larry A.

    2005-01-01

    One of the primary constraints on the capacity of the nation's air transportation system is the landing capacity of its largest airports. Many airports with closely spaced parallel runways suffer a severe runway acceptance rate when the weather conditions do not allow full utilization of these parallel runways. The present requirement for simultaneous independent landings in Instrument Meteorological Conditions, IMC, is at least 4300 feet of lateral runway spacing (as close as 3000 feet for runways with a Precision Runway Monitor). Operations in Visual Meteorological Conditions, VMC, to Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches only require a lateral runway spacing greater than 750 feet. A study by Hardy and Lewis integrated and extended earlier studies and concepts in lateral traffic separation, longitudinal station keeping, wake prediction, wake display, and the concepts of R N P into a preliminary system concept for Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches in IMC. This system allows IMC airport acceptance rates to approach those for VMC. The system concept that was developed, presented traffic and wake information on the NAVigation Display, NAV, and developed operational procedures for a mix of conventional and Runway Independent Aircraft with different approach speeds to Closely Spaced Parallel Runways. This paper first describes some improvements made on the technology needed to better predict and formulate a probabilistic representation for the time-dependent motion and spreading of the hazardous region associated with the lift-generated vortex wakes of preceding aircraft. In this way, the time at which the vortex wakes of leading aircraft intrude into the airspace of adjacent flight-corridor/runway combinations can be more reliably predicted. Such a prediction is needed because it determines restraints to be placed on in-trail separation distances; or, the allowable time intervals between aircraft executing nearly simultaneous landings or takeoffs on very closely-spaced runways. Improved estimates of wake spreading are achieved by inclusion of representations in the equations for wake spreading due to ambient turbulence and due to the long-wave instability of a vortex pair. Wake motion and spreading due to the time-averaged wind and its variations with time, are retained. The more detailed representation of wake spreading presented here permits the development of probabilistically-based uncertainty estimates for wake spreading. Measurements needed within actual aircraft wake vortices to validate and support this analysis are also described. The second part of the paper uses the improvements in the accuracy of the location of wake vortices to extend the preliminary system concept for Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches described earlier with more robust operational procedures. Additionally, improvements in longitudinal station keeping, wake display, and risk assessment methodologies are incorporated and described.

  10. Study of a Wake Recovery Mechanism in a High-Speed Axial Compressor Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale E.

    1998-01-01

    This work addresses the significant differences in compressor rotor wake mixing loss which exist in a stage environment relative to a rotor in isolation. The wake decay for a rotor in isolation is due solely to viscous dissipation which is an irreversible process and thus leads to a loss in both total pressure and efficiency. Rotor wake decay in the stage environment is due to both viscous mixing and the inviscid strain imposed on the wake fluid particles by the stator velocity field. This straining process, referred to by Smith (1993) as recovery, is reversible and for a 2D rotor wake leads to an inviscid reduction of the velocity deficit of the wake. A model for the rotor wake decay process is developed and used to quantify the viscous dissipation effects relative to those of inviscid wake stretching. The model is verified using laser anemometer measurements acquired in the wake of a transonic rotor operated in isolation and in a stage configuration at near peak efficiency and near stall operating conditions. Additional insight is provided by a time-accurate 3D Navier-Stokes simulation of the compressor stator flow field at the corresponding stage loading levels. Results from the wake decay model exhibit good agreement with the experimental data. Data from the model, laser anemometer measurements, and numerical simulations indicate that for the rotor/stator spacing used in this work, which is typical of core compressors, rotor wake straining (stretching) is the primary decay process in the stator passage with viscous mixing playing only a minor role. The implications of these results on compressor stage design are discussed.

  11. Collinear wake field acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Chen, P.; Wilson, P.B.

    1985-04-01

    In the Voss-Weiland scheme of wake field acceleration a high current, ring-shaped driving bunch is used to accelerate a low current beam following along on axis. In such a structure, the transformer ratio, i.e., the ratio of maximum voltage that can be gained by the on-axis beam and the voltage lost by the driving beam, can be large. In contrast, it has been observed that for an arrangement in which driving and driven bunches follow the same path, and where the current distribution of both bunches is gaussian, the transformer ratio is not normally greater than two. This paper explores some of the possibilities and limitations of a collinear acceleration scheme. In addition to its application to wake field acceleration in structures, this study is also of interest for the understanding of the plasma wake field accelerator. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  12. The NASA Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS): Concept Demonstration Results and Future Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutishauser, David K.; OConnor, Cornelius J.

    2004-01-01

    Since the late 1990s the national airspace system has been recognized as approaching a capacity crisis. In the light of this condition, industry, government, user organizations, and educational institutions have been working on procedural and technological solutions to the problem. One aspect of system operations that holds potential for improvement is the separation criteria applied to aircraft for wake vortex avoidance. These criteria, applied when operations are conducted under instrument flight rules (IFR), were designed to represent safe spacing under weather conditions conducive to the longest wake hazards. It is well understood that wake behavior is dependent on meteorological conditions as well as the physical parameters of the generating aircraft. Under many ambient conditions, such as moderate crosswinds or turbulence, wake hazard durations are substantially reduced. To realize this reduction NASA has developed a proof-of-concept Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS). Successfully demonstrated in a realtime field demonstration during July 2000 at the Dallas Ft. Worth International Airport (DFW), AVOSS is a novel integration of weather sensors, wake sensors, and analytical wake prediction algorithms. AVOSS provides dynamic wake separation criteria that are a function of the ambient weather conditions for a particular airport, and the predicted wake behavior under those conditions. Wake sensing subsystems provide safety checks and validation for the predictions. The AVOSS was demonstrated in shadow mode; no actual spacing changes were applied to aircraft. This paper briefly reviews the system architecture and operation, reports the latest performance results from the DFW deployment, and describes the future direction of the project.

  13. Exploration of Terminal Procedures Enabled by NASA Wake VAS Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunsford, Clark R.; Smith, Arthur P., III; Cooper, Wayne W., Jr.; Mundra, Anand D.; Gross, Amy E.; Audenaerd, Laurence F.; Killian, Bruce E.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) tasked The MITRE Corporation's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (CAASD) to investigate potential air traffic control (ATC) procedures that could benefit from technology used or developed in NASA's Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS). The task also required developing an estimate of the potential benefits of the candidate procedures. The main thrust of the investigation was to evaluate opportunities for improved capacity and efficiency in airport arrival and departure operations. Other procedures that would provide safety enhancements were also considered. The purpose of this investigation was to provide input to the WakeVAS program office regarding the most promising areas of development for the program. A two-fold perspective was desired: First, identification of benefits from possible procedures enabled by both incremental components and the mature state of WakeVAS technology; second identification of procedures that could be expected to evolve from the current Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) procedures. The evolution of procedures should provide meaningful increments of benefit and a low risk implementation of the WakeVAS technologies.

  14. Prescribed wake methodologies for wind turbine design codes

    SciTech Connect

    Galbraith, R.A.M.; Coton, F.N.; Robison, D.J. [Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Prescribed wake performance assessment models have been developed successfully for both vertical (VAWT) and horizontal (HAWT) axis wind turbines. In the case of the VAWT model the Beddoes and Leishman dynamic stall model has been incorporated. This has resulted in a fully unsteady 3-D code, establishing extremely accurate performance prediction across a wide range of operating conditions. Comparison of performance estimates from the prescribed wake model with those from free wake models have shown excellent correlation. To date, the HAWT model has been developed for the consideration of steady axial and yawed inflows. In the axial flow case comparisons of predicted power output with field data and free wake predictions have shown excellent agreement. Full validation of the yawed flow model is currently underway, with very encouraging initial results. The capabilities of the HAWT model are currently being extended by the inclusion of the Beddoes and Leishman dynamic stall model. Consideration of the significant unsteady aerodynamic influences acting on HAWTs while operating in yaw will significantly improve the models performance. The power of this modelling technique is the significant reduction in the computational overhead it offers. The prescribed wake models offer performance estimates of comparable detail and accuracy to those from free vortex analyses in minutes rather than hours. As such these models are highly suited to design assessment, with particular application to fatigue load analysis.

  15. PIV Measurements of Cross-flow Velocity field in the Near Wake of a Pickup Truck

    E-print Network

    Al-Garni, Abdullah M.

    normal to the freestream behind the cabin and tailgate have been obtained at four streamwise locations vortex structures that move randomly in space and time. The mean velocity in the near wake of the cabin pressure fluctuations at the tailgate edge as verified in the previous study. Moreover, the velocity data

  16. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics An Experimental Investigation on the Wake Characteristics of a

    E-print Network

    Hu, Hui

    aerodynamic forces and moments) acting on a wind turbine model, a high-resolution Particle Image Velocimetry evolution of the turbulence vortex and flow structures in the wake of the wind turbine model. The detailed require at least 150,000 additional large wind turbines installed in onshore or/and offshore wind farms

  17. Wake structure measurements at the Mod2 cluster test facility at Goodnoe Hills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B. S. Lissaman; T. G. Zambrano; G. W. Gyatt

    1983-01-01

    A field measurement progam was carried out at the cluster of three MOD-2 wind turbines located at Goodnoe Hills, Washington, to determine the rate of decay of wake velocity deficit with downwind distance in various meteorological conditions. Measurements were taken at hub height (200 ft) between July 12 and August 1, 1982. Wake wind speeds were measured using a radiosonde

  18. Wind tunnel investigation on wind turbine wakes and wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iungo, G. V.; Coëffé, J.; Porté-Agel, F.

    2012-04-01

    The interaction between atmospheric boundary layer and wind farms leads to flow modifications, which need to be deeply characterized in order to relate them to wind farm performance. The wake flow produced from a wind farm is the result of a strong interaction between multiple turbine wakes, so that the wind farm configuration turns out to be one of the dominant features to enhance power production. For the present work a wind tunnel investigation was carried out with hot-wire anemometry and velocity measurements performed with multi-hole pressure probes. The tested wind farms consist of miniature three-bladed wind turbine models. Preliminarily, the wake flow generated from a single wind turbine is surveyed, which is characterized by a strong velocity defect lying in proximity of the wind turbine hub height. The wake gradually recovers by moving downstream; the characteristics of the incoming boundary layer and wind turbulence intensity can strongly affect the wake recovery, and thus performance of following wind turbines. An increased turbulence level is typically detected downstream of each wind turbine for heights comparable to the wind turbine blade top-tip. These wake flow fluctuations produce increased fatigue loads on the following wind turbines within a wind farm, which could represent a significant hazard for real wind turbines. Dynamics of vorticity structures present in wind turbine wakes are also investigated; particular attention is paid to the downstream evolution of the tip helicoidal vortices and to oscillations of the hub vortex. The effect of wind farm layout on power production is deeply investigated. Particular emphasis is placed on studying how the flow adjusts as it moves inside the wind farm and can affect the power production. Aligned and staggered wind farm configurations are analysed, also with varying separation distances in the streamwise and spanwise directions. The present experimental results are being used to test and guide the development of improved parameterizations of wind turbines in high-resolution numerical models, such as large-eddy simulations (LES).

  19. Excitation of vortex meandering in shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröttle, Josef; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Schumann, Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates the evolution of a streamwise aligned columnar vortex with vorticity {\\boldsymbol{ ? }} in an axial background shear of magnitude ? by means of linear stability analysis and numerical simulations. A long wave mode of vorticity normal to the plane spanned by the background shear vector {\\boldsymbol{ ? }} and the vorticity of the vortex are excited by an instability. The stationary wave modes of the vertical and lateral vorticity are amplified. In order to form a helical vortex, the lateral and vertical vorticity can be phase shifted by half a wavelength. The linear and nonlinear evolutions of the vortex in the shear flow are studied numerically. Linearized simulations confirm the results of the stability analysis. The nonlinear simulations reveal further evolution of the helix in the shear flow. The linearly excited mode persists in co-existence with evolving smaller scale instabilities until the flow becomes fully turbulent at the time of O(100 {{? }-1}). Turbulent mixing dampens the amplifying mode. The described phenomenon of vortex meandering may serve as an alternative explanation for the excitation of wind turbine wake meandering in the atmospheric boundary layer.

  20. Implementation of Parallel Computing Technology to Vortex Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacles-Mariani, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    Mainframe supercomputers such as the Cray C90 was invaluable in obtaining large scale computations using several millions of grid points to resolve salient features of a tip vortex flow over a lifting wing. However, real flight configurations require tracking not only of the flow over several lifting wings but its growth and decay in the near- and intermediate- wake regions, not to mention the interaction of these vortices with each other. Resolving and tracking the evolution and interaction of these vortices shed from complex bodies is computationally intensive. Parallel computing technology is an attractive option in solving these flows. In planetary science vortical flows are also important in studying how planets and protoplanets form when cosmic dust and gases become gravitationally unstable and eventually form planets or protoplanets. The current paradigm for the formation of planetary systems maintains that the planets accreted from the nebula of gas and dust left over from the formation of the Sun. Traditional theory also indicate that such a preplanetary nebula took the form of flattened disk. The coagulation of dust led to the settling of aggregates toward the midplane of the disk, where they grew further into asteroid-like planetesimals. Some of the issues still remaining in this process are the onset of gravitational instability, the role of turbulence in the damping of particles and radial effects. In this study the focus will be with the role of turbulence and the radial effects.

  1. Waking Up to Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrdlovcova, Jill

    2005-01-01

    All homes and schools produce waste. Children may have been astonished at how much people throw away, and this could be the "wake-up call" that arouses their interest. At Carymoor Environmental Centre (an Eco-Centre in South Somerset) getting children involved in active waste reduction and recycling is a priority. Carymoor tries to model waste…

  2. Wake interference behind two flat plates normal to the flow - A finite-element study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behr, M.; Tezduyar, T. E.; Higuchi, H.

    1991-01-01

    A finite-element model of the Navier-Stokes equations is used for numerical simulation of flow past two normal flat plates arranged side by side at Reynolds number 80 and 160. The results from this simulation indicate that when the gap between the plates is twice the width of a single plate, the individual wakes of the plates behave independently, with the antiphase vortex shedding being dominant. At smaller gap sizes, the in-phase vortex shedding, with strong wake interaction, is favored. The gap flow in those cases becomes biased, with one of the wakes engulfing the other. The direction of the biased flow was found to be switching at irregular intervals, with the time histories of the indicative flow parameters and their power spectra resembling those of a chaotic system.

  3. Measured Changes in C-Band Radar Reflectivity of Clear Air Caused by Aircraft Wake Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackenzie, Anne I.

    1997-01-01

    Wake vortices from a C-130 airplane were observed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility with a ground-based, monostatic C-band radar and an antenna-mounted boresight video camera. The airplane wake was viewed from a distance of approximately 1 km, and radar scanning was adjusted to cross a pair of marker smoke trails generated by the C-130. For each airplane pass, changes in radar reflectivity were calculated by subtracting the signal magnitudes during an initial clutter scan from the signal magnitudes during vortex-plus-clutter scans. The results showed both increases and decreases in reflectivity on and near the smoke trails in a characteristic sinusoidal pattern of heightened reflectivity in the center and lessened reflectivity at the sides. Reflectivity changes in either direction varied from -131 to -102 dBm(exp -1); the vortex-plus-clutter to noise ratio varied from 20 to 41 dB. The radar recordings lasted 2.5 min each; evidence of wake vortices was found for up to 2 min after the passage of the airplane. Ground and aircraft clutter were eliminated as possible sources of the disturbance by noting the occurrence of vortex signatures at different positions relative to the ground and the airplane. This work supports the feasibility of vortex detection by radar, and it is recommended that future radar vortex detection be done with Doppler systems.

  4. Quantitative wake analysis of a freely swimming fish using 3D synthetic aperture PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendelson, Leah; Techet, Alexandra H.

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic aperture PIV (SAPIV) is used to quantitatively analyze the wake behind a giant danio ( Danio aequipinnatus) swimming freely in a seeded quiescent tank. The experiment is designed with minimal constraints on animal behavior to ensure that natural swimming occurs. The fish exhibits forward swimming and turning behaviors at speeds between 0.9 and 1.5 body lengths/second. Results show clearly isolated and linked vortex rings in the wake structure, as well as the thrust jet coming off of a visual hull reconstruction of the fish body. As a benchmark for quantitative analysis of volumetric PIV data, the vortex circulation and impulse are computed using methods consistent with those applied to planar PIV data. Volumetric momentum analysis frameworks are discussed for linked and asymmetric vortex structures, laying a foundation for further volumetric studies of swimming hydrodynamics with SAPIV. Additionally, a novel weighted refocusing method is presented as an improvement to SAPIV reconstruction.

  5. PIV study of near-field tip vortex behind perforated Gurney flaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T.

    2011-02-01

    The impact of Gurney flaps, of different heights and perforations, on the growth and development of a tip vortex, both along the tip and in the near field of a finite NACA 0012 wing, at Re = 1.05 × 105 was investigated by using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Wind-tunnel force balance measurements were also made to supplement the PIV results. This study is a continuation of the work of Lee and Ko (Exp Fluids 46(6):1005-1019, 2009) on the near-wake measurements behind perforated Gurney flaps. The present results show that along the tip, the overall behavior of the secondary vortices and their interaction with the primary, or tip, vortex remained basically unchanged, regardless of flap height and perforation. The peak vorticity of the tip vortex, however, increased with flap height and always exhibited a local maximum at x/ c = 0.8 (from the leading edge). In the near field, the strength and structure of the near-field tip vortex were found to vary greatly with the flap height and perforation. The small flaps produced a more concentrated tip vortex with an increased circulation, while the large Gurney flaps caused a disruption of the tip vortex. The disrupted vortex can, however, be re-established by the addition of flap perforation. The larger the flap perforation the more organized the tip vortex. The Gurney flaps have the potential to serve as an alternative off-design wake vortex control device.

  6. Base Flow Asymmetry Effects on the Absolute Stability of Non-uniform Density Wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerson, Benjamin; Noble, David; Lieuwen, Tim

    2013-11-01

    This work investigates the hydrodynamic stability of bluff body wakes with non-uniform mean density. Such flows are common in bluff body combustors. The absolute/convective stability characteristics of the wake are important, because vortex shedding from the bluff body participates in such processes as mixing, flame blowoff, and combustion instability. Non-uniform density is a sensitive stability parameter for wake flows. Reduction of the wake density relative to the free stream density can stabilize the flow and suppress coherent vortex shedding. Practical bluff body combustors operate at a range of flame density ratios spanning this stability limit. Recent experimental bluff body combustor work by Tuttle et al. investigates wakes with asymmetry in the base flow density profiles. This motivates a hydrodynamic stability model for non-uniform density wakes that includes base flow asymmetry. The model developed in this study investigates the effects of asymmetric base flow velocity and density profiles. It begins with a parameterization of the base flow asymmetries. Results show that base flow asymmetry influences the absolute stability of the flow, and has a strong effect on the most amplified mode shape. The investigation concludes with a comparison to the vorticity equation. Here, we elucidate the physics of the model, and comment on the limitations of such a model.

  7. Effects of Chemistry on Blunt-Body Wake Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dogra, Virendra K.; Moss, James N.; Wilmoth, Richard G.; Taylor, Jeff C.; Hassan, H. A.

    1995-01-01

    Results of a numerical study are presented for hypersonic low-density flow about a 70-deg blunt cone using direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) and Navier-Stokes calculations. Particular emphasis is given to the effects of chemistry on the near-wake structure and on the surface quantities and the comparison of the DSMC results with the Navier-Stokes calculations. The flow conditions simulated are those experienced by a space vehicle at an altitude of 85 km and a velocity of 7 km/s during Earth entry. A steady vortex forms in the near wake for these freestream conditions for both chemically reactive and nonreactive air gas models. The size (axial length) of the vortex for the reactive air calculations is 25% larger than that of the nonreactive air calculations. The forebody surface quantities are less sensitive to the chemistry than the base surface quantities. The presence of the afterbody has no effect on the forebody flow structure or the surface quantities. The comparisons of DSMC and Navier-Stokes calculations show good agreement for the wake structure and the forebody surface quantities.

  8. Mapping optical ray trajectories through island wake vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunalee, Christopher G.; He, Ping; Basu, Sukanta; Minet, Jean; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.

    2015-06-01

    Optical wave propagation through the atmosphere is complicated by organized atmospheric structures, spanning a wide range of length and time scales, which induce spatio-temporal variability in refraction. Therefore, when considering long-range optical ray trajectories, the influence of such structures on the propagation path becomes significantly more complex compared to a hypothetically homogeneous atmosphere. In this paper, we use a coupled mesoscale model and ray tracing framework to analyze the refractive anomalies associated with the wake vortices induced by three geographically diverse islands under various meteorological conditions. We identify organized mesoscale wake vortices (e.g., von Kármán vortices) which are sometimes capable of distorting optical ray trajectories, through ray bending, tens of meters at a range of approximately 50 km. In addition, we find in some cases that vertical oscillations, or perturbations, to the simulated ray trajectories share a frequency with the vortex shedding frequency on the order of hours. At the same time, it is also observed that the intensity and predictability of the wake vortex-induced ray bending varies from case to case. Collectively, these results highlight the value of using mesoscale models in optical wave propagation studies above conventional approaches which do not explicitly consider horizontally heterogeneous atmospheres.

  9. The prediction on in-line vortex-induced vibration of slender marine structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wan-Hai; Gao, Xi-Feng; Du, Jie

    2012-10-01

    The in-line (IL) vortex-induced vibration (VIV) that occurs frequently in ocean engineering may cause severe fatigue damage in slender marine structures. To the best knowledge of the authors, in existing literatures, there is no efficient analytical model for predicting pure IL VIV. In this paper, a wake oscillator model capable of analyzing the IL VIV of slender marine structures has been developed. Two different kinds of van der Pol equations are used to describe the near wake dynamics related to the fluctuating nature of symmetric vortex shedding in the first excitation region and alternate vortex shedding in the second one. Some comparisons are carried out between the present model results and experimental data. It is found that many phenomena observed in experiments could be reproduced by the present wake oscillator model.

  10. Organized structures and their interactions in the turbulent wake of circular cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong-Jun

    This thesis presents an experimental study of organized structures in the turbulent near wakes of single, two and three side-by-side circular cylinders, covering four topics. Firstly, the relationships between logitudinal (ribs) and spanwise vortical structures in the turbulent near wake of a circular cylinder were investigated. Three components of vorticity in the wake of a circular cylinder were measured simultaneously with a combination of four X-wire probes. Secondly, interactions between spanwise vortical structures, momentum and heat transport in the turbulent wake of two side-by-side circular cylinders were studied. The results point to a significant effect of T/ d on the topology and transport characteristics. The streamwise evolution of the vortex street is also discussed in detail. Thirdly, interaction between turbulent simple wakes is determined. Using the same three-wire probe mentioned above, velocity and temperature fluctuations were measured in the turbulent wakes generated by single, two and three side-by-side circular cylinders (one of them was heated slightly). The superposition hypothesis, as proposed by Bradshaw and his co-workers, is also examined for the present complex wakes. Finally, the effects of unequal cylinder spacing on the vortex streets behind the three side-by-side cylinders were studied. Various techniques were used in this experimental study, including hot-wire technique, laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and laser-illuminated flow visualization the equally and unequally spaced cylinders in terms of the pressure around the cylinders, drag, lift, dominant frequencies, vortex formation and downstream evolution. The flow topology (patterns) is also discussed in detail. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  11. Method of stabilizing flueric vortex valves and vortex amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, L. R.; Mc Fall, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    Inducing losses in the vortex chamber of vortex valves and vortex amplifiers resolves the problem of unstable operation caused by a sufficiently large positive feedback. Induced losses also reduce pressure gain and throttling range of vortex pressure amplifier.

  12. Brain Wake-Ups

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wake-Up_Brain - Fire up those synapses each Monday morning. It's Monday morning and caffeine is slowly percolating into your system but your brain is still covered with weekend sludge. You need something to get those synapses firing, a brain booster to stimulate those billions of gray matter cells. You need Good Morning Thinkers! ... an absolutely free brain wake-up service offered to you by the Innovative Thinking Network, a professional membership association of leaders forging the revitalization of organizations through the powerful use of Innovation, Creativity and Group Thinking Skills. Every Monday morning subscribers receive a short, light-hearted message designed to help wipe away the fog and open the door to more powerful, creative thinking.

  13. Aircraft wake turbulence avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgowan, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    Analytical studies and flight tests are used to describe the formation and severity of trailing vortices and the spatial extent of their influence. This information is then used to outline procedures for ready application by pilots, tower operators, and others concerned with the flow of traffic. The procedures provide the necessary appreciation of the physical attributes of trailing vortices, the potential hazards involved when encountering them, and how best to avoid the dangerous portions of the wake during flight operations.

  14. Influence of blade-to-blade dissimilarity on alleviation of helicopter blade-vortex interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Tauszig; F. Gandhi

    2001-01-01

    This paper numerically examines possible alleviation of parallel blade-vortex interaction (BVI), experienced by helicopters in low-speed descent, through the introduction of blade-to-blade dissimilarity. A four-bladed rotor with two sets of opposite blades is considered, and the radius of one set is reduced to 80% of the baseline radius. A free-wake analysis is developed for calculating the distorted wake geometry for

  15. The propeller tip vortex. A possible contributor to aircraft cabin noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, B. A.; Dittmar, J. H.; Jeracki, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Although the assumption is generally made that cabin noise levels are governed by the transmission of propeller generated noise through the fuselage sidewall, it was postulated that the propeller wake striking the wing, in particular pressure disturbances generated downstream of the propeller by the action of the propeller tip vortex, could be strong enough to excite the aircraft structure and contribute to the cabin noise level. Tests conducted to measure the strength of the propeller tip vortex support this hypothesis. It was found that the propeller tip vortex can produce a fluctuation pressure on a simulated wing surface in the wake of a propeller that exceeds by more than 15 dB the maximum direct noise that would strike the fuselage. Wing surface response to propeller tip vortex induced excitations, and the effectiveness of this response in radiating noise to the cabin interior, must be established to assess the full significance of these results.

