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1

Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.

Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don

2014-01-01

2

Wake Vortex Inverse Model User's Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an inverse model for inverting landing aircraft vortex data. The data used for the inversion are the time evolution of the lateral transport position and vertical position of both the port and starboard vortices. The inverse model performs iterative forward model runs using various estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Forward model predictions of lateral transport and altitude are then compared with the observed data. Differences between the data and model predictions guide the choice of vortex parameter values, crosswind profile and circulation evolution in the next iteration. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Currently, the inverse model is set to stop when the improvement in the rms deviation between the data and model predictions is less than 1 percent for two consecutive iterations. The forward model used in this inverse model is a modified version of the Shear-APA model. A detailed description of this forward model, the inverse model, and its validation are presented in a different report (Lai, Mellman, Robins, and Delisi, 2007). This document is a User's Guide for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model. Section 2 presents an overview of the inverse model program. Execution of the inverse model is described in Section 3. When executing the inverse model, a user is requested to provide the name of an input file which contains the inverse model parameters, the various datasets, and directories needed for the inversion. A detailed description of the list of parameters in the inversion input file is presented in Section 4. A user has an option to save the inversion results of each lidar track in a mat-file (a condensed data file in Matlab format). These saved mat-files can be used for post-inversion analysis. A description of the contents of the saved files is given in Section 5. An example of an inversion input file, with preferred parameters values, is given in Appendix A. An example of the plot generated at a normal completion of the inversion is shown in Appendix B.

Lai, David; Delisi, Donald

2008-01-01

3

Evaluation of Fast-Time Wake Vortex Models using Wake Encounter Flight Test Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a methodology for the integration and evaluation of fast-time wake models with flight data. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted detailed flight tests in 1995 and 1997 under the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System Program to characterize wake vortex decay and wake encounter dynamics. In this study, data collected during Flight 705 were used to evaluate NASA's fast-time wake transport and decay models. Deterministic and Monte-Carlo simulations were conducted to define wake hazard bounds behind the wake generator. The methodology described in this paper can be used for further validation of fast-time wake models using en-route flight data, and for determining wake turbulence constraints in the design of air traffic management concepts.

Ahmad, Nashat N.; VanValkenburg, Randal L.; Bowles, Roland L.; Limon Duparcmeur, Fanny M.; Gloudesman, Thijs; van Lochem, Sander; Ras, Eelco

2014-01-01

4

Updated Results for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an Inverse Model for inverting aircraft wake vortex data. The objective of the inverse modeling is to obtain estimates of the vortex circulation decay and crosswind vertical profiles, using time history measurements of the lateral and vertical position of aircraft vortices. The Inverse Model performs iterative forward model runs using estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Outputs from an Inverse Model run are the best estimates of the time history of the vortex circulation derived from the observed data, the vertical crosswind profile, and several vortex parameters. The forward model, named SHRAPA, used in this inverse modeling is a modified version of the Shear-APA model, and it is described in Section 2 of this document. Details of the Inverse Model are presented in Section 3. The Inverse Model was applied to lidar-observed vortex data at three airports: FAA acquired data from San Francisco International Airport (SFO) and Denver International Airport (DEN), and NASA acquired data from Memphis International Airport (MEM). The results are compared with observed data. This Inverse Model validation is documented in Section 4. A summary is given in Section 5. A user's guide for the inverse wake vortex model is presented in a separate NorthWest Research Associates technical report (Lai and Delisi, 2007a).

Robins, Robert E.; Lai, David Y.; Delisi, Donald P.; Mellman, George R.

2008-01-01

5

NASA wake vortex research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is conducting research that will enable safe improvements in the capacity of the nation's air transportation system. The wake-vortex hazard is a factor in establishing the minimum safe spacing between aircraft during landing and takeoff operations and, thus, impacts airport capacity. The ability to accurately model the wake hazard and determine safe separation distances for a wide range of aircraft and operational scenarios may provide the basis for significant increases in airport capacity. Current and planned NASA research is described which is focused on increasing airport capacity by safely reducing wake-hazard-imposed aircraft separations through advances in a number of technologies including vortex motion and decay prediction, vortex encounter modeling, wake-vortex hazard characterization, and in situ flow sensing.

Stough, H. P., III; Greene, George C.; Stewart, Eric C.; Stuever, Robert A.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.; Rivers, Robert A.; Vicroy, Dan D.

1993-01-01

6

Development of a rotor wake-vortex model, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Certain empirical rotor wake and turbulence relationships were developed using existing low speed rotor wave data. A tip vortex model was developed by replacing the annulus wall with a row of image vortices. An axisymmetric turbulence spectrum model, developed in the context of rotor inflow turbulence, was adapted to predicting the turbulence spectrum of the stator gust upwash.

Majjigi, R. K.; Gliebe, P. R.

1984-01-01

7

Wake Vortex Minimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A status report is presented on research directed at reducing the vortex disturbances of aircraft wakes. The objective of such a reduction is to minimize the hazard to smaller aircraft that might encounter these wakes. Inviscid modeling was used to study trailing vortices and viscous effects were investigated. Laser velocimeters were utilized in the measurement of aircraft wakes. Flight and wind tunnel tests were performed on scale and full model scale aircraft of various design. Parameters investigated included the effect of wing span, wing flaps, spoilers, splines and engine thrust on vortex attenuation. Results indicate that vortives may be alleviated through aerodynamic means.

1977-01-01

8

Evaluation of a Wake Vortex Upset Model Based on Simultaneous Measurements of Wake Velocities and Probe-Aircraft Accelerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simultaneous measurements were made of the upset responses experienced and the wake velocities encountered by an instrumented Learjet probe aircraft behind a Boeing 747 vortex-generating aircraft. The vortex-induced angular accelerations experienced could be predicted within 30% by a mathematical upset response model when the characteristics of the wake were well represented by the vortex model. The vortex model used in the present study adequately represented the wake flow field when the vortices dissipated symmetrically and only one vortex pair existed in the wake.

Short, B. J.; Jacobsen, R. A.

1979-01-01

9

Unsteady Free-Wake Vortex Particle Model for HAWT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the design of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) one problem is to determine the aeroelastic behaviour of the rotor blades for the various wind inflow conditions. A step in this process is to predict with accuracy the aerodynamic loads on the blades. The Vortex Lattice Method (VLM) provides a transparent investigation concerning the role of various physical parameters which influence the aerodynamic problem. In this paper we present a method for the calculation of the non-uniform induced downwash of a HAWT rotor using the vortex ring model for the lifting surface coupled with an unsteady free-wake vortex particle model. Comparative studies between results obtained with different models of wake for a generic HAWT are presented.

Bogateanu, R.; Frunzulic?, F.; Cardos, V.

2010-09-01

10

Wake Vortex Sensors Requirements Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation includes discussions of primary wake vortex system requirements, evolution models, sensor evolution, site specific sensor tradeoffs, wake sensor functions, deployment considerations, the operational test bed system and additional sensor requirements.

Hinton, David A.

1997-01-01

11

Modeling of Wake-vortex Aircraft Encounters. Appendix B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are more people passing through the world's airports today than at any other time in history. With this increase in civil transport, airports are becoming capacity limited. In order to increase capacity and thus meet the demands of the flying public, the number of runways and number of flights per runway must be increased. In response to the demand, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in conjunction with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), airport operators, and the airline industry are taking steps to increase airport capacity without jeopardizing safety. Increasing the production per runway increases the likelihood that an aircraft will encounter the trailing wake-vortex of another aircraft. The hazard of a wake-vortex encounter is that heavy load aircraft can produce high intensity wake turbulence, through the development of its wing-tip vortices. A smaller aircraft following in the wake of the heavy load aircraft will experience redistribution of its aerodynamic load. This creates a safety hazard for the smaller aircraft. Understanding this load redistribution is of great importance, particularly during landing and take-off. In this research wake-vortex effects on an encountering 10% scale model of the B737-100 aircraft are modeled using both strip theory and vortex-lattice modeling methods. The models are then compared to wind tunnel data that was taken in the 30ft x 60ft wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Comparisons are made to determine if the models will have acceptable accuracy when parts of the geometry are removed, such as the horizontal stabilizer and the vertical tail. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to observe how accurately the models could match the experimental data if there was a 10% error in the circulation strength. It was determined that both models show accurate results when the wing, horizontal stabilizer, and vertical tail were a part of the geometry. When the horizontal stabilizer and vertical tail were removed there were difficulties modeling the sideforce coefficient and pitching moment. With the removal of only the vertical tail unacceptable errors occurred when modeling the sideforce coefficient and yawing moment. Lift could not be modeled with either the full geometry or the reduced geometry attempts.

Smith, Sonya T.

1999-01-01

12

A free wake vortex lattice model for vertical axis wind turbines: Modeling, verification and validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 1970s several research activities had been carried out on developing aerodynamic models for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs). In order to design large VAWTs of MW scale, more accurate aerodynamic calculation is required to predict their aero-elastic behaviours. In this paper, a 3D free wake vortex lattice model for VAWTs is developed, verified and validated. Comparisons to the experimental results show that the 3D free wake vortex lattice model developed is capable of making an accurate prediction of the general performance and the instantaneous aerodynamic forces on the blades. The comparison between momentum method and the vortex lattice model shows that free wake vortex models are needed for detailed loads calculation and for calculating highly loaded rotors.

Meng, Fanzhong; Schwarze, Holger; Vorpahl, Fabian; Strobel, Michael

2014-12-01

13

Free Wake Techniques for Rotor Aerodynamic Analylis. Volume 2: Vortex Sheet Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of computations are presented using vortex sheets to model the wake and test the sensitivity of the solutions to various assumptions used in the development of the models. The complete codings are included.

Tanuwidjaja, A.

1982-01-01

14

Evaluation of Fast-Time Wake Vortex Prediction Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current fast-time wake models are reviewed and three basic types are defined. Predictions from several of the fast-time models are compared. Previous statistical evaluations of the APA-Sarpkaya and D2P fast-time models are discussed. Root Mean Square errors between fast-time model predictions and Lidar wake measurements are examined for a 24 hr period at Denver International Airport. Shortcomings in current methodology for evaluating wake errors are also discussed.

Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.

2009-01-01

15

The vortex wake of a 'hovering' model hawkmoth  

PubMed Central

Visualization experiments with Manduca sexta have revealed the presence of a leading-edge vortex and a highly three-dimensional flow pattern. To further investigate this important discovery, a scaled-up robotic insect was built (the 'flapper') which could mimic the complex movements of the wings of a hovering hawkmoth. Smoke released from the leading edge of the flapper wing revealed a small but strong leading-edge vortex on the downstroke. This vortex had a high axial flow velocity and was stable, separating from the wing at approximately 75 per cent of the wing length. It connected to a large, tangled tip vortex, extending back to a combining stopping and starting vortex from pronation. At the end of the downstroke, the wake could be approximated as one vortex ring per wing. Based on the size and velocity of the vortex rings, the mean lift force during the downstroke was estimated to be about 1.5 times the body weight of a hawkmoth, confirming that the downstroke is the main provider of lift force.

Berg, C. van den; Ellington, C. P.

1997-01-01

16

The NASA-Langley Wake Vortex Modelling Effort in Support of an Operational Aircraft Spacing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two numerical modelling efforts, one using a large eddy simulation model and the other a numerical weather prediction model, are underway in support of NASA's Terminal Area Productivity program. The large-eddy simulation model (LES) has a meteorological framework and permits the interaction of wake vortices with environments characterized by crosswind shear, stratification, humidity, and atmospheric turbulence. Results from the numerical simulations are being used to assist in the development of algorithms for an operational wake-vortex aircraft spacing system. A mesoscale weather forecast model is being adapted for providing operational forecast of winds, temperature, and turbulence parameters to be used in the terminal area. This paper describes the goals and modelling approach, as well as achievements obtained to date. Simulation results will be presented from the LES model for both two and three dimensions. The 2-D model is found to be generally valid for studying wake vortex transport, while the 3-D approach is necessary for realistic treatment of decay via interaction of wake vortices and atmospheric boundary layer turbulence. Meteorology is shown to have an important affect on vortex transport and decay. Presented are results showing that wake vortex transport is unaffected by uniform fog or rain, but wake vortex transport can be strongly affected by nonlinear vertical change in the ambient crosswind. Both simulation and observations show that atmospheric vortices decay from the outside with minimal expansion of the core. Vortex decay and the onset three-dimensional instabilities are found to be enhanced by the presence of ambient turbulence.

Proctor, Fred H.

1998-01-01

17

Development of a rotor wake/vortex model. Volume 2: User's manual for computer program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal objective was to establish a verified rotor wake/vortex model for specific application to fan and compressor rotor-stator interaction and resulting noise generation. A description and flow chart of the Rotor Wake/Vortex Model computer program, a listing of the program, definitions of the input/output parameters, a sample input/output case, and input files for Rotor 55, the JT15D rotor, and Rotor 67, Stage 1 are provided.

Majjigi, R. K.; Gliebe, P. R.

1984-01-01

18

Wind turbine wake stability investigations using a vortex ring modelling approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, a simple inviscid vortex ring (VR) modelling approach is used to represent the developing rotor wake. This allows a straightforward investigation and comparison of the impact of uniform, yawed and sheared flow conditions on the development of the rotor wake, with the additional possibility of including ground effect. The effect of instabilities on the development of the wake is manually introduced in the form of perturbations of strength, ring position and size. The phenomenon of vortex filament interaction or leapfrogging, could play a role in the observation of unsteady phenomena and is therefore also addressed. Such a study is hence performed in light of recent conflicting views on the causes of wake meandering: is the observed dynamic wake behaviour a result of large scale turbulent forcing or do more subtle and intrinsic wake instabilities play a role? This study concludes that the presence of the ground and external perturbations, most notably changes in the wake pitch and the rotor thrust coefficient, can significantly affect the steady development of the wake. The mutual vortex pairing instability, whilst displaying interesting periodic behaviour, does not correlate with periodic wake behaviour reported by Medici et al. [1]. However, in the absence of unsteady inflow, it is shown that the wake of a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) is certainly prone to displaying unstable, dynamic behaviour caused by these additional factors.

Baldacchino, Daniel; van Bussel, Gerard J. W.

2014-12-01

19

Passive Wake Vortex Control  

SciTech Connect

The collapse of the Soviet Union and ending of the Cold War brought about many significant changes in military submarine operations. The enemies that the US Navy faces today and in the future will not likely be superpowers armed with nuclear submarines, but rather smaller, rogue nations employing cheaper diesel/electric submarines with advanced air-independent propulsion systems. Unlike Cold War submarine operations, which occurred in deep-water environments, future submarine conflicts are anticipated to occur in shallow, littoral regions that are complex and noisy. Consequently, non-acoustic signatures will become increasingly important and the submarine stealth technology designed for deep-water operations may not be effective in these environments. One such non-acoustic signature is the surface detection of a submarine's trailing vortex wake. If a submarine runs in a slightly buoyant condition, its diving planes must be inclined at a negative angle of attack to generate sufficient downforce, which keeps the submarine from rising to the surface. As a result, the diving planes produce a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices that propagate to the water surface. In previous deep-water operations, this was not an issue since the submarines could dive deep enough so that the vortex pair became incoherent before it reached the water surface. However, in shallow, littoral environments, submarines do not have the option of diving deep and, hence, the vortex pair can rise to the surface and leave a distinct signature that might be detectable by synthetic aperture radar. Such detection would jeopardize not only the mission of the submarine, but also the lives of military personnel on board. There has been another attempt to solve this problem and reduce the intensity of trailing vortices in the wakes of military submarines. The research of Quackenbush et al. over the past few years has been directed towards an idea called ''vortex leveraging.'' This active concept works by placing shape memory alloy (SMA) control surfaces on the submarine's diving planes and periodically oscillating them. The modulated control vortices generated by these surfaces interact with the tip vortices on the diving planes, causing an instability to rapidly occur. Though several numerical simulations have been presented, experimental verification does not appear to be available in the open literature. The authors address this problem through a concept called passive wake vortex control (PWVC), which has been demonstrated to rapidly break apart a trailing vortex wake and render it incoherent. PWVC functions by introducing unequal strength, counter-rotating control vortices next to the tip vortices. The presence of these control vortices destabilizes the vortex wake and produces a rapidly growing wake instability.

Ortega, J M

2001-10-18

20

Atmospheric-wake vortex interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interactions of a vortex wake with a turbulent stratified atmosphere are investigated with the computer code WAKE. It is shown that atmospheric shear, turbulence, and stratification can provide the dominant mechanisms by which vortex wakes decay. Computations included the interaction of a vortex wake with a viscous ground plane. The observed phenomenon of vortex bounce is explained in terms of secondary vorticity produced on the ground. This vorticity is swept off the ground and advected about the vortex pair, thereby altering the classic hyperbolic trajectory. The phenomenon of the solitary vortex is explained as an interaction of a vortex with crosswind shear. Here, the vortex having the sign opposite that of the sign of the vorticity in the shear is dispersed by a convective instability. This instability results in the rapid production of turbulence which in turn disperses the smoke marking the vortex.

Bilanin, A. J.; Hirsh, J. E.; Teske, M. E.; Hecht, A. M.

1978-01-01

21

QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF WAKE VORTEX SAFETY USING THE P2P MODEL  

E-print Network

safety issue in aircraft final approach phase. The evaluation of the risk is crucial when the industryQUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF WAKE VORTEX SAFETY USING THE P2P MODEL Yue Xie, yxie@gmu.edu, John takes the effort to reduce aircraft spacing for the purpose of capacity gain. This paper proposes

22

Vortex-wake interactions of a flapping foil that models animal swimming and flight.  

PubMed

The fluid dynamics of many swimming and flying animals involves the generation and shedding of vortices into the wake. Here we studied the dynamics of similar vortices shed by a simple two-dimensional flapping foil in a soap-film tunnel. The flapping foil models an animal wing, fin or tail in forward locomotion. The vortical flow induced by the foil is correlated to (the resulting) thickness variations in the soap film. We visualized these thickness variations through light diffraction and recorded it with a digital high speed camera. This set-up enabled us to study the influence of foil kinematics on vortex-wake interactions. We varied the dimensionless wavelength of the foil (lambda*=4-24) at a constant dimensionless flapping amplitude (A*=1.5) and geometric angle of attack amplitude (A(alpha,geo)=15 degrees ). The corresponding Reynolds number was of the order of 1000. Such values are relevant for animal swimming and flight. We found that a significant leading edge vortex (LEV) was generated by the foil at low dimensionless wavelengths (lambda*<10). The LEV separated from the foil for all dimensionless wavelengths. The relative time (compared with the flapping period) that the unstable LEV stayed above the flapping foil increased for decreasing dimensionless wavelengths. As the dimensionless wavelength decreased, the wake dynamics evolved from a wavy von Kármán-like vortex wake shed along the sinusoidal path of the foil into a wake densely packed with large interacting vortices. We found that strongly interacting vortices could change the wake topology abruptly. This occurred when vortices were close enough to merge or tear each other apart. Our experiments show that relatively small changes in the kinematics of a flapping foil can alter the topology of the vortex wake drastically. PMID:18165254

Lentink, David; Muijres, Florian T; Donker-Duyvis, Frits J; van Leeuwen, Johan L

2008-01-01

23

Models of Wake-Vortex Spreading Mechanisms and Their Estimated Uncertainties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the primary constraints on the capacity of the nation's air transportation system is the landing capacity at its busiest airports. Many airports with nearly-simultaneous operations on closely-spaced parallel runways (i.e., as close as 750 ft (246m)) suffer a severe decrease in runway acceptance rate when weather conditions do not allow full utilization. The objective of a research program at NASA Ames Research Center is to develop the technologies needed for traffic management in the airport environment so that operations now allowed on closely-spaced parallel runways under Visual Meteorological Conditions can also be carried out under Instrument Meteorological Conditions. As part of this overall research objective, the study reported here has developed improved models for the various aerodynamic mechanisms that spread and transport wake vortices. The purpose of the study is to continue the development of relationships that increase the accuracy of estimates for the along-trail separation distances available before the vortex wake of a leading aircraft intrudes into the airspace of a following aircraft. Details of the models used and their uncertainties are presented in the appendices to the paper. Suggestions are made as to the theoretical and experimental research needed to increase the accuracy of and confidence level in the models presented and instrumentation required or more precise estimates of the motion and spread of vortex wakes. The improved wake models indicate that, if the following aircraft is upwind of the leading aircraft, the vortex wakes of the leading aircraft will not intrude into the airspace of the following aircraft for about 7s (based on pessimistic assumptions) for most atmospheric conditions. The wake-spreading models also indicate that longer time intervals before wake intrusion are available when atmospheric turbulence levels are mild or moderate. However, if the estimates for those time intervals are to be reliable, further study is necessary to develop the instrumentation and procedures needed to accurately define when the more benign atmospheric conditions exist.

Rossow, Vernon J.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Meyn, Larry A.

2006-01-01

24

Vortex interactions and decay in aircraft wakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamic interaction of aircraft wake vortices was investigated using both inviscid and viscous models. For the viscous model, a computer code was developed using a second-order closure model of turbulent transport. The phenomenon of vortex merging which results in the rapid aging of a vortex wake was examined in detail. It was shown that the redistribution of vorticity during merging results from both convective and diffusive mechanisms.

Bilanin, A. J.; Teske, M. E.; Dupdonaldson, C.; Williamson, G. G.

1977-01-01

25

A wake oscillator with frequency dependent coupling for the modeling of vortex-induced vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to improve the phenomenological modeling of vortex-induced vibration of an elastically mounted cylinder in fluid flow. To this end an attempt is made to introduce a wake oscillator model that conforms to both the free and forced vibration experiments. This approach is new as in the past wake oscillator models have been tuned to the free vibration experiments only. First, an existing wake oscillator model is improved by properly including the effect of stall and that of the relatively large attack angles in the course of vortex-induced vibration. Then, to comply with the forced vibration experiments, the model is enhanced by introducing frequency dependent coupling. Such a coupling allows reproduction of the measured frequency dependence of the fluid force on the cylinder. The time domain representation of this coupling is a convolution integral. It is found in this paper that if the wake oscillator is modeled with a Van der Pol equation, it is impossible to find one set of frequency dependent coefficients that conforms to the forced vibration experiments at all amplitudes of cylinder motion. Moreover, the frequency dependencies identified for each frequency separately do not seem to satisfy the Kramers-Kronig relations. Based on the above findings, it is concluded that the nonlinearities in the wake oscillator model used in this paper cannot accurately model the results of vortex-induced vibration measurements. The idea proposed in this paper, that a consistent wake oscillator model must conform to the forced vibration experiments as well, is expected to be a powerful tool in the search for the correct nonlinearity.

Ogink, R. H. M.; Metrikine, A. V.

2010-12-01

26

Exploration of the Relationship Between Wake Vortex Parameters and Thrust Force on Oscillating Airfoils Using a Vortex Array Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, we demonstrated the ability of a simple model, based on an array of finite-core Gaussian vortices, to accurately reproduce the unsteady velocity field in the wake of, and drag/thrust force acting on harmonically/non-harmonically pitching airfoils. In the present work, this model is employed to explore how the thrust force varies with wake vortex parameters; i.e. circulation, core radius and streamwise/cross-flow spacing of the vortices. Insight from this investigation will be helpful to draw links between trailing-edge flexibility and the detailed process of generation of wake vortices. Such links may have the potential for providing a path towards a rational, yet efficient, approach for tailoring trailing-edge flexibility to obtain desirable force characteristics for flapping-wings Micro Air Vehicles.

Naguib, Ahmed; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr

2011-11-01

27

Numerical Modeling Studies of Wake Vortex Transport and Evolution Within the Planetary Boundary Layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the wake vortex effect of the Terminal Area Productivity program, we have put forward four tasks to be accomplished in our proposal. The first task is validation of two-dimensional wake vortex-turbulence interaction. The second task is investigation of three-dimensional interaction between wake vortices and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) turbulence. The third task is ABL studies. The, fourth task is addition of a Klemp-Durran condition at the top boundary for TASS model. The accomplishment of these tasks will increase our understanding of the dynamics of wake vortex and improve forecasting systems responsible for air safety and efficiency. The first two tasks include following three parts: (a) Determine significant length scale for vortex decay and transport, especially the length scales associated with the onset of Crow instability (Crow, 1970); (b) Study the effects of atmospheric turbulence on the decay of the wake vortices; and (c) Determine the relationships between decay rate, transport properties and atmospheric parameters based on large eddy simulation (LES) results and the observational data. These parameters may include turbulence kinetic energy, dissipation rate, wind shear and atmospheric stratification. The ABL studies cover LES modeling of turbulence structure within planetary boundary layer under transition and stable stratification conditions. Evidences have shown that the turbulence in the stable boundary layer can be highly intermittent and the length scales of eddies are very small compared to those in convective case. We proposed to develop a nesting grid mesh scheme and a modified Klemp-Durran conditions (Klemp and Wilhelmson, 1978) at the top boundary for TASS model to simulate planetary boundary layer under stable stratification conditions. During the past year, our group has made great efforts to carry out the above mentioned four tasks simultaneously. The work accomplished in the last year will be described in the next section.

Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Kaplan, Michael L.; Shen, Shaohua

1998-01-01

28

Numerical Modeling Studies of Wake Vortex Transport and Evolution Within the Planetary Boundary Layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental objective of this research is study behavior of aircraft wake vortices within atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in support of developing the system, Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS), under NASA's Terminal Area Productivity (TAR) program that will control aircraft spacing within the narrow approach corridors of airports. The purpose of the AVOSS system is to increase airport capacity by providing a safe reduction in separation of aircraft compared to the now-existing flight rules. In our first funding period (7 January 19994 - 6 April 1997), we have accomplished extensive model development and validation of ABL simulations. Using the validated model, in our second funding period (7 April 1997 - 6 April 2000) we have investigated the effects of ambient atmospheric turbulence on vortex decay and descent, Crow instability, and wake vortex interaction with the ground. Recognizing the crucial influence of ABL turbulence on wake vortex behavior, we have also developed a software generating vertical profiles of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) or energy dissipation rate (EDR), which are, in turn, used as input data in the AVOSS prediction algorithms.

Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Kaplan, Michael L.; Han, Jongil

2000-01-01

29

Recent NASA Wake-Vortex Flight Tests, Flow-Physics Database and Wake-Development Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of flight tests over the ocean of a four engine turboprop airplane in the cruise configuration have provided a data set for improved understanding of wake vortex physics and atmospheric interaction. An integrated database has been compiled for wake characterization and validation of wake-vortex computational models. This paper describes the wake-vortex flight tests, the data processing, the database development and access, and results obtained from preliminary wake-characterization analysis using the data sets.

Vicroy, Dan D.; Vijgen, Paul M.; Reimer, Heidi M.; Gallegos, Joey L.; Spalart, Philippe R.

1998-01-01

30

NASA Wake Vortex Research for Aircraft Spacing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several inter-related areas to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These areas include current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors, and operationally acceptable aircraft/wake interaction criteria. In today's ATC system, the AVOSS could inform ATC controllers when a fixed reduced separation becomes safe to apply to large and heavy aircraft categories. With appropriate integration into the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), AVOSS dynamic spacing could be tailored to actual generator/follower aircraft pairs rather than a few broad aircraft categories.

Perry, R. Brad; Hinton, David A.; Stuever, Robert A.

1996-01-01

31

Comparisons of Crosswind Velocity Profile Estimates Used in Fast-Time Wake Vortex Prediction Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five methods for estimating crosswind profiles used in fast-time wake vortex prediction models are compared in this study. Previous investigations have shown that temporal and spatial variations in the crosswind vertical profile have a large impact on the transport and time evolution of the trailing vortex pair. The most important crosswind parameters are the magnitude of the crosswind and the gradient in the crosswind shear. It is known that pulsed and continuous wave lidar measurements can provide good estimates of the wind profile in the vicinity of airports. In this study comparisons are made between estimates of the crosswind profiles from a priori information on the trajectory of the vortex pair as well as crosswind profiles derived from different sensors and a regional numerical weather prediction model.

Pruis, Mathew J.; Delisi, Donald P.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

2011-01-01

32

Validation of a vortex ring wake model suited for aeroelastic simulations of floating wind turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to evaluate aerodynamic loads on floating offshore wind turbines, advanced dynamic analysis tools are required. As a unified model that can represent both dynamic inflow and skewed inflow effects in it basic formulation, a wake model based on a vortex ring formulation is discussed. Such a model presents a good intermediate solution between computationally efficient but simple momentum balance methods and computationally expensive but complete computational fluid dynamics models. The model introduced is shown to be capable of modelling typical steady and unsteady test cases with reasonable accuracy.

de Vaal, J. B.; Hansen, M. O. L.; Moan, T.

2014-12-01

33

Modeling von Karman vortex shedding in cylinder wake to examine energetic coherent motions on hydrokinetic turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous investigators have examined vortex-shedding in the wake of cylinders. This is a classical flow problem that has many engineering applications, including pronounced flow disturbance, turbulence generation, and sediment scour in the wakes of in stream structures, e.g. bridge piers and towers for marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines. It is also important to understand the contribution of large coherent motions on the unsteady loading and performance of hydrokinetic turbines. Unsteady vortex shedding is caused by flow separation and detachment within the near-wall region along the cylinder surface. Our aim is to examine the unsteady flow field and von Karman vortex shedding resulting from unsteady turbulent flow around an emergent cylinder mounted perpendicular to a fixed surface by conducting physical and numerical modeling experiments. The numerical simulation emulates an open-channel flow experiment at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory at the University of Minnesota, where instantaneous velocity was measured using three synchronized acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs). The open-channel flume is 80 m long, and 2.75 m wide. The flow depth is 1.15 m. The cylinder diameter is 0.116 m. The flow is turbulent, with a cylinder Reynolds number equal to 5.44E4. We use the commercial CFD software, STAR-CCM+, to generate the computational mesh that models the flow geometry around the cylinder, and to numerically solve the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations. The generated mesh is fine enough (> 2 million elements) to resolve the coherent structures of vortex shedding. The Frost high-performance cluster (an ORNL supercomputer) is used to run the simulation. The results show how a validated CFD model can be used to design the layout and spacing of synchronized ADV point measurements to characterize essential features of the Karman shedding in the cylinder wake. A similar approach can be used to design field ADV arrays for measuring more complex vortex shedding, e.g. the tip vortices, occurring in the wakes of MHK turbine rotors.; Numerical simulation of Karman shedding in the wake of cylinder (diameter 0.116 m, Reynolds number, 5.44E4).

Neary, V. S.; Gunawan, B.; Chamorro, L. P.; Stekovic, S.; Hill, C.

2012-12-01

34

Three-Phased Wake Vortex Decay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed parametric study is conducted that examines vortex decay within turbulent and stratified atmospheres. The study uses a large eddy simulation model to simulate the out-of-ground effect behavior of wake vortices due to their interaction with atmospheric turbulence and thermal stratification. This paper presents results from a parametric investigation and suggests improvements for existing fast-time wake prediction models. This paper also describes a three-phased decay for wake vortices. The third phase is characterized by a relatively slow rate of circulation decay, and is associated with the ringvortex stage that occurs following vortex linking. The three-phased decay is most prevalent for wakes imbedded within environments having low-turbulence and near-neutral stratification.

Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; Switzer, George S.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.

2010-01-01

35

Development of a time-accurate viscous Lagrangian vortex wake model for wind turbine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A second-order accurate model has been developed and validated for modeling the unsteady aerodynamics of a wind turbine. The free-vortex wake method consists of the Lagrangian description of the rotor flow field and viscous effects were incorporated using a viscous splitting approach. The wake geometry solution was then integrated with the rotor aerodynamics model in a consistent manner. The analysis was then used to predict the performance and airloads on a wind turbine in the upwind configuration under unyawed and yawed flow conditions. The present work has demonstrated the versatility and robustness of the free-vortex wake method for wind turbine applications. The understanding of the accuracy and the stability of the numerical method is very important in developing robust wake methodology. The accuracy of the straight-line segmentation method has been examined for a vortex ring and helical vortex, and it has been shown to be second-order accurate. However, a minimum discretization of ten degrees is shown to be required to obtain second-order accuracy and also keep the maximum error in the induced velocity field less than 10%. Linear and nonlinear numerical stability of various time-marching schemes were also examined, and a two-step backward differencing scheme was chosen. The overall numerical solution was demonstrated to converge with a second-order accuracy. The nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics of the blade section was modeled using the Leishman-Beddoes dynamic stall model modified for wind turbine applications. The numerical simulations captured the dynamics of the unsteady flow over the airfoil surface for both attached and stalled flow conditions. Validation of the numerical predictions of the aerodynamic force coefficients against measurements obtained for the S809 airfoil showed overall good agreement. It has been shown that with a proper representation of the static stall characteristics, this model can be used to predict dynamic stall for airfoil sections typical of those used for wind turbine applications. The unsteady airfoil model coupled with the blade model also adequately represented the three-dimensionality of the unsteady flow field for a parked blade, under both steady and unsteady flow conditions. The wake geometry solution integrated with the blade model was then used to predict the performance and airloads for a wind turbine tested under controlled conditions. It has been shown that it is important to accurately predict the transient wake aerodynamics to obtain accurate estimates of the unsteady airloads and power output. The skewed wake geometry behind an upwind wind turbine was successfully predicted in yawed flow conditions over a range of yaw angles and tip speed ratios. Measurements from the Phase VI of the NREL/NASA Ames wind tunnel test were used for validating the predictions of performance and airloads. The variation of the turbine thrust and the aerodynamic power output with wind speed was adequately predicted. Spanwise distributions of the aerodynamic coefficients were represented well, and encouraging agreement was obtained against the measured coefficients. The azimuthal variation of loads showed that the unsteady aerodynamic behavior of the wind turbine was adequately represented, with some exceptions.

Gupta, Sandeep

36

How to perform measurements in a hovering animal's wake: physical modelling of the vortex wake of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta.  

PubMed Central

The vortex wake structure of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, was investigated using a vortex ring generator. Based on existing kinematic and morphological data, a piston and tube apparatus was constructed to produce circular vortex rings with the same size and disc loading as a hovering hawkmoth. Results show that the artificial rings were initially laminar, but developed turbulence owing to azimuthal wave instability. The initial impulse and circulation were accurately estimated for laminar rings using particle image velocimetry; after the transition to turbulence, initial circulation was generally underestimated. The underestimate for turbulent rings can be corrected if the transition time and velocity profile are accurately known, but this correction will not be feasible for experiments on real animals. It is therefore crucial that the circulation and impulse be estimated while the wake vortices are still laminar. The scaling of the ring Reynolds number suggests that flying animals of about the size of hawkmoths may be the largest animals whose wakes stay laminar for long enough to perform such measurements during hovering. Thus, at low advance ratios, they may be the largest animals for which wake circulation and impulse can be accurately measured. PMID:14561347

Tytell, Eric D; Ellington, Charles P

2003-01-01

37

How to perform measurements in a hovering animal's wake: physical modelling of the vortex wake of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta.  

PubMed

The vortex wake structure of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, was investigated using a vortex ring generator. Based on existing kinematic and morphological data, a piston and tube apparatus was constructed to produce circular vortex rings with the same size and disc loading as a hovering hawkmoth. Results show that the artificial rings were initially laminar, but developed turbulence owing to azimuthal wave instability. The initial impulse and circulation were accurately estimated for laminar rings using particle image velocimetry; after the transition to turbulence, initial circulation was generally underestimated. The underestimate for turbulent rings can be corrected if the transition time and velocity profile are accurately known, but this correction will not be feasible for experiments on real animals. It is therefore crucial that the circulation and impulse be estimated while the wake vortices are still laminar. The scaling of the ring Reynolds number suggests that flying animals of about the size of hawkmoths may be the largest animals whose wakes stay laminar for long enough to perform such measurements during hovering. Thus, at low advance ratios, they may be the largest animals for which wake circulation and impulse can be accurately measured. PMID:14561347

Tytell, Eric D; Ellington, Charles P

2003-09-29

38

The prediction of blade wake interaction noise based on a turbulent vortex model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blade wake interaction is defined as the broadband noise generated by the interaction of helicopter rotor blades with their own wake. Experimental observations have shown that this is a strong function of advance ratio and tip path plane angle. This paper describes how this noise source can be associated with the blade vortex interactions in the forward sector of the rotor. Measured levels of turbulence in the vortex core are used to predict the broadband noise levels with some success. However, more detailed information on the turbulence spectrum and the trajectory of the shed vortices is required before more accurate noise predictions can be made.

Glegg, Stewart A. L.

1989-01-01

39

Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS) Concept of Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of aircraft wake vortex research, with the most recent accomplishment of demonstrating the Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS) at Dallas/Forth Worth International Airport in July 2000. The AVOSS was a concept for an integration of technologies applied to providing dynamic wake-safe reduced spacing for single runway arrivals, as compared to current separation standards applied during instrument approaches. AVOSS included state-of-the-art weather sensors, wake sensors, and a wake behavior prediction algorithm. Using real-time data AVOSS averaged a 6% potential throughput increase over current standards. This report describes a Concept of Operations for applying the technologies demonstrated in the AVOSS to a variety of terminal operations to mitigate wake vortex capacity constraints. A discussion of the technological issues and open research questions that must be addressed to design a Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS) is included.

Rutishauser, David; Lohr, Gary; Hamilton, David; Powers, Robert; McKissick, Burnell; Adams, Catherine; Norris, Edward

2003-01-01

40

Adaptive proportional control of a low-order model for vortex shedding in cylinder wakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An adaptive scheme is proposed for the control of wake structures behind circular cylinders predicted by a previously developed coupled map lattice. The map consists of circle map oscillators along the cylinder span coupled by a simple diffusion model. Highly efficient low-order models with control features are desirable for flow control studies in cylinder wakes. Chaotic states associated with disordered vortex shedding patterns are observed when forcing the cylinder outside the classical lock-on region. Earlier methods concentrated on controlling these states via an application of a small-amplitude periodic perturbation of a system parameter as was proposed by Ott, Grebogi and York. In the present work, the control gain is varied adaptively by employing Lyapunov redesign methods. In essence the adaptive scheme forces the system energy, associated with the error system derived from the difference of the chaotic states from the target states, to be decreasing. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive scheme is compared to the previously developed chaos control and which overwhelmingly demonstrates an improved performance with a considerable control energy reduction.

Demetriou, Michael A.; Raman Balasubramanian, Ganapathi; Olinger, David J.

2001-11-01

41

Dynamics of the vortex wakes of flying and swimming vertebrates.  

PubMed

The vortex wakes of flying and swimming animals provide evidence of the history of aero- and hydrodynamic force generation during the locomotor cycle. Vortex-induced momentum flux in the wake is the reaction of forces the animal imposes on its environment, which must be in equilibrium with inertial and external forces. In flying birds and bats, the flapping wings generate lift both to provide thrust and to support the weight. Distinct wingbeat and wake movement patterns can be identified as gaits. In flow visualization experiments, only two wake patterns have been identified: a vortex ring gait with inactive upstroke, and a continuous vortex gait with active upstroke. These gaits may be modelled theoretically by free vortex and lifting line theory to predict mechanical energy consumption, aerodynamic forces and muscle activity. Longer-winged birds undergo a distinct gait change with speed, but shorter-winged species use the vortex ring gait at all speeds. In swimming fish, the situation is more complex: the wake vortices form a reversed von Kármán vortex street, but little is known about the mechanism of generation of the wake, or about how it varies with speed and acceleration or with body form and swimming mode. An unresolved complicating factor is the interaction between the drag wake of the flapping fish body and the thrusting wake from the tail. PMID:8571221

Rayner, J M

1995-01-01

42

Aircraft control in wake vortex wind shear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the past, there have been a number of fatal incidents attributable to wake vortex encounters, involving both general aviation and commercial aircraft. In fact, the wake vortex hazard is considered to be the single dominant safety issue determining the aircraft spacing requirements at airports. As the amount of air traffic increases, the number of dangerous encounters is likely only to increase. It is therefore imperative that a means be found to reduce the danger. That is the purpose of this research: to use nonlinear inverse dynamic (NID) control methods in the design of an aircraft control system which can improve the safety margin in a wake vortex encounter.

Wold, Gregory R.

1995-01-01

43

An unsteady vortex lattice method model of a horizontal axis wind turbine operating in an upstream rotor wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An unsteady formulation of the vortex lattice method, VLM, is presented that uses a force- free representation of the wake behind a horizontal axis wind turbine, HAWT, to calculate the aerodynamic loading on a turbine operating in the wake of an upstream rotor. A Cartesian velocity grid is superimposed over the computational domain to facilitate the representation of the atmospheric turbulence surrounding the turbine and wind shear. The wake of an upstream rotor is modelled using two methods: a mean velocity deficit with superimposed turbulence, based on experimental observations, and a purely numeric periodic boundary condition. Both methods are treated as frozen and propagated with the velocity grid. Measurements of the mean thrust and blade root bending moment on a three bladed horizontal axis rotor modelling a 5 MW HAWT at 1:250 scale were carried out in a wind tunnel. Comparisons are made between operation in uniform flow and in the wake of a similarly loaded rotor approximately 6.5 diameters upstream. The measurements were used to validate the output from the VLM simulations, assuming a completely rigid rotor. The trends in the simulation thrust predictions are found to compare well with the uniform flow case, except at low tip speed ratios where there are losses due to stall which are yet to be included in the model. The simple wake model predicts the mean deficit, whilst the periodic boundary condition captures more of the frequency content of the loading in an upstream wake. However, all the thrust loads are over-predicted. The simulation results severely overestimate the bending moment, which needs addressing. However, the reduction in bending due to the simple wake model is found to reflect the experimental data reasonably well.

Hankin, D.; Graham, J. M. R.

2014-12-01

44

Investigation of aircraft vortex wake structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we analyze the mechanisms of formation of the vortex wake structure of aircraft with different wing shape in the plan flying close to or away from the underlying surface cleaned or released mechanization wing.

Baranov, N. A.; Turchak, L. I.

2014-11-01

45

Feasibility of wake vortex monitoring systems for air terminals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wake vortex monitoring systems, especially those using laser Doppler sensors, were investigated. The initial phases of the effort involved talking with potential users (air traffic controllers, pilots, etc.) of a wake vortex monitoring system to determine system requirements from the user's viewpoint. These discussions involved the volumes of airspace to be monitored for vortices, and potential methods of using the monitored vortex data once the data are available. A subsequent task led to determining a suitable mathematical model of the vortex phenomena and developing a mathematical model of the laser Doppler sensor for monitoring the vortex flow field. The mathematical models were used in combination to help evaluate the capability of laser Doppler instrumentation in monitoring vortex flow fields both in the near vicinity of the sensor (within 1 kilometer and at long ranges(10 kilometers).

Wilson, D. J.; Shrider, K. R.; Lawrence, T. R.

1972-01-01

46

Wake Vortex Algorithm Scoring Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report compares the performance of two models of trailing vortex evolution for which interaction with the ground is not a significant factor. One model uses eddy dissipation rate (EDR) and the other uses the kinetic energy of turbulence fluctuations (TKE) to represent the effect of turbulence. In other respects, the models are nearly identical. The models are evaluated by comparing their predictions of circulation decay, vertical descent, and lateral transport to observations for over four hundred cases from Memphis and Dallas/Fort Worth International Airports. These observations were obtained during deployments in support of NASA's Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). The results of the comparisons show that the EDR model usually performs slightly better than the TKE model.

Robins, R. E.; Delisi, D. P.; Hinton, David (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

47

Vortex shedding in compressor blade wakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wakes of highly loaded axial compressor blades were often considered to be turbulent, unstructured flows. Recent work has suggested that the blade wakes are in fact dominated by a vortex street-like structure. The work on the wake structure at MIT is reviewed, the results of a viscous numerical simulation are presented, the blade wake vortices are compared to those shed from a cylinder, and the implications of the wake structure on compressor performance are discussed. In particular, a two-dimensional, time accurate, viscous calculation shows both a periodic wake structure and time variations in the passage shock strength. The numerical calculations are compared to laser anemometer and high frequency response probe data. The effect of the wake structure on the entropy production and apparent adiabatic efficiency of the compressor rotor is discussed.

Epstein, A. H.; Gertz, J. B.; Owen, P. R.; Giles, M. B.

1987-01-01

48

Measurements and modeling of flow structure in the wake of a low profile wishbone vortex generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an experimental examination of the vortex structures shed from a low profile 'wishbone' generator are presented. The vortex generator height relative to the turbulent boundary layer was varied by testing two differently sized models. Measurements of the mean three-dimensional velocity field were conducted in cross-stream planes downstream of the vortex generators. In all cases, a counter-rotating vortex pair was observed. Individual vortices were characterized by three descriptors derived from the velocity data; circulation, peak vorticity, and cross-stream location of peak vorticity. Measurements in the cross plane at two axial locations behind the smaller wishbone characterize the downstream development of the vortex pairs. A single region of stream wise velocity deficit is shared by both vortex cores. This is in contrast to conventional generators, where each core coincides with a region of velocity deficit. The measured cross-stream velocities for each case are compared to an Oseen model with matching descriptors. The best comparison occurs with the data from the larger wishbone.

Wendt, B. J.; Hingst, W. R.

1994-01-01

49

Wake-Vortex Hazards During Cruise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Even though the hazard posed by lift-generated wakes of subsonic transport aircraft has been studied extensively for approach and departure at airports, only a small amount of effort has gone into the potential hazard at cruise altitude. This paper reports on a studio of the wake-vortex hazard during cruise because encounters may become more prevalent when free-flight becomes available and each aircraft, is free to choose its own route between destinations. In order to address the problem, the various fluid-dynamic stages that vortex wakes usually go through as they age will be described along with estimates of the potential hazard that each stage poses. It appears that a rolling-moment hazard can be just as severe at cruise as for approach at airports, but it only persists for several minutes. However, the hazard posed by the downwash in the wake due to the lift on the generator aircraft persists for tens of minutes in a long narrow region behind the generating aircraft. The hazard consists of severe vertical loads when an encountering aircraft crosses the wake. A technique for avoiding vortex wakes at cruise altitude will be described. To date the hazard posed by lift-generated vortex wakes and their persistence at cruise altitudes has been identified and subdivided into several tasks. Analyses of the loads to be encounter and are underway and should be completed shortly. A review of published literature on the subject has been nearly completed (see text) and photographs of vortex wakes at cruise altitudes have been taken and the various stages of decay have been identified. It remains to study and sort the photographs for those that best illustrate the various stages of decay after they are shed by subsonic transport aircraft at cruise altitudes. The present status of the analysis and the paper are described.

Rossow, Vernon J.; James, Kevin D.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

50

Civil aircraft vortex wake. TsAGI's research activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides a review of research conducted in TsAGI (Central AeroHydrodynamic Institute) concerning a vortex wake behind an airliner. The research into this area of theoretical and practical importance have been done both in Russia and in other countries, for which these studies became a vital necessity at the end of the 20th century. The paper describes the main methods and ratios on which software systems used to calculate the evolution of a vortex wake in a turbulent atmosphere are based. Verification of calculation results proved their acceptable consistency with the known experimental data. The mechanism of circulation loss in a vortex wake which is based on the analytical solution for the problem of two vortices diffusing in a viscous fluid is also described. The paper also describes the model of behavior of an aircraft which has deliberately or unintentionally entered a vortex wake behind another aircraft. Approximated results of calculations performed according to this model by means of artificial neural networks enabled the researchers to model the dynamics of an aircraft in a vortex wake on flight simulators on-line.

Chernyshev, S. L.; Gaifullin, A. M.; Sviridenko, Yu. N.

2014-11-01

51

Vortex-wake interactions of a flapping foil that models animal swimming and flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluid dynamics of many swimming and flying animals involves the generation and shedding of vortices into the wake. Here we studied the dynamics of similar vortices shed by a simple two-dimensional flapping foil in a soap-film tunnel. The flapping foil models an animal wing, fin or tail in forward locomotion. The vortical flow induced by the foil is correlated

D. Lentink; F. T. Muijres; F. J. Donker-Duyvis; J. L. van Leeuwen

2008-01-01

52

An Operational Wake Vortex Sensor Using Pulsed Coherent Lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and FAA initiated a program in 1994 to develop methods of setting spacings for landing aircraft by incorporating information on the real-time behavior of aircraft wake vortices. The current wake separation standards were developed in the 1970's when there was relatively light airport traffic and a logical break point by which to categorize aircraft. Today's continuum of aircraft sizes and increased airport packing densities have created a need for re-evaluation of wake separation standards. The goals of this effort are to ensure that separation standards are adequate for safety and to reduce aircraft spacing for higher airport capacity. Of particular interest are the different requirements for landing under visual flight conditions and instrument flight conditions. Over the years, greater spacings have been established for instrument flight than are allowed for visual flight conditions. Preliminary studies indicate that the airline industry would save considerable money and incur fewer passenger delays if a dynamic spacing system could reduce separations at major hubs during inclement weather to the levels routinely achieved under visual flight conditions. The sensor described herein may become part of this dynamic spacing system known as the "Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System" (AVOSS) that will interface with a future air traffic control system. AVOSS will use vortex behavioral models and short-term weather prediction models in order to predict vortex behavior sufficiently into the future to allow dynamic separation standards to be generated. The wake vortex sensor will periodically provide data to validate AVOSS predictions. Feasibility of measuring wake vortices using a lidar was first demonstrated using a continuous wave (CW) system from NASA Marshall Space Flight Sensor and tested at the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center's wake vortex test site at JFK International Airport. Other applications of CW lidar for wake vortex measurement have been made more recently, including a system developed by the MIT Lincoln Laboratory. This lidar has been used for detailed measurements of wake vortex velocities in support of wake vortex model validation. The first measurements of wake vortices using a pulsed, lidar were made by Coherent Technologies, Inc. (CTI) using a 2 micron solid-state, flashlamp-pumped system operating at 5 Hz. This system was first deployed at Denver's Stapleton Airport. Pulsed lidar has been selected as the baseline technology for an operational sensor due to its longer range capability.

Barker, Ben C., Jr.; Koch, Grady J.; Nguyen, D. Chi

1998-01-01

53

Vortex wake alleviation studies with a variable twist wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vortex wake alleviation studies were conducted in a wind tunnel and a water towing tank using a multisegmented wing model which provided controlled and measured variations in span load. Fourteen model configurations are tested at a Reynolds number of one million and a lift coefficient of 0.6 in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel and the Hydronautics Ship Model Basin water tank at Hydronautics, Inc., Laurel, Md. Detailed measurements of span load and wake velocities at one semispan downstream correlate well with each other, with inviscid predictions of span load and wake roll up, and with peak trailing-wing rolling moments measured in the far wake. Average trailing-wing rolling moments are found to be an unreliable indicator of vortex wake intensity because vortex meander does not scale between test facilities and free-air conditions. A tapered-span-load configuration, which exhibits little or no drag penalty, is shown to offer significant downstream wake alleviation to a small trailing wing. The greater downstream wake alleviation achieved with the addition of spoilers to a flapped-wing configuration is shown to result directly from the high incremental drag and turbulence associated with the spoilers and not from the span load alteration they cause.

Holbrook, G. T.; Dunham, D. M.; Greene, G. C.

1985-01-01

54

Analog Processing Assembly for the Wake Vortex Lidar Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and NASA have initiated a joint study in the development of reliable means of tracking, detecting, measuring, and predicting trailing wake-vortices of commercial aircraft. Being sought is an accurate model of the wake-vortex hazard, sufficient to increase airport capacity by reducing minimum safe spacings between planes. Several means of measurement are being evaluated for application to wake-vortex detection and tracking, including Doppler RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging) systems, 2-micron Doppler LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) systems, and SODAR (Sound Detection And Ranging) systems. Of specific interest there is the lidar system, which has demonstrated numerous valuable capabilities as a vortex sensor Aerosols entrained in the vortex flow make the wake velocity signature visible to the lidar, (the observable lidar signal is essentially a measurement of the line-of-sight velocity of the aerosols). Measurement of the occurrence of a wake vortex requires effective reception and monitoring of the beat signal which results from the frequency-offset between the transmitted pulse and the backscattered radiation. This paper discusses the mounting, analysis, troubleshooting, and possible use of an analog processing assembly designed for such an application.

Stowe, Edwood G.

1995-01-01

55

Tip Vortex and Wake Characteristics of a Counterrotating Open Rotor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the primary noise sources for Open Rotor systems is the interaction of the forward rotor tip vortex and blade wake with the aft rotor. NASA has collaborated with General Electric on the testing of a new generation of low noise, counterrotating Open Rotor systems. Three-dimensional particle image velocimetry measurements were acquired in the intra-rotor gap of the Historical Baseline blade set. The velocity measurements are of sufficient resolution to characterize the tip vortex size and trajectory as well as the rotor wake decay and turbulence character. The tip clearance vortex trajectory is compared to results from previously developed models. Forward rotor wake velocity profiles are shown. Results are presented in a form as to assist numerical modeling of Open Rotor system aerodynamics and acoustics.

VanZante, Dale E.; Wernet, Mark P.

2012-01-01

56

A new methodology for free wake analysis using curved vortex elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method using curved vortex elements was developed for helicopter rotor free wake calculations. The Basic Curve Vortex Element (BCVE) is derived from the approximate Biot-Savart integration for a parabolic arc filament. When used in conjunction with a scheme to fit the elements along a vortex filament contour, this method has a significant advantage in overall accuracy and efficiency when compared to the traditional straight-line element approach. A theoretical and numerical analysis shows that free wake flows involving close interactions between filaments should utilize curved vortex elements in order to guarantee a consistent level of accuracy. The curved element method was implemented into a forward flight free wake analysis, featuring an adaptive far wake model that utilizes free wake information to extend the vortex filaments beyond the free wake regions. The curved vortex element free wake, coupled with this far wake model, exhibited rapid convergence, even in regions where the free wake and far wake turns are interlaced. Sample calculations are presented for tip vortex motion at various advance ratios for single and multiple blade rotors. Cross-flow plots reveal that the overall downstream wake flow resembles a trailing vortex pair. A preliminary assessment shows that the rotor downwash field is insensitive to element size, even for relatively large curved elements.

Bliss, Donald B.; Teske, Milton E.; Quackenbush, Todd R.

1987-01-01

57

Meteorology and Wake Vortex Influence on American Airlines FL-587 Accident  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The atmospheric environment surrounding the crash of American Airlines Flight 587 is investigated. Examined are evidence for any unusual atmospheric conditions and the potential for encounters with aircraft wake vortices. Computer simulations are carried out with two different vortex prediction models and a Large Eddy Simulation model. Wind models are proposed for studying aircraft and pilot response to the wake vortex encounter.

Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Rutishauser, David K.; Switzer, George F.

2004-01-01

58

A Probabilistic Wake Vortex Lateral Transport Model Using Data from SFO and DEN  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a previous report, we considered the behavior of the lateral position of vortices as a function of time after vortex formation for Out of Ground Effects (OGE) data for aircraft landing at San Francisco International Airport (SFO). We quantified the spread in lateral position as a function of time and examined how predictable lateral position is under a variety of assumptions. The combination of spread and predictability allowed us to derive probability distribution functions (PDFs) for lateral position given observed crosswind (CW) velocities. In this study, we examine the portability of these PDFs with respect to other landing sites. To this end, we consider OGE data obtained by the Federal Aviation Administration for landings at Denver International Airport (DEN) between 04/05/2006 and 06/03/2006. We consider vortices from both B733 (Boeing 737 models 200-500) and B757 (Boeing 757) aircraft. The data set contains 635 B733 landings and 506 B757 landings. The glide slope altitude for these measurements was 280 m, determined by the average initial vortex observation adjusted for a 3-second delay in the initial observation. The comparable SFO altitude was 158 m. We note that the principal mechanism for lateral transport in the OGE regime is advection by the ambient wind. This implies that a simple crosswind correction may be effective in explaining much of the variation in the lateral transport data. In this study, we again consider the use of ASOS data and average Lidar crosswind data over the vortex altitude range to predict vortex location as a function of time.

Mellman, George R.; Delisi, Donald P.

2008-01-01

59

Passive propulsion in vortex wakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dead fish is propelled upstream when its flexible body resonates with oncoming vortices formed in the wake of a bluff cylinder, despite being well outside the suction region of the cylinder. Within this passive propulsion mode, the body of the fish extracts sufficient energy from the oncoming vortices to develop thrust to overcome its own drag. In a similar turbulent wake and at roughly the same distance behind a bluff cylinder, a passively mounted high-aspect-ratio foil is also shown to propel itself upstream employing a similar flow energy extraction mechanism. In this case, mechanical energy is extracted from the flow at the same time that thrust is produced. These results prove experimentally that, under proper conditions, a body can follow at a distance or even catch up to another upstream body without expending any energy of its own. This observation is also significant in the development of low-drag energy harvesting devices, and in the energetics of fish dwelling in flowing water and swimming behind wake-forming obstacles.

Beal, D. N.; Hover, F. S.; Triantafyllou, M. S.; Liao, J. C.; Lauder, G. V.

60

Real-Time Visualization of Wake-Vortex Simulations using Computational Steering and Beowulf Clusters  

E-print Network

Real-Time Visualization of Wake-Vortex Simulations using Computational Steering and Beowulf real-time application--wake-vortex simulations for multiple aircraft running on a parallel Beowulf computational steering system based on a client/server pro- gramming model. We demonstrate the effectiveness

61

Transitions in the vortex wake behind the plunging profile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we investigate numerically the vortex wake formation behind the profile performing simple harmonic motion known in the literature as plunging. This research was inspired by the flapping motion which is appropriate for birds, insects and fishes. We assume the two dimensional model of flow. Depending on the parameters such as plunging amplitude, frequency and the Reynolds number, we demonstrate many different types of vortex street behind the profile. It is well known that the type of vortex wake determines the hydrodynamic forces acting on the profile. Dependences of the plunging amplitude, the Strouhal number and various topology vortices are established by constructing the phase transition diagram. The areas in the diagram related to the drag, thrust, and lift force generation are captured. We notice also the areas where the vorticity field is disordered. The disordered vorticity field does not allow maintenance of the periodic forces on the profile. An increase in the Reynolds number leads to the transition of the vortex wake behind the profile. The transition is caused by the phenomenon of boundary layer eruption. Further increase of the Reynolds number causes the vortex street related to the generation of the lift force to vanish.

Koz?owski, Tomasz; Kudela, Henryk

2014-12-01

62

Proceedings of the NASA First Wake Vortex Dynamic Spacing Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Government and Industry workshop on wake vortex dynamic spacing systems was conducted on May 13-15, 1997, at the NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of the workshop was to disclose the status of ongoing NASA wake vortex R&D to the international community and to seek feedback on the direction of future work to assure an optimized research approach. Workshop sessions examined wake vortex characterization and physics, wake sensor technologies, aircraft/wake encounters, terminal area weather characterization and prediction, and wake vortex systems integration and implementation. A final workshop session surveyed the Government and Industry perspectives on the NASA research underway and related international wake vortex activities. This document contains the proceedings of the workshop including the presenters' slides, the discussion following each presentation, the wrap-up panel discussion, and the attendees' evaluation feedback.

Creduer, Leonard (Editor); Perry, R. Brad (Editor)

1997-01-01

63

Vortex dynamics in the wake of a mechanical fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the three-dimensional flow around a mechanical fish model, which reproduces the typical undulatory body and fin motion of a carangiform swimmer. The mechanical model consists of a flexible skeleton embedded in a soft transparent silicone body, which is connected with two cams to a flapping and bending hinge generating a traveling wave motion with increasing amplitude from anterior to posterior, extending to a combined heaving and pitching motion at the fin. The model is submerged in a water tank and towed at the characteristic swimming speed for the neutral swimming mode at U/V = 1. The method of Scanning Particle Image Velocimetry was used to analyze the three-dimensional time-dependent flow field in the axial and saggital planes. The results confirm the earlier observations that the wake develops into a chain of vortex rings which travel sidewards perpendicular to the swimming direction. However, instead of one single vortex shed at each tail beat half-cycle we observed a pair of two vortex rings being shed. Each pair consists of a larger main vortex ring corresponding to the tail beat start stop vortex, while the second vortex ring is due to the body bending motion. The existence of the second vortex reflects the role of the body in undulatory swimming. A simplified model of the fish body comparing it to a plate with a hinged flap demonstrates the link between the sequence of kinematics and vortex shedding.

Brücker, Christoph; Bleckmann, Horst

2007-11-01

64

Vortex dynamics in the wake of a mechanical fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the three-dimensional flow around a mechanical fish model, which reproduces the typical undulatory body and fin motion of a carangiform swimmer. The mechanical model consists of a flexible skeleton embedded in a soft transparent silicone body, which is connected with two cams to a flapping and bending hinge generating a traveling wave motion with increasing amplitude from anterior to posterior, extending to a combined heaving and pitching motion at the fin. The model is submerged in a water tank and towed at the characteristic swimming speed for the neutral swimming mode at U/V = 1. The method of Scanning Particle Image Velocimetry was used to analyze the three-dimensional time-dependent flow field in the axial and saggital planes. The results confirm the earlier observations that the wake develops into a chain of vortex rings which travel sidewards perpendicular to the swimming direction. However, instead of one single vortex shed at each tail beat half-cycle we observed a pair of two vortex rings being shed. Each pair consists of a larger main vortex ring corresponding to the tail beat start-stop vortex, while the second vortex ring is due to the body bending motion. The existence of the second vortex reflects the role of the body in undulatory swimming. A simplified model of the fish body comparing it to a plate with a hinged flap demonstrates the link between the sequence of kinematics and vortex shedding.

Brücker, Christoph; Bleckmann, Horst

65

Vortex shedding in high-speed compressor blade wakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wakes of highly loaded compressor blades are generally considered to be turbulent flows. Recent work has suggested that the blade wakes are dominated by a vortex streetlike structure. The experimental evidence supporting the wake vortex structure is reviewed. This structure is shown to redistribute thermal energy within the flowfield. The effect of the wake structure on conventional aerodynamic measurements of compressor performance is noted. A two-dimensional, time-accurate, viscous numerical simulation of the flow exhibits both vortex shedding in the wake and a lower-frequency flow instability that modulates the shedding. The numerical results are shown to agree quite well with the measurement from transonic compressor rotors.

Epstein, A. H.; Gertz, J. B.; Owen, P. R.; Giles, M. B.

1988-01-01

66

Wake Vortex Field Measurement Program at Memphis, Tennessee: Data Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eliminating or reducing current restrictions in the air traffic control system due to wake vortex considerations would yield increased capacity, decreased delays, and cost savings. Current wake vortex separation standards are widely viewed as very conservative under most conditions. However, scientific uncertainty about wake vortex behavior under different atmospheric conditions remains a barrier to development of an adaptive vortex spacing system. The objective of the wake vortex field measurement efforts during December, 1994 and August, 1995 at Memphis, TN were to record wake vortex behavior for varying atmospheric conditions and types of aircraft. This effort is part of a larger effort by the NASA Langley Research Center to develop an Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) as an element of the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. The TAP program is being performed in concert with the FAA Terminal Air Traffic Control Automation (TATCA) program and ATC Automation. Wake vortex behavior was observed using a mobile continuous-wave (CW) coherent laser Doppler radar (lidar) developed at Lincoln Laboratory. This lidar features a number of improvements over previous systems, including the first-ever demonstration of an automatic wake vortex detection and tracking algorithm.

Campbell, S. D.; Dasey, T. J.; Freehart, R. E.; Heinrichs, R. M.; Mathews, M. P.; Perras, G. H.; Rowe, G. S.

1997-01-01

67

Radar monitoring of a wake vortex: Electromagnetic reflection of wake turbulence in clear air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article deals with X-band radar trial campaigns in 2006 and 2007 at Orly Airport, and in June 2008 at Paris-CDG Airport. An X-band Doppler radar has been deployed to assess short range (inferior to 2000 m) wake vortex monitoring capabilities in all weather conditions (dry and wet conditions). Recorded data have been correlated with electromagnetic and fluid mechanical models of wake turbulences for better and more accurate understanding of roll-up radar cross section (RCS) and Doppler signature.

Barbaresco, Frédéric; Meier, Uwe

2010-01-01

68

Analysis of the Radar Reflectivity of Aircraft Vortex Wakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radar has been proposed as a way to track wake vortices to reduce aircraft spacing and tests have revealed radar echoes from aircraft wakes in clear air. The results are always interpreted qualitatively using Tatarski's theory of weak scattering by isotropic atmospheric turbulence. The goal of the present work was to predict the value of the radar cross-section (RCS) using simpler models. This is accomplished in two steps. First, the refractive index is obtained. Since the structure of the aircraft wakes is different from atmospheric turbulence, three simple mechanisms specific to vortex wakes are considered: (1) Radial density gradient in a two-dimensional vortex, (2) three-dimensional fluctuations in the vortex cores, and (3) Adiabatic transport of the atmospheric fluid in a two-dimensional oval surrounding the pair of vortices. The index of refraction is obtained more precisely for the two-dimensional mechanisms than for the three-dimensional ones. In the second step, knowing the index of refraction, a scattering analysis is performed. Tatarski's weak scattering approximation is kept but the usual assumptions of a far-field and a uniform incident wave are dropped. Neither assumption is generally valid for a wake that is coherent across the radar beam. For analytical insight, a simpler approximation that invokes, in addition to weak scattering, the far-field and wide cylindrical beam assumptions, is also developed and compared with the more general analysis. The predicted RCS values for the oval surround the vortices (mechanism C) agree with the experiments of Bilson conducted over a wide range of frequencies. However, the predictions have a cut-off away from normal incidence which is not present in the measurements. Estimates suggest that this is due to turbulence in the baroclinic vorticity generated at the boundary of the oval. The reflectivity of a vortex itself (mechanism A) is comparable to that of the oval (mechanism C) but cuts-off at frequencies lower than those considered in all the experiments to date. The RCS of a vortex happens to peak at the frequency (about 49 MHz) where atmospheric radars (known as ST radars) operate and so the present prediction could be verified in the future. Finally , we suggest that hot engine exhaust could increase RCE by 40 db and reveal vortex circulation, provided its mixing with the surroundings is prevented in the laminarising flow of the vortices.

Shariff, Karim; Wray, Alan; Yan, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

69

Wake Vortex Detection: Phased Microphone vs. Linear Infrasonic Array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensor technologies can make a significant impact on the detection of aircraft-generated vortices in an air space of interest, typically in the approach or departure corridor. Current state-of-the art sensor technologies do not provide three-dimensional measurements needed for an operational system or even for wake vortex modeling to advance the understanding of vortex behavior. Most wake vortex sensor systems used today have been developed only for research applications and lack the reliability needed for continuous operation. The main challenges for the development of an operational sensor system are reliability, all-weather operation, and spatial coverage. Such a sensor has been sought for a period of last forty years. Acoustic sensors were first proposed and tested by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) early in 1970s for tracking wake vortices but these acoustic sensors suffered from high levels of ambient noise. Over a period of the last fifteen years, there has been renewed interest in studying noise generated by aircraft wake vortices, both numerically and experimentally. The German Aerospace Center (DLR) was the first to propose the application of a phased microphone array for the investigation of the noise sources of wake vortices. The concept was first demonstrated at Berlins Airport Schoenefeld in 2000. A second test was conducted in Tarbes, France, in 2002, where phased microphone arrays were applied to study the wake vortex noise of an Airbus 340. Similarly, microphone phased arrays and other opto-acoustic microphones were evaluated in a field test at the Denver International Airport in 2003. For the Tarbes and Denver tests, the wake trajectories of phased microphone arrays and lidar were compared as these were installed side by side. Due to a built-in pressure equalization vent these microphones were not suitable for capturing acoustic noise below 20 Hz. Our group at NASA Langley Research Center developed and installed an infrasonic array at the Newport News-Williamsburg International Airport early in the year 2013. A pattern of pressure burst, high-coherence intervals, and diminishing-coherence intervals was observed for all takeoff and landing events without exception. The results of a phased microphone vs. linear infrasonic array comparison will be presented.

Shams, Qamar A.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Sullivan, Nicholas T.; Knight, Howard K.

2014-01-01

70

Evaluation of the discrete vortex wake cross flow model using vector computers. Part 1: Theory and application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current program had the objective to modify a discrete vortex wake method to efficiently compute the aerodynamic forces and moments on high fineness ratio bodies (f approximately 10.0). The approach is to increase computational efficiency by structuring the program to take advantage of new computer vector software and by developing new algorithms when vector software can not efficiently be used. An efficient program was written and substantial savings achieved. Several test cases were run for fineness ratios up to f = 16.0 and angles of attack up to 50 degrees.

1979-01-01

71

Prediction and Control of Vortex Dominated and Vortex-wake Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the activities and accomplishments under this research grant, including a list of publications and dissertations, produced in the field of prediction and control of vortex dominated and vortex wake flows.

Kandil, Osama

1996-01-01

72

Vortex cloud model for body vortex shedding and tracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discrete vortex cloud approach models a missile airframe's vortex wake by means that are capable of treating a variety of configurations over a range of flow conditions. Attention is given to the sheets of vorticity formed on the lee side of a missile at moderate angles-of-attack. While three-dimensional attached flow models are used to represent the missile body, two-dimensional, incompressible, separated flow models are used to represent the separated vortex wake. The predicted pressure distribution of the body under the influence of the freestream and the separation vortex wake are used to calculate aerodynamic loads on the body. The separation vortex wake is represented by clouds of discrete vortices in cross flow planes normal to the body axis.

Mendenhall, Michael R.; Perkins, Stanley C., Jr.

1986-01-01

73

Two Dimensional Wake Vortex Simulations in the Atmosphere: Preliminary Sensitivity Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical large-eddy simulation model is currently being used to quantify aircraft wake vortex behavior with meteorological observables. The model, having a meteorological framework, permits the interaction of wake vortices with environments characterized by crosswind shear, stratification, and humidity. The addition of grid-scale turbulence as an initial condition appeared to have little consequence. Results show that conventional nondimensionalizations work very well for vortex pairs embedded in stably stratified flows. However, this result is based on simple environments with constant Brunt-Vaisala frequency. Results presented here also show that crosswind profiles exert important and complex interactions on the trajectories of wake vortices. Nonlinear crosswind profiles tended to arrest the descent of wake vortex pairs. The member of the vortex pair with vorticity of same sign as the vertical change in the ambient along-track vorticity may be deflected upwards.

Proctor, F. H.; Hinton, D. A.; Han, J.; Schowalter, D. G.; Lin, Y.-L.

1998-01-01

74

Vortex cloud model for body vortex shedding and tracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present engineering prediction method addresses the aerodynamic characteristics and associated flowfields of circular and noncircular bodies at large incidence angles and arbitrary roll angles. 3D attached-flow models are used to represent the body, and 2D, incompressible, separated flow models are used to represent the separated vortex wake. The predicted pressure distribution of the body, under the influence of both the freestream and the separation vortex wake, is used to calculate aerodynamic loads. The separation vortex wake is represented by clouds of discrete vortices in crossflow planes normal to the body axis.

Mendenhall, Michael R.; Perkins, Stanley C., Jr; Lesieutre, Daniel J.

1992-01-01

75

Wake Vortex Tracking Using a 35 GHz Pulsed Doppler Radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 35 GHz, pulsed-Doppler radar system has been designed and assembled for wake vortex detection and tracking in low visibility conditions. Aircraft wake vortices continue to be an important factor in determining safe following distances or spacings for aircraft in the terminal area. Currently, under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), aircraft adhere to conservative, fixed following-distance guidelines based primarily on aircraft weight classifications. When ambient conditions are such that vortices will either drift or dissipate, leaving the flight corridor clear, the prescribed spacings are unnecessarily long and result in decreased airport throughput. There is a potential for significant airport efficiency improvement, if a system can be employed to aid regulators and pilots in setting safe and efficient following distances based on airport conditions. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Federal Aviation Agency, and Volpe National Transportation Systems Center have promoted and worked to develop systems that would increase airport capacity and provide for safe reductions in aircraft separation. The NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS), a wake vortex spacing system that can provide dynamic adjustment of spacings based on real-time airport weather conditions, has demonstrated that Lidar systems can be successfully used to detect and track vortices in clear air conditions. To fill the need for detection capability in low-visibility conditions, a 35 GHz, pulsed-Doppler radar system is being investigated for use as a complimentary, low-visibility sensor for wake vortices. The radar sensor provides spatial and temporal information similar to that provided by Lidar, but under weather conditions that a Lidar cannot penetrate. Currently, we are analyzing the radar design based upon the data and experience gained during the wake vortex Lidar deployment with AVOSS at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. As part of this study, two numerical models were utilized in system simulations. The results of this study improve our understanding of the method of detection, resolution requirements for range and azimuth, pulse compression, and performance prediction. Simulations applying pulse compression techniques show that detection is good in heavy fog to greater than 2000 m. Both compressed and uncompressed short pulses show the vortex structure. To explore operational challenges, siting and scanning strategies were also analyzed. Simulation results indicate that excellent wake vortex detection, tracking and classification is possible in drizzle (+15 dBZ) and heavy fog (- 13 dBZ) using short pulse techniques (<99ns) at ranges on the order of 900 m, with a modest power of 500 W output. At 1600 m, detection can be expected at reflectivities as low as -13 dBZ (heavy fog). The radar system, as designed and built, has the potential to support field studies of a wake vortex spacing system in low-visibility conditions ranging from heavy fog to rain, when sited within 2000m of the flight path.

Neece, Robert T.; Britt, Charles L.; White, Joseph H.; Mudukutore, Ashok; Nguyen, Chi; Hooper, Bill

2005-01-01

76

Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS) Evaluation of Impacts on the National Airspace System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is one of a series that describes an ongoing effort in high-fidelity modeling/simulation, evaluation and analysis of the benefits and performance metrics of the Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS) Concept of Operations being developed as part of the Virtual Airspace Modeling and Simulation (VAMS) project. A previous study, determined the overall increases in runway arrival rates that could be achieved at 12 selected airports due to WakeVAS reduced aircraft spacing under Instrument Meteorological Conditions. This study builds on the previous work to evaluate the NAS wide impacts of equipping various numbers of airports with WakeVAS. A queuing network model of the National Airspace System, built by the Logistics Management Institute, Mclean, VA, for NASA (LMINET) was used to estimate the reduction in delay that could be achieved by using WakeVAS under non-visual meteorological conditions for the projected air traffic demand in 2010. The results from LMINET were used to estimate the total annual delay reduction that could be achieved and from this, an estimate of the air carrier variable operating cost saving was made.

Smith, Jeremy C.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.

2005-01-01

77

Wake characteristics of a model ornithopter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper details unsteady wake measurements from a model Ornithopther flying in a wind tunnel at representative flight conditions. Testing over a range of Strouhal number, 0.1-0.3, shows that the unsteady wake is composed of coherent vortical structures that resemble vortex rings. A single ring is formed in the wake of each wing during one wing beat. Momentum balance from velocity field measurements are reconciled with unsteady lift and drag measurements from a drag balance.

Juarez, Alfredo; Harlow, Jacob; Allen, James; Ferreira de Sousa, Paulo

2006-03-01

78

An Experimental Study of Wake Vortex Instabilities Brian M. Babie  

E-print Network

poses a flight safety hazard to other aircraft that may encounter this wake. This flight safety threat of axial bending mode = azimuthal coordinate x = mean axial vorticity I. Introduction LL aircraft create a trailing vortex wake that may persist for several miles behind the generating aircraft, dependent

Nelson, Robert C.

79

Numerical Simulation of the Aircraft Wake Vortex Flowfield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The near wake vortex flowfield from a NACA0012 half-wing was simulated using a fully unstructured Navier-Stokes flow solver in three dimensions at a chord Reynolds number of 4.6 million and a Mach number of approximately 0.15. Several simulations were performed to examine the effect of boundary conditions, mesh resolution and turbulence scheme on the formation of wingtip vortex and its downstream propagation. The standard Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model was compared with the Dacles-Mariani and Spalart-Shur corrections for rotation and curvature effects. The simulation results were evaluated using the data from experiment performed at NASA Ames' 32in x 48in low speed wind tunnel.

Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Perry, R. Brad

2013-01-01

80

Turbulence Climatology at Dallas/Ft.Worth (DFW) Airport: Implications for a Departure Wake Vortex Spacing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential adaptive wake vortex spacing systems may need to rely on wake vortex decay rather than wake vortex transport in reducing wake separations. A wake vortex takeoff-spacing system in particular will need to rely on wake decay. Ambient turbulence is the primary influence on wake decay away from the ground. This study evaluated 18 months of ambient turbulence measurements at Dallas/Ft. Worth (DFW) Airport. The measurements show minor variation in the turbulence levels at various times of the year or times of the day for time periods when a departure system could be used. Arrival system operation was also examined, and a slightly lower overall turbulence level was found as compared to departure system benefit periods. The Sarpkaya model, a validated model of wake vortex behavior, was applied to various turbulence levels and compared to the DFW turbulence statistics. The results show that wake vortices from heavy aircraft on takeoff should dissipate within one minute for the majority of the time and will rarely last two minutes. These results will need to be verified by wake vortex measurements on departure.

Perras, G. H.; Dasey, T. J.

2000-01-01

81

Evolution and breakdown of helical vortex wakes behind a wind turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wake behind a three-bladed Glauert model rotor in a water channel was investigated. Planar particle image velocimetry was used to measure the velocity fields on the wake centre-line, with snapshots phase-locked to blade position of the rotor. Phase- locked averages of the velocity and vorticity fields are shown, with tip vortex interaction and entanglement of the helical filaments elucidated. Proper orthogonal decomposition and topology-based vortex identification are used to filter the PIV images for coherent structures and locate vortex cores. Application of these methods to the instantaneous data reveals unsteady behaviour of the helical filaments that is statistically quantifiable.

Nemes, A.; Sherry, M.; Lo Jacono, D.; Blackburn, H. M.; Sheridan, J.

2014-12-01

82

Implementation of vortex wake control using SMA-actuated devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mitigation of the undesirable effects of trailing vortex wakes has been a long-standing priority for both reduction of submarine wake signature and alleviation of aircraft vortex wake hazard. A recent study established the feasibility of using relatively weak, secondary vortices with carefully selected unsteady amplitude and phasing to accelerate the breakup of the primary vortex system of a lifting surface, a technique denoted `vortex leveraging'. This paper will summarize progress on the development of SMA-actuated devices for implementing vortex leveraging for hydrodynamic applications. The methods being applied to the hydrodynamic design of these deformable Smart Vortex Leveraging Tabs (SVLTs) will be described, and the results of a preliminary assessment of SVLT performance in achieving wake breakup will be presented. Also, previous work on the design and testing of deformable control surfaces actuated via embedded SMA agonist wires will be reviewed and the design process being employed in the present applications will be discussed. Finally, the plans for near-term computational and experimental work to validate the use of SMA-driven devices for the wake mitigation task will be briefly outlined.

Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bilanin, Alan J.; Batcho, P. F.; McKillip, Robert M., Jr.; Carpenter, Bernie F.

1997-05-01

83

Wake Vortex Transport and Decay in Ground Effect: Vortex Linking with the Ground  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical simulations are carried out with a three-dimensional Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) model to explore the sensitivity of vortex decay and transport in ground effect (IGE). The vortex decay rates are found to be strongly enhanced following maximum descent into ground effect. The nondimensional decay rate is found to be insensitive to the initial values of circulation, height, and vortex separation. The information gained from these simulations is used to construct a simple decay relationship. This relationship compares well with observed data from an IGE case study. Similarly, a relationship for lateral drift due to ground effect is constructed from the LES data. In the second part of this paper, vortex linking with the ground is investigated. Our numerical simulations of wake vortices for IGE show that a vortex may link with its image beneath the ground, if the intensity of the ambient turbulence is moderate to high. This linking with the ground (which is observed in real cases)gives the appearance of a vortex tube that bends to become vertically oriented and which terminates at the ground. From the simulations conducted, the linking time for vortices in the free atmosphere; i.e., a function of ambient turbulence intensity.

Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Han, Jongil

2000-01-01

84

Application of Wind Tunnel Free-Flight Technique for Wake Vortex Encounters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind tunnel investigation was conducted in the Langley 30- by 60-Foot Tunnel to assess the free-flight test technique as a tool in research on wake vortex encounters. A typical 17.5-percent scale business-class jet airplane model was flown behind a stationary wing mounted in the forward portion of the wind tunnel test section. The span ratio (model span-generating wingspan) was 0.75. The wing angle of attack could be adjusted to produce a vortex of desired strength. The test airplane model was successfully flown in the vortex and through the vortex for a range of vortex strengths. Data obtained included the model airplane body axis accelerations, angular rates, attitudes, and control positions as a function of vortex strength and relative position. Pilot comments and video records were also recorded during the vortex encounters.

Brandon, Jay M.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.; Stuever, Robert A.; Buttrill, Catherine W.

1997-01-01

85

Effects of spoilers and gear on B-747 wake vortex velocities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vortex velocities were measured in the wakes of four configurations of a 0.61-m span model of a B-747 aircraft. The wakes were generated by towing the model underwater in a ship model basin. Tangential and axial velocity profiles were obtained with a scanning laser velocimeter as the wakes aged to 35 span lengths behind the model. A 45 deg deflection of two outboard flight spoilers with the model in the landing configuration resulted in a 36 percent reduction in wake maximum tangential velocity, altered velocity profiles, and erratic vortex trajectories. Deployment of the landing gear with the inboard flaps in the landing position and outboard flaps retracted had little effect on the flap vortices to 35 spans, but caused the wing tip vortices to have: (1) more diffuse velocity profiles; (2) a 27 percent reduction in maximum tangential velocity; and (3) a more rapid merger with the flap vortices.

Luebs, A. B.; Bradfute, J. G.; Ciffone, D. L.

1976-01-01

86

The vortex street wakes of a rotating circular cylinder  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of the vortex stress behind a rotating circular cylinder in uniform free stream is investigated numerically at high Reynolds number. The ratio of the cylinder surface velocity to the free stream velocity, {alpha} is in the range 0 {le} {alpha} {le} 3. The method used to calculate the flow can be considered as a combination between the diffusion-vortex method and the vortex-in-cell method. The lift and drag forces exerted by the fluid on the cylinder surface as well as the Strouhal number of vortex shedding, are determined together with the flow patterns in the wake. It was found that the vortex shedding and wake development behind the cylinder vary significantly depending on the magnitude of the rotation parameter {alpha}. When {alpha} {le} 2, the vortex street behind the cylinder in the near-wake inclines as a whole towards the direction of rotation as {alpha} increases. The Karman vortex street structure begins to deteriorate as soon as {alpha} exceeds 2 and finally disappears for {alpha} = 3.

Cheng, M.; Chew, Y.T.; Luo, S.C. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)

1994-12-31

87

Developments and Validations of Fully Coupled CFD and Practical Vortex Transport Method for High-Fidelity Wake Modeling in Fixed and Rotary Wing Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) coupling framework using a conventional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (BANS) solver to resolve the near-body flow field and a Particle-based Vorticity Transport Method (PVTM) to predict the evolution of the far field wake is developed, refined, and evaluated for fixed and rotary wing cases. For the rotary wing case, the RANS/PVTM modules are loosely coupled to a Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD) module that provides blade motion and vehicle trim information. The PVTM module is refined by the addition of vortex diffusion, stretching, and reorientation models as well as an efficient memory model. Results from the coupled framework are compared with several experimental data sets (a fixed-wing wind tunnel test and a rotary-wing hover test).

Anusonti-Inthra, Phuriwat

2010-01-01

88

Feasibility of an onboard wake vortex avoidance system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was determined that an onboard vortex wake detection system using existing, proven instrumentation is technically feasible. This system might be incorporated into existing onboard systems such as a wind shear detection system, and might provide the pilot with the location of a vortex wake, as well as an evasive maneuver so that the landing separations may be reduced. It is suggested that this system might be introduced into our nation's commuter aircraft fleet and major air carrier fleet and permit a reduction of current landing separation standards, thereby reducing takeoff and departure delays.

Bilanin, Alan J.; Teske, Milton E.; Curtiss, Howard C., Jr.

1987-01-01

89

Rotor Wake Vortex Definition Using 3C-PIV Measurements: Corrected for Vortex Orientation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-component (3-C) particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements, within the wake across a rotor disk plane, are used to determine wake vortex definitions important for BVI (Blade Vortex Interaction) and broadband noise prediction. This study is part of the HART II test program conducted using a 40 percent scale BO-105 helicopter main rotor in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). In this paper, measurements are presented of the wake vortex field over the advancing side of the rotor operating at a typical descent landing condition. The orientations of the vortex (tube) axes are found to have non-zero tilt angles with respect to the chosen PIV measurement cut planes, often on the order of 45 degrees. Methods for determining the orientation of the vortex axis and reorienting the measured PIV velocity maps (by rotation/projection) are presented. One method utilizes the vortex core axial velocity component, the other utilizes the swirl velocity components. Key vortex parameters such as vortex core size, strength, and core velocity distribution characteristics are determined from the reoriented PIV velocity maps. The results are compared with those determined from velocity maps that are not corrected for orientation. Knowledge of magnitudes and directions of the vortex axial and swirl velocity components as a function of streamwise location provide a basis for insight into the vortex evolution.

Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; vanderWall, Berend; Richard, Hughues Richard; Raffel, Markus; Beaumier, Philippe; Delrieux, Yves; Lim, Joon W.; Yu, Yung H.; Tung, Chee

2003-01-01

90

Simulating Wake Vortex Detection with the Sensivu Doppler Wind Lidar Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of NASA's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies NRA research topic on Wake Vortex Hazard Investigation, Aerospace Innovations (AI) investigated a set of techniques for detecting wake vortex hazards from arbitrary viewing angles, including axial perspectives. This technical report describes an approach to this problem and presents results from its implementation in a virtual lidar simulator developed at AI. Threedimensional data volumes from NASA's Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) containing strong turbulent vortices were used as the atmospheric domain for these studies, in addition to an analytical vortex model in 3-D space. By incorporating a third-party radiative transfer code (BACKSCAT 4), user-defined aerosol layers can be incorporated into atmospheric models, simulating attenuation and backscatter in different environmental conditions and altitudes. A hazard detection algorithm is described that uses a twocomponent spectral model to identify vortex signatures observable from arbitrary angles.

Ramsey, Dan; Nguyen, Chi

2014-01-01

91

Measurements of Aircraft Wake Vortex Separation at High Arrival Rates and a Proposed New Wake Vortex Separation Philosophy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents data and a proposed new aircraft wake vortex separation standard that argues for a fundamental re-thinking of international practice. The current static standard, under certain atmospheric conditions, presents an unnecessary restriction on system capacity. A new approach, that decreases aircraft separation when atmospheric conditions dictate, is proposed based upon the availability of new instrumentation and a better understanding of wake physics.

Rutishauser, David; Donohue, George L.; Haynie, Rudolph C.

2003-01-01

92

Aircraft Wake Vortex Measurements at Denver International Airport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airport capacity is constrained, in part, by spacing requirements associated with the wake vortex hazard. NASA's Wake Vortex Avoidance Project has a goal to establish the feasibility of reducing this spacing while maintaining safety. Passive acoustic phased array sensors, if shown to have operational potential, may aid in this effort by detecting and tracking the vortices. During August/September 2003, NASA and the USDOT sponsored a wake acoustics test at the Denver International Airport. The central instrument of the test was a large microphone phased array. This paper describes the test in general terms and gives an overview of the array hardware. It outlines one of the analysis techniques that is being applied to the data and gives sample results. The technique is able to clearly resolve the wake vortices of landing aircraft and measure their separation, height, and sinking rate. These observations permit an indirect estimate of the vortex circulation. The array also provides visualization of the vortex evolution, including the Crow instability.

Dougherty, Robert P.; Wang, Frank Y.; Booth, Earl R.; Watts, Michael E.; Fenichel, Neil; D'Errico, Robert E.

2004-01-01

93

ASSESSMENT OF WAKE VORTEX SEPARATION DISTANCES USING THE WAVIR TOOLSET  

E-print Network

methods, designed for evaluation of technologies/products, such as the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA of the system behavior, and the absence of historic data for rare-events [7, 8]. Qualitative safety methods a quantitative method for wake vortex safety analysis (WAVIR), 0-7803-8539-X/04/$20.00 © 2004 IEEE 2.E.2-1 #12

94

Far Wake Rotorcraft Vortex Tumbling James H. Stephenson  

E-print Network

-scale, 1 m diame- ter, four-bladed rotor during hover is studied using vortex methods combined during hover conditions. The nominal operating condition of the rotor is at a rotational speed of 1520RPM validation of CFD codes. I. Introduction The aerodynamic wake of a helicopter in hover is highly complex

Tinney, Charles E.

95

A self-learning coupled map lattice for vortex shedding in cable and cylinder wakes.  

PubMed

A coupled map lattice (CML) with self-learning features is developed to model flow over freely vibrating cables and stationary cylinders at low Reynolds numbers. Coupled map lattices that combine a series of low-dimensional circle maps with a diffusion model have been used previously to predict qualitative features of these flows. However, the simple nature of these CML models implies that there will be unmodeled wake features if a detailed, quantitative comparison is made with laboratory or simulated wake flows. Motivated by a desire to develop an improved CML model, we incorporate self-learning features into a new CML that is first trained to precisely estimate wake patterns from a target numerical simulation. A new convective-diffusive map that includes additional wake dynamics is developed. The new self-learning CML uses an adaptive estimation scheme (multivariable least-squares algorithm). Studies of this approach are conducted using wake patterns from a Navier-Stokes solution (spectral element-based NEKTAR simulation) of freely vibrating cable wakes at Reynolds numbers Re=100. It is shown that the self-learning model accurately and efficiently estimates the simulated wake patterns. The self-learning scheme is then successfully applied to vortex shedding patterns obtained from experiments on stationary cylinders. This constitutes a first step toward the use of the self-learning CML as a wake model in flow control studies of laboratory wake flows. PMID:15189057

Balasubramanian, G; Olinger, D J; Demetriou, M A

2004-06-01

96

Development and testing of laser Doppler system components for wake vortex monitoring. Volume 1: Scanner development, laboratory and field testing and system modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A servo-controlled range/elevation scanner for the laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) was developed and tested in the field to assess its performance in detecting and monitoring aircraft trailing vortices in an airport environment. The elevation scanner provides a capability to manually point the LDV telescope at operator chosen angles from 3.2 deg. to 89.6 deg within 0.2 deg, or to automatically scan the units between operator chosen limits at operator chosen rates of 0.1 Hz to 0.5 Hz. The range scanner provides a capability to manually adjust the focal point of the system from a range of 32 meters to a range of 896 meters under operator control, or to scan between operator chosen limits and at rates from 0.1 Hz to 6.9 Hz. The scanner controls are designed to allow simulataneous range and elevation scanning so as to provide finger scan patterns, arc scan patterns, and vertical line scan patterns. The development and testing of the unit is discussed, along with a fluid dynamic model of the wake vortex developed in a laser Doppler vortex sensor simulation program.

Wilson, D. J.; Krause, M. C.; Coffey, E. W.; Huang, C. C.; Edwards, B. B.; Shrider, K. R.; Jetton, J. L.; Morrison, L. K.

1974-01-01

97

A Candidate Wake Vortex Strength Definition for Application to the NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A significant effort is underway at NASA Langley to develop a system to provide dynamical aircraft wake vortex spacing criteria to Air Traffic Control (ATC). The system under development, the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS), combines the inputs of multiple subsystems to provide separation matrices with sufficient stability for use by ATC and sufficient monitoring to ensure safety. The subsystems include a meteorological subsystem, a wake behavior prediction subsystem, a wake sensor subsystem, and system integration and ATC interfaces. The proposed AVOSS is capable of using two factors, singly or in combination, for reducing in-trail spacing. These factors are wake vortex motion out of a predefined approach corridor and wake decay below a strength that is acceptable for encounter. Although basic research into the wake phenomena has historically used wake total circulation as a strength parameter, there is a requirement for a more specific strength definition that may be applied across multiple disciplines and teams to produce a real-time, automated system. This paper presents some of the limitations of previous applications of circulation to aircraft wake observations and describes the results of a preliminary effort to bound a spacing system strength definition.

Hinton, David A.; Tatnall, Chris R.

1997-01-01

98

Numerical Study of a Long-Lived, Isolated Wake Vortex in Ground Effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines a case observed during the 1990 Idaho Falls Test program, in which a wake vortex having an unusually long lifetime was observed while in ground effect. A numerical simulation is performed with a Large Eddy Simulation model to understand the response of the environment in affecting this event. In the simulation, it was found that one of the vortices decayed quickly, with the remaining vortex persisting beyond the time-bound of typical vortex lifetimes. This unusual behavior was found to be related to the first and second vertical derivatives of the ambient crosswind.

Proctor, Fred H.

2014-01-01

99

Use of Individual Flight Corridors to Avoid Vortex Wakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vortex wakes of aircraft pose a hazard to following aircraft until the energetic parts of their flow fields have decayed to a harmless level. It is suggested here that in-trail spacings between aircraft can be significantly and safely reduced by designing an individual, vortex-free flight corridor for each aircraft. Because each aircraft will then have its own flight corridor, which is free of vortex wakes while in use by the assigned aircraft, the time intervals between aircraft operations can be safely reduced to the order of seconds. The productivity of airports can then be substantially increased. How large the offset distances between operational corridors need to be to have them vortex free, and how airports need to be changed to accommodate an individual flight-corridor process for landing and takeoff operations, are explored. Estimates are then made of the productivity of an individual flight-corridor system as a function of the in-trail time interval between operations for various values of wake decay time, runway width, and the velocity of a sidewind. The results confirm the need for short time intervals between aircraft operations if smaller offset distances and increased productivity are to be achieved.

Rossow, Vernon J.

2001-01-01

100

On the Development of Turbulent Wakes from Vortex Streets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wake development behind circular cylinders at Reynolds numbers from 40 to 10,000 was investigated in a low-speed wind tunnel. Standard hotwire techniques were used to study the velocity fluctuations. The Reynolds number range of periodic vortex shedding is divided into two distinct subranges. At R = 40 to 150, called the stable range, regular vortex streets are formed and no turbulent motion is developed. The range R = 150 to 300 is a transition range to a regime called the irregular range, in which turbulent velocity fluctuations accompany the periodic formation of vortices. The turbulence is initiated by laminar-turbulent transition in the free layers which spring from the separation points on the cylinder. This transition first occurs in the range R = 150 to 300. Spectrum and statistical measurements were made to study the velocity fluctuations. In the stable range the vortices decay by viscous diffusion. In the irregular range the diffusion is turbulent and the wake becomes fully turbulent in 40 to 50 diameters downstream. It was found that in the stable range the vortex street has a periodic spanwise structure. The dependence of shedding frequency on velocity was successfully used to measure flow velocity. Measurements in the wake of a ring showed that an annular vortex street is developed.

Roshko, Anatol

1953-01-01

101

Geometrical influence on vortex shedding in turbulent axisymmetric wakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the structures generated by the vortex shedding mechanism in turbulent axisymmetric wakes of non-axisymmetric plates, including a square plate and a series of fractal plates, and compare the results to a disk. For a given characteristic length ?, all plates have the same frontal area A, since ? = A0.5, but the length of the perimeter and the irregularity of the perimeter were varied in a fractal manner thus allowing us to investigate the effect of boundary conditions. Measurements were taken over a large range of downstream and radial distances in order to obtain a more robust measure for the vortex shedding energy. It was found that the fractal plates are able to reduce the vortex shedding energy by as much as 60% compared to the disk and square plates. It was also found that the frequency at which the vortex shedding structures are generated and the manner in which they organise themselves in the wake are independent of the boundary conditions of the wake generator. The results suggest that the main function of the multi-scale segments around the perimeter of the plates is to re-distribute the energy to a broader range of scales in the flow, which could explain the previously observed increase in drag coefficient for the fractal edged plates.