  16. Effect of Free Stream Turbulence on a Wingtip Vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Sean; Tavoularis, Stavros; Lee, Ben; Yaras, Metin

    2003-11-01

    Three-component hot-wire measurements were performed in the tip vortex of a NACA-0012 airfoil at Re =240000 and ? =5^o. Results are reported on a plane 9 chord lengths downstream of the wing, in low-turbulence flow (free-stream turbulence intensity ? ˜ 0.3 %) as well in grid-generated turbulence with ? ˜ 2.5% and 5%. The core location was unaffected by the free-stream conditions, while its radius increased slightly with increasing ? . The vortex core was wake-like with lower velocity deficit at higher ? , whereas, in the 2-D portion of the wing wake, the velocity deficit decreased significantly only for the largest ? . Vortex core circulation decreased monotonically with increasing ? , but the circulation away from the core appeared to depend also on other factors. Vortex-wandering, especially in the low-? case, was clearly demonstrated by velocity auto-correlation shapes; all integral time scales decreased with increasing ? . Cross-correlations of tangential and radial velocities also seem to indicate that vortex wandering effects diminish with increasing ? .

  17. Vortex shedding by a Savonius rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botrini, M.; Beguier, C.; Chauvin, A.; Brun, R.

    1984-05-01

    A series of flow visualizations was performed to characterize the wake vortices of a Savonius rotor. The trials were undertaken in an attempt to account for discrepancies between theoretical and experimentally-derived power coefficients. The Savonius examined was two-bladed with a center offset. All tests were made in a water tunnel. Dye injection provided the visualization, and average velocities and velocity fluctuations were measured using a laser Doppler anemometer. A system of three vortices was found to be periodically shed by the rotor. Flow velocity fluctuation intensity peaked as a vortex was shed. The vortex shedding alternated from blade to blade, so that one was shed from a blade moving upstream.

  18. Vortex Rings in Superfluid 3He B at Low Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, D. I.; Fisher, S. N.; Guénault, A. M.; Haley, R. P.; Matthews, C. J.; Pickett, G. R.; Roberts, J.; O'Sullivan, S.; Tsepelin, V.

    2007-08-01

    Turbulence in classical fluids has far-reaching technological implications but is poorly understood. A better understanding might be gained from studying turbulence in quantum systems. In a pure superfluid (at low temperatures), there is no viscosity and vortex lines are quantised. Quantum turbulence consists of a tangle of quantised vortex lines which interact via their self-induced flow. We have recently developed techniques for detecting vortices in superfluid 3He B in the low temperature limit. We find that the transition to turbulence from a moving grid occurs by the entanglement of emitted vortex rings. Here, we discuss the propagation of the ballistic vortex rings emitted at low grid velocities. We have measured the temperature at which the rings decay before reaching the detectors. Our results, at two different pressures, confirm that the vortex rings decay in accordance with mutual friction.

  19. Vortex Velocity Probability Distributions in Phase Ordering Kinetics

    E-print Network

    Gene F. Mazenko

    2004-04-06

    The calculation of the point vortex velocity probability distribution function (vvpdf) is extended to a larger class of systems beyond the nonconserved TDGL model treated earlier. The range is extended to include certain anisotropic models and the conserved order parameter case. The vvpdf still satisfies scaling with large velocity tails as for the nonconserved isotropic case. It is shown that the average vortex speed can be self-consistently expressed in terms of correlation functions associated with a Gaussian auxiliary field. In the conserved order parameter case the average vortex speed decays as $t^{-1}$ compared to the $t^{-1/2}$ decay for the nonconserved case.

  20. Wake flowfields for Jovian probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, C. D.; Hair, L. M.

    1980-01-01

    The wake flow field developed by the Galileo probe as it enters the Jovian atmosphere was modeled. The wake produced by the probe is highly energetic, yielding both convective and radiative heat inputs to the base of the probe. A component mathematical model for the inviscid near and far wake, the viscous near and far wake, and near wake recirculation zone was developed. Equilibrium thermodynamics were used for both the ablation and atmospheric species. Flow fields for three entry conditions were calculated. The near viscous wave was found to exhibit a variable axial pressure distribution with the neck pressure approximately three times the base pressure. Peak wake flow field temperatures were found to be in proportion to forebody post shock temperatures.

  1. Modifying Ship Air-Wake Vortices for Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Columnar-vortex generators (CVG) have been proposed as means to increase the safety of takeoffs and landings of aircraft on aircraft or helicopter carriers and other ships at sea. According to the proposal, CVGs would be installed at critical edge locations on ships to modify the vortices in the air wakes of the ships. The desired effects of modifications are to smooth airflows over takeoff and landing deck areas and divert vortices from takeoff and landing flight paths. With respect to aircraft operations, the wake flows of primary interest are those associated with the bow and side edges of aircraft-carrier decks and with superstructures of ships in general (see Figure 1). The bow and deck-edge vortices can adversely affect airplane and helicopter operations on carriers, while the superstructure wakes can primarily affect operations of helicopters. The concept of the CVG is not new; what is new is the proposed addition of CVGs to ship structures to effect favorable modifications of air wakes. Figure 2 depicts a basic CVG, vertical and horizontal CVGs installed on a simple superstructure, and horizontal CVGs installed on the bow and deck edges. The vertical CVGs would be closed at the deck but open at the top. Each horizontal CVG would be open at both ends. The dimensions of the CVGs installed on the aft edges of the superstructure would be chosen so that the portion of the flow modified by the vertical CVGs would interact synergistically with the portion of the flow modified by the horizontal CVG to move the air wake away from the takeoff-and-landing zone behind the superstructure. The deck-edge CVGs would be mounted flush with, and would extend slightly ahead of the bow of, the flight deck. The overall length of each tube would exceed that of the flight deck. Each deck-edge CVG would capture that portion of the airflow that generates a deck-edge vortex and would generate a columnar vortex of opposite sense to that of the unmodified vortex. The vortex generated by the CVG could be dispersed at its base, thereby removing unwanted turbulence in the path of an approaching airplane. The deck-edge CVGs would promote smooth flow over the entire flight deck. In the case of a Nimitz-class aircraft carrier like that of Figure 1, there would be a CVG on each of the outer edges of the two left portions of the flight deck and a single CVG on the right side of the flight deck. The forward-most CVG on the left side would take the generated vortex underneath the angled flight deck. A CVG could also be installed on the bow of the flight deck to smooth the flow of air onto the flight deck. In the case of wind incident on the deck from an azimuth other than straight ahead, the vortex generated by the bow CVG could, perhaps, be used to feed the CVG(s) of the leeward side edge of the flight deck.

  2. The development of a turbulent junction vortex system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, F. J.; Shin, J.

    1992-01-01

    The growth and development of a horseshoe vortex system in an incompressible, three-dimensional turbulent junction flow were investigated experimentally. A streamlined cylinder mounted with its axis normal to a flat surface was used to generate the junction vortex flow. The flow environment was characterized by a body Reynolds number of 183,000, based on the leading edge diameter of the streamlined cylinder. The study included surface flow visualizations, surface pressure measurements, and mean flow measurements of total pressure, static pressure, and velocity distributions in three planes around the base of the streamlined cylinder, and in two planes in the wake flow. Some characterizations of vortex properties based on the measured mean cross-flow velocity components are presented. The results show the presence of a single large, dominant vortex, with strong evidence of a very small corner vortex in the junction between the cylinder and the flat surface. The center of the dominant vortex drifts away from both the body and the flat surface as the flow develops along and downstream of the body. The growth and development of the core of the large, dominant vortex are documented.

  3. About the effects of an oscillating miniflap upon the wake on an airfoil, all immersed in turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S, Delnero J.; J, Marañón Di Leo; Colman; J; M, Camocardi; Sainz M, García; F, Muñoz

    2011-12-01

    The present research analyzes the asymmetry in the rolling up shear layers behind the blunt trailing edge of an airfoil 4412 with a miniflap acting as active flow control device and its wake organization. Experimental investigations relating the asymmetry of the vortex flow in the near wake region, able to distort the flow increasing the downwash of an airfoil, have been performed. All of these in a free upstream turbulent flow (1.8% intensity). We examine the near wake region characteristics of a wing model with a 4412 airfoil without and with a rotating miniflap located on the lower surface, near the trailing edge. The flow in the near wake, for 3 x-positions (along chord line) and 20 vertical points in each x-position, was explored, for three different rotating frequencies, in order to identify signs of asymmetry of the initial counter rotating vortex structures. Experimental evidence is presented showing that for typical lifting conditions the shear layer rollup process within the near wake is different for the upper and lower vortices: the shear layer separating from the pressure side of the airfoil begins its rollup immediately behind the trailing edge, creating a stronger vortex while the shear layer from the suction side begins its rollup more downstream creating a weaker vortex. The experimental data were processed by classical statistics methods. Aspects of a mechanism connecting the different evolution and pattern of these initial vortex structures with lift changes and wake alleviating processes, due to these miniflaps, will be studied in future works.

  4. Influence of diameter ratio and aspect ratio on wake development of a dual step cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarusevych, Serhiy; Morton, Chris

    2012-11-01

    A dual step cylinder is composed of a large diameter cylinder (D) attached to the mid-span of a small diameter cylinder (d). In a uniform cross flow, vortex shedding occurs from the small cylinder, above and below the large cylinder. The characteristics of the shed vortices are similar to those found in the wake of a uniform circular cylinder. However, wake characteristics of the large cylinder are influenced significantly by the geometric parameters of the model, namely, the ratio between the large and small cylinder diameters (D/d) and the large cylinder aspect ratio (L/D). The present work investigates the flow past dual step cylinders for ReD = 2100, 0.2 <= L/D <= 3, and 1.33 <= D/d <= 2.67. Experiments have been completed in a water flume facility employing Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) systems, as well as hydrogen bubble flow visualization. The results show that the following three distinct large cylinder wake topologies can be observed for the investigated ranges of L/D and D/d: (i) shedding of uniform spanwise vortices, (ii) shedding of highly deformed three-dimensional vortices, and (iii) no distinct vortex shedding. Complex vortex interactions taking place in the wake of the large cylinder are investigated for the identified flow regimes. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) for funding of this work.

  5. New free-wake analysis of rotorcraft hover performance using influence coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Wachspress, Daniel A.; Bliss, Donald B.

    1989-01-01

    Free-wake analyses of helicopter rotor wakes in hover using time stepping have been shown to encounter instabilities which preclude convergence to valid free-vortex solutions for rotor-wake geometries. Previous work has demonstrated that these convergence difficulties can be overcome by implementing a new free-wake analysis method based on the use of influence coefficients. The present paper reviews this approach and documents its incorporation into a hover performance analysis called Evaluation of Hover Performance using Influence Coefficients (EHPIC). The technical principles underlying the EHPIC code are described with emphasis on steps taken to develop the single-filament wake models used in previous work into a multifilament wake valid for realistic hover performance predictions. The coupling of the wake model to a lifting surface loads analysis is described, and sample problems are solved that illustrate the robustness of the method. Performance calculations are also undertaken for hover to illustrate the utility of EHPIC in the analysis of rotorcraft performance.

  6. The application of experimental data to blade wake interaction noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glegg, Stewart A. L.; Devenport, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Blade wake interaction noise (BWI) has been defined as the broadband noise generated by the ingestion of turbulent trailing tip vortices by helicopter rotors. This has been shown to be the dominant contributor to the subjectively important part of the acoustic spectrum for the approach stage of a helicopter flyover. A prediction method for BWI noise based on the calculated trailing vortex trajectories has been developed and estimates of the vortex turbulence have been made. These measurements were made on a trailing vortex from a split wing arrangement and did not give the spectrum of the velocity fluctuations. A recent experiment carried out to measure the turbulence associated with a trailing vortex and the application of the results to BWI noise prediction is described.

  7. Wake-Up Call

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lisa Marie Rubin

    2002-01-01

    The main character of this case is Denise, who we first meet in the early morning hours as she wakes up in a cold sweat, gasping for breath. But it is her husband, Jeremy, who has been diagnosed with heart disease, not her. What’s going on? In this interrupted case study, in which the other main character is Denise’s heart (who we get to know through a series of “interior” monologues), students learn about the risk factors, symptoms, and consequences of a heart attack. The case is suitable for a course in pathophysiology, first year nursing, enzymology, advanced biology or anatomy, or nutrition.

  8. Analysis of vortex levitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Li; Kenji Kawashima; Toshiharu Kagawa

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a new pneumatic levitation method, called vortex levitation, is introduced. Vortex levitation can achieve non-contact handling by blowing air into a vortex cup through a tangential nozzle to generate a swirling air flow. Experiments and analysis on its basic characteristics were conducted. It was confirmed that negative pressure is caused by the centrifugal force of the swirling

  9. Experimental investigation of the subwing tip and its vortex structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tangler, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    A better understanding of the subwing's vortex structure relative to a square tip for several angles of attack and yaw angles is provided. This comparison included subwings of various chord size and airfoil thickness. Flow visualization, together with performance and wake measurements, provided a comparison between the square tip and subwing tips during both a semi-span wind-tunnel test and a small-scale rotor hover-stand test.

  10. Compression of a turbulent vortex flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roy, Olivier; Le Penven, Lionel

    1996-11-01

    For internal combustion engines, a high turbulence level just before ignition is benefit to combustion. In recent multivalves engines, this can be obtained by generating a large-scale vortex whose axis is perpendicular to the direction of compression (tumble). At the end of compression, this mean vortex breaks up and generates high turbulent fluctuations. Our objective is to simulate this kind of flow using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. A simplified, two-dimensional geometry is considered: the chamber is rectangular and the intake flow enters the chamber through a slot adjacent to one edge of the chamber and facing the piston. We use k-? model and Reynolds stress models (\\overlineu_iu_j-?). In both cases, the mean flow is almost identical at the beginning of compression and similar to a 2D Taylor vortex flow (except near the walls). The turbulent kinetic energy k and the turbulent viscosity k^2/? are however one order of magnitude larger in the case of k-? model. The vortex evolution during the compression is also very different. In one case (k-?), the mean vortex and the turbulent energy decay smoothly, whereas, in the other case (\\overlineu_iu_j-?), intense secondary vortices are generated and a strong increase of k is predicted at the end of compression. We compare these results to that obtained in the laminar case (compression of a Taylor vortex) and discuss the existence of 3D effects (instability theory of elliptical flows).

  11. Measurement and prediction of mean velocity and turbulence structure in the near wake of an airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hah, C.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the near wake of a thin airfoil at various incidence angles is reported in this paper. The airfoil (NACA 0012 basic thickness form) was located in a wind tunnel, and the wake structure was measured using hot-wire sensors. The measurements of mean-velocity, turbulence intensity and Reynolds-stress components across the wake at several distances downstream show the complex nature of the near wake and its asymmetrical behavior. The asymmetry in the wake property, which is maintained up to a length of 1.5 chords downstream of the trailing edge of the blade, is dependent on the incidence angle of the inlet flow. The streamwise velocity defect in an asymmetric wake decays more slowly compared to that of a symmetric wake. The streamline curvature due to the blade loading has a substantial effect on the mean velocity profile as well as the turbulence structure. The numerical study of the same wake indicates that the existing turbulence closure models need some modification to account for the asymmetric characteristics of the wake.

  12. ACOUSTIC VALIDATION OF A NEW CODE USING PARTICLE WAKE AERODYNAMICS AND GEOMETRICALLY-EXACT BEAM STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel G. Opoku; Fred Nitzsche

    This paper describes the validation of a new code for predicting both aeroacoustic and aeroelastic behaviour of hingeless rotors. The structural component was based a non-linear beam element model considering small strains and finite rotations, which uses a mixed variational intrinsic formulation. The aerodynamic component was built on a low- order panel method incorporating a vortex particle free-wake model. The

  13. WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT NORTHWEST FAÇADE AND BLAST WALL, DATE UNKNOWN - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  14. Effect of upstream rotor vortical disturbances on the time-averaged performance of axial compressor stators. Part 2: Rotor tip vortex/streamwise vortex-stator blade interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Valkov, T.V. [Shell International Gas Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Tan, C.S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Gas Turbine Lab.

    1999-07-01

    In a two-part paper, key computed results from a set of first-of-a-kind numerical simulations on the unsteady interaction of axial compressor stator with upstream rotor wakes and tip leakage vortices are employed to elucidate their impact on the time-averaged performance of the stator. Detailed interrogation of the computed flowfield showed that for both wakes and tip leakage vortices, the impact of these mechanisms can be described on the same physical basis. Specifically, there are two generic mechanisms with significant influence on performance: reversible recovery of the energy in the wakes/tip vortices (beneficial) and the associated nontransitional boundary layer response (detrimental). In the presence of flow unsteadiness associated with rotor wakes and tip vortices, the efficiency of the stator under consideration is higher than that obtained using a mixed-out steady flow approximation. The effects of tip vortices and wakes are of comparable importance. The impact of stator interaction with upstream wakes and vortices depends on the following parameters: axial spacing, loading, and the frequency of wake fluctuations in the rotor frame. At reduced spacing, this impact becomes significant. The most important aspect of the tip vortex is the relative velocity defect and the associated relative total pressure defect, which is perceived by the stator in the same manner as a wake. In Part 2, the focus will be on the interaction of stator with the moving upstream rotor tip and streamwise vortices, the controlling parametric trends, and implications on design.

  15. Direct Monte Carlo Simulations of Hypersonic Low-Density Flows about an ASTV Including Wake Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dogra, V. K.; Moss, J. N.; Wilmoth, R. G.; Price, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Results of a numerical study concerning flow past a 70-deg blunted cone in hypersonic low-density flow environments are presented using the direct simulation Monte-Carlo method. The flow conditions simulated are those that can be obtained in existing low-density hypersonic wind tunnels. Results indicate that a stable vortex forms in the near wake at and below a freestream Knudsen number (based on cone diameter) of 0.01 and the size of the vortex increases with decreasing Knudsen number. The base region of the flow remains in thermal nonequilibrium for all cases considered herein.

  16. The wake structure and thrust performance of a rigid low-aspect-ratio pitching panel

    PubMed Central

    BUCHHOLZ, JAMES H. J.; SMITS, ALEXANDER J.

    2009-01-01

    Thrust performance and wake structure were investigated for a rigid rectangular panel pitching about its leading edge in a free stream. For ReC = O(104), thrust coefficient was found to depend primarily on Strouhal number St and the aspect ratio of the panel AR. Propulsive efficiency was sensitive to aspect ratio only for AR less than 0.83; however, the magnitude of the peak efficiency of a given panel with variation in Strouhal number varied inversely with the amplitude to span ratio A/S, while the Strouhal number of optimum efficiency increased with increasing A/S. Peak efficiencies between 9 % and 21 % were measured. Wake structures corresponding to a subset of the thrust measurements were investigated using dye visualization and digital particle image velocimetry. In general, the wakes divided into two oblique jets; however, when operating at or near peak efficiency, the near wake in many cases represented a Kármán vortex street with the signs of the vortices reversed. The three-dimensional structure of the wakes was investigated in detail for AR = 0.54, A/S = 0.31 and ReC = 640. Three distinct wake structures were observed with variation in Strouhal number. For approximately 0.20 < St < 0.25, the main constituent of the wake was a horseshoe vortex shed by the tips and trailing edge of the panel. Streamwise variation in the circulation of the streamwise horseshoe legs was consistent with a spanwise shear layer bridging them. For St > 0.25, a reorganization of some of the spanwise vorticity yielded a bifurcating wake formed by trains of vortex rings connected to the tips of the horseshoes. For St > 0.5, an additional structure formed from a perturbation of the streamwise leg which caused a spanwise expansion. The wake model paradigm established here is robust with variation in Reynolds number and is consistent with structures observed for a wide variety of unsteady flows. Movies are available with the online version of the paper. PMID:19746195

  17. The wake structure and thrust performance of a rigid low-aspect-ratio pitching panel.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, James H J; Smits, Alexander J

    2008-04-30

    Thrust performance and wake structure were investigated for a rigid rectangular panel pitching about its leading edge in a free stream. For Re(C) = O(10(4)), thrust coefficient was found to depend primarily on Strouhal number St and the aspect ratio of the panel AR. Propulsive efficiency was sensitive to aspect ratio only for AR less than 0.83; however, the magnitude of the peak efficiency of a given panel with variation in Strouhal number varied inversely with the amplitude to span ratio A/S, while the Strouhal number of optimum efficiency increased with increasing A/S. Peak efficiencies between 9 % and 21 % were measured. Wake structures corresponding to a subset of the thrust measurements were investigated using dye visualization and digital particle image velocimetry. In general, the wakes divided into two oblique jets; however, when operating at or near peak efficiency, the near wake in many cases represented a Kármán vortex street with the signs of the vortices reversed. The three-dimensional structure of the wakes was investigated in detail for AR = 0.54, A/S = 0.31 and Re(C) = 640. Three distinct wake structures were observed with variation in Strouhal number. For approximately 0.20 < St < 0.25, the main constituent of the wake was a horseshoe vortex shed by the tips and trailing edge of the panel. Streamwise variation in the circulation of the streamwise horseshoe legs was consistent with a spanwise shear layer bridging them. For St > 0.25, a reorganization of some of the spanwise vorticity yielded a bifurcating wake formed by trains of vortex rings connected to the tips of the horseshoes. For St > 0.5, an additional structure formed from a perturbation of the streamwise leg which caused a spanwise expansion. The wake model paradigm established here is robust with variation in Reynolds number and is consistent with structures observed for a wide variety of unsteady flows. Movies are available with the online version of the paper. PMID:19746195

  18. On the formation of vortex rings in coaxial tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Lian

    2011-11-01

    The formation of vortex rings within coaxial tubes of different diameter is investigated experimentally and numerically. PIV measurements were carried out in a water tank equipped with a piston-cylinder apparatus used to generate vortex rings inside a series of coaxial tubes with tube to piston diameter ratios, DT / D , ranging from 4 to 1.5. In order to distinguish between the effect confinement has on the formation of isolated vortex rings from those formed with a trailing jet flow, non- dimensional stroke ratios below and above the formation number were investigated, L / D = 2 . 5 and 10 respectively. For DT / D > 2 and L / D s below the formation number the kinematics of the vortex rings follow classical inviscid theory in so much as their self-induced velocity decreases linearly with decreasing tube diameter in accordance with the image theorem. For DT / D <= 2 boundary layer separation along the tube wall begins to interfere with the vortex during its roll-up phase. For vortex rings below the formation number, the vortex core is briefly arrested upon completion of the piston stroke. On the other hand, long L / D s give rise to even more complex dynamics. When DT / D = 2 the interaction between boundary layer and the starting jet acts to suppress vortex ring formation altogether. However, as confinement is increased further to DT / D = 1 . 5 the formation of a lead vortex ring re-appears but with a circulation lower than the formation number before rapidly decaying.

  19. Glory, Vortex Street off Baja California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On June 19, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured both a vortex street and a glory visible amid the lattice of clouds over the Pacific Ocean off Baja California. In this image, the swirling clouds known as vortex streets appear along the left edge of the image, stretching southward from Isla Guadalupe. Another NASA satellite captured an earlier example of vortex streets in June 2000. These atmospheric vortices, known as Von Karman vortex streets, often occur in the wake of an obstacle to air flow, such as an island. Stratocumulus clouds--low-lying, sheets of puffy clouds-- over the ocean show the impact of the island on air flow visible though their alternating pattern of clockwise and counter-clockwise swirls. Southeast of the vortex street, a glory, which resembles a rainbow, hovers above the cloud cover. The glory is faint but large, 200 to 300 kilometers long, along a north-south orientation. This phenomenon can occur when the satellite passes directly between the Sun and a bank of clouds below. (People also observe them while looking down on clouds from airplanes.) Not just any kind of cloud can produce a glory; only clouds composed entirely of water droplets (as opposed to ice crystals) can make them. The droplets that form glories generally have diameters of less than 50 micrometers (a micrometers is a millionth of a meter). The water droplets bend the light, showing its different wavelengths, or colors. In this glory, reds and oranges are most visible. NASA image by Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center.

  20. Velocity and rolling-moment measurements in the wake of a swept-wing model in the 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, V. J.; Corsiglia, V. R.; Schwind, R. G.; Frick, J. K. D.; Lemmer, O. J.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements were made in the wake of a swept wing model to study the structure of lift generated vortex wakes shed by conventional span loadings and by several span loadings designed to reduce wake velocities. Variations in the span loading on the swept wing generator were obtained by deflecting seven flap segments on each side by amounts determined by vortex lattice theory to approximate the desired span loadings. The resulting wakes were probed with a three component, hot wire probe to measure velocity, and with a wing to measure the rolling moment that would be induced on a following aircraft. The experimental techniques are described herein, and the measured velocity and rolling moments are presented, along with some comparisons with the applicable theories.

  1. Electro-magnetic Feedback Control of Wake Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhihua; Aubry, Nadine

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a closed loop control algorithm for manipulating wake flows past a cylinder in an electrically low-conducting fluid (e.g. seawater). Our goal is to avoid flow separation from the surface of the body and fully suppress vortex shedding. For this purpose, we use arrays of electrodes and permanent magnets generating electro-magnetic body forces, i.e. Lorentz forces, in the vicinity of the solid surface. It was recently demonstrated experimentally and numerically that an array of electrodes and magnets distributed all around the body and energized at all times can suppress vortex shedding and delay flow separation [1]. We show here that more localized electrode and magnet arrays, activated only at times when they are needed, can achieve similar results and even suppress separation completely. In addition the drag is zero at all times. Our technique is based on closed loop control using reduced flow information. [1] T. Weier, G. Gerbeth, G. Mutschke, O. Lielausis, E. Platacis, ``Experiments on cylinder wake stabilization in an electrolyte solution by means of electromagnetic forces localized on the cylinder surface", Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science (1998).