Nedi?, J.; Supponen, O.; Ganapathisubramani, B.; Vassilicos, J. C.

2015-03-01

102

Large-Eddy Simulations and Lidar Measurements of Vortex-Pair Breakup in Aircraft Wakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of large-eddy simulations of an aircraft wake are compared with results from ground-based lidar measurements made at NASA Langley Research Center during the Subsonic Assessment Near-Field Interaction Flight Experiment field tests. Brief reviews of the design of the field test for obtaining the evolution of wake dispersion behind a Boeing 737 and of the model developed for simulating such wakes are given. Both the measurements and the simulations concentrate on the period from a few seconds to a few minutes after the wake is generated, during which the essentially two-dimensional vortex pair is broken up into a variety of three-dimensional eddies. The model and experiment show similar distinctive breakup eddies induced by the mutual interactions of the vortices, after perturbation by the atmospheric motions.

Lewellen, D. C.; Lewellen, W. S.; Poole, L. R.; DeCoursey, R. J.; Hansen, G. M.; Hostetler, C. A.; Kent, G. S.

1998-01-01

103

Evaluation of the discrete vortex wake cross flow model using vector computers. Part 2: User's manual for DIVORCE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The users manual for the Discrete Vortex Cross flow Evaluator (DIVORCE) computer program is presented. DIVORCE was developed in FORTRAN 4 for the DCD 6600 and CDC 7600 machines. Optimal calls to a NASA vector subroutine package are provided for use with the CDC 7600.

Deffenbaugh, F. D.; Vitz, J. F.

1979-01-01

104

Validation of Vortex-Lattice Method for Loads on Wings in Lift-Generated Wakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study is described that evaluates the accuracy of vortex-lattice methods when they are used to compute the loads induced on aircraft as they encounter lift-generated wakes. The evaluation is accomplished by the use of measurements made in the 80 by 120 ft Wind Tunnel of the lift, rolling moment, and downwash in the wake of three configurations of a model of a subsonic transport aircraft. The downwash measurements are used as input for a vortex-lattice code in order to compute the lift and rolling moment induced on wings that have a span of 0.186, 0.510, or 1.022 times the span of the wake-generating model. Comparison of the computed results with the measured lift and rolling-moment distributions the vortex-lattice method is very reliable as long as the span of the encountering or following wing is less than about 0.2 of the generator span. As the span of the following wing increases above 0.2, the vortex-lattice method continues to correctly predict the trends and nature of the induced loads, but it overpredicts the magnitude of the loads by increasing amounts.

Rossow, Vernon J.

1995-01-01

105

NASA AVOSS Fast-Time Wake Prediction Models: User's Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing and testing fast-time wake transport and decay models to safely enhance the capacity of the National Airspace System (NAS). The fast-time wake models are empirical algorithms used for real-time predictions of wake transport and decay based on aircraft parameters and ambient weather conditions. The aircraft dependent parameters include the initial vortex descent velocity and the vortex pair separation distance. The atmospheric initial conditions include vertical profiles of temperature or potential temperature, eddy dissipation rate, and crosswind. The current distribution includes the latest versions of the APA (3.4) and the TDP (2.1) models. This User's Guide provides detailed information on the model inputs, file formats, and the model output. An example of a model run and a brief description of the Memphis 1995 Wake Vortex Dataset is also provided.

Ahmad, Nash'at N.; VanValkenburg, Randal L.; Pruis, Matthew

2014-01-01

106

On the Development of Turbulent Wakes from Vortex Streets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wake development behind circular cylinders at Reynolds numbers from 40 to 10,000 was investigated in a low-speed wind tunnel. Standard hot-wire techniques were used to study the velocity fluctuations. The Reynolds number range of periodic vortex shedding is divided into two distinct subranges. At r=40 to 150, called the stable range, regular vortex streets are formed and no turbulent velocity fluctuations accompany the periodic formation of vortices. The range r=150 to 300 is a transition range to a regime called the irregular range, in which turbulent velocity fluctuations accompany the periodic formation of vortices. The turbulence is initiated by laminar-turbulent transition in the free layers which spring from the separation points on the cylinder. The transition first occurs in the range r=150 to 300. Spectrum and statistical measurements were made to study the velocity fluctuations.

Roshko, Anatol

1954-01-01

107

Real-Time Visualization of Wake-Vortex Simulations Using Computational Steering and Beowulf Clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the design and implementation of POSSE, a new, lightweight computational steering system based on a client\\/server pro- gramming model. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this software system by illustrating its use for a visualization client designed for a particularly demand- ing real-time application—wake-vortex simulations for multiple aircraft running on a parallel Beowulf cluster. We describe

Anirudh Modi; Lyle N. Long; Paul E. Plassmann

2002-01-01

108

Development of a Wake Vortex Spacing System for Airport Capacity Enhancement and Delay Reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Terminal Area Productivity project has developed the technologies required (weather measurement, wake prediction, and wake measurement) to determine the aircraft spacing needed to prevent wake vortex encounters in various weather conditions. The system performs weather measurements, predicts bounds on wake vortex behavior in those conditions, derives safe wake spacing criteria, and validates the wake predictions with wake vortex measurements. System performance to date indicates that the potential runway arrival rate increase with Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS), considering common path effects and ATC delivery variance, is 5% to 12% depending on the ratio of large and heavy aircraft. The concept demonstration system, using early generation algorithms and minimal optimization, is performing the wake predictions with adequate robustness such that only 4 hard exceedances have been observed in 1235 wake validation cases. This performance demonstrates the feasibility of predicting wake behavior bounds with multiple uncertainties present, including the unknown aircraft weight and speed, weather persistence between the wake prediction and the observations, and the location of the weather sensors several kilometers from the approach location. A concept for the use of the AVOSS system for parallel runway operations has been suggested, and an initial study at the JFK International Airport suggests that a simplified AVOSS system can be successfully operated using only a single lidar as both the weather sensor and the wake validation instrument. Such a selfcontained AVOSS would be suitable for wake separation close to the airport, as is required for parallel approach concepts such as SOIA.

Hinton, David A.; OConnor, Cornelius J.

2000-01-01

109

Generation of vortex rings by nonstationary laser wake field  

SciTech Connect

A new concept of generating quasistatic magnetic fields, vortex rings, and electron jets in an isotropic homogeneous plasma is presented. The propagation of plasma waves, generated by a relativistically intense short pulse laser, is investigated by using the kinetic model and a novel nonpotential, time-dependent ponderomotive force is derived by obtaining a hydrodynamic equation of motion. This force can in turn generate quasistatic magnetic fields, vortex rings, and electron jets. It is also shown that the vortex rings can become a means for accelerating electrons, which are initially in equilibrium. The conservation of canonical momentum circulation and the frozen-in condition for the vorticity is discussed. The excitation of the vortex waves by the modulation of the amplitude of the plasma waves is considered. These vortex waves, which generate a lower hybrid mode propagating across the generated magnetic field, are also investigated.

Tsintsadze, N.L.; Murtaza, G.; Shah, H.A. [Department of Physics, Tbilisi State University, Chavchavadze 3 (Georgia); National Centre for Mathematics, G.C. University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, G.C. University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

2006-01-15

110

Effects of fog droplets on wake vortex decay rate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple model for the motion of particles in a laminar line vortex is discussed. The energy required to accelerate a set of these particles was determined and shown to be only a small fraction of the energy content of the vortex flow. It is shown that this energy transfer is unlikely to be sufficient to significantly modify the vortex decay rate. It is further argued that the effect of the particle on the viscous properties of the resulting two phase fluid leads to a slower decay rate than in single phase air flow. However, this conclusion may not necessarily follow for turbulence flows. Results show that the migration of particles to the outer flow results in a redistribution of the velocity profile in the vortex and in a non-uniform two phase viscosity across the core. It is suggested that these effects may accelerate vortex bursting.

Moulden, T. H.; Frost, W.

1976-01-01

111

A flight evaluation of methods for predicting vortex wake effects on trailing aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of four current analytical methods for predicting wing vortex strength and decay rate are compared with the results of a flight investigation of the wake characteristics of several large jet transport aircraft. An empirical expression defining the strength and decay rate of wake vortices is developed that best represents most of the flight-test data. However, the expression is not applicable to small aircraft that would be immersed in the vortex wake of large aircraft.

Robinson, G. H.; Larson, R. R.

1972-01-01

112

Shortle and Jeddi 1 Probabilistic Analysis of Wake Vortex Hazards for Landing Aircraft Using Multilateration  

E-print Network

Shortle and Jeddi 1 Probabilistic Analysis of Wake Vortex Hazards for Landing Aircraft Using revised from original submittal. #12;Shortle and Jeddi 2 ABSTRACT Wake vortices are a safety hazard to landing aircraft. A landing aircraft that encounters a wake may roll, resulting in a fatal crash

113

Spectral Characteristics of Wake Vortex Sound During Roll-Up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents an analysis of the sound spectra generated by a trailing aircraft vortex during its rolling-up process. The study demonstrates that a rolling-up vortex could produce low frequency (less than 100 Hz) sound with very high intensity (60 dB above threshold of human hearing) at a distance of 200 ft from the vortex core. The spectrum then drops o rapidly thereafter. A rigorous analytical approach has been adopted in this report to derive the spectrum of vortex sound. First, the sound pressure was solved from an alternative treatment of the Lighthill s acoustic analogy approach [1]. After the application of Green s function for free space, a tensor analysis was applied to permit the removal of the source term singularity of the wave equation in the far field. Consequently, the sound pressure is expressed in terms of the retarded time that indicates the time history and spacial distribution of the sound source. The Fourier transformation is then applied to the sound pressure to compute its spectrum. As a result, the Fourier transformation greatly simplifies the expression of the vortex sound pressure involving the retarded time, so that the numerical computation is applicable with ease for axisymmetric line vortices during the rolling-up process. The vortex model assumes that the vortex circulation is proportional to the time and the core radius is a constant. In addition, the velocity profile is assumed to be self-similar along the aircraft flight path, so that a benchmark vortex velocity profile can be devised to obtain a closed form solution, which is then used to validate the numerical calculations for other more realistic vortex profiles for which no closed form solutions are available. The study suggests that acoustic sensors operating at low frequency band could be profitably deployed for detecting the vortex sound during the rolling-up process.

Booth, Earl R., Jr. (Technical Monitor); Zhang, Yan; Wang, Frank Y.; Hardin, Jay C.

2003-01-01

114

An Investigation of Candidate Sensor-Observable Wake Vortex Strength Parameters for the NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The counter-rotating pair of wake vortices shed by flying aircraft can pose a threat to ensuing aircraft, particularly on landing approach. To allow adequate time for the vortices to disperse/decay, landing aircraft are required to maintain certain fixed separation distances. The Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS), under development at NASA, is designed to prescribe safe aircraft landing approach separation distances appropriate to the ambient weather conditions. A key component of the AVOSS is a ground sensor, to ensure, safety by making wake observations to verify predicted behavior. This task requires knowledge of a flowfield strength metric which gauges the severity of disturbance an encountering aircraft could potentially experience. Several proposed strength metric concepts are defined and evaluated for various combinations of metric parameters and sensor line-of-sight elevation angles. Representative populations of generating and following aircraft types are selected, and their associated wake flowfields are modeled using various wake geometry definitions. Strength metric candidates are then rated and compared based on the correspondence of their computed values to associated aircraft response values, using basic statistical analyses.

Tatnall, Chistopher R.

1998-01-01

115

An experimental investigation of bending wave instability modes in a generic four-vortex wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study of a planar wake consisting of four vortices that simulate the trailing vortex wakes generated by transport airplanes in either takeoff or landing configurations is presented. The objective of this study was to examine naturally occurring wake instabilities. Specifically, the focus of the study was centered on bending wave instabilities of which the Crow instability represents a particular case. A unique method of generating a four-vortex wake was developed for this study. The four-vortex wake generating device permitted direct variation of the spacing between vortices as well as control over the vortex circulation strength. Two quantitative flow visualization experiments were instrumental in identifying wake configurations that were conducive to the rapid growth of bending wave modes and in the identification of the long-wavelength mode. Detailed experiments were also conducted to examine the flow structure in the near-field or roll-up region using a four sensor, hot-wire probe that could measure all three velocity components in the wake simultaneously. The results of both the flow visualization and hot-wire experiments indicate that the long-wavelength mode and the first short-wavelength mode likely dominate the far-field wake physics and may potentially be utilized in a wake control strategy.

Babie, Brian M.; Nelson, Robert C.

2010-07-01

116

Separation of Lift-Generated Vortex Wakes Into Two Diverging Parts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of an ongoing study of the spreading rate of lift-generated vortex wakes, the present investigation considers possible reasons as to why segments of lift-generated wakes sometimes depart from the main part of the wake to move rapidly in either an upward or downward direction. It is assumed that deficiencies or enhancements of the lift carry over across the fuselage-shrouded wing are the driving mechanism for departures of wake-segments. The computations presented first indicate that upwardly departing wake segments that were observed and photographed could have been produced by a deficiency in lift carryover across the fuselage-shrouded part of the wing. Computations made of idealized vortex wakes indicate that upward departure of a wake segment requires a centerline reduction in the span loading of 70% or more, whether the engines are at idle or robust thrust. Similarly, it was found that downward departure of wake segments is produced when the lift over the center part of the wing is enhanced. However, it was also found that downward departures do not occur without the presence of robust engine-exhaust streams (i.e., engines must NOT be at idle). In those cases, downward departures of a wake segment occurs when the centerline value of the loading is enhanced by any amount between about 10% to 100%. Observations of condensation trails indicate that downward departure of wake segments is rare. Upward departures of wake segments appears to be more common but still rare. A study to determine the part of the aircraft that causes wake departures has not been carried out. However, even though departures of wake segments rarely occur, some aircraft do regularly shed these wake structures. If aircraft safety is to be assured to a high degree of reliability, and a solution for eliminating them is not implemented, existing guidelines for the avoidance of vortex wakes [1,3] may need to be broadened to include possible increases in wake sizes caused by vertical departures of wake segments. Further study may indicate that it is not possible to modify existing aircraft enough to prevent wake departures. Wake-avoidance guidelines must then be adjusted to provide the desired degree of safety. It appears that steps to avoid upwardly moving wake segments have already been incorporated into the avoidance procedures used for aircraft on approach to runways at the Frankfurt Airport [6,7]. The uncertainty in the prospects for compromises in flight safety caused by rapidly upwardly or downwardly moving wake segments suggest that it be specified that aircraft do not fly above or below each other during operations in the airport vicinity where aircraft are likely to be closely spaced [20].

Rossow, Vernon J.; Brown, Anthony P.

2010-01-01

117

Unsteady vortex lattice techniques applied to wake formation and performance of the statically thrusting propeller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application is considered of vortex lattice techniques to the problem of describing the aerodynamics and performance of statically thrusting propellers. A numerical lifting surface theory to predict the aerodynamic forces and power is performed. The chordwise and spanwise loading is modelled by bound vortices fixed to a twisted flat plate surface. In order to eliminate any apriori assumptions regarding the wake shape, it is assumed the propeller starts from rest. The wake is generated in time and allowed to deform under its own self-induced velocity field as the motion of the propeller progresses. The bound circulation distribution is then determined with time by applying the flow tangency boundary condition at certain selected control points on the blades. The aerodynamics of the infinite wing and finite wing are also considered. The details of wake formation and roll-up are investigated, particularly the localized induction effect. It is concluded that proper wake roll-up and roll-up rates can be established by considering the details of motion at the instant of start.

Hall, G. F.

1975-01-01

118

The role of vortex wake dynamics in the flow-induced vibration of tube arrays  

E-print Network

The role of vortex wake dynamics in the flow-induced vibration of tube arrays N.K.-R. Kevlahan Keywords: Fluid­structure interaction Vortex-induced vibration Tube arrays Potential flow a b s t r a c in the non-resonant flow-induced vibration of periodic tube arrays. This dual approach untangles the effects

Kevlahan, Nicholas

119

Three-dimensional vortex wake structure of flapping wings in hovering flight.  

PubMed

Flapping wings continuously create and send vortices into their wake, while imparting downward momentum into the surrounding fluid. However, experimental studies concerning the details of the three-dimensional vorticity distribution and evolution in the far wake are limited. In this study, the three-dimensional vortex wake structure in both the near and far field of a dynamically scaled flapping wing was investigated experimentally, using volumetric three-component velocimetry. A single wing, with shape and kinematics similar to those of a fruitfly, was examined. The overall result of the wing action is to create an integrated vortex structure consisting of a tip vortex (TV), trailing-edge shear layer (TESL) and leading-edge vortex. The TESL rolls up into a root vortex (RV) as it is shed from the wing, and together with the TV, contracts radially and stretches tangentially in the downstream wake. The downwash is distributed in an arc-shaped region enclosed by the stretched tangential vorticity of the TVs and the RVs. A closed vortex ring structure is not observed in the current study owing to the lack of well-established starting and stopping vortex structures that smoothly connect the TV and RV. An evaluation of the vorticity transport equation shows that both the TV and the RV undergo vortex stretching while convecting downwards: a three-dimensional phenomenon in rotating flows. It also confirms that convection and secondary tilting and stretching effects dominate the evolution of vorticity. PMID:24335561

Cheng, Bo; Roll, Jesse; Liu, Yun; Troolin, Daniel R; Deng, Xinyan

2014-02-01

120

Three-dimensional vortex wake structure of flapping wings in hovering flight  

PubMed Central

Flapping wings continuously create and send vortices into their wake, while imparting downward momentum into the surrounding fluid. However, experimental studies concerning the details of the three-dimensional vorticity distribution and evolution in the far wake are limited. In this study, the three-dimensional vortex wake structure in both the near and far field of a dynamically scaled flapping wing was investigated experimentally, using volumetric three-component velocimetry. A single wing, with shape and kinematics similar to those of a fruitfly, was examined. The overall result of the wing action is to create an integrated vortex structure consisting of a tip vortex (TV), trailing-edge shear layer (TESL) and leading-edge vortex. The TESL rolls up into a root vortex (RV) as it is shed from the wing, and together with the TV, contracts radially and stretches tangentially in the downstream wake. The downwash is distributed in an arc-shaped region enclosed by the stretched tangential vorticity of the TVs and the RVs. A closed vortex ring structure is not observed in the current study owing to the lack of well-established starting and stopping vortex structures that smoothly connect the TV and RV. An evaluation of the vorticity transport equation shows that both the TV and the RV undergo vortex stretching while convecting downwards: a three-dimensional phenomenon in rotating flows. It also confirms that convection and secondary tilting and stretching effects dominate the evolution of vorticity. PMID:24335561

Cheng, Bo; Roll, Jesse; Liu, Yun; Troolin, Daniel R.; Deng, Xinyan

2014-01-01

121

The role of vortex wake dynamics in the flow-induced vibration of tube arrays  

E-print Network

The role of vortex wake dynamics in the flow-induced vibration of tube arrays N.K.-R. Kevlahan­structure interaction Vortex-induced vibration Tube arrays Potential flow a b s t r a c t Potential flow and 2-D Navier­Stokes calculations are used to investigate the role of vortex shedding in the non-resonant flow-induced vibration

Kevlahan, Nicholas

122

Wake Geometry Measurements and Analytical Calculations on a Small-Scale Rotor Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to quantify the rotor wake behind a scale model helicopter rotor in forward level flight at one thrust level. The rotor system in this test consisted of a four-bladed fully articulated hub with blades of rectangular planform and an NACA 0012 airfoil section. A laser light sheet, seeded with propylene glycol smoke, was used to visualize the vortex geometry in the flow in planes parallel and perpendicular to the free-stream flow. Quantitative measurements of wake geometric proper- ties, such as vortex location, vertical skew angle, and vortex particle void radius, were obtained as well as convective velocities for blade tip vortices. Comparisons were made between experimental data and four computational method predictions of experimental tip vortex locations, vortex vertical skew angles, and wake geometries. The results of these comparisons highlight difficulties of accurate wake geometry predictions.

Ghee, Terence A.; Berry, John D.; Zori, Laith A. J.; Elliott, Joe W.

1996-01-01

123

Design, fabrication, and test planning for an SMA-actuated vortex wake control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes ongoing design and fabrication work on a vortex wake control system for submarines that employs SMA-actuated devices. Previous work has described the theoretical basis and feasibility studies for this system, which is based on a novel wake control scheme known as vortex leveraging. The critical item in the realization of this system is a Smart Vortex Leveraging Tab (SVLT), whose design and fabrication is the principal focus of this work. This paper outlines the background of the effort and the design principles involved, but will chiefly deal with three closely interrelated topics; the hydrodynamic design requirements and control surface layout for the vortex leveraging system; the detail design and fabrication techniques being used in the construction of a prototype SVLT; and the test planning and experiment design process currently underway for test of both the overall vortex leveraging concept and SVLT device itself.

Quackenbush, Todd R.; Batcho, P. F.; Bilanin, Alan J.; Carpenter, Bernie F.

1998-06-01

124

Improving actuator disk wake model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wind energy industry has traditionally relied on simple wake models for estimating Wind Turbine (WT) wake losses. Despite limitations, low requirements in terms of detailed rotor information makes their use feasible, unlike more complex models, such as Blade Element Method (BEM) or Actuator Line. Froude's Actuator Disk (AD) does not suffer the simpler model's limitation of prescribing the wake through a closed set of equations, while sharing with them the low rotor data requirements. On the other hand they require some form of parametrization to close the model and calculate total thrust acting on the flow. An Actuator Disk model was developed, using an iterative algorithm based on Froude's one-dimensional momentum theory to determine the WT's performance, proving to be successful in estimating the performance of both machines in undisturbed flow and in the wake of an upstream machines. Before Froude's AD limitations compared to more complex rotor models, load distributions emulating those of a BEM model were tested. The results show that little impact is obtained at 3 rotor diameters downstream and beyond, agreeing with common definition of a far-wake that starts at 1-2 diameters downstream, where rotor characteristics become negligible and atmospheric flow effects dominate.

Costa Gomes, V. M. M. G.; Palma, J. M. L. M.; Silva Lopes, A.

2014-06-01

125

Airloads, wakes, and aeroelasticity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fundamental considerations regarding the theory of modeling of rotary wing airloads, wakes, and aeroelasticity are presented. The topics covered are: airloads and wakes, including lifting-line theory, wake models and nonuniform inflow, free wake geometry, and blade-vortex interaction; aerodynamic and wake models for aeroelasticity, including two-dimensional unsteady aerodynamics and dynamic inflow; and airloads and structural dynamics, including comprehensive airload prediction programs. Results of calculations and correlations are presented.

Johnson, Wayne

1990-01-01

126

Rotor Wake Vortex Definition: Initial Evaluation of 3-C PIV Results of the Hart-II Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An initial evaluation is made of extensive three-component (3C) particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements within the wake across a rotor disk plane. The model is a 40 percent scale BO-105 helicopter main rotor in forward flight simulation. This study is part of the HART II test program conducted in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). Included are wake vortex field measurements over the advancing and retreating sides of the rotor operating at a typical descent landing condition important for impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. Also included are advancing side results for rotor angle variations from climb to steep descent. Using detailed PIV vector maps of the vortex fields, methods of extracting key vortex parameters are examined and a new method was developed and evaluated. An objective processing method, involving a center-of-vorticity criterion and a vorticity 'disk' integration, was used to determine vortex core size, strength, core velocity distribution characteristics, and unsteadiness. These parameters are mapped over the rotor disk and offer unique physical insight for these parameters of importance for rotor noise and vibration prediction.

Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; vanderWall, Berend; Richard, Hughes; Raffel, Markus; Beaumier, Philippe; Delrieux, Yves; Lim, Joon W.; Yu, Yung H.; Tung, Chee

2002-01-01

127

Near-wake vortex motions behind a circular cylinder at low Reynolds number  

Microsoft Academic Search

A topological point of view is taken to investigate vortex motions in the near-wake region of a circular cylinder, where the Taylor hypothesis does not hold. Three-dimensional flow fields in the wake-transition regime are constructed by synthesizing time-resolved PIV data obtained in several planes of view. The convection velocities of the Kármán and secondary vortices are evaluated from the trajectories

J. Sung; J. Y. Yoo

2003-01-01

128

Periodic vortex shedding in the supersonic wake of a planar plate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vortex sheets in the wake have been mainly studied in incompressible flows and in the transonic region. Heinemann et al. (1976) have shown that for the subsonic region the Strouhal number is nearly independent of the Mach number. Motallebi and Norbury (1981) have observed an increase in the Strouhal number in transonic supersonic flow at Mach numbers up to 1.25. The present investigation is concerned with an extension of the studies of vortex shedding to higher supersonic Mach numbers, taking into account questions regarding the possibility of a generation of stable von Karman vortex paths in the considered Mach number range. It is found that the vortex sheet observed in a supersonic wake behind a rough plate is only stable and reproducible in cases involving a certain surface roughness and certain aspects of trailing edge geometry.

Xing, W. F.; Marenbach, G.

1985-01-01

129

An approximate model of vortex decay in the atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approximate analysis of atmospheric effects on wake vortex motion and decay is presented. The effects of density stratification, turbulence, and Reynolds number are combined in a single model so that the relative importance of different parameters can be determined. Predicted wake motion is shown to be in good agreement with limited data from both ground facility and flight test measurements taken under low turbulence conditions. Wake decay was found to depend strongly on both density stratification and turbulence. For typical levels of turbulence, wake decay was found to result from the 'Crow instability' except under strongly stratified conditions.

Greene, G. C.

1985-01-01

130

Elliptic tip effects on the vortex wake of an axisymmetric body at incidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness of a new version of an elliptic cross-section tip in controlling the asymmetry of the vortex wake of an axisymmetric body at angle of attack has been studied. The elliptic cross sections were generated using two sixth-degree polynomials such that the tip radius, slope, and curvature would match those of a right circular cone at the point where the polynomial became tangent to a cone generator. The tip was found to be effective in varying the vortex wake geometry of a right circular cone at large angle of attack. The measured side force coefficient varied smoothly with tip roll angle for the two lowest angles of attack studied and exhibited square-wave and more undesirable variations for the larger angles of attack studied. These square-wave and peak, reduction-in-magnitude, and change-in-sign variations were caused by vortex breakaway, which allowed vortex crossover to occur. Ahead of vortex breakaway, the elliptic cross-section tip yielded smooth variations of vortex wake asymmetry with tip roll angle, indicating that the tip would possibly be a feasible control device for high-performance fighter aircraft at high angle of attack.

Bridges, David H.; Hornung, Hans G.

1994-07-01

131

On the spanwise variation of vortex shedding in the wake of slender cones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work aims to study the spanwise variation of vortex shedding in the wake of slender cones at low Reynolds numbers. The occurrence of modulated velocity fluctuations is associated with cellular vortex shedding, with the discontinuities responsible for these modulations occurring at discrete locations along the span. Hot-wire data showed that the increase in amount of taper resulted in the increase in the number of vortex shedding cells in the wake, with the velocity fluctuations being modulated at all locations along the span of highly tapered cones. Comparing flow visualization images, hot-wire signals and corresponding streamwise velocity contours, one can confirm that the activity seen in the junction of parallel and tilted vortex lines is indeed the discontinuity and the discontinuity appears to move along the span of the cone in time. The tilting of vortices is periodic and continues along the span of the cone as time progresses and is surmised that as the vortex lines reach a certain large angle the process gets disrupted, resulting in the so-called discontinuity. This process then occurs at the next spanwise location, until it reaches a local diameter where the Reynolds number is too low for periodic vortex shedding. Thus the movement of the discontinuity in the wake of the highly tapered cone could lead to a scenario where the so-called cells could be considered to be non-stationary, or in other words moving.

Jagadeesh, Chetan; Gaster, Michael

2010-11-01

132

Spanwise vortex dislocation in the wake of segmented blunt trailing edge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dislocation of the Karman vortex is forced in the near wake behind a two dimensional blunt trailing edge aerofoil to induce strong three dimensionality to weaken the Karman vortex and inhibit its periodic shedding by segmenting the trailing edge in a novel way, different from a rectangular segmented trailing edge tried in the past. Symmetrical trapezoidal prismatic blocks, with the major and the minor sides being equal to 4 and 2 base heights, respectively, are attached to the base at regular intervals along the span which could be varied in order to render multiple wavelengths of spanwise discontinuity to ensure that at least one of the modes of dislocation is triggered independent of the Reynolds number. Hot-wire measurements confirm effectiveness of the trailing edge configurations with trapezoidal prismatic blocks in creating controlled dislocation along the span which annihilates the Karman vortices and suppresses their periodic shedding completely. Flow visualization in a water tunnel reinforces the hot-wire results and clearly shows that the classical Karman vortex street, seen behind the plain base model, disappears when segmented trailing edge is used. In comparison, the rectangular segmented trailing edge is found to attenuate the Karman vortex strength only partially. However, the base pressure measurements have shown improvement in reducing the associated base drag only by 3-4%. The segmented trailing edges designed for the present study are found to generate strong streamwise vortices that effectively transfer energy from the Karman vortices resulting in suppression of the unsteadiness but, perhaps, lower pressures in their core may be restricting the further rise in the base pressure due to the induced effect.

Deshpande, P. J.; Sharma, S. D.

2012-10-01

133

Characterizing the wake vortex signature for an active line of sight remote sensor. M.S. Thesis Technical Report No. 19  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recurring phenomenon, described as a wake vortex, develops as an aircraft approaches the runway to land. As the aircraft moves along the runway, each of the wing tips generates a spiraling and expanding cone of air. During the lifetime of this turbulent event, conditions exist over the runway which can be hazardous to following aircraft, particularly when a small aircraft is following a large aircraft. Left to themselves, these twin vortex patterns will converge toward each other near the center of the runway, harmlessly dissipating through interaction with each other or by contact with the ground. Unfortunately, the time necessary to disperse the vortex is often not predictable, and at busy airports can severely impact terminal area productivity. Rudimentary methods of avoidance are in place. Generally, time delays between landing aircraft are based on what is required to protect a small aircraft. Existing ambient wind conditions can complicate the situation. Reliable detection and tracking of a wake vortex hazard is a major technical problem which can significantly impact runway productivity. Landing minimums could be determined on the basis of the actual hazard rather than imposed on the basis of a worst case scenario. This work focuses on using a windfield description of a wake vortex to generate line-of-sight Doppler velocity truth data appropriate to an arbitrarily located active sensor such as a high resolution radar or lidar. The goal is to isolate a range Doppler signature of the vortex phenomenon that can be used to improve detection. Results are presented based on use of a simplified model of a wake vortex pattern. However, it is important to note that the method of analysis can easily be applied to any vortex model used to generate a windfield snapshot. Results involving several scan strategies are shown for a point sensor with a range resolution of 1 to 4 meters. Vortex signatures presented appear to offer potential for detection and tracking.

Heil, Robert Milton

1994-01-01

134

Mesoscale Simulation Data for Initializing Fast-Time Wake Transport and Decay Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fast-time wake transport and decay models require vertical profiles of crosswinds, potential temperature and the eddy dissipation rate as initial conditions. These inputs are normally obtained from various field sensors. In case of data-denied scenarios or operational use, these initial conditions can be provided by mesoscale model simulations. In this study, the vertical profiles of potential temperature from a mesoscale model were used as initial conditions for the fast-time wake models. The mesoscale model simulations were compared against available observations and the wake model predictions were compared with the Lidar measurements from three wake vortex field experiments.

Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Vanvalkenburg, Randal L.; Pruis, Mathew J.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.

2012-01-01

135

Tomographic particle image velocimetry of desert locust wakes: instantaneous volumes combine to reveal hidden vortex elements and rapid wake deformation  

PubMed Central

Aerodynamic structures generated by animals in flight are unstable and complex. Recent progress in quantitative flow visualization has advanced our understanding of animal aerodynamics, but measurements have hitherto been limited to flow velocities at a plane through the wake. We applied an emergent, high-speed, volumetric fluid imaging technique (tomographic particle image velocimetry) to examine segments of the wake of desert locusts, capturing fully three-dimensional instantaneous flow fields. We used those flow fields to characterize the aerodynamic footprint in unprecedented detail and revealed previously unseen wake elements that would have gone undetected by two-dimensional or stereo-imaging technology. Vortex iso-surface topographies show the spatio-temporal signature of aerodynamic force generation manifest in the wake of locusts, and expose the extent to which animal wakes can deform, potentially leading to unreliable calculations of lift and thrust when using conventional diagnostic methods. We discuss implications for experimental design and analysis as volumetric flow imaging becomes more widespread. PMID:22977102

Bomphrey, Richard J.; Henningsson, Per; Michaelis, Dirk; Hollis, David

2012-01-01

136

Structure of the vortex wake in hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna).  

PubMed

Hummingbirds are specialized hoverers for which the vortex wake has been described as a series of single vortex rings shed primarily during the downstroke. Recent findings in bats and birds, as well as in a recent study on Anna's hummingbirds, suggest that each wing may shed a discrete vortex ring, yielding a bilaterally paired wake. Here, we describe the presence of two discrete rings in the wake of hovering Anna's hummingbirds, and also infer force production through a wingbeat with contributions to weight support. Using flow visualization, we found separate vortices at the tip and root of each wing, with 15% stronger circulation at the wingtip than at the root during the downstroke. The upstroke wake is more complex, with near-continuous shedding of vorticity, and circulation of approximately equal magnitude at tip and root. Force estimates suggest that the downstroke contributes 66% of required weight support, whereas the upstroke generates 35%. We also identified a secondary vortex structure yielding 8-26% of weight support. Lift production in Anna's hummingbirds is more evenly distributed between the stroke phases than previously estimated for Rufous hummingbirds, in accordance with the generally symmetric down- and upstrokes that characterize hovering in these birds. PMID:24174113

Wolf, M; Ortega-Jimenez, V M; Dudley, R

2013-12-22

137

Structure of the vortex wake in hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna)  

PubMed Central

Hummingbirds are specialized hoverers for which the vortex wake has been described as a series of single vortex rings shed primarily during the downstroke. Recent findings in bats and birds, as well as in a recent study on Anna's hummingbirds, suggest that each wing may shed a discrete vortex ring, yielding a bilaterally paired wake. Here, we describe the presence of two discrete rings in the wake of hovering Anna's hummingbirds, and also infer force production through a wingbeat with contributions to weight support. Using flow visualization, we found separate vortices at the tip and root of each wing, with 15% stronger circulation at the wingtip than at the root during the downstroke. The upstroke wake is more complex, with near-continuous shedding of vorticity, and circulation of approximately equal magnitude at tip and root. Force estimates suggest that the downstroke contributes 66% of required weight support, whereas the upstroke generates 35%. We also identified a secondary vortex structure yielding 8–26% of weight support. Lift production in Anna's hummingbirds is more evenly distributed between the stroke phases than previously estimated for Rufous hummingbirds, in accordance with the generally symmetric down- and upstrokes that characterize hovering in these birds. PMID:24174113

Wolf, M.; Ortega-Jimenez, V. M.; Dudley, R.

2013-01-01

138

TRAILING VORTEX MEASUREMENTS IN THE WAKE OF A HOVERING ROTOR BLADE WITH VARIOUS TIP SHAPES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work examined the wake aerodynamics of a sin- gle helicopter rotor blade with several tip shapes operat- ing on a hover test stand. Velocity eld measurements were conducted using three-component laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). The objective of these measure- ments was to document the vortex velocity proles and then extract the core properties, such as the core radius, peak

Preston B. Martin; J. Gordon Leishman

2002-01-01

139

Vortex arrangement in the wake of rigid and flexible rapidly pitching airfoils at low Reynolds number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental investigation of the wake of an airfoil undergoing rapid pitch oscillation is conducted in a water tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of about 2000. Flow visualization is utilized to characterize the vortical patterns in the wake of the airfoil, which is constructed from a NACA 0036 profile fitted with an extended trailing edge with controllable flexibility. The spatial configuration of the vortices is extracted in terms of streamwise and cross-flow spacing over a range of pitching frequencies and amplitudes. We discuss how different levels of flexibility alter the vortex spacing parameters and the conditions under which the traditional Karman vortex pattern, corresponding to a wake profile, changes to the reverse Karman pattern associated with a jet profile.

Monnier, Bruno; Naguib, Ahmed; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr

2011-11-01

140

Relationship between vortex ring in tail fin wake and propulsive force  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our aim was to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) vortex ring in the wake of a tail fin and to clarify the propulsion mechanism of dolphins and fish. In this study, we replaced a tail fin in pitching motion with an oscillating wing having a drive unit. The flow fields around the wing were measured by stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. To visualize the 3D structure of the vortex in the wake, we determined the flow fields in equally spaced cross-sectional planes. We reconstructed the 3D velocity fields from the velocity data with three components in two dimensions. We visualized the 3D vortex structure from these velocity data and plotted an iso-vorticity surface. As a result, we found that the vortex ring was generated by the kick-down and kick-up motions of the wing and that the wake structure was comparable with that obtained numerically. Moreover, we calculated the propulsive forces from the temporal variations in circulation and in the area surrounded by the vortex ring.

Imamura, Naoto; Matsuuchi, Kazuo

2013-10-01

141

Generalization of the JTZ model to open plane wakes  

E-print Network

The JTZ model [C. Jung, T. T\\'el and E. Ziemniak, Chaos {\\bf 3}, (1993) 555], as a theoretical model of a plane wake behind a circular cylinder in a narrow channel at a moderate Reynolds number, has previously been employed to analyze phenomena of chaotic scattering. It is extended here to describe an open plane wake without the confined narrow channel by incorporating a double row of shedding vortices into the intermediate and far wake. The extended JTZ model is found in qualitative agreement with both direct numerical simulations and experimental results in describing streamlines and vorticity contours. To further validate its applications to particle transport processes, the interaction between small spherical particles and vortices in an extended JTZ model flow is studied. It is shown that the particle size has significant influences on the features of particle trajectories, which have two characteristic patterns: one is rotating around the vortex centers and the other accumulating in the exterior of vort...

Wu, Zuo-Bing

2011-01-01

142

Analytical model of rotor wake aerodynamics in ground effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The model and the computer program developed provides the velocity, location, and circulation of the tip vortices of a two-blade helicopter in and out of the ground effect. Comparison of the theoretical results with some experimental measurements for the location of the wake indicate that there is excellent accuracy in the vicinity of the rotor and fair amount of accuracy far from it. Having the location of the wake at all times enables us to compute the history of the velocity and the location of any point in the flow. The main goal of out study, induced velocity at the rotor, can also be calculated in addition to stream lines and streak lines. Since the wake location close to the rotor is known more accurately than at other places, the calculated induced velocity over the disc should be a good estimate of the real induced velocity, with the exception of the blade location, because each blade was replaced only by a vortex line. Because no experimental measurements of the wake close to the ground were available to us, quantitative evaluation of the theoretical wake was not possible. But qualitatively we have been able to show excellent agreement. Comparison of flow visualization with out results has indicated the location of the ground vortex is estimated excellently. Also the flow field in hover is well represented.

Saberi, H. A.

1983-01-01

143

Computation of rotor aerodynamic loads with a constant vorticity contour free wake model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical method is presented which facilitates the study of isolated rotors with an improved approach to wake simulation. Vortex filaments are simulated along contours of constant sheet strength for the sheet of vorticity resulting from each rotor blade. Curved vortex elements comprise the filaments which can be distorted by the local velocity field. Called the Constant Vorticity Contour wake model, the approach permits the simulation of the blades' wakes corresponding to the full span of the rotor blade. The discretization of the wake of the rotor blade produces spacing and structure that are consistent with the spatial and temporal variations in the loading. A vortex-lattice aerodynamic model of the blade is also included which introduces a finite-element structural model of the blade and consideration of the force and moment trim analysis. Results of the present version of the simulation, called RotorCRAFT, are found to correlate well with H-34 flight-test data.

Quackenbush, Todd R.; Wachspress, Daniel A.; Boschitsch, Alexander H.

1991-01-01

144

Simulation of unsteady motion of a propeller in a fluid including free wake modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of flow around a marine propeller performing a general 3D unsteady motion in an infinitely extended fluid is formulated and solved using a boundary element method. Hydrodynamic modeling of the freely moving—unsteady—trailing vortex sheet emanating from each blade is achieved, using vortex filaments and a time stepping method. Thus vortex wake–blade interaction can be taken correctly into consideration.

Gerasimos K. Politis

2004-01-01

145

Investigation and Optimization of Blade Tip Winglets Using an Implicit Free Wake Vortex Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel outer-blade geometries such as tip winglets can increase the aerodynamic power that can be extracted from the wind by tailoring the relative position and strengths of trailed vorticity. This design space is explored using both parameter studies and gradient-based optimization, with the aerodynamic analysis carried out using LibAero, a free wake vortex-based code introduced in previous work. The starting design is the NREL 5MW reference turbine, which allows comparison of the aerodynamic simulation for the unmodified blade with other codes. The code uses a Prandtl-Weissinger lifting line model to represent the blade, and vortex filaments as the flow elements. A fast multipole method is implemented to accelerate the influence calculations and reduce the computational cost. This results in higher fidelity aerodynamic simulations that can capture the effects of novel geometries while maintaining sufficiently fast run-times (on the order of an hour) to allow the use of optimization. Gradients of the objective function with respect to design variables are calculated using the complex step method which is accurate and efficient. Since the vortex structure behind the rotor is being resolved in detail, insight is also gained into the mechanisms by which these new blade designs affect performance. It is found that adding winglets can increase the power extracted from the wind by around 2%, with a similar increase in thrust. It is also possible to create a winglet that slightly lowers the thrust while maintaining very similar power compared to the standard straight blade.

Lawton, Stephen; Crawford, Curran

2014-06-01

146

Numerical Modeling Studies of Wake Vortices: Real Case Simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-dimensional large-eddy simulation model, TASS, is used to simulate the behavior of aircraft wake vortices in a real atmosphere. The purpose for this study is to validate the use of TASS for simulating the decay and transport of wake vortices. Three simulations are performed and the results are compared with the observed data from the 1994-1995 Memphis field experiments. The selected cases have an atmospheric environment of weak turbulence and stable stratification. The model simulations are initialized with appropriate meteorological conditions and a post roll-up vortex system. The behavior of wake vortices as they descend within the atmospheric boundary layer and interact with the ground is discussed.

Shen, Shao-Hua; Ding, Feng; Han, Jongil; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Proctor, Fred H.

1999-01-01

147

Visualization on fish's wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper an experiment on wake of Goldfish swimming unrestricted was conducted in a water tunnel. Method of color liquid was used to visualize the wake. Results show that there is reverse Karman vortex street in symmetrical plane of the wake and the Strouhal frequency of the fish is in the range 0.25-0.35. A 3D vortex ring chain model was presented.

Li, Xuemin; Lu, Xiyun; Yin, Xiezhen

2002-05-01

148

Turbulent vortex streets and the entrainment mechanism of the turbulent wake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an experimental investigation of a turbulent vortex street in the range from 1000 to 20,000 are presented. The vortex street was created by the motion of a circular cylinder in a motionless fluid (mercury). Photographs obtained showed that the turbulent street, created by the vortex shedding behind the cylinder, persisted at longer downstream distances and higher Reynolds numbers than previously reported in the literature. A theory was developed to account for the experimental measurements pertaining to the change of the geometrical characteristics, (the distance between the two rows of vortices and the longitudinal distance between two consecutive vortices on the same row), of the street in the downstream direction. The implications of the structure of the vortex street on the entrainment mechanism of the turbulent wake are discussed.

Papailiou, D. D.; Lykoudis, P. S.

1974-01-01

149

Self-Consistent Mean Flow Description of the Nonlinear Saturation of the Vortex Shedding in the Cylinder Wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bénard-von Kármán vortex shedding instability in the wake of a cylinder is perhaps the best known example of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation in fluid dynamics. However, a simplified physical description that accurately accounts for the saturation amplitude of the instability is still missing. Here, we present a simple self-consistent model that provides a clear description of the saturation mechanism and quantitatively predicts the saturated amplitude and flow fields. The model is formally constructed by a set of coupled equations governing the mean flow together with its most unstable eigenmode with finite size. The saturation amplitude is determined by requiring the mean flow to be neutrally stable. Without requiring any input from numerical or experimental data, the resolution of the model provides a good prediction of the amplitude and frequency of the vortex shedding as well as the spatial structure of the mean flow and the Reynolds stress.

Manti?-Lugo, Vladislav; Arratia, Cristóbal; Gallaire, François

2014-08-01

150

Self-consistent mean flow description of the nonlinear saturation of the vortex shedding in the cylinder wake.  

PubMed

The Bénard-von Kármán vortex shedding instability in the wake of a cylinder is perhaps the best known example of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation in fluid dynamics. However, a simplified physical description that accurately accounts for the saturation amplitude of the instability is still missing. Here, we present a simple self-consistent model that provides a clear description of the saturation mechanism and quantitatively predicts the saturated amplitude and flow fields. The model is formally constructed by a set of coupled equations governing the mean flow together with its most unstable eigenmode with finite size. The saturation amplitude is determined by requiring the mean flow to be neutrally stable. Without requiring any input from numerical or experimental data, the resolution of the model provides a good prediction of the amplitude and frequency of the vortex shedding as well as the spatial structure of the mean flow and the Reynolds stress. PMID:25192100

Manti?-Lugo, Vladislav; Arratia, Cristóbal; Gallaire, François

2014-08-22

151

Application of panel method to wake vortex/wing interaction and comparison with experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of a low-order panel method to calculate the aerodynamic loads on wings caused by interaction with wake vortices was studied. The loads were calculated for various positions of a downstream following wing relative to an upstream vortex-generating wing. Calculated vortex-induced span loads and rolling-moment coefficients on the following wing were compared with experimental data. A good agreement with experiment was obtained when the following wing was located more than one following-wing chord length from the tip vortex. The predictions deteriorated as the following wing was placed closer to the vortex. At large downstream distances (approximately 10 generating-wing chord lengths), induced rolling-moment coefficients on the following wing were consistently overestimated. Despite the strong interaction between the wake-vortex filaments and surface doublet panels, the accuracy of the calculations was in most cases independent of the panel distribution and density. A good agreement between theoretical and experimental loads was obtained with a minimum of experimentation with panel arrangements.

Smith, B. E.; Ross, J. C.

1984-01-01

152

Initialization and Simulation of Three-Dimensional Aircraft Wake Vortices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper studies the effects of axial velocity profiles on vortex decay, in order to properly initialize and simulate three-dimensional wake vortex flow. Analytical relationships are obtained based on a single vortex model and computational simulations are performed for a rather practical vortex wake, which show that the single vortex analytical relations can still be applicable at certain streamwise sections of three-dimensional wake vortices.

Ash, Robert L.; Zheng, Z. C.

1997-01-01

153

Aircraft Wake Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) Performance Update and Validation Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis has been performed on data generated from the two most recent field deployments of the Aircraft Wake VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS). The AVOSS provides reduced aircraft spacing criteria for wake vortex avoidance as compared to the FAA spacing applied under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). Several field deployments culminating in a system demonstration at Dallas Fort Worth (DFW) International Airport in the summer of 2000 were successful in showing a sound operational concept and the system's potential to provide a significant benefit to airport operations. For DFW, a predicted average throughput increase of 6% was observed. This increase implies 6 or 7 more aircraft on the ground in a one-hour period for DFW operations. Several studies of performance correlations to system configuration options, design options, and system inputs are also reported. The studies focus on the validation performance of the system.

Rutishauser, David K.; OConnor, Cornelius J.