  2. A Model of Compressor Blade Row Interaction with Shock Induced Vortex Shedding

    E-print Network

    Cincinnati, University of

    A Model of Compressor Blade Row Interaction with Shock Induced Vortex Shedding Mark G. Turner (SMI) rig is a high-speed, highly-loaded compressor consisting of three blade-rows: a wake generator, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45431 The time accurate blade row interactions of a transonic rotor

  3. Control of Vortex Shedding Behind a Rectangular Cylinder Near the Ground

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo-Sung Lee; Tae-Yoon Kim; Dong-Ho Lee

    2005-01-01

    The present study focuses on the effects of the aspect ratio of a rectangular cylinder and the gap height from the ground to the unsteady wake fields around the rectangular cylinder near the ground. The results indicate that the vortex begins to shed by the interaction of the separated shear layer on the upper surface of the cylinder with the

  4. The propeller tip vortex. A possible contributor to aircraft cabin noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Miller; J. H. Dittmar; R. J. Jeracki

    1981-01-01

    Although the assumption is generally made that cabin noise levels are governed by the transmission of propeller generated noise through the fuselage sidewall, it was postulated that the propeller wake striking the wing, in particular pressure disturbances generated downstream of the propeller by the action of the propeller tip vortex, could be strong enough to excite the aircraft structure and

  5. Role of leading-edge vortex flows in prop-fan interaction noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonich, J. C.; McCormick, D. C.; Lavrich, P. L.

    1993-04-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the interaction mechanisms associated with wakes from unswept, aft-, and forward-swept vanes incident on rotating prop-fan blades. Wakes from a single, stationary upstream vane interacted with a single rotating prop-fan. Comprehensive flowfield and acoustic measurements were acquired over a range of takeoff operating conditions. The forward-swept vane caused the leading-edge vortex and a core velocity defect associated with it to move inboard towards the hub and away from the high-speed tip region of the prop-fan. The tip vortex had only a small axial velocity disturbance associated with it. This is in contrast to the aft-swept vane which directed the leading-edge vortex out towards the tip, and led a large axial velocity disturbance to be swept toward the prop-fan tip region. Noise measurements revealed that the forward-swept vane wakes generated relatively less interaction noise than the aft-swept vane wakes, at equivalent vane loadings. From this simulation study, a potential noise reduction strategy for the counter-rotating prop-fan is suggested which uses a forward-swept/aft-swept counter-rotating prop-fan combination. By reducing the sweep or modifying the spanwise loading on the blades, it may be possible to control the magnitude and/or location of the velocity defect associated with the leading-edge vortex.

  6. A 3D Numerical Method for Studying Vortex For mation Behind a Moving Plate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Y. Hou; V. G. Stredie; T. Y. Wu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a three-dimensional numerical method for computing the wake behind a flat plate advancing perpendicular to the flow. Our numerical method is inspired by the panel method of J. Katz and A. Plotkin (J. Katz and A. Plotkin, Low- speed Aerodynamics, 2001) and the 2D vortex blob method of Krasny (R. Krasny, Lectures in Appl. Math.,

  7. A Theoretical Investigation of Vortex-Sheet Deformation Behind a Highly Loaded Wing and Its Effect on Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cone, Clarence D., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    The induced drag polar is developed for wt-ngs capable of attaining extremely high loadings while possessing an elliptical distribution of circulation. This development is accomplished through a theoretical investigation of the vortex-wake deformation process and the deduction of the airfoil forces from the impulse and kinetic energy contents of the ultimate wake form. The investigation shows that the induced velocities of the wake limit the maximum lift coefficient to a value of 1.94 times the wing aspect ratio, for aspect ratios equal to or less than 6.5, and that the section properties of the airfoil limit the lift coefficient to 12.6 for aspect ratios greater than 6.5. Relations are developed for the rate of deformation of the vortex wake. It is also shown that linear wing theory is app1icable up to lift coefficients equal to 1.1 times the aspect ratio.

  8. Centrifugal instability of Stokes layers in crossflow: the case of a forced cylinder wake

    E-print Network

    D'Adamo, Juan; Wesfreid, José Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The wake flow around a circular cylinder at $Re\\approx100$ performing rotatory oscillations has been thoroughly discussed in the literature, mostly focusing on the modifications to the natural B\\'enard-von K\\'arm\\'an vortex street that result from the forced shedding modes locked to the rotatory oscillation frequency. The usual experimental and theoretical frameworks at these Reynolds numbers are quasi-two-dimensional, since the secondary instabilities bringing a three-dimensional structure to the cylinder wake flow occur only at higher Reynolds numbers. In the present paper we show that a three-dimensional structure can appear below the usual three-dimensionalization threshold, when forcing with frequencies lower than the natural vortex shedding frequency, at high amplitudes, as a result of a previously unreported mechanism: a pulsed centrifugal instability of the oscillating Stokes layer at the wall of the cylinder. The present numerical investigation lets us in this way propose a physical explanation for t...

  9. Wake patterns of the wings and tail of hovering hummingbirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, Douglas L.; Princevac, Marko; Pan, Hansheng; Lozano, Jesse

    2009-05-01

    The flow fields of slowly flying bats and faster-flying birds differ in that bats produce two vortex loops during each stroke, one per wing, and birds produce a single vortex loop per stroke. In addition, the circulation at stroke transition approaches zero in bats but remains strong in birds. It is unknown if these difference derive from fundamental differences in wing morphology or are a consequence of flight speed. Here, we present an analysis of the horizontal flow field underneath hovering Anna’s hummingbirds ( Calypte anna) to describe the wake of a bird flying at zero forward velocity. We also consider how the hummingbird tail interacts with the wake generated by the wings. High-speed image recording and analysis from three orthogonal perspectives revealed that the wing tips reach peak velocities in the middle of each stroke and approach zero velocity at stroke transition. Hummingbirds use complex tail kinematic patterns ranging from in phase to antiphase cycling with respect to the wings, covering several phase shifted patterns. We employed particle image velocimetry to attain detailed horizontal flow measurements at three levels with respect to the tail: in the tail, at the tail tip, and just below the tail. The velocity patterns underneath the wings indicate that flow oscillates along the ventral-dorsal axis in response to the down- and up-strokes and that the sideways flows with respect to the bird are consistently from the lateral to medial. The region around the tail is dominated by axial flows in dorsal to ventral direction. We propose that these flows are generated by interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and that the tail actively defects flows to generate moments that contribute to pitch stability. The flow fields images also revealed distinct vortex loops underneath each wing, which were generated during each stroke. From these data, we propose a model for the primary flow structures of hummingbirds that more strongly resembles the bat model. Thus, pairs of unconnected vortex loops may be shared features of different animals during hovering and slow forward flight.

  10. Wake patterns of the wings and tail of hovering hummingbirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, Douglas L.; Princevac, Marko; Pan, Hansheng; Lozano, Jesse

    The flow fields of slowly flying bats and fasterflying birds differ in that bats produce two vortex loops during each stroke, one per wing, and birds produce a single vortex loop per stroke. In addition, the circulation at stroke transition approaches zero in bats but remains strong in birds. It is unknown if these difference derive from fundamental differences in wing morphology or are a consequence of flight speed. Here, we present an analysis of the horizontal flow field underneath hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) to describe the wake of a bird flying at zero forward velocity. We also consider how the hummingbird tail interacts with the wake generated by the wings. High-speed image recording and analysis from three orthogonal perspectives revealed that the wing tips reach peak velocities in the middle of each stroke and approach zero velocity at stroke transition. Hummingbirds use complex tail kinematic patterns ranging from in phase to antiphase cycling with respect to the wings, covering several phase shifted patterns. We employed particle image velocimetry to attain detailed horizontal flow measurements at three levels with respect to the tail: in the tail, at the tail tip, and just below the tail. The velocity patterns underneath the wings indicate that flow oscillates along the ventral-dorsal axis in response to the down- and up-strokes and that the sideways flows with respect to the bird are consistently from the lateral to medial. The region around the tail is dominated by axial flows in dorsal to ventral direction. We propose that these flows are generated by interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and that the tail actively defects flows to generate moments that contribute to pitch stability. The flow fields images also revealed distinct vortex loops underneath each wing, which were generated during each stroke. From these data, we propose a model for the primary flow structures of hummingbirds that more strongly resembles the bat model. Thus, pairs of unconnected vortex loops may be shared features of different animals during hovering and slow forward flight.

  11. Streamwise vortex meander in a plane mixing layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leboeuf, Richard L.; Mehta, Rabindra D.

    1993-01-01

    Previous measurements in a two-stream plane mixing layer have shown that the mean streamwise vorticity decays monotonically with downstream distance such that it is absent in the far-field (self-similar) region. It was not clear at that time if this measured decay was a result of actual vortex diffusion or increasing vortex meander within the mixing layer. The present experimental study was conducted in order to determine the existence of streamwise vortex meander in a mixing layer, and if present, its significance on the measured properties. The dependence of the velocity cross-correlation on the fixed probe location is considered a good indicator of the stationarity of the streamwise vortex location. The cross-correlation measurements obtained here indicate that the spanwise meander is negligible while the transverse apparent meander (normal to the plane of the mixing layer) is relatively large.

  12. Collisionless Damping of Laser Wakes in Plasma Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Shvets, G.

    1998-08-01

    Excitation of accelerating modes in transversely inhomogeneous plasma channels is considered as an initial value problem. Discrete eigenmodes are supported by plasma channels with sharp density gradients. These eigenmodes are collisionlessly damped as the gradients are smoothed. Using collisionless Landau damping as the analogy, the existence and damping of these "quasi-modes" is studied by constructing and analytically continuing the causal Green's function of wake excitation into the lower half of the complex frequency plane. Electromagnetic nature of the plasma wakes in the channel makes their excitation nonlocal. This results in the algebraic decay of the fields with time due to phase-mixing of plasma oscillations with spatially-varying fequencies. Characteristic decay rate is given by the mixing time, which corresponds to the dephasing of two plasma fluid elements separated by the collisionless skin depth. For wide channels the exact expressions for the field evolution are derived. Implications for electron acceleration in plasma channels are discussed.

  13. Wake attenuation in large Reynolds number dispersed two-phase flows.

    PubMed

    Risso, Frédéric; Roig, Véronique; Amoura, Zouhir; Riboux, Guillaume; Billet, Anne-Marie

    2008-06-28

    The dynamics of high Reynolds number-dispersed two-phase flow strongly depends on the wakes generated behind the moving bodies that constitute the dispersed phase. The length of these wakes is considerably reduced compared with those developing behind isolated bodies. In this paper, this wake attenuation is studied from several complementary experimental investigations with the aim of determining how it depends on the body Reynolds number and the volume fraction alpha. It is first shown that the wakes inside a homogeneous swarm of rising bubbles decay exponentially with a characteristic length that scales as the ratio of the bubble diameter d to the drag coefficient Cd, and surprisingly does not depend on alpha for 10(-2)wakes in a fixed array of spheres randomly distributed in space (alpha=2 x 10(-2)) is observed to be stronger than that of the wake of an isolated sphere in a turbulent incident flow, but similar to that of bubbles within a homogeneous swarm. It thus appears that the wakes in dispersed two-phase flows are controlled by multi-body interactions, which cause a much faster decay than turbulent fluctuations having the same energy and integral length scale. Decomposition of velocity fluctuations into a contribution related to temporal variations and that associated to the random character of the body positions is proposed as a perspective for studying the mechanisms responsible for multi-body interactions. PMID:18348974

  14. Simulation of spray dispersion in a simplified heavy vehicle wake

    SciTech Connect

    Paschkewitz, J S

    2006-01-13

    Simulations of spray dispersion in a simplified tractor-trailer wake have been completed with the goal of obtaining a better understanding of how to mitigate this safety hazard. The Generic Conventional Model (GCM) for the tractor-trailer was used. The impact of aerodynamic drag reduction devices, specifically trailer-mounted base flaps, on the transport of spray in the vehicle wake was considered using the GCM. This analysis demonstrated that base flaps including a bottom plate may actually worsen motorist visibility because of the interaction of fine spray with large vortex flows in the wake. This work suggests that to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to design and evaluate spray mitigation strategies the jet or sheet breakup processes can be modeled using an array of injectors of small (< 0.1 mm) water droplets; however the choice of size distribution, injection locations, directions and velocities is largely unknown and requires further study. Possible containment strategies would include using flow structures to 'focus' particles into regions away from passing cars or surface treatments to capture small drops.

  15. Irregular sleep-wake syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Sleep-wake syndrome - irregular ... routine during the day. The amount of total sleep time is normal, but the body clock loses ... have a different condition, such as shift work sleep disorder or jet lag syndrome.

  16. A Family of Vortices to Study Axisymmetric Vortex Breakdown and Reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    A new analytic model describing a family of vortices has been developed to study some of the axisymmetric vortex breakdown and reconnection fluid dynamic processes underlying body-vortex interactions that are frequently manifested in rotorcraft and propeller-driven fixed-wing aircraft wakes. The family of vortices incorporates a wide range of prescribed initial vorticity distributions -- including single or dual-core vorticity distributions. The result is analytical solutions for the vorticity and velocities for each member of the family of vortices. This model is of sufficient generality to further illustrate the dependence of vortex reconnection and breakdown on initial vorticity distribution as was suggested by earlier analytical work. This family of vortices, though laminar in nature, is anticipated to provide valuable insight into the vortical evolution of large-scale rotor and propeller wakes.

  17. Gravitational wakes in Saturn's rings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Salo

    1992-01-01

    Numerical simulations, including both gravitational interactions and dissipative impacts between particles, are used here to study realistic models for Saturn's rings. For the C-ring there is no instability, but for the B- and A-rings gravitational wakes form. In the A-ring these wakes are so strong that particles trapped in them from meter-sized aggregate particles, which themselves lead to further instability.

  18. The structure of the wake generated by a submarine model in yaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok, A.; Van Buren, T.; Smits, A. J.

    2015-06-01

    The turbulent wake of a submarine model in yaw was investigated using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry at The model (DARPA SUBOFF idealized submarine geometry) is mounted in a low-speed wind tunnel using a support that mimics the sail, and it is yawed so that the body moves in the plane normal to the support. The measurements reveal the formation of a pair of streamwise vortices that are asymmetric in strength. The weaker vortex quickly diffuses, and in the absence of further diffusion, the stronger vortex maintains its strength even at the furthest downstream location. It is suggested that the flow fields obtained here using a semi-infinite sail as a support will be similar to those obtained using a finite length sail since its tip vortex would not interact significantly with the body vortices present in the wake, at least for a considerable distance downstream of the stern Hence, a submarine in yaw is expected to generate wakes which are inherently more persistent than one in pitch, and the strong asymmetries in yaw are expected to produce a net rolling moment on the body.

  19. Investigation on 3D t wake flow structures of swimming bionic fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, G.-X.; Tan, G.-K.; Lai, G.-J.

    2012-10-01

    A bionic experimental platform was designed for the purpose of investigating time accurate three-dimensional flow field, using digital particle image velocimetry (DSPIV). The wake behind the flapping trail of a robotic fish model was studied at high spatial resolution. The study was performed in a water channel. A robot fish model was designed and built. The model was fixed onto a rigid support framework using a cable-supporting method, with twelve stretched wires. The entire tail of the model can perform prescribed motions in two degrees of freedom, mainly in carangiform mode, by driving its afterbody and lunate caudal fin respectively. The DSPIV system was set up to operate in a translational manner, measuring velocity field in a series of parallel slices. Phase locked measurements were repeated for a number of runs, allowing reconstruction of phase average flow field. Vortex structures with phase history of the wake were obtained. The study reveals some new and complex three-dimensional flow structures in the wake of the fish, including "reverse hairpin vortex" and "reverse Karman S-H vortex rings", allowing insight into physics of this complex flow.

  20. Numerical prediction of wakes in cascades and compressor rotors including the effects of mixing. II - Rotor passage flow and wakes including the effects of spanwise mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakshminarayana, B.; Suryavamshi, N.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a numerical investigation to predict the flow field including wakes and mixing in axial-flow compressor rotors are presented. The wake behavior in a moderately loaded compressor rotor is studied numerically using a 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes solver with a high Reynolds number form of a turbulence model. The equations are solved using a time dependent implicit technique. The agreement between the measured data and the predictions is good; including the blade boundary-layer profiles, wake mean-velocity profiles, and decay. The ability of the pseudocompressibility scheme to predict the entire flow field including the near and far wake profiles and its decay characteristics, effect of loading, and the viscous losses of a 3D rotor flow field are demonstrated. The mixing in the downstream regions away from the hub and annulus walls is dominated by wake diffusion. In regions away from the walls the radial mixing is predominantly caused by the transport of mass, momentum, and energy by the radial component of velocity in the wake.

  1. Lift and wakes of flying snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Anush; Socha, John J.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.; Barba, L. A.

    2014-03-01

    Flying snakes use a unique method of aerial locomotion: they jump from tree branches, flatten their bodies, and undulate through the air to produce a glide. The shape of their body cross-section during the glide plays an important role in generating lift. This paper presents a computational investigation of the aerodynamics of the cross-sectional shape. Two-dimensional simulations of incompressible flow past the anatomically correct cross-section of the species Chrysopelea paradisi show that a significant enhancement in lift appears at a 35° angle of attack, above Reynolds numbers 2000. Previous experiments on physical models also obtained an increased lift, at the same angle of attack. The flow is inherently three-dimensional in physical experiments, due to fluid instabilities, and it is thus intriguing that the enhanced lift also appears in the two-dimensional simulations. The simulations point to the lift enhancement arising from the early separation of the boundary layer on the dorsal surface of the snake profile, without stall. The separated shear layer rolls up and interacts with secondary vorticity in the near-wake, inducing the primary vortex to remain closer to the body and thus cause enhanced suction, resulting in higher lift.

  2. Unsteady rotor aerodynamics using a vortex panel method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crispin, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of the potential incompressible flow about a helicopter rotor blade is solved using an unsteady vortex-panel method where the mutual interaction between the blade and the distorting free wake is taken into account. The present method alleviates the need to rely upon measured-wake geometries or p5escribed-wake models in order to calculate the airloads. A computer program has been developed which is capable of predicting the geometry of the time-dependent three-dimensional (3-D) wake and the instantaneous loadings for a single blade in hover, climb, and forward flight. The solution is obtained by using a time-accurate step-by-step procedure. The complex-wake geometry at any time is presented graphically with a computer graphics system. Calculated results are compared with published data for a rotor blade in both hover and forward flight. The code has also been applied to the study of the effect of changing blade tip geometry.

  3. Vortex generation and wave-vortex interaction over a concave plate with roughness and suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertolotti, Fabio

    1993-01-01

    The generation and amplification of vortices by surface homogeneities, both in the form of surface waviness and of wall-normal velocity, is investigated using the nonlinear parabolic stability equations. Transients and issues of algebraic growth are avoided through the use of a similarity solution as initial condition for the vortex. In the absence of curvature, the vortex decays as the square root of 1/x when flowing over streamwise aligned riblets of constant height, and grows as the square root of x when flowing over a corresponding streamwise aligned variation of blowing/suction transpiration velocity. However, in the presence of wall inhomogeneities having both streamwise and spanwise periodicity, the growth of the vortex can be much larger. In the presence of curvature, the vortex develops into a Gortler vortex. The 'direct' and 'indirect' interaction mechanisms possible in wave-vortex interaction are presented. The 'direct' interaction does not lead to strong resonance with the flow conditions investigated. The 'indirect' interaction leads to K-type transition.

  4. Basic analysis of terminal operation benefits resulting from reduced vortex separation minima. [for aircraft operation in terminal area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, L.

    1977-01-01

    The impact of reducing the wake vortex minimum separation required behind heavy jets on terminal area operation rate was analyzed. The effect on arrival saturation and steady state average delay was determined for various percentages mix of heavy and large jet traffic samples operating under various precision of interarrival spacing. Benefits increase with percentage of heavy aircraft and with precision of control. These results demonstrate the payoff possible from research to reduce the severity of the trailing vortex by aerodynamic means.

  5. Anisotropic and long-range vortex interactions in two-dimensional dipolar Bose gases

    E-print Network

    Mulkerin, B C; O'Dell, D H J; Martin, A M; Parker, N G

    2013-01-01

    We perform a theoretical study into how dipole-dipole interactions modify the properties of superfluid vortices within the context of a two-dimensional atomic Bose gas of co-oriented dipoles. The reduced density at a vortex acts like a giant anti-dipole, changing the density profile and generating an effective dipolar potential centred at the vortex core whose most slowly decaying terms go as $1/\\rho^2$ and $\\ln(\\rho)/\\rho^3$. These effects modify the vortex-vortex interaction which, in particular, becomes anisotropic for dipoles polarized in the plane. Striking modifications to vortex-vortex dynamics are demonstrated, i.e. anisotropic co-rotation dynamics and the suppression of vortex annihilation.

  6. An experimental investigation of propeller wakes using a laser Doppler velocimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundar, R. M.; Sullivan, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations on three single rotation propellers are summarized in this paper. Force measurements showed a definite improvement in efficiency at low advance ratios and in static operation due to use of proplets. Extensive velocity measurements were made using a LDV system. The large amounts of data gathered are presented to reveal clearly the tip vortex streaming back from the propeller. The velocities were also processed using momentum theorem to obtain the thrust and power radial distributions as well as the integrated thrust and power coefficients. The thrust coefficient compared well with force measurements and theoretical prediction from vortex lattice and Goldstein analysis. However, the power coefficient calculated from the momentum analysis was consistently lower than the theoretical or measured values. The measured velocities were also used to compute the vorticity and the trajectory of the tip vortex in the wake behind the propeller.

  7. On vortex generating jets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zia U. Khan; James P. Johnston

    2000-01-01

    Vortex generating jets (VGJs) are jets that pass through a wall and into a crossflow to create a dominant streamwise vortex that remains embedded in the boundary layer over the wall. The VGJ is characterized by its pitch and skew angles (? and ?) and the velocity ratio (VR) between the jet and the crossflow. For VR=1.0, the VGJ configuration

  8. Vortex diode jet

    DOEpatents

    Houck, Edward D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01

    A fluid transfer system that combines a vortex diode with a jet ejector to transfer liquid from one tank to a second tank by a gas pressurization method having no moving mechanical parts in the fluid system. The vortex diode is a device that has a high resistance to flow in one direction and a low resistance to flow in the other.

  9. Scientist Examines Tornado Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this Quick Time movie, a scientist examines what appears to be a tornado vortex (blue) coming out of a thunderstorm. The scientist uses 3D glasses to be able to see in 3 dimensions the different flows going out into the vortex. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

  10. Evolution of vortex knots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricca, Renzo L.; Samuels, David C.; Barenghi, Carlo F.

    1999-07-01

    For the first time since Lord Kelvin's original conjectures of 1875 we address and study the time evolution of vortex knots in the context of the Euler equations. The vortex knot is given by a thin vortex filament in the shape of a torus knot [script T]p,q (p>1, q>1; p, q co-prime integers). The time evolution is studied numerically by using the Biot Savart (BS) induction law and the localized induction approximation (LIA) equation. Results obtained using the two methods are compared to each other and to the analytic stability analysis of Ricca (1993, 1995). The most interesting finding is that thin vortex knots which are unstable under the LIA have a greatly extended lifetime when the BS law is used. These results provide useful information for modelling complex structures by using elementary vortex knots.

  11. Effect of upstream rotor vortical disturbances on the time-averaged performance of axial compressor stators. Part 1: Framework of technical approach and wake-stator blade interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Valkov, T.V. [Shell International Gas Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Tan, C.S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Gas Turbine Lab.

    1999-07-01

    In a two-part paper, key computed results from a set of first-of-a-kind numerical simulations on the unsteady interaction of axial compressor stators with upstream rotor wakes and tip leakage vortices are employed to elucidate their impact on the time-averaged performance of the stator. Detailed interrogation of the computed flowfield showed that for both wakes and tip leakage vortices, the impact of these mechanisms can be described on the same physical basis. Specifically, there are two generic mechanisms with significant influence on performance: reversible recovery of the energy in the wakes/tip vortices (beneficial) and the associated nontransitional boundary layer response (detrimental). In the presence of flow unsteadiness associated with rotor wakes and tip vortices, the efficiency of the stator under consideration is higher than that obtained using a mixed-out steady flow approximation. The effects of tip vortices and wakes are of comparable importance. The impact of stator interaction with upstream wakes and vortices depends on the following parameters: axial spacing, loading, and the frequency of wake fluctuations in the rotor frame. At reduced spacing, this impact becomes significant. The most important aspect of the tip vortex is the relative velocity defect and the associated relative total pressure defect, which is perceived by the stator in the same manner as a wake. In Part 1, the focus will be on the framework of technical approach, and the interaction of stator with the moving upstream rotor wakes.

  12. Improving actuator disk wake model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Gomes, V. M. M. G.; Palma, J. M. L. M.; Silva Lopes, A.

    2014-06-01

    The wind energy industry has traditionally relied on simple wake models for estimating Wind Turbine (WT) wake losses. Despite limitations, low requirements in terms of detailed rotor information makes their use feasible, unlike more complex models, such as Blade Element Method (BEM) or Actuator Line. Froude's Actuator Disk (AD) does not suffer the simpler model's limitation of prescribing the wake through a closed set of equations, while sharing with them the low rotor data requirements. On the other hand they require some form of parametrization to close the model and calculate total thrust acting on the flow. An Actuator Disk model was developed, using an iterative algorithm based on Froude's one-dimensional momentum theory to determine the WT's performance, proving to be successful in estimating the performance of both machines in undisturbed flow and in the wake of an upstream machines. Before Froude's AD limitations compared to more complex rotor models, load distributions emulating those of a BEM model were tested. The results show that little impact is obtained at 3 rotor diameters downstream and beyond, agreeing with common definition of a far-wake that starts at 1-2 diameters downstream, where rotor characteristics become negligible and atmospheric flow effects dominate.

  13. High Speed Vortex Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Allen, Jerry M.

    2000-01-01

    A review of the research conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Langley Research Center (LaRC) into high-speed vortex flows during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s is presented. The data reviewed is for flat plates, cavities, bodies, missiles, wings, and aircraft. These data are presented and discussed relative to the design of future vehicles. Also presented is a brief historical review of the extensive body of high-speed vortex flow research from the 1940s to the present in order to provide perspective of the NASA LaRC's high-speed research results. Data are presented which show the types of vortex structures which occur at supersonic speeds and the impact of these flow structures to vehicle performance and control is discussed. The data presented shows the presence of both small- and large scale vortex structures for a variety of vehicles, from missiles to transports. For cavities, the data show very complex multiple vortex structures exist at all combinations of cavity depth to length ratios and Mach number. The data for missiles show the existence of very strong interference effects between body and/or fin vortices and the downstream fins. It was shown that these vortex flow interference effects could be both positive and negative. Data are shown which highlights the effect that leading-edge sweep, leading-edge bluntness, wing thickness, location of maximum thickness, and camber has on the aerodynamics of and flow over delta wings. The observed flow fields for delta wings (i.e. separation bubble, classical vortex, vortex with shock, etc.) are discussed in the context of' aircraft design. And data have been shown that indicate that aerodynamic performance improvements are available by considering vortex flows as a primary design feature. Finally a discussing of a design approach for wings which utilize vortex flows for improved aerodynamic performance at supersonic speed is presented.

  14. Interaction of vortex rings with multiple permeable screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musta, Mustafa N.; Krueger, Paul S.

    2014-11-01

    Interaction of a vortex ring impinging on multiple permeable screens orthogonal to the ring axis was studied to experimentally investigate the persistence and decay of vortical structures inside the screen array using digital particle image velocimetry in a refractive index matched environment. The permeable screens had porosities (open area ratios) of 83.8%, 69.0%, and 55.7% and were held by a transparent frame that allowed the screen spacing to be changed. Vortex rings were generated using a piston-cylinder mechanism at nominal jet Reynolds numbers of 1000, 2000, and 3000 with piston stroke length-to-diameter ratios of 2 and 3. The interaction of vortex rings with the porous medium showed a strong dependence of the overall flow evolution on the screen porosity, with a central flow being preserved and vortex ring-like structures (with smaller diameter than the primary vortex ring) being generated near the centerline. Due to the large rod size used in the screens, immediate reformation of the transmitted vortex ring with size comparable to the primary ring (as has been observed with thin screens) was not observed in most cases. Since the screens have lower complexity and high open area ratios, centerline vortex ring-like flow structures formed with comparable size to the screen pore size and penetrated through the screens. In the case of low porosity screens (55.7%) with large screen spacing, re-emergence of large scale (large separation), weak vortical structures/pairs (analogous to a transmitted vortex ring) was observed downstream of the first screen. Additional smaller scale vortical structures were generated by the interaction of the vortex ring with subsequent screens. The size distribution of the generated vortical structures were shown to be strongly affected by porosity, with smaller vortical structures playing a stronger role as porosity decreased. Finally, porosity significantly affected the decay of total energy, but the effect of screen spacing decreased as porosity decreased.

  15. Study of Evolution and Regeneration of Hairpin Vortices in the Wake of A Surface-Mounted Mixing Tab using PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W.; Meng, H.

    1997-11-01

    The evolution and regeneration of hairpin vortices in the wake of a mixing tab is studied using digital PIV technique. The measurements are conducted in a water channel with a tapered mixing tab mounted at the surface. 870 instantaneous velocity fields are analyzed. From the streamwise wall-normal measurement, we observe that the primary hairpin vortices shed periodically from the tip of the tab, while secondary vortices occur at irregular phase delays. The generation of a secondary hairpin vortex is attributed to the high-shear layer induced by a primary hairpin vortex. A new type of vortex, with the opposite rotation direction to hairpin vortices and located directly below a hairpin vortex, is also observed, and its generation mechanism explained. Spanwise measurements indicate that the hairpin structures are asymmetric. The legs of different hairpin vortices are observed to frequently interact with each other, forming a peanut shaped structure.

  16. HART-II: Prediction of Blade-Vortex Interaction Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Joon W.; Tung, Chee; Yu, Yung H.; Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas; Boyd, Doug; vanderWall, Berend; Schneider, Oliver; Richard, Hugues; Raffel, Markus

    2003-01-01

    During the HART-I data analysis, the need for comprehensive wake data was found including vortex creation and aging, and its re-development after blade-vortex interaction. In October 2001, US Army AFDD, NASA Langley, German DLR, French ONERA and Dutch DNW performed the HART-II test as an international joint effort. The main objective was to focus on rotor wake measurement using a PIV technique along with the comprehensive data of blade deflections, airloads, and acoustics. Three prediction teams made preliminary correlation efforts with HART-II data: a joint US team of US Army AFDD and NASA Langley, German DLR, and French ONERA. The predicted results showed significant improvements over the HART-I predicted results, computed about several years ago, which indicated that there has been better understanding of complicated wake modeling in the comprehensive rotorcraft analysis. All three teams demonstrated satisfactory prediction capabilities, in general, though there were slight deviations of prediction accuracies for various disciplines.

  17. LES and RANS simulation of onshore Bessaker wind farm: analysing terrain and wake effects on wind farm performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabib, Mandar; Rasheed, Adil; Kvamsdal, Trond

    2015-06-01

    This work compares the predictive performance of RANS and LES solver in capturing the effect of terrain and wakes on the performance of the Bessaker wind farm. This 25 turbine wind farm is located in a highly complex terrain and is exposed to predominantly high westerly and south easterly winds. A one-equation sub-grid scale LES turbulence model has been used to help capture the wake dynamics: particularly the effects of wake meandering and wake-turbine interactions. A comparison between RANS and LES models highlights the influence of turbulence model on wake decay and its subsequent effect on prediction of power production. The LES model predicts delayed decay of the wake and more pronounced wake interference leading to a lower power production in wind farm than the RANS case. The RANS model overpredicts turbulence, which cause faster turbulent momentum diffusivity and faster wake recovery. This study has given some insights regarding the power production at Bessaker wind farm for neutral conditions and westerly flow.

  18. Mechanism of transient force augmentation varying with two distinct timescales for interacting vortex rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhidong; Qin, Suyang; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of dual vortex ring flows is studied experimentally and numerically in a model system that consists of a piston-cylinder apparatus. The flows are generated by double identical strokes which have the velocity profile characterized by the sinusoidal function of half the period. By calculating the total wake impulse in two strokes in the experiments, it is found that the average propulsive force increases by 50% in the second stroke for the sufficiently small stroke length, compared with the first stroke. In the numerical simulations, two types of transient force augmentation are revealed, there being the transient force augmentation for the small stroke lengths and the absolute transient force augmentation for the large stroke lengths. The relative transient force augmentation increases to 78% for L/D = 1, while the absolute transient force augmentation for L/D = 4 is twice as much as that for L/D = 1. Further investigation demonstrates that the force augmentation is attributed to the interaction between vortex rings, which induces transport of vortex impulse and more evident fluid entrainment. The critical situation of vortex ring separation is defined and indicated, with vortex spacing falling in a narrow gap when the stroke lengths vary. A new model is proposed concerning the limiting process of impulse, further suggesting that apart from vortex formation timescale, vortex spacing should be interpreted as an independent timescale to reflect the dynamics of vortex interaction.

  19. Conformal FDTD modeling wake fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jurgens, T.; Harfoush, F.

    1991-05-01

    Many computer codes have been written to model wake fields. Here we describe the use of the Conformal Finite Difference Time Domain (CFDTD) method to model the wake fields generated by a rigid beam traveling through various accelerating structures. The non- cylindrical symmetry of some of the problems considered here requires the use of a three dimensional code. In traditional FDTD codes, curved surfaces are approximated by rectangular steps. The errors introduced in wake field calculations by such an approximation can be reduced by increasing the mesh size, therefore increasing the cost of computing. Another approach, validated here, deforms Ampere and Faraday contours near a media interface so as to conform to the interface. These improvements of the FDTD method result in better accuracy of the fields at asymptotically no computational cost. This method is also capable of modeling thin wires as found in beam profile monitors, and slots and cracks as found in resistive wall motions. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Numerical investigation of acoustic radiation from vortex-airfoil interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legault, Anne; Ji, Minsuk; Wang, Meng

    2012-11-01

    Numerical simulations of vortices interacting with a NACA 0012 airfoil and a flat-plate airfoil at zero angle of attack are carried out to assess the applicability and accuracy of classical theories. Unsteady lift and sound are computed and compared with the predictions by theories of Sears and Amiet, which assume a thin-plate airfoil in an inviscid flow. A Navier-Stokes solver is used in the simulations, and therefore viscous effects are taken into consideration. For the thin-plate airfoil, the effect of viscosity is negligible. For a NACA 0012 airfoil, the viscous contribution to the unsteady lift and sound mainly comes from coherent vortex shedding in the wake of the airfoil and the interaction of the incoming vortices with the airfoil wake, which become stronger at higher Reynolds numbers for a 2-D laminar flow. When the flow is turbulent at chord Reynolds number of 4 . 8 ×105 , however, the viscous contribution becomes negligible as coherent vortex shedding is not present. Sound radiation from vortex-airfoil interaction at turbulent Reynolds numbers is computed numerically via Lighthill's theory and the result is compared with the predictions of Amiet and Curle. The effect of the airfoil thickness is also examined. Supported by ONR Grant N00014-09-1-1088.

  1. Suppression of vortex shedding from bluff bodies with a fixed wavy separation line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darekar, R. M.; Sherwin, S. J.

    1998-11-01

    A numerical investigation has been performed of flow past rectangular cylinders with a three dimensional geometric perturbation on the front stagnation face which results in the suppression of the von Kármán shedding frequency. The perturbation is applied in the form of a sinusoidal spanwise waviness as experimentally studied by Bearman and Owen. The computations were performed using a spectral/hp element solver, Nektar at a Reynolds number of Re=100 and are in good agreement with experiments. After a transient time period where shedding is observed the near wake stabilises to a near time-independent state. Once vortex shedding is suppressed, the detached shear layer from the upper and lower fixed separations points is observed to have a spanwise form which has a maximum displacement at the valleys of the geometry and a minimum displacement at the peaks. The vortex suppression is associated with a drag reduction and corresponding increase in base pressure as compared with the straight cylinder of about 14% at Re=100. Furthermore, the computations clearly show two counter-rotating cells in the near wake. Using the coherent structure identification proposed by Jeong and Hussain, the vortical structure of the near wake has been extracted and a distorted vortex ring is observed in the near wake connecting the upper and lower shear layers. Current investigation are focused towards understanding the stabilising nature and formation of the vortical structures.

  2. Content Analysis of Dreams and Waking Narratives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfio Maggiolini; Chiara Cagnin; Franca Crippa; Anna Persico; Pietro Rizzi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the specificity of dream content and its continuity with waking life. For each subject (125 men and 125 women, between the ages of 19 and 29 years), a dream and a waking episode were collected according to \\

  3. Hollow vortex Gaussian beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, GuoQuan; Cai, YangJian; Dai, ChaoQing

    2013-05-01

    A kind of hollow vortex Gaussian beam is introduced. Based on the Collins integral, an analytical propagation formula of a hollow vortex Gaussian beam through a paraxial ABCD optical system is derived. Due to the special distribution of the optical field, which is caused by the initial vortex phase, the dark region of a hollow vortex Gaussian beam will not disappear upon propagation. The analytical expressions for the beam propagation factor, the kurtosis parameter, and the orbital angular momentum density of a hollow vortex Gaussian beam passing through a paraxial ABCD optical system are also derived, respectively. The beam propagation factor is determined by the beam order and the topological charge. The kurtosis parameter and the orbital angular momentum density depend on beam order n, topological charge m, parameter ?, and transfer matrix elements A and D. As a numerical example, the propagation properties of a hollow vortex Gaussian beam in free space are demonstrated. The hollow vortex Gaussian beam has eminent propagation stability and has crucial application prospects in optical micromanipulation.

  4. Three-dimensional flow visualization in the wake of a miniature axial-flow hydrokinetic turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamorro, Leonardo P.; Troolin, Daniel R.; Lee, Seung-Jae; Arndt, R. E. A.; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2013-02-01

    Three-dimensional 3-component velocity measurements were made in the near wake region of a miniature 3-blade axial-flow turbine within a turbulent boundary layer. The model turbine was placed in an open channel flow and operated under subcritical conditions (Fr = 0.13). The spatial distribution of the basic flow statistics was obtained at various locations to render insights into the spatial features of the wake. Instantaneous and phase-averaged vortical structures were analyzed to get insights about their dynamics. The results showed a wake expansion proportional to the one-third power of the streamwise distance, within the first rotor diameter. Wake rotation was clearly identified up to a distance of roughly three rotor diameters. In particular, relatively high tangential velocity was observed near the wake core, but it was found to be nearly negligible at the turbine tip radius. In contrast, the radial velocity showed the opposite distribution, with higher radial velocity near the turbine tip and, due to symmetry, negligible at the rotor axis. Larger turbulence intensity was found above the hub height and near the turbine tip. Strong coherent tip vortices, visualized in terms of the instantaneous vorticity and the ? 2 criterion, were observed within the first rotor diameter downstream of the turbine. These structures, influenced by the velocity gradient in the boundary layer, appeared to loose their stability at distances greater than two rotor diameters. Hub vortices were also identified. Measurements did not exhibit significant tip-hub vortex interaction within the first rotor diameter.

  5. Wakes of isolated Darrieus turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Akins, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    A knowledge of the flow structure in the wake of a wind turbine is important in the design of arrays of units to be used in wind-farm applications. In order to better understand this structure, an experimental program to measure the wake structure downwind of a 17m Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine was completed. Mean-velocity deficits have been measured as a function of tip-speed ratio and incident wind direction for several downstream locations. The results will allow verification and modification of existing models and improve the capability to predict performance of clusters of wind turbines.

  6. Vortex atoms and vortons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkemade, Alfons Johannes Quirinus

    1994-04-01

    The thesis deals with two topics which are related to the concept of vorticity. Therefore, it consists of two parts. The 'vortex-atom-part' shows the development of a theory of matter, introduced by the English scientist Lord Kelvin in 1867, which would attract the attention of several 19th century scientists up to the beginning of our century. Kelvin's 'vortex atom theory' can be put into the context of several developments in 19th century physics, especially those with regard to theories of matter and the still developing theory of rotational flow or vorticity. The second part, the 'vorton-part', is an account of the theoretical foundation and the application to numerical simulations of the vorton method. This is one of the many vortex methods, applied nowadays to the (numerical) study of flow phenomena. Vortex methods are based on the fact that vortices play important roles in fluid flows and can be regarded as important applications of the knowledge on vortex motion which has been gathered in the past centuries and of the surging use of numerical techniques in fluid mechanics. The vorton method will be investigated by means of numerical simulation of several test cases. Most of these were already studied by the scientists who occupied themselves with the elaboration of the vortex atom model or who were just incited to research on vortex motion by this model. However, their investigations were largely hindered by mathematical difficulties. Today, the use of vortex methods as computational tools may provide more insight into the kinematics and dynamics of vortex structures.

  7. The Near Wake Of A 2-Bladed Rotor In Forward Flight Wong, O., Mahalingam, R., Tongchitpakdee, C., Komerath, N.M.

    E-print Network

    ., Komerath, N.M. School of Aerospace Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA 30332 Abstract vortices of rotary wings, and the usage of vortex models from fixed-wing wake measurements increases of vortices, especially in the rotary wing case. Fixed-wing vortices are known to persist for durations

  8. Vortex crystals in fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Anna M.

    It is common in geophysical flows to observe localized regions of enhanced vorticity. This observation can be used to derive model equations to describe the motion and interaction of these localized regions, or vortices, and which are simpler than the original PDEs. The best known vortex model is derived from the incompressible Euler equations, and treats vortices as points in the plane. A large part of this dissertation utilizes this particular model, but we also survey other point vortex and weakly viscous models. The main focus of this thesis is an object known as the vortex crystal. These remarkable configurations of vortices maintain their basic shapes for long times, while perhaps rotating or translating rigidly in space. We study existence and stability of families of vortex crystals in the special case where N vortices have small and equal circulation and one vortex has large circulation. As the small circulation tends to zero, the weak vortices tend to a circle centered on the strong vortex. A special potential function of this limiting problem can be used to characterize orbits and stability. Whenever a critical point of this function is nondegenerate, we prove that the orbit can be continued via the Implicit Function Theorem, and its linear stability is determined by the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix of the potential. For general N, we find at least three distinct families of critical points, one of which continues to a linearly stable class of vortex crystals. Because the stable family is most likely to be observed in nature, we study it extensively. Continuation methods allow us to follow these critical points to nonzero weak vortex strength and investigate stability and bifurcations. In the large N limit of this family, we prove that there is a unique one parameter family of distributions which minimize a "generalized" potential. Finally, we use point vortex and weakly viscous vortex models to analyze vortex crystal configurations observed in hurricane eyes and related numerical simulations. We find striking numerical and analytical agreement, thus validating the use of simplified vortex models to describe geophysical phenomena.

  9. Hollow vortex beams.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shunichi; Kozawa, Yuichi

    2009-01-01

    Hollow beam formation of radially and azimuthally polarized vortex beams, which has arbitrary topological charge, is analytically discussed under the strong focusing condition. The expressions for the electric fields of the focused vector-vortex beams are obtained based on a vector diffraction theory. The order of the Bessel function of the first kind appearing in the expressions indicates the ability to form hollow beams. Similar discussion is applied for different vortex beams, which are expressed by linear combination of radially and azimuthally polarized beams. Calculations of intensity profiles across the focus are also presented. PMID:19109610

  10. Wakes in Inertial Fusion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Ian Norman

    Plasma wave wakes, which are the collective oscillatory response near the plasma frequency to the propagation of particles or electromagnetic waves through a plasma, play a critical role in many plasma processes. New results from backwards stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS), in which wakes with phase velocities much less than the speed of light are induced by the beating of counter-propagating light waves, and from electron beam stopping, in which the wakes are produced by the motion of relativistically propagating electrons through the dense plasma, are discussed. Both processes play important roles in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). In BSRS, laser light is scattered backwards out of the plasma, decreasing the energy available to compress the ICF capsule and affecting the symmetry of where the laser energy hits the hohlraum wall in indirect drive ICF. The plasma wave wake can also generate superthermal electrons that can preheat the core and/or the ablator. Electron beam stopping plays a critical role in the Fast Ignition (FI) ICF concept, in which a beam of relativistic electrons is used to heat the target core to ignition temperatures after the compression stage. The beam stopping power determines the effectiveness of the heating process. This dissertation covers new discoveries on the importance of plasma wave wakes in both BSRS and electron beam stopping. In the SRS studies, 1D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations using OSIRIS are performed, which model a short-duration (˜500/?0 --1FWHM) counter-propagating scattered light seed pulse in the presence of a constant pump laser with an intensity far below the absolute instability threshold for plasma waves undergoing Landau damping. The seed undergoes linear convective Raman amplification and dominates over the amplification of fluctuations due to particle discreteness. The simulation results are in good agreement with results from a coupled-mode solver when special relativity and the effects of finite size PIC simulation particles are accounted for. Linear gain spectra including both effects are discussed. Extending the PIC simulations past when the seed exits the simulation domain reveals bursts of large-amplitude scattering in many cases, which do not occur in simulations without the seed pulse. These bursts can have amplitudes several times greater than the amplified seed pulse, and an examination of the orbits of particles trapped in the wake illustrates that the bursts are caused by a reduction of Landau damping due to particle trapping. This large-amplitude scattering is caused by the seed inducing a wake earlier in the simulation, thus modifying the distribution function. Performing simulations with longer duration seeds leads to parts of the seeds reaching amplitudes several times more than the steady-state linear theory results, similarly caused by a reduction of Landau damping. Simulations with continuous seeds demonstrate that the onset of inflation depends on the seed wavelength and incident intensity, and oscillations in the reflectivity are observed at a frequency equal to the difference between the seed frequency and the frequency at which the inflationary SRS grows. In the electron beam stopping studies, 3D PIC simulations are performed of relativistic electrons with a momentum of 10mec propagating in a cold FI core plasma. Some of the simulations use one simulation particle per real particle, and particle sizes much smaller than the interparitcle spacing. The wake made by a single electron is compared against that calculated using cold fluid theory assuming the phase velocity of the wake is near the speed of light. The results agree for the first wavelength of the wake. However, the shape of the wake changes for succeeding wavelengths and depends on the background plasma temperature, with the concavity pointing in the direction the electron is moving in cold plasmas and in the opposite direction as the plasma temperature increases. In the warm plasma the curvature is described by electrostatic Vlasov theory (for vparticle >> vth) and is due

  11. Vortex generator for flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor); Marner, Wilbur J. (Inventor); Rohatgi, Naresh K. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Fluidics flow control of a multiphase supply using a cylindrical chamber is achieved by introducing the supply flow radially into the chamber. The supply flow exits through a port in the center at the chamber. A control fluid is then introduced tangentially about 90.degree. upstream from the supply port. A second control fluid port may be added about 90.degree. upstream from the first control fluid port, but preferably two sets of supply and control ports are added with like ports diametrically opposite each other. The control fluid flows against the circular wall of the control chamber, which introduces a vortex in the flow of the supply flow that decays into a spiral path to the exit port in the center of the chamber. The control flow rate may thus be used to control the spiral path, and therefore the supply flow rate through the exit port.

  12. On the surface manifestations of ship wakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapustin, Ivan; Ermakov, Stanislav; Lazareva, Tatyana

    2010-05-01

    During the field experiments on the Black Sea and on the Gorky Reservoir for the last 4 years the widening of the turbulent region generated by surface ships and the surface manifestations of the ship wakes has been studied. Measurements of currents in ship wakes have been made using ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) deployed from a motor boat. It was obtained that the time dependence of the wake width could be described approximately by a 0.4-power function, and the depth of wake remained constant at its initial stage, the latter allowed one to consider the wake widening as a one-dimensional process. We have developed a simple one-dimensional model of ship wake evolution using the semi-empirical theory of turbulence, and the initial stage of the wake widening (when neglecting dissipation) was described by the equation of turbulent energy balance with the pulse initial condition. We also observed in experiment mean circulating currents in the wake region resulting in the wind wave intensification on the boundaries of the wake region. It was shown that the later stage of the wake evolution is characterized by the presence of slicks bands on the edges of the wake. The slick bands formation is a result of the surfactants transport due to air bubbles in the turbulent wake and their compression by the mean currents. The work was supported by RFBR (projects 08-05-00634, 08-05-97011), the Program RAN Radiophysics, and the IPY THORPEX Project.

  13. Island wakes in the Southern California Bight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. A. Caldeira; P. Marchesiello; N. P. Nezlin; P. M. DiGiacomo; J. C. McWilliams

    2005-01-01

    Wind- and current-induced island wakes were investigated using a multiplatform approach of in situ, remote sensing, and numerical model simulations for the Southern California Bight (SCB). Island wind wakes are a result of sheltering from the wind, with weak wind mixing, strong heat storage, and consequent high sea surface temperature (SST). Wind wakes around Santa Catalina Island are most persistent

  14. DPIV Measurements of Vortex Ring Interaction with Multiple Permeable Screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musta, Mustafa N.; Krueger, Paul S.

    2009-11-01

    Flow visualization of the interaction of a vortex ring impinging on several parallel, transparent permeable screens was made previously for screens with 84% open area ratio. The results indicated the vortex ring split into smaller vortical structures after its interaction with the first screen and exhibited a continuous break down into increasingly irregular flow after interaction with subsequent screens. The flow did not reorganize into a transmitted vortex ring as was observed with vortex rings impinging on a single permeable screen. The present work seeks to provide a more quantitative assessment of the flow through screens using DPIV. DPIV measurements were made using an aqueous solution that was refractive index matched to the transparent screens. Measurements were made for vortex rings interacting with screens with variable spacing and open area ratios of 58%-84%. The vortex rings were generated with a piston-cylinder vortex ring generator using piston stroke-to-diameter ratios of 2-4 and jet Reynolds numbers of 1000-2000. Preliminary results show splitting and decay of the flow vorticity in agreement with the flow visualization.

  15. Experimental study of rotor wake/body interactions in hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagai, A.; Leishman, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to document the tip vortex geometries and interactional effects betwen a hovering rotor and a body representing a simplified helicopter fuselage. The wide-field shadowgraph technique was used to visualize the rotor tip vortices and to obtain quantitative information on the trajectories, with and without the presence of the body. It was found that the effects of the body caused significant changes to both the radial contraction and axial displacements of the tip vortices compared to the isolated case. Direct impingement of the tip vortices on the body surface was also observed, and found to cause large local wake deformations. The rotor performance was significantly affected by the body, producing a higher figure of merit relative to the isolated case.