2001-01-01

154

An Evaluation of the Measurement Requirements for an In-Situ Wake Vortex Detection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a numerical simulation are presented to determine the feasibility of estimating the location and strength of a wake vortex from imperfect in-situ measurements. These estimates could be used to provide information to a pilot on how to avoid a hazardous wake vortex encounter. An iterative algorithm based on the method of secants was used to solve the four simultaneous equations describing the two-dimensional flow field around a pair of parallel counter-rotating vortices of equal and constant strength. The flow field information used by the algorithm could be derived from measurements from flow angle sensors mounted on the wing-tip of the detecting aircraft and an inertial navigation system. The study determined the propagated errors in the estimated location and strength of the vortex which resulted from random errors added to theoretically perfect measurements. The results are summarized in a series of charts and a table which make it possible to estimate these propagated errors for many practical situations. The situations include several generator-detector airplane combinations, different distances between the vortex and the detector airplane, as well as different levels of total measurement error.

Fuhrmann, Henri D.; Stewart, Eric C.

1996-01-01

155

Experiments on the vortex wake of a swimming knifefish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The knifefish species propels itself by generating a reverse Kármán street using an anal fin, and the propulsion of this species is known to be highly efficient (Blake in Can J Zool 61:1432-1441, 1983). Previous studies have suggested that there is an optimal swimming range for fish based on the amplitude and frequency of the reverse Kármán street. In the current study, experiments have been performed to measure the ratio between the amplitude and wavelength of vortices in the wake of a knifefish. It is suggested that the wave efficiency can be estimated by optimizing the thrust created by the reverse Kármán street for a given spacing ratio, and present observations have an average value of 0.89. The relationship established between spacing ratio and wave efficiency, in addition to the measured parameters, will be invaluable for bio-inspired designs based on the knifefish.

Taylor, Zachary J.; Liberzon, Alexander; Gurka, Roi; Holzman, Roi; Reesbeck, Thomas; Diez, F. Javier

2013-08-01

156

Flight Test Analysis of the Forces and Moments Imparted on a B737-100 Airplane During Wake Vortex Encounters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft travel has become a major form of transportation. Several of our major airports are operating near their capacity limit, increasing congestion and delays for travelers. As a result, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been working in conjunction with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), airline operators, and the airline industry to increase airport capacity without sacrificing public safety. One solution to the problem is to increase the number of airports and build new. runways; yet, this solution is becoming increasingly difficult due to limited space. A better solution is to increase the production per runway. This solution increases the possibility that one aircraft will encounter the trailing wake of another aircraft. Hazardous wake vortex encounters occur when an aircraft encounters the wake produced by a heavier aircraft. This heavy-load aircraft produces high-intensity wake turbulence that redistributes the aerodynamic loads of trailing smaller aircraft. This situation is particularly hazardous for smaller aircraft during takeoffs and landings. In order to gain a better understanding of the wake-vortex/aircraft encounter phenomena, NASA Langley Research Center conducted a series of flight tests from 1995 through 1997. These tests were designed to gather data for the development a wake encounter and wake-measurement data set with the accompanying atmospheric state information. This data set is being compiled into a database that can be used by wake vortex researchers to compare with experimental and computational results. The purpose of this research is to derive and implement a procedure for calculating the wake-vortex/aircraft interaction portion of that database by using the data recorded during those flight tests. There were three objectives to this research. Initially, the wake-induced forces and moments from each flight were analyzed based on varying flap deflection angles. The flap setting alternated between 15 and 30 degrees while the separation distance remained constant. This examination was performed to determine if increases in flap deflection would increase or decrease the effects of the wake-induced forces and moments. Next, the wake-induced forces and moments from each flight were analyzed based on separation distances of 1-3 nautical miles. In this comparison, flap deflection was held constant at 30 degrees. The purpose of this study was to determine if increased separation distances reduced the effects of the wake vortex on the aircraft. The last objective compared the wake-induced forces and moments of each flight as it executed a series of maneuvers through the wake-vortex. This analysis was conducted to examine the impact of the wake on the B737 as it traversed the wake horizontally and vertically. Results from the first analysis indicated that there was no difference in wake effect at flap deflections of 15 and 30 degrees. This conclusion is evidenced in the cases of the wake-induced sideforce, rolling moment, and yawing moment. The wake-induced lift, drag, and pitching moment cases yielded less conclusive results. The second analysis compared the wake-induced forces and moments at separation distances of 1-3 nautical miles. Results indicated that there was no significant difference in the wake-induced lift, drag, sideforce, or yawing moment coefficients. The analysis compared the wake-induced forces and moments based on different flight maneuvers. It was found that the wake-induced forces and moments had the greatest impact on out-to-in and in-to-out maneuvers.

Roberts, Chistopher L.

2001-01-01

157

Energy contents and vortex dynamics in Mode-C transition of wired-cylinder wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3D transition of the flow behind a circular cylinder with a near-wake wire disturbance has been investigated experimentally. The flow is oriented horizontally and the wire is positioned in the upper half of the wake. We performed flow visualization and particle image velocimetry experiments to investigate the influence of the wire on various properties of the flow, such as the dynamics of the spanwise structures. Experiments were performed in the Reynolds number range of Re = 165-300. It is shown that in Mode-C transition of the wired cylinder wake, some part of the streamwise vorticity content of the upper von Kármán vortices located at the perturbed side, is transferred to the secondary vortices. This vorticity transfer results in upper von Kármán vortices which are weaker than the lower ones. The analysis of the discrete energy content of the wake supports this analysis by showing that the energy intensity at von Kármán vortex shedding frequency f0 at the perturbed side of the wake is less than the energy intensity in the lower half. This leads to conclusion that the excess energy is transferred to the subharmonic frequency f1 ? f0/2.

Yildirim, I.; Rindt, C. C. M.; van Steenhoven, A. A.

2013-05-01

158

A Sensitivity Study of the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) Wake Predictor Algorithm to the Resolution of Input Meteorological Profiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The AVOSS project demonstrated the feasibility of applying aircraft wake vortex sensing and prediction technologies to safe aircraft spacing for single runway arrivals. On average, AVOSS provided spacing recommendations that were less than the current FAA prescribed spacing rules, resulting in a potential airport efficiency gain. Subsequent efforts have included quantifying the operational specifications for future Wake Vortex Advisory Systems (WakeVAS). In support of these efforts, each of the candidate subsystems for a WakeVAS must be specified. The specifications represent a consensus between the high-level requirements and the capabilities of the candidate technologies. This report documents the beginnings of an effort to quantify the capabilities of the AVOSS Prediction Algorithm (APA). Specifically, the APA horizontal position and circulation strength output sensitivity to the resolution of its wind and turbulence inputs is examined. The results of this analysis have implications for the requirements of the meteorological sensing and prediction systems comprising a WakeVAS implementation.

Rutishauser, David K.; Butler, Patrick; Riggins, Jamie

2004-01-01

159

Wake Geometry Effects on Rotor Blade-Vortex Interaction Noise Directivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acoustic measurements from a model rotor wind tunnel test are presented which show that the directionality of rotor blade vortex interaction (BVI) noise is strongly dependent on the rotor advance ratio and disk attitude. A rotor free wake analysis is used to show that the general locus of interactions on the rotor disk is also strongly dependent on advance ratio and disk attitude. A comparison of the changing directionality of the BVI noise with changes in the interaction locations shows that the strongest noise radiation occurs in the direction of motion normal to the blade span at the time of interaction, for both advancing and retreating side BVI. For advancing side interactions, the BVI radiation angle down from the tip-path plane appears relatively insensitive to rotor operating condition and is typically between 40 and 55 deg below the disk. However, the azimuthal radiation direction shows a clear trend with descent speed, moving towards the right of the flight path with increasing descent speed. The movement of the strongest radiation direction is attributed to the movement of the interaction locations on the rotor disk with increasing descent speed.

Martin, R. M.; Marcolini, Michael A.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K.-J.

1990-01-01

160

Vortex wakes generated by robins Erithacus rubecula during free flight in a wind tunnel  

PubMed Central

The wakes of two individual robins were measured in digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experiments conducted in the Lund wind tunnel. Wake measurements were compared with each other, and with previous studies in the same facility. There was no significant individual variation in any of the measured quantities. Qualitatively, the wake structure and its gradual variation with flight speed were exactly as previously measured for the thrush nightingale. A procedure that accounts for the disparate sources of circulation spread over the complex wake structure nevertheless can account for the vertical momentum flux required to support the weight, and an example calculation is given for estimating drag from the components of horizontal momentum flux (whose net value is zero). The measured circulations of the largest structures in the wake can be predicted quite well by simple models, and expressions are given to predict these and other measurable quantities in future bird flight experiments. PMID:16849236

Hedenström, A; Rosén, M; Spedding, G.R

2005-01-01

161

Experimental investigation of the wake behind a model of wind turbine in a water flume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow behind the model of wind turbine rotor is investigated experimentally in a water flume using Particle Image Velocimetry. The study carried out involves rotors of three bladed wind turbine designed using Glauert's optimization. The transitional regime, generally characterized as in between the regime governed by stable organized vortical structures and the turbulent wake, develops from disturbances of the tip and root vorticies through vortex paring and further complex behaviour towards the fully turbulent wake. Our PIV measurements pay special attention to the onset of the instabilities. The near wake characteristics (development of expansion, tip vortex position, deficit velocity and rotation in the wake) have been measured for different tip speed ratio to compare with main assumptions and conclusions of various rotor theories.

Okulov, V. L.; Naumov, I. N.; Kabardin, I.; Mikkelsen, R.; Sřrensen, J. N.

2014-12-01

162

Flutter clearance flight tests of an OV-10A airplane modified for wake vortex flight experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The envelope expansion, flight flutter tests of a modified OV-10A aircraft are described. For the wake vortex research program, the airplane was modified to incorporate three forward-extending instrumentation booms, one extending forward from each wing tip and one from the right side of the fuselage. The booms were instrumented with sensors to measure the velocity and direction of local air flow. The flutter test results show that the modified OV-10A aircraft is free from flutter at speeds up to 330 KEAS at 5000 feet altitude.

Doggett, Robert V., Jr.; Rivera, Jose A., Jr.; Stewart, Eric C.

1995-01-01

163

Model of the Human Sleep Wake System  

E-print Network

A model and analysis of the human sleep/wake system is presented. The model is derived using the known neuronal groups, and their various projections, involved with sleep and wake. Inherent in the derivation is the existence of a slow time scale associated with homeostatic regulation, and a faster time scale associated with the dynamics within the sleep phase. A significant feature of the model is that it does not contain a periodic forcing term, common in other models, reflecting the fact that sleep/wake is not dependent upon a diurnal stimulus. Once derived, the model is analyzed using a linearized stability analysis. We then use experimental data from normal sleep-wake systems and orexin knockout systems to verify the physiological validity of the equations.

Rogers, Lisa

2012-01-01

164

Secondary vortex street in the wake of two tandem circular cylinders at low Reynolds number.  

PubMed

The experiments on two tandem circular cylinders were conducted in a horizontal soap film tunnel for the Reynolds number Re=60 , 80, and 100 and the nondimensional center-to-center spacing Gamma ranging in 1 approximately 12. The flow patterns were recorded by a high-speed camera and the vortex shedding frequency was obtained by a spatiotemporal evolution method. The secondary vortex formation (SVF) mode characterized by the formation of a secondary vortex street in the wake of the downstream cylinder was found at large gamma. Moreover, some typical modes predicted by previous investigations, including the single bluff-body, shear layer reattachment, and synchronization of vortex shedding modes, were also revisited in our experiments. Further, numerical simulations were carried out using a space-time finite-element method and the results confirmed the existence of the SVF mode. The mechanism of SVF mode was analyzed in terms of the numerical results. The dependence of the Strouhal number Sr on Gamma was given and the flow characteristics relevant to the critical spacing values and the hysteretic mode transitions were investigated. PMID:20365852

Wang, Si-ying; Tian, Fang-bao; Jia, Lai-bing; Lu, Xi-yun; Yin, Xie-zhen

2010-03-01

165

Comparison of calculated and measured model rotor loading and wake geometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The calculated blade bound circulation and wake geometry are compared with measured results for a model helicopter rotor in hover and forward flight. Hover results are presented for rectangular tip and ogee tip planform blades. The correlation is quite good when the measured wake geometry characteristics are used in the analysis. Available prescribed wake geometry models are found to give fair predictions of the loading, but they do not produce a reasonable prediction of the induced power. Forward flight results are presented for twisted and untwisted blades. Fair correlation between measurements and calculations is found for the bound circulation distribution on the advancing side. The tip vortex geometry in the vicinity of the advancing blade in forward flight was predicted well by the free wake calculation used, although the wake geometry did not have a significant influence on the calculated loading and performance for the cases considered.

Johnson, W.

1980-01-01

166

Information Requirements for Supervisory Air Traffic Controllers in Support of a Wake Vortex Departure System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Closely Space Parallel Runway (CSPR) configurations are capacity limited for departures due to the requirement to apply wake vortex separation standards from traffic departing on the adjacent parallel runway. To mitigate the effects of this constraint, a concept focusing on wind dependent departure operations has been developed, known as the Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Departures (WTMD). This concept takes advantage of the fact that crosswinds of sufficient velocity blow wakes generated by aircraft departing from the downwind runway away from the upwind runway. Consequently, under certain conditions, wake separations on the upwind runway would not be required based on wakes generated by aircraft on the downwind runway, as is currently the case. It follows that information requirements, and sources for this information, would need to be determined for airport traffic control tower (ATCT) supervisory personnel who would be charged with decisions regarding use of the procedure. To determine the information requirements, data were collected from ATCT supervisors and controller-in-charge qualified individuals at Lambert-St. Louis International Airport (STL) and George Bush Houston Intercontinental Airport (IAH). STL and IAH were chosen as data collection sites based on the implementation of a WTMD prototype system, operating in shadow mode, at these locations. The 17 total subjects (STL: 5, IAH: 12) represented a broad-base of air traffic experience. Results indicated that the following information was required to support the conduct of WTMD operations: current and forecast weather information, current and forecast traffic demand and traffic flow restrictions, and WTMD System status information and alerting. Subjects further indicated that the requisite information is currently available in the tower cab with the exception of the WTMD status and alerting. Subjects were given a demonstration of a display supporting the prototype systems and unanimously stated that the WTMD status information they felt important was represented. Overwhelmingly, subjects felt that approving, monitoring and terminating the WTMD procedure could be integrated into their supervisory workload.

Lohr, Gary W.; Williams, Daniel M.; Trujillo, Anna C.

2008-01-01

167

Comparison of Wake Model Simulations with Offshore Wind Turbine Wake Profiles Measured by Sodar  

E-print Network

Comparison of Wake Model Simulations with Offshore Wind Turbine Wake Profiles Measured by Sodar R of most of the commonly used models for predicting wind speed decrease (wake) downstream of a wind turbine a ship-mounted sodar at a small offshore wind farm. The experiments were conducted at varying distances

Pryor, Sara C.

168

Generalization of the JTZ model to open plane wakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JTZ model [C. Jung, T. Tél, and E. Ziemniak, Chaos 3, 555 (1993)], as a theoretical model of a plane wake behind a circular cylinder in a narrow channel at a moderate Reynolds number, has previously been employed to analyze phenomena of chaotic scattering. It is extended here to describe an open plane wake without the confined narrow channel by incorporating a double row of shedding vortices into the intermediate and far wake. The extended JTZ model is found in qualitative agreement with both direct numerical simulations and experimental results in describing streamlines and vorticity contours. To further validate its applications to particle transport processes, the interaction between small spherical particles and vortices in an extended JTZ model flow is studied. It is shown that the particle size has significant influences on the features of particle trajectories, which have two characteristic patterns: one is rotating around the vortex centers and the other accumulating in the exterior of vortices. Numerical results based on the extended JTZ model are found in qualitative agreement with experimental ones in the normal range of particle sizes.

Wu, Zuo-Bing

2010-03-01

169

Generalization of the JTZ model to open plane wakes.  

PubMed

The JTZ model [C. Jung, T. Tel, and E. Ziemniak, Chaos 3, 555 (1993)], as a theoretical model of a plane wake behind a circular cylinder in a narrow channel at a moderate Reynolds number, has previously been employed to analyze phenomena of chaotic scattering. It is extended here to describe an open plane wake without the confined narrow channel by incorporating a double row of shedding vortices into the intermediate and far wake. The extended JTZ model is found in qualitative agreement with both direct numerical simulations and experimental results in describing streamlines and vorticity contours. To further validate its applications to particle transport processes, the interaction between small spherical particles and vortices in an extended JTZ model flow is studied. It is shown that the particle size has significant influences on the features of particle trajectories, which have two characteristic patterns: one is rotating around the vortex centers and the other accumulating in the exterior of vortices. Numerical results based on the extended JTZ model are found in qualitative agreement with experimental ones in the normal range of particle sizes. PMID:20370277

Wu, Zuo-Bing

2010-03-01

170

Atmospheric Boundary Layer Sensors for Application in a Wake Vortex Advisory System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing of the atmospheric boundary layer has advanced in recent years with the development of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radar, sodar, and lidar wind profiling technology. Radio acoustic sounding systems for vertical temperature profiles of high temporal scales (when compared to routine balloon soundings- (radiosondes) have also become increasingly available as COTS capabilities. Aircraft observations during landing and departures are another source of available boundary layer data. This report provides an updated assessment of available sensors, their performance specifications and rough order of magnitude costs for a potential future aircraft Wake Vortex Avoidance System (WakeVAS). Future capabilities are also discussed. Vertical profiles of wind, temperature, and turbulence are anticipated to be needed at airports in any dynamic wake avoidance system. Temporal and spatial resolution are dependent on the selection of approach and departure corridors to be protected. Recommendations are made for potential configurations of near-term sensor technologies and for testing some of the sensor systems in order to validate performance in field environments with adequate groundtruth.

Zak, J. Allen; Rutishauser, David (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

171

Overview of the preparation and use of an OV-10 aircraft for wake vortex hazards flight experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is presented of the development, use, and current flight-test status of a highly instrumented North American Rockwell OV-10A Bronco as a wake-vortex-hazards research aircraft. A description of the operational requirements and measurements criteria, the resulting instrumentation systems and aircraft modifications, system-calibration and research flights completed to date, and current flight status are included. These experiments are being conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of an effort to provide the technology to safely improve the capacity of the nation's air transportation system and specifically to provide key data in understanding and predicting wake vortex decay, transport characteristics, and the dynamics of encountering wake turbulence. The OV-10A performs several roles including meteorological measurements platform, wake-decay quantifier, and trajectory-quantifier for wake encounters. Extensive research instrumentation systems include multiple airdata sensors, video cameras with cockpit displays, aircraft state and control-position measurements, inertial aircraft-position measurements, meteorological measurements, and an on-board personal computer for real-time processing and cockpit display of research data. To date, several of the preliminary system check flights and two meteorological-measurements deployments have been completed. Several wake encounter and wake-decay-measurements flights are planned for the fall of 1995.

Stuever, Robert A.; Stewart, Eric C.; Rivers, Robert A.

1995-01-01

172

Flight Test Analysis of the Forces and Moments Imparted on a B737-100 Aircraft During Wake Vortex Encounters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several of our major airports are operating at or near their capacity limit, increasing congestion and delays for travelers. As a result, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been working in conjunction with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), airline operators, and the airline industry to increase airport capacity and safety. As more and more airplanes are placed into the terminal area the probability of encountering wake turbulence is increased. The NASA Langley Research Center conducted a series of flight tests from 1995 through 1997 to develop a wake encounter and wake-measurement data set with the accompanying atmospheric state information. The purpose of this research is to use the data from those flights to compute the wake-induced forced and moments exerted on the aircraft The calculated forces and moments will then be compiled into a database that can be used by wake vortex researchers to compare with experimental and computational results.

Roberts, Christopher L.; Smith, Sonya T.; Vicroy, Dan D.

2000-01-01

173

Measurements of fish's wake by PIV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper an experiment on measurements of the wake of Goldfish carassius auratus swimming unrestricted was conducted in a water tunnel. Color liquid was used to visualize the wake of the fish and PIV was used to measure velocity field of the wake. Results show that there is reverse Karman vortex street in symmetrical plane of the fish's wake and the Strouhal frequency of the fish is about 0.35 udner the different experimental conditions. The distribution of velocity and vorticity in the wake of Goldfish was measured by PIV and formation of reverse Karman vortex street in the wake was studied in a model experiment.

Li, Xuemin; Wu, Yanfeng; Lu, Xiyun; Yin, Xiezhen

2003-04-01

174

The vortex wake is the fluid dynamic footprint of swimming and flying animals. When an animal moves through fluid,  

E-print Network

3519 The vortex wake is the fluid dynamic footprint of swimming and flying animals. When an animal moves through fluid, Newton's second and third laws together dictate that the locomotive force exerted by the fluid on the animal has a magnitude equal to the rate at which the animal imparts momentum to the fluid

Dabiri, John O.

175

Study of the feasibility of using a sailplane as an instrument platform for the study of wake vortex phenomena  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of utilizing instrumentation mounted on a sailplane wing is investigated to determine vortex wakes from a large aircraft. The instrumentation consisted of static and total pressure tubes and a rotating vane vorticity meter mounted in a pod on the glider wing tip. It was concluded that the study was not feasible.

Ormsbee, A. I.

1974-01-01

176

TURBULENT DIFFUSION BEHIND VEHICLES: EXPERI-MENTALLY DETERMINED INFLUENCE OF VORTEX PAIR IN VEHICLE WAKE  

EPA Science Inventory

The wake of a moving vehicle was simulated using a wind tunnel with a moving floor. he vehicle models, both scale and block-shaped, were held in a fixed position while the floor moved at the upstream air speed. his simulates an automobile traveling on a straight highway in still ...

177

Vortex Ring Formation in the Wake of Biologically Inspired Flapping Foils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of biologically inspired propulsion mechanisms for underwater vehicles continues to generate significant interest in the hydrodynamics of fish swimming. Flapping foils, mimicking fish fins, have been shown to produce significant thrust and have been implemented on prototype underwater vehicles. Here, the three-dimensional vortical structures in the wake of a finite aspect ratio flapping foil are investigated in order to model the three dimensional propulsive signature of swimming fish and flapping foils. The vortical patterns in the wake of a flapping foil are visualized using qualitative fluorescent dye methods, imaged in three views: planform, wing-tip and isometric. Reynolds number based on foil chord length is 165. The foil is forced to heave and pitch with a prescribed motion mimicking that of a swimming fish tail. The visualizations reveal the formation of a pair of coherent, curved, and interconnected ring-like vortices for each full flapping cycle. The wake evolution shows a dependence on Strouhal number and foil motion kinematics; Strouhal number was varied between 0.1 and 0.4. Experimental visualization results compare well with recent numerical simulations using the same parameters. An analogy the model of the wake of a swimming fish is also explored.

Read, M. B.

2005-11-01

178

PIV and LDA measurements of the wake behind a wind turbine model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work we review the results of a series of measurements of the flow behind a model scale of a horizontal axis wind turbine rotor carried out at the water flume at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The rotor is three-bladed and designed using Glauert theory for tip speed ratio ? =5 with a constant design lift coefficient along the span, CLdesign= 0.8. The measurements include dye visualization, Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser Doppler Anemometry. The wake instability has been studied in the range ? =3 - 9 at different cross-sections from the very near wake up to 10 rotor diameters downstream from the rotor. The initial flume flow was subject to a very low turbulence level with a uniform velocity profile, limiting the influence of external disturbances on the development of the inherent vortex instability. Using PIV measurements and visualizations, special attention was paid to detect and categorize different types of wake instabilities and the development of the flow in the near and the far wake. In parallel to PIV, LDA measurements provided data for various rotor regimes, revealing the existence of three main regular frequencies governing the development of different processes and instabilities in the rotor wake. In the far wake a constant frequency corresponding to the Strouhal number was found for the long-scale instabilities. This Strouhal number is in good agreement with the well-known constant that usually characterizes the oscillation in wakes behind bluff bodies. From associated visualizations and reconstructions of the flow field, it was found that the dynamics of the far wake is associated with the precession (rotation) of a helical vortex core. The data indicate that Strouhal number of this precession is independent of the rotor angular speed.

Naumov, I. V.; Mikkelsen, R. F.; Okulov, V. L.; Sřrensen, J. N.

2014-06-01

179

Influence of different flap settings on the wake-vortex structure of a rectangular wing with flaps and means of alleviation with wing fins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the wake-vortex structure behind a flapped rectangular wing. The wind-tunnel test is part of a project funded by the German Research Association (DFG) to investigate the flow structure in the wake of wings with different flap extensions. The purpose of this investigation is to study the main features of lift

Ingmar Schell; Erol Özger; Dieter Jacob

2000-01-01

180

Flight test investigation of the vortex wake characteristics behind a Boeing 727 during two-segment and normal ILS approaches (A joint NASA/FAA report)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight tests were performed to evaluate the vortex wake characteristics of a Boeing 727 aircraft during conventional and two-segment instrument landing approaches. Smoke generators were used for vortex marking. The vortex was intentionally intercepted by a Lear Jet and a Piper Comanche aircraft. The vortex location during landing approach was measured using a system of phototheodolites. The tests showed that at a given separation distance there are no readily apparent differences in the upsets resulting from deliberate vortex encounters during the two types of approaches. The effect of the aircraft configuration on the extent and severity of the vortices is discussed.

Barber, M. R.; Kurkowski, R. L.; Garodz, L. J.; Robinson, G. H.; Smith, H. J.; Jacobsen, R. A.; Stinnett, G. W., Jr.; Mcmurtry, T. C.; Tymczyszyn, J. J.; Devereaux, R. L.

1975-01-01

181

Vortex dynamics and associated fluid forcing in the near wake of a light and heavy tethered sphere in uniform flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of vortex-induced vibrations of a negatively ("heavy") and positively ("light") buoyant tethered sphere in uniform flow, and its wake characteristics were performed in a closed-loop water channel. Experiments for both spheres were performed at similar bulk velocities, ranging between 0.048 < U < 0.32 m/s, corresponding to reduced velocities, 2.2 < U * < 13.5. Initially stationary, with increasing U, the amplitude response displayed periodic oscillations beyond the Hopf bifurcation as a result of "lock-in" between vortex shedding and the natural structural frequency. However, while the heavy sphere's amplitude decreased beyond U * = 7.0, the light sphere's amplitude continuously increased. In the periodic oscillation region, flow field characteristics in the wakes of both spheres (at comparable U * ) were similar, characterized by alternately shed hairpin vortices having a horizontal symmetry plane. Primary vortex trajectories in the frame of reference of the sphere collapsed for different U * (but not for different m * ) when scaled by f 2,s/ U, where f 2,s is the sphere's transverse oscillation frequency. This allows determination of vortex positions based on sphere dynamics and bulk flow conditions only. Associated vortex convection velocities as a function of downstream position from the sphere also nearly collapsed when normalized by U. In addition, fluid forcing and energy transfer from fluid to sphere were estimated based on an analogy between aircraft trailing vortices and hairpin vortices. Maximum forcing occurred at vortex pinch-off. For the highest comparable U * , despite different amplitudes, total transferred energy during one oscillation period was similar for both spheres. Changes in sphere dynamics must therefore be related to differences in inertia.

Krakovich, A.; Eshbal, L.; van Hout, R.

2013-11-01

182

MODEL-BASED CONTROL OF VORTEX SHEDDING USING LOW-DIMENSIONAL GALERKIN MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model-based flow control strategy is proposed for the suppression of vortex shedding behind a circu- lar cylinder. The control design is based on a hi- erarchy of low-dimensional Galerkin models of the cylinder wake. These models are constructed from a Karhunen-Loeve decomposition of a simulation without actuation. The key enablers are an addi- tional physical mode in the Karhunen-Loeve

Johannes Gerhard; Mark Pastoor; Rudibert King; Bernd R. Noack; Andreas Dillmann; Marek Morzynskik; Gilead Tadmor

183

Three-dimensional vortex wake structure of a flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle in forward flight configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the formation and evolution of the unsteady three-dimensional wake structures generated by the flapping wings of the DelFly II micro aerial vehicle in forward flight configuration. Time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (Stereo-PIV) measurements were carried out at several spanwise-aligned planes in the wake, so as to allow a reconstruction of the temporal development of the wake of the flapping wings throughout the complete flapping cycle. Simultaneous thrust-force measurements were performed to explore the relation between the wake formation and the aerodynamic force generation mechanisms. The three-dimensional wake configuration was subsequently reconstructed from the planar PIV measurements by two different approaches: (1) a spatiotemporal wake reconstruction obtained by convecting the time-resolved, three-component velocity field data of a single measurement plane with the free-stream velocity; (2) for selected phases in the flapping cycle a direct three-dimensional spatial wake reconstruction is interpolated from the data of the different measurement planes, using a Kriging regression technique. Comparing the results derived from both methods in terms of the behavior of the wake formations, their phase and orientation indicate that the spatiotemporal reconstruction method allows to characterize the general three-dimensional structure of the wake, but that the spatial reconstruction method can reveal more details due to higher streamwise resolution. Comparison of the wake reconstructions for different values of the reduced frequency allows assessing the impact of the flapping frequency on the formation and interaction characteristics of the vortical structures. For low values of the reduced frequency, it is observed that the vortex structure formation of instroke and outstroke is relatively independent of each other, but that increasing interaction occurs at higher reduced frequencies. It is further shown that there is a phase lag in the appearance of the structures for increasing flapping frequency, which is in correlation with the generation of the forces. Comparison of thrust generated during the instroke and the outstroke phases of the flapping motion in conjunction with the development of the wake structures indicates that wing-wing interaction at the start of outstroke (peel motion) becomes a dominant feature for reduced frequencies greater than 0.62.

Percin, M.; van Oudheusden, B. W.; Eisma, H. E.; Remes, B. D. W.

2014-09-01

184

Comparison of the lifting-line free vortex wake method and the blade-element-momentum theory regarding the simulated loads of multi-MW wind turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design load simulations for wind turbines are traditionally based on the blade- element-momentum theory (BEM). The BEM approach is derived from a simplified representation of the rotor aerodynamics and several semi-empirical correction models. A more sophisticated approach to account for the complex flow phenomena on wind turbine rotors can be found in the lifting-line free vortex wake method. This approach is based on a more physics based representation, especially for global flow effects. This theory relies on empirical correction models only for the local flow effects, which are associated with the boundary layer of the rotor blades. In this paper the lifting-line free vortex wake method is compared to a state- of-the-art BEM formulation with regard to aerodynamic and aeroelastic load simulations of the 5MW UpWind reference wind turbine. Different aerodynamic load situations as well as standardised design load cases that are sensitive to the aeroelastic modelling are evaluated in detail. This benchmark makes use of the AeroModule developed by ECN, which has been coupled to the multibody simulation code SIMPACK.

Hauptmann, S.; Bülk, M.; Schön, L.; Erbslöh, S.; Boorsma, K.; Grasso, F.; Kühn, M.; Cheng, P. W.

2014-12-01

185

Simulating Virtual Terminal Area Weather Data Bases for Use in the Wake Vortex Avoidance System (Wake VAS) Prediction Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the research project, sounding datasets were generated for the region surrounding 9 major airports, including Dallas, TX, Boston, MA, New York, NY, Chicago, IL, St. Louis, MO, Atlanta, GA, Miami, FL, San Francico, CA, and Los Angeles, CA. The numerical simulation of winter and summer environments during which no instrument flight rule impact was occurring at these 9 terminals was performed using the most contemporary version of the Terminal Area PBL Prediction System (TAPPS) model nested from 36 km to 6 km to 1 km horizontal resolution and very detailed vertical resolution in the planetary boundary layer. The soundings from the 1 km model were archived at 30 minute time intervals for a 24 hour period and the vertical dependent variables as well as derived quantities, i.e., 3-dimensional wind components, temperatures, pressures, mixing ratios, turbulence kinetic energy and eddy dissipation rates were then interpolated to 5 m vertical resolution up to 1000 m elevation above ground level. After partial validation against field experiment datasets for Dallas as well as larger scale and much coarser resolution observations at the other 8 airports, these sounding datasets were sent to NASA for use in the Virtual Air Space and Modeling program. The application of these datasets being to determine representative airport weather environments to diagnose the response of simulated wake vortices to realistic atmospheric environments. These virtual datasets are based on large scale observed atmospheric initial conditions that are dynamically interpolated in space and time. The 1 km nested-grid simulated datasets providing a very coarse and highly smoothed representation of airport environment meteorological conditions. Details concerning the airport surface forcing are virtually absent from these simulated datasets although the observed background atmospheric processes have been compared to the simulated fields and the fields were found to accurately replicate the flows surrounding the airport where coarse verification data were available as well as where airport scale datasets were available.

Kaplan, Michael L.; Lin, Yuh-Lang

2004-01-01

186

Wind tunnel measurements for dispersion modelling of vehicle wakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind tunnel measurements downwind of reduced scale car models have been made to study the wake regions in detail, test the usefulness of existing vehicle wake models, and draw key information needed for dispersion modelling in vehicle wakes. The experiments simulated a car moving in still air. This is achieved by (i) the experimental characterisation of the flow, turbulence and concentration fields in both the near and far wake regions, (ii) the preliminary assessment of existing wake models using the experimental database, and (iii) the comparison of previous field measurements in the wake of a real diesel car with the wind tunnel measurements. The experiments highlighted very large gradients of velocities and concentrations existing, in particular, in the near-wake. Of course, the measured fields are strongly dependent on the geometry of the modelled vehicle and a generalisation for other vehicles may prove to be difficult. The methodology applied in the present study, although improvable, could constitute a first step towards the development of mathematical parameterisations. Experimental results were also compared with the estimates from two wake models. It was found that they can adequately describe the far-wake of a vehicle in terms of velocities, but a better characterisation in terms of turbulence and pollutant dispersion is needed. Parameterised models able to predict velocity and concentrations with fine enough details at the near-wake scale do not exist.

Carpentieri, Matteo; Kumar, Prashant; Robins, Alan

2012-12-01

187

Application of digital particle image velocimetry to insect aerodynamics: measurement of the leading-edge vortex and near wake of a Hawkmoth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some insects use leading-edge vortices to generate high lift forces, as has been inferred from qualitative smoke visualisations of the flow around their wings. Here we present the first Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) data and quantitative analysis of an insect’s leading-edge vortex and near wake at two flight speeds. This allows us to describe objectively 2D slices through the flow field of a tethered Tobacco Hawkmoth ( Manduca sexta). The near-field vortex wake appears to braodly resemble elliptical vortex loops. The presence of a leading-edge vortex towards the end of the downstroke is found to coincide with peak upward force production measured by a six-component force-moment balance. The topology of Manduca’s leading-edge vortex differs from that previously described because late in the downstroke, the structure extends continuously from wingtip across the thorax to the other wingtip.

Bomphrey, Richard J.; Lawson, Nicholas J.; Taylor, Graham K.; Thomas, Adrian L. R.

2006-04-01

188

On Use of Global Positioning Technology for Solution of Wake Vortex Problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved precision of the flight paths used by aircraft to approach and depart airports is becoming available when the Global Positioning System (GPS) is implemented at airports. An overview will be given of published information on how GPS precision guidance at airports can be used to avoid encounters with the lift-generated vortices shed by preceding aircraft during landing. It is pointed out that GPS provides two needed services to bring about improved avoidance capability. Firstly, GPS pseudolites are being built and installed at airports so that, when coupled with autopilot systems currently available on subsonic transport aircraft, the aircraft can make precision approaches for zero visibility landings. The same equipment can also be used for precision approaches for wake-vortex avoidance. Secondly, regular monitoring of atmospheric motions along the approach corridor can be obtained by use of GPS equipment on board aircraft that are in the flight corridors. That is, wind velocity is determined by use of GPS equipment to measure the ground speed of the aircraft and then combined with onboard instrumentation to measure the airspeed of the aircraft. The difference between the two measurements yields the wind velocity. When the measured wind velocities are transmitted to an airport ground station they are used to monitor whether air motions adverse for safety in the flight corridor are present. If any parts of the corridor are unsafe, the spacing of the aircraft, or the location of the flight corridor being used, is modified. It is estimated that the spacings between any combination of aircraft can then be safely reduced to a uniform 3 n. mi. Information to be presented is contained in an article published in the AIAA Journal of Aircraft, May-June 1996.

Rossow, Vernon J.; Olson, Lawerence E. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

189

Vortex-Body Interactions: A Critical Assessment. Coupled Gap-Wake Instabilities/Turbulence: A Source of Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program has involved, first of all, a critical state-of-the-art assessment of vortex-body interactions. Then, efforts were focused on experimental investigation on coupled-wake instabilities and turbulence occurring in a two-cylinder system. An extensive review was undertaken on the effect of incident vortices on various types of bodies. These incident vortices have a length scale of the same order of magnitude as the scale of the body. The body can take on various forms, including, for example, a circular cylinder, a blade or a wing. The classes of vortex-body interaction that were critically assessed include: (1) Periodic distortion of the incident (primary) vortex and shedding of secondary vorticity from the surface of the body. (2) Modulated vortex distortion and shedding at a leading-edge or surface due to incidence of a complex system of vortices. (3) Vortex distortion and shedding in presence of body oscillation. (4) Three-dimensional vortex interaction and shedding. For all of these classes of vortex-body interaction, quantitative topologies of the vorticity distributions and streamline patterns were found to be central to a unified description of mechanisms of vortex distortion and shedding. In most cases, it was possible to define relationships between vortex interactions and unsteady loading at the body surface. This phase of the program was an experimental investigation of a two-cylinder system, which simulated a central aspect of a four-wheel bogie on a large-scale commercial aircraft. The overall aim of this experimental research program was to determine the crucial elements of the unsteadiness in the gap and near-wake regions as a function of time using cinema-based techniques. During the research program, various image evaluation techniques were employed. They involved assessment of instantaneous velocity fields, streamline topology and patterns of vorticity. Experiments were performed in a large-scale water channel using a high-resolution version of digital particle image velocimetry. The program has focused on acquisition of images of velocity and vorticity for varying gap widths between the two-cylinder system. As a result of analysis of a relatively large number of images, it is demonstrated that low frequency instabilities can occur in the gap region between the cylinder. These low frequency instabilities are hypothesized to influence the near-wake structure of the entire two-cylinder system. The nature of the unstable shear layers in the gap region involves generation of small-scale Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. These unsteady shear layers then impinge upon the upper and lower surfaces of the cylinders, thereby influencing both the unsteady structure and the time-averaged patterns of the near-wake. Initial efforts have focused on characterization of the patterns of instantaneous and averaged streamlines using topological concepts. The end result of this investigation is a series of documented instantaneous images. They will serve as a basis for various types of post-processing, which will lead to a fuller understanding of the instantaneous and time-averaged unstable-turbulent fields in the gap region and downstream of the two-cylinder system. This further assessment is the focus of a subsequent program.

Rockwell, Donald

1999-01-01

190

Secondary frequencies in the wake of a circular cylinder with vortex shedding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed numerical study of two-dimensional flow past a circular cylinder at moderately low Reynolds numbers was conducted using three different numerical algorithms for solving the time-dependent compressible Navier-Stokes equations. It was found that if the algorithm and associated boundary conditions were consistent and stable, then the major features of the unsteady wake were well-predicted. However, it was also found that even stable and consistent boundary conditions could introduce additional periodic phenomena reminiscent of the type seen in previous wind-tunnel experiments. However, these additional frequencies were eliminated by formulating the boundary conditions in terms of the characteristic variables. An analysis based on a simplified model provides an explanation for this behavior.

Abarbanel, Saul S.; Don, Wai Sun; Gottlieb, David; Rudy, David H.; Townsend, James C.

1991-01-01

191

Secondary frequencies in the wake of a circular cylinder with vortex shedding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed numerical study of two-dimensional flow past a circular cylinder at moderately low Reynolds numbers was conducted using three different numerical algorithms for solving the time-dependent compressible Navier-Stokes equations. It was found that if the algorithm and associated boundary conditions were consistent and stable, then the major features of the unsteady wake were well-predicted. However, it was also found that even stable and consistent boundary conditions could introduce additional periodic phenomena reminiscent of the type seen in previous wind-tunnel experiments. However, these additional frequencies were eliminated by formulating the boundary conditions in terms of the characteristic variables. An analysis based on a simplified model provides an explanation for this behavior.

Abarbanel, Saul S.; Don, Wai Sun; Gottlieb, David; Rudy, David H.; Townsend, James C.

1990-01-01

192

Vortex-induced vibrations of two cylinders in tandem arrangement in the proximity-wake interference region.  

PubMed

We investigate numerically vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of two identical two-dimensional elastically mounted cylinders in tandem in the proximity-wake interference regime at Reynolds number Re = 200 for systems having both one (transverse vibrations) and two (transverse and in-line) degrees of freedom (1-DOF and 2-DOF, respectively). For the 1-DOF system the computed results are in good qualitative agreement with available experiments at higher Reynolds numbers. Similar to these experiments our simulations reveal: (1) larger amplitudes of motion and a wider lock-in region for the tandem arrangement when compared with an isolated cylinder; (2) that at low reduced velocities the vibration amplitude of the front cylinder exceeds that of the rear cylinder; and (3) that above a threshold reduced velocity, large-amplitude VIV are excited for the rear cylinder with amplitudes significantly larger than those of the front cylinder. By analysing the simulated flow patterns we identify the VIV excitation mechanisms that lead to such complex responses and elucidate the near-wake vorticity dynamics and vortex-shedding modes excited in each case. We show that at low reduced velocities vortex shedding provides the initial excitation mechanism, which gives rise to a vertical separation between the two cylinders. When this vertical separation exceeds one cylinder diameter, however, a significant portion of the incoming flow is able to pass through the gap between the two cylinders and the gap-flow mechanism starts to dominate the VIV dynamics. The gap flow is able to periodically force either the top or the bottom shear layer of the front cylinder into the gap region, setting off a series of very complex vortex-to-vortex and vortex-to-cylinder interactions, which induces pressure gradients that result in a large oscillatory force in phase with the vortex shedding and lead to the experimentally observed larger vibration amplitudes. When the vortex shedding is the dominant mechanism the front cylinder vibration amplitude is larger than that of the rear cylinder. The reversing of this trend above a threshold reduced velocity is associated with the onset of the gap flow. The important role of the gap flow is further illustrated via a series of simulations for the 2-DOF system. We show that when the gap-flow mechanism is triggered, the 2-DOF system can develop and sustain large VIV amplitudes comparable to those observed in the corresponding (same reduced velocity) 1-DOF system. For sufficiently high reduced velocities, however, the two cylinders in the 2-DOF system approach each other, thus significantly reducing the size of the gap region. In such cases the gap flow is entirely eliminated, and the two cylinders vibrate together as a single body with vibration amplitudes up to 50% lower than the amplitudes of the corresponding 1-DOF in which the gap flow is active. Three-dimensional simulations are also carried out to examine the adequacy of two-dimensional simulations for describing the dynamic response of the tandem system at Re = 200. It is shown that even though the wake transitions to a weakly three-dimensional state when the gap flow is active, the three-dimensional modes are too weak to affect the dynamic response of the system, which is found to be identical to that obtained from the two-dimensional computations. PMID:19693281

Borazjani, Iman; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

2009-01-01

193

Vortex-induced vibrations of two cylinders in tandem arrangement in the proximity–wake interference region  

PubMed Central

We investigate numerically vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of two identical two-dimensional elastically mounted cylinders in tandem in the proximity–wake interference regime at Reynolds number Re = 200 for systems having both one (transverse vibrations) and two (transverse and in-line) degrees of freedom (1-DOF and 2-DOF, respectively). For the 1-DOF system the computed results are in good qualitative agreement with available experiments at higher Reynolds numbers. Similar to these experiments our simulations reveal: (1) larger amplitudes of motion and a wider lock-in region for the tandem arrangement when compared with an isolated cylinder; (2) that at low reduced velocities the vibration amplitude of the front cylinder exceeds that of the rear cylinder; and (3) that above a threshold reduced velocity, large-amplitude VIV are excited for the rear cylinder with amplitudes significantly larger than those of the front cylinder. By analysing the simulated flow patterns we identify the VIV excitation mechanisms that lead to such complex responses and elucidate the near-wake vorticity dynamics and vortex-shedding modes excited in each case. We show that at low reduced velocities vortex shedding provides the initial excitation mechanism, which gives rise to a vertical separation between the two cylinders. When this vertical separation exceeds one cylinder diameter, however, a significant portion of the incoming flow is able to pass through the gap between the two cylinders and the gap-flow mechanism starts to dominate the VIV dynamics. The gap flow is able to periodically force either the top or the bottom shear layer of the front cylinder into the gap region, setting off a series of very complex vortex-to-vortex and vortex-to-cylinder interactions, which induces pressure gradients that result in a large oscillatory force in phase with the vortex shedding and lead to the experimentally observed larger vibration amplitudes. When the vortex shedding is the dominant mechanism the front cylinder vibration amplitude is larger than that of the rear cylinder. The reversing of this trend above a threshold reduced velocity is associated with the onset of the gap flow. The important role of the gap flow is further illustrated via a series of simulations for the 2-DOF system. We show that when the gap-flow mechanism is triggered, the 2-DOF system can develop and sustain large VIV amplitudes comparable to those observed in the corresponding (same reduced velocity) 1-DOF system. For sufficiently high reduced velocities, however, the two cylinders in the 2-DOF system approach each other, thus significantly reducing the size of the gap region. In such cases the gap flow is entirely eliminated, and the two cylinders vibrate together as a single body with vibration amplitudes up to 50% lower than the amplitudes of the corresponding 1-DOF in which the gap flow is active. Three-dimensional simulations are also carried out to examine the adequacy of two-dimensional simulations for describing the dynamic response of the tandem system at Re = 200. It is shown that even though the wake transitions to a weakly three-dimensional state when the gap flow is active, the three-dimensional modes are too weak to affect the dynamic response of the system, which is found to be identical to that obtained from the two-dimensional computations. PMID:19693281

BORAZJANI, IMAN; SOTIROPOULOS, FOTIS

2009-01-01

194

An experimental study of the unsteady vortex structures in the wake of a root-fixed flapping wing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study was conducted to characterize the evolution of the unsteady vortex structures in the wake of a root-fixed flapping wing with the wing size, stroke amplitude, and flapping frequency within the range of insect characteristics for the development of novel insect-sized nano-air-vehicles (NAVs). The experiments were conducted in a low-speed wing tunnel with a miniaturized piezoelectric wing (i.e., chord length, C = 12.7 mm) flapping at a frequency of 60 Hz (i.e., f = 60 Hz). The non-dimensional parameters of the flapping wing are chord Reynolds number of Re = 1,200, reduced frequency of k = 3.5, and non-dimensional flapping amplitude at wingtip h = A/C = 1.35. The corresponding Strouhal number (Str) is 0.33 , which is well within the optimal range of 0.2 < Str < 0.4 used by flying insects and birds and swimming fishes for locomotion. A digital particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to achieve phased-locked and time-averaged flow field measurements to quantify the transient behavior of the wake vortices in relation to the positions of the flapping wing during the upstroke and down stroke flapping cycles. The characteristics of the wake vortex structures in the chordwise cross planes at different wingspan locations were compared quantitatively to elucidate underlying physics for a better understanding of the unsteady aerodynamics of flapping flight and to explore/optimize design paradigms for the development of novel insect-sized, flapping-wing-based NAVs.