  16. Near-wake flow structure downwind of a wind turbine in a turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Markfort, Corey D.; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2012-05-01

    Wind turbines operate in the surface layer of the atmospheric boundary layer, where they are subjected to strong wind shear and relatively high turbulence levels. These incoming boundary layer flow characteristics are expected to affect the structure of wind turbine wakes. The near-wake region is characterized by a complex coupled vortex system (including helicoidal tip vortices), unsteadiness and strong turbulence heterogeneity. Limited information about the spatial distribution of turbulence in the near wake, the vortex behavior and their influence on the downwind development of the far wake hinders our capability to predict wind turbine power production and fatigue loads in wind farms. This calls for a better understanding of the spatial distribution of the 3D flow and coherent turbulence structures in the near wake. Systematic wind-tunnel experiments were designed and carried out to characterize the structure of the near-wake flow downwind of a model wind turbine placed in a neutral boundary layer flow. A horizontal-axis, three-blade wind turbine model, with a rotor diameter of 13 cm and the hub height at 10.5 cm, occupied the lowest one-third of the boundary layer. High-resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure velocities in multiple vertical stream-wise planes ( x- z) and vertical span-wise planes ( y- z). In particular, we identified localized regions of strong vorticity and swirling strength, which are the signature of helicoidal tip vortices. These vortices are most pronounced at the top-tip level and persist up to a distance of two to three rotor diameters downwind. The measurements also reveal strong flow rotation and a highly non-axisymmetric distribution of the mean flow and turbulence structure in the near wake. The results provide new insight into the physical mechanisms that govern the development of the near wake of a wind turbine immersed in a neutral boundary layer. They also serve as important data for the development and validation of numerical models.

  17. Inertial Motions and Mixing in the Wake of Typhoon Fanapi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainville, L.; Lee, C. M.; St Laurent, L.; Jayne, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    Typhoon Fanapi (September 2010) generated an intense cold wake and a large upper ocean inertial response as it transited the Western Pacific. Ship- and glider-based surveys captured the upper ocean evolution beginning only a few days after the Fanapi's passage, providing measurements used to quantify the spatial scale and decay time of the inertial response. The near-inertial internal wave field transitioned from well-defined, downward propagating wave packets in the first week, to a field composed of mostly low modes with smaller vertical shear and larger spatial coherence 10 days later. In addition, micro-temperature sensors integrated onto the Seagliders collected hundred of profiles of turbulent rates of dissipation in the upper ocean, allowing us to link the time series of mixing at the base of the cold wake to the inertial motions.

  18. Wind-Turbine Wakes in a Convective Boundary Layer: A Wind-Tunnel Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Markfort, Corey D.; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2013-02-01

    Thermal stability changes the properties of the turbulent atmospheric boundary layer, and in turn affects the behaviour of wind-turbine wakes. To better understand the effects of thermal stability on the wind-turbine wake structure, wind-tunnel experiments were carried out with a simulated convective boundary layer (CBL) and a neutral boundary layer. The CBL was generated by cooling the airflow to 12-15 °C and heating up the test section floor to 73-75 °C. The freestream wind speed was set at about 2.5 m s-1, resulting in a bulk Richardson number of -0.13. The wake of a horizontal-axis 3-blade wind-turbine model, whose height was within the lowest one third of the boundary layer, was studied using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (S-PIV) and triple-wire (x-wire/cold-wire) anemometry. Data acquired with the S-PIV were analyzed to characterize the highly three-dimensional turbulent flow in the near wake (0.2-3.2 rotor diameters) as well as to visualize the shedding of tip vortices. Profiles of the mean flow, turbulence intensity, and turbulent momentum and heat fluxes were measured with the triple-wire anemometer at downwind locations from 2-20 rotor diameters in the centre plane of the wake. In comparison with the wake of the same wind turbine in a neutral boundary layer, a smaller velocity deficit (about 15 % at the wake centre) is observed in the CBL, where an enhanced radial momentum transport leads to a more rapid momentum recovery, particularly in the lower part of the wake. The velocity deficit at the wake centre decays following a power law regardless of the thermal stability. While the peak turbulence intensity (and the maximum added turbulence) occurs at the top-tip height at a downwind distance of about three rotor diameters in both cases, the magnitude is about 20 % higher in the CBL than in the neutral boundary layer. Correspondingly, the turbulent heat flux is also enhanced by approximately 25 % in the lower part of the wake, compared to that in the undisturbed CBL inflow. This study represents the first controlled wind-tunnel experiment to study the effects of the CBL on wind-turbine wakes. The results on decreased velocity deficit and increased turbulence in wind-turbine wakes associated with atmospheric thermal stability are important to be taken into account in the design of wind farms, in order to reduce the impact of wakes on power output and fatigue loads on downwind wind turbines.

  19. Flow structure generated by perpendicular blade-vortex interaction and implications for helicopter noise prediction. Volume 1: Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittmer, Kenneth S.; Devenport, William J.

    1996-01-01

    The perpendicular interaction of a streamwise vortex with an infinite span helicopter blade was modeled experimentally in incompressible flow. Three-component velocity and turbulence measurements were made using a sub-miniature four sensor hot-wire probe. Vortex core parameters (radius, peak tangential velocity, circulation, and centerline axial velocity deficit) were determined as functions of blade-vortex separation, streamwise position, blade angle of attack, vortex strength, and vortex size. The downstream development of the flow shows that the interaction of the vortex with the blade wake is the primary cause of the changes in the core parameters. The blade sheds negative vorticity into its wake as a result of the induced angle of attack generated by the passing vortex. Instability in the vortex core due to its interaction with this negative vorticity region appears to be the catalyst for the magnification of the size and intensity of the turbulent flowfield downstream of the interaction. In general, the core radius increases while peak tangential velocity decreases with the effect being greater for smaller separations. These effects are largely independent of blade angle of attack; and if these parameters are normalized on their undisturbed values, then the effects of the vortex strength appear much weaker. Two theoretical models were developed to aid in extending the results to other flow conditions. An empirical model was developed for core parameter prediction which has some rudimentary physical basis, implying usefulness beyond a simple curve fit. An inviscid flow model was also created to estimate the vorticity shed by the interaction blade, and to predict the early stages of its incorporation into the interacting vortex.

  20. Turbulence characteristics in the near wake of a compressor rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakshminarayana, B.; Reynolds, B.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the turbulence properties in the near wake of a rotating compressor blade. The variation of the axial, tangential and radial intensities as well as stresses across the wake and its decay characteristics were measured with a triaxial hot wire probe rotating with the rotor downstream of an axial flow compressor. The turbulence intensities decay very rapidly in the near wake region. The radial component of intensity is found to be higher than the tangential and axial components. This is a consequence of the effect of rotation on the turbulence structure. A qualitative analysis is carried out to predict the effect of rotation on the turbulence structure. These are in general agreement with the measured data.

  1. Experimental investigation on the effects of wake passing frequency on boundary layer transition in high-lift low-pressure turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yun; Zou, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Hou-Xing; Zhang, Wei-Hao

    2015-04-01

    Detailed experimental investigation was carried out to investigate the interaction of unsteady wakes with boundary layer in a high-lift low-pressure turbine. Extensive measurements about boundary layer character were conducted using hot-film and hot-wire methods. In-depth analysis of the effect of wake passing frequency on boundary layer transition was carried out. The strength of separation control and profile loss variation at two wake passing frequencies were also studied. The results show that wake-induced transition can be detected in the separating shear layer, and complex vortex structures are induced by the interaction between the negative jet of wake and separation bubble. The proportions of laminar, separation and turbulence friction loss in the total loss vary with wake passing frequency, which leads to the change in the total boundary layer loss. In particular, as the wake passing frequency changes, the laminar and turbulent friction loss show opposite trends, and this indicates that the best frequency can be achieved by balancing these two types of losses. For a given high-lift profile, an optimum wake passing frequency that will lead to the minimum loss exists.

  2. Numerical simulations of the near wake of a sphere moving in a steady, horizontal motion through a linearly stratified fluid at Re = 1000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Trevor S.; Domaradzki, J. Andrzej; Spedding, Geoffrey R.; Constantinescu, George S.

    2015-03-01

    A numerical investigation of the near wake of a sphere moving horizontally through a linearly stratified fluid is presented. Simulations are first performed on a flow with Reynolds number Re = 200 for a range of internal Froude number, 0.1 ? Fr ? ?. The simulations capture buoyant characteristic behavior, the presence of vortex shedding at low Fr, and lee waves. Simulations at higher Reynolds number, Re = 1000, for 1 ? Fr ? ? provide a description and parametrization of the near wake, including the density field. At Re = 1000, the effects of utilizing two different averaging techniques in the unsteady near wake region are discussed. Perturbation quantities in the stratified near wake are anisotropic, and based on the oscillations of the centerline vertical perturbation velocity, the Fr at which the stratified near wake may be considered indistinguishable from the uniform density near wake is suggested to be O(100). Parametrization of the near wake is accomplished using the parameterized vertical wake height, downstream distance from the sphere, and Fr as parameters.

  3. Hairpin vortex formation, a case study for unsteady visualization.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, P. F.; Papka, M. E.; Szymanski, M.; Tufo, H. M.

    1999-08-10

    To better understand the vortex dynamics of coherent structures in turbulent and transitional boundary layers, we consider direct numerical simulation of the interaction between a flat-plateboundary-layer flow and an isolated hemispherical roughness element. Of principal interest is the evolution of hairpin vortices that form an interlacing pattern in the wake of the hemisphere, lift away from the wall, and are stretched by the shearing action of the boundary layer. Using animations of unsteady three-dimensional representations of this flow, produced by the vtk toolkit and enhanced to operate in a CAVE virtual environment, we identify and study several key features in the evolution of this complex vortex topology not previously observed in other visualization formats.

  4. Prediction of subsonic vortex shedding from forebodies with chines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, Michael R.; Lesieutre, Daniel J.

    1990-01-01

    An engineering prediction method and associated computer code VTXCHN to predict nose vortex shedding from circular and noncircular forebodies with sharp chine edges in subsonic flow at angles of attack and roll are presented. Axisymmetric bodies are represented by point sources and doublets, and noncircular cross sections are transformed to a circle by either analytical or numerical conformal transformations. The lee side vortex wake is modeled by discrete vortices in crossflow planes along the body; thus the three-dimensional steady flow problem is reduced to a two-dimensional, unsteady, separated flow problem for solution. Comparison of measured and predicted surface pressure distributions, flow field surveys, and aerodynamic characteristics are presented for noncircular bodies alone and forebodies with sharp chines.

  5. Aerodynamic analysis of a horizontal axis wind turbine by use of helical vortex theory, volume 2: Computer program users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, T. G., Jr.; Afjeh, A. A.; Jeng, D. R.; White, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    A description of a computer program entitled VORTEX that may be used to determine the aerodynamic performance of horizontal axis wind turbines is given. The computer code implements a vortex method from finite span wind theory and determines the induced velocity at the rotor disk by integrating the Biot-Savart law. It is assumed that the trailing helical vortex filaments form a wake of constant diameter (the rigid wake assumption) and travel downstream at the free stream velocity. The program can handle rotors having any number of blades which may be arbitrarily shaped and twisted. Many numerical details associated with the program are presented. A complete listing of the program is provided and all program variables are defined. An example problem illustrating input and output characteristics is solved.

  6. Instability of wind turbine wakes immersed in the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Francesco; Valerio Iungo, Giacomo; Camarri, Simone; Porté-Agel, Fernando; Gallaire, François

    2015-06-01

    In this work a technique capable to investigate the near-wake stability properties of a wind turbine immersed in the atmospheric boundary layer is presented. Specifically, a 2D local spatial stability analysis is developed in order to take into account typical flow features of real operating wind turbines, such as the presence of the atmospheric boundary layer and the turbulence heterogeneity of the oncoming wind. This stability analysis can be generally applied on either experimental measurements or numerical data. In this paper it was carried out on wind tunnel experiments, for which a downscaled wind turbine is immersed in a turbulent boundary layer. Through spatial stability analysis, the dominant mode in the near wake, i.e. the most amplified one, is characterized and its frequency matches the hub-vortex instability frequency measured in the wind tunnel. As in the case of [10], where an axisymmetric wake condition was investigated, the hub-vortex instability results in a single-helical mode.

  7. Mind the gap - tip leakage vortex in axial turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, M.; Decaix, J.; Münch-Alligné, C.; Farhat, M.

    2014-03-01

    The tendency of designing large Kaplan turbines with a continuous increase of output power is bringing to the front the cavitation erosion issue. Due to the flow in the gap between the runner and the discharge ring, axial turbine blades may develop the so called tip leakage vortex (TLV) cavitation with negative consequences. Such vortices may interact strongly with the wake of guide vanes leading to their multiple collapses and rebounds. If the vortex trajectory remains close to the blade tip, these collapses may lead to severe erosion. One is still unable today to predict its occurrence and development in axial turbines with acceptable accuracy. Numerical flow simulations as well as the actual scale-up rules from small to large scales are unreliable. The present work addresses this problematic in a simplified case study representing TLV cavitation to better understand its sensitivity to the gap width. A Naca0009 hydrofoil is used as a generic blade in the test section of EPFL cavitation tunnel. A sliding mounting support allowing an adjustable gap between the blade tip and wall was manufactured. The vortex trajectory is visualized with a high speed camera and appropriate lighting. The three dimensional velocity field induced by the TLV is investigated using stereo particle image velocimetry. We have taken into account the vortex wandering in the image processing to obtain accurate measurements of the vortex properties. The measurements were performed in three planes located downstream of the hydrofoil for different values of the flow velocity, the incidence angle and the gap width. The results clearly reveal a strong influence of the gap width on both trajectory and intensity of the tip leakage vortex.

  8. Investigation of the variability of the structure of a stratified wake behind a horizontal cylinder using optical and acoustic methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Mitkin; V. E. Prokhorov; Y. D. Chashechkin

    1998-01-01

    The shadow flow pattern behind a horizontal cylinder uniformly towed in a stratified fluid with constant buoyancy frequency\\u000a (in the imbedded vortex and turbulent wake regime) is recorded synchronously with acoustic echo sounding (basic frequency\\u000a equal to 1 MHz) in a laboratory tank. Using computer processing, the illumination profiles in the schlieren pattern are constructed\\u000a on scales comparable with the

  9. Vortex dynamics studies in supersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergine, Fabrizio

    This dissertation covers the study of selected vortex interaction scenarios both in cold and high enthalpy reacting flows. Specifically, the experimental results and the analysis of the flowfields resulting from two selected supersonic vortex interaction modes in a Mach 2.5 cold flow are presented. Additionally, the experiment design, based on vortex dynamics concepts, and the reacting plume survey of two pylon injectors in a Mach 2.4 high enthalpy flow are shown. All the cold flow experiments were conducted in the supersonic wind tunnel of the Aerodynamics Research Center at the University of Texas at Arlington. A strut injector equipped with specified ramp configurations was designed and used to produce the flowfields of interest. The reacting flow experiments were conducted in the the Expansion Tube Facility located in the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory of Stanford University. A detailed description of the supersonic wind tunnel, the instrumentation, the strut injector and the supersonic wake flow downstream is shown as part of the characterization of the facility. As Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry was the principal flow measurement technique used in this work to probe the streamwise vortices shed from ramps mounted on the strut, this dissertation provides a deep overview of the challenges and the application of the aforementioned technique to the survey of vortical flows. Moreover, the dissertation provides the comprehensive analysis of the mean and fluctuating velocity flowfields associated with two distinct vortex dynamics scenarios, as chosen by means of the outcomes of the simulations of a reduced order model developed in the research group. Specifically, the same streamwise vortices (strength, size and Reynolds number) were used experimentally to investigate both a case in which the resulting dynamics evolve in a vortex merging scenario and a case where the merging process is voluntarily avoided in order to focus the analysis on the fundamental differences associated with the amalgamation processes alone. The results from the mean flow highlight major differences between the two cases and will justify the use of the inviscid reduced order model used to predict the main flow physics. The analysis of the turbulence quantities based on concepts borrowed from incompressible turbulence theory explains interesting features of the fluctuating flowfields, suggesting that turbulence associated with the inspected flow conditions is essentially incompressible. Once the interactions among the vortical structures in cold flow were assessed, these vortex dynamics concepts were probed in a reacting environment. The dissertation describes the design phase of two pylon injectors based on the prediction capabilities of the aforementioned model. Then, the results of a set of combustion experiments conducted utilizing hydrogen fuel injected into Mach 2.4, high-enthalpy (2.8˜MJ/kg) air flow are discussed. The results show that, for the heat release levels considered in this study, the morphology of the plume and its evolution is very similar to the results produced by the code, enabling an interpretation of the phenomena based on vortex dynamics considerations. The persistence of the streamwise vortical structures created by the selected ramp configurations is shown together with the effectiveness of the coherent structures in successfully anchoring the flame very close to the injection point. The work shows the possibility of a new approach in the design of injection strategies (i.e., not limited to injection devices) suitable for adoption in scramjet combustors based on the ability to predict, with basic vortex dynamics concepts and a highly reduced computational cost, the main features of flows of technological interest.

  10. Compressor and fan wake characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakshminarayana, B.

    1975-01-01

    Approaches for developing an analytical model capable of determining the effects of rotor flow and blade parameters and turbulence properties (i.e. energy, velocity correlations, and length scale) on the rotor wake characteristics and its diffusion properties are discussed. The three-dimensional model will employ experimental measurements, instantaneous velocities, and turbulence properties at various stations downstream from a rotor. A triaxial probe and a rotating conventional probe, which is mounted on a traverse gear operated by two step motors, are to be used for these measurements. The final rotor wake model will be capable of predicting the discrete and broadband noise generated in a fan rotor and of evaluating the aerodynamic losses, efficiency and optimum spacing between a rotor and stator in turbomachinery.

  11. Vortex soliton motion and steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christou, Jason; Tikhonenko, Vladimir; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Luther-Davies, Barry

    1996-10-01

    Experimental demonstration of the steering of an optical vortex soliton by the superposition of a weak coherent background field is presented. A model to account for vortex motion is derived, and its validity is verified experimentally and numerically.

  12. Ventilation of an hydrofoil wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Roger; Lee, Seung Jae; Monson, Garrett

    2013-11-01

    Ventilation physics plays a role in a variety of important engineering applications. For example, hydroturbine ventilation is used for control of vibration and cavitation erosion and more recently for improving the dissolved oxygen content of the flow through the turbine. The latter technology has been the focus of an ongoing study involving the ventilation of an hydrofoil wake to determine the velocity and size distribution of bubbles in a bubbly wake. This was carried out by utilizing particle shadow velocimetry (PSV). This technique is a non-scattering approach that relies on direct in-line volume illumination by a pulsed source such as a light-emitting diode (LED). The data are compared with previous studies of ventilated flow. The theoretical results of Hinze suggest that a scaling relationship is possible that can lead to developing appropriate design parameters for a ventilation system. Ventilation physics plays a role in a variety of important engineering applications. For example, hydroturbine ventilation is used for control of vibration and cavitation erosion and more recently for improving the dissolved oxygen content of the flow through the turbine. The latter technology has been the focus of an ongoing study involving the ventilation of an hydrofoil wake to determine the velocity and size distribution of bubbles in a bubbly wake. This was carried out by utilizing particle shadow velocimetry (PSV). This technique is a non-scattering approach that relies on direct in-line volume illumination by a pulsed source such as a light-emitting diode (LED). The data are compared with previous studies of ventilated flow. The theoretical results of Hinze suggest that a scaling relationship is possible that can lead to developing appropriate design parameters for a ventilation system. Sponsored by ONR and DOE.

  13. Changes of K'arm'an vortex shedding from a cylinder due to weak fluid elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipe, Chris

    2005-11-01

    Experiments on vortex shedding from a cylinder placed in uniform flows of dilute polymer solutions are reported for Reynolds numbers from 50 to 150. The fluids used were aqueous solutions of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and rheological characterization showed them to have a constant viscosity over a wide range of shear rates. Using the Zimm model relaxation time the Deborah numbers calculated for the cylinder wake are O(10-3). Parallel vortex shedding was induced with a combination of end-cylinders and end-plates. The resulting nominally two-dimensional cylinder wake was investigated using LDA, PIV, hydrogen bubble visualizations and hot film anemometry. The characteristics of the von K'arm'an instability - the critical Reynolds number, maximum perturbation amplitudes, etc. - are presented as a function of PEO concentration. It is shown that even small amounts of polymers, corresponding to low Deborah numbers, have a significant stabilizing effect which is only counteracted by shear-thinning at higher concentrations.

  14. Heat transfer in a two-pass internally ribbed turbine blade coolant channel with cylindrical vortex generators

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbs, R.G.; Acharya, S.; Chen, Y.; Nikitopoulos, D.E.; Myrum, T.A. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    1998-07-01

    The effect of vortex generators on the mass (heat) transfer from the ribbed passage of a two-pass turbine blade coolant channel is investigated with the intent of optimizing the vortex generator geometry so that significant enhancements in mass/heat transfer can be achieved. In the experimental configuration considered, ribs are mounted on two opposite walls; all four walls along each pass are active and have mass transfer from their surfaces but the ribs are nonparticipating. Mass transfer measurements, in the form of Sherwood number ratios, are made along the centerline and in selected interrib modules. Results are presented for Reynolds number in the range of 5000 to 40,000 pitch to rib height ratios of 10.5 and 21, and vortex generator-rib spacing to rib height ratios of 0.55 and 1.5. Centerline and spanwise-averaged Sherwood number ratios are presented along with contours of the Sherwood number ratios. Results indicate that the vortex generators lead to substantial increases in the local mass transfer rates, particularly along the side walls, and modest increases in the average mass transfer rates. The vortex generators have the effect of making the interrib profiles along the ribbed walls more uniform. Along the side walls, vortices that characterize the vortex generator wake are associated with significant mass transfer enhancements. The wake effects and the levels of enhancement decrease somewhat with increasing Reynolds number and decreasing pitch.

  15. Heat transfer in a two-pass internally ribbed turbine blade coolant channel with cylindrical vortex generators

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbs, R.; Acharya, S.; Chen, Y. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The effect of vortex generators on the mass (heat) transfer from the ribbed passage of a two pass turbine blade coolant channel is investigated with the intent of optimizing the vortex generator geometry so that significant enhancements in mass/heat transfer can be achieved. In the experimental configuration considered, ribs are mounted on two opposite walls; all four walls along each pass are active and have mass transfer from their surfaces but the ribs are non-participating. Mass transfer measurements, in the form of Sherwood number ratios, are made along the centerline and in selected inter-rib modules. Results are presented for Reynolds number in the range of 5,000 to 40,000, pitch to rib height ratios of 10.5 and 21, and vortex generator-rib spacing to rib height ratios of 0.55, and 1.5. Centerline and spanwise averaged Sherwood number ratios are presented along with contours of the Sherwood number ratios. Results indicate that the vortex generators induce substantial increases in the local mass transfer rates, particularly along the side walls, and modest increases in the average mass transfer rates. The vortex generators have the effect of making the inter-rib profiles along the ribbed walls more uniform. Along the side walls, horse-shoe vortices that characterize the vortex generator wake are associated with significant mass transfer enhancements. The wake effects and the levels of enhancement decrease somewhat with increasing Reynolds number and decreasing pitch.

  16. Dynamic characteristics of vortex levitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Li; Kenji Kawashima; Toshiharu Kagawa

    2008-01-01

    Vortex levitation can achieve non-contact handling by blowing air into a vortex cup through a tangential nozzle to generate a swirling air flow. In this paper, its dynamic characteristics are analyzed and discussions are laid upon the behavior of a work piece at the moment when it is picked up by the vortex cup. From the dynamic handling experiment, it

  17. Aircraft vortex marking program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pompa, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    A simple, reliable device for identifying atmospheric vortices, principally as generated by in-flight aircraft and with emphasis on the use of nonpolluting aerosols for marking by injection into such vortex (-ices) is presented. The refractive index and droplet size were determined from an analysis of aerosol optical and transport properties as the most significant parameters in effecting vortex optimum light scattering (for visual sighting) and visual persistency of at least 300 sec. The analysis also showed that a steam-ejected tetraethylene glycol aerosol with droplet size near 1 micron and refractive index of approximately 1.45 could be a promising candidate for vortex marking. A marking aerosol was successfully generated with the steam-tetraethylene glycol mixture from breadboard system hardware. A compact 25 lb/f thrust (nominal) H2O2 rocket chamber was the key component of the system which produced the required steam by catalytic decomposition of the supplied H2O2.

  18. An overview of modeling and experiments of vortex-induced vibration of circular cylinders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Gabbai; H. Benaroya

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the mathematical models used to investigate vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of circular cylinders. Wake-oscillator models, single-degree-of-freedom, force–decomposition models, and other approaches are discussed in detail. Brief overviews are also given of numerical methods used in solving the fully coupled fluid–structure interaction problem and of key experimental studies highlighting the nature of VIV.

  19. Three-dimensionality of mode transition in vortex-induced vibrations of a circular cylinder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franz S. Hover; Joshua T. Davis; Michael S. Triantafyllou

    2004-01-01

    End lift forces and hot-wire anemometry in the wake of a flexibly-mounted rigid cylinder, undergoing vortex-induced vibrations within a uniform flow, show that the spanwise correlation undergoes a sharp reduction near conditions of maximum amplitude. Peak lift force and motion amplitudes occur on the low-velocity side of this low-correlation region; the region is bounded above by the advent of frequency

  20. A numerical study of two-dimensional vortex shedding from rectangular cylinders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Hadid; Munir M. Sindir; R. I. Issa

    1992-01-01

    An efficient time-marching, non-iterative calculation method is used to analyze time-dependent flows around rectangular cylinders. The turbulent flow in the wake region of a square section cylinder is analyzed using an anisotropic k-epsilon model. Initiation and subsequent development of the vortex shedding phenomenon is naturally captured once a perturbation is introduced in the flow. Transient calculations using standard eddy-viscosity and

  1. A 3D Numerical Method for Studying Vortex Formation Behind a Moving Plate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Y. Hou; V. G. Stredie; T. Y. Wu

    In this paper, we introduce a three-dimensional numerical method for com- puting the wake behind a flat plate advancing perpendicular to the flow. Our numer- ical method is inspired by the panel method of J. Katz and A. Plotkin (J. Katz and A. Plotkin, Low-speed Aerodynamics, 2001) and the 2D vortex blob method of Krasny (R. Krasny, Lectures in Appl.

  2. Statistical axisymmetry of the turbulent sphere wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandemange, M.; Gohlke, M.; Cadot, O.

    2014-11-01

    The turbulent sphere wake is studied experimentally at using an axisymmetric support that holds the body from upstream. This setup allows the axisymmetry of the mean wake and preserves the global mode activity at . The analysis of the PIV snapshots in a cross-flow plane indicates that this axisymmetry is due to an equal exploration of all the azimuths by the instantaneous wake. Using conditional averaging techniques, we extract the flow topology associated with one azimuthal direction; the obtained wake shows strong similarities with the unsteady planar symmetric flow reported in the laminar regime. In addition, the use of perturbations of the axisymmetry leads to modifications of the azimuthal statistics: The periodicity of the perturbation is recovered in the wake since one or several preferred orientations are identified. Hence, such statistics pave the way to multi-stable behaviors in three-dimensional wakes.

  3. Evolution of Rotor Wake in Swirling Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Haldidi, Basman; Atassi, Hafiz; Envia, Edmane; Podboy, Gary

    2000-01-01

    A theory is presented for modeling the evolution of rotor wakes as a function of axial distance in swirling mean flows. The theory, which extends an earlier work to include arbitrary radial distributions of mean swirl, indicates that swirl can significantly alter the wake structure of the rotor especially at large downstream distances (i.e., for moderate to large rotor-stator spacings). Using measured wakes of a representative scale model fan stage to define the mean swirl and initial wake perturbations, the theory is used to predict the subsequent evolution of the wakes. The results indicate the sensitivity of the wake evolution to the initial profile and the need to have complete and consistent initial definition of both velocity and pressure perturbations.

  4. The effect of Mach number on the stability of a plane supersonic wake

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.H. (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (USA)); Cantwell, B.J. (Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (USA)); Mansour, N.N. (NASA/Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Recent interest in supersonic combustion and problems of transatmospheric flight has prompted renewed research efforts in laminar--turbulent free-shear flow transition. In the present work, the influence of Mach number on the stability of supersonic planar wake flows is investigated to gain insight into the physics of linear, nonlinear, and three-dimensional (3-D) stages of transition. The effect of varying the relative phase difference between a fundamental instability mode and its subharmonic is investigated as a possible means of controlling the evolution of a wake. From a linear stability analysis, it is found that the influence of increasing Mach number is stabilizing, resulting in a growth rate at a Mach number of 3 which is 60% that of an incompressible wake. Direct numerical simulations of the time-dependent compressible Navier--Stokes equations in two and three dimensions are performed for a forced time-developing wake using a spectral collocation method. The results of the two-dimensional (2-D) simulations show the slow rollup of spanwise vortices at high Mach numbers that is attributed to the influence of baroclinic and dilatational effects. Finally, the results of three-dimensional simulations forced with the most unstable Kelvin--Helmholtz wave and a pair of oblique three-dimensional waves show that, depending on the initial phasing between the 2-D and 3-D waves, vortex loops may or may not form as a result of the interaction between the streamwise and spanwise vorticity.

  5. Wake dynamics and hydrodynamic forces on a perforated circular plate in cross-flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huera-Huarte, Francisco

    2012-11-01

    The cross-flow past a perforated plate is known to become steady, if certain critical porosity or number of holes is imposed to the plate. This happens because the air bleed in the near wake, disrupts the vortex street formation behind the plate, and leads to suppression of the near wake shear layer interaction, forcing the instabilities to take place further away from the disk. This phenomenon is accompanied by a drag reduction. It is not clear however, what is the effect of the porosity distribution used in the plate, neither the effect of the angle of attack on the wake dynamics and the force coefficients. The experimental apparatus consists of an acrylic model in which different number and configuration of holes can be used. The disk hangs upside down from a 2-axis balance, in a way that it is being exposed to a uniform water current generated in a free surface channel. Angles of attack, porosity and its distribution on the disk, can be easily changed. Measurements of force coefficients for different angles of attack, and porosities have been taken. Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) has been used to quantify the wake and to investigate the flow structures past the disk. Funding provided by the Spanish Ministry of Science through grant DPI2009-07104 is acknowledged.

  6. Free wake analysis of hover performance using a new influence coefficient method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bliss, Donald B.; Ong, Ching Cho; Ching, Cho Ong

    1990-01-01

    A new approach to the prediction of helicopter rotor performance using a free wake analysis was developed. This new method uses a relaxation process that does not suffer from the convergence problems associated with previous time marching simulations. This wake relaxation procedure was coupled to a vortex-lattice, lifting surface loads analysis to produce a novel, self contained performance prediction code: EHPIC (Evaluation of Helicopter Performance using Influence Coefficients). The major technical features of the EHPIC code are described and a substantial amount of background information on the capabilities and proper operation of the code is supplied. Sample problems were undertaken to demonstrate the robustness and flexibility of the basic approach. Also, a performance correlation study was carried out to establish the breadth of applicability of the code, with very favorable results.

  7. Prediction of BVI noise patterns and correlation with wake interaction locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolini, Michael A.; Martin, Ruth M.; Lorber, Peter F.; Egolf, T. A.

    High resolution fluctuating airloads data were acquired during a test of a contemporary design United Technologies model rotor in the Duits-Nederlandse Windtunnel (DNW). The airloads are used as input to the noise prediction program WOPWOP, in order to predict the blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise field on a large plane below the rotor. Trends of predicted advancing and retreating side BVI noise levels and directionality as functions of flight condition are presented. The measured airloads have been analyzed to determine the BVI locations on the blade surface, and are used to interpret the predicted BVI noise radiation patterns. Predicted BVI locations are obtained using the free wake model in CAMRAD/JA, the UTRC Generalized Forward Flight Distorted Wake Model, and the UTRC FREEWAKE analysis. These predicted BVI locations are compared with those obtained from the measured pressure data.

  8. The evolution of microphysical and optical properties of an A380 contrail in the vortex phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayet, J.-F.; Shcherbakov, V.; Voigt, C.; Schumann, U.; Schäuble, D.; Jessberger, P.; Petzold, A.; Minikin, A.; Schlager, H.; Dubovik, O.; Lapyonok, T.

    2012-07-01

    A contrail from a large-body A380 aircraft at cruise in the humid upper troposphere has been probed with in-situ instruments onboard the DLR research aircraft Falcon. The contrail was sampled during 700 s measurement time at contrail ages of about 1-4 min. The contrail was in the vortex regime during which the primary wake vortices were sinking 270 m below the A380 flight level while the secondary wake remained above. Contrail properties were sampled separately in the primary wake at 90 and 115 s contrail age and nearly continously in the secondary wake at contrail ages from 70 s to 220 s. The scattering phase functions of the contrail particles were measured with a polar nephelometer. The asymmetry parameter derived from these data is used to distinguish between quasi-spherical and aspherical ice particles. In the primary wake, quasi-spherical ice particles were found with concentrations up to 160 cm-3, mean effective diameter Deff of 3.7 ?m, maximum extinction of 7.0 km-1, and ice water content (IWC) of 3 mg m-3 at slightly ice-subsaturated conditions. The secondary and primary wakes were separated by an almost particle-free wake vortex gap. The secondary wake contained clearly aspherical contrail ice particles with mean Deff of 4.8 ?m, mean (maximum) concentration, extinction, and IWC of 80 (350) cm-3, 1.6 (5.0) km-1, and 2.5 (10) mg m-3, respectively, at conditions apparently above ice-saturation. The asymmetry parameter in the secondary wake decreased with contrail age from 0.87 to 0.80 on average indicating a preferential aspherical ice crystal growth. A retrieval of ice particle habit and size with an inversion code shows that the number fraction of aspherical ice crystals increased from 2% initially to 56% at 4 min contrail age. The observed crystal size and habit differences in the primary and secondary wakes of an up to 4 min old contrail are of interest for understanding ice crystal growth in contrails and their climate impact. Aspherical contrail ice particles cause less radiative forcing than spherical ones.

  9. Wake Detection Capacity of Actigraphy During Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Paquet, Jean; Kawinska, Anna; Carrier, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the ability of actigraphy compared to polysomnography (PSG) to detect wakefulness in subjects submitted to 3 sleep conditions with different amounts of wakefulness: a nocturnal sleep episode and 2 daytime recovery sleep episodes, one with placebo and one with caffeine. A second objective was to compare the ability of 4 different scoring algorithms (2 threshold algorithms and 2 regression analysis algorithms) to detect wake in the 3 sleep conditions. Design: Three nights of simultaneous actigraphy (Actiwatch-L, Mini-Mitter/Respironics) and PSG recordings in a within-subject design. Setting: Chronobiology laboratory. Participants: Fifteen healthy subjects aged between 20 and 60 years (7M, 8F). Interventions: 200 mg of caffeine and daytime recovery sleep. Results: An epoch-by-epoch comparison between actigraphy and PSG showed a significant decrease in actigraphy accuracy with increased wakefulness in sleep conditions due to the low sleep specificity of actigraphy (generally <50%). Actigraphy overestimated total sleep time and sleep efficiency more strongly in conditions involving more wakefulness. Compared to the 2 regression algorithms, the 2 threshold algorithms were less able to detect wake when the sleep episode involved more wakefulness, and they tended to alternate more between wake and sleep in the scoring of long periods of wakefulness resulting in an overestimation of the number of awakenings. Conclusion: The very low ability of actigraphy to detect wakefulness casts doubt on its validity to measure sleep quality in clinical populations with fragmented sleep or in situations where the sleep-wake cycle is challenged, such as jet lag and shift work. Citation: Paquet J; Kawinska A; Carrier J. Wake detection capacity of actigraphy during sleep. SLEEP 2007;30(10):1362-1369 PMID:17969470

  10. Vorticity Field from Successive Wake Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two-dimensional version of the Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) was used to numerically simulate the interaction of wake vortices from closely separated aircraft. The aircraft parameters and separations are taken from observed data at an actual airport. The wake vortices are generated near the runway threshold for four successive aircraft. The ambient conditions are characterized by light crosswinds and stable stratification. This movie shows the time sequence of the vorticity field from the successive wake vortices. Apparent are the interactions between each pair of successive wake vortices and the ground.

  11. Wake measurements around operating wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.W.; Katen, P.C.; Walker, S.N.

    1985-05-01

    Researchers at Oregon State University have conducted wind measurement programs to describe the wake behind large horizontal axis turbines at Goodnoe Hills, Washington, (MOD-2), and behind the FloWind vertical axis wind turbine near Ellenburg, Washington. Wake measurements were taken using portable kite anemometers as well as fixed place anemometers under several atmospheric stability conditions and turbine operating conditions. Centerline hub height (midrotor) measurements were taken downwind and crosswind from 3-9 diameters. These wake programs are discussed and the velocity deficits measured are compared to the estimated deficits calculated from wake models.

  12. Double-branched vortex generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, E. R.; Westphal, R. V.; Mehta, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    In order to assess the suitability of using a double branched vortex generator in parametric studies involving vortex interactions, an experimental study of the main vortex and secondary flows produced by a double branched vortex generator was conducted in a 20-by-40 cm indraft wind tunnel. Measurements of the cross flow velocities were made with a five hole pressure probe from which vorticity contours and vortex parameters were derived. The results showed that the optimum configuration consisted of chord extensions with the absence of a centerbody.

  13. Three-dimensional transition after wake deflection behind a flapping foil.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jian; Caulfield, C P

    2015-04-01

    We report the inherently three-dimensional linear instabilities of a propulsive wake, produced by a flapping foil, mimicking the caudal fin of a fish or the wing of a flying animal. For the base flow, three sequential wake patterns appear as we increase the flapping amplitude: Bénard-von Kármán (BvK) vortex streets; reverse BvK vortex streets; and deflected wakes. Imposing a three-dimensional spanwise periodic perturbation, we find that the resulting Floquet multiplier |?| indicates an unstable "short wavelength" mode at wave number ?=30, or wavelength ?=0.21 (nondimensionalized by the chord length) at sufficiently high flow Reynolds number Re=Uc/??600, where U is the upstream flow velocity, c is the chord length, and ? is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. Another, "long wavelength" mode at ?=6 (?=1.05) becomes critical at somewhat higher Reynolds number, although we do not expect that this mode would be observed physically because its growth rate is always less than the short wavelength mode, at least for the parameters we have considered. The long wavelength mode has certain similarities with the so-called mode A in the drag wake of a fixed bluff body, while the short wavelength mode appears to have a period of the order of twice that of the base flow, in that its structure seems to repeat approximately only every second cycle of the base flow. Whether it is appropriate to classify this mode as a truly subharmonic mode or as a quasiperiodic mode is still an open question however, worthy of a detailed parametric study with various flapping amplitudes and frequencies. PMID:25974590

  14. Histaminergic Control of Sleep-Wake Cycles: Recent Therapeutic Advances for Sleep and Wake Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Barbier; M. J. Bradbury

    2007-01-01

    The role of histaminergic neurotransmission in the promotion of waking has been extensively studied in pre- clinical species. Appreciation for the role of histamine continues to expand with increasing understanding of the interac- tion of histamine within the broad network of neuromodulators that regulate sleep and wake. The effects of histamine on waking are transduced through the H1 and the

  15. Comparison of Wake Model Simulations with Offshore Wind Turbine Wake Profiles Measured by Sodar

    E-print Network

    Pryor, Sara C.

    Comparison of Wake Model Simulations with Offshore Wind Turbine Wake Profiles Measured by Sodar R of most of the commonly used models for predicting wind speed decrease (wake) downstream of a wind turbine between 1.7 and 7.4 rotor diameters downstream of the wind turbine. Evaluation of the models compares

  16. Scanning laser Doppler velocimeter system simulation for sensing aircraft wake vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, J. A. L.; Meng, J. C. S.

    1976-01-01

    A model that simulates the interaction of a laser-Doppler velocimeter with an aircraft wake flowfield is described. A hydrodynamic model is developed which represents the trailing vortex sheet and wind shear as discrete free vortices distributed over a two-dimensional grid. A sensor model is formulated for scanning both in range and in angle to produce a fan beam configuration without frequency translation. Output of this model is a frequency spectrum vs both range and angle. Once the spectrum is evaluated, simulations of the data analysis procedure are carried out. Patterns of various features of the signature are presented in range-elevation angle plots. The problem of locating the vortex centers is discussed as a pattern recognition problem and as a point target problem.

  17. Heat Transfer Enhancement in Separated and Vortex Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Richard J. Goldstein

    2004-05-27

    This document summarizes the research performance done at the Heat Transfer Laboratory of the University of Minnesota on heat transfer and energy separation in separated and vortex flow supported by DOE in the period September 1, 1998--August 31, 2003. Unsteady and complicated flow structures in separated or vortex flows are the main reason for a poor understanding of heat transfer under such conditions. The research from the University of Minnesota focused on the following important aspects of understanding such flows: (1) Heat/mass transfer from a circular cylinder; (2) study of energy separation and heat transfer in free jet flows and shear layers; and (3) study of energy separation on the surface and in the wake of a cylinder in crossflow. The current study used three different experimental setups to accomplish these goals. A wind tunnel and a liquid tunnel using water and mixtures of ethylene glycol and water, is used for the study of prandtl number effect with uniform heat flux from the circular cylinder. A high velocity air jet is used to study energy separation in free jets. A high speed wind tunnel, same as used for the first part, is utilized for energy separation effects on the surface and in the wake of the circular cylinder. The final outcome of this study is a substantial advancement in this research area.

  18. Simulation of vortex shedding in a turbine stage

    SciTech Connect

    Sondak, D.L. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Dorney, D.J. [GMI Engineering and Management Inst., Flint, MI (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Vortex shedding in a turbomachine blade row is affected by passing of blades in the adjacent downstream blade row, but these effects have not been examined in the literature. A series of flow simulations has been performed to study vortex shedding in a turbine stage, and to quantify the blade interaction effects on the unsteady pressure response. The numerical issues of spatial order of accuracy and the use of Newton subiterations were investigated first. Second-order spatial accuracy was shown to be inadequate to model the shedding frequency response and time-averaged base pressure accurately. For the small time step employed for temporal accuracy, Newton iterations were shown to be unnecessary. The effects of the adjacent blade row were examined by comparing the shedding frequency response for the stage simulations to the response for isolated cascades. The vane shedding was shown to occur exactly an a series of harmonics of the blade passing frequency for the stage case, compared to a single predominant frequency for the isolated cascade. Losses were also examined in the wake region. It was shown that close to the trailing edge, losses were mainly due to wake mixing. Farther downstream of the trailing edge, losses were predominantly due to the trailing edge shock wave.

  19. Vortex patterns in a fast rotating Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Aftalion, Amandine; Blanc, Xavier; Dalibard, Jean [Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, Universite Paris 6, 175 rue du Chevaleret, 75013 Paris (France); Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France)

    2005-02-01

    For a fast rotating condensate in a harmonic trap, we investigate the structure of the vortex lattice using wave functions minimizing the Gross-Pitaevskii energy in the lowest Landau level. We find that the minimizer of the energy in the rotating frame has a distorted vortex lattice for which we plot the typical distribution. We compute analytically the energy of an infinite regular lattice and of a class of distorted lattices. We find the optimal distortion and relate it to the decay of the wave function. Finally, we generalize our method to other trapping potentials.

  20. On the flow around the node to anti-node transition of a flexible cylinder undergoing vortex-induced vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangash, Zafar A.; Huera-Huarte, Francisco J.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the wake structures behind the node to anti-node transitional region of a flexible cylinder undergoing vortex-induced vibrations are investigated experimentally. The cylinder was towed in a still water tank with Reynolds numbers that produced self-sustained stable 2nd mode of structural vibrations, in the range 1500-2000. The wake of the cylinder was analysed using flow visualisation and digital particle image velocimetry at various planes perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder between the node and the anti-node, as well as at planes parallel to the axis of the cylinder. It was observed that at the anti-node, the wake comprised of the classic vortex shedding. The wake at the node consisted of a pair of counter-rotating vortices that remained attached to the cylinder. A transitional region was observed between the nodal and anti-node regions that exhibited a vortex pinch-off in the vicinity of the cylinder and connectivity further downstream of the cylinder.

  1. Vortex Apparatus and Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakerin, Said

    2010-01-01

    Vortex flow, from millimeter to kilometer in scale, is important in many scientific and technological areas. Examples are seen in water strider locomotion, from industrial pipe flow (wastewater treatment) to air traffic control (safe distance between aircrafts on a runway ready for takeoff) to atmospheric studies. In this paper, we focus on a…

  2. Behavior of Vortex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A.

    1979-01-01

    Application of the Kutta-Joukowski theorem to the relationship between airfoil lift and circulation is described. A number of formulas concerning the conduct of vortex systems derived from the theorem are presented. The application of this line of reasoning to several problems of airfoil theory and the observed relations are discussed.

  3. Tunable pinning of a superconducting vortex by a magnetic vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carneiro, Gilson

    2007-03-01

    The interaction between a straight vortex line in a superconducting film and a soft magnetic nanodisk in the magnetic vortex state in the presence of a magnetic field applied parallel to the film surfaces is studied theoretically. The superconductor is described by London theory [G. Carneiro, Phys. Rev. B 69, 214504 (2004)] and the nanodisk by the Landau-Lifshitz continuum theory of magnetism [L. Landau and E. Lifshitz, Phys. Z. Sowjetunion 8, 153 (1935); Collected Papers of L. D. Landau (Gordon and Breach, New York, 1967), p. 101], using the approximation known as the rigid vortex model. Pinning of the vortex line by the nanodisk is found to result, predominantly, from the interaction between the vortex line and the changes in the nanodisk magnetization induced by the magnetic field of the vortex line and applied field. In the context of the rigid vortex model, these changes result from the displacement of the magnetic vortex. This displacement is calculated analytically by minimizing the energy, and the pinning potential is obtained. The applied field can tune the pinning potential by controlling the displacement of the magnetic vortex. The nanodisk magnetization curve is predicted to change in the presence of the vortex line.

  4. Water tunnel visualization of the vortex flows of the F-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorincz, D. J.; Friend, E. L.

    1979-01-01

    Flow visualization studies were conducted in a diagnostic water tunnel to provide details of the wing, glove, and forebody vortex flow fields of the F-15 aircraft over a range of angles of attack and sideslip. Both the formation and breakdown of the vortex flow as a function of angle of attack and sideslip are detailed for the basic aircraft configuration. Additional tests showed that the wing upper surface vortex flows were sensitive to variations in an inlet mass flow ratio and an inlet cowl deflection angle. Two lengthened forebodies, one with a modified cross-sectional shape, were tested in addition to the basic forebody. Asymmetric forebody vortices were observed at zero sideslip and high angles of attack on each forebody. A large nose boom was added to each of the three forebodies, and it was observed that the turbulent wake shed from the boom disrupted the forebody vortices.

  5. Wingtip vortex control via the use of a reverse half-delta wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T.; Su, Y. Y.

    2012-06-01

    The effect of a 65° sweep reverse half-delta wing (RHDW), mounted at the squared tip of a rectangular NACA 0012 wing, on the tip vortex was investigated experimentally at Re = 2.45 × 105. The RHDW was found to produce a weaker tip vortex with a lower vorticity level and, more importantly, a reduced lift-induced drag compared to the baseline wing. In addition to the lift increment, the RHDW also produced a large separated wake flow and subsequently an increased profile drag. The reduction in lift-induced drag, however, outperformed the increase in profile drag and resulted in a virtually unchanged total drag in comparison with the baseline wing. Physical mechanisms responsible for the RHDW-induced appealing aerodynamics and vortex flow modifications were discussed.

  6. Neurobiology of Sleep-Wake Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Won Cho

    The regulations of sleep-wake cycle is complicated and many neurochemicals are involved. It is the consequence of an active process requiring appropriate interactions ofbrainstem and the cerebral system. The homeostatic drive and circadian factors are major controls in this regulation. The reticular activation system is a wake promoting area and the neurons in pons and preoptic areas are involved in

  7. Neuropeptidergic control of sleep and wakefulness.

    PubMed

    Richter, Constance; Woods, Ian G; Schier, Alexander F

    2014-01-01

    Sleep and wake are fundamental behavioral states whose molecular regulation remains mysterious. Brain states and body functions change dramatically between sleep and wake, are regulated by circadian and homeostatic processes, and depend on the nutritional and emotional condition of the animal. Sleep-wake transitions require the coordination of several brain regions and engage multiple neurochemical systems, including neuropeptides. Neuropeptides serve two main functions in sleep-wake regulation. First, they represent physiological states such as energy level or stress in response to environmental and internal stimuli. Second, neuropeptides excite or inhibit their target neurons to induce, stabilize, or switch between sleep-wake states. Thus, neuropeptides integrate physiological subsystems such as circadian time, previous neuron usage, energy homeostasis, and stress and growth status to generate appropriate sleep-wake behaviors. We review the roles of more than 20 neuropeptides in sleep and wake to lay the foundation for future studies uncovering the mechanisms that underlie the initiation, maintenance, and exit of sleep and wake states. PMID:25032501

  8. Nematic order in the vicinity of a vortex in superconducting FeSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Debanjan; Berg, Erez; Sachdev, Subir

    2012-02-01

    We present a phenomenological theory of the interplay between nematic order and superconductivity in the vicinity of a vortex induced by an applied magnetic field [1]. Nematic order can be strongly enhanced in the vortex core. As a result, the vortex cores become elliptical in shape. For the case where there is weak bulk nematic order at zero magnetic field, the field-induced eccentricity of the vortex core has a slow power-law decay away from the core. Conversely, if the nematic order is field induced, then the eccentricity is confined to the vortex core. We discuss the relevance of our results to recent scanning tunneling microscopy experiments on FeSe [2]. [4pt] [1] D. Chowdhury, E. Berg and S. Sachdev, to appear in Phys. Rev. B, arXiv: 1109.2600 (2011).[0pt] [2] Can- Li Song et al., Science 332, 1410 (2011).

  9. Correcting vortex splitting in higher order vortex beams.

    PubMed

    Neo, Richard; Tan, Shiaw Juen; Zambrana-Puyalto, Xavier; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2014-04-21

    We demonstrate a general method for the first order compensation of singularity splitting in a vortex beam at a single plane. By superimposing multiple forked holograms on the SLM used to generate the vortex beam, we are able to compensate vortex splitting and generate beams with desired phase singularities of order ? = 0, 1, 2, and 3 in one plane. We then extend this method by application of a radial phase, in order to simultaneously compensate the observed vortex splitting at two planes (near and far field) for an ? = 2 beam. PMID:24787874

  10. Helicopter tail rotor blade-vortex interaction noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Albert R.; Chou, S.-T.

    1987-03-01

    A study is made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to the interactions with main rotor tip vortices. Summarized here are present analysis, the computer codes, and the results of several test cases. Amiet's unsteady thin airfoil theory is used to calculate the acoustics of blade-vortex interaction. The noise source is modelled as a force dipole resulting from an airfoil of infinite span chopping through a skewed line vortex. To analyze the interactions between helicopter tail rotor and main rotor tip vortices, we developed a two-step approach: (1) the main rotor tip vortex system is obtained through a free wake geometry calculation of the main rotor using CAMRAD code; (2) acoustic analysis takes the results from the aerodynamic interaction analysis and calculates the farfield pressure signatures for the interactions. It is found that under a wide range of helicopter flight conditions, acoustic pressure fluctuations of significant magnitude can be generated by tail rotors due to a series of interactions with main rotor tip vortices. This noise mechanism depends strongly on the helicopter flight conditions and the relative location and phasing of the main and tail rotors. fluctuations of significant magnitude can be generated by tail rotors due to a series of interactions with main rotor tip vortices. This noise mechanism depends strongly upon the helicopter flight conditions and the relative location and phasing of the main and tail rotors.