Hu, Hui; Clemons, Lucas; Igarashi, Hirofumi

2011-08-01

195

Comparison of Engineering Wake Models with CFD Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The engineering wake models by Jensen [1] and Frandsen et al. [2] are assessed for different scenarios simulated using Large Eddy Simulation and the Actuator Line method implemented in the Navier-Stokes equations. The scenarios include the far wake behind a single wind turbine, a long row of turbines in an atmospheric boundary layer, idealised cases of an infinitely long row of wind turbines and infinite wind farms with three different spacings. Both models include a wake expansion factor, which is calibrated to fit the simulated wake velocities. The analysis highlights physical deficiencies in the ability of the models to universally predict the wake velocities, as the expansion factor can be fitted for a given case, but with not apparent transition between the cases.

Andersen, S. J.; Sřrensen, J. N.; Ivanell, S.; Mikkelsen, R. F.

2014-06-01

196

Time-resolved vortex wake of a common swift flying over a range of flight speeds  

PubMed Central

The wake of a freely flying common swift (Apus apus L.) is examined in a wind tunnel at three different flight speeds, 5.7, 7.7 and 9.9 m s?1. The wake of the bird is visualized using high-speed stereo digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). Wake images are recorded in the transverse plane, perpendicular to the airflow. The wake of a swift has been studied previously using DPIV and recording wake images in the longitudinal plane, parallel to the airflow. The high-speed DPIV system allows for time-resolved wake sampling and the result shows features that were not discovered in the previous study, but there was approximately a 40 per cent vertical force deficit. As the earlier study also revealed, a pair of wingtip vortices are trailing behind the wingtips, but in addition, a pair of tail vortices and a pair of ‘wing root vortices’ are found that appear to originate from the wing/body junction. The existence of wing root vortices suggests that the two wings are not acting as a single wing, but are to some extent aerodynamically detached from each other. It is proposed that this is due to the body disrupting the lift distribution over the wing by generating less lift than the wings. PMID:21131333

Henningsson, P.; Muijres, F. T.; Hedenström, A.

2011-01-01

197

The Development of a Plan for the Assessment, Improvement and Deployment of a Radar Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) for Wake Vortex Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the activities completed under a grant from the NASA Langley Research Center to develop a plan for the assessment, improvement, and deployment of a Radar Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) for the detection of wake vortices. A brief review is provided of existing alternative instruments for wake vortex detection. This is followed by a review of previous implementations and assessment of a RASS. As a result of this review, it is concluded that the basic features of a RASS have several advantages over other commonly used wake vortex detection and measurement systems. Most important of these features are the good fidelity of the measurements and the potential for all weather operation. To realize the full potential of this remote sensing instrument, a plan for the development of a RASS designed specifically for wake vortex detection and measurement has been prepared. To keep costs to a minimum, this program would start with the development an inexpensive laboratory-scale version of a RASS system. The new instrument would be developed in several stages, each allowing for a critical assessment of the instrument s potential and limitations. The instrument, in its initial stages of development, would be tested in a controlled laboratory environment. A jet vortex simulator, a prototype version of which has already been fabricated, would be interrogated by the RASS system. The details of the laboratory vortex would be measured using a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. In the early development stages, the scattered radar signal would be digitized and the signal post-processed to determine how extensively and accurately the RASS could measure properties of the wake vortex. If the initial tests prove to be successful, a real-time, digital signal processing system would be developed as a component of the RASS system. At each stage of the instrument development and testing, the implications of the scaling required for a full-scale instrument would be considered. It is concluded that a RASS system, developed for the specific application of wake vortex detection, could become part of a robust Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). This system, in turn, could contribute to Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) in US airports and improvements in Terminal Area productivity (TAP).

Morris, Philip J.; McLaughlin, Dennis K.; Gabrielson, Thomas B.; Boluriaan, Said

2004-01-01

198

Flight test to determine feasibility of a proposed airborne wake vortex detection concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This investigation was conducted to determine the radial extent at which aircraft mounted flow vanes or roll rate gyros can sense the circulatory flow field that exists around the lift induced vortex system generated by an aircraft in flight. The probe aircraft was equipped with wingtip sensors for measuring angle of attack and angle of sideslip, and with a fuselage mounted gyroscope for measuring roll rate. Analysis of flight test data indicated that the vortex was detectable at a lateral distance of about 105 feet (best results) using unsophisticated equipment. Measurements were made from the centerline of the probe aircraft to the center of the nearest vortex with the probe aircraft flying between one half and one and one half miles behind the vortex generating aircraft.

Branstetter, James R.; Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Patterson, James C., Jr.

1991-01-01

199

Dual leading-edge vortex structure for flow over a simplified butterfly model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dye visualization experiments show that a dual leading-edge vortex (LEV) structure exists on the suction side of a simplified butterfly model of Papilio ulysses at ? = 8°-12°. Furthermore, the results of particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement indicate that the axial velocity of the primary (outer) vortex core reaches the lower extreme value while a transition from a "wake-like" to a "jet-like" axial velocity profile occurs. The work reveals for the first time the existence of dual LEV structure on the butterfly-like forward-sweep wing configuration.

Hu, Y.; Wang, J. J.

2011-05-01

200

Helicopter rotor wake geometry and its influence in forward flight. Volume 1: Generalized wake geometry and wake effect on rotor airloads and performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytic investigation to generalize wake geometry of a helicopter rotor in steady level forward flight and to demonstrate the influence of wake deformation in the prediction of rotor airloads and performance is described. Volume 1 presents a first level generalized wake model based on theoretically predicted tip vortex geometries for a selected representative blade design. The tip vortex distortions are generalized in equation form as displacements from the classical undistorted tip vortex geometry in terms of vortex age, blade azimuth, rotor advance ratio, thrust coefficient, and number of blades. These equations were programmed to provide distorted wake coordinates at very low cost for use in rotor airflow and airloads prediction analyses. The sensitivity of predicted rotor airloads, performance, and blade bending moments to the modeling of the tip vortex distortion are demonstrated for low to moderately high advance ratios for a representative rotor and the H-34 rotor. Comparisons with H-34 rotor test data demonstrate the effects of the classical, predicted distorted, and the newly developed generalized wake models on airloads and blade bending moments. Use of distorted wake models results in the occurrence of numerous blade-vortex interactions on the forward and lateral sides of the rotor disk. The significance of these interactions is related to the number and degree of proximity to the blades of the tip vortices. The correlation obtained with the distorted wake models (generalized and predicted) is encouraging.

Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.

1983-01-01

201

The effect of single-horn glaze ice on the vortex structures in the wake of a horizontal axis wind turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study experimentally investigated the effect of a simulated single-horn glaze ice accreted on rotor blades on the vortex structures in the wake of a horizontal axis wind turbine by using the stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (Stereo-PIV) technique. During the experiments, four horizontal axis wind turbine models were tested, and both "free-run" and "phase-locked" Stereo-PIV measurements were carried out. Based on the "free-run" measurements, it was found that because of the simulated single-horn glaze ice, the shape, vorticity, and trajectory of tip vortices were changed significantly, and less kinetic energy of the airflow could be harvested by the wind turbine. In addition, the "phase-locked" results indicated that the presence of simulated single-horn glaze ice resulted in a dramatic reduction of the vorticity peak of the tip vortices. Moreover, as the length of the glaze ice increased, both root and tip vortex gaps were found to increase accordingly.

Jin, Zhe-Yan; Dong, Qiao-Tian; Yang, Zhi-Gang

2015-02-01

202

Airloads and Wake Geometry Calculations for an Isolated Tiltrotor Model in a Wind Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparisons of measured and calculated aerodynamic behavior of a tiltrotor model are presented. The test of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) with a single, 0.25-scale V-22 rotor in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW) provides an extensive set of aeroacoustic, performance, and structural loads data. The calculations were performed using the rotorcraft comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II. Presented are comparisons of measured and calculated performance for hover and helicopter mode operation, and airloads for helicopter mode. Calculated induced power, profile power, and wake geometry provide additional information about the aerodynamic behavior. An aerodynamic and wake model and calculation procedure that reflects the unique geometry and phenomena of tiltrotors has been developed. There are major differences between this model and the corresponding aerodynamic and wake model that has been established for helicopter rotors. In general, good correlation between measured and calculated performance and airloads behavior has been shown. Two aspects of the analysis that clearly need improvement are the stall delay model and the trailed vortex formation model.

Johnson, Wayne

2001-01-01

203

Flight Data Reduction of Wake Velocity Measurements Using an Instrumented OV-10 Airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of flight tests to measure the wake of a Lockheed C- 130 airplane and the accompanying atmospheric state have been conducted. A specially instrumented North American Rockwell OV-10 airplane was used to measure the wake and atmospheric conditions. An integrated database has been compiled for wake characterization and validation of wake vortex computational models. This paper describes the wake- measurement flight-data reduction process.

Vicroy, Dan D.; Stuever, Robert A.; Stewart, Eric C.; Rivers, Robert A.

1999-01-01

204

A univalent spiral-vortex model for separated flow past a polygonal obstacle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A free-streamline flow model for flow past a polygonal obstacle with a near-wake terminating in Tulin's double spiral vortices is constructed. The flows are univalent for a large class of geometries. In addition, a criterion is given for determining the underpressure as function of the Reynolds number using the Stokes solution for diffusion of a vortex sheet, and an extension of Tulin and Hsu's matching theory to transitional flows.

Bassanini, Piero; Elcrat, Alan

1988-07-01

205

Shear flow induced vibrations of long slender cylinders with a wake oscillator model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A time domain model is presented to study the vibrations of long slender cylinders placed in shear flow. Long slender cylinders such as risers and tension legs are widely used in the field of ocean engineering. They are subjected to vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) when placed within a transverse incident flow. A three dimensional model coupled with wake oscillators is formulated to describe the response of the slender cylinder in cross-flow and in-line directions. The wake oscillators are distributed along the cylinder and the vortex-shedding frequency is derived from the local current velocity. A non-linear fluid force model is accounted for the coupled effect between cross-flow and in-line vibrations. The comparisons with the published experimental data show that the dynamic features of VIV of long slender cylinder placed in shear flow can be obtained by the proposed model, such as the spanwise average displacement, vibration frequency, dominant mode and the combination of standing and traveling waves. The simulation in a uniform flow is also conducted and the result is compared with the case of nonuniform flow. It is concluded that the flow shear characteristic has significantly changed the cylinder vibration behavior.

Ge, Fei; Lu, Wei; Wang, Lei; Hong, You-Shi

2011-06-01

206

Wind turbine design using a free-wake vortex method with winglet application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind turbine blades are traditionally designed with blade element momentum theory (BEMT). This method is incapable of accurately analyzing non-conventional or non-planar blade planforms. Modern wind turbine blade design thus requires non-standard modeling that can effectively analyze the effects of a non-planar blade, such as a blade with a winglet. The free-wake, distributed vorticity element (FW-DVE) method meets these analysis goals. Previous work applied the FW-DVE method to wind turbines, but did not include the influence of profile forces and did not include any design applications. The present research focused on developing the FW-DVE method into a design tool for wind turbine design applications and on the validation of this tool. In the research presented in this thesis, the FW-DVE method was modified to include the effect of airfoil profile drag and to account for the effects of stall and a non-linear lift-curve. A design tool was created to aid in using the WindDVE analysis code for trade space exploration. The method was used to analyze and design a winglet for a small-scale wind turbine, which was tested in a wind tunnel at the University of Waterloo where it exhibited a 9% increase in the maximum coefficient of power of the rotor. The performance results from this test have been used to validate the FW-DVE method for wind turbine design, along with an analysis of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Phase VI wind turbine.

Maniaci, David

207

The POLAR code wake model: Comparison with in situ observations  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the ion and electron densities associated with the wake of the shuttle orbiter were made by the Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP) during the 1985 Spacelab 2 mission. Cross sections of the wake at distances of 50-250 m downstream and measurements along the wake axis from 5 to 100 m were obtained. The POLAR wake model, developed for The Air Force Geophysics Laboratory to study charging of spacecraft in low-altitude high-inclination orbits, was used to perform a three-dimensional simulation of the plasma wake evaluated at points along relative trajectory of the PDP. The POLAR code uses several simplifying assumptions to predict wake densities. These include neglecting the magnetic field and assuming that the plasma is quasi-neutral. The code models plasma density ahead of the expansion front, using a neutral approximation, and models the plasma density behind the expansion front by using the self-similar solution of the expansion of a plasma into a vacuum. For cases where T{sub i} {approx} T{sub e}, the front is not sharp and thermal motion can account for most of the expansion. This approach is computationally very efficient. The results presented here are the first known comparison between such a model and actual in situ data obtained for objects of scale size {approx} 10{sup 4} {lambda}{sub d}. Excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement are found at distances greater than {approx} 30 m.

Murphy, G. (Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (USA)); Katz, I. (S-Cubed, La Jolla, CA (USA))

1989-07-01

208

Wind-tunnel measurements in the wakes of structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed measurements of longitudinal mean velocity, turbulence intensity, space correlations, and spectra made in the wake of two rectangular scaled models in simulated atmospheric boundary-layer winds are presented. The model buildings were 1:50 scale models of two trailers. Results of a flow visualization study of the wake geometry are analyzed with some singular point theorems. Two hypothetical flow patterns of the detailed wake geometry are proposed. Some preliminary studies of the vortex wake, effects of the model size, model aspect ratios, and boundary layer characteristics on the decay rate and extent of the wake are also presented and discussed.

Woo, H. G. C.; Peterka, J. A.; Cermak, J. E.

1977-01-01

209

Improvement of a near wake model for trailing vorticity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A near wake model, originally proposed by Beddoes, is further developed. The purpose of the model is to account for the radially dependent time constants of the fast aerodynamic response and to provide a tip loss correction. It is based on lifting line theory and models the downwash due to roughly the first 90 degrees of rotation. This restriction of the model to the near wake allows for using a computationally efficient indicial function algorithm. The aim of this study is to improve the accuracy of the downwash close to the root and tip of the blade and to decrease the sensitivity of the model to temporal discretization, both regarding numerical stability and quality of the results. The modified near wake model is coupled to an aerodynamics model, which consists of a blade element momentum model with dynamic inflow for the far wake and a 2D shed vorticity model that simulates the unsteady buildup of both lift and circulation in the attached flow region. The near wake model is validated against the test case of a finite wing with constant elliptical bound circulation. An unsteady simulation of the NREL 5 MW rotor shows the functionality of the coupled model.

Pirrung, G. R.; Hansen, M. H.; Madsen, H. A.

2014-12-01

210

Flow mapping of the reversing vortex wake of a cylinder in planar harmonic flow  

SciTech Connect

The reversing near flow of a cylinder in planar harmonic flow at Keulegan Carpenter numbers in the drag-inertia dominated flow regime and at subcritical Reynolds numbers is investigated. LDV measurements of streamwise and cross-stream velocities near the cylinder and streamwise velocities at the far flow field are taken and recorded simultaneously. Visualization of the flow around the cylinder is performed by seeding the flow with small wax particles which scatter light when moving through a laser light sheet. Velocity data are reduced via mode phase averaging to average velocity cycles representing the positive and negative flow modes--dominant vortex shedding and convecting from the top and the bottom of the cylinder, respectively. Flow mapping, based on the mode phase averages of measured velocity data, captures the basic features of the vortex patterns that have been identified by flow visualization.

Sibetheros, I.A.; Miksad, R.W.; Ventre, A.V. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Lambrakos, K.F. [Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1994-12-31

211

CFD modeling of wind turbine wake in wind farms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind energy is one of the most common and preferred renewable energy sources. Accurate predictions of atmospheric boundary layer flow, wind turbine induced wakes and their interaction are essential to maximize wind power output and efficiently harness wind energy. In this dissertation, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) flow model is developed utilizing a three dimensional weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) high order Finite Volume Model system including Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and the Actuator Line Method (ALM). The developed model system is thus able to accurately capture and simulate wind turbine wakes and their interaction with the atmospheric boundary layer, thereby providing insight into the phenomenon of turbine wake interaction and its effect on the external aerodynamic loads on wind turbines. This enables the wind energy production to be maximized and also minimizes turbine fatigue loading in the evaluation of wind farm layouts. By using LES model to simulate the Atmospheric Boundary Layer flow rather than the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model, the error introduced by turbulence modeling is reduced. The Actuator Line Model, ALM, is used to model the rotor by replacing the rotor with radially distributed body forces. It is more accurate than the actuator disc method as it captures the influence of the blade tip vortices. It can focus on a larger portion of the wake without resolving the actual wind turbine blades' geometry, thereby reducing computational cost. It is suitable and a promising method for wind turbine wake simulation. Classic non-trivial turbulent benchmark cases are used to validate the high order LES algorithms. Simulation results are compared with available results whenever possible, with good agreement observed. Results for the atmospheric boundary layer under neutral conditions are presented. By using LES coupled with the Actuator Line model, simulation results are obtained for detailed wake flow features around single wind turbine as well as wind turbine arrays.

Sun, Lijian

212

Review of Wind Turbine Wake Models and Future Directions (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation gives a brief overview to wind turbine wake modeling, ranging from models used in the 1980s up to the present. The presentation shows the strengths and weaknesses of various models and discusses the needs of the wind energy industry and research sectors. Both power production and loads analysis are discussed.

Churchfield, M. J.

2013-08-01

213

WIND TUNNEL AND GAUSSIAN PLUME MODELING OF BUILDING WAKE DISPERSION  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper summarizes a study of the relationship between Gaussian plume models and wind-tunnel models. ind-tunnel measurements of the distribution of tracer concentrations downwind of a point source in the near wake of a rectangular model building were evaluated. rofiles of mean...

214

Propeller tip vortex interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Propeller wakes interacting with aircraft aerodynamic surfaces are a source of noise and vibration. For this reason, flow visualization work on the motion of the helical tip vortex over a wing and through the second stage of a counterrotation propeller (CRP) has been pursued. Initially, work was done on the motion of a propeller helix as it passes over the center of a 9.0 aspect ratio wing. The propeller tip vortex experiences significant spanwise displacements when passing across a lifting wing. A stationary propeller blade or stator was installed behind the rotating propeller to model the blade vortex interaction in a CRP. The resulting vortex interaction was found to depend on the relative vortex strengths and vortex sign.

Johnston, Robert T.; Sullivan, John P.

1990-01-01

215

Knuckleball and Flying Disk: Boundary Layer Transitions, Separations and Vortex Wakes in Sports Aerodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spite of their popularity, flow structures over common baseball and flying disks have not been studied in detail. A slowly rotating baseball is subject to erratic flight paths, and is known as a knuckleball. In the present experiment, the characteristic of force acting on a baseball was obtained and the velocity vector field near the surface of the ball and the wake were measured with the DPIV technique. The seam triggered the boundary layer transition or caused the boundary layer separation itself. The laminar/turbulent boundary layer separations were identified with specific ball orientations. Corresponding three-dimensional wake pattern and the side force result in unpredictable trajectories. In the second part of the talk, flow physics regarding a spin-stabilized flying disk is addressed. The roll-up of trailing vortices was visualized in detail and their vorticity field was measured with the DPIV. The vortical flow over the disk produced flow reattachment at a very high angle of attack. The boundary layer at low angles of attack was affected by the surface motion with asymmetric boundary layer transitions as evidenced by the flow visualization and the hot wire survey. The flow separation and attachment on the underside cavity were also affected by the rotation.

Higuchi, Hiroshi; Kiura, Toshiro; Goto, Yuichiro; Hiramoto, Riho

2001-11-01

216

Theoretical modelling of wakes from retractable flapping wings in forward flight  

PubMed Central

A free-wake method is used to simulate the wake from retractable, jointed wings. The method serves to complement existing experimental studies that visualise flying animal wakes. Simulated wakes are shown to be numerically convergent for a case study of the Rock Pigeon in minimum power cruising flight. The free-wake model is robust in simulating wakes for a range of wing geometries and dynamics without requiring changes to the numerical method. The method is found to be useful for providing low order predictions of wake geometries. However, it is not well suited to reconstructing 3d flowfields as solutions are sensitive to the numerical mesh node locations. PMID:23882442

Crowther, William J.

2013-01-01

217

Theoretical modelling of wakes from retractable flapping wings in forward flight.  

PubMed

A free-wake method is used to simulate the wake from retractable, jointed wings. The method serves to complement existing experimental studies that visualise flying animal wakes. Simulated wakes are shown to be numerically convergent for a case study of the Rock Pigeon in minimum power cruising flight. The free-wake model is robust in simulating wakes for a range of wing geometries and dynamics without requiring changes to the numerical method. The method is found to be useful for providing low order predictions of wake geometries. However, it is not well suited to reconstructing 3d flowfields as solutions are sensitive to the numerical mesh node locations. PMID:23882442

Parslew, Ben; Crowther, William J

2013-01-01

218

Radiation from an excited vortex in the Abelian Higgs model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An excited vortex in the Abelian Higgs model is investigated with the help of a polynomial approximation. The excitation consists of the longitudinal component of a vector field trapped by the vortex. The energy and profile of the excitation as well as its back reaction on the vortex are found in the case of small kappa. It turns out that

H. Arodz; L. Hadasz

1996-01-01

219

The effect of asymmetric vortex wake characteristics on a slender delta wing undergoing wing rock motion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation into the fluid mechanisms responsible for wing rock on a slender delta wing with 80 deg leading edge sweep has been conducted. Time history and flow visualization data are presented for a wide angle-of-attack range. The use of an air bearing spindle has allowed the motion of the wing to be free from bearing friction or mechanical hysteresis. A bistable static condition has been found in vortex breakdown at an angle of attack of 40 deg which causes an overshoot of the steady state rocking amplitude. Flow visualization experiments also reveal a difference in static and dynamic breakdown locations on the wing. A hysteresis loop in dynamic breakdown location similar to that seen on pitching delta wings was observed as the wing was undergoing the limit cycle oscillation.

Arena, A. S., Jr.; Nelson, R. C.

1989-01-01

220

A Neuron-Based Model of Sleep-Wake Cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years it was discovered that a neuropeptide orexin/hypocretin plays a main role in sleep processes. This peptide is produced by the neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, which project to almost all brain areas. We present a computational model of sleep-wake cycles, which is based on the Hodgkin-Huxley type neurons and considers reciprocal glutaminergic projections between the lateral hypothalamus and the prefrontal cortex. Orexin is released as a neuromodulator and is required to keep the neurons firing, which corresponds to the wake state. When orexin is depleted the neurons are getting silent as observed in the sleep state. They can be reactivated by the circadian signal from the suprachiasmatic nucleus and/or external stimuli (alarm clock). Orexin projections to the thalamocortical neurons also can account for their transition from tonic firing activity during wakefulness to synchronized burst discharges during sleep.

Postnova, Svetlana; Peters, Achim; Braun, Hans

2008-03-01

221

Finite difference modeling of rotor flows including wake effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rotary wing finite difference methods are investigated. The main concern is the specification of boundary conditions to properly account for the effect of the wake on the blade. Examples are given of an approach where wake effects are introduced by specifying an equivalent angle of attack. An alternate approach is also given where discrete vortices are introduced into the finite difference grid. The resulting computations of hovering and high advance ratio cases compare well with experiment. Some consideration is also given to the modeling of low to moderate advance ratio flows.

Caradonna, F. X.; Desopper, A.; Tung, C.

1982-01-01

222

High resolution numerical modeling of mesoscale island wakes and sensitivity to static topographic relief data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent decades have witnessed a drastic increase in the fidelity of numerical weather prediction (NWP) modeling. Currently, both research-grade and operational NWP models regularly perform simulations with horizontal grid spacings as fine as 1 km. This migration towards higher resolution potentially improves NWP model solutions by increasing the resolvability of mesoscale processes and reducing dependency on empirical physics parameterizations. However, at the same time, the accuracy of high-resolution simulations, particularly in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), are also sensitive to orographic forcing which can have significant variability on the same spatial scale as, or smaller than, NWP model grids. Despite this sensitivity, many high resolution atmospheric simulations do not consider uncertainty with respect to selection of static terrain height dataset. In this paper, we use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate realistic cases of lower tropospheric flow over and downstream of mountainous islands using both the default global 30 s United States Geographic Survey terrain height dataset (GTOPO30) and the 3 s Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) terrain height dataset. Our results demonstrate cases where the differences between GTOPO30-based and SRTM-based model terrain height are significant enough to produce entirely different orographic wake mechanics, such as vortex shedding vs. no vortex shedding. These results are also compared to MODIS visible satellite imagery and highlight the importance of considering uncertain static boundary conditions when running high-resolution mesoscale models.

Nunalee, C. G.; Horváth, Á.; Basu, S.

2015-03-01

223

Commercial aircraft wake vortices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the problem of wake vortices shed by commercial aircraft. It presents a consolidated European view on the current status of knowledge of the nature and characteristics of aircraft wakes and of technical and operational procedures of minimizing and predicting the vortex strength and avoiding wake encounters. Methodological aspects of data evaluation and interpretation, like the description of

Thomas Gerza; Frank Holz

224

Feedback control of the cylinder wake using balanced reduced order models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feedback control is most successful when an accurate model of the system-to-be-controlled is available. For fluids, this can be achieved using a reduced order model which is balanced (meaning the input-output behaviour is properly captured). With this in mind, we consider feedback control of the cylinder wake in low Reynolds number simulations. Actuation is via blowing and suction on the cylinder's surface, and a single velocity sensor in the wake is used. Balanced reduced order models are formed using the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA) at a number of Reynolds numbers. The reduced order models, validated by comparing their impulse responses to the full system, are then used in two ways. First, the "gain window" phenomenon seen in previous feedback control studies is reproduced (and therefore explained) by the models. We see that this gain window shrinks with increasing Reynolds number, the consequence being that feedback control with a simple proportional gain is not possible at higher Reynolds numbers. Second, H? loop-shaping techniques are used to design "dynamic" controllers that are effective at higher Reynolds numbers, achieving complete suppression of vortex shedding at Reynolds numbers in excess of 100.

Illingworth, Simon; Naito, Hiroshi; Fukagata, Koji

2010-11-01

225

Thrust-augmented vortex attenuation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the vortex attenuating effect of engine thrust. Tests were made using a 0.03-scale model of the Boeing 747 transport aircraft as a vortex generating model. A Learjet-class probe model was used to measure the vortex induced rolling moment at a scale separation distance of 1.63 km. These tests were conducted at a lift coefficient of 1.4 at a model velocity of 30.48 m/s. The data presented indicate that engine thrust is effective as a vortex attenuating device when the engines are operated at high thrust levels and are positioned to direct the high energy engine wake into the core of the vortex. The greatest thrust vortex attenuation was obtained by operating the inboard engine thrust reversers at one-quarter thrust and the outboard engines at maximum forward thrust.

Patterson, J. C., Jr.; Jordan, F. L., Jr.

1977-01-01

226

Wake model for helicopter rotors in high speed flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two alternative approaches are developed to calculate blade-vortex interaction airloads on helicopter rotors: second order lifting-line theory, and a lifting surface theory correction. The common approach of using a larger vortex core radius to account for lifting-surface effects is quantified. The second order lifting-line theory also improves the modeling of yawed flow and swept tips. Calculated results are compared with wind tunnel measurements of lateral flapping, and with flight test measurements of blade section lift on SA349/2 and H-34 helicopter rotors. The tip vortex core radius required for good correlation with the flight test data is about 20 percent chord, which is within the range of measured viscous core sizes for helicopter rotors.

Johnson, Wayne R.

1988-01-01

227

On the need of nonlinear control for efficient model-based wake stabilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mitigation of oscillatory vortex shedding behind a cylinder is chosen as a well-investigated benchmark problem to compare model-based feedback flow control approaches. The flow is sensed by a single velocity signal in the wake and is manipulated via a single volume force actuator. A low-dimensional proper orthogonal decomposition Galerkin model is adopted as a control-oriented fluid flow representation. An extended Kalman filter is used as an effective means for online dynamic state estimation. Investigated strategies of linear and nonlinear controller design include pole placement, linear parameter-varying, input-output linearization, Lyapunov-based backstepping, and nonlinear model predictive control. These strategies are applicable to a large class of flows with oscillatory dynamics and to experimental conditions, where variants have already been used. Controllers are evaluated and compared based on their application to the full plant, that is, to the direct numerical simulation of the wake, emulating an experiment with a single hot-wire sensor. Overall, nonlinear closed-loop control is shown to be distinctly superior to linear approaches. As is often the case, physics dictates a similarity of successful control commands, irrespective of the design approach, and differentiates these controllers, as a group, from less successful approaches.

Aleksi?-Roeßner, Katarina; King, Rudibert; Lehmann, Oliver; Tadmor, Gilead; Morzy?ski, Marek

2014-02-01

228

Field measurements in the wake of a model wind turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a first step to study the dynamics of a wind farm' we experimentally explored the flow field behind a single wind turbine of diameter 1.17 m at a hub height of 6.25 m. A 10 m tower upstream of the wind farm characterizes the atmospheric conditions and its influence on the wake evolution. A vertical rake of sonic anemometers is clustered around the hub height on a second tower' 6D downstream of the turbine. We present preliminary observations from a 1- hour block of data recorded in near-neutral atmospheric conditions. The ratio of the standard deviation of power to the inflow velocity is greater than three' revealing adverse effects of inflow turbulence on the power and load fluctuations. Furthermore' the wake defect and Reynolds stress and its gradient are pronounced at 6D. The flux of energy due to Reynolds stresses is similar to that reported in wind tunnel studies. The swirl and mixing produces a constant temperature wake which results in a density jump across the wake interface. Further field measurements will explore the dynamics of a model wind farm' including the effects of atmospheric variability.

Pol, Suhas; Taylor, Amelia; Bilbao, Argenis; Doostalab, Ali; Novoa, Santiago; Westergaard, Carsten; Hussain, Fazle; Sheng, Jian; Ren, Beibei; Giesselmann, Michael; Glauser, Mark; Castillo, Luciano

2014-06-01

229

Characterization of a wind turbine model for wake aerodynamics studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model wind turbine has been designed at the University of Hamburg within the scope of the FP7 fundend project WAUDIT. The purpose of the experiment described in this paper is to characterize the performances of two rotors by means of measuring the thrust coefficient Ct. Ct is a similarity parameter for the wake and is thought to be the most effective one. Its value has been directly measured using a force balance and indirectly calculated from the velocity profiles measured three diameters downstream of the rotor with hot wire anemometry. Results show that, in order to reproduce the wake behaviour, the matching of the Ct, which is a quantitative achievement, has to be integrated with measurements such as velocity profiles in the wake. In fact the velocity deficit illustrates the mechanism of transforming the axial momentum into torque assuring qualitatively the proper reproduction of the wake. This latter information assures that the achievement of a certain thrust force acting on the rotor is due to its performances in transforming the axial momentum into torque and not an effect of other phenomena such as a stall at the blades.

Cuzzola, Francesco; Aubrun, Sandrine; Leitl, Bernd

2014-12-01

230

Cylinder wakes in flowing soap films.  

PubMed

We present an experimental characterization of cylinder wakes in flowing soap films. From instantaneous velocity and thickness fields, we find the vortex-shedding frequency, mean-flow velocity, and mean-film thickness. Using the empirical relationship between the Reynolds and Strouhal numbers obtained for cylinder wakes in three dimensions, we estimate the effective soap-film viscosity and its dependence on film thickness. We also compare the decay of vorticity with that in a simple Rankine vortex model with a dissipative term to account for air drag. PMID:11970100

Vorobieff, P; Ecke, R E

1999-09-01

231

Cylinder wakes in flowing soap films  

SciTech Connect

We present an experimental characterization of cylinder wakes in flowing soap films. From instantaneous velocity and thickness fields, we find the vortex-shedding frequency, mean-flow velocity, and mean-film thickness. Using the empirical relationship between the Reynolds and Strouhal numbers obtained for cylinder wakes in three dimensions, we estimate the effective soap-film viscosity and its dependence on film thickness. We also compare the decay of vorticity with that in a simple Rankine vortex model with a dissipative term to account for air drag. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

Vorobieff, P.; Ecke, R.E. (Center for Nonlinear Studies, Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)); Vorobieff, P. (Dynamic Experimentation Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States))

1999-09-01

232

Wind flow characteristics in the wakes of large wind turbines. Volume 1: Analytical model development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer program to calculate the wake downwind of a wind turbine was developed. Turbine wake characteristics are useful for determining optimum arrays for wind turbine farms. The analytical model is based on the characteristics of a turbulent coflowing jet with modification for the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The program calculates overall wake characteristics, wind profiles, and power recovery for

W. R. Eberle

1981-01-01

233

Survey of modelling methods for wind turbine wakes and wind farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview and analysis of different wake-modelling methods which may be used as prediction and design tools for both wind turbines and wind farms. We also survey the available data concerning the measurement of wind magnitudes in both single wakes and wind farms, and of loading effects on wind turbines under single- and multiple-wake conditions. The relative

A. Crespo; J. Hernández; S. Frandsen

1999-01-01

234

A Critical Review of the Transport and Decay of Wake Vortices in Ground Effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the transport and decay of wake vortices in ground effect and cites a need for a physics-based parametric model. The encounter of a vortex with a solid body is always a complex event involving turbulence enhancement, unsteadiness, and very large gradients of velocity and pressure. Wake counter in ground effect is the most dangerous of them all. The interaction of diverging, area-varying, and decaying aircraft wake vortices with the ground is very complex because both the vortices and the flow field generated by them are altered to accommodate the presence of the ground (where there is very little room to maneuver) and the background turbulent flow. Previous research regarding vortex models, wake vortex decay mechanisms, time evolution within in ground effect of a wake vortex pair, laminar flow in ground effect, and the interaction of the existing boundary layer with a convected vortex are reviewed. Additionally, numerical simulations, 3-dimensional large-eddy simulations, a probabilistic 2-phase wake vortex decay and transport model and a vortex element method are discussed. The devising of physics-based, parametric models for the prediction of (operational) real-time response, mindful of the highly three-dimensional and unsteady structure of vortices, boundary layers, atmospheric thermodynamics, and weather convective phenomena is required. In creating a model, LES and field data will be the most powerful tools.

Sarpkaya, T.

2004-01-01

235

Vortex Lattice Modelling of Winglets on Wind Turbine Blades  

E-print Network

. The main focus is on development of methods for prediction the performance of turbine blades with wingletsVortex Lattice Modelling of Winglets on Wind Turbine Blades Mads Døssing Risø-R-1621(EN) Risø Title: Vortex Lattice Modelling of Winglets on Wind Turbine Blades Departments: Wind Energy Department

236

Radiation from Excited Vortex in the Abelian Higgs Model  

E-print Network

Excitation of a vortex in the Abelian Higgs model is investigated with the help of a polynomial approximation. The excitation can be regarded as a longitudinal component of the vector field trapped by the vortex. The energy and profile of the excitation are found. Back-reaction of the excitation on the vortex is calculated in the small $\\kappa$ limit. It turns out that in the presence of the excitation the vortex effectively becomes much wider - its radius oscillates in time and for all times it is not smaller than the radius of the unexcited vortex. Moreover, we find that the vector field of the excited vortex has long range radiative component. Bound on the amplitude of the excitation is also found.

H. Arodz; L. Hadasz

1995-06-03

237

Radiation from excited vortex in the abelian Higgs model  

E-print Network

Excitation of a vortex in the Abelian Higgs model is investigated with the help of a polynomial approximation. The excitation can be regarded as a longitudinal component of the vector field trapped by the vortex. The energy and profile of the excitation are found. Back-reaction of the excitation on the vortex is calculated in the small \\kappa limit. It turns out that in the presence of the excitation the vortex effectively becomes much wider - its radius oscillates in time and for all times it is not smaller than the radius of the unexcited vortex. Moreover, we find that the vector field of the excited vortex has long range radiative component. Bound on the amplitude of the excitation is also found.

Arodz, H

1996-01-01

238

Radiation from an excited vortex in the Abelian Higgs model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An excited vortex in the Abelian Higgs model is investigated with the help of a polynomial approximation. The excitation consists of the longitudinal component of a vector field trapped by the vortex. The energy and profile of the excitation as well as its back reaction on the vortex are found in the case of small ?. It turns out that the width of the excited vortex oscillates in time. Moreover, the vector field has a radiative long range component. Also, an upper bound on the amplitude of the excitation is found.

Arod?, H.; Hadasz, L.

1996-09-01

239

Radiation from an excited vortex in the Abelian Higgs model  

SciTech Connect

An excited vortex in the Abelian Higgs model is investigated with the help of a polynomial approximation. The excitation consists of the longitudinal component of a vector field trapped by the vortex. The energy and profile of the excitation as well as its back reaction on the vortex are found in the case of small {kappa}. It turns out that the width of the excited vortex oscillates in time. Moreover, the vector field has a radiative long range component. Also, an upper bound on the amplitude of the excitation is found. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Arodz, H.; Hadasz, L. [Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)] [Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

1996-09-01

240

Wind flow characteristics in the wakes of large wind turbines. Volume 1: Analytical model development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program to calculate the wake downwind of a wind turbine was developed. Turbine wake characteristics are useful for determining optimum arrays for wind turbine farms. The analytical model is based on the characteristics of a turbulent coflowing jet with modification for the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The program calculates overall wake characteristics, wind profiles, and power recovery for a wind turbine directly in the wake of another turbine, as functions of distance downwind of the turbine. The calculation procedure is described in detail, and sample results are presented to illustrate the general behavior of the wake and the effects of principal input parameters.

Eberle, W. R.

1981-01-01

241

Modeling Vortex Generators in a Navier-Stokes Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A source-term model that simulates the effects of vortex generators was implemented into the Wind-US Navier-Stokes code. The source term added to the Navier-Stokes equations simulates the lift force that would result from a vane-type vortex generator in the flowfield. The implementation is user-friendly, requiring the user to specify only three quantities for each desired vortex generator: the range of grid points over which the force is to be applied and the planform area and angle of incidence of the physical vane. The model behavior was evaluated for subsonic flow in a rectangular duct with a single vane vortex generator, subsonic flow in an S-duct with 22 corotating vortex generators, and supersonic flow in a rectangular duct with a counter-rotating vortex-generator pair. The model was also used to successfully simulate microramps in supersonic flow by treating each microramp as a pair of vanes with opposite angles of incidence. The validation results indicate that the source-term vortex-generator model provides a useful tool for screening vortex-generator configurations and gives comparable results to solutions computed using gridded vanes.

Dudek, Julianne C.

2011-01-01

242

Time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of vortex and shear layer dynamics in the near wake of a tethered sphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coupling between shear layer, near wake dynamics, and structural oscillations downstream of a tethered spherical pendulum undergoing vortex induced vibrations (VIV) has been experimentally investigated using time-resolved particle image velocimetry in a wind tunnel. One quarter of the sphere was imaged in the field of view (spatial resolution 0.043D) that extended to 1.17D from the sphere's center (D is the sphere diameter). Reynolds numbers based on D, ranged between 493 ? Re ? 2218 and reduced velocities between 3.18 ? U* ? 14.1, covering a non-oscillating sphere, periodic oscillations, and the onset of non-stationary sphere oscillations. After the first Hopf bifurcation, the sphere exhibited large amplitude periodic oscillations and the near-wake vortices periodically interacted with the sphere and flapping shear layer. At U* = 5.97, a "secondary" counterclockwise rotating vortex seemed to facilitate shear layer pinch-off. In agreement with the onset of shear layer instabilities for a stationary sphere, only at Re = 2218 power spectra of velocity fluctuations inside the shear layer indicated a weak, broad frequency peak centered at 15 Hz similar as those measured for stationary cylinders and spheres. This peak was consistent with the results of linear instability theory indicating that despite the inherent three-dimensionality of the shear layer, its instability characteristics (at least for the Re investigated here) can be considered to be quasi-two-dimensional. Small-scale, near-wake structures were observed in the instantaneous swirling strength maps at all U* and it is conjectured here that their interaction with the sphere and separating shear layer is the feedback mechanism through which VIV occurs and is sustained.

van Hout, R.; Katz, A.; Greenblatt, D.

2013-07-01

243

Modeling Vortex Generators in the Wind-US Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A source term model which simulates the effects of vortex generators was implemented into the Wind-US Navier Stokes code. The source term added to the Navier-Stokes equations simulates the lift force which would result from a vane-type vortex generator in the flowfield. The implementation is user-friendly, requiring the user to specify only three quantities for each desired vortex generator: the range of grid points over which the force is to be applied and the planform area and angle of incidence of the physical vane. The model behavior was evaluated for subsonic flow in a rectangular duct with a single vane vortex generator, supersonic flow in a rectangular duct with a counterrotating vortex generator pair, and subsonic flow in an S-duct with 22 co-rotating vortex generators. The validation results indicate that the source term vortex generator model provides a useful tool for screening vortex generator configurations and gives comparable results to solutions computed using a gridded vane.

Dudek, Julianne C.

2010-01-01

244

Linear and Nonlinear Vortex Motion in an Asymmetric Balance Shallow Water Model.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work extends asymmetric balance (AB) theory to the beta plane (-AB). The physical problem examined is the motion of a coherent vortex on a beta plane in a finite depth fluid in the absence of an environmental steering flow. A useful attribute of the -AB formulation is that it allows one to separate the linear and nonlinear balance contributions to the vortex motion when the standard Rossby number is not small compared to unity. It is therefore well suited for testing the hurricane-motion paradigm proposed by Willoughby for equivalent barotropic dynamics.The -AB model is formulated first for linear shallow water dynamics on a circular vortex forced by the meridional gradient of planetary vorticity (the beta effect) in an earth-based coordinate system. The linear dynamics precludes wave-wave and wave-mean flow interactions. From incipient vortices to hurricanes, the -AB model correctly develops the wavenumber-one asymmetries (the `beta' gyres) necessary for vortex self-advection. Cyclonic vortices move in a northwestward direction consistent with their relative strengths. In contrast to Willoughby's predictions of a persistent acceleration in the linear problem, numerical simulations with the linear -AB model suggest that finite drift speeds are always attained in a finite depth fluid. The present findings extend the theoretical predictions of a finite linear drift speed for stable quasigeostrophic vortices by Sutyrin and Flierl to the case of stable vortices in gradient wind balance. No evidence of a translating normal mode of zero frequency (other than the pseudo mode) is found when the beta forcing is switched off.Nonlinear dynamics are considered next by adding the nonlinear quasigeostrophic terms to the linear balance system so that wave-wave and wave-mean flow interactions are included. Consistent with other works, asymptotic drift speeds are reduced from their linear values. Vortices develop an anticyclonic circulation in the vortex periphery and shed a Rossby wave wake in their environment. The sensitivity of vortex tracks with respect to azimuthal-wavenumber truncation is also investigated for the purposes of determining the minimal number of azimuthal modes required to make accurate long-time motion forecasts. While total relative angular momentum and eddy potential vorticity fluxes are known to be useful aids for interpreting changes in the vortex structure and intensity, the authors show in contrast to Willoughby that they give little insight into the behavior of vortex tracks at long times.

Montgomery, Michael T.; Möller, J. Dominique; Nicklas, Christopher T.

1999-03-01

245

The modelling of symmetric airfoil vortex generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study is conducted to determine the dependence of vortex generator geometry and impinging flow conditions on shed vortex circulation and crossplane peak vorticity for one type of vortex generator. The vortex generator is a symmetric airfoil having a NACA 0012 cross-sectional profile. The geometry and flow parameters varied include angle-of-attack alfa, chordlength c, span h, and Mach number M. The vortex generators are mounted either in isolation or in a symmetric counter-rotating array configuration on the inside surface of a straight pipe. The turbulent boundary layer thickness to pipe radius ratio is delta/R = 0. 17. Circulation and peak vorticity data are derived from crossplane velocity measurements conducted at or about 1 chord downstream of the vortex generator trailing edge. Shed vortex circulation is observed to be proportional to M, alfa, and h/delta. With these parameters held constant, circulation is observed to fall off in monotonic fashion with increasing airfoil aspect ratio AR. Shed vortex peak vorticity is also observed to be proportional to M, alfa, and h/delta. Unlike circulation, however, peak vorticity is observed to increase with increasing aspect ratio, reaching a peak value at AR approx. 2.0 before falling off.

Reichert, B. A.; Wendt, B. J.

1996-01-01

246

Vortex  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a tornado in a bottle to observe a spiraling, funnel-shaped vortex. A simple connector device allows water to drain from a 2-liter bottle into a second bottle. Learners can observe the whirling water and then repeat the process by inverting the bottle. Use this activity to talk about surface tension, pressure, gravity, friction, angular momentum, and centripetal force.

2012-06-26

247

Impacts of Wake Effect and Time Delay on the Dynamic Analysis of Wind Farms Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the impacts of proper modeling of the wake effects and wind speed delays, between different wind turbines' rows, on the dynamic performance accuracy of the wind farms models. Three different modeling scenarios were compared to highlight the impacts of wake effects and wind speed time-delay models. In the first scenario,…

El-Fouly, Tarek H. M.; El-Saadany, Ehab F.; Salama, Magdy M. A.

2008-01-01

248

Computational Modeling of Vortex Generators for Turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this work computational models were developed and used to investigate applications of vortex generators (VGs) to turbomachinery. The work was aimed at increasing the efficiency of compressor components designed for the NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program. Initial calculations were used to investigate the physical behavior of VGs. A parametric study of the effects of VG height was done using 3-D calculations of isolated VGs. A body force model was developed to simulate the effects of VGs without requiring complicated grids. The model was calibrated using 2-D calculations of the VG vanes and was validated using the 3-D results. Then three applications of VGs to a compressor rotor and stator were investigated: 1) The results of the 3-D calculations were used to simulate the use of small casing VGs used to generate rotor preswirl or counterswirl. Computed performance maps were used to evaluate the effects of VGs. 2) The body force model was used to simulate large part-span splitters on the casing ahead of the stator. Computed loss buckets showed the effects of the VGs. 3) The body force model was also used to investigate the use of tiny VGs on the stator suction surface for controlling secondary flows. Near-surface particle traces and exit loss profiles were used to evaluate the effects of the VGs.

Chima, R. V.

2002-01-01

249

Lumped parameter models of vortex induced vibration with application to the design of aquatic energy harvester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, a lumped parameter model for vortex-induced vibrations is analysed. In this work, the vortex-induced vibrations of an elastically mounted rigid cylinder are able to move in-line and transverse to the flow with equal mass ratio and natural frequencies. A simplified lumped mass model is proposed to study the two degree of freedom (dof) structural oscillator. A classical van der Pol equation along with acceleration coupling, models the near wake dynamics describing the fluctuating nature of vortex shedding. The model dynamics is investigated analytically and the results are compared for moderate mass ratios. The results predicted using this model show a good agreement with the experimental data. The dependence of stream-wise displacement on mass and damping is explored. The cause of cross-flow displacement magnification due to freedom to move in stream-wise direction is also explored using the proposed model. Apart from these two degrees of freedom, the cylinder can also undergo rotation about its centre of mass. The effect of freedom to move in this rotational degree of freedom is exploited to our advantage by applying it to the VIVACE (Vortex induced vibration aquatic clean energy) design which was originally proposed by Bernitsas et al. (2008). The original design was not reported to be the optimal one and the set-up was shown to work only for a given flow velocity. But, the flow environment keeps changing and hence there is a need to bring in robustness and optimize the proposed design. The values of optimized spring stiffness have been found using the lumped mass model. The design is made robust by exploiting the rotational mode. This mode is triggered by varying the overhang lengths in accordance with the varying flow velocity in order to strike resonance for a certain flow regime.

Dhanwani, Manish A.; Sarkar, Abhijit; Patnaik, B. S. V.

2013-11-01

250

APPLICATION OF A STATE-SPACE WAKE MODEL TO TILTROTOR WING UNSTEADY AERODYNAMICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Peters\\/He Finite State Wake Model is described in its application to fixed wing aerolasticity. Expressions for coupling this model with a wing, aerodynamically represented by a flat plate with a trailing edge flap, are developed, and fidelity issues are discussed. An application is presented where the wing\\/wake system is coupled to a proprotor model. The effects of unsteady wing

Martin Stettner; Daniel P. Schrage; David A. Peters

1994-01-01

251

An adaptive continuation-multigrid method for the balanced vortex model$  

E-print Network

.1. Balanced vortex model Consider the motion of a circularly symmetric vortex, expressed in cylin- dricalAn adaptive continuation-multigrid method for the balanced vortex model$ Ye Chen, Scott R. Fulton of the Eliassen balanced vortex model requires solving an invertibility relation, which is a nonlinear elliptic

Fulton, Scott R.

252

A prescribed wake rotor inflow and flow field prediction analysis, user's manual and technical approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A user's manual is provided which includes the technical approach for the Prescribed Wake Rotor Inflow and Flow Field Prediction Analysis. The analysis is used to provide the rotor wake induced velocities at the rotor blades for use in blade airloads and response analyses and to provide induced velocities at arbitrary field points such as at a tail surface. This analysis calculates the distribution of rotor wake induced velocities based on a prescribed wake model. Section operating conditions are prescribed from blade motion and controls determined by a separate blade response analysis. The analysis represents each blade by a segmented lifting line, and the rotor wake by discrete segmented trailing vortex filaments. Blade loading and circulation distributions are calculated based on blade element strip theory including the local induced velocity predicted by the numerical integration of the Biot-Savart Law applied to the vortex wake model.

Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.

1982-01-01

253

Sound Generation by Aircraft Wake Vortices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides an extensive analysis of potential wake vortex noise sources that might be utilized to aid in their tracking. Several possible mechanisms of aircraft vortex sound generation are examined on the basis of discrete vortex dynamic models and characteristic acoustic signatures calculated by application of vortex sound theory. It is shown that the most robust mechanisms result in very low frequency infrasound. An instability of the vortex core structure is discussed and shown to be a possible mechanism for generating higher frequency sound bordering the audible frequency range. However, the frequencies produced are still low and cannot explain the reasonably high-pitched sound that has occasionally been observed experimentally. Since the robust mechanisms appear to generate only very low frequency sound, infrasonic tracking of the vortices may be warranted.

Hardin, Jay C.; Wang, Frank Y.

2003-01-01

254

Hot jet/wake turbulent structure and laser propagaion. Part 1: Jet/wake turbulence modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prediction of laser propagation through the hot turbulent exhaust of an aircraft (or missile) requires knowledge of the detailed turbulent structure, and in particular, density/temperature fluctuations and inner/outer turbulent scales. The ability to predict the mean flow structure of round turbulent jets in an isolated environment has now become well established including hot jets and supersonic jets. However, the ability to predict density or temperature fluctuations and inner scales is poorly established, as is the ability to predict jet interactions with the aerodynamic vorticity (e.g. with the wing-tip vortex). A three-tier program of work has been in progress to enhance our understanding of the turbulent structure in hot jets and its influence on laser propagation. In Part 1 of this paper, the turbulence modeling activities will be described whose basis is the new data being generated at NASA LaRC, to be described in Part 2 of this paper. The kappa epsilon turbulence model and 'g' scalar-fluctuation extension have been implemented in this work. The coefficients of the g-equation have been revised in accordance with new temperature fluctuation data for hot, subsonic jets into still air. Data is now being gathered for hot jets in a co-flow which interact with wing-tip vortices. The inclusion of the g-equation into a Navier-Stokes framework and its analysis of this complex jet data for which detailed turbulence statistics will be available will comprise the main part of this paper. The utility of direct numerical simulation (LES approach to be described in paper by Sinha and Dash) to provide additional insight into this complex problem will also be discussed. Part 2 of this paper discusses the new data, the measurement techniques, and the complexities entailed in data reduction. Part 3 discusses the military applications (laser countermeasures), new laser propagation data through hot jets (as well as new atmospheric turbulence data), and predictive methodology.

Dash, Sandy M.; Kenzakowski, D. C.

1994-10-01

255

System Identification of a Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state-space presentation of an aerodynamic vortex model is considered from a classical and system identification perspective. Using an aerodynamic vortex model as a numerical simulator of a wing tunnel experiment, both full state and limited state data or measurements are considered. Two possible approaches for system identification are presented and modal controllability and observability are also considered. The theory then is applied to the system identification of a flow over an aerodynamic delta wing and typical results are presented.

Juang, Jer-Nan; Kholodar, Denis; Dowell, Earl H.

2001-01-01

256

Time-resolved volumetric particle tracking velocimetry of large-scale vortex structures from the reattachment region of a laminar separation bubble to the wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper presents time-resolved volumetric Particle Tracking Velocimetry measurements in a water towing tank on a SD7003 airfoil, performed at a Reynolds number of 60,000 and a 4° angle of attack. The SD7003 airfoil was chosen because of its long mid-chord and stable laminar separation bubble (LSB), occurring on the suction side of the airfoil at low Reynolds numbers. The present study focuses on the temporal resolution of unsteady large-scale vortex structures emitted from the LSB. In contrast to other studies, where only the observation of the flow in the transition region was examined, the entire flow from the leading edge to the far wake of the airfoil was investigated here.

Wolf, E.; Kähler, C. J.; Troolin, D. R.; Kykal, C.; Lai, W.

2011-04-01

257

Information Requirements for Supervisory Air Traffic Controllers in Support of a Mid-Term Wake Vortex Departure System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept focusing on wind dependent departure operations has been developed the current version of this concept is called the Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Departures (WTMD). This concept takes advantage the fact that cross winds of sufficient velocity blow wakes generated by "heavy" and B757 category aircraft on the downwind runway away from the upwind runway. Supervisory Air Traffic Controllers would be responsible for authorization of the Procedure. An investigation of the information requirements necessary to for Supervisors to approve monitor and terminate the Procedure was conducted. Results clearly indicated that the requisite information is currently available in air traffic control towers and that additional information was not required.

Lohr, Gary W.; Williams, Daniel M.; Trujillo, Anna C.; Johnson, Edward J.; Domino, David A.

2008-01-01

258

Modeling of Fine Stratified Wake and Internal Waves Structures Past Obstacles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the talk is to describe a fine flow structure formation in a continuously stratified fluid past uniformly moving obstacles basing on analytical and numerical analysis of set of fundamental governing equations and on visualization of flows by sensitive and high resolution instruments. Mathematical modeling is based on the set of fundamental governing equations including continuity, Navier-Stokes, transport of substances and the state equation with standard no-slip and no-flux boundary conditions for given particular geometry of the problem. At the first step transient diffusion induced flows on a motionless body of perfect shape (plane, cylinder or sphere) are calculated and basic components of the flow are identified. A fine structure of velocity and density fields of the diffusion-induced flow is analyzed. Flows produced by uniformly moving obstacles are calculated in linear approximation taking into account viscosity effects. Analytical calculations reveals set of regular and singular disturbed components describing internal waves, wake and upstream disturbances if a wide ranges of flow parameters. Large number of experiments with different towing bodies in stratified tanks was performed in a wide range of flow parameters. Conditions of well mutual correspondence of analytical, numerical and experimental results are defined. Formation of transverse streaky structures on obstacles and inside the wake and their transformation firstly into sequence of clusters and then into vortex systems is observed. Formation of singular soaring interfaces inside internal wave fields past 2D obstacles ad their gradual transformation into vortices is visualized. Soaring interfaces looks like infinitesimal analogues of shock waves. Due to physics of their formation soaring interfaces are acting as attractors and collectors of contaminants and producing a great impact on redistribution of concentration of diffusive clouds. Data extrapolation on the environmental conditions is discussed.

Bardakov, R. N.; Chashechkin, Y. D.; Mitkin, V. V.

2007-12-01

259

Influence of Wake Models on Calculated Tiltrotor Aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tiltrotor aircraft configuration has the potential to revolutionize air transportation by providing an economical combination of vertical take-off and landing capability with efficient, high-speed cruise flight. To achieve this potential it is necessary to have validated analytical tools that will support future tiltrotor aircraft development. These analytical tools must calculate tiltrotor aeromechanical behavior, including performance, structural loads, vibration, and aeroelastic stability, with an accuracy established by correlation with measured tiltrotor data. The recent test of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) with a single,l/4-scale V-22 rotor in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW) provides an extensive set of aeroacoustic, performance, and structural loads data. This paper will examine the influence of wake models on calculated tiltrotor aerodynamics, comparing calculations of performance and airloads with TRAM DNW measurements. The calculations will be performed using the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II.

Johnson, Wayne

2001-01-01

260

Extension and validation of an unsteady wake model for rotors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new three-dimensional, finite-state induced-flow model is extended to treat nonlinearities associated with the mass flow induced through the rotor plane. This new theory is then applied to the correlation of a recent set of unsteady, hover laser Doppler velocimetry inflow measurements conducted in the Aeroelastic Rotor Test Chamber at Georgia Institute of Technology. Although the model is intended primarily as a representation of unsteady aerodynamics for aeroelasticity applications, the results show that it has an excellent capability in predicting the inflow distribution in hover except near the root and tip. In addition, the computed unsteady spanwise lift distribution of a rotor is compared with that from an unsteady vortex lattice method for pitch oscillations at various frequencies. The new model is shown to be capable of prediction of unsteady loads typical of aeroelastic response.

Su, AY; Yoo, Kyung M.; Peters, David A.

1992-01-01

261

Evaluation of Aircraft Wing-Tip Vortex Using PIV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation and development of a wing-tip vortex in a near and extended near filed were studied experimentally. Particle image velocimetry was used in a wind tunnel to measure the tip vortex velocity field and hence investigate the flow structure in a wake of aircraft half-wing model. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the main features of the lift generated vortices in order to find ways to alleviate hazardous wake vortex encounters for follower airplanes during start and approach such that the increase in airport capacity can be achieved. First the wake structure at successive downstream planes crosswise to the axis of the wake vortices was investigated by measuring parameters such as core radius, maximum tangential velocities, vorticities and circulation distributions. The effect of different angles of attack setting on vortex parameters was examined at one downstream location. In very early stages the vortex sheet evolution makes the tip vortex to move inward and to the suction side of the wing. While the core radius and circulation distributions hardly vary with the downstream distance, noticeable differences for the same vortex parameters at different angles of attack settings were observed. The center of the wing tip vortices scatter in a circle of radius nearly equal to 1% of the mean wing chord and wandering amplitudes shows no direct dependence on the vortex strength but linearly increase with the downstream distance.

Alsayed, Omer A.; Asrar, Waqar; Omar, Ashraf A.

2010-06-01

262

Investigation of Some Wake Vortex Characteristics of an Inclined Ogive-Cylinder Body at Mach Number 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For a body consisting of a fineness-ratio-3 ogival nose tangent to a cylindrical afterbody 7.3 diameters long, pitot-pressure distributions in the flow field, pressure distributions over the body, and downwash distributions along a line through the vortex centers have been measured for angles of attack to 20 degrees. The Reynolds numbers, based on body diameter, were 0.15 x 10 to the 6th power and 0.44 x 10 to the 6th power. Comparisons of computed and measured vortex paths and downwash distributions are made. (author)

Jorgensen, Leland H; Perkins, Edward W

1958-01-01

263

Point vortex model for prediction of sound generated by a wing with flap interacting with a passing vortex.  

PubMed

Acoustic signature of a rigid wing, equipped with a movable downstream flap and interacting with a line vortex, is studied in a two-dimensional low-Mach number flow. The flap is attached to the airfoil via a torsion spring, and the coupled fluid-structure interaction problem is analyzed using thin-airfoil methodology and application of the emended Brown and Michael equation. It is found that incident vortex passage above the airfoil excites flap motion at the system natural frequency, amplified above all other frequencies contained in the forcing vortex. Far-field radiation is analyzed using Powell-Howe analogy, yielding the leading order dipole-type signature of the system. It is shown that direct flap motion has a negligible effect on total sound radiation. The characteristic acoustic signature of the system is dominated by vortex sound, consisting of relatively strong leading and trailing edge interactions of the airfoil with the incident vortex, together with late-time wake sound resulting from induced flap motion. In comparison with the counterpart rigid (non-flapped) configuration, it is found that the flap may act as sound amplifier or absorber, depending on the value of flap-fluid natural frequency. The study complements existing analyses examining sound radiation in static- and detached-flap configurations. PMID:23556563

Manela, A; Huang, L

2013-04-01

264

Development of test methods for scale model simulation of aerial applications in the NASA Langley Vortex Research Facility. [agricultural aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of basic research to improve aerial applications technology, methods were developed at the Langley Vortex Research Facility to simulate and measure deposition patterns of aerially-applied sprays and granular materials by means of tests with small-scale models of agricultural aircraft and dynamically-scaled test particles. Interactions between the aircraft wake and the dispersed particles are being studied with the objective of modifying wake characteristics and dispersal techniques to increase swath width, improve deposition pattern uniformity, and minimize drift. The particle scaling analysis, test methods for particle dispersal from the model aircraft, visualization of particle trajectories, and measurement and computer analysis of test deposition patterns are described. An experimental validation of the scaling analysis and test results that indicate improved control of chemical drift by use of winglets are presented to demonstrate test methods.

Jordan, F. L., Jr.

1980-01-01

265

Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Arrivals (WTMA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Arrivals (WTMA) concept of operations is described in this paper. The WTMA concept provides further detail to work initiated by the Wake Vortex Avoidance System Concept Evaluation Team and is an evolution of the Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Departure concept. Anticipated benefits about reducing wake turbulence separation standards in crosswind conditions, and candidate WTMA system considerations are discussed.

Williams, Daniel M.; Lohr, Gary W.; Trujillo, Anna C.

2008-01-01

266

Applying canopy flow model for estimation of wind turbine wake  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the planning of large offshore wind farm the optimal spatial placing of wind turbines as well as wind farms relatively to each other is highly important to reduce the wake losses of energy. Conventional instrumental investigations of airflow characteristics around and inside an offshore wind farm aimed at understanding of far-wake behavior are very difficult and expensive. Computational fluid

A. Sogachev; H. E. Joergensen; J. Mann; S. Frandsen; S. Ott

2008-01-01

267

Comparison of wind turbine wake properties in non-uniform inflow predicted by different rotor models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wake of the 2MW NM80 wind turbine subject to non-uniform and laminar inflow conditions is simulated using CFD with a fully resolved rotor geometry, an actuator line method and actuator disc method, respectively and in all simulations the wake properties are compared. Based on the comparison the strengths and limitations of the models are pointed out.

Troldborg, Niels; Zahle, Frederik; Sřrensen, Niels N.; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan

2014-12-01

268

HIGH RESOLUTION WAKE MODELLING USING A SEMI-LAGRANGIAN ADAPTIVE GRID FORMULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current interest in improving numerical predictions of he- licopter rotor vibration and acoustic signature has driven a requirement to model blade aerodynamic loadings to ex- tremely high resolution. The problem is complicated by the complexity of the flow in the rotor wake and the diffi- culty in conserving vortical structures in the wake for long enough so that all important

A. J. Line; R. E. Brown

269

LIDAR measurements of wind turbine wake dyn_amics and comparison with an engineering model  

E-print Network

LIDAR measurements of wind turbine wake dyn_amics and comparison with an engineering model 1Slirenlents are performed with a LIDAR systelTI Inounted at the turbine nacelle pointing down strelllTl [1J. The 111 time series. The results demonstrate the potential of LIDAR systems for realisation of enhclllCed wake

270

Vortex dynamics and scalar transport in the wake of a bluff body driven through a steady recirculating flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air ventilation system in wide-body aircraft cabins provides passengers with a healthy breathing environment. In recent years, the increase in global air traffic has amplified contamination risks by airborne flu-like diseases and terrorist threats involving the onboard release of noxious materials. In particular, passengers moving through a ventilated cabin may transport infectious pathogens in their wake. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the wake produced by a bluff body driven through a steady recirculating flow. Data were obtained in a water facility using particle image velocimetry and planar laser induced fluorescence. Ventilation attenuated the downward convection of counter-rotating vortices produced near the free-end corners of the body and decoupled the downwash mechanism from forward entrainment, creating stagnant contaminant regions.

Poussou, Stephane B.; Plesniak, Michael W.

2012-09-01

271

A Physiologically Based Model of Orexinergic Stabilization of Sleep and Wake  

PubMed Central

The orexinergic neurons of the lateral hypothalamus (Orx) are essential for regulating sleep-wake dynamics, and their loss causes narcolepsy, a disorder characterized by severe instability of sleep and wake states. However, the mechanisms through which Orx stabilize sleep and wake are not well understood. In this work, an explanation of the stabilizing effects of Orx is presented using a quantitative model of important physiological connections between Orx and the sleep-wake switch. In addition to Orx and the sleep-wake switch, which is composed of mutually inhibitory wake-active monoaminergic neurons in brainstem and hypothalamus (MA) and the sleep-active ventrolateral preoptic neurons of the hypothalamus (VLPO), the model also includes the circadian and homeostatic sleep drives. It is shown that Orx stabilizes prolonged waking episodes via its excitatory input to MA and by relaying a circadian input to MA, thus sustaining MA firing activity during the circadian day. During sleep, both Orx and MA are inhibited by the VLPO, and the subsequent reduction in Orx input to the MA indirectly stabilizes sustained sleep episodes. Simulating a loss of Orx, the model produces dynamics resembling narcolepsy, including frequent transitions between states, reduced waking arousal levels, and a normal daily amount of total sleep. The model predicts a change in sleep timing with differences in orexin levels, with higher orexin levels delaying the normal sleep episode, suggesting that individual differences in Orx signaling may contribute to chronotype. Dynamics resembling sleep inertia also emerge from the model as a gradual sleep-to-wake transition on a timescale that varies with that of Orx dynamics. The quantitative, physiologically based model developed in this work thus provides a new explanation of how Orx stabilizes prolonged episodes of sleep and wake, and makes a range of experimentally testable predictions, including a role for Orx in chronotype and sleep inertia. PMID:24651580

Fulcher, Ben D.; Phillips, Andrew J. K.; Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A.

2014-01-01

272

Kinematics of flight and the relationship to the vortex wake of a Pallas' long tongued bat (Glossophaga soricina).  

PubMed

To obtain a full understanding of the aerodynamics of animal flight, the movement of the wings, the kinematics, needs to be connected to the wake left behind the animal. Here the detailed 3D wingbeat kinematics of bats, Glossophaga soricina, flying in a wind tunnel over a range of flight speeds (1-7 m s(-1)) was determined from high-speed video. The results were compared with the wake geometry and quantitative wake measurements obtained simultaneously to the kinematics. The wingbeat kinematics varied gradually with flight speed and reflected the changes observed in the wake of the bats. In particular, several of the kinematic parameters reflected the differences in the function of the upstroke at low and high flight speeds. At lower flight speeds the bats use a pitch-up rotation to produce a backward flick which creates thrust and some weight support. At higher speeds this mechanism disappears and the upstroke generates weight support but no thrust. This is reflected by the changes in e.g. angle of attack, span ratio, camber and downstroke ratio. We also determined how different parameters vary throughout a wingbeat over the flight speeds studied. Both the camber and the angle of attack varied over the wingbeat differently at different speeds, suggesting active control of these parameters to adjust to the changing aerodynamic conditions. This study of the kinematics strongly indicates that the flight of bats is governed by an unsteady high-lift mechanism at low flight speeds and points to differences between birds and bats. PMID:20511529

Wolf, Marta; Johansson, L Christoffer; von Busse, Rhea; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders

2010-06-15

273

NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System Development Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several systems to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These systems provide current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, and real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors. The goal of the NASA program is to provide the research and development to demonstrate an engineering model AVOSS in real-time operation at a major airport. The demonstration is only of concept feasibility, and additional effort is required to deploy an operational system for actual aircraft spacing reduction. This paper describes the AVOSS system architecture, a wake vortex facility established at the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW), initial operational experience with the AVOSS system, and emerging considerations for subsystem requirements. Results of the initial system operation suggest a significant potential for reduced spacing.

Hinton, David A.; Charnock, James K.; Bagwell, Donald R.; Grigsby, Donner

1999-01-01

274

The critical state - A trapped wave model of vortex breakdown.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model of vortex breakdown is presented, and its predictions are compared with the experiments of Sarpkaya (1971). The model is centered about a theory of long, weakly nonlinear waves propagating on critical flows in tubes of variable cross section. Although the weakly nonlinear theory must be extended beyond its domain of formal validity, many of the experimentally observed features of vortex breakdown are reproduced by the model. The description of the time evolution of the flowfield that is presented requires numerical calculations that are not simple, but some important conclusions may be determined by easy computations. In particular, the axial position of a breakdown may be found from a very simple equation.

Randall, J. D.; Leibovich, S.

1973-01-01

275

A vortex model for rotating compact objects  

E-print Network

A rotating stationary solution of the vacuum Einstein equations with a cosmological constant is exhibited which reduces to de Sitter's interior cosmological solution when the angular momentum goes to zero. This solution is locally isomorphic to de Sitter space, but as one approaches the axis of rotation a conical event horizon appears that signals the appearance of a new phase of space-time. This suggests that in reality rotating compact objects have a vortex structure similar to that conjectured for rotating superfluid droplets. In the limit of slow rotation the vortex core would be nearly cylindrical and the space-time inside the core would be Godel-like. The exterior space-time will resemble the Kerr solution for equatorial latitudes, but significant deviations from Kerr are expected for polar latitudes.

G. F. Chapline; P. Marecki

2008-09-10

276

NUMERICAL MODELING OF VORTEX-INDUCED VIBRATIONS OF TWO FLEXIBLE RISERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the complex interactions of vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) and downstream wake dynamics, the design of riser arrays has been an area of great uncertainty in the offshore industry. Numerical methodology can play an important role in predicting the hydrodynamic forces and motion of riser arrays from both design and operational standpoints. The focus of this study is to investigate

Marlow Springer; Rajeev K. Jaiman; Steve Cosgrove; Yiannis Constantinides

2009-01-01

277

Rotor Vortex Filaments: Living on the Slipstream's Edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to gain a better understanding of rotor wake evolution in hover and axial flow by deriving an analytical solution for the time dependent behavior of vortex filament circulation and core size. This solution is applicable only for vortex filaments in the rotor far-wake. A primarily inviscid vortex/shear layer interaction (where the slipstream boundary is modeled as a shear layer) has been identified in this analytical treatment. This vortex/shear layer interaction results in decreasing, vortex filament circulation and core size with time. The inviscid vortex/shear layer interaction is shown, in a first-order treatment, to be of greater magnitude than viscous diffusion effects. The rate of contraction, and ultimate collapse, of the vortex filament core is found to be directly proportional to the rotor inflow velocity. This new insight into vortex filament decay promises to help reconcile several disparate observations made in the literature and will, hopefully, promote new advances in theoretical modeling of rotor wakes.

Young, Larry A.

1997-01-01

278

Active control of a cylinder wake flow by using a streamwise oscillating foil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, numerical experiments are carried out to control the vortex shedding of a circular cylinder by utilizing an oscillating foil. The thin foil of elliptic shape undergoes prescribed harmonic oscillations in the streamwise direction in the near wake region. This simplified model is intended to study how wake dynamics are modified via localized wake disturbance, and then to stabilize the global wake instability. The results show that, at proper gap spacing, the oscillating foil can completely suppress the wake unsteadiness and recover the recirculating bubble type flow. The global instability suppression is then established on the imposition of local symmetry into the reversed flow behind the cylinder. It is revealed that the dynamic interaction between the main shears layer and oscillatory boundary layers is responsible for the wake stabilization mechanism. In addition, the kinematic/dynamic parameters related to foil motions and flow properties are widely discussed to reveal their effects on the performance of wake stabilization and drag reduction.

Bao, Y.; Tao, J.

2013-05-01

279

Analysis of Wake VAS Benefits Using ACES Build 3.2.1: VAMS Type 1 Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The FAA and NASA are currently engaged in a Wake Turbulence Research Program to revise wake turbulence separation standards, procedures, and criteria to increase airport capacity while maintaining or increasing safety. The research program is divided into three phases: Phase I near term procedural enhancements; Phase II wind dependent Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS) Concepts of Operations (ConOps); and Phase III farther term ConOps based on wake prediction and sensing. The Phase III Wake VAS ConOps is one element of the Virtual Airspace Modelling and Simulation (VAMS) program blended concepts for enhancing the total system wide capacity of the National Airspace System (NAS). This report contains a VAMS Program Type 1 (stand-alone) assessment of the expected capacity benefits of Wake VAS at the 35 FAA Benchmark Airports and determines the consequent reduction in delay using the Airspace Concepts Evaluation System (ACES) Build 3.2.1 simulator.

Smith, Jeremy C.

2005-01-01

280

Modelling on cavitation in a diffuser with vortex generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on cavitation modelling in Laval nozzle results and experience, problem with the diffuser with vortex generator was defined. The problem describes unsteady multiphase flow of water. Different cavitation models were used when modelling in Fluent, flow condition is inlet and pressure condition is outlet. Boundary conditions were specified by Energy Institute, Victor Kaplan's Department of Fluid Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology. Numerical modelling is compared with experiment.

Jablonská, J.

2013-04-01

281

Comparison of measurements and models in stratospheric polar vortex studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview will be given of recent studies comparing model results with observations of stratospheric meteorological and trace gas fields, focusing on the polar vortex during winter. Studies comparing process-oriented (e.g., stability) model, mechanistic (i.e., forced lower boundary near the tropopause) model and general circulation model (GCM) simulations of the dynamics of the polar winter stratosphere with analyzed or assimilated meteorological datasets are reviewed.

Manney, G.

2002-01-01

282

Model for Vortex Ring State Influence on Rotorcraft Flight Dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of vortex ring state (VRS) on rotorcraft flight dynamics is investigated, specifically the vertical velocity drop of helicopters and the roll-off of tiltrotors encountering VRS. The available wind tunnel and flight test data for rotors in vortex ring state are reviewed. Test data for axial flow, non-axial flow, two rotors, unsteadiness, and vortex ring state boundaries are described and discussed. Based on the available measured data, a VRS model is developed. The VRS model is a parametric extension of momentum theory for calculation of the mean inflow of a rotor, hence suitable for simple calculations and real-time simulations. This inflow model is primarily defined in terms of the stability boundary of the aircraft motion. Calculations of helicopter response during VRS encounter were performed, and good correlation is shown with the vertical velocity drop measured in flight tests. Calculations of tiltrotor response during VRS encounter were performed, showing the roll-off behavior characteristic of tiltrotors. Hence it is possible, using a model of the mean inflow of an isolated rotor, to explain the basic behavior of both helicopters and tiltrotors in vortex ring state.

Johnson, Wayne

2005-01-01

283

Model for Vortex Ring State Influence on Rotorcraft Flight Dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of vortex ring state (VRS) on rotorcraft flight dynamics is investigated, specifically the vertical velocity drop of helicopters and the roll-off of tiltrotors encountering VRS. The available wind tunnel and flight test data for rotors in vortex ring state are reviewed. Test data for axial flow, nonaxial flow, two rotors, unsteadiness, and vortex ring state boundaries are described and discussed. Based on the available measured data, a VRS model is developed. The VRS model is a parametric extension of momentum theory for calculation of the mean inflow of a rotor, hence suitable for simple calculations and real-time simulations. This inflow model is primarily defined in terms of the stability boundary of the aircraft motion. Calculations of helicopter response during VRS encounter were performed, and good correlation is shown with the vertical velocity drop measured in flight tests. Calculations of tiltrotor response during VRS encounter were performed, showing the roll-off behavior characteristic of tiltrotors. Hence it is possible, using a model of the mean inflow of an isolated rotor, to explain the basic behavior of both helicopters and tiltrotors in vortex ring state.

Johnson, Wayne

2004-01-01

284

Remote measurement utilizing NASA's scanning laser Doppler systems. Volume 1. Laser Doppler wake vortex tracking at Kennedy Airport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test operations of the Scanning Laser Doppler System (SLDS) at Kennedy International Airport (KIA) during August 1974 through June 1975 are reported. A total of 1,619 data runs was recorded with a totally operational system during normal landing operations at KIA. In addition, 53 data runs were made during cooperative flybys with the C880 for a grand total of 1672 recorded vortex tracks. Test crews were in attendance at KIA for 31 weeks, of which 25 weeks were considered operational and the other six were packing, unpacking, setup and check out. Although average activity equates to 67 recorded landing operations per week, two periods of complete runway inactivity spanned 20 days and 13 days, respectively. The operation frequency therefore averaged about 88 operations per week.

Krause, M. C.; Wilson, D. J.; Howle, R. E.; Edwards, B. B.; Craven, C. E.; Jetton, J. L.

1976-01-01

285

Wingtip Vortex-Augmented Turbopusher Propeller Thrust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thrust of propeller enhanced by tip vortex. Wingtip-Mounted Nacelle provides turboprop vortex velocity recovery. Thrust of turbopusher propeller increased by flow of lift-induced vortex. As result of weaker vortex, reduction in induced drag of wing afforded by propeller-wake mass injection into core of vortex, causing it to break down.

Patterson, J. C., Jr.

1985-01-01

286

The Vortex Lattice Method for the Rotor-Vortex Interaction Problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rotor blade-vortex interaction problem and the resulting impulsive airloads which generate undesirable noise levels are discussed. A numerical lifting surface method to predict unsteady aerodynamic forces induced on a finite aspect ratio rectangular wing by a straight, free vortex placed at an arbitrary angle in a subsonic incompressible free stream is developed first. Using a rigid wake assumption, the wake vortices are assumed to move downsteam with the free steam velocity. Unsteady load distributions are obtained which compare favorably with the results of planar lifting surface theory. The vortex lattice method has been extended to a single bladed rotor operating at high advance ratios and encountering a free vortex from a fixed wing upstream of the rotor. The predicted unsteady load distributions on the model rotor blade are generally in agreement with the experimental results. This method has also been extended to full scale rotor flight cases in which vortex induced loads near the tip of a rotor blade were indicated. In both the model and the full scale rotor blade airload calculations a flat planar wake was assumed which is a good approximation at large advance ratios because the downwash is small in comparison to the free stream at large advance ratios. The large fluctuations in the measured airloads near the tip of the rotor blade on the advance side is predicted closely by the vortex lattice method.

Padakannaya, R.

1974-01-01

287

Modelling the stratospheric polar vortex and its changes for GHGs increase and ozone depletion.  

E-print Network

Modelling the stratospheric polar vortex and its changes for GHGs increase and ozone depletion and possible feedback of the stratospheric polar vortex to changes in GHGs and ozone, as simulated by general of the stratospheric polar vortex and its possible impacts on the troposphere? #12;Models · MAECHAM4: middle atmosphere

Greatbatch, Richard

288

Transport out of the Antarctic polar vortex from a three-dimensional transport model  

E-print Network

Transport out of the Antarctic polar vortex from a three-dimensional transport model Shuhua Li,1-dimensional chemical transport model is utilized to study the transport out of the Antarctic polar vortex during: Middle atmosphere--energy deposition; KEYWORDS: transport, polar vortex, mass flux, dilution effect 1

Cordero, Eugene

289

Dynamics of wake structure in clapping propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some animals such as insects and frogs use a pair of symmetric flaps for locomotion. In some cases, these flappers operate in close proximity or even touch each other. In order to understand the underlying physics of these kinds of motion, we have studied the wake structures induced by clapping and their associated thrust performance. A simple mechanical model with two acrylic plates was used to simulate the power stroke of the clapping motion and three-dimensional flow fields were obtained using defocusing digital particle image velocimetry. Our studies show that the process of vortex connection plays a critical role in forming a downstream closed vortex loop. Under some kinematic conditions, this vortex loop changes its shape dynamically, which is analogous to the process of an elliptical vortex ring switching its minor and major axis. As the length of the plate along the rotating shaft decreases to change an aspect ratio, the downstream motion of the vortex is retarded due to the outward motion of side edge vortices and less propulsive force is generated per the surface area of the plate. The impact of compliance and stroke angle of the plate on wake structures and thrust magnitudes are also presented.

Kim, Daegyoum; Gharib, Morteza

2009-11-01

290

Numerical Simulation of Wake Vortices Measured During the Idaho Falls and Memphis Field Programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical large-eddy simulation model is under modification and testing for application to aircraft wake vortices. The model, having a meteorological framework, permits the interaction of wake vortices with environments characterized by crosswind shear, stratification, and humidity. As part of the validation process, model results are compared with measured field data from the 1990 Idaho Falls and the 1994-1995 Memphis field experiments. Cases are selected that represent different aircraft and a cross section of meteorological environments. Also included is one case with wake vortex generation in ground effect. The model simulations are initialized with the appropriate meteorological conditions and a post roll-up vortex system. No ambient turbulence is assumed in our initial set of experiments, although turbulence can be self generated by the interaction of the model wakes with the ground and environment.

Proctor, Fred H.

1996-01-01

291

The Junction Point Model: A Field Model of Waking, Sleeping, and Dreaming, Relating Dream Witnessing, the Waking\\/Sleeping Transition, and Transcendental Meditation in Terms of a Common Psychophysiologic State  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field model of waking, sleeping, and dreaming, called the junction point model, portrays waking, NREM-sleep, and REM-dreaming as expressions of a single, undifferentiated state. EEG data are presented that support this model: (1) in the transitions between waking, NREM-sleep, and REM-dreaming, bursts of similar frequency EEG—7 to 9 Hz—are seen that do not seem generated by known sleep mechanisms,

Frederick Travis

1994-01-01

292

Onset of superradiant instabilities in the hydrodynamic vortex model  

E-print Network

The hydrodynamic vortex, an effective spacetime geometry for propagating sound waves, is studied analytically. In contrast with the familiar Kerr black-hole spacetime, the hydrodynamic vortex model is described by an effective acoustic geometry which has no horizons. However, this acoustic spacetime possesses an ergoregion, a property which it shares with the rotating Kerr spacetime. It has recently been shown numerically that this physical system is linearly unstable due to the superradiant scattering of sound waves in the ergoregion of the effective spacetime. In the present study we use analytical tools in order to explore the onset of these superradiant instabilities which characterize the effective spacetime geometry. In particular, we derive a simple analytical formula which describes the physical properties of the hydrodynamic vortex system in its critical (marginally-stable) state, the state which marks the boundary between stable and unstable fluid configurations. The analytically derived formula is shown to agree with the recently published numerical data for the hydrodynamic vortex system.

Shahar Hod

2014-07-30

293

A vortex model for transport in the polar stratosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A semi-empirical model based on a Gaussian vorticity distribution was developed for determining eddy diffusivity and wind transport distributions in the polar stratosphere. The model uses as input data pressure surface heights measured at periods of the year when the stratospheric polar vortex exhibits nearly circular patterns around the pole. The components of the polar wind velocities that result from a Prandtl eddy viscosity distribution are found to be in general agreement with those obtained by other investigators.

Eberstein, I. J.; Yap, F. Y.; Veirs, V.

1978-01-01

294

Numerical Study of Tip Vortex Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an overview and summary of the many different research work related to tip vortex flows and wake/trailing vortices as applied to practical engineering problems. As a literature survey paper, it outlines relevant analytical, theoretical, experimental and computational study found in literature. It also discusses in brief some of the fundamental aspects of the physics and its complexities. An appendix is also included. The topics included in this paper are: 1) Analytical Vortices; 2) Experimental Studies; 3) Computational Studies; 4) Wake Vortex Control and Management; 5) Wake Modeling; 6) High-Lift Systems; 7) Issues in Numerical Studies; 8) Instabilities; 9) Related Topics; 10) Visualization Tools for Vertical Flows; 11) Further Work Needed; 12) Acknowledgements; 13) References; and 14) Appendix.

Dacles-Mariani, Jennifer; Hafez, Mohamed

1998-01-01

295

A Control-Oriented Dynamic Model for Wakes in Wind Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a novel control-oriented model for predicting wake effects in wind plants, called the FLOw Redirection and Induction Dynamics (FLORIDYN) model. The model predicts the wake locations and the effective flow velocities at each turbine, and the resulting turbine electrical energy productions, as a function of the control degrees of freedom of the turbines (the axial induction and the yaw angle of the different rotors). The model is an extension of a previously presented static model (FLORIS). It includes the dynamic wake propagation effects that cause time delays between control setting changes and the response of downstream turbines. These delays are associated with a mass of air in the wake taking some time to travel from one turbine to the next, and the delays are dependent on the spatially- and time-varying state of the wake. The extended model has a state-space structure combined with a nonlinear feedback term. While including the control-relevant dynamics of the wind plant, it still has a relatively small amount of parameters, and the computational complexity of the model is small enough such that it has the potential to be used for dynamic optimization of the control reference signals for improved wind plant control.

Gebraad, Pieter M. O.; van Wingerden, J. W.

2014-06-01

296

Generalized Helmholtz-Kirchhoff model for two dimensional distributed vortex motion  

E-print Network

Generalized Helmholtz-Kirchhoff model for two dimensional distributed vortex motion Raymond Nagem1 and finite vortex core size. We also show that a low-order truncation of our expansion leads in an inviscid fluid, systematically in- corporates the effects of both vorticity and finite vortex core size

Wayne, Eugene

297

Vortex sheet modeling with higher order curved panels. Ph.D Thesis Final Technical Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical technique is presented for modeling the vortex sheet with a deformable surface definition, along which a continuous vortex strength distribution in the spanwise direction is applied, so that by repeatedly modifying its shape, its true configuration is approached, in the proximity of its generating wing. Design problems requiring the inclusion of a realistic configuration of the vortex sheet are numerous. Examples discussed include: control effectiveness and stability derivatives, longitudinal stability, lateral stability, canards, propellers and helicopter rotors, and trailing vortex hazards.

Nagati, M. G.

1985-01-01

298

Model for vortex turbulence with discontinuities in the solar wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model of vortex with embedded discontinuities in plasma flow is developed in the framework of ideal MHD in a low b plasma. Vortex structures are considered as a result of 2-D evolution of nonlinear shear Alfvén waves in the heliosphere. Physical properties of the solutions and vector fields are analyzed and the observational aspects of the model are discussed. The ratio of normal components to the discontinuity Br /Vr can be close to -2. The alignment between velocity and magnetic field vectors takes place. Spacecraft crossing such vortices will typically observe a pair of discontinuities, but with dissimilar properties. Occurrence rate for different discontinuity types is estimated and agrees with observations in high-speed solar wind stream. Discontinuity crossing provides a backward rotation of magnetic field vector and can be observed as part of a backward arc. The Ulysses magnetometer data obtained in the fast solar wind are compared with the results of theoretical modelling.

Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Dasgupta, B.; Tsurutani, B. T.

299

Wake interaction and power production of variable height model wind farms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding wake dynamics is an ongoing research topic in wind energy, since wakes have considerable effects on the power production when wind turbines are placed in a wind farm. Wind tunnel experiments have been conducted to study the wake to wake interaction in a model wind farm in tandem with measurements of the extracted power. The aim is to investigate how alternating mast height influences the interaction of the wakes and the power production. Via the use of stereo-particle image velocimetry, the flow field was obtained in the first and last rows of the wind turbine array as a basis of comparison. It was found that downstream of the exit row wind turbine, the power was increased by 25% in the case of a staggered height configuration. This is partly due to the fact that the taller turbines reach into a flow area with a softened velocity gradient. Another aspect is that the wake downstream of a tall wind turbine to some extent passes above the standard height wind turbine. Overall the experiments show that the velocity field downstream of the exit row changes considerably when the mast height is alternating.

Vested, M. H.; Hamilton, N.; Sřrensen, J. N.; Cal, R. B.

2014-06-01

300

Wind Speed Estimation and Wake model Re-calibration for Downregulated Offshore Wind Farms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the wind farm sizes have increased tremendously and with increasing installed capacity, the wind farms are requested to downregulate from their maximum possible power more frequently, especially in the offshore environment. Determination of the possible (or available) power is crucial not only because the reserve power has considerable market value but also for wind farm developers to be properly compensated for the loss during downregulation. While the available power calculation is straightforward for a single turbine, it gets rather complicated for the whole wind farm due to the change in the wake characteristics. In fact, the wake losses generated by the upstream turbine(s) decrease during downregulation and the downstream turbines therefore see more wind compared to the normal operation case. Currently, the Transmission System Operators (TSOs) have no real way to determine exactly the available power of a whole wind farm which is downregulated. Therefore, the PossPOW project aims to develop a verified and internationally accepted way to determine the possible power of a down-regulated offshore wind farm. The first phase of the project is to estimate the rotor effective wind speed. Since the nacelle anemometers are not readily available and are known to have reliability issues, the proposed method is to use power, pitch angle and rotational speed as inputs and combine it with a generic Cp model to estimate the wind speed. The performance of the model has been evaluated for both normal operation and downregulation periods using two different case studies: Horns Rev-I wind farm and NREL 5MW single turbine. During downregulation, the wake losses are not as severe and the velocity deficits at the downstream turbines are smaller as if also the wake is "downregulated". On the other hand, in order to calculate the available power, the wakes that would have been produced normally (if the turbines were not curtailed) are of importance, not the downregulated wake. For this reason, the proposed methodology is to use the clear wind without the wake (downregulated or not) as inputs to the wake model. Then a dynamic wake model can be directly applied to estimate the velocity deficit row by row inside the wind farm and calculate the possible power output on the wind farm scale. Most of the computationally affordable wake models have only been used to acquire long term, statistical information and verified using 10-min averaged data. However for smaller averaging bins or real-time modeling, the dynamics of the flow inside the wind farm such as wind direction variability and wake meandering is much more significant. Therefore GCLarsen wake model, which has been implemented in WindPro and shown to perform also well on offshore in Wake benchmark work package in EERA-DTOC, is re-calibrated and validated for single wake case in Horns Rev-I offshore wind farm.

Göçmen Bozkurt, Tuhfe; Giebel, Gregor; Kjřlstad Poulsen, Niels; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Mirzaei, Mahmood

2014-05-01

301

A particle-based model for ablation and wake formation in faint meteors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model for the ablation of small, non-fragmenting meteoroids (m < 10-4 kg) at heights in the Earth's atmosphere where the free molecular flow regime is applicable (h > 100 km). The goal of this model is to explain the dimensions of faint meteor wakes observed in our previous high-resolution optical study. Collisions between atmospheric molecules, the meteoroid, and evaporated meteoric particles are modelled to simulate wake formation, as well as ablation and deceleration of the meteoroid. The widths of simulated meteor wakes agree with high-resolution observations of nine meteors selected from our previous study. This suggests that the width of the observed meteor wakes is related to the collisional processes of evaporated meteoric particles, rather than lateral dispersion of fragments or other processes. Simulated meteor beginning heights tend to be higher than observed; otherwise, modelled light curves are in general agreement with observations. Conversely, simulated meteoroids consistently experience less deceleration than observed. Simulated meteor wakes also tend to be short compared to observations. These trends suggest that fragmentation is prevalent in the selected meteors and should be investigated in a future iteration of the model.

Stokan, E.; Campbell-Brown, M. D.

2015-02-01

302

Nonlinear model of stationary atmospheric vortex with moisture transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work a problem of tornado like stationary vortex is considered. The tornado vortex is believed to be essentially nonlinear phenomenon; and the puzzle to choose the correct nonlinear term(s) is still unresolved. In the present report we consider the nonlinear term associated with atmosphere humidity. This term can yield energy to the system and is very suitable for such a problem. We consider one-dimensional radial boundary problem, and use the method of determining the given boundary conditions on one of the boundaries due to the boundary conditions on the other side. We obtained numerical solutions of our model nonlinear differential equation which qualitatively agree with the observed atmosphere vortices (tornados, tropical cyclones). The obtained results model shows general possibility of existence of unstable motion even in convectively stable atmosphere stratification.

Rutkevich, P. B.; Rutkevych, P. P.

2009-09-01

303

An overview of experimental results and dispersion modelling of nanoparticles in the wake of moving vehicles.  

PubMed

Understanding the transformation of nanoparticles emitted from vehicles is essential for developing appropriate methods for treating fine scale particle dynamics in dispersion models. This article provides an overview of significant research work relevant to modelling the dispersion of pollutants, especially nanoparticles, in the wake of vehicles. Literature on vehicle wakes and nanoparticle dispersion is reviewed, taking into account field measurements, wind tunnel experiments and mathematical approaches. Field measurements and modelling studies highlighted the very short time scales associated with nanoparticle transformations in the first stages after the emission. These transformations strongly interact with the flow and turbulence fields immediately behind the vehicle, hence the need of characterising in detail the mixing processes in the vehicle wake. Very few studies have analysed this interaction and more research is needed to build a basis for model development. A possible approach is proposed and areas of further investigation identified. PMID:21193254

Carpentieri, Matteo; Kumar, Prashant; Robins, Alan

2011-03-01

304

Homogeneous vortex model for liquid slosh in spinning spherical tanks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of forced fluid sloshing in a partially filled spinning spherical tank is solved numerically using the finite element method. The governing equations include Coriolis acceleration, empirical fluid damping and spatially homogeneous vorticity first introduced by Pfeiffer. An exponential instability similar to flutter is detected in the present simulation for fill ratios below 50 percent. This instability appears in the model as a result of the homogeneous vortex assumption since the free slosh equations are neutrally stable in the Liapunov sense.

El-Raheb, M.; Wagner, P.

1979-01-01

305

Recent Developments on Airborne Forward Looking Interferometer for the Detection of Wake Vortices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A goal of these studies was development of the measurement methods and algorithms necessary to detect wake vortex hazards in real time from either an aircraft or ground-based hyperspectral Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). This paper provides an update on research to model FTS detection of wake vortices. The Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) was used to generate wake vortex fields of 3-D winds, temperature, and absolute humidity. These fields were input to the Line by Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM), a hyperspectral radiance model in the infrared, employed for the FTS numerical modeling. An initial set of cases has been analyzed to identify a wake vortex IR signature and signature sensitivities to various state variables. Results from the numerical modeling case studies will be presented. Preliminary results indicated that an imaging IR instrument sensitive to six narrow bands within the 670 to 3150 per centimeter spectral region would be sufficient for wake vortex detection. Noise floor estimates for a recommended instrument are a current research topic.

Daniels, Taumi S.; Smith, William L.; Kirev, Stanislav

2012-01-01

306

Vortex-Based Aero- and Hydrodynamic Estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow control strategies often require knowledge of unmeasurable quantities, thus presenting a need to reconstruct flow states from measurable ones. In this thesis, the modeling, simulation, and estimator design aspects of flow reconstruction are considered. First, a vortex-based aero- and hydrodynamic estimation paradigm is developed to design a wake sensing algorithm for aircraft formation flight missions. The method assimilates wing distributed pressure measurements with a vortex-based wake model to better predict the state of the flow. The study compares Kalman-type algorithms with particle filtering algorithms, demonstrating that the vortex nonlinearities require particle filters to yield adequate performance. Furthermore, the observability structure of the wake is shown to have a negative impact on filter performance regardless of the algorithm applied. It is demonstrated that relative motions can alleviate the filter divergence issues associated with this observability structure. In addition to estimator development, the dissertation addresses the need for an efficient unsteady multi-body aerodynamics testbed for estimator and controller validation studies. A pure vortex particle implementation of a vortex panel-particle method is developed to satisfy this need. The numerical method is demonstrated on the impulsive startup of a flat plate as well as the impulsive startup of a multi-wing formation. It is clear, from these validation studies, that the method is able to accommodate the unsteady wake effects that arise in formation flight missions. Lastly, successful vortex-based estimation is highly dependent on the reliability of the low-order vortex model used in representing the flow of interest. The present treatise establishes a systematic framework for vortex model improvement, grounded in optimal control theory and the calculus of variations. By minimizing model predicted errors with respect to empirical data, the shortcomings of the baseline vortex model can be revealed and reconciled. Here, the method is demonstrated on an impulse matching model for canonical unsteady wing maneuvers and reveals the shortcomings of the Kutta condition in such flows. The resulting analysis sheds light on the governing physical processes and provides guidance for model improvement for the unsteady aerodynamics associated with these canonical wing maneuvers.