  11. Aeroacoustics of viscous vortex reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes, Pedro; Nichols, Joseph W.; Duraisamy, Karthik; Hussain, Fazle

    2011-11-01

    Reconnection of two anti-parallel vortex tubes is studied by direct numerical simulations and large-eddy simulations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over a wide range (2000-50,000) of the vortex Reynolds number (Re). A detailed investigation of the flow dynamics is performed and at high Re, multiple reconnections are observed as the newly formed ``bridges'' interact by self and mutual induction. To investigate acoustics produced by the recoil action of the vortex threads, Möhring's theory of vortex sound is applied to the flow field and evaluated at varying far-field locations. The acoustic solver is verified against calculations of laminar vortex ring collision. For anti-parallel vortex reconnection, the resulting far-field spectra are shown to be grid converged at low-to-mid frequencies. To assess the relevance to fully turbulent jet noise, the dependence of reconnection upon Reynolds number is investigated.

  12. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  13. Vortex flow aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H. B.; Campbell, J. F.; Young, A. D. (editor)

    1992-01-01

    The principal emphasis of the meeting was to be on the understanding and prediction of separation-induced vortex flows and their effects on vehicle performance, stability, control, and structural design loads. This report shows that a substantial amount of the papers covering this area were received from a wide range of countries, together with an attendance that was even more diverse. In itself, this testifies to the current interest in the subject and to the appropriateness of the Panel's choice of topic and approach. An attempt is made to summarize each paper delivered, and to relate the contributions made in the papers and in the discussions to some of the important aspects of vortex flow aerodynamics. This reveals significant progress and important clarifications, but also brings out remaining weaknesses in predictive capability and gaps in understanding. Where possible, conclusions are drawn and areas of continuing concern are identified.

  14. Strings and vortex rings

    E-print Network

    Steven S. Gubser; Revant Nayar; Sarthak Parikh

    2014-08-10

    We treat string propagation and interaction in the presence of a background Neveu-Schwarz three-form field strength, suitable for describing vortex rings in a superfluid or low-viscosity normal fluid. A circular vortex ring exhibits instabilities which have been recognized for many years, but whose precise boundaries we determine for the first time analytically in the small core limit. Two circular vortices colliding head-on exhibit stronger instabilities which cause splitting into many small vortices at late times. We provide an approximate analytic treatment of these instabilities and show that the most unstable wavelength is parametrically larger than a dynamically generated length scale which in many hydrodynamic systems is close to the cutoff. We also summarize how the string construction we discuss can be derived from the Gross-Pitaevskii lagrangian, and also how it compares to the action for giant gravitons.

  15. Whither vortex tubes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullin, D. I.; Yang, Yue

    2014-12-01

    We review research aimed at the development of an analytical and numerical framework for tracking the evolution, in an incompressible viscous fluid, of scalar fields, called ‘vortex surface fields’ (VSFs), whose instantaneous isosurfaces always contain continuous vortex lines. A set of equations describing the evolution of VSFs starting from a known initial condition is proposed and discussed. Non-uniqueness in the initial-value problem is resolved with the introduction of evolution in a pseudo-time variable where the vorticity, frozen in real time, plays the role of an advecting field. A numerical method for following both the real and pseudo-time evolution is described and its regularization properties are discussed. Examples are given of following VSFs in a viscous Taylor–Green flow (Taylor and Green 1937 Proc. R. Soc. A 158 499–521). The prospects for extending these ideas to fully turbulent flows are discussed.

  16. The Role of Turbulence in Chemical and Dynamical Processes in the Near-Field Wake of Subsonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewellen, D. C.; Lewellen, W. Steve

    2002-01-01

    During this grant, covering the period from September 1998 to December 2001, we continued the investigation of the role of turbulent mixing in the wake of subsonic aircraft initiated in 1994 for NASA's Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project. The goal of the research has been to provide sufficient understanding and quantitative analytical capability to assess the dynamical, chemical, and microphysical interactions in the near-field wake that have the greatest potential to influence the global atmospheric impact of the projected fleet of subsonic aircraft. Through large-eddy simulations we have shown that turbulence in the early wake dynamics can have a strong effect on both the ice microphysics of contrail evolution and on wake chemistry. The wake vortex dynamics are the primary determinant of the vertical extent of the contrail; this together with the local wind shear largely determines the horizontal extent. The fraction of the initial ice crystals surviving the wake vortex dynamics, their spatial distribution, and the ice mass distribution are all sensitive to the aircraft type, assumed initial ice crystal number, and ambient humidity and turbulence conditions. Our model indicates that there is a significant range of conditions for which a smaller aircraft such as a B737 produces as significant a persistent contrail as a larger aircraft such as a B747, even though the latter consumes almost five times as much fuel. Large-eddy simulations of the near wake of a B757 provided a fine-grained chemical-dynamical representation of simplified NOx - HOx chemistry in wakes of ages from a few seconds to several minutes. By sampling the simulated data in a manner similar to that of in situ aircraft measurements it was possible to provide a likely explanation for a puzzle uncovered in the 1996 SUCCESS flight measurements of OH and HO2 The results illustrate the importance of considering fluid dynamics effects in interpreting chemistry results when mixing rates and species fluctuations are large, and demonstrate the feasibility of using 3D unsteady LES with coupled chemistry to study such phenomena.

  17. Confined vortex scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The program objective is to demonstrate efficient removal of fine particulates to sufficiently low levels to meet proposed small scale coal combustor emission standards using a cleanup technology appropriate to small scale coal combustors. This to be accomplished using a novel particulate removal device, the Confined Vortex Scrubber (CVS), which consists of a cylindrical vortex chamber with tangential flue gas inlets. The clean gas exit is via vortex finder outlets, one at either end of the tube. Liquid is introduced into the chamber and is confined within the vortex chamber by the centrifugal force generated by the gas flow itself. This confined liquid forms a layer through which the flue gas is then forced to bubble, producing a strong gas/liquid interaction, high inertial separation forces and efficient particulate cleanup. During this quarter a comprehensive series of cleanup experiments have been made for three CVS configurations. The first CVS configuration tested gave very efficient fine particulate removal at the design air mass flow rate (1 MM BUT/hr combustor exhaust flow), but had over 20{double prime}WC pressure drop. The first CVS configuration was then re-designed to produce the same very efficient particulate collection performance at a lower pressure drop. The current CVS configuration produces 99.4 percent cleanup of ultra-fine fly ash at the design air mass flow at a pressure drop of 12 {double prime}WC with a liquid/air flow ratio of 0.31/m{sup 3}. Unlike venturi scrubbers, the collection performance of the CVS is insensitive to dust loading and to liquid/air flow ratio.

  18. Numerical study of vortex reconnection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wm. T. Ashurst; D. I. Meiron

    1987-01-01

    With a Biot-Savart model of vortex filaments to provide initial conditions, a finite-difference scheme for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation is used in the region of closest approach of two vortex rings. In the Navier-Stokes solutions, it is seen that the low pressure which develops between the interacting vorticity regions causes the distortion of the initially circular vortex cross section and

  19. Effect of External Turbulence on the Evolution of a Towed Wake in a Stratified Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Anikesh; Sarkar, Sutanu

    2013-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to study the effect of external turbulence on the evolution of a towed turbulent wake in a stratified fluid. The simulations are carried out at a Reynolds number of 10,000, Froude number of 3 and Prandtl number of 1. The external turbulence is generated from a triply periodic rectangular domain in an auxiliary simulation performed to obtain turbulence with desired uext' /U0 , where uext' is the root mean square velocity of the external turbulence and U0 is the maximum defect velocity of the pure towed wake. This field of external turbulence is added to the initial field of the towed turbulent wake. Simulations are performed for uext' /U0 = 0 . 10 , 0 . 20 , and 0.30. The kinetic energy of the towed wake decays faster with progressively increasing values of uext' /U0 . This effect of external turbulence is found to be stronger in stratified flow relative to the neutral case. Although the horizontal spread of the stratified wake is enhanced owing to external turbulence there is little effect on the vertical spread.

  20. Interferometric optical vortex array generator.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Sunil; Senthilkumaran, P

    2007-05-20

    Two new interferometric configurations for optical vortex array generation are presented. These interferometers are different from the conventional interferometers in that they are capable of producing a large number of isolated zeros of intensity, and all of them contain optical vortices. Simulation and theory for optical vortex array generation using three-plane-wave interference is presented. The vortex dipole array produced this way is noninteracting, as there are no attraction or repulsion forces between them, leading to annihilation or creation of vortex pairs. PMID:17514234

  1. Molecular wake shield gas analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques for measuring and characterizing the ultrahigh vacuum in the wake of an orbiting spacecraft are studied. A high sensitivity mass spectrometer that contains a double mass analyzer consisting of an open source miniature magnetic sector field neutral gas analyzer and an identical ion analyzer is proposed. These are configured to detect and identify gas and ion species of hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, nitric oxide, and carbon dioxide and any other gas or ion species in the 1 to 46 amu mass range. This range covers the normal atmospheric constituents. The sensitivity of the instrument is sufficient to measure ambient gases and ion with a particle density of the order of one per cc. A chemical pump, or getter, is mounted near the entrance aperture of the neutral gas analyzer which integrates the absorption of ambient gases for a selectable period of time for subsequent release and analysis. The sensitivity is realizable for all but rare gases using this technique.

  2. Status of wake and array loss research

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.L.

    1991-09-01

    In recent years, many projects have evaluated wind turbine wake effects and resultant array losses in both Europe and the United States. This paper examines the status of current knowledge about wake effects and array losses and suggests future research. Single-turbine wake characteristics have been studied extensively and are generally described well by existing theoretical models. Field measurements of wake effects in wind turbine arrays are largely limited to small arrays, with 2 to 4 rows of turbines. Few data have been published on wake effects within large arrays. Measurements of wake deficits downwind of large arrays that deficits are substantially larger and extend farther downwind than expected. Although array design models have been developed, these models have been tested and verified using only limited data from a few rows of wind turbines in complex terrain, whereas some of the largest arrays have more than 40 rows of wind turbines. Planned cooperative efforts with the wind industry will obtain existing data relevant to analyzing energy deficits within large arrays and identifying data sets for potential use in array model verification efforts. Future research being considered include a cooperative research experiment to obtain more definitive data on wake deficits and turbulence within and downwind of large arrays. 16 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Two-fluid jets and wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herczynski, Andrzej; Weidman, Patrick D.; Burde, Georgy I.

    2004-04-01

    Similarity solutions for laminar two-fluid jets and wakes are derived in the boundary-layer approximation. Planar and axisymmetric fan jets as well as classical and momentumless planar wakes are considered. The interface between the immiscible fluids is stabilized by the action of gravity, with the heavier fluid, taken to be a liquid, placed beneath the lighter fluid. Velocity profiles for the jets and the classical wake depend intimately, but differently, on the parameter ?=?1?1/?2?2, where ?i and ?i are, respectively, the density and absolute viscosity of the fluid in the upper (i=1) and lower (i=2) fluid domains, while the momentumless wake profile depends on the parameter ?=?1?23/?2?13. Generally, all interfaces deflect from horizontal except the fan jet. However, while the interface for the classical planar two-fluid wake is never flat, the interfaces for the planar jet and the momentumless wake become flat in the particular case ?1=?2. Velocity profiles illustrating the strongly asymmetrical jet and wake profiles that arise in air-over-water, oil-over-water, and air-over-oil flows are presented.

  4. Shear flow induced vibrations of long slender cylinders with a wake oscillator model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Fei; Lu, Wei; Wang, Lei; Hong, You-Shi

    2011-06-01

    A time domain model is presented to study the vibrations of long slender cylinders placed in shear flow. Long slender cylinders such as risers and tension legs are widely used in the field of ocean engineering. They are subjected to vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) when placed within a transverse incident flow. A three dimensional model coupled with wake oscillators is formulated to describe the response of the slender cylinder in cross-flow and in-line directions. The wake oscillators are distributed along the cylinder and the vortex-shedding frequency is derived from the local current velocity. A non-linear fluid force model is accounted for the coupled effect between cross-flow and in-line vibrations. The comparisons with the published experimental data show that the dynamic features of VIV of long slender cylinder placed in shear flow can be obtained by the proposed model, such as the spanwise average displacement, vibration frequency, dominant mode and the combination of standing and traveling waves. The simulation in a uniform flow is also conducted and the result is compared with the case of nonuniform flow. It is concluded that the flow shear characteristic has significantly changed the cylinder vibration behavior.

  5. Centrifugal instability of Stokes layers in crossflow: the case of a forced cylinder wake

    E-print Network

    Juan D'Adamo; Ramiro Godoy-Diana; José Eduardo Wesfreid

    2015-04-23

    The wake flow around a circular cylinder at $Re\\approx100$ performing rotatory oscillations has been thoroughly discussed in the literature, mostly focusing on the modifications to the natural B\\'enard-von K\\'arm\\'an vortex street that result from the forced shedding modes locked to the rotatory oscillation frequency. The usual experimental and theoretical frameworks at these Reynolds numbers are quasi-two-dimensional, since the secondary instabilities bringing a three-dimensional structure to the cylinder wake flow occur only at higher Reynolds numbers. In the present paper we show that a three-dimensional structure can appear below the usual three-dimensionalization threshold, when forcing with frequencies lower than the natural vortex shedding frequency, at high amplitudes, as a result of a previously unreported mechanism: a pulsed centrifugal instability of the oscillating Stokes layer at the wall of the cylinder. The present numerical investigation lets us in this way propose a physical explanation for the turbulence-like features reported in the recent experimental study of D'Adamo et al. (2011).

  6. Large HAWT wake measurement and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. H.; Wegley, H. L.; Buck, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    From the theoretical fluid dynamics point of view, the wake region of a large horizontal-axis wind turbine has been defined and described, and numerical models of wake behavior have been developed. Wind tunnel studies of single turbine wakes and turbine array wakes have been used to verify the theory and further refine the numerical models. However, the effects of scaling, rotor solidity, and topography on wake behavior are questions that remain unanswered. In the wind tunnel studies, turbines were represented by anything from scaled models to tea strainers or wire mesh disks whose solidity was equivalent to that of a typical wind turbine. The scale factor compensation for the difference in Reynolds number between the scale model and an actual turbine is complex, and not typically accounted for. Though it is wise to study the simpler case of wakes in flat topography, which can be easily duplicated in the wind tunnel, current indications are that wind turbine farm development is actually occurring in somewhat more complex terrain. Empirical wake studies using large horizontal-axis wind turbines have not been thoroughly composited, and, therefore, the results have not been applied to the well-developed theory of wake structure. The measurement programs have made use of both in situ sensor systems, such as instrumented towers, and remote sensors, such as kites and tethered, balloonborne anemometers. We present a concise overview of the work that has been performed, including our own, which is based on the philosophy that the MOD-2 turbines are probably their own best detector of both the momentum deficit and the induced turbulence effect downwind. Only the momentum deficit aspects of the wake/machine interactions have been addressed. Both turbine power output deficits and wind energy deficits as measured by the onsite meteorological towers have been analyzed from a composite data set. The analysis has also evidenced certain topographic influences on the operation of spatially diverse wind turbines.

  7. Superconducting vortex avalanches, voltage bursts, and vortex plastic flow: Effect of the microscopic pinning landscape on the macroscopic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, C.J.; Reichhardt, C.; Nori, F. [Department of Physics, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1120 (United States)] [Department of Physics, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1120 (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Using large-scale simulations on parallel processors, we analyze in detail the dynamical behavior of superconducting vortices undergoing avalanches. In particular, we quantify the effect of the pinning landscape on the macroscopic properties of vortex avalanches and vortex plastic flow. These dynamical instabilities are triggered when the external magnetic field is increased slightly, and are thus driven by a flux gradient rather than by thermal effects. The flux profiles, composed of rigid flux lines that interact with 100 or more vortices, are maintained in the Bean critical state and do not decay away from it. By directly determining vortex positions during avalanches in the plastically moving lattice, we find that experimentally observable voltage bursts correspond to the pulsing movement of vortices along branched channels or winding chains in a manner reminiscent of lightning strikes. This kind of motion cannot be described by elastic theories. We relate the velocity field and cumulative patterns of vortex flow channels with statistical quantities, such as distributions of avalanche sizes. Samples with a high density of strong pinning sites produce very broad avalanche distributions. Easy-flow vortex channels appear in samples with a low pinning density, and typical avalanche sizes emerge in an otherwise broad distribution of sizes. We observe a crossover from interstitial motion in narrow channels to pin-to-pin motion in broad channels as pin density is increased. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Hummingbirds generate bilateral vortex loops during hovering: evidence from flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pournazeri, Sam; Segre, Paolo S.; Princevac, Marko; Altshuler, Douglas L.

    2013-01-01

    Visualization of the vortex wake of a flying animal provides understanding of how wingbeat kinematics are translated into the aerodynamic forces for powering and controlling flight. Two general vortex flow patterns have been proposed for the wake of hovering hummingbirds: (1) The two wings form a single, merged vortex ring during each wing stroke; and (2) the two wings form bilateral vortex loops during each wing stroke. The second pattern was proposed after a study with particle image velocimetry that demonstrated bilateral source flows in a horizontal measurement plane underneath hovering Anna's hummingbirds ( Calypte anna). Proof of this hypothesis requires a clear perspective of bilateral pairs of vortices. Here, we used high-speed image sequences (500 frames per second) of C. anna hover feeding within a white plume to visualize the vortex wake from multiple perspectives. The films revealed two key structural features: (1) Two distinct jets of downwards airflow are present under each wing; and (2) vortex loops around each jet are shed during each upstroke and downstroke. To aid in the interpretation of the flow visualization data, we analyzed high-speed kinematic data (1,000 frames per second) of wing tips and wing roots as C. anna hovered in normal air. These data were used to refine several simplified models of vortex topology. The observed flow patterns can be explained by either a single loop model with an hourglass shape or a bilateral model, with the latter being more likely. When hovering in normal air, hummingbirds used an average stroke amplitude of 153.6° (range 148.9°-164.4°) and a wingbeat frequency of 38.5 Hz (range 38.1-39.1 Hz). When hovering in the white plume, hummingbirds used shallower stroke amplitudes ( bar{x} = 129.8°, range 116.3°-154.1°) and faster wingbeat frequencies ( bar{x} = 41.1 Hz, range 38.5-44.7 Hz), although the bilateral jets and associated vortices were observed across the full kinematic range. The plume did not significantly alter the air density or constrain the sustained muscle contractile frequency. Instead, higher wingbeat frequencies likely incurred a higher metabolic cost with the possible benefit of allowing the birds to more rapidly escape from the visually disruptive plume.

  9. Hummingbirds generate bilateral vortex loops during hovering: evidence from flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pournazeri, Sam; Segre, Paolo S.; Princevac, Marko; Altshuler, Douglas L.

    2012-12-01

    Visualization of the vortex wake of a flying animal provides understanding of how wingbeat kinematics are translated into the aerodynamic forces for powering and controlling flight. Two general vortex flow patterns have been proposed for the wake of hovering hummingbirds: (1) The two wings form a single, merged vortex ring during each wing stroke; and (2) the two wings form bilateral vortex loops during each wing stroke. The second pattern was proposed after a study with particle image velocimetry that demonstrated bilateral source flows in a horizontal measurement plane underneath hovering Anna's hummingbirds ( Calypte anna). Proof of this hypothesis requires a clear perspective of bilateral pairs of vortices. Here, we used high-speed image sequences (500 frames per second) of C. anna hover feeding within a white plume to visualize the vortex wake from multiple perspectives. The films revealed two key structural features: (1) Two distinct jets of downwards airflow are present under each wing; and (2) vortex loops around each jet are shed during each upstroke and downstroke. To aid in the interpretation of the flow visualization data, we analyzed high-speed kinematic data (1,000 frames per second) of wing tips and wing roots as C. anna hovered in normal air. These data were used to refine several simplified models of vortex topology. The observed flow patterns can be explained by either a single loop model with an hourglass shape or a bilateral model, with the latter being more likely. When hovering in normal air, hummingbirds used an average stroke amplitude of 153.6° (range 148.9°-164.4°) and a wingbeat frequency of 38.5 Hz (range 38.1-39.1 Hz). When hovering in the white plume, hummingbirds used shallower stroke amplitudes ( bar{x} = 129.8°, range 116.3°-154.1°) and faster wingbeat frequencies ( bar{x} = 41.1 Hz, range 38.5-44.7 Hz), although the bilateral jets and associated vortices were observed across the full kinematic range. The plume did not significantly alter the air density or constrain the sustained muscle contractile frequency. Instead, higher wingbeat frequencies likely incurred a higher metabolic cost with the possible benefit of allowing the birds to more rapidly escape from the visually disruptive plume.

  10. Rotorcraft acoustic radiation prediction based on a refined blade-vortex interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rule, John Allen

    1997-08-01

    The analysis of rotorcraft aerodynamics and acoustics is a challenging problem, primarily due to the fact that a rotorcraft continually flies through its own wake. The generation mechanism for a rotorcraft wake, which is dominated by strong, concentrated blade-tip trailing vortices, is similar to that in fixed wing aerodynamics. However, following blades encounter shed vortices from previous blades before they are swept downstream, resulting in sharp, impulsive loading on the blades. The blade/wake encounter, known as Blade-Vortex Interaction, or BVI, is responsible for a significant amount of vibratory loading and the characteristic rotorcraft acoustic signature in certain flight regimes. The present work addressed three different aspects of this interaction at a fundamental level. First, an analytical model for the prediction of trailing vortex structure is discussed. The model as presented is the culmination of a lengthy research effort to isolate the key physical mechanisms which govern vortex sheet rollup. Based on the Betz model, properties of the flow such as mass flux, axial momentum flux, and axial flux of angular momentum are conserved on either a differential or integral basis during the rollup process. The formation of a viscous central core was facilitated by the assumption of a turbulent mixing process with final vortex velocity profiles chosen to be consistent with a rotational flow mixing model and experimental observation. A general derivation of the method is outlined, followed by a comparison of model predictions with experimental vortex measurements, and finally a viscous blade drag model to account for additional effects of aerodynamic drag on vortex structure. The second phase of this program involved the development of a new formulation of lifting surface theory with the ultimate goal of an accurate, reduced order hybrid analytical/numerical model for fast rotorcraft load calculations. Currently, accurate rotorcraft airload analyses are limited by the massive computational power required to capture the small time scale events associated with BVI. This problem has two primary facets: accurate knowledge of the wake geometry, and accurate resolution of the impulsive loading imposed by a tip vortex on a blade. The present work addressed the second facet, providing a mathematical framework for solving the impulsive loading problem analytically, then asymptotically matching this solution to a low-resolution numerical calculation. A method was developed which uses continuous sheets of integrated boundary elements to model the lifting surface and wake. Special elements were developed to capture local behavior in high-gradient regions of the flow, thereby reducing the burden placed on the surrounding numerical method. Unsteady calculations for several classical cases were made in both frequency and time domain to demonstrate the performance of the method. Finally, a new unsteady, compressible boundary element method was applied to the problem of BVI acoustic radiation prediction. This numerical method, combined with the viscous core trailing vortex model, was used to duplicate the geometry and flight configuration of a detailed experimental BVI study carried out at NASA Ames Research Center. Blade surface pressure and near- and far-field acoustic radiation calculations were made. All calculations were shown to compare favorably with experimentally measured values. The linear boundary element method with non-linear corrections proved sufficient over most of the rotor azimuth, and particular in the region of the blade vortex interaction, suggesting that full non-linear CFD schemes are not necessary for rotorcraft noise prediction.

  11. Review of CFD for wind-turbine wake aerodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Sanderse; Pijl van der S. P; B. Koren

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the state of the art of the numerical calculation of wind-turbine wake aerodynamics. Different CFD techniques for modeling the rotor and the wake are discussed. Regarding rotor modeling, recent advances in the generalized actuator approach and the direct model are discussed, as far as it attributes to the wake description. For the wake, the focus is on

  12. Tunable pinning of a superconducting vortex by a magnetic vortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilson Carneiro; Rio de Janeiro-RJ

    2007-01-01

    The interaction between a straight vortex line in a superconducting film and a soft magnetic nanodisk in the magnetic vortex state in the presence of a magnetic field applied parallel to the film surfaces is studied theoretically. The superconductor is described by London theory [G. Carneiro, Phys. Rev. B 69, 214504 (2004)] and the nanodisk by the Landau-Lifshitz continuum theory

  13. VORTEX SHEETS, VORTEX RINGS, AND A MESOCYCLONE David S. Nolan*

    E-print Network

    Nolan, David S.

    14.1 VORTEX SHEETS, VORTEX RINGS, AND A MESOCYCLONE David S. Nolan* Division of Meteorology, the generation of vertical vorticity is symmetric about the shear vector, and two symmetric rotating storms are generated. However, it is much more often the case that the wind vector turns clockwise with height (in

  14. Experimental evaluation of a flat wake theory for predicting rotor inflow-wake velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John C.

    1992-01-01

    The theory for predicting helicopter inflow-wake velocities called flat wake theory was correlated with several sets of experimental data. The theory was developed by V. E. Baskin of the USSR, and a computer code known as DOWN was developed at Princeton University to implement the theory. The theory treats the wake geometry as rigid without interaction between induced velocities and wake structure. The wake structure is assumed to be a flat sheet of vorticity composed of trailing elements whose strength depends on the azimuthal and radial distributions of circulation on a rotor blade. The code predicts the three orthogonal components of flow velocity in the field surrounding the rotor. The predictions can be utilized in rotor performance and helicopter real-time flight-path simulation. The predictive capability of the coded version of flat wake theory provides vertical inflow patterns similar to experimental patterns.

  15. Streamwise vortex meander in a plane mixing layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leboeuf, Richard L.; Mehta, Rabindra D.