Hemati, Maziar Sam

307

Applying dynamic wake models to large swirl velocities for optimal propellers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic wake model is applied to the optimal propeller systems originally studied by the classic aerodynamicists: Betz, Prandtl and Goldstein. Several modified forms of the model are theoretically developed to extend the applicable range to flight conditions with a large swirl velocity component. Dynamic wake model calculations accurately predict the inflow behavior for helicopter rotors, including axial flow for large tip-speed ratios, (OR/V infinity) ? 20. The swirl velocity is a prominent component for small tip-speed ratios (?5), typical of forward flight for tiltrotor craft such as the V-22 Osprey and the BA609. Dynamic wake calculation results are compared to the closed-form solutions by Prandtl and Goldstein. The exact and approximate solutions correlate strongly for infinite blade cases and finite blade cases with a large tip-speed ratio. The original form of the He-Peters and Morillo-Peters dynamic wake models converge poorly for small tip-speed ratios, due to neglect of the swirl velocity. Derivations are presented for several adaptations of the models to account for the large apparent mass at the inboard blade region. A best modified form is chosen and the associated empirical factor is optimized to correlate well with Prandtl's solution. Error norms for the original and modified forms of the dynamic wake model are presented for propellers of various number of blades and a range of tip-speed ratios. The Goldstein solution is also studied in depth and conclusions are drawn for improving the dynamic wake model.

Makinen, Stephen M.

308

Investigation of modified AD/RANS models for wind turbine wake predictions in large wind farm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Average power losses due to multiple wind turbine wakes in the large offshore wind farm is studied in this paper using properly modified k-? SST turbulence models. The numerical simulations are carried out by the actuator disc methodology implemented in the flow solver EllipSys3D. In these simulations, the influence of different inflow conditions such as wind direction sectors are considered and discussed. Comparisons with measurements in terms of wake speed ratio and the corresponding power outputs show that the modified turbulence models had significant improvements; especially the SST-Csust model reflects the best ability in predicting the wake defect. The investigations of various inflow angles reveal that the agreement between predicted and measured data is improved for the wider sector case than the narrow case because of the wind direction uncertainty.

Tian, L. L.; Zhu, W. J.; Shen, W. Z.; Sřrensen, J. N.; Zhao, N.

2014-06-01

309

Computation of rotor aerodynamic loads in forward flight using a full-span free wake analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of an advanced computational analysis of unsteady aerodynamic loads on isolated helicopter rotors in forward flight is described. The primary technical focus of the development was the implementation of a freely distorting filamentary wake model composed of curved vortex elements laid out along contours of constant vortex sheet strength in the wake. This model captures the wake generated by the full span of each rotor blade and makes possible a unified treatment of the shed and trailed vorticity in the wake. This wake model was coupled to a modal analysis of the rotor blade dynamics and a vortex lattice treatment of the aerodynamic loads to produce a comprehensive model for rotor performance and air loads in forward flight dubbed RotorCRAFT (Computation of Rotor Aerodynamics in Forward Flight). The technical background on the major components of this analysis are discussed and the correlation of predictions of performance, trim, and unsteady air loads with experimental data from several representative rotor configurations is examined. The primary conclusions of this study are that the RotorCRAFT analysis correlates well with measured loads on a variety of configurations and that application of the full span free wake model is required to capture several important features of the vibratory loading on rotor blades in forward flight.

Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bliss, Donald B.; Wachspress, Daniel A.; Boschitsch, Alexander H.; Chua, Kiat

1990-01-01

310

Inviscid Interactions Between Wake Vortices and Shear Layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft trailing vortices can be influenced significantly by atmospheric conditions such as crosswind, turbulence, and stratification. According to the NASA 1994 and 1995 field measurement program in Memphis, Tennessee, the descending aircraft wake vortices could stall or be deflected at the top of low-level temperature inversions that usually produce pronounced shear zones. Numerical simulations of vortex/shear interactions with ground effects have been performed by several groups. Burnham used a series of evenly spaced line vortices at a particular altitude to model the ground shear layer of the cross- wind. He found that the wind shear was swept up around the downwind vortex and caused the downwind vortex to move upward, and claimed that the effect was actually produced by the vertical gradient in the wind shear rather than by the wind shear directly, because uniformly distributed wind-shear vortices would have no effect on the trailing vortex vertical motion. Recently, Proctor et al. numerically tested the effects of narrow shear zones on the behavior of the vortex pair, motivated by the observation of the Memphis field data. The shear-layer sensitivity tests indicated that the downwind vortex was more sensitive and deflected to a higher altitude than its upwind counterpart. The downstream vortex contained vorticity of opposite sign to that of the shear. There was no detectable preference for the downwind vortex (or upwind vortex) to weaken (or strengthen) at a greater rate.

Zheng, Z. C.; Baek, K.

1998-01-01

311

The turbulent wake of a submarine model in pitch and yaw  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis aims to further our understanding of high Reynolds number wakes of submarine-like bodies of revolution. These wake measurements are preceded by an investigation of the limitations of the hot wire anemometry technique that is extensively used in this thesis to measure the velocity field. To study spatial filtering, measurements of the turbulence statistics and spectra downstream of a grid were performed using hot-wires of varying length and compared to the results from a new nano-scale thermal anemometry probe. The effect of spatial filtering on the streamwise spectrum function is observed to extend to almost all wavenumbers, even those significantly lower than the length of the hot wire itself. A criterion is found that must be satisfied in order to avoid the effects of spatial filtering on the turbulence statistics as well as on the spectrum. End conduction effects are investigated numerically and validated experimentally using grid turbulence. A new end-conduction parameter takes into account the effects due to hot wire material, overheat ratio and Reynolds number. We suggest a numerical criterion for the new end-conduction parameter that is necessary to avoid any attenuation in the turbulent fluctuations. Detailed velocity measurements were then performed using hot wire anemometry and stereoscopic particle image velocimetry in the wake of a body of revolution shape (DARPA SUBOFF) at a Reynolds number of Re L = 2.4 x 106, for pitch and yaw angles up to 12°. These measurements reveal the formation of a pair of streamwise vortices in pitch and yaw that are asymmetric in strength, an unexpected result. In pitch the vortices rotate around each other as they evolve downstream, and they lose their strength by diffusion relatively quickly. In yaw the asymmetry is even more pronounced due to the influence of the sail. The weaker vortex quickly diffuses, and in the absence of further diffusion the stronger vortex maintains its strength even at the furthest downstream location. It appears that small asymmetries in the flow near the nose can result in strong asymmetries in the wake, a result previously only seen for sharp-nosed bodies at high angles of attack.

Ashok, Anand

312

Understanding sleep–wake behavior and sleep disorders in children: the value of a model  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Sleep–wake problems such as night wakings, excessive crying, or difficulties in falling asleep are frequent behavioral issues during childhood. Maturational changes in sleep and circadian regulation likely contribute to the development and maintenance of such problems. This review highlights the recent research examining bioregulatory sleep mechanisms during development and provides a model for predicting sleep–wake behavior in young humans. Recent findings Findings demonstrate that circadian and sleep homeostatic processes exhibit maturational changes during the first two decades of life. The developing interaction of both processes may be a key determinant of sleep–wake and crying behavior in infancy. Evidence shows that the dynamics of sleep homeostatic processes slow down in the course of childhood (i.e., sleep pressure accumulates more slowly with increasing age) enabling children to be awake for consolidated periods during the day. Another current topic is the adolescent sleep phase delay, which appears to be driven primarily by maturational changes in sleep homeostatic and circadian processes. Summary The two-process model of sleep regulation is a valuable framework for understanding and predicting sleep–wake behavior in young humans. Such knowledge is important for improving anticipatory guidance, parental education, and patient care, as well as for developing appropriate social policies. PMID:16612214

Jenni, Oskar G.; LeBourgeois, Monique K.

2010-01-01

313

Effects of a three-dimensional hill on the wake characteristics of a model wind turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial evolution of a turbine wake downwind of a three-dimensional sinusoidal hill is studied using large-eddy simulations and wind tunnel measurements. The computed flow fields behind the hill show good agreement with wind tunnel measurements. Three different heights of the hill, i.e., hhill = zh - 0.5D, ? zh and =zh + 0.5D (where zh is the turbine hub height and D is the diameter of the turbine rotor), were considered. The effect of the hill turbine spacing was investigated through a comparative analysis with the turbine wake results in the undisturbed turbulent boundary layer. It is observed that the turbine wakes downwind of the hill with hhill ? zh and hhill = zh + 0.5D recover faster because of the increased entrainment of ambient flow into the turbine wake, which is due to the enhanced turbulent transport in both spanwise and vertical directions. In comparison with the turbine only case, significant increases in the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) in the turbine wake are observed for the hill-turbine cases with hhill ? zh and hhill = zh + 0.5D. A velocity scale UT, defined in terms of the thrust force acting on the turbine, is introduced for the turbine-added velocity deficit and TKE. For the turbine-added velocity deficit, UT is shown to be an appropriate scale at wake locations sufficiently far downwind of the turbine (i.e., greater than or equal to 8D). The vertical profiles of the turbine-added TKE normalized by UT 2 are shown to nearly collapse in the wake both for the turbine only and hill-turbine cases at all locations greater than 4D downwind of the turbine. A simple model for the turbine-added TKE in complex terrain is also proposed based on the new physical insights obtained from our simulations.

Yang, Xiaolei; Howard, Kevin B.; Guala, Michele; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

2015-02-01

314

Experimental study of the coupled wakes of two spheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the coupled wakes of two spheres (diameter d), separated by a transverse distance h between their centers and aligned normal to a uniform flow (velocity U). The dynamics of this system is controlled by the Reynolds number Re = Ud/nu, and the transverse spacing h/d. The vortex structures have been visualized by injection of dye in a small hole drilled downstream of the center of the spheres. Each sphere is hold by a thin pipe, slighty inclined on the flow direction in order to control the orientation of the wake[1]. The wake of a single sphere is periodic in the Reynolds number range [280, 400]. When the spacing h/d is much larger than 1, the vortices shed behind the spheres exhibit three-dimensional characteristic horeshoe shape. A small asymmetry, for instance due to the dye injection, might lead to different frequencies of vortex shedding. For intermediate values of h/d (e.g. between 1.3 and 2.5 for Re = 360) locked regimes of simultaneous or alternate vortex shedding have been observed. Finally, when h/d is lower than 1.3 (also for Re =360), the system behaves like a single wake and gives rise to a double alternate vortex street, similar to the Benard-von Karman street. In this case the two-sphere wake behave like a small aspect ratio cylinder. The coupling of these two oscillators along the spanwise direction is coherent with the Ginzburg-Landau model used to describe the vortex street behind a cylinder[2]. [1] Leweke T., Ormieres D., Provansal M., Schouveiler L. 1999, Proc. Fluvisu'99, Toulouse, France, 103 [2] Albarede P., Provansal M. 1995, J. Fluid Mech. 291, 191

Provansal, Michel; Schouveiler, Lionel

1999-11-01

315

PERFORMANCE AND LIMITATIONS OF A GAUSSIAN MODEL FOR CENTERLINE CONCENTRATIONS IN THE WAKE OF BUILDINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

The inherent variability of 10- to 60-min average ground-level plume centerline concentrations in the wake of buildings and inherent limitations on, the performance of a Gaussian plume model are presented. oint comparisons between observed and model-predicted concentrations were ...

316

Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of Hingeless Rotor Blades in Hover Considering Wake Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aeroelastic analysis of hingeless rotor blades in hover was performed. Large deflection beam theory was applied to analyze blade motions with effects of geometric structural nonlinearity. Aerodynamic loads for aeroelastic analysis were calculated through a three-dimensional aerodynamic model which is based on the unsteady vortex lattice method. Wake geometry was described using a time-marching free-wake method. Lead-lag damping ratio and

Seung-Jae Yoo; Min-Soo Jeong; In Lee

2010-01-01

317

IEA-Task 31 WAKEBENCH: Towards a protocol for wind farm flow model evaluation. Part 2: Wind farm wake models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers within the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 31: Wakebench have created a framework for the evaluation of wind farm flow models operating at the microscale level. The framework consists of a model evaluation protocol integrated with a web-based portal for model benchmarking (www.windbench.net). This paper provides an overview of the building-block validation approach applied to wind farm wake models, including best practices for the benchmarking and data processing procedures for validation datasets from wind farm SCADA and meteorological databases. A hierarchy of test cases has been proposed for wake model evaluation, from similarity theory of the axisymmetric wake and idealized infinite wind farm, to single-wake wind tunnel (UMN-EPFL) and field experiments (Sexbierum), to wind farm arrays in offshore (Horns Rev, Lillgrund) and complex terrain conditions (San Gregorio). A summary of results from the axisymmetric wake, Sexbierum, Horns Rev and Lillgrund benchmarks are used to discuss the state-of-the-art of wake model validation and highlight the most relevant issues for future development.

Moriarty, Patrick; Sanz Rodrigo, Javier; Gancarski, Pawel; Chuchfield, Matthew; Naughton, Jonathan W.; Hansen, Kurt S.; Machefaux, Ewan; Maguire, Eoghan; Castellani, Francesco; Terzi, Ludovico; Breton, Simon-Philippe; Ueda, Yuko

2014-06-01

318

Rotor Wake Development During the First Revolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wake behind a two-bladed model rotor in light climb was measured using particle image velocimetry, with particular emphasis on the development of the trailing vortex during the first revolution of the rotor. The distribution of vorticity was distinguished from the slightly elliptical swirl pattern. Peculiar dynamics within the void region may explain why the peak vorticity appeared to shift away from the center as the vortex aged, suggesting the onset of instability. The swirl and axial velocities (which reached 44 and 12 percent of the rotor-tip speed, respectively) were found to be asymmetric relative to the vortex center. In particular, the axial flow was composed of two concentrated zones moving in opposite directions. The radial distribution of the circulation rapidly increased in magnitude until reaching a point just beyond the core radius, after which the rate of growth decreased significantly. The core-radius circulation increased slightly with wake age, but the large-radius circulation appeared to remain relatively constant. The radial distributions of swirl velocity and vorticity exhibit self-similar behaviors, especially within the core. The diameter of the vortex core was initially about 10 percent of the rotor-blade chord, but more than doubled its size after one revolution of the rotor. According to vortex models that approximate the measured data, the core-radius circulation was about 79 percent of the large-radius circulation, and the large-radius circulation was about 67 percent of the maximum bound circulation on the rotor blade. On average, about 53 percent of the maximum bound circulation resides within the vortex core during the first revolution of the rotor.

McAlister, Kenneth W.

2003-01-01

319

High-resolution offshore wake simulations with the LES model PALM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The turbulent wake of a wind turbine is important especially in wind farms, as it can affect the flow and power output of downstream turbines. Upstream turbines extract momentum of the mean flow so that the power output of subsequent turbines is reduced. On the other hand, the turbulence intensity is significantly enhanced which results in an increased load for downstream turbines. The marine atmospheric boundary layer is different from that onshore, especially in terms of a lower turbulence intensity and a higher wind speed due to the smaller roughness. So far, there has been little experience in simulating a realistic marine boundary layer. Models used for the design and energy yield prediction of offshore wind farms usually base upon onshore measurements. Several wind turbine models have been implemented in the LES model PALM: a simple uniformly loaded actuator disk model, an enhanced non-uniformly loaded actuator disk model which also accounts for rotational effects and an actuator line model. The comparison of the three turbine models for the wake of a single turbine shows, that the enhanced actuator disk model is a significant improvement and provides similarly good results as the computationally unfeasible actuator line model. With the enhanced actuator disk model simulations of a single wake have been conducted, using different inflow boundary conditions. The results have been compared with observations from the offshore test site "alpha ventus". So far, only cyclic inflow boundary conditions have been used for wake simulations, whose major drawback is the re-inflow of air already modified by the wind turbine. With non-cyclic boundary conditions, used for the first time in wake simulations, the inflow profile at the turbine remains undisturbed and constant in time. The additional application of a turbulent inflow results in a fully turbulent flow already at the inflow boundary, so that the model domain can be significantly reduced. Finally, results of a simulation of the offshore wind farm "alpha ventus" will be shown.

Witha, B.; Steinfeld, G.; Heinemann, D.; Stütz, E.

2012-04-01

320

A Model For the Limiting Time in Vortex Ring Formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In another presentation, Gharib et at provide experimental results to show that when a vortex ring is created from a pipe by a piston, there is a limiting time or piston stroke length beyond which multiple rings appear. This time appeared to be insensitive to piston velocity history and Reynolds number. Nature might exploit such a. limit in different contexts to coherently deliver mass or momentum flux with the least number of strokes. Here, a simple hypothesis is considered: the limiting time occurs when the apparatus is no longer able to deliver energy at a rate compatible with the requirement, due to Kelvin, that a steady vortex ring have maximum energy given circulation and impulse. More specifically, the limit is expected to occur when the quantity alpha = E/square root of Gamma(sup 3)I delivered by the piston drops below the value, alpha(sub lim) for a limiting steady vortex ring solution. The resulting predictions agree very well with the experiments (after using alpha(sub lim) measured using the experimental flow fields). The insensitivity to piston history also emerges from the model. Finally, piston histories are designed that may extend the limiting time somewhat.

Shariff, Karim; Gharib, Morteza; Rambod, Edmond; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

321

On the evolution of the wake structure produced by a low-aspect-ratio pitching panel  

PubMed Central

Flow visualization is used to interrogate the wake structure produced by a rigid flat panel of aspect ratio (span/chord) 0.54 pitching in a free stream at a Strouhal number of 0.23. At such a low aspect ratio, the streamwise vorticity generated by the plate tends to dominate the formation of the wake. Nevertheless, the wake has the appearance of a three-dimensional von Kármán vortex street, as observed in a wide range of other experiments, and consists of horseshoe vortices of alternating sign shed twice per flapping cycle. The legs of each horseshoe interact with the two subsequent horseshoes in an opposite-sign, then like-sign interaction in which they become entrained. A detailed vortex skeleton model is proposed for the wake formation. PMID:19746198

BUCHHOLZ, JAMES H. J.; SMITS, ALEXANDER J.

2009-01-01

322

Calculations of axisymmetric vortex sheet roll-up using a panel and a filament model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for calculating the self-induced motion of a vortex sheet using discrete vortex elements is presented. Vortex panels and vortex filaments are used to simulate two-dimensional and axisymmetric vortex sheet roll-up. A straight forward application using vortex elements to simulate the motion of a disk of vorticity with an elliptic circulation distribution yields unsatisfactroy results where the vortex elements move in a chaotic manner. The difficulty is assumed to be due to the inability of a finite number of discrete vortex elements to model the singularity at the sheet edge and due to large velocity calculation errors which result from uneven sheet stretching. A model of the inner portion of the spiral is introduced to eliminate the difficulty with the sheet edge singularity. The model replaces the outermost portion of the sheet with a single vortex of equivalent circulation and a number of higher order terms which account for the asymmetry of the spiral. The resulting discrete vortex model is applied to both two-dimensional and axisymmetric sheets. The two-dimensional roll-up is compared to the solution for a semi-infinite sheet with good results.

Kantelis, J. P.; Widnall, S. E.

1986-01-01

323

Transition and Turbulence Modeling for Blunt-Body Wake Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerobraking has been proposed as an efficient means of decelerating spacecraft for planetary missions. Most current aerobrake designs feature a blunt forebody shielding the payload from the intense heat generated during atmospheric entry. Although this forebody will absorb the largest portion of the heat pulse, accurate prediction of heating in the near wake is of great importance, since large local heating values can occur at points of shear-layer impingement. In order to address the various issues associated with these blunt-body wake flowfields, the Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) formed Working Group 18 in 1992. One of the objectives of this activity was to examine real-gas effects in high-speed flow fields around a 70 deg. blunted cone. To date, many researchers have conducted experiments using this geometry in various facilities, such as the Large Energy National Shock (LENS) tunnel at Cubric/Calspan and the HEG shock tunnel at DLR-Goettingen. Several computational studies have also been conducted in concert with these tests. Many of the experimental results have indicated the possible presence of a transitional shear layer through a large increase in heat transfer downstream of the reattachment point. The presence of transition could in fact lead to much higher peak heating than if the separated flow is entirely laminar or turbulent. In the shock-tunnel tests, however, it is difficult to separate such viscous-flow phenomena from real-gas effects. In order to help make this distinction, Horvath et al. recently conducted a set of experiments in the NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel, and compared the results to laminar Navier-Stokes calculations. They found heat-transfer distributions similar to those obtained in the high-enthalpy facilities, with the measured peak heating along the sting support markedly greater than that predicted by the laminar computations. These trends point to the need to find transitional and turbulent computational solutions for these flowfields.

Nance, Robert P.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Hassan, H. A.

1997-01-01

324

An Empirical Model for Vane-Type Vortex Generators in a Navier-Stokes Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An empirical model which simulates the effects of vane-type vortex generators in ducts was incorporated into the Wind-US Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code. The model enables the effects of the vortex generators to be simulated without defining the details of the geometry within the grid, and makes it practical for researchers to evaluate multiple combinations of vortex generator arrangements. The model determines the strength of each vortex based on the generator geometry and the local flow conditions. Validation results are presented for flow in a straight pipe with a counter-rotating vortex generator arrangement, and the results are compared with experimental data and computational simulations using a gridded vane generator. Results are also presented for vortex generator arrays in two S-duct diffusers, along with accompanying experimental data. The effects of grid resolution and turbulence model are also examined.

Dudek, Julianne C.

2005-01-01

325

A numerical investigation of flow around octopus-like arms: near-wake vortex patterns and force development.  

PubMed

The fluid dynamics of cephalopods has so far received little attention in the literature, due to their complexity in structure and locomotion. The flow around octopuses, in particular, can be complicated due to their agile and dexterous arms, which frequently display some of the most diverse mechanisms of motion. The study of this flow amounts to a specific instance of the hydrodynamics problem for rough tapered cylinder geometries. The outstanding manipulative and locomotor skills of octopuses could inspire the development of advanced robotic arms, able to operate in fluid environments. Our primary aim was to study the hydrodynamic characteristics of such bio-inspired robotic models and to derive the hydrodynamic force coefficients as a concise description of the vortical flow effects. Utilizing computational fluid dynamic methods, the coefficients were computed on realistic morphologies of octopus-like arm models undergoing prescribed solid-body movements; such motions occur in nature for short durations in time, e.g. during reaching movements and exploratory behaviors. Numerical simulations were performed on translating, impulsively rotating, and maneuvering arms, around which the flow field structures were investigated. The results reveal in detail the generation of complex vortical flow structures around the moving arms. Hydrodynamic forces acting on a translating arm depend on the angle of incidence; forces generated during impulsive rotations of the arms are independent of their exact morphology and the angle of rotation; periodic motions based on a slow recovery and a fast power stroke are able to produce considerable propulsive thrust while harmonic motions are not. Parts of these results have been employed in bio-inspired models of underwater robotic mechanisms. This investigation may further assist elucidating the hydrodynamics underlying aspects of octopus locomotion and exploratory behaviors. PMID:24730546

Kazakidi, A; Vavourakis, V; Tsakiris, D P; Ekaterinaris, J A

2015-01-01

326

Wake Geometry Measurements and Analytical Calculations on a Small-Scale Rotor Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot SubsonicTunnel to quantify the rotor wake behind a scale model helicopter rotor in forwardlevel flight at one thrust level. The rotor system in this test consisted of a fourbladedfully articulated hub with blades of rectangular planform and an NACA 0012airfoil section. A laser light sheet, seeded with propylene glycol

Terence A. Ghee; John D. Berry; Laith A. J. Zori

1996-01-01

327

PRELIMINARY STUDIES OF VIDEO IMAGES OF SMOKE DISPERSION IN THE NEAR WAKE OF A MODEL BUILDING  

EPA Science Inventory

A scary of analyses of video images of smoke in a wind tunnel study of dispersion in the near wake of a model building is presented. The analyses provide information on both the instantaneous and the time- average patterns of dispersion. ince the images represent vertically-integ...

328

Calculation of symmetric and asymmetric vortex seperation on cones and tangent ogives based on discrete vortex models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An inviscid discrete vortex model, with newly derived expressions for the tangential velocity imposed at the separation points, is used to investigate the symmetric and asymmetric vortex separation on cones and tangent ogives. The circumferential locations of separation are taken from experimental data. Based on a slender body theory, the resulting simultaneous nonlinear algebraic equations in a cross-flow plane are solved with Broyden's modified Newton-Raphson method. Total force coefficients are obtained through momentum principle with new expressions for nonconical flow. It is shown through the method of function deflation that multiple solutions exist at large enough angles of attack, even with symmetric separation points. These additional solutions are asymmetric in vortex separation and produce side force coefficients which agree well with data for cones and tangent ogives.

Chin, S.; Lan, C. Edward

1988-01-01

329

Vortex model of open channel flows with gravel beds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbulent structures are known to be important physical processes in gravel-bed rivers. A number of limitations exist that prohibit the advancement and prediction of turbulence structures for optimization of civil infrastructure, biological habitats and sediment transport in gravel-bed rivers. This includes measurement limitations that prohibit characterization of size and strength of turbulent structures in the riverine environment for different case studies as well as traditional numerical modeling limitations that prohibit modeling and prediction of turbulent structure for heterogeneous beds under high Reynolds number flows using the Navier-Stokes equations. While these limitations exist, researchers have developed various theories for the structure of turbulence in boundary layer flows including large eddies in gravel-bed rivers. While these theories have varied in details and applicable conditions, a common hypothesis has been a structural organization in the fluid which links eddies formed at the wall to coherent turbulent structures such as large eddies which may be observed vertically across the entire flow depth in an open channel. Recently physics has also seen the advancement of topological fluid mechanical ideas concerned with the study of vortex structures, braids, links and knots in velocity vector fields. In the present study the structural organization hypothesis is investigated with topological fluid mechanics and experimental results which are used to derive a vortex model for gravel-bed flows. Velocity field measurements in gravel-bed flow conditions in the laboratory were used to characterize temporal and spatial structures which may be attributed to vortex motions and reconnection phenomena. Turbulent velocity time series data were measured with ADV and decomposed using statistical decompositions to measure turbulent length scales. PIV was used to measure spatial velocity vector fields which were decomposed with filtering techniques for flow visualization. Under the specific conditions of a turbulent burst the fluid domain is organized as a braided flow of vortices connected by prime knot patterns of thin-cored flux tubes embedded on an abstract vortex surface itself having topology of a Klein bottle. This model explains observed streamline patterns in the vicinity of a strong turbulent burst in a gravel-bed river as a coherent structure in the turbulent velocity field. KEY WORDS: Open channel flow, turbulence, gravel-bed rivers, coherent structures, velocity distributions

Belcher, Brian James

330

Elastic Moduli of Vortex Lattices within Nonlocal London Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vortex lattice (VL) elastic response is analyzed within the nonlocal London model which holds for high- ? clean superconductors. The squash modulus vanishes at the field H? where VL undergoes a square-to-rhombus transition. For H>H?, where the square VL is stable, the rotation modulus turns zero at H = Hr, indicating VL instability to rotations. The shear modulus depends on the shear direction; the dependence is strong in the vicinity of H? where the square VL is soft with respect to the shear along [110]. The H dependences of the moduli are evaluated for LuNi2B2C.

Miranovi?, P.; Kogan, V. G.

2001-09-01

331

Venusian Polar Vortex reproduced in an Atmospheric General Circulation Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Venus atmosphere has a polar vortex rotating in the retrograde direction with a period of about three days. The vortex has a warm feature surrounded by a cold collar (e.g., Taylor et al. 1980; Piccioni et al. 2006). Although the Venusian polar vortex has been reported by many observations, its mechanism is still unknown. Elson (1982, 1989) examined the structure of the polar vortex by linear calculations. However, the background zonal wind assumed in the calculations was much stronger or weaker than those retrieved in the previous measurements (e.g., Peralta et al. 2008; Kouyama et al. 2012). Lee et al. (2010) and Yamamoto and Takahashi (2012) performed numerical simulations with general circulation models (GCMs) of the Venus atmosphere and obtained vertical structure in the polar region. However, the models included artificial forcing of Kelvin and/or Rossby waves. We have developed a new Venusian GCM by modifying the Atmospheric GCM For the Earth Simulator (Sugimoto et al. 2012; 2013). The basic equations of the GCM are primitive ones in the sigma coordinate on a sphere without topography. The model resolution is T42 (i.e., about 2.8 deg x 2.8 deg grids) and L60 (Deltaz is about 2 km). Rayleigh friction (sponge layer) in the upper layer (>80 km) is applied to prevent the reflection of waves, whose effect increases gradually with height. In the model, the atmosphere is dry and forced by the solar heating and Newtonian cooling. The vertical profile of the solar heating is based on Crisp (1986), and zonally averaged distribution is used. In addition diurnal component of the solar heating, which excites the diurnal and semi-diurnal tides, is also included. Newtonian cooling relaxes the temperature to the zonally uniform basic temperature which has a virtual static stability of Venus with almost neutral layers, and its coefficient is based on Crisp (1986). To prevent numerical instability, the biharmonic hyper-diffusion is included with 0.8 days of e-folding time for the truncation wavenumber. The coefficient of the vertical eddy diffusion is 0.15 m (2) s (-1) . A fast zonal wind in a solid-body rotation and the temperature field that balances with the zonal wind (gradient wind balance) is given as the initial state. Time integrations are performed until the solution achieves a statistically steady state. In this study we analyzed the data of 300 days of the last from getting to the quasi-steady state. The temporal and zonal mean wind and temperature fields are almost consistent with those obtained in previous studies (e.g., Kouyama et al. 2012; Tellmann et al. 2009). Barotropic or baroclinic instability occurs at the polar region, and zonal wavenumber one component is the most dominant in the polar vortex, followed by wavenumber two. It rotates the pole with the period of 4-5 days. These features are almost consistent with recent measurements (e.g. Lopez et al. 2013). We also calculated the potential vorticity distribution and found that it sometimes shows the filament structure, which is similar to the cloud morphology observed in recent imaging measurements (e.g. Piccioni et al. 2006). The vertical structure of each zonal wavenumber component has the common feature that the phase stands upright within the polar vortex and seems to shift at the top of the neutral stable layer. In this presentation, we will also compare the vertical structure seen in our calculation with that examined by radio occultation measurements in Venus Express mission.

Ando, Hiroki; Imamura, Takeshi; Takagi, Masahiro; Sugimoto, Norihiko; Kashimura, Hiroki

332

A Framework for Quantitative Modeling of Neural Circuits Involved in Sleep-to-Wake Transition  

PubMed Central

Identifying the neuronal circuits and dynamics of sleep-to-wake transition is essential to understanding brain regulation of behavioral states, including sleep–wake cycles, arousal, and hyperarousal. Recent work by different laboratories has used optogenetics to determine the role of individual neuromodulators in state transitions. The optogenetically driven data do not yet provide a multi-dimensional schematic of the mechanisms underlying changes in vigilance states. This work presents a modeling framework to interpret, assist, and drive research on the sleep-regulatory network. We identify feedback, redundancy, and gating hierarchy as three fundamental aspects of this model. The presented model is expected to expand as additional data on the contribution of each transmitter to a vigilance state becomes available. Incorporation of conductance-based models of neuronal ensembles into this model and existing models of cortical excitability will provide more comprehensive insight into sleep dynamics as well as sleep and arousal-related disorders. PMID:25767461

Sorooshyari, Siamak; Huerta, Ramón; de Lecea, Luis

2015-01-01

333

Vortex and gap generation in gauge models of graphene  

E-print Network

Effective quantum field theoretical continuum models for graphene are investigated. The models include a complex scalar field and a vector gauge field. Different gauge theories are considered and their gap patterns for the scalar, vector, and fermion excitations are investigated. Different gauge groups lead to different relations between the gaps, which can be used to experimentally distinguish the gauge theories. In this class of models the fermionic gap is a dynamic quantity. The finite-energy vortex solutions of the gauge models have the flux of the "magnetic field" quantized, making the Bohm-Aharonov effect active even when external electromagnetic fields are absent. The flux comes proportional to the scalar field angular momentum quantum number. The zero modes of the Dirac equation show that the gauge models considered here are compatible with fractionalization.

O. Oliveira; C. E. Cordeiro; A. Delfino; W. de Paula; T. Frederico

2011-04-22

334

Vortex solutions of an Abelian Higgs model with visible and hidden sectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study vortex solutions in a theory with dynamics governed by two weakly coupled Abelian Higgs models, describing a hidden sector and a visible sector. We analyze the radial dependence of the axially symmetric solutions constructed numerically and discuss the stability of vortex configurations for different values of the model parameters, studying in detail vortex decay into lower energy configurations. We find that even in a weak coupling regime vortex solutions strongly depend on the parameters of both the visible and hidden sectors. We also discuss on qualitative grounds possible implications of the existence of a hidden sector in connection with superconductivity and dark matter (dark strings).

Arias, Paola; Schaposnik, Fidel A.

2014-12-01

335

Wake Studies of Ornithopters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper details experiments using a mechanical ornithopter flying in a low speed wind tunnel. Experiments were conducted for a Strouhal number of 0.3 and Reynolds number of 2300, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and flow visualization was used to develop quantitative and qualitative information about the nature of the wake. The data shows that the wake is made of a series of discrete vortex rings. The impulse of these rings has been estimated with PIV data and the results correlate well with the lift required to sustain the ornithopter in flight.

Juarez, Alfredo; Harlow, Jacob; Allen, James; Ferreira de Sousa, Paulo

2006-11-01

336

The interaction of helical tip and root vortices in a wind turbine wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the helical vortices measured behind a model wind turbine in a water channel are reported. Phase-locked measurements using planar particle image velocimetry are taken behind a Glauert rotor to investigate the evolution and breakdown of the helical vortex structures. Existing linear stability theory predicts helical vortex filaments to be susceptible to three unstable modes. The current work presents tip and root vortex evolution in the wake for varying tip speed ratio and shows a breaking of the helical symmetry and merging of the vortices due to mutual inductance between the vortical filaments. The merging of the vortices is shown to be steady with rotor phase, however, small-scale non-periodic meander of the vortex positions is also observed. The generation of the helical wake is demonstrated to be closely coupled with the blade aerodynamics, strongly influencing the vortex properties which are shown to agree with theoretical predictions of the circulation shed into the wake by the blades. The mutual inductance of the helices is shown to occur at the same non-dimensional wake distance.

Sherry, Michael; Nemes, András; Lo Jacono, David; Blackburn, Hugh M.; Sheridan, John

2013-11-01

337

SAR observation and numerical modeling of tidal current wakes at the East China Sea offshore wind farm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A TerraSAR-X (TS-X) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image acquired at the East China Sea offshore wind farm presents distinct wakes at a kilometer scale on the lee of the wind turbines. The presumption was that these wakes were caused by wind movement around turbine blades. However, wind analysis using spaceborne radiometer data, numerical weather prediction, and in situ measurements suggest that the prevailing wind direction did not align with the wakes. By analyzing measurement at the tidal gauge station and modeling of the tidal current field, these trailing wakes are interpreted to have formed when a strong tidal current impinged on the cylindrical monopiles of the wind turbines. A numerical simulation was further conducted to reproduce the tidal current wake under such conditions. Comparison of the simulated surface velocity in the wake region with the TS-X sea surface backscatter intensity shows a similar trend. Consequently, turbulence intensity (T.I.) of the tidal current wakes over multiple piles is studied using the TS-X observation. It is found that the T.I. has a logarithmic relation with distance. Furthermore, another case study showing wakes due to wind movement around turbine blades is presented to discuss the differences in the tidal current wakes and wind turbine wakes. The conclusion is drawn that small-scale wakes formed by interaction of the tidal current and the turbine piles could be also imaged by SAR when certain conditions are satisfied. The study is anticipated to draw more attentions to the impacts of offshore wind foundations on local hydrodynamic field.

Li, XiaoMing; Chi, Lequan; Chen, Xueen; Ren, YongZheng; Lehner, Susanne

2014-08-01

338

An integrated Navier-Stokes - full potential - free wake method for rotor flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strong wake shed from rotary wings interacts with almost all components of the aircraft, and alters the flow field thus causing performance and noise problems. Understanding and modeling the behavior of this wake, and its effect on the aerodynamics and acoustics of helicopters have remained as challenges. This vortex wake and its effect should be accurately accounted for in any technique that aims to predict rotor flow field and performance. In this study, an advanced and efficient computational technique for predicting three-dimensional unsteady viscous flows over isolated helicopter rotors in hover and in forward flight is developed. In this hybrid technique, the advantages of various existing methods have been combined to accurately and efficiently study rotor flows with a single numerical method. The flow field is viewed in three parts: (i) an inner zone surrounding each blade where the wake and viscous effects are numerically captured, (ii) an outer zone away from the blades where wake is modeled, and (iii) a Lagrangean wake which induces wake effects in the outer zone. This technique was coded in a flow solver and compared with experimental data for hovering and advancing rotors including a two-bladed rotor, the UH-60A rotor and a tapered tip rotor. Detailed surface pressure, integrated thrust and torque, sectional thrust, and tip vortex position predictions compared favorably against experimental data. Results indicated that the hybrid solver provided accurate flow details and performance information typically in one-half to one-eighth cost of complete Navier-Stokes methods.

Berkman, Mert Enis

1998-12-01

339

Effects of incoming surface wind conditions on the wake characteristics and dynamic wind loads acting on a wind turbine model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to examine the effects of incoming surface wind conditions on the wake characteristics and dynamic wind loads acting on a wind turbine model. The experimental study was performed in a large-scale wind tunnel with a scaled three-blade Horizontal Axial Wind Turbine model placed in two different types of Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) winds with distinct mean and turbulence characteristics. In addition to measuring dynamic wind loads acting on the model turbine by using a force-moment sensor, a high-resolution Particle Image Velocimetry system was used to achieve detailed flow field measurements to characterize the turbulent wake flows behind the model turbine. The measurement results reveal clearly that the discrepancies in the incoming surface winds would affect the wake characteristics and dynamic wind loads acting on the model turbine dramatically. The dynamic wind loads acting on the model turbine were found to fluctuate much more significantly, thereby, much larger fatigue loads, for the case with the wind turbine model sited in the incoming ABL wind with higher turbulence intensity levels. The turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress levels in the wake behind the model turbine were also found to be significantly higher for the high turbulence inflow case, in comparison to those of the low turbulence inflow case. The flow characteristics in the turbine wake were found to be dominated by the formation, shedding, and breakdown of various unsteady wake vortices. In comparison with the case with relatively low turbulence intensities in the incoming ABL wind, much more turbulent and randomly shedding, faster dissipation, and earlier breakdown of the wake vortices were observed for the high turbulence inflow case, which would promote the vertical transport of kinetic energy by entraining more high-speed airflow from above to re-charge the wake flow and result in a much faster recovery of the velocity deficits in the turbine wake.

Tian, Wei; Ozbay, Ahmet; Hu, Hui

2014-12-01

340

Wing-vortex interaction: unraveling the flowfield of a hovering rotor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on one of the most prominent flow features of the hovering rotor wake, the close interaction of the tip vortex with a following blade. Such vortex interactions are fundamental determinants of rotor performance, loads, and noise. Yet, they are not completely understood, largely due to the lack of sufficiently comprehensive experimental data. The present study aims to perform such comprehensive measurements, not on hovering helicopter rotors (which hugely magnifies test complexity) but using fixed-wing models in controlled wind tunnel tests. The experiments were designed to measure, in considerable detail, the aerodynamic loading resulting from a vortex interacting with a semi-span wing, as well as the wake resulting from that interaction. The goal of the present study is to answer fundamental questions such as (a) the influence of a vortex passing below a wing on the lift, drag, tip vortex, and the wake of that wing and (b) the strength of the forming tip vortex and its relation to the wing loading and/or the tip loading. This paper presents detailed wing surface pressure measurements that result from the interaction of the wing with an interacting vortex trailing from an upstream wing. The data show large lift distribution changes for a range of wing-vortex interactions including the effects of close encounter with the vortex core. Significant asymmetry in the vortex-induced lift loading was observed, with the increase in wing sectional lift outboard of the interacting vortex (closer to the tip) being much smaller than the corresponding decrease inboard of the vortex.

Bhagwat, Mahendra J.; Caradonna, Francis X.; Ramasamy, Manikandan

2015-01-01

341

Exhaust jet mixing and condensation effects in the near field of aircraft wakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the process of contrail formation, an integral model and a two-dimensional direct numerical simulation have been used to analyse the mixing and entrainment processes of the engine exhaust through their interaction with the vortex wake of various aircraft. The objective of this study is to evaluate the partial vapour pressure of water and temperature in the

F Garnier; A Laverdant

1999-01-01

342

Flows over wings with leading-edge vortex separation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unsteady cross flow analogy reduces the steady three dimensional separation flow problem into an unsteady two dimensional flow problem in which the section shape changes with time. The two dimensional VORSEP code is extended to the case of arbitrary body growth rates in order to generate the initial vortex structures for the three dimensional free vortex sheet (FVS) code. Automatic procedures to reduce the wing geometry definition to a set of cross flow plane sections corresponding to the locations of the time step solutions and to generate the effective source distribution on each cross flow section to represent the section normal growth across the following steps are incorporated in the VORSEP code. Also, the wake shedding model is improved by adopting a redistribution scheme which improves the stability of the free sheet development with time. The improved wake shedding model combined with the redistribution scheme alleviated the numerical instabilities associated with the vortex rollup.

Rao, B. M.; Maskew, B.

1982-01-01

343

Confinement in a 2 + 1 Dimensional Center Vortex Model of the Yang-Mills Vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A promising picture of confinement in QCD can be obtained based on a condensate of thick vortices with fluxes in the center of the gauge group (center vortices). A number of studies of this picture have been made and specific models have been formulated to obtain a concrete realization of the vortex picture. In our model, vortices are represented by closed random lines in 2+1- dimensional space-time. These random lines are modeled as being piece-wise linear and an ensemble is generated by Monte Carlo methods. The physical space in which the vortex lines are defined is a cube with periodic boundary conditions, and the necessary algorithms which implement those boundary conditions are developed. When two vortices become close to each other, it is possible that they connect to one another. Also the inverse process, that a vortex separates at a bottleneck, is allowed. Our ensemble therefore contains not a fixed, but a variable number of closed vortex lines. This is expected to be important for realizing the deconfining phase transition. Using this model, we study both vortex percolation and the potential V (r) between quark and anti-quark as a function of distance r at different vortex densities, vortex segment lengths, reconnection conditions and at different temperatures. We have found three deconfinement phase transitions, as a function of density, as a function of vortex segment length, and as a function of temperature.

Altarawneh, Derar

344

Study of the Mutual Interaction Between a Wing Wake and an Encountering Airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an effort to increase airport productivity, several wind-tunnel and flight-test programs are currently underway to determine safe reductions in separation standards between aircraft. These programs are designed to study numerous concepts from the characteristics and detection of wake vortices to the wake-vortex encounter phenomenon. As part of this latter effort, computational tools are being developed and utilized as a means of modeling and verifying wake-vortex hazard encounters. The objective of this study is to assess the ability of PMARC, a low-order potential-flow panel method, to predict the forces and moments imposed on a following business-jet configuration by a vortex interaction. Other issues addressed include the investigation of several wake models and their ability to predict wake shape and trajectory, the validity of the velocity field imposed on the following configuration, modeling techniques and the effect of the high-lift system and the empennage. Comparisons with wind-tunnel data reveal that PMARC predicts the characteristics for the clean wing-body following configuration fairly well. Non-linear effects produced by the addition of the high-lift system and empennage, however, are not so well predicted.

Walden, A. B.; vanDam, C. P.

1996-01-01

345

The turbulent wake of a submarine model at varying pitch and yaw angle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the present study is to understand how the pitch and yaw angle affect the mean flow and turbulence in the wake of an axisymmetric submarine model (DARPA SUBOFF model). Measurements in the wake were performed at a Reynolds number based on the length of 2.37 x 10^6. Mean velocity and two-component turbulence measurements were performed using Pitot probes and hot wires in the span-wise plane at three different downstream positions: 5, 7.5 and 10 diameters downstream of the trailing edge. The range of measured angles of attack and yaw angles were limited to between 0 and 10 in part to avoid wind tunnel interference effects. Work supported by ONR Grant N00014-09-1-0263.

Alaoui, Miloud; Ashok, Anand; Smits, Alexander

2011-11-01

346

Slow-wave oscillations in a corticothalamic model of sleep and wake.  

PubMed

A physiologically-based corticothalamic neural field model is used to study slow wave oscillations including cortical UP and DOWN states in deep sleep by extending it to incorporate bursting dynamics of neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus. The interplay of local bursting dynamics and network interactions produces the cortical UP and DOWN states of slow wave sleep while preserving previously verified model predictions in the wake state. Results show that EEG spectral features in wake and sleep are reproduced. The bursting is subthreshold but acts to intensify the amplitude of oscillations in slow wave sleep with deep UP/DOWN oscillations on the cortex emerging naturally. Furthermore, there is a continuous cycle between the two regimes, rather than a flip-flop between discrete states. PMID:25659479

Zhao, X; Kim, J W; Robinson, P A

2015-04-01

347

High Resolution Wake Capturing Methodology for Hovering Rotors Karthikeyan Duraisamy  

E-print Network

edge is lacking in the literature, reasonable validation of the vortex velocity profiles-bladed rotor case, the tip vortex could be tracked up to two rotor revolutions with minimal diffusion ) wake age (degrees) Introduction The wake generated by a helicopter blade is characterized by concen

Alonso, Juan J.

348

The Reykjavik wake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results from the wake flights in the MOSO 2 campaign that took place in Iceland, autumn 2011. The results include RPAS measurements (soundings) of an orographic wake in southwestern Iceland during a northerly wind storm. The results reveal a wake structure dominated by the local as well as the larger scale topography. The RPAS dataset is augmented with measurements from a network of automatic weather stations and simulations from a numerical weather model.

Jonassen, Marius O.; Ólafsson, Haraldur; Rögnvaldsson, Ólafur; Ágústsson, Hálfdán

2013-04-01

349

Bifurcations and symmetry breaking in the wake of axisymmetric bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the generic problem of wake instabilities past fixed axisymmetric bodies, and focus on the extreme cases of a sphere and a flat disk. Numerical results reveal that the wakes of these two bodies evolve differently as the Reynolds number is increased. Especially, two new vortex shedding modes are identified behind a disk. To interpret these results, we introduce a model based on the theory of mode interactions in presence of O(2) symmetry. This model, which was initially developed for the Taylor-Couette system, allows us to explain the structural differences observed in the evolution of the two types of wakes and to accurately predict the evolution of the lift force.

Fabre, David; Auguste, Franck; Magnaudet, Jacques

2008-05-01

350

Unsteady hovering wake parameters identified from dynamic model tests, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a 4-bladed model rotor is reported that can be excited with a simple eccentric mechanism in progressing and regressing modes with either harmonic or transient inputs. Parameter identification methods were applied to the problem of extracting parameters for linear perturbation models, including rotor dynamic inflow effects, from the measured blade flapping responses to transient pitch stirring excitations. These perturbation models were then used to predict blade flapping response to other pitch stirring transient inputs, and rotor wake and blade flapping responses to harmonic inputs. The viability and utility of using parameter identification methods for extracting the perturbation models from transients are demonstrated through these combined analytical and experimental studies.

Hohenemser, K. H.; Crews, S. T.

1977-01-01

351

Sites of Action of Sleep and Wake Drugs: Insights from Model Organisms  

PubMed Central

Small molecules have been used since antiquity to regulate our sleep. Despite the explosion of diverse drugs to treat problems of too much or too little sleep, the detailed mechanisms of action and especially the neuronal targets by which these compounds alter human behavioural states are not well understood. Research efforts in model systems such as mouse, zebrafish, and fruit fly are combining conditional genetics and optogenetics with pharmacology to map the effects of sleep-promoting drugs onto neural circuits. Recent studies raise the possibility that many small molecules alter sleep and wake via specific sets of critical neurons rather than through the global modulation of multiple brain targets. These findings also uncover novel brain areas as sleep/wake regulators and indicate that the development of circuit-selective drugs might alleviate sleep disorders with fewer side effects. PMID:23706898

Rihel, Jason; Schier, Alexander F.

2013-01-01

352

ADVANCEMENTS IN THEORETICAL MODELS OF CONFINED VORTEX FLOWFIELDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we review some of the theoretical solutions used to describe swirl dominated flows in both unidirectional and bidirectional flow orientations. This short survey starts with the Rankine vortex and culminates in the presentation of a compressible solution of the bidirectional vortex. After classifying representative swirl motions as external or internal depending on physical boundary conditions, their commonalities

J. W. Batterson; B. A. Maicke; J. Majdalani

353

A Model for the Vortex Pair Associated with a Jet in a Cross Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model is presented for the contrarotating vortex pair that is formed by a round, turbulent, subsonic jet directed normally into a uniform, subsonic cross flow. The model consists of a set of algebraic equations that describe the properties of the vortex pair as a function of their location in the jet plume. The parameters of the model are physical characteristics of the vortices such as the vortex strength, spacing, and core size. These parameters are determined by velocity measurements at selective points in the jet plume.

Sellers, William L.

1975-01-01

354

Influence of Wake Models on Calculated Tiltrotor Aerodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons of measured and calculated aerodynamic behavior of a tiltrotor model are presented. The test of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) with a single, 1\\/4-scale V- 22 rotor in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW) provides an extensive set of aeroacoustic, performance, and structural loads data. The calculations were performed using the rotorcraft comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II. Presented are comparisons

Wayne Johnson

2002-01-01

355

Holographic flow visualization. [of aircraft wakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Holographic visualization techniques are presented of the vortex wake of a lifting wing. The motions of tracer particles in vortical flows are described along with the development of a liquid-drop tracer generator. An analysis is presented of the motion of particles of arbitrary density and size in solid body and potential vortex flows.

Charwat, A. F.; Fourney, M. E.

1976-01-01

356

An analytical model for vortex core pinning in a micromagnetic disk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-parameter analytical model is constructed to describe a thin, magnetically soft, circular disk in the vortex state. The model is capable of describing the change in evolution of net magnetization and of vortex core position when the core interacts with a magnetic pinning site. The basis of the two-parameter model is formed by a piecewise, physically continuous, magnetization distribution constructed with two regions described by different one-parameter models. Benchmarking against numerical simulations of ideal disks with and without pinning sites shows that the model provides accurate predictions of magnetization, hysteretic transitions, and 2-D displacement of the vortex core in the presence of pinning sites. The demonstrated accuracy of the model supports its use as an empirical tool to extract quantitative maps of vortex pinning energies from measurements of magnetization.

Burgess, J. A. J.; Losby, J. E.; Freeman, M. R.

2014-06-01

357

VIDEO IMAGES OF SMOKE DISPERSION IN THE NEAR WAKE OF A BUILDING PART I. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL SCALES OF VORTEX SHEDDING  

EPA Science Inventory

In a wind-tunnel study, recorded video images of smoke dispersion in the wake of a rectangular-shaped building web analyzed. ontinuous source of smoke was emitted at floor level, midway along the leeward side of the building. moke was observed to build up within a region adjacent...

358

Artifacts in the Wake: Leadership via an Oriented Compass Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although inextricable, the act of leading, the leader, and outcome of leadership are unique entities. Lack of such differentiation may ensnare novice leaders in broad suppositions. This conceptual article introduces a tool for analyzing leadership. Leaders can leverage the model to evaluate the act of leading, in route, via a measurable trajectory…

Fallon, Paul D.

2013-01-01

359

Laser Doppler velocimeter system simulation for sensing aircraft wake vortices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hydrodynamic model of aircraft vortex wakes in an irregular wind shear field near the ground is developed and used as a basis for modeling the characteristics of a laser Doppler detection and vortex location system. The trailing vortex sheet and the wind shear are represented by discrete free vortices distributed over a two-dimensional grid. The time dependent hydrodynamic equations are solved by direct numerical integration in the Boussinesq approximation. The ground boundary is simulated by images, and fast Fourier Transform techniques are used to evaluate the vorticity stream function. The atmospheric turbulence was simulated by constructing specific realizations at time equal to zero, assuming that Kolmogoroff's law applies, and that the dissipation rate is constant throughout the flow field. The response of a simulated laser Doppler velocimeter is analyzed by simulating the signal return from the flow field as sensed by a simulation of the optical/electronic system.

Thomson, J. A. L.; Meng, J. C. S.

1974-01-01

360

A wake bending unsteady dynamic inflow model of tiltrotor in conversion flight of tiltrotor aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerodynamics, dynamic responses and aeroelasticity of tiltrotor aircraft in the tilting of rotor i.e. in conversion flight\\u000a are extraordinarily complicated. The traditional quasi-steady assumption model can not reflect the unsteady aerodynamic problems\\u000a in the tilting of rotor. The CFD method based on the vortex theory can get better results, but it consumes a lot of computing\\u000a resources. In this

HaiLong Yue; PinQi Xia

2009-01-01

361

Source Term Model for Vortex Generator Vanes in a Navier-Stokes Computer Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A source term model for an array of vortex generators was implemented into a non-proprietary Navier-Stokes computer code, OVERFLOW. The source term models the side force created by a vortex generator vane. The model is obtained by introducing a side force to the momentum and energy equations that can adjust its strength automatically based on the local flow. The model was tested and calibrated by comparing data from numerical simulations and experiments of a single low profile vortex generator vane on a flat plate. In addition, the model was compared to experimental data of an S-duct with 22 co-rotating, low profile vortex generators. The source term model allowed a grid reduction of about seventy percent when compared with the numerical simulations performed on a fully gridded vortex generator on a flat plate without adversely affecting the development and capture of the vortex created. The source term model was able to predict the shape and size of the stream-wise vorticity and velocity contours very well when compared with both numerical simulations and experimental data. The peak vorticity and its location were also predicted very well when compared to numerical simulations and experimental data. The circulation predicted by the source term model matches the prediction of the numerical simulation. The source term model predicted the engine fan face distortion and total pressure recovery of the S-duct with 22 co-rotating vortex generators very well. The source term model allows a researcher to quickly investigate different locations of individual or a row of vortex generators. The researcher is able to conduct a preliminary investigation with minimal grid generation and computational time.

Waithe, Kenrick A.

2004-01-01

362

Wake survey techniques for objects with highly turbulent wakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study is to develop practical and accurate wake survey techniques for determining the drag of bluff bodies that have highly turbulent wakes. The commonly used wake survey method, the simplified Jones' equation with pneumatic probe measurements, was found to be inadequate in such cases. This study consisted of an experimental investigation of several wind-tunnel models,

Biao Lu

2003-01-01

363

Supersonic shock wave/vortex interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although shock wave/vortex interaction is a basic and important fluid dynamics problem, very little research has been conducted on this topic. Therefore, a detailed experimental study of the interaction between a supersonic streamwise turbulent vortex and a shock wave was carried out at the Penn State Gas Dynamics Laboratory. A vortex is produced by replaceable swirl vanes located upstream of the throat of various converging-diverging nozzles. The supersonic vortex is then injected into either a coflowing supersonic stream or ambient air. The structure of the isolated vortex is investigated in a supersonic wind tunnel using miniature, fast-response, five-hole and total temperature probes and in a free jet using laser Doppler velocimetry. The cases tested have unit Reynolds numbers in excess of 25 million per meter, axial Mach numbers ranging from 2.5 to 4.0, and peak tangential Mach numbers from 0 (i.e., a pure jet) to about 0.7. The results show that the typical supersonic wake-like vortex consists of a non-isentropic, rotational core, where the reduced circulation distribution is self similar, and an outer isentropic, irrotational region. The vortex core is also a region of significant turbulent fluctuations. Radial profiles of turbulent kinetic energy and axial-tangential Reynolds stress are presented. The interactions between the vortex and both oblique and normal shock waves are investigated using nonintrusive optical diagnostics (i.e. schlieren, planar laser scattering, and laser Doppler velocimetry). Of the various types, two Mach 2.5 overexpanded-nozzle Mach disc interactions are examined in detail. Below a certain vortex strength, a 'weak' interaction exists in which the normal shock is perturbed locally into an unsteady 'bubble' shock near the vortex axis, but vortex breakdown (i.e., a stagnation point) does not occur. For stronger vortices, a random unsteady 'strong' interaction results that causes vortex breakdown. The vortex core reforms downstream of the rear stagnation point, and the reduced circulation distribution once again becomes self-similar in this region. A-new model of this interaction is proposed. Finally, a curve defining the approximate limits of supersonic vortex breakdown is presented.

Settles, G. S.; Cattafesta, L.

1993-01-01

364

Large Eddy Simulation of Wake Vortices in the Convective Boundary Layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavior of wake vortices in a convective boundary layer is investigated using a validated large eddy simulation model. Our results show that the vortices are largely deformed due to strong turbulent eddy motion while a sinusoidal Crow instability develops. Vortex rising is found to be caused by the updrafts (thermals) during daytime convective conditions and increases with increasing nondimensional turbulence intensity eta. In the downdraft region of the convective boundary layer, vortex sinking is found to be accelerated proportional to increasing eta, with faster speed than that in an ideal line vortex pair in an inviscid fluid. Wake vortices are also shown to be laterally transported over a significant distance due to large turbulent eddy motion. On the other hand, the decay rate of the, vortices in the convective boundary layer that increases with increasing eta, is larger in the updraft region than in the downdraft region because of stronger turbulence in the updraft region.

Lin, Yuh-Lang; Han, Jongil; Zhang, Jing; Ding, Feng; Arya, S. Pal; Proctor, Fred H.

2000-01-01

365

A Model of Compressor Blade Row Interaction with Shock Induced Vortex Shedding  

E-print Network

A Model of Compressor Blade Row Interaction with Shock Induced Vortex Shedding Mark G. Turner = circulation = trailing edge thickness = shock angle = density I. Introduction ransonic compressor stages AIAA. Research Scientist, Compressor Aerodynamic Research Laboratory, Associate Fellow AIAA

Cincinnati, University of

366

Analytical model of the structureborne interior noise induced by a propeller wake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structure-borne contribution to the interior noise that is induced by the propeller wake acting on the wing was studied. Analytical models were developed to describe each aspect of this path including the excitation loads, the wing and fuselage structures, and the interior acoustic space. The emphasis is on examining a variety of parameters, and as a result different models were developed to examine specific parameters. The excitation loading on the wing by the propeller wake is modeled by a distribution of rotating potential vortices whose strength is related to the thrust per blade. The response of the wing to this loading is examined using beam models. A model of a beam structurally connected to a cylindrical shell with an internal acoustic fluid was developed to examine the coupling of energy from the wing to the interior space. The model of the acoustic space allows for arbitrary end conditions (e.g., rigid or vibrating end caps). Calculations are presented using these models to compare with a laboratory test configuration as well as for parameters of a prop-fan aircraft.

Junger, M. C.; Garrelick, J. M.; Martinez, R.; Cole, J. E., III

1984-01-01

367

Radar Reflectivity in Wingtip-Generated Wake Vortices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents new predictive models of radar reflectivity, with meter-scale resolution, for aircraft wakes in clear air and fog. The models result from a radar design program to locate and quantify wake vortices from commercial aircraft in support of the NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). The radar reflectivity model for clear air assumes: 1) turbulent eddies in the wake produce small discontinuities in radar refractive index; and 2) these turbulent eddies are in the 'inertial subrange' of turbulence. From these assumptions, the maximum radar frequency for detecting a particular aircraft wake, as well as the refractive index structure constant and radar volume reflectivity in the wake can be obtained from the NASA Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) output. For fog conditions, an empirical relationship is used to calculate radar reflectivity factor from TASS output of bulk liquid water. Currently, two models exist: 1) Atlas-based on observations of liquid water and radar reflectivity factor in clouds; and 2) de Wolf- specifically tailored to a specific measured dataset (1992 Vandenberg Air Force Base).

Marshall, Robert E.; Mudukutore, Ashok; Wissel, Vicki

1997-01-01

368

Numerical simulation and validation of helicopter blade-vortex interaction using coupled CFD/CSD and three levels of aerodynamic modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotorcraft Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) remains one of the most challenging flow phenomenon to simulate numerically. Over the past decade, the HART-II rotor test and its extensive experimental dataset has been a major database for validation of CFD codes. Its strong BVI signature, with high levels of intrusive noise and vibrations, makes it a difficult test for computational methods. The main challenge is to accurately capture and preserve the vortices which interact with the rotor, while predicting correct blade deformations and loading. This doctoral dissertation presents the application of a coupled CFD/CSD methodology to the problem of helicopter BVI and compares three levels of fidelity for aerodynamic modeling: a hybrid lifting-line/free-wake (wake coupling) method, with modified compressible unsteady model; a hybrid URANS/free-wake method; and a URANS-based wake capturing method, using multiple overset meshes to capture the entire flow field. To further increase numerical correlation, three helicopter fuselage models are implemented in the framework. The first is a high resolution 3D GPU panel code; the second is an immersed boundary based method, with 3D elliptic grid adaption; the last one uses a body-fitted, curvilinear fuselage mesh. The main contribution of this work is the implementation and systematic comparison of multiple numerical methods to perform BVI modeling. The trade-offs between solution accuracy and computational cost are highlighted for the different approaches. Various improvements have been made to each code to enhance physical fidelity, while advanced technologies, such as GPU computing, have been employed to increase efficiency. The resulting numerical setup covers all aspects of the simulation creating a truly multi-fidelity and multi-physics framework. Overall, the wake capturing approach showed the best BVI phasing correlation and good blade deflection predictions, with slightly under-predicted aerodynamic loading magnitudes. However, it proved to be much more expensive than the other two methods. Wake coupling with RANS solver had very good loading magnitude predictions, and therefore good acoustic intensities, with acceptable computational cost. The lifting-line based technique often had over-predicted aerodynamic levels, due to the degree of empiricism of the model, but its very short run-times, thanks to GPU technology, makes it a very attractive approach.

Amiraux, Mathieu

369

Vortex particle model in a renormalizable quantum gravity  

E-print Network

The search for a quantum theory of gravity has become one of the most well-known problems in theoretical physics. Problems quantizing general relativity because it is not renormalizable have led to a search for a new theory of gravity that, while still agreeing with measured observations, is renormalizable. In this paper, I show that, given a "vortex" model of elementary particles in which rest mass derives from intrinsic spin and polarization, a Yang-Mills force with a U(1)$\\otimes SU(2)\\otimes$SU(2) group symmetry (which is the symmetry group of conservation of energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum) predicts solar system observations of gravitational behavior as well as binary pulsar precession and orbital speed-up caused by gravitational radiation-reaction. Using a homogeneous, isotropic universe model, I show that this theory explains the accelerating expansion of the universe directly from group symmetry with no ad hoc constants. In addition, because it is a generic massless Yang-Mills theory, it...

Andersen, Timothy D

2010-01-01

370

Impact of vortex-removal from environmental flow in cyclone track prediction using Lagrangian advection model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, a new approach is discussed to find out the residual steering flow from the high-resolution global Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model-forecasted wind fields, which have been used in the Lagrangian advection model to determine the track of tropical cyclones formed in the Indian Ocean. The Lagrangian advection model is newly developed model and conceptually closer to the dynamical models, which utilizes environmental steering flow and the effect due to earth's rotation (the beta-effect) to determine the motion of cyclone. In this approach, the effect of environmental flow on the cyclone track is examined by removing the existing cyclone vortex from the steering flow which is determined by potential vorticity approach. A new approach based on vortex pattern matching has been used to identify the cyclone vortex and to remove it from the steering flow. The tracks of five tropical cyclones (viz., Nargis, Khai_Muk, Nisha, Aila and Phyan) which were formed in the North Indian basin during the period 2008-2009 have been generated by the Lagrangian advection model using the proposed scheme. The position errors were computed with respect to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) best track analysis positions and compared with that of without-vortex-removal scheme. The results show that the mean track errors for five cyclones are reduced by 6-35 % for 12-72 h forecast in case of vortex-removal scheme as compared to the without-vortex-removal scheme.

Singh, Sanjeev Kumar; Kishtawal, C. M.; Jaiswal, Neeru; Singh, Randhir; Pal, P. K.

2012-08-01

371

Chaos Control in the Wake of an Oscillating Cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear dynamics of vortex shedding behind circular cylinders are investigated using a previously developed spatial-temporal map lattice. The map studied consists of a series of circle map oscillators placed along the cylinder span coupled with a simple diffusion model. Chaotic states associated with disordered vortex shedding patterns are observed when forcing the cylinder outside the classical lock-on region. These are controlled through application of a small-amplitude periodic perturbation of a system parameter, as proposed by Ott, Grebogi, and Yorke. Periodic lace-like structures and parallel shedding patterns are realized by driving the chaotic system to the desired target state. A wide range of forcing frequency-amplitude combinations are studied along with manipulation of vortex lock-on region extents. Preliminary extensions of these chaos control techniques to a two-dimensional wake flow using finite element techniques are also discussed.

Balasubramanian, Ganapathi R.; Olinger, David J.

1997-11-01

372

A full potential flow analysis with realistic wake influence for helicopter rotor airload prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 3-D, quasi-steady, full potential flow solver was adapted to include realistic wake influence for the aerodynamic analysis of helicopter rotors. The method is based on a finite difference solution of the full potential equation, using an inner and outer domain procedure for the blade flowfield to accommodate wake effects. The nonlinear flow is computed in the inner domain region using a finite difference solution method. The wake is modeled by a vortex lattice using prescribed geometry techniques to allow for the inclusion of realistic rotor wakes. The key feature of the analysis is that vortices contained within the finite difference mesh (inner domain) were treated with a vortex embedding technique while the influence of the remaining portion of the wake (in the outer domain) is impressed as a boundary condition on the outer surface of the finite difference mesh. The solution procedure couples the wake influence with the inner domain solution in a consistent and efficient solution process. The method has been applied to both hover and forward flight conditions. Correlation with subsonic and transonic hover airload data is shown which demonstrates the merits of the approach.

Egolf, T. Alan; Sparks, S. Patrick

1987-01-01

373

Increased fragmentation of sleep-wake cycles in the 5XFAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Sleep perturbations including fragmented sleep with frequent night-time awakenings and daytime naps are common in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and these daily disruptions are a major factor for institutionalization. The objective of this study was to investigate if sleep-wake patterns are altered in 5XFAD mice, a well-characterized double transgenic mouse model of AD which exhibits an early onset of robust AD pathology and memory deficits. These mice have five distinct human mutations in two genes, the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Presenilin1 (PS1) engineered into two transgenes driven by a neuron-specific promoter (Thy1), and thus develop severe amyloid deposition by 4months of age. Age-matched (4-6.5monthsold) male and female 5XFAD mice were monitored and compared to wild-type littermate controls for multiple sleep traits using a non-invasive, high throughput, automated piezoelectric system which detects breathing and gross body movements to characterize sleep and wake. Sleep-wake patterns were recorded continuously under baseline conditions (undisturbed) for 3days and after sleep deprivation of 4h, which in mice produces a significant sleep debt and challenge to sleep homeostasis. Under baseline conditions, 5XFAD mice exhibited shorter bout lengths (14% lower values for males and 26% for females) as compared to controls (p<0.001). In females, the 5XFAD mice also showed 12% less total sleep than WT (p<0.01). Bout length reductions were greater during the night (the active phase for mice) than during the day, which does not model the human condition of disrupted sleep at night (the inactive period). However, the overall decrease in bout length suggests increased fragmentation and disruption in sleep consolidation that may be relevant to human sleep. The 5XFAD mice may serve as a useful model for testing therapeutic strategies to improve sleep consolidation in AD patients. PMID:25637807

Sethi, M; Joshi, S S; Webb, R L; Beckett, T L; Donohue, K D; Murphy, M P; O'Hara, B F; Duncan, M J

2015-04-01

374

Assessment of the Breakup of the Antarctic Polar Vortex in Two New Chemistry-Climate Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Successful simulation of the breakup of the Antarctic polar vortex depends on the representation of tropospheric stationary waves at Southern Hemisphere middle latitudes. This paper assesses the vortex breakup in two new chemistry-climate models (CCMs). The stratospheric version of the UK Chemistry and Aerosols model is able to reproduce the observed timing of the vortex breakup. Version 2 of the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS V2) model is typical of CCMs in that the Antarctic polar vortex breaks up too late; at 10 hPa, the mean transition to easterlies at 60 S is delayed by 12-13 days as compared with the ERA-40 and National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalyses. The two models' skill in simulating planetary wave driving during the October-November period accounts for differences in their simulation of the vortex breakup, with GEOS V2 unable to simulate the magnitude and tilt of geopotential height anomalies in the troposphere and thus underestimating the wave driving. In the GEOS V2 CCM the delayed breakup of the Antarctic vortex biases polar temperatures and trace gas distributions in the upper stratosphere in November and December.

Hurwitz, M. M.; Newman, P. A.; Oman, L. D.; Li, F.; Morgenstern, O.; Braesicke, P.; Pyle, J. A.

2010-01-01

375

Study of the turbulent wake behind a tidal turbine through different numerical models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As developing sources of renewable energy becomes a critical priority, research in this field become more essential. A novel method to produce clean renewable energy is extraction from ocean tides via a turbine. Although energy generation from tidal currents has many similarities to wind, the balance between kinetic and potential energy is a key element in tidal channels that invalidates ``Betz's'' limit. Other practical differences arise from the concentrated nature of tidal resources which impose very close turbine spacing for economic reasons. These, together with the potential influence of geometric constraints imposed by free surface and tidal channel walls, makes the study of the turbulent wake in tidal energy extraction a very important problem in development of this technology from economical and environmental aspects. We will present numerical simulations of turbulent wake behind a well characterized two-bladed turbine using a hierarchy of different models: Actuator Disk, Virtual Blade, the Single and Multiple Reference Frame and Sliding Mesh model with various boundary conditions and inlet velocity profiles. We will compare the results, discuss the differences among these models and the potential for each one to answer questions about optimization of energy extraction and environmental impacts.

Teymour Javaherchi Mozafari, Amir; Aliseda, Alberto; Antheaume, Sylvain; Seydel, Joseph; Polagye, Brian

2009-11-01

376

About the effects of an oscillating miniflap upon the wake on an airfoil, all immersed in turbulent flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present research analyzes the asymmetry in the rolling up shear layers behind the blunt trailing edge of an airfoil 4412 with a miniflap acting as active flow control device and its wake organization. Experimental investigations relating the asymmetry of the vortex flow in the near wake region, able to distort the flow increasing the downwash of an airfoil, have been performed. All of these in a free upstream turbulent flow (1.8% intensity). We examine the near wake region characteristics of a wing model with a 4412 airfoil without and with a rotating miniflap located on the lower surface, near the trailing edge. The flow in the near wake, for 3 x-positions (along chord line) and 20 vertical points in each x-position, was explored, for three different rotating frequencies, in order to identify signs of asymmetry of the initial counter rotating vortex structures. Experimental evidence is presented showing that for typical lifting conditions the shear layer rollup process within the near wake is different for the upper and lower vortices: the shear layer separating from the pressure side of the airfoil begins its rollup immediately behind the trailing edge, creating a stronger vortex while the shear layer from the suction side begins its rollup more downstream creating a weaker vortex. The experimental data were processed by classical statistics methods. Aspects of a mechanism connecting the different evolution and pattern of these initial vortex structures with lift changes and wake alleviating processes, due to these miniflaps, will be studied in future works.

S, Delnero J.; J, Marańón Di Leo; Colman; J; M, Camocardi; Sainz M, García; F, Muńoz

2011-12-01

377

Airloads and Wake Geometry Calculations for an Isolated Tiltrotor Model in a Wind Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Th tiltrotor aircraft configuration has the potential to revolutionize air transportation by providing an economical combination of vertical take-off and landing capability with efficient, high-speed cruise flight. To achieve this potential it is necessary to have validated analytical tools that will support future tiltrotor aircraft development. These analytical tools must calculate tiltrotor aeromechanical behavior, including performance, structural loads, vibration, and aeroelastic stability, with an accuracy established by correlation with measured tiltrotor data. For many years such correlation has been performed for helicopter rotors (rotors designed for edgewise flight), but correlation activities for tiltrotors have been limited, in part by the absence of appropriate measured data. The recent test of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) with a single, U4-scale V-22 rotor in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW) now provides an extensive set of aeroacoustic, performance, and structural loads data. This paper will present calculations of airloads, wake geometry, and performance, including correlation with TRAM DNW measurements. The calculations were obtained using CAMRAD II, which is a modern rotorcraft comprehensive analysis, with advanced models intended for application to tiltrotor aircraft as well as helicopters. Comprehensive analyses have received extensive correlation with performance and loads measurements on helicopter rotors. The proposed paper is part of an initial effort to perform an equally extensive correlation with tiltrotor data. The correlation will establish the level of predictive capability achievable with current technology; identify the limitations of the current aerodynamic, wake, and structural models of tiltrotors; and lead to recommendations for research to extend tiltrotor aeromechanics analysis capability. The purpose of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) experimental project is to provide data necessary to validate tiltrotor performance and aeroacoustic prediction methodologies and to investigate and demonstrate advanced civil tiltrotor technologies. The TRAM project is a key part of the NASA Short Haul Civil Tiltrotor (SHCT) project. The SHCT project is an element of the Aviation Systems Capacity Initiative within NASA. In April-May 1998 the TRAM was tested in the isolated rotor configuration at the Large Low-speed Facility of the German-Dutch Wind Tunnels (DNW). A preparatory test was conducted in December 1997. These tests were the first comprehensive aeroacoustic test for a tiltrotor, including not only noise and performance data, but airload and wake measurements as well. The TRAM can also be tested in a fill-span configuration, incorporating both rotors Lnd a fuselage model. The wind tunnel installation of the TRAM isolated rotor is shown. The rotor tested in the DNW was a 1/4-scale (9.5 ft diameter) model of the right-hand V-22 proprotor. The rotor and nacelle assembly was attached to an acoustically-treated, isolated rotor test stand through a mechanical pivot (the nacelle conversion axis). The TRAM was analyzed using the rotorcraft comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II. CAMRAD II is an aeromechanical analysis of helicopters and rotorcraft that incorporates a combination of advanced technologies, including multibody dynamics, nonlinear finite elements, and rotorcraft aerodynamics. The trim task finds the equilibrium solution (constant or periodic) for a steady state operating condition, in this case a rotor operating in a wind tunnel. For wind tunnel operation, the thrust and flapping are trimmed to target values. The aerodynamic model includes a wake analysis to calculate the rotor nonuniform induced-velocities, using a free wake geometry. The paper will present the results of CAMRAD II calculations compared to the TRAM DNW measurements for hover performance, helicopter mode performance, and helicopter mode airloads. An example of the hover performance results, comparing both mearements and calculations for the JVX (large scale) and TRAM (small scale) rotors, is shown. An ex

Johnson, Wayne

2003-01-01

378

Comparison of the Dynamic Wake Meandering Model, Large-Eddy Simulation, and Field Data at the Egmond aan Zee Offshore Wind Plant: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this work is the comparison of the dynamic wake meandering model and large-eddy simulation with field data from the Egmond aan Zee offshore wind plant composed of 36 3-MW turbines. The field data includes meteorological mast measurements, SCADA information from all turbines, and strain-gauge data from two turbines. The dynamic wake meandering model and large-eddy simulation are means of computing unsteady wind plant aerodynamics, including the important unsteady meandering of wakes as they convect downstream and interact with other turbines and wakes. Both of these models are coupled to a turbine model such that power and mechanical loads of each turbine in the wind plant are computed. We are interested in how accurately different types of waking (e.g., direct versus partial waking), can be modeled, and how background turbulence level affects these loads. We show that both the dynamic wake meandering model and large-eddy simulation appear to underpredict power and overpredict fatigue loads because of wake effects, but it is unclear that they are really in error. This discrepancy may be caused by wind-direction uncertainty in the field data, which tends to make wake effects appear less pronounced.

Churchfield, M. J.; Moriarty, P. J.; Hao, Y.; Lackner, M. A.; Barthelmie, R.; Lundquist, J.; Oxley, G. S.

2014-12-01

379

A comparison of actuator disc and BEM models in CFD simulations for the prediction of offshore wake losses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed using ANSYS CFX to compare wake interaction results obtained from two rotor modelling methodologies: the standard actuator disc and the blade element momentum model (BEM). The unsteady simulations embed Coriolis forces and neutral stability conditions in the surface layer and stable conditions in the free stream. The BEM method is implemented in the CFD code through a pre-processing set of files that employs look-up tables. The control system for the wind turbines is considered through look-up tables that are constructed based on operational wind farm data. Simulations using the actuator disc and BEM methodologies have been performed using a number of different turbulence models in order to compare the wind turbine wake structure results. The use of URANS and LES numerical methods, coupled with the two different methodologies of representing the turbine, enables an assessment to be made of the details required for varying degrees of accuracy in computing the wake structures. The findings stress the importance of including the rotation of the wake and the non-uniform load on the rotor in LES simulations to account for more accurate turbulence intensity levels in the near wake.

Lavaroni, Luca; Watson, Simon J.; Cook, Malcolm J.; Dubal, Mark R.

2014-06-01

380

Dynamics and control of hydrofoil wakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of rotor-stator interaction (RSI) is an issue within the field of turbomachinery. The flow field entering the rotor cascade will depend on the stator blade to blade velocity distributions, and the viscous wake trailing cascade blades. This flow field is also dependent on the mode of operation, e.g by changing the angle of each blade in hydroturbines. Manipulating the stator viscous wakes is one method to minimize the problems associated RSI; i.e. noise and vibration. In order to explore this concept, a comprehensive experimental program was carried out in a high-speed water tunnel utilizing a series of NACA 0015 hydrofoils. Baseline wake data were collected with a hydraulically smooth foil and compared with two foils modified with two sizes of vortex generators (VG) positioned close to the leading edge of the foil. Not only was the effect of the modifications on wake spreading investigated but also the effect on wake dynamics such as vortex shedding was studied. A high frame-rate PIV system was used at recording rates of 1 and 10 kHz to map the near wake region, extending roughly 1 chord-length downstream the trailing edge, over a range of angles of attack and velocities. The results show that wake dynamics and wake characteristics, i.e. velocity deficit and width, scale with average drag. It was demonstrated that the use of VGs can improve both the dynamics and spreading characteristics of the wake.

Kjeldsen, Morten; Wosnik, Martin; Arndt, Roger

2008-11-01

381

Probabilistic models for vortex filaments based on fractional Brownian motion  

E-print Network

We consider a vortex structure based on a three-dimensional fractional Brownian motion with Hurst parameter H>12. We show that the energy H\\vspace*{-1pt} has moments of any order under suitable conditions. When H?(12,13) we prove...

Nualart, David; Rovira, Carles; Tindel, Samy

2003-11-01

382

Wind tunnel investigation on wind turbine wakes and wind farms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between atmospheric boundary layer and wind farms leads to flow modifications, which need to be deeply characterized in order to relate them to wind farm performance. The wake flow produced from a wind farm is the result of a strong interaction between multiple turbine wakes, so that the wind farm configuration turns out to be one of the dominant features to enhance power production. For the present work a wind tunnel investigation was carried out with hot-wire anemometry and velocity measurements performed with multi-hole pressure probes. The tested wind farms consist of miniature three-bladed wind turbine models. Preliminarily, the wake flow generated from a single wind turbine is surveyed, which is characterized by a strong velocity defect lying in proximity of the wind turbine hub height. The wake gradually recovers by moving downstream; the characteristics of the incoming boundary layer and wind turbulence intensity can strongly affect the wake recovery, and thus performance of following wind turbines. An increased turbulence level is typically detected downstream of each wind turbine for heights comparable to the wind turbine blade top-tip. These wake flow fluctuations produce increased fatigue loads on the following wind turbines within a wind farm, which could represent a significant hazard for real wind turbines. Dynamics of vorticity structures present in wind turbine wakes are also investigated; particular attention is paid to the downstream evolution of the tip helicoidal vortices and to oscillations of the hub vortex. The effect of wind farm layout on power production is deeply investigated. Particular emphasis is placed on studying how the flow adjusts as it moves inside the wind farm and can affect the power production. Aligned and staggered wind farm configurations are analysed, also with varying separation distances in the streamwise and spanwise directions. The present experimental results are being used to test and guide the development of improved parameterizations of wind turbines in high-resolution numerical models, such as large-eddy simulations (LES).

Iungo, G. V.; Coëffé, J.; Porté-Agel, F.

2012-04-01

383

The VAWT in skew: stereo-PIV and vortex modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the results of the development of wind energy conversion solutions for the built environment is the reappearance of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs).\\u000aThe application of wind turbines in urban environments presents design challenges driven by the complex wind fields experienced in the urban boundary layer. Urban Wind Turbines operate near, on and in the wake of bluff

C. J. Simao Ferreira; K. R. Dixon; C. Hofemann; G. A. M. Van Kuik; G. J. W. Van Bussel

2009-01-01

384

A Family of Vortices to Study Axisymmetric Vortex Breakdown and Reconnection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new analytic model describing a family of vortices has been developed to study some of the axisymmetric vortex breakdown and reconnection fluid dynamic processes underlying body-vortex interactions that are frequently manifested in rotorcraft and propeller-driven fixed-wing aircraft wakes. The family of vortices incorporates a wide range of prescribed initial vorticity distributions -- including single or dual-core vorticity distributions. The result is analytical solutions for the vorticity and velocities for each member of the family of vortices. This model is of sufficient generality to further illustrate the dependence of vortex reconnection and breakdown on initial vorticity distribution as was suggested by earlier analytical work. This family of vortices, though laminar in nature, is anticipated to provide valuable insight into the vortical evolution of large-scale rotor and propeller wakes.

Young, Larry A.

2007-01-01

385

Mapping optical ray trajectories through island wake vortices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical wave propagation through the atmosphere is complicated by organized atmospheric structures, spanning a wide range of length and time scales, which induce spatio-temporal variability in refraction. Therefore, when considering long-range optical ray trajectories, the influence of such structures on the propagation path becomes significantly more complex compared to a hypothetically homogeneous atmosphere. In this paper, we use a coupled mesoscale model and ray tracing framework to analyze the refractive anomalies associated with the wake vortices induced by three geographically diverse islands under various meteorological conditions. We identify organized mesoscale wake vortices (e.g., von Kármán vortices) which are sometimes capable of distorting optical ray trajectories, through ray bending, tens of meters at a range of approximately 50 km. In addition, we find in some cases that vertical oscillations, or perturbations, to the simulated ray trajectories share a frequency with the vortex shedding frequency on the order of hours. At the same time, it is also observed that the intensity and predictability of the wake vortex-induced ray bending varies from case to case. Collectively, these results highlight the value of using mesoscale models in optical wave propagation studies above conventional approaches which do not explicitly consider horizontally heterogeneous atmospheres.

Nunalee, Christopher G.; He, Ping; Basu, Sukanta; Minet, Jean; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.

2015-01-01

386

Kinetic energy entrainment in wind turbine and actuator disc wakes: an experimental analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present experimental study focuses on the comparison between the wake of a two-bladed wind turbine and the one of an actuator disk. The flow field at the middle plane of the wake is measured with a stereoscopic particle image velocimetry setup, in the low-speed Open Jet Facility wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology. The wind turbine wake is characterized by the complex dynamics of the tip vortex development and breakdown. Analysis of the flow statistics show anisotropic turbulent fluctuations in the turbine wake, with stronger components in the radial direction. The wake of the actuator disc is instead characterized by isotropic random fluctuations. The mixing process in the shear layer is further analysed in terms of flux of mean flow kinetic energy, to show the main differences between the kinetic energy entrainment in the actuator and the turbine wake. This project is intended to provide the basis for understanding the origin of the limitations of the current wake models based on the actuator disc assumption.

Lignarolo, L. E. M.; Ragni, D.; Simăo Ferreira, C. J.; van Bussel, G. J. W.

2014-06-01

387

Vortex dynamics in 4 Banavara N. Shashikanth  

E-print Network

of oblique vortex shedding behind a heated circular cylinder in laminar wake regime Phys. Fluids 24, 011701 using a local induction approximation. The regularized self-induced velocity field is then shown

Shashikanth, Banavara N.

388

Modeling of pulverized coal combustion processes in a vortex furnace of improved design. Part 1: Flow aerodynamics in a vortex furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some results of the complex experimental and numerical study of aerodynamics and transfer processes in a vortex furnace, whose design was improved via the distributed tangential injection of fuel-air flows through the upper and lower burners, were presented. The experimental study of the aerodynamic characteristics of a spatial turbulent flow was performed on the isothermal laboratory model (at a scale of 1 : 20) of an improved vortex furnace using a laser Doppler measurement system. The comparison of experimental data with the results of the numerical modeling of an isothermal flow for the same laboratory furnace model demonstrated their agreement to be acceptable for engineering practice.

Krasinsky, D. V.; Salomatov, V. V.; Anufriev, I. S.; Sharypov, O. V.; Shadrin, E. Yu.; Anikin, Yu. A.

2015-02-01

389

Physical simulation of a single-celled tornado-like vortex, Part B: Wind loading on a cubical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tornado vortex simulator was used to generate a single-celled tornado-like vortex whose flow field was presented and compared with available data from tornadoes recorded in Manchester and Spencer, South Dakota, both rated F4 on the Fujita scale, as described in Part A. A 30mm cubical model, scale ?1:3500, was placed at various locations relative to the vortex core and

A. R. Mishra; D. L. James; C. W. Letchford

2008-01-01

390

Assessment of stretched vortex subgrid-scale models for LES of incompressible inhomogeneous turbulent flow  

PubMed Central

Summary The physical space version of the stretched vortex subgrid scale model [Phys. Fluids 12, 1810 (2000)] is tested in large eddy simulations (LES) of the turbulent lid driven cubic cavity flow. LES is carried out using a higher order finite-difference method [J. Comput. Phys. 229, 8802 (2010)]. The effects of different vortex orientation models and subgrid turbulence spectrums are assessed through comparisons of the LES predictions against direct numerical simulations (DNS) [Phys. Fluids 12, 1363 (2000)]. Three Reynolds numbers 12000, 18000, and 22000 are studied. Good agreement with the DNS data for the mean and fluctuating quantities is observed. PMID:24187423

Shetty, Dinesh A.; Frankel, Steven H.

2013-01-01

391

Using vortex corelines to analyze the hemodynamics of patient specific cerebral aneurysm models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct one-dimensional sets known as vortex corelines for computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of blood flow in patient specific cerebral aneurysm models. These sets identify centers of swirling blood flow that may play an important role in the biological mechanisms causing aneurysm growth, rupture, and thrombosis. We highlight three specific applications in which vortex corelines are used to assess flow complexity and stability in cerebral aneurysms, validate numerical models against PIV-based experimental data, and analyze the effects of flow diverting devices used to treat intracranial aneurysms.

Byrne, Greg; Mut, Fernando; Cebral, Juan

2012-02-01

392

A comparison of model helicopter rotor Primary and Secondary blade/vortex interaction blade slap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the relative importance of blade/vortex interactions which occur on the retreating side of a model helicopter rotor disk is described. Some of the salient characteristics of this phenomenon are presented and discussed. It is shown that the resulting Secondary blade slap may be of equal or greater intensity than the advancing side (Primary) blade slap. Instrumented model helicopter rotor data is presented which reveals the nature of the retreating blade/vortex interaction. The importance of Secondary blade slap as it applies to predictive techniques or approaches is discussed. When Secondary blade slap occurs it acts to enlarge the window of operating conditions for which blade slap exists.

Hubbard, J. E., Jr.; Leighton, K. P.

1983-01-01

393

Wake Signature Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accumulated body of quantitative evidence shows that bluff-body wakes in stably stratified environments have an unusual degree of coherence and organization, so characteristic geometries such as arrays of alternating-signed vortices have very long lifetimes, as measured in units of buoyancy timescales, or in the downstream distance scaled by a body length. The combination of pattern geometry and persistence renders the detection of these wakes possible in principle. It now appears that identifiable signatures can be found from many disparate sources: Islands, fish, and plankton all have been noted to generate features that can be detected by climate modelers, hopeful navigators in open oceans, or hungry predators. The various types of wakes are reviewed with notes on why their signatures are important and to whom. A general theory of wake pattern formation is lacking and would have to span many orders of magnitude in Reynolds number.

Spedding, Geoffrey R.

2014-01-01

394

ROTORCRAFT WAKE MODELING: PAST, PRESENT AND Narayanan Komerath Marilyn J. Smith  

E-print Network

extension of this re- search is in the field of sustainable energy, particularly wind turbine design. This requires full understanding of and the ability to control the wake to minimize noise due to blade and analysis. The knowledge and accurate convection and dissipation of individual wakes in wind farms

395

Turbulence Measurements in the Near Field of a Wingtip Vortex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The roll-up of a wingtip vortex, at Reynolds number based on chord of 4.6 million was studied with an emphasis on suction side and near wake measurements. The research was conducted in a 32 in. x 48 in. low-speed wind tunnel. The half-wing model had a semi-span of 36 in. a chord of 48 in. and a rounded tip. Seven-hole pressure probe measurements of the velocity field surrounding the wingtip showed that a large axial velocity of up to 1.77 U(sub infinity) developed in the vortex core. This level of axial velocity has not been previously measured. Triple-wire probes have been used to measure all components of the Reynolds stress tensor. It was determined from correlation measurements that meandering of the vortex was small and did not appreciably contribute to the turbulence measurements. The flow was found to be turbulent in the near-field (as high as 24 percent RMS w - velocity on the edge of the core) and the turbulence decayed quickly with streamwise distance because of the nearly solid body rotation of the vortex core mean flow. A streamwise variation of the location of peak levels of turbulence, relative to the core centerline, was also found. Close to the trailing edge of the wing, the peak shear stress levels were found at the edge of the vortex core, whereas in the most downstream wake planes they occurred at a radius roughly equal to one-third of the vortex core radius. The Reynolds shear stresses were not aligned with the mean strain rate, indicating that an isotropic-eddy-viscosity based prediction method cannot accurately model the turbulence in the cortex. In cylindrical coordinates, with the origin at the vortex centerline, the radial normal stress was found to be larger than the circumferential.

Chow, Jim; Zilliac, Greg; Bradshaw, Peter

1997-01-01

396

Topological Features of a Compressible Plasma Vortex Sheet - a Model of the Outer Heliospheric Wind  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Voyager and Pioneer Spacecraft have detected large-scale quasi-periodic plasma fluctuations in the outer heliosphere beyond 20 AU. A plasma vortex sheet model can explain these fluctuations and the observed correlations between various physical variables. The large scale outer heliosphere is modeled by solving the 3-D compressible magnetohydrodynamic equations involving three interacting shear layers. Computations were done on a Cray computer at the NASA Center for Computational Sciences. Six cases are animated: Weak magnetic field and strong magnetic field, each at three values of tau, the vortex street characteristic time. Contours of density are shown as dark transparent tubes. Critical points of the velocity field are represented by Glyphs. Vortex cores are shown in orange and blue.

Cindy Starr

1993-12-17

397

Mesoscale wake clouds in Skylab pictures.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recognition of cloud patterns formed in the wake of orographic obstacles was investigated using pictures from Skylab, for the purpose of estimating atmospheric motions. The existence of ship-wake-type wave clouds in contrast to vortex sheets were revealed during examination of the pictures, and an attempt was made to characterize the pattern of waves as well as the transition between waves and vortices. Examples of mesoscale cloud patterns which were analyzed photogrammetrically and meteorologically are presented.

Fujita, T. T.; Tecson, J. J.

1974-01-01

398

A Free Wake Numerical Simulation for Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Performance Prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last four decades, several aerodynamic prediction models have been formulated for the Darrieus wind turbine performances and characteristics. We can identified two families: stream-tube and vortex. The paper presents a simplified numerical techniques for simulating vertical axis wind turbine flow, based on the lifting line theory and a free vortex wake model, including dynamic stall effects for predicting the performances of a 3-D vertical axis wind turbine. A vortex model is used in which the wake is composed of trailing stream-wise and shedding span-wise vortices, whose strengths are equal to the change in the bound vortex strength as required by the Helmholz and Kelvin theorems. Performance parameters are computed by application of the Biot-Savart law along with the Kutta-Jukowski theorem and a semi-empirical stall model. We tested the developed model with an adaptation of the earlier multiple stream-tube performance prediction model for the Darrieus turbines. Predictions by using our method are shown to compare favorably with existing experimental data and the outputs of other numerical models. The method can predict accurately the local and global performances of a vertical axis wind turbine, and can be used in the design and optimization of wind turbines for built environment applications.

Belu, Radian

2010-11-01

399

Evolution of a hairpin vortex in a shear-thinning fluid governed by a power-law model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of a shear-thinning fluid governed by a power-law model on the evolution of a hairpin vortex in a wall-bounded flow was studied by means of direct numerical simulation. With a fixed Reynolds number and hairpin vortex strength, the effect of shear-thinning on vortex evolution could be isolated. The primary observation is that very early in time shear-thinning has the effect of reducing the production of vortex kinetic energy and dramatically increasing viscous dissipation. This leads to a delay in the transition of the flow to a turbulent state. Three-dimensional flow visualizations reveal that the increased dissipation is associated with an instability in which the hairpin vortex is broken down into small-scale structures. It is suggested that the finite amplitude of the hairpin creates a lowering of viscosity near the hairpin vortex core which leads to this instability.

Zhen, Ni; Handler, Robert A.; Zhang, Qi; Oeth, Cassandra

2013-10-01

400

Forebay Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling for The Dalles Dam to Support Vortex Suppress Device Studies  

SciTech Connect

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used in an investigation into the suppression of a surface vortex that forms and the south-most spilling bay at The Dalles Project. The CFD work complemented work at the prototype and the reduced-scale physical models. The CFD model was based on a model developed for other work in the forebay but had additional resolution added near the spillway. Vortex suppression devices (VSDs) were to placed between pier noses and/or in the bulkhead slot of the spillway bays. The simulations in this study showed that placing VSD structures or a combination of structures to suppress the vortex would still result in near-surface flows to be entrained in a vortex near the downstream spillwall. These results were supported by physical model and prototype studies. However, there was a consensus of the fish biologists at the physical model that the fish would most likely move north and if the fish went under the VSD it would immediately exit the forebay through the tainter gate and not get trapped between VSDs or the VSDs and the tainter gate if the VSDs were deep enough.

Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.

2006-12-01

401

Wake flowfields for Jovian probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wake flow field developed by the Galileo probe as it enters the Jovian atmosphere was modeled. The wake produced by the probe is highly energetic, yielding both convective and radiative heat inputs to the base of the probe. A component mathematical model for the inviscid near and far wake, the viscous near and far wake, and near wake recirculation zone was developed. Equilibrium thermodynamics were used for both the ablation and atmospheric species. Flow fields for three entry conditions were calculated. The near viscous wave was found to exhibit a variable axial pressure distribution with the neck pressure approximately three times the base pressure. Peak wake flow field temperatures were found to be in proportion to forebody post shock temperatures.

Engel, C. D.; Hair, L. M.

1980-01-01

402

Investigation on 3D t wake flow structures of swimming bionic fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bionic experimental platform was designed for the purpose of investigating time accurate three-dimensional flow field, using digital particle image velocimetry (DSPIV). The wake behind the flapping trail of a robotic fish model was studied at high spatial resolution. The study was performed in a water channel. A robot fish model was designed and built. The model was fixed onto a rigid support framework using a cable-supporting method, with twelve stretched wires. The entire tail of the model can perform prescribed motions in two degrees of freedom, mainly in carangiform mode, by driving its afterbody and lunate caudal fin respe