    1993-01-01

    The present experimental study was conducted in order to determine the existence of streamwise vortex meander in a mixing layer, and if present, its significance on the measured properties. The dependence of the velocity cross-correlation on the fixed probe location was shown to be a good indicator of the stationarity of the streamwise vortex location. The cross-correlation measurements obtained here indicate that spanwise meander is negligible, although transverse apparent meander (normal to the plane of the mixing layer) was indicated. The transverse meander, exemplified by the elliptical shape of the mean streamwise vorticity contours, was expected, since the streamwise vorticity in the braid region is essentially inclined, with respect to the streamwise direction. These conclusions were supported by results of estimated spanwise profiles of the transverse velocity component. The balance of evidence suggests that the measured mean streamwise vorticity decay is representative of the decay of the vorticity rather than an artifact of meander.

  16. Airloads and Wake Geometry Calculations for an Isolated Tiltrotor Model in a Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2001-01-01

    Comparisons of measured and calculated aerodynamic behavior of a tiltrotor model are presented. The test of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) with a single, 0.25-scale V-22 rotor in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW) provides an extensive set of aeroacoustic, performance, and structural loads data. The calculations were performed using the rotorcraft comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II. Presented are comparisons of measured and calculated performance for hover and helicopter mode operation, and airloads for helicopter mode. Calculated induced power, profile power, and wake geometry provide additional information about the aerodynamic behavior. An aerodynamic and wake model and calculation procedure that reflects the unique geometry and phenomena of tiltrotors has been developed. There are major differences between this model and the corresponding aerodynamic and wake model that has been established for helicopter rotors. In general, good correlation between measured and calculated performance and airloads behavior has been shown. Two aspects of the analysis that clearly need improvement are the stall delay model and the trailed vortex formation model.

  17. Exquisitely sensitive seal whisker-like sensors detect wakes at large distances

    E-print Network

    Beem, Heather R

    2015-01-01

    Blindfolded harbor seals are able to use their uniquely shaped whiskers to track vortex wakes left by moving animals and objects that passed by up to 30 seconds earlier; this is an impressive feat as the flow features they detect may have velocity as low as 1 mm/s, and the seals have some capacity to identify the shape of the object as well. They do so while swimming forward at high speed, hence their whiskers are sensitive enough to detect small-scale changes in the external flow field, while rejecting self-generated flow noise. Here we identify and illustrate a novel flow mechanism that allows artificial whiskers with the identical unique geometry as those of the harbor seal to detect the features of minute flow fluctuations in wakes produced by objects far away. This is shown through the study of a model problem, consisting of a harbor seal whisker model interacting with the wake of an upstream circular cylinder. We show that whereas in open water the whisker geometry results in very low vibration, once it...

  18. Free-wake computation of helicopter rotor flowfields in forward flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, K.; Schlechtriem, S.; Caradonna, F. X.; Steinhoff, John

    1993-01-01

    A new method has been developed for computing advancing rotor flows. This method uses the Vorticity Embedding technique, which has been developed and validated over the last several years for hovering rotor problems. In this work, the unsteady full potential equation is solved on an Eulerian grid with an embedded vortical velocity field. This vortical velocity accounts for the influence of the wake. Dynamic grid changes that are required to accommodate prescribed blade motion and deformation are included using a novel grid blending method. Free wake computations have been performed on a two-bladed AH-1G rotor at low advance ratios including blade motion. Computed results are compared with experimental data. The sudden variations in airloads due to blade-vortex interactions on the advancing and retreating sides are well captured. The sensitivity of the computed solution to various factors like core size, time step and grids has been investigated. Computed wake geometries and their influence on the aerodynamic loads at these advance ratios are also discussed.

  19. Numerical investigation of turbulent bubbly wakes created by the ventilated partial cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Min; Zhang, WeiHua; Cheung, S. C. P.; Tu, JiYuan

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents a numerical study on the turbulent bubbly wakes created by the ventilated partial cavity. A semi-empirical approach is introduced to model the discrete interface of the ventilated cavity and its complex gas leakage rate induced by the local turbulent shear stress. Based on the Eulerian-Eulerian two-fluid modeling framework, a population balance approach based on MUltiple-SIze-Group (MUSIG) model is incorporated to simulate the size evolution of the sheared off microbubbles and its complex interactions with the two-phase flow structure in the wake region. Numerical predictions at various axial locations downstream of the test body were in satisfactory agreement with the experimental measurements. The captured bubbly wake structure illustrates that the bubbles may disperse as a twin-vortex tube driven by gravity effect. The predicted Sauter mean bubble diameter has confirmed the dominance of the coleascense process in the axial direction. As the bubbles develop downstream, the coleascense and breakup rate gradually reach balance, resulting in the stable bubble diameter. A close examination of the flow structures, gas void fraction distributions and the bubble size evolution provides valuable insights into the complex physical phenomenon induced by ventilated cavity.

  20. The origins of a wind turbine tip vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micallef, Daniel; Akay, Busra; Simão Ferreira, Carlos; Sant, Tonio; van Bussel, Gerard

    2014-11-01

    The tip vortex of a wind turbine rotor blade originates as a result of a complex distribution of vorticity along the blade tip thickness. While the tip vortex evolution was extensively studied previously in other work, the mechanism of the initiation of the tip vorticity in a 3D rotating environment is still somewhat obscured due to lack of detailed experimental evidence. This paper therefore aims at providing an understanding of how tip vorticity is formed at the wind turbine blade tip and what happens just behind the tip trailing edge. Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV) is used to measure the flow field at the tip of a 2m diameter, two- bladed rotor at the TU Delft Open Jet Facility (OJF). The rotor has a rectangular blade tip. Spanwise measurements were performed for both axial and yawed flow conditions with a very small azimuthal increment. A 3D, unsteady, potential flow panel method is also used for the purpose of better understanding the tip bound vorticity. A validation study is carried out with positive results. This paper is focused on axial flow results. A complex distribution of vorticity is found along the blade tip thickness. Just after release, the tip vortex becomes almost immediately round and well defined. Observations from the MEXICO rotor are confirmed again by a slight inboard convection of the tip vortex. This is explained by means of the effect of chordwise vorticity at the tip from the numerical solutions. The results presented in this work suggest that a more physical interpretation of the tip loss effect is required. Currently, inclusion of tip effects are based primarily on either wake induced effects or on an empirical 3D correction for airfoil data. This research should stimulate a more rigorous approach, where the effects of the blade tip chordwise vorticity are implemented in tip correction models.

  1. Dynamic modeling of vortex levitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Li; Kenji Kawashima; Toshiharu Kagawa

    2008-01-01

    Vortex levitation can achieve non-contact handling by blowing air into a vortex cup through a tangential nozzle to generate a swirling air flow. In this paper, its dynamic characteristics are analyzed through dynamic pressure response, and a dynamic modeling is developed and verified experimentally. First, we observe the pressure dynamic response inside the cup by making the cup and the

  2. Vortex Shedder Fluid Flow Sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence C. Lynnworth; Ram Cohen; Joseph L. Rose; Jin O. Kim; Edward R. Furlong

    2006-01-01

    This paper was motivated by the possibility of extracting from a vortex-shedding strut, in addition to flow velocity V, information on fluid density rho or temperature T, and combining them to obtain mass flowrate. Shedder shapes were diamond and bluff polygon. These shapes are compared as vortex shedders in flowing air or water. V is obtained from the shedding frequency

  3. VORTEX BREAKDOWN INCIPIENCE: THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    E-print Network

    Erlebacher, Gordon

    or momentum or heat exchange; or destructive, as in degradation of aerodynamic performance. Vortex breakdown interest, vortex breakdown has important technological applications, both aerodynamic and non­ aerodynamic. There is a tendency for the breakdown to migrate back and forth in the test section or on the aerodynamic surface

  4. Experiments in superconducting vortex avalanches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Altshuler; T. H. Johansen; Y. Paltiel; P. Jin; K. E. Bassler; O. Ramos; G. F. Reiter; E. Zeldov; C. W. Chu

    2004-01-01

    We detect vortex avalanches in superconducting Nb when an external field is slowly ramped up. Through the combination of micro-Hall probe magnetometry and Magneto-optical imaging, we are able to visualize the magnetic field “landscape” where the “local” vortex avalanches take place. We measure the avalanche size statistics at several locations in the magnetic landscape, comprising a number of events orders

  5. Trailing vortex-pair instability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jai Prakash Narain; Mahinder S. Uberoi

    1973-01-01

    The instability of a vortex-pair to infinitesimal disturbances is studied in the inviscid and incompressible fluid approximations. The cores of the vortices contain uniform axial-velocity jets of fluid density different from that of the surrounding medium. In one model a nonrotating core with surrounding potential vortex is assumed, and in the other a uniformly rotating core. In the lowest order

  6. Combined action of transverse oscillations and uniform cross-flow on vortex formation and pattern of a circular cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, K. M.; Liu, P.; Hu, J. C.

    2010-07-01

    This paper attempts to study the roles of lateral cylinder oscillations and a uniform cross-flow in the vortex formation and wake modes of an oscillating circular cylinder. A circular cylinder is given lateral oscillations of varying amplitudes (between 0.28 and 1.42 cylinder-diameters) in a slow uniform flow stream (Reynolds number=284) to produce the 2S, 2P and P+S wake modes. Detailed flow information is obtained with time-resolved particle-image velocimetry and the phase-locked averaging techniques. In the 2S and 2P mode, the flow speeds relative to the cylinder movement are less than the uniform flow velocity and it is found that initial formation of a vortex is caused by shear-layer separation of the uniform flow on the cylinder. Subsequent development of the shear-layer vortices is affected by the lateral cylinder movement. At small cylinder oscillation amplitudes, vortices are shed in synchronization with the cylinder movement, resulting in the 2S mode. The 2P mode occurs at larger cylinder oscillation amplitudes at which each shear-layer vortex is found to undergo intense stretching and eventual bifurcation into two separate vortices. The P+S mode occurs when the cylinder moving speeds are, for most of the time, higher than the speed of the uniform flow. These situations are found at fast and large-amplitude cylinder oscillations in which the flow relative to the cylinder movement takes over the uniform flow in governing the initial vortex formation. The formation stages of vortices from the cylinder are found to bear close resemblance to those of a vortex street pattern of a cylinder oscillating in an otherwise quiescent fluid at Keulegan-Carpenter numbers around 16. Vortices in the inclined vortex street pattern so formed are then convected downstream by the uniform flow as the vortex pairs in the 2P mode.

  7. Characterizing Wake Turbulence with Staring Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastine, D.; Wächter, M.; Peinke, J.; Trabucchi, D.; Kühn, M.

    2015-06-01

    Lidar measurements in the German offshore wind farm Alpha Ventus were performed to investigate the turbulence characteristics of wind turbine wakes. In particular, we compare measurements of the free flow in the surroundings of the wind turbines with measurements in the inner region of a wake flow behind one turbine. Our results indicate that wind turbines modulate the turbulent structures of the flow on a wide range of scales. For the data of the wake flow, the power spectrum as well as the multifractal intermittency coefficient reveal features of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Thus, we conjecture that on scales of the rotor a new turbulent cascade is initiated, which determines the features of the turbulent wake flow quite independently from the more complex wind flow in the surroundings of the turbine.

  8. Secure Wake-Up Scheme for WBANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing-Wei; Ameen, Moshaddique Al; Kwak, Kyung-Sup

    Network life time and hence device life time is one of the fundamental metrics in wireless body area networks (WBAN). To prolong it, especially those of implanted sensors, each node must conserve its energy as much as possible. While a variety of wake-up/sleep mechanisms have been proposed, the wake-up radio potentially serves as a vehicle to introduce vulnerabilities and attacks to WBAN, eventually resulting in its malfunctions. In this paper, we propose a novel secure wake-up scheme, in which a wake-up authentication code (WAC) is employed to ensure that a BAN Node (BN) is woken up by the correct BAN Network Controller (BNC) rather than unintended users or malicious attackers. The scheme is thus particularly implemented by a two-radio architecture. We show that our scheme provides higher security while consuming less energy than the existing schemes.

  9. Sleep-wake abnormalities in narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Zorick, F; Roehrs, T; Wittig, R; Lamphere, J; Sicklesteel, J; Roth, T

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate the degree to which sleep (REM vs. NREM) intrudes into wake and wake intrudes into sleep in narcolepsy, 103 patients with narcolepsy were compared to 105 patients with other diagnoses of disorders of excessive sleep (DOES). Narcoleptic patients had more frequent REM onsets on the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and nocturnal polysomnograms. But the MSLT latencies to REM versus NREM in narcoleptic patients did not differ. Nocturnal measures of REM pressure, percentage of REM, and REM latency excluding the REM onsets, did not differ among patient groups. With respect to the intrusion of wake into sleep, narcoleptic patients had more and longer awakenings compared with other DOES patients, but the distribution of wake into REM and NREM sleep did not differ among groups. These data suggest that narcolepsy is not exclusively a REM-related disorder, but involves an inability to sustain a specific neural state for periods comparable to those in normal subjects or other DOES patients. PMID:3704441

  10. A wake detector for wind farm control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottasso, C. L.; Cacciola, S.; Schreiber, J.

    2015-06-01

    The paper describes an observer capable of detecting the impingement on a wind turbine rotor of the wake of an upstream machine. The observer estimates the local wind speed and turbulence intensity on the left and right parts of the rotor disk. The estimation is performed based on blade loads measured by strain gages or optical fibers, sensors which are becoming standard equipment on many modern machines. A lower wind speed and higher turbulence intensity on one part of the rotor, possibly in conjunction with other information, can then be used to infer the presence of a wake impinging on the disk. The wake state information is useful for wind plant control strategies, as for example wake deflection by active yawing. In addition, the local wind speed estimates may be used for a rough evaluation of the vertical wind shear.

  11. Variable residence time vortex combustor

    DOEpatents

    Melconian, Jerry O. (76 Beaver Rd., Reading, MA 01867)

    1987-01-01

    A variable residence time vortex combustor including a primary combustion chamber for containing a combustion vortex, and a plurality of louvres peripherally disposed about the primary combustion chamber and longitudinally distributed along its primary axis. The louvres are inclined to impel air about the primary combustion chamber to cool its interior surfaces and to impel air inwardly to assist in driving the combustion vortex in a first rotational direction and to feed combustion in the primary combustion chamber. The vortex combustor also includes a second combustion chamber having a secondary zone and a narrowed waist region in the primary combustion chamber interconnecting the output of the primary combustion chamber with the secondary zone for passing only lower density particles and trapping higher density particles in the combustion vortex in the primary combustion chamber for substantial combustion.

  12. Control of vortex shedding and drag reduction through dual splitter plates attached to a square cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Bhanuman; Bhattacharyya, S.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we have made a numerical study on the control of vortex shedding and drag reduction of a cylinder by attaching thin splitter plates. The wake structure of the cylinder of square cross-section with attached splitter plates is analyzed for a range of Reynolds number, based on the incident stream and height of the cylinder, in the laminar range. The Navier-Stokes equations governing the flow are solved by the control volume method over a staggered grid arrangement. We have used the semi-implicit method for pressure-linked equation (SIMPLE) algorithm for computation. Our results show that the presence of a splitter plate upstream of the cylinder reduces the drag, but it has a small impact on the vortex shedding frequency when the plate length is beyond 1.5 time the height of the cylinder. The presence of a downstream splitter plate dampens the vortex shedding frequency. The entrainment of fluid into the inner side of the separated shear layers is obstructed by the downstream splitter plate. Our results suggest that by attaching in-line splitter plates both upstream and downstream of the cylinder, the vortex shedding can be suppressed, as well as a reduction in drag be obtained. We made a parametric study to determine the optimal length of these splitter plates so as to achieve low drag and low vortex shedding frequency.

  13. Rotor design optimization using a free wake analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Boschitsch, Alexander H.; Wachspress, Daniel A.; Chua, Kiat

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this effort was to develop a comprehensive performance optimization capability for tiltrotor and helicopter blades. The analysis incorporates the validated EHPIC (Evaluation of Hover Performance using Influence Coefficients) model of helicopter rotor aerodynamics within a general linear/quadratic programming algorithm that allows optimization using a variety of objective functions involving the performance. The resulting computer code, EHPIC/HERO (HElicopter Rotor Optimization), improves upon several features of the previous EHPIC performance model and allows optimization utilizing a wide spectrum of design variables, including twist, chord, anhedral, and sweep. The new analysis supports optimization of a variety of objective functions, including weighted measures of rotor thrust, power, and propulsive efficiency. The fundamental strength of the approach is that an efficient search for improved versions of the baseline design can be carried out while retaining the demonstrated accuracy inherent in the EHPIC free wake/vortex lattice performance analysis. Sample problems are described that demonstrate the success of this approach for several representative rotor configurations in hover and axial flight. Features that were introduced to convert earlier demonstration versions of this analysis into a generally applicable tool for researchers and designers is also discussed.

  14. Flow past a circular cylinder at low Reynolds number: Oblique vortex shedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behara, Suresh; Mittal, Sanjay

    2010-05-01

    Oblique shedding in the laminar regime for the flow past a nominally two-dimensional circular cylinder has been investigated numerically via a stabilized finite element method. No-slip condition on one of the sidewalls leads to the formation of a boundary layer which promotes oblique vortex shedding. Computations are carried out for three values of Reynolds number (Re): 60, 100, and 150. Cellular shedding is observed in all cases. Three cells are observed along the span for the Re=60 flow while only two cells are formed at Re=100 and 150. Spotlike vortex dislocations form at the junction of the cells. The frequency of the appearance of the dislocations increases with Re. Cellular shedding leads to low frequency modulation in the time histories of aerodynamic coefficients. Lowest value of drag is achieved at a time instant corresponding to the appearance of a new dislocation in the near wake. The vortex shedding frequency as well as the oblique angle of the primary vortices is found to vary with time for the Re=60 flow. Their variation is also related to the appearance of dislocations in the near wake. It is found that the vortex shedding frequency (St?) is related to the frequency observed for parallel shedding (St0) and the angle of the oblique vortices (?) by the relation: St?=St0 cos ?. This relationship was proposed earlier for the case when the vortex shedding frequency and the oblique angle do not change with time. The velocity fluctuations are found to decrease with increase in ?. For the Re=100 and 150 flow, the oblique angle of the vortices and the shedding frequency outside the end cell do not change with time. However, ? and St? depend on the aspect ratio of the cylinder. The oblique shedding angle, for various lengths of endplate and Re, is found to vary linearly with the thickness of the boundary layer on the side wall.

  15. Propeller tip and hub vortex dynamics in the interaction with a rudder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felli, Mario; Falchi, Massimo

    2011-11-01

    In the present paper, the interaction mechanisms of the vortices shed by a single-screw propeller with a rudder installed in its wake are addressed; in particular, following the works by Felli et al. (Exp Fluids 6(1):1-11, 2006a, Exp Fluids 46(1):147-1641, 2009a, Proceedings of the 8th international symposium on particle image velocimetry: Piv09, Melbourne, 2009b), the attention is focused on the analysis of the evolution, instability, breakdown and recovering mechanisms of the propeller tip and hub vortices during the interaction with the rudder. To investigate these mechanisms in detail, a wide experimental activity consisting in time-resolved visualizations, velocity measurements by particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) along horizontal chordwise, vertical chordwise and transversal sections of the wake have been performed in the Cavitation Tunnel of the Italian Navy. Collected data allows to investigate the major flow features that distinguish the flow field around a rudder operating in the wake of a propeller, as, for example, the spiral breakdown of the vortex filaments, the rejoining mechanism of the tip vortices behind the rudder and the mechanisms governing the different spanwise misalignment of the vortex filaments in the pressure and suction sides of the appendage.

  16. Into turbulent air: size-dependent effects of von Kármán vortex streets on hummingbird flight kinematics and energetics

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor M.; Sapir, Nir; Wolf, Marta; Variano, Evan A.; Dudley, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Animal fliers frequently move through a variety of perturbed flows during their daily aerial routines. However, the extent to which these perturbations influence flight control and energetic expenditure is essentially unknown. Here, we evaluate the kinematic and metabolic consequences of flight within variably sized vortex shedding flows using five Anna's hummingbirds feeding from an artificial flower in steady control flow and within vortex wakes produced behind vertical cylinders. Tests were conducted at three horizontal airspeeds (3, 6 and 9 m s?1) and using three different wake-generating cylinders (with diameters equal to 38, 77 and 173% of birds' wing length). Only minimal effects on wing and body kinematics were demonstrated for flight behind the smallest cylinder, whereas flight behind the medium-sized cylinder resulted in significant increases in the variances of wingbeat frequency, and variances of body orientation, especially at higher airspeeds. Metabolic rate was, however, unchanged relative to that of unperturbed flight. Hummingbirds flying within the vortex street behind the largest cylinder exhibited highest increases in variances of wingbeat frequency, and of body roll, pitch and yaw amplitudes at all measured airspeeds. Impressively, metabolic rate under this last condition increased by up to 25% compared with control flights. Cylinder wakes sufficiently large to interact with both wings can thus strongly affect stability in flight, eliciting compensatory kinematic changes with a consequent increase in flight metabolic costs. Our findings suggest that vortical flows frequently encountered by aerial taxa in diverse environments may impose substantial energetic costs. PMID:24671978

  17. Convergenceof Vortex Methods for Weak Solutionsto the

    E-print Network

    Liu, Jian-Guo

    the structure of the approximate solutions generated by vortex methods. The aim of this paper is to proveConvergenceof Vortex Methods for Weak Solutionsto the 2-D Euler Equationswith Vortex SheetData JIAN-GUO LIU Temple University AND ZHOUPING XIN Courant Institute Abstract We prove the convergence of vortex

  18. Aspects of the influence of an oscillating mini-flap upon the near wake of an airfoil NACA 4412

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delnero, J. S.; Marañón Di Leo, J.; Colman, J.; García Sainz, M.; Muñoz, F.; Hérouard, N.; Camocardi, M. E.

    2011-05-01

    A NACA 4412 airfoil was tested, in a boundary layer wind tunnel, with the aim to study the effect of a Gurney mini-flap, as an active and passive flow control device submitted to a turbulent flow field. The main objective was the experimental determination of flow pattern characteristics downstream the airfoil in the near wake. The untwisted wing model used for the experiments had 80cm wingspan and 50cm chord, with airfoil NACA 4412. The mini-flap was located on the lower surface at a distance, from the trailing edge, of 8%c (c airfoil chord). The Reynolds number, based upon the wing chord and the mean free stream velocity was 326,000 and 489,000. The turbulence intensity was 1.8%. The model was located into the wind tunnel between two panels, in order to assure a close approximation to two-dimensional flow over the model. As an active control device a rotating mini-flaps, geared by an electromechanical system (which rotate to a 30°) was constructed. The wake pattern and pressure values near the trailing edge were measured. The results obtained, for this mechanism, show us that the oscillating mini-flap change the wake flow pattern, alleviating the near wake turbulence and enhancing the vortex pair near the trailing edge at the mini-flap level and below that level, magnifying the effect described first by Liebeck [1]. That effect grows with the oscillating frequency. Additionally, the wake alleviation probably affects also the far wake. All of these facts suggest us to continue with the experiments, trying to measure the pressure distribution around the airfoil in all the cases, obtaining the lift and drag characteristics.

  19. Effect of High Porosity Screen on the Near Wake of a Circular Cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkan, G. M.; Akilli, H.; Sahin, B.

    2013-04-01

    The change in flow characteristics downstream of a circular cylinder (inner cylinder) surrounded by a permeable cylinder (outer cylinder) made of a high porosity screen was investigated in shallow water using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. The diameter of the inner cylinder, outer cylinder and the water height were kept constant during the experiments as d = 50 mm, D = 100 mm and hw = 50 mm, respectively. The depth-averaged free stream velocity was also kept constant as U = 180 mm/s which corresponded to a Reynolds number of Red = 9000 based on the inner cylinder diameter. It was shown that the outer permeable cylinder had a substantialeffect on the vortex formation and consequent vortex shedding downstream of the circular cylinder, especially in the near wake. The time averaged vorticity layers, streamlines and velocity vector field depict that the location of the interaction of vortices considerably changed by the presence of the outer cylinder. Turbulent statistics clearly demonstrated that in comparison to the natural cylinder, turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stresses decreased remarkably downstream of the inner cylinder. Moreover, spectra of streamwise velocity fluctuations showed that the vortex shedding frequency significantly reduced compared to the natural cylinder case.

  20. Vortex-induced vibrations of a flexible cylinder at large inclination angle.

    PubMed

    Bourguet, Rémi; Triantafyllou, Michael S

    2015-01-28

    The free vibrations of a flexible circular cylinder inclined at 80° within a uniform current are investigated by means of direct numerical simulation, at Reynolds number 500 based on the body diameter and inflow velocity. In spite of the large inclination angle, the cylinder exhibits regular in-line and cross-flow vibrations excited by the flow through the lock-in mechanism, i.e. synchronization of body motion and vortex formation. A profound reconfiguration of the wake is observed compared with the stationary body case. The vortex-induced vibrations are found to occur under parallel, but also oblique vortex shedding where the spanwise wavenumbers of the wake and structural response coincide. The shedding angle and frequency increase with the spanwise wavenumber. The cylinder vibrations and fluid forces present a persistent spanwise asymmetry which relates to the asymmetry of the local current relative to the body axis, owing to its in-line bending. In particular, the asymmetrical trend of flow-body energy transfer results in a monotonic orientation of the structural waves. Clockwise and counter-clockwise figure eight orbits of the body alternate along the span, but the latter are found to be more favourable to structure excitation. Additional simulations at normal incidence highlight a dramatic deviation from the independence principle, which states that the system behaviour is essentially driven by the normal component of the inflow velocity. PMID:25512586